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U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1700

Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library

^PK 2 7 1972
document collection

Pointers on Using the Handbook

To learn the contents and arrangement of this Handbook see How the Handbook is Organ­

ized, page 5;

To locate an occupation or industry in this book, see:

Table of Contents, page ix.
Alphabetical Index, page 853.

For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on Tomorrow’s

Jobs, page 13.

Forecasts of the future are precarious! To interpret the standards on the outlook in each

occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 13, as well as the methodology
presented in the Technical Appendix, page 851.

The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your information up

to date, see the chapter on Sources of Additional Information or Assistance, page 9.

You may need local information too. The Handbook gives facts about each occupation for

the United States as a whole. For suggestions on sources of additional information
for your own locality, see page 10.

S u b s c r ib e T o T h e O c c u p a t io n a l O u t lo o k Q u a r t e r ly , A n
E s s e n t ia l C o m p a n io n T o Y o u r H a n d b o o k
*it keeps up to date the volatile field of manpower and occupational information
* it reports promptly on new occupational research results
"it analyzes legislative, educational, and training developments that will help
young people with their career plans
Order form on back cover of this handbook



U.S. Department of Labor
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

Bulletin 1700

'j g r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $6.25



In both human and economic terms, employment can be one of life’s most rewarding
experiences. A good job offers the pride of human achievement, an opportunity for indi­
vidual growth, and a sense of personal usefulness. It also provides the welcome security of
an adequate income.
But satisfying employment seldom is achieved without wise and informed career plan­
ning. Individuals must examine their own interests, abilities, and goals, and must know
which occupations are best suited to these traits. Future workers also must know which
skills will be needed in tomorrow’s working world; skills that are obsolete or in oversupply
are no passport to rewarding careers.
We at the Department of Labor believe that the Occupational Outlook Handbook con­
tains information necessary to intelligent career planning. This edition provides information
for more than 800 occupations so that young persons, veterans, women returning to the
labor force, and others choosing careers can determine which jobs are best suited to their
individual needs. The Handbook discusses the nature of work in different occupations, as
well as earnings, job prospects during the 1970’s, and education and training requirements.
This information can help tomorrow’s workers prepare for jobs that have a good future in
our changing society.
Knowing that the men and women who enter the work force during the 1970’s will
be the best educated and most highly skilled workers in our history, the Department of
Labor dedicates this Occupational Outlook Handbook to the hope that they also will be the
most satisfied.

J. D. HODGSON, Secretary of Labor


Prefatory Note
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is the major publication resulting from the
Bureau of Labor Statistics continuing program of research in occupational and manpower
trends. Published every other year, the Handbook contains job descriptions and employ­
ment outlook information for white-collar, blue-collar, and service occupations. The publi­
cation is designed as a basic reference source for vocational counselors and manpower
planners, as well as for individuals seeking career information.
The 1972-73 edition of the Handbook updates previously published occupational in­
formation and also presents 26 new occupational and industry outlook statements. Many
of the additions reflect the growing demand for health and service workers. New statements
describe, for example, biomedical engineering as well as promising subprofessional health
occupations, such as electrocardiograph technician, occupational therapy aide, surgical
technician, and optometric assistant. In addition, other new statements describe the work
of parking lot attendants, guards and watchmen, city managers, social welfare aides, and
insurance specialists.
Information in the Handbook, both updated and new, is based on BLS analyses of
information received from industry officials, labor organizations, trade associations, profes­
sional societies, government agencies, and other organizations. The assistance of these in­
dividuals and groups is sincerely appreciated.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is proud to serve those who seek vocational informa­
tion through its occupational outlook program. Other outlook program publications include
reprints of individual Handbook statements and the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a
magazine which reports occupational developments and research occurring between Hand­
book editions.
GEOFFREY H. MOORE, Commissioner
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Letter From the American Personnel and Guidance Association
As our Nation continues its economic growth and technological advancement, new
jobs are created and others become obsolete. Keeping abreast of these changes and in­
formed regarding vocational opportunities is an ongoing responsibility for the counselor.
To be effective in the career exploration and decision-making process, counselors and clients
must have, as one important resource, relevant information about current and projected job
descriptions and employment practices.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is to be commended for the effective utilization of its
research facilities to provide the timely, readable, and useful information contained in the
Occupational Outlook Handbook and its companion publication the Occupational Out­
look Quarterly.

D onna R. Chiles, President
American Personnel and Guidance Association

Letter From the Veterans Administration

A quarter of a century has passed since publication of the first edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook. Developed initially as an outgrowth of a project to meet the
needs of the Veterans Administration for sound occupational information in counseling
World War II veterans seeking to return to school and work, the Handbook over the years,
in a variety of settings, has deservedly achieved wide usage by counselors, educators, and
young people generally.
Within the Veterans Administration, the Handbook continues to serve as a major
resource in counseling an expanded population that now includes, in addition to disabled
and nondisabled veterans, the wives and children of deceased or totally and permanently
disabled veterans and, most recently, the wives and children of servicemen missing in
action or forcibly detained by a foreign country. Disparate as these groups are in many
respects, they all share the need for accurate current information about occupations in
order to be able to make sound educational and vocational choices and plans. The Occu­
pational Outlook Handbook provides such information on a scope unequalled by any other
single source.
The Veterans Administration appreciates the unique contribution made by the Hand­
book in the past, and looks forward to its continued usefulness in the 1972-73 and future
D onald E. Johnson, Administrator

Veterans Administration

Letter From the United States Training and Employment Service

In fiscal year 1970, approximately 10 million individuals sought jobs through local
employment service offices, and more than one million of them received employment coun­
seling. Many of these needed assistance in making a career choice—which is one of life’s
most challenging problems—as well as referrals to suitable jobs or training. The need for
job information runs the gamut from youth seeking work for the first time to senior citizens
who have been displaced from their jobs.
The effectiveness of vocational counseling depends not only on the competency and
skill of the counselor and the reliability of his assessment tools, but upon having readily at
hand a dependable source of occupational information about many kinds of careers. This
information is also a vital element in promoting the most effective use of the manpower
work and training programs that are available to thousands of disadvantaged persons. The
United States Training and Employment Service and affiliated State agencies welcome this
new edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which has long been a classic in the
field of guidance literature.

R obert J. B rown, Associate Manpower Administrator for

U.S. Training and Employment Service
U.S. Department of Labor

Letter From the Social and Rehabilitation Service

In the coming year, more than 280,000 disabled men and women will be returned
to productive activity through the State-Federal vocational rehabilitation program. Dignity
and self-support through work has been a basic principle of the rehabilitation process since
the public program began more than 50 years ago.
This new edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook will continue to be an invalu­
able resource to counselors who are responsible for guiding clients to suitable opportunities
in the nation’s job market.
John D. T winame , Administrator

Social and Rehabilitation Service
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Letter From the United States Office of Education

An underlying goal of education in our democratic society is to provide an oppor­
tunity for the maximum realization of individual potential. Because of the prevailing em­
phasis upon the general curriculum, a significant segment of the student population is now
limited to this offering. We must build a new leadership and a new commitment to the
concept of a career education system. The career development emphasis in education holds
promise for meaningful educational experiences in terms of individual needs.
Realistic planning for career development calls for keeping abreast of the rapidly
changing occupational structure in this complex, technological society. The Occupational
Outlook Handbook fulfills this function by providing current, systematically organized in­
formation about occupational trends, requirements and opportunities. It is an invaluable re­
source for students, and those who assist them in the career development process, as they
seek to develop their talents and achieve personal fulfillment as human beings.
To the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and particularly the Handbook staff, I would like to
extend the congratulations and the thanks of the Office of Education.

S. P. M arland, Jr.
U.S. Commissioner of Education

Letter From the Department of Defense

Armed Forces education officers and counselors have been using the Occupational
Outlook Handbook for many years. It is a primary source of occupational information
used to guide members of the Armed Forces to the opportunities off-duty educational
programs offer for advancement in their military careers or in preparation for their re­
turn to civilian life.
Servicemen may participate in many off-duty educational programs throughout their
military service; they are encouraged to pursue educational goals that will help their mili­
tary careers and prepare them for future civilian careers. The Occupational Outlook Hand­
book has added significantly to Armed Forces educational programs as a source of career
information for both professional and citizen servicemen.
On the basis of our experience with this valuable career guide, we commend it to all
concerned with career planning.

G eorge B enson , Deputy Assistant

Secretary of Defense for Education


The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Division of Manpower and Occu­
pational Outlook, under the supervision of Russell
B. Flanders. General direction was provided by
Harold Goldstein, Assistant Commissioner for
Manpower and Employment Statistics.
The planning and coordination of the Handbook
was done by Neal H. Rosenthal, with the assistance
of Gerard C. Smith. Michael F. Crowley directed the
research program on white-collar and service occu­
pations. Max L. Carey directed the research pro­
gram on blue-collar occupations and on major in­
dustries and their occupations. The research and
preparation of individual sections were supervised
by William F. Hahn, Michael J. Pilot, and Joseph J.
Members of the Division’s staff who contributed
sections were: Elinor Abramson, Marlene Ausmus,


Louann Berman, Harold Blitz, Donald Clark, Nor­
man J. Coakley, Jr., Constance B. DiCesare, Conley
H. Dillon, Don Dillon, Susan C. Gentz, Kevin
Kasunic, Joyce C. Kling, Annie Lefkowitz, Thomas
M. McDonald, Maurice P. Moylan, Ludmilla K.
Murphy, Kathleen A. Naughton, H. James Neary,
Irving P. Phillips, John O. Plater, Jr., Joan Slowitsky,
and Dixie Sommers.
Statistical assistance was provided by Sara G.
Brown, Olive B. Clay, Jane K. Green, and Richard
Frasch, under the direction of Jean F. Whetzel.
Everett J. McDermott assisted in gathering and edit­
ing photographs.
The chapter on Agriculture was coordinated in
the Office of Information, U.S. Department of Agri­
culture, under the direction of Harold R. Lewis,
Director of Information.

Photograph Credits
The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assist­
ance of the many government and private sources that either contributed photographs or
made their facilities available to the U.S. Department of Labor photographers for this
edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Government Sources

Federal. Department of Agriculture; Department of
the Army—Walter Reed Army Medical Center;
Atomic Energy Commission; Department of Com­
merce—National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin­
istration, Maritime Administration, and National
Bureau of Standards; Federal Power Commission;
General Services Administration; Government Print­
ing Office; Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare—Health Services and Mental Health Ad­
ministration, National Institutes of Health, and
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration; Depart­
ment of the Interior; Department of Justice—Federal
Bureau of Investigation; Department of Labor—
Training and Employment Service; National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration; Department of
the Navy—Naval Photographic Center, and Naval
Research Laboratory; Department of Transportation
—Federal Aviation Agency; and Veterans’ Admin­
State and Local. City of Chicago—Police Depart­
ment; District of Columbia—Fire Department, De­
partment of Sanitation, and Social Services Admin­
istration; and Commonwealth of Virginia—State
Private Sources

Individuals. Burton Berinsky; Andrew Columbus;
Jerome Footer, D.D.S.; and Alfred Statler.
Membership Groups. American Forest Products In­
dustries, Inc.; American Home Economics Associa­
tion; American Institute of Planners; American
Optometric Association; American Paper Institute;
American Podiatry Association; American Trucking
Association; The College Placement Council, Inc.;

International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employers
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the
United States and Canada; International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers; International Chiroprac­
tor Association; National Association of Home
Builders; National Association of Metal Finishers;
National Institute of Drycleaning; National Marine
Engineer Beneficial Association; National Maritime
Union of America; National Terrazzo and Mosaic
Association; Pattern Makers League; Southeast
Woman’s Club of Washington, D.C.
Industry and Business. Acacia Mutual Life Insurance
Co.; Aetna Shirt Co.; Allstate Insurance Co.; Alumi­
num Company of America; American Airlines, Inc.;
American Machine and Foundry Co.; American
Optical Co.; American Telephone and Telegraph
Co.; Armstrong Cork Co.; Atchison, Topeka, and
Santa Fe Railroad; Ball-Shea Norair; D. Ballauf and
Co.; Banning Plymouth, Inc.; Bell Telephone Co.;
Bethlehem Steel Corp.; Blake Construction Co.;
Boeing Co.; Burroughs Corp.; Caterpillar Tractor
Co.; Chrysler Corp.; Cities Service Oil Co.; CleaverBrooks; Collins Radio Co.; Danko Arlington, Inc.;
D. C. Transit Co.; Don Reedy Appliance Service; E.I.
DuPont de Nemours and Co.; Eastman Kodak Co.;
Eastern Airlines; Erie Railroad; General Motors
Corp.; Goodwill Industries; Great Northern Rail­
way; Herson Auto and Appliance Co.; Hilton Hotels;
Hughes Aircraft Co.; International Business Ma­
chines Corp.; I. C. Isaacs; Kaiser Engineers; Kim­
berly-Clark Corp.; Koons Ford, Inc.; Eli Lilly and
Co.; Lockheed-Georgia Co.; Lustine Chevrolet;
McLachlen Banking Corp.; Merkle Press, Inc.;
Moore-McCormick Lines; Jack Morton Productions,
Inc.; National Broadcasting Co.; New York, New
Haven, and Hartford Railroad; North American
Rockwell Corp.; North Indiana Public Service Co.;
Oxford Paper Co.; Pan American Petroleum Corp.;




Pan American World Airways, Inc.; Potomac Elec­
tric Power Co.; Ransdell, Inc.; Reynolds Metals Co.;
Royce’s TV; Southern Pacific Co.; Standard Oil
Company of New Jersey; Sterling Optical Co.; Swift
and Co.; Tolman Laundry; Union Carbide Corp.;
Union Pacific Railroad; United Air Lines; The Up­
john Co.; Westinghouse Corp.; and Woodward and

Publications. Clissold Publishing Co.; Implement and
Tractor Magazine; The Machinist Weekly; Signs of
the Times Magazine; and The Washington Star.
Schools. The Models Guild, Inc.
Others. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; National
Symphony; Oakridge National Laboratory; and
Washington Hospital Center.


A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial or­
ganizations are in a position to supply valuable information to counselors or young
people seeking information about careers. For the convenience of Handbook users, the
statements on separate occupations or industries list some of the organizations or other
sources which may be able to provide further information. Although these references were
assembled with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authority or facilities for inves­
tigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau has no way of knowing in advance what in­
formation or publications each organization may send in answer to a request, the Bureau
cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, there­
fore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau or
the U.S. Department of Labor, either of the organization and its activities or of the infor­
mation it may supply. Such information as each organization may issue is, of course, sent
out on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should not be
used, as standards for the determination of wages, hours, jurisdictional matters, appropriate
bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. These descriptive statements are pre­
sented in a general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected to apply exactly to
specific jobs in a particular industry, establishment, or locality.



Guide to the Handbook
SERVICES ......................................
Some important facts about the occupa­
tional reports ....................................


TION OR ASSISTANCE...............
Occupational outlook service publica­
tions and m aterials...........................
Services to jobseekers at public employ­
ment offices ......................................


TOMORROW’S JOBS ................................



The Outlook for Occupations
PATIONS ..........................................
Business administration and related pro­
fessions ..............................................
Accountants ..................................
Advertising workers .....................
Marketing research workers . . . .
Personnel workers .......................
Public relations workers .............
Clergymen ............................................
Protestant ministers .....................
R abbis............................................
Roman Catholic p riests...............
Conservation occupations ...................
Forestry a id s ..................................
Range m anagers...........................
Counseling occupations .......................
Employment counselors...............
Rehabilitation counselors.............
School counselors.........................
Engineers ..............................................
A erospace......................................
Agricultural ..................................
Biomedical ....................................
Ceramic ........................................
Chemical ......................................


Civil ..............................................
Electrical ......................................
Industrial ......................................
M echanical....................................
Metallurgical ...............................
Mining ..........................................
Health service occupations ...................
Osteopathic physicians.................
Dentists ........................................
Dental hygienists .........................
Dental assistants...........................
Dental laboratory technicians . . .
Registered n u rses.........................
Licensed practical n u rses.............
Medical assistants .......................
Surgical technicians .....................
EEG technicians .........................
EKG technicians...........................
Inhalation therapists ...................
Optometric assistants...................
Pharmacists ..................................
Podiatrists ....................................
Chiropractors ................................
Occupational therapists ...............
Occupational therapy assistants . .
Physical therapists .......................
Physical therapy assistants...........
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists ..........................................
Medical laboratory workers . . . .
Radiologic technologists...............
Medical record librarians ...........
Dietitians ......................................
Hospital administrators ...............
Sanitarians ....................................
Veterinarians ................................
Mathematics and related fields............
Statisticians ..................................
Actuaries ......................................
Natural science occupations ...............
Environmental scientists...............
Geophysicists ................................
Meteorologists ..............................
Oceanographers ...........................






Life science occupations .....................
Life scientists................................
Biochemists ..................................
Physical scientists ................................
Chem ists........................................
Physicists ......................................
Food scientists.............................
Performing artists and other art related
Actors and actresses ...................
Dancers ........................................
Musicians and music teachers . . . .
Singers and singing teachers . . . .
Commercial a rtis ts .......................
Industrial designers .....................
Interior designers and decorators . .
Social scientists ....................................
Anthropologists ...........................
Econom ists....................................
Geographers ............................. .. .
Political scientists.........................
Kindergarten and elementary school
teachers ....................................
Secondary school teachers...........
College and university teachers . .
Technician occupations .......................
Engineering and science technicians
Draftsmen ....................................
Food processing technicians........
Writing occupations.............................
Newspaper reporters ...................
Technicial w riters.............................
Other professional and related occupa­
tions ...................................................
College career planning and place­
ment counselors .......................
Home economists.........................
Landscape architects ...................
Lawyers ........................................
Librarians ....................................
Library technicians.......................
Systems analysts...........................
Program ers....................................


Psychologists ................................
Recreation workers .....................
Social workers ..............................
Surveyors ......................................
Urban planners ...........................


City managers ..............................
Industrial traffic m anagers..........
Purchasing agents .......................
TIONS .......................................................
Bookkeeping workers .................
Cashiers ........................................
Electronic computer operating per­
sonnel ........................................
File clerks ....................................
Office machine operators......
Receptionists ................................
Shipping and receiving clerks . . . .
Stock clerks ..................................
Stenographers and secretaries ...
Typists ..........................................
Telephone operators ...................
SALES OCCUPATIONS ...........................
Automobile parts countermen ...
Automobile salesm en............
Automobile service advisors . . . .
Insurance agents and brokers . . .
Manufacturers’ salesmen .............
Real estate salesmen and brokers .
Retail trade salesworkers ...........
Securities salesmen .............. . . .
Wholesale trade salesworkers . . .
B arb ers...................................
Cosmetologists .............................
Cooks and chefs .........................
Waiters and waitresses..........
Bartenders ....................................
Guards and watchm en..........
FBI special ag en ts................
Police officers.........................
State police officers................
Hospital attendants................



Private household w orkers...........
Building custodians.......................
Social service a i d s .......................
Models ..........................................
OCCUPATIONS ......................................
Skilled w orkers.............................
Semiskilled w orkers.....................
Unskilled workers.........................
F orem en................................................
Building trades occupations.................
Asbestos and insulating workers. .
Bricklayers ....................................
Carpenters ....................................
Cement masons (cement and
concrete finishers) ...................
Construction laborers and hod
c arriers..................
Electricians (construction) .........
Elevator constructors...................
Floor covering installers...............
Glaziers ........................................
L ath ers..........................................
Marble setters, tile setters, and
terrazzo workers .....................
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators)...............
Painters and paperhangers.............
Plasterers ......................................
Plumbers and pipefitters .............
R oofers..........................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.....................
Structural-, ornamental-, and
reinforcing-iron workers,
riggers, and machine movers. ..
Driving occupations.............................
Over-the-road truckdrivers .........
Local truckdrivers .......................
Routem en......................................
Intercity busdrivers .....................
Local transit busdrivers...............
Taxi drivers ..................................
Forge shop occupations..............
Machining occupations.........................
All-round machinists ...................
Machine tool operators.................
Tool and die m akers.....................




Instrument makers (mechanical) .
Setup men (machine tools) ........
Mechanics and repairmen.....................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics.............
Appliance servicemen...................
Automobile body repairmen........
Automobile mechanics.................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics..
Business machine servicemen . . . .
Diesel mechanics .........................
Electric sign servicemen .............
Farm equipment mechanics........
Industrial machinery repairmen. . .
Instrument repairm en...................
Maintenance electricians .............
Millwrights ....................................
Motorcycle m echanics.................
Television and radio service
technicians ...............................
Truck mechanics and bus
Vending machine mechanics . . . .
Watch repairm en.........................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations . . .
Composing room occupations . . .
Electrotypers and stereotypers . . .
Printing pressmen and assistants. .
Lithographic occupations.............
Bookbinders and related workers.
Some other manual occupations...........
Automobile painters.....................
Automobile trimmers and instal­
lation men (automobile
upholsterers) ...........................
Blacksmiths ..................................
Boilermaking occupations ...........
Dispensing opticians and optical
Electroplaters ................................
Furniture upholsterers.................
Gasoline service station
Inspectors (manufacturing).........
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen..
Meat cu tters..................................
Motion picture projectionists . . . .
Parking attendants.......................






Photographic laboratory
occupations .............................
Power truck operators.................
Production painters .....................
Shoe repairmen ...........................
Stationary engineers.....................
Stationary firemen .......................
Waste water treatment plant
operators ..................................
Welders and oxygen and arc


Some Major Industries and Their Occupations
AGRICULTURE ........................................
Opportunities on farms .......................
Opportunities on specific types of farms
Occupations related to agriculture . . . .
Cooperative extension service
workers ....................................
Soil scientists ................................
Soil conservationists.....................
Other professional w orkers........
Farm service jo b s .........................


MINING .......................................................
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing occupations...............





MANUFACTURING ..................................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ............................................
Aluminum industry .............................
Apparel industry ..................................
Atomic energy fie ld .............................
Baking industry ....................................
Drug industry........................................
Electronics manufacturing...................
Foundries ..............................................
Patternmakers .............................
Molders ........................................
Coremakers ..................................
Industrial chemical industry.................
Iron and steel industry.........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ............................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ..........................................





Paper and allied products industries . . .
Petroleum refining.........................
Civil aviation ........................................
Pilots and copilots................
Flight engineers ............................
Aircraft m echanics................
Airline dispatchers................
Air traffic controllers............
Ground radio operators and
teletypists ..................................
Traffic agents and c le rk s .....
Electric power in d u stry................
Powerplant occupations........
Transmission and distribution
occupations ..............................
Customer service occupations . . .
Merchant marine occupations.....
Licensed merchant marine officers.
Unlicensed merchant seamen . . . .
Radio and television broadcasting . . . .
Radio and television announcers. .
Broadcast technicians .................
Railroads ..............................................
Locomotive engineers............
Locomotive firemen (helpers) . . .
B rakem en...............................
Telegraphers, telephones, and
towermen ..................................
Station agents........................
C le rk s.....................................
Shop trades ..................................
Signal department workers .........
Track workers .............................
Bridge and building workers . . . .
Telephone industry........................
Telephone craftsm en............
Central office craftsm en.......
Central office equipment installers.
Linemen and cable splicers..........
Telephone and PBX installers
and repairmen .........................
Trucking industry..........................








Restaurants ..........................................




ESTATE ..................................................
Banking ................................................
Bank clerks ..................................
Tellers ..........................................
Bank officers..................................
Insurance ..............................................
Claim adjusters ...........................
Claim examiners...........................


Hotel occupations..................................
Bellmen and bell captains...........
Front office c le rk s .......................



Hotel housekeepers and assistants.
Hotel managers and assistants. . . .
Laundry and drycleaning p la n ts...........


GOVERNM ENT..........................................
Federal civilian employment.................
Post office occupations ...............
State and local governments.................
Armed Forces ......................................


TECHNICAL A PPE N D IX .........................


INDUSTRIES ..........................................








The changing occupational struc­
ture and outlook within our increas­
ingly complex technological society
points up the urgency for greater
emphasis upon career development
and the vocational aspects of guid­
ance. The career development con­
cept may well become the focal
point for a reorientation of the total
educational effort towards the maxi­
mum development of each individ­
ual’s potential. The process of ca­
reer development stresses the im­
portance of strengthening the pro­
gram of informational services
within a total program of guidance
and counseling services. One of the
most valuable resources for occupa­
tional and career information is the
Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Amendments of 1968 have reem­
phasized the need for education
about the structure, nature, and
trends of the entire spectrum of oc­
cupations as an essential and inte­
gral component of developmental
career education. As a result, there
is throughout the Nation a rapid in­
crease in the number and variety of
work and related education and
training opportunities being devel­
oped, produced, and utilized. These
multi-media approaches range from
the printed word, through films and
TV tapes, to computer-assisted

methods. A great many of these re­
sources depend upon the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook as a pri­
mary source of authoritative data.
It is being increasingly recognized
that a developmental approach to
career education and guidance re­
quires sequential, articulated pro­
gramming from the kindergarten
through each successive “level” of
education. In broad process terms,
the progression is frequently de­
scribed as moving primarily from
early awareness, through orienta­
tion, to exploration, to more selec­
tive and intensive investigation and
consideration as appropriate group
and individual maturation and cur­
rent needs. These broad processes,
so described, relate both to the self
and to the world of work, and to the
interrelationships. In one form or
another, then, the kinds of informa­
tion provided by the Occupational
Outlook Handbook increasingly be­
come functional throughout the ed­
ucational process.
It is basic to observe also that ed­
ucation for career development and
guidance entails a total-school in­
volvement. The teaching function as
well as the counseling function takes
on a greater commitment to this as­
pect of human development along
with other aspects. The instructional
curriculum as well as the specialized

guidance and counseling services
becomes crucially involved. As this
total school approach evolves, oc­
cupational information from this
Handbook and other sources will be
more widely incorporated in aca­
demic as well pre-vocational and
vocational courses of instruction,
classroom activities, and teacher re­
source materials, in addition to
being available in counseling offices
and school libraries. A corollary of
such developments as these is the
need for buttressing the pre-service
and in-service development of all
kinds of educational personnel to
plan and implement career educa­
tion and guidance.
The Handbook, now in the elev­
enth edition, is designed both for in­
dividual and group use in a variety
of settings. Settings include junior
and senior high schools, vocational
and technical schools, junior and
community colleges, college student
personnel centers, college prepara­
tion programs, private and public
placement and counseling agencies,
youth opportunity centers, and inservice education programs. A stu­
dent, in pursuing his long-range ca­
reer development goals—or those
who assist him, such as counselors,
teachers, parents—will find the
Handbook to be a reliable, system­
atically organized reference, which


provides a comprehensive overview
of occupational requirements and
opportunities. The organization of
the Handbook is especially appro­
priate for use by persons working
with groups. It analyzes job pros­
pects in the world of tomorrow with
well-designed and easily understood
charts and graphs. The Handbook’s
supplementary services consisting of
reprints of individual occupations
and charts illustrating occupational
trends are helpful not only in coun­
seling individuals, but also in work­
ing with groups of students and with
parents as they become involved in
assisting their children with occupa­
tional choices.
Counselors find the Handbook an
invaluable tool in career planning
and educational counseling. It pro­


vides an overview of the world of
work in terms of major occupational
categories which is useful at the ele­
mentary school level as well as in
and beyond junior and senior high
schools. The Handbook lends itself
well to use by teachers in relating
the significance of subject matter
areas to occupational “families” and
by counselors in applying the career
ladder concept to career develop­
ment. The frequency of revision as­
sures that the occupational and ca­
reer information pertaining to the
rapidly changing occupational struc­
ture is current and relevant. The
Handbook reveals how the nature
of occupations and their respective
changing, and the importance of
flexible planning in terms of major

interest areas.
As a part of the total information
services within the guidance pro­
gram, the Handbook deserves a
high priority as an indispensible re­
source for career development.

Don D. Twiford,
Senior Specialist
Guidance and Personnel Services
David H. Pritchard,
Senior Program Officer
Guidance, Counseling, and
Office of Education,
U. S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

The Handbook starts with three
introductory chapters designed to
help counselors and students make
effective use of the book and to give
them a general view of the world of
This chapter describes the con­
tents and organization of the book.
It tells how the information was as­
sembled and discusses a number of
points which need to be kept in
mind in interpreting the statements.
The second introductory chapter
gives suggestions regarding supple­
mentary sources of occupational in­
formation and tells how readers canI
keep up to date on developments
affecting the employment outlook in
different occupations. It also de­
scribes briefly the counseling, place­
ment, and other services available
to jobseekers at local offices of State
employment services affiliated with
the U.S. Training and Employment
Service in the Manpower Adminis­
tration. The final introductory chap­
ter describes some of the most im­
portant occupational and industrial
employment trends to provide a
background for interpreting the re­
ports on individual occupations.

Occupational Reports

The reports on different fields of
work make up the main body of the
book. The seven major divisions of
the book are: professional and re­
lated occupations; managerial occu­
pations; clerical and related occupa­
tions; sales occupations; service oc­

cupations; skilled and other manual
occupations; and some major indus­
tries and their occupations. Within
each of these major divisions, occu­
pations are grouped into related
fields. The introductory statement
for each major industry group pro­
vides information on occupational
trends in the industry.

data for each job defined in the Dic­
The technical appendix of this
Handbook discusses the sources and
methods used to analyze the occu­
pational outlook in different fields
of work. It is designed for readers
wishing more information on this
subject than is included in this

Indexes and Appendix
Sources of Information

To help the readers locate infor­
mation on the occupations in which
they are interested, a detailed list of
the occupational reports by field of
work, is included in the table of
contents at the front of the book.
The index at the back of the book
lists occupations and industries al­
phabetically. The occupations cov­
ered in the Occupational Outlook
Handbook also are coded according
to the occupational classification
system developed by the U.S. De­
partment of Labor and published in
the Dictionary of Occupational
Titles. This Dictionary provides a
code number (the so-called D.O.T.
number) for each occupation in­
cluded in it; the code number can be
used as a filing system for occupa­
tional information. The code num­
bers of the D.O.T. are listed in
parentheses immediately below the
main occupational group headings in
the Handbook. Volumes I and II of
the D.O.T. contain job classifications
and definitions; a supplement lists
individual physical demands, work­
ing conditions, and training time

trends and outlook and the many
related topics discussed in the occu­
pational reports was drawn from a
great variety of sources. Interviews
with hundreds of persons in indus­
try, unions, trade associations, and
public agencies provided a great deal
of up-to-date information. The Bu­
reau’s other research programs sup­
plied data on employment in differ­
ent industries, productivity and
technological developments, wages
and working conditions, trade union
agreements, industrial hazards, and
a number of other topics. Addi­
tional data regarding the nature of
the work in various occupations,
training and licensing requirements,
wages, and employment trends were
provided by other agencies of the
Federal Government—among them,
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training and the U.S. Training and
Employment Service, Manpower
Administration, Department of
Labor; the Bureau of the Census,
Department of Commerce; the



Office of Education and the Voca­
tional Rehabilitation Administra­
tion, Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare; the Veterans
Administration; the Civil Service
Administration; the Interstate Com­
merce Commission; the Civil Aero­

nautics Board; the Federal Com­
munications Commission; the De­
partment of Transportation; and the
National Science Foundation. Many
other public and private organiza­
tions—including State licensing
boards, educational institutions,

business firms, professional soci­
eties, trade associations, and trade
unions—also made available pub­
lished and unpublished data and
supplied much helpful information
through interviews.

Some important facts about the occupational reports

Occupations Covered

The more than 800 occupations
discussed in this Handbook gener­
ally are those of greatest interest to
young people. Most of the major
ones requiring long periods of edu­
cation or training are discussed, as
are a number of small but rapidly
growing fields and other occupa­
tions of special interest. Altogether,
the occupations covered account for
about 97 percent of all workers in
sales occupations; about 95 percent
of all workers in professional and
related occupations; about twothirds of all workers in skilled, cleri­
cal, and service occupations, and
two-fifths of those in semiskilled
occupations. Smaller proportions of
managerial workers and laborers
are discussed. The main types of
farming occupations also are dis­
General information on many
fields of work not covered in the oc­
cupational reports is contained in
the introductions to the major divi­
sions of the book. These introduc­
tions are designed to aid the reader
in interpreting the reports on indi­
vidual occupations.

After the information from these
many sources was brought together
and analyzed in conjunction with
the Bureau’s overall economic
model, conclusions were reached as
to prospective employment trends in
the occupations. (See the Technical
Appendix, page 851, for a discus­
sion of the methodology used in
employment outlook analysis.) In
addition, estimates were made of the
numbers of job openings that will be
created by retirements and deaths
and transfers out of the occupation.
The supply of new workers likely to
be available in particular fields also
was analyzed, by studying statistics
on high school and college enroll­
ments and graduations, data on the
number of apprentices in skilled
trades, re-entries to an occupation,
and transfers into an occupation.
Preliminary drafts of the occupa­
tional reports were reviewed by of­
ficials of leading companies, trade
associations, trade unions, and pro­
fessional societies, and by other ex­
perts. The information and conclu­
sions presented in each report thus
reflect the knowledge and judgment
not only of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics staff, but also of leaders in

the field discussed, although the Bu­
reau, of course, takes full reponsibility for all statements made. The
technical appendix presents a more
detailed discussion of the sources of
information used in the occupa­
tional reports.

Points To Bear in Mind in Using
the Reports

In using the information on em­
ployment prospects which this book
contains, it is important to keep in
mind that all conclusions about the
economic future necessarily rest on
certain assumptions. Among the as­
sumptions which underlie the state­
ments on employment outlook in
this Handbook, are that high em­
ployment levels will be maintained
and that no cataclysmic events will
occur, such as a war or a severe and
prolonged economic depression.
Such catastrophes would, of course,
create an entirely different employ­
ment situation from that likely to
develop under the assumed condi­
tions. But young people would find
it impossible to build their lifetime
plans in expectation of such unpre­



dictable catastrophes, although, on
the basis of historical experience,
they must be prepared to weather
economic ups and downs during
their working lives. The basic eco­
nomic assumptions are discussed in
detail in the introductory section of
the Handbook, Tomorrow’s Jobs,
page 13.
To avoid constant repetition, the
assumptions seldom are mentioned
in the reports on the many fields of
work where the impact of a general
decline in business or a change in
the scale of mobilization would
probably be about the same as in the
economy as a whole. On the other
hand, in the statements on occupa­
tions where employment tends to be
either unusually stable or especially
subject to ups and downs, the fac­
tors affecting employment are delin­
eated. Even in the latter occupa­
tions, however, long-term trends in
employment are more important
than short-run fluctuations when ap­
praising the prospects for an indi­
vidual in a particular occupation.
The picture of employment op­
portunities given in this book ap­
plies to the country as a whole un­
less otherwise indicated. People

who want supplementary informa­
tion on job opportunities in their
communities should consult local
sources of information, as suggested
in the next chapter.
The information presented on
earnings and working conditions, as
on other subjects, represents the
most recent available when the
Handbook was prepared early in
1971. Much of the information
came from Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics surveys, but many other sources
were utilized also. For this reason,
the earnings data presented in the
various occupational reports often
refer to different periods of time,
cover varying geographic areas, and
represent different kinds of statis­
tical measures. Comparisons be­
tween the earnings data for different
occupations should, therefore, be
made with great caution.
Reference has been made in sev­
eral occupational statements to
training programs established under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act (MDTA), to equip
unemployed and underemployed
persons with skills needed in today’s
world of work. However, the ab­
sence of a reference to MDTA

training for a particular occupation
does not necessarily mean that pro­
grams are not in operation. In 1971,
training programs (which last from
several weeks to 2 years) covered
several hundred occupations—tech­
nical and semiprofessional, skilled
and semiskilled, clerical and sales,
service and nonagricultural. To ob­
tain information about MDTA
training offered in your area, con­
tact the local office of the State em­
ployment service.
Finally, information on occupa­
tions and the employment oppor­
tunities they offer is only part of
that needed in making a career de­
cision, which means matching a per­
son and an occupation. The other
part relates, of course, to the apti­
tudes and interests of the potential
worker himself. In assessing their
own abilities and interests and in se­
lecting the occupation for which
they are best suited, people can ob­
tain help from vocational counselors
in schools and colleges, State em­
ployment service offices, Veterans
Administration regional offices and
guidance centers, and many com­
munity agencies.


Persons using this Handbook
may want more detail on the occu­
pations discussed in the occupa­
tional reports, or information on
fields of work which are not covered
in this publication.
Suggestions as to sources of addi­
tional information on the occupa­
tions discussed are given in most of
the occupational reports. In addi­
tion, several types of publications of
the U.S. Department of Labor (see
descriptions following index), pro­
vide further information on topics
such as earnings, hours of work,
and working conditions. Other
sources likely to be helpful include
public libraries; schools; State em­
ployment services; business estab­
lishments; and trade unions, em­
ployers’ associations, and profes­
sional societies. A brief description
of each follows.

current indexes which list the great
numbers of publications on occupa­
tions, and the librarians may be of
assistance in finding the best ones
on a particular field of work.

Business Establishments

School libraries and guidance
offices also often have extensive
reading materials on occupations. In
addition, school counselors and
teachers usually know of any local
occupational information which has
been assembled through special sur­
veys made by schools or other com­
munity agencies. Teachers of spe­
cial subjects such as music, printing,
and shorthand can often give infor­
mation about occupations related to
the subjects they teach.

State Employment Services
Public Libraries

These libraries usually have
many books, pamphlets, and maga­
zine articles giving information
about different occupations. They
also may have several books and

through the public employment
offices are described in the conclud­
ing section of this chapter.)

Counselors in local public em­
ployment offices are in a particu­
larly good position to supply infor­
mation about job opportunities,
hiring standards, and wages in their
localities. (The services available

Employers and personnel officers
usually can supply information
about the nature of the work per­
formed by employees in their indus­
try or business and the qualifica­
tions needed for various jobs, as
well as other facts about employ­
ment conditions and opportunities.
The names of local firms in a par­
ticular industry can be found in the
classified sections of telephone
directories or can be obtained from
local chambers of commerce.

Trade Unions, Employers’
Associations, and Professional

Frequently, these organizations
have local branches; their officials
can supply information relating to
the occupations with which they are

Occupational outlook service publications and materials

In addition to this Handbook, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics issues a
periodical, the Occupational Out­
look Quarterly, to keep readers up
to date between editions of the
Handbook, on developments affect­
ing employment opportunities and
on the findings of new occupational

outlook research. In addition, the
Bureau issues at irregular intervals
which give much more detailed in­
formation on various fields of work
than can be included either in the
Handbook or in the Occupational
Outlook Quarterly.

The Bureau also has developed a
visual aid for counselors entitled
Jobs for the 70’s. It consists of a set
of 40 color slides that show the
changing occupational and industrial
mix, and trends for manpower de­
velopment, education, and training.
The slides, which have an accom­



panying narrative, are available di­
rectly from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics Regional Offices. (See
order form in back of Handbook.)
The Bureau of Labor Statistics
has published a Counselor’s Guide
to Manpower Informationt An An­
notated Bibliography of Govern­
ment Publications. The bibliogra­
phy, as the title suggests, lists major
occupational and other manpower

publications of Federal and State
government agencies. These will be
useful to counselors and others in­
terested in trends and developments
that have implications for career de­
cisions. This bulletin, No. 1598, is
available from the Superintendent
of Documents, Government Print­
ing Office, Washington, D.C.,
20402, at $1 a copy.
The Bureau will be glad to place

the name of any user of this Hand­
book on its mailing list to receive
announcements of new publications
and releases summarizing the results
of new studies. Anyone wishing to
receive such materials should send
the request, with his address, to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, Washington,
D.C., 20212.

Services to jobseekers at public employment offices

Local offices of State employment
services specialize in finding jobs for
workers and workers for jobs. The
State employment services are affili­
ated with the U.S. Training and
Employment Service of the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Manpower
Administration and constitute a
Federal-State partnership. Employ­
ment and related services are avail­
able without charge in every State.
At each of the over 2,000 public
employment service offices across
the Nation, jobseekers are aided in
obtaining employment, and em­
ployers are assisted in finding quali­
fied workers.
Four basic services are provided
to workers by the public employ­
ment service: (1) Job information;
(2) employment counseling; (3)
referral to job training; and (4) job
Job Information. The personnel
who staff the public employment
service offices are familiar with their
areas and thus know what kinds of
workers are employed in local in­
dustry, what jobs are available,
what the hiring requirements and
the opportunities for advancement

are, and the wages that are paid.
The staff conduct manpower sur­
veys to determine the area’s availa­
ble skills, training needs, and fu­
ture occupational opportunities.
Through the employment service
network of offices, information is
also available on job opportunities
in other areas of the country.
Employment Counseling. Employ­
ment counseling assists young peo­
ple who are starting their careers,
as well as experienced workers who
wish or need to change their occu­
pation. The major purposes of em­
ployment counseling are to help peo­
ple understand their actual and po­
tential abilities, their interests, and
their personal traits; to know the na­
ture of occupations; and to make the
best use of their capacities and pref­
erences in the light of available job
The employment counselor is
specially trained and has access to a
large store of occupational informa­
Testing. Most local offices have
available testing services which the
counselor may use to assist him

in appraising an individual’s apti­
tudes, interests, and clerical and lit­
eracy skills.
USTES aptitude tests are particu­
larly helpful in relating applicant’s
potential abilities to the aptitude re­
quirements of 62 broad occupational
groupings and hundreds of specific
occupations. A nonreading edition
has also been developed for individ­
uals with very limited education.
Referral to Training. Many indi­
viduals seek work for which they
lack some qualifications. Sometimes
the job requires basic education or a
specific skill. Besides referring a
jobseeker to a job, the public em­
ployment service may suggest train­
ing so the applicant can qualify or
secure a better job.
Jobs and job requirements
change. In today’s fast-paced world,
important considerations when se­
lecting a vocation are the training
required to perform the work, and
ways that training need can be met.
Job Placement. A primary objective
of the public employment service is
to place workers in jobs. Regular
contact is maintained with local em­


ployers to learn about their job
openings. Requests are received
from employers for many different
kinds of workers. As a result, regis­
tered applicants have access to a va­
riety of job vacancies with many
employers, just as the employer has
access to many applicants. This dual
function eliminates “hit-or-miss”
job hunting.
If job openings are not available
locally, applicants may apply for
employment elsewhere in the State,
in another area, or even in a foreign
country. Each State employment
service prepares inventories of its
hard-to-fill jobs so that other State
employment services may refer
local workers to out-of-area jobs for
which they qualify. In addition, a
national network of highly special­
ized professional placement offices
operates within the employment
service network to speed the match­
ing of jobs and applicants in profes­
sional fields.
Special Services for Youth. The
Employment Service maintains a
year-round program of services to
youth, including counseling, job de­
velopment, placement, training and
referral to other agencies. In addi­

tion, there are two special efforts.
(1) In the Summer Employment
Program, the Employment Service
enlists the cooperation of business,
Government, and other groups to
develop as many employment op­
portunities as possible for disadvan­
taged youth to provide valuable
summer work experience and ena­
ble them to return to school in the
fall. (2) The Cooperative School
Program provides employment-re­
lated services to graduating seniors,
school dropouts, and potential drop­
outs who desire to enter the labor
market. Through this program they
are provided employment counsel­
ing, testing, job development, refer­
ral to jobs or training, and followup
Special Services for Disadvantaged
Adults. Through its human re­
sources development program, the
employment service seeks to im­
prove the employability of adults
who are not in the work force be­
cause of some social or cultural dis­
advantage. An important part of
this program is “outreach” into
slum areas.
Other Special Services. Individuals


with mental or physical disabilities
which constitute vocational handi­
caps are given special consideration
by the employment service.
Veterans also receive special
services. Each local office has a
veterans’ employment representative
who is informed about veterans’
rights and benefits, and seeks to de­
velop jobs for veterans.
Middle-age and older workers
are assisted in making realistic job
choices and overcoming problems
related to getting and holding jobs.
Employers are encouraged to hire
individuals on their ability to per­
form the work. Similar attention is
given to the employment problems
of minority group members and all
others facing special difficulties in
obtaining suitable employment.
Community Manpower Service.
Jobseekers, employers, schools,
civic groups, and public and private
agencies concerned with manpower
problems are invited to utilize the
service of the public employment
office in their community, and avail
themselves of the job information in
that office. The local office is listed
in the phone book as an agency of
the State government.


