View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Many daily newspapers have ne­
gotiated, with the American News­
paper Guild, contracts which set
minimum wages based on experi­
ence and provide for annual salary
increases. In 1970, the minimum
starting salaries on most daily news­
papers with Guild contracts ranged
between $100 and $135 a week for
reporters having no previous experi­
ence. On a few small dailies, the
Guild minimum starting salaries
were less than $90 a week; on a few
large dailies, Guild minimum rates
for beginning reporters exceeded
$140 a week. Young persons work­
ing as copy boys earn less than new
reporters; minimum Guild rates for
copy boys with some experience
ranged from about $65 to $120 a
On most dailies, minimum Guild
rates for reporters who have some
experience (usually for those with 4
to 6 years) ranged from $170 to
$230 a week in 1970. Contract minimums for experienced reporters on
a few small dailies were less than
$160 a week; on a few large dailies,
they were over $250 a week. Papers
under Guild contracts often pay sal­
aries higher than the minimum rates
called for in their contracts. Particu­
larly successful, experienced re­
porters on city dailies may earn
over $300 a week.
Newspaper reporters on big city
papers frequently work 7 to IV 2
hours a day, 5 days a week; most
other reporters generally work an
8-hour day, 40-hour week. Most of
those employed by morning papers
start work in the afternoon and
finish about midnight. Many news­
papers pay overtime rates for work
performed after the regularly sched­
uled workday, or for more than 40
hours of work a week; they often
provide various employee benefits

such as paid vacations, group insur­
ance, and pension plans.

(D.O.T. 139.288)

Sources of Additional Information

Information about opportunities
with daily newspapers may be ob­
tained from:
American Newspaper Publishers As­
sociation, 750 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

Information on opportunities in
the newspaper field, as well as a list
of scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and loans available at col­
leges and universities, may be ob­
tained from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., Box
300, Princeton, N.J. 08540.

Information on union wage rates
is available from:
American Newspaper Guild, Re­
search Department, 1126 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on journal­
ism opportunities may be obtained
American Council on Education for
Journalism, School of Journalism,
University of Missouri, Columbia,
Mo. 65201.
Association for Education In Jour­
nalism, 425 Henry Mall, Uni­
versity of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wis. 53706.
Sigma Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker
Drive, Chicago, 111. 60601.

Names and locations of daily
newspapers and a list of depart­
ments and schools of journalism are
published in the Editor and Pub­
available in most large newspaper
offices and public libraries.

Nature of the Work

The many technical and scientific
developments of recent years have
created a growing demand for writ­
ers skilled in interpreting these de­
velopments. The technical writer
organizes, writes, and edits material
about science and technology so
that it is in a form most useful to
those who need to use it—be it a
technician or repairman, a scientist
or engineer, an executive, or a
housewife. When writing for the
nonspecialist, he must present his
material in a simple, clear, and fac­
tual manner; for the specialist, he
must include technical detail, using
a highly specialized vocabulary. Re­
gardless of what kind of writing he
does, the technical writer serves to
establish easy communication be­
tween scientists, engineers, and other
technical specialists, and the users
of their information.
The technical writer’s product
takes many forms, such as a public­
ity release on a company’s scientific
or technical achievement or a manu­
facturer’s contract proposal to the
Federal Government. It may be a
manual that explains how to oper­
ate, assemble, disassemble, main­
tain, or overhaul components of a
missile system or a home appliance.
Technical writers also write for sci­
entific and engineering periodicals
and for popular magazines.
Technical writers, as defined in
this statement, include only those
people primarily employed to inter­
pret, write about, or edit technical
or scientific subject matter. It ex­
cludes those primarily employed as
scientists, engineers, or other techni-



fense and Agriculture, the Atomic
Energy Commission, and the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration. Some work in firms
that specialize in technical writing.
Others are in business for them­
selves as freelance technical writers.
Technical writers are employed
all over the country, but primarily
in the Northeastern States, Texas,
and California. They are concen­
trated in the Washington, D.C., Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Houston, Fort
Worth-Dallas, Chicago, New York,
Boston, St. Louis, Kansas City,
Denver, and Philadelphia metropol­
itan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Technical writer discusses project with engineer.

cal specialists who also do a consid­
erable amount of writing.
Before starting a writing assign­
ment, a technical writer usually
must research his subject. This proc­
ess involves studying reports, read­
ing technical journals, and consult­
ing with the engineers, scientists,
and other technical personnel who
have worked on the project. Then
he prepares a rough draft that may
be revised several times before it is
in final form. Technical writers usu­
ally arrange for the preparation of
tables, charts, illustrations, and

other artwork, and in so doing may
work with technical illustrators,
draftsmen, or photographers.

Places of Employment

An estimated 20,000 technical
writers and editors were employed
in 1970. Most technical writers are
employed in the electronics and
aerospace industries. Many work
for research and development firms
or for the Federal Government—
mainly in the Departments of De­

The bachelor’s degree is the de­
sirable minimum entrance require­
ment for work in this field, although
talented and experienced writers
having less academic training may
qualify. Employers do not agree on
the most appropriate kind of college
training needed by technical writers,
but graduates usually must have a
combination of courses in writing
and scientific and technical subjects.
Some employers prefer applicants
who have degrees in engineering or
science who have had courses in
writing. Others seek graduates who
majored in English or journalism
and have taken some courses in sci­
entific and technical subjects. Re­
gardless of the college training they
prefer, all employers place great
emphasis on writing skills.
An increasing number of schools
offer formal undergraduate pro­
grams leading to a bachelor’s degree
in technical writing or technical
journalism. Some schools now offer
graduate work and degrees in the
field. In addition, about 170 col­
leges and universities provide pro­



fessional education leading to a
bachelor’s degree in journalism;
most of these offer at least one
course in technical writing or tech­
nical journalism as part of the regu­
lar curriculum. Liberal arts colleges
and some engineering schools offer
English and other courses that
sharpen writing skills. Many col­
leges and universities conduct
short-term summer workshops and
seminars for technical writers.
When still in high school young
people who plan to become techni­
cal writers should supplement the
required science and mathematics
courses with as many elective
courses in grammar and composi­
tion as possible. They also may gain
helpful experience by working as
editors or writers for their school
In addition to the ability to write
well, technical writers must be able
to think logically, and should also
like to do detailed accurate work.
They should be able to work and
communicate well with others, since
they often work as part of a team.
At other times, however, technical
writers must work alone with little
or no supervision.
Beginners often assist experi­
enced technical writers by doing li­
brary research, by editing, and by
preparing drafts of portions of re­
ports. Experienced writers in organ­
izations that have large technical
writing staffs may advance to posi­
tions of technical editors or progress
to supervisory and administrative
positions. After gaining experience
and contacts, a few may open thenown job shops.
It also is possible to advance by
becoming a specialist in a particular
scientific or technical subject. These
writers sometimes prepare syndi­
cated newspaper columns or articles
for popular magazines.

Employment Outlook

Well-qualified and experienced
technical writers are expected to
find good employment opportunities
through the 1970’s. Beginners who
have good writing ability and appro­
priate education also should find
many opportunities; those who have
minimum qualifications will find stiff
competition for jobs, however. The
greatest demand probably will be
for technical writers with back­
grounds in electronics and commu­
nications to work in the aerospace
and related industries, particularly
in research and development activi­
The employment of technical
writers is expected to increase mod­
erately during the 1970’s, because of
the need to put the increasing vol­
ume of scientific and technical in­
formation into language that can be
understood by management for de­
cision making and by technicians for
operating and maintaining compli­
cated industrial equipment. Also,
since many products will continue
to be assembled from components
manufactured by different compa­
nies, technical writers will be in de­
mand to describe, in simple terms,
the interrelationships of these com­
ponents. The growth in this occupa­
tion will be accelerated also by the
need for improved and simplified
operating and maintenance instruc­
tions for new consumer products.
The demand for technical writers
will continue to be related to re­
search and development expendi­
tures. During the 1970-80 decade
research and development expendi­
tures of Government and industry
are expected to increase, although
at a slower rate than during the
1960’s. The anticipated slowdown
in Federal R&D spending basically
reflects anticipated reductions in the
relative importance of the space and

defense components of R&D ex­
penditures. These trends were evi­
denced in the late 1960’s and in
Technical writers who have train­
ing in journalism also will find op­
portunities in other fields that em­
ploy writers, such as advertising,
public relations, trade publishing,
and radio and television broadcast­
ing. In addition to new opportuni­
ties resulting from growth expected
in this profession, hundreds of tech­
nical writers will be needed each
year to replace those who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, inexperienced technical
writers having bachelor’s degrees
were hired in private industry at
starting salaries ranging from
$6,000 to $8,000 a year; those who
have moderate experience earned
from $8,000 to $12,000 a year;
highly experienced writers earned
from $12,000 to $16,000; and those
in supervisory and management po­
sitions, up to $20,000 or more. Dif­
ferences in the earnings of experi­
enced writers depended not only on
their ability and previous experi­
ence, but also on factors such as the
type, size, and location of their em­
ploying firms. Earnings of freelance
technical writers vary greatly and
are related to the writer’s reputation
in the field.
In the Federal Government in
late 1970, inexperienced technical
writers with a bachelor’s degree and
credit for about five science courses
could start at either $6,548 or
$8,098 a year, depending on their
college records. Those who have 2
years’ experience could begin at
$9,881 and with 3 years’ experi­
ence, $11,905.
Technical writers usually work


the standard 40-hour week. They
may work under considerable pres­
sure, frequently working overtime
when a deadline has to be met on a
publication or report.


Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on this
occupation, including a list of
schools offering accepted courses of
study and specific training programs

in accredited colleges and universi­
ties, may be obtained from:
Society for Technical Communica­
tions, Inc., Suite 421, 1010 Ver­
mont Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 001.081)

Nature of the Work

Architects plan and design build­
ings and other structures that are
safe, useful, and pleasant in appear­
ance. Architects also work with
other professionals, such as engi­
neers, urban planners, and land­
scape architects, to design cities and
towns and plan and improve overall
physical environments.
When an architect is commis­
sioned to design a building, he dis­
cusses with the client the purpose,
requirements, and cost limitations,
as well as preferences as to style
and plan. Subsequently, the archi­
tect makes hundreds of decisions
and considers not only the require­
ments of the building, but also local
and State building codes, zoning
laws, fire regulations, and other or­
dinances. For example, in planning
a school, the architect must decide
the amount of corridor and stairway
space which students need to move
easily from one class to another; the
type and arrangement of storage
space, and the location, size, and in­
terior of classrooms, laboratories,
lunchroom, gymnasium, and admin­
istrative offices.
The architect makes preliminary
drawings of the structure and meets
with the client to develop a final de­
sign. This design includes floor
plans and the interior and exterior
details of the building. The final de­
sign then is translated into working
drawings, showing the exact dimen­
sions of every part of the structure
and the location of the plumbing,

heating, electrical, air-conditioning,
and other equipment. Consulting
engineers usually prepare detailed
drawings of the structural, plumb­
ing, heating, and electrical work.
Engineers’ drawings are coordinated
with the architect’s working draw­
ings, and specifications are prepared
listing the construction materials to
be used, the equipment, and, in
some cases, the furnishings.
The architect then assists his
client in selecting a building con­
tractor and in negotiating the con­
tract between client and contractor,
and he acts as the client’s advisor
and representative in dealings with
the contractor. As construction pro­
ceeds, the architect makes periodic
visits to the construction site to see

if the design is being followed, and
that the materials specified in the
contract are being used. The archi­
tect’s work is not completed until
the project is finished, all required
tests are made, and guarantees are
received from the contractor.
Most self-employed architects
plan and design a wide variety of
structures, ranging from homes to
churches, hospitals, office buildings,
and airports. They also plan and de­
sign multibuilding complexes for
urban renewal projects, college
campuses, industrial parks, and new
towns. Some architects specialize in
one particular type of structure or
project. When working on largescale projects or for large architec­
tural firms, architects frequently
specialize in one phase of the work,
such as design, drafting, specifica­
tion writing, or construction con­
tract administration (insuring that a




structure is built according to plans
and specifications).

Places of Employment

An estimated 33,000 registered
(licensed) architects were employed
in the United States in late 1970. In
addition, many other architectural
school graduates who are unlicensed
were working in positions requiring
a knowledge of architecture. About
4 percent of all architects are
Approximately two-fifths of all
architects are self-employed, either
practicing individually or as part­
ners. Most of the others work for
architectural firms. Some architects
work for engineers, builders, real
estate firms, and for other busi­
nesses having large construction
programs. Others are employed by
government agencies, often in fields
such as city and community plan­
ning and urban redevelopment.
About 1,500 of these are employed
by the Federal Government.
Architects are employed in all
parts of the country. However, they
are concentrated in those States
with large metropolitan areas.
Nearly half of all architects are em­
ployed in six States—California,
New York, Illinois, Texas, Pennsyl­
vania, and Ohio.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license for the practice of ar­
chitecture is required by law in all
States and the District of Columbia,
mainly to insure that architectural
work which may affect the safety of
life, health, or property is done by
qualified architects. Requirements
for admission to the licensing exam­

ination are set by the individual
States. These generally include
graduation from an accredited pro­
fessional school followed by 3 years
of practical experience in an archi­
tect’s office. As a substitute for for­
mal training, most States accept
longer periods of practical experi­
ence (usually 10 to 12 years) for
admission to the licensing examina­
In 1970, professional training in
architecture was offered by 85 col­
leges and universities in the United
States, 67 of which were accredited
by the National Architectural Ac­
crediting Board. Most of these
schools offered a 5-year curriculum
leading to the bachelor of architec­
ture degree. Many architectural
schools also offered graduate educa­
tion leading to the master’s degree,
and a few schools offered the Ph. D.
degree. Graduate training is not es­
sential for the practice of architec­
ture, but is often desirable for re­
search and teaching positions.
Most schools of architecture
admit qualified high school gradu­
ates who meet the entrance require­
ments of the college or university
with which the school is associated.
Some schools require 1 or 2 years
of college education before admit­
ting the student to a 3- or 4-year ar­
chitectural training program. In
general, architectural schools prefer
that students’ preparation include
mathematics, science, social studies,
language, and art. A typical curricu­
lum includes architectural courses
as well as English, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, sociology, eco­
nomics, and a foreign language.
Persons planning a career in ar­
chitecture should have a capacity to
master technical problems, a gift for
artistic creation, and a flair for busi­
ness and for human relations. Stu­
dents are frequently encouraged to
work for architects or for building

contractors during summers to gain
knowledge of practical problems.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen in architectural
firms where they make drawings and
models of building projects or draft
details in the working drawings. As
they gain experience, they are given
more complex work. After several
years, they may progress to chief or
senior draftsman, with responsibility
for all the major details of a set of
working drawings and for the super­
vision of other draftsmen. Other
architects may work as designers,
construction contract administrators,
or specification writers. An employee
who is particularly valued by his firm
may be designated an associate and
may receive, in addition to his salary,
a share of the profits. Usually, how­
ever, the architect’s goal is to estab­
lish his own practice.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued
rapid growth of the profession
through the 1970’s. Employment
opportunities are expected to be fa­
vorable both for experienced archi­
tects and for new graduates.
A major factor contributing to
this favorable outlook is the ex­
pected growth in the volume of nonresidential construction—the major
area of work for architects. More­
over, the increasing size and com­
plexity of modern nonresidental
buildings, as well as the homeown­
ers’ growing awareness of the value
of architects’ services, are likely to
bring about a greater demand for
architectural services. Urban redev­
elopment and city and community
planning projects, other growing
areas of employment for architects,
also are expected to increase con­
siderably in the years ahead. (See
statement on Urban Planners.) In



addition, expanding college enroll­
ments will create a need for addi­
tional architects to teach architec­
tural courses.
Besides those needed to fill new
positions due to growth, deaths and
retirements will account for about
1,000 new openings every year.
Along with the anticipated rise in
demand for architects, an increase
is expected in the number of archi­
tectural graduates. If this field fol­
lows the trend expected in all col­
lege graduations, the number of ar­
chitectural degrees awarded each
year during the 1970’s should be
considerably greater than the esti­
mated 4900 awarded in 1970. How­
ever, many architectural graduates
work in fields such as sales and ad­
ministration in the building industry
and do not enter the profession.
Thus, those who choose to enter the
field and become registered should
have good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of architectural
school graduates employed in pri­
vate industry were generally be­
tween $120 and $160 a week in
1970, according to available infor­
mation. Draftsmen having 3 years’
experience or more earned between
$135 and $180 a week; job cap­
tains, specification writers, and
other senior employees usually
earned from $150 to $250 a week.
Senior employees often receive
yearly bonuses in addition to their
Architects well established in pri­
vate practice generally earn much
more than high-paid salaried em­
ployees of architectural firms. The
range in their incomes is very wide,
however. Some architects that have
many years of experience and good

reputations earn well over $25,000
a year. Young architects starting
their own practices may go through
a period when their expenses are
greater than their income.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, architects having bachelor’s de­
grees and no experience could start
in the Federal Government in 1970
at either $8,510 or $10,528 a year.
Architects who had completed all
requirements for the master’s de­
gree could start at $10,528 or
$11,855; those having the Ph. D.
degree could begin at either
$13,493 or $14,665 a year.
Most architects work in welllighted, well-equipped offices and
spend long hours at the drawing
board. However, their routine often
is varied by interviewing clients or
contractors or discussing the design,
construction procedures, or building
materials of a project with other ar­
chitects or engineers. Architects in­
volved in construction contract ad­
ministration frequently work out of
doors during inspections at con­
struction sites.
Sources of Additional Information

General information about ca­
reers in architecture is included in a
number of publications of the
American Institute of Architects; a
catalog of publications is available,
as well as two free publications,
“Designing a Better Tomorrow”
and “Your Building, Your Archi­
tect.” They can be obtained from:
The American Institute of Archi­
tects, 1785 Massachusetts Ave.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 166.268)

Nature of the Work

Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placement officers, provide a variety
of services to college students and
alumni. They are concerned with
the aspects of a student’s develop­
ment involving his career selection:
studying himself, exploring and
choosing an occupational area,
making a decision either to pursue
graduate study or to enter the labor
market. They also aid students in
obtaining part-time and summer po­
sitions to meet an economic need or
to assist in career exploration.
They arrange for employer repre­
sentatives to visit the campus to dis­
cuss their firms’ personnel needs
and to interview qualified appli­
cants. Career planning and place­
ment counselors provide informa­
tion about students to employer rep­
resentatives and assist in appraising
the qualifications of students. They
also make new contacts with em­
ployers to develop additional em­
ployment opportunities. In addition,
they may suggest improvements in
employer recruitment literature and
inform the college faculty of any
change in job requirements that
might warrant adjustment in curric­
Many assemble and maintain a li­
brary of career guidance informa­
tion and recruitment literature from
public and private sources for the
use of students and alumni. Such
material includes information on
various occupations, together with
data on current opportunities, edu­
cational requirements, earnings, ad-



a combination of placement func­
tions is performed by one director
and his clerical staff. In some col­
leges, especially the smaller ones, the
functions of counselors may be per­
formed on a part-time basis by
members of the faculty or adminis­
trative staff. Universities frequently
have placement offices for each
major branch or campus. In most
universities, there is a central office
which coordinates the work of all
career planning and placement
counselors; in some, each office
works as a separate unit.
An estimated 2,800 career plan­
ning and placement counselors were
employed in 4-year colleges and
universities in 1970, most of them
on a full-time basis. Of this total
number, about one-fourth were
women. In addition, an increasing
number of placement officers are
employed full-time or part-time in
2-year colleges.

College career planning and placement
counselor and student discuss em ­
ployment offers.

vancement, and the long-term out­
Placement counselors may spe­
cialize in areas such as law and
part-time and summer work. How­
ever, the extent of specialization
usually depends upon the size and
type of the college, as well as the
size of the placement staff.
Places of Employment

Nearly all colleges and universi­
ties offer career planning and place­
ment services. Large colleges may
employ several counselors working
under a director of placement activ­
ities; in many institutions, however,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

No specific education program
exists to prepare persons for college
career planning and placement
work. However, a bachelor’s de­
gree, preferably in one of the be­
havioral sciences, is considered the
minimum requirement for entry into
the field.
In 1970, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered programs
leading to a graduate degree in col­
lege student personnel work. Grad­
uate study is becoming increasingly
important for career counseling and
courses that are considered helpful
include counseling theory and tech­
niques, vocational testing, theory of
group dynamics, and occupational
research and employment trends.
Some persons enter the career

planning and placement field after
gaining a broad background of ex­
perience in business, industry, gov­
ernment, or educational organiza­
tions. Also helpful is an internship
in a career planning and placement
Persons who would like to enter
the career planning and placement
field should have an interest in peo­
ple. They must be able to communi­
cate with and gain the confidence of
students, faculty, and employers.
The ability to develop a keen insight
into the employment problems of
both employers and students and to
maintain honest and confidential
communications also is important in
college placement work. They must
be energetic and able to work under
pressure and to organize and ad­
minister a wide variety of tasks.
Advancement for career planning
and placement professionals usually
is through promotion to an assistant
or associate position, placement
director, director of student person­
nel services, or to some other higher
level administrative position. How­
ever, the extent of such opportunity
usually depends upon the type of
college or university and the size of
the staff.

Employment Outlook

The number of job opportunities
in the college career planning and
placement field is expected to rise
very rapidly through the 1970’s. In
general, employment prospects will
be good for new or recent college
graduates seeking beginning posi­
Among the factors expected to
contribute to the favorable outlook
for college career planning and
placement counselors are the in­
creasing number of college students;
a growing number of minority group


students and students from low-in­
come families who require special
counseling and assistance in obtain­
ing part-time jobs to help finance
their education; the expansion of
counseling and placement programs
on many campuses as greater recog­
nition is given to the need for such
programs; and the increasing num­
ber of two-year institutions and the
establishment of career counseling
and placement offices on these cam­
Regional college placement asso­
ciations and their coordinating or­
ganization, the College Placement
Council, foster activities to upgrade
and expand existing career planning
and placement programs and en­
courage the establishment of place­
ment services where none presently
exist. The results of their efforts
should create additional job oppor­
tunities for professional personnel
in this field.
Some openings also will occur
each year as placement officers
transfer to other positions, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, annual earnings of
placement office directors ranged
from less than $5,000 to a high of
over $27,500, with the median sal­
ary about $12,250, according to a
National Education Association sur­
vey of public and private colleges
and universities. The survey reports
that annual earnings of deans of
testing and counseling in 1970
ranged from under $6,500 to more
than $29,500 with a median salary
of $13,800. In general, the larger
institutions paid the highest salaries.
Career planning and placement
professionals frequently work more
than a 40-hour week; irregular
hours and overtime often are neces­

sary, particularly during the “re­
cruiting season.” Most placement
personnel are employed on a 12month basis. They are paid for hol­
idays and vacations, and receive the
same benefits as other professional
personnel employed by colleges and
Sources of Additional Information
The College Placement Council,
Inc., P.O. Box 2263, Bethelem,
Pa. 18001.

(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work

Improving products, services, and
practices that affect the comfort and


well-being of the family is the pri­
mary function of home economists.
These professional workers have a
broad knowledge of the home eco­
nomics field or are specialists in a
particular area, such as food, cloth­
ing and textiles, housing, home
furnishings and equipment, child
development, household manage­
ment, or family economics.
Teachers make up the largest
group of home economists. Second­
ary school teachers instruct classes
in food, nutrition, clothing, textiles,
child development, family relations,
home furnishings, home manage­
ment, and consumer education. In
addition, they may sponsor local
chapters of Future Homemakers of
America and conduct related activi­
ties. Other work done by home eco­
nomics teachers is similar to that
described in the statement on Sec­
ondary School Teachers, elsewhere
in this Handbook. Teachers in adult
education programs help homemak-


ers to increase their understanding
of family relations and to improve
their homemaking skills. They also
train those who wish to prepare for
jobs in home economics. College
teachers may combine teaching and
research, and often specialize in one
particular area of home economics.
Private business firms and trade
associations employ home econo­
mists to promote the development,
use, and care of specific home prod­
ucts. These home economists may
do research; test products; prepare
advertisements and booklets with
instructional materials; plan, pre­
pare, and present programs for
radio and television; serve as con­
sultants; give lectures and demon­
strations before the public; and con­
duct classes for such workers as
salesmen and appliance servicemen.
They also may study consumer
needs and help manufacturers trans­
late these needs into useful prod­
Home economists employed by
food manufacturers often work in
test kitchens or laboratories to im­
prove products or help create new
products. They may also publicize
the nutritional value of specific
foods. Those employed by utility
companies describe the operation
and benefits of appliances and serv­
ices and often give advice on
household problems. Home econo­
mists employed by manufacturers of
kitchen and laundry equipment may
work with engineers on product de­
velopment. Those engaged in com­
munications work for magazines,
newspapers, radio and television
stations, advertising and public rela­
tions agencies, trade associations,
and other organizations. They usu­
ally prepare articles, advertise­
ments, and speeches about home
products and services. Their work
may include product testing and
analysis, and the study of consumer


buying habits. Still other home
economists work for dress-pattern
companies, department stores, inte­
rior design studios, and other busi­
ness firms that design, manufacture,
and sell products for the home. A
small number of home economists
are employed in financial institu­
tions, giving customers advice on
spending, saving, and budgeting.
Some home economists are en­
gaged in research for the Federal
Government, State agricultural ex­
periment stations, colleges, universi­
ties, and private organizations. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture em­
ploys the largest group of these
workers, some of whom study the
buying and spending habits of farm
families, and then develop budget
guides. A few in other Federal
agencies are engaged in research on
space travel, working on such prob­
lems as food needs in outer space.
Cooperative Extension Service
home economists conduct adult ed­
ucation programs for women and
4-H Club programs for girls in such
areas as home management, con­
sumer education, family relations,
and nutrition.
Home economists employed on
social-welfare programs by Federal,
State, county, city, and private wel­
fare agencies may act as advisers
and consultants on household budg­
ets and improved homemaking. They
help handicapped homemakers and
their families adjust to physical limi­
tations by changing the arrange­
ments in the home and revising
methods of work. Other home econ­
omists in welfare agencies super­
vise or train workers who provide
temporary or part-time help to
households disrupted by illness.

Places of Employment

About 105,000 persons were em­

ployed in home economics occupa­
tions in 1970. This figure includes
an estimated 30,000 dietitians and
approximately 5,200 extension work­
ers who are discussed in separate
statements on Dietitians and Co­
operative Extension Service Work­
ers in the Handbook. About 65,000
home economists were teachers. Ap­
proximately 45,000 were secondary
school teachers. About 13,500 were
adult education instructors, some of
whom also taught part-time in sec­
ondary schools. In addition, there
were about 4,000 college and uni­
versity teachers. The remainder
taught in elementary schools, kinder­
gartens, nursery schools, recreation
centers, and other institutions. More
than 5,000 home economists were in
private business firms and associa­
tions. Several hundred were govern­
ment research workers, and some
worked in social welfare programs. A
few were self-employed.
Although home economics is gen­
erally considered a woman’s field, a
growing number of men are em­
ployed in home economics posi­
tions. Most men specialize in foods
and institution management, though
some are in the family relations and
child development field, applied
arts, and other areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Approximately 400 colleges and
universities offer training leading to
a bachelor’s degree in home eco­
nomics, which qualifies graduates
for most entry positions in the field.
A master’s or doctor’s degree is re­
quired for college teaching, for cer­
tain research and supervisory posi­
tions, for work as an extension spe­
cialist or supervisor, and for some
jobs in the nutrition field.
The undergraduate curriculum in


home economics gives students a
strong background in science and
liberal arts and also includes
courses in each of the areas of home
economics. Students majoring in
home economics may specialize in
various subject-matter areas. Ad­
vanced courses in chemistry and nu­
trition are important for work in
foods and nutrition; science and sta­
tistics for research work; and jour­
nalism for advertising, public rela­
tions work, and all other work in
the communications field. To teach
home economics in a high school, a
student must complete the profes­
sional education courses and other
State requirements for a teacher’s
Scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships are available for under­
graduate and graduate study. Al­
though colleges and universities
offer most of these financial grants,
foundations, businesses, and the
American Home Economics Asso­
ciation Foundation provide addi­
tional funds.
Home economists must be able to
work with people of various living
standards and backgrounds and
should have a capacity for leader­
ship, including an ability to inspire
cooperation. Good grooming, poise,
and an interest in people also are
essential, particularly when dealing
with the public. The ability to com­
municate effectively is also impor­

Employment Outlook

Home economists are expected to
have good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. The great­
est demand will stem from the need
to fill teaching positions in second­
ary schools and in colleges and uni­
versities. Many business establish­

ments also are becoming increas­
ingly aware of the contributions that
can be made by professionally
trained home economists and prob­
ably will hire more of them to
promote home products and to act
as consultants to customers. In­
creased national focus on the needs
of low-income families may also in­
crease the demand for home econo­
mists. In addition, the need for
more home economists in research
is expected to increase because of
the continued interest in improving
home products and services.
Many home economists will be
needed to replace those who die, re­
tire, or leave the field because of
family responsibilities or other rea­
sons through the 1970’s. Opportuni­
ties for those who leave the profes­
sion but later wish to return will be
good, especially as part-time teach­
ers in adult education programs.


rienced county extension home econ­
omists, $7,000; experienced county
extension home economists, $9,600;
and State specialists, $13,400.
The Federal Government paid in­
experienced workers who have a
bachelor’s degree in home econom­
ics $6,548 or $8,098 in late 1970,
depending on their scholastic rec­
ords. For those having additional
education and experience, salaries
generally ranged from $9,881 to
$16,760 a year, depending upon the
type of position and level of respon­
Many home economists work a
regular 40-hour week or less. Those
in teaching and extension positions,
however, frequently work longer
hours as they are expected to be
available for evening lectures, dem­
onstrations, and other work. Most
home economists receive fringe
benefits, such as paid vacation, sick
leave, retirement pay, and insurance

Earnings and Working Conditions

Home economics teachers in
public schools generally receive the
same salaries as other teachers, as
most school districts have a single­
salary schedule, based on education
and experience. In school districts
of 100,000 pupils or more, the me­
dian salary of beginning teachers
who have a bachelor’s degree was
$7,200 for the school year 1970-71,
according to a National Education
Association survey; in districts of
50,000 to 99,999 enrollment, the
median starting salary was $6,800;
and in districts of 25,000 to 49,999
enrollment, $6,850. The median sal­
ary of home economics instructors
teaching in colleges and universities
was about $8,360 a year in 196970.
In 1970, average annual salaries
received in the Cooperative Exten­
sion Service were as follows: inexpe­

Sources of Additional Information

A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics is available
Home Economics Education, Bureau
of Adult, Vocational, and Tech­
nical Education, Division of Vo­
cational and Technical Education,
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Washington,
D.C. 20202.

Additional information about ca­
reers in this profession, the types of
home economic majors offered in
each school granting degrees in
home economics, and graduate
scholarships may be obtained from:
American Home Economics Asso­
ciation, 2010 Massachusetts Ave­
nue, NW., Washington, D.C.



(D.O.T. 019.081)

Nature of the Work

Everyone enjoys walking through
an attractively designed park or
driving along a scenic road. Land­
scape architects plan, design, and
supervise the arrangement of these
outdoor areas for people to use and
enjoy. The attractiveness of parks,
highways, housing projects, cam­
puses, and country clubs reflects the
skill of these architects in design­
ing useful and pleasing landscapes.
Their knowledge of site planning al­
lows landscape architects to serve
many types of clients, from a real
estate firm embarking on a new sub­
urban development to a city prepar­
ing to build an airport.

Landscape architects may plan
the entire arrangement of a site and
supervise the grading, construction,
and planting required to carry out
the plan. Whether they perform all
or only part of these services on a
particular project, however, de­
pends on the client’s wishes and the
available funds.
To plan a site, landscape archi­
tects first study the nature and pur­
pose of the client’s project, and the
various types of structures needed.
Next, they study the site itself, ob­
serving and mapping features such
as the slope of the land and the po­
sition of existing buildings and trees.
They also consider the parts of the
site that will be sunny or shaded at
different times of the day, the struc­
ture of the soil, existing utilities, and
many other factors. Then, after con­
sultation with the architect and en­
gineer working on the project, they
draw up preliminary plans for the

development of the site. After the
client approves the preliminary
plans, working drawings are made
which show all existing and pro­
posed features such as buildings,
roads, walks, terraces, grading, and
drainage structures in planted areas.
Landscape architects outline in de­
tail the methods of constructing fea­
tures such as walks and terraces
and draw up lists of materials to be
used. Landscape contractors then
are invited to submit bids for the
Firms of landscape architects
usually handle a wide variety of as­
signments. Some, however, special­
ize in projects such as parks and
playgrounds, campuses, hotels and
resorts, shopping centers, roads, or
public housing.

Places of Employment

An estimated 10,000 landscape
architects were employed in 1970.
The majority were self-employed or
worked for other landscape archi­
tects in private firms. About onethird of all landscape architects
were employed by government
agencies concerned with public
housing, city planning, urban re­
newal, highways, and parks and rec­
reational areas. Some were on the
staffs of engineering firms; others
were employed by landscape con­
tractors and a few taught in colleges
and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Landscape architect plans site design.

A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture is usually the minimum
requirement for entering the profes­
sion. This training is offered in at
least 64 colleges and universities, of
which 24 have been accredited by


the American Society of Landscape
Architects. Another 40 schools offer
courses in landscape architecture
but not a complete 4-year program.
The curriculum for the bachelor’s
degree requires 4 to 5 years of
study, depending on the institution.
Fifteen universities also offer mas­
ter’s degrees in landscape architec­
Entrance requirements for the
landscape architecture course are
usually the same as those for admis­
sion to the liberal arts college of the
same university. Some schools also
require completion of a high school
course in mechanical or geometrical
drawing, and most schools advise
high school students to take courses
in art and more mathematics than
the minimum required for college
Courses in design, including ar­
chitecture and drawing as well as
landscape design, constitute over
half of the typical curriculum in
landscape architecture. Other major
fields of study are civil engineering
and horticulture. In addition,
courses in English, science, the so­
cial sciences, and mathematics usu­
ally are required. A bachelor’s de­
gree in landscape architecture
provides a good background for
graduate work in city planning.
Young people who plan to be­
come landscape architects should be
interested in both art and nature,
for the profession demands a talent
for design and an understanding of
plant life, as well as technical abil­
ity. Successful practice as an inde­
pendent landscape architect also re­
quires a good business sense and the
ability to deal with people.
Working for landscape architects
or landscape contractors during
summer vacations will help the stu­
dent to discover the phases of land­
scape architecture that interest him

most and may better qualify him for
employment upon graduation.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen, or designers trac­
ing drawings and doing other simple
drafting work. As their skill in­
creases, they progress to more re­
sponsible work. After 2 or 3 years,
they usually become registered as
landscape architects and are quali­
fied to carry a design through all
stages, from preliminary sketches to
finished working drawings. Experi­
enced draftsmen often handle other
aspects of landscape architects’
work also, such as preparing specifi­
cations and detailing methods of
construction. Employees who dem­
onstrate ability for all phases of
work may become associates of the
firm; landscape architects who pro­
gress this far often open their own
A license is required for the inde­
pendent practice of landscape archi­
tecture in 20 States—Arizona, Cali­
fornia, Colorado, Connecticut, Flor­
ida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, Loui­
siana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Ne­
braska, New York, North Carolina,
Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas,
Utah and Washington. Candidates
for the licensing examination are
usually required to have 6 to 8
years’ experience, or a degree from
an accredited school of landscape
architecture plus 2 to 4 years’ expe­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
graduates that have professional
training in landscape architecture
are expected to be favorable
throughout the 1970’s. The profes­
sion probably will continue to ex­
pand in the years ahead as a result
of the continued growth of metro­
politan areas with their needs for


parks and recreational areas, the
growing population’s requirements
for outdoor recreational facilities,
the continued increase in public
construction (including public hous­
ing), and the rising interest in city
and regional planning. The ex­
pected increase in homeownership,
coupled with rising per capita in­
comes and living standards, also will
spur the demand for landscape ar­
Women represent between 10
and 15 percent of all landscape ar­
chitects. Well-trained and compe­
tent women landscape architects
can look forward to interesting and
worthwhile careers in the profes­
sion, particularly as specialists in
garden and planting design.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, starting salaries in pri­
vate offices for new graduates hav­
ing bachelors’ degrees in landscape
architecture ranged from about
$7,000 to $9,000 annually; holders
of master’s degrees generally earned
starting salaries between $12,000
and $15,000. Experienced persons
employed by private firms typically
earned from about $15,000 to
$20,000 a year, although it was not
unusual for especially well-qualified
people to receive annual salaries of
more than $25,000.
Landscape architects in independ­
ent practice often earn more than
salaried employees with considera­
ble experience, but their earnings
may vary widely and may fluctuate
from year to year.
In the Federal Civil Service in
1970, newly graduated landscape
architects were paid annual en­
trance salaries of either $8,510 or
$10,528 depending on their qualifi­
cations. Others with advanced de­
grees earned between $11,855 and



$13,493. The salary schedule also
provides for periodic increases
above this amount.
Salaried employees both in the
government and in landscape archi­
tectural firms usually work regular
hours. Self-employed persons often
work long hours, especially during
the latter stages of a project. Sala­
ried employees in private firms may
also work overtime during seasonal
rush periods.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on the
profession and a list of colleges and
courses of study in landscape archi­
tecture may be obtained from:
American Society of Landscape
Architects, Inc., 2013 I St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

For information on a career as a
landscape architect in the Forest
Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118 and 119.168)

Nature of the Work

When people need legal help they
retain lawyers, who advise them of
their rights and obligations and,
when necessary, represent them in
courts of law. In addition, lawyers
(also called attorneys) negotiate
settlements out of court and repre­
sent clients before quasi-judicial and
administrative agencies of the gov­
ernment, such as the Internal Reve­

nue Service and the Social Security
Administration. They may act as
trustees, guardians, or executors.
Government attorneys play a large
part in developing and administering
Federal and State laws and pro­
grams; they prepare drafts of pro­
posed legislation, establish law en­
forcement procedures, and argue
Most lawyers are engaged in gen­
eral practice, handling all kinds of
legal work for clients. However, a
significant number specialize in one
branch of law, such as corporation,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. Some attor­
neys devote themselves entirely to
trying cases in the courts. Others
never appear in court but instead
spend all their time drawing up
wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages,
and other legal documents; conduct­
ing out-of-court negotiations; and
doing the investigative and other
legal work necessary to prepare for
trials. Still others are primarily en­
gaged in teaching, research, writing,
or administrative activities.
Many people who have legal
training are not employed as law­
yers but are in other occupations
where they can use their knowledge

of law. They may, for example, be
insurance adjusters, tax collectors,
probation officers, credit investiga­
tors, or claims examiners. A legal
background also is a valuable asset
to people seeking or holding public

Places of Employment

About 280,000 lawyers were em­
ployed in 1970, the great majority
working full time. Of the total num­
ber almost three-fourths were in
private practice. About half of the
private practitioners were in prac­
tice by themselves; the other half
were in partnership or working for
other lawyers or law firms.
Government agencies employ the
greatest number of salaried attor­
neys. In 1970, about 10,000 attor­
neys worked for the Federal Gov­
ernment, chiefly in the Justice, De­
fense and Treasury Departments,
and the Veterans Administration.
About twice as many attorneys were
employed by State and local govern­
ment. Other salaried lawyers are
employed by private companies,
such as large manufacturing firms,
banks, and insurance companies.


Most of the remainder teach in law
schools. Some lawyers in salaried
legal positions also have an inde­
pendent practice; others do legal
work on a part-time basis working
primarily in another occupation.
Most lawyers work in cities and in
the more populous States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Before a person can practice law
in the courts of any State, he must
be admitted to its bar. In all States,
applicants for bar admission must
pass a written examination; how­
ever, a few States waive this re­
quirement for graduates of their
own law schools. Other usual re­
quirements are U.S. citizenship and
good moral character. A lawyer
who has been admitted to the bar in
one State can usually be admitted in
another without taking an examina­
tion, provided he meets that State’s
standards of good moral character
and has a specified period of legal
experience. The special rules of
each court or agency control the
right to practice before Federal
courts and agencies.
To qualify for the bar examina­
tions in the majority of States, an
applicant must have completed a
minimum of 3 years of college work
and, in addition, must be a graduate
of a law school approved by the
American Bar Association or the
proper State authorities. A few
States will accept as qualification
study of the law wholly in a law
office or in combination with study
in a law school. Only one State will
accept study of the law by corre­
spondence. A number of States re­
quire registration and approval by
the State Board of Examiners be­
fore students enter law school or
during the early years of legal study.

In a few States, candidates must
complete a period of clerkship in a
law office before they are admitted to
the bar.
As a rule, 7 years of full-time
study after high school is necessary
to complete the required college
and law school work. The most
usual preparation for becoming a
lawyer is 4 years of college study
followed by 3 years in law school.
However, many law schools admit
students after only 3 years of col­
lege work. A few schools may ac­
cept students after 2 years of col­
lege work. On the other hand, an
increasing number of law schools
are requiring applicants to have a
college degree. Law schools seldom
specify the college subjects which
must be included in students’ prelegal education. However, English,
history, economics and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking
are all important for prospective
lawyers. In general, their college
background should be broad enough
to give them an understanding of
society and its institutions. Students
interested in a particular aspect of
the law may find it helpful to take
related courses; for example, engi­
neering and science courses for the
prospective patent attorney, and ac­
counting for the future tax lawyer.
Prospective lawyers should also
enjoy working with people and be
capable of winning their confidence.
Acceptance by most law schools
is dependent upon the applicant’s
ability to demonstrate an aptitude
for the study of law, usually through
the “Law School Admissions Test.”
Of the 173 law schools in exist­
ence in 1970, 148 were approved
by the American Bar Association
and the others—chiefly night
schools—were approved by State
authorities only. A substantial num­
ber of full-time law schools have
night divisions designed to meet the


needs of part-time students; some
law schools have only night classes.
Four years of part-time study are
usually required to complete the
night-school curriculum. In 1969,
almost a quarter of all law students
in ABA approved schools were en­
rolled in evening classes.
The first 2 years of law school
are generally devoted to fundamen­
tal courses such as contracts, crimi­
nal law, property law, and judicial
procedure. In the third year, stu­
dents may elect courses in special­
ized fields such as tax, labor, or cor­
poration law. Practical experience is
often obtained by participating in
school-sponsored legal aid activities,
in the school’s practice court where
students conduct trials under the su­
pervision of experienced lawyers, as
well as by writing on legal issues for
the school’s law journal. Graduates
receive the degree of juris doctor
(J.D.) from many schools, although
other schools confer the bachelor of
laws (LL.B.) as the first profes­
sional degree. Advanced study is
often desirable for those planning to
specialize or to engage in research
and law-school teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice immedi­
ately after passing the bar examina­
tion. Young salaried attorneys usu­
ally act as assistants (law clerks) to
experienced lawyers or judges. Ini­
tially, their work is limited to re­
search, such as checking points of
law; they rarely see a client or argue
a case in court. After several years
of progressively responsible salaried
employment, many lawyers go into
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, become
Employment Outlook

Graduates from highly regarded


law schools, as well as those who
rank high in their classes, will have
good employment prospects through
the 1970’s. They should find oppor­
tunities for salaried positions with
well-known law firms, on the legal
staffs of corporations and govern­
ment agencies, and as law clerks to
judges. Graduates of the less promi­
nent schools and those who gradu­
ate with lower scholastic ratings
may experience some difficulty in
finding salaried positions as lawyers.
However, numerous opportunities
will be available for law school
graduates to enter a variety of other
types of salaried positions requiring
a knowledge of law.
Prospects for establishing a new
practice will probably continue to
be best in small towns and expand­
ing suburban areas. In such com­
munities, competition is likely to be
less than in big cities, and rent and
other business costs somewhat
lower. Also, young lawyers may find
it easier to become known to poten­
tial clients. On the other hand, sala­
ried employment will be limited
largely to metropolitan areas where
the chief employers of legal talent
—government agencies, law firms
and big corporations—are concen­
trated. For many able and wellqualified lawyers, opportunities to
advance will be available in both
salaried employment and private
Although the majority of employ­
ment opportunities for new lawyers
will arise from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or otherwise
leave the field, the total number of
lawyers is expected to grow moder­
ately over the long run. Most of the
growth will result from continuing
expansion of business activity and
population, and the increased use of
legal services by low- and middleincome groups. For example, ex­
pansion of legal services for low-


income groups has come about
through the Community Action
Programs authorized under the Ec­
onomic Opportunity Act of 1964.
In addition, the growing complexity
of business and government activi­
ties is expected to create a steadily
expanding demand for lawyers who
have extensive experience in corpo­
ration, patent, administrative, labor,
and international law. However,
continuing a recent trend, the num­
ber of lawyers in independent prac­
tice may remain stable or decline

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, law firms in several
States offered annual starting sala­
ries as high as $15,000 to law
school graduates from widely recog­
nized schools or those having high
academic standing. For lawyers em­
ployed by manufacturing and other
business firms the average starting
salary was over $11,500 a year in
1970; with 1 year’s experience, over
$13,000; and with a few years’ ex­
perience, an average of $16,800. In
the Federal Government, annual
starting salaries for attorneys pass­
ing the bar were either $9,881 or
$11,905 in 1970, depending upon
their academic and personal qualifi­
cations. Those with a few years’ ex­
perience earned $16,760 a year.
Some exceptional government law­
yers earned more than $35,000 an­
Beginning lawyers engaged in
legal aid work usually receive the
lowest starting salaries. New lawyers
starting their own practices may
earn little more than expenses dur­
ing the first few years and may work
part time in another occupation.
Lawyers’ earnings generally in­
crease with experience. Those on a
salaried basis receive increases as

they assume greater responsibilities.
In 1970, the average annual salary
in private industry for those in
charge of legal staffs was more than
$33,000. Incomes of lawyers in pri­
vate practice usually grow as their
practice develops. Private practition­
ers who are partners in law firms
generally have greater average in­
comes than those who practice
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they must keep abreast of the
latest laws and court decisions.
However, since lawyers in private
practice are able to determine their
own hours and workload, many stay
in practice until well past the usual
retirement age.
Sources of Additional Information

The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained from the
clerk of the Supreme Court or the
secretary of the Board of Bar Ex­
aminers at that State capital. Infor­
mation on law schools and on law as
a career is available from:
Information Service, The American
Bar Association, 1155 East 60th
St., Chicago, 111. 60637.
Association of American Law
Schools, Suite 370, 1 Dupont
Circle, NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)

Nature of the Work

Making information available is
the job of librarians. Librarians se-


lect and organize collections of
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, pe­
riodicals, clippings, and reports, and
assist readers in their use. In many
libraries, they also may make avail­
able phonograph records, maps,
slides, pictures, tapes, films, paint­
ings, braille and talking books, mi­
crofilms, and computer tapes and
programs. In addition to classifying
and cataloging books and other loan
items, they publicize library serv­
ices, study the reading interests of
people served by the library, and
provide a research and a reference
service to various groups. Librari­
ans also may review and abstract

published materials and prepare
In small libraries, librarians per­
form a great variety of tasks. In a
large library, each librarian may
perform only a single function, such
as cataloging, publicizing library
services, or providing reference serv­
ice, or he may specialize in a sub­
ject area such as science, business,
the arts, or medicine.
Librarians are generally classified
by the type of library in which they
are employed: Public library,
school media center, college or uni­
versity library, or special library.
There are two principal kinds of li­
brary work—reader services and


technical services. Those who per­
form reader services—for example,
reference librarians and children’s
librarians—work directly with the
public. Librarians who perform
technical services, such as catalog­
ed or acquisition librarians, deal
less frequently with the public.
Public librarians serve all kinds
of readers—children,
teachers, research workers, and oth­
ers. Increasingly, librarians are pro­
viding special materials and services
to culturally and educationally de­
prived persons and to physically
handicapped persons unable to use
conventional print. The professional
staff of a large public library system
may include the chief librarian, an
assistant chief, and several division
heads who plan and coordinate the
work of the entire library system.
This system also may include librar­
ians who supervise branch libraries,
and other librarians who are spe­
cialists in certain areas. The duties
of some of these specialists are
briefly described as follows:
Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other library materials
recommended by staff members, or
requested by patrons,keep a wellbalanced library in quantity and
quality, make sure that the library
receives what it orders, and main­
tain close contact with book jobbers
and publishers. Catalogers classify
books under various
subjects and
otherwise describe them so they
may be located through catalogs on
cards or in other forms. Reference
librarians aid readers in their search
for information—answering specific
questions or suggesting sources of
information. This work requires a
thorough understanding of biblio­
graphic material and a general
knowledge of library materials in
various subject fields. Children’s li­
brarians plan and direct special pro­
grams for young people. Their du­


ties include helping children find
books they will enjoy, instructing
them in the use and content of the
library, giving talks on books, con­
ducting film programs, and main­
taining contact with schools and
community organizations. Often,
they conduct regular story hours at
libraries, playgrounds and day care
centers, and sometimes on radio or
television. Adult services librarians
may select materials for adult read­
ers and advise them. They are often
asked to suggest reading materials,
and to cooperate in or plan and
conduct educational programs on
such topics of adult interest as com­
munity development, public affairs,
creative arts, problems of the aging,
or home and family life. Young
adult services librarians may select
books and other materials for young
people of junior .high school and
high school age and guide them in
the use of these materials. They
may arrange book or film discussion
groups, concerts of recorded popu­
lar and classical music, and other
programs related to the interests of
young adults. They also may help to
coordinate the services of the school
libraries and the local public library.
Bookmobile librarians take library
materials into areas where public li­
brary services are nonexistent or in­
adequate, in inner city neighbor­
hoods, migrant camps, and institu­
tions such as hospitals and homes
for the aged and others.
School media specialists (school
librarians) instruct students in the
use of the library and visit class­
rooms to familiarize students with
print and nonprint materials relating
to the subjects being taught. They
also work with teachers and school
supervisors in planning and devel­
oping units of study and independ­
ent study programs and participate
in team teaching. They prepare lists
of printed and nonprinted materials


on certain subjects; meet with fac­
ulty members to select materials for
school programs; and select, order,
and organize library materials.
Many school media specialists are
employed by school district central
offices as supervisors to plan and
coordinate library services for the
entire school system, as catalogers
and as librarians to administer pro­
fessional libraries for teachers and
administrators. Very large high
schools may employ several media
specialists, each responsible for a
special function of the library pro­
gram or for special subject mate­
College and university librarians
work with students, faculty mem­
bers, and research workers in gen­
eral reference work or in a particu­
lar field of interest, such as law,
medicine, economics, or music. In
addition, they may teach one or
more classes in the use of the li­
brary. A few librarians who are em­
ployed in university research proj­
ects operate documentation cen­
ters. Computers and other modern
devices are being increasingly used
to record and retrieve specialized
Special librarians work in librar­
ies maintained by commercial and
industrial firms, such as pharmaceu­
tical companies, banks, advertising
agencies, and research laboratories;
professional and trade associations;
government agencies; and other
types of organizations such as hos­
pitals and museums. They plan, ac­
quire, organize, catalog, and re­
trieve information from collections
designed to provide intensive cover­
age of information resources about
subjects of special interest to the or­
ganization. Special librarians utilize
their extensive knowledge of the
subject matter, as well as of library
science, in building library re­
sources, advising and assisting li­

brary users, abstracting, and routing
available materials. They must be
able to evaluate the importance of
new information to their organiza­
tion. Literature searching and the
preparation of summaries, transla­
tions, bibliographies, and special re­
ports are among the major duties of
special librarians. These operations
may involve the use of electronic
data processing equipment.
Information science specialists,
like special librarians, work in tech­
nical libraries maintained by com­
mercial and industrial firms. How­
ever, they must possess a more ex­
tensive technical and scientific back­
ground than special librarians. They
not only perform many of the duties
of special librarians, but they also
develop coding and programing
techniques for using electronic and
electromechanical information stor­
age devices and abstract compli­
cated information into short, reada­
ble form, and interpret and analyze
data for a highly specialized clien­
Information on library techni­
cians, is found in a separate state­
ment in the Handbook.

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 125,000 persons
were employed as professional li­
brarians. Most of them worked full
time. School librarians accounted
for more than two-fifths of all li­
brarians; public librarians repre­
sented nearly one-fourth; librarians
in colleges and universities ac­
counted for one-fifth; and those em­
ployed in special libraries (includ­
ing libraries in government agen­
cies), one out of seven. Some
librarians were employed in correc­
tional institutions, hospitals, and
State institutions. A small number
of librarians were employed as


teachers and administrators in
schools of library science.
More than 85 percent of all li­
brarians are women. Men are more
frequently employed than women in
executive and administrative posi­
tions in large library systems and in
special libraries concerned with sci­
ence and technology.
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to bookmo­
bile units serve widely scattered
population groups, mostly in subur­
ban or rural areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To qualify as a professional li­
brarian, one must ordinarily have
completed a 1-year master’s degree
program in library science. A Ph.
D. degree is an advantage to those
who plan a teaching career in li­
brary schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library or in a
large school library system. For
those who are interested in the spe­
cial libraries field, a master’s degree
or doctorate in the subject of the li­
brary’s specialization also is highly
In 1970, 46 library schools in the
United States were accredited by
the American Library Association.
Many other colleges offer courses
within their 4-year undergraduate
programs, as well as at the graduate
level, which prepare students for
some types of library work.
Entrance requirements to most
graduate schools of library science
include (1) graduation from an ac­
credited 4-year college or univer­
sity, (2) a good undergraduate rec­
ord, and (3) a reading knowledge
of at least one foreign language.
Some schools also require introduc­
tory undergraduate courses in li­


brary science. Most library schools terested in becoming a librarian
prefer a liberal arts background and should have an interest in people,
majors in areas such as social sci­ intellectual curiosity, an ability to
ences, physical and biological sci­ express himself clearly, a desire to
ences, the arts, or comparative liter­ search for recorded materials and
ature. Some schools require en­ use them, and an ability to work
with others.
trance examinations.
Special librarians and science in­
Experienced librarians may ad­
formation specialists must have ex­ vance to administrative positions or
tensive knowledge of their subject to specialized work. However, pro­
matter as well as training in library motion to these positions is limited
science. In libraries devoted to sci­ primarily to those who have com­
entific information, librarians should pleted graduate training in a library
be proficient in one foreign lan­ school, or to those who have had
guage or more. They also must be specialized training.
well informed about new equip­
ment, methods, and techniques used
in storing and recalling technical in­
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative work- trained librarians is expected to be
study programs, combining their ac­ good through the 1970’s. The best
ademic program with practical work opportunities probably will be in
experience in a library. Most library school and college and university li­
schools make every effort to arrange braries, especially in research, sub­
the student’s schedule to permit him ject specialties, and some languages.
to take the necessary courses while Some librarians will probably con­
working part-time. Scholarships for tinue to find opportunities for em­
training in library science are avail­ ployment in the Armed Forces and
able under certain State and Federal the U.S. Information Agency over­
programs and from library schools, seas.
Persons who have only a bache­
as well as from a number of the
large libraries and library associa­ lor’s degree with a major in library
tions. Loans, assistantships, and fi­ science, probably will encounter
nancial aids also are available.
stiff competition in finding profes­
School librarians must be certi­ sional level jobs. Many part-time
fied in most States as having met the positions also will be available for
requirements for both librarians and persons trained in library work.
The demand for qualified librari­
teachers. Sometimes local, county,
or State authorities establish other ans to meet the requirements of a
requirements, that are based on dif­ growing and increasingly well-edu­
ferent combinations of education cated population will be intensified
and experience. In the Federal Gov­ by the vast and continuing expan­
ernment, beginning positions re­ sion in the volume and variety of
quire completion of a 4-year college materials which must be processed
course and all the work required for for reader use. Because of the
a master’s degree in library science ever-increasing
high-level executives in business
or the equivalent in experience and
and industry, management will rely
In addition to an appropriate ed­ more heavily on the services of spe­
ucational background, a person in­ cial librarians and science informa­


tion specialists to keep abreast of
new developments. Expanding use
of computers to store and retrieve
information also will contribute to
increased demands for science in­
formation specialists. The increase
of Federal grant assistance through
the Library Services and Construc­
tion Act, the Medical Assistance
Act, the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act, and the Higher Ed­
ucation Act may further increase
the demand for librarians. Im­
proved standards for school media
centers and college libraries and the
expanding student population also
will contribute to the demand for li­
brarians. Additional librarians will
be needed to provide services to in­
mates and patients in correctional
institutions and to residents in
schools for the blind, deaf, and
handicapped people who cannot use
conventional materials.
In addition to openings resulting
from growth of the occupation,
many librarians also will be needed
each year to fill positions vacated by
young women who leave their jobs
to care for their families, and to re­
place librarians who transfer to
other types of work, retire, or leave
the field for other reasons. Oppor­
tunities for women wishing to reen­
ter the field also will be favorable.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The annual starting salary of new
library school graduates averaged
about $8,700 in 1970. The degree
of responsibility and technical skill
required, as well as geographic loca­
tion, size, and type of library, are
important factors determining indi­
vidual salaries. The higher paying
positions generally are found in col­
lege, school, and special libraries.
College and university libraries of­
fered an average beginning salary of


about $8,700 in 1970. New gradu­
ates employed in special libraries
received about $8,400; those em­
ployed in public libraries averaged
about $8,100. Librarians having ex­
tensive experience and information
specialists having a Ph. D. degree in
a subject matter field generally
earned between $10,000 and
$15,000 a year.
Qualified special librarians can
usually expect to earn salaries in ex­
cess of those paid to public and
school librarians because of their
additional specialized subject train­
ing. The annual salary for all special
librarians was $11,800 in 1970, but
head librarians reported an average
salary of $13,600, with a few mak­
ing over $20,000 a year. Informa­
tion science specialists received an
average of $12,000 a year in 1970.
In the Federal Government, the
annual entrance salary for librarians
having a master’s degree in library
science was $9,881 in 1970. Expe­
rienced librarians generally earned
from $10,200 to $19,800.
The typical workweek for librari­
ans is 5 days, ranging from 35 to 40
hours. The work schedule of public
and college librarians may include
some Saturday, Sunday, and eve­
ning work. School librarians gener­
ally have the same workday sched­
ule as classroom teachers. A 40hour week during normal business
hours is common for government
and other special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school librar­
ies, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident in­
surance; and pension plans.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information, particu­
larly on accredited programs, and
scholarships or loans may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50
East Huron St., Chicago, 111.

Information on requirements of
special librarians may be obtained
Special Libraries Association, 235
Park Ave., South, New York,
N.Y. 10003.

Information on Federal assist­
ance for library training under the
Higher Education Act of J965 may
be obtained from:
Division of Library and Educational
Facilities, Bureau of Libraries and
Educational Technology, Office of
Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in
Federal libraries should write to:
Secretariat Federal Library Com­
mittee, Room 310, Library of

Information on information sci­
ence specialists may be obtained
American Society for Information
Science, 1140 Connecticut Ave­
nue, NW., Washington, D.C.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on requirements for certification
and general information about ca­
reer prospects in their regions. State
boards of education can furnish in­
formation on certification require­
ments and job opportunities for
school librarians.


(D.O.T. 249.368)

Nature of the Work

Library technicians assist librari­
ans in furnishing information on li­
brary sciences, facilities, and rules;
in assisting readers in the use of
card catalogs and indexes to locate
books and other materials; and in
answering questions that require
only brief consultation of standard
references. In some libraries, they
train and supervise the clerical staff.
Cataloging books is one of their
most important duties. Such work
includes identifying the title, author,
edition, publisher, publication data,
and number of pages. Notations in
the card catalog reflect the use of a
classification system other than the
Library of Congress System. Some
technicians catalog new editions of
works and compare information in
the new edition with that on the
cards already in the library’s cat­
alog. In some libraries, technicians
prepare orders for library materials
by looking up prices and publisher
information, maintain files of special

materials, such as newspaper clip­
pings and pictures, and arrange dis­
In a large library, technicians
may maintain controls on check­
outs, reserves, renewals, and over­
due materials. They may operate
and maintain audiovisual and data
processing equipment, including
photographs, slide projectors, and
tape recorders, as well as readers
that magnify, project on a screen,
and sometimes print out informa­
tion on microfilm and microfiche


one year of library-related work,
such as introductory courses in bib­
liographic science, and cataloging.
Most programs also include an in­
troduction to library organization,
and the purposes, procedures, and
development of libraries. Some offer
training to familiarize the student
with data processing and audiovisual
The number of junior and com­
munity colleges that offer library
technician programs is expected to
increase rapidly in the future, con­
tinuing the trend of the 1960’s. A
high school diploma or its equiva­
lent is the standard entrance re­
Places of Employment
quirement for both academic and
on-the-job training programs. Many
An estimated 76,000 library programs require that a student be
technicians were employed in 1970; proficient in typing. A few schools
four-fifths were women. Most tech­ require on-the-job experience under
nicians were employed in public and the supervision of a librarian.
school libraries. Smaller numbers
College programs for library
worked in college and university li­ technicians vary since many of them
braries, and in business, medical, are established to meet a particular
and other special libraries. In 1970, local need. For this reason, young
the Federal Government employed people should select a program with
about 3,300 library technicians, care and obtain information on the
chiefly in the Department of De­ curriculum, instructional facilities,
fense and the Library of Congress. faculty qualifications, and kinds of
jobs obtained by graduates. Credits
earned in a two-year college pro­
Training, Other Qualifications,
gram in library technology may not
and Advancement
apply toward a professional degree
in library science.
Most library technicians em­
Library technicians should enjoy
ployed in 1968 were trained on- detailed work, have manual dex­
the-job in programs that required terity, verbal ability to explain pro­
from 1 to 3 years to complete. Re­ cedures and regulations, and nu­
cently, however, an increasing num­ merical ability to handle circulation
ber have received training in formal statistics. The job requires much
post-high school programs. In the standing, stooping, bending, and
future, a larger number of employers reaching.
may require such training.
In 1970, about 115 colleges of­
fered a 2-year program for library
Employment Outlook
technicians which led to an asso­
ciate of arts degree in library tech­
The employment outlook is ex­
nology. Curriculums generally in­ cellent for library technicians
clude one year of liberal arts and through the 1970’s, particularly for


graduates of academic programs. A
growing population and recent Fed­
eral legislation authorizing funds to
construct, expand, and improve li­
braries are factors that influence de­
Several thousand technicians will
be needed annually through the
1970’s to replace those who die, re­
tire, and transfer to other fields.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries vary widely with the size
of the community and the library
system in which library technicians
are employed. Starting salaries gen­
erally range from $5,000 to $6,300;
experienced library technicians
sometimes make over $9,000.
In the Federal Government, an­
nual salaries generally ranged from
$5,212 to $8,098 in 1970. A few
technicians earned $9,881 a year or
Library technicians employed in
public and private school systems
usually work only during school
hours. The work schedule in public
and college libraries may include
some weekend and evening hours.
In government and special libraries,
a 40-hour week is common.
Most libraries provide fringe ben­
efits such as group insurance and re­
tirement pay. Additional benefits of­
fered by private business often
include educational assistance pro­
grams. Library technicians em­
ployed by the Federal Government
receive the same benefits as other
Federal workers.


(D.O.T. 143.062, .282 and .382)

Nature of the Work

Photography involves much more
than just taking clear pictures. Skill­
ful portrait photographers, for ex­
ample, take pictures which not only
are natural looking and attractive
but which also express the personal­
ity of the individual. Photographing
sports and other news events also
requires special photographic skills,
as do other areas of photographic
The work of photographers var­
ies greatly, depending on the area of
specialization; however, all photog­
raphers use equipment and mate­
rials that are basically the same.
Photographers use a variety of still
and motion picture cameras. These
cameras may be equipped with tele­
photo, wide-angle, or other special
lenses, and have different types of

light filters that enable the photog­
rapher to obtain the particular ef­
fects desired in each picture. Pho­
tographers also utilize many kinds
of film and must know which to
use for each type of picture, lighting
condition, and camera. The photog­
rapher must be able to select the
proper filter to be used with differ­
ent film. When taking pictures in­
doors or after dark, photographers
use lighting equipment—flash bulbs
or electronic flash for some pictures,
flood lights and other special lights
and reflectors for others. In addi­
tion, photographers must be able to
execute the chemical and mechani­
cal processing by which pictures are
developed, enlarged, and printed.
(See statement on Photographic
Laboratory Occupations.) In small
shops and photographic depart­
ments, the photographer often does
all this technical work; as a rule,
large studios employ photographic
technicians to do the needed labora­
tory work. The procedures involved
in taking motion pictures differ

Photographer adjusts distance scale.


greatly from those used in still pho­
tography and, therefore, most pho­
tographers restrict themselves to ei­
ther one field or the other.
Photographers also need some
knowledge of art and design, and
they should know how to use
makeup and props. In addition,
photographers must be able to ar­
range their subjects properly against
a setting.
Many professional photographers
specialize in such areas as portrait
photography, commercial photogra­
phy, or industrial photography. Por­
trait photographers usually work in
their own studios, although they
also take pictures in people’s homes
and other places. Commercial pho­
tographers generally take pictures
for use in advertising real estate,
furniture, food, apparel, and other
items, but they may also do other
kinds of photographic work. The in­
dustrial photographer usually works
for a single firm or company, taking
pictures that are used in company
publications and for advertising
company products or services. He
may take motion pictures of
workers on the job and of equip­
ment and machinery operating at
high speed; these pictures are then
used to simplify work methods or to
improve the production process.
Other photographic specialists in­
clude press photography (photo
journalism that combines a “nose
for news” with photographic abil­
ity); aerial photography; instrumen­
tation photography; illustrative pho­
tography; educational photography
(preparing slides, film strips, and
movies for use in the classroom);
and science and engineering photog­
raphy (the development of photo­
graphic techniques for use in space
photography and related fields).
Some photographers teach in high
schools or colleges, act as represent­
atives of photographic equipment

manufacturers, manage photo-fin­
ishing establishments, sell photo­
graphic equipment and supplies,
produce documentary films, or do
freelance work.

Places of Employment

About 65,000 photographers
were employed in 1970. Approxi­
mately half of them worked in com­
mercial studios—many in business
for themselves, the rest as salaried
employees. In addition, sizable
numbers were employed in indus­
try; some worked for Federal, State,
and local government agencies; and
others operated camera stores or
worked on the staffs of newspapers
and magazines. Still others worked
as freelance photographers, taking
many kinds of pictures and selling
them to advertisers, magazines, and
other customers.
Photographers work in all parts
of the country, in small towns as
well as large cities. They are con­
centrated, however, in States which
are heavily populated—California,
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and
Illinois—and which also have great
numbers of businesses and in­
dustrial establishments.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

After high school, young people
may prepare for work as profes­
sional photographers through 2 or 3
years of on-the-job training in a
commercial studio. A trainee gener­
ally starts by working in the dark­
room, where he learns how to de­
velop film and do other related
work such as photo printing and en­
larging. Later, he may set up lights
and cameras or otherwise assist an


experienced photographer in taking
Photographic training also can be
obtained in many colleges and uni­
versities, trade schools, and techni­
cal institutes, or by taking corre­
spondence school courses. There
are colleges, universities, or other
institutions in almost every State
that offer courses in some area of
photography. Several colleges and
universities offer 4-year curriculums
leading to a bachelor’s degree with
a major in photography. These cur­
riculums include liberal arts subjects
as well as courses in professional
photography. The master’s degree
with a major in various specialized
areas, such as color photography, is
offered by some colleges and uni­
versities. A few institutions have
2-year curriculums leading to a
certificate or an associate degree in
photography. Training in design at
art schools or institutes is also use­
ful, although these schools usually
do not provide the technical training
for camera work. (See statement on
Commerical Artists.) Some photog­
raphers are trained in 3-year ap­
prenticeship programs. Also, many
young people learn photographic
skills while serving in the Armed
The kind and amount of training
obtained greatly influences the type
of photographic work for which a
young person can qualify. Amateur
photographic experience may be
helpful to the young person consid­
ering entry jobs in this field.
Considerable post-high school
training, plus some photographic
experience, is usually needed to
enter industrial, news, or scientific
photography. Photographic work in
scientific and engineering research
generally requires a background in
science or engineering, as well as
skill in photography.
The prospective photographer



should have manual dexterity, good
eyesight and color vision, as well as
some artistic ability. In addition, a
pleasant personality and the ability
to put people at ease are needed by
photographers. Imagination and
originality are particularly impor­
tant assets for successful careers in
commercial photography or free­
lance work. For press photography,
a knowledge of news values and the
ability to act quickly are important.
Beginning photographers often
work in established studios until
they accumulate the capital and ex­
perience needed to start their own
businesses, although some open
their own immediately after com­
pleting their training.

Employment Outlook

Thousands of talented and welltrained photographers will be
needed each year though the 1970’s
to fill new positions and replace
those who retire, die, or stop work­
ing for other reasons. However,
those with limited ability and train­
ing are likely to encounter competi­
tion and find few opportunities for
Competition for employment in
the portrait and commercial fields
of photography is expected to be
keen; nevertheless, opportunities
should exist for those who are com­
petent and well trained. These fields
may be entered easily, since a pho­
tographer can go into business for
himself with a modest financial in­
vestment. Moreover, the available
supply of portrait and commercial
photographers is continually en­
larged by people who are em­
ployed in other occupations but who
take pictures in their spare time.
In coming years, the employment
of industrial photographers is ex­
pected to rise at a more rapid rate

than that of either portrait or com­
mercial photographers. Major fac­
tors contributing to this growth are
the increasing use of photographers
in research and development and
the more widespread production of
audio-visual aids for use by busi­
ness, industry, civic organizations,
and government. Because of ad­
vances in photographic technology,
such as more sophisticated cameras,
improved color, and high-speed
photography, more and more busi­
ness concerns and other organiza­
tions are utilizing photographic
work. Microfilming will offer em­
ployment opportunities for persons
having basic photographic skills. In
this process, photo methods are
used to reduce large quantities of
file material to 16 millimeter film
for easier filing and retrieval. In ad­
dition, opportunities are expected to
be favorable for photographers
working in scientific and engineer­
ing photography, illustrative pho­
tography, photo-journalism, and
other highly specialized areas that
require a thorough knowledge of
photography as well as training in a
technical or scientific field. Popula­
tion expansion and the growth of
the suburbs also will create some
opportunities for photographers to
open studios in new shopping cen­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning photographers gener­
ally earned from $125 to $140 a
week in 1970, according to the lim­
ited information available. Many
photographers who have established
reputations earned much more.
Inexperienced photographers em­
ployed by most daily newspapers
having contracts with the American
Newspaper Guild received mini­

mum starting salaries ranging from
about $105 to $140 a week. For
photographers employed by a few
small daily newspapers, the Guild
minimum starting salaries were less
than $95 a week; on a few large
dailies, Guild minimum rates for be­
ginning photographers approached
$200 a week or more. Minimum rates
for newspaper photographers having
some experience (usually for those
with 4 to 6 years) averaged about
$200 a week in 1970. Contract minimums for experienced newspaper
photographers on a few small dailies
were less than $ 165 a week; on a few
large dailies, they ranged from about
$260 to $290 a week. Photographers
who have a science or engineering
background usually received begin­
ning salaries of between $9,000 and
$10,000 a year.
Depending on the level of experi­
ence, the entrance salary of photog­
raphers in the Federal Civil Service
ranged from $5,853 to $9,881 a
year in 1970. In addition, the salary
schedule provides for periodic in­
creases above this amount. Most ex­
perienced photographers in the
Federal Government earned be­
tween $6,500 and $14,000 a year; a
few earned over $17,000 annually.
Self-employed photographers gen­
erally earn more than salaried
workers, but their earnings are af­
fected greatly by business conditions
and many other factors such as the
type and size of community and
Photographers who have salaried
jobs usually work the standard 5day, 40-hour week and receive ben­
efits such as paid holidays, vaca­
tions, and sick leave. Photographers
in business for themselves fre­
quently work longer hours. Working
conditions are generally pleasant.
Freelance, press, and commercial
photographers may be required to
travel frequently.



Sources of Additional Information

Information about photography
as a career, as well as a list of
schools of photography, is available
America, Inc., 1090 Executive
Way, Oak Leaf Commons, Des
Plaines, 111. 60018.

(D.O.T. 033.187, 012.168, 020.081 and

Nature of the Work

Systems analysts plan, schedule,
and coordinate the activities neces­
sary to develop systems which proc­
ess data to solve business, scien­
tific, or engineering problems. Indi­
vidual parts of a problem are
viewed within the context of the
overall problem. Although a system
can be developed to process data
manually, mechanically, or with
electronic computers, most systems
analysts develop methods for com­
puter usage. (This statement dis­
cusses only the work of systems
analysts who devise systems using
electronic computers to process data
and solve problems.)
Business firms employ systems
analysts to solve accounting, inven­
tory, and other problems. With the
assistance of managers or subject
matter specialists, they determine
the exact nature of the data-processing problem. Then systems analysts
define, analyze, and structure the
problem logically. They identify all
of the data needed and define ex­
actly the way it is to be processed.
They prepare charts, tables, and

diagrams to describe the processing
system and the steps necessary to its
operation. Systems analysts use var­
ious techniques as tools of analysis;
these may include cost accounting,
sampling, and mathematical meth­
ods. After analyzing the problem and
devising a system for processing
data, systems analysts recommend
the equipment to be used and pre­
pare instructions for programers.
They also interpret and translate
final results into terms that are un­
derstandable to management, subject
matter specialists, or customers.
Data processing problems are
vast and solutions so varied and
complex that many systems analysts
specialize in a particular area. For
example, systems analysts who work
for scientific or engineering organi­
zations may determine the flight of
a space vehicle. Other analysts may
develop systems to plan and forecast
sales or conduct marketing research.

Some analysts improve systems
already in use to handle additional
or different types of data. Others do
research, described as advanced
systems design, to devise new meth­
ods of systems analysis. Analysts
engaged in this type of activity
usually have mathematical, scientific,
or engineering backgrounds.
Systems analysts, who are manag­
ers or administrators and responsi­
ble for overall systems design, as­
sign analysts to various phases of a
project. They also may plan, organ­
ize, and control systems analysis
throughout the organization in
which they work and prepare re­

Places of Employment

More than 100,000 persons were
estimated to be employed as sys­
tems analysts in 1970. They work


mainly for insurance companies,
manufacturing concerns, banks,
wholesale and retail businesses, and
the Federal Government. A growing
number of systems analysts are em­
ployed by universities and independ­
ent service organizations that fur­
nish computer services to business
firms and other organizations on a
fee basis. Systems analysts work
chiefly in large cities.


ing some experience, they may be
promoted to systems analyst trainees
and later qualify as systems analysts.
In large electronic data-process­
ing departments, a person who be­
gins as a junior systems analyst and
gains experience may be promoted
to senior or lead systems analyst.
Systems analysts having proven
leadership ability also can advance
to positions as manager of systems
analysis or an electronic data-proc­
essing department.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employment Outlook

There is no universally accepta­
ble way of preparing for work in sys­
tems analysis. Some employers pre­
fer that candidates have a bache­
lor’s degree and experience in
mathematics, science, engineering,
accounting, or business. Other em­
ployers stress a graduate degree.
Educational preparation and ex­
perience often determine the kind
of job opportunities available. For
example, employers are likely to
seek an analyst having a back­
ground in business administration to
work in finance or similar areas;
those having an engineering back­
ground are sought for engineering
or scientifically oriented systems.
Applicants also may qualify on the
basis of professional experience in
scientific, technical, or managerial
occupations, or practical experience
in data processing jobs such as com­
puter operator or programer.
Most employers prefer to hire
people who have had some experi­
ence in computer programing. A
young person can learn to use elec­
tronic data-processing equipment on
the job or can take special courses
offered by his employer, computer
manufacturers, or colleges. In the
Federal Government, for example,
systems analysts usually begin their
careers as programers. After gain­

Employment opportunities for
systems analysts should be excellent
through the 1970’s. Systems analyst
has ranked among the fastest grow­
ing professional occupations in re­
cent years. However, because peo­
ple having a systems analysis or
similar background work in fields
such as mathematics and science,
employers have had difficulty re­
cruiting these workers.
A growing demand for systems
analysts will result from the rapid
expansion of electronic data-proc­
essing systems in business and gov­
ernment. Greater emphasis will be
placed on developing computer sys­
tems that will retrieve information
more efficiently; solve complex
business, scientific, and engineering
problems; and monitor industrial
processes. These developments and
others, such as the extension of
computer technology to small busi­
ness, the use of systems analysis to
determine plant and store location,
and the growth of computer centers
to serve individual clients for a fee,
signify a rapid rise in employment.
In addition to opportunities due
to growth, some openings will occur
as systems analysts advance to more
responsible positions or leave their
jobs to enter other employment. Be­

cause many of the workers are
young, relatively few positions will
result from retirement or death.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, beginning salaries of
systems analysts averaged between
$8,950 and $12,700 a year, accord­
ing to a private survey which cov­
ered more than 80,000 workers in
business, government, and educa­
tional data-processing installations
in all parts of the country. Earnings
of experienced systems analysts av­
eraged $14,300 annually, and in
some cases they were paid $25,000
or more a year.
Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a week—the same
as other professional and office
workers. Unlike many console oper­
ators who work on two or three
shifts, systems analysts generally
work only during the day. Occasion­
ally, evening or weekend work may
be necessary to complete emergency
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information about the
occupation of systems analyst may
be obtained from the following
American Federation of Informa­
tion Processing Societies, 210
Summit Avenue, Montvale, N.J.
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

A list of reading materials on ca­
reer opportunities in the data proc­
essing field may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New
York, N.Y.



(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work

An electronic computer, although
sometimes called a “mechanical
brain,” can only follow step-by-step
instructions. The programer pre­
pares these instructions.
A computer not only makes
mathematical calculations at fantas­
tic speeds, but stores large amounts
of data for later use. Because com­
puters work with masses of infor­
mation at tremendous speed and ac­
curacy, they are used for much
“data processing” that otherwise
would require many employees.
They handle varied assignments
such as maintaining inventories and
controlling production machinery in
Every “problem” processed in a
computer first must be carefully an­
alyzed so that exact and logical
steps for its solution can be worked
out. An experienced programer or
systems analyst does this prelimi­
nary work. (See the statement on
systems analysts elsewhere in the
Once this preliminary work has
been completed, the “program,” or
detailed instructions for processing
the data, can be prepared by the
programer. Exactly how he does this
depends not only on the type of
equipment to be used but on the na­
ture of the problem. The mathemat­
ical calculations involved in billing a
firm’s customers, for example, are
very different from those required
in most kinds of scientific and tech­
nical work. The programing tech­
niques also are different. Still other
techniques are required in writing
programing “aids” to reduce the
amount of detail. Because of these

differences, many programers spe­
cialize in certain kinds of work.
In business offices, computers
frequently are used to bill custom­
ers, make up payrolls, and keep
track of inventories. First, the pro­
gramer determines what informa­
tion is necessary to prepare the doc­
uments and the form in which it is
entered on company records. He
next makes a flow chart or diagram,
showing in what order the computer
must do each step. Then, he pre­
pares detailed instructions for the
computer’s control unit to tell the
machine exactly what to do with
each piece of information. The pro­
gramer also prepares an instruction
sheet for the console operator to
follow when the program is run.
(The work of the console operator
is described in the statement on
Electronic Computer Operating
The final step in programing is
“debugging”—that is, checking on
whether the instructions have been

correctly written and will produce
the desired information. A program
usually is debugged in two steps.
First, the programer takes a sample
of the data to be processed and re­
views step by step exactly what will
happen as the computer follows the
series of instructions that make up
the program. Then, after he has re­
vised the instructions to take care of
any difficulties that have appeared,
he completes the test by having a
trial run made in the computer. The
console operator sometimes helps
with this part of the debugging proc­
A comparatively simple program
can be made for a computer within
a very few days. A program that
deals with a complex problem or is
designed to produce many different
kinds of information may require a
year or more of preparation—
sometimes by a large number of
programers. On involved problems,
several programers at different lev­
els of responsibility often work as a

Programer prepares flow chart.



team, under the supervision of a
senior programer.
The programer may perform
other related duties, such as design­
ing forms to use in data presenta­
tion. In addition, existing programs
must be updated to keep pace with
administrative changes or to im­
prove efficiency. Also, larger or
newer model computers often re­
quire that programs be rewritten.

Places of Employment

Nearly 200,000 programers were
employed in 1970. In addition,
some professional workers such as
engineers, scientists, mathemati­
cians, economists, and accountants
spend a portion of their time pro­
Programers are employed chiefly
by large business organizations and
government agencies. A great many
work for insurance companies and
banks, public utilities, wholesale
and retail establishments, and man­
ufacturing firms of almost every
kind. A considerable number are
government employees doing work
related either to scientific and tech­
nical problems, or to the processing
of the vast amount of paperwork
that is handled in many government
offices. In addition, a growing num­
ber of programers are employed by
computer manufacturers and inde­
pendent service organizations that
furnish computer and programing
services to business firms and other
organizations on a fee basis.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The special abilities most sought
by employers when they hire pro­
gramers are similar for all types of
positions, but requirements regard­

ing education and experience vary
according to the problems with
which the programer will be oc­
cupied. Some programers are col­
lege graduates having degrees in en­
gineering, for example, whereas
others have had years of experience
in work such as accounting or in­
ventory control. In selecting pro­
gramers, employers look for people
having an aptitude for logical think­
ing and the exacting kind of analysis
that is part of the job. The work
also calls for patience, persistence,
and the ability to work with extreme
accuracy. Ingenuity and imagination
are particularly important in jobs
where programers have to solve
problems in new ways.
Organizations which use comput­
ers for science and engineering pre­
fer programers who are college
graduates having degrees in engi­
neering, the physical sciences,
mathematics, or computer science.
Graduate degrees may be required
for some positions; for almost all
positions, an applicant who has no
college training is at a severe disad­
Employers who use computers
to process business records may not
require programers to have techni­
cal college training. Many em­
ployers promote qualified workers
having previous experience in
machine tabulation, payroll, or ac­
counting. When hiring outsiders,
employers usually prefer applicants
having training beyond high school.
College courses in data processing
or accounting, business administra­
tion, engineering, or mathematics
provide especially good preparation.
Entrance requirements for jobs in
the Federal Government are similar
to those in private industry. Appli­
cants are required to have a college
degree, preferably with training in
mathematics or the equivalent work

Young people interested in pro­
graming can acquire some of the
necessary skills at a steadily increas­
ing number of technical schools,
colleges, and universities. Instruc­
tion ranges from introductory home
study and extension courses to ad­
vanced computer technology at the
graduate level. High school courses
in computer programing also are of­
fered in many parts of the country.
High school and post-high school
instruction, however, do not entirely
eliminate the need for on-the-job
training. Since technology changes
continually and each type of com­
puter has its own special program­
ing, some additional training usually
is necessary.
Most beginners in this occupation
attend training classes for a few
weeks and then, as they work on
minor programing assignments, con­
tinue with further specialized train­
ing. A year or more of experience
usually is necessary before a pro­
gramer can handle all aspects of his
job without close supervision. Once
he becomes skilled, his prospects for
further advancement are good. Ex­
perienced and capable programers
are in strong demand. In large or­
ganizations, employees may be
promoted to systems analyst posi­
tions or senior programing jobs hav­
ing supervisory responsibilities.

Employment Outlook

Many thousands of new jobs for
programers will become available
each year through the 1970’s. Em­
ployment is expected to increase
very rapidly, as the number of com­
puter installations rises to meet the
growing demand for data process­
ing. The increase in employment is
expected to be particularly sharp in
firms that use computers to process


business records or to control man­
ufacturing processes.
The rise in employment is ex­
pected to be accompanied by
changes in the nature of the work
done by programers. Advances in
programing techniques and equip­
ment, such as the use of more ad­
vanced languages and program
parts stored in libraries for future
reference, will eliminate much of
the routine work associated with
writing a program. As a conse­
quence, professionally trained per­
sonnel qualified to handle both pro­
graming and systems analysis are
likely to be increasingly in demand,
especially for work on scientific and
engineering problems. For other po­
sitions, many of them in large busi­
ness offices where the analysis is
done by accountants and other sub­
ject matter experts, 2 years of posthigh school training may provide a
sufficient background for beginning
Most of the openings for program­
ers in the years just ahead will be
new jobs that arise as the number of
computer installations continues to
increase, and computers are put to
new uses. Some openings also will
occur as programers advance to
more responsible positions, or as
they leave their jobs to enter other
types of employment. Because this
occupation includes many compara­
tively young workers, fewer posi­
tions are likely to become vacant
because of retirement or death than
in other occupations of similar size.

averaged $12,170 a year, with some
earning up to $20,000 annually.
The average salary for programers
having supervisory duties was
$14,250 a year; some programing
supervisors earned up to $24,000
The survey indicated salaries var­
ied substantially. Some workers
earned up to five times as much as
others in the same position. These
differences were due to the data
processed, the computer used, the
industry, and its location.
Federal Government salaries for
programers were comparable to
those in private industry. The great
majority earned between $8,100
and $14,200 a year. The minimum
entrance salary for beginners was
$6,550 a year in 1970, and the top
salaries of experienced programers
responsible for complex programing
or supervisory and administrative
work ranged to $22,900 or more a
Programers work about 40 hours
a week. Unlike many computer con­
sole and auxiliary equipment opera­
tors who work on two or three
shifts, programers usually work only
during the day. Occasionally, eve­
ning or weekend work may be nec­
Work places usually are modern
offices, well-lighted and air condi­
tioned. Employers recognize the de­
sirability of providing the best possi­
ble work surroundings so that pro­
gramers can concentrate more read­
ily on the exacting analysis that is
essential to their job.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, beginning salaries for
programers averaged $8,530 a year,
according to a private survey which
covered more than 80,000 data proc­
essing workers in all parts of the
country. Experienced programers

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information about the
occupation of programer may be
obtained from:
Data Processing Management As­

sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.
American Federation of Informa­
tion Processing Societies, 210
Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J.

A list of reading materials on ca­
reer opportunities in programing
may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.

(D.O.T. 045.088 and .108)

Nature of the Work

The problems of severe emo­
tional stress and abnormal behavior,
the causes of low morale, or the ef­
fective performance of an astronaut,
are among the concerns of psychol­
ogists seeking to understand people
and to explain their actions. Psy­
chologists study the behavior of in­
dividuals and groups and often help
individuals achieve satisfactory per­
sonal adjustments. Their work in­
cludes varied activities such as
teaching in colleges and universities;
counseling individuals; planning and
conducting training programs for
workers; performing basic and ap­
plied research; advising on psychol­
ogical methods and theories; and
administering psychology programs
in hospitals, clinics, research labora­
tories, and other places.
Psychologists obtain information
about the capacities, traits, interests,
behavior, and actions of people in
several ways. They may interview
individuals, develop and administer
tests and rating scales, study per­
sonal histories, and conduct con­



trolled experiments. In addition,
psychologists often conduct surveys,
either by personal interviews or by
written questionnaires.
Psychologists usually specialize in
one of the many interrelated
branches of the profession. Clinical
psychologists are the largest group
of specialists. Generally, they work
in mental hospitals or clinics and
are concerned mainly with problems
of mentally or emotionally disturbed
people. They interview patients,
give diagnostic tests, and provide in­
dividual and group psychotherapy.
Other specialties in psychology in­
clude experimental psychology (the
laboratory study of basic learning
and motivation and sensory and
perceptual processes); developmen­
tal psychology (the study of specific
age groups such as young children,
teenagers, and the aged); personal­
ity and social psychology (the study
of human relationships to gain un­
derstanding of behavior); school
psychology (concerned with psy­
chological factors involved in the
educational performance and gen­
eral well being of school age chil­
dren); comparative psychology
(comparative behavior of different
animals); physiological psychology
(the relationship of behavior to
physiological processes); counseling
psychology (helping people achieve

satisfactory personal, social, educa­
tional, or occupational adjust­
ments ); educational psychology
(the study of educational proc­
esses); industrial psychology (de­
veloping techniques for selecting
and training workers and improving
worker motivation and morale);
and engineering psychology (the
study of man-machine and other
complex system relationships).

Places of Employment

An estimated 40,000 psycholo­
gists were employed in 1970. About
one-quarter are women.
Colleges and universities employ
the largest number of psychologists
—nearly three-fifths of the total.
State, and local—employ the sec­
ond largest group. Within the Fed­
eral Government, the agencies hav­
ing the most psychologists are the
Veterans Administration, the De­
partment of Defense, and the Public
Health Service.
Many psychologists also work in
public schools, industry, and non­
profit foundations and clinics. Some
are in independent practice, and
others serve as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces and
the Public Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Generally, the master’s degree
with a major in psychology is the
minimum educational requirement
for professional employment in the
field. Psychologists having this de­
gree can qualify for positions where
they administer and interpret psy­
chological tests, collect and analyze
statistical data, conduct research ex­

periments, and perform administra­
tive duties. In addition, they may
teach in colleges, help counsel stu­
dents or handicapped persons, or
—if they have had previous teach­
ing experience—act as school psy­
chologists or counselors. (See state­
ments on School Counselors and
Rehabilitation Counselors.)
The Ph. D. degree is needed for
many entrance positions and is be­
coming increasingly important for
advancement. Psychologists having
doctorates qualify for the more re­
sponsible research, clinical, and
counseling positions, as well as for
the higher level positions in colleges
and universities, and in Federal and
State programs.
At least 1 year of full-time gradu­
ate study is needed to earn the mas­
ter’s degree. An additional 3 to 5
years of graduate work usually is re­
quired for the Ph. D. degree. In
clinical or counseling psychology,
the requirements for the Ph. D. de­
gree generally include an additional
1 year of internship or supervised
Many graduate students receive
financial help from universities and
other sources in the form of fellow­
ships, scholarships, or part-time em­
ployment. Several Federal agencies
provide funds to graduate students,
generally through the educational
institution giving the training. The
Veterans Administration offers a
large number of predoctoral
traineeships, during which time the
students receive payments and gain
supervised experience in VA hospi­
tals and clinics. The Public Health
Service provides funds for predoc­
toral and post doctoral traineeships
and research fellowships. The Na­
tional Science Foundation, the U.S.
Office of Education, the Rehabilita­
tion Services Administration, and
the National Institute of Mental
Health also provide fellowships,



Continued very rapid expansion
of the profession is expected
through the 1970’s. Mental hospi­
tals, correctional institutions, mental
hygiene clinics, and community
health centers which are currently
understaffed, will need many clini­
cal, counseling, and social psycholo­
gists in the future. Many openings
for psychologists also are antici­
pated in the Federal Government,
primarily in the Veterans Adminis­
tration and the Department of De­
Increasing awareness of the need
for testing and counseling children
is expected to increase the need for
psychologists in schools. In colleges
and universities, more psychologists
will be needed for student personnel
work, as well as for teaching and re­
search. Increased public concern
for the development of human re­
sources as evidenced by the Mental
Retardation Facilities and Com­
munity Mental Health Centers Con­
struction Act of 1963, as amended;
and Medicare, Medicaid, and other
federal programs will further in­
crease the demand for psycholo­
Many vacancies also will occur
each year as a result of retirements
and deaths. The transfer of psychol­
ogists to do work of a purely admin­
istrative nature also may create
some job vacancies. Most opportu­
nities, however, will result from the
rapid expansion that is anticipated
for the profession.

The median annual salary for all
psychologists in the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Sci­
entific and Technical Personnel was
$15,000 in 1970. The median sal­
ary for those having a Ph. D. was
$16,000. According to the Register,
self-employed psychologists gener­
ally have higher incomes than sala­
ried employees.
Median salaries in graduate de­
partments of psychology ranged
from $11,700 for assistant profes­
sors to $19,200 for full professors
during the academic year 1970-71
(9-10 months), according to a sur­
vey conducted for the Conference
of Chairmen of Graduate Depart­
ments of Psychology.
In the Federal Government, psy­
chologists having a Ph. D. degree
and limited experience started at
$13,493 in 1970. The annual aver­
age salary in the Department of
Medicine and Surgery, Veterans
Administration, which requires the
doctoral degree for all specialties,
was about $18,800 in 1970.

Earnings and Working Conditions

grants, and loans for advanced
training in psychology.
The American Board of Examin­
ers in Professional Psychology
awards diplomas in the specialties
of clinical, counseling, industrial,
and school psychology to those hav­
ing outstanding educational records
and experience and who pass the
required examinations.
Some universities require an un­
dergraduate major in psychology for
admission to graduate work in that
field. Others prefer students with
broader educational backgrounds,
including not only some basic psy­
chology courses but also courses in
the biological, physical and social
sciences, statistics, and mathemat­
Psychologists desiring to enter in­
dependent practice must meet certi­
fication or licensing requirements in
an increasing number of States. In
1970, 42 States had these require­
Young persons who wish to pur­
sue a career in psychology must be
emotionally stable, socially mature,
and able to deal effectively with
people. Sensitivity, patience, and a
genuine interest in others are partic­
ularly important attributes for work
in clinical and counseling psychol­
ogy. Research psychologists should
be able to do detailed and independ­
ent work. Verbal and writing skills
are necessary in communicating re­
search findings.

Information on traineeships and
fellowships may be obtained from
colleges and universities having
graduate psychology departments.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities, certification or licens­
ing requirements, and educational
facilities and financial assistance for
graduate students in psychology
may be obtained from:
American Psychological Association,
1200 17th St. N W , Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
psychologists having the Ph. D. de­
gree are expected to be excellent
through the 1970’s. Psychologists
holding master’s degrees will be in
demand, but their opportunities will
be less favorable than for those hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree.

In 1970, starting salaries for
psychologists having a master’s de­
gree averaged about $9,600 a year,
according to the American Psycho­
logical Association. Beginning sala­
ries for those having the doctorate
degree averaged $10,900.



(D.O.T. 079.128, 187.118, 195.288)

Nature of the Work

Modern technological advances
increasingly have raised the stand­
ard of living and provided leisure
time for most people. How people
spend their nonworking hours is
now a major concern. Recreation
workers help people to enjoy and
use their leisure time constructively
by organizing individual and group
activities and by administering
physical, social, and cultural pro­
grams for all age groups at camps,
playgrounds, community centers,
and hospitals. They also operate
recreational facilities and study the
recreation needs of individuals and
Recreation workers employed by
local government and voluntary

agencies direct activities at neigh­
borhood playgrounds and indoor
recreation centers. They provide in­
struction in the arts and crafts and
in sports such as tennis and basket­
ball. They may supervise recrea­
tional activities at correctional insti­
tutions and work closely with social
workers in organizing programs of
recreation for the young and the
aged at community centers and so­
cial welfare agencies.
Many persons work in industrial,
hospital, military, or school recre­
ation. Recreational workers in in­
dustry plan programs for company
employees and organize bowling
leagues, softball teams, and similar
activities. Sometimes, they plan
fund drives and company social
workers plan recreation programs
for the ill and the handicapped in
hospitals, convalescent homes, and
other institutions. Working under
medical direction, they organize and

direct sports, dramatics, and arts
and crafts for persons suffering from
mental problems and physical disa­
bilities. School recreation workers
organize the leisure-time activities
of school-age children during
school-days, weekends, and vaca­
workers and volunteers assist full­
time workers throughout the year
but mostly during the summer
months. Part-time workers are
largely college students and teach­
ers. They work primarily as recrea­
tion leaders and camp counselors,
organizing and leading games and
other activities at camps and play­

Places of Employment

About 13,500 professional rec­
reation workers were employed full
time in 1970; about one-half are
women. The majority worked for
local governments and voluntary
agencies. Most of the remainder
were employed by religious organ­
izations or by the Federal Gov­
ernment in national parks, the
Armed Forces, the Veterans Ad­
ministration, and correctional insti­
tutions. Some recreational workers
were employed by industry, and a
few taught in colleges and universi­
Recreation workers are employed
in all parts of the country; however,
a large proportion are employed in
California, Massachusetts, New Jer­
sey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Texas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Recreation worker instructs archery class.