Young people in an ever growing
and changing society are faced with
the difficult task of making sound
career plans from among thousands
of alternatives. As the economy con­
tinues to expand, this planning proc­
ess becomes more difficult. Making
career plans calls for an evaluation
of an individual’s interests and abili­
ties, as well as specific information
on occupations. This Handbook
provides counselors, teachers, par­
ents, and students with occupational
information on training and educa­
tion requirements, employment op­
portunities, and the nature of the
Several questions are of major
importance to young persons as
they view the variety of occupa­
tional choices open to them. Among
these questions are: What fields
look especially promising for em­
ployment opportunities? What com­
petition will other workers furnish?
What type and how much training
and education are required to enter
particular jobs? How do earnings in
certain occupations compare with
earnings in other occupations re­
quiring similar training? What types
of employers provide which kinds of
jobs? What are the typical environ­
ment and working conditions asso­
ciated with particular occupations?
Of importance in evaluating in­
formation that answers these and
related questions is knowledge of
the dynamic changes that are con­
tinually occurring in our economy
—the trends in the Nation’s work
force and its business, industrial,
and occupational development. New
ways of making goods, new prod­
ucts, and changes in living standards
are constantly changing the types of
jobs that become available. To

throw light on the changing charac­
teristics of occupations and to pro­
vide background for understanding
the outlook in specific occupations,
this chapter focuses on overall pat­
terns of change in the country’s in­
dustrial and occupational composi­
tion. It also discusses the implica­
tions of these changes on education
and training in relation to occupa­
tional choice.
No one can accurately forecast
the future. Nevertheless, by using
the wealth of information available,
extensive economic and statistical
analyses, and the best judgment of
informed experts, the work future
can be described in broad terms. Of
course, some aspects of the future
can be predicted more accurately
than others. For example, the num­
ber of 18-year-olds in 1980 can be
estimated with a very high degree of
accuracy because individuals 8
years old in 1970 are accounted for
in our vital statistics, and the death
rate of children between 8 and 18 is
extremely low and stays about the
same from year to year. On the
other hand, forecasting employment
requirements for automobile assem­
blers in 1980 is extremely difficult.
Employment of these workers can
be affected by the changing demand
for American-made automobiles,
shifts in buyer’s preference (toward
the compact car, for example),
changes in the ways cars are made
(more automation or the use of tur­
bine engines), and unpredictable
economic developments outside of
the automobile industry.
To project the demand for all
workers in the economy, specific as­
sumptions have to be made about
general economic movements and
broad national policy. The picture

of the future employment outlook
reflected in the Handbook is based
on the following fundamental as­
1. Maintenance of high levels of
employment and of utilization of
available manpower in 1980;
2. that no major event will alter
substantially the rate and nature of
economic growth;
3. that economic and social pat­
terns and relationships will continue
to change at about the same rate as
in the recent past;
4. that scientific technological
advancement will continue at about
the same rate as in recent years; and
5. that the United States will no
longer be fighting a war. On the
other hand, a still guarded relation­
ship between the major powers will
permit no major reduction in arma­
ments but defense expenditures can
be reduced from the peak levels of
the Vietnam conflict.
The Handbook’s, assessment of
1980 industrial and occupational
outlook assumes a projected total
labor force of 100.7 million in
1980, an Armed Forces of 2.7 mil­
lion, and a resulting civilian labor
force of 98 million.
Knowledge of specific industries
is necessary because employers seek
a wide variety of skills, for example,
many different industries employ
engineers, salesmen, and secre­
taries. Employment patterns have
shifted considerably over the years
and are expected to continue to do
so. These changes greatly affect em­
ployment opportunities and occupa­
tional choices.
Industry employment and occu­
pational requirements change as a
result of many factors. A new
machine or a newly automated proc13



Where people work


Employment, 1970 (millions of workers”






_____________ 1




State and Local


Transportation and public utilities
Finance,insurance, and real estate
Contract construction

ess may require different occupa­
tional skills or may even create an
entirely new occupation; a change
in product demand may affect the
number of workers needed; an in­
vention may all but eliminate an in­
dustry or create a new one.

Industrial Profile

To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition, industries


may be viewed as either goods
producing or service producing.
They may further be grouped into
nine major divisions according to
this product or service. (See chart
1 .)

Most of the Nation’s workers are
in industries producing services, in
activities such as education, health
care, trade, repair and maintenance,
and in government, transportation,
and banking and insurance service.
The production of goods—raising

Industries providing services offer more jobs
than those providing goods

Contract construction

(in m illio n s)-

Service produ :ing

Transportation and
public utilities
Finance, insurance
and real estate

Goods prodiicing







i l l




t T


t i l l



food crops, building, extracting min­
erals, and manufacturing of goods
—has required less than half of the
country’s work force since the late
1940’s. (See chart 2.) In general,
job growth through the 1970’s is ex­
pected to continue to be faster in
the service-producing industries
than in the goods-producing indus­
tries. However, among industry
divisions within both the goodsproducing and service-producing
sectors, the growth pattern will con­
tinue to vary. (See chart 3.)
Service-producing industries. In
1970, about 47.3 million workers
were on the payrolls of serviceproducing industries—trade; Gov­
ernment; services and miscella­
neous; transportation and other util­
ities; and finance, insurance, and
real estate—about 13.5 million
greater than the number employed
in 1960. The major factors underly­
ing this rapid post World War II
growth have been (1) population
growth; (2) increasing urbaniza­
tion, with its accompanying need for
more city service; and (3) rising in­
come and living standards accompa­
nying demand for improved serv­
ices, such as health, education, and
security. These factors are expected
to continue to result in rapid growth
of service industries as a group, and
to employ 59.5 million by 1980, an
increase of about 26 percent above
the 1970 level.
Trade, the largest division within
the service-producing industries, has
expanded sharply since 1960.
Wholesale and retail outlets have
multiplied in large and small cities
to satisfy the need of an increasingly
urban society. Employment in trade
was about 14.9 million in 1970,
about 31 percent above the 1960
Employment in trade is expected
to grow by about 18 percent be­
tween 1970 and 1980. Although an



Through the 1970’s, employment growth will
vary widely by industry
Percent change, 1970-80 projected








Contract construction
Finance, insurance, and real
Transportation and public

ever-increasing volume of mer­
chandise will be distributed as a
result of increases in population and
consumer expenditures, the rate of
increase in manpower needs will be
slowed by laborsavihg technology
such as the greater use of electronic
data processing equipment and auto­
mated warehousing equipment,
growth in the number of self-service
stores, and the growing use of vend­
ing machines.
Government employment has
grown faster than any other industry
division, and has increased by more
than one-half from 8.4 million to
12.6 million between 1960 and
1970. Growth has been mostly at
the State and local levels, which
combined increased by almost twothirds. Employment growth has
been greatest in agencies providing
education, health, sanitation, wel­
fare, and protective services. Fed­
eral Government employment in­
creased about 19 percent between
1960 and 1970.
Government will continue to be a
major source of new jobs through
the 1970’s. By 1980, employment
in Government may be as much as
33 percent higher than in 1970.

Most of the growth will be in State
and local governments in which em­
ployment needs may rise by 1980,
to 13.8 million about 40 percent
higher than the 9.9 million em­
ployed in 1970. Federal Govern­
ment employment is expected to
rise slowly to about 3 million to
1980, 300,000 or about 11 percent
above the 1970 level of 2.7 million.
Services and miscellaneous indus­
tries employment has increased
rapidly since World War II as a re­
sult of the growing need for mainte­
nance and repair, advertising, do­
mestic, and health care services.
From 1960 to 1970, total employ­
ment in this industry division rose
by about two-fifths from slightly
more than 8.0 million to about 11.6
Service and miscellaneous indus­
tries will continue to be among the
fastest growing industries through
the 1970’s. About two-fifths again
as many workers are expected to be
employed in this industry division in
1980 as in 1970. Manpower re­
quirements in health services are
expected to grow rapidly due to
population growth and the increas­
ing ability of persons to pay for

health care. Business services in­
cluding accounting, data processing,
and maintenance also are expected
to grow very rapidly.
Transportation and public utility
employment in 1970 at 4.5 million
was only slightly more than onetenth higher than in 1960. Different
parts of this industry, however, have
experienced different growth trends.
For example, air travel employment
increased rapidly but the railroad
industry declined.
The number of jobs in transpor­
tation and public utilities as a whole
is expected to continue to increase
slowly through the 1970’s and
widely differing employment trends
will continue to be experienced
among individual industries within
the division. Rapid increases in em­
ployment are expected in air trans­
portation and a decline is expected
to continue in railroad employment
and little or no change is expected
in water transportation, and electric,
gas, and sanitary services. Overall
employment in this industry division
is expected to increase to more than
4.7 million in 1980, 5 percent
above the 1970 level.
Finance, insurance, and real es­
tate, the smallest of the serviceproducing industry divisions, has
grown about 38 percent since 1960,
from nearly 2.7 million in 1960 to
nearly 3.7 million in 1970. Employ­
ment has grown especially rapidly in
banks; credit agencies; and security
and commodity brokers, dealers,
exchanges, and services.
Job growth in finance, insurance,
and real estate will keep in step with
the overall employment increases of
nonfarm employment through the
1970’s. Finance, insurance, and real
estate employment is expected to
expand to nearly 4.3 million by
1980, about 16 percent above 1970
levels. The most rapid advances will
be in banking and credit agencies,


which combined account for nearly
two-fifths of total employment in
this industry division.
Goods-Producing Industries. Em­
ployment in the goods-producing in­
dustries—agriculture, manufactur­
ing, construction, and mining—
more than 26.9 million in 1970—
has increased slowly in recent years.
Significant gains in productivity re­
sulting from automation and other
technological developments as well
as the growing skills of the work
force have permitted large increases
in output without corresponding in­
creases in employment. Employ­
ment in goods-producing industries
is expected to increase to about 30
million in 1980, 12 percent above
the 1970 level. However, widely
different patterns of employment
changes have occurred and will con­
tinue among the industry divisions
in the goods-producing sector.
Agriculture, which until the late
1800’s employed more than half of
all workers in the economy, em­
ployed only 5 percent, or 3.4 mil­
lion workers, in 1970. Employment
in agriculture has dropped by about
two-fifths since 1960. Increases
in the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved ferti­
lizers, feeds and pesticides have
created large increases in output at
the same time that employment has
fallen sharply.
Agriculture is facing a continuing
decline in manpower needs. Factors
resulting in past declines will con­
tinue and the outlook is for a 1980
farm work force 15 percent lower
than in 1970.
Mining employment, at about
620,000 workers in 1970, has de­
clined by nearly 13 percent since
1960, primarily because of laborsaving technological changes and a
shift to sources of power other than
This trend is likely to continue


and mining is the only nonagricultural industry division that is not ex­
pected to increase between 1970
and 1980. Although minor employ­
ment increases are expected in
quarrying and other nonmetallic
mining, they will be more than
offset by continuing declines in the
coal mining, and in crude petroleum
and natural gas extraction indus­
tries. The job level of the entire
mining group is expected to decline
about 12 percent to about 550,000
between 1970 and 1980.
Contract construction employ­
ment, at more than 3.3 million in
1970, has increased more than
one-sixth since 1960. The Nation’s
growing need for homes, offices,
stores, highways, bridges, dams, and
other physical facilities resulted in
this increase in employment.
Between 1970 and 1980, con­
tract construction is expected to
grow by about two-fifths to about
4.6 million. Construction activity
will be spurred by several factors.
An expanding economy will result
in more industrial plants and com­
mercial establishments such as
office buildings, stores, and banks.
The volume of construction mainte­


nance and repair, which is now
about one-third of new construction
activity, also is expected to grow
significantly through the 1970’s.
Home and apartment building will
be stimulated by the increase in
population, new family formations,
and higher income levels. Also,
large government expenditures for
urban renewal, school construction,
and roads are likely.
Manufacturing, the largest divi­
sion within the goods-producing
sector that had about 19.4 million
workers in 1970, increased about
16 percent in employment between
1960 and 1970. New products for
industrial and consumer markets
and the rapid growth of the de­
fense-space market has spearheaded
the post World War II growth.
Manufacturing employment is ex­
pected to increase about 13 percent
through the 1970’s and reach about
21.9 million in 1980. Durable goods
manufacturing is projected to in­
crease slightly faster (16 percent)
and nondurable goods somewhat
slower (9 percent) than the total.
However, the rate of growth will
vary among the individual manufac­
turing industries. The machinery in-

Employment in major occupational groups by sex
Millions of workers* 1970




dustry is expected to have the larg­
est need for additional people, as
employment grows from nearly 2.0
million to more than 2.4 million.
Producers of rubber and plastic
products; furniture and fixtures;
stone, clay, and glass products; and
instruments, will be among other
rapid growing manufacturing indus­
tries. In contrast, employment in
may decline, for example, food, tex­
tile mill products, tobacco, and pe­
troleum refining.


Employment has shifted toward white-collar occupations



Occupational Profile

As American industries continue
to grow large, more complex, and
more mechanized, fundamental
changes will take place in the Na­
tion’s occupational structure. Fur­
thermore, occupations will become
more complex and more special­
ized. Thus, an imposing and confus­
ing number of occupational choices
is provided to individuals who are
planning their careers. An individ­
ual, in examining the vast number
of choices should first look at broad
groupings of jobs that have similar
characteristics such as entrance re­
quirements. (See chart 4.)
Among the most significant
changes in the Nation’s occupa­
tional structure has been the shift
toward white-collar jobs. In 1956,
for the first time in the Nation’s his­
tory, white-collar workers—profes­
sional, managerial, clerical, and
and laborers. (See chart 5.)
Through the 1970’s, we can ex­
pect a continuation of the rapid
growth of white-collar occupations,
a slower than average growth of
blue-collar occupations, a faster
than average growth among service
workers, and a further decline of

(in millions)







farm workers. Total employment is
expected to increase about 21 per­
cent between 1970 and 1980. In
comparison, an increase of about 27
percent is expected for white-collar
jobs, and only about 12 percent for
blue-collar occupations. By 1980,
white-collar jobs will account for
more than one-half of all employed
workers compared with about 48
percent in 1970. The rapid growth
expected for white-collar workers
and service workers reflects contin­


uous expansion of the service-pro­
ducing industries which employ a
relatively large proportion of these
workers. (See chart 6.) The grow­
ing demand for workers to perform
research and development, to pro­
vide education and health services,
and to process the increasing
amount of paperwork throughout all
types of enterprises, also will be sig­
nificant in the growth of white-col­
lar jobs. The slower than average
growth of blue-collar and farm

Industries differ in the kinds of workers they employ
Percent distribution of employment, 1970









During the 1970’s, growth will vary widely
among occupations
Percent change, 1970-80 projected

Professional and technical workers
Service workers
Clerical workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen and foremen
Managers, officials, and proprietors
Nonfarm laborers
Farm workers


workers reflects the expanding use
of labor-saving equipment in our
Nation’s industries and the rela­
tively slow growth of the goodsproducing industries that employ
large proportions of blue-collar
The following section describes in
greater detail the changes that are
expected to occur among the broad
occupational groups through the
Professional and technical work­
ers, the third largest occupational
group in 1970, include among more
than 11.1 million workers such
highly trained personnel as teachers,
engineers, dentists, accountants, and
Professional occupations will be
the fastest growing occupation from
1970-80. (See chart 7.) Personnel
in this area will be in great demand
as the Nation puts greater efforts to­
ward the country’s socio-economic
progress, urban renewal, transporta­
tion, harnessing the ocean, and en­
hancing the beauty of the land. The
quest for scientific and technical
knowledge is bound to grow and
raise the demand for workers in sci­
entific and technical specialties. The

1970’s will see a continuing empha­
sis in the social sciences and medi­
cal services. By 1980 the require­
ments for professional, technical,
and kindred workers may be about
two-fifths greater than 1970 em­
Managers, officials and proprie­
tors totaled about 8.3 million in
1970. As a group they will increase
about 15 percent between 1970
and 1980, somewhat slower than
the rate of growth for all occupa­
tions. As in the past, requirements
for salaried managers are likely to
continue to increase rapidly because
of the increasing dependence of
business organizations and govern­
ment agencies on management spe­
cialists. On the other hand, the
number of self-employed managers
are expected to continue to decline
through the 1970’s as larger busi­
nesses continue to restrict growth of
the total number of firms and as
supermarkets continue to replace
small groceries, general stores, and
hand laundries.
Clerical workers numbering 13.7
million in 1970, include workers
who operate computers and office
machines, keep records, take dicta­

tion, and type. Many new clerical
positions are expected to open up as
industries employing large numbers
of clerical workers continue to ex­
pand. The trend in retail stores to­
ward transferring to clerical workers
functions that were performed by
salespersons also will tend to in­
crease employment needs of clerical
workers. The demand will be partic­
ularly strong for those qualified to
handle jobs created by the change
of clerical occupations to electronic
data processing operations. How­
ever, the use of electronic comput­
ing bookkeeping machines and
other mechanical devices to do proc­
essing and repetitive work are ex­
pected to reduce the number of
clerks employed in jobs such as
filing, making up payrolls, keeping
tract of inventories, and billing cus­
tomers. The need for clerical
workers as a group is expected to
increase more than one-fourth be­
tween 1970 and 1980.
Sales workers, accounting for
about 4.9 million workers in 1970,
are found primarily in retail stores,
wholesale firms, insurance compa­
nies, real estate agencies, as well as
offering goods door to door. Be­
tween 1970 and 1980 sales workers
are expected to increase nearly 24
Increasing sales of many new
products resulting from rapid popu­
lation growth, new product develop­
ment, business expansion, and rising
business levels will be the major rea­
son for increasing employment of
sales workers. The expected in­
crease in residential and commercial
construction and urban renewal will
increase the need for real estate
agents. Continued extension of
such laws as workers’ compensation
and automobile liability insurance
should boost the need for insurance
salesmen. The trend of stores to re­
main open longer hours should in­


crease the need for retail sales per­
sons. However, changes in distribu­
tion methods, such as self-service
and automatic vending are likely to
restrict the employment growth of
sales workers.
Craftsmen, numbering about 10.2
million in 1970, include carpenters,
tool and die makers, instrument
makers, all round machinists, elec­
tricians, and type setters. Industrial
growth and increasing business ac­
tivity are the major factors expected
to spur the growth of crafts occupa­
tions through the 1970’s. However,
technological developments will
tend to limit the expansion of this
group. Craftsmen are expected to
increase nearly one-fifth, somewhat
slower than the growth of all occu­
Semiskilled workers (operatives)
made up the largest major occupa­
tional group in 1970 with about
13.9 million workers engaged in as­
sembling goods in factories; driving
trucks, buses and taxis; and operat­
ing machinery.
workers is expected to increase
about 11 percent above the 1970
level, despite continued technologi­
cal advances that will reduce em­
ployment for some types of semi­
skilled occupations. Increases in
production generated by rising pop­
ulation and rapid economic growth,
as well as the increasing trend to
motor truck transportation of
freight, are expected to be the
major factors contributing to the in­
creasing employment.
Laborers (excluding those in
farming and mining), who num­
bered nearly 3.7 million workers in
1970, for the most part move, lift,
and carry materials and tools in the
Nation’s workplaces. Employment
of laborers is expected to change lit­
tle between 1970 and 1980 in spite
of the rises in manufacturing and


construction which employ most la­
borers. Increased demand is ex­
pected to be offset by rising produc­
tivity resulting from continuing sub­
stitution of mechanical equipment
for manual labor.
Service workers, including men
and women who maintain law and
order, assist professional nurses in
hospitals, give haircuts and beauty
treatments, serve food, and clean
and care for our homes, totaled
about 9.7 million in 1970. This di­
verse group will increase about 35
percent between 1970 and 1980
and after professional workers will
be the fastest growing group. Some
of the main factors that are ex­
pected to increase requirements for
these occupations are the rising de­
mand for hospital and other medical
care; the greater need for protective
services as urbanization continues
and cities become more crowded;
and the more frequent use of res­
taurants, beauty parlors, and other
services as income levels rise and as
an increasing number of housewives
take jobs outside the home.
Farm workers—including farm­
ers, farm managers, laborers, and
foremen—numbered nearly 3.1 mil­

lion in 1970. Employment require­
ments for farm workers are ex­
pected to decline to about 2.6
million in 1980. This decrease is
anticipated, in part, because of con­
tinued improvement in farm tech­
nology. For example, improved
fertilizers, seeds, and feed, will per­
mit a farmer to increase production
without increasing employment.

Job Openings

In considering a career, young
people should not eliminate occupa­
tions just because their preferences
will not be among the most rapidly
growing. Although growth is a key
indicator of future job outlook,
more jobs will be created between
1970-80 from deaths, retirements,
and other labor force separations
than from employment growth. (See
chart 8.) Replacement needs will be
particularly significant in occupa­
tions which have a large proportion
of older workers and women. Fur­
thermore, large occupations that
have little growth may offer more
openings than a fast growing small
one. For example, among the major



occupational groups, openings for
operatives resulting from growth
and replacement combined will be
greater than for craftsmen, although
the rate of growth of craftsmen will
be more than twice as rapid as the
rate of growth for operatives.

School enrollment rates will continue to rise

Outlook and Education

Numerous opportunities for em­
ployment will be available for job­
seekers during the years ahead. Em­
ployers are seeking people who
have higher levels of education be­
cause jobs are more complex and
require greater skill. Furthermore,
employment growth generally will
be fastest in those occupations re­
quiring the most education and
training. For example, professional
occupations requiring the most edu­
cation will show the fastest growth
through the 1970’s. (See chart 7.)
A high school education has be­
come a standard for American
workers. Thus, because of person­
nel practices in American indus­
tries, a high school graduate is in a
better competitive position in the
job market than a nongraduate.
Although training beyond high
school has been the standard for
sometime for many professional oc­
cupations, many other areas of work
require more than just a high school
diploma. As new automated equip­
ment is introduced on a wider scale
in offices, banks, insurance compa­
nies, and government operations,
skill requirements are rising for
clerical and other office jobs. Em­
ployers increasingly are demanding
better trained workers to operate
complicated machinery.
In many areas of sales work, new
developments in machine design,
use of new materials, and the com­
plexity of equipment are making
greater technical knowledge a re­


quirement for demonstrators; and
repairmen must become familiar
with even more complicated ma­
Along with the demand for
greater education, the proportion of
youth completing high school have
increased and an even larger pro­
portion of high school graduates
pursue higher education. (See chart
9.) This trend is expected to con­
tinue through the 1970’s. In 1980,
high school enrollment is expected

to be 21.4 million, 7 percent above
the 1970 level and college degree
credit enrollment is projected at
11.2 million, about 48 percent
above the 1970 level of 7.6 million.
The number of persons in the
labor force (including those in the
Armed Forces) is a related aspect
of job competition. Although the
number of all workers and job-seek­
ers will increase about 17 percent
from 1970 and 1980, the growth in
the labor force is really a story of

Changes in total labor force by age

Age group

Workers, 1970-80 (in m
0 1









young men and women between
16-34 who will account for about
four-fifths of the net increase in
workers between 1970 and 1980.
(See chart 10.) Thus, in the 1970’s
the number of young workers will
increase and these workers will
have more education on the average
than new entrants to the labor force
in previous years.
With so much competition from
young people who have higher lev­
els of education, the boy or girl who
does not get good preparation for
work, will find the going more diffi­
cult in the years ahead. Employers
will be more likely to hire workers
who have at least a high school di­
ploma. Furthermore, present expe­
rience shows that the less education
and training a worker has the less
chance he has for a steady job, be­
cause unemployment falls heaviest
on the worker who has the least ed­
ucation. (See chart 11.)
In addition to importance in com­
peting for a job, education is highly
valued in the determination of in­
come. In 1968, men who had col­
lege degrees could expect to earn
more than $600,000 in their life­
time, or nearly 3 times the
$214,000 likely to be earned by
workers who had less than 8 years
of schooling, nearly twice that
earned by workers who had 1 to 3
years of high school, and nearly one
and two-thirds as much as high
school graduates. Clearly the com­
pletion of high school pays a divi­
dend. A worker who had only 1 to
3 years of high school could expect
to earn only about $31,000 more
than workers who had an elemen­

Unemployment rates are highest for young workers
Unemployment rate, March 1 9 7 0 (percent)





8years or less
High School
1 to 3 years

4 years
1 to 3 years

4 years or more

Estimated lifetime earnings for men tend to rise with
years of school completed
Estimated earnings, 1968 to date (in thousands of dollars)
800 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






■V ■



■ i
■i■ i




5 or more

Years of School Completed

tary school education, but a high
school graduate could look forward
to a $94,000 lifetime income advan­
tage over an individual completing
elementary school. (See chart 12.)
In summary, young people who
have acquired a skill or good basic

education will have a better chance
at interesting work, good wages,
and steady employment. Getting as
much education and training as
one’s abilities and circumstance per­
mit therefore should be a top prior­
ity for today’s youth.





Professional occupations have
many attractions for young persons
choosing a career. They offer op­
portunities for interesting and re­
sponsible work, and in many cases,
lead to high earnings. However,
professional work usually can be
entered only after a long period of
preparation since a broad and thor­
ough knowledge of a field is essen­
tial to success in the professions.
More than 11.1 million persons,
or about 1 out of every 7 workers,
were in professional or related oc­
cupations in 1970. These workers
accounted for about three-tenths of
all white-collar employment.
Professional occupations are of
two major types. The larger group,
which includes engineer, physician,
and teacher, requires specialized
and theoretical knowledge. Profes­
sions in this group require college
graduation—and sometimes an ad­
vanced degree—or experience that
provides comparable knowledge.
The other group, which includes
performing artists and athletes,
places a high premium on skill and
often on creative talent. Academic
training generally is of lesser impor­
tance in this second group. Licenses
are required for practice in many
and pharmacy, for example; licens­
ing authorities determine the mini­
mum qualifications for eligibility.
Professional societies set up mem­
bership standards that tend to define
their respective fields.
Women find many employment
opportunities in the professions. Al­
most two-fifths of all professional
and related jobs were filled by
women in 1970; women predomi­
nate in several large professions, in­

cluding teaching, nursing, library
work, and social work.
Closely related to the professions
is a wide variety of technical occu­
pations. Persons in these occupa­
tions work with engineers, scientists,
mathematicians, physicians, and
other professional personnel. Their
job titles include those of drafts­
man; engineering aid; programer;
and electronics, laboratory, or Xray technician. Employment in
these technical occupations usually
requires a combination of basic sci­
entific knowledge and specialized
education or training in some partic­
ular aspect of technology or sci­
ence. Such training may be obtained
in technical institutes, junior col­
leges, and other schools, or through
equivalent on-the-job training.
Many occupations in education,
health, social welfare, recreation, li­
brary work, and other areas also are
related to the professions. Related
—and supportive—occupations in
these areas include teacher assist­


ant, medical laboratory assistant,
social welfare technician, recreation
assistant, and library technician.
Training for many supportive jobs
may be obtained in vocational and
technical schools, junior colleges, or
sometimes on the job.
The major professional and re­
lated occupations are shown in
chart 13. As a group, these workers
increased by nearly 3.7 million dur­
ing the 1960-70 decade. The rate
of increase, almost 50 percent, was
more rapid than for any other occu­
pational group, and two and onehalf
times the rate for all
occupational groups combined. The
outlook for professional and related
occupations continues to be very fa­
vorable. Between 1970 and 1980,
employment in this group is ex­
pected to increase by nearly twofifths. (See chart 14.)
The continuing very rapid growth
in the professional worker group is
the result of developments such as
expansion in research and develop-

Elementary teaching and engineering are the largest
professional occupations
Employment, 1970 (in thousands)


1 ,0 0 0

1 ,5 0 0

College (full time)
Registered nurses
Practical nurses





Professional and technical occupations are growing rapidly
Number employed







(in millions)





... ....1..............


projec te d

ment activities; improvements in
standards of living, medical care,
and education; and the growing
concentration of the population in
metropolitan areas— all of which
stimulate requirements for highly
educated workers. A unique set of
factors, however, determines growth
in any one occupation. To illustrate,
birth rates, school attendance rates,
and classroom size are the primary
factors in the demand for teachers,
whereas primary factors underlying
engineering demand include the
level of research and development
activities and the complexity of in­
dustrial processes. In addition, the
nature and effect of technological
advances on employment require­
ments vary from profession to pro­
fession. Technology in education,
such as programmed learning and
instructional television, is expected
to affect the nature of teaching
rather than to exert a strong influ­
ence on the level of teacher require­
ments. In contrast, technological
advances in the engineering field are
expected to increase requirements
for engineers and limit to some ex­
tent requirements for the lesser
skilled among draftsmen. Although

different rates of growth are ex­
pected among individual profes­
sional occupations because of the
varying influence of factors underly­
ing growth, the general tendency
will be for a moderate to very rapid
growth of these occupations.
Natural scientists are expected to
be among the rapidly expanding
professions through the 1970’s.
Chemists, for example, will be re­
quired in increasing numbers for re­
search and development and for the
manufacture of products such as
plastics, man-made fibers, drugs,
and high energy and nuclear fuels
for missiles and rockets. Demands
for physicists also will grow as more
are required to perform highly com­
plex research and development
work and to satisfy the increasing
demand for physicists on college
faculties because of the growing im­
portance of physics in engineering
and other science curriculums. Re­
quirements for mathematicians are
expected to increase markedly,
stimulated by the application of sys­
tems analysis and computers to a
wide range of endeavors and by the
use of mathematics in research in
fields as diverse as economics and

biology. Demands for engineers will
rise rapidly in response to industrial
expansion, and a variety of pro­
grams that include urban renewal,
transportation, and environmental
Employment of most types of
health workers is also expected to
increase rapidly, due to population
growth, rising standards of health
care, increasing emphasis on pre­
ventive medicine and rehabilitation,
new drugs and techniques, and
wider participation in private health
insurance plans and in government
programs such as Medicare and
Medicaid. In contrast, the employ­
ment effect of rising standards in
education will be offset partially as
declining birth rates begin to affect
elementary and secondary school
enrollments significantly. However,
employment requirements in certain
areas of education, such as teachers
trained in instructing physically and
mentally handicapped and disad­
vantaged students, are expected to
rise. Rapidly increasing college en­
rollments probably will require
large increases in college and uni­
versity teaching staff.
Social scientist employment is ex­
pected to grow rapidly as the solu­
tion to social problems is sought in­
creasingly through economics, soci­
ology, psychology, and other social
sciences. College trained manage­
ment personnel, such as accoun­
tants, also will be required in larger
numbers to cope with the growth in
the size and number of firms and
their increasing complexity.
Employment of technicians and
support personnel in many fields
also will increase rapidly with grow­
ing emphasis on improving the utili­
zation of professional workers by
relieving them of tasks that can be
performed by less highly trained



Educational Trends

Professional occupations ac­
counted for two-thirds of all
workers having a college education
in 1970. The proportion of all pro­
fessional workers having a degree
has been increasing. In addition to
the many professions for which a
college education long has been an
entry requirement, the demand for
graduates at the entry level in other
professional, administrative, and re­
lated occupations is growing. Col­
lege graduates are filling many posi­
tions that formerly were held by
employees who qualified through
their experience and personal char­
acteristics rather than by academic
studies. Graduates also are working
in many professional jobs that did
not exist a few decades ago.
Emphasis on a college education
will be reinforced in the years ahead
as the growing complexity of our
society constantly increases the
amount of specialized knowledge
required for effective performance
in many professions. Finally, a col­
lege education is becoming neces­
sary for an increasing proportion of
jobs, and in many professions the
amount of education needed is in­
creasing. A great increase in the
number of college graduates, which
is the chief source of professionally
trained workers, has accompanied
the growth in the professional and
related occupations. As a percent of
all persons 22 years of age, the pro­
portion of young persons complet­
ing college rose from 17 percent in
1960 to 22 percent in 1970, as
shown on the inset in chart 15.
The rapid increase in the propor­
tion of young people graduating
from college reflects a number of
basic social trends. Family incomes
are higher, enabling more of the
young to postpone going to work
and to meet the costs of education.


Graduates as a percent
of all persons 22 years
of age

Number of bachelor's and first
professional degrees earned

(in thousands)






------ I








More families want a college educa­
tion for their children. Scholarships
and loans are available for more
students; part-time work opportuni­
ties also are available.
Since these factors probably will
continue to be influential in the fu­
ture, the proportion of young peo­
ple who graduate from college is ex­
pected to go on increasing for many
years. The college-age population
also is growing. The number of per­
sons age 18 to 21 is expected to in­

crease by nearly 2.7 million between
1970 and 1980. These factors, con­
sidered together, indicate a great in­
crease in college graduations, as­
suming that the Nation’s colleges
and universities build the class­
rooms, laboratories, dormitories,
and other facilities and hire the fac­
ulty needed to provide for the
greatly increased number of stu­
dents. Projections prepared by the
U.S. Office of Education indicate an
increase from about 785,000 bache-

Number of masters and doctor’s degrees earned

Number of degrees

(in thousands)






lor’s degrees granted in 1970 to
more than 1.1 million in 1980. The
number of students in graduate
school also has risen very rapidly
during the last few decades, and
probably will continue to mount
through the 1970’s. A master’s de­
gree usually is earned through 1 or
2 years of study beyond the bache­
lor’s degree. The Ph. D. degree
usually require 3 years or more be­
yond the bachelor’s degree. As a


rule, graduate study is concentrated
in the major subject field of the stu­
dent’s interest, whereas undergradu­
ate study is broader in content.
Chart 16 shows the vast increase
in graduate degrees awarded during
the past 10 years. Master’s degrees
rose from about 78,000 in 1960 to
nearly 220,000 in 1970 and are ex­
pected to exceed 430,000 in 1980,
if past trends continue. The number
of doctorates awarded increased

from 9,800 in 1960 to 29,000 in
1970, and may reach over 62,000 by
Overall analysis of the supply and
demand for professional personnel
indicates that the outlook for these
highly trained workers continues to
be excellent. Technicians and sup­
portive personnel generally will
have very favorable opportunities.


Many professional workers play a
major role in administering busi­
nesses and a wide variety of other
organizations, both private and gov­
ernmental. These workers generally
need a college degree to qualify for
jobs in their respective fields.
Though their disciplines are ori­
ented toward business management,
they perform functions which are
highly specialized and varied.
Whether their organizations are
small or large, employing only a few
people or many thousands, the deci­
sions they make and their effective­
ness in implementing these deci­
sions contribute greatly to the suc­
cess or failure of the enterprise.
This chapter describes some pro­
fessional occupations that are of
vital importance to the Nation’s
businesses—accountants, advertis­
ing workers, marketing research
workers, personnel workers, and
public relations workers. Workers
engaged primarily in managerial du­
ties are covered in the section on
Managerial Occupations found else­
where in the Handbook.

tioners who work on a fee basis for
businesses and individuals, or as a
member or employee of account­
ancy firms. Management account­
ants, often referred to as industrial
or private accountants, handle the
financial records of the particular
firm for which they work on a salary
basis. Government accountants
work on the financial records of
government agencies and often
audit the records of private business
organizations and individuals whose
dealings are subject to government

Accountants in any field of em­
ployment may specialize in such
areas as auditing, taxes, cost ac­
counting, budgeting and control, in­
formation processing, or systems
and procedures. Approximately 100
specialties now exist in the account­
ing field. Public accountants are
likely to specialize in auditing—that
is, in reviewing financial records
and reports and giving opinions as
to their reliability. They also advise
clients on tax matters and other fi­
nancial and accounting problems.
Most management accountants are
involved in some aspect of provid­
ing management with informa­
tion for decisionmaking. Sometimes
they specialize in taxes, budgeting
or internal auditing—that is, exam­
ining and appraising financial sys-

(D.O.T. 160.188)

Nature of the Work

Accountants compile and analyze
business records and prepare finan­
cial reports, such as profit and loss
statements, balance sheets, cost
studies, and tax reports. The major
fields are public, management, and
government accounting. Public ac­
countants are independent practi­

Accountant reviews financial report.




closely related field is increasingly
an asset; for better positions, it may
be required. Candidates having a
master’s degree in accounting, as
well as college training in other
business and liberal arts subjects,
are preferred by many firms.
Previous work experience also
Places of Employment
can be of great value in qualifying
for employment. A number of col­
About 500,000 accountants were leges offer students an opportunity
employed in 1970, of whom over to get such experience through in­
100,000 were Certified Public Ac­ ternship programs conducted in co­
countants (CPA’s). Accounting is operation with public accounting or
one of the largest fields of profes­ business firms. For beginning ac­
sional employment for men. About counting positions, the Federal
2 percent of the CPA’s and less Government requires 4 years of col­
than 20 percent of all accountants lege training (including 24 semester
are women.
hours in accounting) or an equiva­
More than three-fifths of all ac­ lent combination of education and
countants do management account­ experience. Most universities re­
ing work. An additional one-fifth
quire the master’s degree or the
are engaged in public accounting as doctorate with the Certified Public
proprietors, partners, or employees
Accountancy Certificate for teach­
of independent accounting firms.
ing positions.
Over 10 percent work for Federal,
All States require that anyone
State and local government agen­
practicing in the State as a “certified
cies. A small number teach in col­
public accountant” must hold a cer­
leges and universities.
tificate issued by the State board of
Accountants are employed wher
accountancy. The CPA examina­
ever business, industrial, or govern­
tion, administered by the American
mental organizations are located.
Institute of Certified Public Ac­
The majority, however, work in
countants, is used by all states to es­
large metropolitan centers where
tablish certification. In 1970, half the
there is a particularly heavy concen­
States had laws that required CPA
tration of public accounting firms
candidates to be college graduates.
and central offices of large business
In recent years, nearly 9 out of 10
successful CPA candidates have
been college graduates, and a ma­
jority of the remainder have had at
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
least 1 year of college training.
Young people interested in an ac­
Training in accounting can be ob­
counting career should be aware
tained in universities, 4-year col­
that recent reports by the American
leges, junior colleges, accounting
and private business schools, and Institute of Certified Public Ac­
correspondence schools. Graduates countants indicate that, in the near
of all these institutions are included future, some States may require
in the ranks of successful account­ CPA candidates to have a graduate
ants; however, a bachelor’s degree degree. Before the CPA certificate
with a major in accounting or a is issued, at least 2 years of public

terns and management control pro­
cedures. Many accountants in the
Federal Government are employed
as Internal Revenue agents, investi­
gators, and bank examiners, as well
as in regular accounting positions.

accounting experience is required
by nearly all States.
Considerably more than half the
States restrict the title “public ac­
countant” to those who are licensed
or registered. Requirements for li­
censing and registration vary con­
siderably from one State to another.
Information on these requirements
may be obtained directly from indi­
vidual State boards of accountancy,
or from the National Society of
Public Accountants.
Inexperienced accountants usu­
ally begin with fairly routine work.
Junior public accountants may be
assigned to detailed work such as
verifying cash balances or inspect­
ing vouchers. They may advance to
semisenior positions in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within an­
other 1 or 2 years. In the larger
firms, those successful in dealing
with top industry executives often
become supervisors, managers, or
partners, or transfer to executive
positions in private accounting.
Some become independent practi­
Beginners in management ac­
counting may start as ledger ac­
countants, junior internal auditors,
or as trainees for technical account­
ing positions. They may rise to chief
plant accountant, chief cost account­
ant, budget director, senior internal
auditor, or manager of internal au­
diting, depending on their specialty.
Some become controllers, treasur­
ers, financial vice-presidents, or cor­
poration presidents. In the Federal
Government, beginners are hired as
trainees and usually are promoted
in a year or so. In the field of col­
lege and university teaching, those
having minimum training and ex­
perience may receive the rank of in­
structor without tenure; advance­
ment and permanent faculty status
are dependent upon further educa­


Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually
find it necessary to continue their
study of accountancy and related
problems—even though they al­
ready may have obtained college
degrees or CPA certificates. Even
experienced accountants may spend
many hours in study and research in
order to keep abreast of legal and
business developments that affect
their work. More and more account­
ants are studying computer opera­
tion, programing, mathematics, and
quantitative methods in order to
adapt accounting procedures to new
methods of processing business
data. Although advancement may
be rapid for capable accountants,
those having inadequate academic
preparation are likely to be assigned
to routine jobs and may find them­
selves handicapped in obtaining

Employment Outlook

Accounting employment is ex­
pected to expand very rapidly dur­
ing the 1970’s because of such fac­
tors as the greater use of accounting
information in business manage­
ment; complex and changing tax
systems; the growth in size and num­
ber of business corporations re­
quired to provide financial reports
to stockholders; and the increasing
use of accounting services by small
business organizations. As a result,
opportunities for accountants are
expected to be excellent. Demand
for college-trained accountants will
be stronger than the demand for
people without this academic back­
ground, because of the growing
complexity of business accounting
requirements. However, graduates of
business and other schools which
offer thorough training in account­
ing also should have good job pros­

pects. In addition, the trend toward
specialization is creating excellent
opportunities for persons trained in
a specific phase of accounting. In
addition to openings resulting from
employment growth, several thou­
sand accountants will be needed an­
nually during this period to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
The computer is having a major
effect on the accounting profes­
sion. Electronic data processing
systems are replacing manual prep­
aration of accounting records and
financial statements. As a result, the
need for junior accountants at the
lower level may be reduced or elim­
inated. On the other hand, comput­
ers can process vast quantities of
routine data which will require the
employment of additional account­
ants to analyze the data. Also, the
computer is expected to cause rad­
ical changes in management infor­
mation systems and decisionmaking
processes in large companies. Addi­
tional highly-trained accountants
will be required to prepare, admin­
ister and analyze the information
made available by these systems.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$8,500 a year in 1970, according to
a Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
survey. Average earnings of experi­
enced accountants ranged between
$10,500 and $15,500, depending on
their level of responsibility and the
complexity of the accounting system.
Chief accountants responsible for di­
recting the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $14,000 and
$23,000, depending upon the scope
of their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.


According to the same survey,
beginning auditors averaged $9,000
a year, while experienced auditors’
earnings ranged between $11,500
and $14,000.
Salaries are generally 10 percent
higher for accountants holding a
graduate degree or a CPA certifi­
cate. Earnings also are higher for
those who are required to travel a
great deal.
In the Federal Civil Service the
entrance salary for junior account­
ants and auditors was $8,510 in
1970. Some candidates having supe­
rior academic records could qualify
for a starting salary of $9,178.
Many experienced accountants in
the Federal Government earned
more than $15,000 a year. Those
having administrative responsibil­
ities earned more.
Public accountants are likely to
work especially long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax sea­
son. They do most of their work in
their client’s offices, and sometimes
do considerable traveling to serve
distant clients. A few management
and government accountants also do
much traveling and work irregular
hours, but the majority remain in
one office and work between 35 and
40 hours a week, under the same
general conditions as their fellow
office workers.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about CPA’s and the
aptitude tests now given in many
high schools, colleges, and public
accounting firms may be obtained
American Institute of Certified Pub­
lic Accountants, 666 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on special­
ized fields of accounting may be ob­
tained from:


National Association of Account­
ants, 505 Park Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Account­
ants, 1717 Pennsylvania Avenue
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Financial Executives Institute, 50
West 44th St., New York, N.Y.
The Institute of Internal Auditors,
Inc., 170 Broadway, New York,
N.Y. 10038.

(D.O.T. 050.088, 132.088; 141.081 and
.168; and 164.068 through .168)

Nature of the Work

Through advertisements, busi­
nessmen try to reach potential cus­
tomers and persuade them to buy
their products or services. Advertis­
ing workers plan and prepare these
advertisements and get them before
the public. Advertising workers in­
clude executives responsible for
planning and overall supervision,
copywriters who write the text, art­
ists who prepare the illustrations,
and layout specialists who put copy
and illustrations into the most at­
tractive arrangement possible. They
also include administrative and
technical workers who are responsi­
ble for the satisfactory reproduction
of the “ads,” and salesmen who sell
advertising space in publications or
time on radio and television pro­
grams. In a very small advertising
organization, one person may han­
dle all these tasks. Large organiza­
tions employ specialists for re­
search, copywriting, and layout
work. They sometimes have staff
members who specialize in writing
copy for particular kinds of prod­
ucts or for one type of advertising

media. The following are the spe­
cialized occupations most com­
monly found in advertising work.
Advertising managers direct a
company’s advertising program.
They work mostly on policy ques­
tions—for example, the type of ad­
vertising, the size of the advertising
budget, and the agency to be em­
ployed. They then work with the
agency in planning and carrying
through the program. They also
may supervise the preparation of
special sales brochures, display
cards, and other promotional mate­
The advertising manager of a
newspaper, radio station, or other
advertising medium is concerned
chiefly with selling advertising time
or space; his functions are similar to
those of the sales manager in other
Account executives employed in
advertising agencies handle rela­
tions between the agency and its
clients. An account executive stud­
ies the client’s sales and advertising
problems, develops a plan to meet
the client’s needs, and seeks his ap­
proval of the proposed program.
Account executives must be able to
sell ideas and maintain good rela­
tions with clients. They must know
how to write copy and use artwork,
even though copywriters and artists
usually carry out their ideas and
Some advertising agencies have
account supervisors who oversee the
work of the account executives. In
others, account executives are re­
sponsible directly to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create
the headlines, slogans, and text that
attract buyers. They collect infor­
mation about products and the peo­
ple who might use them. They use
psychology and writing techniques
to prepare copy especially suited for
readers or listeners and for the type

of advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in copy
that appeals to certain groups—
housewives, businessmen, scientists,
engineers—or even in copy that
deals with items such as packaged
goods or industrial products. In ad­
vertising agencies, copywriters work
closely with account executives, al­
though they may be under the su­
pervision of a copy chief.
Advertisers and advertising agen­
cies employ media directors (or
space buyers and time buyers) to
determine where and when advertis­
ing should be carried to reach the
largest group of prospective buyers
at the least cost. They must have a
vast amount of information about
the cost of advertising in all media
and the relative size and character­
istics of the reading, viewing, or lis­
tening audience which can be
reached in various parts of the
country by specific publications,
broadcasting stations, and other
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the final
copy and artwork converted into
printed form. They deal with print­
ing, engraving, filming, recording,
and other firms involved in the re­
production of advertisements. The
production manager must have a
thorough knowledge of various
printing processes, typography, pho­
tography, paper, inks, and related
technical materials and processes.
Research directors and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze infor­
mation needed for effective adver­
tising programs. They study the
possible uses of the product, its ad­
vantages and disadvantages com­
pared with competing products, and
the best ways of reaching potential
purchasers. Such workers may
make special surveys of the buying
habits and motives of customers, or
may try out sample advertisements


to find the most convincing selling
theme or most efficient media for
carrying the advertising message.
The research director is an impor­
tant executive in advertising organi­
zations. More information on this
occupation is contained in the state­
ment on Marketing Research
Artists and layout men work
closely with advertising managers,
copywriters, and other advertising
personnel in planning and creating
visual effects in advertisements.
More information about this group
appears in the separate statements
on Commerical Artists and Photog­
Places of Employment

In 1970, more than 140,000 men
and women were employed in posi­

tions requiring considerable knowl­
edge of advertising. More than
one-third of these workers are em­
ployed in advertising agencies, and
more than half of the agency
workers are employed in the New
York City and Chicago metropoli­
tan areas. However, there are many
independent agencies in other cities,
and many leading agencies operate
branch offices outside the major
Advertising workers not em­
ployed in advertising agencies work
stores, and other organizations hav­
ing products or services to sell; for
advertising media, such as newspa­
pers and magazines; and for print­
ers, engravers, art studios, product
and package designers, and others
who provide services to advertisers
and advertising agencies.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most employers, in hiring adver­
tising trainees, prefer college gradu­
ates having liberal arts training or
majors in advertising, marketing,
journalism, or business administra­
tion. However, there is no typical
educational background for success
in advertising. Some successful ad­
vertising people have started in such
varied occupations as engineer,
teacher, chemist, artist, or salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a
flair for language, both spoken and
written. Since every assignment re­
quires individual handling, a liking
for problem-solving also is very
important. Advertising personnel
should have a great interest in peo­
ple and things to help them sell
their ideas to their superiors, to ad­
vertisers, and to the public. They
must be able to accept criticism and
to gain important points with tact.
Young people planning to enter
advertising should get some experi­
ence in copywriting or related work
with their school publications and, if
possible, through summer jobs con­
nected with marketing research serv­
ices. Some large advertising organ­
izations recruit outstanding college
graduates and train them through
programs which cover all aspects of
advertising work. Most beginners,
however, have to locate their own
jobs by applying directly to possible
employers. Some start as assistants
in research or production work or
as space or time buyers. A few
begin as junior copywriters. One of
the best avenues of entrance to ad­
vertising work for women is through
advertising departments in retail
Employees having initiative,
drive, and talent may progress from
beginning jobs to creative, research,
or managerial work. Management



positions require experience in all
phases of the advertising business.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives can usually look forward to
rapid advancement if they demon­
strate exceptional ability in dealing
with clients, since the success of an
advertising organization depends
upon satisfied advertisers. Many of
these workers prefer to remain in
their own specialities and for them
advancement is to more responsible
work at increased pay. Some top­
flight copywriters and account exec­
utives establish their own agencies.

Employment Outlook

workers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Oppor­
tunities should be favorable, how­
ever, for highly qualified applicants,
especially in advertising agencies, as
more and more advertisers turn
their work over to agencies. How­
ever, many young people attracted
to advertising will face stiff competi­
tion for entry jobs in this field
through the 1970’s. Most openings
—several thousand each year—will
result from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.

ing agencies vary by size of firm.
The average salary paid by small
agencies (those having annual bill­
$1 million) was $11,000 a year in
1970. Advertising workers em­
ployed by large agencies (those
having billings between $20 million
and $40 million) averaged $26,000
a year. Salaries also vary by func­
tion. For example, account execu­
tives employed by small agencies
averaged $13,000 a year, while
media directors averaged less than
$7,000 a year in agencies of the
same size.
Advertising workers frequently
work under great pressure. Working
hours are sometimes irregular be­
cause deadlines must be met and
last minute changes are not uncom­
mon. Persons in creative jobs often
work evenings and weekends to
finish important assignments.
At the same time, advertising is a
satisfying career for persons who
enjoy variety, excitement, and a
constant challenge to their creative
ability, and who can meet the com­
petition. Advertising workers have
the satisfaction of seeing their work
in print and on television, or hear­
ing it over the radio, even though
they remain unknown to the public
at large.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Sources of Additional Information

According to the limited informa­
tion available, starting salaries for
ranged from $6,500 to $8,000 a
year in 1970. The higher starting
salaries were paid most frequently
in very large firms that recruit out­
standing college graduates; the
lower salaries were earned in stores
and small advertising agencies.
Salaries of experienced advertis­
ing workers employed by advertis­

American Advertising Federation,
1225 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Association of Advertis­
ing Agencies, 200 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Association of Industrial Advertis­
ers, 41 East 42nd Street, New
York, N.Y. 10017.

A list of schools which provide
training in advertising may be ob­
tained from:

Advertising Education Publications,
3429 Fifty-Fifth Street, Lubbock,
Texas 79413.

(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work

provide businessmen with much of
the information they need to make
decisions about marketing new and
existing goods and services. In
doing this, marketing research
workers collect, analyze, and inter­
pret many different kinds of infor­
mation. They prepare reports and
recommendations on such widely
differing problems as forecasting
sales; selecting a brand name, pack­
age, or design; choosing a new plant
location; deciding whether to move
goods by rail, truck, or other
method; and determining the kinds
of advertising likely to attract the
most business. In investigating
these and other matters, they con­
sider expected changes in subjects
relevant to marketing policies such
as population, income, and con­
sumer credit policies.
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
published materials, the firm’s own
records, and specialists on the sub­
ject under investigation. For exam­
ple, marketing research workers
analyzing fluctuations in their com­
pany’s sales may begin by determin­
ing periodic changes in sales volume
in several different cities. They may
then compare these fluctuations
with changes in population, income,
the size of the company’s sales
force, and the amounts the company


has spent for advertising in each
city, and thus discover the reasons
for changes in the volume of sales.
Other marketing research workers
may study changes in the quantity
of company goods on store shelves,
or make door-to-door surveys to
learn the number of company prod­
ucts already used in households.
Marketing research is often con­
cerned with the opinions and likes
and dislikes of customers. For ex­
ample, to help management decide
on the design and price of a new
line of television sets, a survey of
consumers may determine the price
they would be willing to pay and
their preferences as to color and
size of the set.
Such a survey is usually con­
ducted under the supervision of
marketing research workers who
specialize in research on consumer
goods—that is, merchandise sold to
the general public. In designing the
survey, the marketing research
worker may be assisted by a statisti­
cian in selecting a group (or “sam­
ple” ) of people to be interviewed to
make sure that their opinions repre­
sent those held by most potential
customers. He may also consult a
“motivational research” specialist
who knows how to frame questions
that will produce reliable informa­
tion on what motivates people to
buy. Once the investigation is un­
derway, the marketing research
worker may supervise the interview­
ers who call on consumers to obtain
answers to the questions. He may
also direct the work of the office
employees who tabulate and ana­
lyze the information collected. His
report summarizing the survey find­
ings also may include other infor­
mation that company officials need
in making decisions about market­
ing of old or new product lines.
Marketing research surveys con­
cerned with products used by busi­

ness and industrial firms may be
conducted somewhat differently
from consumer goods surveys. Be­
cause research on some industrial
products requires interviewers with
a technical knowledge of the prod­
uct involved, the marketing research
workers if it is an extensive survey)
often conducts the interviews. In his
interviews, he not only seeks opin­
ions about the product—existing or
newly developed—but also possible
new ways of adapting it to industrial
needs. He must, therefore, be a spe­
cialist both in marketing research
and in the industrial uses of the
product involved.
Places of Employment

More than 20,000 marketing re­
search workers were employed full
time in 1970. This number included
research assistants and others in
junior positions, as well as research


supervisors and directors. Most of
these workers were men. In addi­
tion, a limited number of other pro­
fessionals (statisticians, economists,
psychologists, and sociologists) and
several thousand clerical workers
(clerks who code and tabulate sur­
vey returns, typists, and others)
were employed full time in this
field. Thousands of additional
workers, many of them women,
were employed on a part time or
temporary basis as survey inter­
Among the principal employers
of marketing research workers are
manufacturing companies and inde­
pendent advertising and marketing
research organizations which do this
kind of work for clients on a con­
tract basis. Marketing research
workers are also employed by very
large stores, radio and television
firms, and newspapers; others work
for university research centers, gov­
ernment agencies, and other organi­



zations which provide information
for businessmen. Marketing re­
search organizations range in size
from one-man enterprises to large
firms having a hundred employees
or more.
The largest number of marketing
research workers is in New York
City, where many major advertising
and independent marketing research
organizations are located, and
where many large manufacturers
have their central offices. The sec­
ond largest concentration is in Chi­
cago. However, marketing research
workers are employed in many
other cities—wherever there are
central offices of large manufactur­
ing and sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree is the usual
requirement to become a marketing
research trainee. A master’s degree
in business administration is becom­
ing increasingly desirable, especially
for advancement to higher level po­
sitions. Many people qualify for
marketing research jobs through
previous experience in other re­
search or in work related to market­
ing. University teachers of market­
ing research or statistics sometimes
are sought by employers to head
new marketing research depart­
College courses considered valu­
able as preparation for work in
marketing research are marketing,
speech, psychology, and economics.
Candidates for some marketing re­
search positions need specialized
training in engineering or other
technical subjects, or substantial
sales experience and a thorough
knowledge of the company’s prod­
ucts. Knowledge of electronic data-

processing procedures is becoming
important because of the growing
use of computers in sales forecast­
ing, distribution, cost analysis, and
other aspects of marketing research.
Graduate training may be necessary
for some kinds of work—for exam­
ple, motivational research or sam­
pling and other statistical techniques
connected with large-scale surveys.
Trainees in marketing research
usually start as research assistants
or junior analysts. At first, they are
likely to do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and cod­
ing questionnaires, and tabulating
survey returns. They also learn how
to conduct interviews and how to
write reports on survey findings.
As they gain experience, assist­
ants and junior analysts may ad­
vance to higher level positions with
responsibility for specific marketing
research projects, or to supervisory
positions. An exceptionally able in­
dividual may eventually become
marketing research director or vice
president for marketing and sales.
Marketing research workers must
have exceptional ability to recognize
and define problems, and imagina­
tion and ingenuity in applying mar­
keting research techniques to their
solution. They should be able to
adapt to change since they are con­
stantly faced with new and different
problems. Above all, their work
calls for the ability to analyze infor­
mation and to write reports which
will convince management of the
significance of the information.

Employment Outlook

College graduates trained in mar­
keting research and statistics are
likely to find favorable job oppor­
tunities in this occupation through
the 1970’s. The growing complexity

of marketing research techniques
will also expand opportunities for
psychologists, economists, and other
social scientists. Advanced degrees
are becoming increasingly necessary
for employment in marketing re­
search, and as a result, job oppor­
tunities for holders of Masters and
Ph. D degrees will be excellent.
The demand for marketing re­
search services is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. It is expected that existing
marketing research organizations
will expand and that new marketing
research departments and independ­
ent research firms will be set up.
Business managers will find it in­
creasingly important to obtain the
best information possible for ap­
praising marketing situations and
planning marketing policies. Fur­
thermore, as marketing research
techniques improve and more statis­
tical data accumulate, company
officials are likely to turn more
often to marketing research workers
for information and advice. In addi­
tion to growth needs, many open­
ings will occur each year as persons
retire, die, or leave the field for
other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for market re­
search trainees averaged about
$8,500 a year in 1970, according to
the limited data available. Persons
having masters degrees in Business
Administration and related fields
usually started at about $12,000 a
year. Those with a technical back­
ground received slightly higher
higher for experienced marketing
research workers who attained posi­
tions with considerable responsibil­
ity. In 1970, earnings of senior



analysts were $15,000 a year. Mar­
keting research directors’ average sal­
aries were about $20,000 annually;
and vice-presidents in charge of
marketing received salaries between
$25,000 and $30,000 a year.
Marketing research workers usu­
ally work in modern, centrally lo­
cated offices. Some, especially those
employed by independent research
firms, do a considerable amount of
traveling in connection with their
work. Also, they may frequently
work under pressure and for long
hours to meet deadlines.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about specialized
types of marketing research is con­
tained in a report entitled “Market­
ing Research Procedures, A Small
Business Bibilography, Number 9”
which may be obtained from:
Washington, D.C. 20416.

Additional information on mar­
keting research may be obtained

these objectives. They develop re­
cruiting and hiring procedures and
interview job applicants, selecting
or recommending the ones they
consider best qualified for the
openings to be filled. In addition,
personnel workers counsel em­
ployees, deal with disciplinary prob­
lems, classify jobs, plan wage and
salary scales, develop safety pro­
grams, and conduct research in per­
sonnel methods. Other important
aspects of their work involve em­
ployee-management relations, em­
ployee training, and the administra­
tion of employee benefit plans.
Some personnel jobs require only
limited contact with people; others
involve frequent contact with em­
ployees, union representatives, job
applicants, and other people in and
outside the company.
Business organizations with large
personnel departments employ per­
sonnel workers at varying levels of
responsibility. Usually the depart­
ment is headed by a director who
formulates personnel policy, advises
other company officials on person­
nel matters, and administers his de­

partment. Within the department,
supervisors and various specialists
—in wage administration, training,
safety, job classification, and other
aspects of the personnel program
—may be responsible for the work
of staff assistants and clerical em­
ployees. Small business organiza­
tions employ relatively few person­
nel workers. Sometimes one person
may be responsible for all the per­
sonnel activities as well as other
types of duties.
Personnel workers in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies do much the same kind of work
as those employed in large busi­
ness firms. Government personnel
workers, however, spend considera­
bly more time in activities related to
classifying jobs, and in devising, ad­
ministering, and scoring the com­
petitive examinations given to job

Places of Employment

Personnel workers are employed
in nearly all kinds of business enter-

American Marketing Association,
230 North Michigan Avenue, Chi­
cago, Illinois 60601.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268)

Nature of the Work

Attracting and keeping the best
employees available, and matching
them to jobs they can do effectively
are important for the successful op­
eration of business and government.
Personnel workers are responsible
for helping their employers attain

interviewing job applicants is an important responsibility in personnel work.



prises and government agencies.
The total number employed in 1970
was estimated to be about 160,000.
Well over half of all personnel
workers were employed by private
firms. Large numbers also were em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local
government agencies. A small group
of personnel workers were in busi­
ness for themselves, often as man­
agement consultants or employee
management relations experts. In
addition, colleges and universities
trained personnel workers as teach­
ers of courses in personnel adminis­
tration, industrial relations, and
similar subjects.
Most personnel workers are em­
ployed in large cities and in the
highly industrialized sections of the
country. Almost three-fourths of all
personnel workers are men. Many
women, however, occupy personnel
positions in organizations that em­
ploy large numbers of women
workers—for example, in depart­
ment stores, telephone companies,
insurance companies, banks, and
government agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A college education is becoming
increasingly important for entrance
into personnel work. Some em­
ployers hire new graduates for jun­
ior positions, and then provide
training programs to acquaint them
with their operations, policies, and
Other employers prefer to fill
their personnel positions by trans­
ferring people who already have
firsthand knowledge of operations.
A large number of the people now
in personnel work who are not col­
lege graduates entered the field in
this way.

Many employers in private indus­
try prefer college graduates who
have majored in personnel adminis­
tration; others prefer graduates who
have a general business administra­
tion background. Still other em­
ployers consider a liberal arts edu­
cation the most desirable prepara­
tion for personnel work. Young
people interested in personnel work
in government are advised to major
in public administration, political
science, or personnel administra­
tion; however, those having other
college majors also are eligible for
personnel positions in government.
For some positions, more special­
ized training may be necessary. Jobs
involving testing or employee coun­
seling often require a bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in psychology and
sometimes a graduate degree in this
field. An engineering degree may be
desirable for work dealing with time
studies or safety standards, and a
degree with a major in industrial re­
lations may be helpful for work in­
volving employee management rela­
tions. A background in accounting
may be useful for positions con­
cerned with wages or pension and
other employee benefit plans.
After the initial period of orienta­
tion, through formal or on-the-job
training programs, college graduates
may progress to classifying jobs, in­
terviewing applicants, or handling
other personnel functions. After
they have gained experience, those
with exceptional ability may be
promoted to executive positions,
such as personnel director. Person­
nel workers sometimes advance by
transferring to other employers hav­
ing larger personnel programs or
from a middle-rank position in a big
organization to the top job in a
smaller one.
Personal qualities regarded as
important for success in personnel
work include the ability to speak

and write effectively and a betterthan-average aptitude for working
with people of all levels of intelli­
gence and experience. In addition,
the prospective personnel worker
should be the kind of person who
can see the employee’s point of
view as well as the employer’s, and
should be able to give advice in the
best interests of both. A liking for
detail, a high degree of persuasive­
ness, and a pleasing personality also
are important.
Employment Outlook

College graduates who enter per­
sonnel work are expected to find
many opportunities through the
1970’s. Although employment pros­
pects will probably be best for col­
lege graduates who have specialized
training in personnel administration,
positions will be available also for
people having degrees in other fields.
Opportunities for young people to
advance to personnel positions from
production, clerical, or subprofes­
sional jobs will be limited.
Employment in personnel work is
expected to expand very rapidly as
the Nation’s employment rises.
More personnel workers will be
needed to carry on recruiting, inter­
viewing, and related activities. Also,
many employers are recognizing the
importance of good employee rela­
tions, and are depending more
heavily on the services of trained
personnel workers to achieve this.
Employment in some specialized
areas of personnel work will rise
faster than others. More people will
probably be engaged in psychologi­
cal testing; the need for workers to
handle work related problems will
probably continue to increase; and
the growth of employee services,
safety programs, other benefit plans,
and personnel research also is likely
to continue.



Earnings and Working Conditions

A national survey indicated that
the average annual salary of train­
ees employed as job analysts in pri­
vate industry was about $9,000 in
1970; experienced job analysts av­
eraged about $13,000; directors of
personnel generally earned between
$12,500 and $22,000; and some top
personnel and industrial relations
executives in very large corpora­
tions earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, in­
experienced graduates having bach­
elor’s degrees started at $6,548 a
year in 1970; those having excep­
tionally good academic records or
master’s degrees began at $8,098; a
few master’s degree holders who
ranked high in their respective
classes received $9,881 a year. Fed­
eral Government personnel workers
with higher levels of administrative
responsibility and several years of
experience in the field were paid
more than $16,500; some in charge
of personnel for major departments
of the Federal Government earned
more than $22,500 a year.
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. During a period of intensive
recruitment or emergency, they may
work much longer. As a rule, per­
sonnel workers are paid for holidays
and vacations, and share in the
same retirement plans and other
employee benefits available to all
professional employees in the or­
ganizations where they work.

Information about government
careers in personnel work may be
obtained from:
Public Personnel Association, 1313
East 60th St., Chicago, 111. 60637.

(D.O.T. 165.068)

Nature of the Work

All organizations want to present
a favorable image to the public.
Public relations workers help an
employer build and maintain such a

public image. To accomplish this,
they must keep themselves informed
about the attitudes and opinions of
customers, employees, and other
Public relations workers provide
information about an employer’s
business to newspapers and maga­
zines, radio and television, and
other channels of communication.
They plan the kind of publicity that
will be most effective, contact the
people who may be interested in
using it, and prepare and assemble
the necessary material. Many news­
paper items, magazine articles, and
pamphlets giving various informa­
tion about a company start at public
relations workers’ desks. These
workers also arrange speaking en­
gagements for company officials and

Sources of Additional Information

General information on personnel
work as a career may be obtained
by writing to:
American Society for Personnel Ad­
ministration, 19 Church St.,
Berea, Ohio 44017.

Public relations worker checks material for press release.



write the speeches they deliver. ber of women have entered public leges offered at least one course in
public relations.
They often serve as an employer’s relations work.
College subjects recommended as
representative during community
Most public relations workers are
projects and ocasionally may per­ employed by manufacturing firms, preparation for a public relations
form duties such as showing a film stores, public utilities, trade and career include journalism, econom­
at a school assembly, staging a professional associations, and labor ics and other social sciences, busi­
beauty contest, or planning a con­ unions. Others are employed by ness administration, psychology,
consulting firms providing public public speaking, literature, and
Public relations workers tailor relations services to clients for a fee. physical sciences. Extracurricular
their programs to an employer’s
Employment in public relations activities such as work on school
particular needs. In a business firm, work is concentrated in large cities publications or student government
public relations work usually con­ where press services and other com­ activities furnish valuable experi­
cerns an employer’s relationships munications facilities are readily ence; part-time or summer employ­
with employees, stockholders, gov­ available, and where large corpora­ ment in selling, public relations, or a
ernment agencies, and community tions and trade and professional as­ related field such as broadcasting
sociations have their headquarters. also are helpful.
Among the personal qualifica­
Public relations staffs in large More than half of the public rela­
tions usually considered important
firms sometimes number 200 or tions consulting firms in the United
more. The director of public rela­ States are in New York City, Los are creativity, initiative, drive, and
tions may share responsibility for Angeles, Chicago, and Washington, the ability to express thoughts
clearly and simply. Fresh ideas are
developing overall plans and pol­ D.C.
so important to effective public rela­
icies with a company vice president
tions that some experts spend all of
or another top executive having the
their time developing ideas but take
authority to make final decisions. In
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
no active part in carrying out pro­
addition to writers and research
grams. In selecting new employees,
workers, public relations depart­
Although college education gen­ many employers prefer people hav­
ments employ specialists who pre­
pare material for the different media erally is regarded as the best prepa­ ing previous work experience, par­
or write reports sent to stockholders. ration for public relations work, em­ ticularly in journalism or a related
Public relations workers who ployers differ in the specific type of field.
handle publicity for an individual, or college background they require of
applicants. Some seek graduates those with large public relations
direct public relations for a univer­
sity or small business, may perform who have majored in English, jour­ programs—have formal training
all aspects of the work. They make nalism, or public relations; others programs for new employees. In
contacts with outsiders, do the nec­ prefer candidates having a back­ other companies, new employees
essary planning and research, and ground in science or another field learn by working under the guid­
prepare material for publication. related to the firm’s business activi­ ance of experienced staff members.
Beginners often maintain files of
These workers may combine public ties.
College graduates who have sec­ material about company activities,
relations duties with advertising or
other managerial work; and they retarial skills also are desired by scan newspapers and magazines for
may be top-level officials or occupy some employers, especially in small appropriate articles to clip, and as­
firms, because they can combine semble information for speeches
less important positions.
secretarial duties with public rela­ and pamphlets. After gaining expe­
tions work. After a few years’ expe­ rience, they may be given progres­
rience, these workers may advance sively more difficult assignments,
Places of Employment
to a full-time public relations posi­ such as writing press releases,
speeches, and articles for publica­
About 75,000 public relations tion.
In 1970, 20 colleges offered a tion. Promotion to supervisory and
workers were employed in 1970,
according to the limited data availa­ bachelor’s degree in public rela­ managerial positions may come as
ble. Over one-fourth were women. tions, and 18 offered advanced de­ the worker demonstrates ability to
In recent years, an increasing num­ grees. In addition, about 300 col­ handle more difficult and creative


assignments. The most skilled
public relations work, which in­
volves developing overall plans and
maintaining contacts, usually is per­
formed by the department director
and his most experienced staff
members. Some experienced public
relations workers establish their
own consulting firms.

Employment Outlook

Employment in this field is ex­
pected to expand rapidly through
the 1970’s. In addition to the new
jobs created as expanding organiza­
tions require more public relations
specialists, openings will occur be­
cause of the need to replace
workers who retire or leave the field
for other reasons.
The demand for public relations
workers is expected to grow through
the 1970’s, as population increases
and the general level of business ac­
tivity rises. In recent years, the
amount of funds spent on public re­
lations has increased, and many or­
ganizations have developed new
public relations departments. This

trend should continue in the years
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for public rela­
tions trainees ranged from $4,600
to $7,500 a year in 1970, according
to the limited data available. The
highest starting salaries were paid
by consulting firms in major cities
to workers who were very well
qualified from the standpoint of ed­
ucational background and previous
work. Many public relations
workers having a few years of ex­
perience earn between $9,000 and
$13,000 a year.
The salaries of experienced
workers generally are highest in
large organizations having extensive
public relations programs. In 1970,
directors of public relations em­
ployed by medium-size firms gener­
ally earned $14,000 to $18,000 an­
nually; those employed by large
corporations had salaries in the
$15,000 to $25,000 range, accord­
ing to the Public Relations Society
of America. Some officials, such as
vice presidents in charge of public


relations, earned from $25,000 to
$50,000 a year or more. Many
consulting firms employ large staffs
of experienced public relations spe­
cialists and often pay somewhat
higher salaries than those paid by
other business organizations. In so­
cial welfare agencies, nonprofit or­
ganizations and universities, salaries
are somewhat lower.
The workweek for public rela­
tions personnel usually is 35 to 40
hours. Irregular hours and overtime
often may be necessary, however, to
prepare or deliver speeches, attend
meetings and community functions,
and travel out of town. Occasion­
ally, the nature of their regular as­
signments or special events require
public relations workers to be on
call around the clock.

Sources of Additional Information
The Information Center, Public Re­
lations Society of America, Inc.,
845 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.
Service Department, Public Relations
News, 127 East 80th Street, New
York, N.Y. 10021.


The choice of the ministry,
priesthood, or rabbinate as one’s
lifework involves considerations
that do not influence to the same
degree the selection of a career in
most other occupations. When
young people decide to become
clergymen, they do so primarily be­
cause of their religious faith and
their desire to help others. Nev­
ertheless, it is important for them to
know as much as possible about the
profession and how to prepare for
it, the kind of life it offers, and its
needs for personnel. They also
should understand that the civic, so­
cial, and recreational activities of
clergymen often are influenced, and
sometimes restricted, by the cus­
toms and attitudes of the commu­
The number of clergymen needed
is broadly related to the size and ge­
ographic distribution of the Nation’s
population and participation in or­
ganized religious groups. These fac­
tors affect the number of churches
and synagogues that are established
and thus the number of pulpits to be
filled. In addition to the clergy who
serve congregations, many others
teach in seminaries and other edu­
cational institutions, serve as chap­
lains in the Armed Forces, or work
as missionaries.
Young persons considering ca­
reers as clergymen should seek the
counsel of a religious leader of their
faith to aid in evaluating their quali­
fications. The most important req­
uisite, of course, is the desire to
serve the spiritual needs of others.
To deal effectively with all types of
persons, clergymen need to be
well-rounded and able to speak and
write effectively. Emotional stability
and sensitivity to the problems of
others also are essential. Clergymen

are expected to have high moral
and ethical standards.
The size and financial status of
the congregation to a large extent
determines income. Usually pay is
highest in large cities or prosperous
suburban areas. Earnings usually
rise with increased experience and
responsibility. Most
churches and a number of Jewish
congregations provide
Roman Catholic priests ordinarily
live in the parish rectory or their re­
ligious order provides housing.
Many clergymen receive transporta­
tion allowances or other expenses.
Gifts or fees for officiating at special
ceremonies, such as weddings, may
be an important source of additional
income; however, clergymen fre­
quently donate such earnings to
charity. Some churches establish a
uniform fee for special services
which goes directly into the church
More detailed information on the
clergy in the three largest faiths
in the United States—Protestant,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
given in the following statements
that were prepared in cooperation
with leaders of these faiths. Infor­
mation on the clergy in other faiths
may be obtained directly from
leaders of the respective groups.
Numerous other church-related oc­
cupations—those of the missionary,
teacher, director of youth organiza­
tions, director of religious educa­
tion, editor of religious publications,
music director, church secretary,
recreation leader, and many others
—offer interesting and satisfying ca­
reers. In addition, opportunities to
work in connection with religious
activities are present in many other
occupations. Clergymen or educa­
tional directors of local churches or

synagogues can provide information
on the church-related occupations
and other areas offering opportuni­
ties for religious service.

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work

Protestant ministers lead their
congregations in worship services
and may administer the rites of bap­
tism, confirmation, and Holy Com­
munion. They prepare and deliver
sermons and give religious instruc­
tion to persons who are to be re­
ceived into membership of the
church. They also perform mar­
riages, conduct funerals, counsel in­
dividuals who seek guidance, visit
the sick and shut-in, comfort the be­
reaved, and serve their church
members in many other ways. Prot­
estant ministers also may write arti­
cles for publication, give speeches,
and engage in interfaith, commu­
nity, civic, educational, and recrea­
tional activities sponsored by or re­
lated to the interests of the church.
Some ministers teach in seminaries,
colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services
that ministers conduct differ among
Protestant denominations and also
among congregations within a de­
nomination. In some denomina­
tions, ministers follow a traditional
order of worship; in others they
adapt the services to the needs of
youth and other groups within the
congregation. Most services include
Bible reading, hymn singing,
prayers, and a sermon. Bible read­
ing by a member of the congrega­
tion and individual testimonials may



constitute a large part of the service
in some demoninations.
Ministers serving small congrega­
tions generally work on a personal
basis with their parishioners. Those
serving large congregations usually
have greater administrative respon­
sibilities and spend considerable
time working with committees,
church officers, and staff, besides
performing their other duties. They
may have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific aspects
of the ministry, such as a Minister
of Education who assists in educa­
tional programs for different age

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 295,000 ministers
served over 71 million Protestants.
In addition, thousands of ministers
were in other occupations closely
related to the parish ministry. The
greatest number of clergymen are
affiliated with the five largest groups
of churches—Baptist, United Meth­
odist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and
Episcopal. Most ministers serve in­
dividual congregations; some are
engaged in missionary activities in
the United States and in foreign
countries; others serve as chaplains
in the Armed Forces, in hospitals,
and in other institutions. Still others
teach in educational institutions, en­
gage in other religious educational
work, or are employed in social
welfare and related agencies. Less
than 5 percent of all ministers are
women; however, about 80 denomi­
nations ordain women. In some de­
nominations, an increasing number
of women who have not been or­
dained are serving as pastors’ assist­
All cities and most towns have
one Protestant church or more with
a full-time minister. The majority of

ministers are located in urban areas.
Many others live in less densely pop­
ulated areas where each may serve
two congregations or more. A larger
proportion of Protestants than
members of other faiths live in rural

Training and Other Qualifications

The educational preparation re­
quired for entry into the Protestant
ministry has a wider range than for
most professions. Some religious
groups have no formal educational
requirements, and others ordain per­
sons having varying amounts and
types of training in liberal arts col­
leges, Bible colleges, or Bible insti­
tutes. An increasingly large number
of denominations, however, require
a 3-year course of professional
study in a theological school follow­
ing college graduation. After com­
pletion of such a course, the degree
of bachelor or master of divinity is
In 1970, 112 of the theological
institutions in the Nation were
accredited by the American Associa­
tion of Theological Schools. Ac­
credited institutions admit only
students who have received the
bachelor’s degree or its equivalent
from an approved college. In addi­
tion, certain character and personal­
ity qualifications must be met, and
endorsement by the religious group
to which the applicant belongs is re­
quired. The American Association
of Theological Schools recommends
that preseminary studies be con­
centrated in the liberal arts. Al­
though courses in English, philoso­
phy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student also should take
courses in the natural and social sci­
ences, religion, and foreign lan­
guages. The standard curriculum

recommended for accredited theo­
logical schools consists of four
major fields: Biblical, historical,
theological, and practical. There is a
trend toward more courses in psy­
chology, pastoral counseling, sociol­
ogy, religious education, administra­
tion, and other studies of a practical
nature. Many accredited schools re­
quire that students gain experience
in church work under the supervi­
sion of a faculty member or experi­
enced minister. Some institutions
offer the master of theology and the
doctor of theology degrees to stu­
dents completing 1 year or more of
additional study. Scholarships and
loans are available for students of
theological institutions.
In general, each large denomina­
tion has its own school or schools of
theology that reflect its particular
interests and needs; however, many
of these schools are open to stu­
dents from various denominations.
Several interdenominational schools
associated with universities give
both undergraduate and graduate
training covering a wide range of
theological points of view.
Candidates for the ministry
should be religious and dedicated;
they should love and have the abil­
ity to work with people, and have
high moral and ethical standards.
Good health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
usually are ordained following grad­
uation from a seminary. In denomi­
nations that do not require seminary
training, clergymen are ordained at
appointed times. Clergymen often
begin their careers as pastors of
small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches. Protes­
tant clergymen in many of the
larger denominations—especially
those groups that have a well-defined
church organization—often are re­
quested to serve in positions of



great administrative and denomina­
tional responsibility.

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work

The shortage of Protestant minis­
ters has abated significantly in re­
cent years. The trend toward
merger and unity among denomina­
tions, combined with the closing of
smaller parishes, has reduced the
demand for Protestant ministers
who serve individual congregations.
If this trend continues, new gradu­
ates of theological schools may face
increasing competition in finding
positions. The supply-demand situa­
tion will vary among denominations
and depend, in part, on the length of
formal preparation.
Although fewer opportunities
may arise for Protestant ministers to
serve individual congregations, min­
isters may find work among youth,
in family relations, welfare, reli­
gious education, on the campus, and
as chaplains in the Armed Forces,
hospitals, universities, and correc­
tional institutions. Most of the de­
mand during the 1970’s, however,
will result from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers
and interpreters of Jewish law and
tradition. They conduct daily serv­
ices, and deliver sermons at serv­
ices on the Sabbath and on Jewish
holidays. Rabbis customarily are
available at all times to counsel
members of their congregations,
other followers of Judaism, and the
community at large. Many of the
rabbis’ functions—preparing and
delivering sermons, performing
wedding ceremonies, visiting the
sick, conducting funeral services,
comforting the bereaved, helping
the poor, counseling individuals, su­
pervising religious education pro­
grams, engaging in interfaith activi­
ties, and assuming community re­
sponsibilities—are similar to those
performed by clergymen of other
Rabbis serving large congrega­
tions may spend considerable time in
administrative duties, working with
their staffs and committees. Large
congregations frequently have an
associate or assistant rabbi in addi­
tion to the senior rabbi. Many of the
Sources of Additional Information
assistant rabbis serve as Educational
Persons who are interested in the Directors.
Rabbis serve congregations affili­
Protestant ministry should seek the
ated with 1 of the 3 wings of Juda­
counsel of a minister or church
guidance worker. Additional infor­ ism—Orthodox, Conservative, or
mation on the ministry and other Reform. Regardless of their particu­
lar point of view, all Hebrew con­
church-related occupations also are
gregations preserve the substance of
available from many denomina­
Jewish religious worship. The con­
tional offices. Information on admis­ gregations differ in the extent to
sion requirements may be obtained which they follow the traditional
directly from each theological form of worship—for example, in
the wearing of head coverings, the
use of Hebrew as the language of

prayer, or the use of music. The
format of the worship service and,
therefore, the ritual that the rabbis
use may vary even among congrega­
tions belonging to the same wing of
Rabbis also may write for reli­
gious and lay publications, and
teach in theological seminaries, col­
leges, and universities.
Places of Employment

About 6,500 rabbis served al­
most 6.0 million followers of the
Jewish faith in this country in 1970.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest
are about equally divided between
the Conservative and Reform wings
of Judaism. Most rabbis act as spir­
itual leaders of individual congrega­
tions; some serve as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, in hospitals, and in
other institutions. Others are admintrators or teachers in Jewish semi­
naries, communal schools, and
other educational institutions or are
employed in religious education
work for organizations such as the
Hillel Foundation. Still others are
employed by Jewish social welfare
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Nation,
they are concentrated in those
States that have large Jewish popu­
lations, particularly New York, Cal­
ifornia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Illinois, Massachusetts, Florida,
Maryland, and the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.
Training and Other Qualifications

To become eligible for ordination
as a rabbi, a student must complete
the prescribed course of study.
Entrance requirements and the
curriculum depend upon the branch
of Judaism with which the seminary



is associated. About 15 seminaries
train Orthodox rabbis in programs
of varying lengths. Two of the
larger seminaries require the com­
pletion of a 4-year college course
for ordination. However, students
who are not college graduates may
spend a longer period at these semi­
naries and complete the require­
ments for the bachelor’s degree
while pursuing the rabbinic course.
The other Orthodox seminaries do
not require a college degree to qual­
ify for ordination, although students
who qualify usually have completed
4 years of college.
The Hebrew Union College—
Jewish Institute of Religion is the
official seminary that trains rabbis
for the Reform branch of Judaism.
The Jewish Theological Seminary of
America is the official seminary that
trains rabbis for the Conservative
branch of Judaism. Both seminaries
require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior
preparation in Jewish studies, for
admission to the rabbinic program
leading to ordination. Five years
normally are required to complete
the rabbinic course at the Reform
seminary, including 1 year of pre­
paratory study in Jerusalem. Excep­
tionally well-prepared students can
shorten this period to a minimum of
3 years. A student having a strong
background in Jewish studies can
complete the course at the Conser­
vative seminary in 4 years; for oth­
ers, the course may take as long as
6 years.
In general, the curriculums of
Jewish theological seminaries pro­
vide students with a comprehensive
knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,
pastoral psychology, and public
speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature and

offers a broad course of study that
includes subjects such as human re­
lations and community organization.
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available to
Newly ordained rabbis usually
begin as leaders of small congrega­
tions, assistants to experienced rab­
bis, directors of Hillel Foundations,
teachers in seminaries and other ed­
ucational institutions, or chaplains
in the Armed Forces. As a rule, the
pulpits of large and well-established
Jewish congregations are filled by
experienced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi
should be made on the basis of a
fervent belief in the religious teach­
ings and practices of Judaism, and a
desire to serve the religious needs of
others. In addition to having high
moral and ethical values, the
prospective rabbi should have good
judgment and be able to write and
speak effectively.

crease. Although an increase in the
number of students graduating from
the Jewish theological seminaries is
anticipated, the number of new rab­
bis probably will not be adequate to
fill new openings and to replace the
rabbis who retire or die, or leave
the rabbinate for other reasons. Im­
migration, once an important source
of rabbis, is no longer significant. In
fact, graduates of American semi­
naries now are in demand for Jew­
ish congregations in other countries.

Sources of Additional Information

Young people who are interested
in entering the rabbinate should
seek the guidance of a rabbi. Infor­
mation on the work of a rabbi and
allied occupations also is available
from many of the local Boards of
Rabbis in large communities. Infor­
mation on admission requirements
of Jewish theological seminaries
may be obtained directly from each


In 1970, the number of rabbis in
this country was inadequate to meet
the expanding needs of Jewish con­
gregations and other organizations
desiring their services. This situa­
tion is likely to persist through the
1970’s. Continued growth in Jewish
religious affiliation and in the num­
ber of synagogues and temples, par­
ticularly in the suburbs of cities
having large Jewish communities,
together with increasing demands of
large congregations for assistant
rabbis, are expected to create many
new openings. Demand for rabbis to
work with social welfare and other
organizations connected with the
Jewish faith also is expected to in­

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work

Roman Catholic priests attend to
the spiritual, moral, and educational
needs of the members of their
church. Their duties include offering
the Sacrifice of the Mass; giving re­
ligious instructions in the form of a
sermon; hearing confessions; ad­
ministering the Sacraments, includ­
ing the sacrament of marriage;
visiting and comforting the sick; con­
ducting funeral services and consol­
ing relatives and friends; counseling


those in need of guidance; and as­
sisting the poor.
Priests spend long hours per­
forming services for the church and
the community. Their day usually
begins with morning meditation and
Mass and may end with the hearing
of confessions or an evening visit to
a hospital or a home. Many of them
serve on church committees or in
civic organizations and assist in
community projects. Various soci­
eties that carry on charitable and
social programs also depend upon
priests for direction.
Although all priests have the
same powers acquired through ordi­
nation by a bishop, they are classi­
fied in two main categories—dioce­
san and religious—by reason of
their way of life, the type of work to
which they are assigned, and the
church authority to whom they are
priests (sometimes called secular
priests) generally work as individu­
als in the parishes to which they are
assigned by the bishop of their dio­
cese. Religious priests generally
work as members of a religious
community in specialized activities,
such as teaching or missionary
work, assigned to them by the supe­
riors of the religious order to which
they belong; for example, Jesuits,
Dominicans or Franciscans.
Both religious and diocesan
priests hold teaching and adminis­
trative posts in Catholic seminaries,
universities and colleges, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious
orders staff a large proportion of the
institutions of higher education and
many high schools, whereas, dioce­
san priests are concerned with the
parochial schools attached to parish
churches and with diocesan high
schools. The members of religious
orders do most of the missionary
work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and abroad.


Places of Employment

About 60,000 priests served
more than 48 million Catholics in
the United States in 1970. There
are priests in nearly every city and
town and in many rural communi­
ties; however, the majority are in
metropolitan areas, where most
Catholics reside. Catholics are con­
centrated in the Northeast and the
Great Lakes regions, with smaller
concentrations in California, Texas,
and Louisiana. A large number of
priests are located in communities
near Catholic educational and other
institutions. Others travel constantly
on missions to local parishes
throughout the country. Some
priests serve as chaplains with the
Armed Forces or in hospitals or
other institutions. Many are sta­
tioned throughout the world as mis­
Training and Other Qualifications

Preparation for the priesthood
requires 8 years or more of study
beyond high school. More than 450
seminaries offer such education.
Study may begin in the first year of
high school, at the college level, or
in theological seminaries after col­
lege graduation.
High school seminaries provide a
college preparatory program that
speech, literature, and social stud­
ies. Two years of Latin are required
and the study of a modern language
is encouraged. The seminary college
offers a liberal arts program, stress­
ing philosophy and religion; the
study of man through the behavioral
sciences and history; and tlhe natural
sciences and mathematics. In many
college seminaries, a student may
concentrate in any of these fields.
The remaining 4 years of prepa­
ration includes sacred scripture;

apologetics (the branch of theology
concerning the defense and proofs
of Christianity); dogmatic, moral,
and pastoral theology; homiletics;
church history; liturgy (art of
preaching); Mass; and canon law.
Diocesan and religious priests at­
tend different major seminaries,
where slight variations in the train­
ing reflect the differences in the type
of work expected of them as priests.
During the later years of his semi­
nary course, the candidate receives
from his bishop a succession of or­
ders culminating in his ordination to
the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theol­
ogy is given either at Catholic Uni­
versity of America, Washington,
D.C. or at the eccelestical universi­
ties in Rome. Many priests also do
graduate work at other universities
in fields unrelated to theology.
Priests are commanded by the law
of the Catholic Church to continue
their studies, at least informally,
after ordination.
Young men are never denied
entry into seminaries because of
lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the bishop may
make arrangements for student
loans. Those in religious seminaries
often are financed by contributions
of benefactors.
Among the qualities considered
most desirable in candidates for the
Catholic priesthood are a love of
and concern for people, a deep reli­
gious conviction, a desire to spread
the Gospel of Christ, the capacity to
speak and write effectively, and the
ability to work with people. Priests
are not permitted to marry.
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually
that of assistant pastor or curate.
Newly ordained priests of religious
orders are assigned to the special­
ized duties for which they are
trained. Many opportunities for



greater responsibility exist within
the hierarchy of the church. Dioce­
san priests, for example, may rise to
positions such as monsignor or
bishop. Much of their time at this
level is given to administrative du­
ties. In the religious orders which
specialize in teaching, priests may
become heads of departments or as­
sume other positions which include
administrative duties.