Most employers prefer college
graduates who have majored in rec­


reation, social science, or physical
education for work in the recreation
field. However, fewer than one-half
of the recreation workers currently
employed have this educational
background. Persons interested in
becoming recreation workers should
take a broad range of courses in
college. The typical program of
study includes courses in communi­
cation, natural sciences, the human­
ities, philosophy, sociology, drama,
and music. Specific courses in recre­
ation include group leadership, pro­
gram planning and organization,
health and safety procedures, out­
door and indoor sports, dance, arts
and crafts, and field work (actual
recreation leadership experience).
Advanced courses in recreation
or public administration leading to
the master’s degree are desirable for
persons interested in higher level
administrative postions. Students in­
terested in industrial recreation may
find it desirable to take courses in
business administration; and those
interested in working with the aged
in hospitals as recreation specialists
should take courses in psychology,
health education, and sociology.
Training leading to a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in recrea­
tion was available in over 130
schools in 1970. About 70 offered a
master’s degree and about 30 of­
fered a doctorate in recreation.
Over 60 junior colleges offer pro­
grams in recreation.
Young people planning a career
as a recreation worker must have
the ability to motivate people and
be sensitive to their needs. Good
health and physical stamina are re­
quired to participate in sports. Ac­
tivity planning often calls for cre­
ativeness and resourcefulness. Since
the recreation worker organizes
sports, supervises art projects, and
gives fund-raising speeches, he
should have a variety of skills. Rec­


reation workers should be able to preparation of budgets and the anal­
accept responsibility and exercise ysis of recreation programs.
judgment since they usually work
Opportunities for advancement to
administrative positions often are
To increase their leadership skills limited for persons who have no
and understanding of people, stu­ graduate training. However, ad­
dents should obtain related work vancement is sometimes possible
experience in high school and col­ through a combination of education
lege. They may do volunteer, part- and experience. Administrative jobs
time, or summer work in recreation require varying years of experience
departments, camps, youth-serving in full-time recreation work, de­
organizations, institutions, and com­ pending upon the size of the com­
munity centers.
munity or organization and the pro­
Most college graduates entering gram.
the recreation field begin as leaders
or specialists, although each year a
small number of college graduates
Employment Outlook
enter trainee programs that lead di­
rectly to recreation administration.
Employment of recreation work­
A few large cities and organizations ers is expected to increase very
offer these programs which gener­ rapidly, through the 1970’s. Several
ally last 1 year.
thousand recreation workers will be
The National Recreation and needed annually for growth and to
Park Association administers a na­ replace personnel who leave the
tional internship program to give field because of retirements, deaths,
advanced training and experience to or transfers to other occupations. In
graduates of recreation curriculums. recent years, the number of college
Stipends varying from $6,000 to graduates having a major in recrea­
$8,000 a year are available.
tion has fallen far short of the de­
Recreation leaders work directly mand, and this pattern is expected
with groups and individuals to or­ to continue. Thus, many new recre­
ganize and teach diversified activi­ ation workers will continue to be
ties, such as athletics and social hired from the fields of social sci­
recreation in indoor and outdoor ence, physical education, and health
centers. They also supervise nonpro­ education. Persons having less than
fessional workers and assist in ad­ full professional training also will
ministering recreation programs. find employment opportunities. As
Recreation specialists organize and a result of the great demand for rec­
develop one activity or several closely reation workers, part-time and vol­
related activities. They sometimes unteer personnel will be needed,
particularly in social welfare agen­
oversee nonprofessional workers.
After a few years’ experience, cies and at the local government
recreation leaders and specialists level.
Factors that will contribute to
may become recreation directors;
those having graduate training, growth include increased leisure
however, may start at this level. time and rising levels of per capita
Directors are responsible for the op­ income. As income levels rise, more
eration of the facilities, staff super­ persons will participate in a variety
vision, and the development and ex­ of competitive and noncompetitive
ecution of programs at a particular sports and larger numbers will
recreation center, as well as the travel to parks and resorts for



camping, hiking, fishing, and other
recreational pursuits. In addition,
improvements in the national high­
way system will make many State
parks and national forests more ac­
cessible to vacationing families.
Population growth also will create a
demand for more recreation
workers to expand existing recrea­
tion programs and to aid larger
numbers of mentally and physically
handicapped persons. Longer life
and earlier retirements will increase
the number of clubs and organiza­
tions for retired persons, and thus
increase the need for recreation
Other reasons for the anticipated
longrun expansion in the number of
recreation workers include a grow­
ing interest and participation in rec­
reation activities by the general
population; the continued trend to­
ward urban living; the rise in in­
dustrial recreation activities as more
companies promote recreation pro­
grams for their employees; in­
creased attention to physical fitness
by government, educators, industry
and others; and the initiation of pro­
grams to insure the preservation of
outdoor recreation areas. A number
of recent Federal laws also will con­
tribute to the rising demand for rec­
reation workers. Among these are
the Elementary and Secondary Edu­
cation Act of 1965, which includes
provisions for grants to local educa­
tional agencies for improving and
expanding recreation opportunities
for the educationally deprived; and
the Older Americans Act of 1965,
which provides grants to States for
programs, including recreation, for
older persons.

tween $7,200 and $7,800 annually
in 1970, according to the National
Recreation and Park Association.
In the same year, the salaries of rec­
reation supervisors ranged from
$8,500 to $10,000, depending upon
their qualifications and the size of
the community in which they were
employed. Salaries of recreation
directors or superintendents gener­
ally ranged from $12,000 in some
small communities to over $22,000
in many large cities. Regions varied
in their salary levels—higher sala­
ries generally were paid in the West
than in other areas of the country.
In 1970, the annual starting sal­
ary for inexperienced recreation
workers in the Federal Government
was $6,548 or $8,098, depending
on their academic records or spe­
cialized training. Experienced recre­
ation workers in Federal positions
generally earned between $9,900
and $14,200 annually.
The average workweek for recre­
ation workers is 40 hours, although
some work upwards of 50 hours. A
person entering the recreation field
should expect some nightwork and
irregular hours, for many recreation
personnel work while other persons
are enjoying their leisure time. Most
public and private recreation agen­
cies provide from 2 to 4 weeks’ va­
cation and other fringe benefits,
such as sick leave and hospital in­

Earnings and Working Conditions

National Industrial Recreation Asso­
ciation, 20 North Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60606.

Beginning recreation leaders hav­
ing a bachelor’s degree earned be­

Sources of Additional Information

Information about recreation as a
career and about employment op­
portunities in the field may be ob­
tained from:

National Recreation and Park As­

sociation, 1700 Pennsylvania Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about employment
opportunities in Veterans Adminis­
tration hospitals may be obtained
directly from the hospitals or from
the Department of Medicine and
Surgery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20421.

(D.O.T. 195.108, .118, .168,
.208, and .228)

Nature of the Work

Development of a more complex
urban society has greatly increased
the need for organized social serv­
ices. Social workers provide the
link between these services, and in­
dividuals and families who are not
able to provide for themselves or
who need assistance in solving their
The problems which concern so­
cial workers include poverty; bro­
ken homes; physical, mental, and
emotional handicaps; antisocial be­
havior; racial tensions; and unsatis­
factory community conditions such
as inadequate housing and medical
care, and lack of educational, recre­
ational, and cultural opportunities.
A variety of public and voluntary
agencies have social work programs
designed to meet specific needs in
specific ways: for example, income
maintenance programs; family and
child welfare services; social serv­
ices for the crippled, disabled, ill,
and aging; and programs for the
prevention of juvenile delinquency.
Many social work agencies empha­
size service to individuals or families;
some place primary emphasis on


working with larger groups; and still
others are concerned mainly with
the community’s social welfare.
Job titles may identify these three
basic approaches as casework,
group work, or community organi­
zation. The trend is for the social
worker to use combinations of any
two or all three approaches in prob­
lem-solving, however.
Caseworkers identify the social
problems of individuals and families
through interviews. They aid them
in understanding their problems and
in securing necessary services, in­
cluding financial assistance, foster
care, and homemaker service.
Group workers help people through
group activities to understand them­
selves and others better, and to work
with others to achieve a common
goal. They plan and conduct activi­
ties for children, adolescents, and
older persons in a variety of set­
tings, including settlement houses,
hospitals, homes for the aged, and
correctional institutions. Commu­
nity organization workers help plan

and develop health, housing, wel­
fare, and recreation services for a
neighborhood or larger area. They
often coordinate existing social serv­
ices and organize fund raising for
community social welfare activities.
The majority of social workers
provide social services directly to
individuals, families, or groups.
However, a substantial number per­
form executive, administrative, or
supervisory duties. Others are col­
lege teachers, research workers, or
consultants. The wide range of serv­
ices provided by social workers is
suggested by the descriptions of the
principal areas of social work which
Social workers in family service
positions in State and local govern­
ments and voluntary agencies pro­
vide counseling and social services
that strengthen family life and help
clients to improve their social func­
tioning. They also advise their
clients on the constructive use of fi­
nancial assistance and other social


Social workers in child welfare
positions in government and volun­
tary agencies improve the physical
and emotional well-being of de­
prived and troubled children and
youth. They advise parents on child
care and child rearing, counsel chil­
dren and youth with social adjust­
ment difficulties, arrange home­
maker services during a mother’s ill­
ness, institute legal action for the
protection of neglected or mistreated
children, provide services to unmar­
ried parents, and counsel couples
who wish to adopt children. They
may place children in suitable adop­
tion or foster homes or in specialized
Social workers employed by
schools aid children whose unsatis­
factory behavior or progress in
school is related to their social
problems. These workers consult
and work with parents, teachers,
counselors, and other school per­
sonnel in identifying and seeking a
solution to the problems that hinder
satisfactory adjustment.
Social workers employed by hos­
pitals, clinics, health agencies, reha­
bilitation centers, and public wel­
fare agencies aid patients and their
families with social problems ac­
companying illness, recovery, and
rehabilitation. They usually function
as part of a medical team composed
of physicians, therapists, and
Some social workers provide serv­
ices for patients in mental health
centers, hospitals, or clinics. As
members of teams composed of psy­
chiatrists, psychologists, and other
professional personnel, they develop
and report information on the pa­
tient’s family and social background
for use in diagnosis and treatment.
They help patients respond to treat­
ment and guide them in their social
adjustment to their homes, jobs, and
communities. They have particular



responsibility for helping the fam­
ilies of patients to understand the
nature of the illness. Social workers
also participate in community men­
tal health programs concerned with
the prevention of mental illness and
readjustment of mental patients to
normal home and community living.
Some conduct research.
Social workers in rehabilitation
services assist emotionally or physi­
cally disabled persons in adjusting
to the demands of everyday living.
As part of a rehabilitation team,
which usually includes physical or
occupational therapists, these social
workers serve as a link with the
community while patients are in the
hospital; later, they help them ad­
just to home and community life.
(Rehabilitation counselors, a re­
lated occupational group, are dis­
cussed in a separate statement.)
Probation and parole officers and
other correctional workers assist
persons on probation and parole
and juvenile offenders in readjusting
to society. They investigate the so­
cial history and background of the
person under the jurisdiction of the
court and make reports to the court
to help the judge in his judicial deci­
sions. They also counsel persons on
probation or parole, may help them
secure necessary education or em­
ployment, and direct them to other
services in the community. They
also seek to resolve problems in
marital and parent-child relation­

Places of Employment

About 170,000 social workers
were employed in 1970; about 60
percent worked in Federal, State,
county and city government agen­
cies. Most of the remainder were in
voluntary or private agencies. A
small number of experienced social

workers from the United States
were serving in other parts of the
world as consultants, teachers, or
technicians engaged in setting up
agencies, schools, or assistance pro­
grams. They were employed by the
Federal Government, the United
Nations or one of its affiliated agen­
cies, national professional associa­
tions, or voluntary agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree, preferably in
social welfare, generally is the mini­
mum educational requirement for
beginning jobs in social work. In
most fields of practice, certain spe­
cialized areas require a master’s de­
gree in social work. For teaching
positions, a master’s degree in social
work is required, and a doctorate is
preferred. In research work, train­
ing in social science research meth­
ods is required, in addition to a
graduate degree and experience in
social work. In most States, begin­
ners must pass a written examination
in social work for employment in a
government agency.
A master’s degree in social work
is awarded on successful completion
of 2 years of specialized study and
supervised field instruction in an ac­
credited school of social work.
Social workers who have a mas­
ter’s degree and belong to the Na­
tional Association of Social Workers
are eligible for certification as mem­
bers of the Academy of Certified
Social Workers (ACSW).
In 1970, 70 graduate schools of
social work in the United States
were accredited by the Council on
Social Work Education. For admis­
sion to these schools, a student must
have a bachelor’s degree represent­
ing broad knowledge of the liberal
arts, preferably including courses in

economics, history, political science,
psychology, sociology, and social
Many scholarships and fellow­
ships are available for graduate edu­
cation. Nearly two-thirds of the
full-time students in graduate
schools receive some type of finan­
cial aid from either the schools or
employing agencies. Some social
welfare agencies, both voluntary
and public, offer plans whereby
workers are granted “educational
leave” to obtain graduate education.
The agency may pay the expenses
or a salary, or both.
Personal qualities essential for
social workers include emotional
maturity, objectivity, sensitivity, a
basic concern for people and their
social problems, and the ability to
form and sustain good working rela­
tionships and to encourage social
adjustment in others. Students
should try to obtain as much related
experience as possible during high
school and college to determine
whether they have the interest and
capacity for professional social
work. They may do volunteer,
part-time, or summer work in
places such as camps, settlement
houses, community centers, or so­
cial welfare agencies. Some social
welfare agencies, both voluntary and
public, hire college students and, in
some cases, high school students for
nonclerical jobs in which the stu­
dents assist social workers.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
social workers are expected to be
very good through the 1970’s. De­
spite the anticipated increase in the
number of graduates of master’s de­
gree programs in social work, the
demand for these highly trained so­
cial workers is expected to continue



to exceed the supply. The outlook
for persons having a bachelor’s de­
gree in social welfare or in related
fields will continue to be favorable.
Qualified and experienced women
who wish to work part time should
have very good employment
Many factors will contribute to
the need for more social workers to
maintain existing programs and to
staff new ones. The occupational
structure of the economy is ex­
pected to continue to change and
create severe problems for many
unskilled workers and others whose
jobs have been replaced by ma­
chines. In addition, family life will
continue to be affected by social
change. The increasing population
of the very young and the very old,
the age groups most in need of so­
cial work services, is expected to
contribute to the demand for social
workers. Many openings also will
arise because of the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or other­
wise leave the profession.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to an early 1971 sur­
vey of selected occupations by the
Public Personnel Association, the
average starting salary paid social
caseworkers by various State agen­
cies was about $6,600. This figure,
however, reflects very large numbers
of persons who do not have a mas­
ter’s degree in social work. Case
work supervisors in State agencies
had average annual salaries ranging
from $8,900 for those having little
experience to about $11,300 for
those having considerable experi­
ence. Salaries of psychiatric social
workers averaged from $8,900 to
$11,300; those of probation and
parole officers averaged from about
$7,600 to $9,100.

Salaries of social workers in a
cross-section of cities and urban
counties were, on the average,
above those paid by State agencies.
For example, according to the sur­
vey cited above, the average start­
ing salary of social case workers in
selected urban areas was about
$7,700. Salaries of casework super­
visors averaged $10,600 for those
with little experience to about
$13,000 for those with considerable
experience. Beginning psychiatric
social workers had average salaries
of about $10,200, probation and pa­
role officers averaged about $8,500
a year.
In the Federal Government in
1970, graduates of accredited
schools of social work received a
starting salary of $9,881 a year.
Those with 2 years of progressively
responsible experience under pro­
fessional supervision received a
Federal Government starting salary
of $11,905. Persons having a bach­
elor’s degree or 3 years’ experience
in technical or investigative work in
a welfare activity began at $6,548
and $8,098 a year.
workweek for social workers in
1970 was generally 40 hours; how­
ever, as many as one-third regularly
worked 37 Vi hours or less a week. In
some social work agencies, the na­
ture of the work requires evening
and/or weekend work, for which
social workers usually receive com­
pensatory time off. Virtually all so­
cial work agencies provide fringe
benefits such as paid vacations and
sick leave and retirement plans.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on admission re­
quirements and scholarship in ac­
credited graduate schools of social
work and colleges offering courses

in social work, as well as on social
work as a career, may be obtained
National Association of Social
Workers, 2 Park Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10016.

(D.O.T. 018.188)

Nature of the Work

Surveyors play an important part
in the construction of highways, air­
fields, bridges, dams, and other
structures, by providing information
on measurements and physical char­
acteristics of construction sites.
They also locate land boundaries,
assist in setting land valuations, and
collect information for maps, charts,
and plates.
The primary task of the surveyor
is to determine the precise measure­
ments and locations of elevations,
points, lines, and contours on or
near the earth’s surface, and the dis­
tance between points. The supervi­
sor is directly responsible for the
survey and its accuracy. He plans
the fieldwork, selects survey refer­
ence points, and determines the pre­
cise location of natural and man­
made features of the survey region.
He records information disclosed by
the survey; makes mathematical cal­
culations based on such informa­
tion; verifies the accuracy of survey
data; and prepares sketches, maps,
and reports.
In making his detailed measure­
ments in the field, the surveyor is
assisted by workers in a field party
which he directs. A typical field
party is made up of three to six mem­
bers in addition to the surveyor



ments. Surveyors doing topographic
surveys determine the elevations,
depressions, and contours of an
area, and indicate the location of
distinguishing surface features such
as farms, buildings, forests, roads,
and rivers.
Several closely related occupa­
tions are geodesy and photogrammetry. Geodesists measure immense
areas of land, sea, or space, taking
into account the earth’s curvature
and its geophysical characteristics.
(See statement on geophysicists.)
Photogrammetrists apply analytical
processes and mathematical tech­
niques to photographs and imagery
obtained by aerial or ground sur­
veys to make topographic maps,
and to measure and interpret the
natural and manmade features of an

Places of Employment

Surveyors work on triangulation tower.

(sometimes called the party chief).
Included in the typical field party are
instrumentmen who set up, adjust,
and operate surveying instruments
(including the theodolite, transit,
level, altimeter, and electronic meas­
uring devices) at the points desig­
nated by the surveyor; chainmen,
who measure distances between
points, using a metal tape or survey­
or’s chain; and rodmen, who use a
level rod, stadia board, or range
pole to assist in measuring, between

selected points, elevations, distance,
and directions.
Surveyors often specialize in one
particular type of survey. Those
doing highway surveys are con­
cerned with establishing the points,
grades, and lines needed for high­
way locations. Those performing
land surveys locate boundaries of a
particular tract of land, prepare
maps, record plats of the land, and
prepare legal descriptions of it for
deeds, leases, and other docu­

It is estimated that about 50,000
surveyors were employed in 1970;
less than 5 percent were women.
They were located in all parts of the
country—in small towns as well as
in large cities.
About one-third of all surveyors
work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. Among the
Federal Government agencies utiliz­
ing these workers are the Interior
Department’s U.S. Geological Sur­
vey and Bureau of Land Manage­
ment, the Army Corps of Engi­
neers, and the Agriculture Depart­
ment’s Forest Service.
Surveyors in State and local gov­
ernment agencies are employed
mainly by highway departments and
by urban planning and redevelop­
ment agencies.
A large number of surveyors
work for construction companies
and for engineering and architec­
tural consulting firms. A sizable


number either work for surveying
firms which conduct surveys on a
fee or contract basis or else head
such firms. Other significant num­
bers work for the crude petroleum
and natural gas industries and for

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The most common method of
preparing for work as a surveyor is
through a combination of post-sec­
ondary school courses in surveying
and extensive on-the-job training in
survey techniques and in the use of
survey instruments. Courses in sur­
veying are offered in extension divi­
sions of many post-secondary
schools and by correspondence
schools. Some junior colleges, tech­
nical institutes, and vocational
schools offer 1, 2, and 3-year pro­
grams in surveying. The entrance
requirement for most surveying pro­
grams is high school graduation
(preferably including courses in al­
gebra, geometry, trigonometry, cal­
culus, drafting, and mechanical
For a professional career in photogrammetry, it is usually necessary
to obtain a bachelor’s degree in en­
gineering or in the physical sciences.
High school graduates having no
formal training in surveying also
may enter the field, usually starting
as rodmen. After several years of
on-the-job experience and some for­
mal courses in surveying, young
persons may advance successively
through the positions of chainman
and instrumentman to that of party
chief or surveyor.
With some post-secondary school
courses in surveying, beginners may
start as instrumentmen. In many in­
stances, promotion to higher level

positions is based on a written ex­
amination as well as on experience.
All 50 States require licensing or
registration of land surveyors re­
sponsible for locating and describ­
ing land boundaries. In some of
these States, applicants for licenses
are expected to know other types of
surveying in addition to land sur­
veying. Requirements vary among
the States but in general include a
combination of 4 to 8 years’ experi­
ence in surveying and successful
completion of an examination. If an
applicant has taken post-secondary
school courses related to surveying
most States reduce the length of ex­
perience needed for licensing. In
1970 approximately 17,000 land
surveyors were registered. In addi­
tion, about 15,000 engineers were
registered to do land surveying, pri­
marily as part of their civil engi­
neering duties; however, these
workers are considered engineers
rather than surveyors.
In addition to the necessary train­
ing and experience, qualifications
for success as a surveyor include
sound health and a strong liking for
outdoor work. Because most sur­
veyors must supervise and direct the
work of others, leadership qualities
also are important.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
surveyors are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. It is anticipated
that employment in the field will
grow rapidly. In addition to new po­
sitions, many openings will result
each year from the need to replace
those who transfer to other occupa­
tions, retire, or die. Prospects will
be best for people having post-secon­
dary school training in surveying.
Among the factors expected to
contribute to the favorable employ­


ment outlook is the rapid growth of
urban areas, which will create re­
quirements for additional surveyors
to locate boundary lines, and to lay
out streets, shopping centers,
schools, and recreation areas. Con­
struction and improvement of the
Nation’s roads and highways will
also require many new surveyors.
Employment opportunities for
women surveyors may be limited,
primarily because much of the sur­
veyor’s work is strenuous.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government serv­
ice, in 1970, surveyors employed
as field party chiefs received starting
salaries of $7,300 or $8,100 a year,
depending on experience. The ma­
jority of party chiefs earned be­
tween $8,000 and $11,000 per
year, whereas some surveyors in
high level positions earned more
than $12,000. In private industry,
according to the limited data availa­
ble, salaries for surveyors were gen­
erally comparable to those offered
by the Federal Government but var­
ied somewhat between different
areas of the country.
Surveyors usually work an 8-hour
day and 5-day week. However, they
sometimes work longer hours dur­
ing the summer months when
weather conditions are most suit­
able for surveying activities.
The work of surveyors is active
and sometimes strenuous. They may
stand for long periods. They may
also walk long distances or climb
mountains with heavy packs of in­
struments and equipment. Because
most of their work is done out of
doors, surveyors may be exposed to
all types of weather conditions.
Some duties, such as planning sur­
veys, preparing reports and compu­



tations, and drawing maps usually
are performed in an office.
Sources of Additional Information

Specific questions concerning
training and career opportunities in
surveying may be directed to:
American Congress on Surveying
and Mapping, Woodward Build­
ing, 733 15th St. NW„ Washing­
ton, D.C. 20005.

General information on careers
in photogrammetry may be obtained
American Society of Photogram­
metry, 105 North Virginia Ave.,
Falls Church, Va. 22046.

(D.O.T. 199.168)

community facilities, transportation,
recreation, business, and industry.
The urban planner analyzes alterna­
tives and proposes methods for
achieving an efficient and attractive
community within a framework de­
termined by the community’s gov­
erning body.
Before they can produce plans
for long-range community develop­
ment, however, urban planners
must make detailed studies, includ­
ing the preparation of maps and
charts, which show the current use
of land for residential, business, and
community purposes; the arrange­
ment of streets, highways, and water
and sewer lines; and the location of
such community facilities as schools,
libraries, and playgrounds. These
studies also provide information on
the types of industry in the com­
munity, population densities and
characteristics, social features, in­
come levels, employment and eco­
nomic trends, and other related in­

After they have analyzed and
evaluated the facts, urban planners
design the layout of recommended
facilities and land use and supervise
the preparation of illustrative mate­
rials. They also prepare plans to
show how their proposed programs
can best be carried out and what the
cost is likely to be. Much of their
time is spent conferring with private
land developers, civic leaders, and
officials of public agencies who do
specialized planning. They also may
prepare materials for community re­
lations programs, speak at civic
meetings, and appear before legisla­
tive councils and committees to ex­
plain and defend their recommenda­
tions or proposals.
In small planning organizations,
planners must be able to handle
several kinds of work. In large or­
ganizations, which may have several
dozen planners, each may specialize
in an area such as physical design,
survey and research, or community
relations work. Some specialize in

Nature of the Work

Urban planners develop compre­
hensive plans and programs for the
growth and overall revitalization of
urban communities. They attempt
to remedy urban problems such as
deteriorating business and residen­
tial areas, traffic congestion, inade­
quate parks and recreation facilities,
shortages of suitable space for in­
dustrial development, and air pol­
In addition, the growth of the
suburbs has added increased pres­
sure on the urban center to provide
more and better transportation and
parking facilities. Urban planners
visualize future conditions in the
light of trends in population growth
and social and economic change;
they also estimate the community’s
long-range needs for land, housing,

Urban planners discuss community renewal plans.



new town planning, the rehabilita­
tion of city slum areas, or the recon­
struction of rundown business dis­

Places of Employment

About 8,000 people were em­
ployed as professional urban plan­
ners in 1970. The majority of urban
planners are employed by govern­
mental agencies, mainly city,
county, and metropolitan regional
planning organizations; a growing
number are employed by various
State governments and by the Fed­
eral Government. About one-fifth of
the planners do consulting work, ei­
ther independently in addition to
their full-time job, or as an em­
ployee or partner in a private con­
sulting firm providing services for
private developers or for govern­
ment agencies. Urban planners also
work for large land developers or
private research organizations and
teach in colleges or universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers consider a master’s
degree in planning the most desira­
ble educational background for pro­
fessional work in this field. In Fed­
eral agencies and in a growing num­
ber of other government agencies, 2
years of graduate work in city plan­
ning, or its equivalent, are required
for most entrance level positions.
However, young people having
bachelor’s degrees in city planning,
architecture, landscape architecture,
engineering, public administration,
and some other social science fields
also may qualify for entrance level
In 1970, more than 50 colleges
and universities awarded the mas­

ter’s degree in urban planning. For
entrance into the programs, most
schools require that students have
undergraduate degrees in fields such
as architecture, landscape architec­
ture, engineering, economics, statis­
tics, sociology, public administra­
tion, or city and regional planning.
Nearly all schools require students
to spend considerable time in work­
shop, laboratory, or studio courses,
learning to analyze and solve practi­
cal problems in urban planning.
Most schools require candidates for
the master’s degree to take 2 years
of graduate work and to prepare a
thesis or take a final comprehensive
examination. A few schools have re­
cently adopted a 3-year master’s de­
gree program. Nearly half of the
schools require some practical expe­
rience or internship. This latter re­
quirement is usually fulfilled by reg­
ular paid employment during sum­
mer months in a planning office ap­
proved by the school’s faculty. A
very few schools which stress physi­
cal design grant a master’s degree
on completion of 1 year of graduate
work to students who hold a bache­
lor’s degree in architecture or engi­
Planners must have the ability to
think in terms of spatial relation­
ships and to visualize the effects of
their plans and designs.
Planners also must be able to
cooperate with others, since they
sometimes encounter differing atti­
tudes and viewpoints which must be
evaluated and accepted or rejected
with tact to achieve the desired
goal. On occasion, they face the dis­
couragement of seeing carefully de­
signed plans fall through because of
conflicting political interests or apa­
Beginners in urban planning
offices are likely to spend some time
doing routine work or making field
surveys and compiling statistics re­

quired to make projections for fu­
ture plans. As they become more
experienced, workers may be as­
signed to outline proposed studies,
write reports, design the physical
layout of a large development,
make statistical analyses and projec­
tions, or perform other duties which
require a high degree of independ­
ent judgment. Senior planners and
planning directors are likely to
spend much time meeting with
officials in other organizations, ad­
dressing civic groups, and supervis­
ing other professionals. Advance­
ment often occurs through a
transfer to a larger city, where the
problems are more complex and the
responsibilities are greater.
Candidates for the position of
urban planner in Federal, State, and
local government agencies fre­
quently must pass civil service ex­
aminations to become eligible for
appointment. These examinations
are often advertised nationally and
usually do not impose residence re­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
graduates having professional train­
ing in city and regional planning are
expected to continue to be very
good through the 1970’s. Shortages
of qualified planners have been re­
ported in recent years, even though
the number of graduates has been
rising. In 1970, the American Soci­
ety of Planning Officials estimated
that there were about 1,300 va­
cancies in planning agencies be­
cause of the shortage of well-quali­
fied planners. Although most open­
ings will stem from new positions,
some also will result from the need
to replace planners who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, die, or
leave the field for other reasons.


This profession is expected to grow
through the 1970’s as more com­
munities turn to professional plan­
ners for help in determining the
most effective way to meet the ris­
ing requirements for physical facili­
ties that result from urbanization
and growth in population. As urban
communities continue to spill into
neighboring areas or merge with
other urban areas, open spaces for
recreation disappear, smog and traf­
fic problems multiply, and the need
for more and better planned facili­
ties becomes acute.
The construction of new cities
and towns also is expected to con­
tribute to a rising need for planners.
In addition, Federal assistance to
communities for urban planning,
slum clearance and urban renewal,
and beautification and open space
land improvement will continue to
stimulate the demand for planners.
Although many openings will be
with the government, more and
more private enterprises are em­
ploying urban planners.


Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of inexperienced
planners having only a bachelor’s
degree were between $8,300 and
$11,300 a year in 1970. Starting
salaries for persons having a mas­
ter’s degree were generally higher,
ranging from $9,300 to $12,300 a
year. Planners having a master’s de­
gree and 2 to 5 years experience
earned annual salaries of between
$9,500 and $16,500 or more. Sala­
ries of Directors of Planning depend
to a great extent on the size of the
city in which they are employed. In
1970, the average annual salary for
a Planning Director in a city having
between 10,000 and 25,000 people
was $12,500. In cities of over
250,000 people, the average annual
salary of Planning Directors was
$22,000. Consultants are generally
paid on a fee basis. Their earnings
are often high and vary greatly ac­
cording to their reputation and pre­
vious experience.
In 1970, the usual entrance sal­
ary for urban planners employed
by the Federal Government was

$9,881 a year. In a few cases, de­
pending upon their academic rec­
ords, individuals having less than 2
years of graduate work or its equiv­
alent were hired as interns at yearly
salaries of $6,548 or $8,098.
Since most planners work for
government agencies, they usually
have sick leave and vacation privi­
leges, and are covered by retirement
and health plans. Although most
city planners have a scheduled
workweek of 40 hours, they some­
times work in the evenings and on
weekends because of the need to at­
tend meetings with citizen’s groups.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on plan­
ning and a list of schools offering
training may be obtained from:
American Institute of Planners, 917
15th St., N W , Washington, D.C.
American Society of Planning Of­
ficials, 1313 East 60th St., Chi­
cago, 111. 60637.

The success or failure of business
enterprises depends heavily on the
way managers do their job. More
than 6 million salaried workers— 85
percent of them men—were em­
ployed in 1970 to manage the Na­
tion’s business enterprises. An addi­
tional 2.2 million managed all or
part of their own businesses. Sala­
ried business managers, one of the
fastest growing occupational groups
in the country, increased nearly four
times as fast as all workers between
1960 and 1970. (See chart 18.)
This chapter describes salaried
managers as a group and presents
individual statements on three such
occupations—city managers, in­
dustrial traffic managers, and pur­
chasing agents. Statements on other
occupations that frequently involve
managerial functions are presented
in the Business Administration and
Related Professions section of the
Nature of the Work
A manager’s responsibilities de­

pend on his level of management
and type of employer. Although sal­
aried managers direct or plan the
work of others, some are chiefly
Entry-level management posi­
tions are either supervisory or
trainee. Supervisors, the largest
group, direct workers in activities
such as sales, production, account­
ing, and purchasing. A department
manager in a retail department
store, for example, has a typical su­
pervisory job. Responsible for mer­
chandising in one department or
more, he may supervise as many as
50 employees. Manager trainees are
sometimes assigned to assist manag­
ers; or they may be placed in a
number of different jobs for short
periods to learn several phases of
the business.
Higher in the managerial pyramid
are the middle-level managers; they
have the top posts in large and im­
portant departments such as sales,
accounting, research and develop­
ment, marketing, production, pur­
chasing, data processing, and per­

Employment of salaried managers is growing much faster
than total employment
Employment change, 1960-70 (percent)

Salaried managers






sonnel. When faced with nonroutine
business problems, they must make
decisions promptly within the
framework of company policy. For
example, the manager of a manu­
facturing company’s engineering de­
partment may (1) oversee the de­
velopment of new products; (2) de­
velop plans for making efficient use
of the firm’s space and facilities;
(3) set up and manage support serv­
ices such as equipment mainte­
Top level managers make major
decisions such as the goods their
firms will produce, locations of new
plants, or methods of financing new
projects. This top group includes
the board of directors, chairman of
the board of directors, president,
and vice presidents. Each vice pres­
ident is a policymaker and adminis­
trator for one or more company de­
partments (for example, finance,
marketing, or production) and re­
ports directly to the president. The
president or chairman of the board
has final responsibility for the com­
pany’s success. He usually presides
at meetings and confers with officers
on policy matters and problems in
their individual areas.
Management responsibilities in
government are similar to those in
private industry. However, public
service is a major responsibility of
many managers in government.

Places of Employment

Total employment


Although managers are employed
throughout industry, more are re­
quired in some industries than in
others. For example, in 1970,
nearly one-third of all salaried man­
agers worked in retail and wholesale
trade. About one-fifth had jobs in



manufacturing firms. Considerable
numbers also worked in finance, in­
surance, real estate, service, trans­
portation, and Government. Women
find their best opportunities in retail
trade; one-third of all women man­
agers are employed in this field.


Employers increasingly require
beginning managers to have com­
pleted college. Although a person
who doesn’t have a degree may
work his way up through the ranks,
his promotional opportunities are
becoming limited.
For beginning management jobs,
many employers look for individu­
als who have a college degree in
business administration, with a
major in accounting, economics, or
finance. Other employers look for
applicants who have technical train­
ing in engineering, science, or math­
ematics to deal with complex in­
dustrial processes. Still others hire
liberal arts graduates and give them
training on the job.
The number of companies that
have formal management trainee
programs is relatively small. As a
result, entrance to many manage­
ment jobs comes after several years
of progressively more responsible
work experience in jobs such as
salesman or accountant.
The climb up the promotional
ladder may be in one area of work,
such as personnel, or in several
areas, such as shifts from sales to
marketing, or finance. Managerial
skills usually can be applied as ef­
fectively in one firm or industry as
another. For this reason, managers
are able to change jobs with relative
To increase their knowledge of

management techniques, many ex­
perienced managers take advantage
of training programs given by col­
leges and universities, companies,
and various professional and trade
organizations. For example, man­
agement associations conduct edu­
cational programs for experienced
managers ranging from lectures and
workshops of a few days duration to
formal classroom courses lasting
several weeks. These educational
activities usually are led by experi­
enced businessmen.

Employment Outlook

New career opportunities for
managers are expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s;
moreover, many thousands of open­
ings are likely to occur annually as
managers retire, die, or leave the
field for other reasons. The business
world will need more managers as
industry continues to expand,
spurred by a growing population, ris­
ing living standards, and an increas­
ing demand for goods and services.
The employment of salaried manag­
ers is likely to continue to increase
rapidly because large firms tend to
depend more on trained manage­
ment specialists as they further in­
crease in size. Their problems of
control and communication, their
need for specialized services, and
their complex machinery demand a
higher ratio of managers to total
employees than is required by
smaller firms. Similar influences also
will necessitate more managers in
government agencies.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, starting salaries in pri­
vate industry for management train­
ees having bachelor’s degrees gener­

ally ranged from $7,500 to $10,500
a year. Trainees having master’s de­
grees generally began at $10,800 to
$14,000 a year.
In the Federal Government,
management trainees usually began
at $8,098 in 1970. New employees
who had a master’s degree or were
well qualified entered managerial
work at $9,881 a year.
At higher management levels,
salaries are related to company size,
scope of the job, and nature of the
industry. Middle-management sala­
ries ranged from $10,000 to
$35,000 a year in 1970. Very large
companies paid up to $50,000 a
year for some middle-management
positions. Earnings of the chief ex­
ecutive averaged about $45,000 a
year in small companies but as high
as $200,000 or more in large corpo­
In addition to their salaries, man­
agement officials receive other com­
pensation, such as bonuses, stock
options, and participation in profit
sharing plans. Such additional com­
pensation depends to a considerable
extent on a company’s profits. Bo­
nuses are a common type of extra
compensation and generally average
about 30 percent of a top execu­
tive’s earnings. Many companies
also provide liberal life insurance,
health benefits, club memberships,
and various special privileges ac­
cording to the individual’s position
in the firm. Social prestige attained
in the upper business levels also
may be rewarding.
Entry-level managers usually
work the standard workweek of the
company—from 35 to 40 hours.
Managers in more responsible posi­
tions carry heavier workloads and
may work longer hours. Nonroutine
assignments carried out on their
own time may involve travel, nightwork, speaking engagements, and
other activities.



Sources of Additional Information
The American Management Asso­
ciation, 135 West 50th St., New
York, N.Y. 10020.
Society for Advancement of Man­
agement, 1412 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10036.

(D.O.T. 188.118)

Nature of the Work

The country’s growing population
and expanding industry are placing
increased pressures on the housing,
transportation, recreational, and
other facilities of our Nation’s cit­
ies. Other problems associated with
growing modern communities such
as air and water pollution, and ris­
ing crime rates also demand atten­
tion. Coping with these problems ef­
management techniques. Thus,
communities are turning to a spe­
cialist having such skills—the city
The city manager is appointed by
the community’s elected officials
and is directly responsible to the ap­
pointing body. The city manager’s
duties vary by city size, but gener­
ally include appointing department
heads and their staffs; coordinating
and administering the activities of
the operating departments such as
tax collection and disbursement, law
enforcement, and public works; and
preparing the annual budget for the
council’s approval. They also study
problem areas such as unionization
of government employees and urban
renewal and report their findings to
the council, identifying alternate so­
lutions. City managers plan for fu­

ture development of cities and the
surrounding areas to provide for
population growth and expansion of
public services. They also fre­
quently appear at civic meetings to
advocate proposed programs or to
inform citizens of current govern­
ment operations.
City managers keep in close com­
munication with the planning de­
partment to coordinate the intro­
duction of new programs with the
operations of existing ones. In
smaller cities which have no perma­
nent planning staff, that duty may
be assumed entirely by the man­
Support personnel, such as the
assistant city manager, administra­
tive assistants, and department head
assistants, operate under direction
of the city manager. Assistant city
managers relieve the city manager
of routine duties and act for him in
his absence. In addition, they may
assume responsibility for some proj­

ects, such as developing a prelimi­
nary annual budget. Department
head assistants generally are re­
sponsible for one activity, such as
personnel, finance, or law, but also
may assist in other areas. Adminis­
trative assistants, also called execu­
tive assistants or assistants to the
city manager, usually perform ad­
ministrative and staff work. The ef­
forts of administrative assistants are
not concentrated in one area, but
are utilized in all departments at the
direction of the city manager. For
instance, they may compile operat­
ing statistics, review and analyze
work procedures, and answer public

Places of Employment

An estimated 2,600 city manag­
ers were employed in the United
States in 1970. An additional three
to four thousand persons were em-


ployed as support personnel. About
four-fifths of all city managers
worked in cities which have a coun­
cil-manager form of government.
Most of the remainder were em­
ployed in municipalities which have
another form of government such as
mayor-council government in which
the city manager is appointed by the
mayor, and called “administrative
assistant.” A small number of man­
agers are employed by metropolitan
or regional planning organizations.
Over one-half of the cities which
had a population of 10,000 to
500,000 had a city manager. Some
city managers also worked for
county governments. Although city
managers are employed in 48 of the
50 States, nearly 45 percent are lo­
cated in California, Maine, Michi­
gan, Pennsylvania, and Texas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational back­
ground needed for entrance into this
profession is a bachelor’s degree,
preferably with a major concentra­
tion in political science or public ad­
ministration. However, a master’s
degree in public or municipal ad­
ministration is preferred.
In 1970, about 200 colleges and
universities offered a master’s de­
gree program in public or municipal
administration. Degree require­
ments in some schools include suc­
cessful completion of an internship
program in a city manager’s office.
During this internship period, which
may last from 6 months to a year,
the degree candidate observes gov­
ernment operations and performs
research work under direct supervi­
sion of the city manager.
Some new graduates from bache­
lor’s or master’s degree programs


enter the occupation by taking man­
ager positions in small towns and
then seek positions in large cities as
they gain experience. However,
some new graduates desire positions
as interns or lower level assistants in
large cities. Larger cities offer
greater opportunities for experience
in a wider range of problem-solving
areas such as freeway planning,
urban renewal, and crime control.
As the young professional gains
additional skills and competence, he
may advance to a position of greater
responsibility such as department
head assistant. In this position, he
may gain the supervisory and plan­
ning skills necessary to oversee an
entire department. Administrative
experience in the departments of
finance, public works, or public
planning also may provide the nec­
essary skills and experience for ad­
vancement to manager.
Certain personal qualifications or
traits enhance the city manager’s
chances of success. He must be ded­
icated to public service, since he
often must put in long hard hours in
times of crises. Another important
personal quality is the ability to un­
derstand and work well with people.
The city manager, because he is the
most accessible of government
officials, must be able to satisfac­
torily deal with citizen’s complaints
and maintain good working rela­
tionships with his fellow officials.
Other desirable traits include:
communication skills, sound judg­
ment, tact, self-confidence, and the
ability to perform well under stress.
The city manager may be called
upon at any time to solve emer­
gency situations and he must be
able to quickly isolate the problem
areas, identify the underlying
causes, and provide alternate solu­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
city managers are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s, espe­
cially for persons having a master’s
degree in public or municipal ad­
ministration. In addition to openings
resulting from the need to fill new
positions, many openings will arise
each year from the need to replace
city managers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The employment of city manag­
ers is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s as meth­
ods for dealing with the problems of
our growing cities become more
complex. Examples of this com­
plexity are computerized data col­
lection of police information, ad­
vances in technology of traffic con­
trol, and the application of systems
analysis to urban problems.
The need for city managers is ex­
pected to increase as cities convert
to the council-manager form of gov­
ernment, currently the fastest grow­
ing form of local government. City
managers also will be needed in
places having other forms of gov­
ernment. Elected officials are ex­
pected to rely increasingly upon the
city manager’s skills to cope with
the day-to-day operations of gov­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of city managers and
their assistants vary according to the
amount and type of education and
experience as well as job responsi­
bility and size of city. The average
salary earned by persons in begin­
ning positions was about $7,500 in
1970 according to the International
City Management Association. This
figure is somewhat lower than start­
ing salaries in business and industry,



according to survey reports. Sala­
ries, however, generally tend to be
lower in government, especially
local government.
In 1970, the median salary for
city managers varied from about
$17,000 in cities of 10,000 to
25,000 inhabitants, to about
$34,000 in cities with 250,000 in­
habitants or more. Assistant city
managers earned median salaries of
over $14,000 a year.
A workweek of longer than 40
hours is common for most city man­
agers. This may include work on
weekends and evenings to settle
emergency problems that may arise.
Meetings with individuals and citi­
zen’s groups consume additional
Fringe benefits usually include
health and life insurance programs,
pension plans, sick leave, vacation
benefits, and often the availability
of a car for official business. Manag­
ers generally are reimbursed for ex­
penses incurred while attending
professional meetings and seminars.

Sources of Additional Information
International City Management As­
sociation, 1140 Connecticut Ave.
NW. Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 184.168)

Nature of the Work

Industrial traffic managers and
their assistants arrange transporta­
tion of raw materials and finished
products for industrial firms.

After analyzing various transpor­
tation possibilities, industrial traffic
managers choose the most efficient
type of transportation—rail, air,
road, water, pipeline, or some com­
bination—the route and the particu­
lar carrier. They must consider fac­
tors such as freight classifications,
rates, routes, and regulations; com­
pany time schedules; size of ship­
ment; and loss and damage rates.
This statement does not cover traffic
managers employed by railroads,
airlines, trucking firms, and other
freight carriers who are chiefly con­
cerned with attracting business to
their firms.
Activities of industrial traffic
managers range from routine check­
ing of freight bills to major planning
and policymaking. For example,
they decide whether the company
should buy and operate its own fleet
of trucks. They route and trace ship­
ments, arrange with carriers for
transportation services, prepare bills
of lading and other shipping docu­

ments, and handle claims for lost or
damaged goods. Traffic managers
maintain records of shipments,
freight rates, commodity classifica­
tions, and applicable government
regulations. Industrial traffic manag­
ers also must know about changing
transportation concepts, such as pig­
gyback freight or containerization.
Sometimes traffic managers are
responsible for the packaging of
shipments and for their companies’
warehouse facilities and transporta­
tion equipment.
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State,
and local government regulations,
traffic managers must know about
these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’ ship­
ping operations. High level traffic
managers represent their companies
before rate-making and regulatory
bodies—such as the Interstate
Commerce Commission, State Com­
missions, and local traffic bureaus.



Places of Employment

In 1970, most of the over 18,000
industrial traffic managers were em­
ployed by manufacturing firms;
some worked for stores. A few were
consultants in business for them­
selves or for firms that handle trans­
portation problems for clients. Most
traffic managers are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although persons having only a
high school education can qualify
for a traffic manager position on the
basis of experience in traffic depart­
ments, a college education is be­
coming increasingly important for a
career in this field. For some kinds
of work, college training may be re­
quired. For example, in order to
argue cases before the U.S. Govern­
ment’s Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, a traffic manager must
meet certain “qualification stand­
ards” which include at least 2
years of college. Some employers
prefer graduates having a degree in
traffic management, which is availa­
ble at more than 100 colleges, uni­
versities, and junior colleges. Others
prefer liberal arts majors who have
had courses in transportation, man­
agement, economics, statistics, mar­
keting, or commercial law.
New traffic department em­
ployees often complete shipping
forms and calculate freight charges
in shipping rooms or general traffic
offices. After gaining routine experi­
ence, they may perform more tech­
nical work, such as analyzing trans­
portation statistics. A competent
worker may advance to a supervi­
sory position, such as supervisor of
rates and routes. The most compe­
tent may be promoted to assistant

general traffic manager and eventu­
ally to general traffic manager.
Workers in traffic departments
may advance by participating in
company-sponsored training pro­
grams, taking courses in colleges
and universities or schools specializ­
ing in traffic management, or at­
tending seminars sponsored by pri­
membership in the American Soci­
ety of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc. can be acquired by successfully
completing the Society’s four exami­
nations and meeting certain educa­
tion and experience requirements.
College credit may be substituted
for three of the four examinations.

Employment Outlook

A moderate increase in employ­
ment in this occupation is expected
through the 1970’s. Many new in­
dustrial traffic manager positions
will be created as corporations reor­
ganize their shipping and receiving
activities into separate traffic de­
partments to centrally control their
transportation functions.
Other factors expected to con­
tribute to growth in this field are the
increasing emphasis in many indus­
tries on efficient management of
transportation activities, and the
trend toward procuring raw mate­
rials and finished products from
more distant places and distributing
them to increasingly wider markets.
As more companies realize that
transportation costs can vary
widely, they will become more con­
cerned with the economics of ship­
ping. Thus, a strong demand is ex­
pected for specialists who know
how to classify products so as to ob­
tain the lowest possible freight
rates, or choose the carriers that are
best able to handle each shipment,
and otherwise protect their compa­

nies from excessive shipping ex­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Young men having college de­
grees who started as business train­
ees in the traffic departments of
large industrial firms often received
annual salaries of more than $8,000
in 1970 according to the limited
data available. Beginners having
less schooling, however, usually re­
ceived lower salaries.
Earnings of experienced traffic
managers are related generally to
their companies’ sales volume and
transportation costs. The average
(median) salary of traffic managers
in companies with transportation
costs totaling less than $1 million
annually was about $15,000 in
1970 according to the limited infor­
mation available. In companies
where transportation costs ranged
between $4 million and $10 million,
annual salaries ranged between
$25,000 and $30,000. In firms
whose costs were still higher, some
traffic executives earned $40,000 or
more a year.
Traffic department employees
usually work the standard work­
week of their companies—generally
from 35 to 40 hours. Those in par­
ticularly responsible jobs may have
to spend some time outside regular
working hours preparing reports, at­
tending meetings, and traveling to
hearings before State and Federal
regulatory agencies.
Sources of Additional Information

For information on the require­
ments for certification write to:
American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., 22 West
Madison St., Chicago, 111. 60602.



(D.O.T. 162.158)

Nature of the Work

Purchasing agents buy the mate­
rials, supplies, and equipment
needed for their employer’s firms to
function. Purchasing agents and
their assistants have two main re­
sponsibilities: Obtaining goods and
services at the lowest cost consistent
with required quality and seeing
that adequate supplies are kept on
hand. What the agents buy depends
on the kind of organization employ­
ing them. For manufacturing firms,
this may be largely machinery, raw
materials, and product components;
for government agencies, it may be
office supplies, office furniture, and
business machines.
A purchasing agent buys either
when stocks on hand reach a prede­
termined re-order point or when he
receives a requisition from a depart­
ment in the organization for items it
needs. These requisitions list and

describe needed items and include
information such as required quan­
tities and delivery dates. Since the
agent usually can purchase from
many sources, his main job is to se­
lect the seller who offers the best
value. To do this, the agent must
consider many factors, such as the
exact specifications for the required
items, price, quality, quantity dis­
counts, transportation cost, and de­
livery time.
To select among suppliers, the
purchasing agent uses a variety of
means. He obtains information by
comparing listings in catalogs and
trade journals and by telephoning
various suppliers. He also meets
with salesmen to examine sample
goods, watch demonstrations of
equipment, and discuss items to be
purchased. Sometimes, the agent
also invites suppliers to bid on large
orders, and then selects the lowest
bidder who meets the requirements
regarding the specifications estab­
lished for the goods and date of de­
It is important for purchasing
agents to develop good working re­

Purchasing agent discusses specifications of items with salesman.

lations with their suppliers. These
relations can result in savings on
purchases, favorable terms of pay­
ment, and quick delivery on rush
orders or material in short supply.
They also work closely with person­
nel in various departments of their
own company. For example, they
frequently discuss product specifica­
tions with company engineers or
shipment handling problems with
employees in the shipping and re­
ceiving, storage, or traffic depart­
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing
agent makes periodic checks to in­
sure that it will be delivered on
time. This is important in prevent­
ing interruptions in the work flow
due to lack of materials. After an
order has been received and in­
spected, the purchasing agent au­
thorizes payment to the shipper.
Because of its importance, pur­
chasing usually is designated as a
separate responsibility. Although
the head of the purchasing depart­
ment usually is called a purchasing
agent, he may have the title of vice
president-purchasing, procurement
or purchasing officer, director or
manager of purchasing, or buyer.
(“Buyers” in retail stores and oth­
ers who are engaged in buying mer­
chandise for resale in its original
form are not included in this re­
port.) In a large firm, the head of
the purchasing department directs
the work of a staff including assist­
ant purchasing agents and clerical
workers. Each purchasing assistant
may be assigned to a broad area.
One person may be responsible for
buying raw materials; another, fac­
tory machinery; and another, office
supplies. Others may specialize in
buying certain items—for example,
steel, lumber, cotton, or oil.



Places of Employment

In 1970, half of the estimated
167,000 purchasing agents in the
United States worked in manufac­
turing industries. Large numbers
also were employed in government
agencies, wholesale and retail trade,
and service institutions.
Most purchasing agents work in
firms that have fewer than 10 em­
ployees in the purchasing depart­
ment. Some large firms, however,
may have a hundred specialized
buyers or more. About 90 percent
of all purchasing agents are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For beginning positions as pur­
chasing agents, many employers
prefer to hire graduates of schools
of business administration or engi­
neering who have had courses in ac­
counting, economics, and purchas­
ing. A few require graduate training
in business administration. On the
other hand, many firms prefer expe­
rience with the company and select
purchasing workers from among
their own personnel, whether or not
they have a college education. For
advancement to high-level positions,
however, a college degree is becom­
ing increasingly important.
Regardless of previous training,
the beginner in the purchasing field
must spend considerable time learn­
ing about his company’s operations
and purchasing procedures. Some
companies provide classroom in­
struction and on-the-job training.
The beginner may be assigned to
the storekeeper’s section to learn
about operations such as keeping
inventory records, filling out forms
for the purchase of goods, or pro­
viding proper storage facilities. He
then may work with an experienced

buyer to learn about types of goods
purchased, prices, and sources of
supply. Following the initial training
period, the trainee may become a
junior buyer of standard catalog
items. As he gains experience and
exercises good judgment in the
various aspects of purchasing he
may be promoted to assistant pur­
chasing agent and then to purchas­
ing agent. In large companies, pur­
chasing agents or heads of purchas­
ing departments may become vice
presidents with overall responsibil­
ity for purchasing, warehousing,
traffic, and related functions.
The purchasing agent must be
able to accept the responsibility of
spending large amounts of company
money. He must also be tactful in
his many dealings with salesmen
and have a good memory for speci­

agents and their assistants is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the 1970’s. Some major factors un­
derlying this expected growth are
the continuing increase in the size of
business and manufacturing firms,
the development of new products
and new sources of supply (includ­
ing foreign markets), and the everincreasing complexity and special­
ization of business functions. Com­
petition among manufacturers for
new, improved, and less costly
goods, raw materials, and services
will further direct the attention of
top management to the importance
of purchasing functions. In addition
to job openings resulting from
growth, many job opportunities are
expected annually because of the
need to replace personnel who re­
tire, transfer to other jobs, or leave
the field for other reasons.

Employment Outlook
Earnings and Working Conditions

Opportunities are expected to be
good through the 1970’s for young
people to enter and advance in pur­
chasing occupations. Demand is ex­
pected to be especially strong for
graduates of schools of business ad­
ministration who have taken courses
in purchasing. Demand is expected
to be excellent also for graduates
having backgrounds in engineering
and science, for jobs in purchasing
departments of firms that manufac­
ture complex machinery, chemicals,
and other technical products. Lib­
eral arts college graduates should be
able to obtain trainee positions in
many types of firms. On the other
hand, although outstanding persons
who do not have a college education
will continue to be promoted to pur­
chasing from clerical, sales, and
other types of jobs, their opportuni­
ties for advancement to high-level
purchasing jobs will be limited.

Beginning annual salaries of col­
lege graduates hired as trainees in
purchasing departments of large pri­
vate firms ranged from $6,300 to
$7,500 in 1970, according to the
limited data available. In the Fed­
eral Government, beginning pur­
chasing agents who had college de­
grees started at $6,548 or $8,093 in
1970, depending on the individual’s
scholastic achievement and his per­
formance on the Federal Civil Serv­
ice entrance examination.
In 1970, the annual earnings of
experienced buyers in private firms
averaged more than $9,000; more
experienced buyers, some having
supervisory duties, averaged nearly
$14,000. Some top purchasing ex­
ecutives earned between $35,000
and $75,000 a year.

More than 13 million people
were employed in clerical and re­
lated work in 1970. A great many
of these workers keep records and
do other paperwork required in
offices. Others handle communica­
tions, operate office machines of all
types, attend to the shipping and re­
ceiving of merchandise, ring up
sales on the cash registers of stores
and restaurants, or do related work.
Clerical workers represent a wide
variety of skills and experience. In­
cluded, for example, are highly
skilled title searchers and examiners
in real estate firms and executive
secretaries in business offices, as
well as workers in occupations
which can be entered with little spe­
cialized training or experience—
messengers, file clerks, and others.
For women, clerical occupations are
particularly important in terms of
numbers employed. More than half
of all girls who go to work after
completing high school find jobs in
clerical and related occupations.

Also, 7 out of 10 clerical workers
are women.
By far the largest single group of
clerical workers— 1 out of 5—work
as secretaries or stenographers.
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks,
who represent a little less than onetenth of the total, make up the next
largest group. Chart 19 shows em­
ployment in these and in other
major clerical occupations discussed
in this chapter or elsewhere in the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For all but the most routine cleri­
cal positions, the minimum educa­
tional requirement is usually grad­
uation from high school. High
school graduates who have had in­
struction in business subjects are re­
garded by most employers as partic­
ularly well qualified. Some compa­
nies cooperate with local high
schools and business schools in

The majority of clerical workers are employed
in these occupations
Employment, 1 9 7 0 (in thousands)


1 ,0 0 0

1 ,5 0 0

Secretaries and stenographers

(Including accounting clerks)

Telephone operators
Shipping and receiving clerks
Office machine operators
Postal clerks
Mail carriers
Bank tellers



2 ,0 0 0

2 ,5 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

office education programs which
provide opportunities for students
to work part time, under trained su­
pervision, while still attending
school. This experience is useful to
beginners seeking office jobs after
graduation. The Federal Govern­
ment also sponsors training for
some clerical occupations under
provisions of the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act.
Qualifications for many types of
clerical work include reading com­
prehension, a knowledge of spelling
and grammar, and ability in arith­
metic. Some employers test appli­
cants for clerical aptitude to deter­
mine their qualifications for work in
this field.
Practically all beginning clerical
workers receive some on-the-job
training. They learn, for example,
how their employer keeps the
firm’s records, and what kinds of
business forms are used. They also
may learn to operate adding and
duplicating machines and other
equipment which they will use occa­
sionally. If they are to operate tabu­
lating machines or other specialized
equipment, their employers may
have them attend a school to re­
ceive the necessary training.
Advancement prospects are good
in many types of clerical work.
Some of the better paid positions
—insurance claim adjuster and ex­
ecutive secretary, for example—re­
quire a general knowledge of com­
pany policies and procedures, and
very often are filled by promotion
from within. In other instances, the
worker may be promoted to more
difficult and higher paid assignments
in a related type of work. For ex­
ample, a keypunch operator is
selected and trained to operate a
tabulating machine. In large busi­



ness offices, promotion sometimes
may lead to supervisory or mana­
gerial positions.
Experience within an organiza­
tion is often an important considera­
tion in selecting employees for pro­
motion. Emphasis also is placed
on the individual’s learning ability
and personal qualifications. For
workers without a good educational
background, opportunities for ad­
vancement are likely to be limited.
Many people in clerical occupations
are high school graduates who have
had some additional education in
colleges, junior colleges, private
business schools, or other post-sec­
ondary institutions. Some are col­
lege graduates who start as office
workers to gain experience which
will later qualify them for profes­
sional or administrative positions.

Employment Outlook

Employment in clerical occupa­
tions is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. As employment
rises to meet the needs of an ex­
panding economy, more than
350,000 new clerical and related
positions will be added each year.
An even greater number of clerical
workers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons. Em­
ployee turnover is especially high
among clerical workers because
many of the women who do this
kind of work leave their jobs to care
for their families.
Employment opportunities will
be best for secretaries and stenogra­
phers, typists, bookkeeping and ac­
counting clerks, and other workers
who handle paperwork in offices.
These workers will be needed par­
ticularly in banks and insurance
companies; in manufacturing estab­
lishments and in wholesale and re­

tail trade; and in government
offices, educational institutions, and
professional service organizations.
The growth in the number of
clerical workers is expected to re­
sult primarily from the increasing
amount of paperwork which will ac­
company the growth of large and
complex organizations. However,
more and more mechanical equip­
ment will speed the process of keep­
ing business records, and in some
offices, the number of clerical em­
ployees may be reduced. For the
economy as a whole, however, the
new positions created by growth are
expected to far outnumber the cleri­
cal jobs eliminated by mechaniza­
tion. Furthermore, many types of
clerical workers are in jobs unlikely
to be materially affected by mech­
anization—for example, secretaries,
receptionists, persons responsible
for collecting bills and handling
complaints, and others whose duties
bring them into contact with the
public and require them to exercise
initiative and judgment.
Nevertheless, the increased use of
computers and other mechanical de­
vices to process routine, repetitive
work will probably restrict growth
in the number of clerks employed to
prepare payrolls, keep inventories,
sort checks in banks, and do other
routine work. As work of this kind
is transferred from clerks to ma­
chines, new positions for various
kinds of machine operators will be
created. This shift in type of clerical
personnel will occur chiefly in large
business firms and in the metropoli­
tan areas where such firms tend to
be concentrated.

Statistics in 1968— ranged from
about $70 a week for file clerks
doing the most routine kind of work
to nearly $160 a week for skilled
secretaries. Within each of the office
occupations, the differences in the
salaries paid some individuals were
considerable; for example, a few
payroll clerks earned less than $60
a week; a few others whose work
was complex earned $190 or more.
Men generally were paid higher
salaries than women employed in
the same localities. For example,
the average for office boys was $5 a
week more than for office girls, and
men employed as accounting clerks
averaged about $20 a week more
than women in the same kinds of
jobs. To some extent, these varia­
tions were due to differences in the
industries where employed. Minor
differences in the duties and respon­
sibilities assigned to men and
women also may affect the pay
Office employees worked a 40hour week in most of the cities in­
cluded in the survey. In some, espe­
cially in the northeastern part of the
country, the scheduled workweek
was 37V^ hours.
Most office workers in large cities
receive pay for 7 holidays or more a
year and 2 weeks of annual vacation
after working 1 year. Longer vaca­
tions, granted on the basis of addi­
tional years of service, may range
up to 4 weeks or more with pay.
Life insurance; hospitalization; sur­
gical and medical insurance; and
sick benefits are also generally
available, as are retirement pension
plans supplementing benefits paid
under the Federal Social Security

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salaries of women
office workers in metropolitan areas
surveyed by the Bureau of Labor

Sources of Additional Information

Many State employment service
offices maintain occupational guides



giving local information about earn­
ings, hours, and employment oppor­
tunities in clerical occupations.
Teachers may obtain information
concerning training for office occu­
pations from:
Division of Vocational and Tech­
nical Education, Bureau of Adult
Vocational and Library Programs,
U.S. Office of Education, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20202.

Or by contacting their:
State Supervisor of Office Occupa­
tions Education, State Depart­
ment of Education, State Capitol.

A directory of private business
schools located in 300 cities
throughout the country may be ob­
tained from:

(D.O.T. 210.368 through .588;
216.388; and 219.388 and .488)

Nature of the Work

Every business must have sys­
tematic and up-to-date financial rec­
ords. Bookkeeping workers record
day-to-day business transactions in
journals, ledgers, and on other ac­
counting forms. At regular intervals
they also prepare income statements
which show all money received and
from whom and money paid and to

Places of Employment

Of the more than 1.34 million
bookkeeping workers in 1970, 9 out
of 10 were women. Most bookkeep­
ing workers do general bookkeep­
ing or accounting. Large numbers
work in retail stores, banks, in­
surance companies, and manu­
facturing and service firms.

United Business Schools Associa­
tion, 1730 M Street, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

Information of wages and related
benefits for office workers in 88
metropolitan areas is given in the
following publication:
Area Wage Surveys: Selected Metro­
politan Areas 1968-69 (BLS Bul­
letin 1625-90), 1970. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20402.

Information on wages and related
benefit earnings in 229 metropolitan
area is summarized for the north­
eastern, southern, north central, and
western regions, and for the United
States as a whole, in the following
Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan
Areas, United States and Regional
Summaries, 1968-69 (BLS Bul­
letin 1650-91), 1970. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20402.

tomers’ bills, and do other office
Large business organizations usu­
ally have many workers under the
direction of a head bookkeeper.
Bookkeepers (D.O.T. 210.388)
and bookkeeping and accounting
clerks (D.O.T. 219.488) each spe­
cialize in one or two kinds of book­
keeping work. Some workers may
enter items in accounts payable or
receivable ledgers and others may
take trial balances, prepare income
statements, or do additional book­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Bookkeeping worker checks business
transaction records.

In many small firms, one general
bookkeeper (D.O.T. 210.388) does
all of the analysis, recording, and
other necessary bookkeeping work.
Although employees may use simple
office equipment, such as adding
machines, they most often work by
hand. Often they file, answer the
telephone, prepare and mail cus­

In selecting bookkeeping work­
ers, most employers prefer high
school graduates who have taken
business arithmetic and bookkeep­
ing. Some prefer applicants who
have completed post-high school
business training or junior college.
Training which includes typewriting
and the use of office machines is
often helpful since many bookkeep­
ing workers perform a variety of
duties. An increasing number of
large companies offer new account­
ing clerks on-the-job training. In
some localities, companies cooper­
ate with business schools and high
schools in work-study programs to
give students practical part-time ex­



perience that may be helpful in ob­
taining work after graduation.
Bookkeeping and accounting
clerks should have above-average
aptitude for working with numbers
and the ability to concentrate on de­
Beginning bookkeeping workers
usually start recording routine
transactions and then advance to
more responsible assignments. For
example, experienced bookkeepers
prepare income statements and op­
erate complex bookkeeping ma­
chines. Some workers may be pro­
moted to supervisors. Bookkeepers
who complete college accounting
may become accountants. (The oc­
cupation of Accountant is discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Employment Outlook

Employment in this occupation is
expected to increase slowly through
the 1970’s. Tens of thousands of
workers will be needed each year as
positions are created and replace­
ments are needed for employees
who retire, stop working, or transfer
to other types of employment.
Growth in this field is expected to
stem mainly from the increase in
recordkeeping resulting from popu­
lation expansion and economic pros­
perity. The increasing use of elec­
tronic data processing and other
bookkeeping machines, is expected
to limit somewhat the growth of em­
ployment requirements for book­
keeping workers. Many types of
machines, such as posting machines,
punchcard machines, and electronic
computers, can process accounting
and bookkeeping data more accu­
rately, rapidly, and economically
than can be done by hand. Nev­
ertheless, the need for bookkeeping
workers will probably outpace the

laborsaving impact of office ma­
chines over the next 10 years.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) survey of clerical
occupations in private industry, be­
ginning accounting clerks averaged
$439 a month in 1970. More expe­
rienced clerks earned $568 a
Salaries of accounting clerks var­
ied by location, size of firm, and
type of employment. Highest sala­
ries were usually paid to accounting
clerks working in metropolitan
areas for firms which employ at
least 2,500 workers, or for public
Working conditions for book­
keeper employees are similar to
those of other office workers in the
same firms. (See introductory sec­
tion to this chapter for more in­
formation on Earnings and Work­
ing Conditions and for Sources of
Additional Information.)

(D.O.T. 211.138, .368, .468, and
.488 and 299.468)

Nature of the Work

Although cashiers usually receive
payments made by customers for
goods and services, their duties and
job titles vary according to their
work. In a theater, for example, the
cashier may be called box office
cashier or ticket seller; in a super­
market, checkout clerk or grocery
checker; in an electric light and
power company, teller or bill clerk;

and in a cafeteria, cashier-checker.
Very large business firms that have
several cashiers sometimes use
other special job titles such as dis­
bursement clerk, cash accounting
clerk, or credit cashier. (The occu­
pation of bank cashier, which is dif­
ferent from other kinds of cashier
jobs, is discussed elsewhere in the
Handbook. )
Regardless of job title or em­
ployer, most cashiers accept money
paid by customers, make change
when necessary, and give some kind
of receipt for the payment. They
also keep records of the amount of
money involved in each transaction
so that cash accounts can be bal­
anced at the end of the day. Many
cashiers prepare cash and checks
for deposit at the bank. Some pay
out cash or write company checks
to cover expenses such as the pur­
chase of supplies and equipment;
some prepare pay envelopes or paychecks, make out sales tax reports,
and do related work.
In receiving payment for goods
or services most cashiers use cash
registers which print a record of the
amount of the sale on a paper tape
and release a money drawer. On
some registers, cashiers list and
total individual items purchased by
each customer and record other de­
tails relating to the transaction.
Other machines, somewhat like ac­
counting machines, are used by
cashiers in hotels and hospitals to
record the charges for telephone,
medical, and other services which
are incurred and to prepare the
itemized bills which cashiers present
to guests or patients as they check
out. Cashiers also may use adding
machines, change-dispensing ma­
chines, and other special equipment.
Many cashiers have additional
duties peculiar to the nature of their
employers’ businesses. In a theater,
for example, the cashier may oper-


ate a ticket-dispensing machine and
answer telephone inquiries. A res­
taurant cashier may handle reserva­
tions for meals and special parties,
type menus, or be responsible for a
candy and cigaretter counter. In su­
permarkets and other self-service
stores, cashiers often wrap or bag
each customer’s purchases and, dur­
ing slack periods, restock shelves,
mark prices on articles, and per­
form other work. In a hotel or
motel the cashier’s special duties
usually include recording charges
for telephone, valet, and other serv­
ices used by each guest, and no­
tifying the room clerk when guests
check out.

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 90 percent of the
850,000 cashiers in the United

States were women. They work for
business firms of all types and sizes.
Nearly three-fourths worked in gro­
cery, drug, and other retail stores;
large numbers also were employed
in restaurants and theaters. Most of
these establishments and other busi­
nesses which employ cashiers are
located in cities and in the shopping
centers of heavily populated subur­
ban areas; however, many also are
found in small towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers hiring beginners to fill
jobs as cashiers prefer high school
graduates. Courses in business
arithmetic, bookkeeping, typing,
and other business subjects are good
preparation. In some large cities,
business organizations and schools


offer brief courses through which
students learn to operate a cash reg­
ister and perform other duties of a
cashier. Cashier training also may
be offered as part of public school
distributive education programs
which include courses in retail sell­
ing or food service work.
For some kinds of cashier jobs,
employers want persons who have
special skills or business experience;
for example, cashiers who know
how to type or have had selling ex­
perience. Sometimes cashier jobs
are filled by promoting clerk-typists
in offices, bag boys in supermarkets,
and other qualified people already
employed by the firm.
Beginners usually are trained in­
formally on the job under the super­
vision of an experienced employee.
Sometimes, particularly in large
firms, trainees attend a brief period
of classroom instruction. Some firms
train all newly-hired cashiers re­
gardless of previous experience.
Cashiers should have an aptitude
for working with figures, finger dex­
terity, and a high degree of eyehand coordination. Accuracy is par­
ticularly important. Since cashiers
deal with the public, they also
should be tactful, neat in appear­
ance, and able to deal with their
customers in a pleasant and courte­
ous manner.
Promotional opportunities for
cashiers are likely to be limited,
particularly in small firms. The
cashier’s job, nevertheless, affords a
young person a good opportunity to
learn how his employer’s business
affairs are conducted and so may
serve as a steppingstone to a more
responsible clerical job or to some
types of managerial positions.
In chainstores and other large re­
tailing enterprises, for example,
cashiers eventually may advance to
department or store managers.



Employment Outlook

Employment in this large occupa­
tion is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. Tens of thou­
sands of workers will be needed
each year to fill new positions and
to replace cashiers who retire or
stop working for other reasons. Still
other workers will be needed to re­
place cashiers who transfer to other
types of employment.
Employment is expected to in­
crease mainly because of the antici­
pated expansion in business activity.
In addition, more retail stores will
undoubtedly adopt self-service and
other merchandising techniques
which create jobs for cashiers. The
increase in employment due to
changes of this kind, however, prob­
ably will be somewhat less marked
than during the 1960’s when con­
version to self-service on the part of
some kinds of retailers was wide­
spread. The continued use of vend­
ing machines, changemaking ma­
chines, and other mechanical equip­
ment which replaces cashiers or
speeds up their work also will tend
to limit the expansion in employ­
ment during the 1970’s.
Opportunities probably will con­
tinue to be best for cashiers having
typing, bookkeeping, or other spe­
cial skills. There also should be
many opportunities for cashiers who
wish to work part time.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries earned by beginning
cashiers in routine jobs are often at
or near the minimum wage required
by State and Federal laws. In sev­
eral States and in establishments
covered by the Federal law, the
minimum was $1.60 an hour in
1970; elsewhere, starting salaries
were somewhat lower. Unionized

cashiers, as well as some others in
jobs which involve a considerable
degree of responsibility or require
specialized training, may earn con­
siderably more than the legal mini­
mum; often more than $2 an hour.
Grocery checkers employed by su­
permarkets may earn more than $3
an hour.
Cashiers’ hours may differ from
those of many other clerical
workers because they often work
during rush periods which are out­
side regular office hours. Holiday,
weekend, late afternoon, and eve­
ning work may be required, espe­
cially in theaters, restaurants, and
food stores. Many cashiers in these
establishments work part time or on
split shifts. Cashiers employed full
time in supermarkets and other
large retail establishments usually
work a 5-day, 40-hour week but,
since Saturday is a busy day in re­
tailing, most cashiers usually work
on that day and have another day
off during the week.
Most cashiers work indoors,
often in small booths or behind
counters near the entrances of
stores, theaters, and other establish­
ments. In some cases, their quarters
may be uncomfortable because they
are exposed to cold drafts in the
winter and considerable heat during
the summer.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for Sources of Additional

(D.O.T. 213.138, .382, .582, .588, and
.885; and 223.387)

Nature of the Work

An electronic computer may
require many specialized operators.
First, the “input” must be coded.
Then someone must operate the
computer console; finally, the “out­
put” must be translated back into
words and numbers to be read.
These procedures vary among com­
puter systems; often they are more
involved and difficult to learn than
operating the equipment itself. The
number and kinds of employees
needed also vary. A computer no
larger than an office desk may need
one or two employees. A large sys­
tem, on the other hand, requires
several specialized workers.
“Input” consists of the data to be
processed and step-by-step instruc­
tions prepared by programers. (In­
formation about the occupation of
Programer is given elsewhere in the
Handbook.) In many systems, the
input consists of punched cards pre­
pared by keypunch operators
(D.O.T. 213.582) or of paper tapes
prepared by data typists (D.O.T.
213.588). Keypunch operators use
machines similar to typewriters that
punch holes in cards to represent
specific items of information. Less
frequently, input may be prepared
by adding or bookkeeping machine
operators using machines with spe­
cial attachments to perforate tapes.
In some computer systems,
punched cards or paper tapes feed
information directly into the central
computer. In other systems, small
computers or terminals, linked to
the central computer by telephone
lines, supply the information. Faster



computer systems obtain their input
from “direct access” devices featur­
ing magnetic surfaces on which data
are recorded by spots. Such devices
include magnetic tapes, discs, data
cells, and data drums. These sys­
tems include auxiliary equipment
that records directly on magnetic
surfaces or transfers data from
punched cards or paper tapes to the
magnetic surface.
Small computers transfer data in
some systems. Other machines, used
for the same purpose, are called
converters and are run by card-totape converter operators (D.O.T.
213.382). Converter operators may
be required to wire a fairly simple
plugboard and must know how to
interpret signals from a panel of
lights on the machine. They also
should understand the whole system
to recognize any errors in input and

to identify other situations that
prevent proper operation.
Once facts and figures have been
coded, data are ready for the “run”
—that is, to be processed. A con­
sole operator (D.O.T. 213.382) or
computer operator operates the
computer after examining the pro­
gram ed instructions to ascertain
procedures. He then makes sure the
computer is loaded with tape, discs,
or cards, and starts the run. He may
manipulate dozens of switches and
observe numerous lights. If the
computer stops or lights signal an
error, he must locate the difficulty.
To be read, output must be trans­
lated from machine language to
words and numbers. In some sys­
tems this is done by machines di­
rectly connected to the computer. In
many large systems, however, this
work is done on converters, high­

speed printers, and other machines
run by auxiliary equipment opera­
tors— tape-to-card converter opera­
tors (D.O.T. 213.382), high-speed
printer operators (D.O.T. 213.382),
and others.
Computer data on tape, discs, or
cards are stored by a tape librarian
(D.O.T. 223.387) or a console op­
erator or auxiliary equipment oper­
ator and often are used again and
again—as in making up a payroll at
the end of every pay period. Tele­
phone lines which transmit data
from computers have expanded the
range of tasks of an auxiliary equip­
ment operator. Many operators run
communications as well as comput­
ing equipment. Two or three shifts
of workers, under a chief supervi­
sor, operate many computers for
16 to 24 hours a day.

Places of Employment

The number of console and auxil­
iary equipment operators employed
in 1970 is estimated at 200,000.
Jobs for operating personnel are
found chiefly in government agen­
cies and in insurance companies,
banks, wholesale and retail busi­
nesses, transportation and public
utility companies, and manufactur­
ing firms. Many operators also are
employed in independent service or­
ganizations that process data for
other firms.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers often transfer opera­
tors of tabulating and bookkeeping
machines to newly installed elec­
tronic computers. Many other com­
puter operators are recruited from
the outside.
In hiring outsiders, private em­



ployers usually require at least a
high school education. For console
operators, some college training
may be preferred. The Federal
Government requires applicants for
auxiliary equipment operator jobs
to be high school graduates unless
they have had specialized training
or previous experience in related
work. Console operators should
have a high school education and
some work experience. They also
may qualify for appointment on the
basis of previous experience in com­
puter work and a general aptitude
for it, as demonstrated by special
tests. Many private employers also
give tests to measure an applicant’s
aptitude, especially his ability to
reason logically.
Beginners usually receive training
after they are hired. The training of
auxiliary equipment operators may
require a few weeks, that of console
operators somewhat longer. Console
operators usually attend classes to
learn to mount tapes and operate
the console. They must become suf­
ficiently familiar with the equipment
to trace mechanical failures. This
training is supplemented by further
instruction on the job.
As they gain experience, opera­
tors may be assigned to more com­
plex equipment and eventually
promoted to supervisors or jobs that
combine supervisory duties and
console operation. Through on-thejob experience and additional study,
console operators may qualify as

Employment Outlook

The use of electronic data-processing equipment will continue to
increase very rapidly through the
1970’s as the economy grows. Com­
puters are being adapted to new

uses almost daily and, as they per­
form more varied tasks, many more
business firms will be utilizing them.
Although the size of the staff re­
quired to operate a computer in­
stallation may be reduced somewhat
as new types of equipment are de­
veloped, the total number of com­
puter and auxiliary equipment
operators is expected to increase
very rapidly.
Thousands of operators will be
needed to fill new jobs, both in firms
having their own computer installa­
tions and service centers that rent
computer time to businessmen.
Many operators also will be needed
to replace operators of computer
systems who transfer to other kinds
of work or stop working.
The equipment changes that are
expected in computers also may pro­
duce changes in job requirements
for console and auxiliary equipment
operators. Because of advances in
technology, much of the equipment
in use today is far less complex to
operate than computers of the early
1950’s and 1960’s; and future
changes may bring further simplifi­
cation. As a consequence, newcom­
ers to this field may find it easier to
qualify for the openings available
than have applicants in the past.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Information about the salaries of
computer operating personnel is
available from a nationwide private
survey conducted in 1970. The av­
erage salary for beginning console
operators was $122 a week. Some
experienced console operators aver­
aged up to $200 a week. The
weekly salary of experienced key­
punch operators averaged $112.
The difference between the salary of
the lowest and highest paid em­
ployees in each of the job classifica­

tions surveyed was much greater
than these figures suggest, however.
For example, the highest salary re­
ported for a skilled console operator
was $365 a week—more than 4
times the lowest salary reported for
a comparable job. Many variations
of this kind were due to differences
in salary levels in various parts of
the country and among individual
companies and industries; to some
extent, they also reflect differences
in the complexity of the work per­
formed by operators having the
same job titles.
Salaries of computer personnel in
the Federal Government are
roughly comparable to those in pri­
vate industry. In late 1970, begin­
ning console operators started at
about $113 a week. The maximum
salary paid to experienced console
operators in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $190 a week; a few
in supervisory positions may earn
up to $273 a week, usually after
several years of experience.
Operators of electronic computer
systems generally work the same
number of weekly hours and are al­
lowed the same holidays, vacations,
and other benefits as most office
employees. Since many computers
are operated on a two- or three-shift
basis, scheduled hours for some
console and auxiliary equipment op­
erators include late evening or
nightwork. Tape librarians usually
work only when day shifts are on
Because electronic computers
must be housed where temperature
is carefully controlled, operators
work in air-conditioned rooms. A
disadvantage of their working envi­
ronment, however, is the high level
of noise generated by the operation
of computer consoles and some aux­
iliary equipment. (See introduction
to this chapter for additional infor­
mation on Working Conditions.)


Sources of Additional Information

Information on careers in elec­
tronic data processing may be ob­
tained from:
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

A list of reading materials giving
information about computer operat­
ing personnel may be obtained
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.

(D.O.T. 206.388)

Nature of the Work

Most establishments arrange their
records in some order to prevent
loss of time and money that often
results when needed information
can’t be located. This creates op­
portunities for file clerks, who keep

such records accurate, up to date,
and properly placed. Their specific
duties, however, depend on the size
and type of establishment that em­
ploys them.
File clerks read the material to be
filed and arrange it by number, al­
phabet, subject matter, or by some
other filing system. The kinds of in­
formation filed vary by type of or­
ganization. File clerks employed by
banks might file deposit or with­
drawal slips, loan records, and cor­
respondence; file clerks working for
magazine publishers might file news
items, subscriptions, and pictures.
Aside from inserting new data
into files, file clerks usually perform
duties related to existing files, such
as entering additional information
on materials in the files, investigat­
ing file records, and tracing missing
file data.
Much of the file clerk’s time is
spent retrieving information stored
in the files. In such instances, file
clerks maintain records of materials
removed from the files and see that
materials given out are returned.
Some other file clerk functions
are not carried out as often as those
related to the storage and retrieval
of data. Periodically, for example,
obsolete file materials may be de­
stroyed or transferred to inactive
storage. From time to time, files
may be checked to insure that mate­
rials are correctly placed; and fold­
ers, labels, and index cards may be
prepared for use in the files. As
changes take place in the character­
istics of information filed, some file
clerks establish new, or modify ex­
isting, filing systems.
In large organizations, the func­
tions of file clerks may be so spe­
cialized that they perform only one
duty. In small organizations, on the
other hand, file clerks may also han­
dle tasks closely related to their reg­
ular job, such as typing, sorting


mail, or operating an office ma­
Places of Employment

mostly women—were employed as
file clerks in 1970. In addition,
hundreds of thousands of workers in
other kinds of clerical occupations
also do filing in connection with
their work.
Finance, insurance, real estate,
and manufacturing establishments
employed the largest number of file
clerks in 1970, accounting for
three-fourths of these workers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most employers prefer high
school graduates for beginning posi­
tions as file clerks. Business courses
offered by public and private school
are helpful—particularly typewrit­
ing, which is increasingly required.
Other useful business subjects in­
clude bookkeeping or recordkeep­
ing, clerical or office practice, and
general business.
Some on-the-job training is usu­
ally necessary because each organi­
zation has its own filing system and
office procedures with which the
clerk must become familiar. In large
establishments having specialized
filing procedures, a clerk may learn
her job in a few weeks. In small es­
tablishments that require file clerks
to perform various duties, on-thejob training may last up to 3
The ability to read accurately and
rapidly and to spell correctly is im­
portant for this type of work. Other
desirable traits include a sense of
orderliness and a liking for detail.
Advancement for file clerks usu­
ally consists of performing more dif­



ficult filing work or supervising
other file clerks. With additional
training, these workers may advance
to other clerical positions such as
information clerk or office machine
operator. (See statement on office
machine operators elsewhere in the
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
file clerks are expected to be good
through the 1970’s, with several
thousand openings expected yearly
during this period. Most of these
openings will be for workers to re­
place file clerks who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Em­
ployee turnover is especially high
among file clerks because many of
the women who perform this work
are young and leave the field to get
married and care for a family.
Employment of file clerks is ex­
pected to rise rapidly through the
1970’s as a result of the long-term
growth of business and the need for
more and better recordkeeping.
New positions for file clerks are ex­
pected to open up as the businesses
employing large numbers of file
clerks—such as banks, insurance
companies, and manufacturing firms
—continue to expand. However,
the increasing use of mechanical de­
vices to arrange, store, and transmit
records can be expected to limit
employment growth for clerks of
this type.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning file clerks performing
routine duties earned average
weekly salaries of $80, according to
a 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey. Salaries of file clerks having
some experience averaged $88.00 a
week, and the most experienced file

clerks performing more difficult du­
ties averaged $106 a week. The sur­
vey indicated, however, that salary
levels of files clerks varied consider­
ably by location and size of firm.
The starting salary for beginning
file clerks in the Federal Govern­
ment in 1970 was about $80.00 a
week ($4,125 a year); experienced
file clerks earned about $105 a
week ($5,212 a year).
Office employees, including file
clerks, generally work a 40-hour
week. In some cities, especially in
the northeastern part of the country,
the scheduled workweek is ?1 V2
Most office workers in large cities
receive pay for 7 or more holidays a
year and for 2 weeks of vacation
after working 1 year. Life and
health insurance, sick benefits, and
retirement pension plans supple­
menting benefits paid under the
Federal Social Security program
also are generally available.
Working conditions for file clerks
are usually similar to those of other
office workers in the same organiza­
tion. File clerk work requires little
heavy lifting but usually involves
some bending and reaching. (See
Clerical and Related Occupations,
this chapter for Sources of Addi­
tional Information).

(D.O.T. 207.782, .884 and .885; 208.782;
214.488; 215.388; 216.488; 234.582
and .885)

Nature of the Work

The types of machines used to
speed paperwork in modern busi­
ness offices are so varied that it

would be almost impossible to list
all of them. They range from simple
mechanical devices that open letters
to electronic equipment capable of
performing highly involved compu­
tations. This statement is concerned
with the work done by people
whose main job is to operate some
of the more common types of office
machines. Many, such as the book­
keeping machine operator and bill­
ing machine operator, have job ti­
tles related to the kinds of equip­
ment they use. (Typists, operators
of transcribing machines, and oper­
ators of electronic computers are
not included in this statement, but
are discussed in other sections of
this chapter. Others not included
are clerical workers who occasion­
ally use equipment such as copying
machines, adding machines, and
other mechanical devices; and sta­
tistical clerks who use calculating
machines extensively in connection
with their regular duties.)
(D.O.T. 214.488) use machines
that both type and add, in preparing
statements relating to customers’
purchases. By striking lettered and
numbered keys on the machine, the
operator enters on each bill such in­
formation as the customer’s name
and address, the items bought, and
the amounts of money involved in
each transaction. Then, when the
operator presses other keys, the
machine calculates and prints totals,
discounts, and other items.
Bookkeeping machine operators
(D.O.T. 215.388) use office ma­
chines that record all the financial
transactions of a business. As the
operator presses the necessary keys,
the machine enters totals and net
amounts on bookkeeping forms.
Through the use of bookkeeping
machines, operators also prepare
periodic trial balances, summary re­


ports, and other statistical informa­
Adding and calculating machine
operators (D.O.T. 216.488) use
electrically and manually operated
machines to make the computations
needed in preparing payrolls and in­
voices, and in doing other statistical
work. By striking numbered keys,
operators “put into” these machines
the numbers involved in each calcu­
lation. Then, when other keys are
pressed, the machines compute the
desired totals, and some may record
the results automatically. Adding
machine operators use their ma­
chines to add and subtract numbers,
and sometimes to multiply. The cal­
culator is more complex than the
adding machine and usually has a
much larger keyboard. Calculating
machine operators and Comptome­
ter operators use their machines not
only to add, subtract, multiply, and
divide, but also to get square roots,
figure percentage distributions, and
do other computations. Many office
workers who operate adding ma­
chines and calculators part time also
perform other office duties. How­
ever, operators of the most complex
calculating machines—i.e., keydriven calculators which require
considerable skill and knowledge—
usually are occupied full time in this
Mail preparing and mail han­
dling machine operators (D.O.T.
234.582 and .885) run automatic
equipment which handles incoming
and outgoing mail. Only in offices
which handle a very large volume of
mail does this work require a full­
time operator. Some operators feed
incoming mail into machines which
open the envelopes. Other operators
place outgoing mail on the loading
racks of machines which fold enclo­
sures and/or insert them in enve­
lopes or address, seal, or stamp en­
velopes. Operators of addressing

machines run machines which print
addresses and related information
either from stencils which have
been cut by typists or from plates
prepared by embossing machine op­
erators (D.O.T. 208.782) on a spe­
cial kind of typing machine.
Operators of duplicating ma­
chines handle equipment which pro­
duces copies of typewritten, printed,
and handwritten documents more
quickly and/or inexpensively than is
possible by typing. Although some
equipment of this kind can be oper­
ated by almost any office employee,
the more complicated duplicating
machines, which are capable of
producing thousands of copies of
typewritten and handwritten docu­
ments in a single “run,” are usually
operated by trained duplicating
machine operators (D.O.T. 207.782,
.884 and .885) who spend most
of their time doing this work. The
operators who use these machines


insert in the machine a “mas­
ter” copy of the document and re­
produce it. Each operator must see
that the machine is kept properly
adjusted so that it produces legible
copies. On some machines, the op­
erator also feeds in the paper used
for making copies and removes fin­
ished batches of work manually; on
other machines, feeding and
offbearing are done automatically.
Operators of tabulating machines
and related equipment (D.O.T.
213.782) run machines designed to
sort and count large quantities of
accounting and statistical informa­
tion. Information to be processed in
a tabulating machine is inserted
through punched cards into ma­
chines which count the various items
punched on each card, multiply and
make other calculations, and print
the results on accounting records
and other business forms.



Places of Employment

About 365,000 people were em­
ployed as office machine operators
in 1970. (This total does not in­
clude 200,000 electronic computer
operators. This occupation is dis­
cussed elsewhere in this chapter.)
About three-fourths of all office
machine operators are women.
Office machine operators are em­
ployed chiefly in firms handling a
large volume of recordkeeping and
other paperwork. Consequently, a
great many operators work in large
cities where such firms are usually
located. Approximately one-third of
all office machine operators work
for manufacturing companies. Oth­
ers work for banks and insurance
companies, government agencies,
and wholesale and retail firms.
Some office machine operators are
employed in “service centers”—
agencies equipped with various
kinds of office machines which
contract to handle—for other firms
without this equipment—tasks such
as preparing monthly bills and mail­
ing circulars to lists of prospective

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Graduation from high school or
business school is the minimum ed­
ucational requirement for all but the
most routine office machine opera­
tor jobs. For work such as operating
key driven calculators and some
kinds of tabulating and duplicating
equipment, specialized training is
usually necessary. For many begin­
ning positions, however, a general
knowledge of the equipment used is
usually sufficient. Public and private
school courses in the operation of
office machines are helpful, and
business arithmetic is valuable for

the many jobs involving work with
figures. It is helpful also for office
machine operators to have some
knowledge of typing, or to be able
to operate more than one type of
office equipment, since many office
positions entail varied assignments.
Employers usually give newly
hired office machine operators some
on-the-job training. Even employees
who have training or experience in
office machine operation need to
become familiar with the particular
equipment they will be using on the
job; differences exist between the
calculating machines produced by
one manufacturer and by another,
and new models sometimes differ
considerably from older models.
The amount of instruction and
on-the-job experience needed by a
beginner varies, depending chiefly
on the type of machine. A few days
may be sufficient to train operators
of some duplicating machines; how­
ever, a few weeks may be needed
for training calculating machine op­
erators. Operators of calculating
machines are often trained at com­
pany expense in special schools es­
tablished by equipment manufac­
Finger dexterity, coordination of
eye and hand movements, and good
vision are important for most office
machine operator jobs. It is helpful
for billing and calculating machine
operators to have a sufficient sense
of mathematical relationships to en­
able them to quickly detect obvious
errors in computations. Some me­
chanical ability is advantageous,
especially for duplicating and tabu­
lating machine operators.
Most employers follow a promotion-from-within policy, taking into
consideration seniority and on-thejob performance as shown by super­
visors’ ratings and recommenda­
tions. Promotion may be from a be­
ginning, routine machine job to a

more complex one, or the promo­
tion may be to a related clerical job.
Often, employers provide the addi­
tional training required in such
cases. Advancement for office
machine operators employed in
firms which have large clerical staffs
may be to positions in which they
are responsible for training begin­
ners and for the accuracy of their
work, or else to supervisory posi­
tions as section or department

Employment Outlook

Thousands of job openings for
office machine operators are ex­
pected each year through the
1970’s. Most will result from the
need to replace workers who retire
or stop working for other reasons.
Many machine operators are young
women who stop working to care
for their families. Other openings
are expected to result from the in­
troduction of new types of mechani­
cal office equipment which speed
recording, copying, and related
office work. Still other openings will
occur as business organizations con­
tinue to grow in size and number,
and the volume of billing, comput­
ing, duplicating, and other work
continues to mount.
Employment of office machine
operators is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s. In
some offices, however, the number
of workers needed to operate tabu­
lating, billing, and other types of
machines may be reduced by the
spread of automated recordkeeping
systems and further advances in
office automation. Also, advances in
interoffice communications devices
for transmitting data and electronic
computer technology should enable
many large firms and government
agencies to centralize recordkeeping



functions. Thus, the requirements
for office machine operators in
small branch offices will be reduced.
Any reductions in employment
however, are expected to be more
than offset by the new jobs created
as the volume of paperwork contin­
ues to increase in business establish­
ments of all kinds.
Earnings and Working Conditions

A 1970 Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey, covering firms in metro­
politan areas, provides salary infor­
mation for several office machine
operator occupations. For book­
keeping machine operators, the av­
erages are given separately for dif­
ferent skill groups. Operators in
Class A were generally experienced
employees who performed compar­
atively difficult work, while Class B
operators worked on more routine
assignments and used simpler types
of equipment. The average weekly
salaries reported by this survey are
shown in the accompanying tabula­

(D.O.T. 237.368)

Nature of the Work

Most large organizations—and
many small ones—employ recep­
tionists to greet customers and oth­
ers with whom they deal, and give
them information. It is the recep­
tionist’s job to determine the nature
of each caller’s business, and then
to direct him to those in the office
who may be able to help him.

Places of Employment

A v e r a g e w e e k l y s a la r ie s , 1970
W om en
M en

Billing machine
operators ................... $ 92.00 $127.00
Bookkeeping machine
operators ...................
Class A ................. 105.50 113.50
Class B ................. 89.00 102.00
Comptometer operators. 97.00 ...........

Because of the noise created by
their machines, groups of operators
often work in areas which are apart
from other company offices. In
other respects, working conditions
for office machine operators usually
are similar to those of other office
workers in the same firms. (See in­
troductory section to this chapter
for further information on Working
Conditions and for Sources of Addi­
tional Information.)

tion card and see that an escort is
available to accompany him to the
office of the official with whom he
has business. In connection with
these duties, many receptionists also
keep records showing the name of
each caller, the nature of his busi­
ness, the time of his call, and the
person to whom he was referred.
Most receptionists, particularly in
small offices, have some time when
they are not occupied with callers;
as a result, they may handle other
office tasks. Many receive and route
telephone inquiries to the proper
company officials. Typing, sorting
and opening mail, filing, keeping
books or petty cash accounts, or op­
erating an office telephone switch­
board may be among their addi­
tional responsibilities.

Receptionists usually refer each
caller to the appropriate person in
the organization, or else contact his
office by telephone and arrange an
appointment. Because of differences
in the types of organizations where
they work, receptionists may have
somewhat different duties. In a hos­
pital clinic, for example, the recep­
tionist may direct each patient to
the proper waiting room; in a
beauty shop, she may arrange an
appointment and accompany the
customer to the operator’s booth;
and in a large defense plant, it may
be part of the receptionist’s job to
provide the caller with an identifica­

It is estimated that almost
300,000 receptionists were working
in the United States in 1970. About
one out of four was a part-time
worker who spent fewer than 35
hours a week on the job. More than
95 percent were women.
Although jobs for receptionists
exist in practically all kinds of es­
tablishments, over half of the peo­
ple in this occupation are employed
in the offices of physicians, attor­
neys, and other professional people.
Many others are employed by hos­
pitals and educational institutions,
and still others by banks, insurance
companies, real estate offices, man­
ufacturing concerns, and beauty
shops. The relatively small number
of men who are employed as recep­
tionists work principally in medical
service and hospital jobs, in manu­
facturing, and in banking and credit



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

When hiring receptionists, em­
ployers seldom specify any formal
educational requirements beyond a
high school diploma. Nevertheless,
about 1 receptionist out of 5 has
some college training. Courses in
English, spelling, typewriting, ele­
mentary bookkeeping, and business
practices are assets for a beginner.
The ability to operate an office tele­
phone switchboard also may be de­
sirable, although this skill often is
acquired through on-the-job train­
ing. (See statement on Telephone
Because the receptionist’s job is
to act as her employer’s public rep­
resentative, personal characteristics,
such as a pleasant manner and an
even disposition, are very impor­
tant. An attractive personal appear­
ance, pleasant speaking voice, good
judgment, punctuality, and the abil­
ity to communicate information ac­
curately also are necessary qualities.
To perform her job effectively, the
receptionist should acquire a thor­
ough understanding of how her em­
ployer’s business is organized.
The receptionist’s job generally
offers limited opportunities for pro­
motion and advancement. However,
work as a receptionist, plus business
training, may lead to a better paying
position as a secretary or an admin­
istrative assistant.

Employment Outlook

The number of receptionists is
expected to increase moderately
during the 1970’s. Thousands of
workers will be needed annually be­
cause of employment growth and
the need to replace receptionists
who retire or stop working for other
reasons. Additional openings will

arise as receptionists transfer to
other types of employment. How­
ever, young applicants probably will
meet strong competition, since
many older and more experienced
workers also seek this type of work.
A few opportunities will continue to
be available for men.
The chief factor affecting em­
ployment growth in this occupation
is the expected general business ex­
pansion associated with population
increase and economic prosperity.
In addition, more business firms are
realizing the importance of the re­
ceptionist in promoting good public
relations. Since the receptionist’s
work is of a person-to-person na­
ture, it is unlikely to be affected by
office automation.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Switchboard-receptionists earned
average salaries of $92 a week in
1970, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey of 229 met­
ropolitan areas. However, salary
levels of these workers varied con­
siderably by type and location of
employer. For example, reception­
ists employed in the western United
States averaged $98 a week while
those in the South averaged $85 a
In the Federal Government,
workers employed as information
receptionists started at about $90 a
week ($4,621 a year) in 1970. For
experienced workers, starting sala­
ries were higher—about $100 or
$110 a week ($5,212 or $5,853 a
year), depending on the nature of
their previous experience.
Particularly in large business
offices, receptionists usually work in
well-furnished front offices, free
from noise and overcrowding. In
hospitals, beauty shops, and some
other types of businesses, scheduled

hours may include some weekend
and evening work. (See introduc­
tory section to this chapter for fur­
ther information on Working Condi­
tions and for Sources of Additional

(D.O.T. 222.138 through .687)

Nature of the Work

Shipping and receiving clerks
keep track of goods transferred
from one place to another by busi­
ness firms. Their specific duties de­
pend on the size and type of estab­
lishment which employs them. In
many small companies, one clerk
keeps records of all shipments sent
out and received by his employer.
In larger companies, however, ship­
ping and receiving clerks may be
employed in separate departments
under supervisors called head ship­
ping clerks or head receiving clerks
—or sometimes warehouse manag­
Before a shipment is sent from a
business establishment to a cus­
tomer, shipping clerks check to be
sure the order has been correctly
filled. They prepare the invoices
and other shipping forms needed,
look up freight and postal rates, re­
cord the weight and cost of each
shipment, and check to see that the
shipment is properly addressed.
They also keep records of the date
and other details associated with
each shipment. Sometimes shipping
clerks requisition the needed mer­
chandise from the firm’s stockroom,
wrap and pack the shipment, and
direct its loading on company



trucks. They also may ensure that
the weight is evenly distributed and
fragile items are safely placed.

facturing firms and another fairly
large group worked for wholesale
houses or retail stores. More than
85 percent of all shipping clerks are
men. Establishments employing
shipping and receiving clerks tend
to be concentrated in metropolitan

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Receiving clerks do similar work
when shipments reach their destina­
tion. They find out whether their
employer’s orders have been cor­
rectly filled by verifying incoming
shipments against the original order
and the accompanying bill of lading
or invoice, and they check to see
whether the merchandise in each
shipment has arrived in good condi­
tion. Receiving clerks record all in­
coming shipments, their condition,
and do clerical work related to dam­
aged or lost shipments. Routing
shipments to the proper department
of the company or section of the
warehouse or to the stockroom also
may be part of their job.

Places of Employment

The number of shipping and re­
ceiving clerks employed in 1970 is
estimated at 380,000. About two
out of every three worked in manu­

High school graduates are pre­
ferred for beginning jobs in shipping
and receiving departments. Business
arithmetic, typing, and other high
school business subjects are helpful
in preparing for the work. The abil­
ity to write, legibly is important.
Dependability and an interest in
learning about the firm’s business
activities are also qualities which
employers seek.
New employees usually are given
on-the-job training under the super­
vision of an experienced worker.
This training covers the special care
and skill required when the ship­
ments include merchandise such as
garments or scientific instruments;
and a knowledge of the regulations
which apply to shipments received
from or forwarded to other coun­
In some firms, stockroom workers
help beginners acquire a knowledge
of the firm’s products and business
transactions. In shipping and re­
ceiving rooms, newly hired clerks
often start by doing routine work
such as filing; checking addresses;
attaching labels to shipments; and
checking the items included in ship­
ments. As clerks acquire experience,
they may be assigned tasks requir­
ing a good deal of independent judg­
ment—for example, handling prob­
lems that arise because of damaged
merchandise, or supervising other
shipping or receiving room workers.

Work as a shipping or receiving
clerk provides an excellent opportu­
nity for an ambitious young man to
learn about his company’s products
and business connections. Some
clerks, particularly those who ac­
quire post high school training or
take courses in transportation, may
eventually advance to warehouse
managers, industrial traffic manag­
ers, or purchasing agents. (The
work of industrial traffic managers
and purchasing agents is discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Employment Outlook

Several thousand openings for
shipping and receiving clerks are
expected annually during the 1970’s
as employment rises and as workers
retire, stop working for other rea­
sons, or transfer to other types of
As the quantity of goods distrib­
uted increases with population
growth, rising income levels, and
business expansion, the number of
shipping and receiving clerks is
likely to rise slowly. Employment
probably will not increase as fast as
the volume of goods distributed.
Shipping and receiving departments
in firms handling large quantities of
merchandise will undoubtedly be
able to handle a greater volume of
work with fewer clerks, as they
continue to increase efficiency by
streamlining recordkeeping and
modernizing warehouses through in­
stallation of moving belts and other
laborsaving equipment.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Shipping and receiving clerks av­
eraged $3.07 an hour according to
a 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey covering 229 metropolitan


areas. Average earnings were lowest
in the Southern region, $2.79 an
hour, and highest in the North Cen­
tral region, $3.22 an hour.
Salary levels of shipping and re­
ceiving clerks in comparable jobs
varied also, due to differences in the
industries in which they were em­
Shipping and receiving clerks
generally work a 40-hour week.
Many receive time and a half for
work over 40 hours. Nightwork and
overtime, including work on Satur­
days, Sundays, and holidays, may
be necessary when raw materials
are needed immediately on factory
production lines, when shipments
have been unduly delayed in arriv­
ing, or in other emergencies. Ship­
ping and receiving clerks do much
of their work in warehouses and
shipping and receiving rooms; they
may do some of it on outside load­
ing platforms. Work places are
often large, unpartitioned areas
which may be drafty and cold, and
littered with packing materials and
Some of the work done by ship­
ping and receiving clerks requires
physical stamina and strength. Most
clerks must stand for long periods
while they check quantities of mer­
chandise. Locating numbers and de­
scriptions on cartons often requires
a great deal of bending, stooping,
and stretching. Also, under the
pressure of getting shipments moved
on time, clerks may help load or un­
load materials in the warehouse.
(See introductory section this chap­
ter for Sources of Additional Infor­


(D.O.T. 223.387)

Nature of the Work

Most employers recognize the
importance of keeping well-bal­
anced inventories in order to prevent
losses in sales or slowdowns in
production. Stock clerks help pro­
tect against such losses by control­
ling the flow of goods received,
stored, and issued. Their basic duties
are similar in all establishments, but
their specific responsibilities vary
greatly by size and type of firm and
the number of items handled.

The duties of stock clerks also
depend on the items they handle.
For example, stock clerks working
with a wide variety of foods and
drugs must maintain proper temper­
ature and humidity conditions.
Stock clerks responsible for large
construction items may be required
to do much walking and climbing to
note the condition and quantity of
that stock.
Stock clerks usually receive and
unpack incoming merchandise or
material. They may check the items
for quality and quantity and some­
times make minor repairs or adjust­
ments. They also report damaged or
spoiled goods and process papers
necessary for obtaining replace­
ments or credit.
Stock clerks store materials in
bins, on the floor, or on shelves, ac­
cording to the plan of the stockroom. They may organize and mark
items with identifying codes, letters,
figures, or prices so that inventories
may be located quickly and easily.
Stock clerks always maintain a rec­
ord of items entering or leaving the
stockroom. They may also prepare
inventory reports showing stock bal­
ances resulting from a perpetual in­
ventory system or from taking peri­
odic physical inventories. In addi­
tion, stock clerks sometimes order
supplies and also may label, pack,
crate, or address goods for delivery.
Many stock clerks, such as film
library clerk, tool clerk, and parts
clerk have job titles related to the
items they handle.

Places of Employment

In small firms, stock clerks may
perform the varied duties of receiv­
ing clerks, shipping clerks, and in­
ventory clerks; whereas in large
firms stock clerks may be responsi­
ble for only one of these functions.

About 500,000 stock clerks were
employed in 1970; 80 percent were
men. Most worked in manufactur­
ing and in wholesale and retail
trade. Large numbers of stock
clerks were also employed by mail-



order houses, airlines, government
agencies, hospitals, transportation
companies, and other establish­
ments that keep large quantities of
goods on hand. The majority of
stock clerks work in metropolitan
areas where large factories, ware­
houses, stores, and other large
goods-handling organizations are

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although there are no specific
educational requirements for be­
coming a stock clerk, most em­
ployers prefer high school gradu­
ates. Employers look for proficiency
in reading, writing, mathematics,
typing, and filing. Good health,
especially good eyesight, is impor­
tant. As with most jobs, attentive­
ness, honesty, and the ability to get
along with people, also are impor­
tant. Stock clerks handling jewelry,
liquor, or drugs are often bonded.
Stock clerks usually receive onthe-job training. New workers are
first given simple tasks such as
counting and marking stock. Basic
responsibilities of the job are usu­
ally learned within several weeks.
As they progress, stock clerks learn
to keep records of incoming and
outgoing materials, take inventories,
and order supplies.
Advancement opportunities vary
and often depend on the size of the
establishment. In a small firm, the
stock clerk may advance to a sales
position or become an assistant
buyer or purchasing agent. In a
large establishment, the stock clerk
may also advance to more responsi­
ble stock clerk positions such as in­
voice clerk, stock control clerk, or
merchandise supply man. Advance­
ment to the position of supervisor or
manager of the stockroom is pos­

sible, but usually additional educa­
tion and a knowledge of marketing
are required.

Employment Outlook

Continuing population growth,
rising income, and business expan­
sion will result in a moderate em­
ployment increase for stock clerks
through the 1970’s. Many job open­
ings will arise annually because of
this employment growth, as well as
the need to replace those who retire
or stop working for other reasons.
The increased use of electronic
computers and other mechanical de­
vices to control inventories and
other closely related work, however,
can be expected to limit growth in
this occupation.
Because entrance into this occu­
pation is relatively easy, and since
many young people seek this work
as a first job, some competition for
openings is likely.

ally have at least 7 paid holidays a
year and 2 weeks of vacation after
working 1 year. Life and health in­
surance and sick benefits also are
generally available, as are retire­
ment pension plans supplementing
benefits paid under the Federal So­
cial Security program.
The working conditions of stock
clerks vary by type of employer. Al­
though stock clerks usually work in
relatively clean, heated, and welllighted areas, some stockrooms may
be damp and drafty. Clerks han­
dling refrigerated goods may spend
some time in cold storage rooms.
Stock clerks spend much of their
working day on their feet, often on
a concrete floor. The work often in­
volves considerable bending, lifting,
and climbing. (See introductory
section of this chapter for Sources
of Additional Information).

Earnings and Working Conditions
(D.O.T. 201.268 and .368 and 202.388)

Earnings of men and women
doing stock clerk type work in met­
ropolitan areas averaged about
$125 and $92 a week respectively
in 1970, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. Differences
in pay between men and women are
explained in part by differences in
the industries where they are em­
ployed, length of service, and minor
variations in job duties. The earn­
ings of stock clerks employed by the
ranged between $110 and $140 a
week in 1970.
Stock clerks usually work a 40hour week and receive the same
fringe benefits as office employees
in the same establishment. Those
working in metropolitan areas usu­

Nature of the Work

About 2.8 million persons were
employed in occupations requiring
stenographic skills in 1970. More
than 95 percent were women. Prac­
tically all stenographers and secre­
taries take dictation and transcribe
it on a typewriter. They usually
have additional duties related to the
nature of their employer’s business;
they sometimes have special job ti­
tles which reflect their skill levels or
work specialties.
Stenographers (D.O.T. 202.388)
take dictation from one or more
persons and then transcribe their
notes on a typewriter. Most stenog-


raphers record their notes in short­
hand; some use machines which
print symbols as different keys are
pressed. In addition to taking and
transcribing dictation, many stenog­
raphers also do other kinds of typ­
ing, answer telephones, operate var­
ious office machines, and perform
other clerical duties. Some stenogra­
phers, including most beginners, are
classified as general stenographers;
they take fairly routine dictation and
perform routine office tasks. More
experienced senior stenographers
have a higher degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy, and perform
more responsible clerical work.
Some senior stenographers, called
technical stenographers, take dicta­
tion in medical, legal, or scientific
terms; others take dictation in a
foreign language; and still others
work as public stenographers.


Some stenographers specialize in
shorthand reporting. Included in
this group are court reporters, who
record proceedings in law courts.
Other reporting stenographers re­
cord proceedings at conventions and
other meetings; report statements
made at press conferences and be­
fore Government legislative com­
mittees; and do other kinds of word
for word reporting. Reporting ste­
nographers take their notes by
machine or, less frequently, in writ­
ten shorthand. Then, they either
transcribe them on a typewriter or
dictate them onto sound-producing
records which are later transcribed
by typists. Stenographers who do
this kind of work must be excep­
tionally rapid and accurate—some­
times taking notes in technical lan­
guage from many speakers and for
extended periods of time.

In addition to stenographic work,
Secretaries (D.O.T. 201.268) re­
lieve employers of routine duties
and business details.
Duties vary and depend on the
employer’s business and the secre­
tary’s experience and capabilities.
Secretaries often arrange airline and
hotel reservations, and take care of
some kinds of correspondence.
Some times they supervise other
personnel. Some secretaries special­
ize in legal, medical, and other tech­
nical work. Social secretaries
(D.O.T. 201.268) arrange social
functions and attend to personal and
social matters for employers.
Places of Employment

Although organizations of every
size and type employ stenographers
and secretaries, more than half
work for service; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and government or­
ganizations. Many technical stenog­
raphers and secretaries work for
physicians, attorneys, and other pro­
fessional people. A few—chiefly
public stenographers and some re­
porting stenographers—are selfemployed. Stenographic and secre­
tarial jobs for men tend to be con­
centrated in educational and other
professional services, and in manu­
facturing and public administration.
Many of the nearly 15,000 stenog­
raphers who specialize in shorthand
reporting are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Adequate performance as a ste­
nographer or secretary requires a
good basic education and technical
training. Graduation from high
school is essential for practically all
positions. Graduates whose high
school courses have included short­



hand, typing, and other business
subjects meet the requirements of
many employers. Some employers
prefer a background of academic
high school subjects, supplemented
by technical training taken after
Daytime and evening courses that
prepare students for stenographic
and secretarial work are offered by
hundreds of public schools, private
business schools, and colleges
throughout the country. In connec­
tion with high school courses in
business subjects, some public
schools conduct cooperative pro­
grams which enable students to ac­
quire practical work experience
under trained supervision. Also, the
Federal Government sponsors train­
ing programs for unemployed and
underemployed workers for entry
positions as stenographers under
provisions of the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act. Associate
degrees in the field of secretarial
studies are conferred by a great
number of junior and community
colleges. Bachelor’s degrees in the
field of executive secretary are con­
ferred by the schools of business
and commerce in many universities;
a few confer the master’s degree.
Some courses which train for
stenographic work are limited to
shorthand and typing and can be
completed in a few months. In other
courses which usually last longer,
students also may be taught addi­
tional office skills and receive in­
struction in general business prac­
tices and office conduct. Some
courses provide intensive training to
prepare students for stenographic
reporting or for legal, technical, or
medical-dental secretarial work.
Many different shorthand systems
are used, some of which are faster
than others. Employers seldom have
strong preferences about the system
a stenographer uses, but they

usually regard the rate of speed as
an important factor. To qualify for
positions in the Federal Govern­
ment—and for employment in
many private firms—stenographers
must be able to take dictation at a
rate of at least 80 words a minute
and type 40 words or more a min­
ute. Although speed requirements in
some positions may be less than
this, in others—especially shorthand
reporting—they are much greater.
Many shorthand reporting jobs re­
quire dictation speeds of 200 words
or more a minute. For beginning
shorthand reporters in the Federal
Government, the minimum is 160
words a minute.
Good hearing and a working
knowledge of spelling, punctuation,
grammar, and vocabulary are essen­
tial in stenographic and secre­
tarial positions. Employers seek
workers who are poised, alert, and
have pleasant personalities. Discre­
tion, good judgment, and initiative
are also important, particularly for
the more responsible secretarial po­
Capable and well-trained stenog­
raphers and secretaries have excel­
lent opportunities for advancement.
Many stenographers advance to bet­
ter paying positions as secre­
taries; others, who acquire the
necessary speed through experience
or additional training, may become
reporting stenographers. Both ste­
nographers and secretaries may
eventually be promoted to jobs such
as administrative assistant, office
supervisor, executive secretary, or
some other responsible position re­
quiring specialized knowledge of the
employer’s industry or business.

Employment Outlook

As modern businesses continue to
expand in size and complexity, the

increased paperwork will lead to a
rapid expansion in the employment
of secretaries and stenographers.
The increasing use of dictating, du­
plicating, and other office machines
will undoubtedly continue, but tech­
nological changes of this kind are
not expected to greatly affect the
growth of employment in these
Thus, employment opportunities
for workers who have stenographic
skills are expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. About one
hundred thousand workers will be
hired annually to fill new jobs, and
an even greater number will be
needed to replace stenographers
and secretaries who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Turnover
among stenographic workers is high
because many young women leave
to care for their families. Some
openings also will occur as stenog­
raphers and secretaries leave their
jobs to enter other types of employ­

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, persons employed as
general stenographers in metropoli­
tan areas surveyed by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics earned average sala­
ries of $461 a month. Salaries
earned by senior and technical ste­
nographers working in metropolitan
areas averaged $526 a month.
The salaries earned by individu­
als included in the survey varied
considerably, partly because of dif­
ferences in the location and industry
where they were employed, but also
because of differences in experi­
ence. The earnings of reporting ste­
nographers generally are considera­
bly higher than those of other steno­
graphic workers.
Salaries of secretaries to supervi­
sors in small organizational units or


nonsupervisory staff specialists av­
eraged $522 a month throughout
the United States, according to the
same survey.
Secretaries to officers in small
companies and to middle manage­
ment executives in large companies
earned average monthly salaries of
$582 and $625 respectively. Secre­
taries having even greater responsi­
bilities earned average salaries of
$679 a month.
The entrance salary for beginning
stenographers in the Federal Gov­
ernment in 1970 was $5,212 a year.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for additional information
on working conditions.)
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on ca­
reers in secretarial work, as well as
a directory of business schools, may
be obtained from:
United Business Schools Associa­
tion, 1730 M Street, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

Information regarding shorthand
reporting may be obtained from:
National Shorthand Reporters As­
sociation, 25 West Main St.,
Madison, Wis. 53703.

For information on becoming a
certified professional secretary,
write to:
The Institute for Certifying Secre­
taries, 616 East 63rd St., Kansas
City, Mo. 64110.

See introductory section of this
chapter for additional sources of in­


(D.O.T. 203.138 through .588; 208.588;
and 209.388 through .588)

Nature of the Work

Typists operate the one machine
found in practically every business
office—the typewriter. Their main
job assignment is to produce typed
copies of printed and handwritten
materials; in this respect, their work
differs from that of many other
office employees, who also do some
typing but whose principal job as­
signment is different.
Practically all typewriters, includ­
ing the electric machines being used
in an increasing number of offices,
have the same type keyboard and
are operated in much the same way.

Some typing jobs are considerably
more difficult than others, however.
Beginners, sometimes called junior
typists, often address envelopes,
type headings on form letters, copy
directly from handwritten or typed
drafts, and do other routine work.
Experienced, or senior typists, gen­
erally perform work requiring a
particularly high degree of accuracy
or independent judgment; they may
work from rough drafts which are
difficult to read and which contain
technical material, or they may plan
and type complicated statistical ta­
bles, combine and rearrange mate­
rials from several different sources,
or prepare master copies of material
to be reproduced by photographic
processes. A few specially trained
typists operate teletypewriters, pro­
portional spacing typewriters, and



other special kinds of typewriting
Because many typists use special
equipment or have jobs involving
special duties, they also have special
job titles. Thousands who combine
typing with filing, sorting mail, an­
swering the phone, and other gen­
eral office work are called clerk typ­
ists (D.O.T. 209.588). Other much
smaller groups of typists include
transcribing machine operators
(D.O.T. 208.588), who type let­
ters and other documents as they
listen to dictation recorded on tape
or on sound-producing records; and
data typists (D.O.T. 213.588) and
tape perforator operators (D.O.T.
203.588), who use specially
equipped electric typewriters to
transfer coded instructions to mag­
netic or paper tapes for use in elec­
tronic computers. Still other typists
having special duties and job titles
include policy writers (D.O.T.
202.388) in insurance companies,
waybill clerks (D.O.T. 209.588) in
railroad offices, and mortgage clerks
(D.O.T. 203.588) in banks.

Places of Employment

Almost 700,000 workers were
employed as typists in 1970; over
95 percent were women. In addi­
tion, hundreds of thousands of
workers in other kinds of clerical
occupations also use typing skills in
connection with their main job as­
Typists are employed in private
and public enterprises of practically
every kind—particularly in manu­
facturing firms, banks, insurance
companies, and Federal, State, and
local government agencies. Over
one-half of all typists worked in
such establishments in 1970.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many employers require appli­
cants for typing positions to take a
test to show their speed and accu­
racy. For most jobs, 40 to 50 words
a minute is required. Typists also
should have a good understanding
of spelling, vocabulary, punctuation,
and grammar.
Employers generally prefer to
hire high school graduates. Business
training, including the operation of
office equipment, such as copying
and adding machines, may be help­
ful. Also, the Federal Government
sponsors training programs for un­
workers for entry positions as typ­
ists under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Important aptitudes and person­
ality traits for this occupation in­
clude finger dexterity, accuracy,
neatness, a friendly personality, and
the ability to concentrate in the
midst of distractions. Transcribing
machine operators should have
good hearing.
A typist may be promoted from
junior to senior typist or to other
clerical work involving greater re­
sponsibility and higher pay. Typists
who know shorthand may be pro­
moted to stenographer or secretary.

high because many young women
leave to care for their families.
As modern businesses continue to
expand in size and complexity,
more typists will be needed. How­
ever, duplicators increasingly will
be used for routine typing and will
limit demand for junior typists. The
greatest demand will be for senior
typists and for typists who can do
other office work.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, the average monthly sal­
ary for beginning typists in metro­
politan areas surveyed by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics was
$396 compared with $457 for ex­
perienced typists. Salaries Varied
considerably because of location, in­
dustry, and experience.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for beginning typists
was $4,620 a year. Working condi­
tions for typists usually are similar
to those of other office workers in
the firms where they are employed.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Working
Conditions and Sources of Addi­
tional Information.)

(D.O.T. 235.862)

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
typists are expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. In addition to
an anticipated rapid growth in em­
ployment, many thousands of ad­
ditional openings will become avail­
able for workers to replace typists
who retire or stop working for other
reasons. Turnover in this field is

Nature of the Work

Although millions of telephone
calls are dialed each day without as­
sistance, practically every telephone
user sometimes makes a call that
cannot be completed without help
from the operator. Often the opera­
tor is asked to reverse charges on a



long distance call, locate an individ­
ual, or indicate the cost of the call.
Frequently the caller needs a cor­
rect number. The operator also may
be needed to call the police in an
emergency, assist a blind person
who is unable to dial for himself, or
arrange a conference which will en­
able business executives in different
locations to confer by telephone.
These and many other services
are provided by two groups of oper­
ators—those at switchboards in cen­
tral offices of telephone companies;
and those at private branch ex­
change (PBX) switchboards. Usu­
ally both operators insert and re­
move plugs attached to cords by
manipulating keys and dials, and by
listening and speaking into their

headsets. Some switchboards are
operated by pushbuttons or dials.
Central office operators are often
contacted only when callers need
assistance which is usually for long
distance calls; for this reason, most
central office operators are long dis­
tance operators. They obtain the in­
formation needed to complete the
call, make the necessary connec­
tions and record the details of each
call for billing. Many directory as­
235.862) also work in telephone
companies; they provide telephone
numbers by searching in telephone
directories for numbers and ad­
dresses of new subscribers. Central
office supervisors train new opera­
tors; they also aid in completing dif­

ficult calls. In each central office, all
operators work under the direction
of a chief operator.
PBX operators (D.O.T. 235862) run switchboards which serve
business offices and other establish­
ments. In addition to connecting in­
teroffice or house calls, they answer
and relay outside calls, assist com­
pany employees in making outgoing
calls, supply information to callers
and record charges for switchboard
calls. Duties of operators of PBX
switchboards which serve dial tele­
phones are similar to those of cen­
tral office operators. In many small
PBX operators
work at switchboards which serve
only a limited number of tele­
phones. These operators do other
office work such as typing or sorting
mail. Many act as receptionists or
information clerks. (The reception­
ist is described elsewhere in this

Places of Employment

Telephone operators use new equipment to handle long-distance calls.

About 420,000 people were em­
ployed as telephone operators in
1970, approximately three-fifths as
central office operators in telephone
companies, and two-fifths as PBX
operators in other types of estab­
lishments. Although employed in
establishments of all kinds, a partic­
ularly large number of PBX opera­
tors worked in manufacturing
plants, hospitals, schools, and de­
partment stores. Central office and
PBX operators tend to be concen­
trated in heavily populated areas.
Nearly one-fifth of the total were
employed in the New York, Chi­
cago, and Los Angeles metropolitan
area. Practically all operators were


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In hiring beginners, employers
prefer persons who have at least a
high school education. English and
business arithmetic provide good
preparation. Since many jobs com­
bine the switchboard and other
office work, typing and commercial
subjects also are helpful.
Young persons planning to be­
come telephone operators should
like to serve the public, be pleasant
and courteous under all circum­
stances, and able to sit in a confined
area. Rapid reading, a good mem­
ory, a pleasing voice, a good vocab­
ulary, and good diction are impor­
tant qualifications.
Although some schools have brief
courses in switchboard operation,
practically all new operators receive
some on-the-job training to become
familiar with the equipment, rec­
ords, and work. In telephone com­
pany central offices operators first
learn the procedures used to handle
calls. Then they put through prac­
tice calls. After this instruction and
practice—which usually lasts from
1 to 3 weeks—they are assigned to
the regular operating force in a cen­
tral office for further instructions in
handling special types of calls not
learned earlier.
PBX operators handling routine
calls may have a somewhat shorter
training period than central office
operators. In a large business, a su­
pervisor in the company’s employ
or an instructor from the local tele­
phone company may train new em­
ployees. In a small establishment,
an experienced operator usually su­
pervises the training. The telephone
operator’s job is becoming less re­
petitive, largely because of the in­
creasing use of direct dialing. Thus,
public contacts make up an increas­
ing proportion of their work. A high

degree of eye-hand coordination and
normal eyesight and hearing are
helpful. Most telephone companies
and many large business firms re­
quire applicants to pass physical ex­
aminations and general intelligence
An experienced central office op­
erator may be promoted to central
office supervisor and, eventually, to
chief operator. Promotion also may
be to a clerical job or some other
position within the telephone com­
pany. Similar opportunities exist for
PBX operators in large firms; in
many small businesses, however,
opportunities for advancement are


stalled but its effect on employment
should be more than offset by the
number of new jobs created as more
businesses require PBX services.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Central office operators in train­
ing averaged $2.16 an hour in De­
cember 1969, according to a Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey: Experi­
enced operators, $2.25; service as­
sistants (central office supervisors),
$3.15; and chief operators, $4.24.
Salary levels varied in different sec­
tions of the country; they were
highest in the Pacific States, where
experienced operators averaged
$2.66 an hour. Contracts between
unions and telephone companies
Employment Outlook
generally provide for periodic in­
Employment of telephone opera­ creases to operators. Central office
tors is expected to rise slowly operators usually receive extra pay
through the 1970’s. An estimated for work on evenings, Sundays, and
22,000 openings each year will be holidays.
The median weekly earning of
needed to replace central office and
PBX operators who retire or stop Class A, PBX operators in metro­
working. Turnover is high, because politan areas in February 1970 was
most operators are young women $113; for Class B, PBX operators,
who work a few years and then leave the average was $91.
Earnings varied according to the
to care for families. Additional op­
erators also will be needed to replace industry in which PBX operators
workers who transfer to other work. were employed and the section of
Direct dialing and other changes the country. Average earnings were
have been under way for some highest in public utilities and lowest
years and have restricted growth in in retail trade and services. By
employment. At the same time, areas, earnings were highest in the
however, further increases are an­ West and lowest in the South.
ticipated in the volume of calls.
The workweek for most central
Consequently, little or no growth in office and PBX operators averaged
employment is expected through the between 35 and 40 hours. Often,
their scheduled hours are approxi­
The number of PBX operators, mately the same as those of other
on the other hand, is expected to clerical workers in the business
rise throughout the 1970’s. Employ­ community. In telephone compa­
ment in many PBX installations is nies, however, and in hotels, hospi­
expected to be relatively unaffected tals, and other establishments where
by further technological change. In telephone service is maintained on a
some large PBX systems modern la­ 24-hour basis, operators usually
borsaving equipment may be in­ work on shifts and on holidays and


weekends. Some central office oper­
ators work split shifts—that is, they
are on duty during the peak calling
periods which occur in the late
morning and early evening, and
have time off between these two pe­
Operators in most telephone
companies and other large estab­
lishments usually work in well-


lighted and pleasant surroundings.
Attractive lounges often are pro­
“breaks” in their scheduled hours.
Insurance, pension, tuition plans
and practices relating to paid holi­
days and vacations are much the
same as those for other types of
clerical employees.
Many operators employed by

telephone companies are members
of the Communications Workers of
America and the Alliance of Inde­
pendent Telephone Unions.
See the telephone industry chap­
ter and introductory section of this
chapter for sources of additional in­

Saleswork offers career opportu­
nities for young people who have
not completed high school, as well
as for those who have a college de­
gree; for men and women who like
to travel and those who do not; and
for people who want salaried em­
ployment, as well as those who
aspire to run their own businesses.
Workers in this occupational
group may sell for manufacturers,
insurance companies, and other
producers of goods and services; for
wholesalers who stock large quanti­
ties of goods so that smaller lots
may be purchased and resold by re­
tail stores; and for drugstores, dress
shops, and other retailers who deal
directly with the public.
About 4.9 million workers were
employed in sales occupations in
1970. Approximately one-fourth
were part-time employees who usu­
ally worked fewer than 35 hours a
week. Two out of five were women,
employed mainly in retail stores. In
insurance, real estate, and other
saleswork outside retail stores, the
great majority of employees were

men. Chart 20 shows employment in
the major sales occupations dis­
cussed in this chapter. This chapter
also includes individual statements
for automotive salesworkers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training requirements for differ­
ent kinds of saleswork are as varied
as the work itself. Thousands of
salespersons have routine jobs sell­
ing standardized merchandise such
as magazines, candy, cigarettes, and
cosmetics. In such cases, the salesworker needs to do little more than
“wait on” people who already have
made their selections from the stock
displayed. Employers seldom re­
quire salespeople in such jobs to
have specialized training. They usu­
ally learn their duties on the job as
they work with experienced sales­
clerks; in some large stores, they
may attend brief training courses.
Even in the most routine kinds of
selling, however, a high school di­

ploma is an asset to a beginner
seeking a job. High school courses
in business subjects, as well as
specialized courses in distributive
education offered in some school
systems, are regarded by most em­
ployers as particularly good prepa­
ration for saleswork. The Federal
Government also sponsors training
for some salesworkers under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act.
The salesman who sells complex
products or services—electronic
equipment or liability insurance, for
example—has a job which is alto­
gether different from that of most
retail salesclerks. Beginners on jobs
of this kind sometimes receive train­
ing which lasts many months. For
some positions, salesmen must be
college graduates who have majored
in engineering or some other field.
Other salesmen dealing in special­
ized services and products may ac­
quire the necessary technical knowl­
edge through courses offered by
universities or manufacturers. Still
others gain knowledge through
years of on-the-job experience,
often supplemented by home study.
Thus, a real estate salesman may
qualify better for his job by taking
university extension courses; a
beauty counselor in a department
store may participate in an indus­
try-sponsored training program be­
fore beginning her sales duties; or a
salesman of fine jewelry may ac­
quire his knowledge of gems during
years of observation and study as he
works on the job.
Successful salespeople must have
the ability to understand the needs
and viewpoints of their customers,
and a readiness to be of assistance
to them. Saleswork also requires
people with poise who are at ease in



dealing with strangers. Other impor­
tant attributes in many types of sell­
ing are energy, self-confidence,
imagination, the ability to communi­
cate, and self-discipline. Because
salesworkers frequently are re­
quired to make price computations
or give customers change, arithme­
tic skills are an asset. In almost all
saleswork, except retail stores, the
salesman must have the initiative to
locate his own prospective custom­
ers and plan his own work schedule.

ployment prospects for salesworkers
in retail stores and other major
fields is given in the sections which

(D.O.T. 289.358)

Nature of the Work
Employment Outlook

During the 1970’s, employment
in sales occupations is expected to
rise slowly. Openings created by
employment growth as well as va­
cancies that arise as salesworkers
retire, or stop working for other
reasons, are expected to result in a
need for a few hundred thousand
workers each year. Additional
workers will be needed to replace
people now employed in saleswork
who transfer to other types of em­
As employment rises, the propor­
tion of part-time workers—already
higher than in most occupational
groups—also is likely to increase.
In the growing number of suburban
shopping centers, where many retail
stores remain open several nights a
week, a larger-than-average propor­
tion of the sales force is likely to be
made up of part-time workers.
The main reason for the antici­
pated rise in employment is the
prospect of increased sales resulting
from population growth, business
expansion and rising income levels.
Within retail stores, however, spe­
cial circumstances which have re­
stricted employment growth in the
recent past probably will continue
to do so. Information about these
special circumstances and the em­

Automobile parts countermen
sell replacement parts and acces­
sories for automobiles, trucks, and
other motor vehicles. Most of them
work in automobile parts wholesale
stores and automobile dealerships,
where they sell directly over the
counter and take telephone orders
for various items such as piston
rings, head gaskets, shock absorb­
ers, rearview mirrors, and seat cov­
Parts countermen employed by
wholesalers sell parts for many
makes of automobiles and trucks to
independent repair shops, self-em­
ployed mechanics, service station
operators, and “do-it-yourselfers.”
Parts countermen employed by
dealers usually sell parts only for
the particular makes of automobiles
and trucks sold by the dealers. They
may spend most of their time
supplying parts to mechanics em­
ployed by the dealer.
A parts counterman identifies the
item the customer needs—often
only from general description—and
locates it in the stockroom. By
knowing parts catalogs and the lay­
out of the stockroom he readily can
find any one of several thousand
items. If a customer needs a part
that is not stocked, the parts coun­
terman may suggest one that is in­

terchangeable, place a special order,
or refer the customer elsewhere.
The parts counterman determines
the prices of parts from price lists,
receives cash payment or charges
the customer’s account, fills out
sales receipts and, when necessary,
packages the item sold.
In addition to selling, parts coun­
termen keep catalogs and price lists
up to date, order parts to replenish
stock, unpack and distribute incom­
ing shipments in the stockroom,
maintain sales records, and take in­
ventories. In many large firms some
of these nonselling duties are per­
formed by other workers such as
stock clerks and receiving clerks.
Parts countermen use microme­
ters, calipers, fan belt measurers,
and other devices to measure parts
for interchangeability. They also
may use coil condenser testers,
spark plug testers, and other testing
equipment to determine if parts are
defective. In some firms—particu­
larly in small wholesale stores—
they repair parts by using equip­
ment such as brake riveting ma­
chines and brake drum lathes.

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 68,000 au­
tomobile parts countermen em­
ployed in 1970 worked for automo­
bile dealers and parts wholesalers.
Most dealers employed 1 to 4 parts
countermen; many wholesalers em­
ployed more than four. Other em­
ployers include truck dealers, retail
automotive parts stores, automotive
parts and accessories departments of
department stores, and warehouse
distributors of automotive parts.
Trucking companies and buslines
employ parts countermen to main­
tain stockrooms and dispense parts
to the mechanics who repair their



Parts countermen work through­
out the country in dealerships and
automobile parts wholesale stores.
Those who work for warehouse dis­
tributors, department stores, truck­
ing companies, and buslines are em­
ployed mainly in large towns and

Parts counterman identifies item in

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Automobile parts countermen
should know the different types and
functions of motor vehicle parts and
have an aptitude for working with
numbers. They should be neat,
friendly, and tactful since they deal
with many different types of cus­
tomers. A good memory and the
ability to write legibly and concen­
trate on details also are desirable
qualifications. High school or voca­
tional school courses in automobile
mechanics, commercial arithmetic,
salesmanship, and bookkeeping are

helpful to young persons interested
in becoming parts countermen.
Practical experience from working
in a gasoline service station or auto­
mobile repair shop, or working on
cars as a hobby also is helpful. Em­
ployers generally prefer to hire high
school graduates for entry jobs.
Most parts countermen learn the
trade through informal on-the-job
training. Beginners usually are hired
as parts delivery men or trainees. In
some large firms beginners start as
stock or receiving clerks. Trainees
gradually learn the different types of
parts, the use of catalogs and price
lists, and the layout of the stockroom. Although trainees may wait
on customers after a few months’
experience, generally about 2 years
are required to become a qualified
parts counterman.
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed workers
for entry jobs as parts countermen
are in operation in several cities
under the Manpower Development
and Training Act. Persons who
complete these programs, which
usually last up to a year, may need
additional on-the-job training to be­
come fully qualified.
Parts countermen who have su­
pervisory and business management
ability may become parts depart­
ment or store managers. Others may
become “outside salesmen” for
parts wholesalers and distributors.
These salesmen call on automobile
repair shops, service stations, truck­
ing companies, and other businesses
that buy parts and accessories in
large quantities. Some parts coun­
termen establish their own automo­
bile parts stores.

Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile parts
countermen is expected to increase

moderately through the 1970’s. In
addition to the job opportunities re­
sulting from employment growth,
more than a thousand job openings
are expected annually to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire or die.
Job openings also will occur as
some parts countermen transfer to
other occupations.
Employment is expected to in­
crease to maintain the increasing
number of motor vehicles in use.
Moreover, the variety of parts is
growing because automobile manu­
facturers are producing a greater
selection of makes, models, and op­
tional equipment. As a result, auto­
mobile dealers and parts wholesal­
ers are selling a larger variety of
parts, although many parts are in­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Automobile parts countermen are
paid a weekly or monthly salary, or
an hourly wage rate. In addition,
they may receive commissions on
sales. Parts countermen employed
by automobile dealers in 34 cities
had average straight-time hourly
earnings of $3.40, based on a sur­
vey in late 1969. Averages ranged
from $2.48 in R ichm ond, V a., to
$4.66 in San Francisco-Oakland,
Most parts countermen work be­
tween 40 and 48 hours a week. In
many firms, they work half a day on
Many employers provide paid
holidays and vacations, and pay
part or all of additional benefits
such as life, health, and accident in­
surance. Others also contribute to
retirement plans.
Stockrooms usually are clean and
well lighted. The work is not physi­
cally strenuous, but parts counter­
men spend much of their time



standing or walking. They fre­
quently have to work rapidly when
waiting on more than one customer
and simultaneously answering tele­
phone calls.
Many parts countermen belong to
the following unions: the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International Asso­
ciation; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers
of America (Ind.).

Sources of Additional Information

For further information on em­
ployment opportunities, inquiries
should be directed to local automo­
bile dealers and parts wholesalers,
locals of the unions previously men­
tioned, or the local- office of the
State employment service. The State
employment service also may be a
source of information about the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act and other training pro­
General information about the
work of automobile parts counter­
men may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry As­
sociation, 230 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60601.
National Automotive Parts Asso­
ciation, 29 East Madison St.,
Chicago, 111. 60602.

(D.O.T. 280.358)

Nature of the Work

Automobile salesmen are impor­
tant links between dealers and car

buyers. Many salesmen sell only
new or used cars. Others, particu­
larly those employed in small deal­
erships, sell both new and used cars,
as well as trucks. (This statement
does not discuss salesmen who sell
trucks only.)
The automobile salesman spends
much of his time waiting on custom­
ers in the showroom or used-car lot.
After greeting a customer, he deter­
mines the kind of car the customer
wants by asking questions and en­
couraging comments about cars on
display. For example, one customer
may be interested primarily in econ­
omy and ease of operation, but an­
other may be more impressed with
styling and performance. The sales­
man emphasizes the points that sat­
isfy the customer’s desires and stim­
ulate his willingness to buy. To il­
lustrate features such as smoothness
of ride and ease of operation, he in­
vites the customer to test drive the
Because the purchase of a car in­
volves a considerable sum of

money, many customers must be
convinced that they are making a
wise decision. Successful salesmen
have ability to overcome the cus­
tomer’s hesitancy to buy, and get
the order (called closing the sale).
Since closing the sale frequently is
difficult for beginning salesmen, ex­
perienced salesmen or sales manag­
ers often lend assistance. Salesmen
may quote tentative prices and
trade-in allowances when conferring
with customers, but these figures
usually are subject to the approval
of sales managers. Salesmen may
arrange financing and insurance for
the cars they sell. They also register
cars and obtain license plates.
Before the salesman approves de­
livery, he makes sure the car has
been serviced properly and has the
accessories specified by the cus­
tomer. He answers the customer’s
questions on subjects such as the
car’s controls and the maintenance
warranty. Following delivery of the
car, he may contact the customer by
phone or mail to express apprecia­



tion for his business and to inquire
about his satisfaction with the car.
From time to time, he also may
send brochures on new-car models
and other literature. By keeping in
contact with his customers, the
salesman builds repeat business.
Salesmen develop and follow
leads on prospective customers. For
example, they obtain names of pros­
pects from automobile registration
records and dealer sales, service,
and finance records. A salesman
also can obtain leads from gasoline
service station operators, parking
lot attendants, and others whose
work brings them into frequent con­
tact with people. He may contact
prospects by phone or mail.

Places of Employment

An estimated 120,000 automo­
bile salesmen were employed in
1970. More than four out of every
five were employed by new-car
dealers, many of whom also sell
used cars. The remainder worked
for used-car dealers. Although
many used-car dealers employ only
1 salesman, a few new-car dealers
employ more than 50 salesmen.
Some used-car dealers do not em­
ploy full-time salesmen.
Automobile salesmen are em­
ployed throughout the country, al­
though most work in large urban
areas and in the most populous

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most beginners are trained on the
job by sales managers and experi­
enced salesmen. Many large dealers
also provide several days of class­
room training on obtaining cus­
tomer leads, making sales presenta­

tions, and closing sales. Beginners
frequently are given training man­
uals and other educational material
published by automobile manufac­
turers. Experienced and beginning
salesmen receive continuing guid­
ance and training from sales manag­
ers, both on the job and at periodic
sales meetings. Salesmen also may
attend training programs offered by
automobile manufacturers.
Most sales managers regard a
high school diploma as the mini­
mum educational requirement for
beginning automobile salesmen.
Many automobile salesmen have
additional education. Courses in
public speaking, commercial arith­
metic, English, business law, psy­
chology, and salesmanship provide
a good background for selling. Pre­
vious sales experience or work re­
quiring contact with the public is
helpful. Many automobile salesmen
previously have been furniture
salesmen, route salesmen, door-todoor salesmen, automobile parts
countermen, or gasoline service sta­
tion attendants. However, many
sales managers will hire inexperi­
enced applicants who have satisfac­
tory personal and educational quali­
Although age requirements for
beginning salesmen vary, many em­
ployers prefer applicants who are at
least in their mid- or late twenties.
Age requirements may be waived if
the employer considers the appli­
cant to be mature. However, most
employers consider 21 the minimum
age for beginning salesmen.
Automobile salesmen must be
tactful, well-groomed, able to ex­
press themselves well, and have
other personal qualities that make a
good impression on customers. Ini­
tiative and aggressiveness also are
important because the volume of
sales usually is related to the num­
ber of prospective customers con­

tacted. Because automobile sales­
men occasionally work for days
without making a sale, they need
self-confidence and determination to
get through these slow periods.
Successful salesmen who have
managerial ability may advance to
assistant sales manager, sales man­
ager, or general manager. Some
sales managers and general manag­
ers open their own dealerships or
become partners in dealerships.

Employment Outlook

The number of automobile sales­
men is expected to increase moder­
ately through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to openings resulting from em­
ployment growth, a few thousand
openings will occur each year to re­
place salesmen who retire or die.
Many openings also will arise as
salesmen transfer to other occupa­
tions. Although selling cars is re­
warding for many people, others
leave to seek new jobs because they
are not suited for the work.
Employment of automobile sales­
men will increase primarily because
car sales will grow as population,
multicar ownership, and personal
income increase. Car sales generally
fluctuate from year to year as a re­
sult of changes in general business
conditions, consumer preferences,
and the availability of credit. Em­
ployment of automobile salesmen
also fluctuates, but tends to be more
stable than sales.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Most automobile salesmen are
paid a commission based on the
selling price of a car or the gross
profit received by the dealer. Addi­
tional commissions may be paid
when cars are financed and insured


through the dealer. Although sales­
men work year-round, their sales
(and their commissions) vary from
month to month. To provide com­
missioned salesmen with a steady
income, many dealers pay a modest
weekly or monthly base salary. Oth­
ers advance salesmen money against
future commissions. A few dealers
pay salesmen a straight salary.
Dealers may guarantee beginners a
modest income for a few weeks or
months. Thereafter, they are paid
on the same basis as experienced
Automobile salesmen had aver­
age weekly earnings of $193 in
1969, according to information
from the National Automobile
Dealers Association. Earnings var­
ied considerably, depending on indi­
vidual ability and experience, geo­
graphic location, dealership size,
and other factors. For example,
salesmen employed by dealers that
sold between 100 and 149 vehicles
annually had average weekly earn­
ings of $143, while those employed
by dealers that sold 1,000 or more
had average weekly earnings of
A large number of employers fur­
nish salesmen with demonstrator
cars free of charge. Others allow
salesmen to buy or lease them at a
discount, often at dealer’s cost.
Salesmen also receive discounts on
cars bought for their personal use.
Most dealers provide paid vaca­
tions. Many provide life insurance,
hospitalization, and surgical and
medical insurance.
Because most customers find
shopping after work convenient,
salesmen frequently work during
the evenings. In some areas, they
may work on Sundays and take a
day off during the week. Many deal­
ers assign salesmen “floortime”—
hours they spend in the showroom
greeting customers. For example, a


salesman may be scheduled to work
on the showroom floor from 9 a.m.
to 3 p.m. one week, from 3 p.m. to
9 p.m. the next week, and all day
on Saturdays. When not assigned to
the floor, salesmen may spend a few
hours each day delivering cars to
customers and looking for new cus­

Sources of Additional Information

Information on employment op­
portunities may be obtained from
local automobile dealers or the local
office of the State employment serv­
ice. General information about the
work of automobile salesmen may
be obtained from:
National Automobile Dealers As­
sociation, 2000 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 620.281)

Nature of the Work

Many automobile dealers and
some large independent garages em­
ploy service advisors to wait on cus­
tomers who bring their automobiles
for maintenance and repairs. The
service advisor (sometimes called
service salesman or service writer)
confers with the customer to deter­
mine his service requirements and
arranges for a mechanic to perform
the work.
When a routine checkup is re­
quested, the advisor merely writes
the customer’s requests on a repair
order. However, when the customer
complains of mechanical or electri­

cal trouble, the service advisor asks
about the nature of the trouble and
may test drive the automobile. For
example, if the customer says his
automobile is difficult to start, the
service advisor may try to deter­
mine if this occurs when the engine
is cold or after it has warmed up.
He writes a brief description of
these symptoms on the repair order
to help the mechanic locate the
cause of the trouble. The advisor
also records other information on
the repair order, including identifi­
cation of the customer and his auto­
mobile. If the repairs are covered
by a factory warranty, he records
the automobile engine and body
numbers, and the automobile’s
mileage and purchase date.
The service advisor tells custom­
ers what repairs are needed, their
approximate cost, and how long the
work will take. He may advise on
the necessity of having work done,
by pointing out that it will assure
improved performance, safer opera­
tion, and prevent more serious trou­
ble. In addition to advising custom­
ers on service needs, he may sell ac­
cessories such as air-conditioners or
If the service advisor is unable to
tell the customer what repairs are
needed until a mechanic has in­
spected the automobile, he records
the customer’s phone number and
contacts him later to obtain permis­
sion to perform the repairs.
The service advisor gives the re­
pair order to the shop dispatcher
who in turn usually computes the
cost of repairs and assigns the work
to a mechanic. In some shops, serv­
ice advisors may compute the cost
of repairs. If the mechanic has
questions about the repair order,
he contacts the service advisor.
After the mechanic has completed
the repair work, the service advisor
may test drive the automobile to be



Automobile service advisor listens to customer’s description of automobile trouble.

sure the problem has been cor­
When the customer returns for
his automobile, the service advisor
answers questions regarding the re­
pairs and settles complaints about
their cost or quality. If the automo­
bile is to be returned to the shop be­
cause the customer is dissatisfied, or
the cost of repairs is to be adjusted,
the service advisor usually must ob­
tain the authorization of his supervi­
sor, the service manager. In some
dealerships, the most experienced
service advisor substitutes for the
service manager when he is absent.

Places of Employment

An estimated 20,000 automobile
service advisors were employed in

1970. Most of them worked for
large automobile dealers that em­
ployed from one to four service ad­
visors. Few small automobile deal­
ers employ service advisors. Some
service advisors are employed by
large independent automobile repair

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Service advisors are trained on
the job under the guidance of expe­
rienced service advisors and the
service manager. In many shops, the
trainee’s first assignment is to assist
the service department dispatcher
or cashier. By working with the dis­
patcher, he learns how repair orders
are routed through the shop, how

long it takes to complete different
types of repairs, and how to com­
pute repair costs. At the cashier’s
counter he learns the cost of differ­
ent types of repairs. He also learns
how experienced service advisors
handle customer complaints. The
beginner usually can become a
qualified service advisor in 1 to 2
years, although it may take longer if
his duties include estimating auto­
mobile body repairs. In addition to
on-the-job training, some service
advisor trainees attend formal train­
ing programs conducted by automo­
bile manufacturers.
For service advisor trainees, em­
ployers prefer high school graduates
who are over 21 years of age and
have work experience in automobile
repair or related activities. Em­
ployers usually promote young per­
sons from within their own organi­
zations when vacancies for service
advisor trainees arise. For example,
a young person may apply for a job
as service advisor trainee after he
has gained experience in the firm as
an automobile mechanic trainee or
parts counterman trainee. Some
firms, however, prefer to hire indi­
viduals who are qualified automo­
bile mechanics.
Because he is likely to be the
only employee who deals directly
with customers, the manner in
which the service advisor does his
job is very important in establishing
customer satisfaction. Therefore,
employers look for applicants who
are neat, courteous, even-tempered,
attentive listeners, and good conver­
sationalists. High school and voca­
tional school courses in automobile
mechanics, commercial arithmetic,
salesmanship, public speaking, and
English are helpful to young per­
sons interested in becoming service
Service advisors with supervisory
ability may advance to shop fore­



men or to service managers. Some
service advisors open their own au­
tomobile repair shops.

Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile serv­
ice advisors is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s as a
result of the increasing number of
automobiles in operation. In addi­
tion to the job opportunities result­
ing from employment growth, a few
hundred job openings are expected
each year from the need to replace
experienced service advisors who
retire, die, or transfer to other occu­
The number of automobiles reg­
istered in the United States is ex­
pected to grow because of increases
in driving age population, consumer
purchasing power, and multicar
ownership. The growing number of
automobiles and their increasing
complexity will result in additional
repair work; consequently, many
automobile dealers will need addi­
tional service advisors. Also, some
small dealers who presently do not
employ service advisors are ex­
pected to hire them as the volume
of service work increases.

sors are paid on a straight commis­
sion basis. Commission earnings
may vary as a result of fluctuations
in the volume of repair work.
Many employers provide paid
holidays and vacations, and pay all
or part of the cost of life insurance,
and health and accident insurance.
Others also contribute to retirement
plans. Laundered uniforms are fur­
nished free of charge by many em­
Most service advisors work from
40 to 48 hours a week. They are
busiest in the early morning when
most customers bring their cars for
repairs, and in late afternoon when
they return. During these peak
hours, some advisors may be rushed
when waiting on customers.
Service advisors stand much of
the time and may be outdoors in all
kinds of weather. Their work is not
physically strenuous. Occasionally,
they have to deal with disgruntled
customers, but most customers are
Unions that organize service ad­
visors include the International As­
sociation of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the Sheet Metal
Workers’ International Association;
and the International Brotherhood
of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Ware­
housemen and Helpers of America

Earnings and Working Conditions

Service advisors employed by au­
tomobile dealers in 34 cities had av­
erage straight-time hourly earnings
of $4.38, based on a survey made in
late 1969. Average hourly earnings
in individual cities ranged from
$3.06 in Richmond, Va., to $5.59
in Los Angeles, Calif.
Many service advisors are paid a
salary plus a commission. The com­
mission usually is based on both the
cost of repairs and the price of ac­
cessories sold. Some service advi­

Sources of Additional Information

Further information on employ­
ment opportunities may be obtained
from local automobile dealers or re­
pair shops; locals of the unions pre­
viously mentioned; or the local
office of the State employment serv­
General information about the
work of automobile service advisors
may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry Asso­

ciation, 230 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60601.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605.

(D.O.T. 250.258)

Nature of the Work

Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies which protect individuals
and businesses against future losses
and financial pressures. They also
provide their customers with many
services related to the insurance
they sell. They may, for example,
assist in planning the financial pro­
tection which best meets the special
needs of a customer’s family; advise
about the types of insurance best
suited for the protection of an auto­
mobile, home, business establish­
ment, or other property; or help a
policyholder in obtaining settlement
of an insurance claim.
Three basic types of insurance
are available—life, property and li­
ability, and health. Agents and bro­
kers usually sell one or more of
these types of insurance. Some
agents also sell equity products,
such as mutual fund shares. Life in­
surance policies pay survivors in the
event of the policyholder’s death;
they also may provide annuities,
funds for the education of children
when they reach college age, and
other benefits which the policy­
holder has arranged in anticipation
of a future need for these funds.
Property and liability insurance pol­
icies protect policyholders from fi­
nancial losses which they might oth­
erwise incur because of automobile



accidents, fire and theft, or other
hazards. Health insurance policies
offer protection against the costs of
hospital and medical care or loss of
income due to an illness or injury.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance company employee or
an independent businessman who is
under contract to act as the author­
ized representative of one insur­
ance company or more. A broker
occupies a somewhat different posi­
tion; he is not under contract to any
particular company but places the
policies he sells with whatever insur­
ance company he feels best meets
his clients’ needs. In other respects,
agents and brokers do much the
same kind of work.
Agents and brokers spend most
of their time discussing insurance
policies with prospective customers.
Some time must be spent in office
work—planning insurance programs
that are tailored to prospects’ needs,
preparing reports, maintaining rec­

ords, and drawing up lists of
prospective customers. Salesmen
who specialize in group policies
may help to incorporate an insur­
ance program into a company’s
bookkeeping system.
(See chapter on Insurance Occu­
pations for additional information
about life and property and liability
insurance companies.)

but the greatest number work in
large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although employers seldom spec­
ify age limits or formal educational
requirements, practically all agents
hired in recent years have been at
least 21 years of age, and more than
half of them have had some college
Places of Employment
training. Many were college gradu­
Of the 350,000 agents and bro­ ates. College training, although not
kers who sold insurance in 1970, essential, may be an aid to the agent
about half specialized in life insur­ in grasping insurance fundamentals
ance; the remainder, in property and in establishing good personal
and liability insurance. Both groups relationships
also sold health insurance. Nine out clients. Courses in accounting, eco­
of ten agents and brokers were men. nomics, finance, and business law,
Many additional agents—both men as well as courses in insurance sub­
and women—sold insurance on a jects, are considered helpful. A lib­
eral arts curriculum is equally desir­
part-time basis.
Insurance agents and brokers are able in preparing the prospective
employed in all parts of the country, agent.
Because an agent’s or broker’s
success depends on his sales ability,
he must have the initiative to locate
new prospects. He also must know
insurance fundamentals and be able
to explain policy terms clearly. En­
thusiasm, self-confidence, and a
cheerful personality are valuable.
All insurance agents and most
brokers must obtain licenses in the
States where they plan to sell insur­
ance. In most States, licenses are is­
sued only to applicants who pass
written examinations covering in­
surance fundamentals and the State
insurance laws.
Before new agents sell they usu­
ally receive training at insurance
company home offices or at the
agencies and brokerage firms where
they will be working. Some insur­
ance companies sponsor classes in
sales problems and insurance princi­
ples. This instruction may be given
over a period of several weeks or a


few months. In other cases, training
takes the form of working on the
job under the supervision of experi­
enced sales personnel.
Agents and brokers have oppor­
tunities to broaden their knowledge
of the insurance business by enroll­
ing in intermediate and advanced
courses available at many colleges
and universities and by attending in­
stitutes, conferences, and seminars
sponsored by insurance organiza­
tions. The Life Underwriter Train­
ing Council (LUTC) offers courses
in life and health insurance for ex­
perienced life agents. A diploma in
life insurance marketing is awarded
to graduates who successfully com­
plete the Council’s 2-year life pro­
gram. As an agent or broker ac­
quires experience and broadens his
knowledge of the life insurance
business, he can qualify for the des­
ignation Chartered Life Underwri­
ter (CLU) by passing a series of
examinations given by the Ameri­
can Society of Chartered Life Un­
derwriters. In much the same way, a
property and liability agent, by
passing an examination given by the
American Institute for Property and
Liability Underwriters, Inc., will
qualify for the Chartered Property
Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) des­
ignation. The CLU and CPCU des­
ignations are recognized marks of
achievement in their respective
Insurance agents who demon­
strate sales ability and leadership
may be promoted to sales manager
positions in district offices or to
managerial positions in home
offices. A few may advance to top
positions as agency superintendents
or company vice-presidents or pres­
idents. Many agents who have built
up a good clientele prefer to remain
in sales work. Some, particularly in
the property and liability field,
eventually establish their own inde­






Employment Outlook

Several thousand openings for in­
surance agents and brokers are ex­
pected to arise each year through
the 1970’s. Some will be new jobs
created as employment expands;
others will become available as
agents and brokers retire or stop
working for other reasons. Because
the rate of turnover is high among
beginners in this occupation, many
workers also will be needed to re­
place insurance agents who enter
other types of employment.
During the 1970’s, the number of
insurance agents and brokers is ex­
pected to grow moderately. As pop­
ulation and incomes rise and life ex­
pectancy increases, more families
will depend on life insurance and on
policies that provide protection in
the form of retirement income,
medical care, and funds for a col­
lege education. Expansion in in­
dustrial plant and equipment and
growth in the number of major con­
sumer purchases, such as homes or
automobiles, will contribute to in­
creased sales of property and liabil­
ity insurance. Despite the expected
increase in the number of policies
issued, however, insurance selling
will remain keenly competitive as
more insurance is sold to groups or
by mail and as electronic data proc­
essing relieves agents of clerical

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginners in this occupation
often are guaranteed moderate sala­
ries or advances on commissions
while they are learning the business
and building up a clientele. There­

after, most agents are paid on a
commission basis. The size of the
commission varies, depending on
the type and amount of insurance
sold, and on whether the transaction
involves a new policy or the renewal
of a policy already in force. After a
few years, an agent’s commissions
on new policies sold and on re­
newals may range from $8,000 to
$20,000 annually. A number of es­
tablished and highly successful
agents and brokers earn $30,000 a
year or more.
Agents and brokers generally pay
their own automobile and traveling
expenses. In addition, those who
own and operate independent busi­
nesses must pay office rent, clerical
salaries, and other operating ex­
penses out of their earnings.
Although insurance agents usu­
ally are free to arrange their own
hours of work, they often schedule
appointments during evenings and
weekends for the convenience of
clients. Some agents spend more
than the customary 40 hours a week
on the job.

Sources of Additional Information

General occupational information
about insurance agents and brokers
may be obtained from the home
office of many life insurance and
property and liability insurance
companies. Information on State li­
censing requirements may be ob­
tained from the department of in­
surance at any State capital.
Information about a career as a
life insurance agent also may be ob­
tained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
Life Insurance Agency Management
Association, 170 Sigourney St.,
Hartford, Conn. 06105.

The National Association of Life
Underwriters, 1922 F St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about sales training
in life and health insurance is avail­
able from:
The Life Underwriter Training
Council, 1922 F St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

Information about property and
liability agents and brokers can be
obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, Inc., 96 Fulton St., New
York, N.Y. 10038.

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)

Nature of the Work

Practically all manufacturers—
whether they make electronic com­
puters or can openers—employ
salesmen. Manufacturers’ salesmen
sell mainly to other businesses—fac­
tories, railroads, banks, wholesalers,
and retailers. They also sell to hos­
pitals, schools, and other institu­
Most manufacturers’ salesmen
sell nontechnical products. Sales­
men in this kind of work must be
well informed about their firms’
products and also about the special
requirements of their customers.
When a salesman visits firms in his
territory, he uses an approach
adapted to his particular line of
merchandise. Thus, a salesman of
crackers or cookies emphasizes the

3 17

wholesomeness of his products,
their attractive packaging, and the
variety. Sometimes salesmen pro­
mote their products by displays in
hotels and conferences with whole­
salers and other customers.
A salesman of highly technical
products, such as electronic equip­
ment, often is called a sales engi­
neer or an industrial salesman. In
addition to having a thorough
knowledge of his firm’s products, he
must be able to help prospective
buyers with technical problems. For
example, he may spend days or
weeks analyzing a firm’s manufac­
turing problems to determine the
kinds of equipment and materials
best suited to its operation. He then
presents his solution to company of­
ficials and tries to negotiate the sale.
Often, sales engineers work with the
research and development depart­
ments of their own companies in de­
vising ways to adapt products to a

customer’s specialized needs. Sales­
men of technical products some­
times train their customers’ em­
ployees in the operation and main­
tenance of new equipment, and
make frequent return visits to be
certain that it is giving the desired
Although manufacturers’ sales­
men spend most of their time visit­
ing prospective customers, they also
do some paperwork including re­
ports on sales prospects in their ter­
ritories or customers’ credit ratings.
In addition they must plan their
work schedules, compile lists of
prospects, make appointments, con­
duct some sales correspondence,
and study literature relating to their

Places of Employment

Over 500,000 manufacturers’
salesmen were employed in 1970;
about 45,000 were sales engineers.
Some manufacturers’ salesmen
work out of home offices, often lo­
cated at manufacturing plants. The
majority, however, work out of
branch offices, usually in big cities
near prospective customers.
More salesmen work for compa­
nies that produce food products
than for any other industry. Other
industries that employ large num­
bers of salesmen include printing
and publishing, chemicals, fabri­
cated metal products, and electrical
and other machinery. The largest
employers of sales engineers pro­
duce heavy machinery, transporta­
tion equipment, fabricated metal
products, and professional and sci­
entific instruments. About 10 per­
cent of all manufacturers’ sales­
people are women, most of whom
are employed in industries produc­
ing food products.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although high school graduates
can be successful manufacturers’
salesmen, college graduates increas­
ingly are preferred as trainees.
Manufacturers of nontechnical
products often prefer college gradu­
ates who have a degree in liberal
arts or business administration.
Training at a college of pharmacy
usually is required for jobs as drug
salesmen. A salesman of compli­
cated equipment needs a technical
education. For example, manufac­
turers of electrical equipment,
heavy machinery, and some types of
chemicals prefer to hire collegetrained engineers or chemists. (In­
formation on chemists, engineers,
and other professionally trained
workers who may be employed as
manufacturers’ salesmen is pre­
sented elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Although many prospective sales­
men are hired at the sales offices of
manufacturing concerns, represent­
atives of manufacturers sometimes
recruit college seniors who are well
qualified academically and have
participated in extra-curricular ac­
tivities. A pleasing personality and
appearance and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are important. Since
salesmen may have to walk or stand
for long periods of time or carry
product samples, physical stamina is
necessary. As in most selling jobs,
arithmetic skills are an asset.
Beginning salesmen are given
specialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those manufacturing complex
technical products, have formal
training programs lasting 2 years or
longer. In some of these programs,
trainees are rotated among jobs in
several departments of the plant
and office to learn all phases of


production, installation, and distri­
bution of the product. Other train­
ees receive formal class instruction
at the plant, followed by intensive
on-the-job training in a branch
office under the supervision of field
sales managers.
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
managers. Those having managerial
skill eventually may advance to
sales manager or other executive
positions; many top executive jobs
in industry are filled by men who
started as salesmen.
Because of frequent contact with
businessmen in other firms, sales­
men often transfer to better jobs.
Some salesmen go into business for
themselves as manufacturers’ agents
selling similar products of several
manufacturers. Experienced sales­
men often find opportunities in ad­
vertising, market research, and
other fields related to selling.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
manufacturers’ salesmen are ex­
pected to be favorable during the
1970’s. Several thousand openings
will occur annually as employment
in this occupation rises and as exist­
ing jobs become vacant because of
retirements or deaths. Still other va­
cancies will occur as salesmen leave
their jobs to enter other types of
The number of manufacturers’
salesmen is expected to rise moder­
ately due to general economic
growth and the greater emphasis
manufacturers will be placing on
their sales activities. The devel­
opment of new products and im­
proved marketing techniques proba­
bly will heighten competition among

the manufacturers. Because of the
increase in the volume of business
transacted with some customers—
modern industrial complexes, chain
store organizations, and large insti­
tutions of many kinds—competition
among the manufacturers supplying
these organizations will intensify the
need for effective sales organiza­
tions. Despite the filling of thou­
sands of sales jobs each year, manu­
facturers are expected to be selec­
tive in hiring. They will look for
ambitious young people who are
both well trained and temperamen­
tally suited for their jobs. As mar­
kets for technical products expand,
demand for trained salesmen is
likely to be particularly strong.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to limited data, start­
ing salaries for beginning salesmen
averaged about $8,500 a year in
1970. By including commissions
and bonuses most salesmen earned
more than this amount annually.
The highest starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equipment,
construction materials, hardware
and tools, and scientific and preci­
sion instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns
pay experienced salesmen a straight
commission, based on their dollar
amount of sales; others pay a fixed
salary. The majority, however, use a
combination plan: salary and com­
mission, salary and bonus, or
salary-commission and bonus. Com­
missions vary according to the sales­
man’s efforts and ability, the com­
mission rate, location of his sales
territory, and the type of product
sold. Bonus payments may be con­
tingent upon the individual sales­
man’s performance, that of all sales­
men in his group or district, or upon

Division, 630 Third Ave., New
the company’s sales performance.
York, N.Y. 10017.
Some firms pay annual bonuses;
others offer them as incentive pay­
ments on a quarterly or monthly
basis. In 1970, many experienced
salesmen earned between $16,000
and $32,000 annually; some earned
considerably more.
Some manufacturers’ salesmen
(D.O.T. 250.358)
have large territories and do consid­
erable traveling. Others usually
work in the neighborhood of their
“home base.” For example, a sales­
Nature of the Work
man of heavy industrial equipment
Real estate salesmen and brokers
may be assigned a territory covering
several States and often may be are at the center of most property
away from home for days or weeks transactions. They represent prop­
at a time. On the other hand, a erty owners who want to sell and
salesman of food products may find potential buyers for residential
work in a small area and commute and commercial properties. Sales­
men and brokers also may be called
from home.
When on business trips, salesmen real estate agents, or if they are
are reimbursed for expenses such as members of the National Associa­
transportation and hotels. Some tion of Real Estate Boards, “Real­
companies provide a car or pay a tors.
Salesmen are employed by bro­
mileage allowance to salesmen who
kers to show and sell real estate;
use their own cars.
Salesmen call at the time most some handle rental properties. Bro­
convenient to customers and may kers are independent businessmen
have to travel at night or on week­ who not only sell real estate but
ends. Frequently, they spend eve­ sometimes rent and manage prop­
nings writing reports and planning erties, make appraisals, arrange for
itineraries. However, some sales­ loans to finance purchases, and de­
men plan their schedules for time velop new building projects. In ad­
off when they want it. Most sales­ dition, brokers manage their offices,
men who are not paid a straight advertise properties, and handle
commission receive 2 to 4 weeks’ other business operations. Some
paid vacation, depending on their combine other work, such as selling
length of service. They usually insurance or practicing law, with
share in company benefits, including their real estate business.
Most real estate salesmen and
life insurance, pensions, and hospi­
tal, surgical, and medical benefits. brokers sell residential property,
and sometimes specialize in homes
within a certain price range or in a
particular area of the city. A few,
Sources of Additional Information
usually those in large real estate
For more information on the oc­ firms, specialize in commercial, in­
cupation of manufacturers’ sales­ dustrial, or other types of real es­
man, write to:
tate. Each specialty requires knowl­
edge of the particular type of prop­
Sales and Marketing Executives In­
erty. For example, salesmen who
ternational, Student Education


specialize in commercial sales or
leasing must understand leasing
practices, business trends, and loca­
tion needs. Salesmen selling or leas­
ing industrial properties must be
able to supply information on trans­
portation, utilities, and labor supply.
Salesmen who handle farm prop­
erties must have considerable
knowledge of soil types, water sup­
ply, drainage, and transportation fa­
An important duty of a real es­
tate salesman is obtaining “listings”
(getting owners to place properties
for sale with the firm). A salesman
spends much time on the telephone,
seeking such listings and answering
inquiries about properties. He ob­
tains leads for listings through ad­
vertising and personal contact.

A real estate salesman spends
much time away from his office
showing and discussing properties
with prospective buyers. When a



number of houses are for sale in a
new development, the salesman
may operate from a model home.
He explains special features which
meet particular needs of the
prospective buyer (or renter) such
as location of schools and churches
and public transportation. For busi­
ness property, he may discuss the
income potential, zoning, and com­
munity facilities. He also must be
familiar with tax rates and insur­
ance. He must try to meet the buy­
er’s needs at the same time that he
follows the seller’s instructions. In
closing the sale, the broker often ar­
ranges for a loan, title search, and a
meeting when details of the transac­
tion are agreed upon and the new
owner takes possession of the prop­
Places of Employment

The number of people whose
main occupation was selling real es­
tate in 1970 is estimated at about
225,000; about three-fifths were
men. A large number of people also
sold real estate part time. The total
number of men and women licensed
to sell was more than 900,000 in
1969, according to the National As­
sociation of Real Estate License
Law Officials.
Most real estate salesmen work
for small business establishments; a
few, in metropolitan areas, work for
firms having large sales staffs. Bro­
kers generally are self-employed.
Although salesmen and brokers are
found in every part of the country,
they are concentrated in large urban
areas and in smaller but rapidly
growing communities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is required to work as a

real estate salesman or broker in
every State and in the District of
Columbia. All States require
prospective agents to pass written
examinations that generally include
questions on the fundamentals of
real estate transactions and on laws
affecting the sale of real estate. The
examination is more comprehensive
for brokers than for salesmen. In
more than three-fifths of the States,
candidates for the broker’s license
also must have a specified amount
of experience as a real estate sales­
man or the equivalent in related ex­
perience or education (generally
from 1 to 3 years). State licenses
usually can be renewed annually
without reexamination.
Although a specified amount of
education seldom is required, em­
ployers prefer to hire persons who
have at least a high school educa­
tion. A broad academic program in
high school including courses such
as English, mathematics, salesman­
ship, architectural drawing, business
law, economics, and public speaking
is helpful for those planning a career
in real estate. Most real estate agents
have some college training and
many are college graduates. College
courses in real estate subjects as
well as psychology, economics,
finance, and business administration
are an asset.
Characteristics important for suc­
cess in selling real estate include a
pleasing personality, honesty, and a
neat appearance. Dealing with
prospective customers requires ma­
turity and tact as well as enthusiasm
for the job. Agents also should have
a good memory for names and faces
and business details such as prices
and zoning regulations.
Young men and women inter­
ested in beginning jobs as real estate
salesmen often apply to brokers in
their own communities, where their
knowledge of local neighborhoods is

an advantage. The beginner usually
works under the direction of an ex­
perienced salesman or broker to
learn the practical aspects of his
Training opportunities are availa­
ble for beginners and experienced
agents; many firms offer formal
training programs for salesmen. At
some of the more than 360 universi­
ties, colleges, and junior colleges
which offer courses in real estate, a
student can earn an associate’s or
bachelor’s degree with a major in
real estate; some offer advanced de­
grees. Many local real estate boards
that are members of the National
Association of Real Estate Boards
(NAREB) sponsor courses in sub­
jects such as real estate fundamen­
tals and legal aspects of real estate.
Advanced courses in appraisal,
mortgage financing, and property
development and management also
are available through various
NAREB affiliates.
Salesmen who have experience
and training can advance in many
large firms to sales or general man­
ager. Licensed brokers may open
their own offices. Training and ex­
perience in estimating the value of
property can lead to work as a real
estate appraiser. Persons familiar
with operating and maintaining
rental properties may specialize in
property management. Those who
gain wide general experience in real
estate and a thorough knowledge of
business conditions and property
values in their localities may enter
mortgage financing or real estate

Employment Outlook

Several thousand openings for
real estate salesmen are expected to
arise each year during the 1970’s.
Some will be new positions created


by the need for more salesmen to
serve a growing population. Most,
however, will be openings resulting
from turnover. Because the average
age of real estate salesmen and
brokers is considerably higher than
that of workers in most occupations,
death and retirement losses are
high. In addition, a relatively large
number of agents—many of them
beginners—transfer to other types
of work.
Many openings are likely to be
filled by mature workers, including
persons who transfer from other
kinds of sales work. The proportion
of salesmen employed part time
may decline, as State licensing re­
quirements change and more spe­
cialized knowledge is necessary for
the agent who handles real estate
Employment of real estate sales­
men and brokers is expected to rise
moderately during the 1970’s, when
the many young people bom after
World War II will be purchasing or
renting their own homes. Among
other factors contributing to a grow­
ing need for agents are the expected
expansion in residential and com­
mercial construction due to an in­
creasing population, migration to
metropolitan areas, and urban re­
newal. Although this field is likely
to remain highly competitive, it
should offer many career opportuni­
ties to persons with an aptitude for

Earnings and Working Conditions

Commissions on sales are the
usual source of earnings for most
real estate salesmen and brokers. A
few are paid on a straight salary
basis, although this is the exception
rather than the rule. Commissions
paid on the sale of farm and com­
mercial properties and unimproved


land usually are higher than those Some salesmen, especially those
on the sale of a home.
who work for large firms, are fur­
Commissions on the sale of prop­ nished group life, health, and acci­
erties may be shared by several em­ dent insurance.
ployees of a real estate firm. Often,
when a sale is made, a commission
is paid to the salesman who ob­ Sources of Additional Information
tained the listing of the property.
Information on licensing require­
The rest of the commission either is
retained by the broker who made ments for real estate salesmen and
the sale, or shared by the broker brokers is available from the real
and the agent who handled the estate commission or board located
transaction. An agent’s share of the in each State capital. This informa­
commission varies greatly from one tion also can be obtained from most
real estate firm to another; frequent­ local real estate organizations.
ly it is about half of the commission. Many States can furnish manuals
Many full-time real estate agents that help applicants prepare for the
earn between $7,000 and $12,000 a required written examinations.
Additional information on oppor­
year, according to the limited data
available. Beginners usually earn tunities in the real estate field, and a
less. At the other extreme, many list of colleges and universities of­
experienced salesmen earn $20,000 fering real estate courses may be
or more a year.
obtained by writing to:
Income usually increases as an
National Association of Real Estate
agent gains experience, but earnings
Boards, Department of Education,
155 East Superior St., Chicago,
also are affected by factors such as
111. 60611.
individual ability, economic condi­
tions, and the type and location of
property. Salesmen who are active
in community organizations and
local real estate boards can broaden
their contacts and increase their
earnings. A beginner’s earnings
often are irregular. A few weeks or
(D.O.T. 260. through 298.877)
even months may go by without a
sale. For this reason, some firms
pay salesmen a “draw” against fu­
ture commissions. However, be­
Nature of the Work
cause this practice is not usual with
The success of any retail business
beginners, most new salesmen
should have money to support depends largely on its salespeople.
themselves until their commissions Courteous and efficient service from
behind the counter or on the sales
Brokers provide office space, but floor does much to satsify customers
salesmen are expected to furnish and to build a store’s reputation.
their own automobiles. Although Although contact with customers is
salesmen and brokers have much a part of all sales jobs, the duties,
independence in planning their skills, and responsibilities of sales­
schedules, often they work in the people are as different as the kinds
evenings and during weekends to of merchandise they sell.
In selling items such as furniture,
meet the convenience of customers.


electrical appliances, or some types
of wearing apparel, the salesworker’s primary job is to create an in­
terest in the merchandise the store
has to offer. The salesman or sales­
woman may answer questions about
the construction of an article, dem­
onstrate its use, explain how it is
cared for, show various models and
colors, and otherwise help the cus­
tomer make a selection. In some
stores, special knowledge or skills
may be needed to sell the merchan­
dise carried.
In a pet shop, for example, the
salesworker should know about the
care and feeding of animals. People
who sell standardized articles, such
as many of the items in hardware
and drugstores, are called upon less
frequently to give customers this


kind of assistance. Often, they do
little more than assemble and wrap
the items purchased by each cus­
tomer. (In supermarkets and some
drugstores cashiers wrap or bag
purchases, receive payments, and
make change. See statement on
In addition to selling, most retail
salespeople make out sales or
charge slips, receive cash payments,
and give change and receipts. They
also handle returns and exchanges
of merchandise for the customer.
Salespersons usually are responsible
for keeping their work areas neat
and presentable. In small stores,
they may assist in ordering mer­
chandise, stocking shelves or racks,
marking price tags, taking inven­
tories, preparing attractive merchan­

dise displays, and promoting sales in
other ways. (Route salesmen, who
sell bread, milk, and other products
directly to customers on a regular
route, are discussed in the chapter
on Driving Occupations.)
Places of Employment

In 1970, about 2.5 million sales­
women—were employed in retail
businesses. They worked in stores
that range in size from the small
drug or grocery store, employing
only one part-time salesclerk, to the
giant department store having
hundreds of salesworkers. They also
worked for door to door sales com­
panies and mail-order houses. The
largest employers of retail sales­
workers are department and general
merchandise, food, and apparel and
accessories stores. Men predomi­
nate in stores selling furniture,
household appliances, hardware,
farm equipment, shoes, and lumber,
and in automobile dealerships. (See
statement on Automobile Salesmen
elsewhere in the Handbook. )
Women outnumber men in depart­
ment and general merchandise, va­
riety, apparel and accessories, and
in drugstores.
Sales jobs are found in practically
every community in all parts of the
country. Most salespersons, how­
ever, work in large cities and in
heavily populated suburban areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers generally prefer to
hire high school graduates for sales
jobs. Subjects such as salesmanship,
commercial arithmetic, and home
economics help to give the student a
good background for many selling
positions. Some high schools have



distributive education programs in­
cluding courses in merchandising
and principles of retailing and retail
selling. Many programs also provide
an opportunity for students to gain
practical experience under trained
supervision by working part time in
local stores. Such part-time selling
experience may be helpful in obtain­
ing full-time employment.
Young people interested in ob­
taining sales jobs may apply to the
personnel offices of large retail es­
tablishments. Applicants are inter­
viewed and sometimes given special
tests that measure their aptitude for
sales work. Employers prefer per­
sons who enjoy working with people
and have the tact to deal with dif­
ferent personalities. Among other
desirable characteristics are a pleas­
ing personality, an interest in sales
work, a neat appearance, and the
ability to communicate clearly.
Prospective salespersons also should
be in good general health and able
to stand for long periods of time.
Arithmetic skills are an asset for
salesworkers who calculate prices
and make change.
In many small stores, an experi­
enced employee or the proprietor
gives newly hired sales personnel
on-the-job instructions in making
out sales slips and operating the
cash register. In large stores, train­
ing programs are likely to be more
formal, and beginners may be given
specialized training to sell certain
Executive positions in large retail
businesses often are filled by pro­
moting college graduates originally
hired as trainees and assigned sales
jobs to gain practical experience.
However, retail selling is one of the
few fields in which an employee
who has initiative and ability may
be selected for promotion, regard­
less of his education. Many stores
offer opportunities for persons with­

out a college degree to advance to
executive positions. Some salesper­
sons eventually become buyers, de­
partment managers, or store manag­
ers. Others, particularly in large
stores, may transfer to office posi­
tions that afford opportunities for
further promotion to administrative
work in areas such as personnel or
advertising. Opportunities for ad­
vancement are relatively limited in
small stores where one person,
often the owner, performs most
managerial functions. Retail sales
experience may be an asset in qual­
ifying for jobs such as selling for
wholesalers or manufacturers.

Employment Outlook

The number of salesworkers em­
ployed in retail trade is expected to
increase slowly through the 1970’s.
However, openings created by
growth and vacancies that must be
filled as salespersons retire or stop
working for other reasons are ex­
pected to number in the tens of
thousands each year; additional
thousands of jobs will become avail­
able as retail salesworkers transfer
to other types of employment.
Among the major factors contrib­
uting to the anticipated rise in retail
sales jobs are population and eco­
nomic growth, and the resulting in­
crease in the volume of sales. The
trend for stores to remain open for
longer hours, while the number of
weekly hours worked by salesper­
sons continues to decline, also will
contribute to the need for more
salespersons. In addition to full­
time sales jobs, there will be many
opportunities for part-time workers,
as well as for temporary workers
during peak selling periods such as
the Christmas season.
Changes in the way goods are
sold are likely to limit the number

of salesworkers in some types of
stores, and affect the kinds of open­
ings that occur in others. Because
self-service—already the rule in
most food stores—is being extended
rapidly to drug, variety, and other
kinds of stores, customers will pur­
chase more articles without the help
of salesworkers. On the other hand,
rising income levels probably will
increase the demand for some mer­
chandise that requires the salesper­
son to spend a good deal of time
with each customer. Two examples
are electrical appliances and auto­
mobiles, which prospective custom­
ers may want demonstrated. In view
of these developments, sales em­
ployment probably will increase
more slowly than the volume of
sales. Little of the increase is likely
to be in routine sales jobs; much of
the demand will be for workers who
are skilled in salesmanship and well
informed about the merchandise
they sell.
Some retail salesworkers have
more stable employment than
workers in many other occupations.
When retail sales are affected by
downturns in the economy, em­
ployers—particularly in large stores
—can reduce the number of em­
ployees by not filling vacancies that
result from turnover or by eliminat­
ing some part-time jobs. Competi­
tion for sales jobs tends to increase
when other jobs are scarce, how­
ever, because workers in other oc­
cupations often can qualify for sales

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, young people starting in
routine jobs where they were re­
quired to do little more than “wait
on” customers generally were paid
$1.60 an hour (in many establish­
ments, the minimum wage required


by law). In stores where salesman­
ship is more important, starting sal­
aries sometimes were higher than
this; in small establishments not
covered by the minimum wage law,
they were somewhat lower. Salaries
usually are lower in rural than in
metropolitan areas.
Experienced salesworkers, in­
cluding those whose pay scales are
determined by union contracts,
often earn $3 an hour or more.
Many are paid on a straight salary
basis; some also receive commis­
sions—that is, a percentage of the
sales they make; and still others are
on a straight commission basis.
Earnings are likely to be highest in
jobs that require special skill in
dealing with customers, or technical
knowledge of the merchandise sold.
Among the highest paid are people
who sell automobiles, major appli­
ances, and furniture.
Salespersons in many retail stores
are allowed to purchase merchan­
dise at a discount, often from 10 to
25 percent below regular prices.
This privilege sometimes is ex­
tended to the employee’s family.
Some stores, especially the large
ones, pay all or part of the cost of
employee benefits such as life insur­
ance, retirement, hospitalization,
and surgical and medical insurance.
Some full-time salespersons work
a 5-day, 40-hour week, although in
many stores, the standard work­
week is longer. Some stores are re­
quired by law to pay overtime rates
for more than 40 hours’ work a
week. Since Saturday is a busy day
in retailing, employees usually work
that day and have another weekday
off. Longer than normal hours may
be scheduled before Christmas and
during other peak periods, and em­
ployees who work overtime receive
additional pay or an equal amount
of time off during slack periods.
Some salespersons regularly work


one evening a week or more, espe­
cially those employed by stores in
suburban shopping centers.
Part-time salespersons generally
work during the store’s peak hours
of business—daytime rush hours,
evenings, and weekends.
Salespeople in retail trade usually
work in clean, well-lighted places
and many stores are air conditioned.
Some sales positions, however, re­
quire work outside the store. A
salesman of kitchen equipment may
visit prospective customers at their
homes, for example, to assist them
in planning renovations, and a
used-car salesman may spend much
of his time working at an outdoor

Sources of Additional Information

Information about careers in re­
tail sales is available from:
The National Retail Merchants
Association, 100 W. 31st St., New
York, N.Y. 10001.

Additional information on ca­
reers in retailing may be obtained
from the personnel offices of local
stores; from State merchants’ asso­
ciations; or from local unions of the
Retail Clerks International Associa­
Information on retailing courses
given in high schools may be ob­
tained from local Superintendents of
Schools or from the State Supervi­
sor of Distributive Education in the
Department of Education at each
State capital.

(D.O.T. 251.258)

Nature of the Work

When an investor buys or sells
stocks, bonds, or shares in mutual
funds, he does so through a securi­
ties salesman who puts the “market
machinery” into operation. A sales­
man’s services are required both by
the individual having a few hundred
dollars to invest and by the large in­
stitution investing millions. Securi­
ties salesmen are often called cus­
tomers’ brokers, registered repre­
sentatives, or account executives.
In executing a buy or sell trans­
action, a securities salesmah relays
the order through his firm’s order
room to the floor of a securities ex­
change. In the over-the-counter
market, he sends the order to his
firm’s trading department and noti­
fies the customer when the transac­
tion is completed. He also provides
many kinds of related services for
his customers. To an inexperienced
investor, for example, he may ex­
plain the meaning of stock market
terms and trading practices. For
customers having a variety of hold­
ings, the salesman may offer sug­
gestions about the purchase or
sale of a particular security. Cus­
tomers’ investment objectives vary.
An individual may prefer long­
term investments designed to pro­
vide a steady income over the
years or short-term investments
which appear likely to rise in price
quickly. Salesmen, therefore, may
be called on to furnish information
about the advantages and disadvan­
tages of each type of investment.
Salesmen often are expected to fur­
nish the latest stock and bond quo­
tations as well as information re­



garding the activities and financial
positions of corporations.
Salesmen may serve all types of
customers or specialize in only one
type such as institutional investors.
They also may specialize in certain
kinds of securities. For example, a
salesman may handle only transac­
tions in municipal bonds or only
shares in mutual funds. If his em­
ployer underwrites “new issues,”
such as the corporation securities is­
sued for plant expansion funds, he
may take part only in the initial sale
of these new securities.
Establishing a clientele is very
important to the new securities
salesman’s success. In the begin­
ning, he may spend much of his
time contacting potential investors
and former customers of his firm, or
seeking new customers in other
ways. On the other hand, an experi­
enced salesman may spend most of
his time servicing the accounts of
established customers.

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 200,000 men and
women sold securities. Most were
full-time employees of securities
firms—salesmen, partners,
branch office managers. Others
were regularly employed in jobs
outside the securities business; most
of these persons sold shares in mu­
tual funds or variable annuities
(contracts yielding periodic pay­
ments that fluctuate with the value
of securities or other variable fac­
tors). Over one-third of all securi­
ties salesmen work part time; the
majority are men.
Securities salesmen are employed
by hundreds of brokerage firms, in­
vestment bankers, and mutual fund
firms in all parts of the country.
Many of these firms are very small.
Most salesmen, however, work for a

relatively small number of large
firms that operate main offices lo­
cated in big cities (especially in
New York City), and approxi­
mately 7,000 branch offices in other

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Because a securities salesman
must be well informed about eco­
nomic conditions and trends, a col­
lege education is becoming increas­
ingly important for applicants in this
field. Although employers seldom
require specialized training, a de­
gree in business administration, eco­
nomics, or liberal arts is regarded as
good preparation. Courses in
finance and other subjects related to
the securities business, available at
colleges and universities throughout
the country, also are helpful.
Almost all States require securi­
ties salesmen to be licensed. State
licensing requirements vary. The ap­
plicant may have to furnish a per­
sonal bond or pass written examina­
In addition, practically every
salesman must be registered as a
representative of his firm according
to regulations of the securities ex­
change or exchanges where it trans­
acts business, or the National Asso­
ciation of Securities Dealers, Inc.
(NASD), or both. Before beginning
salesmen can qualify as registered
representatives, they must pass the
Securities and Exchange Commis­
sion’s General Securities Examina­
tion, or examinations prepared by
the exchanges and/or the NASD.
These test the prospective sales­
man’s knowledge of the securities
business. Character investigations
also are required.
Most employers provide training
to assist their salesmen in meeting

the requirements for registration. In
many firms, including all members
of the New York Stock Exchange,
the training period equals at least 6
months. In large firms, training pro­
grams are sometimes quite elabo­
rate. Trainees may receive class­
room instruction in subjects such as
security analysis and effective speak­
ing, take courses offered by schools
of business and other institutions
and associations, and undergo a
period of on-the-job training. Other
training programs, particularly in
small firms, may be relatively in­
formal and brief. In programs of
the latter type, the trainee may
read assigned materials and observe
other salesmen as they transact
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as important as aca­
demic training in specialized fields.
Employers seek applicants who are
well groomed, who possess the abil­
ity to deal with people, and who are
ambitious and have a sense of re­
sponsibility. Because maturity and
the ability to work independently
also are important, many employers
prefer prospective salesmen to have
previous experience in other jobs.
Before being hired, applicants are
sometimes given tests to determine
their aptitude for this kind of sales
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities salesmen is an
increase in the number and the size
of the accounts they handle. Al­
though a beginner usually starts by
servicing the accounts of individual
investors, eventually he may handle
very large accounts such as those of
institutional investors. Some experi­
enced salesmen may advance to po­
sitions as branch office managers,
who supervise the work of other
salesmen while executing buy and
sell orders for their own customers.
A few salesmen may become part­



ners in their firms or perform other
administrative work.

Employment Outlook

Employment of securities sales­
men is expected to increase moder­
ately during the 1970’s. Some new
positions will be created to serve
the growing number of individuals
and institutions investing money in
securities of all kinds. Most posi­
tions, however, will be vacancies
that occur as salesmen retire or
leave the occupation for other
reasons. The number of beginners
who leave the occupation tends to
be high because of the difficulty new
salesmen have in establishing a
Several factors should contribute
to expanding employment oppor­
tunities for securities salesmen over
the next decade. Both the number
of individual investors and the funds
they have to invest will continue to
increase as a result of economic
growth, rising personal incomes,
and a number of other factors. The
latter include interest stimulated by
the activities of investment clubs
and associations, plans enabling
small investors to make minimum
monthly payments toward the pur­
chase of securities, and the increas­
ing need for parents to set aside
funds for their children’s education
and their own retirement. Institu­
tional investors also can be ex­
pected to have more funds for in­
vestment in the future as more peo­
ple purchase insurance; participate
in pension plans; contribute to the
endowment funds of colleges, uni­
versities and other nonprofit institu­
tions; and deposit their savings in
banks. Many more securities sales­
men will be needed also to sell new
securities issued by expanding cor­
porations and by State and local

ties. Size of the commission depends
partly on the policies of the firm,
partly on the type of security bought
or sold, and also on whether it was
traded on a stock exchange or in the
over-the-counter market. Commis­
Earnings and Working Conditions
sion earnings may fluctuate because
Trainees are usually paid a salary of extremes in market activity.
until such time as they are able to Earnings are likely to be high when
meet licensing and registration re­ there is much buying and selling
quirements. After registration, a few and lower when there is a severe
firms continue to pay a salary until slump in market activity. To pro­
the new salesman’s commissions in­ vide their salesmen with a steady in­
crease to a minimum amount. The come, most firms pay a “draw
salaries paid during the training pe­ against commission”—that is, a
riod usually range from $400 to minimum salary based on the com­
$500 a month; brokers employed in missions which salesmen can be ex­
large firms receive somewhat higher pected to earn—plus commissions
salaries. Factors which help deter­ from additional sales. A few firms
mine salary during the training pe­ pay salesmen only salary and bo­
riod include locality of the firm, the nuses, usually determined by com­
back­ pany business.
ground, and his experience.
Earnings of securities salesmen
Once the salesman has completed working full time generally ranged
his training, earnings are usually in between $8,000 and $17,000 a year
the form of commissions from cus­ in 1970, according to the limited
tomers’ sale and purchase of securi­ data available. Many successful

governments financing construction
of new roads and other public im­



salesmen have incomes over
$25,000 a year, however. Salesmen
paid on a commission basis may re­
ceive annual bonuses when business
is good.
A securities salesman works in an
office which is the scene of much
activity. In large offices, rows of
salesmen generally sit at desks in
front of “quote boards” and wall
screens, which continually flash in­
formation on securities transactions
and prices. Most offices provide
seats so that customers and other
persons may watch the latest market
Although securities salesmen usu­
ally are not required to observe
fixed hours of work, many work ap­
proximately the same hours as oth­
ers in the business community.
Some also must adjust their time to
accommodate those customers who
can meet with them only outside
business hours—for example, at
home in the evenings or on week­

Sources of Additional Information

Further information about the
work of securities salesmen in firms
that are members of the New York
Stock Exchange and about the na­
ture of the securities business is
available from:
New York Stock Exchange, 11 Wall
St., New York, N.Y. 10005.

Information about the investment
banking business and sales positions
with investment bankers may be ob­
tained from:
Investment Bankers Association of
America, 425 13th St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20004.

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)

Nature of the Work

Salesworkers in wholesale trade
play an important part in moving
goods from the factory to the con­
sumer. Each salesman may repre­
sent a company that distributes
hundreds of similar products. A
wholesale drug company, for exam­
ple, may stock its warehouse with
many brands of drugs, soap, and
cosmetics to supply drug, variety,
and other stores that sell directly to
the consumer. In much the same
way, a wholesale building materials
distributor sells hardware and con­
struction materials to builders who
would otherwise have to deal with
many manufacturers.
At regular intervals, the salesman
visits buyers for retail, industrial,
and commercial firms, as well as
those for institutions such as schools
and hospitals. He shows them sam­
ples, pictures, or catalogs listing the
items his company stocks. The
salesman seldom urges customers to
purchase any particular product,
since he handles a very large num­
ber of items; his objective is to per­
suade buyers to become regular
customers. His success depends
upon prompt and dependable serv­
ice to keep customers well sup­
Wholesale salesmen render a va­
riety of special services that are be­
coming increasingly important. Re­
tailers sometimes depend on them
to check the store’s stock and order
items that will be needed before the
next visit. Some wholesale salesmen
assist store personnel in applying
electronic data processing systems

to their ordering and inventory
In addition, they often advise re­
tailers about advertising, pricing,
and arranging window and counter
displays. A salesman of specialized
products, such as air-conditioning
equipment, may give technical as­
sistance on installation and mainte­
Salesmen are responsible for
some paperwork and other details.
They must forward orders to the
wholesale house, prepare reports
and expense accounts, plan their
work schedule, compile lists of
prospects, make appointments, and
study literature relating to their
products. Some salesmen collect
money for their companies.