A growing number of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educa­
tional, and social needs of the grow­
ing number of Catholics in the
Nation. Although the number of

seminarians has increased steadily in
recent years, the number of ordained
priests is insufficient to fill the needs
of newly established parishes and
expanding colleges and other Cath­
olic institutions, and to replace
priests who retire or die. Although
priests usually continue to work
longer than persons in other profes­
sions, the varied demands and long
hours create a need for young
priests to assist the older ones. Also,
an increasing number of priests
have been serving in many diverse
areas—in social work, religious
radio, newspaper, and television
work, labor-management mediation,
and in foreign posts, particularly in
countries that have a shortage of
priests. Continued expansion of

these activities, in addition to the
expected further growth of the
Catholic population, will require a
steady increase in the number of
priests through the 1970’s.
Sources of Additional Information

Young men interested in entering
the priesthood should seek the guid­
ance and counsel of their parish
priest. Additional information re­
garding different religious orders
and the secular priesthood, as well
as a list of the various seminaries
which prepare students for the
priesthood, may be obtained from
Diocesan Directors of Vocations or
from the diocesan chancery office.


Forests, rangelands, wildlife, and
water are part of our country’s great
natural resources. Conservationists
protect, develop, and manage natu­
ral resources to assure that they are
not needlessly exhausted, destroyed,
or damaged, and that future needs
for these resources will be met.
A young person seeking a career
in conservation must have special­
ized training. An appropriate bache­
lor’s degree generally is necessary
for occupations such as forester and
range manager. Short-term or onthe-job training generally is neces­
sary for a semiprofessional position
such as forestry aid.
In addition to technical knowl­
edge and skills, the conservationist
must have a sincere interest in na­
ture and a desire to preserve it. He
should be oriented toward public
service because he is called upon to
work increasingly with his commu­
nity. A conservationist must be ver­
satile to work at a remote camping
area 1 week, speak before a com­
munity group the next, and fight a
forest or brush fire the next.
This chapter describes three
conservation occupations—forester,
forestry aid, and range manager.
Soil conservationist, a related occu­
pation, is discussed elsewhere in the

(D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of the Work

Forests are one of America’s
greatest natural resources. They
cover about one-third of the land


area of the country. Foresters man­
age, develop, and protect these
valuable lands and their resources—
timber, water, wildlife, forage, and
recreation areas. They estimate the
amount and value of these re­
sources. They plan and supervise the
harvesting and cutting of trees, pur­
chase and sale of trees and timber,
the processing, utilization and mar­
keting of forest products, and refor­
estation, reseeding and replanting.
Foresters also safeguard forests
from fire, destructive animals and
insects, and diseases. Other respon­
sibilities of foresters include wildlife
protection and watershed manage­
ment, and the management of
camps, parks, and grazing land.

Foresters usually specialize in
one area of work, such as timber
and wildlife management, outdoor
recreation, and forest economics.
Some of these specializations are
becoming recognized as distinct
professions. Range managers, for
example, are discussed in a separate
statement in this chapter. Foresters
also may engage in research activi­
ties, extension work (providing for­
estry information to farmers, log­
ging companies, and the public),
forest marketing, and college and
university teaching.
Places of Employment

An estimated 22,000 persons
were employed as foresters in the
United States in 1970. About onethird were employed in private in­
dustry, mainly by pulp and paper,



lumber, logging, and milling compa­
nies. More than one-fourth were
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture.
Other Federal agencies employing
significant numbers of foresters
were the Departments of the Inte­
rior and Defense. Most of the re­
mainder were employed by State
and local governments, colleges and
universities, and consulting firms.
Others were managers of their own
lands or were in business for them­
selves as consultants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for young per­
sons seeking professional careers in
forestry. An advanced degree is
generally required for teaching and
research positions.
Education in forestry leading to a
bachelor’s or higher degree was of­
fered in 1970 by 52 colleges and
universities of which 35 were ac­
credited by the Society of American
Foresters. The curriculums in most
of these schools include specialized
forestry courses in ten areas: (1)
Dendrology (the characteristics,
distribution, and occurrence of trees
in forests); (2) forest ecology
(structure and operation of the for­
est community); (3) silviculture
(methods of growing and improving
forest crops); (4) forest protection
(primarily against fire, insects, and
disease); (5) forest economics (ec­
onomic and business principles and
problems involved in the manage­
ment and utilization of forest re­
sources); (6) forest measurements
(measuring and estimating present
and potential resources); (7) forest
policy (history and current status of

Federal, State, and private policies
relating to forests and other natural
resources); (8) forest administra­
tion (principles of administration
with special reference to problems
faced by both public and private
agencies); (9) forest resources
management (study of the interrela­
tions among the various forest re­
sources and basic principles of for­
est land management); (10) forest
resources use (principles underlying
the uses of forest resources for
human benefit). Some colleges re­
quire that students spend one sum­
mer in a field camp operated by the
college. Students also are encour­
aged to work during summers in
jobs that will give them firsthand
experience in forest or conservation
Forestry graduates often work
under the supervision of experi­
enced foresters before advancing to
responsible positions in manage­
ment of forest lands or research.
Qualifications for success in for­
estry include an enthusiasm for out­
door work and the ability to meet
and deal effectively with people.
Many jobs also require physical
stamina and a willingness to work in
remote areas.

Employment Outlook

Requirements for foresters are
expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. The number of
new graduates, however, could
more than meet anticipated demand
if current trends continue. There­
fore, new forestry graduates may
face some competition for jobs.
Factors underlying the anticipated
demand for foresters are the coun­
try’s growing population and rising
living standards, which will tend to
increase the demand for forest
products and the use of forests for

recreation. Employment also may
be favorably influenced by the
growing awareness of the need to
conserve and replenish our forest
resources, and to improve the qual­
ity of the environment.
Private owners of timberland are
expected to employ increasing num­
bers of foresters to realize the
higher profitability of improved for­
estry and logging practices. The for­
est products industries also will re­
quire additional foresters to apply
new techniques for utilizing the en­
tire forest crop, to develop methods
of growing superior stands of trees
over a shorter period of time, and to
do research in genetics and fertiliza­
tion. In addition, competition from
metal, plastics, and other materials
is expected to stimulate further re­
search to develop new and im­
proved wood products.
Employment opportunities for
foresters in the Federal Government
probably will not increase signifi­
cantly through the 1970’s because
of the changing nature of the for­
ester’s duties. Specialized scientists
—biologists, horticulturists, agrono­
mists, chemists, etc., increasingly
will be hired for the more scientific
work previously performed by for­
Aids increasingly may perform
many nonprofessional duties which
could limit employment opportuni­
ties for foresters. Foresters, on the
other hand, will be more concerned
with the overall administration and
coordination of the work of special­
ists and aids.
should continue to offer employ­
ment opportunities. Forest fire con­
trol, insect and disease protection,
technical assistance to owners of
forest lands and other Federal-State
cooperative programs usually are
channeled through State forestry or­
ganizations. Growing demands for


recreation in forest lands may result
in the expansion of State parks and
other recreational areas.
College teaching and research in
areas such as forest genetics and
forest disease are other avenues of
favorable employment opportunities
for foresters, but primarily for those
having graduate degrees.
In addition to new positions
created by the rising demand for
foresters, a few hundred openings
will arise each year due to retire­
ments, deaths, and transfers out of
the professions.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
1970, beginning foresters having a
bachelor’s degree could start at ei­
ther $6,548 or $8,098 a year, de­
pending on their academic record.
Those having 1 or 2 years of gradu­
ate work could begin at $8,098 or
$9,881; those having the Ph. D. de­
gree, at $11,905 or $14,192. Dis­
trict rangers employed by the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 generally
$14,192 a year. Foresters in top
level positions earned considerably
Beginning salaries of foresters
employed by State governments
vary widely; but, with a few excep­
tions, they tend to be lower than
Federal salaries. Entrance salaries
in private industry, according to
limited data, are fairly comparable
to Federal salary levels.
The salaries of forestry teachers
are generally the same as those paid
other faculty members. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) Foresters in educational
institutions sometimes supplement
their regular salaries with income
from part-time consulting and lec­


turing and the writing of books and
As part of his regular duties, the
forester—particularly in beginning
positions—spends considerable time
outdoors under all kinds of weather
conditions. Many foresters work
extra hours on emergency duty,
such as fire-fighting.
Sources of Additional Information

General information about the
profession of forestry, lists of read­
ing material, as well as lists of
schools offering training in forestry
is available from:

ing for forest lands and their re­
sources. (See statement on Forest­
ers earlier in this chapter.) Their
duties include scaling logs, marking
trees, and collecting and recording
data such as tree heights, diameters,
and mortality. On simple watershed
improvement projects, aids install,
maintain, and collect records from
rain gauges, streamflow recorders,
and soil moisture measuring instru­
ments. They may serve as rodmen,
chainmen, or level instrumentmen
on road survey crews.

Society of American Foresters, 1010
16th St., NW„ Washington, D.C.

General information also is avail­
able from:
American Forest Institute, 1835 K
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006

A booklet entitled “So You Want
to be a Forester” may be obtained
American Forestry Association, 919
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on forestry careers
in the Forest Service is available
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
Forestry aid uses tree injector
to get herbicide into tree.

(D.O.T. 441.384)

Nature of the Work

Forestry aids, called forestry
technicians at higher career levels,
assist foresters in managing and car­

Forestry aids prevent and control
fires. They instruct persons using
the forest and lead fire-fighting
crews if a fire does occur. After
suppressing the fire, they take in­
ventory of burned areas, and plant
new trees and shrubs.
Forestry technicians supervise
timber sales, recreation-area use,
and road-building crews that make
timber accessible for cutting.



Places of Employment

An estimated 11,100 persons
were employed as forestry aids in
1970. Almost 5,500 were employed
by the Federal Government; the
Forest Service of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture employed ap­
proximately 3,200 of these. Ap­
proximately 1,700 were working for
State governments. About 3,800
were employed in private industry,
primarily by lumber, logging, and
paper milling companies. Forestry
aids also work in tree nurseries and
in forestation projects of mining,
railroad, and oil companies.
Many forestry aids are employed
in the heavily forested States of
Washington, California, Oregon,
Idaho, Utah, and Montana, as well
as in the forested areas of the Great
Lakes States, the Northeast, and the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young persons qualify for begin­
ning positions through work experi­
ence, a government sponsored train­
ing program, or by completing a
specialized 1- or 2-year post sec­
ondary school curriculum. In 1970,
about 50 technical institutes, junior
or community colleges, and ranger
schools offered curriculums training
forestry aids.
Among the specialized courses
are forest mensuration (measure­
ment of the number and size of
trees and shrubs), wood utilization,
and silviculture (methods of grow­
ing and improving forest crops). In
addition, students take courses in
drafting, surveying, report writing,
and first aid. They also may live in a
forest or camp operated by the
school to gain experience.

Young people also may obtain
the necessary training in programs
sponsored under the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act which
are presently available in Arkansas,
Colorado, Michigan, and Washing­
Persons who have not had spe­
cific training usually must have ex­
perience in forest work, such as
planting trees or fighting fires, to
qualify for beginning forestry aid
jobs. The Federal Government re­
quires a minimum of two seasons of
related work experience. Those who
have had technical experience, such
as estimating timber resources, may
qualify for more responsible posi­
Essential for success in this field
are an enthusiasm for outdoor work,
physical stamina, and the ability to
carry out tasks without direct super­
vision. The forestry aid also should
be able to work well with survey
crews, users of the forestlands, for­
est owners, and professional forest­
ers. Many jobs also require a will­
ingness to work in remote areas.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
forestry aids are expected to in­
crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
Prospects will be especially good for
those having post-high-school train­
ing in a forestry curriculum. As the
employment of foresters continues
to grow, increasing numbers of for­
estry aids will be needed to assist
them. Also, it is expected that for­
estry aids will assume some of the
more routine jobs now being done
by foresters.
Private industry is expected to
provide many additional employ­
ment opportunities for forestry aids.

Forest products industries are be­
coming increasingly aware of the
profitability of employing technical
persons knowledgeable in the prac­
tical application of scientific forest
The Federal Government also is
likely to offer increasing employ­
ment opportunities through the
1970’s, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture.
Similarly, State governments proba­
bly will increase their employment
of forestry aids. Growth in Govern­
ment employment will stem from
factors such as increasing demand
for recreational facilities and the
trend toward more scientific man­
agement of forest land and water

Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual earnings of forestry aids
range from about $4,500 to almost
$10,000 a year; those having high
earnings usually have had many
years of experience. In the Federal
Government, beginning forestry
aids and technicians earned between
$4,621 and $6,548 a year in 1970,
depending on the applicant’s educa­
tion and experience. Beginning sala­
ries in private industry were similar,
according to limited data.
As part of their regular duties,
forestry aids must spend considera­
ble time outdoors during all weather
conditions. In emergencies, such as
firefighting and flood control, for­
estry aids work many extra hours.
In addition to those employed full
time, many forestry aids are hired
on a seasonal basis and work 3 to 6
months a year. Climatic conditions
in some areas limit year-round field
work and some jobs, such as fire­
fighting, are seasonal in nature.



Sources of Additional Information

Information about a career in the
Federal Government as a forestry
aid is available from:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

For a list of schools offering
training in the field, write to :
Society of American Foresters, 1010
16th Street, NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Range fire protection, pest control,
and grazing trespass control also are
important activities of this occupa­
tion. Because of the multiple use of
rangelands, the manager’s work
often extends into closely related
fields such as wildlife and watershed
management, land classification,
forest management, and recreation.
The range manager may also
teach, write reports, conduct re­
search in range maintenance and
improvement, and provide technical
assistance to holders of privately
owned grazing lands and to foreign

(D.O.T. 040.081)

Places of Employment

Nature of the Work

In 1970, an estimated 3,600 pro­
fessional range managers were em­

Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres in the United States,
mostly in the Southern and Western
States, including Alaska. They con­
tain many natural resources includ­
ing grass and shrub forage; habitats
for livestock and wildlife; facilities
for water recreation; and environ­
mental areas for scientific research.
Range managers, also called range
conservationists or range scientists,
manage, develop, and protect these
rangelands and their resources.
They establish grazing plans that
will yield a high production of live­
stock while preserving soil and vegtation for other land use require­
ments—wildlife grazing, recreation,
growing timber, and watersheds.
Range managers evaluate forage re­
sources; decide on the number and
appropriate type of livestock to be
grazed and the best season for graz­
ing; restore deteriorated rangelands
through seeding or plant control;
and determine other range conser­
vation and development needs.

ployed in the United States. The
majority were employed by Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. In the Federal Government,
most worked in the Forest Service
and the Soil Conservation Service of
the Department of Agriculture and
in the Bureau of Land Management
of the Department of the Interior.
Some range managers are em­
ployed by privately owned range
livestock ranches and consulting
firms. Some manage their own land.
A few are self-employed consultants.
Others are employed by manufactur­
ing, sales, and service enterprises,
and by banks and real estate
firms which need rangeland apprais­
als. Colleges and universities also
employ range managers in teaching
and research positions.

Range manager checks enclosure used for grass growing experiment.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

managers when they complete col­
Because most range managers
must meet and deal with other peo­
ple, individually or in groups, they
should be able to communicate their
ideas effectively, both in writing and
speaking. Many jobs require the
stamina to perform vigorous physi­
cal activity and a willingness to
work in arid and sparsely populated

The bachelor’s degree with a
major in range management or
range conservation is the usual re­
quirement for persons seeking em­
ployment as range managers in the
Federal Government. A bachelor’s
degree in a closely related field,
such as agronomy or forestry, in­
cluding courses in range manage­
ment and range conservation, also is
accepted. Graduate degrees are
Employment Outlook
generally required for teaching and
Employment opportunities for
Training leading to a bachelor’s
range managers primarily will result
degree specifically in range manage­
ment or range science was offered from the need to replace experi­
in 1970 by 14 colleges and universi­ enced range managers who die, re­
ties; 13 additional schools had pro­ tire, or transfer to other occupa­
grams in related fields such as for­ tions. Employment opportunities in
estry, botany, or agronomy, with an the Federal Government probably
option or major in range manage­ will decrease because of the chang­
ment. Fourteen schools offered ing nature of the range manager’s
master’s degrees in range manage­ duties; he will assume more admin­
ment or range science—five in agri­ istrative and managerial duties. The
culture, forestry, or botany with a scientific and technical duties once
major in range management, and 12 performed by range managers in­
schools offered the Ph. D. in range creasingly will be performed by nat­
science or a related field with a ural scientists. The declining em­
ployment opportunities in the Fed­
range major.
eral Government will be offset
The essential courses for a degree
somewhat by increasing employ­
in range management are botany,
ment opportunities in the private
plant ecology, and plant physiology;
zoology; animal husbandry; soils;
Favorable job opportunities are
chemistry; mathematics; and spe­
anticipated in private industry, since
cialized courses in range manage­
ment. Desirable electives include range livestock producers and pri­
economics, statistics, physics, geol­ vate timber operators probably will
ogy, and watershed, and wildlife hire increasing numbers of range
managers. A few openings are ex­
Federal Government agencies— pected in developing countries of
primarily the Forest Service, the the Middle East, Africa, and South
Bureau of Land Management and America.
Major factors underlying the in­
the Soil Conservation Service—hire
some college juniors and seniors for creasing demand for range manag­
summer jobs in range management. ers are population growth, increas­
This experience helps students qual­ ing per capita consumption of ani­
ify for permanent positions as range mal products, and the growing use

of rangelands for hunting and other

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government,
starting salaries for range managers
having the bachelor’s degree were
dependent upon the applicant’s col­
lege record and ranged from $6,548
to $8,098 in 1970. Beginning sala­
ries of those having 1 or 2 years of
graduate work were $8,098 or
$9,881; and for those having the
Ph. D. $11,905 to $14,192.
Starting salaries for range manag­
ers employed by State governments
and private industry in 1970 were
about the same as those paid by the
Federal Government. In colleges
and universities, starting salaries
were generally the same as those
paid other faculty members. (See
statement on College and University
Teachers.) Range managers in edu­
cational institutions sometimes aug­
ment their regular salaries with in­
come from part-time consulting and
lecturing and from writing books
and articles.
Range managers may spend con­
siderable time away from home
working outdoors in remote parts of
the range.

Sources of Additional Information

For general information about a
career as a range manager as well as
a list of schools offering training in
the field, write to:
Society for Range Management,
2120 South Birch Street, Denver,
Colo. 80222.

Information about career oppor­
tunities in the Federal Government
may be obtained from:
Bureau of Land Management, Den­
ver Service Center, Federal Center


Building 50, Denver, Colorado

Portland Service Center, 710 NE.

Holladay Street, Portland, Oregon
Forest Service, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, 1621 North Kent
Street, Arlington, Virginia 20415.

Soil Conservation Service, U. S. De­
partment of Agriculture, Washing­
ton, D. C. 20250.


The primary objectives of profes­
sional counseling are to help per­
sons understand themselves and
their opportunities better so that
they can make and carry out deci­
sions and plans that hold potential
for a satisfying and productive life.
Whatever the area of counseling—
personal, educational, or vocational
—counselors need a concern for in­
dividuals combined with a capacity
for objectivity; and a belief in the
worthwhileness and uniqueness of
each individual, in his right to make
and accept responsibility for his
own decisions, and in his potential
for development.
This chapter deals, in detail, with
three generally recognized special­
ties in the field: School counseling,
rehabilitation counseling, and em­
ployment counseling.
School Counselors are the largest
counseling group. They are con­
cerned with the personal and social
development of pupils and the plan­
ning and achievement of their edu­
cational and vocational goals.
Rehabilitation Counselors work
with persons who are physically,
mentally, or socially handicapped.
Their counseling is vocationally ori­
ented but involves personal counsel­
ing as well.
Employment Counselors are con­
cerned primarily with career plan­
ning and job adjustment. They may
work with the young, the old, the
able-bodied, and the disabled.
Young persons considering coun­
seling careers should have an inter­
est in helping people. The ability to
understand the behavior of people
is important to counselors who
sometimes must do a great deal of
research into the individual’s back­
ground. Counselors should have the
type of pleasant and strong person­


ality that instills confidence in their
clients. Sensitivity to the needs of
people, patience, and an ability to
communicate orally as well as in
writing are important, also.
Some persons working in other
professional occupations provide
counseling services, as well. The oc­
cupation most closely related to
counselor is counseling psycholo­
gist. Many social workers also pro­
vide counseling services. These two
occupations, as well as others in
which workers do some counseling
but primarily work in teaching,
health, law, religion, or other fields,
are described elsewhere in the
Handbook. For information on
counseling services provided by col­
lege and university staff members
and by personnel workers in gov­
ernment and industry, see the state­
ments on “College Placement
Officers” and “Personnel Workers.”

(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work

Employment counselors (some­
times called vocational counselors)
help individuals seeking aid to de­
velop a career goal that will fulfill
their potential and bring personal
satisfaction. They assist clients by
planning with them how to prepare
for and enter careers, and how to
make progress in them.
The extent of the counseling as­
sistance available differs among
agencies rendering the service.

Sometimes their clients are skilled
in specific occupations, and ready
for immediate job placement. Some­
times they need intensive training to
prepare them for jobs. The coun­
selor may help them find appropri­
ate training.
Counselors interview clients to
obtain vocationally significant infor­
mation related to their personal
traits, interests, training, work expe­
rience, and work attitudes. They
may assist individuals in filling out
questionnaires concerning their per­
sonal history and background. Ad­
ditional data on a person’s general
intelligence, aptitudes and abilities,
physical capacities, knowledge,
skills, interests, and values also are
obtained from tests and personal in­
ventories which may be adminis­
tered or recorded by the counselor
or a specialist in testing. Further in­
formation may be assembled by the
counselor or the client from sources
such as former employers, schools,
and health or other agencies.
Counselors assist clients in evalu­
ating and understanding their work
potential, and provide them with in­
formation that they need in making
plans appropriate to their talents
and interests. Job requirements and
employment opportunities or train­
ing programs are discussed. In some
agencies, a vocational plan, or em­
ployability plan, is developed jointly
by the counselor and his client and
may specify a series of steps involv­
ing remedial education, vocational
training, work experience, or other
services needed to enhance his em­
ployability. Often in developing this
plan, the employment counselor
works with a team of specialists.
In many cases, employment
counselors refer clients to other
agencies for physical rehabilitation
or for psychological or other serv­
ices before, or concurrent with,
counseling. Employment counselors
must be familiar with the services
available in the community. They



of employment counselors, chiefly
in the Bureau of Indian Affairs and
the Veterans Administration. Some
people trained in employment or
vocational counseling are engaged
in research or graduate teaching.
About half of all employment coun­
selors are women.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

should be able to recognize what
services might be beneficial to a
particular client.
Counselors may help clients by
suggesting feasible employment
sources and appropriate ways of
applying for work. In instances
where a client needs further support
and assistance, counselors may con­
tact employers, although clients
seeking employment usually are
sent to placement interviewers after
counseling. After job placement or
entrance into training, counselors
may follow up to determine if addi­
tional assistance is needed. The ex­
panding responsibility of public em­
ployment service counselors for im­
proving the employability of disad­
vantaged persons has increased
their contacts with these persons
during training and on the job. It

also has led to group counseling and
the stationing of counselors in
neighborhood and community cen­

Places of Employment

In 1970, the largest number of
6,000—worked in State employment
service offices, located in every
large city and in many smaller
towns. The next largest number—
probably about 2,000—worked for
various private or community agen­
cies, primarily in the larger cities.
In addition, some worked in institu­
tions such as prisons, training
schools for delinquent youths, and
mental hospitals. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed a limited number

The generally accepted minimum
educational requirement for em­
ployment counselors in State em­
ployment service offices is a bache­
lor’s degree, preferably with a
major in one of the social sciences,
plus 15 semester hours in counsel­
ing and related courses. Most States
have adopted a three-level coun­
selor classification system which in­
cludes a counselor trainee, requiring
a bachelor’s degree with 15 hours of
undergraduate or graduate work in
counseling related courses; a coun­
selor, requiring a master’s degree or
30 graduate hours in counseling re­
lated courses; and a master counsel­
or, requiring a master’s degree and
3 years of experience, 1 of which
should be in employment service
Although minimum entrance re­
quirements are not standardized
among private and community
agencies, most of them prefer, and
many require, a master’s degree in
vocational counseling or in a related
field such as psychology, personnel
administration, education, or public
administration. Many private agen­
cies prefer to have at least one staff
member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related
field. For those lacking an advanced
degree, employers usually empha­
size experience in closely related
work such as rehabilitation counsel­



school or college counseling, or
The public employment service
offices in each State provide in-serv­
ice training programs for their new
counselors or trainees. Their experi­
enced counselors frequently are
given additional training at colleges
and universities, often leading to a
master’s degree in counseling and
guidance. Private and community
agencies also often provide in-serv­
ice training opportunities.
The professional educational cur­
riculum for employment counselors
generally includes, at the under­
graduate level, a basic foundation in
psychology with some emphasis on
sociology. At the graduate level, re­
quirements usually include courses
in techniques of appraisal and
counseling for vocational adjust­
ment, group methods, counseling
followup techniques, psychological
testing in vocational counseling, ed­
ucational psychology, psychology of
occupations, industrial psychology,
job analysis and theories of occupa­
tional choice, administration of
guidance services, and some course
work in research methods and sta­
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
about 370 colleges and universities,
most frequently in the departments
of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, students
must complete 1 to 2 years of grad­
uate study. All States require coun­
selors in their public employment
offices to meet State civil service or
merit system requirements that in­
clude certain minimum educational
and experience standards. They also
require a written or oral examina­
tion, or both.
Counselors who are well qualified
may advance, after experience, to
supervisory or administrative posi­
tions in their own or other organiza­

tions; some may become directors
of agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some may be­
come consultants; and others, may
become professors in the counseling

Employment Outlook

Employment counselors who
have a master’s degree, and others
with recognized related experience
in the field, will have very good em­
ployment opportunities in both
public and community agencies
through the 1970’s. In addition, col­
lege graduates having a bachelor’s
degree and 15 hours of undergradu­
ate or graduate work in counselingrelated courses will find many op­
portunities in State and local em­
ployment service offices as counselor
Employment of counselors in
State employment service offices is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s. The role of em­
ployment counselors has become in­
creasingly important as new pro­
grams have been developed to deal
with unemployment among the un­
skilled, minorities, and displaced
persons in a complex urban labor
market. Many of these programs,
beginning with the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act of
1962, deal with training and retrain­
ing of these workers for fuller utili­
zation of their potentials. The stim­
ulus for most of these programs was
public awareness, concern, and rec­
ognition that additional services
would have to be provided if indi­
viduals with limited skills were to
find satisfactory employment. As a
result, the emphasis of employment
counseling in State employment
service offices has shifted from help­
ing unemployed persons to seek and

obtain employment to providing
multifaceted assistance to help both
unemployed and underemployed
persons obtain suitable jobs.
In addition to the counselors
needed because of growth in the oc­
cupation, many will be needed each
year through the 1970’s to replace
workers who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of employment counsel­
ors in State employment services
vary considerably from State to
State. In 1970, minimum annual
salaries ranged from about $6,100
to $11,600, with a mean of $7,700.
Maximum salaries ranged from
$7,700 to nearly $14,000, with a
mean of about $9,900. More than
one-third of the States listed maxi­
mum salaries of $10,000 or over.
Trainees for counseling positions in
some voluntary agencies in large cit­
ies were being hired at about
$6,500 a year; annual salaries re­
ported for experienced counselors
ranged up to $15,000 or more in
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various ben­
efits, including vacations, sick leave,
pension plans, and insurance cover­
age. Counselors employed in com­
munity agencies may work over­

Sources of Additional Information

General information on employ­
ment or vocational counseling may
be obtained from:
National Employment Counselors
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave., NW., Washington, D.C.
National Vocational Guidance Asso­
ciation, Inc., 1607 New Hampshire


Ave., NW.,



Specific information regarding
local job opportunities, salaries, and
entrance requirements for positions
in public employment service offices
may be obtained from the adminis­
trative office of the particular State
employment security agency, bu­
reau, division, or commission,
which operates the service in the
State in which interested. Such
offices are usually in the State capi­

(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work

Rehabilitation counselors are
concerned primarily with the voca­
tional and personal adjustment of
persons handicapped in various
ways, either physicially, mentally,
or socially. First, the counselor in­
terviews the handicapped person to
learn his abilities, interests, and lim­
itations. Then, using such informa­
tion along with other medical,
psychological, and social data avail­
able, he helps the handicapped per­
son evaluate himself—his physical
and mental capacity, interests, and
talents—in terms of work suited to
these needs and abilities.
At this point, the counselor may
work out a plan of rehabilitation
with the handicapped person, along
with other specialists responsible for
the latter’s medical care and occu­
pational training and for other serv­
ices needed to carry out the pro­
gram. As this plan is put into effect,
the counselor meets regularly with

the disabled person to discuss the
program, check on progress made,
and help resolve problems. When
the person is ready for employment,
the counselor helps him find a suit­
able job, and often makes followup
checks to be sure that the placement
is satisfactory.
An increasing number of counsel­
ors specialize in a particular area of
rehabilitation; for example, some
work almost exclusively with the
blind, some with alcoholics, and
others with the mentally ill or re­

tarded. Still others work with the
disabled in poverty areas.
The time spent in the direct
counseling of each individual varies
with the person and the nature of
his disability, as well as with the
counselor’s workload. Some rehabil­
itation counselors are responsible
for many persons in various stages
of rehabilitation; on the other hand,
less experienced counselors, or spe­
cialized ones working with the se­
verely handicapped may handle
relatively few cases at a time. In ad-



dition to working with the handi­
capped person, the counselor also
must maintain close contact with
other professionals who work with
handicapped persons, members of
their families, other agencies and
civic groups, and private employers
who hire the handicapped. The
counselor often is responsible for
related activities, such as employer
education and community publicity
for the rehabilitation program.
Places of Employment

counselors were employed in 1970;
more than 11,000 were full-time
counselors. About three-fourths of
all rehabilitation counselors were
employed in State and local rehabil­
itation agencies financed coopera­
tively with Federal and State funds.
The remainder were employed by
hospitals, labor unions, insurance
companies, special schools, rehabili­
tation centers, sheltered workshops,
and other public and private agen­
cies that conducted rehabilitation
programs and provided job place­
ment services for the disabled. In
addition, about 400 counseling psy­
chologists in the Veterans Adminis­
An estimated 30 percent of all
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The basic educational require­
ment for entry into this occupation
is a bachelor’s degree with course
credits in counseling, psychology,
and related fields. However, em­
ployers are placing increasing em­
phasis on the master’s degree in vo­
cational or rehabilitation counseling

or in a related discipline such as
psychology, education, or social
work. Work experience in related
fields, such as vocational counseling
and placement, social work, psy­
chology, education, and other types
of counseling, is given considerable
weight by some employers, espe­
cially when considering applicants
who have only the bachelor’s de­
gree. Some agencies assist em­
ployees having bachelor’s degrees to
attain graduate degrees through
work-study programs.
Usually, 2 years are required to
qualify for the master’s degree in
the fields of study preferred for re­
habilitation counseling. The curricu­
lum for the master’s degree may in­
clude a basic foundation in psychol­
ogy and specified courses in other
fields. The latter may include coun­
seling theories and techniques, oc­
cupational and educational informa­
tion, community resources, place­
ment and follow-up, tests and
measurements, the cultural and psy­
chological effects of disability, and
the medical and legislative aspects
of therapy and rehabilitation.
To earn the doctorate in rehabili­
tation counseling or in counseling
psychology may require a total of 4
to 6 years of graduate study. Inten­
sive training in psychology, other
social sciences, as well as research
methods, is required.
In 1970, 70 colleges and univer­
sities offered financial assistance to
a limited number of full-time gradu­
ate students specializing in rehabili­
tation counseling through training
grants provided by the Rehabilita­
tion Services Administration of the
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare.
To qualify for work with a num­
ber of the State Rehabilitation
Agencies applicants must comply
with State civil service and merit
system rules. In most cases, these

regulations require applicants to
pass a written competitive examina­
tion, sometimes supplemented by an
individual interview and evaluation
by a board of examiners. A few
States require counselors to be resi­
dents of the State in which they
Counselors having limited experi­
ence usually are assigned the least
difficult cases. As they gain experi­
ence, cases representing more diffi­
cult rehabilitation problems are as­
signed to them. After obtaining con­
siderable experience, rehabilitation
counselors may be advanced to su­
pervisory positions or to top admin­
istrative jobs.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for re­
habilitation counselors are expected
to be very good through the 1970’s.
In addition to openings expected to
be created by the very rapid growth
of the profession, several hundred
counselors will be needed annually
to replace those who die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Persons who have graduate work in
rehabilitation counseling or in re­
lated fields have the best employ­
ment prospects.
The number of counselors cur­
rently being trained is below the
number of new entrants that are ex­
pected to be needed during the
early 1970’s. During this period,
therefore, opportunities in rehabili­
tation counseling will be favorable
for persons with experience in re­
lated fields such as psychology, so­
cial work, and education.
Among the factors contributing
substantially to long-run demand for
the services of rehabilitation coun­
selors will be population growth,
with related increases in numbers to
be served, along with extension of


vocational rehabilitation to greater
numbers of the severely disabled.
An additional stimulus should be
the increasing support for the serv­
ice in general including a growing
recognition that the vocational reha­
bilitation approach helps the disad­
vantaged achieve self-support.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Welfare, the median salaries of re­
habilitation counselors employed in
State agencies generally ranged
from $7,800 to $10,000 a year in
1970. Counselors working with the
disabled in the Veterans Adminis­
tration were hired in 1970 at
$13,493 or $14,665, depending
upon education and experience. A
small number of counselor trainees
were hired at annual salaries of
$9,881. For positions in VA hospi­
tals requiring the doctorate, salaries
ranged generally from $13,493 to
$16,790, depending on the appli­
cant’s experience and other qualifi­
cations. The average salary for doc­
torate degree holders was $18,900.
Counselors may spend only part
of their time counseling in their
offices, and the remainder in the
field, working with prospective em­
ployers, training agencies, and the
disabled person’s family. The ability
to drive a car is often necessary for
field work.
Rehabilitation counselors gener­
ally work a 40-hour week or less,
with little overtime work required;
however, they often must attend
community and civic meetings in
the evenings. They usually are cov­
ered by sick and annual leave bene­
fits, and pension and health plans.


Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on reha­
bilitation counseling as a career may
be obtained from:
American Psychological Association,
Inc., 1200 17th St. NW„ Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1522 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

A list of colleges and universities
that have received grants to provide
rehabilitation traineeships on a
graduate level is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Rehabilitation
Services Administration, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20201.

(D.O.T. 045.108)

School counselors are concerned
with the educational, vocational,
and social development of students.
In carrying out their responsibilities,
counselors work with students, both
individually and in groups, as well
as with teachers, other school per­
sonnel, parents, and community
In the process of helping students
find their interests and abilities to
use in their educational and voca­
tional planning, counselors in sec­
ondary schools obtain information
from a variety of sources. These in­
clude talking with students, refer­
ring to their school and other rec­
ords, and using tests to help assess a
student’s chances of success in given
studies or occupations. The coun­

selor then helps the student analyze
and interpret the results, and devel­
ops with him— and sometimes with
his parents, as well— a course of
study and an educational plan fitting
his abilities, interests, and voca­
tional opportunities.
To acquaint a student with the
nature of the work in which he has
shown an interest, the counselor
may provide descriptions of work,
training requirements, earnings, and
outlook. He may maintain files or li­
braries of occupational literature for
both students and their parents to
use. To provide a view of real work
settings, he may arrange trips to
factories and business firms, and
show vocational films. To bring the
work-place into the school, the
counselor may conduct “career
day” programs.
He also counsels the student
about opportunities for educational
and vocational training beyond high
school, including those in 2- and 4year colleges; in trade, technical and
business schools; in apprenticeship
programs, and in programs under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1962.
Counselors in secondary schools
may also help students find parttime work while in school, either to
enable them to stay in school or to
help them prepare for their voca­
tion. Counselors may also assist stu­
dents, on leaving school, in locating
full-time employment themselves or
in using community employment
services. Some counselors also take
part in studies to follow up on re­
cent graduates and dropouts, to sur­
vey local job opportunities, or to
determine the effectiveness of the
educational and guidance programs.
Many secondary school counsel­
ors, in addition, help students indi­
vidually with personal and social
problems common to adolescence.
Counselors also lead discussion



small schools by assigning more than
one school to a counselor.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

groups on topics related to student
interests and problems.
Elementary school counselors
help children to make the best use
of their abilities by identifying these
and other basic aspects of their
makeup, at an early age, and by
evaluating any learning problems.
Methods used in counseling grade
school children necessarily differ in
many ways from those used with
older students. Observations of
classroom and play activity furnish
clues about children in the lower
grades. To better understand the
children, elementary school counsel­
ors spend much of their time con­
sulting with teachers and parents.
They also work closely with other
staff members of the school, includ­
ing psychologists
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in secondary schools, may
teach classes in occupational infor­

mation, social studies, or other sub­
jects in addition to counseling. They
also may supervise school clubs or
other extracurricular
often after regular school hours.

Places of Employment

An estimated 54,000 school
counselors were employed full-time
during the 1970-71 school year.
More than four-fifths worked in
public secondary schools. About 10
percent were employed in public el­
ementary schools where counseling
services are being steadily ex­
panded. The others were employed
in junior colleges, technical insti­
tutes, and private elementary and
secondary schools.
The majority of counselors work
in large schools. An increasing num­
ber of school districts, however, are
providing guidance services to their

Most States require counselors to
have both a counseling and a teach­
ing certificate. (See statement on
Elementary and Secondary School
Teachers for teaching certificate re­
quirements.) A counseling certifi­
cate requires graduate level work
and usually from 1 to 5 years of
teaching experience. A person plan­
ning to counsel should learn the
specific requirements of the State in
which he plans to work, since such
requirements vary considerably
among the States and also are
changing rapidly.
Undergraduate college students
interested in becoming school coun­
selors usually enroll in the regular
program of teacher education, pre­
ferably taking additional courses in
psychology and sociology. In States
where teaching experience is not a
requirement it is possible to major
in a liberal arts program. After
graduating from college, they may
gain the experience required, teach­
ing or other, before or during grad­
uate study. A few States substitute
counseling internship for teaching
experience. In some States, teachers
who have completed part of the
courses required for the master’s
degree are eligible for provisional
certification and may work as coun­
selors under supervision while tak­
ing additional courses.
The subject areas of the required
graduate-level courses usually in­
clude appraisal of the individual
student, counseling procedures for
group guidance, use of information
services for vocational development,
development and management of
overall program, professional rela­



tions and ethics, and statistics and
research. Supervised field experi­
ence or internship is provided in an
increasing number of programs.
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
more than 370 colleges and univer­
sities, most frequently in the depart­
ments of education or psychology.
To obtain a master’s degree, a stu­
dent must complete 1 to 2 years of
graduate study. School counselors
may advance to counselor supervi­
sors or directors of pupil personnel
services or to other administrative
positions within the school system.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
well-trained school counselors are
expected to be good through the
1970’s. Job openings for counselors
are expected to increase rapidly due
to continued strengthening of coun­
seling services in elementary and
secondary schools. The average
ratio of counselors to students as a
whole is still well below generally
accepted standards, despite the fi­
nancial aid which the Federal Gov­
ernment has provided to States for
school counseling programs under
the National Defense Education Act
of 1958, as amended, and other leg­
In addition to the number of
counselors needed to take care of
the anticipated expansion of the oc­
cupation, many counselors also will

be required, each year, to replace
those leaving the profession.
Among the factors affecting the
employment growth of school coun­
selors is the increasing recognition
of counseling as an essential educa­
tional service for all pupils—the av­
erage, the gifted, the slow, the dis­
advantaged, and the handicapped.
Moreover, Federal legislation such
as the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act amendments of
1966, the National Defense Educa­
tion amendments of 1966, and the
Vocational Education amendments
of 1968 has extended support of
school counseling services to ele­
mentary schools, vocational and
technical schools, and junior col­
Also contributing to the increased
demand for counseling services is
the growing public awareness of the
value of guidance services in help­
ing students with personal and
social problems. This in turn, may
help reduce the number of school
dropouts. Students will also be seek­
ing advice from school counselors
about educational requirements for
concerns such as entrance-level
jobs, job changes caused by auto­
mation and other technological ad­
vances, college entrance require­
ments, and places of employment.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to the National Educa­
tion Association, the average annual

salaries during the 1969-70 school
year for school counselors having the
bachelor’s degree ranged from
$7,300 to $10,300, and for those
having the master’s, from $8,300 to
$12,400. School counselors having
the doctorate earned as much as
$18,700. Many school counselors
had annual earnings higher than
those of classroom teachers with
comparable educational preparation
and experience. (See statements on
School Teachers and Secondary
School Teachers.)
In most school systems, counsel­
ors receive regular salary incre­
ments as their counseling experi­
ence increases, and as they obtain
additional education. Some counsel­
ors supplement their income by
part-time consulting or other work
with private or public counseling
centers, government agencies, or
private industry.
Sources of Additional Information

Information on colleges and uni­
versities offering training in guid­
ance and counseling, as well as on
the certification requirements of
each State, may be obtained from
the State department of education
at the State capital.
Additional information on this
field of work may be obtained from:
American School Counselor Associ­
ation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.


Engineers contribute in countless
ways to the welfare, technological
progress, and defense of the Nation.
They develop complex electric
power, water supply, and waste dis­
posal systems to meet the problems
of urban living. They design in­
dustrial machinery and equipment
needed to manufacture goods on a
mass production basis, and heating,
air conditioning, and ventilation
equipment for the comfort of man.
Also, they develop scientific equip­
ment to help probe the mysteries of
outer space and the depths of the
ocean, and design and supervise the
construction of highways and rapid
transit systems for safe and more
convenient transportation. In addi­
tion, they design and develop con­
sumer products such as automo­
biles and refrigerators. They also
provide the raw materials that make
all this possible.
This chapter contains an over-all
discussion of engineering, followed
by separate statements on several
branches of the field—aerospace,
agricultural, biomedical, ceramic,
chemical, civil, electrical, industrial,
mechanical, metallurgical, and min­
ing engineering. Although most en­
gineers specialize in these or other
specific branches of the profession,
a considerable body of basic knowl­
edge and methodology is common
to most areas of engineering. Also,
unified curriculums in engineering
(without specialty designation) and
in engineering science are increasing
in popularity. Therefore, young
people considering engineering as a
career should become familiar with
the general nature of engineering as
well as with its various branches.