Places of Employment

mostly men, worked for wholesalers
in 1970. Wholesale houses are lo­
cated mainly in cities, but the terri­
tories assigned to salesmen may be
in any part of the country. This
territory may cover a small section
of a city having many retail stores
and industrial users; however, in
less populated regions it may cover
half a State or more.


Companies that sell foods and
food products are leading employers
of wholesale salesmen. Other large
employers are wholesalers dealing
in drugs, dry goods and apparel,
motor vehicle equipment, and
electrical appliances. Many sales­
men also work for establishments
selling machinery and building ma­
terials to industrial and business

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In hiring trainees for sales work,
most wholesalers seek young per­
sons who are outgoing and neat in
appearance. Other traits include
self-confidence, enthusiasm for the
job, and an understanding of human
nature. As in most selling jobs,
skills in arithmetic and a good mem­
ory are assets. High school gradua­
tion is the usual educational re­
quirement, although many compa­
nies selling technical and scientific
products prefer men who have spe­
cialized training beyond high school.
In some cases, an engineering de­
gree is required.
Prospective salesmen who are
college graduates usually participate
in formal training programs that
combine classroom instruction and
short rotations in various nonsell­
ing jobs. By working a few weeks in
the wholesaler’s warehouse, for ex­
ample, a new salesman may gain
first-hand experience in writing or­
ders, pricing, and locating stock.
Through cooperative programs,
some college students combine aca­
demic study and on-the-job experi­
ence. Graduates having this back­
ground often begin outside saleswork without further training.
The high school graduate may
begin his career with a wholesale
firm in a nonselling job, or he may


be hired as a sales trainee. In either
case, the beginner usually works in
several kinds of nonselling jobs be­
fore being assigned as a salesman.
He may begin in the stockroom or
shipping department to become fa­
miliar with the thousands of items
the wholesaler carries. Later he may
learn the prices of articles and dis­
count rates for goods sold in quanti­
ties. Next, he is likely to become an
“inside salesman,” writing tele­
phone orders. In this job and later
as he accompanies an experienced
salesman on calls, the trainee comes
to know some of the firm’s cus­
tomers. The time spent in these ini­
tial jobs varies among companies;
usually it takes 2 years or longer to
prepare the trainee for outside sell­
ing. After he has become familiar
with the company’s products and
techniques of selling, he is assigned
a territory.
Experienced salesmen who have
leadership qualities and sales ability
may advance to supervisor, sales
manager, or another executive posi­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
salesworkers in wholesale trade are
expected to be good through the
1970’s. In addition to new positions
created as a result of growth, thou­
sands of openings will occur each
year as salesmen retire, die, or
transfer to other kinds of work;
turnover among newly-hired sales­
workers is high.
The number of wholesale sales­
workers is expected to rise rapidly
as business increases due to popula­
tion expansion and economic
growth. Although the computer will
relieve wholesale salesmen of some
duties, an increasing proportion of

their time will be spent rendering
special services to customers.
As chain stores and other large
firms centralize their purchasing ac­
tivities, the value of the sales made
to individual customers becomes
larger and competition for sales cor­
respondingly greater. Wholesalers
can be expected to meet this com­
petition by emphasizing sales activi­

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to limited information,
most beginning salesmen earned
around $9,000 a year in 1970. Ex­
$15,000 annually, and many earned
considerably more.
Most employers pay a salary plus
a percentage commission on sales;
others pay a straight commission.
Practically all wholesale salesmen
have steady, year-round work.
However, their sales (and their
commissions) vary from month to
month because ,demand for some
products—for example, air condi­
tioners—is greater during certain
seasons. To provide salesmen with a
steady income regardless of sales,
many companies pay experienced
salesmen a “draw” against the com­
missions they can expect to earn an­
nually. Most companies furnish
each salesman a car or allowance if
he uses his own car, and reimburse­
ment for certain expenses on the
The salesman often works long,
irregular hours. Although he calls
on customers during business hours,
he may travel at night or on week­
ends to meet his schedule. How­
ever, most salesmen seldom are
away from home for more than a
few days at a time. They may spend
many evenings writing reports and
orders. Salesmen generally carry



heavy catalogs and sample cases
and are on their feet long periods of
Depending on length of service
with their employers, most salesmen
have a 2-to-4-week paid vacation.
Many are covered by company ben­
efits, including health and life insur­
ance and retirement pensions.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on jobs in wholesale
selling may be obtained directly
from local wholesale houses or from
associations of wholesalers in many
of the larger cities. If no local asso­
ciation is available, write to:
National Association of Wholesaler-

Distributors, 1725 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Sales and Marketing Executives
International, Student Education
Division, 630 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.



Workers in service occupations
police streets, serve food, put out
fires, clean homes and buildings,
and, in numerous other ways, pro­
vide services to the American peo­
ple. The more than 9.7 million
service workers who were employed
in 1970 included a wide range of oc­
cupations such as babysitters, po­
licemen, cooks, hospital attendants,
golf caddies, theatre ushers, bar­
bers, and cleaning women. The
major groups of service workers are
discussed below:
Occupations related to food prep­
aration and service. In 1970, more
than 2.7 million people, or approxi­
mately three-tenths of all service
workers, were employed in this
group which includes occupations
such as cooks and chefs, kitchen
workers, waiters and waitresses,
counter and fountain workers, and
bartenders. These workers are em­
ployed in hotels, restaurants, and
other institutions, such as hospitals,
schools, and plant cafeterias.
Building cleaning and servicing
occupations. The nearly 2 million
persons employed to clean and
provide other services in buildings
made up the second largest group of
service workers in 1970. This group
includes workers in occupations
such as janitors, charwomen, cham­
bermaids, and elevator operators.
About 1.5 million people were em­
as private
workers in 1970. Altogether they
made up the third largest group of
service workers and constituted al­
most one-fifth of all service worker
employment. Private household
workers perform tasks that are fa­
miliar to all homemakers. They pre­
pare and serve meals, make beds,
do cleaning and laundering, take

care of children, and perform other
household duties as well. (This
chapter includes a detailed state­
ment covering private household
Protective service workers, an­
other large group of service
workers, are needed to help safe­
guard lives and property. More than
950,000 workers, or one-tenth of all
service workers, were employed in
protective service occupations in
1970. The majority of these
workers are policemen, guards, or
firemen. Policemen and detectives
together account for more than
one-third of the total number of
protective service workers. Most
policemen and detectives are gov­
ernment employees, but some work
for hotels, stores, and other busi­
nesses. Guards and watchmen, an­
other large group of protective serv­
ice workers, are employed chiefly
by private companies to protect
their property and enforce company
rules and regulations. Some guards
and watchmen are employed in
jails, prisons, and other government


establishments. Firemen, also a sig­
nificant group of protective service
workers, are employed mainly by
city governments. The remaining
protective service workers are sher­
iffs and bailiffs, crossing watchmen
and bridge tenders, and marshals
and constables. This chapter in­
cludes separate statements for FBI
special agents, police officers (local
government), State police officers,
firefighters, and guards and watch­
The remaining service workers
—those concerned with providing
health care, grooming and personal
services, and people in occupations
related to entertainment and leisure
time activities—accounted for about
2.5 million workers. More than 1
million were employed in health
service occupations, which include
workers such as hospital attendants
and nurse aides. Service occupa­
tions concerned with grooming and
personal services, such as barbers
and cosmetologists, provided em­
ployment for over 800,000 workers.
Nearly 100,000 workers were em-

Nearly 10 million persons work in service occupations
Employment, 1970

(in millions)


Food preparation and service
Building cleaning and service
Private household workers
Health care
Protective service
Personal appearance
Other service




ployed in occupations related to en­
tertainment. This group includes
occupations such as ski instructors,
ushers, and check room attendants.
All other service workers, nearly
300,000, were in occupations such
as airline stewardess and travel
Some of the occupations men­
tioned briefly in this introduction
are described in greater detail later
in this chapter. They are cook and
chef, waiter and waitress, bartender,
hospital attendant, barber, and cos­
metologist. Other personal service
occupations, including the airline
stewardess, hotel bellman, human
services aide, and hotel house­
keeper and assistant, are discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training and skill requirements
differ greatly among the various
service occupations. FBI special
agents, for example, must have a
college degree. Barbers and beauty
operators need specialized voca­
tional training. Still other occupa­
tions—general maid, waitress, and
hotel bellman, for example—have
no specific educational requirements
for entry, although a high school di­
ploma is always an advantage. The
Federal Government sponsors train­
ing for many service occupations
under provisions of the Manpower
Development and Training Act.
For many service occupations,
personality traits and special abili­
ties may be as important as formal
schooling. Thus, physical strength
and endurance are a necessity for
work as a porter, life guard, or win­
dow cleaner; and a pleasing manner
and appearance are especially im­
portant for the theater usher, eleva­
tor operator, and checkroom girl.


Still other service workers, includ­
ing store and hotel detectives and
travel guides, should possess good
judgment and be skillful in dealing
with people.
Some service workers eventually
go into business for themselves—as
caterers or restaurant operators, for
example, or proprietors of barber or
beauty shops. Advancement from
service occupations that require lit­
tle specialized training or skill may
be difficult, however, particularly
for young people without a good
basic education and some knowl­
edge of the business in which they
are employed.

Employment Trends and Outlook

For many years, the number of
workers in service occupations has
been growing at about the same rate
as the labor force as a whole. Be­
tween 1960 and 1970, both in­
creased by about 20 percent.
Among service workers, health serv­
ice employment increased by nearly
two-thirds since the early 1960’s.
Employment in food services has
risen by about one-fourth; and
entertainment services, food serv­
ices, protective services, and per­
sonal appearance services by about
20 percent. Employment of private
household workers, however, de­
creased by 20 percent, despite a
strong demand for their services.
Employment in service occupa­
tions is expected to increase faster
than the labor force as a whole in
the years ahead as income levels
rise and leisure time increases. By
1980, as many as 4 million more
workers may be providing the serv­
ices that add to people’s comfort
and enjoyment and protect life and
property. As total employment
rises, however, different occupations
within the service group are likely

to be affected quite differently—
some growing very rapidly, others
only moderately, and a few decreas­
ing in size.
Most of the future employment
increase is expected to be among
policemen and other protective serv­
ice workers; attendants in hospitals
and businesses rendering profes­
sional and personal services; beauty
operators; and cooks, waiters, and
others who prepare and serve meals
outside private homes. Some of the
factors responsible for their growth
are the added medical care related
to the increase in population, espe­
cially the number of older people;
the greater need to protect life and
property as urbanization continues
and cities become more crowded;
and the more frequent use of res­
taurants, beauty parlors, and other
services by families and individuals
as income levels rise and as an in­
creasing number of housewives take
jobs outside the home.
Although service workers are
employed throughout the country,
firefighters, hospital attendants,
hotel service employees, and
amusement and recreation attend­
ants are found chiefly in the larger
towns and cities.

(D.O.T. 330.371)

Nature of the Work

Barbers provide many services
related to the care of hair, face, and
scalp. They may give hair and scalp
treatments, shaves, facial massages,
and shampoos. Their main task,



All cities and towns and many
very small communities have bar­
bershops. However, employment is
concentrated in large cities and in
the most populous States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

however, is to cut hair to satisfy
each customer.
In recent years, an increasing
proportion of men have desired ad­
ditional barbering services, such as
hairstyling and coloring. Specially
trained barbers, called “hairstyl­
ists,” are providing these services in
some barbershops and styling sa­
lons. These barbers shampoo, cut
the hair with a razor, and style it.
They also may color the hair and fit
hair pieces.
A barber builds a steady clientele
by giving good haircuts, putting cus­
tomers at ease, giving them efficient,
courteous service, and keeping a
clean, attractive shop.
Barbers keep their barbering in­
struments sterilized and in good
condition. They also clean their
work areas and may sweep the

shop. Those who own or manage a
shop have additional responsibilities
such as ordering supplies, paying
bills, keeping records, and hiring

Places of Employment

An estimated 180,000 barbers
were employed in 1970; most of
them were men. More than half of
all barbers own and operate their
own shops. Most barbers work in
small shops, either as the owner or
with one other barber. Many bar­
bers also work in large shops in
shopping centers, hotels, or office
buildings. Some barbers work
in combination barber-and-beauty
shops; a few work for government
agencies and hospitals.

To obtain a license, which all
States require, a candidate must
have graduated from a State ap­
proved barber school.
In addition, he must meet certain
health requirements, usually be at
least 16 (in some States 18) years
old, and have completed the eighth
grade. All but a very few States re­
quire the beginner to take an exami­
nation for an apprentice license;
then, usually after working 1 or 2
years as an apprentice, he takes a
second examination for his license
as a registered barber. The exami­
nations usually include both a writ­
ten test and a demonstration of the
applicant’s ability to cut hair. The
fees charged for these examinations
generally range from $5 to $25. A
few States do not require a fee for
their apprentice examination. Bar­
bers who move to another State
must meet the licensing require­
ments of that State.
Barber training is offered in many
public and private schools and a few
vocational schools. Courses usually
last 6 to 11 months and include
from 1,000 to 2,000 hours of in­
struction. The trainee customarily
purchases his own tools which cost
$100 or more. He studies the basic
services—haircutting, shaving, mas­
saging, and facial and scalp treat­
ments—and, under supervision,
practices these services on fellow
students and customers in school
“clinics.” Besides attending lectures
on barber services and the use and
care of instruments, the student



takes courses in anatomy, sanita­
tion, and hygiene, and learns how to
recognize certain skin conditions.
Instruction is also given in sales­
manship and general business prac­
tices. Advanced courses are availa­
ble in some localities for registered
barbers who wish to specialize in
hair styling and coloring.
A beginner may locate his first
job through the barber school he at­
tended, or through the local bar­
ber’s union or employer’s associa­
Some experienced barbers ad­
vance by becoming managers of
large shops or by opening their own
shops. A few, who meet the re­
quirements, may teach at barber
schools. Barbers who go into busi­
ness for themselves must have the
capital to buy or rent a shop and in­
stall equipment. The required capi­
tal differs, because some owners
buy used equipment and fixtures at
reduced prices, whereas others pay
higher prices for new equipment.
Equipping a one-chair shop with
new equipment usually costs from
$1,500 to $2,800.
Dealing with customers requires
patience and a better-than-average
disposition. Good health and stam­
ina also are important because a
barber must stand for long periods
and work with both hands at shoul­
der level.

Employment Outlook

Employment of barbers is ex­
pected to grow slowly through the
1970’s. Most job openings will result
from the need to replace experienced
barbers who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work. Replace­
ment needs in this occupation are
relatively high because barbers are
somewhat older, on the average,
than workers in other occupations.

Employment opportunities for
barbers have been limited in recent
years by the trend to longer hair. In
the future, however, the effect of
this trend is expected to be more
than offset by population increases.
Employment also may be stimulated
by the growing popularity of hair
styling for men.
The small shop with only one or
two barbers will probably remain
the most common type of establish­
ment; however, the continued
growth of suburban communities
should result in opportunities to
open large shops and expand staffs
in established shops in these areas.

days, but during slack periods he
may have time off for personal mat­
ters. Some barbers, however, are
now requiring appointments to reg­
ulate their working hours. Under
some union contracts, barbers re­
ceive 1- or 2-week paid vacations,
insurance, and medical benefits.
The principal union which organ­
izes barbers—both employees and
shopowners—is the Journeymen
Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetolo­
gists and Proprietors’ International
Union of America. The principal
trade association which represents
and organizes shopowners and man­
agers is the Associated Master Bar­
bers and Beauticians of America.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Sources of Additional Information

Barbers receive income from
commissions or wages and from
tips. Most barbers who are not shop
owners normally receive 65 to 75
percent of the money they take in; a
few are paid straight salaries.
Weekly earnings of experienced
barbers (including tips), generally
ranged between $150 and $175 in
1970 according to limited informa­
tion available. A few expert bar­
bers, as well as some barbers who
operated their own shops, earned
more than $250 a week. Apprentice
barbers usually earned about $85 to
$125 a week.
Earnings depend on the size and
location of the shop, customers’ in­
come levels and tipping habits, com­
petition from other barbershops, the
barber’s skill at his trade, his ability
to attract and hold regular custom­
ers, and the prices he charges for
his services.
Most full-time barbers work
more than 40 hours a week; a work­
week of over 50 hours is not un­
common. A barber may have a
steady stream of customers during
peak hours and especially on Satur­

Information on State licensing re­
quirements and approved barber
schools may be obtained from the
State Board of barber examiners or
other State authority at each State
General information on training
facilities, and State licensing laws
may also be obtained from:
National Association of Barber
Schools, Inc., 750 Third Ave.,
Huntington, W. Va. 25701.

Additional information on this
occupation is also available from:
Associated Master Barbers and
Beauticians of America, 219
Greenwich Rd., P.O. Box 17782,
Charlotte, N.C. 28211.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers,
Cosmetologists, and Proprietors’
International Union of America,
1141 North Delaware St., India­
napolis, Ind. 46207.



(D.O.T. 332.271 and .381;
331.878; and 339.371)

salon, in addition to working as an
operator, usually performs a num­
ber of managerial duties, such as
recordkeeping, property mainte­
nance, control of supplies, and
supervision of employees.

Nature of the Work

Cosmetologists shampoo, cut, set,
style, straighten, bleach, and tint
hair and give permanent waves.
They also may give manicures and
scalp and facial treatments, provide
makeup analysis, shape eyebrows,
and clean and style wigs and hair
pieces. Other duties include making
appointments with patrons, cleaning
their equipment, and sanitizing im­
plements. Cosmetologists are also
called beauty operators, hairdress­
ers, or beauticians.

Places of Employment

Approximately 485,000 people
were employed as hairdressers and
cosmetologists in 1970; about 10
percent were men. The proportion
of part-time to full-time workers
was relatively high.
Most cosmetologists are employed
in salons which are operated as in­
dependent establishments or in con­
junction with hotels and department
and specialty stores. Smaller num­
bers work in a variety of other es­
tablishments—for example, in mo­
tion picture and television studios,
in hospitals, and on ocean liners.
Although employment is concen­
trated in urban areas, many opera­
tors work in small towns and rural
areas in all parts of the country.
Most beauty salons are small and
have fewer than four employees.
More than half of all beauty salons
are owner-operated.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Beauty operators may specialize
in different phases of the work such
as manicurist, tint specialist, or hair
stylist. Many men employed as cos­
metologists are hair stylists.
The owner-operator of a beauty

All States require that beauty op­
erators be licensed. Before appli­
cants are eligible to take State
licensing examinations in the theory
and practice of cosmetology, they
usually must be at least 16 years of
age, present certificates of good
health, and have completed at least
the 10th grade—many states require
a high school diploma. Successful
completion of a State-approved cos­
metology course is recognized as
adequate preparation for these ex­

aminations in all States; in some, a
period of apprenticeship may be
substituted. Most States provide for
reciprocity, whereby operators li­
censed to work in one State can
move to another and continue their
work without taking an examination
to qualify for another license.
About 3,500 public vocational
schools and private schools offer
training which meets State licensing
requirements for cosmetologists. In
many of them, instruction preparing
students for a general operator’s li­
cense is available in evening classes
as well as in full-time day classes.
Many daytime courses offered by
public and private schools require
from 6 months to a year to com­
plete. Other public school courses,
which include academic subjects re­
quired for a high school diploma,
last from 2 to 3 years. Apprentice
training usually continues over 1 or
2 years. Many States issue special
manicurists’ licenses which require
substantially fewer hours of training
than general operator’s licenses.
Both public and private school
training programs include classroom
study, lectures, demonstrations, and
practical work. Beginning students
usually practice by working on each
other or on manikins and, when
they have satisfactorily completed a
period of preliminary training, they
may practice on patrons in school
“clinics.” Practically all beauty
schools help their students* find jobs
after graduation.
Some cosmetologists start as
manicurists or shampooers, while
others begin as all-round operators
performing a variety of services.
Advancement may come in higher
earnings, as operators gain experi­
ence and build up a steady clientele,
or as they become skilled specialists
in one or more phases of the work.
For those who wish to specialize,
advanced courses in hair styling,



hair coloring, and other types of
work are available in many locali­
ties, sometimes offered by public or
private schools, and sometimes by
manufacturers of beauty prepara­
tions or by other individuals and or­
ganizations. Experienced operators
may also advance to positions in
which they manage large salons or
open salons of their own. Others ad­
vance to teaching positions in cos­
metology schools, or use their
knowledge and skills in some differ­
ent type of employment—working
as demonstrators for manufacturers
of cosmetics, for example, or as
beauty editors for newspapers and
magazines, or inspectors for State
cosmetology boards.
Cosmetologists must keep abreast
of changing hair styles and beauty
techniques. Ability to get along with
people is also important, as are
good grooming, dexterity, a sense of
form and artistry, and willingness to
follow patrons’ instructions. An op­
erator’s job also calls for physical
stamina, because much standing is
normally required.
Operators usually furnish their
own uniforms; a few salons require
them to furnish brushes, combs, and

Employment Outlook

Through the 1970’s, job oppor­
tunities are expected to be very
good for newcomers to this field, as
well as for experienced cosmetolo­
gists and those who are seeking
part-time work. Employment in this
occupation is expected to continue
to expand very rapidly. Among the
factors responsible for this expected
employment growth are the popula­
tion increase and the more frequent
use of beauty salons as income lev­
els rise and more women take jobs
outside the home.

In addition to new job opportuni­
ties created by growth, thousands of
replacements will be needed as cos­
metologists retire or stop working
for other reasons. Still other open­
ings will become available as jobs
are vacated by workers leaving to
enter other kinds of employment.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Many cosmetologists are paid on
a straight commission basis. Others
receive a salary plus commission
and still others, a straight salary.
Estimating total earnings is difficult
because, in addition to salaries and
commissions, most cosmetologists
receive tips, and tipping practices
vary in different localities. Earnings
of cosmetologists also depend on
experience, speed of performance,
skill, location of the salon, and the
ability to satisfy patrons and build
up a clientele.
Many beginning operators earn
between $65 and $90 a week, ac­
cording to limited information avail­
able. A very few top stylists and
others in highly specialized jobs
may earn $300 or more a week.
Most full-time operators work 40
hours or longer a week, which usu­
ally includes late afternoon and Sat­
urday work. Many part-time opera­
tors are also employed during these
busy periods.
In many large salons, department
stores, and hotels, operators may
participate in group life and health
insurance and other employee bene­
fit plans sponsored by the employer.
Some establishments allow their
employees annual paid vacations of
at least 1 week after a year’s serv­
The most active union in this oc­
cupational field is the Journeymen
Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetolo­
gists and Proprietors’ International

Union of America. Other organiza­
tions in the field are the National
Hairdressers and Cosmetologists
Association, Inc., which includes
both shopowners and operators;
The Associated Master Barbers and
Beauticians of America, represent­
ing salon owners and managers; the
National Association of Cosmetol­
ogy Schools, Inc. representing
school owners and teachers; and the
National Beauty Culturists’ League,
made up of Negro operators, teach­
ers, managers, and salon owners.
Sources of Additional Information

State boards of cosmetology can
supply information about approved
training schools and requirements
for licensing.
Additional information about ca­
reers in beauty culture, and State li­
censing requirements, can be ob­
tained from:
National Beauty Career Center,
3839 White Plains Rd., Bronx,
N.Y. 10467.

General information about cos­
metology may be obtained from:
National Hairdressers and Cosmetol­
ogists Association, 3510 Olive
Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63103.
Journeymen Barbers International
Union, 1141 North Delaware St.,
Indianapolis, Ind. 46207.

(D.O.T. 313.131 through .887; 314.381
through .878; and 315.131 through .381)

Nature of the Work

The nature of a cook’s job de­
pends partly on where he works.
There is a good deal of difference,


for example, in preparing food for
students in a high school cafeteria,
for passengers on a jet airliner, or
for patients in a hospital. Similarly,
the “home cooking” which is the
trademark of many small establish­
ments is far different from the elab­
orate cuisine featured in some
cosmopolitan restaurants; and the
cook who works in a steak house
prepares food that is quite different
from that prepared by the cook in a
restaurant which serves Chinese
A cook’s duties also depend on
the size of the establishment in
which he works. In many small res­
taurants, one cook—perhaps aided
by a short order cook and one or
two kitchen helpers—prepares all
the foods. Often, the menu consists
of a few dishes prepared on a short
order basis, plus pies and other
baked goods purchased at a bakery.
Large eating places are more
likely to have varied menus and to


prepare on the premises all the food
served. The kitchen staff often in­
cludes several cooks—sometimes
called assistant cooks—and many
kitchen helpers. Each cook usually
has a special assignment and often
a special job title—pastry cook, fry
cook, roast cook, vegetable cook, or
sauce cook, for example. The head
cook or chef—or, in a large restau­
rant or hotel, the executive chef—
coordinates the work of the kitchen
staff and often may take direct
charge of certain kinds of food
preparation. He decides on the size
of the food portions served, and
sometimes plans menus and pur­
chases food supplies. In addition, he
has the important responsibility of
seeing that the dishes served taste
good and are attractive. Because of
their special skill in creating new
dishes and improving the flavor of
familiar ones, some chefs have ac­
quired national and international
reputations for themselves and for
the restaurants and hotels where
they work.

Places of Employment

Approximately 740,000 cooks
and chefs were employed in 1970.
Most of these workers were restau­
rant cooks, but large numbers were
employed in public and private
schools and in hotels and hospitals.
Government agencies, manufactur­
ing plants, private clubs, and many
other kinds of establishments also
employed cooks and chefs.
Three out of every 5 of these
workers are women. About half of
the cooks in restaurants, and the
great majority of those employed in
schools and hospitals, are women.
Men, on the other hand, outnumber
women as cooks in hotels and pri­
vate clubs. Also, most head cooks
and practically all chefs are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most cooks—particularly those
who work in small eating places—
acquire their skills on the job while
employed as kitchen helpers. Less
frequently, they are trained as ap­
prentices under trade union con­
tracts or the training programs
which some large hotels and restau­
rants conduct for new employees.
Young people seeking jobs in
large restaurants and hotels will find
it advantageous to have had courses
in restaurant cooking because hir­
ing standards are often high in
these establishments. Many voca­
tional schools—both public and pri­
vate—offer this kind of training to
high school students. Other courses,
open in some cases only to high
school graduates, are given under
the guidance of restaurant associa­
tions, hotel management groups,
and trade unions, and in technical
schools and colleges. These courses
range from a few months to 2 years
or more in length. Programs to train
unemployed and underemployed
workers for jobs as cooks were op­
erating in several cities in 1970
under the Manpower Development
and Training Act.
Although curriculums may vary,
a student usually spends a major
part of his time learning food prepa­
ration through actual practice in
well-equipped kitchens. The student
receives instruction in baking, broil­
ing, and other methods of preparing
food, and in the use and care of
kitchen equipment. Instruction may
be given in selecting and storing
food, determining the size of por­
tions, planning menus, and buying
food supplies in quantity. Hotel and
restaurant sanitation, and public
health aspects of food handling, are
also taught.
Many school districts provide



on-the-job training opportunities for
their cafeteria workers who wish to
become cooks. In addition, they
may conduct cooking workshops
during the summer, and frequently
select school cooks from employees
who have participated.
Inexperienced workers usually
can qualify as assistant cooks or fry
cooks after several months of onthe-job training, but acquiring all­
round skills necessary for advancing
to head cook or chef in a fine res­
taurant often takes several years.
Many cooks acquire higher paying
positions and new cooking skills by
moving from restaurant to restau­
rant. Some eventually go into busi­
ness as caterers or restaurant own­
ers; other may become instructors
at vocational schools and other in­
Cleanliness, the ability to work
under pressure during busy periods,
physical stamina, and a keen sense
of taste and smell are among the
important qualifications needed for
this occupation. A cook or chef in a
supervisory position must not only
be an expert cook, but must also be
able to organize and direct kitchen
operations effectively. Health certif­
icates, indicating that cooks and
chefs are free from communicable
diseases, are required by the laws of
many States.

Employment Outlook

Employment of cooks and chefs
is expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s as new restau­
rants, hotels, and other food estab­
lishments open. Besides job open­
ings resulting from employment
growth, thousands will result each
year from the need to replace expe­
rienced cooks and chefs who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­

Continued expansion in the busi­
ness of serving meals away from
home is expected because of popu­
lation growth and relatively rapid
increases likely among some groups
who customarily eat away from
home. Large increases are expected
in the number of married women
working outside their homes and the
number of students attending
schools and colleges. In hospitals
and other institutions, a continued
increase is foreseen in the number
of patients, attendants, and others
who regularly eat on the premises.
In addition, travel for business and
pleasure is expected to increase; as
a result, more people will be pa­
tronizing eating places.
Small restaurants and other eat­
ing places where the food prepara­
tion is fairly simple will provide the
greatest number of starting jobs as
cooks. Beginners—especially those
having training in restaurant cook­
ing— also will find starting positions
available in those hotel and restau­
rant kitchens where foods are pre­
pared more elaborately. The short­
age of highly skilled cooks and
chefs is acute, and employment op­
portunities for well qualified begin­
ners will be especially good.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Limited wage data from unionmanagement contracts covering eat­
ing and drinking places in large
metropolitan areas provide an indi­
cation of earnings for cooks and
chefs in 1970. In these contracts,
straight-time hourly pay rates gen­
erally ranged from $2.22 to $4.65
for chefs; $2.02 to $4.12 for cooks
of various types (such as pastry,
fry, roast, and vegetable cooks);
and $1.47 to $3.86 for assistant
cooks. However, most cooks and
chefs are not covered by union-

management contracts. Wages also
vary greatly according to geographic
location and type of establishment.
In large restaurants and hotels many
cooks and chefs earn considerably
more than the minimum rates. Some
chefs with national reputations
make more than $25,000 a year.
In addition to their wages, restau­
rant cooks usually receive at least
one free meal a day and are fur­
nished with uniforms. Paid vaca­
tions and holidays are common, and
various types of health insurance
programs also are provided. Sched­
uled hours in restaurants include
late evening, holiday, and weekend
work, and range from 40 to 48 a
week. Cooks employed in public
and private schools work during the
school year only—usually 9 months.
The hours worked frequently coin­
cide with the school’s hours.
Many kitchens are air condi­
tioned, have convenient work areas,
and are furnished with modern
equipment and laborsaving devices.
Others—particularly kitchens in
small eating places—are often not
as well-equipped and working con­
ditions may be less desirable. In
kitchens of all kinds, however,
cooks spend long periods on their
feet and may be required to lift
heavy pots and other objects or
work near hot ovens or ranges.
The principal union organizing
cooks and chefs is the Hotel & Res­
taurant Employees and Bartenders
International Union.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the Hotel & Res­
taurant Employees and Bartenders
International Union, and local
offices of the State employment
service. The State employment serv­



ice also may be a source of infor­
mation about the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act and other
training programs.
General information about res­
taurant cooks and chefs is available
from the:
Culinary Institute of America, Inc.
393 Prospect Street, NW., New
Haven, Conn. 06511
Educational Director, National Res­
taurant Association, 153 North
Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111.
The Educational Institute, American
Hotel and Motel Association, 221
West 57th Street, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

A list of public and private
schools offering courses in cooking
may be obtained from:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, 1522 K
St., N.W., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 311.138 through .878)

Nature of the Work

Whether they work in small
lunchrooms or fashionable restau­
rants, all waiters and waitresses
have jobs that are essentially the
same. They take customers’ orders,
serve food and beverages, make out
customers’ checks, and sometimes
take payments. The manner in
which waiters and waitresses go
about their work may vary consid­
erably, however, because food serv­
ice in very small eating places dif­
fers from that in large ones; and
service in restaurants that empha­
size speed and efficiency is different

from that where dining is formal
and leisurely.
In addition to waiting on tables,
waiters and waitresses usually per­
form a variety of other duties.
Often, they set up and clear tables,
and carry dishes back to the
kitchen. In very small restaurants,
they may combine waiting on tables
with counter service, preparing
sandwiches, or cashiering.
However, in large restaurants and
in places where meal service is
formal, waiters and waitresses are
relieved of most of those additional
duties. Busboys and busgirls often
set up tables, keep water glasses
filled, and perform other routine
tasks, leaving the waiters and wait­
resses free to devote practically all
of their time to serving guests.
In those eating places where
meals are served elaborately and a
great deal of emphasis is placed on
the satisfaction and comfort of each

guest, a waiter may be called upon
to advise about the choice of a wine
or answer questions about the prep­
aration of items on the menu.
Sometimes, from a side table, he
may prepare and serve salads or
flame certain dishes such as crepes

Places of Employment

More than a million waiters and
waitresses were employed in 1970.
The great majority—about 9 out of
every 10—were women. Many
waiters and waitresses worked part
Approximately four-fifths of the
waiters and waitesses were em­
ployed in restaurants and other re­
tail establishments that serve food.
Hotels and educational institutions
of all kinds also employed many of
these workers. Jobs for waiters


tended to be concentrated in those
restaurants, hotel dining rooms, pri­
vate clubs, and other establishments
where meal service was formal.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although many waiters and wait­
resses do not have extensive school­
ing, more and more employers pre­
fer that beginners have at least 2 or
3 years of high school. Home eco­
nomics courses and special courses
for waiters and waitresses, which
are offered by some public and pri­
vate schools, provide good prepara­
tion. Restaurant associations also
offer training in this field. Unem­
ployed and underemployed workers
are trained for jobs as waiters and
waitresses in several cities under
provisions of the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act.
Practically all newly hired
workers without previous experi­
ence undergo a period of on-the-job
training, during which they learn
about the type of food service of­
fered in their employer’s establish­
ment. Sometimes they work as
busboys or busgirls before being as­
signed a station as a waiter or wait­
Waiters and waitresses must be
able to make the calculations neces­
sary to total guests’ checks and
compute taxes. Personal appear­
ance, a pleasant manner, an even
disposition, and the ability to cope
with the rush of business that usu­
ally occurs at mealtimes are very
important. In a few restaurants,
knowledge of a foreign language is
desirable. Waiters and waitresses
often are required by State law to
obtain health certificates to assure
that they are free of communicable
diseases. Physical stamina also is


needed because they are on their
feet during their working hours.
In many small eating places, op­
portunities for promotion are lim­
ited. However, after gaining experi­
ence, a waiter or waitress may
transfer to a larger restaurant where
earnings and prospects for advance­
ment are likely to be better. Ad­
vancement may be to a position as
cashier or to supervisory work as a
head waiter or hostess. Some super­
visory workers eventually advance
to managerial positions.

Employment Outlook

Employment of waiters and wait­
resses is expected to increase mod­
erately throughout the 1970’s. Most
openings, however, will result from
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or leave
their jobs for other reasons.
A substantial increase in the con­
sumption of food outside the home
is expected as a result of population
growth, higher personal incomes,
more vacation and business travel,
and other factors. Eating places
which employ waiters and wait­
resses, however, will share only part
of the additional business. Some of
it will be handled by the growing
number of food and beverage vend­
ing machines, and some of it will go
to the drug stores, variety stores,
and cafeterias where meal service is
provided by counter and fountain
workers instead of waiters and wait­
Most job openings will be for
waitresses. The turnover of wait­
resses is particularly high because
many of them leave their jobs to
take care of family responsibilities.
Jobs for waiters have become more
concentrated in formal restaurants
where hiring standards are high and
turnover is usually low, and this

trend is expected to continue. Both
waiters and waitresses seeking jobs
in formal restaurants will find com­
petition keen for the jobs that be­
come available. Beginners will find
their best opportunities for employ­
ment in the thousands of restaurants
where food service is less elaborate.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Because most waiters and wait­
resses receive tips from the guests
they serve, as well as wages paid by
their employers, estimating average
weekly earnings is difficult. Wages
generally are lower than in other
occupations, and the amount re­
ceived in tips is usually somewhat
greater than wages. Tips vary
greatly in amount, however, de­
pending on the skill of the waiter or
waitress, the tipping customs in the
community, and especially on the
type of restaurant. Because tips
often average between 10 and 15
percent of guests’ checks, earnings
from tips are usually highest in res­
taurants where prices are also high­
Limited data from union-man­
agement contracts in effect in 1970,
covering eating and drinking places
in several large cities, provide an
indication of earnings (excluding
tips). In these contracts, straighttime hourly rates for waiters and
waitresses ranged from $0.82 to
$2.15. However, many waiters and
waitresses are not covered by unionmanagement contracts, and hourly
rates in large cities generally are
higher than those in small towns.
The majority of waiters and wait­
resses receive free meals at work.
Many also are furnished with uni­
forms. Paid vacations, after qualify­
ing periods of service, are custom­
ary, and various types of health, in­



surance, and pension plans also may
be offered.
Waiters and waitresses often
work split shifts—that is, they work
for several hours during the middle
of the day, take a few hours off in
the afternoon, and then return to
their jobs for the evening hours.
Scheduled hours often include work
on holidays and weekends. Large
restaurants and dining rooms usual­
ly are furnished comfortably with
convenient working areas, and are
often air conditioned. Workers in
other eating places—particularly
small ones—may find working con­
ditions less desirable, and the pace
of work very rushed at times. In
restaurants of all types, workers
often spend long periods on their
feet and may be required to lift
heavy trays. Work hazards include
the possibility of burns'and cuts.
The principal union organizing
waiters and waitresses is the Hotel
& Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the union pre­
viously mentioned, and local offices
of the State employment service.
The State employment service also
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act and other pro­
grams that provide training oppor­
tunities. General information about
restaurant waiters and waitresses is
available from:
Educational Director, National Res­
taurant Association, 1530 North
Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 312.878)

Nature of the Work

Although they may work in set­
tings as varied as a neighborhood
tavern, a discotheque, or a luxuri­
ous hotel lounge, all bartenders per­
form essentially similar functions.
Their primary duties are to mix and
serve a variety of alcoholic and non­
alcoholic beverages by combining
ingredients such as liquor, soda,
water, sugar, bitters, and fruit gar­
nishes. They also serve wine and
draft or bottled beer.
Some bartenders handle the
drink-buying transaction from be­
ginning to end. They take the order,
prepare the drink, collect the pay­
ment, and make proper change.
Others, who work at service bars,
simply prepare the drinks that are
served by waiters or waitresses.
In addition to preparing and serv­
ing drinks, bartenders may be re­
sponsible for ordering and maintain­
ing an inventory of liquor and sup­

plies; preparing an attractive display
of bottled goods and glasses; wash­
ing glassware; and cleaning the bar.
They also may prepare fruit for gar­
nishing drinks (for example, slice
limes and oranges) and prepare and
serve appetizers for the patrons at
the bar.
Larger establishments customar­
ily employ bar boys or bartender
helpers (D.O.T. 312.887) who as­
sist bartenders by replenishing sup­
plies such as liquor, fruit, and ice;
stocking refrigerators with wines
and beer; replacing empty beer kegs
with full ones; and washing equip­
ment and polishing fixtures. In addi­
tion, they mop floors and remove
empty bottles and trash.

Places of Employment

Approximately 160,000 bartend­
ers were employed in 1970. Nearly
one-third of them were self-em­
ployed. Most bartenders work in
restaurants and bars; others work in
hotels, entertainment and recreation
places, and private clubs.
Several thousand persons tend
bar part-time. They usually have
full-time jobs in other occupations
or attend college. Some of them
serve drinks at banquets and private
parties; bartenders’ unions often are
clearing houses for these temporary
jobs. About 1 out of every 4 bar­
tenders is a woman. Most of them
work in small establishments.
Most bartenders are employed in
the urban population centers of
New York, California, and other
large States, but many also are em­
ployed in small communities. Vaca­
tion resorts offer seasonal employ­
ment, and some bartenders alter­
nate between summer and winter
resorts rather than remain in one
area the entire year.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most bartenders learn their trade
on the job. Practice in preparing
drinks at home can be helpful, but
more practical experience can be
gained by working as a bar boy or
bus boy. They have an opportunity
to observe the bartender at work;
and, when he has time to give in­
structions, can learn how to prepare
drinks and perform other tasks.
Working as a waiter also can be val­
uable training for this occupation.
Some private schools offer short
courses in bartending that include
instructions on State and local laws
and regulations, cocktail recipes, at­
tire and conduct, and how to prop­
erly stock the bar. Some schools
maintain a placement service for
their students.
Manual dexterity, accuracy, and
speed are required in order to pre­
pare the proper mix, especially at
times when the demand is heavy.
Physical stamina is important, be­
cause the bartender works on his
feet and may have to lift heavy kegs
or cases. Because bartenders deal
with the public, a pleasant personal­
ity is an important qualification.
Twenty-one is generally the mini­
mum age required by law for em­
ployment as a bartender. Some em­
ployers, however, prefer their bar­
tenders to be at least twenty-five.
Some States require bartenders to
obtain health certificates to assure
that they are free of communicable
diseases. In some instances, they
must be bonded.
Beginners usually find the best
entry opportunities in small estab­
lishments and resorts. After gaining
experience, a bartender may trans­
fer to a larger establishment where
earning prospects are likely to be
better. In these places they may ad­
vance to head bartender or food

and beverage manager. Some bar­
tenders with business know-how be­
come proprietors of their own es­

Employment Outlook

Employment of bartenders is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. In addition to
employment growth, several thou­
sand job openings will arise an­
nually from the need to replace ex­
perienced bartenders who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
Most of the increase in demand
for bartenders will occur as new
restaurants and hotels are estab­
lished to meet the needs of a grow­
ing population. Higher average in­
comes and more leisure time have
resulted in increased vacation
travel, and extensive business travel
has become common. Also, with a
greater proportion of women in the
labor force, families often find din­
ing out a welcome convenience.
These factors are expected to con­
tribute to a significant increase in
consumption of food and beverages
outside the home.
While technology has had little
effect on this occupation, an auto­
mated liquor and cocktail mixing
unit recently has been introduced
and is being tested at several loca­
tions. The unit delivers a predeter­
mined amount of liquor, or mixes
and dispenses a variety of cocktails
when the bartender presses a but­
ton. This type of device could in­
crease bartender efficiency and also
reduce skill requirements.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Limited data from union-man­
agement contracts in the restaurant

industry indicate that straight-time
hourly earnings of bartenders
ranged from $2.09 to $3.87 in
1970, depending on experience, ge­
ographic location, and type of es­
tablishment. In addition to salaries,
bartenders at public bars receive
tips that generally increase earnings
substantially. Since bartenders at
service bars do not receive tips,
some establishments provide wage
differentials to increase their earn­
Bartenders often receive free
meals at work and may be furnished
bar jackets or complete uniforms.
Paid holidays and vacations are cus­
tomary as are various types of em­
ployee benefits such as health and
accident insurance and pension
Many bartenders work more than
40 hours a week, but there is a
trend toward fewer hours. Night
and weekend work and split shifts
are common. For many bartenders,
however, the opportunity to social­
ize with customers and the possibil­
ity of someday managing or owning
a bar or restaurant more than offset
these disadvantages. For others, the
opportunity to get part-time em­
ployment is important.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from locals of
the Hotel & Restaurant Employees
and Bartenders International Union,
which is the principal union organ­
izing bartenders. Additional infor­
mation about job opportunities may
be available at local offices of the
State employment service.



(D.O.T. 372.868)

Nature of the Work

Guards and watchmen patrol and
inspect property to protect it against
fire, theft, vandalism, and illegal
entry. The specific duties of these
workers, however, vary by size,
type, and location of employer.
In office buildings, banks, hospi­
tals, and department stores, guards
and watchmen are responsible for
the security of records, merchan­
dise, money, and office machines
and other equipment. Department
store guards may work with plainclothesmen in watching for shop­
lifters and spotting theft by store
At ports and railroads, guards
and watchmen protect merchandise
in shipment as well as property and

equipment. They make sure that
nothing is stolen while being loaded
or unloaded, and guard against fires,
prowlers, and trouble among work
crews. Sometimes, they examine pa­
pers of truckers hauling goods, or
direct and control traffic.
Guards who work in public build­
ings such as museums or art gal­
leries, protect paintings or exhibits
from fire, theft, or damage. They
also answer routine questions asked
by visitors, and sometimes guide
In large factories, aircraft plants,
and defense installations where val­
uable information must be pro­
tected, some guards are assigned to
entrances where they check the cre­
dentials of persons and vehicles en­
tering and leaving the premises.
Similar duties often are performed
by university, park, or recreation
guards who also may issue parking
permits and direct traffic.
At social affairs, sports events,

conventions, and other public gath­
erings, guards maintain order, give
information, and watch for suspi­
cious persons.
In a large organization, guards
may serve under a security officer
who is in charge of the guard force;
in a small organization, a single
watchman may be responsible for
security. Patrolling is usually done
on foot, but if the property is large,
guards or watchmen may make
their rounds by car or motor
As they make their rounds,
guards and watchmen check all
doors and windows, see that no un­
authorized persons remain after
working hours, and insure that fire
extinguishers, alarms, sprinkler sys­
tems, furnaces, and various electri­
cal and plumbing systems are work­
ing properly.
Although most guards and watch­
men are not expected to do jani­
torial work, they sometimes set
thermostats or turn on machines for
Guards and watchmen usually
are uniformed and often carry a
nightstick or gun. They also may
carry a flashlight, whistle, two-way
radio, and a watch clock—a device
that indicates the time they reach
various check-points.

Places of Employment

Over 200,000 guards and watch­
men were employed in 1970; about
90 percent were men.
The largest number of guards and
watchmen are found in office build­
ings, defense installations and other
government buildings, hospitals,
nursing homes, hotels, banks, and
schools. Many guards and watch­
men in these places work for private
guard companies. Large numbers of
guards and watchmen also work in


various manufacturing industries
such as automobiles, aerospace,
steel, and rubber.
Although guard and watchman
jobs are found throughout the coun­
try, the largest numbers are located
in highly industrialized areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

These workers have no specific
educational requirements but most
employers prefer guards and watch­
men who are high school graduates.
Employers also seek people who
have experience in the military po­
lice or in State and local police de­
partments. Applicants who have less
than a high school education usually
are tested for their reading and
writing ability, and their compe­
tence in following written and oral
instructions. Candidates for guard
and watchman jobs in the Federal
Government must be veterans, have
some experience as guards, and
pass a written examination. For
most Federal guard positions, ap­
plicants must qualify in the use of
firearms. A driver’s permit is re­
quired for some jobs.
Many companies give newly
hired guards pre-job instruction and
several weeks of on-the-job train­
ing. For example, guards may be
taught the use of firearms, the ad­
ministration of first aid, the han­
dling of various emergencies, and
ways to spot and deal with various
security problems.
Applicants are expected to have
good character references; no police
record; good health, especially hear­
ing and vision; and good personal
habits. Although many companies
require guards to meet height and
weight requirements, no age limits
are specified. Depending upon the
material or the property being pro­


tected, some employers prefer an
older person as a guard, while oth­
ers look for the young applicants
who may better cope with intruders.
Mental alertness, emotional sta­
bility, and physical stamina are pre­
requisites for guards and watchmen
since they must be aware of any­
thing unusual and make split-second
decisions when quick action is im­
portant and outside help is not
available. Guards and watchmen
must be dependable since they often
are the only ones guarding property.
Because guards and watchmen often
are the first company employee to
have contact with the public, they
should be neat, pleasant, and cour­
Although guards and watchmen
in small companies receive periodic
salary increases, advancement is
likely to be limited. However, the
military-type ranking of guards—
from patrolman, through interme­
diate ranks, to captain—which ex­
ists in most big companies and
public agencies, provides advance­
ment in position and salary. Guards
with some college education may
advance to jobs involving adminis­
trative duties or to prevention and
disclosure of espionage and sabo­

Employment Outlook

The number of guards and
watchmen is expected to grow mod­
erately through the 1970’s. Con­
tinuing increases in the number of
plants, offices, banks, retail stores,
and educational institutions needed
to serve a growing population will
create more jobs for guards and
In addition, the mounting inci­
dence of crime and vandalism is ex­
pected to increase the need for more
guards and watchmen. Similarly, so­

cial unrest also would necessitate
the increased use of these workers.
In addition to new jobs resulting
from employment growth, many
thousands of openings will occur
each year as workers retire, die, or
leave their jobs for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of guards and watch­
men in private industry varied
widely in 1970. Salaries ranged
from a low of $74 for inexperienced
persons working a 40-hour week in
small protective service agencies, to
over $180 a week for experienced
workers and supervisors in large in­
dustrial plants.
Entrance salaries for guards em­
ployed in the Federal Government
were $5,212 a year in 1970; experi­
enced guards often earned $5,853 a
year. Top supervisory guard posi­
tions in the Federal Government
may pay up to $15,000 annually.
These workers usually receive over­
time pay as well as a wage differen­
tial for the second and third shift.
Guards and watchmen usually re­
ceive benefits such as paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and insurance and
pension plans.
About two-thirds of all guards
and watchmen work at night; the
usual shift lasts 8 hours. Some em­
ployers, however, have three shifts,
and in such cases guards are often
rotated to divide daytime work,
weekends, and holidays equally.
Usually, guards and watchmen do
not take a regular lunch break; in­
stead, they eat on the job.
Working conditions vary and
generally depend on whether most
of the work is indoors or outdoors.
In addition, since guards often work
alone, they have no one to call if an
accident or injury occurs. To reduce
this hazard, some large firms use a



central station watchman’s reporting
service which enables guards and
watchmen to be in constant contact
with the central station outside the
plant. If they fail to transmit an ex­
pected signal, the central station in­

(D.O.T. 375.168)

Nature of the Work

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) Special Agents investigate
many types of violations of Federal
laws, such as bank robberies, kid­
nappings, frauds against the Gov­
ernment, thefts of Government
property, espionage, and sabotage.
The FBI, which is part of the U.S
Department of Justice, has jurisdic­
tion over more than 185 Federal in­
vestigative matters. Special Agents
may be assigned to any type of case,
but those having specialized training
in accounting are likely to be as­
signed chiefly to cases involving
complex financial records; for ex­
ample, frauds involving Federal Re­
serve Bank records.
The FBI is a fact-gathering and
fact-reporting agency, and its Spe­
cial Agents function strictly as in­
vestigators. (Its authority does not
include affording personal protec­
tion to individuals nor does it in­
clude police functions to assure that
the law is obeyed. Such matters are
within the purview of local and
State law enforcement agencies.)
To perform their duties, Special
Agents may interview people, ob­
serve the activities of suspects, and
participate in raids; their duties may
involve extensive travel. Because of

the highly confidential nature of the
FBI’s work, Special Agents may not
disclose any of the information
which they gather in the course of
their official duties to unauthorized
persons, including members of their
families. Special Agents may have
to testify in court about cases that
they investigate, but they do not
make recommendations pertaining
to prosecution, express opinions
concerning the guilt or innocence of
suspects, nor issue “clearances” of
any kind.
In most assignments, Special
Agents work alone but must main­

tain continued contact with their su­
periors by radio or telephone. For
potentially dangerous duties, such
as arrests and raids, two agents or
more are assigned to work together.

Places of Employment

Most of the more than 7,900
Special Agents employed in 1970
were assigned to the FBI’s 59 field
offices located throughout the Na­
tion and in Puerto Rico. These
agents work either in the city where
the field office headquarters is lo-


cated or in resident agencies (sub­
offices) established under the su­
pervision of the field office to pro­
vide prompt and economic handling
of investigative matters arising
throughout the field office territory.
Some agents are assigned to the Bu­
reau headquarters staff in Washing­
ton, D.C., which supervises all FBI

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To be eligible for appointment as
an FBI Special Agent, an applicant
must have graduated from a Stateaccredited resident law school or a
4-year resident college with a major
in accounting. The law school train­
ing must have been preceded by at
least 2 years of resident undergrad­
uate college work. Accounting grad­
uates also must have had at least 3
years of experience in accounting or
auditing or a combination of both.
Applicants for the position of
FBI Special Agent must be male
citizens of the United States, at least
23 and not more than 40 years of
age, and willing to serve anywhere
in the United States or Puerto Rico.
They must be at least 5 feet 7
inches tall and capable of strenuous
physical exertion; they must have
excellent hearing and vision, normal
color perception, and no physical
defects which would prevent their
using firearms or participating in
dangerous assignments. Each appli­
cant must pass a rigid physical ex­
amination, as well as written and
oral examinations testing his knowl­
edge of law or accounting and his
aptitude for meeting the public and
conducting investigations. All of the
tests except the physical examina­
tions are given by the FBI at its fa­
cilities. Exhaustive background and


character investigations are made of
all applicants. Appointments are
made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year of
satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given approximately 14
weeks of training before he is as­
signed to a field office. He receives
most of this training at FBI head­
quarters at Washington, D.C., and
the rest at the FBI Academy at the
U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Va. During this period, he re­
ceives intensive training in defensive
tactics and firearms. In addition, he
is also thoroughly schooled in Fed­
eral criminal law and procedures,
FBI rules and regulations, finger­
printing, and investigative work.
After assignment to a field office,
the new agent usually works closely
with an experienced agent for a
period of about 2 weeks before
handling any assignments independ­
All administrative and supervi­
sory positions are filled from within
the ranks by selecting those FBI
Special Agents who have demon­
strated the ability to assume more
responsible positions.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents in 1970 was $10,869 a
year. FBI Special Agents are not
appointed under Federal Civil Serv­
ice regulations, but, like other Fed­
eral employees, they receive peri­
odic within-grade salary raises if
their work performance is satisfac­
tory, and they can advance in grade
as they gain experience. The top sal­
ary for regular field Special Agents
in 1970 was about $23,000. Agents
in supervisory and administrative
positions received higher salaries.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be availa­
ble for assignment at all times and
places. They frequently work longer
than the customary 40-hour week
and, under certain specified condi­
tions, receive over-time pay up to a
maximum of $2,870 a year. They
are granted paid vacations, sick
leave, and annuities on retirement.

Sources of Additional Information
The Federal Bureau of Investiga­
tion, U.S. Department of Justice,
Washington, D.C. 20535.

Employment Outlook

The FBI has experienced a sub­
stantial expansion in its jurisdiction
over the years. Although it is im­
possible to forecast Special Agent
personnel requirements, employ­
ment may be expected to increase
with growing FBI responsibilities.
The FBI provides a career serv­
ice and its rate of personnel turn­
over is traditionally low. Neverthe­
less, the FBI is always interested in
applications from qualified men who
would like to be considered for the
position of Special Agent.

(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868
and 377.868)

Nature of the Work

Police officers—whether direct­
ing traffic at busy intersections or
arresting dangerous criminals—are
helping to preserve law and order.
As local government employees,
their job is to prevent criminal ac-



tivities, to investigate crimes, and to
apprehend and assist in the prosecu­
tion of offenders. Whether on or off
duty, they are expected to exercise
their authority whenever necessary.
(This report covers policemen and
policewomen employed by local
governments. It does not include ci­
vilian employees of police depart­
ments; State and Federal Govern­
ment police employees; or police­
men and detectives employed by
private businesses.)
The policeman who works in a
small community handles many po­
lice duties. In the course of a day’s
work, he may direct traffic at the
scene of a fire, investigate a house­
breaking, and give first aid to an ac­
cident victim. In a large police de­

partment, officers usually are as­
signed to a specific type of police
duty. Most policemen are detailed
either to patrol or traffic duty;
smaller numbers are assigned to
special work, such as accident pre­
vention or operating communica­
tions systems. Some officers are de­
tectives (plain-clothesmen) assigned
to criminal investigation; others are
experts in chemical and microscopic
analysis, firearms identification and
hand-writing and fingerprint identi­
fication. In very large cities, a few
officers may be trained to work with
special units such as mounted and
motorcycle police, harbor patrols,
helicopter patrols, canine corps,
mobile rescue teams and youth aid

An increasing number of city po­
lice departments include women on
their police forces. These police­
women work with juvenile delin­
quents, try to locate lost children
and runaways, or search, question,
book, and fingerprint women pris­
oners. They may also be assigned to
detective squads, where they work
mainly on crimes involving women.
Most newly recruited policemen
begin on patrol duty, which has be­
come particularly important as a
means of preventing crime and
providing other services to the
public. Patrolmen may be assigned
to congested business districts,
outlying residential areas, or other
sections of a community. They may
cover their beats alone or with other
patrolmen, and they may ride in a
police vehicle or walk on “foot” pa­
trol. In any case, they become thor­
oughly familiar with conditions
throughout their area and, while on
patrol, remain alert for anything un­
usual. They note suspicious circum­
stances, such as open windows or
lights in vacant buildings, as well as
hazards to public safety such as
burned-out street lights or fallen
trees. Patrolmen also may watch for
stolen automobiles and enforce traf­
fic regulations. At regular intervals,
they report to police headquarters
through call boxes, by radio, or by
walkie-talkie. They also prepare re­
ports about their activities and may
testify in court when cases result in
legal action.

Places of Employment

An estimated 330,000 full-time
policemen and policewomen were
employed in 1970 by local police
departments. The majority were
Some cities have very large police
forces. For example, New York has


over 31,000 police officers and Chi­
cago has over 12,000. Hundreds of
small communities employ fewer
than 25 policemen each. Police­
women work mainly in large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Local civil service regulations
govern the appointment of police
officers in practically all large cities
and in many small ones. Candidates
must be U.S. citizens, usually at
least 21 years of age, and be able to
meet certain height and weight
standards. Eligibility for appoint­
ment also is determined by perform­
ance on competitive examinations,
physical and personal qualifications,
and education and experience. The
physical examinations often include
tests of strength and agility. Because
personal characteristics such as
honesty, good judgment, and a
sense of responsibility are especially
important in police work, candi­
dates usually are interviewed by a
senior officer at police headquarters,
and their character traits and back­
ground may be investigated. In
some police departments, candi­
dates also may be interviewed by a
psychiatrist or a psychologist, or
given a personality test. In large po­
lice departments, where most jobs
are to be found, applicants usually
must have at least a high school ed­
ucation. A few cities require some
college training and some hire law
enforcement students as police in­
terns. Some police departments ac­
cept men who have less than a high
school education as recruits, partic­
ularly if they have had work experi­
ence in a field related to law en­
Police departments increasingly
emphasize post-high school training
in sociology, psychology, and mi­


nority group relations. As a result,
more than 400 colleges and univer­
sities now offer major programs in
law enforcement. Other courses
considered helpful in preparing for
a police career include English,
American history, civics and gov­
ernment, business law, and physics.
Physical education and sports activ­
ities are especially helpful in devel­
oping the physical stamina and agil­
ity needed for police work. College
training may be required for police­
women because of their specialized
assignments. Training or experience
in social work, teaching, or nursing
is desirable.
Young men who have completed
high school can enter police work in
some large cities as police cadets, or
trainees, while still in their teens. As
paid civilian employees of the police
department, they attend classes part
of the time to learn police science
and they also do clerical work.
When police cadets who qualify in
other respects reach the age of 21,
they may be appointed to the police
Before their first assignments, po­
licemen usually go through a pe­
riod of training. In many small com­
munities, the instruction is given in­
formally as recruits work for about
a week with experienced officers.
More extensive training, such as
that provided in large city police de­
partments, may extend over several
weeks or a few months. This train­
ing includes classroom instruction in
constitutional law and civil rights, as
well as in State laws and local ord­
inances, and in the procedures to be
followed in accident investigation,
patrol, traffic control, and other po­
lice work. Recruits learn how to use
a gun, defend themselves from at­
tack, administer first aid, and deal
with other emergencies.
Policemen and policewomen gen­
erally become eligible for promotion

after specified periods of service. In
a large department, promotion may
enable an officer to specialize in one
kind of law enforcement activity
such as laboratory work, traffic con­
trol, communications or work with
juveniles. Promotions to the rank of
sergeant, lieutenant, and captain are
made according to each candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as de­
termined by his performance on
written examinations and his work
as a police officer. Advancement
opportunities generally are most nu­
merous in large police departments,
where separate bureaus work under
the direction of administrative
officers and their assistants.
Many types of training help po­
lice officers improve their perform­
ance on the job and prepare for ad­
vancement. Through training given
at police department academies,
and at colleges and other institu­
tions, officers keep abreast of
crowd-control techniques, civil de­
fense, legal developments that affect
policemen and advances in law en­
forcement equipment. Many police
departments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
police officers are expected to be
very favorable through the 1970’s.
Many new positions will arise as cit­
ies increase the size of their police
forces to meet the needs of a grow­
ing population. More openings,
however, will occur as policemen
and policewomen retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons. Police
officers usually retire at a somewhat
younger age than workers in most
other occupations, and replacement
rates are relatively high for this rea­



Police employment is expected to
rise moderately during the 1970’s as
population and economic growth
create a need for more officers to
protect life and property, regulate
traffic, and provide other police serv­
ices. Future police jobs are likely
to be affected by changes now oc­
curring in police methods and
equipment. Specialists are becoming
more essential to the effective oper­
ation of city police departments. In
an increasing number of depart­
ments, for example, electronic data
processing is used to compile ad­
ministrative, criminal, and identifi­
cation records, and to operate emer­
gency communications systems.
Many departments also need
officers with specialized training to
apply engineering techniques to
traffic control and social work tech­
niques to crime prevention. At the
same time, the use of automatic sig­
nal lights has somewhat reduced the
number of policemen needed for di­
recting traffic.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, entrance salaries for po­
lice officers averaged $8,500 a year,
according to survey information.
The earnings of more experienced
officers averaged $10,000 annually.
Most policemen and police­
women receive regular pay in­
creases during the first few years of
employment until a specified maxi­
mum is reached. Sergeants, lieuten­
ants, and captains are paid progres­
sively higher basic salaries than pa­
trolmen in the same police depart­
ments. Top salaries are paid to po­
lice chiefs or commissioners, and in
1970 their salaries
$11,000 a year in some small cities
and $23,000 in the largest.
Police departments usually pro­
vide officers with special allowances

for uniforms and furnish revolvers,
night sticks, handcuffs, and other
required equipment.
The scheduled workweek for po­
lice officers usually is 40 hours, and
in localities where the workweek is
longer weekly hours gradually are
being reduced. Police protection
must be provided around the clock;
therefore, in all but the very small­
est communities, some officers are
on duty over weekends, on holidays,
and at night. Policemen are subject
to call at any time their services
may be needed and in emergencies
may work overtime. In some de­
partments, overtime is paid at
straight time or at time and a half;
in others, officers may be given an
equal amount of time off on another
day of the week.
Police officers generally are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans, ena­
bling many to retire at half pay by
the time they reach age 55. Paid va­
cations, sick leave, and medical,
surgical, and life insurance plans are
among the other benefits frequently
Policemen may be assigned to
work outdoors for long periods in
all kinds of weather. The injury rate
is higher than in many occupations
and reflects the risks police officers
take in pursuing speeding motorists,
capturing lawbreakers, and dealing
with public disorder.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about local entrance
requirements may be obtained from
local civil service commissions or
police departments.
Additional information on the oc­
cupation of policeman or police­
woman may be obtained from:
International Association of Chiefs
of Police, 11 Firstfield Road,
Gaithersburg, Md. 20760.

Fraternal Order of Police, PickCarter Hotel, 1012 Prospect Ave.,
Cleveland, Ohio 44115.

Further information on the sala­
ries and hours of work of policemen
in various cities is published by The
International City Managers’ Asso­
ciation in its Municipal Yearbook,
and by the Fraternal Order of Po­

(D.O.T. 375.118, .138, .168, .228,
.268, and .388)

Nature of the Work

State policemen
called State highway patrolmen or
troopers) are protective service of­
ficers whose primary responsibility
is to enforce the laws and regula­
tions governing the use of highways.
Officers spend most of their time
patroling highways to insure that
traffic laws are obeyed and issuing
traffic tickets to motorists who vio­
late the laws. When necessary, they
testify in court.
State police officers assist at the
scene of traffic accidents. They give
first aid to injured persons, summon
ambulances and other emergency
equipment, and direct traffic to
avoid additional accidents. Patrol­
men conduct investigations of acci­
dents and write reports containing
information that may be used as
legal evidence in determining cause
and liability. In addition, State po­
lice officers provide services to mo­
torists on the highways. For exam­
ple, they radio for road service in
case of mechanical trouble, direct
tourists to their destination, or pro-



division or bureau chiefs responsible
for training or investigation, and
those who command police opera­
tions in an assigned area.
Places of Employment

About 40,000 State police
officers—virtually all men—were
employed throughout the 49 States
that maintained a police force in
1970. The size of State police forces
varies considerably. The largest
force (in California) has over 5,000
officers. The smallest (in North Da­
kota) has fewer than 100.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

State police officer investigates accident.

vide information about lodging, res­
taurants, and tourist attractions.
State police officers also direct
traffic during road repairs, fires, and
other emergencies, as well as for
special occurrences such as parades,
celebrations, and sporting events.
They sometimes check the weight of
commercial vehicles, conduct driver
examinations, and serve as public
safety information officers.
In some States, these policemen
may investigate crimes such as
thefts, murders, and narcotics vio­
lations. However, the jurisdiction of
the State police in such matters usu­
ally is limited to those areas that do
not maintain their own police
forces. Nevertheless, they some­

times assist municipal or county po­
lice forces in criminal investigations,
the apprehension of lawbreakers,
and the control of civil disturbances
and riots.
Some police officers spend part or
all of their time in specialized work.
These specialties include fingerprint
classification, chemical or micro­
scopic analysis, instruction of train­
ees in State police schools, and pi­
loting police aircraft. Others work
with special State police units such
as the mounted police, canine corps,
and marine patrols.
State police officers also have
clerical duties. They prepare reports
and maintain police records. Some
officers are administrators, including

State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State po­
lice officers. All candidates must be
citizens of the United States. Other
entry requirements vary by State,
but most States require that appli­
cants have a high school education
or equivalent education and experi­
ence and be at least 21 years of age.
State police officers must pass a
competitive examination and meet
physical and personal qualifications.
Physical requirements include stand­
ards of height, weight, and eye­
sight. Tests of strength and agility
often are required. Since personal
characteristics such as honesty and
a sense of responsibility are espe­
cially important in police work, an
applicant’s character traits and
background are investigated.
In all States, recruits enter a for­
mal training program for a period of
several months. The minimum pe­
riod of training usually is 12 weeks.
Recruits receive classroom instruc­
tion in State laws and jurisdictions.
They also study procedures for acci­
dent investigation, patrol, traffic
control, and other police work.



They learn to use a gun, defend
themselves from attack, handle an
automobile at high speeds, adminis­
ter first aid, and deal with other
emergencies. After gaining experi­
ence, some State police officers take
advanced or specialized training in
police science, administration, law
Classes are held at junior colleges,
colleges and universities, or special
police institutions such as the Na­
tional Academy of the Federal Bu­
reau of Investigation.
High school and college courses
in English composition, reading
comprehension, American history,
civics and government, psychology,
sociology, and physics are helpful in
preparing for a police career. Physi­
cal education and sports activities
are useful, for they develop needed
stamina and agility. Completion of a
driver education course and training
received in military police schools
also are assets.
Police officer recruits serve a pro­
bationary period from 6 months to
2 or 3 years. After a specified pe­
riod of time, State police officers be­
come eligible for promotion. Most
States have merit promotion sys­
tems requiring officers to pass a
competitive examination to qualify
for the next highest rank. Although
the organization of State police
forces differs among States, the typ­
ical avenue of advancement is from
private to corporal, to sergeant, to
first sergeant, to lieutenant, and
then to captain. Police officers who
demonstrate administrative ability
may be considered for higher level
positions such as commissioner or
In some States, high school grad­
uates may enter State police work
as police cadets. These paid civilian
employees of the police organization
attend classes to learn various as­
pects of police work and are

assigned nonenforcement duties.
Cadets who qualify may be ap­
pointed to the State police force at
age 21.

Employment Outlook

State police employment is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly through
the 1970’s. Hundreds of job open­
ings are expected to result each year
from growth in employment re­
quirements; a somewhat smaller
number of openings will arise as of­
ficers retire, die, or leave the occu­
pation for other reasons.
Although some State police will
be needed in criminal investigation
and other nonhighway functions, the
greatest demand will be for officers
to work in highway patrol and re­
lated activities. This is the result of
a growing and more mobile popula­
tion. Along with an increasing num­
ber of motor vehicles, the nature of
highway systems is rapidly chang­
ing. Limited access highways re­
quire increased police patrol to con­
trol high speeds, prevent accidents,
and assist stranded motorists. The
newer dual highways also require
more patrolmen, since officers can
patrol effectively only one side of
these roads.
Because law enforcement work is
becoming more complex, some spe­
cialists will be needed to work in
crime laboratories and electronic
data processing centers to create
better administrative and criminal
information systems.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, entrance salaries for
State policemen ranged from $480
to about $800 a month, according
to a private survey. The most com­
mon entry rates ranged from $500

to $700 per month. Average
monthly starting rates are highest in
the Western States and lowest in
the South.
State policemen generally receive
regular salary increases, based on
experience and performance, until a
specified maximum is reached. The
1970 maximums ranged from $640
to $1,100 a month; the most com­
mon maximum rates ranged from
$700 to $900 a month. Earnings
may increase above these levels with
promotions to a higher rank, such
as corporal or sergeant.
State police agencies usually fur­
nish officers uniforms, firearms, and
other necessary equipment, or pro­
vide special allowances for their
In most States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. Although the workweek is
longer in some States, weekly hours
in excess of 40 rapidly are being re­
duced. In a few States, officers are
paid overtime. Since police protec­
tion must be provided around the
clock, some officers are on duty
over weekends, on holidays, and at
night. Police officers also are subject
to emergency calls at any time.
State police usually are covered
by liberal pension plans. Paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and medical, surgi­
cal, and life insurance plans fre­
quently are provided.
The work of State police officers
sometimes is hazardous. They al­
ways run the risk of an automobile
accident while pursuing speeding
motorists or fleeing criminals. Police
officers also face the risk of bodily
harm while apprehending criminals
or controlling disorders.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about specific en­
trance requirements may be ob-



tained from State civil service com­
missions or State police headquar­
ters, usually located in each State

(D.O.T. 373.118 through .884)

Nature of the Work

Firefighters help protect us from
fires that claim thousands of lives
and cause extensive property dam­
age each year. This statement gives
information about firefighters who
are full-time paid employees of city

and town fire departments. It does
not cover part-time volunteer fire­
men and “call men” who serve
only when the alarm signals that
they are needed.
While on duty, firefighters must
be prepared at a moment’s notice,
to rush to a fire and handle any
emergency that occurs. Because fire­
fighting is dangerous and compli­
cated, it requires teamwork and
must be well organized. At every
fire, firefighters perform specific
jobs assigned to them by a com­
manding officer; they may connect
hose lines to hydrants, operate a
pressure pump, position ladders, or
perform some other duty. Further­
more, the assigned duties of individ­
ual firefighters may be changed sev­
eral times while the company is in
action. Under emergency conditions

firefighters are often called on to
use their own initiative and judg­
ment. They must, therefore, be pro­
ficient in many different kinds of
firefighting activities. They also must
be able to help people to safety and
administer first aid.
Fire prevention is another impor­
tant responsibility of municipal fire
departments. Specially trained per­
sonnel inspect public buildings for
conditions that might cause a fire
and for compliance with local regu­
lations relating to fire escapes, fire
doors, storage of flammable mate­
rials, and other possible hazards.
Educating the public about fire pre­
vention and safety measures is also
a part of the firefighter’s job. Fre­
quently, they speak on this subject
before school assemblies and civic
groups. In many communities, they
regularly inspect private homes, at
the owner’s request, to point out
possible fire hazards.
Between alarms, firefighters spend
considerable time at their local sta­
tions, improving their knowledge of
firefighting and doing maintenance
work. They also participate in prac­
tice drills, clean and lubricate fire­
fighting equipment, stretch hoses to
dry, stand watch at fire alarm in­
struments, and verify and record

Places of Employment

There were 180,000 firefighters
employed in 1970 by municipal fire
departments. In addition, thousands
of paid “call men” and hundreds of
thousands of part-time volunteer
firemen are organized in small towns
and rural communities throughout
the Nation to help fight fires. A
few very large cities have several
thousand firemen; some small cities
have fewer than 25.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To become eligible for an ap­
pointment as a firefighter, an appli­
cant must pass a written intelligence
test, a medical examination, and
tests of strength, physical stamina,
and agility, as specified by local civil
service regulations. In most com­
munities, these examinations are
open only to men who are at least
21 years of age, meet certain height
and weight requirements, and have
a high school education. The men
who receive the highest grades on
their examinations have the best
chances for appointment. Extra
credit usually is given for military
service. Experience gained as a vol­
unteer fireman or through firefight­
ing training in the Armed Forces
also may improve an applicant’s
chances for appointment.
As a rule, beginners in large fire
departments are given training for
several weeks at the city’s fireschool.
Through classroom instruction and
practice drills, the recruits study
such fundamentals as firefight­
ing techniques, local building codes,
fire prevention, and first aid; and
learn about the use of axes, chemi­
cal extinguishers, ladders, and other
firefighting equipment. Upon com­
pletion of this training, they are as­
signed to local fire companies. Op­
portunities for promotion are good
in most fire departments. As fire­
fighters gain experience, they may
advance to higher ratings, and, after
5 to 10 years or more of service, be­
come eligible for promotion to the
grade of lieutenant. The line of fur­
ther promotion is usually to captain,
then battalion chief, assistant chief,
and finally to chief. Chances for ad­
vancement generally depend upon
each candidate’s position on the
promotion list, as determined by
his rating on a written examination,

his work as a fireman, and his sen­
iority. Throughout their service,
many firefighters continue to study
fire prevention and related subjects
to improve their performance on the
job and prepare for promotional ex­
aminations. Programs conducted by
many State governments and city
fire departments throughout the
country provide training of this kind
for tens of thousands of firefighters
each year. Some universities offer
courses in fire engineering.
Among the important personal
qualities of firefighters are mental
alertness, courage, mechanical apti­
tude, endurance, and a sense of
public service. Initiative and good
judgment are extremely important,
because firefighters often must
make quick decisions. Leadership
qualities are valuable assets for
officers, who have the responsibility
for establishing and maintaining a
high degree of discipline and
efficiency, as well as planning and
directing the activities of the fire­
fighters in their companies.

Employment Outlook

Several thousand openings for fire­
fighters are expected to occur each
year through the 1970’s. Many
openings will arise from the need to
replace men who retire, die, or oth­
erwise leave the occupation. Fire­
fighters often are permitted to retire
at an earlier age than people in
many other occupations. New jobs
also will become available as city
fire departments enlarge their staffs
and as paid departments replace
volunteer fire companies in smaller,
growing communities. In addition,
some openings probably will be
created as city fire departments con­
tinue to shorten the hours that fire­
men are on duty.
The number of young men who

qualify for firefighter jobs in large
cities usually is greater than the
number of job openings, even
though the written examination and
physical requirements eliminate
among candidates is apt to be keen
since employment in this occupation
is very stable.
The number of firefighters is ex­
pected to increase rapidly to meet
the needs for fire protection in
growing urban communities. As cit­
ies become more crowded, however,
officials will give more emphasis to
activities associated with fire pre­
vention, and many firefighters will
spend a greater amount of their
time inspecting buildings for com­
pliance with fire regulations and
participating in fire prevention cam­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Firefighters in larger cities usually
receive the highest starting salaries.
In 1970 the average salary for be­
ginning firefighters was about
$7,800 a year in cities which had
populations of more than 500,000.
In cities which had populations of
10,000 to 25,000, the average an­
nual starting salary was about
$ 6 , 100 .
Experienced firefighters also usu­
ally earn more money in the larger
cities. In cities of over 500,000 per­
sons, the average salary received by
experienced firefighters was $9,200
a year. In nearly all other cities, the
average salary received was over
$7,000 a year.
In 1970, fire chiefs were receiv­
ing average salaries of $9,600 a
year in the smaller cities and
$21,600 a year in cities that had
populations over 250,000.
Practically all fire departments
furnish pay allowances for protec­



Most firefighters are members of
tive firefighting clothing (helmets,
boots, and rubber coats) and many the International Association of
Fire Fighters (AFL-CIO).
also provide dress uniforms.
In some cities, firemen are on
duty for a 24-hour shift, then off for
24 hours, and receive an extra day Sources of Additional Information
off at intervals. In other cities, the
Information on how to obtain a
day shift is 10 hours and the night
job as a firefighter may be secured
shift is 14 hours, and firemen rotate
from your local civil service com­
shifts at frequent intervals. Fire­
mission or fire department.
men’s hours range from 40 a week
General information on the occu­
in some cities to 60 in others; the
pation may be obtained from:
national average workweek is about
International Association of Fire
56 hours. Duty hours usually in­
Fighters, 905 16th St. NW., Wash­
clude some time when firemen are
ington, D.C. 20006.
free to read, study, or pursue other
International Association of Fire
personal interests.
Chiefs, 1725 K Street, NW.,
In addition to their scheduled
Washington, D.C. 20006.
hours, firefighters must work as
Additional information on the
many extra hours as necessary to
salaries and hours of work of fire­
bring a fire under control. When ov­
men in various cities is published
ertime is worked, most city fire de­
annually by The International City
partments either give compensatory
Managers Association in its Munici­
time off or extra pay for the addi­
pal Yearbook, available in many li­
tional hours.
The job of a firefighter involves
risk of life or injury from sudden
cave-ins of floors or toppling walls,
as well as hazards associated with
exposure to flames, smoke, and bad
weather. In fighting fires in in­
dustrial establishments, firefighters
(D.O.T. 355.687 through 355.887)
may come in contact with poison­
ous, flammable, and explosive gases
and chemicals.
Firefighters generally are covered
Nature of the Work
by liberal pension plans, many of
Under the direction of registered
which provide for retirement at half
pay at age 50 after 25 years of serv­ nurses and licensed practical nurses,
ice, or at any age if disabled in the hospital attendants perform a vari­
line of duty. Firefighters also re­ ety of duties. Most require relatively
ceive paid vacations. Provisions for little specialized training but con­
sick leave usually are very liberal; tribute to the comfort and care of
health and surgical benefit plans are patients. The help they provide ena­
offered in many fire departments; bles nurses to devote more time to
and compensation also is provided work that requires professional and
for firefighters injured in the line of technical training.
Women employed as hospital at­
duty. Most fire departments either
allow paid holidays—ranging up to tendants usually are called nursing
11 or more a year—or time off for aides and men often are known as
orderlies. Other job titles include
working on holidays.

nursing assistant, auxiliary nursing
worker, and (in mental institutions)
psychiatric aide.
Nursing aides answer patients’
bell calls and deliver messages,
serve meals, feed patients who are
unable to feed themselves, make
beds, and bathe or dress patients.
They also may give massages, take
temperatures, and assist patients in
getting out of bed and walking. Or­
derlies provide many of the same
services for male patients and, in
addition, perform tasks such as
wheeling patients to operating and
examining rooms, and transporting
and setting up heavy equipment.
Attendants also may perform tasks
less directly associated with patient
care such as working in hospital
pharmacies or helping with sterile



The range of duties performed by
hospital attendants depends on the
policies of the institutions employ­
ing them, the type of patient being
cared for, and—equally important
—the capacities and resourcefulness
of the nursing aide or orderly. In
some hospitals, the nursing aide’s
work may include household tasks
such as cleaning patients’ rooms,
whereas in others it may be limited
to assisting in the care of patients.
The tasks performed for patients
differ considerably, depending on
whether the patient is confined to
his bed following major surgery, is
learning to walk again after a dis­
abling accident or illness, or re­
quires assistance with daily activi­
ties because of infirmity caused by
advanced age.

Places of Employment

An estimated 830,000 attendants
were employed in 1970; more than
four-fifths were women. Most of
them worked in hospitals. Others
were employed primarily in nursing
homes, and other institutions pro­
viding facilities for care and re­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although some employers hire
persons with less than a high school
education as hospital attendants,
high school graduates are preferred.
Many employers accept applicants
17 or 18 years of age. Others—par­
ticularly in nursing homes and in
mental hospitals—prefer to hire
more mature men and women who
are at least in their mid-twenties.
Hospital attendants generally are
trained after they are hired. In some
institutions, on-the-job training

under the close supervision of regis­
tered and licensed practical nurses
is combined with classroom instruc­
tion that includes demonstrations in
taking and recording temperatures,
bathing patients, changing linens on
beds which are occupied by pa­
tients, and moving and lifting pa­
tients. Training may last several
days or continue over a period of a
few months, depending on the pol­
icies of the hospital, the attendant’s
aptitude for the work, and the na­
ture of the duties assigned. Many
training programs for hospital at­
tendants are aided by funds pro­
vided by the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act and the Vo­
cational Education Act.
Courses in home nursing and first
aid, offered by many public school
systems and other community agen­
cies, provide a useful background of
knowledge for the work. Volunteer
work and temporary summer jobs in
hospitals and similar institutions
also may furnish helpful experience.
Applicants for this work should be
in good health. Personal qualities,
such as tact, patience, understand­
ing, emotional stability, and de­
pendability are important. For work
as an attendant, as in other health
occupations, a basic requisite is a
genuine interest in people and a de­
sire to be of help to them. Also,
persons planning to become hospital
attendants should be willing to ac­
cept menial tasks.
Promotional opportunities are
limited for hospital attendants, un­
less they undertake further training.
Some may prepare for better paying
positions such as hospital operating
room or oxygen technician by ac­
quiring specialized training.
In order to become licensed prac­
tical nurses, hospital attendants
must complete the year of training
required for licensure. (See state­
ment on “Licensed Practical

Nurses” elsewhere in the Hand­
Employment Outlook

Employment of hospital attend­
ants is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to those needed for occupa­
tional growth, many thousands of
hospital attendants will be needed
each year to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the occupation for
other reasons.
Most new jobs for nursing aides
and orderlies during the 1970’s will
be in hospitals, but many openings
also will occur in nursing homes,
convalescent homes, and other
long-term care facilities. A major
reason for expected occupational
growth is the increasing need
for medical care of a growing
population, including a larger pro­
portion of elderly people (a group
particularly susceptible to long-term
illness). Combined with this will be
an increasing ability of persons to
pay for health care because of rising
incomes, the growth of health insur­
ance plans (both public and pri­
vate), and the expansion of medical
care services to the elderly through
Medicare and to the poor through
Medicaid. Important also will be the
emphasis being placed on rehabili­
tation in mental hospitals and other
institutions. In addition, employ­
ment opportunities will arise as hos­
pitals continue to delegate to at­
tendants tasks which, although asso­
ciated with patient care, do not re­
quire the training of registered and
licensed practical nurses.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Weekly earnings of hospital at­
tendants averaged $80.50 in State
and local hospitals and $74 in non­


government hospitals in early 1969,
according to a survey conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. At­
tendants employed full time by
nursing homes and related facilities
earned considerably less than those
in hospitals. Salaries of inexperi­
enced hospital attendants in Veter­
ans Administration hospitals started
at $89 a week in 1970.
In some institutions, free lodging
may be furnished hospital attend­
ants. Free meals or meals at cost, as
well as uniforms and laundering of
uniforms, also are provided hospital
attendants in some institutions.
With few exceptions, the sched­
uled workweek of attendants in hos­
pitals is 40 hours or less. Because
nursing care must be available to
patients on a 24-hour-a-day basis,
scheduled hours include nightwork
and work on weekends and holi­
According to the limited informa­
tion available, attendants who are
employed in hospitals and similar
institutions generally received paid
vacations which, after 1 year of
service, may be a week or more in
length. Paid holidays and sick leave,
hospitalization and medical benefits,
and pension plans also are available
to many hospital employees.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about employment
opportunities and duties may be ob­
tained from local hospitals and State
and metropolitan health career pro­
Additional information about the
work of hospital attendants also
may be obtained from:
ANA-NLN Committee on Nursing
Careers, American Nurses’ Asso­
ciation, 10 Columbus Circle, New
York, N.Y. 10019.
Division of Careers and Recruit­

ment, American Hospital Associa­
tion, 840 North Lake Shore Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

(D.O.T. 301.887; 302.887; 303.138 and
.878; 304.887; 305.281; 306.878;
307.878; and 309.138 through .999)

Nature of the Work

Although private household work
involves many different jobs, most
women employed in this field are
maids of various kinds. The general
maid performs a variety of duties,
such as cleaning household furnish­
ings, floors, and lavatories; changing
beds; attending children at play;
washing dishes; buying, cooking,
and serving food; and washing and
ironing clothes. The mother’s
helper performs similar duties
under her employer’s supervision,
while learning on the job. More spe­
cialized duties are performed by

other kinds of maids. For example,
the personal maid performs per­
sonal services for a woman such as
keeping her clothes in good condi­
tion by mending, cleaning, washing,
and pressing them or by having
these services performed; cleaning
and keeping private quarters tidy;
and helping her employer dress.
The nursemaid cares for children,
gives baths, supervises play activi­
ties, washes and irons clothes, and
prepares meals. When caring for in­
fants, she is called an infant’s nurse
and her duties include sterilizing
bottles and other feeding equip­
ment, preparing formulas, and feed­
ing the child at scheduled periods
during the day and night. Babysit­
ters may perform some or all of the
duties of a nursemaid or infant’s
nurse, but on a daily or an hourly
Housekeepers usually have more
responsibility and less supervision
than maids. The home housekeeper
manages a household where there is
a large staff of other household em­
ployees. She directs their activities,
orders food and cleaning supplies,
keeps an expenditure record, and
may hire and fire employees. The
working housekeeper, or her rural
counterpart, the farm housekeeper,
often is the only employee in homes
where the housewife is absent or is
unable to do her own housework.
Her household duties combine those
of the general maid and the usual
responsibilities of a housekeeper.
The farm housekeeper also assists
in light farm chores, such as feeding
chickens, and picking fruits and
vegetables for the table.
As their titles suggest, the cook
and the laundress usually handle
only one aspect of household work.
The laundress washes and irons
household laundry, but seldom does
other housework. The cook pre­
pares meals. She plans her own



menus or follows instructions. She
prepares vegetables and meats for
cooking, or supervises a cook’s
helper who performs these tasks
and other work requiring little skill.
The cook also may serve meals and
perform special cooking duties such
as making preserves and fancy pas­
A companion lives with a conva­
lescent or a person who is alone,
and acts as an aide and friend; she
generally has the same social back­
ground as the employer. A compan­
ion attends to the the employer’s
personal needs and looks after so­
cial or business affairs. She may en­
tertain her employer by reading or
conversing. A governess has charge
of children in a home; usually she
supervises their recreation, diet,
health, and education, according to
parents’ instructions. Among her
duties are teaching music and lan­
guage, arranging outings, and taking
disciplinary measures.
Although women predominate in
household work, some jobs are per­
formed by men. The man-of-allwork, sometimes called the handy­
man or odd-job man, performs a va­
riety of duties to keep a private
home clean and in good condition,
such as dusting furniture, washing
windows, waxing and polishing
floors, tending the furnace, repair­
ing screens, painting fences, and
caring for the yard. When employed
the year-round, he may be called a
caretaker, and when concerned only
with taking care of the house, a
houseman. The valet performs per­
sonal services for a male employer,
such as brushing, cleaning, ironing,
mending, and laying out clothing;
mixing and serving drinks; and run­
ning errands. The butler may super­
vise household workers, by assign­
ing and coordinating their work; re­
ceive and announce guests; answer
the telephone; serve food and

drinks; or act as a valet. Households
not large enough to require both a
butler and chauffeur, or butler and
houseman, may employ one person
who is referred to as butler-chauf­
feur, or butler-houseman.
Places of Employment

Over 1.5 million people were em­
as private household
workers in 1970. These workers are
employed in residences throughout
the country, but are concentrated in
heavily populated urban areas.
Household workers usually spend
their working time in their em­
ployer’s residence. Laundresses, the
exception, may work either in their
own or their employer’s home. Few
household workers “live in” their
employer’s home.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For most household workers,
there are no formal educational re­
quirements. The ability to cook,
sew, wash and iron, clean house,
and care for children is generally
acquired by girls while helping with
the housework in their own homes.
This ability also may be acquired by
working for about a year as an as­
sistant to an experienced household
worker or housewife. Most em­
ployers prefer workers who can op­
erate household equipment such as
vacuum cleaners, floor waxers, dish­
washers, and electric mixers. Home
economics courses offered in high
schools, vocational schools, and jun­
ior colleges as well as training
courses sponsored by Federal agen­
cies, State employment service
offices, and local welfare depart­
ments help to develop domestic
service skills beyond the level ordi­
narily reached in the home.

With knowledge acquired as a
mother’s helper, a woman can take
a job as a general household worker
or nursemaid. With this experience
or with the skill acquired in a spe­
cial training program, she can pro­
gress to personal maid, infant’s
nurse, cook, or housekeeper.
For the positions of governess
and companion, work experience is
less important than educational and
cultural background. A companion
should be similar to the employer in
age, interests, and background.
Practical nursing experience is help­
ful if the employer is feeble or an
invalid. A broad educational back­
ground in the arts is useful to a gov­
erness. Special skills in music, in
foreign language, and in teaching
young children also are helpful.
Because of the close contact be­
tween household workers and mem­
bers of the families for whom they
work, employers look for agreeable
and trustworthy workers who are
neat, clean, and in good health.
Some employers require their
household workers, particularly
cooks and infant’s nurses, to have a
health certificate.
Advancement other than a wage
increase is generally not available in
households with only one or two
workers. To get a better job, a do­
mestic worker usually must change
to a home where a job requiring
greater skill is available.

Employment Outlook

This occupation is characterized
by a large number of employment
opportunities, but a reluctance on
the part of job seekers to do this
type of work. In spite of the strong
demand for private household
workers created by rising family in­
comes and the added number of
wives and mothers working outside


the home, the traditionally low pay,
long hours, and absence of fringe
benefits have attached a social
stigma to this work.
In addition to new job opportuni­
ties resulting from increased de­
mand for these workers, many thou­
sands of job openings will occur
each year as private household
workers retire, die, or transfer to
other kinds of work.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Wages of household workers vary
according to the size of the em­
ployer’s income, kind of work per­
formed, and local standards of pay.
Wages tend to be higher in larger
cities, especially in the northern
part of the country. Workers who
“live in” generally are paid the
same wage rates as those who “live
out,” but get free room and board.
Workers who “live out” usually re­
ceive a free meal plus the cost of
their transportation. According to
limited data available, most private
household workers earn between
$0.90 and $2 an hour.
Private household work involves
some hard labor at times, especially
for day-workers, who are usually
given the heavier tasks in the
home. “Live-ins” in homes with no
other household workers are likely
to be alone most of the time; length
and irregularity of working hours
often isolate these workers from
family and friends.
Dayworkers generally do clean­
ing on a part-time basis at specific
intervals (once or twice a week, or
maybe at longer intervals) for part
or all of a day. Duties are nego­
tiated with each employer, some­
times on a day-to-day basis. Fre­
quently there is no supervision, as
when the employer works away
from home during the day and the


employee has her own key to the
home or apartment.
Most household workers are em­
ployed part time. Full-time workers
generally work at least 35 hours a
week; those who live in usually
work longer hours.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about employment
opportunities and training programs
in private-household work may be
obtained from local offices of the
State employment service.
Additional information on private
household work can be obtained
National Committee on Household
Employment, 1725 K Street, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 187.168; 381.137, .887;
382.138, .884)

Nature of the Work

Building custodians, often called
janitors or cleaners, are responsible
for the upkeep and maintenance of
hotels, hospitals, office buildings,
apartment houses, and other build­
ings. Their jobs include the respon­
sibility that heating and ventilating
equipment function properly, that
the building be kept clean and or­
derly, and that they attend to many
other tasks that maintain a building
in good condition. On a typical day,
a custodian may wet- or dry-mop
floors, vacuum carpets, clean furni­
ture and other equipment, make
minor repairs, and eradicate insects
and rodents.
Custodians use many different

tools and cleaning materials. For
one job, they may need only a sim­
ple mop; for another, they may use
an electric polishing machine and a
special cleaning compound. In re­
cent years, the maintenance of a
building has required less and less
physical labor, in part because
chemical cleaners and power equip­
ment have reduced the effort
needed for cleaning jobs. Custo­
dians must be familiar with cleaning
equipment and materials designed
for specific tasks, because improper
use of a chemical cleaner or ma­
chine not only will result in a poor
job but may actually harm the sur­
faces involved, as well.
Most women employed in cus­
todial occupations are assigned
tasks such as mopping, dusting, and
furniture waxing. Men usually per­
form the maintenance tasks that re­
quire more physical effort; for ex­
ample, moving furniture, removing
refuse cans, and operating floor pol­
ishers and buffers.
Some custodians have supervi-



sory positions. Supervisors are re­
sponsible for seeing that an entire
building or sections of a building are
properly cleaned and maintained.
They see that certain jobs, such as
floor waxing or furniture polish­
ing, are being performed correctly
throughout the building.
Places of Employment

About 1.1 million building custo­
dians were employed in 1970; ap­
proximately three-quarters were
male. They were employed in cities
and towns throughout the Nation,
and the distribution of jobs was par­
allel to the population patterns of
the United States.
Many building custodians are
employed by hospitals and hotels.
Large numbers are employed in
manufacturing plants and retail
stores; many others work in apart­
ment houses and office buildings.
Some are employed by contract
firms that provide building mainte­
nance service on a fee basis.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most building custodians learn
their skills while working on the
job. Usually, an inexperienced
worker begins by doing simple tasks
of cleaning and maintenance. As the
worker gains experience with the
various cleaners and machines, he is
given more complex duties.
There are no formal educational
requirements for most positions in
custodial work. However, entry
workers should be able to do simple
arithmetic and follow instructions.
Also, high school shop courses may
help the building service worker
perform the many handymen tasks
that are required such as minor
plumbing repair or carpentry.

In some cities, training programs
where prospective building custo­
dians can learn the necessary skills
are provided by unions and govern­
ment agencies. Students are taught
the properties of different surfaces,
and the correct way to clean each.
They learn to operate and maintain
machines such as wet and dry vac­
uums, buffers, and polishers. In­
structions on how to make minor
electrical, plumbing, and other re­
pairs also are given. In addition to
specific courses that involve cus­
todial tasks, students learn to plan
their work and to deal with the
public. A few training programs for
these workers offer remedial
courses in reading, writing, and
Advancement opportunities for
custodial workers often are limited
because the custodian often is the
only maintenance employee in a
building. However, where a large
maintenance staff is employed, cus­
todians can advance to supervisory
positions. For advancement to su­
pervisory positions, a high school
diploma is helpful. Some custodians
go into business for themselves after
becoming thoroughly familiar with
their job; they then maintain build­
ings for clients on a fee basis.
Custodial workers may obtain
employment by answering adver­
tisements in the newspapers or by
applying directly to a company.
Jobs also may be obtained through
State employment offices. For gov­
ernment positions, it is necessary to
fill out an application for employ­
ment and contact civil service or
personnel headquarters.

In addition to rapid growth in
the number of new jobs that will be
created, thousands of job openings
will occur each year as experienced
custodians retire, die, or transfer to
other types of employment.
The employment of building cus­
todians is expected to increase as
continued high levels of economic
activity, increases in population,
and large numbers of young families
spur the demand for new apart­
ments, hospitals, offices, recreation
centers, and other buildings. How­
ever, recent improvements in clean­
ing and maintenance technology will
limit the growth of custodial jobs.
Buildings are being designed with
surfaces that are specially treated
for easy maintenance, and new
cleaners and solvents work much
more efficiently than those used pre­
viously. The growing use of new
machines, such as ultrasonic Vene­
tian blind cleaners, will reduce the
time needed to perform mainte­
nance tasks.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of building cus­
todial workers vary with the indus­
try in which they are employed. A
survey of workers employed in pri­
vate industry covering 229 metro­
politan areas in 1969-70, reports
the following average hourly earn­
ings of building custodians:
A v e r a g e H o u r ly E a r n in g s
I n d u s tr y

M en

Manufacturing . . . . . . .$2.80
Public Utilities . . . . . . . 2.85
Wholesale Trade . . . . . 2.46
Retail Trade ........... . . . 2.15
Finance ................... . . . 2.45
Services ................... . . . 2.14

W om en


Employment Outlook

Opportunities to enter building
custodian jobs are expected to be
very favorable through the 1970’s.

Earnings tend to be highest in the
large cities of the West Coast and
North Central section of the coun­


In the Federal Government,
building custodial workers pay rates
are similar to those paid by private
industries in the same local areas.
Most building service workers re­
ceive paid vacations and health in­
surance. Some employers give paid
Custodians usually work inside
heated, well-lighted buildings. How­
ever, sometimes they may work out­
doors doing tasks such as sweeping
walkways, mowing lawns, or shovel­
ing snow. Those primarily con­
cerned with machinery maintenance
and building heating systems may
find themselves working in noise
and grease. Building custodians
often suffer from minor cuts,
bruises, and burns caused by ma­
chines, hand tools, and chemicals.
Custodial workers spend most of
their time on their feet. Many of the
tasks, such as dusting or sweeping,
require constant bending, stooping,
and stretching. Some custodial
workers work during the evening,
because many buildings and offices
are cleaned after the regular staff
has left for the day. When there is a
need for 24-hour maintenance, cus­
todial workers may be assigned to

Sources of Additional Information

For information about oppor­
tunities in custodial work and train­
ing programs set up under pro­
visions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act of 1962,
contact the local office of your State
employment service.



Nature of the Work

Social service or social welfare
aides, by freeing the professional
social worker for more creative and
supervisory responsibilities, enable
the social welfare agency to provide
more and better service to its
clients. Most work under the close
guidance and supervision of a social
worker or a counselor.
Aides often greet new applicants,
help to fill out eligibility forms, and
explain the reason information is
needed and the way it will be used.
Aides also supply applicants with
general information about the agen­
cy’s services, facilties, and proce­
dures. In some welfare agencies,
aides gather data necessary to de­
termine an individual’s or family’s
eligibility for public assistance. This
work can involve making home
visits, interviewing friends and rela­
tives of the applicant, or obtaining
necessary documents such as mar­
riage licenses or birth certificates.
Much of the routine paperwork
required in most welfare programs

has been taken over by welfare
aides. They may keep fact sheets on
clients up to date, maintain a filing
system of reports or a control sys­
tem for periodic case reviews, and
fill out school enrollment, employ­
ment, medical, and compensation
Welfare aides also provide escort
services, such as guiding the elderly
to clinics for medical checkups or
driving unemployed clients to job
Aides usually referred to as case­
work aides or assistants, may work
directly with clients. They may
help clients locate and obtain more
adequate housing, counsel parents
regarding their children’s personal
hygiene and dress, or mediate dif­
ferences between landlords and ten­
Apart from these more specific
duties, the single most useful func­
tion of the aide is to be a friendly
listener—to be available when
needed to offer encouragement and
Homemaker aides are assigned to
a home for 1 or more days a week
or instruct a group of housewives
at a community center. They help


women improve their skills in shop­
ping, cleaning, sewing, budgeting,
family health and hygiene, child
care, and meal planning and prepa­
An important facet of the home­
maker aides’ work is the actual
demonstration of homemaker skills.
Stressing the importance of regular­
ity and routine in the home, they set
up a schedule of weekly activities.
Then they get down to particulars
of housekeeping by teaching home­
makers how to clean a stove or re­
frigerator, how to prepare a meal
from leftovers, or how to recognize
a bargain in inexpensive material
and make an attractive dress. They
encourage clients to take advantage
of all cost-saving opportunities—the
barber school for inexpensive hair­
cuts, the thrift shop, surplus foods,
and free recreation.
In addition to instructing in do­
mestic skills, some homemaker
aides help housewives develop so­
cial skills by going with the home­
maker to the clinic to act as an in­
terpreter and to lend moral support
or help communicate effectively
with institutions that provide valu­
able services—the schools, the wel­
fare department, or a Community
Action Agency. Outreach workers
serve as a bridge between commu­
nity agencies and the people being
served, to maintain a two-way flow
of information.
Neighborhood workers are one
type of outreach worker. Function­
ing through a Community Action
Agency, they personally contact the
residents of an area to explain and
discuss the services of the agency.
They determine the needs of indi­
viduals and families and refer rou­
tine cases to a counselor or to the
appropriate community service
agency. The more difficult problems
are reported to a supervisor. Neigh­
borhood workers may inform resi­


dents about employment opportuni­
ties, availability of housing, man­
power training opportunities, and
public services. On a broader scale,
they assist in the organization of
block clubs and other neighborhood
groups designed to conduct pro­
grams to benefit the neighborhood,
to foster a sense of community re­
sponsibility among residents, and to
encourage participation in the anti­
poverty efforts of the community
action agency. They may assist in
routine neighborhood surveys and
counts, keep records, and prepare
reports of their activities for the su­
Employment aides, another type
of outreach worker, assist in ac­
tively seeking out the disadvantaged
and preparing them for employment
through special training and counsel­
ing. Stationed in neighborhood cen­
ters or working in mobile units, they
locate candidates for available jobs
and training programs by contact­
ing residents at various locations
throughout the neighborhood—
poolrooms, laundromats, and street
corners. Then, they provide the un­
employed with initial information
about the services of the local State
Employment Service office and the
requirements for a particular posi­
tion, and help them fill out the
necessary application forms. After
the workers are employed, aides
maintain contact with their clients
to help them adjust to the new work
environment and to iron out minor

Places of Employment

An estimated 50,000 social serv­
ice aides were employed in the
United States in 1970. Most are
concentrated in large cities, espe­
cially in “poverty pockets.” About
3,400 employment aides were em­

ployed in State Employment Service

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Graduation from high school is
not generally a requirement for so­
cial service aides. Aides usually are
trained on the job from one to sev­
eral months; in addition, nongrad­
uates often have classroom instruc­
tion to help them pass a high school
ployers of social service aides do
not always look for the most highly
skilled applicants. A person’s need
for work, as well as his potential for
upgrading his skills and making a
useful contribution to the agency, is
weighed in evaluating prospective
Apart from formal requirements,
aides need to get along well with
people, especially the disadvan­
taged. It is important that they be
tactful and courteous and possess
strong leadership qualities.
Homemaker aides should be
housewives and mothers who have
demonstrated competence in run­
ning homes and rearing children.
Neighborhood workers assigned to
a Puerto Rican or Mexican-American community should be able to
understand and speak Spanish. Typ­
ing ability is required for some wel­
fare service aide positions.
Most social service programs em­
phasize the development of career
ladders with opportunities for ad­
vancement through a combination
of work experience and further ed­
ucation. Entry level jobs as employ­
ment aides can lead to positions as
employment agents and coaches,
then to employment interviewers,
and, finally, after special training, to
employment counselors. Employing
agencies frequently are willing to



pay part of the cost of further edu­
cation for their social service aides.

Employment Outlook

A large proportion of aide jobs in
the social services have been gener­
ated by antipoverty legislation. The
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
created opportunities for neighbor­
hood workers through Community
Action programs.
Amendments to the Social Security
Act authorized the employment of
supportive staff in welfare pro­
grams. And finally, the 1966
Scheuer Amendment to the Eco­
nomic Opportunity Act is expected
to open up a wide variety of social
service jobs for unemployed and
low-income persons. This amend­
ment established the New Careers
program, which is designed to
create entry level positions in public
service, including health, education,
welfare, neighborhood redevelop­
ment, public safety, and recreation.
Its objectives are to provide perma­
nent positions within service agen­
cies and to encourage employer re­
sponsibility for providing aides with
the training and education necessary
to move up an established career
ladder. The promise of a job upon
successful completion of training
and the opportunity to move up to
higher level positions set the New
Careers program apart from most
other federally sponsored training

Earnings and Working Conditions

The starting salary of social wel­
fare aides graduating from the New
Careers program was about $2.25
per hour in 1970. Employment
aides started at about $4,200 per

In the Federal Government in
1970, beginning social work aides
(welfare aides) earned from $4,125
to $5,212 per year. Experienced
workers earned from $5,853 to
$7,294 per year.
Many aides work fewer than 40
hours a week.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on requirements for
positions as social service aides may
be obtained from the city, county,
or State department of welfare, de­
partment of recreation, or local
Community Action Agency. Infor­
mation on employment aide posi­
tions is available from the State civil
service or merit system office in
each State capital or from local
offices of the State Employment

(D.O.T. 297.868 and 961.868)

Nature of the Work

Models convey the idea that life
can become happier, more glamor­
ous, adventuresome, or secure if
people buy the products or use the
services they advertise. The attrac­
tive female model or the athletic
male model furnishes the indispens­
able image that can trigger public
demand for a new look or product.
Most models specialize in some
line of fashion or photographic
Fashion models wear clothing
gracefully and exhibit an air of dis­
tinction. As they walk, pivot, and
turn to the back and side, they re­

veal the highlights of each garment
for prospective buyers. On some
jobs, they may stop before a
prospective purchaser to mention
the price and the style number of
the garment. Fashion models em­
ployed by apparel designers, manu­
facturers, and wholesalers are called
showroom or wholesale models. At
peak seasons, showroom models are
on duty constantly. During slack pe­
riods, when the showroom is empty
for many hours each day, they may
perform various clerical jobs.
Fashion models employed in de­
partment stores, custom salons, and
other retail and specialty shops are
called informal models. This type of
modeling is for customers or pro­
motional purposes and usually con­
ducted at a more leisurely pace than
in showrooms.
In the other major branch of
modeling—photographic—the work
generally is done for advertising or
editorial purposes. Photographic
models are employed by advertising
agencies or free-lance photogra­
phers who supply pictures for cata-



logs, pamphlets, and magazine and
newspaper ads or features. Photo­
graphic models should have some
acting ability, since facial expres­
sions help to create the desired
mood. To show pleasure, dissatis­
faction, or surprise under bright
lights in a hard-to-hold pose is not
Photographic models usually
work in a neighborhood photogra­
pher’s studio; occasionally they fly
to places such as Miami Beach or
Paris to pose against an authentic
In addition to fashion or photo­
graphic work, models demonstrate
new products and services at manu­
facturers’ exhibits and industry
trade shows, in commercial or fash­
ion films, or on television. Some are
hired by designers for fittings; still
others pose for artists and sculptors.

Places of Employment

An estimated 55,000 models
were employed in the United States
in 1970. Many worked part time;
approximately 4 out of 5 were
women or girls. Although most
models are employed in major cit­
ies, the largest number work in New
York City, center of the fashion in­
dustry. Large numbers also are em­
ployed in Chicago, Dallas, Detroit,
Los Angeles, Miami, San Fran­
cisco, and Washington, D.C.
Manufacturers, designers, and
wholesalers employ the largest
number of full-time models. In New
York City’s garment district, for ex­
ample, thousands of firms and de­
signers permanently employ from
one to four models. Others work for
advertising agencies, retail stores,
mail-order houses, and magazines,
as well as for commercial artists,
sculptors, illustrators, fashion art­
ists, and art schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer to hire models
who have training or experience.
Prospective models should attend a
modeling school to learn the proper
way to walk and stand, how to style
hair and use makeup, and to select
the appropriate clothing and acces­
sories. In photo modeling courses,
students are taught to pose for the
photographer and convey different
emotions through facial expressions.
Classes in developing personality
and poise are helpful.
Placement offices at modeling
schools provide jobs for many stu­
dents. Some jobseekers find em­
ployment by registering at a model
agency. The agency usually asks the
applicant for photos in a number of
modeling poses to show prospective
clients. Department stores some­
times hold auditions that give inex­
perienced models an opportunity to
display the newest styles. Some parttime jobs in department stores also
provide useful experience in han­
dling clothing, observing customers,
and occasional modeling. Some­
times experience can be gained in
local fashion shows to raise funds
for charity.
Although no formal educational
requirements are necessary for
many jobs, some employers require
a high school diploma; a few prefer
some college. Courses in art,
speech, drama, dancing, fashion de­
sign and salesmanship are useful.
The job demands not only perfect
grooming, poise, and a pleasant per­
sonality, but also physical stamina
and a generous helping of determi­
nation. Models are required to with­
stand the pressures of close sched­
ules and quick changes. Sometimes
they work under uncomfortable
conditions, such as modeling furs in
the summer or swim suits in winter.

The wise aspirant will take typing,
shorthand, or other practical courses
as income insurance between mod­
eling assignments.
Young fashion models must be
well proportioned and slim, since
they usually model manufacturers’
samples in small sizes. Many mod­
els, however, work for manufac­
turers who specialize in apparel for
particular types of individuals, such
as sportsmen, toddlers, the short,
the tall, or the stout. A female shoe
model generally must wear size 5,
and a hosiery model must have very
long and graceful legs. The male
model should be able to wear trim
clothing—usually a size 40 or 41
long suit. In short, a fashion model
is hired to fit the clothing.
Not all attractive people have
physical characteristics acceptable
Women photographic models, for
instance, usually must be longwaisted and at least 5 feet 6 inches
tall, have good teeth, and a face that
is pretty or reflects the style demand
of the period.
Modeling can serve as a steppingstone to other jobs in the fashion
field such as fashion coordinator,
staff editor of a fashion magazine,
or fashion consultant. Models who
serve as doubles or stand-ins in
movies or television may become
actors or actresses. Some work their
way through art school by modeling
and then qualify for jobs as fashion

Employment Outlook

Full-time modeling should re­
main highly competitive through the
1970’s. Because young people are
attracted to the glamour attached to
this occupation, the number of job
hunters is expected to be much
larger than the number of full-time


jobs. Employment opportunities for
part-time work, however, should be
Employment of models is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. Expanded em­
ployment is anticipated in industries
such as apparel manufacturing,
wholesale and retail trade, and ad­
vertising. The competition to gain
a greater share of growing sales
volume will increase emphasis on
product promotion and, in turn,
stimulate the demand for models.
Most openings for models will re­
sult from the need to replace those
who leave the field. The work span
of most models is relatively short
—particularly in high fashion mod­
eling where the accent is on youth.
Others are eased out of the field be­
cause the work with which they are
identified becomes outdated or their
pictures have been seen too often.
Many women also leave modeling
to marry and raise a family. For
these reasons, female models sel­
dom work more than 8 years. The
working life of the male model, on
the other hand, generally is much
longer—often 20 years or more.

Earnings and Working Conditions

A model’s earnings depend on
factors such as the type and place of
employment and the nature, fre­
quency, and duration of assign­
ments. Although the earnings of a
few top models are high and range
to $40,000 or more a year, most
models earn much less. According
to the limited information available,


beginning fashion models who
worked full time for manufacturers
or wholesalers generally earned
from $95 to $100 a week in 1970.
Those having experience had
weekly earnings of $100 to $135.
Beginning models employed by re­
tail stores usually were paid from
$65 to $100 a week, whereas expe­
rienced retail models earned from
$110 to $125. Retail models often
supplement their weekly salaries by
modeling in fashion shows. A model
is paid for pre-show fittings as well
as the show at hourly rates ranging
from $15 in some cities to $60 for
experienced models in the New
York City area.
Beginning photographic models
earned from $25 to $50 an hour in
1970. This rate is deceptive when
considered on a weekly or annual
basis because many models—espe­
cially beginners—work only a few
hours each week. Although photo­
graphic modeling often pays well, it
can be an “expensive” career. In
many cases, models must provide
their own accessories and pay for
other expenses. Occasionally, a
complete outfit is needed to get a
Television models earn at least
$35 an appearance as an extra, and
at least $135 an appearance as a
principal character, plus an addi­
tional amount for each rerun. They
must be members of a union—ei­
ther the Screen Actors Guild, Inc.,
or the American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists.
Manufacturers, wholesalers, and
retailers usually employ models on
a permanent basis. They work a 5-

day week and receive a 2-week va­
cation and other benefits. Those
who work through agencies or on a
free-lance basis, however, receive
no supplementary benefits. Models
usually are paid time and a half for
work after 5:30 p.m. on weekdays,
and for any time worked on Satur­
days and Sundays. The client pays
travel expenses outside the city. Ad­
ditional compensation also is re­
ceived for hazardous assignments,
such as striking a friendly pose with
a lion or climbing a ship’s rigging.
Modeling may influence the
model’s personal life. Since the
camera highlights the effects of
keeping late night hours, for exam­
ple, a model may limit evening so­
cial engagements to be fresh for the
next day’s work. In addition, a fe­
male model must devote part of
each evening to beauty care, and
sometimes must prepare clothing
and accessories for the next day’s
assignment. To stay in the profes­
sion, the high fashion model must
remain very slender.

Sources of Additional Information

Young people interested in at­
tending a professional modeling or
charm school can write to the De­
partment of Education in their State
for a list of approved modeling
Catalogs describing the program,
entrance requirements, and tuition
costs at particular modeling schools
may be obtained by writing their

The 27.8 million blue-collar
workers—skilled, semiskilled, and
unskilled—employed in 1970 made
up more than one-third of all the
Nation’s employed workers. They
work in hundreds of different occu­
pations and perform many impor­
tant functions in our economy. They
transform the ideas of scientists and
the plans of engineers into goods
and services. They operate trans­
portation and communication sys­
tems that tie the country together.
They build homes, office buildings,
and factories. They fabricate, in­
stall, control, maintain, and repair
the complex equipment necessary
for operating our highly mechanized
society. They repair automobiles,
television sets, washing machines,
and other household appliances.
They move raw materials, wrap and
pack finished products, and load
and unload supplies and equipment
of all kinds.
Young persons who have me­
chanical interests and abilities, or
who enjoy working with their hands,
will find many employment oppor­
tunities among the hundreds of oc­
cupations in this group.
Technological progress is causing
major changes in the occupational
composition of the Nation’s labor
force. Rapid advances in the indus­
trial applications of scientific knowl­
edge and invention are making pos­
sible increasing use of automatic de­
vices that operate the machinery
and equipment used in manufactur­
ing. Nonetheless, the number of
skilled and semiskilled workers is
expected to continue to increase
through the 1970’s, despite this
rapid mechanization and automa­
tion of production processes. It is

expected that our increasingly com­
plex technology generally will re­
quire higher levels of skill to operate
and service this machinery and re­
lated equipment.
Although blue-collar workers de­
clined slightly as a proportion of
total employment between 1960
and 1970, their number increased
by about 3.7 million. Semiskilled
workers accounted for nearly 53
percent of the increase, skilled
workers for 43 percent, and un­
skilled workers for less than 5 per­
Through the 1970’s, employment
of blue-collar workers is expected to
increase only about half as fast as
total employment. However, differ­
ent rates of growth are expected for
each of the three major occupa­
tional groups that make up the
blue-collar worker category. For ex­
ample, employment of skilled
workers is likely to increase nearly
as fast as total employment; semi­
skilled workers will grow at a much
slower rate; and no significant
change is expected in the number of
unskilled workers.
In addition to the large number
of job opportunities expected to be
available for blue-collar workers be­
cause of employment growth, an
even greater number is expected to
result from the replacement of ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
Replacement needs caused by re­
tirements and deaths alone should
provide more than 600,000 job
openings annually. For skilled work­
ers, replacement needs are expected
to offer about the same number of
job opportunities as employment
growth. For semiskilled workers, on

the other hand, replacement needs
are expected to offer more than
twice as many job opportunities as
employment growth. For unskilled
workers, virtually all job opportuni­
ties will come from replacement
The skilled, semiskilled, and un­
skilled occupation groups are dis­
cussed separately in the following
section. Following these general dis­
cussions are more detailed state­
ments on selected blue-collar occu­
pations. Many other blue-collar
occupations also are described in
individual industry statements else­
where in the Handbook.


(Craftsmen, Foremen, and
Kindred Workers)

The Nation’s economic strength
depends to a great extent on the ini­
tiative and competence of its skilled
work force. Skilled workers make
the patterns, models, tool?, dies,
fhachines, and equipment without
which industrial processes could not
take place. They repair the equip­
ment used in industry, and the me­
chanical equipment and appliances
used by consumers. They also build
homes, commercial and industrial
buildings, and highways.
In 1970, there were about 10.2
million skilled workers. More than
half of them were employed in two
broad occupational groupings—
construction craftsmen and mechan365


ics and repairmen. (See chart 22.)
Two occupations had more than
800,000 workers each—carpenters
and automotive mechanics. About a
dozen additional skilled occupations
had more than 100,000 workers
each. (See chart 23.) However,
many skilled occupations, such as
watch repairmen and paperhangers,
had fewer than 20,000 workers
Although skilled workers are em­
ployed in almost every branch of in­
dustry, more than three-fifths work
in manufacturing and construction.
About 9 out of every 10 skilled
workers are employed by private
firms; others are self-employed or
work for Federal, State, or local
governments. The building trades
have a fairly high percentage of
self-employed craftsmen. As might
be expected, the skilled work force
is concentrated in the highly popu­
lated and industrialized States. Job
opportunities, however, are found in
every State. A very small propor­
tion (about 3 percent) of skilled
workers are women.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Skilled workers must have a thor­
ough knowledge of the processes in­
volved in their work. They often ex­
ercise independent judgment and
they may also be responsible for
valuable equipment or products.
Consequently, they require consid­
erable training to qualify for their
jobs. A large proportion of skilled
workers learn their trades through
informal on-the-job training and ex­
perience. Many others learn their
trades through apprenticeship or
other formal training programs.
Large numbers of young men also
acquire skills in the armed services.
For others, vocational school train­
ing plays an important role.
Most training authorities agree
that the best way to learn a skilled
trade is through a formal appren­
ticeship program. Apprenticeship is
a period of systematic on-the-job
training, supplemented by related
trade instruction, which is designed
to familiarize the apprentice with
the materials, tools, and principles
of the trade. The apprenticeship
program provides the trainee with a

balanced knowledge of his trade.
The formal apprenticeship agree­
ment specifies the training time the
apprentice is to receive in the vari­
ous aspects of the trade. Most ap­
prenticeship programs last from 3 to
4 years.
Apprenticeship has several ad­
vantages over less formal methods
of learning a trade. An apprentice
receives broad training and experi­
ence that enable him to adjust to
constantly changing job require­
ments, and prepare him to work in
a wide range of jobs. The comple­
tion of an apprenticeship also gives
the worker a recognized status that
is an advantage in finding and hold­
ing jobs. In addition, it may in­
crease his opportunities for promo­
tion to a foreman or supervisorylevel job.
Many companies have training
programs that also provide system­
atic on-the-job training. Frequently,
these programs include supplemen­
tary classroom instruction.
Many young persons move from
one semiskilled job to another and,
over a period of years, acquire
knowledge and skills sufficient to
make them skilled workers. Others
begin learning a skilled trade in vo­
cational, trade, or technical schools.
A small proportion of these students
move directly into jobs in their
trade and, after acquiring on-thejob experience, qualify as skilled
workers. Other young persons, who
already are employed in semiskilled
or unskilled jobs, move into skilled
occupations by taking vocational
studies related to their work, such
as correspondence courses, manu­
facturers’ training programs, and
night school courses.
Large numbers of young men ac­
quire skills in the Armed Forces
that enable them to qualify, with
additional training, for skilled jobs
in civilian life, such as automobile


Many skilled occupations have more than a
hundred thousand workers
Workers, 1970 (in hundred thousands) Y
Automotive mechanics
Electricians (construction and maintenance)
All-round mechanics
Painters (construction and maintenance)
Plumbers and pipefitters
Operating engineers 2/
Appliance servicemen
Stationary engineers
Bricklayers b
Compositors and typesetters
Business machine repairmen
Industrial machinery repairmen
Tool and die makers
Aircraft mechanics
TV & radio service technicians
Air conditioning, refrigeration, & heating mechanics
Telephone & PBX installers & repairm en!/


in mathematics and the sciences),
as well as thorough job training, will
be better able to compete for higher
paying skilled jobs than applicants
without this training.










mechanic, aircraft mechanic, elec­
trician, or office machine repairman.
Many supervisors and men in ad­
ministrative positions have come
from the ranks of craftsmen. Em­
ployers long have recognized the
value of executives who have both
industrial know-how and adminis­
trative ability.
Young persons who do not ex­
pect to go to college should consider
the definite advantages the skilled
trades offer, compared with semi­
skilled and unskilled occupations.
Skilled workers have higher earn­
ings, more job security, better
chances for promotions, and more
opportunities to open their own
businesses than most workers hav­
ing lesser skills. Among the 11 oc­
cupational groups that make up our
labor force, only men in the profes­
sional, managerial, and salesworker
groups had higher earnings than the
average $8,791 a year earned by
skilled men in 1969.

Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment in skilled occupa­
tions grew from about 8.6 million

workers in 1960 to 10.2 million in
1970. Continued growth in the
number of skilled jobs is expected
in the years ahead. Job opportuni­
ties also will result from the re­
placement of skilled workers who
transfer to other fields of work, are
promoted, retire, or die. About
215,000 skilled workers are ex­
pected to be needed each year to re­
place those who retire or die.
Employment in skilled occupa­
tions is expected to rise moderately
through the 1970’s because of in­
dustrial growth and technological
advances that increase the need for
skilled workers. As in the past, rates
of employment growth will differ
among the skilled occupational
groups. For example, employment
of mechanics and repairmen and
construction craftsmen is expected
to grow more rapidly than the
skilled work force as a whole, and
employment in major skilled ma­
chining occupations is expected to
grow less rapidly. On the other
hand, employment in the printing
trades is expected to show little or
no change.
Young men who acquire a good
basic education (including courses

Semiskilled workers make up the
largest occupational group in the
Nation’s labor force. About 13.9
million workers— 1 out of every 6
—were employed in semiskilled
jobs in 1970. Of the 9 million semi­
skilled workers employed in manu­
facturing industries (chart 24),
large numbers were engaged in
processing food, making textiles and
clothing, and producing automobiles
and industrial machinery. The
broad field of semiskilled jobs will
provide hundreds of thousands of
young persons in the years ahead.
Truckdrivers account for the
largest single group of semiskilled
workers. Millions of other semi­
skilled workers operate power driven
machines in factories. Many use
sewing machines to join fabrics for
clothing. Others operate machines
to stamp out metal parts; still others
use machine tools, such as engine
lathes and milling machines, to
shape metal to precise sizes. A con­
siderable number of semiskilled
workers operate materials moving
equipment, such as forklift trucks,
to move raw materials and manu­
factured products from place to
place in factories.
Large numbers of semiskilled
workers are employed as assemblers
and inspectors. Assemblers install




About 1 worker in every 6 is employed
in a semi-skilled job

Total employment, 1 9 7 0 -7 8,62 7 ,0 0 0
Semi-skilled workers

Semi-skilled workers, 1970 (in millions)

M anufacturing




Machine operator

Truck driver


Gas station attendant


Semiskilled jobs often pay well.
Some semiskilled workers who are
paid on an incentive basis are
among the highest paid workers in
manufacturing. However, the aver­
age annual earnings of semiskilled
men in 1969 was $7,348—$1,443
less than those of skilled men. An
added disadvantage is that semi­
skilled workers are more likely to
lose their jobs during a business re­
cession, and to remain unemployed
longer than skilled or white-collar

Laundry & drycleaning

Material mover

Bus driver

Employment Outlook

components and subassemblies into
end products such as radios and
television sets. Inspectors examine
and test products to find out
whether their quality is satisfactory.
Many semiskilled workers in facto­
ries are employed as helpers or as­
sistants to skilled workers. For ex­
ample, stationary firemen help
skilled stationary engineers operate
and maintain steam boilers.
In 1970, 4.3 million women ac­
counted for about 30 percent of all
semiskilled workers. Jobs like those
of sewing machine operators, pack­
ers and wrappers, and assemblers
were by far the largest source of
employment for women in manufac­
turing. The number of women em­
ployed in the different manufactur­
ing industries varied considerably.
Women accounted for a large pro­
portion of the semiskilled jobs in
the apparel, textiles, and food in­
dustries. On the other hand, plants
that produce iron and steel and pe­
troleum products employed rela­
tively few women in semiskilled

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Semiskilled workers ordinarily
receive only brief on-the-job train­
ing. Usually, they are told exactly
what to do and how to do it, and
their work is supervised closely.
They often repeat the same motions
or the same routine throughout the
working day.
Semiskilled workers do not need
to invest many years in learning
their jobs. The simplest, most repet­
itive jobs can be learned in a day
and mastered in a few weeks. Even
jobs that require a higher degree of
skill, such as truckdriving, can be
learned in a few months. At the
same time, the ability to learn new
jobs quickly, including the operation
of new machines, is an important
New employees in semiskilled
jobs are not expected to be highly
proficient. After a short training pe­
riod, however, they must work at a
fast and steady pace. Frequently
good eyesight and good coordina­
tion are required.

workers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Most job
opportunities are expected to result
from the need to replace workers
who are promoted, transfer out of
semiskilled jobs, retire, or die.
About 320,000 job openings are ex­
pected each year as a result of re­
tirements and deaths. Transfer rates
for semiskilled workers are high be­
cause a large proportion of them are
young workers who tend to change
jobs frequently, and women workers
who leave their jobs to marry, raise
families, or move to other areas
when their husbands change jobs.
The continuing growth in the use
of commercial motor vehicles will
increase employment opportunities
for drivers of trucks and buses.
Greater substitution of power
equipment for unskilled labor in
lifting, hauling, digging, and similar
heavy physical work will create new
jobs for semiskilled workers such as
power equipment operators. On the
other hand, employment growth in
manufacturing will be limited by in­
creasing automation of production
processes. There are many proc­
esses, however, to which automa­
tion is not likely to be applied in the



1970’s, and many industries in
which the impact of automation will
be limited.
Young men and women who
have no training beyond high school
will continue to find a major area of
job opportunities in semiskilled oc­
cupations. The most rapid gains in
the Nation’s employment, however,
will be in professional, technical and
other white-collar occupations and
in skilled occupations. If possible,
young persons having ability should
obtain the additional training and
education that these occupations re­
quire. Semiskilled workers, how­
ever, even those who did not com­
plete high school, are not cut off
permanently from advancement if
they take advantage of the many ed­
ucational opportunities available in
their communities. They may take
courses in evening schools or enter
apprentice training programs and
eventually qualify for better jobs.



Unskilled laborers work in man­
ual occupations that generally re­
quire no special training. These jobs
usually involve handling and moving
materials; for example, loading or
unloading, digging, hauling, hoist­
ing, wrapping, and mixing. Some
jobs require heavy physical work.
About half of the 3.7 million un­
skilled laborers employed in 1970
worked in manufacturing and con­
struction industries. A large propor­
tion of the remainder were em­
ployed in retail and wholesale trade,
transportation, public utilities, and
service industries.
Although some of these jobs pay
well, particularly in construction
work, the average annual earnings
of unskilled men in 1969 was
$6,082—$1,266 less than those of
semiskilled men. Moreover, un­
skilled workers are usually the first
to lose their jobs during a business
recession; they have the highest un­
employment rate of all the major
occupational groups.
Little or no change in the number

of unskilled laborers is expected
through the 1970’s. Nevertheless,
there will be thousands of opportu­
nities for new workers to get jobs as
unskilled laborers because of the
need to replace workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Deaths and retirements alone
are expected to result in about
70,000 job openings each year.
Mechanical equipment has been
replacing manual labor, and this
trend will continue. Power-driven
equipment, such as forklift trucks,
derricks, cranes, hoists, and convey­
or belts will take over more and
more materials-handling work in
factories, freight terminals, and
warehouses. Other power-driven
machines will do excavating, ditch­
digging, and similar work. Inte­
grated systems of processing and
materials-handling equipment, a
more advanced step in automation,
will be installed in an increasing
number of plants in the years
ahead. Industrial expansion, how­
ever, is expected to create a need
for unskilled laborers which will ap­
proximately offset the jobs lost to
laborsaving mechanical equipment.


Nature of the Work

Foremen play a strategic role in
the economic activities of the Na­
tion. They supervise and coordinate
the work of highly skilled, semi­
skilled and unskilled blue-collar
workers, and are often responsible
for millions of dollars worth of
equipment and material. They may
oversee workers engaged in assem­
bling television sets, servicing auto­
mobiles, laying bricks, unloading
ships, or any thousands of other ac­
tivities. Foremen often are referred
to by different titles. For example,
in the textile industry they are re­
ferred to as second hands; on board
ship they are called boatswains; and
in construction they are known by
titles such as overseer, strawboss,
gang leader, or pusher.
Supervising workers is the most
important part of the formen’s job.
Many blue-collar workers never
work under supervisors above the
rank of foreman, and it is through
their foremen that they get their
work orders, their discipline, and
their recognition. Foremen interpret
and communicate company policy
to the workers. They are responsi­
ble for the guidance and instruction
necessary to assure that workers are
qualified to handle their assign­
ments and to see that new em­
ployees are properly trained for
their jobs.
In some enterprises, foremen, in
addition to their supervisory respon­
sibilities, work at specific crafts.
“Working foremen” are common in
construction, where, for example,
bricklayer foremen supervise the
work of journeymen bricklayers and
helpers and also lay brick. Working
foremen in some cases belong to the

same labor union as the workers
they supervise.
Foremen must plan and schedule
the work of their subordinates and
maintain production and employee
records. They spend part of their
time participating in meetings and
preparing reports on production,
cost, personnel, and safety. Fore­
men must exercise considerable
judgment in their planning and
allow for unforeseen contingencies
such as absenteeism and machinery
Foremen see that safety rules and
regulations are observed and in­
struct employees in safety practices.
In unionized plants, foremen may
meet with union representatives to
discuss work problems and griev­
ances. They must know the provi­
sions of labor-management agree­
ments and run their operation ac­
cording to the agreements.

Places of Employment

Almost every business enterprise
and government agency that em­
ploys blue-collar workers has fore­
men. Nearly 1.5 million were em­
ployed in 1970; about 90 percent
were men.

Foremen work mainly in the
highly industrialized sections of the
Nation. About three-fifths are em­
ployed in the following manufactur­
ing industries: machinery, metals,
transportation equipment, food,
chemicals, and paper products.
Large numbers also are found in the
construction, trade, and service in­
dustries. Female foremen, or forela­
dies, are primarily employed in the
leather products, and laundry and
drycleaning industries.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Unlike entry requirements for
most supervisory positions, em­
ployers generally look for experi­
ence and skill rather than specific
choosing foremen. Most foremen
rise through the ranks—that is, they
are promoted from the machine or
work bench or construction craft.
By performing different jobs over a
period of time, they develop their
skills and acquire a thorough knowl­
edge of the processes involved in
the work they supervise. During this
time, they also learn much about
their fellow worker, individually
and collectively, and about manage­
ment policies and employee atti­
tudes toward these policies. Very



often, foremen are former union
members who have served as
elected representatives and learned
about grievance procedures, collec­
tive bargaining, and labor manage­
ment contracts.
The experience gained by fore­
men rising through the ranks gives
them the advantage of knowing how
a job should be done and possible
problems involved, and helps them
know what to expect from the
workers they supervise.
Most workers who are promoted
to foremen jobs are high school
graduates who have learned their
skills on-the-job. Many have ac­
quired technical skills through ap­
prenticeship or other formal train­
ing programs, and some have bene­
fited from courses offered through
Armed Forces training schools. Al­
though fewer than one-tenth of all
foremen are college graduates, a
growing number of employers are
hiring foremen trainees with college
backgrounds. This practice is most
prevalent in industries that have
highly technical production proc­
esses such as the chemical, oil and
electronics industries. Employers
generally look for college graduates
with backgrounds in business ad­
ministration, industrial relations,
mathematics, engineering, or sci­
ence. These workers are hired as
foremen helpers and undergo onthe-job training until they are capa­
ble of accepting supervisory respon­
Employers look for leadership
qualities when considering persons
for foremen positions. Especially
helpful is the ability to motivate em­
ployees, command respect, and get
along with people.
Foremen with outstanding ability,
particularly those with post-high
school education, may move up to
higher management positions. In
manufacturing, for example, fore­

men may advance to jobs such as
department head, general foremen,
and plant manager. In the construc­
tion industry, some foremen use the
experience and skills they acquire to
go into business for themselves.

Employment Outlook

Employment of foremen is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. In addition to
the substantial number of job op­
portunities expected to occur as a
result of employment growth, an
even greater number of job open­
ings will occur each year as experi­
enced foremen are promoted, trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or
Factors underlying the expected
growth of foremen are the increase
in the size of business operations
and government services requiring
blue-collar workers, and the grow­
ing trend towards increased supervi­
sion as industrial production proc­
esses become more technical. More
foremen, for example, will be re­
quired for functions such as inspec­
tion and production scheduling.
Most foremen will continue to be
employed in manufacturing. How­
ever, more than half of the increase
in the number of foremen during
the 1970’s will be due to the rapid
expansion of nonmanufacturing in­
dustries—construction, trade, serv­
ice, and public utilities. The num­
ber of foremen in construction is
expected to grow very rapidly.

entials between foremen and the
workers they supervise that range
from about 10 percent to 40 per­
cent. However, these differentials
do not take into account overtime
payments to hourly workers. Fore­
men are usually salaried and not
paid for overtime. If they are paid
for overtime, they normally do not
get the premium rate that workers
under their supervision receive. In
1969, the average (median) earn­
ings of foremen who worked full
time during the year was $9,493.
Working conditions of foremen
vary widely from industry to indus­
try. As the lowest level supervisory
group, foremen spend much of their
time with the workers on the plant
floor or at the construction site.
Plant foremen are apt to get dirty
around machinery and materials
and may be subjected to noisy man­
ufacturing operations. Construction
foremen often are subject to un­
pleasant weather conditions. Fore­
men generally work more than 40
hours a week and often are ex­
pected to be at work before their
subordinates arrive, and remain
there after they leave.
Some foremen who have limited
authority may feel isolated, neither
a member of the workforce nor a
significant part of management. On
the other hand, the foreman posi­
tion holds more prestige than that of
blue-collar workers and the work is
often more challenging and reward­

Sources of Additional Information
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salary levels of foremen generally
are keyed to the earnings of the
highest paid workers they supervise.
Some companies have a formal pol­
icy to maintain specific wage differ­

American Management Association,
135 West 50th St., New York,
N.Y. 10020.


Building trades craftsmen repre­
sent the largest group of skilled
workers in the Nation’s labor force.
Altogether, there were more than
234 million of these craftsmen em­
ployed in 1970—about 3 out of
every 10 skilled workers.
The more than two dozen skilled
building trades vary greatly in size.
Several major trades—carpenter,
painter, plumber, pipefitter, brick­
layer, operating engineer (construc­
tion machinery operator), and con­
struction electrician—each had more
than a hundred thousand workers.
(See chart 25.) Carpenters alone
numbered 830,000—nearly onethird of all building craftsmen. By
contrast, only a few thousand were
employed in each of several trades
such as marble setter, terrazzo
worker, glazier, and stonemason.

What Are the Building Trades?

Building trades craftsmen are
employed mainly in the construc­

tion, maintenance, repair, and alter­
ation of various structures. These
include homes and other types of
buildings, highways, and airports.
They also include substantial work
in the Nation’s defense and space
The wide range of materials and
skills used in construction has re­
sulted in the specialization of vari­
ous work operations. Thus, building
trades workers who use essentially
the same materials or skills have
tended to become identified with
distinct trades. For example, brick­
layers and stonemasons both work
with masonry materials. Although
operating engineers do not work
with particular materials, they have
a group of related skills that enables
them to handle various types of ex­
cavating, grading, hoisting, and
other equipment.
The building trades consist pri­
marily of journeymen (craftsmen)
who generally must have a high
level of skill and a sound knowledge
of assembly and construction opera­

Employment in the building trades
Number, 1970 (in thousands)


Carpenters ____
Electricians (construction and maintenance)
Painters and paperhangers
(construction and maintenance)

Plumbers and pipefitters
Operating engineers
Structural metal workers2 ..-l:'-it
Cement m asons^


Roofers and slaters ZD
Plasterers 3




tions. They often are assisted by ap­
prentices, tenders, and laborers.
The work of journeymen may be
grouped into three broad classifica­
tions—structural, finishing, and me­
chanical. However, some craftsmen
—for example, carpenters—may do
finishing as well as structural work.
Generally, each building trade is
classified in one of these three cate­
gories, as follows:
Occupations mainly concerned
with structural work: Carpenter,
operating engineer (construction
machinery operator), bricklayer,
structural-iron worker, ornamentaliron worker, cement mason, rein­
forcing-iron worker (rodman), rig­
ger and machine mover, stonema­
son, and boilermaker.
Occupations mainly concerned
with finishing work: Lather, plas­
terer, marble setter, tile setter, ter­
razzo worker, painter, paperhanger,
glazier, roofer, floor covering in­
staller, and asbestos worker.
Occupations mainly concerned
with mechanical work: Plumber,
pipefitter, construction electrician,
sheet-metal worker, elevator con­
structor, and millwright.
Most building trades occupations
are described individually later in
this chapter. These descriptions are
necessarily brief and incomplete.
They do not apply fully to all locali­
ties because of local differences in
the types of work done by the vari­
ous trades.
Also, they are not statements or
recommendations concerning the
work jurisdiction of these trades
and are inappropriate for use in ju­
risdictional negotiations or the set­
tlement of jurisdictional questions.
Detailed descriptions of the na­
ture of the work, training, employ­
ment outlook, and other informa­
tion concerning boilermakers and
millwrights appear elsewhere in the



Where Building Trades Workers
Are Employed

Building trades workers are em­
ployed mainly by contractors in the
Many others are employed in indus­
tries other than construction, mainly
to do maintenance and repair work.
Some work directly for business
firms or government agencies that
have their own construction force,
and others are self-employed.
The building trades craftsmen
who work in the contract construc­
tion industry are employed by gen­
eral and special-trade contractors.
General contractors may be classi­
fied as building (residential, com­
mercial, or industrial), highway, or
heavy construction contractors,
since most general contractors limit
their operations to one of these ac­
tivities. These contractors construct
buildings and other structures, such
as dams, bridges, tunnels, and
roads. They take full responsibility
for the complete job, except for
specified portions of the work omit­
ted from the general contract. Gen­
eral contractors may do a large part
of the work with their own crews,
but they often sub-contract particu­
lar phases of the construction job to
special-trade contractors.
Special-trade contractors usually
do the work of only one trade, such
as painting, carpentry, or electrical
work, or of two or more closely re­
lated trades, such as plumbing and
heating, or plastering and lathing.
Beyond fitting their work to that of
other trades, they have no responsi­
bility for the structure as a whole.
The special-trade contractors obtain
orders for their work from general
contractors, from architects, or from
property owners. Repair work is
done almost always on direct order
from owners, occupants, architects,
or rental agents.

There are several hundred thou­
sand contractors (both general and
special-trade); most of them oper­
ate within a limited geographical
area. The great majority are small
—generally employing fewer than
10 workers. Some large firms em­
ploy several thousand workers each.
Thousands of building trades
workers are employed in factories,
stores, mines, hotels, and most
other types of large business estab­
lishments. For example, plumbers
and pipefitters are employed by
firms to maintain, repair, and install
piping systems. In addition, large
firms frequently employ crews of
building trades workers to construct
houses, office buildings, and other
new structures. Government agen­
cies also employ many construction
craftsmen to build, maintain, and
repair highway, water, and sanita­
tion systems.
Many building trades workers are
self-employed. Self-employed jour­
neymen work directly for property
owners on small jobs. They may be
paid by the hour or the day, or they
may be paid an agreed price for the
job. They may provide the materials
and include them in the price, or
use materials provided by the
owner. Self-employment is most
common in carpentry and painting,
but it also is characteristic of other
skilled building trades.
The work of the skilled building
craftsman is identified with a spe­
cific trade, such as carpentry or
bricklaying, rather than with an in­
dividual contractor or even a broad
group of contractors. Thus, a car­
penter may be employed mainly by
a particular builder but, in the
course of a year, he also may be
employed by a concrete contractor
to build forms for a concrete bridge;
by an electrical or plumbing con­
tractor to build' a temporary struc­
ture at a large construction site; or

he may contract to do a small repair
job on his own.
In some of the trades, work may
be performed away from the con­
struction site. For example, sheetmetal workers may be employed in
shops where ducts are fabricated for
installation in a building. In other
trades, craftsmen may work in the
central shop of the contractor or in
fabrication shops at the job site.
Employment of these workers is
distributed geographically in much
the same way as the Nation’s popu­
lation. Thus, their employment is
concentrated generally in the indus­
trialized and highly populated
States, such as California, New
York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
and Texas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing national joint labor-management
apprenticeship committees estab­
lished for most of the building
trades, recommend formal appren­
tice training as the best way to ac­
quire the all-around proficiency of
craftsmen in the building trades.
Apprenticeship is a prescribed pe­
riod of on-the-job training, supple­
mented by related classroom in­
struction, which is designed to de­
velop skill by making the apprentice
familiar with the materials, tools,
and principles of his trade. This
type of training provides the ap­
prentice with a balanced knowledge
of his field of work and enables him
to perform its operations compe­
tently. Formal apprenticeship agree­
ments are registered with a State
apprenticeship agency or the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training.
Many building trades workers
have acquired the skills of their


trades informally by working as la­
borers and helpers, observing or
being taught by experienced crafts­
men. Some building trades crafts­
men have acquired their skills, or
part of their skills, by attending vo­
cational or trade schools or by tak­
ing correspondence school courses.
Apprentices in the building
trades generally are required to be
between 18 and 25 years of age,
and in good physical condition. The
maximum age limit may be waived
for veterans or others having experi­
ence or special qualifications. A
high school education, or its equiva­
lent, including courses in mathemat­
ics and the sciences, is desirable
and, in a few trades, actually re­
quired. Often, applicants are given
tests to determine their aptitude for
a particular trade. For some skilled
building trades, it is important to
have considerable manual dexterity,
mechanical aptitude, and an eye
for proper alinement of materials.
The formal registered apprentice­
ship agreement generally stipulates
a training period of from 2 to 5
years of relatively continuous em­
ployment and training, in addition

to a minimum of 144 hours a year
of related classroom instruction.
The journeymen on the job and the
foreman explain to the apprentice
how the work is done and show him
how different operations are per­
formed and the way different tools
are used. Ordinarily, most of this in­
struction is given by a particular
journeyman to whom the apprentice
is assigned. The apprentice is re­
quired to do work of progressively
increasing difficulty and with pro­
gressively less supervision.
Related classroom instruction
varies among the skilled building
trades, but usually includes courses
such as history of the trade; charac­
teristics of the materials used; shop
mathematics related to the work of


the trade; and some basic principles
of engineering, where appropriate
(particularly for pipework, work on
ventilating systems, and electrical
work). It also includes sketching,
elementary drafting, and interpreta­
tion of drawings; safety practices;
and special-trade theory such as
color harmony for painters and ele­
mentary sanitation for plumbers.
Such related instruction seldom is
offered in small communities where
there may be only a few apprentices
and a small number of journeymen
in a particular trade. In these areas,
through courses offered in the local
high school or by visiting instruc­
tors, generally furnished by the
State. Other subject matter require­
ments are met through personal in­
struction by local journeymen and
contractors or, sometimes, through
correspondence courses.
The formal registered apprentice­
ship agreements also stipulate the
length of time the apprentice is to
be required to work in each major
operation of the trade, as well as his
rate of pay at successive intervals of
advancement. The apprentice is
paid at an advancing rate, usually
starting at 50 percent of the jour­
neyman’s pay. The apprentice’s rate
increases at 6-month or 1-year in­
tervals until a rate of about 90 per­
cent of the journeyman’s rate is
reached in the final months of train­
ing. Often, advanced apprenticeship
standing and pay are given to ap­
prentices who have acquired trade
skills in the Armed Forces or
through trade school instruction.
Advanced standing is granted on an
individual basis and usually is deter­
mined by a demonstration of trade
skill and knowledge.
In most communities, the appren­
ticeship programs are supervised by
joint apprenticeship committees
composed of representatives of the

local employers or employer groups
and the local union. The appren­
tices sign their apprenticeship
agreements with these committees.
The committee determines the need
for apprentices in the locality and es­
tablishes minimum apprenticeship
standards of education, experience,
and training. Whenever employers
cannot provide the variety of expe­
rience necessary to give an appren­
tice all-round instruction in the vari­
ous branches of the trade, or rela­
tively continuous employment over
the entire period of apprenticeship,
the committee transfers the appren­
tice to another employer. Where
specialization by contractors is ex­
tensive—for instance, in electrical
work—it is customary for the joint
committee to rotate apprentices
among several contractors in the
trade at intervals of about 6 months.
In some large cities, the local joint
apprenticeship committee employs
an apprenticeship program coordi­
In areas where these committees
have not been established, the ap­
prenticeship agreement is solely be­
tween the apprentice and an em­
ployer or employer group. Many
journeymen have received valuable
training under this type of appren­
ticeship program, but such a pro­
gram may involve some element of
risk for the apprentice. In those in­
stances, there is no joint committee
to supervise the training offered, to
settle differences over the terms and
conditions of apprentice training, or
to arrange a transfer in cases of per­
sonal disagreements between the
apprentice and the employer. The
apprentice’s training depends prin­
cipally on his employer’s business
prospects and policies. If the em­
ployer lacks continuous work or
does only a restricted type of work,
he cannot provide the apprentice



with the broad training needed to
develop journeyman skills.
In early 1970, about 150,000
men were registered in apprentice
training programs in the construc­
tion trades. Additional apprentices
receive their training in unregistered
programs. In future years, oppor­
tunities for many young men to re­
ceive apprentice training will be
available in all parts of the country.
In addition, thousands of other
workers will be able to learn con­
struction trades informally.
Some indication of the location of
future apprenticeship opportunities
in the building trades is available
from the latest data showing the
geographical distribution of regis­
tered apprentices in these trades.
The following eight States ac­
counted for nearly one-half of the
registered apprentices in training for
selected building trades in early
1970; California, New York, Ohio,
Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsyl­
vania, and Florida.
In many localities, craftsmen—
most commonly construction elec­
tricians and plumbers—are required
to have a journeyman’s license to
work at their trade. To qualify for
these licenses, they must pass an ex­
amination, demonstrating a broad
knowledge of the job and of State
and local regulations.
Building trades craftsmen may
advance in a number of ways. For
example, a journeyman may be­
come a foreman in charge of a
crew. In most localities, small jobs
are run by “working foremen” who
work at the trade along with mem­
bers of their crews. On larger jobs,
the foremen supervise only. A
craftsman also can become an esti­
mator for a contractor. In this job,
he estimates material requirements
and labor costs to enable the con­
tractor to bid on a particular con­
struction project. Some craftsmen

advance to jobs as superintendents
on large projects. Others become in­
structors in trade and vocational
schools, or salesmen for building
supply companies. In addition,
many thousands of journeymen
have become contractors, particu­
larly in the homebuilding field.
It is easier to start a small con­
tract construction business than a
small business in many other indus­
tries. Only relatively moderate finan­
cial investment is needed because
liberal credit arrangements make it
easier to buy materials, and it is
possible to conduct a fairly substan­
tial business from the proprietor’s
home. However, the contract con­
struction field is highly competitive,
and the rate of business failure is
especially high among small con­
tractors. To be successful, the pro­
prietor of a small contracting firm
must have the ability to plan work,
to foresee needs and problems, to
direct others, and to estimate mate­
rial and labor requirements for jobs
on which he is bidding. He also
must have a sound knowledge of
business practices and financing.
Sound journeyman knowledge in­
creases chances for success. Some
States or municipalities require con­
tractors to be licensed.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the building
trades is expected to increase
rapidly through the 1970’s, assum­
ing relatively full employment na­
tionally and the high levels of eco­
nomic activity needed to achieve
this goal. If the high levels of eco­
nomic activity are not achieved, em­
ployment in the building trades will
increase at a slower rate than that
projected. In addition to employ­
ment growth, tens of thousands of
job openings will result from the

need to
replace experienced
workers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die. Retirement
and deaths alone will provide nearly
80,000 job openings in the building
trades each year through the
The rapid increase in total em­
ployment in the building trades (7
out of 10 of whom are employed in
the construction industry) is ex­
pected to result primarily from a
rapid rise in construction activity.
The anticipated large increases in
population and households and the
relatively low-level of housing con­
struction in recent years are ex­
pected to create strong pressure for
new housing in the 1970’s. Con­
gress, through the Housing and
Urban Development Act of 1968,
has expressed its resolve that hous­
ing receive high priority among the
Nation’s domestic needs. Among
other factors that will stimulate con­
struction activity are a rise in ex­
penditures for new industrial plant
capacity, and higher levels of per­
sonal and corporate income. In ad­
dition, there will be a growing de­
mand for alteration and moderniza­
tion work on existing structures, as
well as maintenance and repair
work on the expanding highway sys­
tem and on the increasing numbers
of dams, bridges, and similar proj­
Employment of building 'trades
workers outside the construction in­
dustry is expected to expand as a
result of the anticipated high levels
of economic activity, which will
stimulate the construction of com­
mercial and industrial buildings and,
therefore, increase maintenance and
repair requirements.
The increase in building trades
employment is not expected to be as
great as the total expansion in con­
struction activity. Continued tech­
nological developments in construe-



tion methods, tools and equipment, being used for a growing variety of
and materials will permit increasing components, including partitions,
output per construction worker. wall panels, siding, insulation, and
One such important development in roofing. Other new and improved
construction methods is the increas­ products are adhesives that elimi­
ing use of prefabricated compo­ nate the need for conventional fas­
nents, which are installed as com­ teners, nails that have improved
plete units at the job site for almost holding power, paints that last twice
all types of construction projects. as long as those in common use, and
For example, preassembled outside wood products that come from the
walls and partitions can be lifted factory prepainted with the prime
into place in one operation, and coat and even the final coat.
The rates of employment growth
electric circuit boxes and switch­
boards prewired at the factory in­ will differ among the various build­
stead of being wired by the electri­ ing trades. Employment growth is
cian at the job site. An important expected to be most rapid for con­
extension of prefabrication is “mod­ struction electricians; cement ma­
ule building” in which units, includ­ sons; plumbers and pipefitters; ex­
ing complete rooms or buildings, cavating, grading, and road machin­
are available in standard sizes. Fur­ ery operators; and glaziers. Among
thermore, standardization of com­ the trades that will have a slower
ponents will contribute to their growth rate are stonemasons, mar­
greater use in the future.
ble setters, and plasterers.
Also expected to affect employ­
ment growth by increasing workers’
Earnings and Working Conditions
efficiency are technological ad­
vances in construction tools and
Hourly wage rates paid to build­
equipment, such as shock resistant, ing trades craftsmen are among the
cordless, electric-powered tools. highest paid to skilled workers.
Items formerly unloaded and moved However, because construction
to the construction site by hand, work is seasonal and time also is
such as concrete and brick, now are lost for other reasons, average an­
being moved by forklift trucks, mo­ nual earnings of building trades
torized wheelbarrows, and conveyor craftsmen are not as high as the
belts. The size, speed, durability, hourly rates of pay would indicate.
and mobility of large cranes, con­
The hourly rates of pay for
struction machines, including bull­ skilled workers in the building
dozers and scrapers, have increased trades vary by trade and locality.
considerably. Many of these ma­ Generally, the highest hourly rates
chines, while they can do many are paid in the larger communities.
times more work than the largest Minimum hourly rates under union
machines a few years ago, require contracts for journeymen and for
only one operator. New types that helpers and laborers in selected
reduce labor requirements also are building trades in 68 large cities, on
being developed, including concrete July 1, 1970, averaged as follows:
paving machines that perform the
work formerly done by four sepa­
rate machines.
hourly rate
New and improved construction
All building trades .. .$6.18
materials also are expected to limit Journeymen ................................ 6.54
employment growth. For example,
Asbestos w orkers............... 6.69
lightweight and durable plastics are
Bricklayers .......................... 6.77

Carpenters....................... 6.42
Cement masons (finishers) 6.02
(inside wiremen) ........... 6.82
Elevator constructors... 6.65
Glaziers .............................. 6.08
Lathers ................................ 6.44
Marble setters ................... 6.29
Terrazzo w orkers.......... 6.46
Tile setters..................... 6.08
Painters........................... 5.95
Paperhangers ...................... 6.02
Pipefitters ............................ 6.93
Plasterers ............................ 6.35
Plumbers ............................ 7.01
Roofers, composition . . . . 6.17
Roofers, slate and tile . . . . 5.81
Sheet-metal workers ......... 6.75
Stonemasons.................. 6.73
Structural-iron workers . . . 6.72
Rodmen .............................. 6.64
Helpers and laborers............ 4.86
Bricklayers’ tenders..... 5.06
Building laborers.......... 4.78
Composition roofers’
helpers ............................ 3.65
Elevator constructors’
helpers ................
Marble setters’ helpers . . . 5.43
Terrazzo workers’ helpers . 5.46
Tile setters’ h elp ers...... 5.15
Plasterers’ laborers........ 5.17
Plumbers’ laborers........ 4.95

Union wage rates for these occu­
pations are negotiated between
trade unions and employers. The
minimum rates do not include holi­
day, vacation, or other benefit pay­
ments made or credited to the
worker each pay period. They also
do not include overtime, bonuses,
or payments for special qualifica­
tions or for other reasons.
Construction work frequently re­
quires prolonged standing, bending,
stooping, and working in cramped
quarters. Exposure to cold, hot, and
inclement weather is common, as
much of the work is done outdoors
or in partially enclosed structures.
During the winter, when the build­
ing is sufficiently enclosed, heat is
sometimes provided. Many persons
prefer construction work to other



skilled occupations because it per­ ment fluctuations that result from
mits them to work outdoors.
changes in general business condi­
Construction work generally is tions. Another disadvantage is that
more dangerous than work in manu­ even during years of high levels of
facturing, but the risk of injury is construction activity, annual earn­
lessened considerably when proper ings of workers in the building
work practices are followed.
trades are limited somewhat by the
Forty hours was the standard seasonal nature of construction
workweek for a vast majority of work. Worktime is lost as a result of
union building trades workers in bad weather and other interrup­
1970. Time and one-half generally tions.
was paid for hours worked beyond
A large proportion of building
the standard workday of 8 hours. trades workers are members of
Time and one-half or double-time trade unions affiliated with the
rates were usually paid for work on Building and Construction Trades
Saturdays and Sundays or holidays. Department of the American Feder­
A substantial proportion of or­ ation of Labor and Congress of In­
ganized building trades workers are dustrial Organizations.
included in health, insurance, and
pension programs negotiated be­
tween unions and employers, and Sources of Additional Information
financed entirely by employer con­
Information about opportunities
There are several reasons why for apprenticeship or other types of
young men may wish to consider construction employment in a par­
one of the building trades as a ca­ ticular locality should be obtained
reer. These trades offer especially from individual construction firms,
good opportunities for those who employer associations, locals of the
are not planning to go to college, building trades unions, the nearest
but who are willing to spend several office of the State apprenticeship
years in learning a skilled occupa­ agency, or the local office of the Bu­
tion. Well-trained building trades reau of Apprenticeship and Train­
craftsmen can find job opportunities ing, U.S. Department of Labor.
in all parts of the country. Their Many apprenticeship programs are
hourly wage rates generally are supervised by local joint unionmuch higher than those of most management apprenticeship com­
other manual workers. As pre­ mittees. In these instances, an ap­
viously noted, building trades crafts­ prentice applicant may apply di­
men with business ability have rectly to the coordinator of the joint
greater opportunities to establish apprenticeship committee if there is
their own businesses than workers one in his locality. In addition, the
in many other skilled occupations. local office of the State employment
In addition, there will be job oppor­ service may be a source of informa­
tunities for workers in the major tion about the Manpower Develop­
building trades in nonconstruction ment and Training Act, apprentice­
industries, mainly in maintenance ship, and other programs that pro­
and repair activities. This work is vide training opportunities.
For additional information on
generally less seasonal than contract
jobs in the building trades, inquiries
construction work.
A principal disadvantage of work should be directed to the organiza­
in the building trades is the employ­ tions listed above:

American Federation of Labor and
Congress of Industrial Organiza­
tions, Building and Construction
Trades Department, 815 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
National Association of Home Build­
ers, 1625 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

For the names of labor organiza­
tions and trade associations con­
cerned with specific building trades,
see the discussions of individual
building trades later in this chapter.

(D.O.T. 863.381, .781, and .884)

Nature of the Work

Asbestos and insulating workers
cover pipes, boilers, furnaces, ducts,
and other related equipment such as
cork, felt, asbestos, and fiberglass.
The insulating materials which these
workers install serve many pur­
poses. For example, insulated
pipes and ducts retain heat and save
fuel. Insulation in refrigeration sys­
tems prevents heat absorption. Insu­
lation in walls and ceilings provides
thermal insulation and disperses
Insulating materials are installed
by pasting, wiring, taping, stud­
welding, spraying, or plastering.
When covering pipework, asbestos
workers cut either block or pre­
formed insulation to the required
size and shape and then wrap this
material around the pipe. Care is



maintenance of insulated pipework
in chemical plants, petroleum refin­
eries, atomic energy installations,
and other industrial establishments
which have extensive steam installa­
tions for power and heating. Some
large establishments which have
cold storage facilities also employ
asbestos workers for maintenance
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Asbestos worker cuts insulating material.

required to completely cover joints,
flanges, elbows, and other connec­
tions. They secure the insulating
material by using wire bands, or by
covering the insulating pipework
further with tar paper, cloth or can­
vas, sewed or stapled into place.
When covering flat surfaces, as­
bestos workers may spot weld or
screw wire studs to the surface and
fasten the insulating material to the
studs. They may coat joints with an
asbestos cement and then wrap the
joints with tape for a tight seal. In
some instances, asbestos workers
may spray or plaster the insulating
material to a wire netting placed on
the surface to be covered. The wire
netting provides adhesion and struc­

tural strength. The final coat is
smoothed with a trowel, straight­
edge, and float.
Asbestos and insulating workers
use handtools such as trowels,
brushes, scissors, sewing palms and
heavy-duty needles, hammers, saws,
pliers, and stud-welding guns. Pow­
ersaws, as well as handtools, are
used to cut insulating materials.

Most asbestos workers learn their
trade through a 4-year “improvership” program similar in many re­
spects to apprenticeship programs in
other building trades. The improvership program consists of a speci­
fied period of on-the-job training in
which the new worker learns how to
handle the tools of the trade and to
work with insulating materials.
Applicants for improvership pro­
grams are generally required to be
between 18 and 30 and in good
physical condition. Hourly wage
rates start at about 50 percent of
the journeyman’s rate and increase
10 percent each year until 80 per­
cent of the journeyman’s rate is
reached during the final stage of the
program. Trainees are required to
pass an examination which demon­
strates their knowledge of the trade.
A skilled asbestos worker may
advance to foreman, shop superin­
tendent, or estimator, or he may
open his own insulation contracting
Employment Outlook

Places of Employment

Most asbestos workers are em­
ployed by insulation contractors in
new industrial and commercial con­
struction. A substantial number are
employed in the alteration and

Employment of asbestos and in­
sulating workers—estimated at
about 25,000 in 1970—is expected
to increase moderately through the
1970’s. In addition to the job open­
ings resulting from the growth of



the trade, other opportunities will
arise from the replacement of
workers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone will result in a few
hundred job openings annually
through the 1970’s.
Employment growth will result
mainly from the anticipated large
rise in the volume of construction
activity, particularly of commercial
and industrial buildings. (See dis­
cussion, p. 375.) The increasing use
of pipe in numerous manufacturing
processes and in air-conditioning
and refrigeration installations will
expand the need for asbestos
workers in installation and mainte­
nance work.

Pittsburgh ..................................
San Diego ................................
Springfield ................................
Tampa ......................................


Asbestos and insulating workers
spend most of the workday on their
feet, either standing, bending,
stooping, or squatting. Working
from ladders or in tight or inaccessi­
ble spaces when covering pipes and
ducts may be necessary. Removing
old insulation before installing new
materials may be particularly dusty
and dirty.
A large proportion of the workers
in this trade are members of the In­
ternational Association of Heat and
Frost Insulators and Asbestos

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for asbestos workers averaged
$6.69, compared with $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades,
on July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities, the minimum
hourly rates for asbestos workers
ranged from $4.90 in Norfolk, Va.,
to $8.46 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for asbestos workers in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various regions and areas
of the country, on July 1, 1970, ap­
pear in the accompanying tabula­

For further information regarding
asbestos workers’ improvership pro­
grams or other work opportunities
in this trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local asbestos contractors
or to a local of the International As­
sociation of Heat and Frost Insula­
tors and Asbestos Workers. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source of
information about work and training
opportunities, including training
programs operated under the Man­
power Development and Training

Rate per hour
Birmingham ............................... $5.55
Buffalo ........................................ 7.19
Columbus .................................... 7.96
Denver ........................................ 6.32
Indianapolis ............................... 7.20
M em phis.................................... 5.40
Minneapolis-St. Paul .............. 7.05
N ew ark ....................................... 6.24

(D.O.T. 861.131, .381, .781, and .884)

Nature of the Work

Bricklayers (or brickmasons) are
craftsmen who construct walls,

partitions, fireplaces, chimneys, and
other structures from brick. They
also work with various other ma­
sonry materials, such as concrete or
cinder block; precast panels made
of concrete, stone, or marble; por­
celain glazed tile; structural tile; and
terra cotta (a hard baked clay mate­
rial used for ornamental purposes).
They also install the brick linings of
industrial kilns and furnaces.
When building a brick wall,
bricklayers usually construct cor­
ners at each end of the building or
wall, using plumb lines and a ma­
son’s level. Then the bricklayer is
able to stretch a horizontal line
(gage or course line) from corner
to corner as a guide for each course
or layer of brick. The line is raised
when the course is completed. On
longer walls, a brick is often set at
fixed points along the wall, plumbed
for accuracy, and the course line is
trigged to this brick. The line trig
overcomes sag in the course line;
lessens line movement caused by
the wind and by other bricklayers
working on the wall; and overall,
helps to insure the accuracy of the
finished brickwork.
In laying brick, a bricklayer first
spreads a layer or “bed” of mortar.
He then applies a full cross-joint of
mortar to one end of the brick to be
laid or to the end of the last brick
laid. In a single motion, he places
the brick on the bed joint while po­
sitioning the cross-joint between the
bricks to the desired width. A tap or
two with his trowel positions the
brick to the course line. He cuts off
the excess mortar with his trowel
and is then ready to lay the next
brick. Once the course is completed
(or sometimes sooner), the mortar
joints between the brick are struck
(jointed) with special finishing tools
to achieve a neat and uniform ap­
If two or more thicknesses of



making glass or steel, where fur­
naces and kilns require special fire
brick and refractory brick linings.
For example, in a steel manufactur­
ing plant, the bricklayer lines con­
verters, cupolas, and ladles which
hold molten metal. Bricklayers must
have additional training to do re­
fractory brick work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

brick are being laid, the bricklayer
lays a “bond” or “header” course at
regular intervals (usually every
sixth or seventh course); that is, he
arranges a course of bricks cross­
wise or in another bond pattern in
order to tie the interior and exterior
walls into a single unit. Whether the
bricklayer works with brick, block,
or other masonry material, the work
is essentially the same.
Bricklaying requires careful, ac­
curate work combined with plan­
ning and proper layout so that the
structure will have a uniform ap­
pearance and the brickwork will
line up with windows, doors, and
other openings in an acceptable
manner. Craftsmen in this trade
mainly use handtools, including
trowels, brick hammers, levels,
jointers, brick cutting chisels, and
rules. Powersaws are often used for
cutting and fitting masonry mate­
rials; however, a bricklayer will usu­
ally cut brick with his trowel, brick
hammer, or brick chisel. Journey­
men bricklayers are usually assisted

by hod carriers or helpers (detailed
descriptions of the nature of the
work, employment outlook, and
other information concerning con­
struction laborers and hod carriers
appear elsewhere in the Handbook)
who stock scaffolds with mortar,
bricks, and blocks; mix the mortar;
and set up and move scaffolding.

Places of Employment

The great majority of bricklayers
work mainly on new construction.
Some are employed also in sewer
construction to build manholes and
catch basins. In addition, bricklayers
do a considerable amount of altera­
tion work, especially in the larger
cities where construction of fire-re­
sistant partitions, store front remod­
eling, and similar modernization
work are often done. They also do a
substantial amount of maintenance
and repair work.
Bricklayers also work for such in­
dustrial establishments as factories

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Bricklaying Apprentice­
ship and Training Committee, rec­
ommend the completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn this trade. Many
workers in this trade have acquired
bricklaying skills informally, by
working as helpers or hod carriers,
observing or being taught by experi­
enced bricklayers. Many of these
persons have gained additional
knowledge of their trade by taking
trade school courses.
Apprenticeship applicants are
generally required to be between 17
and 24, but this requirement may be
waived for veterans. A high school
education or its equivalent is desira­
ble. The ability to solve arithmetic
problems quickly and accurately is
an asset.
The apprenticeship program gen­
erally consists of 6,000 hours (3
years) of on-the-job training, in ad­
dition to related classroom instruc­
tion. In a typical 3-year bricklayer
training program, the apprentice
learns, among other things, to use,
care for, and handle safely the tools,
machines, equipment, and materials
commonly used in the trade; lay,
bond, and tie brickwork; build foot­
ings and foundations; do exterior
brickwork such as straight wall
work, steps, and arches; build col­


umns, piers, and corners; plan and
build chimneys, fireplaces, and
hearths; lay stone; point brick and
stone; clean stone, brick, and tile
using acid solutions, and by sand­
blasting; cut, set, and point concrete
and cinder blocks, artificial stone,
and glass blocks; and fireproof and
waterproof structures.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in blueprint
reading, layout work, measurement
and sketches, and welding. In fact,
some apprenticeship programs con­
duct actual welding instructions that
qualify trainees as bricklayer-welder
upon completion of their training.
In addition, the apprentice trainee
learns the relationship between
bricklaying and other building
In some areas, formal apprentice
training for bricklayers includes
brief preliminary instruction at a
vocational school or some other
type of prejob instruction. This
training is designed to give the ap­
prentice a basic knowledge in the
handling of tools and materials to
prepare him for the start of his onthe-job training.
Hourly wage rates for bricklayer
apprentices generally start at 50
percent of the journeyman rate and

increase periodically until 95 per­
cent of the journeyman’s rate is
reached during the last period of the
A bricklayer must have an eye
for straight lines and proportions.
Good physical condition and man­
ual dexterity are important assets.
Since the other building craftsmen
must usually fit their work to his, he
should know how the parts of a
structure fit together.
Bricklayers may advance to jobs
as foremen. They also may become
estimators for bricklaying contrac­
tors. Estimators compute material
requirements and labor costs. Some


journeymen advance to the position
of bricklaying superintendent on
large construction projects, while
others may start their own bricklay­
ing contracting business.

Employment Outlook

Employment of bricklayers—es­
timated at about 175,000 in 1970
—is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, thousands of job opportuni­
ties will result from the replacement
of journeymen who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone will result in
a few thousand job openings an­
nually through the 1970’s.
Much of the expected growth in
this trade will result from the antici­
pated large increase in construction
activity. (See discussion, p. 375.)
The demand for bricklayers also will
be favorably affected by such factors
as the increasing use of structural
clay tile for fire-resistant partitions;
and ornamental brickwork for struc­
tures, such as exterior screenwalls
and lobbies and foyers. In addition,
the use of brick masonry load-bear­
ing walls is growing, particularly in
apartment building construction.
These favorable developments
will be offset to some extent by
other construction techniques that
reduce the amount of brickwork per
structure. For example, the use of
steel framework and reinforced con­
crete in structures permits the elimi­
nation of load-bearing exterior brick
walls. Also, the use of metal, glass,
and precast concrete wall panels in
buildings results in less masonry
work. Other recent developments
that have increased the efficiency of
bricklayers include high-strength
mortars that can be applied with

caulking guns or compressor-pow­
ered extruders.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Hourly wage rates for bricklayers
rank among the highest in the build­
ing trades. Union minimum hourly
wage rates for bricklayers, on July
1, 1970, averaged $6.77, compared
with an average of $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades,
according to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68 large
cities. Among individual cities sur­
veyed, the minimum hourly rates
for bricklayers ranged from $4.90
in Charlotte, N.C., to $8.16 in
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health, in­
surance, or pension funds, for brick­
layers in 12 of the 68 cities selected
to show wage rates from various
areas and regions of the country, on
July 1, 1970, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.
C ity

Atlanta .................
Boston .................
Chicago ...............
Detroit .................
Indianapolis .........
M em phis...............
Milwaukee ...........
N ew ark .................
Seattle .................
Tampa .................
Topeka .................

R a te p e r h o u r

................... $5.40
................... 7.25
................... 7.20
................... 7.68
................... 7.10
................... 6.15
................... 6.64
................... 7.80
................... 7.33
................... 6.95
................... 5.20
................... 6.20

Although these hourly rates indi­
cate high annual incomes for brick­
layers, time lost because of inclem­
ent weather and occasional periods
of unemployment between jobs
make average annual earnings less
than hourly rates of pay imply.
The work of the bricklayer is ac­
tive and sometimes strenuous, like
the work in other building trades. It


involves stooping to pick up mate­
rials, moderately heavy lifting, and
prolonged standing. Most of the
work is done outdoors.
A large proportion of bricklayers
are members of the Bricklayers,
Masons and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union of America.

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
bricklaying apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in the trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
bricklaying contractors; a local of
the Bricklayers, Masons and Plas­
terers’ International Union of
America; a local joint union-man­
agement apprenticeship committee;
or the nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source of
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
Some local employment service
offices provide services such as
screening applicants and giving apti­
tude tests.
General information about the
work of bricklayers may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
Structural Clay Products Institute,
1750 Old Meadow Road, McLean,
Va. 22101.


(D.O.T. 860.281 through .781)

Nature of the Work

Carpenters, the largest group of
building trades workers, are em­
ployed in almost every type of con­
struction activity. They erect the
wood framework in buildings, in­
partitions, floor joists, studding, and
rafters. When the building is ready
for trimming, they install molding,
wood paneling, cabinets, window
sash, doorframes, doors, and hard­
ware. They also build stairs and lay
floors. Carpenters, when doing
finish work, must concern them­
selves with the appearance, as well
as the structural accuracy, of the
Carpenters also install heavy tim­
bers used to build docks, railroad
trestles, and similar structures. They
build the forms needed to pour con­

crete decks, columns, piers, and re­
taining walls used in bridges, build­
ings, and other structures. They also
erect scaffolding and temporary
buildings at the construction site.
Carpenters also may install lino­
leum, asphalt tile, and similar softfloor coverings.
Carpenters also saw, fit, and as­
semble plywood, wallboard, and
other materials. They use nails,
bolts, wood screws, or glue to fasten
materials. Carpenters use handtools
such as hammers, saws, chisels, and
planes, and power tools such as
portable power saws, drills, and rivet
Because of the wide scope of the
work performed in the trade, some
carpenters specialize in a particular
type of carpentry. For example,
some specialize in installing acoustic
panels on ceilings and walls; others
in installing millwork and finish
hardware (trimming), laying hard­
wood floors, or building stairs. Spe­
cialization is more common in the
large cities; in small communities,



carpenters ordinarily do all types of
carpentry. In rural areas, carpenters
may do the work of other crafts­
men, particularly painting, glazing,
or roofing. Carpenters generally
stay in a particular field of construc­
tion, such as home, bridge, or high­
way construction, or in industrial

Places of Employment

Most carpenters working in new
construction are employed mainly
by contractors and homebuilders at
construction sites. A substantial
number, however, are employed on
alteration, remodeling, or building
repair. Some carpenters alternate
between wage employment for con­
tractors and self-employment on
small jobs. Others work for govern­
ment agencies or nonconstruction
firms which employ a separate work
force to perform their own con­
struction. A large number of car­
penters do maintenance work in
factories, hotels, office buildings,
and other large establishments. Still
others are employed in shipbuilding,
in mining, and in the production of
many kinds of display materials.

taking correspondence or trade
school courses.
Apprenticeship applicants are
generally required to be from 17
through 27 years of age; a high
school education or its equivalent is
desirable. Good physical condition,
a good sense of balance, and lack of
fear of working on high structures
are important assets. Aptitudes
which the apprentice should have
include manual dexterity and the
ability to solve arithmetic problems
quickly and accurately.
The apprenticeship program usu­
ally consists of 8,000 hours (4
years) of on-the-job training, in ad­
dition to a minimum of 144 hours
of related classroom instruction
each year. During the apprentice­
ship period, the apprentice learns
elementary structural design and
becomes familiar with the common
systems of frame and concrete form

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Carpentry Apprenticeship
and Training Committee recom­
mend the completion of a 4-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn carpentry. A substan­
tial number of workers in this trade,
however, have acquired some car­
pentry skills informally (for exam­
ple, by working around a farm).
Many of these men have also gained
some knowledge of the trade by

construction, and to use, care for,
and handle safely the tools, ma­
chines, equipment, and materials
used in the trade. He also learns

how to lay out work, do rough fram­
ing, do outside and inside finishing
work (for example, hanging doors,
setting and finishing windows, fitting
hardware, and flooring and stair
work), weld, do acoustic and drywall construction, and erect scaf­
folding and shoring.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in drafting
and blueprint reading, mathematics
applicable to layout work, and the
use of woodworking machines. Both
in the classroom and on the job he
learns the relationship between car­
pentry and the other building
trades, because the work of the car­
penter is basic to the construction
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices usually start at about 50 per­
cent of the journeyman rate and in­
crease by about 5 percent in each
6-month period, until a rate of 85 to
90 percent is reached during the last
period of apprenticeship.
It is important for young men in­
terested in entering carpentry to ob­
tain the all-around training given in
apprenticeship programs, particu­
larly because technological innova­
tions increasingly are affecting car­
pentry. Carpenters having such
training will have especially favor­
able long-range job prospects. They
will be in much greater demand and
have better opportunities for ad­
vancement than those in the trade
who can do only the relatively sim­
ple, routine types of carpentry.
Carpenters may advance to car­
penter foremen or to general con­
struction foremen. Carpenters usu­
ally have greater opportunities than
most building craftsmen to become
general construction foremen, since
they are involved with the entire
construction process. The propor­
tion of self-employed is higher
among carpenters than among most
other skilled building trades. Some



self-employed carpenters are able to
become contractors and employ
other journeymen.

Employment Outlook

Employment of carpenters—who
numbered about 830,000 in 1970
—is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, tens of thousands of jobs
for carpenters will be available each
year to replace experienced carpen­
ters who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone are expected to
provide more than 20,000 job open­
ings annually.
The large rise expected in con­
struction activity, particularly homebuilding (see discussion, p. 375), is
expected to result in a growing de­
mand for carpenters. In addition,
more carpenters will be needed in
the maintenance departments of
factories, commercial establish­
ments, large residential projects,
and government agencies.
However, employment growth
will continue to be limited by tech­
nological developments. For exam­
ple, the use of construction mate­
rials prepared away from the build­
ing site is expected to increase.
These materials, which include
floors, partitions, and stairs, are de­
signed for easy and speedy installa­
tion. Walls and partitions can be
lifted into place in one operation.
Beams and, in some instances, roof
assemblies are lifted into place by
cranes. Because of the standardiza­
tion of prefabricated components,
the use of such materials will in­
crease further.
More widespread use of im­
proved tools and equipment will in­
crease the efficiency of carpenters.
These products include new types of

nails with improved holding prop­
erties; hence, fewer nails and less
hammering are required. Stronger
adhesives are being used that re­
duce the time needed to join pieces
of wood and other materials. Power
tools in widespread use include stud
drivers, screwdrivers, sanders, saws,
staplers, and nailing machines. One
type of power tool can drill and nail
in one operation. New types of scaf­
folding are easier to erect, adapta­
ble to varying construction situa­
tions, and safer to use.
Employment of carpenters also
will be affected by construction ma­
terials and techniques that reduce
the amount of carpentry required in
residential buildings. For example,
where houses are framed with steel,
the use of curtain-wall panels is pos­
sible. In addition to the speed with
which they can be put in place, curtain-wall panels also may reduce the
need for carpenters because they
are available in nonwood materials
such as glass, aluminum, and porce­
lain-coated steel. Although the use
of plastics in construction is in its
infancy, their greater use is ex­
pected. Already available in plastics
are siding, curtain walls, partitions,
roofing, ornamental screening, and
insulation materials. Under devel­
opment are foam plastic roofs and
even entire houses of plastic that
can be constructed on site.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for carpenters averaged $6.42,
compared with $6.54 for all jour­
neymen in the building trades, on
July 1, 1970, according to a national
survey of building trades workers in
68 large cities. Among individual
cities surveyed, minimum hourly
rates for carpenters ranged from
$4.45 in Charlotte, N.C., to $8.10

in Cleveland, Ohio. Straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health, in­
surance, or pension funds, for car­
penters in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1970, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.
C ity

Atlanta ...................
B oston .....................
Chicago .................
Denver ...................
Detroit ...................
Los A n g eles...........
New Orleans .........
Philadelphia ...........
Pittsburgh ...............
St. L o u is.................
San D ie g o ...............
Seattle .....................

R a te p e r h o u r

................. $6.20
................. 6.65
................. 6.85
................. 6.02
................. 7.36
................. 5.98
................. 5.72
................. 7.05
................. 7.00
................. 6.61
................. 6.21
................. 6.10

As other building trades, the
work of the carpenter is active and
sometimes strenuous, but excep­
tional physical strength is not re­
quired. However, prolonged stand­
ing, as well as climbing and squat­
ting, is often necessary. Carpenters
risk injury from slips or falls, from
contact with sharp or rough mate­
rials, and from the use of sharp
tools and power equipment. Many
young persons like carpentry be­
cause they are able to work out­
A large proportion of carpenters
are members of the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
carpentry apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in this trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
carpentry contractors or general
contractors; a local union of the
United Brotherhood of Carpenters



and Joiners of America; a local
joint union-management apprentice­
ship committee; or the nearest office
of the State apprenticeship agency
or the Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities. Some local
employment services screen appli­
cants and give aptitude tests.
General information on appren­
ticeship in this trade is also availa­
ble from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners of America, 101 Con­
stitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20001.

(D.O.T. 844.884 and 852.884)

Nature of the Work

The principal work of cement
masons is finishing the exposed con­
crete surfaces on many types of
construction projects. These projects
range from small jobs, such as
the finishing of patios, floors, and
sidewalks, to work on huge dams,
miles of concrete highways, founda­
tions and walls of large buildings,
airport runways, and missile launch­
ing sites. On small projects, a ce­
ment mason, assisted by one or two
helpers, may do all the concrete
work; on large projects, a crew of

several cement masons and many
helpers may be employed.
In preparing the site for pouring
(placing) the concrete mixture, the
cement mason makes sure that the
forms, which hold the concrete, are
set for the desired pitch and depth
of the concrete mixture and are
properly alined. On larger (and
wider) pours, a screed (guide) may
be placed to section the pour into
12-15 foot widths, which allows
easier handling and greater accu­
racy in the initial leveling process.
The cement mason directs the
pouring of the concrete. He usually
supervises the laborers who use
shovels or special rakes to “strike
off” (place and spread the mixture
to its approximate level) the con­
crete. The cement masons then level
the surface further using a “straight­
edge” (a rod made of wood or
lightweight metal long enough to ex­
tend across the freshly poured con­
crete). The concrete is ready for its

intermediate and final finishing. The
finisher uses special tools, such as a
float, whip, or darby, to fill minor
depressions and remove high spots.
This agitation tends to draw surface
fines (a rich mixture of cement and
fine sand) to the top and imbed
coarser aggregates.
Final finishing is usually delayed
until the concrete has hardened suf­
ficiently to support the weight of a
finisher on kneeboards. While the
concrete is still workable, the crafts­
men use handtools—a wood or
magnesium float and a finishing
trowel—to bring the concrete to the
proper consistency and obtain the
desired finish. Concrete finishing
also may be done with the aid of
power-operated trowels; howeyer,
edges, corners, and other inaccessi­
ble places for power-operated tools
must still be finished by hand.
On most small building projects,
such as sidewalks, driveways, and
patios, concrete finishing generally



involves hand operations. On high­
ways and other large-scale projects,
however, power-operated floats and
cement finishing machines are used
On concrete work which is ex­
posed (for example, columns, piers,
ceilings, and wall panels), ce­
ment masons correct surface de­
fects and air pockets (called honey­
combs) when the forms are
stripped. This involves preparing the
surface with a rubbing brick (silicon
carbide) to remove high spots. A
rich cement mixture is rubbed into
the concrete surface using a sponge
rubber float or piece of burlap cloth
to fill imperfections and voids. The
end result is a smooth uniform ap­
Some cement masons specialize
in laying a mastic coat (a fine as­
phalt mixture) over concrete, par­
ticularly in buildings where soundinsulated or acid-resistant floors are
specified. Heavy hand tools are
used to smooth the hot mastic.
The cement mason must know
materials and be familiar with vari­
ous cement and concrete mixes
which speed or slow the setting
time, and those which are used for
weight-supporting walls or surfaces
of specified strengths. Because of
the effects that heat, cold, and wind
have on the curing of cement, the
skilled mason must recognize by
sight and touch what is occurring in
the cement mixture so that he may
be able to prevent structural de­

Places of Employment

Cement masons work principally
on large buildings, but many are
employed on highway or other
nonbuilding construction. Cement
masons work directly for general
contractors who construct entire

projects such as highways, or large
industrial, commercial, and resi­
dential buildings. They also work for
concrete contractors who do only
the concrete work on a large con­
struction project or who work on
smaller projects such as sidewalks,
driveways, and basement floors.
Some install composition resilient
floors, such as trowel applied epox­
ies, latex underlayments, and simu­
lated terrazzo floors for specialty
floor contractors. A small number
are employed by municipal public
works departments, public utilities,
and manufacturing firms which do
their own construction. Some ce­
ment masons are self-employed and
do small cement jobs, such as side­
walks, driveways, patios, and curb
and gutter work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Cement Masonry,
Asphalt, and Composition Joint (la­
bor-management) Apprenticeship
and Training Committee, recom­
mended the completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn this trade. A substan­
tial number of workers, however,
have acquired cement masonry
skills informally by working on
building and road construction jobs
as laborers assisting cement masons.
Others have worked with specialty
contractors constructing sidewalks
and doing other masonry.
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be between 18
and 25. Good physical condition
and manual dexterity are important
The apprenticeship program usu­
ally consists of 6,000 hours (3
years) of on-the-job training, in ad­
dition to related classroom instruc­

tion. During the apprenticeship pe­
riod, the apprentice learns, among
other things, to use and handle the
tools, equipment, and materials of
the trade. He also learns finishing,
layout work, and safety techniques.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in subjects
such as applied mathematics and re­
lated sciences, blueprint reading, ar­
chitectural drawing, estimating ma­
terials and costs, and local building
regulations. Although a high school
education is not required, education
above the grade school level, pref­
erably including mathematics, is
needed to understand the classroom
Cement masons may advance to
foremen or become estimators of
material requirements and labor
costs for concrete contractors. Oth­
ers may start their own concrete
contracting business.

Employment Outlook

Employment of cement masons
—estimated at about 65,000 in
1970—is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. In
addition to new jobs created by em­
ployment growth, thousands of job
opportunities will result from the
replacement of craftsmen who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Retirements and deaths alone
will result in several hundred job
openings annually through the
Employment of cement masons is
expected to increase mainly because
the anticipated rapid increase in
construction activity (see discus­
sion, p. 375) will be accompanied
by the growing use of concrete and
concrete products. Prestressed con­
crete makes possible wide spans
where column-free construction is
desired. Lightweight concrete wall


panels that are fire- and weather-re­
sistant are being used increasingly
on nonload-bearing walls. These
panels, available in different fin­
ishes, colors, and designs, can be
speedily fastened into place. In
some instances, buildings made with
concrete wall panels can be easily
dismantled and reerected elsewhere.
Artistic and functional shapes can
be incorporated into structures
where prestressed concrete is used.
In addition, the use of concrete and
concrete products has expanded to
include thinshell dome roofs, orna­
mental grill work, and slab and arch
roofs in residential buildings; and
bridge girders, columns, piles, and
beams. Also, concrete can be
poured year round by using heated,
temporary shelters made of sheet
Employment of cement masons is
not expected to increase as rapidly
as the use of cement and concrete
products. Many concrete products
are now precast and generally do
not require finishing. The efficiency
of onsite masons also has increased
through new and improved con­
struction methods, materials, and
equipment. Concrete slabs for
floors, walls, and roofs can be proc­
essed at ground level and raised
into place with synchronized hy­
draulic jacks or cranes. For certain
jobs, concrete can be applied pneu­
matically through hoses. Glass-fi­
ber-reinforced plastic forms provide
a smooth surface and reduce rub­
bing and patching work. Reusable
steel and plastic-covered wood
forms are now available. Adhesives
reduce the need for bolts and other
fasteners. Worker efficiency has
also been increased because of new
machines, including powered con­
crete conveyors, such as powered
wheelbarrows; portable, powered
screeds; electric concrete vibrators;
hydraulic joint-forming machines;


powered concrete cutting saws; and
cement-finishing machines.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for cement masons averaged
$6.02, compared with $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades,
on July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for cement ma­
sons ranged from $3.93 in Char­
lotte, N.C., to $8.06 in Buffalo,
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for cement masons in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show wage
information from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1970, appear in the accompanying
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r

Birmingham .............. ...............$4.68
B oston......................... ............... 7.35
Columbus ................. ............... 6.15
Dallas ....................... ............... 5.40
Denver ....................... ............... 5.85
F resn o ....................... ............... 5.62
Jacksonville .............................. 4.35
Milwaukee ................................ 5.90
N ew ark ..................... ................ 7.80
Pittsburgh .................................. 6.70
Salt Lake C it y .......................... 5.87
Washington, D.C. . .. ............. 5.93

Cement masons usually receive
premium pay for hours worked in
excess of the regularly scheduled
workday or workweek. Overtime
work for these craftsmen often oc­
curs because once concrete has
been poured, the work must be
The work of the cement mason is
active and strenuous, like the work
of skilled building tradesmen gener­
ally. Since most cement finishing is

done on floors or at ground level,
the cement mason is required to
stoop, bend, or kneel. Much of his
work is done outdoors.
A large proportion of cement ma­
sons are union members. They be­
long either to the Operative Plaster­
ers’ and Cement Masons’ Interna­
tional Association of the United
States and Canada, or to the Brick­
layers, Masons and Plasterers’ In­
ternational Union of America.

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
cement mason apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local cement finishing contrac­
tors; locals of unions previously
mentioned; a local joint union-man­
agement apprenticeship committee;
or the nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source of
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of cement masons may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
Operative Plasterers’ and Cement
Masons’ International Association
of the United States and Canada,
1125 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.



some who have started as laborers
have learned that trade.
Building and construction labor­
ers are commonly classified as un­
skilled workers, but this term can be
misleading. Their work covers a
wide range of requirements. Many
types of construction-laborer and
hod-carrier jobs require training
and experience, as well as a broad
knowledge of construction methods,
materials, and operations.
Rock blasting, rock drilling, tun­
nel construction, and concrete work
are examples of work in which
“know-how” is important. Con­
struction laborers who work with
explosives drill holes in rock, handle
explosives, and set charges. These
workers must know the effects of
different explosive charges under
varying rock conditions so that
proper measures can be taken to
prevent injury and property damage.
Construction laborers learn how to
handle and use blasting materials
through job experience and instruc­
tion from foreman in charge of
blasting work. Also, in the construc­
tion of tunnels, and dam and bridge
foundations, contruction laborers
must have specific on-the-job expe­
rience. They do all the work in the
boring and mining of a tunnel, in­
cluding operations which would be
handled by journeymen if the job
were located above ground.

(D.O.T. 809.887; 844.887; 850. through
852.887; and 859. through 862.887)

Nature of the Work

Construction laborers work on all
types of building construction, as
well as on other types of construc­
tion projects, such as highways,
dams, pipelines, and water and
sewer projects. Their work includes
the loading and unloading of con­
struction materials at the worksite
and the shoveling and grading of
earth. Laborers stack and carry ma­
terials, including small units of ma­
chinery and equipment, and do
other work that aids building crafts­
men. They also erect and dismantle
scaffolding, set braces to support the
sides of excavations, and clean up
rubble and accumulated debris to
provide clear work areas.
On alteration and modernization
jobs, laborers tear out the existing
work. They perform most of the
work done by wrecking and salvage
crews during the demolition of
When concrete is mixed at the
worksite, laborers unload and han­
dle materials and fill handloaded
mixers with ingredients. Whether
the concrete is mixed on-site or
hauled in by truck, laborers pour
and spread the concrete, and spade
or vibrate it to prevent air pockets.
In highway paving laborers clean
the right-of-way, fine grade and pre­
pare the site, handle and place the
forms into which wet concrete is
poured, and cover new pavement
with straw, burlap, or other mate­
rials to prevent excessive drying.
Bricklayers’ tenders and plaster
tenders, both commonly known as

hod carriers, serve journeymen in
their respective trades, mixing and
supplying materials, setting up and
moving portable scaffolding, and
providing the many other services
needed. Hod carriers must be famil­
iar with the work of the journeymen
and have some knowledge of the
materials and tools used. Laborers
also tend cement finishers, and

Places of Employment

Laborers are employed by all
types of construction contractors. In
addition, a large number are em­
ployed by State and municipal
public works and highway depart­
ments, and by public utility compa­
nies in road repairing and mainte­
nance, and excavating.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Little formal training is required
to obtain a job as a building or con­
struction laborer. Generally, to be
employed in these jobs, a young
man must be at least 18 years of age
and in good physical condition. A
laborer’s first job is usually on the
simplest type of work, but as he
gains experience, he does more dif­
ficult work. If he works closely with
a skilled craftsman for several
years, he may be able to pick up the
skills of the trade. However, in their
work as construction laborers, rela­
tively few workers have such oppor­
Many tasks assigned to laborers
have become too complex to learn
through a lengthy on-the-job train­
ing period. Recognizing these prob­
lems, contractors and unions have
established formal training pro­
grams, lasting 4 to 8 weeks, in many
areas of the country.
Employment Outlook

Employment of construction la­
borers and hod carriers—estimated

at about 815,000 in 1970—is ex­
pected to increase slowly through
the 1970’s. However, thousands of
additional job openings will arise
from the replacement of construc­
tion laborers who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are ex­
pected to provide nearly 15,000 job
openings annually.
The anticipated large increase in
construction activity (see discussion
p. 375) is expected to result in a
growing demand for laborers and
hod carriers, but the increase in
their employment will be somewhat
limited by more widespread use of
mechanized equipment. For exam­
ple, construction materials formerly
handled at the construction site,
such as brick, concrete, and lumber,
are moved by forklift truck, powered
wheelbarrows, and conveyor belts.
Materials are lifted to the upper
floors of multistoried buildings by
automatic lifts and heavy duty
cranes. The use of earth moving
machines, including specialized
equipment such as trenchers and
front-end loaders, is also increasing.

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for bricklayers’ tenders and
building laborers averaged $5.06
and $4.78, respectively, on July 1,
1970, according to a national survey
of building trades workers in 68
large cities. Among individual cities
surveyed, the minimum hourly rates
for bricklayers’ tenders ranged from
$2.70 in Norfolk and Richmond,
Va., to $6.57 in Toledo, Ohio. The
rates for building laborers ranged
from $2.60 in Norfolk and Rich­
mond, Va., to $6.52 in Cleveland,
Ohio. Straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or pen­
sion funds, for bricklayers’ tenders
and building laborers in 12 of the
68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various areas and regions
of the country, on July 1, 1970, ap­
pear in the accompanying tabulation.
R a te p e r h o u r
C ity

B r ic k la y e r s ’
te n d e r s

Albuquerque . . ........ $3.91
Baltim ore........ ........ 3.80
B u ffalo............. ........ 5.89
Columbus . . . . ........ 5.02
Des Moines . . . ........ 4.91
Fresno ............. ......... 5.25
Los Angeles . . . ........ 5.00
Omaha ............. ........ 4.83
Phoenix ........... ........ 4.99
Providence .. . . ........ 5.00
Seattle ............. ........ 5.20
Tampa ............. ......... 3.73

B u ild in g
la b o r e r s


Construction work is physically
strenuous, since it requires frequent
bending, stooping, and heavy lifting.
Much of the work is performed out­
doors. Many laborers are members
of the Laborers’ International
Union of North America.



Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
work opportunities as a construction
laborer, inquiries should be directed
to local building or construction
contractors, or a local of the Labor­
ers’ International Union of North
America. In addition, the local
office of the State employment
service is a source of information
about work opportunities.
General information about the
work of construction laborers may
be obtained from:
Laborers’ International Union of
North America, 905 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 821.381; 824.281; and 829.281
and .381)

Nature of the Work

Construction electricians lay out,
assemble, install, and test electrical
fixtures, apparatus, and wiring used
in electrical systems. These systems
provide heat, light, power, air con­
ditioning, and refrigeration in resi­
dences, office buildings, factories,
hospitals, schools, and other struc­
tures. Construction electricians also
install and connect electrical ma­
chinery, electronic equipment, con­
trols, and signal and communica­
tions systems. (Maintenance electri­
cians do work which is similar in
many respects to that performed by
construction electricians. A discus­
sion of maintenance electricians is
presented elsewhere in the Hand­
Construction electricians usually

follow blueprints and specifications
when installing electrical compo­
nents. If there is no electrical draw­
ing, the electrician terminates the
incoming electrical service into a
central load center. The electrician
then installs interior circuits and
outlets according to the amount of
electrical current expected to be
used in the various sections of the
building. He also installs fuses or
circuit breakers of the proper rating
in the incoming and interior circuits
to prevent overloading, which
causes overheating of wires, appli­
ances, and motors. The construction
electrician must know and follow
National Electrical Code regulations
and, in addition, must fulfill State,
county, and municipal regulations.
When installing wiring, the con­
struction electrician uses a mechani­
cal or hydraulic bender to shape
conduit (pipe or tubing). The con­
duit usually must fit inside parti­
tions, walls, concealed areas of the
ceiling, or within other narrow and
inaccessible spaces. He pulls insu­
lated wires or cables through the
conduit to complete the circuit be­

tween the electrical outlet and the
switch. Next, he connects the wires
or cables to circuit breakers,
switch-gear motors, transformers, or
other components. Wires are spliced
(joined) by soldering or mechanical
means. When these operations are
completed, the electrician tests the
electrical circuits to make sure that
the entire system is properly
grounded, the connections properly
made, and the circuits do not carry
excessive current.
The electrician furnishes his own
handtools, such as pliers, screwdriv­
ers, brace and bits, knives, and
hacksaws. The employer furnishes
test meters and heavier tools and
equipment, such as pipe threaders,
conduit benders, chain hoists, elec­
tric drills, power fasteners, and lad­
ders. In residential construction,
heavier tools are not usually re­

Places of Employment

Most construction electricians
work for electrical contractors. Sub­
stantial numbers are self-employed.
Others work for government agen­
cies or business establishments that
do their own electrical work. Con­
struction electricians usually work
for a large number of different em­
ployers during their work life be­
cause of the intermittent needs of
individual contractors. However,
many construction electricians work
for the same electrical contractor
for long periods of time. During a
single year, a construction electri­
cian may work for an electrical con­
tractor in the construction of new
homes or office buildings, for a
manufacturing firm in remodeling
its plant or offices, or he may do
electrical repairs for homeowners
or business firms.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement )
Training Committee for the Electri­
cal Industry, recommend the com­
pletion of a 4-year apprenticeship
program as the best way to learn all
aspects of the electrical trade. How­
ever, in the past, some construction
electricians have acquired skills of
the trade informally by working for
many years as helpers, observing or
being taught by experienced crafts­
men. Many of these persons have
gained additional knowledge of the
trade by taking trade school or cor­
respondence courses, or through
special training when in the Armed
The International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers and the National
Electrical Contractors Association
have jointly developed an extensive
apprenticeship program. Appren­
ticeship applicants generally are re­
quired to be between 18 and 24, but
exceptions may be made for veter­
ans. A high school education is re­
quired; courses in mathematics and
physics are desirable. Applicants
are usually required to take tests to
determine their aptitude for the
All apprenticeship programs are
conducted under written agreement
between the apprentice and the
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee, which su­
pervises the training. The com­
mittee determines the need for ap­
prentices in the locality, establishes
minimum apprenticeship standards,
and schedules a diversified, rotating
work program. This program is de­
signed to give the apprentice all­
round training by having him work
for several electrical contractors

who engage in particular types of
The apprenticeship program usu­
ally requires 8,000 hours (4 years)
of on-the-job training, in addition to
a minimum of 144 hours of related
classroom instruction each year. In
a typical 4-year training program,
the apprentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and handle
safely the tools, equipment, and
materials commonly used in the
trade; do residential, commercial,
and industrial electrical installa­
tions; and maintain and repair in­
stallations. In addition, he receives
related classroom instruction in sub­
jects such as electrical layout, blue­
print reading, mathematics, and
electrical theory, including electron­
ics. After completing their appren­
ticeship, many journeymen electri­
cians enroll in courses, which may
include advanced electronics, to
keep abreast of the latest develop­
ments in this rapidly changing occu­
Hourly wage rates of appren­
tices usually start at 40 to 50 per­
cent of the journeyman rate and in­
crease by 5 percent in each 6-month
period until 80 to 85 percent of the
jouneyman rate is reached during
the last period of the apprentice­
An experienced construction
electrician who has learned all the
aspects of the craft through appren­
ticeship can transfer readily to other
types of electrical work. For exam­
ple, many take jobs as maintenance
electricians in factories or in com­
mercial establishments, and others
work as electricians in shipbuilding
and aircraft manufacturing.
Because improperly installed
electrical work is hazardous, most
cities require electricians to be li­
censed. To obtain a license, the
electrician must pass an examina­
tion which requires a thorough

knowledge of the craft and of State
and local building codes.
Many journeymen electricians
become foremen or superintendents
for electrical contractors on con­
struction jobs. These craftsmen may
also become estimators for electri­
cal contractors, computing material
requirements and labor costs.
Many construction electricians go
into business for themselves. As
they expand their activities, they
may employ other workers and be­
come contractors. In most large
urban areas, a master electrician’s
license is required to engage in an
electrical contracting business.

Employment Outlook

Employment of construction elec­
tricians—who numbered about
190,000 in 1970—is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. In addition to the growth
that is anticipated in the trade,
many thousands of job opportuni­
ties will result from the replacement
of journeymen who transfer to other
types of electrical work, leave the
trade for other reasons, retire, or
die. Retirements and deaths alone
will result in a few thousand job
openings annually.
The increase in employment of
electricians is expected mainly be­
cause of the anticipated large ex­
pansion in construction activity.
(See discussion, p. 375.) Other fac­
tors expected to contribute to the
growth of this trade are greater re­
quirements for electric outlets,
switches, and wiring in homes to ac­
commodate the increasing use of
appliances and air-conditioning sys­
tems; and the extensive wiring sys­
tems needed for the installation of
electronic data-processing equip­
ment and electrical control devices
being used increasingly in com­


merce and industry. Other recent
developments expected to expand
the demand for construction electri­
cians include an increase in the
number of “all-electric” homes, and
the use of outdoor radiant heating,
and snow- and ice-melting systems.
Technological developments are
expected to limit the employment
growth of this trade. A major tech­
nological development increasing
the efficiency of electricians is the
prefabrication of electrical equip­
ment. For example, preassembled
conductors and raceways that can
be installed in one operation are
available. Switch boxes and switch­
boards, which formerly had to be
wired on site, are now preassembled
at the factory. Also available are
“packaged” (preassembled and pre­
wired) ceiling units, which the elec­
trician connects to the power
source, eliminating the need to wire
the complete system and install the
Improved tools and equipment
being used increasingly by electri­
cians include more efficient conduit
benders; multiple spindle drills;
cordless electric drills, saws, and
other tools; and “kits” of splicing
materials that have reduced the
time needed to do field insulation of
cable splices.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Hourly wage rates of construc­
tion electricians are among the
highest in the skilled building
trades. Furthermore, because the
seasonal nature of construction
work affects electricians less than
most other construction workers,
their annual earnings generally are
among the highest in the building
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for electricians averaged


$6.82, compared with $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades
on July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the union
minimum hourly rates for construc­
tion electricians ranged from $5 in
Charlotte, N.C., to $8.11 in Buffalo,
N.Y. Straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or pen­
sion funds, for construction electri­
cians in 12 of the 68 cities selected
to show wage rates from various
areas and regions of the country, on
July 1, 1970, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r

Birmingham ............. ...............$6.20
Columbus ................. ............... 7.68
Des Moines .............................. 6.75
Erie ............................. ............... 7.20
F resn o ....................... ............... 6.88
Grand R apids............................ 6.52
Little R o c k ................................ 5.65
Louisville .................................. 7.13
Providence ............... ............... 6.45
Spokane .................................... 6.13
T renton...................................... 6.85
Washington, D.C. . . ............... 6.85

The work of the construction
electrician, like that of other build­
ing trades, is active but does not re­
quire great physical strength. Fre­
quently, the construction electrician
stands for prolonged periods; some­
times he works in cramped quarters.
Because most of his work is in­
doors, the construction electrician is
less exposed to unfavorable weather
conditions than most other skilled
building trades workers. Electri­
cians risk falls from ladders and
scaffolds, cuts from sharp tools,
electrical shock, blows from falling
objects, and burns from “live”
wires. However, safety practice
learned during apprenticeship and
other types of training have helped
to reduce the injury rate for these
workers. The number of injuries per

million man-hours worked by em­
ployees in contract electrical work
has been lower than in contract con­
struction work as a whole, but
higher than that for production
workers in manufacturing indus­
A large proportion of construc­
tion electricians are members of the
Electrical Workers.
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
electrician apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in the trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
electrical contractors; a local union
of the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; a local joint
union-management apprenticeship
committee, or the nearest office of
the State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities. Some local
employment service offices provide
services such as screening applicants
and giving aptitude tests.
General information about the
work of electricians may be ob­
tained from:
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1125 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
Association, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Joint Apprenticeship and
Training Committee for the Elec­
trical Industry, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.



(D.O.T. 825.381)

Nature of the Work

Elevator constructors (also called
elevator mechanics) assemble and
install elevators, escalators, dumb
waiters, and similar equipment. In
new buildings, this equipment is in­
stalled on-site while the building is
under construction. In older build­
ings, these craftsmen may replace
an earlier installation with the latest
available elevator equipment. Once
the elevator equipment is in service,
elevator mechanics perform regular
maintenance and repair work. In­
stallation or repair work is usually
performed by small crews consisting
of skilled mechanics and their help­
In elevator construction work,
the crew first installs the guide rails
of the car in the elevator shaft of
the building. Then they install the
hoisting machines, the car frame

and platform, the counterweight,
the elevator chassis, and the control
apparatus. Next, the car frame is
connected to the counterweight with
cables, the cab body and roof are
installed, and the control system is
wired. Finally, the entire assembly,
including cables, wire, and electrical
control apparatus, is carefully ad­
justed and tested.
Alteration work on elevators is
important because of the rapid rate
of innovation and improvement in
elevator engineering. This work is
similar to new installation work be­
cause all elevator equipment except
the old rail, car frame, platform,
and counterweight is generally re­
placed. In maintenance and repair
work, elevator mechanics inspect el­
evator and escalator installations
periodically and, when necessary,
adjust cables and lubricate or re­
place parts.
To install and repair modern ele­
vators, most of which are electri­
cally controlled, elevator construc­
tors must have a working knowl­
edge of electricity, electronics, and

hydraulics. They also must be able
to repair electric motors, as well as
control and signal systems. Because
of the variety of their work, they
use many different handtools, power
tools, and mechanical and electrical
testing meters and gages.

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 15,000
journeymen elevator constructors
employed in 1970, worked for ele­
vator manufacturers, doing new in­
stallation and modernization work
and elevator servicing. Some eleva­
tor constructors are employed by
small, local contractors who special­
ize in elevator maintenance and re­
pair. Others work for government
agencies or business establishments
that do their own elevator mainte­
nance and repair. Elevator con­
structors also are employed as ele­
vator inspectors for municipal or
other government licensing and reg­
ulatory agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Elevator constructor adjusts door.

Although elevator constructors
are highly skilled craftsmen, train­
ing is comparatively informal and is
obtained through employment as a
helper for a number of years. The
helper-trainee must be at least 18
years of age, in good physical condi­
tion, and have a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent, preferably in­
cluding courses in mathematics and
physics. Mechanical aptitude and an
interest in machines are important
To become a skilled elevator me­
chanic, at least 2 years of contin­
uous job experience, including 6
months’ on-the-job training at the
factory of a major elevator firm, is



usually necessary. During this pe­
riod, the helper learns to perform
all of the operations involved in the
installation, maintenance, and re­
pair of elevators, escalators, and
similar equipment. The helpertrainee generally attends evening
classes in vocational schools.
Among the subjects studied are
mathematics, physics, electrical and
electronic theory, and proper safety
Elevator mechanics may advance
to positions as foremen for elevator
manufacturing firms. A few may es­
tablish an individually owned small
contracting business; however, op­
portunities are limited.

Employment Outlook

A moderate increase in employ­
ment of elevator constructors is ex­
pected through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to new jobs created by employ­
ment growth, a few thousand job
opportunities for new workers will
result from the replacement of ex­
perienced workers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Employment growth and retire­
ments and deaths in this small occu­
pation will provide a few hundred
job openings annually.
More elevator constructors will
be needed as a result of the antici­
pated large expansion in new in­
dustrial, commercial, and large resi­
dential buildings. (See discussion p.
375.) In addition, technological de­
velopments in elevator and escala­
tor construction will spur moderni­
zation of older installations and thus
will contribute to the growing need
for these craftsmen. For example,
modern high speed elevators having
automatic control systems require
more work and higher skill for the
installation and adjustment of
electrical and electronic controls.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Both the hourly wage rates and
the annual earnings of elevator con­
structors are among the highest in
the skilled building trades. These
craftsmen lose less worktime be­
cause of seasonal factors than do
most other building trades workers.
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for elevator constructors aver­
aged $6.65, compared with $6.54
for all journeymen in the building
trades, on July 1, 1970, according
to a national survey of building
trades workers in 68 large cities.
Among the individual cities sur­
veyed, the minimum hourly rates
for elevator constructors ranged
from $5.09 in Norfolk, Va., to
$8.12 in Cleveland, Ohio. Straighttime hourly earnings, excluding
fringe benefits or payments to
health, insurance, or pension funds,
for elevator constructors in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show wage
information from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1970, appear in the accompanying

For further information regarding
work opportunities as a helper in
this trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to elevator manufacturers,
elevator constructors, or a local of
the International Union of Elevator
Constructors. In addition, the local
office of the State employment serv­
ice may be a source of information
about work opportunities in this
General information about the
work of elevator constructors may
be obtained from the International
Union of Elevator Constructors, 12
South 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa.

C ity

(D.O.T. 864.781)

Nature of the Work

R a te p e r h o u r

Baltimore ............. ................... $6.46
C hicago................. ................... 7.64
Denver ................. ................... 5.69
F resn o ................... ................... 7.58
Houston ............... ................... 5.56
Jacksonville ........ ................... 5.27
Little R o c k ............ ................... 5.19
Los A n g eles......... ................... 6.63
Madison ............... ................... 6.04
Philadelphia ......... ................... 6.83
Providence ........... ................... 6.07
Rochester ............. ................... 6.60

Elevator construction involves
lifting and carrying heavy equip­
ment and parts, but this is usually
done by helpers. Most of the work
is indoors—sometimes in cramped
and awkward positions.
Most elevator constructors are
members of the International Union
of Elevator Constructors.

Floor covering installers (also
called floor covering mechanics and
floor layers) install, replace, and re­
pair a number of floor coverings.
These include resilient tile, linoleum
and vinyl sheet goods, and carpet­
ing. The craftsman installs these
coverings over wood, concrete,
metal, and other subfloors of resi­
dential, commercial, and industrial
buildings. Areas covered may vary
in size from a small kitchen or bath­
room to a large supermarket floor
or hotel lobby.
When installing resilient floor
covering (such as asphalt tile or
vinyl sheet goods), the floor cover­
ing installer first inspects the floor to
be sure that it is firm, dry, smooth,
and free of loose dust or dirt. If he


finds the floor inadequate, he pre­
pares it for covering. He may sand a
rough or painted floor; fill cracks,
indentations, or other irregularities
with a filler material; or, if a floor is
extremely uneven, resurface it with
plywood, hardwood, or synthetic
In newly poured concrete floors
or floors laid over earthwork at
ground level or below, the installer
also may test for moisture content.
If the moisture in the floor is too
great, he may suggest postponing in­
stallation of floor covering or rec­
ommend a type of floor covering
technique particularly suited to the
condition of the floor. For this rea­
son, the installer should be familiar
with the many types of adhesives
and floor coverings recommended
by manufacturers for specific sub­
floor conditions.
The craftsman then prepares for
the installation of resilient floor cov­
ering by carefully measuring and
marking off the floor in accordance
with the floor covering plan. The
plan may be in the form of architec­
tural drawings specifying every de­


tail of the floor covering design, or
it may be a simple, verbal descrip­
tion by the customer. When the
floor layout is completed, the crafts­
man, assisted, when necessary, by
an apprentice or other worker, cuts
and fits the flooring material, ap­
plies the proper adhesive, and in­
stalls the floor covering. He must
take care in cutting, matching, and
fitting floor covering, particularly at
door openings, along irregular wall
surfaces, and around permanent
floor fixtures, such as columns or
piping. He must take special care
also in cutting out and setting in
decorative designs in the flooring.
After the flooring is installed, the
craftsman runs a floor roller over it
to insure good adhesion to the
The carpet craftsman, like the in­
staller of resilient floor coverings,
first inspects the floor to be covered
to determine its condition. Then he
plans his layout carefully to mini­
mize waste of materials. He also al­
lows for expected foot-traffic pat­
terns so that best appearance and
long wear will be obtained, and that
carpet sections expected to receive
heavy traffic can be replaced easily.
When installing the carpet, the
craftsman may fasten “tackless
strip,” with adhesive or nails along
the borders of the installation. (The
strip secures the carpet when it is
installed.) Instead of using this
strip, the floor layer may use tacks
to secure carpeting. Padding, which
is placed under the carpet, is cut
and placed within the framework of
the strip and the carpet then placed
approximately in position. If the
carpet has not been precut and
seamed by the floor covering firm,
the installer will do this work before
stretching the carpet into place. He
then trims the edge of the carpet so
that it will be held securely and
smoothly by tacks or by nails pro­

truding from the border strip. Fin­
ishing touches may include the use
of a special roller to obscure seam
markings that may result when car­
pet sections are joined.
Floor covering craftsmen gener­
ally specialize in installation of ei­
ther carpet or resilient floor cover­
ing, although some mechanics can
install both types. Some may spe­
cialize even further. For example,
the most skilled installers generally
install the more expensive carpet­
ing, and the resilient sheet flooring
with the most intricate designs.
Many floor installers specialize also
in the installation of resilient tile;
others, resilient wall and counter
The tools used by floor covering
installers include hammers; pry
bars; knives, shears, and other cut­
ting devices; measuring and mark­
ing tools, such as tape measures,
compasses, straightedges, scribes,
chalk, and chalklines; and a variety
of specialized tools, such as
notched adhesive trowels, carpet
stretching devices, and floor rollers.

Places of Employment

Most floor covering installers are
employed by flooring contractors
who may specialize in commercial
and industrial flooring work, in resi­
dential floor covering, or in specific
types of installations such as resil­
ient tile. Many others work for re­
tailers of floor covering who also
provide installation service. Floor
covering installers also are em­
ployed by furniture and department
stores that sell and install floor cov­
erings, as well as by home alteration
and repair contractors.
Heavy concentrations of these
workers are found in large business
centers where high levels of both



lation of resilient floor and wall cov­ ments and deaths alone are ex­
ering with training in the laying of pected to provide several hundred
carpets. Other programs may be job openings annually through the
limited to the installation of resilient 1970’s.
The projected increase in em­
Training, Other Qualifications,
Many workers in this trade have ployment of floor covering installers
and Advancement
acquired their skills through infor­ is expected mainly because of the
In considering applicants for floor mal training methods, such as work­ anticipated expansion in construc­
covering installation jobs, employers ing as a trainee or laborer, and ob­ tion activity. (See discussion, p.
are particularly interested in those serving or being taught by experi­ 375.) Moreover, the use of resilient
having manual abilities. They prefer enced floor covering installers. floor coverings and wall-to-wall car­
applicants with a high school educa­ Many of these men also have gained peting will become more wide­
tion, but this qualification is not some knowledge of floor covering spread. More versatile materials
generally required. Most employers installation by attending trade and colorful patterns are expected
seek applicants between 17 and 30 school or manufacturers’ training to contribute to a growing demand
years of age having at least average courses, and through home study. for floor coverings. For example,
physical strength. A neat appear­
Many informal training programs epoxy materials, a relatively new
ance and a pleasant business-like limit the trainee’s work experience floor covering material, is extremely
manner are important attributes be­ to installation of resilient tile, or to durable and can be used in many
cause the work is performed on the residential floor covering work of ways— as a solid floor covering to
customer’s premises.
limited complexity. This lack of be painted a variety of colors, or as
Training authorities generally all-round experience, however, may an adhesive or base for laying resil­
recommend a 3- or 4-year appren­ be partially offset by trade school ient flooring.
The best job opportunities will be
ticeship program as the best way to and home-study courses and manu­
learn the floor covering trade. Most facturers’ training programs. A for floor installers having all-round
apprenticeship programs include young man interested in becoming a training in the installation of resil­
6,000 hours (3 years) or 8,000 floor covering installer should direct ient tile and sheet goods or carpet­
hours (4 years) of on-the-job train­ inquiries to several firms about their ing.
ing in addition to related classroom training programs before accepting
instruction. In these training pro­ employment as a trainee.
grams, the trainee learns the tech­
Skilled floor covering installers Earnings and Working Conditions
niques of floor covering installation may advance to the position of fore­
and how to handle the tools of the man or installation manager for a
No national wage data on floor
trade. Through work assignments large floor laying firm. Some be­ covering installers are available.
with skilled craftsmen on a wide va­ come salesmen or estimators for However, wage information from a
riety of floor covering jobs, he floor covering firms. Floor covering limited number of firms indicates
learns to plan and execute different installers having business ability that, in 1970, most experienced
types of jobs in a minimum of time may form their own firms and em­ floor layers were paid between
and with the most efficient and dec­ ploy their own mechanics.
$4.50 and $6.00 per hour, although
orative use of materials. Most ap­
wage rates for skilled workers
prentices are required to attend
ranged from about $3.50 an hour in
class twice a week to lparn about
some areas to more than $7.00 an
Employment Outlook
the nature of the materials they will
hour in others. Wage rates for these
be using, and the use and care of
Employment of floor covering in­ workers may also vary within an
tools and equipment. They also stallers—estimated at about 40,000 area because of differences in level
study the mathematics of layout in 1970—is expected to increase of skill or degree of work specializa­
work, interpretation of architectural rapidly through the 1970’s. Many tion. Starting wage rates for appren­
drawings, and planning and layout additional job openings will arise tices and other trainees usually are
of floor covering installations.
from the need to replace experi­ about half of the mechanic’s rate.
Most floor covering craftsmen,
Some apprenticeship programs enced workers who transfer to other
may combine training in the instal­ occupations, retire, or die. Retire­ including those under union-man­

commercial and residential building



agement agreements, are paid on an
hourly basis. In some nonunion
shops, part of the installer’s pay
may be in the form of bonuses for
work performed within a specified
time period. In others, installers re­
ceive a monthly salary or are paid
on the basis of the number of
square feet or square yards of floor
covering they install.
Floor covering installers gener­
ally work regular daytime hours.
Particular circumstances, however,
such as installing a floor in a store,
or office, may require work during
evening hours or on weekends when
stores and offices are not open for
Floor covering installation work
is usually not affected by weather
conditions, since it is performed in­
doors. During the winter months,
most work is done in heated build­
ings. Job hazards are not numerous,
but installers frequently experience
knee injuries because they do much
of their work while kneeling; back
injuries occur occasionally as a re­
sult of twisting and lifting on the
job. Most of these injuries can be
avoided, however, if proper work
procedures are followed. Generally,
an installer is assisted by a helper in
heavy lifting, and usually he has
proper equipm ent available to move

heavy objects.

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
floor covering apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local flooring contractors or floor
covering retailers; a local union of
the United Brotherhood of Carpen­
ters and Joiners of America (in
Eastern States); a local union of
the International Brotherhood of
Painters, and Allied Trades (in

Western States); or the nearest
office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. In addition, the
local office of the State employment
service may be a source of informa­
tion about apprenticeship, the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, and other programs that pro­
vide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of floor covering installers
may be obtained from:
Carpet and Rug Institute, Empire
State Bldg., New York, N.Y.

Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile
Institute, 101 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

401) applies mastic cement to the
supporting backing and presses the
glass into it. The glass may have to
be trimmed with a glass cutter if it
is not precut to specifications. Gla­
ziers generally install all types of
structural glass, both interior and
exterior, that is set or glazed with
putty, moulding, rubber, and mas­
tic. For example, they install shower
doors and bathtub enclosures, mir­
rors of all types, and window glass.
These craftsmen also set a wide va­
riety of automatic doors, and fabri­
cated units constructed of glass that
are installed in many buildings.
In addition to handtools, such as
glass cutters and putty knives, gla­
ziers use power cutting tools and

Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 865.781)

Nature of the Work

Glaziers engaged in construction
work cut, fit, and install plate glass,
ordinary window glass, mirrors, and
special items such as leaded glass
panels. When installing glass, the
glazier cuts the glass to size or uses
precut glass. The glazier puts a bed
of putty into the wood or metal
sash (frames) and presses the glass
into place. He fastens the glass
using wire clips or triangular metal
points and then places and
smoothes another strip of putty on
the outside edges of the glass to
keep out moisture.
When installing structural glass,
which is used to decorate building
fronts, walls, ceilings, and parti­
tions, the glazier (and sometimes
the marble setter, see discussion, p.

Most of the estimated 10,500
construction glaziers employed in
1970 worked for glazing contractors
engaged in new construction, altera­
tion and modernization work, and
on the replacement of broken glass,
particularly for store windows.
Some glaziers were employed by
government agencies or business es­
tablishments which do their own
construction work.
About 12,500 glaziers worked
outside the construction industry.
Many are employed in factories
where they install glass in sash,
doors, mirror frames, and parti­
tions. Others, using skills similar to
those used by glaziers, install glass
or mirrors in furniture and ships or
replace glass in automobiles.

Training and Other Qualifications

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Glazier and Glassworker



the-job training in the glazing of
wood and metal sash in doors, win­
dows, partitions, and other open­
ings; and the setting and replace­
ment of all types of store front in­
stallations, structural glass, mirrors,
showcases, partitions and fixtures,
and automobile glass.
Hourly wage rates for glazier ap­
prentices usually start at 50 percent
of the journeyman rate and increase
periodically until the journeyman
rate is reached at the completion of

Employment Outlook

Apprenticeship Committee, recom­
mend the completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn the skills of the con­
struction glazier. A substantial pro­
portion of glaziers, however, have
learned the trade informally. They
have acquired their skills by work­
ing with experienced glaziers and
observing or being taught by them.
In smaller communities, many jour­
neymen painters and paperhangers
also have learned to do glazier work
as part of the apprentice training for
their trade.
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be at least 18
years of age, but they should not

have reached their 26th birthday.
Eligible veterans are exempt from
the maximum age limit. A high
school diploma or its equivalent is
The apprenticeship program usu­
ally consists of 6,000 hours (3
years) of on-the-job training, in ad­
dition to a minimum of 144 hours a
year of related classroom instruc­
tion. During the apprenticeship, the
trainee learns how to use and han­
dle the tools, machines, and mate­
rials of the trade. Instruction is
given in safety measures and first
aid, and the reading of specifica­
tions and blueprints, and scaffold­
ing. The program also includes on-

A rapid increase in employment
of construction glaziers is expected
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, many job opportunities will
result from the replacement of con­
struction glaziers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
The large increase anticipated in
construction activity (see discus­
sion, p. 375) and the increasing use
of glass in building construction are
expected to result in more work for
construction glaziers. Replacement
and modernization work, frequently
involving large glass installations,
also will contribute to the demand
for these workers. The long-range
outlook for this occupation gener­
ally can be considered very favor­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for construction glaziers aver­
aged $6.08, compared with $6.54
for all journeymen in the building
trades, on July 1, 1970, according
to a national survey of building
trades workers in 68 large cities.
Among individual cities surveyed,



the union minimum hourly wage
rate for construction glaziers ranged
from $4.25 in Jackson, Miss., to
$7.51 in Cleveland, Ohio. Straighttime hourly earnings, excluding
fringe benefits or payments to
health, insurance, or pension funds,
for construction glaziers in 12 of the
68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various regions and areas
of the country, on July 1, 1970, ap­
pear in the accompanying tabula­
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r

Albuquerque ........ ...................$4.45
Atlanta ................. ................... 5.15
Baltimore .............. ................... 5.30
Dallas ................... ................... 5.25
Detroit ................. ................... 6.92
Kansas C it y .......... ................... 5.92
Los A n g eles.......... ................... 7.03
Madison .................................... 5.20
Providence ............ ................... 5.42
San D ie g o .................................. 6.19
Spokane .................................... 5.34
T renton................. ................... 6.98

Glaziers are exposed to some
hazards in their work, such as cuts
from glass edges and sharp tools
used in cutting glass, back injuries
caused by lifting plate glass, and
falls from scaffolding. However,
employers and unions attempt to
eliminate injuries by promoting
safety training and procedures.
A large proportion of glaziers
employed in construction work are
members of the International
Brotherhood of Painters and Allied

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
glazer apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in this trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
glazing contractors or general con­
tractors; a local of the International
Brotherhood of Painters and Allied
Trades; a local joint union-manage­

ment apprenticeship committee; or
the nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source of
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other training op­
General information about the
work of glaziers may be obtained
from the International Brotherhood
of Painters and Allied Trades, 1925
K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 842.781)

Nature of the Work

Lathers install the support back­
ings on which plaster, stucco, or
concrete materials are applied.
These supports are usually of two
types—metal lath (strips of ex­

panded metal or a metal wire
mesh) or gypsum lath. The plaster
easily adheres to either type of lath
when mixed to the proper propor­
tion and consistency.
When installing metal lath, the
lathers first build a light metal
framework (furring), which is fas­
tened securely to the structural
framework of the building. On ceil­
ings or interior walls, the lath may
be attached directly to the wood
framework or partitions. Attach­
ment to the furring or framework
may be done by nailing, clipping,
tying, or machine stapling. As the
lath is being installed, the lathers
cut openings for electrical outlets
and piping.
Gypsum lath is installed in much
the same way. These lath boards
are usually 16 by 48 inches (%
inch thick) and cover three studs
(upright 2 by 4 inches framework,
placed 16 inches on center). The
gypsum lath is cut by using a lath
hatchet to score one side, and then
easily broken with a sharp blow on
the opposite side. Openings for
electrical outlets and other openings
must be cut before attaching the
lath to the wall or ceiling.



Lathers also install wire mesh
reinforcement in all inside angles
and corners to prevent structural
cracking. On outside or exposed
corners, a metal reinforcement
called a corner bead is attached as a
guide for the plasterer. It provides
protection and structural strength to
the finished corner.
Lathers also install the metal
studs and framework for metal inte­
rior partitions which receive lath
and plaster or gypsum board. They
erect the light iron furring which
supports acoustical ceilings.
The method of installation varies
slightly in other types of lath work.
For example, when cornices or
other ornamental plaster shapes are
specified, the lather builds the
framework that approximates the
desired shape or form. Metal lath
is then attached to the framework
by the lather.
When stucco (a mixture of portland cement and sand) is to be ap­
plied over wood framework, the
lather installs two layers of wire
mesh, separated by a layer of felt,
to act as a base.
The tools of the trade include
measuring rules and tapes, drills,
hammers, chisels, hacksaws, shears,
wirecutters, boltcutters, punches,
pliers, hatchets, stapling machines,
and powder- or power-actuated
fastening devices.

Places of Employment

Most lathers—who numbered
about 30,000 in 1970—work for
lathing and plastering contractors on
new residential, commercial, or in­
dustrial construction. They also
work on modernization and altera­
tion jobs. Some lathers also are em­
ployed outside the construction in­
dustry; for example, they make the

lath backing for plaster display ma­
terials or scenery.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Apprenticeship Commit­
tee for the Lathing Industry and
many other training authorities rec­
ommend the completion of a mini­
mum of 2 years of apprenticeship as
the best way to learn lathing. How­
ever, many lathers, particularly in
small communities, have acquired
skills informally, by working as
helpers, observing or being taught
by experienced lathers.
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be between 16
and 26, and in good physical condi­
tion. Aptitude tests are often given
to applicants to determine whether
they have manual and finger dexter­
ity, as well as the other qualifica­
tions required. Apprentices gener­
ally must pass examinations that are
given at the end of each 6-month
During the apprenticeship period,
the apprentice learns to use and
handle the tools and materials of the
trade. For example, he installs gyp­
sum lath, wall furring, and metal
lathing. In addition, he generally re­
ceives related instruction in sub­
jects, such as applied mathematics,
geometry, reading of blueprints and
sketches, welding, estimating, and
safety practices. Today, a high
school education is encouraged, and
education above grade school level,
particularly courses in mathemat­
ics, is needed to understand the re­
lated instruction.
Hourly wage rates for lather ap­
prentices usually start at 50 percent
of the journeyman rate. The rate is
increased periodically by 5 percent
every third or fourth month until a

rate of 85 percent is reached in the
final quarter of the second year of
Skilled and experienced lathers
may become foremen. Others may
be able to start their own lath con­
tracting business.

Employment Outlook

Employment of lathers is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. In addition to new jobs
created by employment growth,
many job opportunities will result
from the replacement of experi­
enced lathers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in a few hundred
job openings annually.
Growth of the trade depends
principally upon the anticipated
large increase in construction activ­
ity. (See discussion p. 375.) More­
over, there will be a growing need
for lathing work because of the in­
creasing use of new kinds of plaster
and improved methods of applying
plaster. Improved, lightweight plas­
ters are being used increasingly be­
cause of their excellent fireproofing
qualities and ease of handling.
There is also a trend toward the
greater use of curved surfaces and
ceilings made of plaster, both as a
form of architectural treatment and
to achieve special lighting and
acoustical effects. The use of “plas­
ter veneer” as a surface finish is ex­
pected to expand because of time
and cost economy. Machine plaster­
ing and fireproofing are growing in
importance. Because these ma­
chines reduce the cost of plastering,
their greater use should increase the
demand for plaster work and for
lathers. These developments are ex­
pected to more than offset the loss



of lathing work resulting from the
use of nonplaster (dry-wall) con­

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for lathers averaged $6.44,
compared with $6.54 for all jour­
neymen in the building trades, on
July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large citjes. Among
individual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for lathers ranged
from $4.45 in Tampa, Fla., to
$8.56 in Cleveland, Ohio. Straighttime hourly earnings, excluding
fringe benefits or payments to
health, insurance or pension funds,
for lathers in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to present wage' data from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1970, appear in
the accompanying tabulation.
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r

B oston ..................... .................$6.50
Des Moines ........... ................. 5.78
Knoxville ............... ................. 4.90
(gypsum 6.74
Los A ngeles.............
Louisville ............... ................. 5.84
N ew a rk ................... ................. 6.65
Peoria ..................... ................. 6.58
Philadelphia ........... ................. 6.39
Rochester ............... ................. 7.23
Sacramento............. ................. 6.45
Shreveport ............. ................. 5.38
Washington, D.C. . ................. 5.98

A large proportion of lathers are
members of The Wood, Wire and
Metal Lathers International Union.

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
lathers’ apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in the trade, a
young man should apply to a lathing
contractor in his area; a local of

The Wood, Wire, and Metal Lath­
ers International Union; a local
joint labor-management apprentice­
ship committee; or the nearest office
of the State apprenticeship agency
or the Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of lathers may be obtained
Contracting Plasterers’ and Lathers’
International Association, 304
Landmark Bldg., 1343 H St. NW ,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Bureau for Lathing and
Plastering, 938 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20001.
National Lathing Industries Joint
Apprenticeship Program,
Main St., Annapolis, Md. 21401.
The Wood, Wire and Metal Lath­
ers International Union, 6530
New Hampshire Ave., Takoma
Park, Md. 20012.

(D.O.T. 861.381 and .781)

Nature of the Work

Marble setters, tilesetters, and
terrazzo workers cover interior or
exterior walls, floors, or other sur­
faces with marble, tile, or terrazzo.
Craftsmen in each of these distinct
trades work primarily with the ma­
terial indicated by their job title.
Marble setters install marble,

shop-made terrazzo panels and arti­
ficial marble, and structural glass in
building interiors. The marble setter
does little fabrication work because
the marble and other materials are
cut to size and polished before they
are delivered to the worksite. How­
ever, he may do some minor cut­
ting to make the materials fit ex­
actly. In setting marble, he lays out
the work, drills anchor holes in the
marble for wall-work, fastens the
nonferrous anchors to the marble,
and then applies a special plaster
mixture to the backing material and
sets the marble pieces in place.
When necessary, he braces the mar­
ble until the setting plaster has
hardened. Special grout is packed
into the joints between the marble
pieces, and the joints are “pointed
up” (slightly indented) with a
pointing trowel or wooden paddle.
Bolt holes have to be drilled if at­
tachments to the marble are neces­
sary, and for the installation of all
marble toilet and shower compart­
ments. The setting of marble on
floors involves the preparation of
the portland cement mortar, apply­
ing sufficient mortar for one piece
of marble, and then placing the
marble on the mortar and tamping
it to the proper elevation. The crafts­
man then removes the marble piece,
brushes or trowels a coat of neat ce­
ment to the back surface and,
finally, resets the piece of marble on
the setting bed and retamps it to the
proper line and elevation. Each
marble setter has a helper to pre­
pare plaster, carry marble slabs, and
clean the completed work.
The tilesetter attaches tile (a thin
slab of baked clay, stone, or other
material) on walls, floors, or ceil­
ings according to blueprints or other
instructions. For walls and ceilings,
the tilesetter applies a setting bed to
the surface or other support backing
on which the tile is to be installed.



Marble setter applies mortar to terrazzo panel.

This setting bed consists of a coat of
sand, cement, and a small amount
of lime, plus a bond coat of pure
Portland cement mixed with water,
or one of a number of patented
Portland cement mixtures. This
bond coat is troweled directly on
the mortar setting bed or is applied
to the back of each individual tile
immediately before the placement
of the individual tiles to the setting
bed. By using patented portland ce­
ment mixtures, one can wait for the
setting bed to harden, and using the
same procedure, set the tile on the
hardened setting bed the following
day or even the following week.
Tiles are tapped into place on the
setting bed with a trowel handle. In
laying tile floors, the tilesetter ap­
plies the mortar setting bed on the
floor, tamping the mortar firmly and
screeding (leveling) the bed to the
correct elevation. A bond coat of

neat cement is then brushed or
troweled to the setting bed or to the
back of the tiles. The craftsman
places the tile on the setting bed,
and they are tapped firmly into the
mortar. He chips the tile with a
hammer and chisels or cuts it with
pincers to make it fit into irregular
areas, into corners, or around pipes.
Small tiles, such as those laid in
bathrooms, are available on paper­
backed strips and sheets that can be
attached to the floor as a unit, using
portland cement or various adhe­
sives. This eliminates the setting of
individual tiles. The tilesetter usu­
ally is assisted by a helper who
mixes mortar, sets up scaffolds, sup­
plies the setter with material, grouts
(fills) the joints after the tile setting
is completed, and cleans the com­
pleted work.
Terrazzo is a type of ornamental
concrete used mainly for floors.

Marble chips are used as the coars­
est concrete ingredient. After the
terrazzo hardens, it is ground and
polished to give a smooth surface on
which the marble chips are exposed
against the background of the mate­
rial in which the chips are mixed.
A terrazzo worker starts his work
by laying a base of concrete mortar.
He levels and tamps the concrete
base with a long, flat tool called a
straightedge. Then he places metal
strips in the base wherever there is
to be a joint or a change of color
between panels or to create a pat­
tern, and imbeds their bottom edges
in the base. If there is to be lettering
or an ornamental figure, he also
imbeds a shopmade mold. Finally,
he mixes the top course of cement
and marble chips, pours it onto the
base, and rolls and levels it. A sepa­
rate mixture is made for each color.
Where no concrete base is required,
the craftsman mixes the marble
chips with epoxy polyester resins, or
latex, and this mixture is poured di­
rectly onto the floor. After the mix­
ture has hardened for a few days, a
terrazzo helper grinds and polishes
the floor with an electric-powered
grinding machine.
The terrazzo worker is assisted
by helpers in the mixing and placing
of the base course, but he alone
does the leveling and placing of the
metal strips. Helpers handle sand,
cement, marble chips, and all other
materials used by the terrazzo
worker. They rub and clean marble,
mosaic, and terrazzo floors and per­
form other work required in helping
a terrazzo craftsman. The terrazzo
worker generally supervises mixing
of the top course that, along with
the grinding, governs its final ap­
Places of Employment

Marble setters, tilesetters, and



terrazzo workers are employed
mainly in new building construction
and in the large urban areas. Sub­
stantial numbers of terrazzo
workers are employed in Florida
and California.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the national joint labor-manage­
ment apprenticeship committees
that set the training standards in
these trades, recommend the com­
pletion of a 3-year apprenticeship
program as the best way to learn
each of these trades. A substantial
proportion of tilesetters, terrazzo
workers, and marble setters, how­
ever, have acquired their skills in­
formally by working as helpers, ob­
serving, or being taught by experi­
enced craftsmen.

its equivalent is desirable. Good
physical condition and manual dex­
terity are important assets. Appli­
cants should have an eye for quickly
determining proper alinements of
tile, terrazzo, and marble, and have
a good sense of color harmony.
The apprenticeship programs in
each of these trades generally con­
sist of 6,000 hours of on-the-job
training, in addition to related class­
room instruction. In a typical 3-year
training program for terrazzo
workers, apprentices learn, among
other things, to use, care for, and
handle safely the tools, equipment,
and materials commonly used in the
trade; mix, place, tamp, and level
concrete and terrazzo material; and
select, set, and level metal dividing
strips. The apprentice also learns
the selection and placement of ma­
terials according to the design of the
job; the rough and final finishing of
bases and covers; and hand and
machine rubbing.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in blueprint
reading, layout work, basic mathe­
matics, and shop practice.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices in each of these trades start at
about 50 or 60 percent of the jour­
neyman rate and increase periodi­
cally until 95 percent of the jour­
neyman rate is reached during the
last period of apprentice training.
Skilled and experienced tile, ter­
razzo, or marble setters may be­
come foremen. Others may be able
to start their own small contracting

Employment Outlook

Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be between 17
and 22; a high school education or

Combined employment estimated
at about 30,000 in 1970 in the three
trades—marble setter, tilesetter,
and terrazzo worker—is expected to
increase moderately through the

1970’s. In addition, job opportuni­
ties will result from the need to re­
place experienced workers who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. However, employment
growth and retirements and deaths
will provide only several hundred
job openings annually.
Total employment in these trades
is expected to increase mainly be­
cause of the anticipated rapid ex­
pansion in construction activity.
(See discussion, p. 375.) However,
the rate of employment growth will
vary sharply among these trades.
The demand for terrazzo workers
is expected to increase rapidly. Be­
cause terrazzo is durable and attrac­
tive, the number of terrazzo instal­
lations is expected to continue to in­
crease substantially. Growth of the
trade also will be stimulated by the
use of new terrazzo materials, espe­
cially epoxy and latex terrazzo.
These products, which are lighter
and occupy less space than cementbased terrazzo, are being used in­
creasingly, especially on the upper
floors of multistoried buildings. A
small number of skilled terrazzo
workers have been recruited from
abroad to meet shortages of these
workers in some areas.
A moderate increase is expected
in the employment of tilesetters.
Growth of this trade will be limited
by the increasing use of competing
materials, such as asphalt floor tile,
structural glass, plastic tile, and
plastic-coated wallboards, which
usually are installed by workers
other than tilesetters.
Little change in the employment
of marble setters is expected. How­
ever, the excellent properties of
marble as a building material will
insure its continued use and provide
work for marble setters, despite the
relatively higher costs of marble
compared with competitive mate­



Marble Setters’ Helpers and Marble
Mosaic and Terrazzo Workers’
Sources of Additional Information

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for terrazzo workers averaged
$6.46; for marble setters, $6.29;
and for tilesetters $6.08; on July 1,
1970, according to a national survey
of building trades workers in 68
large cities. These rates compared
with the average of $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades.
Among the individual cities sur­
veyed, the minimum hourly rates
for terrazzo workers ranged from
$4.50 in Norfolk, Va., to $8.09
in Cleveland, Ohio. For marble set­
ters, the hourly rates ranged from
$4.50 in Norfolk, Va., to $8.16 in
Cleveland, Ohio. The rates for tile­
setters ranged from $4.50 in Nor­
folk, Va., to $8.09 in Cleveland,
Ohio. Straight time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or pen­
sion funds, for marble setters, tile­
setters, and terrazzo workers in 12
of the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,

1970, appear in the accompanying
R a te s p e r h o u r
M a r b le
s e tte r s

T ile s e tte r s

T erra zzo
w o rk ers

Atlanta . . . . . . .$5.20
Baltimore . . . . . 6.60
B oston ........ . . . 6.40
Chicago . . . . . . 6.55
Dallas ........ . . . 5.25
Denver . . . . . . . 5.55
Detroit ......... . . 8.04
Little Rock . . .. 4.70
New Orleans .. 5.75
Sacramento .
Spokane . . . . . . 6.16
Toledo . . . . . . . 7.66



C ity

Marble setters and terrazzo
workers work both indoors and out­
doors, depending on the types of in­
stallation. Tilesetters work mostly
A large proportion of the workers
in each of these trades are mem­
bers of one of the following unions
—Bricklayers, Masons and Plaster­
ers’ International Union of Amer­
ica; and International Association of
Marble, Slate and Stone Polishers,
Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and

For further information regarding
apprenticeship or other work oppor­
tunities in these trades, inquiries
should be directed to local tile, ter­
razzo and marble setting contractors
or to locals of the unions previously
mentioned. In addition, the local
office of the State employment serv­
ice may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of marble setters, tilesetters,
and terrazzo workers may be ob­
tained from:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
International Association of Marble,
Slate and Stone Polishers, Rubbers
and Sawyers, Tile and Marble
Setters’ Helpers and Marble
Mosaic and Terrazzo Workers’
Helpers, 821 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Terrazzo and Mosaic As­
sociation, Inc., 716 Church St.,
Alexandria, Va. 22314.
Tile Contractors’ Association of
America, Inc., 112 North Alfred
St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.


(D.O.T. 850.782 through .887; 851.883
and .887; 852.883; 853.782 and .883;
859.782; and 859.883)

Nature of the Work

Operating engineers operate and
maintain various types of powerdriven construction machinery.
These machines include power
shovels, cranes, derricks, hoists, pile
drivers, concrete mixers, paving
machines, trench excavators, bull­
dozers, tractors, and pumps. Oper­
ating engineers often are identified
by the types of machines they oper­
ate; for example, craneman, bull­
dozer operator, derrick operator, or
heavy equipment mechanic. These
craftsmen have a wide range of
skills, working with many different
machines—some complex and oth­
ers relatively simple. The range of


skills may be described by discuss­
ing the duties of an engineer who
operates a crane and one who op­
erates an earth-boring machine.
The crane operator manipulates
various pedals and levers to rotate
the crane on its chassis and to raise
and lower the crane boom and the
loadline. The operator also manipu­
lates a number of different attach­
ments to the crane boom for various
construction purposes. For exam­
ple, he manipulates buckets for ex­
cavation work; pile drivers to drive
steel beams, wood, and concrete pil­
ing into the ground; and wrecking
balls for demolition work. Good
eye-hand-foot coordination, preci­
sion handling of heavy equipment,
and judgment in estimating proper
load size are essential aptitudes for
a crane operator. In contrast, earthboring machines that dig holes for
poles or posts require less skilled
operators to set the proper auger
(drill) in the spindle, start the
machine, and stop the auger when it
has penetrated to the correct depth.

Although skills vary, the trend is
toward more versatility. An individ­
ual who desires steady employment,
particularly in construction, should
know how to operate several differ­
ent types of equipment. Operators
prefer to work on more complex
machines because wage rates for
operating such machines are higher.

Places of Employment

An estimated 310,000 operating
engineers were employed as exca­
vating, grading, and road machinery
operators in 1970. In addition,
thousands of operating engineers
were employed for other types of
construction machinery, including
cranes, derricks, hoists, diesel en­
gines, air-compressors, trench-pipe
layers, and dredges.
Most operating engineers are em­
ployed by contractors engaged in
highway, dam, airport, and other
large-scale engineering projects.
They are employed in excavating,
grading, landscaping and in hoisting
concrete, steel, and other building
materials. Others are employed by
utility companies, manufacturers,
and other business firms that do
their own construction work, as well
as by State and local public works
and highway departments. Rela­
tively few operating engineers are
self-employed. Those few 'are usu­
ally owner-operators of construction
equipment, such as bulldozers, small
cranes, and backhoes.
In addition to employment in
construction work, operating engi­
neers operate cranes, hoists, and
other power-driven machinery in
factories and mines. In some cases,
the duties of operating engineers in
nonconstruction jobs are about the
same as those in construction work.
For example, operation of a crane
to unload cars of coal at a factory is


very similar to operation of a crane
to unload barges of sand and gravel
for a street paving job. On the other
hand, the work of a steel pourer
(craneman) in a steel mill differs
considerably from that of a crane
operator in the construction indus­
Construction machinery opera­
tors are employed in every section
of the country. Their work, how­
ever, may often take them to re­
mote locations where highways and
heavy engineering projects, such as
dams are being built.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
Training Committee for Operating
Engineers, recommend completion
of a 3-year apprenticeship as the
best way to qualify for journeyman
operating engineer. Apprenticeship
standards provide training in the
following equipment: (1) Universal
equipment (hoists, shovels, cranes,
and related equipment), (2) grad­
ing and paving equipment, and (3)
plant equipment (such as material
mixing and crushing machines).
These standards also provide for
training of heavy-duty construction
machinery repairmen.
The apprenticeship program for
each classification consists of at
least 6,000 hours (3 years) of onthe-job training. Training is given by
a lead engineer, a journeyman, or a
master mechanic. In a typical uni­
versal equipment program, the ap­
prentice learns to use, maintain, and
handle safely the equipment and
tools of the trade; set grade stakes;
and read plans and instructions. He
also learns the different types of
greases and oils and to use welding


and cutting equipment. In addition
to on-the-job training, the program
includes a minimum of 144 hours a
year of related classroom instruc­
tion in subjects such as reading
grade plans, elements of electricity,
physics, welding, and automotive
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally must be between 18 and 30;
physically able to perform the work;
have a high school education or its
equivalent; and the ability and apti­
tude to master the trade.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices start at a stipulated proportion
of the journeyman rate (at least 65
percent in most cases), and increase
periodically until the journeyman
rate is reached at the completion of
the apprenticeship.
Many men having mechanical ap­
titude enter this occupation as oilers
(operating engineer’s assistants) or
as helpers to heavy equipment re­
pairmen. These workers learn to re­
pair and maintain machinery. In
time, they may receive operating in­
struction on the equipment from ex­
perienced operators.
Some men having mechanical ex­

perience, such as that obtained from
operating farm equipment, may get
jobs operating the simpler construc­
tion machines. The all-round
knowledge necessary to obtain con­
tinuous employment is obtained
best through a formal apprentice­
ship program.

Employment Outlook

Employment of construction ma­
chinery operators is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
Thousands of additional job oppor­
tunities will result from the replace­
ment of experienced workers who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. Retirements and deaths
alone are expected to provide a few
thousand job openings annually.
The rapid rise in employment of
operating engineers will occur
mainly because of the anticipated
growth in construction activity and
the growing volume of highway con­
struction resulting from the longrange multibillion dollar highway
program (see discussion, p. 375).
Job opportunities also will result



from the need to maintain and re­
pair the highway system.
The increasing use of construc­
tion machinery shows every indica­
tion of continuing. More specialized
machines, particularly earth-moving
and smaller machines for small con­
struction projects, are expected to
be used. The increasing mechaniza­
tion of materials movement in facto­
ries and mines also should result in
growing employment of operating
engineers outside of construction.
Technological improvements are
expected to limit somewhat the
growth in employment of construc­
tion machinery operators. For ex­
ample, mobile truck cranes now can
lift 125 tons to a height of 330 feet
(equivalent to a 33-story building)
and travel at speeds up to 35 m.p.h.
Scrapers in use can scoop and carry
from 75 to 150 tons of dirt in one
load. Many types of laborsaving
equipment, which combine the func­
tions of several conventional ma­
chines, are expected to gain wide­
spread use in the next decade. One
example is the slipform paver that
spreads, vibrates, forms, and fin­
ishes concrete paving in one contin­
uous operation. Also, a pipelaying
machine digs a trench, lowers the
pipe into the trench, and fills the
trench after the pipes are con­
Electronic controls on construc­
tion equipment are being used in­
creasingly. Electronic grade controls
on highway paving equipment re­
sults in smoother pavements and
greater efficiency.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Operating engineers have a more
complicated wage structure than
any other construction trade.
Hourly rates are established for op­
erators of machines of different

types, for machines of the same type
but different capacity, for the same
machine in different types of con­
struction, and for the same work in
different parts of the country.
Crane operators, who generally
are among the highest paid con­
struction machinery operators, had
union minimum hourly rates rang­
ing from $4.70 in Birmingham,
Ala., to $8.35 in Trenton, N.J., on
July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. The rates
for bulldozer operators ranged from
$3.90 in Norfolk and Richmond,
Va., to $7.85 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for crane operators and bull­
dozer operators in 12 of the 68 cit­
ies selected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1970, appear in
the accompanying tabulation.
R a te p e r h o u r
C ity

C ran e

B u lld o z e r

o p e r a to r o p e r a to r

Baltimore ......... ...........$6.02
Boston ............... ........... 6.94
Cincinnati ......... ........... 6.94
D en v er............... ........... 5.25
Erie ................... ........... 7.58
Houston ........... ........... 5.60
Los Angeles . . . ........... 6.91
Milwaukee . . . . ........... 7.04
Omaha ............... ........... 6.13
Phoenix ............. .......... 6.74
San Diego ......... ........... 6.76
Tampa ............... .......... 6.06


The operating engineer works
outdoors; consequently, he usually
works steadily during the warmer
months and experiences slow pe­
riods during the colder months. The
operation of some machines, partic­
ularly bulldozers and some types of
scrapers, is physically tiring because
the constant movement of the

machine shakes or jolts the opera­
A large proportion of operating
engineers are members of the Inter­
national Union of Operating Engi­
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
operating engineer apprenticeships
or work opportunities in this occu­
pation, inquiries should be directed
to local general contractors; a local
of the International Union of Oper­
ating Engineers; a local joint ap­
prenticeship committee; or the near­
est office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. In addition, the
local office of the State employment
service may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act, apprentice­
ship, and other programs that pro­
vide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of operating engineers may be
obtained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Union of Operating
Engineers, 1125 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 840.131, .381, .781, .884, and
.887 and 841.781)

Nature of the Work

Painting and paperhanging are
separate, skilled building trades, al-


though many craftsmen in these
trades do both types of work. Both
apply finishes to walls and other
building surfaces. However, the ma­
terials they use, and the method of
application, differ.
The painter applies coats of paint
or other materials to either interior
or exterior building surfaces (and
other structures), for the purpose of
decorating or protecting them.
Other finishes can include varnish,
stains, enamel, and lacquer. On the
other hand, the paperhanger covers
interior walls and ceilings of rooms
with decorative wallpaper, fabric,
vinyls, or other materials.
One of the primary duties of the
painter—especially if he is repaint­
ing—is to prepare the surface to be
painted. He must remove loose
paint, either by scraping or by heat­
ing with a blowtorch and then
scraping. He must also remove
grease, fill nail holes and cracks,
sandpaper rough spots, and brush
off dust. Usually, in painting new
surfaces, he must cover them with a
prime coat or scaler to provide a
suitable surface or base. He applies
paint to many kinds of materials, in­
cluding wood, structural steel, and
clay products, generally by using a
brush, spray gun, or roller.
A painter must be skilled in han­
dling brushes and other painting
tools so that he can apply paint
thoroughly, uniformly, and rapidly
to any type of surface. He must be
able to mix paints and match colors,
using a knowledge of paint compo­
sition and color harmony. He also
must know the characteristics of
common types of paints and finishes
from the standpoints of durability,
suitability for different purposes,
and ease of handling and applica­
Painters often use spray guns to
paint those surfaces or objects on
which it is difficult to use a brush,


such as lattices, cinder and concrete
block, and metal fencing. They use
them also on large areas that can be
sprayed with a minimum of prepa­
ration. The painter also sometimes
uses a roller (a rotating applicator
covered with soft material), rolling
the applicator over the surface to be
Painters must know how to erect
the scaffolding from which they
often work, including “swing
stages” (scaffolds suspended by
ropes or cables attached to roof
hooks) and “bosun chairs,” which
they use when working on tall
buildings and other structures.
The paperhanger’s first step is
preparing the surface which he will
cover. In undertaking new work, he
applies “sizing,” a prepared mate­
rial that makes the plaster less po­
rous and assures better sticking of
the paper to the surface. In doing
redecorating work, he may have to
remove old paper by soaking or—if
there arc many layers—by steam­

ing. Frequently, it is also necessary
for paperhangers to do minor plas­
ter patching in order to get a
smooth base for the covering mate­
After he has prepared the wall,
the paperhanger measures the area
to be covered. He first cuts a length
from the roll of wallpaper, and
carefully positions the patterns so
they will match at the ceiling and
baseboard. He next mixes a paste
and applies it to the reverse side of
the paper. He then places the
paste-coated paper strip on the wall,
smoothing it into place with his
hand and a dry brush. The paperhanger removes air bubbles by
smoothing the paper strip toward
the outer edges. In this final step,
the craftsman matches the adjacent
edges of the patterned paper, cuts
and fits the horizontal edges at ceil­
ing and base; smooths the scams be­
tween strips with a roller or other
special tool; and makes a thorough
inspection for air bubbles and other



imperfections in the work. Then he
is ready to place the next wallpaper
strip. When working with wall cov­
erings other than paper, the paperhanger follows the same general

Places of Employment

Many painters and paperhangers
work for contractors engaged in
new construction. Substantial num­
bers of painters and paperhangers
also are employed by contractors to
do repair, alteration, or moderniza­
tion work on existing structures.
Hotels, office buildings, shipyards,
utility companies, manufacturing
firms, schools and other government
units, and other organizations that
own or manage extensive property
holdings commonly employ mainte­
nance painters. When interior redec­
orating involves wall papering, as
in hotels or apartment buildings,
maintenance painters also may do
the required paperhanging.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Painting and Decorating
Apprenticeship and Training Com­
mittee recommend the completion
of a 3-year formal apprenticeship as
the best way to become a journey­
man painter or paperhanger. A
substantial proportion of painters
and paperhangers, however, have
learned the trade informally, work­
ing as helpers or handymen to expe­
rienced craftsmen or by observing
them or being taught by them.
Workers without formal apprentice
training have gained acceptance as
journeymen more easily in these

crafts than in most of the other
building trades.
Apprentice applicants generally
are required to be between 16 and
25 and in good physical condition.
A high school education is pre­
ferred, although not essential. Ap­
plicants should have manual dexter­
ity and a discerning color sense.
They should not be allergic to paint
fumes or to the other materials used
in these trades, such as varnish, tur­
pentine, and lacquer.
The apprenticeship for painters
and paperhangers generally consists
of 6,000 hours (3 years) of onthe-job training, in addition to 144
hours a year of related classroom
instruction. Many apprenticeships
combine painting and paperhanging.
In a typical 3-ycar training pro­
gram, the apprentice learns, among
other things, to use, care for, and
handle safely the tools, machines,
equipment, and materials commonly
used in the trade. He must also
learn how to prepare surfaces (in­
cluding sizing, sandpapering, and
patching walls); match and mix col­
ors; and apply various types of inte­
rior and exterior materials (includ­
ing stain, lacquer, enamel, oil, and
varnish). He must also learn how to
erect scaffolding.
In addition, the apprentice re­
ceives related classroom instruction
in such diverse subjects as color
harmony; paint chemistry; estimat­
ing costs; and making, mixing, and
matching paints. He also learns the
relationship between painting and
paperhanging and the work per­
formed by the other building trades
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices usually start at 50 percent of
the journeyman rate and increase
periodically until the journeyman
rate of pay is reached upon comple­
tion of apprenticeship.
Painters and paperhangers may

advance to foreman. They also may
advance to jobs as estimators for
painting and decorating contractors
—computing material requirements
and labor costs. Some may become
superintendents on large contract
painting jobs, or they may establish
their own businesses as painting and
decorating contractors.

Employment Outlook

Employment of painters—esti­
mated at about 385,000 in 1970—
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
employment growth, thousands of
job openings will arise from the re­
placement of experienced painters
who transfer to other occupations,
retire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone are expected to
provide more than 10,000 job
openings annually.
The large rise anticipated in con­
struction activity (see discussion, p.
375) is expected to result in a grow­
ing demand for painters. Moreover,
recently developed paints, such as
polyester and vinyl coatings and
epoxys, that are heat-, abrasion-,
and corrosion-resisting have re­
sulted in new uses for paints and
additional job opportunities for
painters. Furthermore, a growing
number of painters arc expected to
be needed in the maintenance de­
partments of large industrial and
commercial firms.
Technological developments are
expected to limit the growth of em­
ployment among painters. New
types of paint that are more easily
applied and have improved “cover­
ing power” have made it easier for
inexperienced workers to do work
that is acceptable to some custom­
ers. Other paints now being intro­
duced promise to lengthen the “life”
of present-day paints. Spray paint-


ing requires fewer painters to do the
same amount of work. In addition,
many items formerly painted at the
building site now come from a fac­
tory with a prime coat and often
with a final coat. Aluminum build­
ing products, which often require no
painting, have been used increas­
ingly in recent years.
Employment of paperhangers—
estimated at about 5,000 in 1970
—is expected to increase by a few
thousand through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition, some job openings will result
from the replacement of experi­
enced paperhangers who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone are
expected to result in a few hundred
job openings annually.
Growth in the employment of
paperhangers is expected to result
mainly from the anticipated increase
in construction activity. Also, more
widespread use of fabric, plastic,
and other types of wall covering ap­
plied by paperhangers should con­
tribute to the demand for these
workers. On the other hand, the use
of paints for interior walls, as well
as wallpapers designed for easier
application by “do-it-yourselfers,”
will tend to limit the employment
growth of paperhangers.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for painters and paperhangers
in 68 large cities averaged $5.95
and $6.02, respectively, on July 1,
1970, according to a national survey
of building trades workers. In com­
parison, the average rate for all
journeymen in the building trades
was $6.54 an hour. Among individ­
ual cities surveyed the minimum
hourly rates for painters ranged
from $3.65 in Richmond, Va., to
$7.06 in Cleveland, Ohio. The rates


for paperhangers ranged from $3.65
in Richmond, Va., to $7.09 in Dayton, Ohio. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe benefits
or payments to health, insurance or
pension funds, for painters and pa­
perhangers in 12 of the 68 cities se­
lected to show wage rates from vari­
ous areas and regions of the coun­
try, on July 1, 1970, appear in the
accompanying tabulation.
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r
P a in te r s

Atlanta .................
Boston .................
Chicago ...............
C incinnati.............
Detroit .................
Houston ...............
N ew ark .................
New Orleans........
Philadelphia .........
Salt Lake City . ..
San Diego ...........
Spokane ...............

. $5.95
. 6.08
. 6.35
. 6.23
. 7.00
. 5.34
. 6.00
. 4.38
. 5.22
. 4.87
. 6.49
. 6.17

P a p erh a n g ers


Their work often requires
painters and paperhangers to stand
for long periods of time, to climb,
and to bend. A painter must have
strong arms because much of the
work is done with arms raised over­
head. Painters and paperhangers
risk injury from slips or falls from
ladders and scaffolds.
A large proportion of painters
and paperhangers are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Painters and Allied Trades. A few
are members of other unions.
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
painting and paperhanging appren­
ticeships or other work opportuni­
ties in these trades, inquiries should
be directed to local painting and
decorating contractors; a local of
the International Brotherhood of
Painters and Allied Trades; a local
joint union-management apprentice­

ship committee; or the nearest office
of the State apprenticeship agency
or the Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of painters and paperhangers
may be obtained from:
International Brotherhood of Paint­
ers and Allied Trades, 1925 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Painting and Decorating Contrac­
tors Association of America, 2625
West Peterson Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 842.381 and .781)

Nature of the Work

The plasterer is the building
craftsman who applies a plaster
coating to interior walls and ceilings
to form fire-resistant and relative
sound-proof surfaces, which then
may be decorated with paint or
wallpaper covering. They also apply
more durable cement plaster or
stucco to exterior walls, and form
and cast ornamental designs in plas­
In interior work, the plasterer
usually applies three distinct coats
of plaster—scratch, brown, and
finish, to ceilings and walls. On wire
or metal lath (backing to which
plaster readily adheres), he applies
the initial or scratch coat directly,
then scratching it with a special rak­



ing tool before it “sets” (hardens).
He then allows it to set a day or
more before applying the brown
coat, or second layer of plaster. On
gypsum lath or masonry walls, he
may use the same procedure; how­
ever, the brown coat can usually be
applied immediately after the
scratch coat has been completed.
The plasterer uses a hawk (a
square plate of lightweight metal
with a handle, about 14 by 14
inches), which holds several trowel­
fuls of material, and a trowel to
apply the wet material. While
applying the brown coat, the plas­
terer plumbs and straightens cor­
ners, angles, and wall and ceiling
surfaces, using a straightedge, rod,
or beveledge. The craftsman then
uses a darby (a wood or metal float
with handles, about 4 by 42 inches)
to bring the main body of the walls
and ceiling to a smooth and uniform
finish. The brown coat is allowed to
start its initial set and is then floated
(rubbed lightly using a circular mo­
tion) using a wood hand float with
slightly protruding nails. The nails
scratch the undercoat which, in turn
leaves the undercoat coarse and
provides greater adhesion for the
final finish coat.
Before applying the finish, or

white coat, the craftsman must
allow the brown coat to dry for sev­
eral days. During cold weather, use
of heat may be necessary to prevent
the freezing and failure of materials,
and to aid the plaster in drying.
When the plasterer considers the
brown-coated walls ready for the
final coat, he mixes the white coat
on a plaster board. He mixes only
enough material, however, to cover
an area to which he can apply a
proper finish. The “white coat” is a
relatively thin covering, which the
craftsman must apply carefully and
quickly, and finish smoothly with a
trowel, brush, and water before the
mixture has time to set. This cover­
ing sets very quickly, and in a few
days dries to a very durable and
hard finish.
The craftsman may finish wall
surfaces in a number of ways by
using different tools, methods, or
materials. In place of a white coat
as described above, he may use a
variety of decorative textures, such
as stipple (dots), swirl, and sand fin­
ishes, or colored interior stucco fin­
A plasterer may perform more
complex types of plastering work,
such as decorative and ornamental
plastering. For example, he may be
called upon to mold or form intri­
cate ornamental designs such as
cornices, paneling, or recesses for
indirect lighting. Plasterers who do
this type of work must be able to
follow blueprints and other specifi­
cations furnished by the architect.
In exterior stucco work, the plas­
terer applies a mixture of portland
cement and sand to masonry, ex­
panded metal, or metal wire lath in
the same manner as he would in
plastering interior surfaces. The
finish coat usually consists of either
a mixture of white cement and sand
or a patented finish material, which
may both be applied in a variety of

colors and textures. Also, marble or
gravel chips may be imbedded into
the soft plaster to form a textured
Apprentice plasterers work with
journeymen so that they may ac­
quire a full knowledge of the craft
and develop the necessary skills.
Laborers (hod carriers) also work
with plasterers, mixing base coat
materials and some finish materials,
and carrying them to the plasterer.
They also erect scaffolding when
In recent years, plasterers have
been making increasing use of
machines that spray plaster on
walls, ceilings, and structural sec­
tions of buildings. These machines
are particularly desirable when used
to apply the newly developed light­
weight plasters. Machines used to
mix plaster have been in general
use for many years.
Places of Employment

Most plasterers work on new
construction. In addition, these
craftsmen work on extensive build­
ing alterations, particularly where
special architectural and lighting ef­
fects are part of the building moder­
nization. Some work for plasterers
is found in the repair and mainte­
nance of older buildings.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Plastering Industry
Joint (labor-management) Appren­
ticeship and Training Committee,
recommend completion of a 3- or
4-year apprenticeship as the best
way to learn plastering. However,
many workers in this trade have ac­
quired some plastering skills by
working as helpers or laborers, ob­



serving or being taught by experi­
enced plasterers.
Apprentice applicants in this
trade generally are required to be
between 17 and 25, but this re­
quirement may be waived for veter­
ans. Good physical condition and
manual dexterity are important as­
Apprenticeship programs gener­
ally consist of 6,000 to 8,000 hours
(3 or 4 years) of on-the-job train­
ing, in addition to at least 144 hours
of related classroom instruction an­
nually. In a typical 4-year training
program, the apprentice learns,
among other things, to use and han­
dle the tools of the trade, and the
properties and appropriate handling
of the different kinds of materials
and mixtures used in plastering. In
addition, he learns how to apply
scratch (first) coat and brown (sec­
ond) coat; aline walls and beams to
given measurements; apply white
coat and sand finish; install acousti­
cal plaster and stucco, and acousti­
cal tile, cork, and similar materials;
use machines to apply and finish
plaster; and lay out arches and ceil­
ings. He also learns texture finish­
The apprentice receives class­
room instruction in such subjects as
drafting, blueprint reading, and
mathematics applicable to layout
work. In the classroom and on the
job, the apprentice becomes famil­
iar with the work of other trades so
that he may determine, for example,
whether lathing, or other prepara­
tory work is satisfactory.
Plasterers may advance to fore­
man, superintendent, or estimator
for a plastering contractor. Many
plasterers are self-employed and
they may employ other plasterers.

ment of plasterers—estimated at
about 35,000 in 1970— is expected
during the 1970’s. In addition, re­
placement of experienced plasterers
who transfer to other fields of work
or who retire or die will provide
many job openings for new workers.
Retirements and deaths alone are
expected to result in several
hundred job openings annually.
The growth in employment of
these workers will result primarily
from anticipated large increases in
construction activity. (See discus­
sion, p. 375.) In addition, recent
changes in plastering materials and
improvement in methods of apply­
ing these materials are creating work
opportunities for plasterers by in­
creasing the scope of the craft. For
example, improved lightweight plas­
ters are being used increasingly be­
cause of their excellent soundproof­
ing and fireproofing qualities. Also,
expanding job opportunities for
plasterers is the growing use of
curved surfaces and ceilings made of
plaster, both to achieve a form of
architectural treatment and also
special lighting and acoustical ef­
fects. Plastering and fireproofing by
machine have been widespread. Still
other developments are the increas­
ing use of “plaster veneer” or “high
density” plaster, a thin, extremely
hard material used to create a
finished surface, and “marblecrete,”
a type of stucco in which vari­
colored marble chips have been im­
However, the growth in employ­
ment resulting from these favorable
developments will be countered by
the continuing use of nonplaster
(dry-wall) construction, installed by
craftsmen other than plasterers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

A slow increase in the employ­

Union minimum hourly rates for
plasterers averaged $6.35, com­

pared with $6.54 for all journeymen
in the building trades, on July 1,
1970, according to a national survey
of building trades workers in 68
cities. Among individual cities sur­
veyed, the minimum hourly rates for
plasterers ranged from $4.25 in
Charlotte, N.C., to $8.56 in Cleve­
land, Ohio. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe benefits or
payments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for plasterers in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various areas and regions
of the country, on July 1, 1970, ap­
pear in the accompanying tabula­
Birmingham ...........
C hicago...................
Dayton ...................
Detroit ...................
Grand Rapids . . . .
Little R o c k .............
Madison .................
New Haven ...........
New Orleans .........
Philadelphia ...........
Spokane .................

Rate per hour
................. 7.00
................. 6.95
................. 6.84
................. 6.77
................. 5.04
................. 6.20
................. 6.55
................. 5.20
................. 6.19
................. 6.30
................. 6.49

Plastering requires considerable
standing, stooping, and lifting. Plas­
terers work both outdoors doing
stucco work, and indoors plastering
walls and ceilings and forming and
casting ornamental designs.
A large proportion of plasterers
are members of unions. They are
represented by either the Operative
Plasterers’ and Cement Masons’ In­
ternational Association of the
United States and Canada, or the
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America.
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
plastering apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in the trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local



plastering contractors; locals of the
unions previously mentioned; a
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the near­
est office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. In addition, the
local office of the State employment
service may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act, apprentice­
ship, and other programs that pro­
vide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of plasterers may be obtained
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
International Association of Wall
and Ceiling Contractors, 20 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20001.
National Bureau for Lathing and
Plastering, 938 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20001.

Although plumbing and pipefit­
ting are sometimes considered to be
a single trade, journeymen can spe­
cialize in either craft, particularly in
large cities. Water, gas, and waste
disposal systems, especially those
connected to public utility systems,
are installed by plumbers. These in­
stallations are made in residential
and commercial buildings, schools,
industrial plants, and other struc­
tures. In homes, for example,
plumbers initially “rough in” (in­
stall) the pipe system as the building
progresses. During the final con­
struction stages, they install the
heating and air conditioning units,
and connect radiators, water heat­
ers, and plumbing fixtures, such as
bathtubs and sinks.
Pipefitters install both high- and
low-pressure pipes that carry hot
water, steam, and other liquids and
gases, especially those in industrial

and commercial buildings and de­
fense establishments such as missile
launching and testing sites. Pipefit­
ters, for example, install ammonia­
carrying pipelines in refrigeration
plants, complex pipe systems in oil
refineries and chemical and food­
processing plants, and pipelines for
carrying compressed air and in­
dustrial gases in many types of in­
dustrial establishments.
Some plumbers and pipefitters
specialize in gas fitting, steam fit­
ting, or sprinkler fitting. Gas fitters
install and maintain the gas fittings
and the central gas main extensions
that connect the main gas line with
those leading to homes. Steamfitters
assemble and install steam or hot
water systems for commercial and
industrial uses. Sprinkler fitters in­
stall and maintain all types of fixed
piping fire extinguishing systems.
Plumbers and pipefitters use a

Operative Plasterers’ and Cement
Masons’ International Association
of the United States and Canada,
1125 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 862.381)

Nature of the Work

Plumbers and pipefitters are
craftsmen who install pipe systems
that carry water, steam, air, or other
liquids or gases needed for sanita­
tion, industrial production, or other
uses. They also alter and repair ex­
isting pipe systems and install
plumbing fixtures, appliances, and
heating and refrigerating units.

Plumbers use auger to clean waste line.



variety of skills when installing pipe
systems. For example, they bend
pipe and weld, braze, calk, solder,
or thread joints. After a pipe system
is installed, the plumber or pipefit­
ter tests for leaks by filling the pipes
with liquid or gas under pressure.
Plumbers and pipefitters use
wrenches, reamers, drills, braces
and bits, hammers, chisels, saws,
and other handtools. Power ma­
chines often are used to cut, bend,
and thread pipes. Hand-operated
hydraulic pipe benders are also
used. In addition, plumbers and
pipefitters use gas or acetylene
torches and welding, soldering, and
brazing equipment in their work.
Places of Employment

Most plumbers and pipefitters are
employed by plumbing and pipefit­
ting contractors in new construction
activity, mainly at the construction
site. A substantial proportion of
plumbers are self-employed or work
for plumbing contractors doing re­
pair, alteration, or modernization
work. Some plumbers install and
maintain pipe systems for govern­
ment agencies and public utilities,
and some work on the construction
of ships and aircraft. Others do
maintenance work in industrial and
commercial establishments. Pipefit­
ters, in particular, are employed as
maintenance personnel in the petro­
leum, chemical, and food-processing
industries where the industrial oper­
ations include the processing of
fluids through pipes.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the national joint labor-manage­
ment apprenticeship committees for
the plumbing and pipefitting indus­

tries, recommend a formal 5-year
apprenticeship for plumbers or for
pipefitters as the best way to learn
all aspects of these trades. A large
number of plumbers and pipefitters,
however, have acquired plumbing
and pipefitting skills informally by
working for several years with
craftsmen, and by observing and re­
ceiving instruction from them.
Many of these persons have gained
some knowledge of their trade by
taking trade or correspondence
school courses.
Apprentice applicants generally
are required to be between 16 and
25, and in good physical condition.
A high school education or its
equivalent, including courses in
mathematics, physics, and chemis­
try, is generally recommended. Ap­
plicants often are required to take
aptitude tests, particularly to deter­
mine whether they have the high
degree of mechanical aptitude re­
quired in this field.
Most apprentice training pro­
grams for plumbers and pipefitters

are conducted under written agree­
ments between the apprentices and
local joint apprenticeship commit­
tees, composed of union and man­
agement representatives, who su­
pervise the training. The appren­
ticeship committee determines the
need for apprentices in the locality,
establishes minimum apprenticeship
standards of training and, if neces­
sary, schedules a rotating work pro­
gram. This program is designed to
give the apprentice diversified train­
ing by having him work for several
plumbing or pipefitting contractors.
The apprenticeship program for
plumbers or for pipefitters usually
consists of 10,000 hours of on-thejob training, in addition to at least
144 hours of related classroom in­
struction annually. In a typical 5year training program, the plumber
or pipefitter apprentice learns,
among other things, how to use,
care for, and handle safely the tools,
machines, equipment, and materials
used in the trades. They also learn
welding and soldering techniques



and general repair work; the use of
ladders and the erection and dis­
mantling of scaffolding; and the
proper use of plastic and glass pip­
ing. The plumber apprenticeship
program includes training in the
basic skills of the trade and in the
installation of sewers, drains, and
services outside the building; private
water supply and drainage systems;
building water supply systems;
building drainage and vent systems;
water heaters and treatment equip­
ment; appliances; the testing, repair,
and maintenance of these systems
and equipment; and also in estimat­
ing the materials required. The pipe­
fitter apprenticeship program in­
cludes training in the installation
and maintenance of radiators,
pumps, boilers, stokers, oil burners,
and gas furnaces; hot water, steam
panel, and radiant-heating systems;
air-conditioning and powerplant
piping systems; and pneumatic con­
trol systems and instrumentation.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in subjects
such as drafting and blueprint read­
ing, mathematics applicable to lay­
out work, applied physics and
chemistry, and local building codes
and regulations that apply to the
Hourly wage rates of apprentices
in these trades usually start at 40-50
percent of the journeyman rate and
increase in each 6-month period
until a rate of 85-90 percent is
reached during the last period of the
To obtain a journeyman’s license
which some communities require, a
person must pass a special examina­
tion to demonstrate knowledge of
the trade and of the local building
Some journeymen plumbers and
pipefitters may become foremen for
plumbing or pipefitting contractors.
Many journeymen go into business

for themselves. As they expand
their activities, they may employ
other workers and become plumb­
ing and pipefitting contractors. In
most localities, contractors are re­
quired to obtain a master plumber’s

Employment Outlook

Employment of plumbers and
pipefitters—who numbered about
350,000 in 1970—is expected to
rise rapidly through the 1970’s. In
addition to new jobs created by em­
ployment growth, thousands of job
opportunities will arise to replace
experienced plumbers and pipefit­
ters who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone are expected to re­
sult in several thousand job open­
ings annually.
The most important factor that
will contribute to the projected rise
in employment is the anticipated
large increase in construction activ­
ity. (See discussion, p. 375.) Fur­
thermore, plumbing and heating
work is expected to become more
important in many types of con­
struction. For example, the trend
toward more bathrooms per dwell­
ing unit is likely to continue. The
installation of appliances, such as
washing machines for clothes or
dishes, gas dryers, and waste dispos­
als, also will continue. The number
of automatic heating system instal­
lations probably will increase. Also,
in industry generally, plumbers and
pipefitters will be required for nec­
essary installation and maintenance
work. For example, the chemical in­
dustry, which uses extensive pipe­
work in its processing activities, is
expected to expand its facilities.
Those industries that are automat­
ing more of their production activi­
ties will require more pipefitting

work. The increasing industrial ac­
tivities related to nuclear energy
and the greater use of refrigeration
and air-conditioning equipment also
will result in more work for plumb­
ers and pipefitters. Finally, mainte­
nance and repair, and moderniza­
tion of existing plumbing or heating
systems will create additional em­
ployment opportunities for these
Technological developments are
expected to limit the growth in the
number of jobs for plumbers and
pipefitters. For example, prefabri­
cated plumbing assemblies can now
be installed as a unit, reducing the
amount of on-site plumbing re­
quired. Packaged gas vents also are
available. Ventpipe sections come
in standardized lengths that can be
fastened together by locking joint
bands, thus eliminating cementing
operations. Some builders are
preassembling their own waste,
vent, and other systems compo­
nents. This work—usually per­
formed by the employers’ regular
crew in well-equipped shops set up
near the building site—can be per­
formed during inclement weather or
other “slow” periods.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for plumbers and fop pipefit­
ters averaged $7.01 and $6.93,
respectively, on July 1, 1970, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68 large
cities. At the same time, the average
hourly rate for all journeymen in
the building trades was $6.54.
Among individual cities surveyed,
the union minimum hourly wage
rates for plumbers ranged from
$5.00 in Norfolk, Va., to $9.42 in
Oakland, Calif.; pipefitters’ rates
ranged from $5.00 in Norfolk, Va.,



to $9.42 in Oakland, Calif.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for plumbers and pipefitters
in 12 of the 68 cities selected to
show wage information from vari­
ous areas and regions of the coun­
try, on July 1, 1970, appear in the
accompanying tabulation. Annual
earnings of workers in this field are
among the highest in the building
trades because plumbing and pipe­
fitting are affected less by seasonal
factors than are most other building
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r
P lu m b e r s

A tla n ta ........ ...............$6.85
Boston ........ ................. 6.70
Columbus . . .................8.63
Dallas ......... ............... 6.21
Kansas City ............... 7.60
Memphis . . . ............... 6.44
Newark . . . .................. 7.25
Phoenix . . . . ............... 6.70
Pittsburgh . . ............... 6.81
Sacramento . ............... 7.33
Shreveport . . ............... 6.09
Tulsa ........... ............... 6.21

P ip e f itte r s


The work of plumbers and pipefitters is active and sometimes strenu­
ous, as in other building trades.
They frequently must stand for pro­
longed periods and occasionally
work in cramped or uncomfortable
Workers in this trade risk the
danger of falls from ladders, cuts
from sharp tools, and burns from
hot pipes or steam. The number of
injuries per million man-hours
worked by employees of plumbing,
heating, and air-conditioning con­
tractors in the contract construction
industry has been lower than that
for contract construction as a whole,
but higher than the average for
production workers in manufactur­
ing industries.
A large proportion of plumbers

and pipefitters are members of the
United Association of Journeymen
and Apprentices of the Plumbing
and Pipe Fitting Industry of the
United States and Canada.

(D.O.T. 804.281; 843.844; and 866.381)

Nature of the Work
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
plumber or pipefitter apprentice­
ships or work opportunities in these
trades, inquiries should be directed
to local plumbing, heating, and airconditioning contractors; a local
union of the United Association of
Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry
of the United States and Canada; a
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the near­
est office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. In addition, the
local office of the State employment
service may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act, apprentice­
ship, and other programs that pro­
vide training opportunities. Some
local employment service offices
provide such services as screening
applicants and giving aptitude tests.
General information about the
work of plumbers, pipefitters, and
sprinkler fitters may be obtained
National Association of PlumbingHeating-Cooling Contractors, 1016
20th St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
National Automatic Sprinkler and
Fire Control Association, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
United Association of Journeymen
and Apprentices of the Plumb­
ing and Pipe Fitting Industry of
the United States and Canada,
901 Massachusetts Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

Roofers apply composition roof­
ing and other materials, such as tile
and slate, to the roofs of buildings.
They also waterproof and dampproof walls and other building sur­
In applying composition roofing,
the roofer first places over-lapping
strips of asphalt or tar impregnated
felt over the entire surface. He then
applies a coating of coal tar pitch,
asphalt, or other bituminous mate­
rial. This process is repeated until at
least three layers of felt are in place.
Finally, he applies a surfacing of
coal tar pitch, or asphalt and gravel,
or a smooth surface asphalt to pro­
tect the roofing materials from the
Other types of composition roof­
ing, such as roll roofing and asphalt
shingles, overlap and are fastened to
the roof base with nails or asphalt
cement. If necessary, material is cut
to fit corners, pipes, and chimneys.
Wherever two roof surfaces inter­
sect, the roofer cements or nails
flashing (strips of felt or metal) to
make the intersections (joints) wa­
Roofers also use metal, tile, and
slate for the more expensive types
of roofs. Metal roofs are con­
structed by soldering metal sheets
together and nailing them to the
wood sheathing. In installing tile
and slate roofs, the roofer places a
covering of roofing felt over the
wood sheathing. He punches holes
in the slate or tile that he nails to
the sheathing. Each row of slate or
tile overlaps the preceding row. Fi­
nally, the roofer covers the exposed
nailheads with roofing cement to



tors on new building construction.
They also do maintenance and re­
pair work, especially on composi­
tion roofing. A few roofers are selfemployed, doing either roofing on
small, new buildings or repairs and
alterations. Roofers also work for
government agencies or business es­
tablishments that do their own con­
struction and repair work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Roofers apply tar prior to spreading gravel.

avoid rusting and water leakage
around the nailheads. Handtools
usually are used in applying roof
surfaces—for example, hammers,
roofing knives, mops, pincers, and
calking guns.
Roofers also waterproof and
dampproof structures other than
roofs, such as masonry, concrete
walls, or swimming pools and other
tanks. The roofer prepares surfaces
to be waterproofed by removing
rough projections and roughing
glazed surfaces, using a hammer

and chisel or rubbing brick. He then
applies a coat of liquid compound
with a brush. He also may paint or
spray surfaces with a waterproofing
material or nail waterproofing fabric
to surfaces. When dampproofing, he
usually sprays a coating of tar or as­
phalt on interior or exterior surfaces
to avoid the penetration of mois­
Places of Employment

Roofers work for roofing contrac­

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
Training Committee for the Roofing
Industry, recommend completion of
a 3-year apprenticeship program,
covering all types of roofing work,
as the best way to learn this trade.
A substantial proportion of workers,
however, have acquired roofing
skills informally, by working as
helpers or handymen, observing or
being taught by experienced roofers.
Apprenticeship applicants are re­
quired to be at least 18 and not over
30 years of age; however, excep­
tions may be made for veterans. A
high school education or its equiva­
lent is desirable. Good physical con­
dition and a good sense of balance
are important assets.
The 3-year apprenticeship pro­
gram generally consists of a mini­
mum of 1,400 hours of on-the-job
training annually, in addition to re­
lated classroom instruction. In a
typical training program, the ap­
prentice learns, among other things,
to use, care for, and handle safely
the tools, equipment, and materials
commonly used in the trade; work
with composition, tar, and asphalt;
prepare roof surfaces for covering;
apply pitch and other materials;
spread gravel; install slate, tile, and



terra cotta; and dampproof and wa­
terproof structures.
The trainee receives related
classroom instruction in such sub­
jects as blueprint reading and math­
ematics applicable to layout work.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices usually start at 65 percent of
the journeyman rate and increase
periodically until 90 percent of the
journeyman rate is reached in the
final 6 months of the training pe­
Roofers may advance to foreman
and to superintendent for a roofing
contractor. Also, they may enter
business for themselves and hire
other roofers.

Employment Outlook

Employment of roofers—who
numbered about 60,000 in 1970—
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, thousands of job opportuni­
ties will result from the replacement
of journeymen who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in several hundred
job openings annually.
Employment of roofers is ex­
pected to increase mainly because
of the anticipated rapid increase in
construction activity. (See discus­
sion, p. 375.) New construction and
repairs on existing structures will
provide most of the work for these
craftsmen. However, dampproofing
and waterproofing are expected to
provide an increasing proportion of
roofers’ work.
Although the projected increase
in construction activity will result in
rising employment of roofers, em­
ployment growth will be limited by
the increasing use of spray-on or
fluid roofing systems; improved

roofing materials and roofing tech­
niques that increase the “life” of
roofs; improved tools, such as nail­
ing machines; and more efficient
materials handling equipment.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for composition roofers aver­
aged $6.17, on July 1, 1970, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68 large
cities. For slate and tile roofers, the
rate was $5.81. By comparison, the
average for all journeymen in the
building trades was $6.54 an hour.
Among individual cities surveyed,
the minimum hourly rates for com­
position roofers ranged from $3 in
Norfolk, Va., to $7.57 in Detroit,
Mich. Slate and tile roofers had
hourly rates ranging from $3 in
Norfolk, Va., to $8.07 in Detroit,
Mich. Straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or pen­
sion funds, for roofers in 12 of the
68 cities selected to show wage in­
formation from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1970, appear in the accompanying
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r
C o m p o s i t io n

Atlanta ............. $4.35
B oston ................ 6.55
Cleveland ........ 7.56
Dallas ............... 4.70
Kansas City . . . 5.32
Milwaukee . .. . 5.97
New Orleans . . 5.10
New York City 6.70
Pittsburgh .. . . 6.80
San D ie g o ......... 5.25
Spokane ........... 5.80
Syracuse ........... 6.95

S la te a n d tile


Roofers’ work, like that of other
building tradesmen, is sometimes
strenuous. It involves prolonged
standing, as well as climbing, bend­

ing, and squatting. These workers
risk injuries from slips or falls from
scaffolds or roofs. They may have to
work outdoors in all types of
weather, particularly when doing re­
pair work. Roofing work may be
especially hot during the warmer
A large proportion of roofers are
members of the United Slate, Tile
and Composition Roofers, Damp
and Waterproof Workers Associa­

Sources of Additional Information

For further information concern­
ing roofing apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in this trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
roofing contractors; a local of the
United Slate, Tile and Composition
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof
Workers Association; a local joint
union-management apprenticeship
committee; or the nearest office of
the State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other training opportunities.
General information about the
work of roofers may be obtained
National Roofing Contractors Asso­
ciation, 1515 North Harlem Ave.,
Oak Park, 111. 60302.
United Slate, Tile and Composition
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof
Workers Association, 1125 17th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.



(D.O.T. 804.281 and .884)

Nature of the Work

Sheet-metal workers engaged in
construction-related work fabricate
and install ducts used in ventilating,
air-conditioning, and heating sys­
tems. They also fabricate and install
a wide variety of other products
made from thin metal sheets, such
as roofing and siding, partitions,
store fronts, and metal framework

for neon signs. Skilled construction
sheet-metal workers should not be
confused with assembly-line factory
operatives who also make sheetmetal products, but can perform
only a few specific operations.
In heating or air-conditioning
duct work, the sheet-metal worker
lays out and plans the job and de­
termines the size and type of sheet
metal to be used. The ducts are
often fabricated at the sheet-metal
shop. Sheet-metal workers cut the
metal with hand snips, power-driven
shears, and other cutting tools.
They shape the metal with a variety
of machines, hammers, and anvils;

Places of Employment

Sheet-metal workers are em­
ployed mainly by firms that fabri­
cate and install heating, refrigera­
tion, and air-conditioning equip­
ment, and by contractors engaged in
residential, industrial, and commer­
cial building. In residential con­
struction, these workers also may
work for roofing contractors who
specialize in metal roofing work.
Many of these craftsmen work for
government agencies or business
establishments that do their own
construction and alteration work.
Others are self-employed, mainly on
repair work or on smaller types of
In addition to construction-re­
lated work, thousands of skilled
sheet-metal workers are employed
in nonconstruction; for example, the
railroad, aircraft, or shipbuilding in­
dustries. Some are employed in
small shops manufacturing specialty
products, such as custom kitchen
equipment for hotels and restau­
rants. Firms making blowers, ex­
hausts, electrical generating and dis­
tributing equipment, food products
machinery, steam engines, and tur­
bines also employ skilled sheetmetal workers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

then weld, bolt, rivet, solder, or ce­
ment the seams and joints. How­
ever, fabricated ducts in standard
sizes often are available and require
little additional fabrication at the
work site. In the installation of
ducts, components are fitted to-

gether; hangers and braces installed
for support; and points soldered,
connected, or welded. Some jour­
neymen specialize in shopwork or
on-site installation. However, skilled
workers must know all aspects of
the trade.

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
Training Committee for the Sheet
Metal Industry, recommend the
completion of a 4-year apprentice­
ship program as the best way to
learn the sheet-metal trade. Some
sheet-metal workers, however, have
acquired skills of the trade infor­
mally, by working as helpers or
handymen, observing or being


taught by experienced craftsmen.
Many of these persons have gained
additional knowledge of the trade
by taking correspondence or trade
school courses.
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be between 17
and 23, but special consideration
may be given for military service. A
high school education or its equiva­
lent is required. Good physical and
mechanical aptitude are necessary
The apprenticeship program usu­
ally consists of 8,000 hours (4
years) of on-the-job training, in ad­
dition to related classroom instruc­
tion. In a typical training program,
the apprentice learns, among other

Sheet-metal worker drills sheeting.


things, to use, care for, and handle
safely the tools, machines, equip­
ment, and materials commonly used
in the trade. Also, he learns how to
do welding, soldering, and seaming;
air-conditioning, heating, and venti­
lating work; residential installations
such as roofing, gutters, and down­
spouts; and architectural and in­
dustrial sheet-metal work. In addi­
tion, he learns general work proc­
esses such as cutting, forming,
folding, grooving metal material,
bending edges, and punching and
drilling holes.
The trainee receives related class­
room instruction in subjects such as
drafting, blueprint reading, and
mathematics applicable to layout
work. In addition, he learns the re­
work and other building trades.
Hourly wage rates for sheetmetal apprentices generally start at
45 percent of the journeyman rate
and increase periodically until 80
percent of the journeyman rate is
reached during the final portion of
the training period.
Sheet-metal workers in construc­
tion may advance to foreman, su­
perintendent of large projects, or go
into business as sheet-metal con­
tractors. Experienced workers in
this trade have more job mobility
than many other building trades
workers because they can transfer
their skills to nonconstruction in­

crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
In addition to new jobs created by
employment growth, thousands of
job opportunities will result from
the replacement of journeymen who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. Retirements and deaths
alone are expected to result in sev­
eral hundred job openings annually.
The projected increase in em­
ployment of sheet-metal workers is
expected mainly because of the an­
ticipated large expansion in residen­
tial, commercial, and industrial con­
struction. (See discussion, p. 375.)
In addition, year-round, central
air-conditioning systems are ex­
pected to be installed in a greater
number of homes, office buildings,
stores and factories. Many of these
installations will be in existing struc­
tures. Sheet-metal work should also
result from growth in the number of
large refrigeration systems. Such
equipment will be needed in the
production and storage of growing
quantities of food and other perish­
able items required by an expanding
population. The shops that fabricate
sheet-metal products used in con­
struction also are expected to re­
quire more of these skilled crafts­
Prefabrication is not likely to af­
fect the growth of employment in
this occupation as much as in most
other building trades, because much
sheet-metal work is custom made.
The fabrication of ducts and fittings
for ventilating installations is limited
by the need to tailor these installa­
tions to meet a wide variety of
structural conditions, such as the di­
mensions of the building and the
Employment Outlook
space allowed for ducts, and also by
sheet-metal the cost of storage space needed to
workers—who numbered about store prefabricated ducts and fit­
60,000 in 1970—is expected to in­ tings.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for sheet-metal workers aver­
aged $6.75, compared with $6.54
for all journeymen in the building
trades on July 1, 1970, according to
a national survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for sheet-metal
workers ranged from $4.65 in Nor­
folk, Va., to $8.81 in Cleveland,
Ohio. Straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or pen­
sion funds, for sheet-metal workers
in 12 of the 68 cities selected to
show wage information from vari­
ous areas and regions of the coun­
try, on July 1, 1970, appear in the
accompanying tabulation.
C ity

R a te p e r h ou r

Albuquerque ............................$5.88
Boston ....................... ............... 7.33
Buffalo ....................... ............... 7.35
Cincinnati................. ............... 6.79
Des Moines .............................. 6.27
Houston ..................... ............... 5.69
Kansas City .............................. 6.78
Pittsburgh ................... ............... 7.23
Sacramento .............................. 7.00
San Diego ................................ 7.34
Tampa ....................... ............... 5.85
Washington, D.C. . . . ............. 6.50

Many sheet-metal workers spend
considerable time at the construc­
tion site, where they may work ei­
ther indoors or outdoors. Other
sheet-metal workers may work pri­
marily indoors, doing fabricating
and layout work.
When installing gutters, skylights,
and cornices, they may work high
above the ground level. When in­
stalling ventilation and air-condi­
tioning systems, they may work in
awkward and relatively inaccessible
places. Sheet-metal workers run the
risk of cuts and burns from the ma­

terials, tools, and equipment used in
their trade.
A large proportion of sheet-metal
workers are members of the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International Asso­

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
sheet-metal apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in this trade, in­
quiries should be directed to local
sheet-metal contractors or heating,
refrigeration, or air-conditioning
contractors; a local of the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International Asso­
ciation; a local joint union-manage­
ment apprenticeship committee; or
the nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source of
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of sheet-metal workers may
be obtained from:
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors’ National Association,
Inc., 1611 North Kent St., Arling­
ton, Va. 22209.
Sheet Metal Workers’ International
Association, 1000 Connecticut
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 861.131 and .781)

Nature of the Work

Stonemasons build the stone ex­
teriors of structures. They work pri­
marily with two types of stones—
natural cut stone, such as marble,
granite, limestone, or sandstone;
and artificial stone, which is made
to order from cement, marble chips,
or other types of masonry materials.
Much of the work of these crafts­
men is the setting of cut stone for
comparatively high-cost structures,
such as office buildings, hotels,
churches, and public buildings.
The stonemason often works
from a set of drawings in which
each stone has been numbered for
identification. A helper locates the
pieces needed and brings them to
the mason. A derrickman using a
hoist may be required to lift large
stones into place. The stonemason
sets the stone in mortar and moves
it into position with a mallet, ham­
mer, or crowbar. He alines the
stone with a plumb line and finishes
the joints between the stones with a
pointing trowel. When necessary, he
may fasten the stone to supports
with metal ties, anchors, or by weld­
Occasionally, the stonemason
may have to cut stone to an exact
size. To do this, he must determine
the grain of the stone selected and
strike blows along a predetermined
line with a stonemason’s hammer.
Valuable stones are often cut with
an abrasive saw to make them fit.
Stonemasons also do some stone
veneer work, in which cut stone is
applied in various patterns to the
exterior of a building. In some sec­
tions of the country, stone is used
extensively to veneer homes. In one



gram in this occupation is similar to
that for bricklayer. (See discussion,
p. 380.)
Stonemasons may advance to
jobs as foremen. They may also be­
come estimators for stonemasonry
contractors. Estimators compute
labor and material requirements for
competitive job bidding. A few of
these craftsmen may start their own
contracting business.