Nature of the Work

Engineers develop methods for
converting the raw materials and
sources of power found in nature
into useful products at a reasonable
cost in terms of time and money.
They use basic scientific principles
to solve the problems involved in
designing goods and services and
developing methods for their pro­
duction. The emphasis on the appli­
cation of scientific principles, rather
than on their discovery, is the main
factor that distinguishes the work of
the engineer from that of the scien­
tist. For example, a physicist may
discover that the properties of a gas
change when it is converted into a
liquid at extremely low tempera­
tures, but the engineer develops
uses for the liquid, or economical
methods for its production.
In designing or developing a new
product, engineers must consider
many factors. For example, in de­
signing a space capsule, they must
calculate how much heat, radiation,
air pressure, and other forces the
capsule must withstand during its
flight to insure the safety of the oc­
cupants and prevent the malfunc­
tioning of its instrumentation. Ex­
periments must be conducted which
relate these factors to various con­
struction materials, as well as to the
many possible capsule sizes, shapes,
and weights. Equally important are
the human needs and limitations of
the people who must operate the
equipment. In addition, the engineer
must take into account the relative
cost of the required materials and
the cost and time of the fabrication
process. Similar factors must be
considered by engineers who design
and develop a wide variety of prod­
ucts ranging from transistor radios

and washing machines to electronic
computers and industrial machin­
Besides design and development,
engineers engage in many other ac­
tivities. Many work in inspection,
quality control, and other activities
related to production in manufac­
turing industries, mines, and agri­
culture. Others are administrators
and managers whose knowledge of
engineering is important. A large
number plan and supervise the con­
struction of buildings and highways.
Many are employed in sales posi­
tions, where they must discuss the
technical aspects of a product or as­
sist in planning its installation or
use. (See statement on Manufac­
turers’ Salesmen.) Some conduct
research aimed at supplying the
basic technological data needed for
the design and production of new or
improved products. Some engineers
having considerable experience
work as consultants. A relatively
small group, especially at the Ph. D.
level, teach in the engineering
schools of colleges and universities.
Most engineers specialize in one
of the many branches of the profes­
sion. More than 25 engineering spe­
cialties are recognized by the pro­
fession or in engineering school cur­
riculums. Besides these major
branches— 11 of which are dis­
cussed separately in this chapter—
there are many subdivisions of the
branches. Structural, hydraulic, and
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineering.
Engineers may also become special­
ists in the engineering problems of
one industry, or in a particular field
of technology such as propulsion or
guidance systems. Nevertheless, the
basic knowledge required for all
areas of engineering often makes it
possible for engineers to shift from
one field of specialization to an­
other, particularly for those begin­
ning their careers.
Engineers within each of the



of Defense. Significant numbers of
engineers also were in the Depart­
ments of the Interior, Agriculture,
and Transportation, and the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration. Most engineers in
State and local government agencies
were employed by highway and
public works departments.
institutions em­
ployed over 40,000 engineers in
1970, in research and teaching. A
small number were employed by
nonprofit research organizations.
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small cities as well as large,
and in some rural areas. However,
about two-thirds of all engineers in
private industry are employed in 10
States, and of these almost one-third
are in California, New York, and
Pennsylvania. The profession also
offers opportunities for employment
overseas. Some branches of engi­
neering are concentrated in particu­
lar industries, as indicated in the
statements presented later in this
'branches may apply their special­
ized knowledge to many fields. For
example, electrical engineers may
work in medicine, missile guidance,
or electric power distribution. Be­
cause engineering problems are usu­
ally complex, the work in some
applied fields cuts across the tradi­
tional branches. Using a team ap­
proach to solve problems, engineers
in one field often work closely with
specialists in other scientific and en­
gineering occupations.

Places of Employment

Engineering is the second largest
professional occupation, exceeded
in size only by teaching; for men it
is the largest profession. Nearly 1.1

million engineers were employed in
the United States in 1970.
Manufacturing industries em­
ployed approximately 600,000 or
more than half of all engineers in
1970—mostly in electrical equip­
ment, aircraft and parts, machinery,
chemicals, ordnance, instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal
products, and motor vehicles indus­
tries. Over 300,000 engineers were
employed in non-manufacturing in­
dustries in 1970, primarily in the
construction, public utilities, engi­
neering and architectural services,
and business and management
consulting services industries.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments employed more than 150,000
engineers in 1970. Over half of these
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, chiefly by the Department

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is the generally accepted educa­
tional requirement for entrance into
engineering positions. Well-qualified
graduates having training in physics,
one of the other natural sciences, or
in mathematics may qualify for
some beginning positions in engi­
neering. Some persons without a de­
gree are able to become engineers
after long experience in a related
occupation—such as draftsmen or
engineering technicians—and some
college level training.
Advanced training is emphasized
for an increasing number of jobs.
Graduate degrees are desirable for
beginning teaching and research po-



sitions, and advancement. Further­
more, some specialities, such as nu­
clear engineering, are available only
at the graduate level.
About 270 colleges, universities,
and engineering schools offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering.
These educational institutions offer
nearly 1,000 curricula choices. Al­
though the larger branches of engi­
neering are offered in most schools,
some specialties are taught in rela­
tively few institutions. A student
who desires to specialize should in­
vestigate various curriculums before
selecting his college. For undergrad­
uate admission, engineering schools
usually require high school courses
in mathematics and the physical sci­
ences. The quality of the applicant’s
high school work is emphasized.
In the typical 4-year curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent mainly on
basic science—mathematics, phys­
ics, and chemistry—and the human­
ities, social sciences, and English.
The last 2 years are devoted chiefly
to engineering with emphasis on a
specialty. Some programs offer gen­
eral training; the student chooses a
specialty in graduate school or ac­
quires one on the job.
Some engineering curriculums re­
quire more than 4 years to com­
plete. However, the number of insti­
tutions having 5-year programs
leading to the bachelor’s degree is
decreasing. In addition, several en­
gineering schools now have formal
arrangements with liberal arts col­
leges whereby a student spends 3
years in liberal arts and 2 years in
engineering and receives a bache­
lor’s degree from each. This pro­
gram offers the student diversifica­
tion in his studies.
Some institutions have 5- or 6year cooperative plans under which
a student alternates school and em­
ployment. Most of these plans coor­
dinate classroom study and practical

experience. In addition to gaining
experience, the student may finance
part of his education.
Engineering graduates usually
begin work as trainees or as assist­
ants to experienced engineers.
Many large companies have special
programs to acquaint new engineers
with special industrial practices and
to determine the specialty for which
they are best suited. As they gain
experience, engineers may advance
to positions of greater responsibil­
ity. Those with proven ability often
become administrators. Increasingly
large numbers are promoted to top
executive posts. Many engineers ob­
tain graduate degrees in business
administration to improve their ad­
vancement opportunities.
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia have laws providing for
the licensing of those engineers
whose work may affect life, health,
or property; or who offer their serv­
ices to the public. In 1970, about
325,000 engineers were registered
under these laws in the United
States. Generally, registration re­
quirements include graduation from
an accredited engineering curricu­
lum, plus at least 4 years of experi­
ence and the passing of a State ex­
amination. Examining boards may
accept a longer period of experience
as a substitute for a college degree.
Prospective engineers should be
able to work as part of a team, be
innovative, have initiative, an ana­
lytical mind, a capacity for detail,
and the ability to make decisions. In
addition, engineers should be able
to communicate their ideas to spe­
cialists in areas such as marketing,
and production planning. The abil­
ity to cut across various disciplines
and systematically evaluate and
solve problems also is important.
Because of rapidly changing tech­
nologies, an engineer must be will­

ing to continue his
throughout his career.


Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
engineers are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Engineer­
ing has been one of the fastest
growing professions in recent years
and requirements for engineers are
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, but at a slower
annual rate of growth than during
the 1960’s. Engineers who are not
well grounded in fundamentals and
whose specialization is very narrow
could be affected adversely by shifts
in defense activities and rapidly
changing technology. Demand prob­
ably will be strong for new gradu­
ates who have acquired recently
developed techniques, including
computer applications, and for engi­
neers who can apply engineering
principles to medical, biological, and
other sciences. New graduates hav­
ing advanced degrees should have
favorable opportunities in research
and teaching.
Among factors underlying the an­
ticipated increase in demand for en­
gineers is population growth, and
the resulting expansion of industry
to meet the demand for more goods
and services. The need for engi­
neers also will rise as a result of the
increasingly larger amount of engi­
neering time required to develop
complex industrial products and
processes and industrial automation.
Increasing public emphasis on solv­
ing domestic problems such as envi­
ronmental pollution and urban re­
development also should increase
requirements for engineers.
Some of the past increases in en­
gineering employment resulted from
increases in Federal research and
development (R&D) expenditures


for space and defense related pro­
grams. During the 1970-80 decade
R&D expenditures of Government
and industry are expected to in­
crease, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
Defense expenditures are an im­
portant determinant of the demand
for engineers because about 25 per­
cent of all engineers in 1970
worked in defense related activities.
The outlook for engineers presented
is based on the assumption that de­
fense activity as measured by ex­
penditures will be somewhat higher
than the level before the Vietnam
buildup, approximating the level of
the early 1960’s. If defense activity
should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for engineers will
be affected accordingly.
In addition to the level of defense
expenditures, general business con­
ditions, shifting National priorities,
and nondefense related Federal pro­
grams and policies also influence the
demand for engineers. Thus, the de­
mand for engineers fluctuates peri­
odically. The shortrun demand can
either exceed or fall short of the
number of engineers seeking profes­
sional employment. Over the longer
run, however, indications are that


engineers can look forward to fa­
vorable employment opportunities.
In addition to engineers for new
positions, thousands will have to be
trained to replace workers who
transfer to other occupations, retire,
or die. The preceding discussion an­
alyzes the outlook for engineering
as a whole. Various branches are
discussed in statements later in this
Earnings and Working Conditions

New engineering graduates hav­
ing the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience earned an average of
$10,400 a year in private industry
in 1969-70 according to the Col­
lege Placement Council. Master’s de­
gree graduates having no experience
averaged almost $12,000 a year;
Ph. D. graduates averaged about
The accompanying tabulation
shows varying starting salaries for
bachelor degree graduates in 196970:
In the Federal Government in
1970 engineers having the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience
could start at $8,510 or $10,528 a
year, depending on their college
records. Beginning engineers having
the bachelor’s degree and 1 or 2
years of graduate work could start
at $10,528 or $11,855. Those hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree could begin at
$13,493 or $14,665.
In colleges and universities, me­

Starting salaries for engineers by branch, 1969-70
Aeronautical engineering........................... $10,200
Chemical engineering................................. 10,800
Civil engineering ....................................... 10,000
Electrical engineering .............................. 10,400
Industrial engineering................................. 10,200
Mechanical engineering...............
Metallurgical engineering.......................... 10,500
190 percent earned more than the amount shown.
3 10 percent earned more than the amount shown.


dian salaries of engineers with the
master’s degree started at about
$10,000 a year; and with the Ph. D.
degree, $12,300 for a 9-10 month
academic year. (Also see statement
on College and University Teach­
Most engineers can expect an in­
crease in earnings as they gain ex­
perience. For example, in 1970
according to an Engineering Man­
power Commission Survey, the av­
erage (median) salary of engineers
having 21 to 23 years of experience
was $18,350, 78 percent higher than
beginning engineers. Only 10 per­
cent of those having 21 to 23 years
of experience earned less than
$13,700 a year, and 10 percent
earned $25,600 or more. Some in
top-level executive positions had
much higher earnings.
Although engineers generally
work under quiet conditions found
in modern offices and research labo­
ratories, they may be involved in
more active work—at a missile site
preceding the launching of a space
vehicle, in a mine, at a construction
site, or at some other outdoor loca­

Sources of Additional Information

General information on engineer­
ing careers—including student se­
lection and guidance, professional
training and ethics, and salaries and
other economic aspects of engineer­
ing—may be obtained from:
Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineering Manpower Commission,
Engineers Joint Council, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional
Engineers, 2029 K St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.






schools and curriculums and on
training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the profes­
sion also may be obtained from the
Engineers Council for Professional
Development. Information on regis­
tration of engineers may be ob­
tained from the National Society of
Professional Engineers.
In addition to the organizations
listed above, other engineering soci­
eties represent the individual
branches of the engineering profes­
sion; some are listed with the
branches presented later in this
chapter. Each can provide informa­
tion about careers in the particular
branch of engineering. Many other
engineering organizations are listed
in the following publications availa­
ble in most libraries or from the
Engineering Societies Directory, pub­
lished by Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th Street, New York,
N.Y. 10017.
Scientific and Technical Societies of
the United States and Canada,
published by the National Acad­
emy of Sciences, National Re­
search Council.

Some engineers are members of
labor unions. Information on engi­
neering unions may be obtained
The American Federation of Tech­
nical Engineers (AFL-CIO), 1126
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 002.081)

Nature of the Work

Aerospace engineers play a vital
role in America’s space activities.

Engineers in this branch of the pro­
fession work on all types of aircraft
and spacecraft including missiles,
rockets, and conventional propel­
ler-driven and jet-powered planes.
They are concerned with all phases
of the development of aerospace
products from the initial planning
and design to the final assembly,
and testing.
Aerospace engineers usually spe­
cialize in a particular area of work,
such as structural design, naviga­
tional guidance and control, instru­
mentation and communication, sim­
ulation, propulsion, materials, test­
ing, or production methods. They
also may specialize in a particular
type of aerospace product such as
passenger planes, jet-powered mili­
tary aircraft, rockets, launch vehi­

cles, satellites, manned space cap­
sules, or landing modules.
Engineers working in the aircraft
field are usually called aeronautical
engineers. Those in the field of mis­
siles, rockets, and spacecraft often
are referred to as astronautical engi­
neers. However, engineers with de­
grees in aeronautics and astronau­
tics are usually called aerospace en­

Places of Employment

More than 60,000 aerospace en­
gineers were employed in early
1970, mainly in the aircraft and
parts industry. Some worked for
Federal Government agencies, pri­
marily the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration and the



Department of Defense. Small num­
bers worked for commercial air­
lines, consulting firms, and colleges
and universities.

Employment Outlook

Continuing developments in su­
personic, subsonic, and vertical lift
aircraft, and advancement in space
and missile activities, such as the
expansion of the Safeguard anti-bal­
listic-missile system (ABM) and
space exploration followed by flights
to the planets, should result in a
moderate increase in requirements
for aerospace engineers. Also, some
aerospace firms may become active
in other areas such as high speed
ground transportation. Additional
job opportunities also will arise from
the need to replace engineers who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. However, engineers who
are not well grounded in engineer­
ing fundamentals, and those whose
specialization is very narrow, could
be affected adversely by skill obso­
lescence caused by shifts in defense
activities and by rapidly changing
Employment requirements for
aerospace engineers are particularly
sensitive to changes in the level and
mix of defense expenditures. Be­
cause of this, employment oppor­
tunities fluctuate periodically, and in
the short run demand can fall short
of the number of aerospace engi­
neers seeking employment. Over
the longer run, however, employ­
ment opportunities for aerospace
engineers are expected to be favor­
The outlook for aerospace engi­
neers presented here is based on the
assumption that defense activity as
measured by expenditures will be
reduced from the peak levels of the
Vietnam conflict, although higher

than the level just before the Viet­
nam conflict. If defense activity
should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for aerospace en­
gineers would be affected accord­
ingly. ( See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings. See
also chapter on Occupations in Air­
craft, Missile, and Spacecraft Manu­
Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc., 1290 Ave­
nue of the Americas, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 013.081)

Nature of the Work

Agricultural engineers use basic
engineering principles and concepts
to develop machinery, equipment
and methods to improve the ef­
ficiency and economy of the pro­
duction, processing, and distribution
of food and other agricultural prod­
ucts. They are concerned primarily
with the design of farm machinery,
equipment, and structures; the utili­
zation of electrical energy on farms
and in food and feed processing
plants; the conservation and man­
agement of soil and water re­
sources; and the design and opera­
tion of processing equipment to
prepare agricultural products for
market. They usually specialize in a
particular area of work, such as re­
search and development, design,
testing and application, production,
sales, or management.

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 13,000 ag­
ricultural engineers in 1970 were
employed in private industry, espe­
cially by manufacturers of farm
equipment and household equip­
ment; electrical service companies;
and distributors of farm equipment
and supplies. Some worked for en­
gineering consultants who supply
technical or management services to
farmers and farm related industries;
others were independent consult­
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 600 agricultural engi­
neers—chiefly in the Soil Conserva­
tion Service and Agricultural Re­
search Service of the Department of
Agriculture. Some are employed by
colleges and universities and a few
are employed by State and local

Employment Outlook

Employment of agricultural engi­
neers is expected to grow rapidly
through the 1970’s. Among the fac­
tors which will contribute to a
greater demand for these engineers
are the growing mechanization of
farm operations, increasing empha­
sis on conservation of resources,
and expanding population—with a
corresponding demand for food and
fibre—and the broadening use of
agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials. Additional
engineers will be needed to work on
problems concerning the enormous
energy and power requirements of
farms. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings. See
also chapter on Occupations in Ag­


Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, 2950 Niles Rd., St.
Joseph, Mich. 49085.



leges and universities. Some were
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, primarily in the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Some work in State institutions
and a growing number are em­
ployed in private industry to de­
velop new apparatus, processes, and
techniques, or in sales related posi­

(D.O.T. 019.481)

Employment Outlook
Nature of the Work

Biomedical engineers use engi­
neering principles to solve medical
and health related problems. Most
biomedical engineers do research,
working with life scientists, chem­
ists, and the medical profession to
study the engineering aspects of
the biological systems of man and
animals. Some design and develop
medical instruments and devices
that now include artificial hearts
and kidneys to assist medical per­
sonnel in observing, mitigating, or
alleviating physical ailments or de­
formities. Biomedical engineers
have developed lasers for surgery
and cardiac pacemakers for regulat­
ing the heartbeat. Other biomedical
engineers adapt the computer to
medical science, for example, com­
puters to monitor patients and
process electrocardiograph data.
Biomedical engineers also design
and construct systems which mecha­
nize and automate laboratory and
clinical procedures. A few biomedi­
cal engineers sell medical instru­
ments and equipment to doctors, re­
search centers, and hospitals.
Places of Employment

In 1970 most of the estimated
3,000 biomedical engineers were
teaching and doing research in col­

Employment opportunities for
biomedical engineers are expected
to be very favorable through the
1970’s. Although biomedical engi­
neering currently is a small field and
has few openings compared with the
larger branches of engineering, the
number of graduates also is small.
Thus, opportunities should be very
favorable for both new graduates
and qualified scientists and engi­
M.S. and Ph. D. graduates will be
in strong demand to teach and fill
positions resulting from increased
expenditures for research in areas
such as prosthetics and cybernetics.
Research could create new positions
in instrumentation and systems for
the delivery of health services. (See
introductory sections of this chapter
for a discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine
and Biology, 3900 Wisconsin Ave.
NW., Suite No. 300, Washington,
D.C. 20016.
Biomedical Engineering Society, P.O.
Box 1600, Evanston, Illinois
Foundation for Medical Technology,
Mt. Sinai Medical Center, 100
St., 5th, Ave., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 006.081)

Nature of the Work

Ceramic engineers are concerned
with one of the world’s oldest and
yet newest technologies. They de­
velop methods for processing clay,
silicates, and other nonmetallic min­
erals into a wide variety of ceramic
products, ranging from glassware,
cement, and bricks, to coatings and
refractories for missile nose cones.
They may also design and supervise
the construction of the plant and
equipment used to manufacture
these products. Many ceramic engi­
neers are engaged in research and
development. Some are employed in
administration, production and
sales; others work as consultants or
teach in colleges and universities.
Ceramic engineers usually spe­
cialize in one or more products—
for example, products of refracto­
ries (fire- and heat-resistant mate­
rials, such as firebrick); whitewares
(such as porcelain and china dinnerware or high voltage electrical
insulators); structural materials
(such as brick, tile, and terra
cotta); electronic ceramics (such as
ferrites for memory systems and mi­
crowave devices); protective and
refractory coatings for metals; glass;
abrasives; and fuel elements for
atomic energy.

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 10,000 ce­
ramic engineers in 1970 were em­
ployed in manufacturing industries
—primarily in the stone, clay, and
glass industries. Others worked in
the iron and steel, electrical equip­
ment, aerospace, and chemical in­



dustries which produce or use ce­
ramic products. Some were em­
ployed by educational institutions,
independent research organizations,
and the Federal Government.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for rapid growth
in the employment of ceramic engi­
neers through the 1970’s. Although
ceramic engineering is a small field
and has few openings in a year com­
pared with large branches of engi­
neering, the number of graduates
also is small. Thus, opportunities
for new graduates should be excel­
The growth of programs related
to nuclear energy, electronics, and
space exploration will provide many
of the opportunities for ceramic en­
gineers. Ceramic materials which
are corrosion-resistant, and capable
of withstanding radiation and ex­
tremely high temperatures are be­
coming increasingly important in
the development of nuclear reactors
and space vehicles. Increasing use
of the more traditional ceramic
products, such as whitewares and
abrasives, for consumer and in­
dustrial use also will require addi­
tional ceramic engineers to improve
and adapt these products to new re­
quirements. The growing use of
structural clay and tile products in
construction will add to employ­
ment opportunities. Furthermore,
the development of new glasses of
unusual properties and the expand­
ing use of conventional glasses in
the construction and container field
probably will create additional
openings for ceramic engineers.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training
requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
American Ceramic Society, 4055
North High St., Columbus, Ohio

(D.O.T. 008.081)

Nature of the Work

Chemical engineers design plants
and equipment to manufacture
chemicals and chemical products.
They also determine the most
efficient manufacturing process,
which requires a knowledge of
chemistry, physics, and mechanical
and electrical engineering. They
often design and operate pilot plants
to test their work.

This branch of engineering is so
diversified and complex that chemi­
cal engineers frequently specialize
in a particular operation such as ox­
idation or polymerization. Others
specialize in the manufacture of a
specific product, such as plastics or
rubber. Chemical engineers may en­
gage in research and development,
production, plant operation, design,
sales, management, or teaching.
Places of Employment

Approximately four-fifths of the
estimated 50,000 chemical engi­
neers in the United States in 1970
were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries—primarily in the chemicals
industry. Some were employed by
government agencies and by col­
leges and universities. A small
number worked for independent re­
search institutes or engineering con­
sulting firms, or as independent con­
sulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

Chemical engineer checks
water quality.

The outlook is for moderate
growth of employment in chemical
engineering through the 1970’s. The
major factors underlying this ex­
pected growth are expansion of in­
dustry—the chemicals industry in
particular— and continued high lev­
els of expenditures for research and
development, in which a large por­
tion of chemical engineers are em­
ployed. The growing complexity of
chemical processes and the automa­
tion of these processes, will require
additional chemical engineers for
work related to designing, building,
and maintaining the necessary
plants and equipment. Chemical en­
gineers also will be needed in many
relatively new areas of work, such
as environmental control and the
design and development of nuclear



reactors, and in research to develop
new and better solid and liquid fuels
for missiles and rockets. Further­
more, new chemicals used in the
manufacture of consumer goods,
such as plastics and manmade
fibers, probably will create addi­
tional openings. (See introductory
section of this chapter for discussion
on training requirements and earn­
ings. See also the statement on
Chemists and chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Industrial Chemical

Sources of Additional Information

Places of Employment

Approximately 185,000 civil en­
gineers were employed in the
United States in 1970. The majority
were employed by Federal, State,
and local government agencies and
the construction industry. Large
numbers were employed by consult­
ing engineering and architectural
firms, or worked as independent
consulting engineers. Some were
employed by public utilities, rail­
roads, and educational institutions.
Others worked in the iron and steel
industries and other major manufac­
turing industries.

American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 005.081)

Nature of the Work

Civil engineers design and super­
vise the construction of roads, har­
bors, airfields, tunnels, bridges,
water supply and sewage systems,
and buildings. Major specialties
within civil engineering are struc­
tural, hydraulic, sanitary, transpor­
tation (including highways and rail­
ways), and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in su­
pervisory or administrative positions
ranging from site supervisor of a
construction project or city engineer
to top-level executive. Some are en­
gaged in design, planning, research,
inspection, or maintenance activi­
ties. Others teach in colleges and
universities or work as consultants.

countries. Furthermore, civil engi­
neers in some positions often are re­
quired to move from place to place
to work on different projects.
Employment Outlook

The outlook in civil engineering
—one of the largest and oldest
branches of the profession—is for
continued growth through the
The expanding employment Op­
portunities for civil engineers will
result from the growing needs for
housing, industrial buildings, and
highway transportation systems
created by an increasing population
and expanding economy. Work re­
lated to the problems of urban envi­
ronment, such as water and sewage
systems, air and water pollution,
and giant urban redevelopment
projects, may also require additional
civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers
will also be needed each year to re­
place those who retire or die. (See
introductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)
Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Civil Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

Civil engineers work in all parts
of the country, in every State and
city—usually in or near the major
industrial and commercial centers.
However, since these engineers are
frequently called upon to work at
construction sites, they are some­
times stationed in remote areas of
the United States or in foreign

(D.O.T. 003.081, .151, and .187)

Nature of the Work

Electrical engineers design, de­
velop, and supervise the manufac­
ture of electrical and electronic



equipment—including electric mo­
tors and generators; communica­
tions equipment; electronic appa­
ratus such as television, radar,
computers, and missile guidance
systems; and electrical applicances
of all kinds. They also design and
participate in the operation of facil­
ities for generating and distributing
electric power.
Electrical engineers usually spe­
cialize in a major area of work such
as electronics, electrical equipment
manufacturing, communications, or
power. Many specialize in subdivi­
sions of these broad areas; for ex­
ample, electronics engineers may
specialize in computers or in missile
guidance and tracking systems.
A large number of electrical engi­
neers are engaged in research, de­
velopment, and design activities.
Another large group is employed in
administrative and management po­
sitions. Others are employed in var­
ious manufacturing operations or in
technical sales or teaching positions.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
electrical engineers are expected to
increase very rapidly through the
1970’s. An increased demand for
electrical equipment to automati­
cally control production processes,
using such items as computers and
sensing devices, is expected to be
among the major factors contribut­
ing to this growth. The anticipated

growing demand for electrical and
electronic consumer goods also is
expected to create many job open­
ings for electrical engineers.
The outlook for electrical engi­
neers presented here is based on the
assumption that defense activity (as
measured by expenditures) will be
reduced from the peak levels of the
Vietnam conflict, although higher
than the level just before the Viet­
nam conflict. If defense activity

Places of Employment

Electrical engineering is the larg­
est branch of the profession. It is es­
timated that more than 235,000
electrical engineers were employed
in the United States in 1970 chiefly
by manufacturers of electrical and
electronic equipment, aircraft and
parts, business machines, and pro­
fessional and scientific equipment.
Many were employed by telephone
and telegraph and electric light and
power companies. Sizable numbers
were employed by government
agencies and by colleges and uni­
versities. Others worked for con­
struction firms, for engineering con­
sultants, or as independent consult­
ing engineers.

Industrial engineer works with machine tool operator to set up production.



should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for electrical en­
gineers would be affected accord­
In addition to those needed to fill
new positions, many electrical engi­
neers will be needed to replace per­
sonnel who retire or die. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for
discussions of training requirements
and earnings. See also chapter on
Occupations in Electronics Manu­
facturing. )

to control the quality of products;
and may design and improve sys­
tems for the physical distribution of
goods and services. Other activities
of industrial engineers include plant
location surveys, where considera­
tion is given to sources of raw mate­
rials, availability of a work force,
financing, and taxes; and the devel­
opment of wage and salary adminis­
tration and job evaluation pro­

expected to stimulate the demand
for persons in this branch of engi­
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, additional numbers of in­
dustrial engineers will be required
each year to replace those who re­
tire or die. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion on
training requirements and earn­
ings. )

Sources of Additional Information
Places of Employment
Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 012.081, .168 and .188)

Nature of the Work

Industrial engineers determine
the most effective methods of using
the basic factors of production—
manpower, machines, and mate­
rials. They are concerned with peo­
ple and “things,” in contrast to
engineers in other specialties who
generally are concerned more with
developmental work in subject
fields, such as power, and me­
They may design systems for data
processing and apply operations re­
search techniques to complex or­
ganizational, production, and re­
lated problems. Industrial engineers
also develop management control
systems to aid in financial planning
and cost analysis; design production
planning and control systems to in­
sure coordination of activities and

More than two-thirds of the esti­
mated 125,000 industrial engineers
employed in early 1970 were in
manufacturing industries. They
were more widely distributed
among manufacturing industries
than were those in other branches
of engineering. Some worked for in­
surance companies, construction
and mining firms, and public utili­
ties. Others were employed by retail
organizations and other large busi­
ness enterprises to improve operat­
ing efficiency. Still others worked
for government agencies and educa­
tional institutions. A few were inde­
pendent consulting engineers.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for very rapid
growth of employment in this
branch of the profession through
the 1970’s. The increasing complex­
ity of industrial operations and the
expansion of automated processes,
coupled with the growth of the Na­
tion’s industries, are among the
major factors expected to increase
the demand for industrial engineers.
Growing recognition of the impor­
tance of scientific management and
safety engineering in reducing costs
and increasing productivity also is

American Institute of Industrial
Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181, and
.187; 011.081; and 019.187)

Nature of the Work

Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They de­
sign and develop machines which
produce power, such as internal
combustion engines, steam and gas
turbines, jet and rocket engines, and
nuclear reactors. They also design
and develop a great variety of
machines which use power—refrig­
eration and air conditioning equip­
ment, elevators, machine tools,
printing presses, steel rolling mills,
and many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within mechanical
engineering, and because they are
employed in nearly all industries,
their specific work varies with the
industry and the function per­
formed. Among these specialties are
those concerned with motor vehi-



ery and processes will be among the
major factors contributing to greater
employment. Continued growth of
expenditures for research and de­
velopment also will be a factor in
the growth of this branch of the
profession. Moreover, newer areas
of work, such as atomic energy,
aerospace development, and envi­
ronmental control, will probably
provide additional openings for
large numbers of mechanical engi­
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, large numbers of mechan­
ical engineers will be required each
year to replace those who retire or
die. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings.)
Sources of Additional Information
Mechanical engineer examines model of ball bearing.

cles, marine equipment, railroad
equipment, rocket engines, steampower, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, hydraulics or fluid me­
chanics, instrumentation, ordnance,
and machines for specialized indus­
tries, such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical en­
gineers are engaged in research, de­
velopment, and design. Many also
are employed in administrative and
management activities. Others work
in maintenance, sales, and activities
related to production and opera­
tions in manufacturing industries.
Some teach in colleges and universi­
ties or work as consultants.

Places of Employment

About 220,000 mechanical engi­
neers were employed in the United
States in 1970. Nearly all manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing indus­

tries employed some members of
the profession. However, nearly
three-fourths of all mechanical engi­
neers were employed in manufac­
turing industries—mainly in the pri­
mary and fabricated metals, ma­
chinery, transportation equipment,
and electrical equipment industries.
Others were employed in govern­
ment agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering
firms. Some worked as independent
consulting engineers.

Employment Outlook

The outlook in mechanical engi­
neering—the second largest branch
of the profession—is for rapid
growth through the 1970’s. The ex­
pected expansion of industry with
the consequent demand for in­
dustrial machinery and machine
tools, and the increasing technologi­
cal complexity of industrial machin­

The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 011.081)

Nature of the Work

Metallurgical engineers develop
methods of processing and convert­
ing metals into useful products.
These engineers usually work in 1
of 2 main branches of metallurgy
—extractive or physical. Extractive
metallurgy involves the extraction
of metals from ores and their refin­
ing to obtain pure metal. Physical
metallurgy deals with the properties
of metals and their alloys, and with
methods of converting refined met­
als into useful final products. Scien­



neers will be needed to find ways of
processing low-grade ores now re­
garded as unprofitable to mine.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for discussions on training
requirements and earnings. Also see
chapter on Occupations in the Iron
and Steel Industry.)

cialize in the extraction of specific
metal ores or coal and other nonmetallic minerals. Engineers who spe­
cialize in the extraction of petro­
leum and natural gas are usually
considered members of a separate
branch of the engineering profession
—Petroleum Engineering.

Sources of Additional Information

tists working in this field are known
as metallurgists, but the distinction
between scientists and engineers in
this field is small. Persons working
in the field of metallurgy are some­
times referred to as either materials
scientists or materials engineers.

Places of Employment

The Metallurgical Society of the
American Institute of Mining,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engi­
neers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

Most of the estimated 5,000 min­
ing engineers were employed in the
mining industry in 1970. Some
worked in colleges and universities
or government agencies, or as inde­
pendent consultants. Others worked
for firms producing equipment for
the mining industry.
Mining engineers are usually em­
ployed at the location of mineral
deposits, often near small communi­
ties. However, those engaged in re­
search, teaching, management, con­
sulting, or sales are often located in
large metropolitan areas.
In addition to mining engineers,
many other engineers in different
branches also are employed in the
mining industry.

Places of Employment

The metalworking industries—
primarily the iron and steel and
nonferrous metals industries—em­
ployed over one-half of the esti­
mated 5,000 to 10,000 metallurgi­
cal engineers in 1970. Many metal­
lurgical engineers worked in the
machinery, electrical equipment,
and aircraft and parts industries.
Others were employed in the mining
industry, government agencies, con­
sulting firms, independent research
organizations, and educational insti­

American Society of Metals, Metals
Park, Ohio 44073.

(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187)

Employment Outlook

Nature of the Work

Employment in this small branch
of the profession is expected to
grow rapidly through the 1970’s.
Increasing numbers of metallurgical
engineers will be needed by the
metalworking industries to work on
problems involving the development
of new metals and alloys as well as
the adaption of current ones to new
needs. For example, the develop­
ment of such products as supersonic
jet aircraft, missiles, satellites, and
spacecraft has brought about a need
for lightweight metals capable of
withstanding both extremely high
and extremely low temperatures.
Metallurgical engineers also will be
needed to solve metallurgical prob­
lems connected with the efficient
use of nuclear energy. Furthermore,
as the supply of highgrade ores di­
minishes, more metallurgical engi­

Mining engineers find and extract
minerals from the earth and prepare
minerals for use by manufacturing
industries. They design the layouts
of mines, supervise the construction
of mine shafts and tunnels in under­
ground operations, and devise
methods of transporting extracted
minerals to processing plants. Min­
ing engineers are responsible for the
efficient operation of mines and
mine safety, including ventilation,
water supply, power, communica­
tions, and maintenance of equip­
ment. Some mining engineers work
with geologists and metallurgical
engineers to locate and appraise
new ore deposits. Others develop
new mining equipment and devise
improved methods to process ex­
tracted minerals.
Mining engineers frequently spe­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
mining engineers are expected to be
favorable through the 1970’s. The
number of new graduates in mining
engineering entering the industry is
expected to be fewer than the num­
ber needed to provide for the antici­
pated growth in requirements and to
replace those who retire, transfer to
other fields of work, or die.
Exploration for minerals is in­
creasing, both in the United States
and in other parts of the world. Eas­
ily mined deposits are being de­
pleted, creating a growing need for
engineers to mine newly discovered


mineral deposits and to devise more
efficient methods for mining lowgrade ores. Additional employment
opportunities for mining engineers
will arise as new alloys and new
uses for metals increase the demand
for less widely used ores. Recovery
of metals from the sea and the de­


velopment of recently discovered oil
shale deposits could present major
challenges to the mining engineer.
(See introductory section to chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. See also chap­
ter on Mining.)

Sources of Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of
the American Institute of Mining,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engi­
neers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.


Almost everyone knows some­
thing about the professional services
provided by doctors, dentists, and
pharmacists. Many also have some
firsthand knowledge of the duties
performed by nurses, attendants,
and other workers who take care of
patients in hospitals. Less well
known, but also of great importance
to the public health, is the work of
large numbers of workers employed
behind the scenes in other health
service occupations, such as labora­
tory or X-ray technician. Alto­
gether, more than 3.5 million peo­
ple were employed in health related
occupations in 1970. Employment
in this field has increased rapidly in
recent years.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists,
and dentists constituted the largest
professional health occupations in
1970, and ranged from 103,000
dentists to 700,000 registered
nurses. Other professional health
occupations are dietitian, veteri­
narian, optometrist, chiropractor,
osteopathic physician, and hospital
administrator. Other health service
workers include technicians of vari­
ous types, such as medical technolo­
gist, medical X-ray technician, den­
tal hygienist, and dental laboratory
technician. Large numbers— 1.2
million—worked as practical nurses
and auxiliary nursing workers, in­
cluding orderlies, nursing aids, hos­
pital attendants, and psychiatric as­
Workers in the health field are
employed in hospitals, clinics, labo­
homes, industrial plants, public
health agencies, mental health cen­
ters, private offices, and patients’
homes. Those employed in health
occupations work mainly in the

more heavily populated and pros­
perous sections of the Nation.
Many women are employed in
the health field. Nursing, the largest
of the major health service occupa­
tions, is second only to teaching as a
field of professional employment for
women. Other health service occu­
pations in which women predomi­
nate are practical nurse, radiologic
technologist, medical technologist,
dietitian, physical therapist, occupa­
tional therapist, speech pathologist
and audiologist, dental hygienist,
dental assistant, and medical record
librarian. On the other hand, most
dentists, optometrists, physicians,
veterinarians, pharmacists, hospital
administrators, and sanitarians are
The educational and other re­
quirements for work in the health
field are as diverse as the health
occupations themselves. For exam­
ple, professional health workers—
physicians, dentists, pharmacists,
and others—must complete a num­
ber of years of preprofessional and
professional college education and
pass a State licensing examination.
On the other hand, some health
service occupations can be entered
with little specialized training.
A continued rapid expansion of
employment in the health field is
expected through the 1970’s, al­
though the rates of growth will dif­
fer considerably among individual
health occupations. The factors that
are expected to contribute to an in­
crease in the demand for health
care are the following: The coun­
try’s expanding population; rising
standards of living; increasing
health consciousness; growth of
coverage under prepayment pro­
grams for hospitalization and medi­
cal care, including Medicare; rapid

expansion of expenditures for medi­
cal research; and increasing expend­
itures by Federal, State, and local
governments for health care and
services. In addition, many new
workers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or—
particularly for women—leave the
field for other reasons. Thus, many
opportunities will be available for
employment in the health services.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

Nature of the Work

Physicians diagnose diseases and
treat people who are in poor health.
In addition, they are concerned with
preventive medicine and with the
rehabilitation of people who are in­
jured or ill.
Physicians generally examine and
treat patients in their own offices
and in hospitals, but they also visit
patients at home when necessary.
Some physicians combine the prac­
tice of medicine with research or
teaching in medical schools. Others
hold full-time research or teaching
positions or perform administrative
work in hospitals, professional asso­
ciations, and other organizations. A
few are primarily engaged in writing
and editing medical books and mag­
In 1970, one-fifth of the physi­
cians providing patient care were
general practitioners; the others
specialized in 1 of the 33 fields
recognized by the medical profes­
sion. In recent years, the trend has
been toward specialization. Among
the largest specialties are internal
medicine, general surgery, obstetrics
and gynecology, psychiatry, pedia­
trics, radiology, anesthesiology, oph77



thalmology, pathology, and ortho­
pedic surgery.

Places of Employment

More than 305,000 physicians—
of whom 7 percent were women—
were professionally active in the
United States in 1970. About 90
percent were primarily engaged in
providing patient care services.
More than 190,000, or 7 out of 10
of these, were in office based prac­
tice; nearly 83,000 were interns,
residents, or full-time staff in hospi­
tals. Nearly 32,000 physicians
were working primarily in activities
other than providing patient care
services such as medical teaching,
administration, and research.
In 1970, about 40 percent of all
nonfederal physicians were in New
York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, and Ohio. In general, the
Northeastern States have the highest
ratio of physicians to population and
the Southern States, the lowest. Gen­
eral practitioners are much more
widely distributed geographically

tain a license to practice in another
without further examination, some
States limit this reciprocity.
In 1970, there were 92 approved
schools in the United States in
which students could begin the
study of medicine. Eighty-six
awarded the degree of Doctor of
Medicine (M.D.) to those complet­
ing the 4-year course; 6 offered 2year programs in the basic medical
sciences to students who could then
transfer to regular medical schools
for the last 2 years of study. Eight
additional new schools were enroll­
ing medical students, but had not
yet graduated a class. Because the
number of people applying to medi­
cal schools exceeds the beginning
enrollment capacity, preference is
given to the most highly qualified
than specialists, who tend to be con­
centrated in large cities.
Most medical schools require ap­
plicants to have completed at least 3
years of college education for admis­
Training and Other Qualifications
sion to their regular programs, and
A license to practice medicine is some require 4 years. A few medi­
required in all States and the Dis­ cal schools allow selected students
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a having exceptional qualifications to
license, a candidate must graduate begin their professional study after
from an approved medical school, completing 2 years of college. The
pass a licensing examination, and great majority of students entering
—in 33 States and the District of medical schools have a bachelor’s
Columbia—serve a 1-year hospital degree.
internship. As of 1970, 16 States
Premedical study must include
permitted a candidate to take the undergraduate courses in English,
medical licensing examination upon physics, biology, and inorganic and
graduation from medical school. organic chemistry in an accredited
Eleven States and the District of college. Students should acquire a
Columbia require candidates to pass broad general education by taking
a special examination in the basic courses in the humanities, mathe­
sciences to become eligible for the matics, and the social sciences.
medical licensing examination.
Other factors considered by medical
Licensing examinations are given schools in selecting students include
by State boards. The National the individual’s college record; and
Board of Medical Examiners also his scores on the Medical College
gives an examination which is ac­ Admission Test, which is taken by
cepted by 47 States and the District almost all applicants. Consideration
of Columbia as a substitute for State also is given to the applicant’s char­
examinations. Although physicians acter, personality, and leadership
licensed in one State usually can ob­ qualities, as shown by personal in-



terviews, letters of recommendation,
and extracurricular activities in col­
lege. In addition, many State-sup­
ported medical schools give prefer­
ence to residents of their particular
States and, sometimes, those of
nearby States.
The first 2 years of medical
school training generally are spent
primarily in laboratories and class­
rooms, learning basic medical sci­
ences, such as anatomy, biochemis­
try, physiology, pharmacology, mi­
crobiology, and pathology. During
the last 2 years, students spend
most of their time in hospitals and
clinics under the supervision of ex­
perienced physicians. They learn to
take case histories, perform exami­
nations, and recognize diseases.
New physicians increasingly are
acquiring training beyond the 1year hospital internship. Those who
plan to be general practitioners
often spend an additional year or
two as interns or residents in a hos­
pital. To become certified special­
ists, physicians must pass specialty
board examinations. To qualify for
these examinations, they must
spend from 2 to 4 years—depend­
ing on the specialty—in advanced
hospital training as residents, fol­
lowed by 2 years or more of prac­
tice in the specialty. Some doctors
interested in teaching and research
take graduate work leading to the
master’s or Ph. D. degree in a field
such as biochemistry or microbiol­
Many graduates of foreign med­
ical schools serve as hospital interns
and residents in this country. In
1970, this group numbered about
16,000 including citizens of foreign
countries as well as U.S. citizens.
To be appointed to approved intern­
ships or residencies in U.S. hospitals,
however, these graduates (citizens
of foreign countries as well as U.S.
citizens) must pass the American

Medical Qualification Examination
given by the Educational Council
for Foreign Medical Graduates.
Medical training is very costly
because of the long time required to
earn the medical degree. However,
the Health Professions Educational
Assistance Act of 1963, as
amended, provides Federal funds
for loans and scholarships of up to
$2,500 a year to help needy stu­
dents pursue full-time study leading
to the degree of Doctor of Medi­
Persons considering entering the
medical profession must have a
strong desire to serve the sick and
injured. They must be willing to
study a great deal to keep up with
the latest advances in medical sci­
ence. Besides being one of the most
exacting sciences, medicine demands
that practitioners strictly adhere to
high moral standards subscribed to
by the profession, law, and tradi­
tion. Sincerity and a pleasant per­
sonality are assets which help
physicians gain the confidence of
patients. In addition, prospective
physicians should be emotionally
stable and able to make decisions in
The majority of newly qualified
physicians open their own offices.
Those who have completed their in­
ternships and enter active military
duty initially serve as captains in the
Army or Air Force or as lieutenants
in the Navy. Graduates of accred­
ited medical schools are eligible for
commissions as senior assistant sur­
geons (equivalent to lieutenants in
the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health
Service, as well as for Federal Civil
Service professional medical posi­
Employment Outlook

Excellent opportunities are antic­
ipated for physicians through the

1970’s. Because the number of new
physicians being trained is restricted
by the present limited capacity of
medical schools, the employment of
physicians is expected to grow only
moderately, despite a steady in­
crease in the demand for their serv­
ices. However, some expansion in
medical school facilities is expected
because of recent Federal legisla­
tion which provides Federal funds
to assist in the construction of new
training facilities for physicians.
Nonetheless, any increase in the sup­
ply of physicians resulting from the
implementation of this legislation
may not be significant until the late
Increased demand for physicians’
services will result from factors such
as the anticipated population growth,
including rising numbers of older
persons—the group requiring exten­
sive physicians’ services; the in­
creasing health consciousness of
the public; and the trend toward
higher standards of medical care.
The demand for physicians also will
increase because of the extension of
prepayment programs for hospital­
ization and medical care, including
Medicare and Medicaid; continued
Federal Government provision of
medical care for members of the
Armed Forces, their families, and
veterans; and the continuing growth
in the fields of public health, reha­
bilitation, industrial medicine, and
mental health. In addition, more
physicians will be needed for medi­
cal research and to teach in medical
In addition to those needed to fill
new openings, many newly trained
doctors will be required to replace
those who retire or die.
To some extent, the rise in the
demand for physicians’ services will
be offset by developments that are
enabling physicians to care for more
patients. For example, increasing


numbers of medical technicians are
assisting physicians; new drugs and
new medical techniques are short­
ening illnesses; and growing num­
bers of physicians are able to use
their time more effectively by en­
gaging in group practice. In addi­
tion, fewer house calls are being
made by physicians because of the
growing tendency to treat patients
in hospitals and physicians’ offices.
However, these developments are
not expected to offset the overall
need for more physicians.

Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as interns
in 1970 had an average annual sal­
ary of $7,045 in hospitals affiliated
with medical schools and $7,435 in
other hospitals. Residents during
1970 earned average annual salaries
of $8,250 in hospitals affiliated with
medical schools and $8,750 in nonaffiliated hospitals, according to the
American Medical Association.
Many hospitals also provided full or
partial room, board, and other
maintenance allowances to their in­
terns and residents.
Graduates employed by the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 could ex­
pect to receive an annual starting
salary of about $15,200 if they had
completed their internship, and
about $17,800 if they had com­
pleted 1 year of residency or dem­
onstrated superior achievement dur­
ing their internship.
Newly qualified physicians who
establish their own practice must
make a sizable financial investment
to equip a modern office. It is esti­
mated that during the first year or
two of independent practice, physi­
cians probably earn little more than
the minimum needed to pay the ex­
penses for maintaining their offices.
As a rule, however, their earnings


rise rapidly as their practice devel­
The net income of physicians
providing patient care services was
generally between $34,000 and
$39,000 in 1970, according to the
limited information available. Earn­
ings of physicians depend on factors
such as the region of the country in
which they practice; the patients’
income level; and the physician’s
skill, personality, and professional
reputation, as well as his length of
experience. Self-employed physi­
cians usually earn more than those
in salaried positions, and specialists
usually earn considerably more than
general practitioners. Many physi­
cians have long working days and
irregular hours. Most specialists
work fewer hours each week than
general practitioners. As doctors
grow older, they may not accept new
patients and tend to work fewer
hours. However, many continue in
practice well beyond 70 years of age.
Sources of Additional Information

Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of medical ex­
aminers of that State. Lists of ap­
proved medical schools, as well as
general information on premedical
education and medicine as a career,
may be obtained from:
Council on Medical Education,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago,
111. 60610.
Association of American Medical
Colleges, One Dupont Circle NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 071.108)

Nature of the Work

Osteopathic physicians diagnose,
prescribe remedies, and treat dis­
eases of the human body. They pay
particular attention to impairments
in the musculoskeletal system. They
emphasize manual manipulative
therapy, but in most States, they
also use surgery, drugs, and all
other accepted methods of medical
care. Most osteopathic physicians
are “family doctors” who engage in
general practice. These physicians
usually see patients in their offices,
make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and some city and
county hospitals. A few doctors of
osteopathy are engaged primarily in
research, teaching, or writing and
editing scientific books and journals.
In recent years, there has been an
increase in specialization. The spe­
cialties include: Internal medicine,
neurology and psychiatry, ophthal­
mology and otorhinolaryngology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physical
medicine and rehabilitation, derma­
tology, obstetrics and gynecology,
pathology, proctology, radiology,
and surgery.

Places of Employment

About 13,500 osteopathic physi­
cians were practicing in the United
States in 1970; approximately 7
percent were women. Nearly all of
them were in private practice. Less
than 5 percent had full-time salaried
positions, mainly in osteopathic hos­
pitals and colleges. A few were em­
ployed by private industry or gov­
ernment agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are lo­



cated chiefly in those States which
have osteopathic hospital facilities.
In 1970, about half of all osteo­
pathic physicians were in Michigan,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Missouri, and
Texas. Twenty-three States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer
than 50 osteopathic physicians.
More than half of all general practi­
tioners are located in towns and cit­
ies having less than 50,000 people;
specialists, however, practice mainly
in large cities.

Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice as an osteo­
pathic physician is required in all
States. In 1970, licensed osteopathic
physicians were qualified to engage
in all types of medical and surgical
practice in 48 States and the District
of Columbia. The remaining States
limit in varying degrees the use of
drugs or the type of surgery that can
be performed by osteopathic physi­
To obtain a license, a candidate
must be a graduate of an approved
school of osteopathy and pass a
State board examination. In 21
States and the District of Columbia,
the candidate must pass an exami­
nation in the basic sciences before
he is eligible to take the profes­
sional examination; 29 States and
the District of Columbia also re­
quire a period of internship in an
approved hospital after graduation
from an osteopathic school. All
States except Alaska, California,
Florida, and Mississippi grant licen­
ses without further examination to
properly qualified osteopathic phy­
sicians already licensed by another
Although 3 years of preosteopathic college work is the minimum
requirement for entry to schools of
osteopathy, 4 years is preferred. Os­

teopathic colleges require successful
completion of 4 years of profes­
sional study for the degree of Doc­
tor of Osteopathy (D.O.) Preosteopathic education must include
courses in chemistry, physics, biol­
ogy, and English. During the first 2
years of professional training, em­
phasis is placed on basic sciences
such as anatomy, physiology, pa­
thology and on the principles of os­
teopathy; the last 2 years are de­
voted largely to work with patients
in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doc­
tors of osteopathy serve a 12-month
internship at 1 of the 80 osteopathic
hospitals which the American Os­
teopathic Association has approved
for intern training. Those who wish
to become specialists must have 3 to
5 years of additional training, fol­
lowed by 2 years of supervised
practice in the specialty.
The osteopathic physician’s train­
ing is very costly because of the
length of time it takes to earn the
degree of Doctor of Osteopathy.
However, the Health Professions
Educational Assistance Act of
1963, as amended, provides Federal
funds for loans and scholarships of
up to $2,500 a year to help needy
students pursue full-time study lead­
ing to the degree.
Every year, more young people
apply for admission to the 7 ap­
proved schools of osteopathy than
can be accepted. In selecting stu­
dents, these colleges consider grades
received in preprofessional educa­
tion, scores on medical aptitude
tests, and the amount of preosteopathic college work completed. In
1970, over 90 percent of the stu­
dents entering osteopathic colleges
had bachelor’s degrees. The appli­
cant’s desire to serve as an osteo­
pathic physician rather than as a
doctor trained in other fields of
medicine is a very important qualifi­

cation. The colleges also give con­
siderable weight to a favorable rec­
ommendation by an osteopathic
physician familiar with the appli­
cant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of oste­
opathy usually establish their own
practice. A few work as assistants to
experienced physicians or become
associated with osteopathic hospi­
tals. In view of the variation in State
laws regulating the practice of oste­
opathy, persons wishing to become
osteopathic physicians should study
carefully the professional and legal
requirements of the State in which
they plan to practice. The availabil­
ity of osteopathic hospitals and clin­
ical facilities also should be consid­
ered when choosing a location.
Persons desiring to become os­
teopathic physicians must have a
strong desire to practice osteopathic
principles of healing. They should
have a keen sense of touch, emo­
tional stability, self-confidence, and
perseverance. A pleasant personal­
ity, friendliness, patience, and the
ability to deal with people are im­

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic
physicians are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. Greatest
demand for their services probably
will continue to be in States where
osteopathy is a widely accepted
method of treatment, such as Penn­
sylvania and a number of Midwest­
ern States. Generally, prospects for
beginning a successful practice are
likely to be best in rural areas, small
towns, and city suburbs, where the
young doctor of osteopathy may en­
counter less competition and there­
fore establish his professional repu­
tation more easily than in the cen­
ters of large cities.


The demand for the services of
osteopathic physicians is expected
to grow through the 1970’s because
of factors such as the anticipated
population growth, the extension of
prepayment programs for hospital­
ization and medical care including
Medicare and Medicaid, and the
trend toward higher standards of
health care. Furthermore, there is a
likelihood of greater public accept­
ance of osteopathy, liberalization of
certain State restrictions on the use
of drugs and surgery by osteopathic
physicians, and the establishment of
additional osteopathic hospitals.
Despite the expected growth in
demand, the employment of osteo­
pathic physicians is expected to in­
crease only moderately because the
number of new osteopathic physi­
cians being trained is restricted by
the limited capacity of osteopathic
colleges. Approximately half of all
graduates expected each year
through the 1970’s probably will be
needed to replace osteopathic physi­
cians who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons; hence
the number of new graduates will be
barely sufficient to maintain the
present ratio of osteopathic physi­
cians to population. Although some
expansion in osteopathic college
facilities is anticipated because of
recent Federal legislation, which
provides Federal funds to assist in
the construction of new teaching
facilities for osteopathic physicians,
no significant increase in graduates
is expected through the 1970’s.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In osteopathy, as in many of the
other health professions, incomes
usually rise markedly after the first
few years of practice. Earnings of
individual practitioners are deter­
mined mainly by such factors as


ability, experience, the income level
of the community served, and geo­
graphic location. The average in­
come above business expenses of
general practitioners, in 1970,
ranged from $25,000 to $30,000,
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Specialists usually had higher
incomes than general practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians
work more than 50 or 60 hours a
week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular
hours than specialists.
Sources of Additional Information

Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of examiners
of that State. A list of State boards,
as well as general information on
osteopathy as a career, may be ob­
tained from:
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 072.108)

Dentists examine teeth and other
tissues of the mouth to diagnose dis­
eases or abnormalities. They take
X-rays where necessary, fill cavities
in the teeth, straighten teeth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists extract
teeth and substitute artificial den­
tures especially designed for the in­
dividual patient. They also perform
corrective surgery of the gums and
supporting bones. In addition, they
may clean teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time

with patients, but may devote some
time to laboratory work such as
making dentures and inlays. Many
dentists, however—particularly in
large cities—send most of their lab­
oratory work to commercial firms.
Some dentists also employ dental
hygienists to clean patients’ teeth
and for other duties. (See statement
on Dental Hygienists.) They also
may employ other assistants who
perform office work and assist in
“chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general practi­
tioners who provide many types of
dental care; approximately 9 per­
cent are specialists. Nearly half of
these specialists are orthodontists,
who straighten teeth. The next
larger number, oral surgeons, oper­
ate in the mouth and jaws. The re­
mainder specialize in pedodontics
(dentistry for children); periodontology (treating the tissues that sup­
port the teeth); prosthodontics
(making artificial teeth or den­
tures); endodontics (root canal
therapy); public health dentistry;
and oral pathology (diseases of the
About 3 percent of all dentists
are employed primarily in work that
does not involve “chairside” prac­
tice, such as teaching, research, and
administration. Many dentists in
private practice, however, do this
work on a part-time basis.

Places of Employment

Approximately 103,000 dentists
were at work in the United States in
1970. About 9 of every 10 were in
private practice. Of the remainder,
about 6,500 served as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces;
about 1,300 had other types of Fed­
eral Government positions—chiefly
in the hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the


Public Health Service; and some
3,500 held full-time positions in
schools, hospitals, or State and local
health agencies. Women dentists
represented only about 1 to 2 per­
cent of the profession.
Dentists tend to be concentrated
in large cities and in populous
States. In early 1970, about a third
of all dentists were located in New
York, California, Pennsylvania, and


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license to practice dentistry is
required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must be a grad­
uate of an approved dental school
and pass a State board examination.
In 1970, 48 States and the District
of Columbia recognized the exami­
nation given by the National Board
of Dental Examiners as a substitute
for the written part of the State
board examinations. One State,
Delaware, also requires new gradu­

ates to serve 1 year of hospital in­
ternship. Most State licenses permit
dentists to engage in both general
and specialized practice. In 13
States, however, a dentist cannot be
licensed as a “specialist” unless he
has 2 or 3 years of graduate educa­
tion, and several years of special­
ized experience, and passes a spe­
cial State examination. Few States
permit dentists licensed in other
States to practice in their jurisdic­
tions without further examination.
Ordinarily, the minimum educa­
tion requirements for graduation
from an approved dental school is 2
years of predental college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional
dental school training; 23 of the 53
dental schools in operation in the
United States in 1970 required 3
years of predental study. Predental
education must include courses in
sciences and the humanities.
In dental college, the first 2 years
are usually devoted to classroom in­
struction and laboratory work in
basic sciences such as anatomy, mi­
crobiology, and physiology. The last
2 years are spent chiefly in the
school’s dental clinic, treating pa­
tients. The degree of Doctor of
Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) is awarded
by most dental colleges. An equiva­
lent degree, Doctor of Dental Medi­
cine (D.M.D.) is conferred by 13
Competition is keen for admit­
tance to dental schools. In selecting
students, schools give considerable
weight to college grades and amount
of college education; more than half
the students enrolling in dental
schools have bachelor’s degrees. In
addition, all dental schools partici­
pate in a nationwide admission test­
ing program, and scores earned on
these tests are considered along
with information gathered about the
applicant through recommendations
and interviews. Many State-sup­



ported dental schools also give pref­
erence to residents of their particu­
lar States.
Dentists interested in research, in
teaching, or in becoming specialists
must complete advanced dental pro­
grams operated by dental schools,
hospitals, and other institutions of
higher education. These programs
last 2 to 4 years.
Dental education is very costly
because of the length of time re­
quired to earn the dental degree.
However, the Health Professions
Educational Assistance Act of
1963, as amended, provides Federal
funds for loans and scholarships of
up to $2,500 a year to help needy
students pursue full-time study lead­
ing to the degree.
The profession of dentistry re­
quires both manual skills and a high
level of intelligence. Dentists should
have good visual memory, excellent
judgment of space and shape, deli­
cacy of touch, and a high degree of
manual dexterity, as well as scien­
tific ability. The ability to instill
confidence, self-discipline, and a
good business sense are helpful in
achieving success in private prac­
The majority of newly qualified
dentists open their own offices or
established practices.
Some start in practice with estab­
lished dentists, to gain experience
and to save the money required to
equip an office; others may enter
residency or internship training pro­
grams in approved hospitals. Den­
tists entering the Armed Forces are
commissioned as captains in the
Army and Air Force and as lieuten­
ants in the Navy. Graduates of rec­
ognized dental schools are eligible
for Federal Civil Service positions
and for commissions (equivalent to
lieutenants in the Navy) in the U.S.
Public Health Service.

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for dentists are ex­
pected to be very good through the
1970’s. The demand for dental serv­
ices is expected to increase along
with an expanding population; in­
creased awareness that regular den­
tal care helps prevent and control
dental diseases; and the develop­
ment of prepayment arrangements
which make it easier for people of
moderate means to obtain dental
service. An increasing number of
needy persons are expected to re­
ceive dental care services under
Medicaid programs in various
States. Expanded dental research
activities will require more trained
personnel; dental public health pro­
grams will need qualified adminis­
trators; and dental colleges will
need additional faculty members.
Many dentists will continue to serve
in the Armed Forces.
Improved dental hygiene and
fluoridation of community water
supplies may prevent some tooth
and gum disorders, but such meas­
ures—by preserving teeth that
might otherwise be extracted—may
tend to increase rather than decrease
the demand for dental care. Other
new techniques, equipment, and
drugs, as well as the more extensive
use of dental hygienists, assistants,
and laboratory technicians may
permit individual dentists to care for
more patients. However, these de­
velopments are not expected to
offset the need for more dentists.
Newly trained dentists will be
needed not only to fill new open­
ings, but also to replace dentists
who retire or die.
Despite the favorable outlook for
dentists, the number of men and
women who will be able to enter
this field will be restricted by the
present limited capacity of dental
schools. However, opportunities to

obtain dental training are expected
to increase because of recent Fed­
eral legislation which provides Fed­
eral funds to assist in the construc­
tion of additional training facilities
for dentists.

Earnings and Working Conditions

During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
more than the minimum needed to
cover expenses, but their earnings
usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn
considerably more than general
practitioners. The average income
of dentists in 1970 was about
$29,000 a year, according to limited
information available. In the Fed­
eral Government, new graduates of
dental schools could expect to re­
ceive starting yearly salaries, de­
pending on college records and
other qualifications, ranging from
$11,905 to $14,192.
Location is one of the major fac­
tors affecting the income of dentists
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas
dental services are in great demand;
however, a practice can be devel­
oped most quickly in small towns
where new dentists easily become
known and where there may be less
competition with established practi­
tioners. Although the income from
practice in small towns may rise
rapidly at first, over the long run
the level of earnings, like the cost
of living, may be lower than that in
larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists have
evening hours. Dentists usually
work between 40 and 45 hours a
week, although many spend more
than 50 hours a week in the office.
Dentists often work fewer hours as
they grow older, and a considerable



number continue in part-time prac­
tice well beyond the usual retire­
ment age.
Sources of Additional Information

People wishing to practice in a
given State should get the require­
ments for licensure from the board
of dental examiners of that State.
Lists of State boards and of accred­
ited dental schools, as well as in­
formation on dentistry as a career,
may be obtained from:
American Dental Association, Coun­
cil on Dental Education, 211 East
Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental
Schools, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

(D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of the Work

Dental hygienists work under the
supervision of a dentist. They re­
move deposits and stains from the
teeth and apply prescribed medica­
ments to teeth for the control of
dental decay. While performing this
work (oral prophylaxis), dental hy­
gienists take and record medical
and dental histories, prepare diag­
nostic tests for interpretation by the
dentist, and chart conditions of
decay and disease for diagnosis by
the dentist. They take and develop
dental X-ray films, sterilize instru­
ments, and maintain patient rec­
ords. They also may mix filling
compounds and act as chairside as­
sistants to dentists. Hygienists teach
people the techniques of mouth care
and proper diet.

Dental hygienists working in
school systems promote dental
health by examining children’s
teeth, assisting dentists in determin­
ing the dental treatment needed,
and reporting their findings to par­
ents. They also perform oral pro­
phylaxes and give instruction on
correct care and brushing of teeth.
Some help to develop classroom
projects or assembly programs on
oral health. Dental hygienists em­
ployed by health agencies work on
dental health projects or perform
clinical duties. A few assist in re­
search projects. Those having ad­
vanced training may teach in
schools of dental hygiene.

Places of Employment

Approximately 16,000 dental hy­
gienists were employed in 1970;
most of them were women. Many
work part time. Most were em­
ployed in private dental offices.
Others worked for public health
agencies, school systems, industrial
plants, clinics, hospitals, and dental
hygiene schools. Some worked as ci­
vilian employees of the Armed

Training and Other Qualifications

Dental hygienists must pass an
examination to be licensed by the
State in which they wish to practice.


In all States except Alabama, eligi­
bility for a license is limited to grad­
uates of accredited dental hygiene
schools. In 1970, candidates in 48
States and the District of Columbia
could complete part of the State li­
censing requirements by passing a
written examination given by the
National Board of Dental Examin­
ers. Upon being licensed, a hygien­
ist becomes a Registered Dental
Hygienist (R.D.H.). In order to
practice in a different State, a li­
censed dental hygienist must pass
that State’s examination.
In 1970, more than 100 schools
of dental hygiene in the United
States were accredited or provision­
ally accredited by the Council on
Dental Education of the American
Dental Association. Most of these
schools provide a 2-year certificate
or associate degree program. Some
have 4-year programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in dental hygiene
and others offer both programs.
Programs leading to a master’s de­
gree are offered in five schools.
For dental hygienists interested in
practicing in a private dental office,
completion of the 2-year program
generally is sufficient. In order to
work in research, teaching, and in
public or school health programs,
the completion of a 4-year program
usually is required.
The minimum requirement for
admission to a school of dental hy­
giene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which offer
the bachelor’s degree admit students
to the dental hygiene program only
after they have completed 2 years
of college. Many schools also re­
quire that applicants take aptitude
tests conducted by the American
Dental Hygienists’ Association.
The curriculum at a school of
dental hygiene consists of courses in
the basic sciences, dental sciences,
and liberal arts. These schools offer


laboratory work, clinical experi­
ence, and classroom instruction in
subjects such as anatomy, chemis­
try, histology, pathology, pharma­
cology, and nutrition.
Young persons planning careers
as dental hygienists should enjoy
working with people. The ability to
put patients at ease in an uncom­
fortable situation is helpful. Other
important qualities include personal
neatness and cleanliness, manual
dexterity, and good health.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
dental hygienists are expected to be
very good through the 1970’s. De­
spite an anticipated rise in the num­
ber of graduates from schools of
dental hygiene, the demand is ex­
pected to be greater than the num­
ber available for employment.
The demand for hygienists is ex­
pected to increase as a result of the
expanding population and the grow­
ing awareness of the importance of
regular dental care. Increased par­
ticipation in dental prepayment
plans and more group practice
among dentists will result in new
jobs for dental hygienists. Increas­
ing interest in dental care programs
for children also may lead to more
employment opportunities in this
field. In addition, a great number of
job openings will be created by
young women leaving their jobs for
marriage and family responsibilities.
Mature women who wish to re­
turn to the field, and those who de­
sire part-time positions, can expect
to find very good opportunities for
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of dental hygienists are
affected by the type of employer,

education and experience of the in­
dividual hygienist, and the area
where the job is located. Dental hy­
gienists working in private dental
offices usually are salaried em­
ployees, although some are paid a
commission for work performed or
a combination of salary and com­
mission. Those employed in re­
search, administrative, supervisory,
or teaching positions generally earn
higher salaries.
Salaries of dental hygienists who
were graduates of 2-year training
programs averaged about $6,000 to
$7,000 a year in 1970; graduates of
4-year baccalaureate programs av­
eraged $7,000 to $8,000. The an­
nual beginning salary for a dental
hygienist employed by the Federal
Government was either $5,853 or
$6,548 in late 1970, depending on
education and experience.
Dental hygienists employed full
time in private offices usually work
between 35 and 40 hours a week.
They may work on Saturdays or
during evening hours. Some hygien­
ists work for two or more dentists.
Although most dental hygienists
are employed in clean, well-lighted
offices, their work may force them
to stand for long periods of time.
Important health protections for
persons in this occupation are regu­
lar medical checkups and strict ad­
herence to established procedures
for using X-ray equipment and for
A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks
is common among hygienists who
work full time in dental offices.
Dental hygienists employed by
school systems, health agencies, and
the Federal or State governments
have the same hours, vacation, sick
leave, retirement, and health insur­
ance benefits as other workers in
these organizations.



Sources of Additional Information

Information about approved
schools and the educational require­
ments needed to enter this occupa­
tion may be obtained from:
Division of Educational Services,
American Dental Hygienists Asso­
ciation, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Other material on opportunities
for dental hygienists is available
Division of Dental Health, Public
Health Service, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare, Washington, D.C. 20201.

Information concerning licensing
requirements can be obtained from
the State Board of Dental Examin­
ers in each State, or from National
Board of Dental Examiners, 211
East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work

Dental assistants work with den­
tists as they examine and treat pa­
tients. The assistant makes the pa­
tient comfortable in the dental
chair, prepares him for treatment,
and obtains his dental records. As
the dentist works, the assistant
hands the proper instruments and
materials to him and keeps the pa­
tient’s mouth clear by using suction
or other devices. The dental assist­
ant may prepare impression and
restorative materials for the den­
tists’ use. She also may expose and
process dental X-ray film as di­
rected by the dentist. In addition,

she sterilizes and cares for dental
Although dental assistants spend
most of their time at chairside, they
also perform a variety of other du­
ties. Some perform simple technical
work in the office laboratory such as
making casts of the teeth and mouth
from impressions taken by the den­
tist. These casts are used to make
prosthetic devices. Some manage
the office, and may arrange and
confirm appoints, receive patients,
keep treatment records, send state­
ments and receive payment, and
order dental supplies and materials.
The work of the dental assistant
should not be confused with that of
the dental hygienist. Dental assist­
ants, for instance, do not perform
work in the patient’s mouth, such as
oral prophylaxis (scaling and
cleaning the teeth); this is done by

hygienists. (See statement on “Den­
tal Hygienists.” )

Places of Employment

Nearly 91,000 persons were em­
ployed as dental assistants in 1970;
practically all were women. About
1 out of 6 assistants were em­
ployed part-time.
Most dental assistants worked in
private dental offices, either for in­
dividual dentists or for groups of
dentists. Many of the remainder
were employed in dental schools,
hospital dental departments, State
and local public health departments,
or private clinics.
The Federal Government em­
ployed about 1,850 dental assistants
in 1970 chiefly in the Public Health


Service, the Veterans Administra­
tion, and the Department of the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most dental assistants employed
in 1970 learned their skill on the
job. An increasing number of dental
assistants, however, are entering the
occupation through formal post high
school dental assisting programs.
About 170 such programs were ac­
credited by the Council on Dental
Education of the American Dental
Association (ADA) in mid-1970.
Some of these were supported
under Federal legislation, including
the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1962, the Voca­
tional Education Act of 1963 and
the Allied Health Professions Per­
sonnel Training Act of 1966.
Most post high school courses in
dental assisting are given in junior
and community colleges or in voca­
tional or technical schools. More
than two-thirds of these programs
provide a full academic year of
training leading to a certificate or
diploma. Graduates of 2-year pro­
grams—offered only in junior and
community colleges—earn an asso­
ciate degree upon completion of
specialized training and 1 year of
liberal arts courses. A few schools
provide both 1- and 2-year pro­
grams. Completion of high school or
its equivalent is the standard admis­
sion requirement of all the ap­
proved schools that offer courses in
dental assisting. Some schools also
may require typing or a science or
business course.
Approved dental assisting curriculums include instruction in both
skills and related theory—in labora­
tory and classroom—and usually a
general occupational orientation.


Trainees receive practical experi­
ence in an affiliated dental school,
in local clinical facilities, or in se­
lected dental offices.
A correspondence course ap­
proved by the American Dental As­
sociation is available for employed
dental assistants who are learning
on the job, or who otherwise are
unable to participate in regular den­
tal assisting programs on a full-time
basis. The correspondence program
is equivalent to 1 academic year of
study but generally requires about 2
years to complete. Some proprietary
schools also offer a 4- to 6-month
course in dental assisting, but these
are not accredited by the dental
Graduates of dental assisting pro­
grams approved by the American
Dental Association, who success­
fully complete an examination ad­
ministered by the Certifying Board
of the American Dental Assistants
Association and who meet certain
experience requirements, may be­
come Certified Dental Assistants.
Certification is acknowledgment of
an assistant’s qualifications but is
not a general prerequisite for em­
After working 1 or 2 years, den­
tal assistants sometimes seek to fur­
ther their skills by becoming dental
hygienists. Prospective dental assist­
ants who forsee this possibility
should plan carefully, since credit
earned in a dental assistant program
usually is not applicable toward re­
quirements for a dental hygiene cer­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
dental assistants are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s, espe­
cially for graduates of academic
programs in dental assisting. Part­

time opportunities also will be very
Growing awareness of the impor­
tance of regular dental care and the
increasing ability of persons to pay
for care are among the factors un­
derlying an anticipated rapid growth
in the demand for the services of
dental assistants. Other factors af­
fecting demand are an increased
participation in dental prepayment
plans, and the expansion of public
programs such as Medicaid and
Head Start, which extend dental
care services to the disadvantaged.
Another important factor in the
growing need for more dental assist­
ants is the slow increase in the sup­
ply of dentists in proportion to pop­
ulation growth, resulting in the
greater use of auxiliary workers.
In addition to the rapid growth of
the occupation, many assistants also
will be needed each year to replace
the large number of women who
leave the field for marriage and
family responsibilities.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Weekly salaries of assistants em­
ployed in private dental offices
ranged from $75 to $150 in 1970
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Salary depends largely on the
assistant’s education and experi­
ence, the duties and responsibilities
attached to the particular job, and
the part of the country in which the
job is located.
In the Federal Government, ex­
perience and the amount and type
of education govern entrance sala­
ries. In 1970, a person who had 6
months’ related experience started
at $5,212 a year; graduates of an
ADA-approved 1-year training pro­
gram who had an additional year of
general experience could expect to
start at $5,853 a year.



Although the 40-hour workweek
prevails for dental assistants, the
schedule is likely to include work on
Saturday. A 2- or 3-week paid va­
cation is common. Sick leave and
other benefits are dependent on the
individual dentist. Dental assistants
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment receive the same employee
benefits as other workers.
Dental assistants generally work
in a well-lighted, clean environment.
They must exercise caution in han­
dling X-ray and other equipment,
where strict adherence to proper
procedure is indispensable for
Sources of Additional Information

Information about career oppor­
tunities; scholarships; accredited
dental assistant programs, including
the correspondence programs; and
requirements for certification may
be obtained from:
American Dental Assistants Associa­
tion, 211 East Chicago Ave., Chi­
cago, 111. 60611.

Other material on opportunities
for dental assistants is available
from :
Division of Dental Health, Public
Health Service, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare, Washington, D.C. 20201.

(D.O.T. 712.381)

Nature of the Work

Today, dental laboratory techni­
cians are employed to make den­
tures (artificial teeth), crowns,

bridges, and other dental and ortho­
dontic appliances once made by
dentists. The technicians do not see
patients but follow dentists’ written
In making many dental appli­
ances, the technicians form models
in artificial stone (hard plaster)
from impressions of patients’
mouths taken by dentists. They also
make metal castings for dentures,
finish and polish dentures, construct
metal or porcelain crowns or inlays
for partially destroyed teeth, make
bridges of gold and other metals,
and make appliances to correct ab­
normalities such as cleft palates.
In beginning jobs, trainees usu­
ally perform relatively simple tasks
such as mixing and pouring plaster
into casts and molds. As they gain
experience, they do more difficult
laboratory work. Some dental labo­

ratory technicians do all types of
dental laboratory work. Others spe­
cialize in making crowns and
bridges, arranging artificial teeth on
dental appliances, processing plastic
materials, working with dental ce­
ramics (porcelain), or making cast­
ings of gold or nonprecious metal
alloys. In performing their work,
technicians use small handtools,
special electric lathes and drills,
high-heat furnaces, and other kinds
of specialized laboratory equipment.

Places of Employment

An estimated 33,500 dental labo­
ratory technicians were employed in
1970. Most worked in commerical
laboratories, either as employees or
as owners of the business. Commer­
ical laboratories, which handle or­
ders from dentists, usually employ



fewer than 10 technicians. How­ other post-secondary educational completed high school courses in
ever, a few large laboratories em­ institutions. Some of these training art, crafts, or sciences.
programs were supported by Fed­
ploy many technicians.
More than 7,500 dental labora­ eral legislation, including the Voca­
Employment Outlook
tory technicians were employed tional Education Act of 1963, Man­
full-time by individual dentists. power Development and Training
Job opportunities for well-quali­
Some worked in hospitals that pro­ Act of 1962, and the Allied Health fied dental laboratory technicians
vided dental services. Other were Professions Personnel Training Act
are expected to be very good
employed by the Federal Govern­ of 1966. Regardless of a student’s
through the 1970’s. The outlook for
ment, chiefly in Veteran’s Adminis­ educational background, employers
trainees also should be very favor­
tration hospitals and clinics and in consider actual work experience to
able. In addition to an expected
the Department of the Army. Den­ be necessary for a person to qualify
rapid increase in employment, many
tal laboratory technicians also are as a full-fledged technician.
openings for dental laboratory tech­
employed by dental materials or
In 1970, 2-year educational pro­
nicians will occur because of the
equipment manufacturers as techni­ grams accredited by the American
need to replace technicians who
cal representatives or salesmen. Dental Association were offered by
transfer to other fields of work, re­
Women, who account for about 23 schools to high school graduates
tire, or die.
one-fifth of all full-time dental labo­ (or those with equivalent educa­
Opportunities for salaried em­
ratory technicians, worked mainly tion). The first year of training in
ployment for both experienced and
in large commercial laboratories.
these schools includes formal class­ trainee dental laboratory techni­
room instruction in dental law and cians will be best in commercial
Dental laboratory technicians,
like the dentists who use their serv­ ethics, chemistry, ceramics, metal­ laboratories and in the Federal Gov­
ices, are located mainly in cities lurgy, and other related subjects. ernment. Some experienced techni­
and in States that have large popu­ During the second year, the student cians also should be able to estab­
is provided supervised practical ex­ lish laboratories of their own. A
perience in the school or a dental technician whose work has become
laboratory. After completing the 2- known to several dentists in a com­
year training program, the trainee munity will have the best prospect
Training, Other Qualifications,
generally needs an additional 3 of building a successful business.
and Advancement
years of practical experience in a
Among the factors underlying the
Although no minimum form al ed­ dental office or a laboratory to be­ expected rapid growth in demand
ucation is needed to enter this occu­ come recognized as a well-qualified
are the availability of new dental
pation, a high school diploma is an dental technician.
prepayment plans and the increas­
asset. Most dental laboratory tech­
The National Association of Cer­ ing number of older people requir­
nicians learn the craft on the job, tified Dental Laboratories sponsors ing artificial dentures. Moreover,
usually in a commercial laboratory, a certification program for dental
the number of dentists is not ex­
a dental office, or a hospital offering laboratory technicians who can
pected to keep pace with the de­
dental services. Typically, on-the- meet certain training and other re­
mand for their services; hence, to
job training lasts 3 or 4 years, de­ quirements. Certification may be­
devote more time to treatment of
pending on factors such as the come increasingly important for
patients, dentists will send more and
trainee’s previous experience, his advancement as more employers re­
more of their laboratory work to
ability to master the techniques, and gard it as evidence of the techni­
commercial firms, or hire dental
the number of specialized areas to cian’s competence.
laboratory technicians to work di­
be learned. Courses in dental labo­
Among the personal qualifica­ rectly for them.
ratory work, offered in a few public
vocational high schools may be tions which employers look for in
taken in conjunction with on-the-job selecting trainees are a high degree Earnings and Working Conditions
training. Persons also may qualify of manual dexterity, good color per­
Apprentice or trainee dental lab­
by enrolling in 1- or 2-year pro­ ception, patience, and a liking for
grams in dental laboratory technol­ detailed work. Preference also may oratory technicians employed in
ogy offered by junior colleges and be given to young people who have commercial laboratories in 1970


earned an average of $78 a week.
Technicians having 10 years experi­
ence or more in commercial labora­
tories generally earned between
$170 and $225 a week, depending
on their skill level and experience.
Ceramist technicians and crown and
bridge technicians received the
highest salaries. Foremen and man­
agers in large dental laboratories
may earn up to $300 per week. In
general, net earnings of self-em­
ployed technicians are higher than
those of salaried workers.
The starting salary for inexperi­
enced dental laboratory technicians
employed in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $112 a week in
1970. Experienced dental labora­
tory technicians employed in the
earned between $166 and $195 a
Salaried technicians usually work
the standard 40-hour week, but
quently work longer hours. Many
technicians in commercial labora­
tories receive paid holidays and va­
cations, and some also are provided
paid sick leave, bonuses, and other
fringe benefits. Technicians em­
ployed by the Federal Government
have the same benefits as other
Federal employees.
The work of dental laboratory
technicians is not strenuous. Most
jobs in the field can be performed
by handicapped workers provided
they have good use of their hands
and fingers.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about the training
and lists of approved schools are
available from:
American Dental Association, Coun­
cil on Dental Education, 211 East
Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.


Information on scholarships is
available through schools conduct­
ing dental technology education
programs or:
The American Fund for Dental Edu­
cation, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Information on apprenticeship
programs may be obtained from:
The Dental Laboratory Conference,
1918 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Information on career opportuni­
ties in commercial laboratories, and
requirements for certification, may
be obtained from:
National Association of Certified
Dental Laboratories, Inc., 3801
Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, Va.

(D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)

Nature of the Work

Nursing care plays a major role
in the treatment of persons who are
ill. Registered nurses, in carrying
out the medical treatment plan pre­
scribed by physicians, administer
medications and treatments; ob­
serve, evaluate, and record symp­
toms, reactions, and progess of pa­
tients; assist in the education and
rehabilitation of patients; help
maintain a physical and emotional
environment that promotes patient
recovery; instruct auxiliary person­
nel or students; and perform other
duties involving care of the sick and
injured, prevention of illness, and
promotion of good health. Nurses
may also engage in research activi-


ties or serve on the staffs of nursing
and community organizations.
Hospital nurses are the largest
group of registered nurses. Most are
staff nurses, who perform skilled
bedside nursing such as caring for a
patient after an operation and giving
medications. They also supervise
auxiliary nursing workers. Hospital
nurses usually work in a specialty
area such as operating or recovery
room. Others work with children,
the elderly, or the mentally ill. Still
others are engaged primarily in ad­
Private duty nurses give individ­
ual care to patients needing constant
attention. The private duty nurse
may sometimes care for several hos­
pital patients who require special
care but not full-time attention.
Office nurses assist physicians,
dental surgeons, and occasionally
dentists in private practice or clin­
ics. Sometimes, they perform rou­
tine laboratory and office work.
Public health nurses care for pa­
tients in clinics or visit them in their
homes. Their duties include in­
structing patients and families, and
giving periodic care as prescribed
by a physician. They instruct groups
of patients in proper diet and ar­
range for immunizations. These
nurses work with community
leaders, teachers, parents, and phy­
sicians in community health educa­
tion. Some public health nurses
work in schools.
Nurse educators teach students
the principles and skills of nursing,
both in the classroom and in direct
patient care. They also may conduct
refresher and in-service courses for
registered nurses.
Occupational health or industrial
nurses provide nursing care to em­
ployees in industry and government,
and along with physicians promote
employee health. As prescribed by a
doctor, they treat minor injuries


and illnesses occurring at the place
of employment, provide for the
needed nursing care, arrange for
further medical care if necessary,
and offer health counseling. They
also may assist with health examina­
tions and inoculations.
(Licensed practical nurses who
also perform nursing service are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Hand­
Places of Employment

An estimated 700,000 registered
nurses were employed in the United
States in 1970. More than twothirds worked in hospitals, nursing
homes, and related institutions. Ap­
proximately 60,000 were private
duty nurses who cared for patients
in hospitals and private homes, and
about 50,000 were office nurses.
Public health nurses in government
agencies, schools, visiting nurse as­
sociations, and clinics numbered
more than 50,000; nurse educators
in nursing schools accounted for
about 31,000; and occupational
health nurses in industry, approxi­
mately 20,000. Most of the others
were staff members of professional
nurse and other organizations, State
boards of nursing, or were em­
ployed by research organizations.
More than one-fourth of all
nurses employed in 1970 worked on
a part-time basis. About 1 percent
of all employed registered nurses
are men.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is required to practice
professional nursing in all States
and in the District of Columbia. To
obtain a license, a nurse must have
graduated from a school approved
by a State board of nursing and pass

a State board examination. Nurses
may be licensed in more than one
State, either by examination or en­
dorsement of a license issued by an­
other State.
Graduation from high school is
required for admission to all schools
of nursing. Three types of educa­
tional programs—diploma, bacca­
laureate, and associate degree—of­
fer the basic education required for
careers in registered nursing. Di­
ploma programs are conducted by
hospital and independent schools
and usually require 3 years of train­
ing; bachelor’s degree programs
usually require 4 years of study in a
college or university, although a few
require 5 years; associate degree
programs in junior and community
colleges require approximately 2
years of nursing education. In early
1970, more than 1,300 programs of
these three types were offered in the
United States. In addition, about 70
colleges and universities offered
master’s and doctoral degree pro­
grams in nursing.
Programs of nursing include
classroom instruction and super­
vised nursing practice. Students take
courses in anatomy, physiology, mi­
crobiology, nutrition, psychology,
and basic nursing care. Under close
supervision, in hospitals and health
facilities, they receive clinical expe­
rience in caring for patients who
have different types of health prob­
lems. Students in colleges offering
bachelor’s degree programs and in
some of the other schools are as­
signed to public health agencies to
learn how to care for patients in
clinics and in the patients’ homes.
General education is combined with
nursing education in baccalaureate
and associate degree programs and
in some diploma programs.
Qualified students in need of fi­
nancial aid may obtain a nursing
scholarship or a low-interest loan



under Title II of the Health Man­
power Act of 1968. Up to 50 per­
cent of the amount of the loan may
be cancelled at the rate of 10 per­
cent for each year of full-time em­
ployment as a professional nurse in
nurse training or service in any
public or nonprofit institution or
agency. Up to 100 percent of the
loan plus interest may be cancelled
at the rate of 15 percent a year for
each complete year of service as a
full-time professional nurse in a
public or nonprofit hospital located
in an area which has a substantial
shortage of nurses at such hospitals.
The Nurse Training Act also pro­
vides traineeship funds to cover tu­
ition, fees, and a stipend and allow­
ances for nurses seeking advanced
training for positions as administra­
tors, supervisors, nursing specialists,
and nurse educators.
Young people planning nursing
careers should have a desire to
serve humanity and be sympathetic
to the needs of people. Nurses must
follow doctor’s orders precisely and
exhibit good judgment in emergen­
cies. Good mental health is helpful
in coping with human suffering and
Physical stamina may be required
for staff nurses in institutions be­
cause of the amount of time spent
walking and standing.
From staff positions in hospitals,
experienced nurses may advance to
head nurse, supervisor, assistant
director, and director of nursing
services. A master’s degree, how­
ever, often is required for supervi­
sory and administrative positions, as
well as for positions in nursing edu­
cation, clinical specialization, and
research. In public health agencies,
advancement is usually limited for
nurses without degrees in public
health nursing.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
registered nurses are expected to be
very good through the 1970’s. For
nurses who have had graduate edu­
cation, the outlook is excellent for
obtaining positions as administra­
tors, teachers, clinical specialists,
public health nurses, and for work
in research.
The principal factors underlying
the anticipated rise in the demand
for nurses include a rising popula­
tion; improved economic status of
the population; extension of prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, including Medi­
care and Medicaid; expansion of
medical services as a result of new
medical techniques and drugs; and
increased interest in preventive
medicine and rehabilitation of the
handicapped. In addition to filling
new positions, large numbers will be
needed to replace those who leave
the field each year because of mar­
riage and family responsibilities.
Nurses wishing to return to work
will find very good employment op­
portunities, either full or part time.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries of regis­
tered nurses employed by hospitals
in 1970 averaged about $7,400, ac­
cording to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Registered nurses
employed in nursing homes can ex­
pect to earn slightly less than those
in hospitals. Salaries of industrial
nurses averaged $147 a week in
early 1970, according to a survey
conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS).
Fees for private duty nurses gen­
erally were between $26 and $44
for a basic 8-hour day in early

1970, according to the American
Nurses’ Association (ANA).
In 1970, the Veterans Adminis­
tration offered inexperienced nurses
having a diploma or an associate
degree an annual salary of $7,294;
baccalaureate graduates were of­
fered $8,519. Graduates of asso­
ciate degree programs having 1 year
of experience or those having a bac­
calaureate degree or diploma en­
tered at $6,548 in other Federal
Government agencies.
Most hospital nurses receive
extra pay for work on evening or
night shifts. Nearly all receive at
least 2 weeks of paid vacation after
1 year of service. Most hospital
nurses receive from 5 to 13 paid
holidays a year and also some type
of health and retirement benefits.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on approved schools
of nursing, nursing careers, loans,
scholarships, salaries, working con­
ditions, and employment opportuni­
ties may be obtained from:
ANA-NLN Committee on Nursing
Careers, American Nurses’ Asso­
ciation, 10 Columbus Circle, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Information about employment
opportunities in the Veterans Ad­
ministration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.