Employment Outlook

Stone masons adjust stone floor panel.

specialized branch of the trade
known as alberene stone setting,
soap-stone linings for vats, tanks,
and floors.
The principal handtools of the
stonemason are trowels, heavy ham­
mers, wooden or hard rubber mal­
lets, and chisels. For rapid stone
cutting, pneumatic tools are used,
such as hammers, drills, and brush­
ing tools. Special power tools
smooth the surface of large stones.
An abrasive saw is used for fine cut­

Places of Employment

Stonemasons work most often on
new construction, particularly on
the more expensive residential and
commercial and public buildings. A
few also work for government agen­
cies or business establishments that
handle their own construction and
alteration work. Stonemasons are
employed mainly in the larger urban
areas. In many areas which have no
stonemasons, bricklayers perform
the work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities, includ­
ing the National Joint (labor-man­
agement) Bricklaying Apprentice­
ship Committee, recommend the
completion of a 3-year apprentice­
ship program as the best way to
learn stonemasonry. A substantial
proportion of stonemasons, how­
ever, have picked up the trade by
working as helpers, observing or
being taught by experienced stone­
Apprenticeship applicants gener­
ally are required to be between 17
and 24; a high school education or
its equivalent is desirable. Good
physical condition is an important
The apprentice training program
for stonemasons generally requires
6,000 hours (3 years) of on-the-job
training, in addition to related class­
room instruction. During the ap­
prenticeship, the trainee learns to
use, care for, and handle safely the
tools, machines, and materials of
the trade. He must also learn to lay
out and install walls, floors, stairs,
and arches. The apprenticeship pro­

Little increase in the employment
of stonemasons is expected through
the 1970’s, in spite of the antici­
pated large expansion in construc­
tion activity. (See discussion, p.
375.) Less use of stone masonry
work is expected because modern
architectural design has emphasized
simple lines, little ornamentation,
and large window areas. Replace­
ment needs will provide a small
number of job opportunities for new
workers each year.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for stonemasons averaged
$6.73, compared with $6.54 for all
journeymen in the building trades,
on July 1, 1970, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for stonemasons
ranged from $4.95 in Jacksonville,
Fla., to $8.16 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for stonemasons in 12 of the
68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various areas and regions
of the country, on July 1, 1970, ap­



pear in the accompanying tabula­
C ity

International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

R a te p e r h o u r

Albuquerque ............. .............$6.31
Birmingham .............................. 5.55
B oston ......................... ............... 7.25
Chicago ..................... .............. 7.22
Des Moines ............................. 6.43
Houston ..................... .............. 5.90
Knoxville .................................. 6.02
Los Angeles ............................. 5.95
Phoenix ..................... ............... 6.80
Pittsburgh ............................... 7.51
Seattle ......................... ............... 7.20
Washington, D.C. . . . ............... 6.80

Since most stonemasonry is done
outdoors, working hours are often
lost because of inclement weather.
The work of the stonemason is ac­
tive and sometimes strenuous, as it
involves lifting heavy materials.
A large proportion of stonema­
sons are members of the Bricklay­
ers, Masons and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union of America.

(D.O.T. 801.131, .134, .281, .381, .781,
.884; 809.130, .131, .134, .380, .381,
.781, .884, .887; and 869.883)

Nature of the Work

Ironworkers erect, assemble, or
install fabricated metal products
mainly in industrial, commercial,
and large residential buildings. They
also rig heavy construction machin­
ery (prepare the machinery for
moving with the proper lines, ca­

bles, and accessories) and deliver
the machinery to new sites. In addi­
tion, ironworkers do alteration
work, such as installing steel stairs
or adding window guards to existing
buildings, and repair or remodel ex­
isting structures, such as replacing
metal bridge parts.
Ironworkers comprise four re­
lated trades—structural ironwork­
ers, rigger and machine mover, orna­
mental-ironworker, and reinforcingironworker (rodman). Many crafts­
men are skilled in two or more of
these trades.
Structural-ironworkers (D.O.T.
809.381) erect the steel framework
of bridges, buildings, and other
structures including metal storage
tanks and overhead crane runways
that support heavy equipment. They
install floor decking and the doors
and frames of vaults.
In erecting a steel framework,
structural-ironworkers push, pull, or

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
apprenticeships for stonemasons or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local bricklaying contractors; a
local of the Bricklayers, Masons
and Plasterers’ International Union
of America; a local joint unionmanagement apprenticeship com­
mittee; or the nearest office of the
State apprenticeship agency or the
Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about apprenticeship and other
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of stonemasons may be ob­
tained from:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’

Rodmen position reinforcing bars.


pry fabricated steel beams and
girders into proper position while
hoisting equipment hold steel parts.
Next, they temporarily connect all
steel members with bolts, use plumb
bobs and levels to aline the struc­
ture, and then weld or bolt the
pieces. In a large building iron­
workers generally specialize in a
particular operation, such as weld­
ing or bolting. Structural-ironwork­
ers often rig, as well as erect, steel
Riggers and machine movers
(D.O.T. 869.883) set up and rig
hoisting equipment to erect and dis­
mantle structural steel frames and
move heavy construction machinery
and equipment. They study the size,
shape, and weight of the object to
be moved; choose the lines and ca­
bles with which the object can be
safely moved; and select the points
of attachment that will provide a
safe and secure hold on the load.
Next, they attach the lifting device
to both the hoisting equipment and
the item to be moved, and direct the
load into position by giving hand
signals and other directions to the
hoisting machine operator. In many
instances, special rigging equipment
must be built on the job to move
unusual shaped materials and ma­
chines. This work requires a knowl­
edge of hoisting equipment and lift­
ing devices.
Ornamental-ironworkers (D.O.T.
809.381) install metal stairways,
catwalks, floor gratings, iron ladders
(such as those used extensively in
powerhouses and chemical plants),
metal window sash and doors, grilles
and screens (such as those used in
bank tellers’ compartments and ele­
vators), metal cabinets, and safety
deposit boxes. They also install
lampposts, gates, fences, and deco­
rative ironwork on balconies.
In addition to iron and steel, or­
namental-ironworkers work with


prefabricated alumimum, brass, and
bronze metal shapes, frames, and
panels. Examples are recently-de­
veloped curtain-wall and windowwall, and the many types and de­
signs of ornamental and functional
building facades which are bolted or
welded to a building or other struc­
Reinforcing-ironworkers (rodmen)
(D.O.T. 801.884) set steel bars in
concrete forms to reinforce concrete
structures. They place the steel bars
on suitable supports in the concrete
form and tie the bars together at
intersections so that each bar re­
ceives its intended structural load.
The bars are placed in the concrete
form according to blueprints, spe­
cifications, or verbal instruction.
The rodmen use steel pliers and
other tying tools to wire the rods
securely in place. Some concrete
reinforcing is a coarse mesh made
of welded wire (usually 6- by 6inch grids). When using mesh, the
rodmen measure the surface to be
covered, cut and bend the mesh to
the desired shape, and place the
mesh over the area to be reinforced.
When the concrete crew pours the
slab, hooked rods are used to posi­
tion the wire mesh in the freshly
poured mixture.

Places of Employment

About 85,000 structural- and or­
namental-ironworkers were em­
ployed in 1970. Thousands of addi­
tional workers were employed as
riggers, machine movers, and rein­
forcing-iron workers.
A large proportion of these
craftsmen are employed by general
contractors on large building proj­
ects, by steel-erection contractors,
or ornamental-iron contractors.
Many are employed by large steel
companies or their subsidiaries en­

gaged in the construction of bridges,
dams, and large buildings. Some
work for government agencies,
public utilities, or large industrial
establishments that do their own
construction work. Few of these
craftsmen are self-employed.

Training and Other Qualifications

Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship as the best way to
learn these trades.
Apprenticeship applicants are re­
quired to be between 18 and 30.
Good physical condition is required.
A high school education or its equiv­
alent is desirable.
The apprenticeship program for
ironworkers usually consists of
6,000 hours (3 years) of on-the-job
training, given either by the fore­
man or an experienced journeyman.
In a typical training program, the
apprentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and handle
safely the tools, machines, equip­
ment, and materials commonly
used in the trade; read blueprints
and working drawings; form, shape,
drill, tap, and erect and assemble
various metal structures; lay out and
assemble various metal structures;
lay out and assemble steel stairs,
fire escapes, grilles, railings, fences,
doors, and related metal structures;
and erect, place, and tie reinforcing
iron. He also learns arc and gas
welding; acetylene cutting; rigging,
bolting, and riveting; and how to re­
pair and alter metal structures.
The apprenticeship program gen­
erally includes a minimum of 144
hours a year of related classroom
instruction in subjects such as draft­
ing, blueprint reading, and mathe­
matics applicable to layout work.
Areawide apprenticeship pro­
grams, sometimes covering an en-


tire State or region, are found ex­
tensively in iron working trades.
They are supervised by joint ap­
prenticeship committees composed
of representatives of the Interna­
tional Association of Bridge, Struc­
tural and Ornamental Iron Workers’
local unions and local management
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices start at 60 percent of the jour­
neyman rate and increase periodi­
cally until the journeyman rate is
reached at the completion of the ap­
prenticeship. In some localities, the
starting rate may be as high as 75
percent of the journeyman rate.

Employment Outlook

Employment in these trades is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. In addition to new jobs
created by employment growth, the
replacement of experienced iron­
workers who transfer to other occu­
pations, retire, or die will provide a
few thousand job opportunities each
year. Retirements and deaths alone


are expected to result in several
hundred job openings annually.
A continued rapid rise in employ­
ment of these workers is expected
principally because of the antici­
pated large increase in construction
activity. (See discussion, p. 375.)
The job outlook in these trades also
will be affected favorably by the in­
creased use of structural steel in
smaller buildings. Also, the devel­
opment of lightweight and specialty
steels has improved the competitive
position of steel as a construction
material and resulted in increasing
job opportunities for structural-iron
workers. Work opportunities for or­
namental-ironworkers will result
from the growing use of ornamental
panels of aluminum, porcelainized
steel, or other metals which are at­
tached to the exterior wall of large
buildings; and by the use of metal
frames to hold large glass installa­
tions. The demand for riggers and
machine movers is expected to in­
crease because of the expanding use
of heavy construction machinery.
The use of prestressed concrete in a
growing variety of structures will in­

crease job opportunities for rein­
forcing-iron workers.
Technological developments are
expected to limit employment
growth of ironworkers. For exam­
ple, a compact squirt-welding ma­
chine has greatly reduced the time
needed for field welding. Structural
steel frames are being assembled on
the ground and hoisted into vertical
position to reduce iron work above
ground. Prestressed steel beams
making possible longer spans with
less steel are being used increasingly
in bridge construction. Also availa­
ble are almost completely prefabri­
cated and painted short-span
bridges made of prestressed steel,
which can be erected in 1 day. Also,
prefabricated reinforcing mats or
fabrics which reduce on-site rod
bending, tying, and welding are
being used increasingly in highways
and buildings. In addition, manufac­
turers are designing an increasing
variety of ornamental metal prod­
ucts for more efficient on-site instal­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for structural-ironworkers and
rodmen averaged $6.72 and $6.64,
respectively, on July 1, 1970, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers ift 68 large
cities. The average for all journey­
men in the building trades surveyed
was $6.54. Among individual cities,
the minimum hourly rate for struc­
tural-iron workers ranged from
$4.88 in Lubbock, Tex., to $8.60 in
Chicago, 111. The rates for rodmen
ranged from $4.87 in San Antonio,
Tex., to $8.60 in Chicago, 111. The
rates for ornamental-ironworkers,
riggers, and machine movers are
generally about the same as
those for structural-ironworkers.



Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or payments
to health, insurance, or pension
funds, for structural-ironworkers
and rodmen in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1970, appear in
the accompanying tabulation.
C ity

R a te p e r h o u r
S tr u c tu r a l- I r o n w o rk ers

Atlanta ........... .. .$5.60
Baltimore . . . . . . . 6.91
Boston ........... .. . 7.64
Cleveland . . . ., .. . 7.95
Denver .......... . . . 6.25
Detroit ............ . . . 7.25
Los Angeles . . . . . 6.48
MinneapolisSt. Paul . . . . . . . 6.95
Philadelphia . ., . . . 7.07
St. L o u is ......... . . . 6.53
San Diego . . . . . . . 6.48
T u ls a ................ .. . 5.75

R odm en


above-average physical strength is
necessary. Agility and a good sense
of balance also are required to work
at great heights and on narrow foot­
ings. Although many ironworkers
risk injury from falls, safety devices,
such as nets and scaffolding, have
reduced the frequency of accidents.
Ironwork often involves consider­
able travel, because demand is in­
sufficient to keep local crews con­
stantly employed. Consequently,
workers must be imported to handle
occasional large construction proj­
ects. Large contractors may keep a
small crew continually employed by
moving them from job to job.
A large proportion of workers in
these trades are members of the In­
ternational Association of Bridge,
Structural and Ornamental Iron
Sources of Additional Information

Since materials used in ironwork­
ing trades are heavy and bulky,

For further information concern­

ing apprenticeships or other work
opportunities in these trades, in­
quiries should be directed to local
general contractors; a local of the
International Association of Bridge,
Structural and Ornamental Iron
Workers; a local joint union-man­
agement apprenticeship committee;
or the nearest office or the State ap­
prenticeship agency of the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor. In addition,
the local office of the State employ­
ment service may be a source of in­
formation about the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of ironworkers may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.


tacts with people, which are charac­
teristic of most of these jobs.


More than 2.5 million truck, bus,
and taxicab drivers were engaged in
moving passengers and goods over
highways and city streets in 1970.
They transported thousands of
products used in homes, schools,
and factories, and also transported
millions of people every day.
Some men employed in the driv­
ing occupations drive practically all
their working time. Others are oc­
cupied much of the time in loading
and unloading goods, making pick­
ups and deliveries, and collecting
money. Still others, like the routeman, spend a good deal of their
time selling. The individual state­
ments that follow deal only with
employment opportunities for those
whose principal occupation is driv­
ing intercity and local trucks and
buses and taxis. For example, they
do not cover schoolbus drivers,
chauffeurs, part-time taxi drivers,
ambulance drivers, or employees
whose driving is incidental to their
regular duties.
Many driving jobs require a high

degree of responsibility. Drivers, for
the most part, operate large and ex­
pensive equipment which they must
drive carefully, obeying safety regu­
lations and traffic laws, to deliver
their passengers and freight safely.
These men are free from direct su­
During the 1970’s, employment of
local and over-the-road truckdrivers is expected to expand as a result
of increases in the freight moved by
motor carrier. Employment in other
driving jobs is not expected to
change much in the years ahead.
Normal turnover in this large occu­
pational field also will provide many
job opportunities each year.
Driving jobs offer excellent op­
portunities for young men who are
not planning to attend college and
have no interest in or aptitude for
craft or technical occupations. The
pay of most drivers is relatively
high, and working conditions are
fairly good. Many young men also
will enjoy the freedom from close
supervision and the frequent con­

Nearly half of all drivers are local truckdrivers
Drivers, 1970 (in thousands)
--------------- L— ....................

Local truckdrivers
Over-the-road truckdrivers
Taxi drivers
Local transit bus drivers
Intercity bus drivers |
Other drivers


.......... ------1



(D.O.T. 903.883; 904.883; 905.883; and

Nature of the Work

The men at the wheel of the big
trucks on highways and turnpikes
are the top professional drivers.
They drive the largest and most ex­
pensive equipment and receive the
highest wages of all drivers. They
are on their own practically all the
time and have much responsibility.
The work requires initiative, be­
cause they must transport goods of
great value which must be delivered
safely and on time.
Most over-the-road drivers oper­
ate gasoline or diesel-powered trac­
tor-trailers. They deliver goods over
long distances—frequently driving
at night.
Unlike the local truckdriver who
spends considerable time in loading
and unloading, the over-the-road
driver (sometimes called intercity
line-haul or long-haul driver) drives
practically all of his working time.
He sometimes may handle the
freight. Some drivers, for example,
may have to unload the goods they
deliver to stores at night when re­
ceiving crews are not available.
Drivers of long-distance moving
vans generally have to load or un­
load their cargoes with the assist­
ance of local helpers.
The truckdriver must back up big
trailers to loading platforms; this re­
quires the ability to maneuver the
trailers while driving in reverse. He
must also be able to judge distance
accurately while driving around cor427



ners or through narrow passage­
Because the over-the-road truckdriver spends most of his time
driving, safe driving practices and
courtesy are of the utmost im­
portance. Everyone has seen the
emergency warning signals set out
by a driver near his disabled truck.
Many motorists have noted the
courtesy of truckdrivers who pull off
the road at the top of the hill to
allow the accumulated traffic to
U.S. Department of Transportion
(U.S. DOT) regulations require
drivers to inspect their trucks before
and after trips and make out reports
on the condition of the vehicle at
the end of the run. Drivers also are
required to keep a daily log of their
activities. If a driver has an acci­
dent, he must make out a detailed
report. These regulations also pre­
scribe special safety precautions
concerning packing and loading
flammable, explosive, or otherwise
hazardous materials, and over-theroad driving of trucks containing
these materials.

Where Employed

An estimated 655,000 over-theroad
drivers were employed
throughout the United States in
1970. Many work out of large cities
such as Chicago and Los Angeles;
however, some large companies
have their operating headquarters in
small towns.
Over-the-road drivers are em­
ployed by private and for-hire car­
riers. Private carriers are compa­
nies, such as chain food stores or
manufacturing plants, which use
their own or leased trucks to trans­
port their goods. For-hire carriers
are either common carriers (truck­
ing companies serving the general

public) or contract carriers (truck­
ing firms hauling goods under con­
tract for certain companies). Al­
though the drivers on long intercity
runs are employed more often by
common carriers, an increasing
number in recent years have been
working for private or exempt
(from U.S. DOT regulation) car­
riers, or for specialized carriers han­
dling large pieces of machinery, ex­
plosives, or missiles. On shorter
hauls, many drivers are employed

by contract and common carriers to
make deliveries of machinery, food,
petroleum products, household ap­
pliances, and other items, from
plants to warehouses and from
warehouses to large volume pur­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Regulations of the U.S. DOT es­
tablish minimum qualifications for



over-the-road drivers engaged in in­
terstate or foreign commerce. The
driver must be at least 21 years of
age and able-bodied. His vision
should be at least 24/40 with or
without glasses; good hearing also is
necessary. He must be able to read
and speak English; have at least 1
year’s driving experience, which
may include driving private automo­
biles; and have a good driving rec­
He is required also to complete
successfully a road test that demon­
strates his driving skills and a writ­
ten test that indicates an adequate
knowledge of driving regulations.
Most States require truckdrivers to
have a chauffeur’s license, which is
a commercial driving permit ob­
tained from State Motor Vehicle
Most fleet operators have higher
hiring standards than those de­
scribed above. Many firms will not
hire drivers under age 25; some
specify height and weight limita­
tions. Many require at least a grade
school education; others require 2
years of high school. Some com­
panies employ only applicants who
have had several years of experi­
ence in handling vehicles of the type
they would be required to drive.
The standards for over-the-road
drivers generally are higher than
those for local truckdrivers. Fur­
thermore, these standards are more
strictly adhered to than those for
local drivers, whose standards may
be lowered when there are not
enough applicants for jobs.
Tractor-trailers usually cost be­
tween $25,000 and $40,000, and
the load inside may be worth more
than $100,000. The owners of such
valuable equipment, therefore, em­
ploy experienced drivers who also
can accept great responsibility.
Driver training is a common
method of preparing for truckdriv­

ing jobs. Many training authorities
and employers recommend taking
the driver-training courses offered
by high schools. If such a course is
not available, the driving schools
which operate in most large cities
are recommended. A high school
course in automotive mechanics
also is helpful.
A small number of private tech­
nical-vocational schools offer truck
driving courses. Students receive in­
structions on driving large vehicles
in close quarters and on the high­
way, with emphasis on safe driving
practices. Instructions also are given
on care of equipment and freight,
and compliance with Federal, State,
and local regulations. Truck driving
experience is also helpful.
Long-haul driving is a senior
driving job, and most of these driv­
ers have had previous experience in
local trucking. Usually, they enter
this occupation by first driving small
trucks. Then, after gaining experi­
ence, they get jobs driving the larger
and more complicated trucks. A
young person also may begin as a
helper to a local truckdriver, assist­
ing him in loading and unloading the
truck, occasionally doing some relief
All employers are interested in
obtaining good, safe, reliable driv­
ers, but the methods of selection
and training vary. Some have for­
mal tests and training programs.
Others hire on the basis of personal
interviews; their training programs
may consist of a “break-in” period
during which the new employee ob­
serves and works with an experi­
enced driver.
Applicants for jobs as over-theroad drivers are required to pass a
physical examination which is usu­
ally paid for by the employer. Many
firms also give written traffic and
driving knowledge tests. Some em­
ployers give tests to measure factors

such as sharpness and field of vi­
sion, reaction time, ability to judge
speed, and emotional stability. The
last step in the selection of drivers is
the road test. The applicant is ex­
pected to demonstrate his ability to
handle, under a variety of driving
conditions, a vehicle of the type and
size he will operate in regular serv­
ice. A few States require such a
test before licensing a driver to op­
erate a tractor-trailer.
A new driver may be given a
brief indoctrination course covering
company policy and the preparation
of various forms used on the job.
He then will make one or more
training trips with an instructor or
an experienced driver.
Drivers employed by common
carriers frequently start on the
“extra board,” bidding for regular
runs on the basis of seniority as va­
cancies occur. (The extra board is a
list of men, assigned in rotation,
who substitute for regular drivers or
who make extra trips when neces­
sary.) Drivers for private carriers
are more likely to begin with as­
signed regular routes.
Opportunities for promotion in
this occupation are limited. A few
drivers may advance to jobs as
safety supervisors, driver supervi­
sors, and dispatchers. However,
these jobs are often unattractive to
over-the-road truckdrivers, since
the starting pay is usually less than
the pay on truckdriving jobs. Most
drivers can expect to advance only
on the basis of seniority to driving
runs that provide increased earnings
or preferred schedules and working

Employment Outlook

Employment of over-the-road
truckdrivers is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s.


Substantial growth in the volume of
intercity freight is anticipated, re­
sulting from increased commercial
and industrial activity and the con­
tinued decentralization of industry.
A large number of job openings also
will be created by transfers from
this field of work to other occupa­
Another reason for expected in­
creases in freight carried by overthe-road trucks is the general eco­
nomic growth of the Nation, and
this trend is expected to continue.
Many factories, warehouses, and
stores are being located at great dis­
tances from each other in suburban
or semirural areas where rail facili­
ties are nonexistent or extremely
limited. The intercity highway
building program has aided the
trucking industry in this regard.
Furthermore, the growth of chainstores and the trend to smaller in­
ventories and decentralization of
factories require daily coordination
of shipping; this can be handled best
by trucks.
Improvements in trailer design
to handle certain kinds of freight
such as frozen goods and livestock
for extended distances has ex­
panded the opportunities for overthe-road trucking.
Demand for trucking services
may increase in the future as a re­
sult of new trucking methods which
promise reduced handling and ship­
ping time and reduce freight costs
for small loads. One example is the
increasing use of “double-bottoms”
—two trailers hitched in tandem to
a tractor. When two trailers are
used, they can be unhitched at the
truck terminal and promptly deliv­
ered to different customers, thus
eliminating the need to unpack a
larger trailer, separate its contents,
and repack on local delivery trucks.
Handling time also is being re­
duced through the practice of pack­


ing all freight destined for a single
customer or area into large contain­
ers or cargo cages which can be
handled at the truck terminal more
conveniently and quickly than indi­
vidual packages.
Some recent freight transporta­
tion innovations will limit somewhat
the anticipated increase in trucking
business and driver employment.
For example, the movement of
highway trailers on railroad flatcars,
ocean vessels, and aircraft saves the
cost of driver, fuel, and tractor, and
appears to have prospects for con­
siderable expansion. To compensate
for job displacement that may arise
from these innovations, there is a
growing practice under labor-man­
agement agreements to provide for
retirement at an earlier age.
Further limitations on employ­
ment expansion among over-theroad drivers are related to changes
in State laws. State limitations on
truck weight, size, and speed are
becoming less restrictive as a result
of the construction of better high­
ways and improved travel arteries
inside the cities. The movement of
bigger loads at higher average
speeds could result in a need for
fewer drivers than would otherwise
be required.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Most over-the-road drivers earned
more than $200 a week in 1970.
Drivers employed by Class I
common carriers of general freight
(carriers with gross operating reve­
nues of $1 million or more a year)
had estimated annual average earn­
ings of $12,600 in 1970. More
experienced over-the-road drivers
can earn considerably more than
this average. The rates are fairly
uniform because this is a highly
unionized field, and union-employer

contracts are generally master
agreements covering all employers
within a region—an area including
a number of States. The earn­
ings of an individual driver are
affected by factors such as mileage
driven, number of hours worked,
type of equipment driven or the
weight of the loads carried, and
type of “run” (whether or not
pickup or delivery en route is re­
quired). Earnings also are affected
by the nature of the cargo carried,
with premium rates paid for trans­
porting flammable or otherwise haz­
ardous commodities.
Some private carriers pay their
drivers on the same basis as their
weekly, or daily wage. Generally,
such a wage is for a specified num­
ber of hours, and, if the driver
works additional hours, he receives
extra pay.
Motor carriers engaged in inter­
state or foreign commerce are sub­
ject to the U.S. DOT rules govern­
ing hours of work and other mat­
ters. These regulations limit the
hours over-the-road drivers may
work in order to be certain the
driver receives a reasonable amount
of rest. For example, no driver may
be on duty for more than 60 hours
in any 7-day period, but for carriers
operating every day of the week, the
driver may remain on duty for a
maximum of 70 hours in any period
of 8 consecutive days. The regula­
tions also provide that no driver
may drive more than 10 hours with­
out first having an off-duty period of
at least 8 hours. For drivers who
drive less than 10 hours, but per­
form other work for the motor car­
rier in a garage, warehouse, or other
place, the regulations prohibit re­
sumption of driving after any com­
bination of driving time and other
on-duty work which totals 15 hours,
unless the driver has first had at


least 8 hours off duty. Many drivers,
particularly on the very long runs,
work fairly close to the maximum
hours permitted. A workweek of at
least 50 hours is very common.
Most drivers receive pay for 6 or
more National, State, and local holi­
days. They also have paid vacations,
usually from 1 to 4 weeks, depend­
ing upon their length of service.
Health insurance and pension plans,
paid for by the employers, are very
Over-the-road truckdrivers often
are required to spend time away
from home—particularly when they
drive long runs. The driver often
starts out in the evening and arrives
at the terminal in the other city the
following morning. In such in­
stances, the company provides lodg­
ing for him either in a company
dormitory or a hotel. In the eve­
ning, he starts on his return trip and
arrives at the home terminal the fol­
lowing morning. He may make two
or three such round trips a week.
Some companies use two-man
sleeper teams on their very long
runs. One drives while the other
sleeps in a berth behind the cab.
Although earnings on sleeper
runs are the highest in this field of
work, few drivers stay with this type
of run very long. The work is very
tiring and requires being away from
family and friends for days and
even weeks. However, many drivers
go back to sleeper runs after they
have had a rest or have done some
relay driving.
The earnings of drivers of long­
distance moving vans are quite
high, but their hours are long and
the work is strenuous. They drive
more miles than the average overthe-road driver and also work more
hours in loading and unloading
Largely because of intensive
safety programs and drivers’ skill,


the accident rate in over-the-road
trucking is low. Injuries occur less
frequently than in other forms of
motor transportation.
The physical strain of over-theroad truckdriving has been reduced
by more comfortable seating, better
highways, and more stringent safety
regulations. Sitting in one place for
hours at a time, however, is tiring
and the nervous strain of sustained
driving at night also is fatiguing.
Most over-the-road drivers are
members of the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers
of America (Ind.). Some drivers of
private carriers belong to unions
representing the plant employees of
the companies for which they work.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on career opportuni­
ties may be obtained from:
American Trucking Association,
1616 P St. N W , Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 900.883; 902.883; 903.883;
906.883; and 909.883)

Nature of the Work

Much of the food, clothing, and
other products required by consum­
ers is transported by trucks. The
men who move these goods from
terminals, warehouses, mines, and
factories to wholesalers, retailers,
and consumers in tne local area
must be skilled drivers to avoid ac­
cidents on congested city streets.
They also must be able to maneuver

big trucks or tractor-trailers into
tight parking spaces, through nar­
row alleys, and up to loading plat­
forms. (Telephone linemen, repair­
men, and many thousands of other
workers for whom driving is inci­
dental to their primary duties are
not included in this discussion.)
When the local truckdriver re­
ports to work at the terminal or
warehouse, he receives his assign­
ment to make deliveries, pickups, or
both. He also receives the delivery
forms he will need and checks the
condition of his truck. His truck
generally is loaded for him by plat­
form men. If he does the loading
himself, however, and must make
many deliveries, he arranges the
items in proper sequence so that
there will be a minimum of han­
dling. At the customer’s place of
business, the driver generally loads
and unloads the merchandise him­
self. If he has heavy loads such as
machinery, or if he has many deliv­
eries to make during the day, he
may have a helper to assist him.
The driver of a moving van usually
has a crew of helpers to assist him
in loading and unloading household
or office furniture.
At the delivery points, the driver
gets customers to sign receipts and
freight bills, and he sometimes col­
lects money for freight, c.o.d. deliv­
eries, and other charges. At the end
of his day, he turns in all receipts
and cash collected and records his
time and the deliveries made. He
also reports whatever maintenance
or repair is needed before his truck
is used again.
Some of these workers drive spe­
cial types of trucks, such as dump
or oil trucks, which require the op­
eration of mechanical levers, pedals,
or other equipment. If they haul
heavy machinery, they operate me­
chanical hoists to load and unload
the machines.



Places of Employment

Over 1.2 million workers were
employed as local truckdrivers in
1970, mostly in and around large
metropolitan areas; however, they
work in all localities.
A large majority of local drivers
work for businesses which deliver
their own products and goods—
such as department stores, meatpackers and other food processors,
chains, petroleum companies, and
construction companies. Many oth­
ers are employed by local for-hire
which serve the general public or
specific companies under contract.
Some are employed by the Federal
Government, particularly the Post
Office Department, and by States
and municipalities. A large number
are in business for themselves.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Qualifications for local truckdrivers vary considerably, depend­
ing upon factors such as the type of
equipment to be operated and the
nature of the employer’s business.
Generally, applicants must be 21
years of age or older. Some em­
ployers prefer applicants who have
completed 2 to 4 years of high
school. The applicant must be phys­
ically able to lift heavy objects and
otherwise be in good health. He
should have good hearing and good
vision, with or without glasses.
Since a driver often deals directly
with the public, employers look for
people who are tactful and courte­
An applicant must have a chauf­
feur’s license, which is a commer­
cial driving permit. Familiarity with
traffic laws and safety measures is
necessary, and some previous expe­

rience in driving a truck is helpful.
A young person may obtain such
experience by working as a truckdriver’s helper. Employers also give
consideration to driving experience
gained in the Armed Forces.
Since he will be responsible for
costly vehicles and cargo, a truckdriver must be cautious, alert, and
able to judge distances and to coor­
dinate his reactions to avoid acci­
dents in congested traffic. To dem­
onstrate these qualifications, an
applicant’s driving ability is tested,
and he may have to pass a written
examination as well as a general
physical examination. Employers
generally will check applicants for
traffic and police records.
Training given to new drivers is
often informal and may consist only
of riding with and observing an ex­
perienced driver on the job. Addi­
tional training may be given if they

are to drive a special type of truck.
Some companies give a brief indoc­
trination course which lasts 1 or 2
days and covers general duties, the
efficient operation and loading of a
truck, company policies, and the
preparation of delivery forms and
company records.
Although most new employees
are assigned immediately to regular
driving jobs, some start as extra
drivers, covering the routes of regu­
lar drivers who are ill or on vaca­
tion, or making extra trips when
necessary. They receive regular as­
signments when openings occur.
Local truckdrivers may transfer
to jobs as dispatchers or advance
to jobs such as terminal managers
or supervisors, or to traffic work—
for example, in planning delivery
schedules. However, these jobs are
relatively few. For the most part,
advancement for a local truckdriver



consists of earning higher hourly
wages by driving heavy or special
type truck loads instead of light
trucks or by transferring to overthe-road truckdriving.
An experienced truckdriver who
has some business ability and ambi­
tion can start his own trucking com­
pany, when he has sufficient capital
to purchase expensive trucking
equipment and to meet other busi­
ness expenses. Truckers who own
one or two vehicles continue to ac­
count for a sizable proportion of
local for-hire trucking businesses.

Employment Outlook

A moderate increase in the em­
ployment of local truckdrivers is an­
ticipated through the 1970’s be­
cause of the expected increase in
volume of freight. Many new
workers also will be needed to re­
place drivers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone will result in
more than 15,000 job openings
each year for local truckdrivers.
The rise in total business activity
anticipated in the years ahead will
increase the volume of freight. Since
trucks carry virtually all freight for
local distribution and do not com­
pete for hauling with other types of
carriers, this anticipated increase in
total intercity and local freight vol­
ume will expand local trucking busi­
ness and, thereby, truckdriver em­
ployment. The continued growth of
suburban areas will contribute to
the employment of more drivers.
Some recent developments may
offset somewhat the growth in the
number of local truckdrivers that
would otherwise occur with an in­
crease in freight volume. For exam­
ple, the trend toward larger deliv­
eries to relatively fewer retail out­

lets is the result of the growth of
chainstores and shopping centers.
(On the other hand, as suburban
areas expand, local truckers tend to
service a wider area, increasing the
travel time per truck.) The intro­
duction of new equipment, such as
power tailgates for loading and un­
loading also may affect the number
of drivers who will be needed to de­
liver large and heavy loads. Also,
the use of radio telephones to in­
struct drivers en route will reduce
the time needed for deliveries. In­
novation in local trucking will con­
tinue to be limited, however, by
narrow city streets, heavy traffic,
and local city ordinances controlling
the size and weight of local delivery
trucks. However, urban renewal
and urban highway building projects
may improve driving conditions.

Earnings and Working Conditions

On the average, hourly union
wage scales were $4.41 for local
truckdrivers and $3.91 for helpers
on July 1, 1970, according to a sur­
vey in 68 large cities. Average
hourly pay scales for drivers ranged
from $5.17 in Sacramento, Calif., to
$3.63 in Washington, D.C. How­
ever, wage scales vary, even in the
same city, depending on the type of
trucking service (such as general
freight hauling or local moving and
storage), the types of product
hauled, and the size and type of
truck operated.
As a rule, local truckdrivers are
paid by the hour and receive extra
pay for working overtime, usually
after 40 hours. Some drivers are
guaranteed minimum daily or
weekly earnings. Local truckdrivers
frequently work 48 hours or more a
week and thus often drive 6 days a
week. Although daytime work is

customary, nightwork or early
morning work is sometimes neces­
sary, particularly for drivers han­
dling foodstuffs for chain grocery
stores, produce markets, or baker­
ies. Most drivers deliver over regu­
lar routes or runs, although some
may be assigned different routes
when they report to work each day.
Local truckdrivers generally have
paid vacations of 1 or 2 weeks after
a year of service and up to 4 weeks
after 15 years. In addition, they
usually receive pay for seven or
more National, State, and local holi­
A majority of local truckdrivers
belong to unions. Most of them be­
long to the International Brother­
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
Warehousemen and Helpers of
America (Ind.). Some local truckdrivers employed by private carriers
are members of unions representing
the plant workers of their em­
Practically all unionized local
truckdrivers and their helpers are
covered by life and health insurance
and pension plans which are almost
always paid for by the employer.
When uniforms are required, the
cost usually is paid for entirely or
partly by the employer, who also
may provide for their upkeep.
Local truckdrivers, because they
drive in heavy traffic, are subject to
nervous strain. The actual operation
of a truck has become less physi­
cally demanding because of im­
provements such as power steering
and more comfortable seating.
However, when local drivers make
many deliveries during a day, their
work can be exhausting. Some driv­
ers may develop physical disorders,
such as back strain and hernia.
Local truckdrivers, however, do
have certain work advantages, such
as steady employment. Unlike
over-the-road drivers, they usually



work a regular day-time schedule
and return home in the evenings.

(D.O.T. 292.358)

Nature of the Work

Routemen are as much salesmen
as they are drivers. In fact, they are
sometimes known as driver-sales­
men or route-salesmen. They must,
through their selling ability, increase
sales to existing customers and ob­
tain new business by canvassing po­
tential customers within their terri­
tories. Routemen drive panel or
light trucks over an assigned route,
selling and delivering goods, or
providing services such as collecting
and delivering laundry and dry
cleaning, to retail establishments
(wholesale routemen) or directly to
the public (retail routemen).
Wholesale routemen usually drive
heavier trucks. These trucks are re­
frigerated when dairy products or
frozen foods are carried.
Before starting on his daily route,
the routeman loads or supervises
the loading of his truck. The
amount of merchandise in his truck
generally is checked by another em­
ployee. Some routemen deliver mer­
chandise previously ordered and ob­
tain orders for future delivery. Oth­
ers make immediate sales from the
stock in the truck. In either case,
they must collect payments and
keep records of their transactions.
When they check in at the plant
after completing their routes, they
empty their trucks and turn in their
collections to the cashier. The retail
routemen serving homes make from
5 to 10 times as many stops as the

wholesale routemen who serve
stores and other business establish­
Routemen’s work varies accord­
ing to the industry in which they are
employed, the type of routes they
have (retail or wholesale), and the
company employing them. Some
specific examples, however, may de­
scribe in a general way what most
routemen do.
A typical day for a dry-cleaning
routeman begins when he picks up
cleaned garments at the processing
plant and loads his truck, which is
equipped with carrying racks. He
delivers the garments to homes or
business establishments and picks
up soiled clothing. He marks the
soiled articles so that they may be
identified at the plant. Sometimes,
he makes notes of the type of stains
or of special processes to be used
such as waterproofing. Each cleaned
garment has an itemized bill at­
tached so that he can collect the
amount of money due.
Although all routemen must be
able to get along well with people, it
is particularly important for the drycleaning and laundry routeman. His
reaction to complaints and requests
for special services may be the dif­
ference between increasing business
or losing customers. Periodically, he
calls at homes and business estab­
lishments along his route which are
not using his company’s services to
try to get their trade.
A wholesale routeman may de­
liver bakery products to grocery
stores. His truck is loaded the night
before or early in the morning, and
he checks to see whether he has the
proper variety and quantity of prod­
ucts before starting on his route. He
stops at from 10 to 50 grocery
stores. At each stop he brings the
orders of bread and other bakery
products into the store and arranges
them on the display racks in the

best possible display space he can,
secure. Together with the store
owner or manager, he checks the
merchandise he has delivered. He
also credits the store for the value
of the stale bread and cakes left
over from the previous delivery.
This routeman prepares a list of
products he plans to deliver the next
day. This list represents his estimate
of the amount of bakery products
that will be sold by the grocery
stores. From time to time, he calls
on grocers along his route, who are
not his customers, and tries to get
orders from them.
The vending machine routeman,
although he merchandises his prod­
ucts through machine, must try to
anticipate customers’ needs for serv­
ice and preferences for merchan­
dise. In trying, continually, to find
profitable new locations for the
vending machines he services, the
routeman approaches the managers
of various businesses about the
placement and relocation of his
machines. He caters to the custom­
ers’ demand by noting their prefer­
ences for merchandise sold at each
machine location and stocks each
machine with items that sell best.
The vending machine routeman
also must make certain that his
machines are supplied adequately
with merchandise, that they func­
tion properly, and that they are
clean and attractive. At each loca­
tion, the routeman checks the items
remaining in the machine and the
money deposited in the cash box to
determine that what has been sold is
accounted for. He tests stock deliv­
ery and change-making mechanisms
to make sure that items and change
are dispensed properly when coins
are inserted; he may make minor
adjustments to machines that are
not working properly. He cleans the
machine, removing waste, spillage,
and accumulated dust, and then re­



places depleted stock. The routeman keeps an exact record of the
merchandise that goes into each
machine and a precise account of
how much money is removed.

Places of Employment

About 240,000 routemen worked
for a wide variety of businesses in
1970. Since most of them were em­
ployed by companies which distrib­
uted food products or provided per­
sonal services, they worked in small
towns as well as in large cities
throughout the country. The great­
est concentration of employment,
however, was in dairies, bakeries,
food and beverage distributors, and
drycleaning plants in the large cit­
Some were engaged in wholesale
distribution of goods and services to
stores and other business establish­
ments. The majority, however, dis­
tributed goods and services to
homeowners and apartment dwell­
ers. Many companies employed
both wholesale and retail routemen.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In addition to being a good
driver, a routeman must have sales
ability. To induce people to buy, he
must have a thorough knowledge of
the product or service he is selling
and a persuasive personality. Other
important sales qualifications are a
pleasant voice, ability to speak well,
and a neat appearance. He also
needs to have self-confidence, initia­
tive, and tact.
He must be able to work without
direct supervision, do simple arith­
metic, and write legibly. In most
States, a routeman is required to
have a chauffeur’s license, which is

a commercial driving permit. Infor­
mation regarding this license can be
obtained from State Motor Vehicle
Applicants for jobs as vending
machine routemen should have
some mechanical ability. Routemen
are expected to check the operation
of automatic dispensing machines
and make necessary adjustments
and minor repairs. In case of major
malfunctions in equipment, they
should be able to report the nature
of the trouble.
Most employers require their
routemen to be high school gradu­
ates, preferably 25 years of age or
older. Many large companies give
applicants aptitude and other psy­
chological tests to determine
whether they will make good sales­
men and safe drivers. Those who
handle a great deal of money may
have to be bonded.
Training for entering the occupa­
tion can be obtained through high
school courses in salesmanship,
public speaking, driver-training,
bookkeeping and business arithme­
tic. School-and-work programs in
retail and wholesale merchandising
are helpful to a person interested in
entering this occupation. Immedi­
ately after high school graduation,
valuable experience may be ob­
tained as a sales clerk in a store or
in some other type of selling job.
Another method of entering this
occupation is to get a job as a routeman helper (D.O.T. 292.887). For
this job, employers usually hire per­
sons 18 years of age or over who
have a driver’s license. Helpers are
not likely to be used in the dairy or
vending machine industries, how­
ever. Still another way of becoming
a routeman is to get a job (plant or
office) in a bakery, dairy, laundry,
or drycleaning establishment. After
learning something about the busi­
ness, a young person may transfer

to a job as a routeman when an
opening occurs.
Most companies give their
which varies in length and thor­
oughness. Many large companies
have classes in salesmanship. Some
companies assign newly hired routemen for brief periods to jobs in the
different departments of the plant to
familiarize them with all the proc­
essing operations so that they can
answer customers’ questions intelli­
gently and be better salesmen.
Routemen may be promoted to
route foreman or sales supervisor,
but these jobs are relatively scarce.
Advancement usually is limited to
moving from a retail to a wholesale
route, where earnings are generally
higher. However, some routemen
obtain better paying sales jobs as a
result of the experience gained in
route selling.

Employment Outlook

The total number of routemen is
expected to change little in the
1970’s, although job opportunities
will vary among different types of
employers. There will be a few
thousand additional openings for
new workers each year as experi­
enced workers transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. '
The number of retail routemen
declined in the decade following
World War II, particularly among
drivers handling milk and dairy
products. However, the decline ap­
pears to have run its course, and
some employment upturn is likely.
The convenience of home delivery
to suburban families consuming
large quantites of milk and dairy
products makes such service popu­
lar, despite the growth of local
shopping centers. For laundry and
drycleaning retail routemen, the


outlook is for an increase in em­
ployment, in line with population
growth, especially in areas with a
large concentration of apartment
houses. The increasing number of
married women working outside the
home will result also in the com­
mercial handling of more laundry or
cleaning work.
Employment of wholesale routemen probably will remain at about
present levels or decline slightly.
Although large supermarkets have
been replacing small neighborhood
stores, more supermarkets are being
built in the suburban areas. The
number of routemen will not in­
crease correspondingly, however.
There has been a growing trend to­
ward larger delivery trucks. More­
over, in recent years, some manu­
facturers and wholesale food com­
panies have replaced their routemen
with salesmen who cover assigned
territories by automobile, and
truckdrivers who make the deliv­
On the other hand, opportunities
for employment as vending machine
routemen will be excellent through
the 1970’s because of the expected
rapid increase in the volume of
machine-vended merchandise. Some
of the factors expected to stimulate
the industry’s growth are the devel­
opment of new and improved ma­
chines and the greater use of auto­
matic food service in industrial
plants, schools, hospitals, depart­
ment stores, and other high-traffic

Earnings and Working Conditions

Most routemen receive a mini­
mum salary plus a percent of the
sales they make. Thus, the earnings
of routemen are determined largely
by their selling ability and initiative.
According to limited information


available in 1970, wholesale routemen in the dairy and baking indus­
tries had minimum weekly salaries
ranging from $100 to $170. Includ­
ing commissions on sales, many of
these routemen earned $200 a week
and more. Wholesale routemen usu­
ally earn more than retail routemen
because they sell much larger
quantities of products. However,
they receive a lower commission on
each sale.
The number of hours worked by
routemen varies. Some work only
about 30 hours a week; others may
work as many as 60 hours or more
a week, depending upon whether
the individual has a well-established
route or whether he is trying to
build up a new one, whether he has
a retail or a wholesale route, and
how ambitious he is. For some, the
hours of work generally are limited
by union-management contract. In
other cases, the contract specifies
merely the earliest hour that work
may begin and the latest quitting
time. The hours may also vary ac­
cording to seasonal peaks and lows.
During the spring-cleaning season,
for example, drycleaning routemen
may work about 60 hours a week;
in the winter, they may work less
than 30 hours a week.
Many companies require routemen to wear uniforms. Some em­
ployers pay for the uniforms and for
keeping them clean.
Most routemen receive paid va­
cations, generally ranging from 1 to
4 weeks, depending upon length of
service, and 6 paid holidays or more
a year. Many employers provide
hospitalization and medical benefits;
some have pension plans.
The routeman is on his own to a
great extent. He does not work
under strict supervision and, within
certain broad limits, may decide
how fast he will work and where
and when he will have his lunch or

rest period. This freedom of action
and the daily meeting and dealing
with people on the route appeal to
many young men. On the other
hand, a retail routeman has to make
deliveries in bad weather and do a
great deal of lifting, carrying, and
walking up and down stairs. He also
may have to work unusual hours.
For example, retail routemen deliv­
ering milk generally work in the
very early morning hours.
Many routemen, particularly
those delivering bakery and dairy
products, are members of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.). Some
belong to the unions which represent
the plant workers of their em­

(D.O.T. 913.363 and 913.463)

Nature of the Work

The drivers of the buses that
travel between cities are selected on
the basis of their driving skill, driv­
ing record, emotional stability, and
courtesy. A driver’s duties generally
begin when he reports to the termi­
nal for his assignment. Before be­
ginning his scheduled trip, he in­
spects the bus carefully at the termi­
nal or garage. He checks the fuel,
oil, water, and tires, and makes cer­
tain that the bus is carrying safety
equipment, such as fire extinguish­
ers, first-aid kit, flags, and flares.
The driver also picks up the tickets,
change, report blanks, and other
items needed for his trip.
The driver moves his empty bus
from the terminal or garage to the



proper loading platform, where he
takes on his passengers. He collects
fares—tickets usually—from the
passengers as they board the bus
and announces the destination,
route, time of arrival, and other in­
formation concerning the trip. The
driver also loads or supervises the
loading of baggage and package ex­
press into the baggage compart­
ment. He also collects cash fares
from passengers who board the bus
between stations where tickets are
The driver operates the bus care­
fully at speeds which will enable
him to arrive at and leave regular
bus stops according to established
time schedules. On many runs, he
also stops momentarily at other des­
ignated points to discharge or pick
up passengers, and load or unload
baggage and package express wher­
ever necessary. He announces regu­
lar stops and rest or lunch stops.
The driver, also regulates lighting,
heating, and air-conditioning equip­
ment for the passengers’ comfort. In
an emergency, he sometimes is re­
quired to make minor road repairs,
such as changing tires, for which he
generally receives extra pay.
Upon arriving at his final destina­
tion, the driver unloads or super­
vises the unloading of the remaining
baggage. He prepares reports on
mileage, time, and fares, as required
by company rules. He also keeps a
log of hours as required by the U.S.
(U.S. DOT). The driver must make
a complete report if an accident or
unusual delay occurs.

Places of Employment

Approximately 25,400 intercity
busdrivers were employed by about
1,050 bus companies in 1970.
About three-fourths of these drivers

worked for Class I intercity compa­
nies—those with annual revenues of
over $200,000. Intercity busdrivers
are employed in the many small
communities served by bus, as well
as in the larger cities where home
and regional offices and major ter­
minals of bus companies are lo­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All intercity busdrivers are re­
quired to meet minimum age,
health, and experience qualifications
established by the U.S. DOT. The
minimum age requirement is 21
years. The applicant must be ablebodied and have good hearing and
at least 20/40 eyesight, with or
without glasses. He must have at
least 1 year’s driving experience
(through all four seasons) with a
good driving record and must be
able to read and speak English.
Many intercity bus companies,
however, have considerably higher
requirements. Most of these compa­
nies prefer applicants to be at least
24 years of age and have a high
school education or its equivalent.
Applicants often are given compre­
hensive examinations to determine
their driving skill, intelligence, tem­
perament, and personality.
Young persons interested in be­
coming busdrivers should have good
foot-hand-and-eye coordination, be
able to judge distances accurately,
and react quickly. An even tempera­
ment and emotional stability are
other important qualifications be­
cause busdrivers work under con­
siderable tension when they operate
large vehicles in heavy and swiftly
moving traffic. Since they represent
their companies in dealing with pas­
sengers, busdrivers also must be
courteous and tactful.

Although previous experience in
the operation of a truck or bus is
not required, it is preferred by some
employers. In most States, the law
requires that a trainee for a busdriver’s job must have or obtain a
chauffeur’s license, which is a com­
mercial driving permit.
Most intercity bus companies
conduct training programs for be­
ginning drivers. These programs,
which usually last from 2 to 6 weeks
but can extend to 3 months, include
both classroom and driving instruc­
tion. In the classroom, the trainee is
instructed in company and U.S.
DOT rules; State and municipal
regulations; safe driving practices;
rates, schedules, and timetables;
and dealing with the public. He also
is taught how to keep clerical rec­
ords, inspect the bus, and make
minor emergency repairs.
The trainee then rides with a reg­
ular driver to observe safe driving
practices and other aspects of the
job. He also makes trial runs, with­
out passengers, to demonstrate his
driving skill. After satisfactorily
completing the training, which in­
cludes final driving and written ex­
aminations, the new driver begins a
“break-in” period. During this pe­
riod, working under strict supervi­
sion, he makes regularly scheduled
trips with passengers.
New workers start out on the
“extra board,” which is a list of
drivers on call who are given tem­
porary assignments. While on the
extra board, the new driver may
substitute for a regular driver who is
ill or on vacation, drive a second or
overload section, make an extra trip
if necessary, or drive chartered
buses. Extra drivers may have to
wait several years before they have
the necessary seniority to receive a
regular assignment. However, if it
becomes necessary for a company
to lay off some of its drivers, the



travel generally. Some part of this
increase is expected to be by bus.
New and improved highways are
expected to enhance travel by bus
by making possible a reduction in
schedule running time for bus

Earnings and Working Conditions

extra drivers will be the first to lose
their jobs and the last to be rehired.
In almost all companies, it is neces­
sary for a beginning employee to
serve a probationary period lasting,
as a rule, from 30 to 90 days.
Opportunities for promotion gen­
erally are somewhat limited, partic­
ularly in small companies. An expe­
rienced driver may be promoted to
a job as dispatcher, supervisor, or
terminal manager. For most drivers,
advancement consists of receiving
better assignments with higher earn­
ings as their seniority increases.

Employment Outlook

The number of intercity busdrivers is expected to increase slowly
through the 1970’s because of fur­
ther increase in intercity bus travel.
Also, several hundred additional
openings will be available each year
in this relatively small occupation as
replacements for drivers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,
or die.
Population growth and higher
consumer incomes during the years
ahead should result in an increase in

The wages of intercity busdrivers
.typically are computed on a mileage
basis. Rates ranged from 10 to 15
cents a mile in 1970. Drivers (in­
cluding extra men) employed by
Class I intercity bus companies had
estimated annual average earnings
of $10,800 in 1970. Many regular
drivers employed by these compa­
nies earned considerably more than
$10,000 a year.
Most regular drivers are guaran­
teed specified wages in terms of
miles or hours per pay period. For
all work other than their regular as­
signments or “tours of duty,” they
receive additional pay, customarily
at premium rates.
Extra drivers usually are paid by
the hour when they are on call but
not driving, and are paid the regular
mileage rate when actually driving.
Drivers usually start at a minimum
rate and receive increases at inter­
vals of 6 months or a year. The
maximum rate generally is reached
at the end of 2 years. Extra men
generally earn slightly less than reg­
ular drivers but, if enough work is
available, they may earn as much or
more than regular drivers. Extra
drivers receive a weekly or biweekly
guarantee either in minimum hours,
mileage, or earnings.
Most drivers who work for the
large companies average between
32 and 36 hours driving time a
week. Driving schedules may range
from 6 to 10 hours a day and from
3V2 to 6 days a week.



U.S. DOT regulations limit the
hours of work of intercity busdrivers. According to these regulations,
intercity drivers may drive no more
than 10 hours without having at
least 8 hours off. Drivers also are
limited to 60 hours of “on-duty”
time in a 7-day period; those who
work for carriers that operate every
day of the week, however, are lim­
ited to 70 hours in an 8-day period.
“On-duty” is the period from the
time the driver is required to report
for work until he is relieved. For
those who drive less than 10 hours
but perform other work for the bus
company, the regulations prohibit
resumption of driving after any
combination of driving and other
on-duty time which totals 15 hours,
unless the driver first has had at
least 8 hours off duty.
Most intercity busdrivers belong
to the Amalgamated Transit Union.
The Brotherhood of Railroad
Trainmen, and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers
of America (Ind.) also have orga­
nized intercity busdrivers in some
Labor-management contracts cov­
ering many intercity busdrivers pro­
vide for health and life insurance
paid for by the employer, whereas
pension plans under such agree­
ments are usually financed jointly
by the workers and their employers.
Drivers are given vacations with
pay ranging from 1 to 5 weeks, de­
pending on the company for which
they work and their length of serv­
ice. Many also receive a minimum
of 8 paid holidays. When away from
home terminals overnight, drivers
employed by some companies re­
ceive pay for food and lodging.
Driving an intercity bus usually is
not physically burdensome, but it is
demanding and requires steady
nerves. The busdriver is given a

great deal of independence in his
job and is solely responsible for the
safety of the passengers and bus.
Many drivers enjoy working without
direct supervision and take pride in
assuming these responsibilities.
Some drivers enjoy the opportunity
to travel and to meet the public.
Among the less desirable aspects
of this job are weekend and holiday
work and the necessity of being
away from home for varying pe­
riods. Also, extra drivers are on call
at all hours and may be required to
work at any time on very short no­
tice. In addition, drivers that have
little seniority sometimes may be
laid off when business declines.

Sources of Additional Information

For information regarding job
opportunities for an intercity busdriver, a young man should apply to
intercity bus companies or the local
office of the State employment


kens, transfers, passes, and any other
items needed. Before starting the
run, the driver usually is required to
check the tires, brakes and lights.
Some very small local bus compa­
nies also may require him to check
the water, oil, and fuel.
On most runs, the driver makes
regular stops every block or two,
where he operates the controls of
the bus doors to enable passengers
to enter and leave the vehicle. As
the passengers board the bus, the
driver collects cash fares, tokens,
tickets, or transfers, and also issues
transfers, and in many places, sells
tokens, and makes change. The
local busdriver often answers ques­
tions concerning schedules, routes,
transfer points, and street numbers,
and sometimes is required to call
out the name of the street at each
regular bus stop. He also regulates
heating, air conditioning, and light
equipment to keep the passengers
At the end of his day’s run, the
busdriver turns in a trip sheet which
usually includes a record of fares
received, trips made, and any delays
in schedule. In case of an accident
or unusual delay, the driver must
make out a comprehensive report
on its nature and cause.

(D.O.T. 913.363 and 913.463)

Places of Employment
Nature of the Work

Local busdrivers transport mil­
lions of Americans to and from
work, schools, and homes every
day. These drivers follow definite
time schedules and routes over city
and suburban streets to get passen­
gers to their destinations on time.
The local busdriver’s workday
begins when he reports to the termi­
nal or garage. There, he is assigned
his bus and receives his change, to­

In 1970, nearly 69,000 busdriv­
ers were employed by about 1,090
local transit bus companies. A small
proportion of these drivers were
women. Approximately one-half the
total worked in large cities where
the transit system was publicly
owned, such as Boston, Chicago,
Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, Pittsburg, St.
Louis, and San Francisco. In addi­
tion to those employed by the local
transit bus industry, some local


drivers work for charter and
sightseeing lines, government agen­
cies, and companies which special­
ize in operating schoolbuses. (There
are also more than 200,000 schoolbus drivers, most of whom are parttime drivers.) A few drivers are
employed by Federal, State, and
local governments.
Although many drivers work in
major metropolitan areas such as
New York, Chicago, and Detroit,
some are employed in almost every
community in the Nation.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Applicants for busdriver positions
should be between the ages of 21
and 40, of average height and
weight, and have good eyesight—
with or without glasses. The appli­
cant must be in good health, have
no physical disabilities, and must be
able to pass the written and physical
examinations given by most em­
ployers. He must be able to judge
distance accurately, have good
hand-eye coordination, and have
quick reflexes. Because the driver
often works under pressure and deals
with many different personalities, an
even temperament and emotional
stability are important. Although
educational requirements are not
high, many employers prefer appli­
cants that have a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent.
A motor vehicle operator’s per­
mit and, generally, 1 or 2 years of
driving experience on some type of
motor vehicle are basic require­
ments. A good driving record is
essential because a busdriver is re­
sponsible for the safety of his pas­
sengers. Most States require busdrivers to have a chauffeur’s license
which permits the holder to operate
commerical motor vehicles. This li­


cense may be obtained either during
or immediately after the driver’s
training period. Some employers
prefer drivers who have had experi­
ence operating a truck or bus.
Most local transit companies con­
duct training courses which may last
several weeks and include both
classroom and driving instructions.
In the classroom, the trainee is
taught company rules, safety regula­
tions, and safe driving practices. He
is taught how to keep records and
how to deal tactfully and courte­
ously with passengers. The trainee’s
driving instruction consists of super­
vised trips both with and without
passengers. At the conclusion of his
training, the new driver often is re­
quired to pass a written and final
driving examination before he starts
on a run.
After passing the examinations,

he is placed on the “extra” list.
While on this list, he substitutes for
regular drivers who are ill or on va­
cation and also makes extra trips in
the morning or evening rush hours.
He also may drive charter or
sightseeing runs and other extra
runs such as special service buses
for public meetings and sporting
events. In almost all companies it is
necessary for a beginning employee
to serve a probationary period—
generally lasting for 30 to 90 days.
He may remain on the extra list
until he has the necessary seniority
to obtain a regular run. It may take
from several months to several
years before he is assigned a regular
Promotional opportunities in reg­
ular driving jobs generally are lim­
ited. Experienced drivers may ad­
vance to jobs such as instructor, dis-



patcher, road supervisor, and,
sometimes, executive. Promotion in
municipally owned bus systems is
usually by examination. The oppor­
tunities for advancement of most
drivers are limited to assignments to
more desirable runs. Only after ac­
quiring sufficient seniority do the
drivers receive these assignments.

Employment Outlook

There will be a small number of
opportunities for new workers to
enter this occupation each year
through the 1970’s, even though
employment of local busdrivers is
expected to continue to decline (but
at a slower rate than in the past).
These openings will result from the
need to replace drivers who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Retirements and deaths alone
may account for about 1,200 open­
ings each year.
In recent years, the volume of
passenger traffic handled by the
local transit bus industry has de­
clined significantly. The main cause
of this decline has been the rapid
rise in the number of private auto­
mobiles and their increasing use in
both city and suburban areas. An­
other factor has been the rapid
growth of suburbs, most of which
have a wide variety of stores, the­
aters, restaurants, and other serv­
ices in their shopping centers. Be­
cause most suburban shopping cen­
ters have good parking facilities and
are reached easily by automobile,
many suburban residents have
found it unnecessary to use public
transportation for shopping or other
activities. The increasing numbers
of people employed in suburban
areas are likely to rely more on pri­
vate automobile transportation than
those employed in downtown areas.
In addition, increasing traffic

congestion and parking problems in
most downtown sections have led to
the decline of many central business
districts. This decline, in turn, has
resulted in some curtailment of
downtown bus service between rush
As local transit bus traffic de­
clined steadily in recent years and
bus schedules and routes were cur­
tailed or entirely eliminated, the
employment of busdrivers also de­
clined. The decline in employment
was limited, however, partly be­
cause transit companies are not
completely free to curtail or elimi­
nate unprofitable routes, since the
companies are usually regulated by
State or municipal authorities.
Downtown traffic congestion and
parking problems will continue to
encourage bus travel in downtown
areas, and the growing need for bus
service for school children in the
suburbs is an additional factor
which may slow the downward
trend in busdriver employment.
Some increase in the number of
publicly owned companies may
occur. This increase would favora­
bly affect busdriver employment,
since such companies often provide
service on unprofitable routes in the
public interest.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Local transit busdrivers are usu­
ally paid by the hour, and earnings
vary according to locality, length of
service, size of company or city, and
length and type of run. Nearly all
companies pay the maximum job
rate after 12 months’ service. Ac­
cording to a survey of basic hourly
wage scales set by union-employer
contracts for busdrivers in 66 large
cities, the average hourly rate was
$3.99 on July 1, 1970. Hourly
scales were highest in the larger cit­

ies in the Great Lakes, Pacific, New
England, and Middle Atlantic re­
gions. Among the cities surveyed,
the hourly pay scales for experi­
enced busdrivers ranged from $2.26
in Topeka, Kansas to $4.60 in Bos­
ton, Mass. Wage scales for begin­
ning drivers were generally 5 to 15
cents an hour less.
Most busdrivers have a standard
work schedule of 8 hours a day, 40
hours a week. For additional work,
drivers usually receive 1V2 times
their hourly rates. In many compa­
nies, drivers often work in excess of
their standard work schedule,
thereby increasing their weekly
earnings. Drivers on the extra list
generally are guaranteed a mini­
mum number of hours of work or a
minimum weekly salary.
The workweek for regular drivers
usually consists of any 5 consecutive
days; Saturdays and Sundays are
counted as regular workdays. Most
transit companies run some buses in
the evening and a few companies
operate 24 hours a day. Therefore,
some drivers have to work at night.
To accommodate the varying de­
mands of commuter travel, it is nec­
essary for many local transit busdrivers to work “swing shifts.” On
these runs the operator drives for
several hours, is off duty for a pe­
riod of time, then returns to work
for several hours. If the total
elapsed time between the beginning
and end of a swing shift exceeds 10
or 11 hours, the driver generally re­
ceives extra pay. Other assignments
are “straight runs” which are un­
broken except for meal periods.
Some union contracts require 50 to
60 percent of all assignments to be
straight runs.
Nearly all local transit busdrivers
are covered by labor-management
contracts which provide for life and
health insurance, and pension plans;
the major pension plans are


financed jointly by the workers and
their employers, while many life
and health insurance plans are paid
for solely by the employer. Drivers
also are given vacations with pay
ranging from 1 to 5 weeks or more,
depending on the length of service,
and usually 6 or 7 or more paid hol­
idays a year.
Although driving a bus is not
physically exhausting, busdrivers
are exposed to the nervous tension
which arises from driving a large
vehicle on heavily congested streets
and dealing with many types of pas­
sengers. In addition to driving a
bus, they must collect fares, answer
questions, see that passengers are
clear of the doors, and request rid­
ers to move to the rear.
Among the more favorable as­
pects of this job is steady year-round
employment once a driver receives a
regular assignment. Busdrivers are
usually free of direct supervision—
which many drivers also find desira­
ble. Drivers take pride in being
solely responsible for the safety of
the passengers and bus and in acting
as the bus company’s representative
to the general public.
Most busdrivers are members of
the Amalgamated Transit Union.
Drivers in New York City and sev­
eral other large cities belong to the
Transport Workers Union of Amer­
ica. The Brotherhood of Railroad
Trainmen and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers
of America (Ind.) also have organ­
ized some local transit busdrivers.

Sources of Additional Information

For information on employment
opportunities for local busdrivers, in­
quiry should be made at the transit
company in the local area or to the


local office of the State employment

(D.O.T. 913.363)

Nature of the Work

In practically all communities,
taxicabs are an essential part of the
regular transportation system. They
offer a type of individualized service
not otherwise available, since they
operate without the fixed routes and
schedules of public buses. As a re­
sult, the taxidriver can offer a flexi­
ble independent service to individ­
ual customers, which provides most
of the advantages they would have
in using their own private automo­
Taxicab drivers, in addition to
providing transportation, also per­
form other services. For example,
they assist passengers in and out of
the cab, handle their luggage, and
also may pick up and deliver pack­
ages. In some communities, cabs are
used for transporting crippled chil­
dren to and from school. Cabdrivers
occasionally provide sightseeing
tours for out-of-town visitors.
Drivers get their “fares” or pas­
sengers in one or more ways. The
majority of taxicab fleets are
equipped with two-way radio sys­
tems over which requests for taxi­
cabs are transmitted to the driver.
These companies also have cab­
stands at which drivers may wait for
phone calls from their central dis­
patching office, which will direct
them to pick up passengers. Many
drivers wait in front of theaters, ho­
tels, bus terminals, railroad stations,

and other buildings which may have
large numbers of prospective pas­
sengers. In small cities and in sub­
urban areas, drivers may work from
a central location, such as a termi­
nal, to which they return after each
trip. The driver also may pick up
passengers while he is returning to
his stand or station. A good driver
keeps himself informed on what is
happening in the city, where crowds
will gather (for example, at the­
aters, and baseball and football
games) and when the crowds will
disperse, so that he can be on hand
to pick up passengers.
Drivers usually are required to
keep records, such as the date, time,
and place passengers were picked
up, and the destination, time of ar­
rival, and amount of fare collected.
If the cabdriver owns his own cab
or if he rents a cab over an ex­
tended period of time, he must clean
the cab periodically, as required
by regulations in many municipali­
ties. In large cab companies, this
job generally is performed by clean­
ers employed by the company.

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 100,000 taxi driv­
ers, including a small number of
women, were employed full time in
the taxicab industry, which is made
up of both privately owned cabs and
fleets of company-owned vehicles.
In addition, perhaps as many were
employed part time.
Although taxicab drivers are em­
ployed in every metropolitan area in
the country, the greatest concentra­
tion of these workers is found in
large cities. New York City, Wash­
ington, D.C., Chicago, Philadelphia,
Boston, New Orleans, Detroit, St.
Louis, and Baltimore lead in the
employment of cabdrivers.



ity to deal tactfully and courteously
with all types of people. Good eyehand-and-foot coordination is desir­
able because taxi drivers often must
operate their cabs in fast moving
and heavy traffic.
Opportunities for advancement
for taxi drivers are extremely lim­
ited. Promotion to the job of dis­
patcher is often the only possible
advancement. Some drivers, how­
ever, have become road supervisors,
garage superintendents, or claims
agents. Many drivers who work for
companies try to purchase their own
cabs so that they can become their
own employers. In some large cities,
however, the number of cabs is re­
stricted by ordinances, which may
limit the opportunity to own cabs in
such areas.

Employment Outlook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To become a taxi driver in most
large cities, it is necessary to have,
in addition to a State-issued chauf­
feur’s license, a special taxicab op­
erator’s license issued by the local
police, safety department, or Public
Utilities Commission. Although li­
censing requirements vary consider­
ably among cities, in general, appli­
cants must be over 21 and in good
health, have a good driving record,
and have no criminal record. A
driver’s record is checked for ar­
rests, both locally and through the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Most large communities require
an applicant for a taxi driver’s li­
cense to pass a written examination

on taxicab and traffic regulations.
The examination may include ques­
tions on street locations, insurance
regulations, accident reports, lost
articles, zoning or meter rules, and
passenger pickup and deliveries. In
some cities, the cab company will
teach the driver-applicant taxicab
regulations and the location of
streets and important buildings. In
other cities, the driver may prepare
himself for the license examination.
After the driver has passed the ex­
amination, he pays an annual li­
cense fee, generally ranging from 50
cents to $5.
Although formal education is sel­
dom required, many companies pre­
fer applicants for a taxi driving job
to have at least an eighth-grade edu­
cation. A neat, well-groomed ap­
pearance is desirable, as is the abil­

There will be many opportunities
for new workers to become taxi
drivers throughout the 1970’s, pri­
marily because of the high turnover
in this occupation. The number of
taxi drivers has been slowly declin­
ing during the past decade, and this
trend is expected to continue
through the 1970’s.
In the past, the employment of
taxi drivers has been affected ad­
versely by the increased use of pri­
vately owned automobiles, rented
cars, and the continuing population
shift to the suburbs where most
people drive their own cars.
The high turnover in this occupa­
tion results from the lack of assur­
ance of a steady income, the long
hours, and the stopgap nature of
this employment for some workers
when better jobs are not available.
Transfers from this occupation are
expected to be the major reason
that employment opportunities will
be available for many new workers


who wish to enter this field of driv­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most taxi drivers employed by
taxicab companies are paid a per­
centage—usually between 40 and 50
percent—of the total fare. Drivers
also frequently receive tips, ranging
from 10 to 20 percent of the fare.
In 1970 many taxicab drivers
earned between $2.00 and $3.00 an
hour, including tips. Some taxi driv­
ers covered by union-employer con­
tracts have guaranteed minimums
up to $60 or $70 a week.
Many drivers rent their cabs from
the company by the day for a set
price. Any receipts above the cab
rental and other operating expenses
are retained by the drivers.
A large percentage of full-time
taxi drivers work 9 or 10 hours a


day for 6 days a week. They usually
begin work between 6 a.m. and 8
a.m. Many drivers work nights,
starting between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m.
Some drivers work on Sundays and
Many college students have been
able to work their way through
school by driving cabs on a parttime basis and during summer and
spring holidays. Some workers also
become part-time drivers to supple­
ment their regular income.
Driving a taxicab is not physically
strenuous. Most drivers do not
change tires or do other heavy re­
pair work. Drivers, however, are
subject to nervous tension from driv­
ing in heavy traffic in all kinds of
weather, and dealing with different
types of passengers.
Many drivers find the lack of di­
rect supervision by an employer one
of the more desirable aspects of

their job. However, they may be
subject to municipal regulations
which govern their personal appear­
ance, the fares they charge, and
their driving practices.
Taxi drivers in many of the large
cities belong to labor unions, partic­
ularly those drivers who work for
the large taxicab companies. The
main union in this field is the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.).
Taxi drivers usually work long
hours and do not receive overtime
pay. Many of them do not receive
fringe benefits, such as pensions and
severance pay, that workers in
many other occupations receive.
When economic conditions decline,
their earnings generally are reduced
because of increased competition
for less business.


For centuries, blacksmiths have
been forging, one of the principal
methods of working and shaping
metals. The modern forge shop, by
substituting heavy power equipment
and precision die blocks for the
blacksmith’s hand hammer and
anvil, can do the work much more
rapidly and accurately.
Forged metal is exceptionally
strong and is used for many prod­
ucts that must withstand great
stress. Examples of forged products
include automobile crankshafts,
gears, wrenches, scissors, and many
aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
parts. The great bulk of forging ton­
nage is made of steel, but alumi­
num, brass, bronze, copper, tita­
nium, beryllium, and most other
metals also are forged. Forgings
range in weight from fractions of a
pound to many tons.
This chapter describes the major
kinds of forging production occupa­
tions; it does not discuss machining,
maintenance, custodial, or other
workers who are employed in forge
shops but who are not directly en­
gaged in the forging process. (For a
detailed description of the duties,
working conditions, and job pros­
pects for blacksmiths, who do work
similar to that of many forge shop
workers, see the statement on

metal forms, called dies, that are attached to power hammers or

presses. The hammers or presses
pound or squeeze the metal with
tremendous force to form it into the
shape desired. Finally, trimmers,
grinders, and other workers remove
rough edges and excess metal from

Nature of the Work

Before metal can be shaped by
hammers and presses, workers
known as heaters must first heat it
in intensely hot furnaces. Then drop
hammer operators, hammersmiths,
press operators, upsetter operators,
and other workers manipulate the
glowing hot metal between a pair of



forgings, and perform other finish­
ing operations.
Two kinds of dies are used for
forging—the impression (closed)
die, which has a cavity shaped to
the form of the metal part to be
forged, and the open die, which is
flat and more closely resembles the
blacksmith’s hammer. Impression
dies are used where the need for
large quantities of identical forging
(for example, automobile crank­
shafts) justifies their expense. Open
dies are used to produce relatively
small numbers of forged parts, or to
forge objects too large for impres­
sion dies.
The basic equipment used by
forge shop workers consists of vari­
ous types of power hammers, power
forming and trimming presses, dies,
and furnaces. They also use handtools, such as hammers and tongs,
and measuring devices, such as cali­
pers, scales, and rules. A forging
hammer or press generally is oper­
ated by a crew of from 2 to 10 men.
The number of men in the crew de­
pends on the size and type of equip­
ment operated and the size and
shape of the part to be formed.
Crews may specialize in the opera­
tion of a particular kind of hammer
or press. The work performed by
workers in the major forge shop oc­
cupations is as follows:
Hammersmiths (D.O.T. 612.381)
supervise the operation of open-die
power hammers that pound pieces
of hot metal, called blanks or stock,
into desired shapes. The precision
of parts forged with such equipment
is greatly dependent on the skill of
the hammersmith. He must inter­
pret blueprints, drawings, and
sketches to determine how to work
the metal under the hammer and
determine the force of the hammer
so that the piece being forged will
be shaped to specifications. He also
must decide whether the metal


needs additional heating and when
and how to use various forming
tools under the hammer to produce
angles and curves.
The hammersmith supervises a
crew consisting of a hammer driver,
or hammer runner, who operates
controls of the hammer to regulate
the force of the forging blow; a
craneman, who transfers metal
blanks from furnace to hammer and
manipulates metal under the ham­
mer; a heater, who heats metal to
correct forging temperatures; and
one or more helpers.
610.782), often called hammermen,
are skilled forgemen who operate
impression-die power hammers.
Generally, the larger the hammer
and the larger or more intricate the
shape of the metal object to be
formed, the greater the skill re­
quired of the operator. With the as­
sistance of helpers and heaters, the
hammerman sets and aligns dies in
the hammer. He controls the force
of the forging blow, manipulates
metal under the hammer, and deter­
mines whether the metal needs ad­
ditional heat.
Press operators (D.O.T. 611.782
and .885) operate huge presses
equipped with either open or im­
pression dies. Their work differs
from that of the hammersmith or
hammer operator mainly in that
they shape and form hot metal by
pressing or squeezing rather than by
hammering or pounding. They must
know how to regulate the pressure
of their machines and position metal
stock between the dies. In some
cases, operators need to know how
to control the heating of metal.
Their duties also may include set­
ting up dies in the presses.
Skills of open-die press op­
erators are similar to those of ham­
mersmiths. Both types of workers
manipulate metal blanks between

two open dies; both must be able to
understand blueprints, drawings, or
sketches in order to transform
heated metal into finished forgings;
and both may supervise crews com­
posed of an assistant operator, a
craneman, a heater, and several
Impression-die press operators
work to more exacting specifications
than press operators using open
dies, but do not need as much ma­
nipulating skill because the die im­
pression determines the shape of the
forging. The impression-die press
operator may supervise a small
crew or work alone.
Upsetters (D.O.T. 611.782),
also called upsettermen, operate
machines that shape hot metal by
applying pressure through the hori­
zontal movement of one impression
die against another. With the help
of a heater and several helpers, the
upsetter performs such duties as
alining dies, positioning metal stock
between the dies, adjusting the
machine’s pressure on the metal
stock, and controlling the heating of
the metal. Deep-socket wrenches,
aircraft engine cylinders, bolts, and
valves are examples of products
made on upset machines.
Heaters (D.O.T. 619.782) con­
trol the supply of fuel and air in fur­
naces to obtain the temperature and
atmosphere required for the metal
being forged. Temperature gauges
and observation of the metal’s color
help the heater determine when the
correct temperature has been
reached. Heaters use tongs or me­
chanical equipment to transfer
heated metal from the furnace to
the hammer or press. They also
keep furnaces clean.
Inspectors (D.O.T. 612.281)
check forgings for size, shape,
quality, and other specifications.
Some inspectors examine forged
pieces for flaws and faulty work-



manship while the forgings are still
hot; others inspect forgings after
they have been trimmed and
cleaned. Inspection may be done
visually and/or with gauges, mi­
crometers, calipers, and other meas­
uring devices. Checking for flaws
also may be done with machines
that test strength and hardness, and
with magnetic and electronic testing
Die sinkers (D.O.T. 601.280)
are highly skilled workers who
make the impression dies used on
forging hammers and presses. Work­
ing from a blueprint, template, or
drawing, a die sinker traces the out­
line of the object to be forged on
two matched blocks of steel. He
then forms the shape of this object
in the steel die blocks by using mill­
ing machines and other machine
tools such as EDM (electric dis­
charge machinery) and ECM (elec­
tro chemical machinery). He uses
scrapers, hand grinders, and other
handtools to smooth and finish the
die cavity. Finally, by using the
completed dies, he makes a sample
cast of the finished cavity, and
checks all measurements with a mi­
crometer and other precision in­
Many forge shop workers clean
and finish forgings. For example,
trimmers (D.O.T. 617.885) re­
move excess metal with presses
equipped with trimming dies.
Grinders (D.O.T. 705.884) remove
rough edges with mechanically pow­
ered abrasive wheels. Sandblasters
and shotblasters (D.O.T. 503.887)
operate sandblasting or shotblast­
ing equipment to clean and smooth
503.885) dip forgings in an acid so­
lution to remove surface scale and
reveal any surface defects. Heat
treaters (D.O.T. 504.782) heat and
cool forgings to attain certain de­

sired conditions or properties in the
metal, such as hardness.
Places of Employment

Approximately 65,000 produc­
tion workers were employed in forge
shops in 1970. Nearly three-fourths
of these workers were employed in
independent shops—those that
produce forgings for sale. The re­
mainder worked in forging depart­
ments of plants that use forgings in
their final products, such as auto­
mobiles, farm machinery, handtools, and structural and ornamental
metal products.
Employment of forge shop
workers is concentrated mainly in
Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois,
Indiana, Pennsylvania, Massachu­
setts, California, and New York.
Forge shops usually are located
near steel producing centers, which
provide steel for forgings, as well as
near metalworking plants, which are
the major users of forged products.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most forge shop workers learn
their skills through on-the-job train­
ing and work experience. They gen­
erally join a hammer or press crew
as a helper, or, in some plants, as a
heater. As they acquire experience,
they progress to more skilled jobs.
Advancement to the skilled job of
hammersmith, for example, requires
several years of on-the-job training
and experience.
A few forge shops offer appren­
tice training programs for crafts
such as die sinker, heat treater,
hammer operator, hammersmith,
and press operator. The programs,
which generally last 4 years (in the
case of die sinkers, from 4 to 8
years), give the apprentice a combi­

nation of classroom training and
practical experience in using the
tools and equipment of the trade.
For example, hammersmith appren­
tices learn about the properties of
metals and how to operate power
hammers and furnaces, use handtools and welding equipment, and
read blueprints.
Training requirements for inspec­
tors vary. Those who inspect rough
forgings visually or with simple
gauges usually can perform their
jobs after only a few weeks of onthe-job training. Those who exam­
ine parts forged to more exact spec­
ifications and operate more compli­
cated testing equipment may need
some technical background in blue­
print reading and mathematics and
may be given several months of onthe-job training.
Employers usually require no
more than a grammar school educa­
tion for helpers and heaters, but
high school graduates are preferred.
Young men interested in the more
skilled forge shop jobs should com­
plete high school and include math­
(especially geometry),
drafting, and shopwork in their
Because forge shop work some­
times involves lifting and moving
heavy forgings and dies, workers
must be strong. However, cranes
are used for moving very large ob­
jects. Forge shop workers must
have the stamina to work under hot
and noisy conditions.

Employment Outlook

Production worker employment
in forge shops is expected to in­
crease slowly through the 1970’s.
Most job openings will arise from
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work.


Employment is expected to in­
crease because industries that use
forgings in their final products—par­
ticularly the industrial machinery
and automobile industries—will ex­
pand as the Nation’s general eco­
nomic activity rises. However, em­
ployment is expected to increase
more slowly than forge shop produc­
tion because continued improve­
ments in forging techniques and
equipment and more efficient plant
operations will result in greater out­
put per worker. Forge shop employ­
ment has been sensitive to changes
in general business conditions, and
it is expected that substantial yearto-year changes in the level of em­
ployment will continue.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average earnings of forge shop
production workers are higher than
those for manufacturing production
workers as a whole. In 1970, pro­
duction workers in iron and steel
forging plants earned an average of
$172.40 a week, or $4.31 an hour,
compared with average weekly
earnings of $133.73, or $3.36 an
hour, for production workers in all
manufacturing industries.


Collective bargaining contracts union members. Many are members
negotiated between employers and of the International Brotherhood of
unions provide for various fringe Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders,
benefits, such as holiday pay, vaca­ Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
tion pay, and retirement pensions. Others are members of the United
Most union-management agree­ Steelworkers of America; the Inter­
ments provide for 8 or 9 paid holi­ national Union, United Automobile,
days a year and up to 5 weeks’ va­ Aerospace and Agricultural Imple­
cation, depending on length of ment Workers of America; the In­
service. Other important provisions ternational Association of Machin­
include life insurance benefits ists and Aerospace Workers; and
financed by the employer, as well as the International Die Sinkers’ Con­
accident and sickness, hospital, and ference (Ind.).
surgical benefits.
Working conditions in forge
shops have improved in recent Sources of Additional Information
years. Many firms have installed
Further information on employ­
heat deflectors and ventilating fans
ment opportunities in forging can be
to reduce heat and smoke and have
obtained from local offices of the
attempted to reduce machine con­
State employment service; person­
cussion, noise, and vibration. Al­
nel departments of individual forge
though the rate of disabling work
shops; locals of the labor unions
injuries in forge shops is higher than
noted above; and from:
the average for all manufacturing,
The Forging Industry Association,
employers and unions attempt to
55 Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio
eliminate injuries by promoting
safety training and the use of pro­
Open Die Forging Institute, 440
tective equipment, including face
Sherwood Rd., La Grange Park,
shields, ear plugs and muffs, safety
111. 60525.
glasses, metal-toe shoes, instep
guards, metal helmets, and machine
safety guards.
Most forge shop workers are



Almost every product made by
American Industry contains metal
parts or is manufactured by ma­
chines made of parts. Many of these
metal parts are shaped to precise di­
mensions by skilled and semiskilled
machining workers who use a wide
variety of machine tools. Machining
workers make up the largest single
occupational group in the metal­
working trades. In 1970, about 1.2
million workers were employed as
machinists, tool and die makers, in­
strument makers, machine tool op­
erators, and setup men.

Nature of the Work

The principal job of most machin­
ing workers is to operate machine
tools. A machine tool is a station­
ary, power-driven machine that
holds both the piece of metal to be
shaped and a cutting instrument, or
“tool,” and brings them together so
that the metal is cut to the desired
shape. In some cases, the cutting
tool is moved, and the metal is held
stationary; in others, the metal is
moved against a stationary tool.
The most common types of
machine tools are lathes, grinding
machines, drilling and boring ma­
chines, milling machines, shapers,
broachers, and planers. Lathes turn
and shape metal against a sharp cut­
ting tool. Grinding machines smooth
metal parts by means of powerdriven abrasive wheels. Drilling
machines make holes in metal. Bor­
ing machines enlarge holes already
drilled. Milling machines cut or re­
move excess metal with tools that
have several cutting edges. Shapers,
planers, and broachers are machine
tools that produce flat surfaces. In
addition to these common machining

methods, several new metal shaping
techniques have been introduced in
recent years. For example, metal
can now be shaped using chemicals,
electricity, magnetism, sound, light,
and liquids under controlled condi­
Accuracy is of prime importance
for most machining work. Motors,
farm machinery, and typewriters are
included among the wide variety of
products made of metal parts that
must be made to precise dimensions
so that they are interchangeable and
can be easily assembled for massproduction purposes. Metal parts
sometimes are machined to toler­
ances of 10 millionths of an inch.
Machining workers follow direc­
tions generally given in the form of
a drawing or blueprint, upon which
exact dimensions of the finished
part are specified; some instructions
may be less detailed. Machining
workers frequently use micrometers
and other precision-measuring in­
struments to check the accuracy of
their work against the required
In addition to operating machine
tools, skilled tool and die makers,
instrument makers, and machinists
spend a considerable portion of
their time doing precision hand­
work, such as laying out and assem­
bling metal parts. After the separate
parts have been machined, they use
files, scrapers, emery cloths, and
miscellaneous small handtools in
filing, scraping, and polishing th£
parts for exact fit in the final assem­
All-round machinists are skilled
workers who can operate most types
of machine tools. Machine tool op­
erators commonly operate only one
kind of machine tool. Tool and die
makers specialize in making dies for

use with presses and diecasting
machines, devices to guide drills
into metal, and special gages to de­
termine whether the work meets
specified tolerances. Instrument
makers use machine tools to produce
highly accurate instrument parts
made of metal or other materials.
Setup men adjust machine tools so
that semiskilled machine tool oper­
ators can run the machines. (De­
tailed discussions of the types of
work performed by workers in each
of these machining occupations are
presented later in this chapter.)
Since continuous attention is re­
quired when machine tools are in
operation, the work may be tedious,
especially on simple and repetitive
machining jobs. However, where
the work is varied and complex and
standards of accuracy high, a
worker may experience the satisfac­
tion that comes to a capable and
conscientious craftsman in a highly
skilled trade.

Location of Machining Work

An estimated 530,000 machin­
ists; 425,000 machine tool opera­
tors; 165,000 tool and die makers;
70,000 setup men; and 8,000 in­
strument makers were employed in
1970. About four-fifths of all ma­
chining workers were employed in
the metal-working industries, mostly
in the machinery, except electrical;
transportation equipment; fabri­
cated metal products; and electrical
machinery and equipment indus­
tries. Many thousands also were
employed in repair shops of rail­
roads and maintenance shops of
factories that make textiles, paper,
glass, or chemicals. A small number
worked in research laboratories and
shops that fabricate models of new
Machining workers are employed
in every State and in almost every
city in the country. However, more


than half of all machining workers
are employed in California, Ohio,
New York, Michigan, Illinois, and
Pennsylvania. Other States having
large numbers
of machining
workers are New Jersey, Massachu­
setts, Indiana, Connecticut, Wis­
consin, and Texas. Most instrument
makers are employed in New York
City, Chicago, and a few other large

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The common method of entering
skilled machining occupations is
through apprenticeship— a period
of formal on-the-job training during
which the new worker learns all the
aspects of his trade. He is taught to
operate machine tools and to use
handtools and measuring instru­
ments. In addition to shop training,
the apprentice is given classroom
instruction in blueprint reading,
mathematics, and related subjects.
In choosing apprentices, employers
usually prefer young men who have
a high school or trade school educa­
tion. Some companies use aptitude
tests to help determine whether ap­
plicants for machining jobs have the
necessary mechanical ability and the
temperament to perform this exact­
ing work. Machining workers also
must have good vision and superior
judgment of depth and distance.
Most semiskilled machine tool
operators—and some machinists,
tool and die makers, and instrument
makers—“pick up” the skills of
their trade informally through expe­
rience on several jobs. They gener­
ally start in the less skilled machin­
ing jobs working under the supervi­
sion of experienced craftsmen. They
gradually advance to more skilled
jobs as they acquire experience and
knowledge. Some workers improve


their skills and increase their
chances for advancement by taking
courses in blueprint reading, elec­
tronics, hydraulics, and shop mathe­
matics. An increasing number of
machining workers are participating
in intensive training programs pro­
vided by machinery manufacturers
or sponsored by labor unions. Some
of these programs train machining
workers to maintain and repair nu­
merically controlled machine tools.
Programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers, pri­
marily for entry jobs in the machin­
ing occupations, were operating in
many cities in 1970 under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act. The majority of these pro­
grams, which continue up to a year,
were for machine tool operators,
but some were for other machining
occupations. The programs stressed
the fundamentals of machine tool
operation. Graduates of these pro­
grams may eventually become
skilled machining workers by gain­
ing additional training and experi­
Although women sometimes are
employed as machine tool opera­
tors, relatively few are employed in
skilled machining occupations.
Machining workers have several
advancement opportunities. For ex­
ample, many can advance to fore­
men. Individuals having extensive
machine shop experience may, with
specialized training, become pro­
gramed who prepare the coded pa­
per tapes used to operate numerically
controlled machines. Tool and die
makers and instrument makers can
advance to technical positions such
as tool and die designer or instru­
ment technician. Machining workers
also can open their own tool and die
shops or machine shops.

Employment Outlook

There will be thousands of job
openings for machining workers
through the 1970’s. Most of these
openings will result from the need
to replace experienced workers who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. Replacement needs
will be a particularly important fac­
tor in the skilled machining occupa­
tions, which have a relatively high
proportion of older workers. Trans­
fers of semiskilled machine tool op­
erators to other occupations are
fairly common, and some openings
also will result from these transfers.
Other openings are expected to re­
sult from the anticipated slow in­
crease in the demand for these
workers, assuming the realization of
relatively full employment nationally
and high rates of economic growth
necessary to achieve this goal.
Employment in the various
machining occupations is expected
to increase at different rates. For
example, the number of instrument
makers is expected to increase
rapidly, whereas little or no change
is expected in the employment of
machine tool operators. Laborsav­
ing technological changes are ex­
pected to slow the employment
growth of most machining occupa­
The anticipated increase in the
employment of machining workers
is expected to result from the rapid
rise in the demand for machined
products. Increases in population
and in the number of households,
plus higher levels of personal dis­
posable income, are expected to re­
sult in a large increase in the de­
mand for consumer products, such
as automobiles, heating and air-con­
ditioning equipment, and household
appliances, in the production of
which machining is involved. Higher
levels of corporate income and ris-



ing expenditures for industrial plant
capacity should stimulate the de­
mand for machine tools, engines,
pumps, instruments, and other in­
dustrial equipment.
workers is not expected to expand
as fast as the demand for machined
products because technological de­
velopments will increase output per
worker. For example, automated
machining lines, in which machine
tools are linked together for produc­
tion operations, are being used in­
creasingly. The cutting and feeding
speeds of machine tools also are in­

creasing. New processes that will be
used more frequently in the future
for metal removal include chemical
and electrical milling, electrical dis­
charge and ultrasonic machining,
and machining by electron beams
and lasers. The use of powdered
metals and advances in metal form­
ing, both of which significantly re­
duce the amount of machining nec­
essary to produce a final product,
also may gain more widespread ap­
plication in the future.
Of all the technological changes
that are expected to affect the fu­
ture employment of workers in

machining occupations, the greatest
impact is expected to arise from the
expanding application of numeri­
cally controlled machine tools. The
use of numerically controlled ma­
chine tools broadly involves the fol­
lowing sequence of operations: En­
gineers or draftsmen translate part
dimensions and tolerances, cutter
shapes and sizes, cutting paths and
sequences, and other data into num­
bers or codes representing numbers.
These numbers are punched on
tapes or cards which are inserted
into electronic or mechanical de­
vices that translate numbers into
motions or actions, such as drilling
or cutting. The machine tool opera­
tor simply installs the tool, inserts
and removes the work-piece, and
changes the tapes or cards.
The growing use of numerically
controlled machine tools will limit
the employment growth of some
machining workers, particularly
semiskilled operators. On the other
hand, the more sophisticated appli­
cations of these machine tools will
require some operators to have
greater skill and knowledge of
machining operations.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Numerically controlled machines increase efficiency of machine workers.

The earnings of skilled machining
workers compare favorably with
those of other skilled industrial
workers. Tool and die makers and
instrument makers are the highest
paid workers in the machining
group and are among the highest
paid skilled workers in manufactur­
ing. Earnings information for the
individual machining occupations is
presented later in this chapter.
Most machine shops are rela­
tively clean and well lighted. Be­
cause they work with high speed
machine tools and sharp cutting in­
struments, workers in these occupa­


tions need good safety habits. Per­
sons working around machine tools
are prohibited from wearing loose
fitting clothing. They frequently
wear safety glasses and other pro­
tective equipment.
Machining work usually is not
physically strenuous. The machine
tools do the actual cutting while the
machining worker sets the machine,
watches the controls, and checks the
accuracy of the work. The workers,
however, usually stand at their jobs
most of the day and move about
Companies that employ machin­
ing workers generally provide paid
holidays and paid vacations. Life in­
surance, hospitalization, medical
and surgical insurance, sickness and
accident insurance, and pensions
also are often provided.
The great majority of workers in
machining occupations are members
of unions. Among the labor organi­
zations in this field are the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; the In­
ternational Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; the
Electrical Workers; the United
Steelworkers of America; and the
Mechanics Educational Society of

Sources of Additional Information

The National Machine Tool
Builders Association, 2139 Wiscon­
sin Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20007—whose members build a
large percentage of all machine
tools used in this country—will, on
request, supply information on ca­
reer opportunities in the Machine
Tool Industry.