(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work

Licensed practical nurses assist in
caring for persons physically or
mentally ill or infirm. These include
medical and surgical patients, con­
valescents, the handicapped, the
aged, and others. Under the direc­
tion of physicians and registered
nurses, they provide nursing care
requiring technical knowledge but
not the professional training of a
registered nurse. (See statement on
“Registered Nurses”.) In California
and Texas, licensed practical nurses
are known as licensed vocational

Other duties include: Assisting
physicians and registered nurses in
examining patients and in carrying
out complex nursing procedures; as­
sisting in the delivery, care, and
feeding of infants: and helping reg­
istered nurses in recovery rooms by
reporting any adverse changes in
patients. Some licensed practical
nurses help in the supervision of
hospital attendants. (See statement
on “Hospital Attendants.” )
When employed in private homes,
licensed practical nurses care mainly
for patients whose day-to-day care
seldom involves highly technical
procedures or complicated equip­
ment. In addition to providing the
nursing care ordered by physicians,
they prepare patients’ meals and
care for patients’ comfort and
morale. Licensed practical nurses
also teach family members how to
perform simple nursing tasks.
In doctors’ offices and in clinics,
licensed practical nurses help physi­
cians by preparing patients for ex­
aminations and treatments. In addi­
tion, they make appointments and
record information about patients.

Places of Employment

In hospitals, licensed practical
nurses provide much of the bedside
care needed by patients, such as
taking and recording temperatures
and blood pressures, changing dress­
ings, administering certain pre­
scribed medicines, and bathing bed
patients and helping them in other
ways with personal hygiene.

About 370,000 licensed practical
nurses were employed in 1970. The
great majority were women.
About three-fifths of all licensed
practical nurses were employed in
hospitals. Most of the others
worked in nursing homes, clinics,
doctor’s offices, sanitariums, and
other long-term care facilities.
Public health agencies and welfare
and religious organizations also em­
ployed many licensed practical
nurses. Some were self-employed
working in hospitals or the homes of
their patients.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All States and the District of Co­
lumbia regulate the preparation and
licensing of practical nurses. Usu­
ally, licenses are issued only to
those who have completed a course
of instruction in practical nursing
which has been approved by the
State board of nursing, and who
also have passed a licensing exami­
Young persons seeking to enroll
in State-approved training programs
usually must have completed at
least 2 years of high school or its
equivalent. Physical examinations
are required and aptitude tests
given. Some States accept candi­
dates who have completed only the
eighth or ninth grade. Other States
require high school graduation.
Many schools that do not require
completion of high school neverthe­
less give preference to graduates.
In 1970, about 1,250 State-ap­
proved programs provided training
in practical nursing. More than
one-half were offered by public
schools as a part of vocational and
adult education programs. Other
programs were available at junior
colleges, or were sponsored by local
hospitals, health agencies, and pri­
vate educational institutions and
were usually 1 year in length. Many
of the training programs receive fi­
nancial assistance under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and the Vocational Education
Training includes both classroom
study and clinical practice. Class­
room instruction covers nursing
concepts and principles and related
subjects such as anatomy, physiol­
ogy, medical-surgical nursing, ad­
ministration of drugs, nutrition, first
aid, and community health. This
work is supplemented by laboratory



practice and by supervised work in
hospitals where students apply their
skills to an actual nursing situation.
Applicants for the occupation of
licensed practical nurse should have
a deep concern for human welfare.
Since working with sick and injured
people can sometimes be upsetting,
licensed practical nurses should be
emotionally stable. They should be
able to accept menial duties as part
of their daily routine. Being part of
a medical team, they must be able
to follow orders and work under
close supervision. Physical stamina
also is an asset, since practical
nurses must be on their feet a great
deal. Good health is extremely im­
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, unless workers take ad­
ditional training. In-service educa­
tional programs enable some li­
censed practical nurses to prepare
for work in specialized areas such as
rehabilitation. Practical nurses can­
not become registered nurses, how­
ever, unless they undertake addi­
tional schooling.

Employment Outlook

Licensed practical nurses are ex­
pected to be in strong demand dur­
ing the years ahead. Employment is
expected to continue to rise very
rapidly through the 1970’s, and a
large number of new jobs will have
to be filled each year as health facil­
ities continue to expand. In addi­
tion, many workers will be needed
annually to replace licensed practi­
cal nurses who retire or stop work­
ing for other reasons. Opportunities
for part-time work are expected to
be plentiful.
Factors contributing to increased
employment are a greater need for
health services because of popula­
tion growth, the increasing ability of

persons to pay for health care, and
the continuing expansion of both
public and private health insurance
plans. Greater utilization of licensed
practical nurses for work not requir­
ing the skills of a registered nurse
also is expected to continue to
create many job opportunities.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in hospitals and medical
schools received average starting
salaries of about $110 a week in
1970, according to a national survey
conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch.
Many hospitals give licensed
practical nurses periodic pay in­
creases after specific periods of sat­
isfactory service. Some hospitals
also provide free laundering of uni­
forms. A few institutions provide
free lodging. The scheduled work­
week is generally 40 hours but often
it includes some work at night and
on weekends and holidays. Paid
holidays and vacations, and health
insurance and pension plans are
provided by many hospitals.
In private homes, licensed practi­
cal nurses usually are on duty for 8
to 12 hours a day and go home at
night. A few, on 24-hour duty, live
at the homes where they are em­
ployed. The basic 8-hour fee in
1969 ranged from $15 to $30, ac­
cording to the American Nurses’
Salaries of licensed practical
nurses employed by public health
agencies averaged about $5,750 a
year in 1970. The beginning annual
salary in the Federal Government
for persons having completed a
State-approved program of study in
practical nursing was $5,212 in

Sources of Additional Information

A list of State-approved training
programs and information about
practical nursing may be obtained
ANA-NLN Committee on Nursing
Careers, American Nurses’ Asso­
ciation, 10 Columbus Circle, New
York, N.Y. 10019.
National Association for Practical
Nurse Education and Service,
Inc., 535 Fifth Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
National Federation of Licensed
Practical Nurses, Inc., 250 West
57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Information about employment
opportunities in U.S. Veterans Ad­
ministration hospitals is available
Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.

(D.O.T. 079.368)

Nature of the Work

Medical assistants help physicians
examine and treat patients, as well
as keep abreast of the reams of pa­
perwork that flow in the wake of
current medical treatment.
Medical assistants carry out rou­
tine tasks such as preparing patients
for examination, medical treatment,
and surgery. They may help exam­
ine patients by checking weight,
height, temperature, blood pressure,
and making simple laboratory tests.
Medical assistants help in treatment
by instructing patients about medi­
cation and self-treatment at home,
administering injections, applying
surgical dressings, and taking elec-



Medical assistant checks patient’s record.

trocardiograms and X-rays, as well tice. The remainder work in hos­
as sterilizing and cleaning instru­ pitals and medical clinics.
ments and other supplies. Medical
assistants also perform a variety of
clerical jobs. They keep patients’
medical records, fill out medical and
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
insurance forms, handle correspond­
ence, schedule appointments, and
Most medical assistants employed
act as receptionists. Other office du­
ties include dictation, bookkeeping, in 1970 qualified for the occupation
billing, and receiving payments on through training received in physi­
bills. Medical assistants may also ar­ cians’ offices. A small number were
range instruments and equipment trained in on-the-job programs
in the examining room, check office sponsored by the Manpower Devel­
and laboratory supplies, and main­ opment and Training Act (MDTA).
tain the waiting, consulting and ex­ Further information about MDTA
amination rooms in neat and or­ opportunities is available from State
Employment Services. Some were
derly condition.
trained in vocational programs of­
fered by high schools, or by voca­
tional institutes and junior colleges.
Places of Employment
Others learned their skills in adult
An estimated 175,000 medical education courses provided by post­
assistants were employed in 1970, secondary schools.
almost all of whom were women.
In general, applicants for on-theThe large majority work in the of­ job training or for post-secondary
fices of physicians in private prac­ school academic training must be

high school graduates or have
equivalent education. High school
courses in mathematics, sciences,
and office practices are desirable for
students seeking admission to medi­
cal assistant programs.
Junior college programs for med­
ical assistants are being established
in increasing numbers. Most are 2year programs, leading to an asso­
ciate degree; the others are 1-year
programs and graduates receive a
diploma. The programs require
completion of designated academic
courses, as well as supervised onthe-job clinical experience. Among
courses required are biology, chem­
istry, anatomy, and physiology; lab­
oratory techniques and use of medi­
cal machines; medical assistant ad­
ministrative and clinical procedures;
medical terminology; medical office
practices; reception of patients; and
typing, shorthand, and accounting.
Students wishing to continue their
education and obtain a bachelor’s
degree must realize that not all 4year colleges accept the same type
and amount of credits from different
junior colleges. Therefore, it is im­
portant for students to apply for ad­
mission to a junior college in which
they can complete the kind of
courses and number of credits ac­
ceptable for transfer to a 4-year col­
Medical assistants who meet the
standards of the American Asso­
ciation of Medical Assistants
(AAMA) may apply for the title of
Certified Medical Assistant. An ap­
plicant for certification must pass a
written examination and have a high
school education. She must also be
employed as a medical assistant and
have at least 3 years’ experience
in the field. An applicant who has
an associate degree in medical as­
sisting need have only one year of
experience. Certification is not a li­
cense and is not required for



A AMA membership; however, Cer­
tified Medical Assistants are usually
considered by physicians to be
high-calibre workers.
Persons who wish to become
medical assistants should be able to
get along with people, since they
will be required to work closely
with a variety of people. They
should also be thorough, accurate,
dependable, and conscientious.

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for medical assist­
ants are expected to be excellent
through the 1970’s, particularly for
graduates of 2-year junior college
programs. Rapid growth in the oc­
cupation is anticipated during the
decade. Many more medical assist­
ants will be needed to help doctors
engaged in patient care because of
the shortage of physicians in most
areas of the country and the in­
creasing complexity of medical
practice combined with a growing
volume of paper work that must be
completed in doctors’ offices. Other
general factors expected to contrib­
ute to an increasing demand for
medical assistants include those
which underly the overall growth in
medical care in the United States
such as a rapidly growing popula­
tion; an increasing number of older
persons, the people most in need of
medical care; improved standards of
living including a growing demand
for more and better health care; ex­
panding coverage under prepay­
ment programs which enable per­
sons to pay for hospital and medical
care; increasing expenditures by
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments for health care services; and
advances in medical technology
which enable physicians to treat and
cure more illnesses.
In addition to job openings re­

sulting from growth of the profes­
sion, many openings will arise be­
cause of the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, weekly salaries gener­
ally ranged from $90 to $125 for
inexperienced medical assistants
and from $125 to $160 for experi­
enced assistants, according to lim­
ited information available. The sala­
ries of beginners depended on their
training and other qualifications.
Junior college graduates generally
received higher starting salaries
than those paid workers without any
Medical assistants usually have a
40-hour workweek. Their hours,
however, may be irregular. They
may work evenings and Saturdays.
If so, they receive equivalent time
off during weekdays.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on a career
as a medical assistant, and on the
certification program, may be ob­
tained from:
American Association of Medical
Assistants, 200 East Ohio Street,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Information on training programs
for medical assistants may be ob­
tained from:
Council on Medical Education,
535 North Dearborn Street, Chi­
cago, 111. 60610.

Surgical technicians, also known
as operating room technicians,
work under the supervision of regis­
tered professional nurses in assisting
surgeons and anesthesiologists.
They help prepare patients for
surgery by washing, shaving, and
disinfecting the parts of the body
where the surgeons will operate.
They may transport patients to the
operating room, and help drape and
position them on the operating
table. Before the operation, surgical
technicians also may obtain instru­
ments, equipment, sterile linen, and
fluids needed during an operation,
such as blood, plasma, glucose and
saline solution.
During surgery, these technicians
provide valuable extra hands to aid
the professional surgical team in
passing instruments and other sterile
supplies. They hold retractors, cut
sutures, and help nurses count the


sponges, needles, and instruments
used during the operation. Surgical
technicians also assist in the prepa­
ration, care, and disposition of op­
erative specimens taken for testing,
and help with the application of
dressings. Other duties include op­
erating sterilizers, lights, suction
machines, diagnostic equipment,
and electro-surgical apparatus.
After the operation, surgical
technicians help transfer patients to
the recovery room and assist nurses
in cleaning and stocking the operat­
ing room for the next operation.
The Manpower Development and
Training Act (MDTA) also spon­
sors training programs for surgical
technicians. Detailed information
about these programs may be
obtained from State Employment
Services. Surgical technicians are
trained also in adult education,
technical, and vocational courses.
The medic programs of the Armed
Forces also are a training ground
for surgical technicians. Currently,
there are about 25 junior colleges
which offer training for surgical
technicians. Generally, these are
1-year courses leading to a certif­
icate, although there are some 2year curriculums offering an asso­
ciate in arts degree.
Students in surgical technician
programs at junior colleges and in
vocational schools must complete
classroom training as well as super­
vised clinical experience. Among
the required courses are basic sci­
ences such as anatomy, physiology,
and microbiology. Students also
have courses of practical applica­
tion, such as care and safety of pa­
tients during surgery; use of anes­
thetic agents and avoidance of their
hazards; related nursing procedures
including observation of vital signs
and post-operative patient care.
They must also know principles of


gowning and gloving, sterilization of
instruments, and prevention of
control of infection; as well as han­
dling of special drugs, solutions,
supplies, and equipment.

Places of Employment

Approximately 25,000 surgical
technicians were employed in the
United States in 1970; most were
women. They worked in the operat­
ing room facilities of hospitals,
which are located in small and large
cities throughout the country. Many
surgical technicians are members of
the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

An applicant for a surgical tech­
nician position usually must have a
high school education or equivalent
for admission to on-the-job training
programs offered in hospitals. Some
hospitals give preference to appli­
cants who have had previous hospi­
tal work experience as attendants or
practical nurses. Applicants may be
required to pass aptitude tests and a
physical examination. The length of
training varies from 6 weeks to one
year, depending on trainees’ qualifi­
cations and the type of training
given by the program.
Persons desiring to become surgi­
cal technicians should have manual
dexterity since they must handle
various instruments and operate
many devices. Personal qualities
considered desirable include cleanli­
ness, orderliness, and emotional sta­

Employment Outlook

The surgical technician occupa­
tion is expected to grow rapidly

during the 1970’s, providing excel­
lent job opportunities for applicants.
Graduates of 2-year junior col­
lege programs should experience
exceptionally high demands for
their services.
Many more surgical technicians
will be needed to assist in large
numbers of surgical operations that
will necessarily accompany the
country’s expanding population.
More surgical technicians will be re­
quired to perform an increasing
amount of lower level nursing tasks,
thereby enabling operating room
nurses to concentrate on the duties
requiring their professional knowl­
edge. Other general factors ex­
pected to contribute to an increas­
ing demand for surgical technicians
include those which underly the
overall growth in medical care in
the United States, such as improved
standards of living; growing health
consciousness; expanding coverage
under prepayment programs for
hospitalization and medical care;
and increasing expenditures by Fed­
eral, State, and local governments
for health care services.
In addition to job openings re­
sulting from growth of the occupa­
tion, many new surgical technicians
will be needed to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, weekly salaries gener­
ally ranged from $75 to $140 for
inexperienced surgical technicians,
depending on their training and
other qualifications, according to
limited information available. Jun­
ior college graduates received
higher starting salaries than those
paid workers without any training
for the occupation. Weekly sala­
ries for experienced technicians
ranged from about $95 to $180.


The working hours of surgical
technicians are usually 8 hours a
day, 5 days a week. In addition, the
technicians may be required to
work “on call” shifts, for which
they receive compensation.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on a ca­
reer as a surgical technician and on
programs offering training for the
occupation may be obtained from:
Association of Operating Room
Technicians, Inc., 8085 East Pren­
tice, The Denver Technological
Center, Englewood, Colo. 80110.

(D.O.T. 079.368)

Nature of the Work

EEG (electroencephalographic)
technicians fulfill an important func­
tion in diagnosing brain disease and
infections through electroenceph­
alography—a system of mechani­


cally detecting and recording the
electrical activity of the brain.
The EEG technician attaches to
the patient’s head electrodes lead­
ing to the electroencephalography
machine that graphs (EEG’s) the
brain’s electrical currents. The com­
plex machine detects the electrical
activity of the patient’s brain; it
does not emit any current of its own
—a safe, painless procedure. Pro­
fessional EEG personnel and neu­
rologists interpret the electroen­
cephalograms. However, the EEG
technician must have some knowl­
edge of medicine, anatomy, and
physiology to understand the condi­
tion of the subject.
EEG’s are particularly useful in
diagnosing epilepsy and brain tu­
mors, and in assessing damage and
recovery after cerebral vascular
strokes. EEG’s have proved essen­
tial to the prognosis of patients who
are in a coma. Because of its useful­
ness in pinpointing the time body
functions stop, the recent rise in
vital organ transplants has elevated
the importance of EEG.
EEG technicians make simple re­
pairs and replacements to keep
equipment in good working order.
They also schedule appointments

and record services performed for
Places of Employment

An estimated 3,000 electroen­
cephalograph technicians were em­
ployed in 1970. EEG technicians,
who are mostly women, work pri­
marily in the neurology departments
of hospitals. Some are employed in
neurologist’s offices; some have re­
sponsible positions in research units.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The principal way to enter the
occupation is by on-the-job training,
which generally lasts from 3 to 6
months and is conducted by a neu­
rologist or electroencephalographer
and a senior technician. The mini­
mum requirement for entrance into
an on-the-job training program gen­
erally is high school graduation with
science courses preferred.
Some technicians also qualify for
their job through formal academic
training. In 1970, 15 formal pro­
grams were offered in colleges, uni­
versities, and hospitals. These pro­
grams vary in length from 3 months
to 1 year, and generally include
courses in electronics, nervous sys­
tem, physiology, first-aid, computer
technology (to an increasing de­
gree), and anatomy. Some of the
schools require 2 years of college
for entrance into the program; oth­
ers require only high school.
EEG technicians who meet cer­
tain experience requirements and
successfully complete a written and
oral examination administered by
the American Board of Registration
of Electroencephalograph Techni­
cians (ABRET) may become regis­
tered. Although not a general pre­
requisite for employment, registra­



tion by ABRET is acknowledgment
of a technician’s qualifications and
will make better-paying positions
easier to obtain.
As openings occur, some EEG
technicians in large hospitals may
advance to chief EEG technician
and have larger responsibilities in
laboratory management and in
teaching basic techniques to new
personnel. Chief EEG technicians
are supervised by an electroencephalographer (a doctor specializing
in the reading of EEG tracings)
or a neurologist or neurosurgeon.
Manual dexterity, good vision, an
aptitude for working with electronic
equipment, and the ability to work
with patients and other members of
the hospital team are desirable per­
sonal characteristics.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
EEG technicians are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s.
Among the principal factors under­
lying this demand are increased use
in the diagnosis of brain diseases,
and in monitoring patients; ability
to determine the exact time of body
function stoppage in the donor for
transplant operations; and the usual
factors contributing to the overall
increase in health services, such as
expanding population and rising liv­
ing standards.
In addition to openings that will
result from the rapid growth of the
occupation, many will arise because
of the need to replace the large
number of young women who leave
the field for marriage and family re­
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average monthly starting sal­
ary of EEG technicians working in

hospitals in 1970 was about $455,
and $470 in medical schools, ac­
cording to the National Survey of
Hospital and Medical School Sala­
ries. Top salaries of EEG techni­
cians ranged as high as $750 a
month. Very highly qualified techni­
cians may earn more in special
training situations. Depending on
general experience, the annual be­
ginning salary for EEG technicians
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment was between $4,125 and
$5,212 in 1970. Technicians in the
Federal Government can earn as
much as $9,881 a year.
EEG technicians in hospitals re­
ceive the same benefits as other
hospital personnel, including hospi­
talization, vacation, and sick leave.
Some institutions may provide tu­
ition assistance or free courses, pen­
sion programs, uniforms, and park­
EEG technicians generally work
a 40-hour week with little after
hours or Saturday work involved.
The fact that a neurologist is needed
to read and interpret a tracing mini­
mizes the necessity of emergencycall duty.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about employment
opportunities may be obtained from
local hospitals. Additional informa­
tion about the work of EEG techni­
cians may also be obtained from:
American Hospital Association, 840
North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago,
Illinois 60611.

For information on registration:
American Board of Registration of
Electroencephalographic Technol­
ogists, Dr. Charles E. Henry,
Cleveland Clinic, 2020 East 93rd
Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.

(D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of the Work

Electrocardiograms (EKG’s) are
pictures of a heart beat—tracings in
the form of a graph produced by an
instrument called an electrocar­
diograph. These tracings record the
electronic variations in the action of
the heart muscle. Physicians use
electrocardiograms to diagnose ir­
regularities in heart action and to
analyze changes in the condition of
a patient’s heart over a period time.
Some physicians order electrocar­
diograms as a routine diagnostic
procedure for people who have
reached a specified age. In some
cases, the tests also are used if sur­
gery is to be performed.
Electrocardiograph (EKG) tech­
nicians take and process electrocar­
diograms at the request of a physi­
cian. This is done usually at the pa­
tient’s bedside, since the equipment
is mobile. In taking an electrocar­
diogram, the technician straps elec­
trodes to specified parts of the pa­
tient’s body, manipulates selector
switches of the electrocardiograph,
and moves chest electrodes across
the patient’s chest.
The electrocardiograph records
the “picture” of the patient’s heart
action on a continuous roll of paper.
The technician clips and mounts
this electrocardiogram for analysis
by a physician, usually a cardiolo­
gist or heart specialist.
When technicians are taking elec­
trocardiograms, they must be able
to recognize and correct any techni­
cal errors or interferences recorded
on the electrocardiograms. They
also must be able to recognize any
significant deviations from the norm
that call for a doctor’s attention.



In larger hospitals, EKG techni­
cians occasionally are promoted to
positions as supervisors of other
EKG technicians. Advancement to
jobs as junior vascular-cardio tech­
nicians is also possible in some in­
stances. To be eligible for supervi­
sory or other higher positions, train­
ing may be necessary in areas such
as biomedical electronics. Gener­
ally, however, the number of paths
to higher positions are relatively few
and opportunities for advancement
are limited.
Among characteristics desirable
for an EKG technician’s job are me­
chanical aptitude, the ability to fol­
low detailed instructions and react
quickly to orders and to the require­
ments of emergency situations; and
common sense, reliability, consider­
ation, and patience.
The technician must know how to
conduct EKG exercises. In these,
patients exercise slightly by walking
up and down a few steps and un­
dergo EKG tests before and after
the exercise. Basal metabolism tests
must also be performed. These en­
ergy-measuring tests are given to
patients after a period of fasting
and rest. EKG technicians must be
able to make photocardiograms,
which record the sounds of the
heart valves and blood passing
through them. In addition, techni­
cians usually schedule appoint­
ments, type doctors’ diagnoses,
maintain patients’ EKG files, and
take care of equipment.
Places of Employment

An estimated 9,500 electrocar­
diograph technicians were employed
in 1970; most were women. Most
EKG technicians were employed in
cardiology departments of large
hospitals. Others worked part-time
in small general hospitals where

workloads are usually not great
enough to demand full-time techni­
cians. Some were employed full- or
part-time in clinics and doctors’
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

On-the-job training is the princi­
pal method of obtaining the skills of
the EKG technician. Training—
which may last as long as 3 months
—is usually conducted by a senior
EKG technician or a cardiologist.
Generally, the minimum require­
ment for the job is high school grad­
uation. Typing and familiarity with
medical terminology are helpful.
A few colleges and universities
affiliated with hospials offer EKG
courses lasting a few months. The
military services also provide some
general training in electrocardi­
ology. In addition, manufacturers of
electrocardiographs generally pro­
vide instructions in the operation of
their equipment.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
EKG technicians are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s. The
expected increase in demand is the
result of increasing reliance by phy­
sicians upon electrocardiograms in
the diagnosis of heart diseases and
the greater use of electrocardiograph
in continuous “monitoring” of pa­
tients under intensive care. Another
factor contributing to the expected
growth of this occupation is the gen­
eral increase in demand for health
services. Underlying this trend is the
country’s expanding population, ris­
ing living standards and improved
health consciousness, extension of
prepayment programs for medical
care, expanding medical services re­
sulting from new medical techniques
and drugs, and expanding medical
research activities.
In addition to openings resulting
from growth in the occupation, va­
cancies will develop each year as


young women leave the field for
marriage and family responsibilities.


(D.O.T. 079.368)

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average monthly starting sal­
ary of EKG technicians working in
hospitals in 1970 was about $407,
according to the National Survey of
Hospital and Medical School Sala­
ries, conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. Top sala­
ries, in some cases, were as high as
$950 a month.
The annual beginning salary for
EKG technicians employed by the
Federal Government was between
$4,125 and $5,212 in 1970, de­
pending on experience; a few expe­
rienced technicians earned as much
as $8,956 a year.
EKG technicians working in hos­
pitals receive the same fringe bene­
fits as other hospital personnel, in­
cluding hospitalization, vacation,
and sick leave. Some institutions
provide tuition assistance or free
courses, pension programs, and uni­
forms. Technicians generally work a
40-hour week, which may include
work on Saturdays.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about employment
opportunities may be obtained from
local hospitals. Additional informa­
tion about the work of EKG techni­
cians is also available from:
American Hospital Association, 840
North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago,
Illinois 60611.

Nature of the Work

Inhalation therapists treat pa­
tients with respiratory problems.
This may range from giving relief to
patients with chronic asthma or em­
physema to giving emergency care
in cases of heart failure, stroke,
drowning, and shock.
A rapidly evolving field, inhala­
tion therapy requires specially
trained personnel to master the use
of sophisticated equipment needed
in treating many respiratory prob­
lems. The inhalation therapist is one
of the first medical specialists called

in for emergency treatment of acute
respiratory conditions arising from
head injury or drug poisoning.
Moreover, the short span of time
during which a patient can safely
cease to breathe emphasizes the
highly responsible role the inhala­
tion therapist must play. If a patient
does not breathe for three to five
minutes, there is little chance of re­
covery without brain damage, and if
oxygen is cut for 9 minutes he will
Inhalation therapists follow doc­
tor’s orders in giving medication to
the patient through aerosols or
using mists to help control the pa­
tient’s environment. When adminis­
tering gases to patients, the inhala­
tion therapist assumes complete
control over the patient’s environ-



ment, including moisture and tem­
Inhalation therapists may also be
called upon to instruct physicians
and nurses on the use of specialized
inhalation equipment, and show pa­
tients and their families the proper
use of home equipment. Other du­
ties include keeping records of the
cost of materials and charges to pa­
tients. Therapists are responsible for
routine maintenance of their equip­
Places of Employment

An estimated 10,000 inhalation
therapists were employed in 1970.
Most were employed in anesthesiol­
ogy or pulmonary medicine depart­
ments of hospitals. Others were
employed by oxygen equipment
rental companies, ambulance serv­
ices, nursing homes, and universities.
Most therapists are men. However,
an increasing number of women are
entering the field. This is due, in
part, to the installation of piped-in
oxygen in hospitals, eliminating the
need to handle heavy cylinders of
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most therapists who entered the
job before the mid-1960’s qualified
for their job through on-the-job
training. Such training generally
lasts about 1 year and is conducted
by the chief therapist and medical
supervisor. High school graduation
generally is the minimum entry re­
Despite the predominance of onthe-job training in the late 1960’s,
the trend today is toward formalized
accredited training. In 1970, over
70 schools approved by the Joint
Review Committee for Inhalation

Therapy Education trained inhala­
tion therapists. Courses vary in
length between 18 months and 4
years and include both theory and
clinical work. A bachelor’s degree is
awarded for completion of 4-year
programs and lesser degrees are
awarded for shorter courses. Basic
courses are human anatomy and
physiology, chemistry, physics, mi­
crobiology, and mathematics. Tech­
nical courses offered deal with
procedures, equipment, and tests.
Inhalation therapists who com­
plete formal training and 1 year of
experience are eligible to be regis­
tered by the American Registry of
Inhalation Therapists (ARIT). Ap­
plicants must pass oral and written
examinations. In 1970, nearly 1,300
therapists had been registered. A
registered inhalation therapist often
can advance faster and obtain a
higher position than one who is not
registered. An increasing number of
employers recognize registration as
an acknowledgment of the thera­
pists’ qualifications.
Inhalation therapists who do not
qualify or fail to pass the registry
examination, may elect to take an
examination to become certified in­
halation therapists. To be eligible
for the certification tests, an appli­
cant must have a high school educa­
tion or the equivalent, and 2
years of experience in inhalation
therapy under medical supervision;
or be a graduate of an inhalation
therapy training program which fol­
lows the essentials for certification,
plus 1 year of experience in in­
halation therapy under medical su­
pervision; or be a graduate of an
Associate Degree inhalation therapy
program approved by the Joint Re­
view Committee For Inhalation
Therapy Education.
Inhalation therapists can advance
to positions as assistant chief, chief

therapist, or instructor of inhalation
therapy at the university level.
Young persons planning careers
in inhalation therapy should have
the ability to work with patients and
understand their physical and psy­
chological needs. Inhalation thera­
pists must be able to pay attention
to detail and follow instructions.
Mechanical ability is also a neces­
sary attribute.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for in­
halation therapists are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s.
Those completing formal training
will be in demand to fill high level
supervisory positions. In the future,
employment of inhalation therapists
is expected to increase due to the
increasing demand for health serv­
ices in general. The expected rapid
growth will also stem from realiza­
tion that among benefits arising
from employing specialists in inha­
lation therapy is that nurses and
other personnel are released to per­
form their primary duties.
In addition to openings that will
result from the rapid growth of the
occupation, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
labor force for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average monthly starting sal­
ary of inhalation therapists working
in hospitals in 1970 was about
$555, according to the National
Survey of Hospital and Medical
School Salaries, conducted by the
University of Texas Medical
Branch. Top salaries of inhalation
therapists in hospitals ranged as
high as $830 a month.
The annual beginning salary for


inhalation therapists employed by
the Federal Government was be­
tween $4,125 and $5,212 in 1970,
depending on general experience.
Some therapists employed by the
Federal Government in 1970
earned as much as $9,881.
Inhalation therapists working in
hospitals receive the same benefits
as other hospital personnel, includ­
ing hospitalization, paid vacations,
and sick leave. Some institutions
may provide tuition assistance o r
free courses, pension programs, uni­
forms, and parking.
Therapists generally work a 40hour week. After-hour and weekend
duty is generally required since
most hospitals have 24-hour cover­
age throughout the week. Adher­
ence to safety precautions and
proper testing of equipment mini­
mize hazards to therapists and pa­
tients. Safety precautions include
keeping sources of ignition and elec­
trical appliances away from respira­
tory apparatus and elimination of
oil and alcohol rubs.
Sources of Additional Information

Information concerning employ­
ment is obtainable from local hospi­
tals. Facts are also available from:
American Association for Inhalation
Therapy, 3554 9th Street, River­
side, California 92501.

Information concerning require­
ments and equivalents of formal ed­
ucation needed for registration may
be obtained from:
Executive Director, American Reg­
istry of Inhalation Therapists, 260
Crittenden Boulevard, Rochester,
New York 14620.


(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work

Optometrists help patients im­
prove and protect their vision. They

Optometrists should not be con­
fused with either ophthalmologists,
sometimes referred to as oculists, or
with dispensing opticians. Ophthal­
mologists are physicians who spe­
cialize in eye diseases and injuries,
perform eye surgery, and prescribe
drugs or other treatment, as well as
lenses. Dispensing opticians fit and
adjust eyeglasses according to pre­
scriptions written by ophthalmolo­
gists or optometrists; they do not
examine eyes or prescribe treat­
ment. (See statement on Dispensing
Places of Employment

make tests to determine vision
problems and the presence of eye
diseases and other abnormal condi­
tions. When necessary, they pre­
scribe vision aids including regular
and contact lenses; telescopic and
microscopic lenses or other high
magnification aids; corrective eye
exercises; and other optical treat­
ment that does not require drugs or
surgery. Most optometrists supply
the eyeglasses prescribed; they
sometimes also do minor repair
work such as straightening eyeglass
frames. Some optometrists special­
ize in treating the vision problems
of different categories of patients
such as children, older patients, and
partially sighted persons; other optometric specialists are concerned
with the effect of industrial and en­
vironmental factors on the visual ef­
ficiency of workers. A few optome­
trists are engaged in teaching, re­
search, or a combination of both.

Approximately 18,000 optome­
trists were in practice in 1970;
about 2 percent were women. More
than four-fifths of the optometrists
were self-employed; of these, most
were in solo practice and the others
were in partnerships or in group
Several hundred optometrists
served in the Armed Forces. The
remainder were salaried employees
who taught in colleges of optometry
or worked for established practi­
tioners, health clinics, hospitals, op­
tical instrument manufacturers, and
government agencies.
About 4 out of 10 optometrists
are located in five States—Califor­
nia, New York, Illinois, Pennsyl­
vania, and Ohio. Many small towns
and rural areas, especially in the
South, have no optometrists.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is required to practice
optometry in each State and in the
District of Columbia. Reciprocity
agreements among some States al­
low an optometrist licensed in one
State to practice in another.



Applicants for licenses must be
graduates of an accredited school of
optometry and pass the State Board
examination of the State in which
they will practice. In some cases,
applicants are permitted to substi­
tute the National Board of Optome­
try examination for the written State
examination. In 1970, there were
11 schools of optometry in the
United States.
Applicants having the necessary
qualifications have an excellent
chance for admission to these
schools. To pursue full-time study
leading to a degree in optometry,
needy students may obtain loans
and scholarships up to $2,500 a
year from Federal funds provided
by the Health Professions Educa­
tional Assistance Act of 1963, as
At least 6 years of college are
needed to become an optometrist
—2 years of preoptometry educa­
tion in an approved college, fol­
lowed by 4 years of training in an
optometry school. In addition to the
degree, Delaware and Rhode Island
require a 6-month internship to
qualify for a license, and Missis­
sippi, 1 year of experience.
Preoptometry courses include
mathematics, physics, biology, and
chemistry, as well as English and
other liberal arts courses. Students
in schools of optometry have class­
room and laboratory work and ob­
tain professional experience in the
out-patient clinics operated by the
schools. All schools of optometry
award the degree of Doctor of Op­
tometry (O.D.). Optometrists who
wish to specialize often take gradu­
ate training. A master’s or Ph. D.
degree in physiological optics or in
a related field is usually required for
teaching and research work.
Since most optometrists are selfemployed, business ability, self-dis­
cipline, and the ability to deal with

patients tactfully are necessary for
success in this field. Manual dexter­
ity and a mechanical aptitude also
are important to the optometrist
since he must work with precision
equipment and occasionally make
Many beginning optometrists ei­
ther set up a new practice or pur­
chase an established one. Some, on
the other hand, take salaried posi­
tions to obtain experience and the
necessary funds to enter their own

tometrist can become known easily.
Many communities, especially in the
South, that now have no optometric
services available also will offer op­
portunities for new graduates. A
good office location is of major im­
portance for a successful practice.
The optometrist should consider the
number of optometrists and oph­
thalmologists in the vicinity in rela­
tion to the size, occupations, age,
and income level of the population
in the area.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
new optometry graduates are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
1970’s. Some expansion in the seat­
ing capacity of optometry schools is
anticipated as a result of Federal as­
sistance. As a result, by the middle
1970’s the number of new graduates
may approximate the annual num­
ber needed for growth of the occu­
pation as well as for replacement of
those who retire, die, or stop prac­
ticing for other reasons.
Among the factors underlying the
expected increase in demand for
eye care services are, on the one
hand, growing numbers of persons
in groups most likely to need glasses
—older people and white-collar
workers—and, on the other, in­
creased recognition of the impor­
tance of good vision for efficiency at
work and in school. Although ex­
panded demand will be met in part
by ophthalmologists, optometrists
will continue to supply a substantial
proportion of all eye care services.
Optometrists usually locate in
heavily populated business areas.
However, opportunities to establish
a new practice generally will be best
in small towns and in residential
areas of cities, where the new op­

New optometry graduates who
begin as solo practitioners generally
have a low income during the first
few years. They usually earn less
than new optometrists who take sal­
aried positions. After a few years of
experience, the situation is usually
reversed, since the income of inde­
pendent practitioners generally ex­
ceeds the earnings of salaried op­
In 1970, starting salaries of new
optometry graduates ranged from
about $10,000 to $12,000 a year,
according to the limited information
available. The average net income
of experienced optometrists was
about $25,000. Incomes varied
greatly, depending on location, spe­
cialization, and other factors.
Most optometrists work 40 hours
a week. They may occasionally
work a few hours on Saturday.
Since the work is not strenuous, op­
tometrists can often continue to
practice after the normal retirement

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on op­
tometry as a career is available


American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo.

Information on required preop­
tometry courses may be obtained
by writing to the optometry school
in which the prospective student
wishes to enroll. The Board of Op­
tometry in the capital of the State in
which the student plans to practice
will provide a list of optometry
schools approved by that State, as
well as licensing requirements.

optometric assistants work in the
laboratory. They modify conven­
tional glasses or contact lenses to
assure proper fit. They cut and in­
sert lenses in frames, repair frames,
keep an inventory of optometric
materials, and clean and care for
the instruments.
Optometric assistants keep pa­
tients’ records, schedule appoint­
ments, and handle bookkeeping,
correspondence, and filing.
Places of Employment

(No D.O.T. Number)

An estimated 5,000 optometric
assistants, most of them women,
were employed in the United States
in 1970. Most worked for profes­
sional optometrists in private prac­

tice. Others worked for health clin­
ics, optical instrument manufac­
turers, or government agencies.
Some served as assistants to optom­
etrists in the Armed Forces.
mainly in the more densely popu­
lated areas of the country.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most optometric assistants are
trained on the job in their em­
ployers’ offices. Some complete vo­
cational or technical school courses
giving them skills needed for the oc­
cupation. In 1970, 6 schools—were
training students as optometric as­
sistants. The requirements for ad-

Nature of the Work

Optometric assistants perform a
gamut of tasks from assisting in eye
examinations to bookkeeping to
allow optometrists to devote more
time to their professional duties.
They prepare patients for eye ex­
aminations and help optometrists
test for near and distant eyesight,
color blindness, and tension or pres­
sure of the eyeball. Optometric as­
sistants measure patients for pupil­
lary distance and bridge width.
They suggest size and shape of eye
glass frames complimentary to the
patient’s facial features, and adjust
the finished eyeglasses by heating,
shaping, and bending the plastic or
metal frames. They also assist the
optometrist in fitting contact lenses
and in giving instructions on the use
and care of the lenses.
Optometric assistants help op­
tometrists in vision training routines
for patients with focusing defects,
such as teaching them to move and
coordinate both eyes.
In addition to caring for patients,

Optometric assistant conducts a focusing defect exercise.


mission generally consisted of high
school graduation or equivalent ed­
ucation, including some high school
courses in mathematics and office
All programs contained spe­
cialized courses such as the anat­
omy and physiology of the human
eye; orthoptics (correction of defec­
tive vision); testing color vision and
visual fields; use of the tonometer
(a device used in detecting glau­
coma) ; administering corrective eye
exercises and training; measuring,
preparing, and fitting lenses; verify­
ing prescriptions; selecting eyeglass
frames; cutting, edging and mount­
ing lenses; adjusting eyewear for
comfort and for optical reasons; and
repairing frames. Courses were also
given in secretarial and office proce­
dures. Course programs included
clinical practice, under the direct
supervision of an optometrist, con­
sisting of on-the-job experience.
Graduates of 2-year community col­
lege programs can advance to the
position of optometric technician.
Manual dexterity, accuracy, and
the ability to distinguish shades of
color are important requisites for
persons planning to become optom­
etric assistants. Because of the
person-to-person work relationship
between optometric assistants and
patients, neat appearance, cour­
tesy, and tact are important qualifi­
Employment Outlook

A moderate increase is expected
in the employment of optometric as­
sistants through the 1970’s. Assist­
ants will be needed to fill new open­
ings resulting from anticipated
growth in employment as well as to
replace workers who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Most job openings will be in in­


dustrial areas located in urban and
suburban regions, where profes­
sional optometrists develop prac­
tices large enough to utilize assist­
The factors underlying a growing
demand for eye care services, in­
cluding those performed by optome­
tric assistants, are similar to the fac­
tors affecting the demand for pro­
fessional optometrists. These factors
include: an expanding population
having larger numbers of older peo­
ple and white-collar workers (the
groups most likely to need glasses);
and a wider recognition of the
importance of good vision for
efficiency at work and in school.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, salaries generally
ranged from $80 to $100 a week
for inexperienced optometric as­
sistants and from $125 to $160 a
week for experienced workers, ac­
cording to limited information avail­
able. Earnings were highest in the
East and lowest in the South.
Earnings varied not only by geo­
graphical region, but also by the
academic and technical qualifica­
tions of optometric assistants, as
well as the specializations of the
optometrists employing them.
Most optometric assistants, like
their employers, work 40 hours a
week. Occasionally they may work
a few hours on Saturday. The work
is not strenuous and the physical
surroundings are usually pleasant.
Sources of Additional Information

Further information on a career
as optometric assistant is available
American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa Street, St. Louis,
Mo. 63119.