The National Tool, Die and Pre­
cision Machining Association, 1411
K St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20005, offers information on ap­
prenticeship training, including Rec­
ommended Apprenticeship Stand­
ards for Tool and Die Makers, cer­
tified by the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
Many State employment service
local offices provide free aptitude
testing to persons interested in be­
coming all-round machinists or tool
and die makers. The State employ­
ment service also may be a source
of information about training op­
portunities under the Manpower
Development and Training Act. In
addition, the State employment serv­
ice refers applicants for apprentice
programs to employers. In many
communities, applications for ap­
prenticeship also are received by
labor-management apprenticeship
Apprenticeship information also
may be obtained from the following
unions (which have local offices in
many cities):
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers,
1300 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of
America, 8000 East Jefferson
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical
Radio and Machine Workers,
1126 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 600.280 and .281)

Nature of the Work

The all-round machinist is a
skilled worker who uses machine
tools to make metal parts. A ma­
chinist can set up and operate most
types of machine tools. His wide
knowledge of shop practice and the
working properties of metals, plus
his understanding of what the vari­
ous machine tools can accomplish,
enable him to turn a block of metal
into an intricate part meeting pre­
cise specifications.
Variety is the main characteristic
of the work of an all-round machin­
ist. He plans and carries through all
operations needed in turning out
machined products. He may switch
frequently from the production of
one kind of product to another. An
all-round machinist selects the tools
and material required for each job
and plans the cutting and finishing
operations in order to complete the
finished work according to blueprint
or written specifications. He makes
standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, tooling,
feeds, and speeds of machining. He
often uses precision-measuring in­
struments, such as micrometers and
gages, to measure the accuracy of
his work to thousandths or even
millionths of an inch. After com­
pleting machining operations, he
may finish the work by hand, using
files and scrapers, and then assem­
ble the finished parts with wrenches
and screwdrivers. The all-round
machinist may also “heat treat” cut­
ting tools and parts to improve
Machinists employed in mainte­
nance departments to make or re­
pair metal parts of machines and



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Machinist drills to close tolerance.

equipment also have a broad knowl­
edge of mechanical principles. They
sometimes adjust and test the parts
they have made or repaired for a
In plants that produce large num­
bers of metal products, some highly
skilled machinists specialize in lay­
out work. These specialists (layout
men) mark specifications on metal
so that machine tool operators can
perform the proper machining oper­

Places of Employment

Almost every factory using a sub­
stantial amount of machinery em­
ploys all-round machinists to keep
its mechanical equipment operating.
Some all-round machinists work in
the production departments of

metal-working factories where large
quantities of identical parts are
produced; others work in machine
shops where a limited number of
varied products are made. Most
all-round machinists work in the
following industries: Machinery, in­
cluding electrical; transportation
equipment; fabricated metal prod­
ucts; and primary metals. Among
the other industries employing sub­
stantial numbers of these workers
are the railroad, chemical, food
processing, and textile industries.
The Federal Government also em­
ploys all-round machinists in Navy
yards and other installations.
An important advantage of this
occupation is that machinists can be
employed in almost every locality
and industry because their skills are
required to maintain all types of

According to most training au­
thorities, a 4-year apprenticeship is
the best way to learn the machinist
trade. Many machinists, however,
have qualified without an appren­
ticeship by learning the trade
through years of varied experience
in machining jobs. Some companies
have training programs which qual­
ify some of their employees as ma­
chinists in less than 4 years.
A young person interested in be­
coming a machinist should be me­
chanically inclined and tempera­
mentally suited to do highly accurate
work that requires concentration
as well as physical effort. A high
school or vocational school educa­
tion, including courses in mathemat­
ics, physics, or machine shop train­
ing, is desirable. Some companies
require their experienced machinists
to take additional courses in mathe­
matics and electronics, at company
expense, so that they can service
and operate the numerically con­
trolled machine tools coming into
greater use. In addition, equipment
builders generally provide training
in the electrical, hydraulic, and me­
chanical aspects of machine-andcontrol systems.

A typical machinist apprentice
program lasts 4 years and consists
of approximately 8,000 hours of
shop training and about 570 hours
of related classroom instruction.
Shop training includes learning the
operation of various types of ma­
chine tools. The apprentice also is
taught chipping, filing, hand tap­
ping, dowel fitting, riveting, and
other hand operations. In the class­
room, the apprentice studies blue­
print reading, mechanical drawing,
shop mathematics, and shop prac­
Numerous promotional oppor­



tunities are available to all-round
machinists. Many advance to fore­
man of a section or to other super­
visory jobs. Others who receive ad­
ditional training may become tool
and die makers or instrument mak­
ers. A skilled machinist has excel­
lent opportunities to advance into
other technical jobs in machine pro­
graming and tooling. Machinists
also can open their own machine
Employment Outlook

The number of all-round machin­
ists is expected to increase slowly
through the 1970’s, as a result of
the anticipated expansion of metal­
working activities. (See discussion,
p. 450.) However, most job open­
ings will arise from the need to re­
place experienced machinists who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die.
Much of the employment growth
will occur in maintenance shops, as
industries continue to use a greater
volume of complex machinery and
equipment. Skilled maintenance
machinists are needed to prevent
costly breakdowns in highly mecha­
nized plants where machine tools
often are linked together by transfer
equipment. In such plants, a break­
down of one machine may stop
many other machines.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of all-round ma­
chinists compare favorably with
those of other skilled factory
Maintenance machinists em­
ployed in various industries in 77
metropolitan areas surveyed in
1969-70 received average straighttime hourly earnings ranging from
$2.89 in Greenville, S.C., to $4.86

in Detroit, Mich. Average straighttime hourly earnings of mainte­
nance machinists employed in the
following cities were:
Atlanta ................................................ $4.03
Birmingham ....................................... 4.22
C hicago............................................... 4.49
C incinnati........................................... 4.14
Detroit ............................................... 4.86
Greenville ......................................... 2.89
Houston ............................................. 4.38
Los Angeles-LongB e a ch ................. 4.53
M em phis............................................. 3.86
Milwaukee ......................................... 4.76
Minneapolis-St. Paul ...................... 4.44
New York ......................................... 4.47
Portland, Oreg.................................... 4.50
Rockford, 111........................................ 3.85
San Francisco-Oakland ................. 4.75
Worcester ........................................... 3.85

Machinists must follow strict
safety regulations when working
around high-speed machine tools.
The greater use of safety glasses
and other protective devices in re­
cent years has reduced the accident
rate for these workers.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of nonwage
benefits received by machining
workers, unions that organize these
w orkers, and sources of additional

(D.O.T. 600.280; 601.280; 602.280
through .885; 603.280 through .885;
604.280 through .885; 605.280 through
.885; and 606.280 through .885)

Machine tool operators shape
metal to precise dimensions by the
use of machine tools. Most opera­
tors can operate only one or two
types of machine tools; some can
operate several. Many operators are
semiskilled machine tenders who

perform simple, repetitive opera­
tions that can be learned quickly.
Other operators, however, are
skilled workers who can perform
complex and varied machining op­
A typical job of a semiskilled op­
erator is to place rough metal stock
in a machine tool on which the
speeds and operation sequence have

Machine tool operator positions
multiple spindle drilling machine.

already been set by a skilled
worker. The operator watches the
machine and calls his supervisor
when it is not functioning correctly.
Special, easy-to-use gages help him
to measure the work quickly and
accurately. The operator who has
limited training may make minor
adjustments to keep his machine
tool operating, but he depends on
skilled machining workers for major
The work of skilled machine tool
operators usually is limited to a sin­
gle type of machine and involves lit­
tle or no hand fitting or assembly
work. He plans and sets up the cor­
rect sequence of machining opera­
tions according to blueprints, lay­
outs, or other instructions. He
adjusts speed, feed, and other con­



trols, and selects the proper cutting
instruments or tools for each opera­
tion. He must be able to use all the
special attachments of his machine
because adjustments during machin­
ing operations and changes in the
setup may be required. Upon com­
pleting his work, he measures toler­
ance limits with micrometers, gages,
and other precision-measuring in­
struments to see whether the work
meets specifications. The skilled
machine tool operator also may se­
lect cutting and lubricating oils used
to cool metal and tools during
machining operations.
Lathes, drill presses, boring
machines, grinding machines, mill­
ing machines, and automatic screw
machines are among the machine
tools used by machine operators.
Both skilled and semiskilled opera­
tors have job titles related to the
kind of machine they operate, such
as engine lathe operator, milling
machine operator, and drill press
Places of Employment

Machine tool operators are em­
ployed mainly in factories that man­
ufacture fabricated metal products,
transportation equipment, and ma­
chinery in large quantities. Skilled
machine tool operators work in
production departments, mainte­
nance departments, toolrooms, and
job shops. Because of their limited
training, few semiskilled operators
work in maintenance departments
or in job shops.

learner first operates a machine, he
is supervised closely by a more ex­
perienced worker. The beginner
learns how to use measuring instru­
ments and to make elementary com­
putations needed in shop work. He
gradually acquires experience and
learns to operate a machine tool,
read blueprints, and plan the se­
quence of machining work.
Individual ability and effort
largely determine how long it takes
to become a machine tool operator.
Semiskilled machine tool operators
generally learn their jobs within a
few months. However, it usually
takes 1Vi to 2 years of on-the-job
training and experience to become a
skilled machine tool operator. Some
skilled machine tool operators’ jobs
are filled by men who have com­
pleted machinists’ apprenticeships.
Some companies have formal train­
ing programs to acquaint new em­
ployees with the details of machine
tool operation and machining prac­
Although there are no special ed­
ucational requirements for semi­
skilled operator jobs, young persons
seeking such jobs can improve their
job opportunities by completing
courses in mathematics and blue­
print reading. In hiring beginners,
employers often look for persons
who have mechanical aptitude and
some experience working with ma­
Skilled machine tool operators
can advance to jobs as all-round
machinists and tool and die makers.
They also may advance to jobs in
machine programing and mainte­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Earnings and Working Conditions
Employment Outlook

Most machine tool operators
learn their skills on the job. A be­
ginner usually starts by observing a
skilled operator at work. When the

the anticipated expansion of metal­
working activities. (See discussion,
p. 450.) However, tens of thousands
of workers will be hired to replace
experienced machine tool operators
who transfer to other jobs, retire, or
Technological developments will
continue to affect both the number
and skill requirements of machine
tool operators. The use of faster and
more versatile automatic machine
tools and the increasingly wide­
spread use of numerically controlled
machine tools will result in greater
output per worker and tend to limit
employment growth. (For the role
of numerically controlled machines,
see the discussion in the introduc­
tory section of this chapter under
“Employment Outlook.” ) Other
factors that may contribute to the
slow growth in this occupation are
the new processes that are becom­
ing increasingly important in metal
removal, such as chemical milling,
electrical milling, electrical dis­
charge and ultrasonic machining,
and machining by electron beams
and lasers. Advances in metal form­
ing and the use of powdered metals
also may limit employment growth
since they reduce the amount of
machining necessary to produce a
final product.
Workers who have thorough
backgrounds in machining opera­
tions, mathematics, blueprint read­
ing, and a good working knowledge
of the properties of metals will be
better able to adjust to the changing
job requirements that will result
from these technological advances.

The number of machine tool op­
erators is expected to show little
change through the 1970’s, despite

Machine tool operators are paid
hourly or incentive rates, or on the
basis of a combination of both
methods. In 40 selected metropoli­



tan areas surveyed in 1969-70
machine tool operators received
straight-time hourly earnings rang­
ing from $3.33 in Green Bay, Wis.,
to $4.87 in Detroit, Mich. Average
straight-time hourly earnings of
machine tool operators employed in
the following cities were:
B oston ...................................................$3.79
Buffalo ............................................... 4.48
C hicago............................................... 4.38
Cincinnati ........................................... 4.36
Cleveland ........................................... 4.24
Dallas ................................................. 3.37
Detroit ............................................... 4.87
Green Bay ......................................... 3.33
Houston ............................................. 3.76
Los Angeles-Long B e a ch ............... 4.32
Milwaukee ......................................... 4.63
New York ......................................... 3.81
Pittsburgh ........................................... 4.02
Portland, Oreg.................................... 3.96
St. Louis ........................................... 4.44
San Francisco-Oakland ................. 4.60.
Worcester ........................................... 3.42

Machine tool operators are re­
quired to wear protective glasses
and to avoid wearing loose-fitting
garments when working around
high speed machine tools. Increas­
ing emphasis upon these and other
safety regulations has reduced the
accident rate for these workers.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by machining
workers, unions that organize these
workers, and sources of additional

(D.O.T. 601.280, .281, .380, and .381)

Nature of the Work

Tool and die makers are highly
skilled, creative workers whose

products—tools, dies, and special
guiding and holding devices—are
the basis of mass production in
Toolmakers specialize in producing jigs
and fixtures (devices required to
hold metal while it is being shaved,
stamped, or drilled). They also
make gages and other measuring
devices that are used in manufactur­
ing precision metal parts. Die mak­
ers construct metal forms (dies)
which are used in stamping and
forging operations to shape metal.
They also make metal molds used in
diecasting and in molding plastics.
Tool and die makers also repair
worn or damaged dies, gages, jigs,
and fixtures. Some tool and die
makers help design tools and dies.
In comparison with most other
machining workers, tool and die
makers have a broader knowledge
of machining operations, shop prac­

tices, mathematics, and blueprint
reading, and can work to closer tol­
erances and do more precise hand­
work. Tool and die makers use al­
most every type of machine tool and
They work with all metals and al­
loys commonly used in manufactur­
ing and must be familiar with the
machining properties of these vari­
ous metals.

Places of Employment

The largest numbers of tool and
die makers are employed in plants
producing manufacturing, construc­
tion, and farm machinery and
equipment. The automobile, air­
craft, and other transportation
equipment industries also employ
large numbers of tool and die mak­
ers. Several thousand of these



craftsmen work in small tool and
die jobbing shops, making tools,
dies, and other machine tool acces­
sories for use in metalworking fac­
tories. Companies manufacturing
electrical machinery and fabricated
metal products are other important
employers of tool and die makers.
Many nonmetalworking industries
also employ them.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Tool and die making requires
several years of varied training and
experience which can be obtained
through formal apprenticeship or
equivalent on-the-job training. Since
this work is highly skilled, persons
planning to enter the trade should
have a good working knowledge of
mathematics and physics as well as
considerable mechanical ability,
finger dexterity, and an aptitude for
doing very precise work. In select­
ing apprentices, most employers
prefer young men who have a high
school or trade school education.
Some employers test apprentice ap­
plicants to determine their mechani­
cal aptitudes and their abilities in
A tool and die apprenticeship or­
dinarily lasts 4 or 5 years. Most of
the time is devoted to practical shop
training, which includes learning
how to use the drill press, milling
machine, lathe, grinder, and other
machine tools. The apprentice also
learns inspection work plus the use
of handtools in fitting and assem­
bling tools, gages, and other me­
chanical equipment. Tool and die
maker apprentices study heat treat­
ing and other metalworking proc­
esses. Classroom training is be­
coming increasingly important and
includes shop mathematics, shop
theory, mechanical drawing, tool

designing, and blueprint reading.
After apprenticeship, several years’
experience often is necessary to
qualify for more difficult tool and
die work. Some companies have
separate apprenticeship programs
for toolmaking and die making.
Many metal machining workers
have become tool and die makers
without completing formal appren­
ticeships. After acquiring years of
experience as skilled machine tool
operators or as machinists plus ad­
ditional classroom training, these
men have developed into all-round
workers who can skillfully perform
tool and die making.
The increasing complexity of
modern machinery and metalwork­
ing equipment is raising the techni­
cal requirements for tool and die
making. A knowledge of mathemat­
ics, the basic sciences, electronics,
and hydraulics will give young per­
sons entering this occupation
greater opportunities to advance
their careers.
Men who have had tool and die
training often advance to supervi­
sory and administrative positions in
industry. Many tool and die makers
become tool designers. Some open
their own tool and die shops.

Employment Outlook

Employment of tool and die mak­
ers is expected to increase slowly
through the 1970’s. However, most
job opportunities will become avail­
able as experienced tool and die
makers transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die.
The anticipated long-range ex­
pansion in the machinery, electrical
equipment, transportation equip­
ment, and other metalworking in­
dustries will result in a continued
need for tool and die makers to
make the tools and dies used to

produce the large numbers of iden­
tical metal parts required in these
industries. They also will be needed
to help put many technological de­
velopments into effect. However,
the expanding use of electrical-dis­
charge machines and numerical
control machines has significantly
changed tool making processes. Nu­
merically controlled machining op­
erations require fewer of the special
tools and jigs and fixtures that are
made by tool and die makers. In ad­
dition, numerically controlled ma­
chines could replace many of the
conventional machines now used in
manufacturing tools, jigs, and fix­
tures, thus increasing output per tool
and die maker.
Tool and die makers, as a group,
have a longer working life than
many other workers in the labor
force. Their jobs require extensive
skill and knowledge that can be ac­
quired only after many years of ex­
perience. For this reason, compa­
nies are reluctant to lay off tool and
die makers, even when production
is decreased. Tool and die makers
also have greater occupational mo­
bility than other less skilled
workers. They can transfer to jobs
as instrument makers or machinists.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Tool and die makers are among
the highest paid machining workers.
Those employed in various indus­
tries in 66 metropolitan areas sur­
veyed in 1969-70 were paid average
straight-time hourly earnings rang­
ing from $3.45 in Chattanooga,
Tenn., to $5.29 in San FranciscoOakland and San Jose, Calif.
Straight-time hourly earnings of tool
and die makers employed in the fol­
lowing cities were:
Atlanta ............................................... $4.55
Baltimore ........................................... 4.33


Birmingham .......................................
B oston .................................................
Buffalo ...............................................
Chattanooga .....................................
Chicago .............................................
Cleveland ...........................................
Dallas .................................................
Detroit ...............................................
Houston .............................................
Los Angeles-LongBeach ................
Milwaukee .........................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul ......................
Newark-Jersey City ........................
New York .........................................
Philadelphia .......................................
St. L o u is.............................................
San Francisco-Oakland...................
San Jose .............................................
Worcester ...........................................


used, for example, to regulate heat,
measure distance, record earth­
quakes, and control industrial proc­
esses. The mechanical instrument
parts and models made by these
workers range from simple gears to
intricate parts of navigation systems
used in guided missiles.
Instrument makers fabricate
metal parts by operating machine
tools, such as lathes and milling
machines, and by using handtools,
such as files and chisels. Because
accuracy is important, they measure
finished parts with a wide variety of

precision-measuring equipment, in­
cluding micrometers, verniers, cali­
pers, profilometers, and dial indica­
tors, as well as standard optical
measuring instruments.
Instrument makers work from
rough sketches, verbal instructions,
or ideas, as well as detailed blue­
prints. Thus, in making parts, they
frequently use considerable imagi­
nation and ingenuity. Instrument
makers sometimes work on parts
that must not vary from specifica­
tions by more than ten millionths of
an inch. To meet these standards,

See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of nonwage
benefits received by machining
workers, unions that organize these
workers, and sources of additional

(D.O.T. 600.280)

Nature of the Work

The expanding use of instruments
in production, research, develop­
ment, and testing work is making
the work of the instrument maker
increasingly important. Instrument
makers (also called experimental
machinists and modelmakers) work
closely with engineers and scientists
in translating designs and ideas into
experimental models, special labo­
ratory equipment, and custom in­
struments. They also modify
existing instruments for special pur­
poses. Experimental devices con­
structed by these craftsmen are

Instrument maker constructs glass part for scientific instrument.



they commonly use special equip­
ment or precision devices, such as
the electronic height gage, which
are used only infrequently by other
machining workers. They also work
with a variety of materials, includ­
ing plastics and rare metals such as
titanium and rhodium.
An instrument maker may con­
struct instruments from start to fin­
ish—making and assembling all the
parts and testing finished instru­
ments for proper operation. How­
ever, in large shops or where elec­
trical or electronic components are
to be incorporated into an instru­
ment, they frequently work with
other instrument makers, such as
electronic specialists, each making a
part of a complicated instrument.
Because they usually work on
their own and have highly devel­
oped manual skills and reasoning
abilities, instrument makers have
considerable prestige among their
fellow employees.
Places of Employment

Many instrument makers are em­
ployed by firms which manufacture
instruments. Research and develop­
ment laboratories also employ in­
strument makers to make the spe­
cial devices required in scientific re­
search. The Federal Government
employed several thousand instru­
ment makers in 1970.
The main centers of instrument
making are located in and around a
few large cities, particularly New
York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Bos­
ton, Philadelphia, Washington, De­
troit, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Roch­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Some instrument makers advance

from the ranks of machinists or
skilled machine tool operators.
These craftsmen, working at first
under close supervision and doing
the simpler jobs, usually need 1 to 2
years or more of instrument shop
experience to qualify as instrument
Most instrument makers learn
their trade through apprenticeships
which generally last 4 or 5 years. A
typical 4-year instrument maker ap­
prenticeship program consists of ap­
proximately 8,000 hours of shop
training and about 570 hours of re­
lated classroom instruction. The ap­
prentice’s shop training emphasizes
the use of machine tools, hand
tools, and measuring instruments,
and the working properties of vari­
ous materials. Classroom instruction
covers related technical subjects
such as mathematics, physics, blue­
print reading, chemistry, electron­
ics, and fundamental instrument de­
sign. The apprentice must learn
enough shop mathematics to plan
his work and use handbook formu­
las. A basic knowledge of mechani­
cal principles is needed in solving
gear and linkage problems.
For apprenticeship programs,
employers generally prefer high
school graduates who have studied
algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
science, and machine shop work.
Further technical schooling in elec­
tricity and electronics is often desir­
able, and may make possible future
promotions to technician positions.
A person interested in becoming
an instrument maker should have a
strong interest in mechanical sub­
jects and better-than-average abil­
ity to work with his hands. He must
have initiative and resourcefulness
because instrument makers often
work alone and almost always
under minimum or no supervision.
Since the instrument maker often
faces new problems, he must be

able to develop original solutions.
Frequently, he must visualize the
relationship between individual
parts and the complete instrument.
He must understand the principles
of the instrument’s operation. Be­
cause of the nature of his work, the
instrument maker has to be very
conscientious and take considerable
pride in creative work.
As the instrument maker’s skill
improves and as he broadens his
knowledge, he may advance to in­
creasingly responsible positions. Up
to 10 years’ experience is required
to rise to the top skill level of in­
strument making. By gaining addi­
tional training beyond the high
school level in subjects such as
physics and machine design, some
instrument makers may advance to
technician jobs. In these jobs, they
plan and estimate time and material
requirements for the manufacture of
instruments, or provide specialized
support to professional personnel.
Others may become supervisors and
train less skilled instrument makers.

Employment Outlook

The employment of instrument
makers is expected to increase
rapidly through the 1970’s, as a re­
sult of anticipated expansion of
metalworking activities and the
growing use of instruments in man­
ufacturing processes and research
and development work. (See discus­
sion, p. 450.) However, this occu­
pation is relatively small and few
openings will result in any one year.
Growing numbers of instrument
makers will be needed to make
models of new instruments that may
be mass-produced in the future, and
also to make custom or special pur­
pose instruments that are not
needed in large numbers. Many de­
vices made by these craftsmen will


be needed in the expanding field of
industrial automation. Also, many
new precision instruments, which
will be even more versatile and sen­
sitive than those in current use, can
be expected to emerge from grow­
ing research and development pro­
grams of universities, Government
agencies, private laboratories, and
manufacturing firms.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of instrument makers
compare favorably with those of
other highly skilled metalworkers.
In 1970, instrument makers gener­
ally earned between $3.50 and
$5.30 an hour for a standard work­
Instrument shops usually are
clean and well lighted. Room tem­
peratures usually are controlled in
shops where precision measuring in­
struments are used. Instrument as­
sembly rooms are usually clean and
are sometimes known as “White
Rooms,” where almost sterile con­
ditions are maintained.
Serious work accidents are not
common, but machine tools and
flying particles sometimes cause
finger, hand, and eye injuries.
Safety rules generally require the
wearing of special glasses, aprons,
tightly fitted clothes, and shirts with
elbow-length sleeves; the wearing of
neckties is prohibited.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by machining
workers, unions that organize these
workers, and sources of additional


(D.O.T. 600.380; 604.280 and .380;
605.380; and 619.380)

Nature of the Work

The setup man, often called a
machine tool job setter, is a skilled
specialist employed in plant and
machine shops that do machining in
large volume. His main job is to set
up machine tools—that is, to get
machine tools ready for use by semi­
skilled operators. He also may ex­
plain to these workers the opera­
tions to be performed, and show
them how to check the accuracy of
their work. Usually a setup man is
assigned a number of machine tools
which often are of one type, such as
turrent lathes. However, he may set
up several different kinds, such as
milling machines and automatic
screw machines. Working from
drawings, blueprints, written speci­
fications, or job layouts, he deter­
mines the rate at which the material

is to be fed into the machines, oper­
ating speeds, tooling, and operation
sequence. He then selects and in­
stalls the proper cutting or other
tools and adjusts guides, stops, and
other controls. He may make trial
runs and adjust the machine and
tools until the parts produced con­
form to specifications. The machine
is then turned over to a semiskilled
operator. The setup man may make
additional adjustments later to
maintain standardized production.

Places of Employment

Most setup men are employed in
factories that manufacture fabri­
cated metal products, transportation
equipment, and machinery. These
workers usually are employed by
large companies that employ many
semiskilled machine tool operators.
They usually are not employed in
maintenance shops or in small job­
bing shops.

Training and Other Qualifications

Setup man prepares jig borer.

To become a setup man, a
worker usually must qualify as an
all-round machinist or skilled ma­
chine tool operator. A setup man
must be thoroughly trained in the
operation of one or more kinds of
machine tools. He must read blue­
prints and make computations in se­
lecting speeds and feeds for machine
tools. The ability to communicate
clearly is important since he must
explain to a semiskilled machine tool
operator how to perform machining
operations and how to check ma­
chining accuracy. Above all, a setup
man must be skilled in selecting the
sequence of operations so that metal
parts will be made exactly to speci­
fications. Openings for setup men



usually are filled from within a shop
by promotion or reassignment.

Employment Outlook

Employment of setup men is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s, as a result of
the anticipated expansion of metal­
working activities. Additional job
opportunities will arise from the
need to replace experienced setup
men who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work.
The use of numerically controlled
machine tools may change the du­

ties of setup men. In the future,
setup men may only preset tools, in­
struct operators, and check the first
few parts that are produced. Since
setup men are skilled workers, their
chances for advancement or transfer
into other jobs, such as parts pro­
grammer, will remain good.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of setup men com­
pare favorably with those of other
skilled machining workers. In 1970,
setup men generally earned between

$3 and $5 an hour for a standard
Good safety habits are important
since the setup man must handle
sharp-cutting tools. He also may be
exposed to high speed machine
tools which have sharp-cutting in­
struments when he makes the trial
runs to test the accuracy of the
See the introductory section of
this chapter for a discussion of
non-wage benefits received by
machining workers, unions that or­
ganize these workers, and sources
of additional information.



Mechanics and repairmen—the
skilled workers who keep our auto­
mobiles, airplanes, industrial ma­
chinery, household appliances, and
similar equipment operating proper­
ly—make up one of the fastest
growing occupational groups in the
Nation’s labor force. This occupa­
tional field offers a variety of career
opportunities to young men who are
mechanically inclined and are will­
ing to invest a few years in learning
a trade.
Employment of mechanics and
repairmen totaled nearly 2.8 million
in 1970. More than one-third
(840,000) of these were automo­
tive mechanics, such as automobile
mechanics, truck or bus mechanics,
and automobile body repairmen.
Other large occupations—each em­
ploying more that 100,000 workers
—were appliance servicemen, busi­
ness machine servicemen, industrial
machinery repairmen, aircraft me­
chanics, and television and radio
service technicians. (See Chart 27)
Employment in some occupations,
including vending machine me­



chanic, electric sign serviceman,
bowling-pin-machine mechanic and
X-ray equipment serviceman, was
relatively small.
In addition to the nearly 2.8 mil­
lion mechanics and repairmen em­
ployed in 1970, about 450,000
workers were employed in four me­
chanics and repairmen related occu­
pations : maintenance electrician,
telephone repairman, millwright,
and watch repairman. Altogether,
these 3.2 million maintenance and
repair workers represented about 3
out of every 10 skilled workers.
Nearly 30 percent of the mechan­
ics and repairmen were employed in
manufacturing industries, and the
majority of these were employed in
plants that produce durable goods
such as transportation equipment,
machinery, primary metals, and fab­
ricated metal products. About 20
percent of the mechanics and re­
pairmen were employed in retail
trade—mainly by firms that sell and
service automobiles, household ap­
pliances, farm equipment, and other
mechanical equipment. Another 20

Employment in selected maintenance and repair occupations
Employment, 1970 (in thousands)


Automotive mechanics I."
Maintenance electricians
Appliance servicemen
Industrial machinery repairmen
Business machine servicemen
Telephone and PBX Installers and repairmen
Air conditioning and refrigeration mechanics
Instrument repairmen
Millwrights fH 3
Farm equipment mechanics
Vending machine mechanics
Watch repairmen
♦ in c l u d e s c e n t r a l o f f ic e c r a f t s m e n .








percent were employed in shops
that specialize in servicing such
equipment. Most of the remaining
mechanics and repairmen were em­
ployed in the transportation, con­
struction, and public utilties indus­
tries, and by Government at all
Most employment opportunities
for mechanics and repairmen occur
in the more populous and indus­
trialized States. About half of them
work in eight states: California,
New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, Il­
linois, Ohio, Michigan, and New

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many mechanics and repair men
learn their skills on the job or
through apprenticeship training.
Some acquire their basic training in
vocational and technical school, or
attend such schools to increase their
skills. Others qualify by taking cor­
respondence courses. Training and
experience in the armed services
also may help young men prepare
for occupations such as aircraft me­
chanic and television and radio serviceman.
Many employers consider a for­
mal apprentice training program to
be the best way to learn skilled
maintenance and repair work. An
apprenticeship consists of about 3
to 4 years of paid on-the-job train­
ing, supplemented each year by at
least 144 hours of related classroom
instruction. Formal apprenticeship
agreements are registered with a
State apprenticeship agency or the
U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training.
Employers look for applicants
who have mechanical aptitude and
manual dexterity. Many employers
prefer people whose hobbies or in­
terests include automobile repair,
model building, or radio and televi-



sion repair. A high school education
often is required for employment.
Employers also favor applicants
who have had courses in mathemat­
ics, chemistry, physics, blueprint
reading, and machine shop. Gener­
ally, apprentice applicants and other
trainees are required to be at least
18 years old and in good health.
Physical requirements for work
in this field vary greatly. For exam­
ple, a millwright should be strong
and agile, since he may need to
climb ladders, lift heavy equipment,
and work in awkward positions in
cramped spaces. On the other hand,
instrument and watch repairmen
need patience, finger dexterity, and
good vision. Persons with certain
physical handicaps can repair
Workers in most maintenance
and repair occupations have several
avenues of advancement. Some
move into a supervisory position,
such as foreman, maintenance man­
ager, or service manager. Special­
ized training prepares others to ad­
vance to sales, technical writing,
and technician jobs. Substantial
numbers of servicemen have opened
their own businesses.

Employment Outlook

Employment in maintenance and
repair occupations as a whole is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. Job openings
resulting from employment growth,
deaths, and retirements are expected
to average more than 130,000 a year
during this period. Additional job
openings will result as experienced
workers transfer to other occu­
pations. Automobile mechanics,
maintenance electricians, appliance
servicemen, aircraft mechanics, in­
dustrial machinery repairmen, in­

strument repairmen, and television
and radio service technicians will
find many employment opportuni­
Many factors are expected to
contribute to the growing demand
for mechanics and repairmen. The
anticipated rise in expenditures for
new plant and equipment will result
in more mechanization and the use
of more complex machinery and
equipment in many industries.
Greater research and development
expenditures probably will yield
new and, in many cases, more com­
plex products for use by industry
and consumers. Growing numbers
of household and higher levels of
personal spendable income will con­
tribute to an increased demand for
household appliances, automobiles,
lawnmowers, boats, and other items
that mechanics and repairmen serv­
In the future, applicants for
maintenance and repair jobs will
have to meet higher standards of
performance to maintain and repair
the increasingly complex equipment
coming into general use. Young
persons who acquire a good basic
education (including courses in
mathematics and science), as well
as thorough job training, will be
prepared better than other appli­
cants to compete for the higher pay­
ing jobs that are likely to be availa­
This chapter includes statements
on the following maintenance and
repair workers: Air-conditioning, re­
frigeration, and heating mechanics;
appliance servicemen; bowling-pinmachine mechanics; automobile
body repairmen; automobile me­
chanics; business machine service­
men; diesel mechanics; electric sign
servicemen; farm equipment me­
chanics; industrial machinery re­
pairmen; instrument repairmen;

wrights; motorcycle mechanics; tele­
vision and radio service technicians;
truck and bus mechanics; vending
machine mechanics; and watch re­
pairmen. Other maintenance and
repair workers are discussed in
other chapters in the Handbook.
For example, aircraft mechanics are
discussed in Civil Aviation Occupa­
tions and telephone and PBX in­
stallers and repairmen in Occupa­
tions in the Telephone Industry.

(D.O.T. 637.281 and .381; 862.281 and
.381; and 869.281)

Nature of the Work

and heating mechanics work on
cooling and heating equipment used
in homes, offices, schools, and other
buildings. Major occupations in this
fields are air-conditioning and refrig­
eration mechanic, furnace installer,
oil burner mechanic, and gas burner
mechanic. Many workers are skilled
in more than one of these trades.
This statement does not cover me­
chanics who work on railroad,
truck, automotive, or marine airconditioning
Air-conditioning and refrigera­
tion mechanics (D.O.T. 637.281
and .381) install and repair equip­
ment ranging in size from small
window air-conditioners to large
central-plant type air-conditioning
or refrigeration systems. When in­
stalling new equipment, the me­
chanic puts the motors, compres­
sors or absorption equipment, evap-


orators, and other components in
place, following blueprints and de­
sign specifications. He connects duct
work, refrigerant lines, and other
piping and then connects the equip­
ment to an electrical power source.
After completing the installation,
he charges the system with refriger­
ant and checks it for proper opera­
When air-conditioning and refrig­
eration equipment breaks down,
the mechanic diagnoses the cause
and makes the necessary repairs.
When looking for defects, he may
inspect components such as relays
and thermostats. Tools and equip­
ment used include electric drills,
pipe cutters and benders, acetylene
torches, and testing devices such as
refrigerant gages and ammeters.
862.381 and 869.281), also called
heating equipment installers, follow
blueprints or other specifications to
install oil, gas, and electric heating
units. After setting the heating unit
in place, they install fuel pipes, air
ducts, pumps, and other compo­
nents. They then connect electrical
wiring and controls, and check the
unit for proper operation.
Oil burner mechanics (D.O.T.
862.281) keep oil-fueled heating
systems in good operating condition.
During the fall and winter, they serv­
ice and adjust oil burners and oilfueled heating systems. The me­
chanic determines the reason a
burner is not operating properly by
checking the thermostat, burner
nozzles, controls, and other parts.
The mechanic may carry a large
stock of replacement parts in his
truck to make repairs in the cus­
tomer’s home or business. However,
if major repairs are necessary, he
usually completes the work in the re­
pair shop. During the summer the
mechanic services heating units, re­
places oil and air filters, and vac­


uum cleans vents, ducts, and other
parts of the heating system that ac­
cumulate soot and ash.
Gas burner mechanics (D.O.T.
637.281), also called gas appli­
ance servicemen, have duties similar
to those of oil burner mechanics.
They diagnose malfunctions in gasfueled heating systems and make
necessary repairs and adjustments.
They also may repair cooking
stoves, clothes dryers, and hot water
heaters. During the summer me­
chanics employed by gas utility
companies may inspect and repair
gas meters.
Furnace installers, oil burner me­

chanics, and gas burner mechanics
use a variety of tools, including
hammers, wrenches, metal snips,
electric drills, pipe cutters and
benders, and acetylene torches.
They also use testing devices such
as vacuum gages, volt meters, air
velocity meters, and electronic cir­
cuit testers.
Cooling and heating systems
sometimes are installed or repaired
by craftsmen other than the mechan­
ics discussed here. For example, on
a large air-conditioning installation
job, especially where workers are
covered by union-management con­
tracts, duct work might be done by



sheet-metal workers; electrical work
by electricians; and installation of
piping, condensers, and other com­
ponents by pipefitters. Appliance
servicemen often install and repair
window air conditioners. Additional
information about appliance service­
men appears elsewhere in the Hand­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most air-conditioning, refrigera­
tion, and heating mechanics start as
helpers and acquire their skills by
working for several years with expe­
rienced mechanics. Beginners per­
form simple tasks, such as insulating
refrigerant lines or cleaning fur­
naces. As helpers gain experience,
they are given progressively more
complicated tasks such as installing
Places of Employment
pumps and burners and checking
An estimated 115,000 air-condi­ circuits.
tioning, refrigeration, and heating
A growing number of employers
mechanics were employed in 1970. prefer high school graduates who
These mechanics worked mainly for have had courses in mathematics,
dealers and contractors who special­ physics, and blueprint reading. Me­
ize in selling and servicing cooling chanical aptitude and an interest in
and heating equipment; construction electricity also are important quali­
companies; fuel oil dealers; and gas fications. A good physical condition
utility companies. Air-conditioning helps in lifting and moving heavy
and refrigeration mechanics, as well equipment.
as furnace installers, were employed
Many high school and vocational
primarily by cooling and heating schools cooperate with local em­
dealers and contractors. Fuel oil ployers and organizations such as
dealers employ most oil burner me­ the Air-Conditioning and Refrigera­
chanics, and gas utility companies tion Institute and the National Oil
employ most gas burner mechanics. Fuel Institute in offering basic me­
Air-conditioning and refrigeration chanics courses. These courses may
mechanics, and furnace installers last from 2 to 3 years and consist of
are employed in all parts of the on-the-job training and classroom
country. Generally, the geographic instruction. In 1970, unemployed
distribution of these workers is simi­ and underemployed workers were
lar to that of our population. The trained in programs lasting up to a
employment of oil burner mechan­ year in many cities under the Man­
ics is concentrated in States where power Development and Training
oil is a major heating fuel. More Act. Additional on-the-job training
than half of these workers are em­ and experience is needed to qualify
ployed in New York, Masachusetts, these students as skilled mechanics.
Apprenticeship programs for
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecti­
cut, and Illinois. Similarly, the em­ pipefitters, electricians, and sheetployment of gas burner mechanics is metal workers often include training
concentrated in States where gas is a in air-conditioning, refrigeration,
major heating fuel. More than half and heating. Journeymen in these
of these workers are employed in trades may specialize in installing
California, Texas, Ohio, Illinois, and maintaining air-conditioning, re­
Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New frigeration, and heating equipment.
Additional information about these

trades appears elsewhere in the

Employment Outlook

Employment of air-conditioning,
refrigeration, and heating mechanics
is expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
the anticipated employment growth,
a few thousand job openings will
arise annually to replace experi­
enced mechanics who retire or die.
Openings also will occur as experi­
enced mechanics transfer to other
Most new openings will be for
air-conditioning and refrigeration
mechanics. Anticipated increases in
household formations and rising
personal incomes indicate a very
rapid increase in the number of airconditioned homes. Air-condition­
ing in offices, stores, hospitals,
schools, and other nonresidential
buildings also is expected to in­
crease. In addition, more refrigera­
tion equipment will be needed in
the production, storage, and mar­
keting of food and other perishables.
Employment of furnace installers
and gas burner mechanics is ex­
pected to follow the rapid growth
trends in the construction of homes
and businesses. However, these
workers may experience some com­
petition for jobs as a result of the
small but rapidly growing number
of electrically heated homes and
businesses. Electric heating systems
usually are installed and serviced by
Employment of oil burner me­
chanics is expected to remain fairly
stable during the 1970’s, since rela­
tively few new homes are being
built with oil heating systems. Nev­
ertheless, employment opportunities
for oil heating mechanics will occur


as experienced mechanics retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings data for air condition­
ing, refrigeration, and heating me­
chanics are not available on a na­
tional basis. In 1970, however, sev­
eral employers indicated that
straight-time hourly rates for skilled
mechanics ranged from about $3.25
to $7. Skilled mechanics generally
earned between two and three times
as much as inexperienced helpers.
Rates of pay for helpers and me­
chanics depended on factors such as
level of skill, type of equipment
worked on, and geographic area.
For example, mechanics who
worked on both air-conditioning
and heating equipment frequently
had higher rates of pay than those
who worked on only one type of
Wage rates may range considera­
bly higher for electricians, pipefit­
ters, and sheet-metal workers who
are employed by construction firms
specializing in air-conditioning, re­
frigeration, and heating work.
Union minimum hourly rates for
journeymen construction electri­
cians, pipefitters, and sheet-metal
workers averaged $6.82, $6.93, and
$6.75, respectively, on July 1, 1970.
(See individual statements on these
trades for additional wage informa­
tion. )
Most mechanics work a 40-hour
week. However, during seasonal
peaks they often work overtime or
irregular hours. Air-conditioning
and refrigeration mechanics are
busiest during spring and summer.
Oil burner mechanics and gas
burner mechanics are busiest during
fall and winter. Most employers try
to provide their mechanics with a


full workweek the year round, but
they may temporarily reduce their
hours of work or lay off some of
them when seasonal peaks end.
However, employment in most
shops that install and service both
air-conditioning and heating equip­
ment is fairly stable throughout the
Mechanics sometimes are re­
quired to work at great heights
when installing new equipment.
They also may work in awkward or
cramped positions to reach motors
or other parts of the equipment they
are repairing. Common hazards in
this trade include electrical shock,
torch burns, muscle strains, and
other injuries that may result from
handling heavy equipment.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about employment
opportunities for air-conditioning,
refrigeration, and heating mechanics
can be obtained from the local
office of the State employment serv­
ice, as well as firms that employ
these workers. The State employ­
ment service also may be a source
of information about training op­
portunities available under the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act, apprenticeship, and other
training programs.
Information about advanced
training in air-conditioning and re­
frigeration may be obtained from
the Refrigeration Service Engineers
Society, 433 North Waller Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60644.
Information about oil heating
systems training may be obtained
from the Education Department,
National Oil Fuel Institute, 60 East
42nd St, New York, N.Y. 10017,
or its local or State organization.
General information about gas
burner mechanics may be obtained

from the American Gas Associa­
tion, Inc, 605 Third Ave, New
York, N.Y. 10016.

(D.O.T. 637.281, 723.381, and 827.281)

Nature of the Work

Appliance servicemen repair ap­
pliances that range from small, rela­
tively uncomplicated items such as
toasters and irons, to large appli­
ances that may have complex con­
trol systems, such as refrigerators
and automatic washing machines.
To repair appliances, the service­
man first determines why they are
not operating properly and then in­
stalls new parts, repairs parts, or
makes adjustments. Appliance serv­
icemen usually specialize in the re­
pair of either electric or gas appli­
ances, and in the case of large appli­
ances, specialize in the repair of a
single type, such as clothes washers
and dryers, refrigerators, freezers,
or dishwashers.
To determine why an appliance is
not operating properly, servicemen
may ask customers how the appli­
ance performed when it was used
previously. They may operate an
appliance to detect unusual noises;
overheating; excess vibration; and
broken, worn, or loose parts. Serv­
icemen also look for common
sources of trouble such as faulty
gas, electric, and fluid lines and con­
nections. To check electric and gas
systems, they use special tools and
testing devices, including ammeters,
ohmmeters, voltmeters, and manom­
eters, combustion test equipment,
and vacuum and pressure gages.
After servicemen determine why



an appliance is not operating prop­
erly, they make the necessary re­
pairs and adjustments. This work
frequently involves replacing parts
that receive extra wear, such as
electric cords on small appliances,
or cleaning parts such as the lint fil­
ters in clothes dryers. To remove
old parts and install new ones, serv­
icemen use common handtools, in­
cluding screwdrivers and pliers, and
may use special wrenches and other
handtools designed for use on par­
ticular appliances.
Most refrigerators and other
large appliances are repaired in the
customers’ homes. However, if
major repairs are necessary, the ap­
pliance is removed to a repair shop.
Small appliances usually are
brought to a repair shop by the cus­
An important part of the work of
most appliance servicemen is per­
sonal contact with customers. They
answer customers’ questions and
complaints about appliances and
frequently advise customers about
their care and use. For example,
they may demonstrate to house­
wives the proper loading of auto­
matic washing machines or how to
arrange dishes in dishwashers.
Appliance servicemen have vari­
ety in their work. They may drive
light trucks or automobiles, some
equipped with two-way radios.
They may give estimates to custom­
ers on the cost of repair jobs, and
usually keep records of parts used
and hours worked on each repair

Places of Employment

An estimated 220,000 appliance
servicemen were employed through­
out the country in 1970, mostly in
independent repair shops and serv­
ice centers of retail establishments

such as department and appliance
stores. Other were employed in
service centers operated by appli­
ance manufacturers and wholesale
distributors of appliances and by gas
and electric utility companies.
Appliance servicemen are em­
ployed in almost every community.
Most servicemen, however, are em­
ployed in the more highly populated
States and metropolitan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Appliance servicemen usually are
hired as helpers and acquire their
skills through on-the-job training
and work experience. Inexperienced
men are given relatively simple
work assignments. In some compa­
nies, they work for the first few
months helping to install appliances
in homes, driving service trucks,
and learning street locations. In
other companies, they begin to learn
the skills of appliance servicemen
by working in the shop where they
rebuild used parts such as washing
machine transmissions. Trainees
gradually learn how motors, gears,
and other appliance parts operate.
They progress from simple repair
jobs, such as replacing a switch, to
more difficult jobs such as adjusting
automatic washing machine con­
trols. In addition to practical experi­
ence on the job, trainees frequently
receive classroom instruction given
by appliance manufacturers and
local distributors. Many trainees
take correspondence courses in
basic electricity and electronics or
attend technical schools to increase
their skills in appliance repair.
Trainees usually are supervised
closely for 6 to 12 months. By this
time, most gas-appliance service­
men can repair several kinds of ap­
pliances on their own, and they may

be given responsibility for their own
service trucks and for appliance
parts and tools. Electrical-appliance
servicemen usually need up to 3
years’ on-the-job experience to be­
come fully qualified. Many experi­
enced servicemen attend training
classes (often on company time)
and study service manuals to be­
come familiar with new appliances
and the best ways to repair them.
Appliance servicemen must un­
derstand, in a practical way, how to
use equipment that measures elec­
tricity and how to use measure­
ments to determine whether electri­
cal currents in appliances are flow­
ing properly. A knowledge of wiring
diagrams that show electrical con­
nections and current flow between
appliance parts also is important. A
knowledge of electronics is neces­
sary to perform some appliance re­
pair jobs.

Programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers for
entry jobs in the appliance service
field were operating in many cities


in 1970 under the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act. These
programs lasted from several weeks
to a year; most lasted longer than 5
months. Through additional training
and experience, graduates of these
programs can eventually become
skilled servicemen.
Employers prefer applicants hav­
ing good mechanical aptitude, par­
ticularly high school and trade
school graduates who have had
courses in electricity, mathematics,
and science. Some employers, in co­
operation with local high schools
and trade schools, provide students
with an opportunity to gain practical
experience by working part-time in
appliance repair shops while attend­
ing school. Additional on-the-job
training and work experience after
graduation can qualify these stu­
dents as skilled appliance service­
Appliance servicemen who work
in large repair shops or service cen­
ters and show technical proficiency
may be promoted to foreman, assist­
ant service manager, or service
manager. Preference is given to
men who also have shown ability to
cooperate with other servicemen
and with customers. A general
knowledge of bookkeeping and
other subjects related to managing a
business is helpful. Experienced
servicemen who have sufficient funds
may open their own appliance sales
or repair shops.
Servicemen who work for appli­
ance manufacturers may become in­
structors, who teach servicemen
to repair new models of appliances,
or technical writers, who prepare
service manuals. A few servicemen
may advance to managerial posi­
tions such as regional service or
parts manager.


Employment Outlook

Employment of appliance serv­
icemen is expected to grow
rapidly through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to opportunities resulting from
growth, thousands of opportunities
will arise annually to replace experi­
enced servicemen who retire, die,
or transfer to other kinds of work.
The number of household appli­
ances in use is expected to increase
rapidly during the 1970’s. Factors
that will contribute to the demand
for appliances include increasing
population and family formations;
rising levels of personal income; in­
troduction of new appliances; and
improved styling to make existing
models more attractive and easier to
operate. In addition, more wide­
spread use of appliances such as
electric can openers, waste dispos­
ers, home clothes dryers, dishwash­
ers, and knife sharpeners is ex­
Employment of appliance serv­
icemen is not expected to increase
as rapidly as the number of appli­
ances in use. Although the auto­
matic operation of some types of
appliances has tended to make them
more complicated, manufacturers
are designing appliances with more
durable components, and appliances
that can be taken apart and repaired
more easily. In addition, employers
are increasing the efficiency of
servicemen through more effective

some earned as much as $5.30. In­
experienced helpers generally start at
$2 to $3 an hour. The wide varia­
tions in wage rates for servicemen
and their helpers reflect differences
in type of employer, geographical
location of the job, the type of
equipment serviced, and skill levels.
Many appliance servicemen work
more than 8 hours a day and re­
ceive higher rates of pay for over­
time. Most appliance servicemen re­
ceive paid vacations, sick leave,
health insurance, and other em­
ployee benefits, as well as credit to­
ward retirement pensions.
Appliance repair shops are rela­
tively quiet, well lighted, and ade­
quately ventilated. When repairing
small appliances, servicemen usu­
ally sit at benches. Working condi­
tions outside the shop vary consid­
erably. Servicemen sometimes work
in narrow spaces, uncomfortable
positions, and places that are not
clean. Servicemen who repair large
appliances may spend several hours
a day driving between customers’
Appliance repair work generally
is safe, although accidents are possi­
ble while the serviceman is driving,
handling electrical parts, or lifting or
moving large appliances. Inexperi­
enced men are shown how to use
tools safely and instructed in simple
precautions against electric shock.
The work of appliance service­
men often is performed with little
direct supervision. This feature of
the job appeals to many people.

Earnings and Working Conditions

National earnings data are not
available for appliance servicemen.
However, wage data obtained from a
large number of employers and un­
ion-management contracts in 1970
indicated that most experienced
servicemen earned more than $3 and

Sources of Additional Information

Further information about jobs in
the appliance service field may be
obtained from local appliance repair
shops, appliance dealers, gas and
electric utility companies, appliance
manufacturers, and local offices of



the State employment service. Local
vocational schools that offer courses
in appliance servicing, electricity,
and electronics can provide help­
ful information about training. The
State employment service also may
provide information about the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
Information about training pro­
grams or work opportunities in this
field also may be obtained from:
Association of Home Appliance
Manufacturers, 20 North Wacker
Drive, Chicago, 111. 60606.
National Appliance and Radio-TV
Dealers Association, 318 W. Ran­
dolph St., Chicago, 111. 60601.
Gas Appliance Manufacturers Asso­
ciation, 1901 North Fort Myer
Drive, Arlington, Va. 22209.

(D.O.T. 807.381)

Nature of the Work

Automobile body repairmen are
skilled craftsmen who repair dam­
aged motor vehicles by straighten­
ing bent frames, removing dents
from fenders and body panels,
welding torn metal, and replacing
badly damaged parts. Body repair­
men usually are qualified to repair
all types of vehicles, although most
work mainly on automobiles and
small trucks. Some specialize in re­
pairing large trucks, buses, or truck
Before making repairs, body re­
pairmen generally receive instruc­
tions from their supervisors, who
determine which parts are to be re­
stored or replaced, and who esti­

mate the amount of time the repairs
should take. When repairing dam­
aged fenders and other body parts,
the body repairman may first re­
move body hardware, window oper­
ating equipment, and trim in order
to gain access to the damaged area.
To reshape the metal, he may push
large dents out with a hydraulic jack
or hand prying bar, or knock them
out with a hand tool or pneumatic
hammer. He smoothes remaining
small dents and creases by holding a
small anvil against one side of the
damaged area while hammering the
opposite side. Very small pits and
dimples are removed from the metal
by pick hammers and punches.
The body repairman may remove
badly damaged sections of body
panels with a pneumatic metalcut­
ting gun or acetylene torch, and
weld in new sections. If the damage
tears the metal, he welds the torn
edges. He shrinks stretched metal
by repeatedly heating the area with
an acetylene torch and striking it
with a hammer to restore the
metal’s original shape.
The automobile body repairman
uses solder or plastic to fill small
dents that he cannot work out of the
metal. Before applying solder, he
cleans the dent and coats it with liq­
uid tin so that the solder will adhere
to the surface. He softens the solder
with a torch and uses a wooden
paddle or other tool to mold it to
the desired shape. When the solder
has hardened, the body repairman
files or grinds it down to the level of
the adjacent metal.
After being restored to its origi­
nal shape, the repaired surface is
sanded in preparation for painting.
In most shops, automobile painters
do the painting. (These workers are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) Some smaller shops employ
workers who are combination body
repairmen and painters.

The automobile body repairman
uses special machines to align dam­
aged vehicle frames and body sec­
tions. He chains or clamps the
machine to the damaged metal and
applies hydraulic pressure to
straighten it. He also may use spe­
cial devices to align damaged vehi­
cles that have “unit-bodies” instead
of frames. In some shops, the
straightening of frames and unitbodies is done by a body repairman
who specializes in this type of work.
The body repairman’s work is
characterized by variety because the
repair of each damaged vehicle pre­
sents a different problem. There­
fore, in addition to having a broad
knowledge of automobile construc­
tion and repair techniques, he also
must develop appropriate methods
for each repair job. Most body re­
pairmen find their work challenging
and take pride in being able to re­
store damaged automobiles.
Automobile body repairmen usu­
ally work by themselves with only
general directions from foremen. In
some shops, they may be assisted by

Places of Employment

More than 100,000 automobile
body repairmen were employed in
1970. Most of them worked in
shops that specialized in automobile
body repairs and painting, and in
the service departments of automo­
bile and truck dealers. Other em­
ployers included organizations that
maintain their own fleets of motor
vehicles, such as trucking compa­
nies and buslines, and Federal, State,
and local governments. Motor vehi­
cle manufacturers employed a small
number of these workers.
Automobile body repairmen can
find employment opportunities in
every section of the country. About



Automobile body repairman hammers out dents.

half of them work in the nine States
with the largest number of motor
vehicles: California, Texas, New
York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Michigan, Florida, and New Jersey.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most automobile body repairmen
learn the trade on-the-job. Young
persons usually start as helpers and
pick up the skills of the trade from
experienced workers. Helpers begin
by assisting body repairmen in tasks
such as removing damaged parts,
installing repaired surfaces in prep­

aration for painting. They gradually
learn how to remove small dents
and make other minor repairs, and
progress to more difficult tasks as
they gain experience. Generally, 3
to 4 years of on-the-job training is
necessary to become a fully quali­
fied body repairman.
Although most workers who be­
come automobile body repairmen
pick up the skills of the trade infor­
mally through on-the-job experi­
ence, most training authorities rec­
ommend the completion of a 3- or
4-year formal apprenticeship pro­
gram as the best way for young men
to learn this trade. These programs

include both on-the-job and related
classroom instruction.
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed workers
for entry automobile body repair­
men jobs are in operation in many
cities under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act. These programs, which last up
to a year, stress the fundamentals of
automobile body repair. Persons
who complete these programs need
additional on-the-job or apprentice­
ship training before they can qualify
as skilled body repairmen.
Young persons interested in be­
coming automobile body repairmen
should be in good physical condition
and have good eye-hand coordina­
tion. Courses in automobile body
repair, offered by a relatively small
number of high schools, vocational
schools, and private trade schools,
provide helpful experience, as do
courses in automobile mechanics.
Although completion of high school
is not generally a requirement for
an entry job, many employers be­
lieve graduation indicates that a
young man can “finish a job.”
Automobile body repairmen usu­
ally are required to own their handtools, but power tools ordinarily are
furnished by the employer. Many of
these craftsmen have a few hundred
dollars invested in tools. Trainees
are expected to accumulate tools as
they gain experience.
An experienced automobile body
repairman with supervisory ability
may advance to shop foreman.
Many body repairmen open their
own shops.

Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile body
repairmen is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s. In
addition to the job openings result­


ing from employment growth, more
than a thousand openings are ex­
pected each year from the need to
replace experienced body repairmen
who retire or die. Job openings also
will occur as some body repairmen
transfer to other occupations.
The number of body repairmen is
expected to increase primarily as a
result of the rising number of motor
vehicles damaged in traffic. Acci­
dents are expected to continue to in­
crease as the number of motor vehi­
cles in use grows, even though new
and improved highways, driver
training courses, added safety fea­
tures on new vehicles, and stricter
law enforcement may slow down the
rate of increase.
The favorable employment effect
of the rising number of motor vehi­
cle accidents will be offset some­
what by developments that will in­
crease the efficiency of body repair­
men. For example, the growing
practice of replacing rather than re­
pairing damaged parts, the use of
plastics for filling dents, and im­
proved tools will enable these
workers to complete jobs in less

Earnings and Working Conditions

Body repairmen employed by au­
tomobile dealers in 34 cities had av­
erage straight-time earnings of
$5.51, based on a survey in late
1969. Average hourly earnings of
these workers in individual cities
ranged from $3.83 in ProvidencePawtucket, R.I., to $7.67 in De­
troit, Mich. Skilled body repairmen
usually earn between two and three
times as much as inexperienced
helpers and trainees.
Many experienced body repair­
men employed by automobile deal­
ers and independent repair shops
are paid a commission, usually


about 50 percent of the labor cost
charged to the customer. Under this
method, a worker’s earnings depend
mainly on the amount of work he is
assigned and how fast he completes
it. Employers frequently guarantee
their commissioned body repairmen
a minimum weekly salary. Helpers
and trainees are usually paid an
hourly rate until they are sufficiently
skilled to work on commission.
Body repairmen employed by truck­
ing companies, buslines, and other
organizations that maintain their
own vehicles usually receive an
hourly wage rate. Most body repair­
men work 40 to 48 hours a week.
Many employers of body repair­
men provide holiday and vacation
pay, and additional benefits such as
life, health, and accident insurance.
Some also contribute to retirement
plans. Body repairmen in some
shops are furnished with laundered
uniforms free of charge.
Automobile body shops are noisy
because of the banging of hammers
against metal and the whir of power
tools. Most shops are well venti­
lated, but often they are dusty and
the odor of paint is noticeable.
Body repairmen often work in awk­
ward or cramped positions, and
much of their work is strenuous and
dirty. Hazards include cuts from
sharp metal edges, burns from
torches and heated metal, and inju­
ries from power tools.
Many automobile body repair­
men are members of unions, includ­
ing the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers;
the International Union, United Au­
tomobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of Amer­
ica; the Sheet Metal Workers’
International Association; and the
International Brotherhood of Team­
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen
and Helpers of America (Ind.). Most
body repairmen who are union

members are employed by large au­
tomobile dealers and by trucking
companies and buslines.
Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
work opportunities for automobile
body repairmen, inquiries should be
directed to local employers, such as
automobile body repair shops and
automobile dealers; locals of the un­
ions previously mentioned; or the
local office of the State employment
service. The State employment serv­
ice also may be a source of infor­
mation about the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act, appren­
ticeship, and other programs that
provide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of automobile body repairmen
may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry Asso­
ciation, 230 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605.

(D.O.T. 620.131 through .381, .782, and
.885; 721.281 and 825.281)

Nature of the Work

Automobile mechanics keep the
Nation’s automobiles in good oper­
ating condition. They perform pre­
breakdowns, and make repairs.
(Although truck mechanics, who
repair large trucks; bus mechanics,
who repair large buses; and auto­
mobile body repairmen are some­
times called “automobile mechan­


ics,” they are discussed separately
in the Handbook.)
Preventive maintenance is the pe­
riodic examination, and adjustment,
repair, or replacement of parts. It is
an important responsibility of the
mechanic and is vital to safe and
trouble-free driving. When perform­
ing preventive maintenance, the me­
chanic may follow a checklist to be
sure he examines all important parts
of the car. He may, for example,
examine and decide whether to re­
place worn parts, such as distributor
points; clean, adjust, or replace
spark plugs; adjust the carburetor;
and balance the wheels.
When mechanical or electrical
troubles occur, the mechanic first
obtains a description of the symp­
toms from the owner. If the cause
of the trouble is not evident imme­
diately, he may visually inspect and
listen to the motor, or drive the car.
He also may use a variety of testing
equipment, such as motor analyzers,
spark plug testers, compression
gauges, and electrical test meters.
The ability to make an accurate di­
agnosis in a minimum of time is one
of the mechanic’s most valuable
skills and requires analytical ability
as well as a thorough knowledge of
a car’s operations. Many skilled me­
chanics consider diagnosing “hard
to find” troubles one of their most
challenging and satisfying duties.
When the mechanic locates the
cause of the trouble, he adjusts, re­
pairs, or replaces unserviceable
parts. For example, he may replace
a fuel pump, grind valves, adjust the
ignition timing, clean the carbu­
retor, or machine the brake drums.
In addition to the testing equip­
ment mentioned previously, auto­
mobile mechanics use many other
kinds of tools and equipment. These
may range from simple handtools
(screwdrivers, wrenches, pliers), to
complicated and expensive ma­


chines and equipment that help the
mechanic make repairs. Examples
of this equipment are wheel alinement machines and headlight aim­
ers. Mechanics also consult repair
manuals and parts catalogs, since
different makes of automobiles re­
quire different parts and adjust­
Most automobile mechanics per­
form a variety of repairs. Some me­
chanics, such as automatic transmis­
sion specialists, tune-up men, auto­
mobile air-conditioning specialists,
front-end mechanics, and brake me­
chanics specialize in one or two
types of repair. However, specialists
with all-round skills also may per­
form general automobile repair
work. Other specialists, such as au­

tomobile radiator mechanics and
automobile glass mechanics, who do
not have all-round skills, usually
work exclusively at their specialties.
The types of work done by some
mechanic specialists are described
briefly below:
Automatic transmission special­
ists repair and replace linkage, gear
trains, couplings, hydraulic pumps,
and other parts of automatic trans­
missions. Automatic transmissions
are complex mechanisms; their re­
pair requires considerable experi­
ence and training, including a
knowledge of hydraulics. Tune-up
men adjust the ignition timing and
valves, and adjust or replace spark
plugs, distributor breaker points,
and other parts to insure efficient



engine performance. They often use
scientific test equipment to locate
malfunctions in fuel and ignition
systems. Automobile air-condition­
ing specialists install air-condition­
ers and repair and adjust compo­
nents such as compressors and con­
densers. Front-end mechanics align
and balance wheels and repair
steering mechanisms and suspension
systems. They frequently use special
alignment testing equipment and
wheel-balancing machines. Brake
mechanics adjust brakes, replace
brake linings, resurface brake
drums, repair hydraulic cylinders,
and make other repairs on brake
systems. Those employed in repair
shops that specialize in brake serv­
ice also may replace shock absorb­
ers, springs, and mufflers. In some
shops, combination front-end and
brake mechanics are employed. Au­
tomobile-radiator mechanics clean
radiators with caustic solutions, lo­
cate and solder radiator leaks, and
install new radiator cores. They also
may repair heaters and air-condi­
tioners, and solder leaks in gasoline
tanks. Automobile-glass mechanics
replace broken or pitted windshield
and window glass and repair manual
and power-window mechanisms.
They install pre-formed glass to re­
place curved windows, and may cut
some replacement glass from flat
sheets by using window patterns
and glass cutting tools. Shops that
repair both automobile radiators
and glass may employ mechanics
who are skilled in both specialties.

Places of Employment

Most of the more than 600,000
automobile mechanics employed in
1970 worked for automobile deal­
ers, independent automobile repair
shops, and gasoline service stations.
Many others were employed by

Federal, State, and local govern­
ments, taxicab and automobile leas­
ing companies, and other organiza­
tions that maintain and repair their
own automobiles. Some mechanics
also were employed by automobile
manufacturers to make final adjust­
ments and repairs at the end of the
assembly line. A small number of
mechanics were employed by de­
partment stores that have automo­
bile service facilities.
Most automobile mechanics work
in shops employing from one to five
mechanics, but some of the largest
repair shops employ more than a
hundred. Generally, automobile
dealer shops are larger than inde­
pendent repair shops.
Automobile mechanics are em­
ployed in every section of the coun­
try. About half of them work in the
nine States with the largest number
of motor vehicles: California,
Texas, New York, Ohio, Pennsylva­
nia, Illinois, Michigan, Florida, and
New Jersey.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most automobile mechanics learn
the trade through on-the-job experi­
ence. Young persons usually start as
helpers, lubrication men, or gasoline
service station attendants, and grad­
ually acquire the necessary knowl­
edge and skills by working with ex­
perienced mechanics. Although a
beginner can learn to do simple
kinds of repair work after a few
months’ experience, 3 to 4 years are
required to become an all-round me­
chanic, and an additional year or
two to learn a difficult specialty,
such as automatic transmission re­
pair. In contrast, radiator mechan­
ics, glass mechanics, and brake
specialists, who do not need an all­
round knowledge of automobile re­

pair, may learn their specialties in
about 2 years.
Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of a 3- or 4year formal apprenticeship program
as the best way to become an all­
round mechanic. These programs
include both on-the-job training and
related classroom instruction in
nearly all phases of automobile re­
For entry jobs, employers look
for young persons with mechanical
aptitude and an understanding of
automobile construction and opera­
tion. Generally, a driver’s license is
required. Practical experience in
automobile repair gained from
working as a gasoline service station
attendant, training in the Armed
Forces, or working on cars as a
hobby may be helpful. Courses in
automobile repair offered by many
high schools, vocational schools,
and private trade schools also are
valuable. Courses in science and
mathematics help a person better
understand how an automobile op­
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed workers
seeking entry jobs as automobile
mechanics are in operation in a
large number of cities under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act. These pro­
grams, which last up to a year,
stress basic maintenance and repair
work. Persons who complete this
training are able to make simple re­
pairs, but they still need additional
on-the-job or apprenticeship train­
ing before they can qualify as
skilled mechanics.
Completion of high school is an
advantage in obtaining an entry me­
chanic job because to most em­
ployers high school graduation indi­
cates that a young person can
“finish a job,” and has potential for



Most mechanics are required to
purchase their own handtools. Be­
ginners are expected to accumulate
tools while they gain experience.
Many experienced mechanics have
several hundred dollars invested in
their tools. Employers furnish en­
gine analyzers and other test equip­
ment, power tools, and special tools
for servicing units such as automatic
Employers sometimes send expe­
rienced mechanics to factory train­
ing centers to learn how to repair
new car models or receive special
training in subjects such as auto­
matic transmission or air-condition­
ing repair. Manufacturers also send
representatives to local shops to
conduct short training sessions. A
relatively small number of young
high school graduates are selected
by automobile dealers to attend fac­
tory-sponsored mechanic training
programs for beginners.
A young person considering a ca­
reer as an automobile mechanic
should have strength and manual
dexterity in order to handle tools
and equipment. Good mechanics
read many service and repair man­
uals to keep abreast of changes in
automobile engineering. A pleasing
personality is helpful in dealing with
customers who are irate over repair
bills or car breakdowns. Mechanics
work independently and are able to
see the results of their labor.
Capable and experienced me­
chanics in a large shop may advance
to a supervisory position, such as
repair shop foreman or service
manager. Many mechanics open
their own repair shops or gasoline
service stations.

erately through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to the job openings resulting
from employment growth, several
thousand openings are expected
each year from the need to replace
experienced mechanics who retire
or die. Job openings also will occur
as some mechanics transfer to other
Employment is expected to in­
crease because expansion of the
driving age population, consumer
purchasing power, and multicar
ownership will create a demand for
more automobiles. Employment of
mechanics also is expected to grow
because a greater number of auto­
mobiles will be equipped with ex­
haust emission control devices, airconditioning, and other features that
increase maintenance requirements.
Primarily because of greater
efficiency in the shop, employment
of mechanics is not expected to
grow as rapidly as the number of
automobiles. For example, in­
creased mechanic specialization and
growth in the use of test equipment
(such as dynamometers and engine
analyzers) should reduce the time
needed to diagnose malfunctions
and check the quality of repairs. In
a growing number of large shops,
mechanics skilled in operating dyna­
mometers and other kinds of test
equipment determine needed re­
pairs, then route the automobiles to
mechanics who specialize in a partic­
ular kind of repair work. Also ex­
pected to improve efficiency are
greater emphasis on replacement
rather than on repair of defective
parts, better shop management, and
improved training methods.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile me­
chanics is expected to increase mod­

Skilled (journeymen) automobile
mechanics employed by automobile
dealers in 34 cities had average

straight-time hourly earnings of
$5.16, based on a survey in late
1969. Average hourly earnings of
these workers in individual cities
Providence-Pawtucket, R.I., to
$6.13 in Detroit, Mich. Skilled me­
chanics usually earn between two
and three times as much as inexpe­
rienced helpers and trainees.
A large proportion of the experi­
enced mechanics employed by auto­
mobile dealers and independent re­
pair shops are paid a commission,
usually about 50 percent of the
labor cost charged to the customer.
Undej this method, the mechanic’s
weekly earnings depend on the
amount of work he is assigned and
how fast he completes it. Employers
frequently guarantee their commis­
sioned mechanics a minimum
weekly salary. Helpers and trainees
usually are paid an hourly rate until
they are sufficiently skilled to work
on commission. Some mechanics—
for example, those employed by or­
ganizations that repair their own
fleets of automobiles—receive an
hourly rate.
Most mechanics work between
40 and 48 hours a week but may
work even longer during busy pe­
riods. Mechanics paid on an hourly
basis frequently receive overtime
rates for hours worked in excess of
40 a week.
Many employers of automobile
mechanics provide holiday and va­
cation pay, and additional benefits
such as life, health, and accident in­
surance. Some also contribute to re­
tirement plans. Laundered uniforms
are furnished free of charge by
some employers.
Generally, a mechanic works in­
doors. Modern automobile repair
shops are well ventilated, lighted,
and heated, but older shops may not
have these advantages.
The work of the mechanic fre­



quently requires working with dirty
and greasy parts, working in awk­
ward positions, and lifting heavy ob­
jects. Minor cuts and bruises are
common. Serious accidents usually
are avoided by observing safety
Some mechanics are members of
labor unions. Among the unions or­
ganizing these workers are the In­
ternational Association of Machin­
ists and Aerospace Workers; the In­
ternational Union, United Automo­
bile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America;
the Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association; and the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.).

Where To Go for More Information

For further information regarding
work opportunities for automobile
mechanics, inquiries should be di­
rected to local employers such as
automobile dealers and independent
repair shops; locals of the unions
previously mentioned; or the local
office of the State employment serv­
ice. The State employment service
also may be a source of information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of automobile mechanics may
be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry Asso­
ciation, 230 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605.
National Automobile Dealers Asso­
ciation, 2000 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 639.381 and 829.281)

Nature of the Work

Bowling-pin-machine (or auto­
matic pinsetting) mechanics repair,
maintain, and adjust the tens of
thousands of pinsetting machines in
use today. When a breakdown oc­
curs, the mechanic determines its
cause and makes the necessary ad­
justments or repairs. He may par­
tially or completely disassemble
components of a machine to repair
or replace defective parts. After he
reassembles the machine, he adjusts
it for proper operation.
A pinsetting machine is a com­
plex mechanism that automatically
performs a series of operations—re­
turns the bowling ball to the bowler,
clears the pin deck of fallen pins,
and conveys and distributes the pins
to a pinsetting mechanism that re­
sets them on the pin deck. Pinset­
ting machines are electrically pow­
ered and electrically or mechani­
cally controlled.
A pinsetting machine mechanic
maintains various gap or clearance
adjustments in belts, chains, and
other drive devices; adjusts the
clutch and brakes; and inspects
bearings, sliding surfaces, and shock
absorbers. He also maintains elec­
trically controlled systems.
Much of the mechanic’s work­
time is spent in preventive mainte­
nance. He regularly inspects and
tests pinsetting machines, and
cleans, oils, greases, and adjusts
them. In his work, the mechanic ap­
plies knowledge gained through
training, on-the-job experience, and
the use of operating and trouble­
shooting manuals.

equipment, the mechanic uses many
different types of tools and equip­
ment, such as pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers, hammers, portable
hoists, and lubricating guns. In
electrical maintenance and repair
work, the mechanic may use solder­
ing irons, feeler gages, and crimping
tools. He uses continuity testers,
ammeters, and voltmeters to test
electrical circuits, relays, solenoids,
transformers, and motors. To assist
him in this work, he uses diagrams
of electrical circuits. Often the me­
chanic will purchase his own set of
handtools, but the employer usually
supplies special tools.
The mechanic may supervise one
or more assistant mechanics, train­
ees, and pinchasers. He is often
called upon to instruct trainees in
locating and correcting minor mal­
functions in pinsetting machines.
Such instruction includes demon­
strating how the machine operates
as well as disassembling compo­
nents and explaining their function.
He shows trainees and pinchasers
how to break minor jams and recon­
dition bowling pins. He also ex­
plains proper safety procedures.
Some clerical work is done by the
mechanic. He maintains a stock of
repair parts by keeping inventory
records and ordering replacements
when necessary. He also may keep
records of machine breakdowns and
estimate maintenance costs.

Places of Employment

About 6,000 mechanics were
employed in 1970. Most worked in
commercial bowling establishments.
The remainder, about 5 percent,
were employed by manufacturers of
automatic pinsetting machines to in­
stall and service machines of bowl­
ing establishments. Although the
primary responsibility of manufac­


turers’ mechanics is to inspect
equipment periodically for proper
operation, they may be called in to
repair major breakdowns that me­
chanics in bowling establishments
cannot handle.
Although mechanics and their as­
sistants are employed in every State,
employment is concentrated in the
more populated areas, where there
are many bowling establishments.
Of the more than 10,000 bowling
establishments in operation in early
1970, the majority were located in
New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Ohio, Michigan, California, Wiscon­
sin, Minnesota, New Jersey, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Pinsetting machine mechanics
usually start out as pinchasers, as­
sisting mechanics in individual
bowling establishments. Many pinchasers, who demonstrate mechani­
cal ability and willingness to learn,
become trainees and are sent to a
mechanics’ training school main­
tained by bowling-machine manu­
facturers. To become a trainee at a
factory school, candidates are re­
quired to take written tests to deter­
mine their mechanical aptitude and
personality traits. Usually, trainees
must be at least 16 years old. Train­
ees’ wages and expenses during the
training period, which usually lasts
4 weeks, are paid by employers.
Trainees study the structure and op­
eration of machines manufactured
by the firm operating the school and
learn to locate typical sources of
trouble. They learn preventive
maintenance procedures, how to
read wiring diagrams, and how to
use the tools of the trade. Their
training also includes actual repair
work on demonstration machines.


After attending factory schools,
trainees usually need several
months of on-the-job experience be­
fore they acquire the skills of the
Trainees who do not attend fac­
tory schools acquire their skills on
the job by observing experienced
mechanics at work and by receiving
instruction in machine operation
and maintenance, typical malfunc­
tions, and safety procedures. They
also do actual repair work, pro­
gressing from simple to more com­
plex jobs as their skills increase.
Usually, 1 to 2 years of such train­
ing and experience is necessary for
trainees to acquire mechanics’ skills.
Employers prefer to hire pinchas­
ers who are high school graduates,
although many workers in this trade
have not completed high school.
Courses in electricity, blueprint

reading, and machine repair are
Qualified mechanic trainees em­
ployed in commercial bowling es­
tablishments may be promoted to
assistant mechanic and then to head
mechanic. Mechanics can become
managers or proprietors of bowling
establishments. Those who work for
manufacturers may advance to the
position of service manager or in­
structor in a training school.
A young person planning a career
as a bowling-pin-machine mechanic
should have good eyesight (includ­
ing color vision), physical strength,
and eye-hand coordination. He also
should have mechanical abilities
and like to work with his hands.
The job requires a person who can
work independently in an isolated
area. Because speed is usually es­
sential in repairing pinsetting ma-


chines, he should be capable of
working under pressure.

Employment Outlook

Little or no change in the num­
ber of bowling-pin-machine me­
chanics is expected through the
1970’s. However, many job open­
ings will result each year to replace
workers who retire, die, or leave
their jobs for other reasons.
Trends in the growth of bowling
facilities, as well as developments in
pinsetting machine technology, will
be a major influence in the employ­
ment of mechanics in the future. Al­
though the demand for bowling fa­
cilities is likely to grow as a result of
expanding population, rising income
levels, and more leisure time for
recreation, employment of mechan­
ics is not likely to increase. Older
pinsetting machines are being re­
placed by improved models which
need less maintenance; thus me­
chanics are able to service a greater
number of machines.

Earnings and Working Conditions

National wage data are not avail­
able for pinsetter mechanics, assist­
ant mechanics, and pinchasers.
However, wage data from unionmanagement contracts in mid-1970
covering a large number of these
workers in large metropolitan areas
on the East and West Coasts and in
the Midwest show a very wide range
of pay rates. Straight-time hourly
rates ranged from $2.15 to $3.75
for mechanics, from $1.84 to $3.14
for assistant mechanics, and from
$1.53 to $2.45 for pinchasers.
On the East Coast and in the
Midwest most mechanics and their
assistants work a 48-hour, 6-day
week. On the West Coast, most of


them work a 40-hour, 5-day week.
Nightwork and work on Sundays
and holidays is common. Workers
covered by union-management con­
tracts receive premium pay for ov­
ertime. In addition, union-manage­
ment agreements usually provide
for 1 week paid vacation after a
year’s service, 2 weeks after 2
years’ service, and 3 weeks after 5
years’ service. These agreements
also call for 4 to 8 paid holidays a
year. Many contracts provide health
insurance and pension plans
financed entirely by employers.
Mechanics and their assistants
work in a long, relatively narrow
corridor at one end of a bowling es­
tablishment where the automatic
machines are located. The work
area includes space for a work­
bench. The workspace is usually
well lighted and well ventilated, but
quite noisy when the lanes are in
operation. When making repairs
and adjustments, repairmen fre­
quently have to climb and balance
their bodies on the framework of
the pinsetting machines, and to
stoop, kneel, crouch, and crawl
around the machines. Mechanics
employed by manufacturers to in­
stall and service pinsetting machines
are required to do considerable
Repairmen usually are not re­
quired to wear any special safety
devices, such as goggles. Safety
guards are provided on the pin-set­
ting machines, but workers are sub­
ject to common shop hazards, such
as electrical shock, cuts, falls, and
bruises. Repairmen often wear cov­
eralls to protect themselves from
grease and dirt.
Mechanics, assistant mechanics,
and trainees employed in large met­
ropolitan areas generally are mem­
bers of unions; usually the Service
Employees’ International Union or
the International Brotherhood of

Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse­
men, and Helpers of America
Sources of Additional Information

A young man who wishes to ob­
tain further information about train­
ing or work opportunities in this
trade should contact proprietors of
commercial bowling establishments
in his area, the local bowling pro­
prietors’ association, or locals of the
unions previously mentioned. The
local office of the State employment
service is another source of infor­
mation about employment and
training opportunities.

(D.O.T. 633.281 and 828.281)

Nature of the Work
and Places of Employment

Business machine servicemen
maintain and repair the increasing
numbers and types of office equip­
ment used for correspondence, for
recording and processing transac­
tions, and for duplicating and mail­
ing information. Equipment used
for these purposes includes type­
writers, adding and calculating
machines, cash registers, electronic
computers and other data-processing devices, dictating and transcrib­
ing machines, and mailing, duplicat­
ing, copying, and microfilm equip­
ment. These machines are becoming
increasingly complex as electric and
electronic control components are
incorporated in them.
Servicemen do much of their


work in the offices where the ma­
chines are used. Servicemen may
maintain this equipment on a regu­
lar basis, returning at frequent in­
tervals to inspect the machines, to
clean and oil them, and to make
minor adjustments or repairs. They
also may be called to an office to
check or repair a defective machine.
On office calls, servicemen usually
question the operator about the
condition of the machine. They
often have to explain to operators
how various features of the ma­
chines can best be used and how to
avoid machine damage.
When inspecting business ma­
chines, the serviceman usually
checks the operation of various
parts of the equipment to see if they
work properly or to find the source
of reported trouble. For example, he
may strike the keys of a typewriter
or calculator, rotate the drum of a
duplicating machine, or feed punchcards to a tabulator or sorter. In ad­
dition, he may check type or photo­
graphic devices for alinements and
rollers for dryness or compactness.
He may make voltage checks of
electric or electronic components.
The serviceman may take a ma­
chine to the company’s servicing de­
partment for a major repair or over­
In addition to common handtools,
such as screwdrivers, pliers, and ad­
justable wrenches, business machine
servicemen frequently use gauges
and meters and other test equipment
and tools designed for special pur­
poses. In large service shops, serv­
icemen use power tools such as drill
presses, lathes, and other power
Business machine servicing offers
considerable variety in work assign­
ments. This work requires the appli­
cation of analytical ability to a wide
range of problems. Many persons
find considerable satisfaction in


being able to diagnose and correct
the cause of trouble in a faulty
machine. Some manufacturers’ serv­
icemen have the opportunity to
evaluate and report on recom­
mended improvements in new and
existing company products.
Besides responsibilities for main­
tenance and repair, servicemen may
engage in sales activities. Most com­
monly, they sell preventive mainte­
nance contracts for machine servic­
ing on a regular basis. Some serv­
icemen also are expected to sell
supplies, such as special paper, ink,
ribbons, and stencils, used with par­
ticular machines.
Business machine servicemen are
employed in several types of firms.
Most of them work in the sales and
service offices of business machine
manufacturers; others, in independ­
ent business machine repair shops;
the remainder, for large organiza­
tions that have enough machines to
justify full-time servicemen.
In a manufacturer’s branch office,
servicemen usually work exclusively
on the manufacturer’s products.
They specialize in one or two ma­
chines or service the full line of
equipment. In a small city, speciali­
zation is impractical and most serv­
icemen are “full-line.” In these
instances, service and selling new
equipment usually are combined.
Servicemen employed by inde­
pendent dealers maintain and repair
the many makes and models of
office machines used in the com­
munity. Most dealers sell and serv­
ice typewriters. Some also sell and
service adding machines, dictating
machines, and less complex types of
duplicating and copying equipment.
Other dealers specialize in the sales
and service of adding and calculat­
ing machines, cash registers, and
bookkeeping-accounting machines.
Most independent dealers employ
fewer than five servicemen, al­

though some large dealers may em­
ploy as many as 10 or 15.
Business machine servicing jobs
are found throughout the country.
Even relatively small communities
usually have at least one or two
shops which repair machines. How­
ever, most business machine serv­
icemen work in large cities, where
the majority of business machines
are located.
Typewriter Servicemen (D.O.T.
633.281). The principal work of the
estimated 19,000 typewriter serv­
icemen employed in 1970 was the
maintenance and repair of manual
and electric typewriters. Typewrit­
ers are the most widely used busi­
ness machines. They are used in al­
most every business office, as well
as by many individuals in their
homes. Though the operation of
electric typewriters and mechanical
typewriters differs, the two types are
similar enough that, with additional
training, the servicemen who special­
ize in the repair of mechanical type­
writers usually can learn to repair
the electric machines. Some service­
men maintain and repair more so­
phisticated equipment, such as
tape-fed automatic typewriters and
interchangeable typeface machines,
some of which operate in conjunc­
tion with small computers. These
machines are considerably more
complicated than regular typewrit­
ers and extensive training, usually
provided by the manufacturer, is re­
quired before servicemen may qual­
ify to repair them.
Typewriter servicemen are em­
ployed both in the sales and service
branches of typewriter manufac­
turers and by local independent
dealers. Many servicemen operate
their own maintenance and repair
shops. Typewriter servicemen are
found in almost every sizable com­
munity throughout the Nation.
Adding Machine Servicemen


(D.O.T. 633.281). In 1970, about use large numbers of adding ma­
5,000 business machine service­ chines.
Calculating Machine Servicemen
men worked mainly on adding ma­
chines which are less complex than (D.O.T. 633.281). About 10,000
most office machines. In some cases, calculating machine servicemen
servicing of both adding machines were employed in 1970. Calculating
and calculators is done by the machines add, subtract, divide, mul­
same employee. The repair of add­ tiply, and perform combinations of
ing machines and simpler calculat­ these operations. In some shops,
ing machines often provides experi­ servicing of calculators is combined
ence for advancement to work on with the servicing of other business
more complicated equipment such machines, particularly adding ma­
as bookkeeping and accounting chines and accounting-bookkeeping
machines. In some independent es­ machines.
tablishments, adding machines are
Most of the men who service cal­
serviced by men who also repair culators are employed in manufac­
turer’s sales and service branches.
Adding machine servicemen are Some independent dealers employ
employed both in manufacturers’ men skilled in the maintenance and
sales and service branches and by repair of calculators. Others are em­
independent dealers. Other sources ployed by the Federal Government
of employment are Federal, State, and some large business organiza­
and local governments, and a few tions.
large banks and other firms which


(D.O.T. 633.281). Repairing cash
registers was the main work of ap­
proximately 4,000 business machine
servicemen in 1970. Next to type­
writers, cash registers are the most
widely used business machines. The
simplest models merely record trans­
actions, add receipts, and provide a
change drawer. The more compli­
cated cash registers simultaneously
record several different kinds of in­
formation on each transaction (such
as identification of the clerk, depart­
ment, type of merchandise, payment
given, and change due), provide
printed receipts, and dispense
change and trading stamps to the
Most cash register servicemen
work in the sales and service
branches of the few manufacturing
firms making these machines. Some
of the repair work, especially in
smaller communities, is done by in­
dependent dealers who also main­
tain and repair other business ma­
chine Servicemen (D.O.T. 633.281).
The repair of accounting-bookkeep­
ing machines was the main work of
more than 2,500 business machine
servicemen in 1970. These machines
perform a variety of operations.
Some post entries and some do bill­
ing, but others combine the func­
tions of typewriters and computing
devices. All models have keyboards,
like those on typewriters and adding
machines. These machines are used
in firms that have a great deal of ac­
counting and bookkeeping work,
such as department stores, large re­
tail and wholesale businesses, and
banks. Many of the newer models
are adjusted to fit the accounting
procedures used in an individual
customer’s office. Servicemen set up
the controls or programs for these
machines from plans which have


been devised by the customers and
manufacturers’ salesmen.
machine servicemen are employed
in the sales and service branches of
equipment. Very few work in inde­
pendent repair shops.
Data-Processing Equipment Serv­
icemen (D.O.T. 828.281). Nearly
30,000 men were employed in 1970
to install, modify, and maintain
groups of machines (systems) used
to process large volumes of ac­
counting-statistical data. These men
are the most skilled business ma­
chine servicemen and must have a
good knowledge of electronics. The
machines that they service include
mechanical and electromechanical
devices of varying complexity and
highly complicated electronic com­
puters. However, even those ma­
chine systems which include the
most advanced computers depend to
a high degree on associated equip­
ment having electromechanical op­
erating and control mechanisms.
This auxiliary equipment feeds in­
formation to the computer for data
processing and converts the proc­


essed data to printed form for im­
mediate use and to magnetic tape
and punchcards for recordkeeping
and further processing. Machines
used in data-processing systems in­
clude computers, tabulators, card
punchers, sorters, collators, con­
verters, tape transports, printers,
and numerous other devices.
Data-processing machine service­
men are employed principally by
firms which manufacture and serv­
ice this equipment. They may
work anywhere in the United States,
but they are usually stationed in the
larger cities. Some are assigned to a
large system in one location; others
have territories containing a number
of machines or systems.
Dictating Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 623.281). In 1970, about
700 men serviced machines which
record dictation on disks, belts, or
tape to be played back for typing.
In addition to standard office dictat­
ing machines, servicemen install and
maintain central recording and tran­
scribing systems.
Dictating machine servicemen
must have a knowledge of electronic
fundamentals to maintain and repair

sound-amplifying components of
this equipment. Mechanical skills
are essential in maintenance work
on drive mechanisms needed to
control the movement of the record­
ing disk or belt.
Dictating machine servicemen are
employed throughout the country
with concentrations in the large
business and commercial centers.
Most servicemen work in the sales
and service branches of business
equipment manufacturers or for
their distributors. Typewriter and
adding machine servicemen em­
ployed by some independent dealers
also service dictating machines.
Duplicating and Copying Machine
Servicemen (D.O.T. 633.281).
About 6,500 men were employed
in 1970 to maintain and repair du­
plicating and copying machines.
These machines are used to make
one or more paper copies of printed
or written information. The proc­
esses used in these machines range
widely, from highly complex meth­
ods for large volume reproduction
to relatively simple methods used in
desk-top copiers.
The office duplicator is essen­
tially an offset printing press requir­
ing a special plate for reproduction.
A serviceman should be familiar
with basic printing principles and
technologies. Frequently, an office
duplicator is operated in conjunc­
tion with photomechanical plate
making equipment that also may be
serviced by the office duplicator
The office copier is an electrome­
chanical device which produces sin­
gle or multiple copies direct from an
original. The equipment used in a
single process may vary considera­
bly, from relatively simple hand-op­
erated devices used to make up to
five paper copies to highly compli­
cated electromechanical machines



which can quickly duplicate several
hundred copies.
When servicing duplicating or
copying machines, the serviceman
adjusts, oils, repairs, or replaces
parts such as rollers, belts, or gear
mechanisms. If the equipment has
electric or electronic components,
he may check voltages to determine
the need for adjustment or replace­
ments of parts. He also may clean
the machine so that it will function
properly and produce clear copy.
Duplicating and copying machine
servicemen employed by some com­
panies also service microfilm equip­
ment used in office operations. The
maintenance and repair of paper­
handling mechanisms used to speed
the movement of documents, in­
cluding drawings, through the pho­
tographic equipment is generally
similar to that used in duplicating
machines. The men who, service this
equipment, however, must under­
stand the photographic process used
in order to properly aline the optical
devices so as to produce clear,
sharp negatives.
Most duplicating and copying
machine servicemen are employed
in the branch sales and service
offices of manufacturers or by their
Servicemen of Postage and Mail­
ing Equipment (D.O.T. 633.281).
More than 2,000 servicemen were
employed in 1970 to maintain the
many different types of office ma­
chines needed to handle the billions
of pieces of mail sent each year by
business firms in this country. These
office machines included postage
meters, addressing and imprinting
machines, and folding and inserting
equipment. Data-processing ma­
chines, used for tabulating and im­
printing acount information, also
are used in addressing operations
where the volume of accounts justi­
fies their use.

Servicemen who work on these
machines install the equipment and
adjust, oil, clean, and repair or re­
place components to keep the
equipment in working order. As
with most paper handling equip­
ment, rollers and other manipulat­
ing devices driven by belt or gear
mechanisms are the components
most frequently requiring mainte­
nance. Since most postage and mail­
ing equipment is electrically pow­
ered and an increasing number of
machines use electric or electronic
controls, the servicemen must have
a basic knowledge of electricity. In
addition, a knowledge of electronic
theory is a decided advantage.
Most men who service postage
and mailing equipment are em­
ployed in the branch offices of
equipment manufacturers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Usually applicants for entrance
jobs as business machine service­
men must have at least a high
school education. Applicants who
have not completed high school,
however, are accepted by some
companies if they can demonstrate
superior mechanical aptitude or
have had qualifying mechanical or
electrical experience. Completion of
high school becomes particularly
important, however, when a service­
man has acquired basic skills and is
seeking to work on more complex
equipment or to be promoted to su­
pervisor. Applicants interested in
chanical and electronic equipment
are required to have 1 year or more
of training or experience in mechan­
ics or electronics to qualify.
Applicants for entrance jobs
often have to pass one or more

tests. The most frequently tested
characteristic is mechanical apti­
tude, followed by a knowledge of
basic electricity or electronics, man­
ual dexterity, general intelligence
and abstract reasoning. Good eye­
sight, including color vision, also is
Employers look for applicants
who have a pleasant, cooperative
manner. Most machine servicing is
done in customers’ offices and a
serviceman’s ability to do his work
with the least interference to office
routine is very important. A neat
appearance and ability to converse
effectively also are desired charac­
Some employers require business
machine servicemen to be bonded.
Applicants for these jobs must have
a record of honesty and trustworthi­
ness because, in their work service­
men are brought in proximity to
large sums of money and other val­
uables in banks, offices, and other
establishments. Servicemen also
may collect money for services per­
formed and office supplies delivered
to their customers.
Young persons entering the busi­
ness machine servicing field gen­
erally begin as trainees and acquire
their skills through on-the-job train­
ing, work experience, and instruc­
tion in manufacturers’ training
schools. Courses in business ma­
chines maintenance and repair, con­
ducted by some State and city
vocational schools and by private
correspondence schools, are avail­
able to trainees and others interested
in this field of work. In addition,
programs to train unemployed and
underemployed workers as office
machine servicemen were operating
in several cities in 1970 under pro­
visions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act.
Business machine servicemen
who are hired for work in a manu­


facturer’s branch office are trained
to service only the company’s line
of machines. Trainees usually at­
tend company schools from several
weeks to several months, depending
on the type of machine they will
service. They then receive from 1 to
3 years of practical experience and
on-the-job training before they are
considered fully qualified. During
this period, they may occasionally
go back to factory schools for addi­
tional training. Even after becoming
skilled workers, they may return to
school for special instruction in new
business machine developments. In
addition to training in company
schools, servicemen at manufac­
turers’ branch offices are encour­
aged to broaden their technical and
general knowledge during their non­
working hours. Many companies
provide full or partial tuition grants
for a variety of courses at academic
institutions, as well as for homestudy courses in subjects related to
the serviceman’s work.
Men in independent establish­
ments generally learn the trade by
working with experienced service­
men who instruct them in the skills
of the trade. Occasionally, men em­
ployed by an independent dealer
who is authorized to sell and service
a manufacturer’s products will be
sent to the manufacturer’s school
for training. Generally, however,
men in independent shops receive
little formal training.
Length of training depends on
the kind of establishment in which a
man is employed. In independent
shops, the time required to become
a skilled serviceman tends to be
somewhat longer than in manufac­
turers’ branches because of the
greater variety of machines and the
generally informal nature of the
The training period also varies in
relation to the complexity of the


equipment and the serviceman’s
ability to become thoroughly skilled
in the maintenance, repair, and
other activities associated with less
complicated business machines,
such as typewriters, adding ma­
chines, and some photocopy equip­
ment. For the servicing of calculat­
ing machines, about 2 years of
training and experience are re­
quired. Cash register repairmen
learn their work in from 2 Vi to 3 Vi
years, the last 6 months of which
are usually spent in the company
school. Skilled accounting-book­
keeping machine repairmen gener­
ally must have at least 3 to 4 years
of training and experience. The first
1 to 2 years may consist of servicing
adding machines, calculators, or
cash registers, since this is consid­
ered valuable background for
Most machines used in data-processing systems contain electrical
equipment; many have electronic
components. The companies which
manufacture and service these
machines, therefore, usually require
that applicants have some knowl­
edge of electricity or electronics. In
qualifying for employment in the
maintenance of the complex elec­
tronic data-processing machines,
college or technical institute courses
in engineering are helpful, if not es­
sential. Young veterans who have
had electronics training in the
Armed Forces are especially desired
by employers in this field. Because
of the complexity of some computer
systems, these servicemen usually
must have considerable analytical
ability, as well as a broad technical
background. For example, they may
have to be familiar with computer
programing to identify programing
procedures as a possible cause of a
malfunction. Applicants hired as
trainees generally spend their first 2

months in on-the-job training. If
they prove satisfactory, they are
sent to a company school for a pe­
riod of from 3 to 6 months. After
completing the course, they work
under supervision until they acquire
enough skill to service and repair on
their own. This period usually lasts
from 12 to 18 months.
Business machine servicemen
may move into sales positions
where earnings usually are greater.
In some cases, service and sales
work are combined. Men who show
exceptional abilities also have op­
portunities for promotion to fore­
man, service manager, or other su­
pervisory positions, and to service­
man training or product engineering
divisions of their companies. Expe­
rienced men sometimes open their
own repair shops; men who work in
the branch offices of some manufac­
turers are sometimes given sales
franchises from the company and
become independent dealers.

Employment Outlook

The rapidly growing business
machine industry will provide many
thousands of job openings for
servicemen each year during the
1970’s. Opportunities also will
occur because of the need to re­
place experienced workmen who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
The estimated 80,000 business
machine servicemen in 1970 more
than tripled the number employed
during the mid-1950’s. The rapid
growth is expected to continue as
many more types of office machines
do all kinds of clerical work. In re­
cent years, many technical changes
have occurred in long-established
types of business machines. For ex­
ample, electric typewriters and add­
ing machines have been replacing

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102