(D.O.T. 074.181)

Nature of the Work

Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines prescribed by medical
practitioners, and supply and ad­
vise people on the use of many
medicines that can be obtained with­
out prescriptions. Pharmacists must
understand the use, composition,
and effect of drugs and be able to
test them for purity and strength.
Compounding—the actual mixing
of ingredients to form powders,
tablets, capsules, ointments, and
solutions—is only a small part of
pharmacists’ work, since many
drugs now are produced by manu­
facturers in the form used by the
Many pharmacists in drugstores
or community pharmacies also have
other duties. Besides dispensing
drugs, these pharmacists buy and
sell nonpharmaceutical merchan­
dise, hire and supervise store per­
sonnel, and oversee the general op­
eration of the store. Some pharma­
cists, however, operate prescription
pharmacies that dispense only
drugs, medical supplies, and health
accessories. Pharmacists in hospitals
dispense prescriptions and advise
the medical staff on the selection
and effects of drugs; they also make
sterile solutions, buy medical sup­
plies, teach in schools of nursing,
and perform administrative duties.
An increasing number of hospital
pharmacists work in patient care
areas as active members of the
medical team. Some pharmacists,
employed as medical sales repre­
sentatives or “detail men” by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers, sell
medicines to retail pharmacies and
to hospitals, and inform practicing



working chiefly in hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administra­
tion and the U.S. Public Health
Service. Others served as pharma­
cists in the Armed Forces, taught in
colleges of pharmacy, or worked for
State and local government agen­
Nearly every town has at least
one drugstore with one or more
Places of Employment
pharmacists in attendance. Most
pharmacists, however, practice in or
Of the nearly 129,000 licensed
near cities, and in those States
pharmacists working in 1970, about
which have the greatest populations.
107,000 were in retail pharmacies.
Women, who represent nearly 9
Of these retail pharmacists, almost
percent of all pharmacists, are em­
half had their own pharmacies or
ployed in all branches of the profes­
owned them in partnership; the oth­
ers were salaried employees. Most
of the remaining salaried pharma­
cists were employed by hospitals,
Training, Other Qualifications,
pharmaceutical manufacturers, and
and Advancement
wholesalers. Some were civilian em­
ployees of the Federal Government,
A license to practice pharmacy is
pharmacists, doctors, dentists, and
nurses about new drugs. Others
teach in pharmacy colleges, do re­
search, supervise the manufacture
of pharmaceuticals, develop new
drugs, edit or write articles for
pharmaceutical journals, or do ad­
ministrative work.

required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To obtain a li­
cense, one must be a graduate of an
accredited pharmacy college, pass a
State Board examination and, in al­
most all States, also have a State
prescribed amount of practical ex­
perience or internship under the su­
pervision of a licensed pharmacist.
All States except California, Flor­
ida, and Hawaii grant a license
without examination to qualified
pharmacists already licensed by an­
other State.
In 1970, there were 74 accred­
ited colleges of pharmacy in the
United States. Some of these were
not filled to capacity and qualified
applicants usually could expect to
be accepted. Needy students may
obtain loans or scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in phar­
macy from Federal funds provided
by the Health Professions Educa­
tional Assistance Act of 1963, as
amended. Several scholarships are
awarded annually by drug manufac­
turers, chain drug stores, corpora­
tions, and State and National phar­
macy associations.
To graduate from a college of
pharmacy and receive a Bachelor of
Science (B.S.) or a Bachelor of
Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) degree, one
must have at least 5 years of study
beyond high school. A few colleges
that require 6 years award a Doctor
of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) degree at
the completion of the program. A
few colleges admit students directly
from high school and offer all the
education necessary for graduation.
Most colleges provide 3 or 4 years
of professional instruction and re­
quire all entrants to have completed
their prepharmacy education in an
accredited junior college, college, or
university. A prepharmacy curricu­
lum usually emphasizes mathemat­
ics and basic sciences, such as



chemistry and biology, but also in­
cludes courses in the humanities
and social sciences. Because entry
requirements vary among colleges
of pharmacy, prepharmacy students
should ascertain and follow the cur­
riculum required by colleges they
plan to attend.
The bachelor’s degree in phar­
macy is the minimum educational
qualification for most positions in
the profession. However, the mas­
ter’s or doctor’s degree in pharmacy
or a related field—such as pharma­
ceutical chemistry, pharmacology
(study of the effects of drugs on the
body), pharmacognosy (study of
the drugs derived from plant or ani­
mal sources), or pharmacy adminis­
tration—usually is required for re­
search work or college teaching.
Graduate study also is desirable for
pharmacists planning to work in
hospitals. Those interested in be­
coming hospital pharmacists can
sometimes secure 1- or 2-year in­
ternships which combine graduate
or advanced professional study and
practical experience in a hospital
Since many pharmacists are selfemployed, prospective pharmacists
should have business ability as well
as the ability to instill confidence in
customers. Honesty, integrity, or­
derliness, and manual dexterity are
important attributes for the profes­
sion. In addition, accuracy is
needed to compound and dispense
medicines, as well as keep records
required by law.
Pharmacists often begin as em­
ployees in community pharmacies.
After obtaining some experience
and the necessary funds, they may
become owners or part owners of
pharmacies. A pharmacist who
gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to managerial
positions and, later, to a higher

executive position within the com­
pany. Hospital pharmacists having
the necessary training and experi­
ence may advance to chief phar­
macist or to other administrative

Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates
will find employment readily availa­
ble through the 1970’s. Most new
openings will arise each year as
pharmacists retire, die, or transfer
out of the profession. These open­
ings, together with the anticipated
gradual increase in new positions
for pharmacists, are expected to
provide enough employment oppor­
tunities to absorb each year’s gradu­
Some employment growth for
pharmacists will result from the es­
tablishment of new pharmacies, par­
ticularly in residential areas or
suburban shopping centers; the
country’s expanding population; the
rising standard of medical care; and
the growth of Medicaid and other
insurance programs that provide for
payment of prescription drugs.
Many community pharmacies may
hire additional pharmacists because
of a trend towards shorter working
hours. Employment in hospitals
probably will rise with the construc­
tion of additional facilities and the
more extensive use of pharmacists
for hospital work. Continued expan­
sion in the manufacture of pharma­
ceutical products and in research
are expected to provide more op­
portunities for pharmacists in pro­
duction, research, distribution, and
sales. Pharmacists with advanced
training will be needed for college
teaching and laboratory research.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning pharmacists generally
received salaries ranging from
$10,000 to $14,000 a year in 1970,
according to limited information
available. The entrance salary in the
Federal Civil Service in 1970 for
new graduates was $9,881 or
$11,905 depending on college rec­
ords and other qualifications.
Experienced pharmacists practic­
ing in community pharmacies in
1970 generally were paid annual
salaries of between $12,000 and
$17,000, according to limited data
available. Owners and managers
earn more.
Community pharmacists gener­
ally work more than the standard
40-hour workweek. Drugstores
often are open in the evenings and
on weekends, and all States require
a registered pharmacist to be in at­
tendance during store hours. De­
spite the general trend toward
shorter hours, 44 hours is still the
basic workweek for many salaried
pharmacists, and some work 50
hours or more a week. Self-em­
ployed pharmacists often work
more hours than those in salaried
positions. Those who teach or work
for industry, government agencies,
or hospitals have shorter work­
weeks. Salaried pharmacists usually
receive paid vacations, health insur­
ance, and other fringe benefits.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on phar­
macy as a career can be obtained
American Pharmaceutical Associa­
tion, 2215 Constitution Ave. NW ,
Washington, D.C. 20037.
American Association of Colleges
of Pharmacy, 8121 Georgia Ave.,
Silver Spring, Md. 20910.



Information about student finan­
cial aid and chain drug stores may
be obtained from:
National Association of Chain Drug
Stores, 1911 Jefferson Highway,
Arlington, Va. 22202.

Information about retail phar­
macies may be obtained from:
National Association of Retail Drug­
gists, 529 14th St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20004.

A list of accredited colleges may
be obtained from:
American Council on Pharmaceuti­
cal Education, 77 West Washing­
ton St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

Current requirements for licen­
sure in a particular State may be
obtained from the Board of Phar­
macy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of
Pharmacy, 77 West Washington
St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and fi­
nancial aid is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work

Podiatrists (sometimes called
chiropodists) diagnose and treat
diseases and deformities of the feet.
They perform foot surgery, pre­
scribe and use drugs and physical
therapy, prescribe proper shoes,
and fit corrective devices. To help
in diagnoses, they take X-rays and
perform or prescribe blood and
other pathological tests. Among the
conditions podiatrists treat are
corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown

toenails, skin and nail diseases, de­
formed toes, and arch disabilities.
They refer patients to medical doc­
tors whenever they observe symp­
toms in the feet that may be evi­
dence of medical disorders—such
as arthritis, diabetes, or heart or
kidney disease.
As a rule, podiatrists provide
complete foot care. Some, however,
specialize in foot surgery, orthope­
dics (bone, muscle, and joint disor­
ders), podopediatrics (children’s
foot ailments), or podogeriatrics
(foot problems of the elderly).
Places of Employment

Approximately 7,000 podiatrists
were actively engaged in the profes­
sion in 1970; about 5 percent were
women. Nearly all podiatrists were
self-employed. The few who had
full-time salaried positions worked
mainly in hospitals, podiatric col­
leges, or for other podiatrists. Small
numbers were employed by the
Veterans Administration or were
commissioned officers in the Armed

Podiatrists practice mainly in
large cities. In early 1970, nearly
half were located in four of the
most heavily populated States—
New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
and California. In many small towns
and rural areas, especially in the
South and the Northwest, there
were no podiatrists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All States and the District of Co­
lumbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. To qualify for
a license, an applicant must be a
graduate of an accredited 4-year
program in a college of podiatric
medicine and must pass a State
board examination. In addition,
three States—Michigan, New Jer­
sey, and Rhode Island—require ap­
plicants to serve a 1-year internship
in a hospital or clinic after gradua­
tion from a college of podiatric
medicine. Three-fourths of the
States grant licenses without further
examination to podiatrists already
licensed by another State.
The five colleges of podiatric
medicine in the United States admit
only students who have already
completed at least 2 years of col­
lege. This education must include
courses in English, chemistry, biol­
ogy or zoology, physics, and mathe­
The first 2 years of podiatry edu­
cation are chiefly in classroom in­
struction and laboratory work in
basic sciences such as anatomy,
bacteriology, chemistry, pathology,
physiology, and pharmacology. Dur­
ing the final 2 years, students con­
centrate on obtaining clinical expe­
rience. The degree of Doctor of
Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) is
awarded upon graduation. Addi­
tional education and experience are



generally necessary in order to qual­
ify for work in a specialized area of
podiatry. Needy students may ob­
tain loans and scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in podia­
try from Federal funds provided by
the Health Professions Educational
Assistance Act of 1963, as amended.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions considered desirable for a ca­
reer in this profession are scientific
aptitude, manual dexterity, and a
good business sense. The ability to
get along well with people also is
Most newly licensed podiatrists
set up their own practices. Some
purchase established practices. Oth­
ers begin by obtaining salaried posi­
tions to gain experience and to save
the money needed to establish their
own practices.

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for po­
diatrists is expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Opportunities
for new graduates to establish their
own practices, as well as to enter
salaried positions, should continue
to be favorable.
The demand for podiatrists’ serv­
ices is expected to grow with the
demand for other health services.
An important factor underlying this
anticipated growth is an expanding
population with a greater number of
older people. This age group, the
one needing most foot care, is enti­
tled to certain podiatrists’ services
under Medicare. Furthermore, the
trend toward providing preventive
foot care for children is increasing.
In addition, more podiatrists will be
needed to furnish services in hospi­
tals, extended care facilities, and
public health programs.

Earnings and Working Conditions


In podiatry, as in many of the
other professions, incomes usually
rise markedly after the first years of
practice. Earnings of individual po­
diatrists are determined mainly by
such factors as ability, experience,
the income level of the community
served, and location. Starting sala­
ries of new podiatrists ranged from
$10,000 to $12,000 in 1970, ac­
cording to limited information avail­
able. The average net income of ex­
perienced podiatrists was about
$21,500. Income was generally
higher in large cities.
Podiatrists usually work 40 hours
a week. They may set their hours to
suit their practice.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Sources of Additional Information

Applicants for licenses to practice
podiatry in a particular State may
obtain information on the require­
ments for licensure from the State
board of examiners in the State cap­
A list of colleges of podiatric
medicine, entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships are
available from:
American Association of Colleges of
Podiatric Medicine, 20 Chevy
Chase Circle NW., Washington,
D.C. 20015.

Additional information on podia­
try as a career may be obtained
American Podiatry Association, 20
Chevy Chase Circle NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20015.

Nature of the Work

Chiropractic is a system of treat­
ment based on the principle that a
person’s health is determined
largely by his nervous system, and
that interference with this system
impairs his normal functions and
lowers his resistance to disease.
Chiropractors treat their patients
primarily by manual manipulation
of parts of the body, especially the
spinal column.
Because of the emphasis of the
importance of the spine and its posi­
tion, most chiropractors use X-rays
extensively to aid in locating the
source of patients’ difficulties. Many
also use such supplementary meas­
ures as water, light, and heat ther­
apy, and prescribe diet, exercise,
and rest. Some State laws restrict
the type of supplementary treatment
permitted in chiropractic. Chiro­
practic as a system for healing does
not include the use of drugs or surgery.

Places of Employment

About 16,000 chiropractors were
employed in the United States in
1970; about 9 percent were women.
Most chiropractors were engaged in
independent private practice. Some
were salaried assistants of estab­
lished practitioners or worked for
chiropractic clinics and industrial
firms. Others taught or conducted
research at chiropractic colleges.
More than two-fifths of all chiro­
practors were located in California,
New York, Texas, Missouri, and



Some of the 11 chiropractic col­
leges in the United States in 1970
emphasized courses in manipulation
and spinal adjustments. Others of­
fered a broader curriculum, includ­
ing such subjects as physiotherapy
and nutrition. In most chiropractic
colleges, the first 2 years of the 4year curriculum are devoted chiefly
to classroom and laboratory work in
subjects such as anatomy, physiol­
ogy, and biochemistry. The last 2
years are spent in obtaining practi­
cal experience in the colleges’ clin­
ics. The degree of Doctor of
Chiropractic (D.C.) is awarded to
students completing 4 years of
chiropractic training.
Chiropractic requires considera­
ble hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Among per­
sonal qualities considered desirable
in dealing effectively with patients
are sympathy and understanding.
Most newly licensed chiroprac­
tors either set up a new practice or
purchase an established one. Some
start as salaried chiropractors to ac­
quire experience and funds needed
to establish their own practice. A
moderate financial investment is
usually necessary to open and equip
an office.
Chiropractor treats patient’s spine.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who meet certain edu­
cational requirements and pass a
State board examination. The type
of practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for licensure
vary considerably from one State to
another. In 1970, the States of Lou­
isiana and Mississippi did not regu­

late the practice of chiropractic or
issue licenses.
Most States require successful
completion of a 4-year chiropractic
course following high school grad­
uation. About three-quarters of the
States also require 1 or 2 years of
preparatory college work before
chiropractic training. Nearly twofifths of the States also require that
chiropractors pass a basic science
examination. Chiropractors licensed
in one State may obtain a license in
another State by reciprocity.

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for chi­
ropractors is expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s, though
only a slight increase in demand for
chiropractic services is expected.
However, the anticipated small
number of new graduates of chiro­
practic colleges probably will be in­
sufficient to fill openings created by
growth, as well as to replace chiro­
practors who retire, die, or stop
practicing for other reasons. In view
of the trend in many States toward
raising educational requirements for



chiropractic practice, opportunities
may be best for those having the
most thorough training.
Opportunities for new graduates
to begin their own practice are
likely to be best in those parts of the
country where chiropractic is most
fully accepted as a method of
health care. Opportunities also
should be good for those who wish
to enter salaried positions in chiro­
practic clinics, chiropractic colleges,
and other organizations employing
The expected slight growth in de­
mand for chiropractors’ services will
be related to an expanding popula­
tion and its increasing demand for
health care of various types, includ­
ing chiropractic treatment.
Women are expected to have
good opportunities in chiropractic,
since some women and children
prefer to be treated by women chi­

Earnings and Working Conditions

In chiropractic, as in other types
of independent practice, earnings
are relatively low in the beginning
but rise after the first few years. In­
comes of chiropractors vary widely.
Experienced chiropractors generally
had average yearly incomes ranging
from $14,000 to $28,000 in 1970,
according to the limited data availa­

Sources of Additional Information

Information on State licensing re­
quirements may be obtained from
the State Board of licensing in the
capital of the State in which the in­
dividual plans to practice.
General information on chiro­
practic as a career may be obtained
from :

American Chiropractic Association,
American Building, 2200 Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Asso­
ciation, 741 Brady St., Daven­
port, Iowa 52805.

skills such as typing and using
power tools. In programs for chil­
dren, they initiate and direct activi­
ties appropriate to the child’s matu­
ration level. Therapists may design
and make special equipment or
splints to aid disabled patients.

(D.O.T. 079.128)

Nature of the Work

Occupational therapists plan and
direct educational, vocational and
recreational activities designed to
help mentally and physically disa­
bled patients become self-sufficient.
They work as members of a medical
team which, in addition to physi­
cians may include physical thera­
pists, vocational counselors, nurses,
social workers, and other specialists.
About one-third of the total num­
ber of occupational therapists work
with emotionally handicapped pa­
tients, and the rest with persons
having physical disabilities. These
patients represent all age groups
and varying degrees of illness.
The treatment or training goals
for patients referred for occupa­
tional therapy may include regain­
ing physical, mental or emotional
stability; developing maximum selfsufficiency in the routine of daily
living (such as eating, dressing,
writing, and using a telephone);
and, in the latter stage of treatment,
performing jobs in a practical work
situation for eventual return to em­
As part of the treatment program
for adults, occupational therapists
teach manual and creative skills,
such as weaving and leatherwork­
ing, and business and industrial

In addition to patient care, occu­
pational therapists supervise student
therapists, occupational therapy as­
sistants, volunteers, and auxiliary
nursing workers. The chief occupa­
tional therapist in a hospital may
teach medical and nursing students
the principles of occupational ther­
apy. Many therapists are adminis­
trators and direct occupational ther­
apy programs, coordinate patient
activities, or act as consultants to
local and State health departments
and mental health authorities. Some
teach in colleges and universities.
Places of Employment

About 7,500 occupational thera­
pists were employed in 1970; more
than 9 out of 10 were women. More
than three-fourths of all occupa­
tional therapists work in hospitals.


Most of the remainder are employed
in rehabilitation centers, custodial
care and nursing homes, schools,
outpatient clinics, community mental
health centers, and research centers.
Some work in special workshops,
sanitariums, camps for handicapped
children and in State health depart­
ments. Others are employed in
home-care programs for patients
unable to attend clinics or work
shops. Still others are members of
the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum requirement for
entry into the profession is a degree
or certificate in occupational ther­
apy. In 1970, 36 colleges and uni­
versities in the United States offered
programs in occupational therapy
which were accredited by the Amer­
ican Medical Association and the
American Occupational Therapy
Association. All of these schools
offer a bachelor’s degree program
for high school graduates or transfer
students who have completed 2
years of college. Some of the
schools also offer shorter programs
leading to a certificate in occupa­
tional therapy for students having a
bachelor’s degree in another field.
The academic work in a 4-year
program emphasizes the physical,
biological, and behavioral sciences
and the application of occupational
therapy skills. In addition to the ac­
ademic work, the training includes 6
to 9 months of supervised clinical
experience in hospitals or health
agencies. Some programs give part
of the clinical experience during the
summer or during part of the senior
year. The Armed Forces offer pro­
grams whereby graduates of ap­
proved schools of occupational ther­
apy, who meet the requirements to


become commissioned officers, may
receive the clinical part of their
training while in the service.
Upon graduation and the comple­
tion of the clinical practice period,
therapists are eligible to take the ex­
amination given by the American
Occupational Therapy Association.
Those who pass this examination
may use the initials O.T.R. (Occu­
pational Therapist Registered).
Eight universities offer a program
for occupational therapists leading to
a master’s degree in occupational
therapy. The master’s degree also is
offered at six universities as the first
professional degree for persons
holding a baccalaureate degree in
related fields. A graduate degree
often is required for teaching, re­
search, or administrative work.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on
the job, they may qualify as senior
therapists. Experienced therapists
may become directors of occupa­
tional therapy programs in large
hospitals or clinics, or may become
teachers. Some high-level positions,
such as program coordinators and
consultants, also are available in
large institutions and agencies.
Personal qualifications needed in
this profession include emotional
stability and a sympathetic but ob­
jective approach to illness and disa­
bility. An ability to teach, ingenuity,
and imagination also are needed.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
occupational therapists are expected
to be excellent through the 1970’s.
Despite anticipated increases in the
number of graduates of occupa­
tional therapy programs, the de­
mand for therapists is expected to
exceed the supply as public interest

in the rehabilitation of disabled per­
sons and the success of established
occupational therapy programs in­
creases. Many occupational thera­
pists will be needed to staff the
growing number of community
health centers and extended care fa­
cilities. There will continue to be
numerous opportunities to children,
and aged persons, as work with psy­
chiatric patients, well as with per­
sons suffering from cerebral palsy,
tuberculosis, and heart disease. In
addition to openings that will result
from growth, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace
the high proportion of young
women who leave the field for mar­
riage and family responsibilities.
women who wish to return to work
part time after rearing their children
should be excellent.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual salaries of staff and senior
occupational therapists ranged from
$8,000 to $10,000 in 1970, accord­
ing to the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Directors of
services, coordinators, consultants,
and others in top administrative po­
sitions generally earned annual sala­
ries of $13,000 to $18,000 in 1970.
In the Federal Government, the
beginning annual salary for inexpe­
rienced occupational therapists was
$7,294 in 1970. More than one-fifth
of all occupational therapists in
the Federal Government earned
$10,500 or more a year.
Most occupational therapists
work an 8-hour day, 40-hour week,
including some evening work re­
quired in a few organizations. Vaca­
tion leave usually ranges from 2 to
4 weeks a year, and many positions
offer health and retirement benefits.



Sources of Additional Information
American Occupational Therapy As­
sociation, 251 Park Avenue South,
New York, N.Y. 10010.

(D.O.T. 079.368)

Nature of the Work

Occupational therapy assistants
work under the supervision of pro­
fessional occupational therapists to
help rehabilitate patients who are
physically and mentally disabled.
Through educational, vocational,
and recreational activities, they help
carry out programs designed to
strengthen their patients’ muscle
power; increase their joint motion
and coordination; and develop selfsufficiency in overcoming disabili­
These rehabilitational activities
are usually carried out through in­
struction in creative skills such

as woodworking, ceramics, and
graphic arts, or in work-related rec­
reational and social functions such
as games, dramatics, and gardening,
or in self-care skills such as eating,
dressing, and shaving.
The widely varying patients re­
quire that assistants be capable of
teaching a broad range of skills.
They may work either with groups
or with individual patients, includ­
ing those confined to bed. Gener­
ally, when treating patients ill with
diseases, assistants work under the
supervision of professional occupa­
tional therapists. In some situations,
by contrast, they may work largely
independently, with only periodic
consultation with professionals—as
in activities designed to meet the
normal health needs of handicapped
persons living in institutions.
Occupational therapy assistants
also have a variety of tasks other
than working directly with patients.
They may order supplies, prepare
work materials, and help maintain
tools and equipment. At times, they
perform clerical duties such as
keeping patients’ records and pre­
paring clinical notes.

Places of Employment

Approximately 6,000 occupa­
tional therapy assistants were em­
ployed in the United States in 1970;
most were women. The majority
of occupational therapy assistants
worked in general and specialized
hospitals, in occupational therapy
departments. Others were employed
in rehabilitation centers, homes for
the aged, convalescent and nursing
homes, schools for handicapped
children, day care centers, facilities
for the mentally retarded, special
workshops, and out-patient clinics.
A small number were members of
the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most occupational therapy assist­
ants employed in 1970 qualified
through on-the-job training received
in hospitals and other health care
facilities. Some learned their skills
in vocational, technical, and adult
education programs or received
training in programs sponsored by
the Manpower Development and
Training Act (MDTA). Detailed
information about MDTA-sponsored training is available from
State Employment Services. Other
assistants were graduated from oneor two-year junior college pro­
Applicants for training programs
must be high school graduates or
the equivalent. Preference is given
to applicants who have taken
courses in science and crafts and
have previous experience as nursing
Directors of approved programs
may recommend that graduates be
certified by the American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association
(AOTA) and receive the title of
Certified Occupational Therapy As­



sistant (C.O.T.A.). In 1970, about
2,000 employed occupational ther­
apy assistants were C.O.T.A.’s.
About 25 occupational therapy as­
sistant training programs had
AOTA approval in 1970.
AOTA certifies graduates of ap­
proved programs, drawn from three
categories: (1) hospital-based pro­
grams lasting about 25 weeks; (2)
one-year vocational school pro­
grams; and (3) two-year junior col­
lege programs. Each approved pro­
gram requires completion of desig­
nated courses and supervised practi­
cal experience. Courses include the
history and philosophy of occupa­
tional therapy; structure and func­
tion of the human body; growth and
development from childhood to old
age; the effect of illness and injury
on patients; and skills, crafts, and
activities of daily living and their
applications to physical and mental
disabilities. Although these basic
subjects are common to all catego­
ries of approved programs, gradu­
ates of junior colleges in addition
earn some credits that may be trans­
ferred to 4-year colleges.
Young people looking to careers
as occupational therapy assistants
should have good physical and men­
tal health, a sincere liking for peo­
ple, and the ability to establish and
maintain effective personal relation­
ships. Manual and finger dexterity,
to handle tools and materials while
instructing patients, as well as good
color perception when using colored
arts and crafts materials, are also
valuable talents for work in occupa­
tional therapy.

ticipated growing demand is linked
to the factors underlying the rising
demand for professional occupa­
tional therapists. Public interest in
the rehabilitation of disabled per­
sons is increasing. Many assistants
will be needed to staff community
health centers established under the
Mental Retardation Facilities and
Community Mental Health Centers
Construction Act of 1963.
In addition, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace
workers who leave the occupation
—particularly young women with
marriage and family responsibilities.
After rearing their own children,
experienced women wishing to do
so will have good opportunities to
re-enter the occupation.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, weekly salaries generally
ranged from $95 to $120 for inex­
perienced occupational therapy as­
sistants and from $125 to $150 for
experienced assistants. Workers
who completed training programs
approved by the AOTA received
higher starting salaries than those
paid to beginners without any train­
Occupational therapy assistants
generally work indoors although,
weather permitting, they may en­
gage patients in suitable outdoor ac­
tivities. Work hours are usually 8
hours daily, 5 days a week; occa­
sionally, there may be evening and
weekend assignments.

Sources of Additional Information
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for occupational
therapy assistants are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s,
particularly for C.O.T.A.’s. The an­

Additional information on a ca­
reer as an occupational therapy as­
sistant and on programs offering
training for the occupation may be
obtained from:

The American Occupational Ther­
apy Association, 251 Park Avenue
South, New York, N.Y. 10010.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work

Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone
diseases or injuries to overcome
their disabilities. They use exer­
cises, mechanical apparatus, mas­
sage and applications of heat or
cold, light, water, or electricity to
treat patients. Most of their patients
are accident victims, crippled chil­
dren, and disabled older persons.
To develop programs for treat­
ment, physical therapists perform
muscle, nerve, and other func­
tional tests. They also keep records
of their patients’ progress during
treatments and attend conferences
with physicians and other medical
personnel to discuss this progress.
In many instances, they help dis­
abled persons to accept and adjust
to their physical handicaps. They
also show members of the patients’
families how to continue treatments
at home.
Physical therapists are members
of a health care team that is di­
rected by a physician and may in­
clude a nurse, clinical social worker,
occupational therapist, psychologist,
vocational counselor, and other spe­
cialists. Although qualified physical
therapists may treat many types of
patients, some specialize in caring
for children, or for patients having
amputations, arthritis, or paralysis.
They also may instruct physical
therapy students, as well as students



of related professions and other
health workers.

serve as consultants in government
and voluntary agencies. In addition,
a few hundred are members of the
Armed Forces.

Places of Employment

Approximately 15,000 licensed
physical therapists were employed
in 1970. About two-thirds of all
therapists were women.
About three-fourths of all physi­
cal therapists work in general hospi­
tals; in hospitals that specialize in
the care of pediatric, orthopedic,
psychiatric, or chronically ill pa­
tients; and in nursing homes.
Most of the remainder are em­
ployed by rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, schools or societies
for crippled children, and public
health agencies. Most of these or­
ganizations provide treatment for
patients having chronic diseases,
and some have home visiting pro­
Some therapists work in physi­
cians’ offices or clinics, teach in
schools of physical therapy, or work
for research organizations. Others

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is required to practice
physical therapy in 49 States and
the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, an applicant must have a
degree or certificate from a school
of physical therapy and pass a State
board examination. In Texas and
Missouri, employers require a degree
or certificate from an approved
school of physical therapy. In 1970,
52 schools of physical therapy (in­
cluding the Army Medical Service
School) were approved by the
American Medical Association and
the American Physical Therapy As­
sociation. Most of the schools are
part of large universities; a few are
operated by hospitals, which usually
have university affiliations.
Most of the approved schools of

physical therapy offer bachelor’s de­
gree programs. Some schools pro­
vide 1- to 2-year programs for stu­
dents who have completed some
college courses. Other schools ac­
cept those who already have a bach­
elor’s degree and give a 12- to 16month course leading to a certificate
in physical therapy. Many schools
offer both degree and certificate
Among the courses included in a
physical therapy program are anat­
omy, physiology, pathology, clinical
medicine, psychology, electrother­
apy, hydrotherapy, massage thera­
peutic exercise, and administration.
In addition to classroom instruction,
students are assigned to a hospital
or treatment center for supervised
clinical experience in the care of pa­
Several universities offer the mas­
ter’s degree in physical therapy. A
graduate degree, combined with
clinical experience, increases the
opportunities for advancement to
positions of responsibility in teach­
ing, research, and administration, as
well as in the treatment area of
physical therapy.
Because an important function of
a therapist’s job is to help patients
and their families understand the
treatments and adjust to their hand­
icaps, therapists must have patience,
tact, resourcefulness, and emotional
stability. In addition, physical thera­
pists should have manual dexterity
and physical stamina. For those
who wish to determine whether they
have the personal qualities needed
for this occupation, summer or
part-time work as a volunteer in the
physical therapy department of a
hospital or clinic may prove helpful.
Employment Outlook





physical therapists are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s.
The demand for physical thera­
pists is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s as the
result of increased public recogni­
tion of the importance of rehabilita­
tion. Many new positions for physi­
cal therapists are expected to be
created as programs to aid crippled
children and rehabilitation activities
are expanded to serve the increasing
number of disabled people who re­
quire physical therapy. Rapid
growth in the number of nursing
homes also should result in the need
for many more physical therapists
to work as staff members. In addi­
tion, many openings will continue to
arise each year to replace the large
number of women who leave the
profession for marriage and family
Part-time positions will continue
to be available in many communi­
ties. These positions are particularly
attractive to married women who
wish to combine work and family
Increased demands for physical
therapy services also will result in
greater opportunities for physical
therapy assistants who generally
obtain their training in junior col­
leges or on the job in hospitals and
other institutions.

Earnings and Working Conditions

New physical therapy graduates
received starting salaries ranging
between $8,000 and $10,000 in
1970, according to the American
Physical Therapy Association. An­
nual salaries of experienced thera­
pists generally ranged from $14,000
to $20,000. Physical therapists in
consultative, educational, or admin­
istrative positions earned salaries of
$15,000 to $25,000.


In 1970, beginning therapists em­
ployed by the Federal Government
received annual starting salaries of
$7,294; those having high academic
standing, however, were offered
$8,098. About one-fifth of all physi­
cal therapists employed by the Fed­
eral Government were earning sala­
ries of $11,905 or more a year.
Most physical therapists work 40
hours a week. Almost all receive 2
weeks of vacation or more, and the
majority receive sick leave and
other fringe benefits.
Sources of Additional Information
American Physical Therapy Associa­
tion, 1156 15th St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 355.878)

Nature of the Work

Physical therapy assistants work
under the supervision of profes­
sional physical therapists to rehabil­
itate disabled persons so that they
may again lead useful and produc­
tive lives. To do this, the assistants
must work to restore physical func­
tions in the patients and prevent dis­
ability from injury or illness. They
also try to improve their patients’
general health and strength.
Assistants help physical thera­
pists perform tests on patients to de­



termine the desired treatment and
assist in administering it. They posi­
tion patients for treatment; use spe­
cial therapy equipment to apply
heat, cold, light, sound, and mas­
sage; watch closely patients and
equipment during treatment and re­
port their findings to supervisors or
professionals. Treatments also in­
clude helping patients do therapeu­
tic exercises and functional activi­
ties such as walking and climbing
Physical therapy assistants help
patients to dress and undress for
treatment, and may remove and re­
place for the patients such devices
as braces, splints, and slings, and
transport patients to and from treat­
ment areas.
Physical therapy assistants work
with patients in the fitting of artifi­
cial limbs, braces, and splints, and
in instructing them in how to use
these prosthetic devices.
Assistants are responsible also for
the care and assembling of physical
therapy treatment equipment, such
as hydrotherapy tanks, as well as
cleaning equipment and maintaining
a safe environment for the disabled.
In addition, assistants do clerical
work such as keeping patients’ rec­
ords, making appointments, and
acting as receptionists.

Places of Employment

Approximately 10,000 physical
therapy assistants were employed in
the United States in 1970— about
half of them were women. The ma­
jority worked in physical therapy
departments of general and special­
ized hospitals. Others were em­
ployed in rehabilitation centers,
nursing homes for the chronically ill
and elderly, community and govern­
ment agencies providing health serv­
ices, schools for crippled children,

facilities for the mentally retarded,
and physicians’ or physical thera­
pists’ offices and clinics. A small
number were members of the
Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most physical therapy assistants
employed in 1970 qualified for the
occupation through training re­
ceived on the job in hospitals and
other health care facilities. Some
workers were trained in on-the-job
programs sponsored by the Man­
power Development and Training
The duration and content of onthe-job programs vary widely, de­
pending on factors such as the level
of duties assistants are permitted to
perform, the particular services re­
quired by different patients when
the program is in progress, and the
amount of time professional physi­
cal therapists can allocate for teach­
ing trainees. Applicants admitted to
on-the-job training programs for
physical therapy assistants generally
must be high school graduates or
the equivalent. Employers usually
prefer applicants with additional
qualifications, such as high school
science courses and previous hospi­
tal experience as nurse aides.
Other physical therapy assistants
learned their skills in vocational,
technical, or adult education pro­
grams. A small number were
trained in 2-year college programs
for physical therapy assistants. In
the past few years, junior college
programs have been established in
increasing numbers. In 1970, 25
physical therapy assistant programs
were in the planning stage or had
been started.
Junior college programs are rec­
ommended by the American Physi­

cal Therapy Association because
they train high-calibre physical ther­
apy assistants. The programs re­
quire completion of designated
courses, as well as supervised clini­
cal experience. Among the pre­
scribed courses are history and phi­
losophy of rehabilitation; structure
and function of the human body;
human growth and development;
psychology; physical therapy assist­
ing procedures; functional anatomy;
and ethics and departmental proce­
Personal qualifications needed
for those planning a career as a
physical therapy assistant include:
good physical and mental health;
manual dexterity to adjust equip­
ment; body coordination to assist in
positioning patients; and a sincere
interest in helping the physically

Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for physical
therapy assistants are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s par­
ticularly for graduates of a 2-year
junior college program. Anticipated
demand for physical therapy assist­
ants will accompany the growing
demand for professional physical
therapists. Growth factors include
increasing public awareness of the
importance of rehabilitation (evi­
denced by about a threefold
growth in the number of persons re­
habilitated by Federal and State
funds between 1960 and 1970); a
growing number of nursing homes
which provide therapeutic services
to the elderly; and expanded physi­
cal therapy services planned by hos­
pitals, nursing homes, schools for
crippled children, facilities for men­
tally retarded, and other health and
rehabilitation centers.
In addition, many openings will



arise because of the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, weekly salaries gener­
ally ranged from $80 to $110 for
inexperienced physical therapy as­
sistants and from $110 to $150 for
those with experience. Workers who
completed 2-year junior college
programs received higher starting
salaries than those paid beginners
without any training.
Physical therapy assistants work
indoors in hospitals, clinics, and
other health care facilities. They
also may work in patients’ homes.
Working hours are usually 8 hours a
day, 5 days a week.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on a ca­
reer as a physical therapy assistant
and on programs offering training
for the occupation may be obtained
The American Physical Therapy As­
sociation, 1156 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work

The inability to speak or hear
clearly is a severe hardship to per­
sons of all ages. Children who have
difficulty speaking or hearing usu­
ally are unable to play freely with
others or to participate fully in nor­

mal classroom activities. Adults suf­
fering from speech or hearing im­
pairments often face problems of
job adjustment. Speech pathologists
and audiologists help persons hav­
ing such disorders by identifying
and evaluating their problems and
by providing treatment. In addition,
they may conduct research in the
speech and hearing field. Some are
engaged in training programs in
speech pathology and audiology at
colleges and universities.
Speech pathologists are con­
cerned primarily with speech and
language disorders and audiologists
with hearing problems. Speech and
hearing, however, are so interre­
lated that to be competent in either
of these occupations, one must have
a familiarity with both. The speech
pathologist works with children and
adults who have speech, language
and voice problems resulting from
brain injury, cleft-palate, mental re­
tardation, emotional problems, for­
eign dialect, or other causes. The
audiologist also works with children

and adults, but concerns himself
primarily with the assessment and
treatment of hearing problems such
as those caused by certain otological
or neurological disturbances.
The duties performed by speech
pathologists and audiologists vary
with their education, experience,
and employment setting. In a clini­
cal capacity, they identify and eval­
uate speech and hearing disorders
using various diagnostic procedures.
This is followed by an organized
program of therapy, with the coop­
eration of other specialists, such as
physicians, psychologists, social
workers, physical therapists, coun­
selors, and teachers. Some perform
research work, which may consist of
investigating communicative disor­
ders and their causes and improving
methods for clinical services. Others
may supervise clinical activities or
perform other administrative work.
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists working in colleges or uni­
versities provide instruction in the


principles and bases of communica­
tion, communication disorders, and
clinical techniques. Many also par­
ticipate in educational programs for
physicians, nurses, teachers, and
other professional personnel. In ad­
dition, they may work in university
clinics and conduct research, usu­
ally at university centers.
Places of Employment

Approximately 22,000 persons
were employed as speech patholo­
gists and audiologists in 1970.
Women represented about threefourths of total employment. The
majority of speech pathologists and
audiologists work in public school
systems. Colleges and universities
employ the next largest number of
these specialists in classrooms, clin­
ics, and research centers. The re­
mainder are distributed among hos­
pitals, rehabilitation and community
speech and hearing centers, State
and Federal Government agencies,
industry, and private practice.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although only a few States pres­
ently have such a requirement, a
master’s degree in speech pathology
or audiology or its equivalent is
being stressed increasingly as the
minimum educational standard for
employment in public school sys­
tems. In addition, many Federal
programs, such as Medicare and
Medicaid, require that speech and
hearing services be given by, or
under the supervision of a speech
pathologist or audiologist holding a
master’s degree.
Undergraduate training in speech
pathology and audiology should in­
clude course work in anatomy, biol­
ogy, physiology, physics, and in


other related areas such as linguis­
tics, semantics, and phonetics. Some
specialized course work in speech
and hearing, as well as in child psy­
chology and psychology of the ex­
ceptional child, also is helpful. This
training is usually available at col­
leges and universities offering a
broad liberal arts program.
Graduate education in speech pa­
thology and audiology was offered
at 203 colleges and universities in
1970. Professional preparation at
the graduate level involves exten­
sive training in the fundamental
areas of speech and hearing, includ­
ing anatomy and physiology, acous­
tics, and psychological aspects of
communication; the nature of
speech and hearing disorders; and
the assessment, evaluation, and
analysis of speech production, lan­
guage abilities, and auditory proc­
esses; as well as familiarity with
various research methods used in
studying speech and hearing. Per­
sons who wish to work in public
schools should complete not only
the education and other require­
ments necessary for a teacher’s cer­
tificate in the State in which they
wish to work, but also may have to
fulfill special requirements, pre­
scribed by some States, for people
who are going to work with handi­
capped children.
Many scholarships, fellowships,
assistantships, and traineeships are
available in colleges and universi­
ties; however, most of these are at
the graduate level. The U.S. Reha­
bilitation Services Administration,
the Maternal and Child Health
Service, the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, and the National Institutes of
Health allocate funds for teaching
and training grants to colleges and
universities offering graduate study
in speech and hearing. The Veter­
ans Administration and the Reha­
bilitation Services Administration

provide stipends for predoctoral
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists should have an interest and lik­
ing for people, and the ability to ap­
proach problems with objectivity.
To work effectively with persons
having speech and hearing disor­
ders, one must be sensitive, patient,
and have emotional stability.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
speech pathologists and audiologists
who have completed graduate study
are expected to be good through the
1970’s. Although some positions
will be available for individuals hav­
ing only the bachelor’s degree, the
increasing emphasis being placed on
the master’s degree by Federal agen­
cies and State governments will
limit opportunities at the bachelor’s
Many speech pathologists and
audiologists will be needed annually
through the 1970’s to staff new and
expanding programs in schools,
clinics, colleges and universities,
and hospitals. In addition, many will
be needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the profession for
other reasons.
Several factors are expected to
increase demand for the services of
speech pathologists and audiologists
during the 1970’s: Population
growth, which will result in an in­
crease in the absolute number of
persons having speech and hearing
problems; a lengthening life span,
which will increase the number of
persons having speech and hearing
problems that are common to later
life; a rapid expansion in expendi­
tures for medical research; the
growing public interest and aware­
ness of the serious problems con­
nected with speech and hearing dis­



orders, as illustrated by the Elemen­
tary and Secondary Education Act,
as amended, which provides for the
education of handicapped children;
and expanded Federal programs
such as Medicare and Medicaid.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Median salaries of speech pathol­
ogists and audiologists employed in
colleges and universities ranged
from $9,200 to $17,200 for a 9- to
10-month contract period in 1970,
according to the American Speech
and Hearing Association. Median
salaries may be as much as $4,700
higher for an 11- to 12-month con­
tract. Many experienced speech
pathologists and audiologists in edu­
cational institutions supplement
their regular salaries by incomes
from consulting, special research
projects, and writing books and arti­
The average annual salary for
speech pathologists and audiologists
in elementary and secondary
schools in 1970 was about $10,700
according to an American Speech
and Hearing Association survey of
members employed in these schools.
In 1970 the annual starting salary
in the Federal Government for
speech pathologists and audiologists
who had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree was $9,881.
Those having doctoral degrees were
eligible to start at $13,493.
Most speech pathologists and au­
diologists work 40 hours a week;
however, personnel engaged in re­
search may work longer hours. Al­
most all employment situations
provide fringe benefits such as paid
vacations, sick leave, and retirement

Sources of Additional Information

Information on certification re­
quirements for persons wishing to
work in public schools can be ob­
tained from the State Department of
education at the State capital.
A listing of college and university
programs and a booklet on student
financial aid as well as general ca­
reer information can be obtained
American Speech and Hearing Asso­
ciation, 9030 Old Georgetown
Rd., Washington, D.C. 20014.

(D.O.T. 078.128; .168; .281; and .381)

Nature of the Work

Laboratory tests play an impor­
tant part in the detection, diagnosis,
and treatment of cancer, tubercu­
losis, diabetes, meningitis, and other
workers, often called clinical labo­
ratory workers include three levels:
medical technologists, technicians,
and assistants. They perform tests
under the direction of pathologists
(physicians who specialize in diag­
nosing the causes and nature of dis­
ease), other physicians or scientists
specializing in clinical chemistry,
microbiology, or the other biologi­
cal sciences. Medical laboratory
workers use precision instruments,
such as microscopes and automatic
analyzers, to analyze the blood, tis­
sues, and fluids in the human body.
Results of such tests help physicians
treat patients.
Medical technologists, who re­
quire 4 years of post-secondary

training, perform the more compli­
cated chemical, microscopic, and
bacteriological tests. These tests
may include chemical tests to de­
termine blood cholesterol level, or
microscopic examination of the
blood to detect the possibility of
leukemia. Other body fluids may be
examined microscopically; cultured
to determine the presence of bac­
teria, parasites, or other micro­
organisms; and
analyzed for
chemical content or reaction. Tech­
nologists also may type and cross­
match blood samples. Technologists
in small laboratories often perform
many types of tests. Those in large
laboratories usually specialize in
several kinds of related tests in areas
such as microbiology, parasitology,
biochemistry, blood banking, hema­
tology (the study of blood cells),
histology (tissue preparation), cy­
tology (analysis of body cells), and
nuclear medical technology (the
use of radioactive isotopes to help
detect diseases).
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests related to the examination
and treatment of patients. However,
some do research on new drugs or
on the improvement of laboratory
techniques. Others teach or perform
administrative duties.
Medical laboratory assistants,
who generally do not have college
training, assist the medical technol­
ogist in routine tests and related
work that can be learned in a rela­
tively short time.
Medical laboratory assistants in
large laboratories may concentrate
in one of several areas. Laboratory
assistants working in bacteriology,
serology, and parasitology prepare
and stain slides for study, apply sen­
sitivity disc to culture plates and re­
cord results; and prepare specimens
for microscopic studies. Those in
hematology collect and perform
blood counts and tests to determine



ployed in hospitals. Other places of
employment include independent
laboratories, physicians’ offices,
clinics, public health agencies, phar­
maceutical firms, and research insti­
In 1970, about 1,200 medical
technologists and about 1,500 medi­
cal laboratory technicians and as­
sistants worked in the hospitals and
laboratories of the Veterans Admin­
istration. Others were employed by
the Armed Forces and the U.S
Public Health Service.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Medical technologist operates automatic blood cell counting machine.

bleeding time, coagulation time,
sedimentation rate, and prothrombin
time. In clinical chemistry, assist­
ants help analyze samples of body
fluids to diagnose and treat diseases.
Assistants in the blood bank carry
out slide and test tube procedures to
identify blood groups and keep
blood-bank records. They assist in
laboratory techniques such as cen­
trifuging urine samples and prepar­
ing the samples for microscopic
In basal metabolism and electro­
cardiography work, they prepare
patients for tests as well as operate
and maintain testing equipment. In
small laboratories, medical labora­
tory assistants generally work in
many areas.
In addition to performing routine
tests, assistants may store and label
plasma; clean and sterilize labora­
tory equipment, glassware, and in­

struments; prepare solutions follow­
ing standard laboratory formulas
and procedures; keep records of
tests; and identify specimens.
Medical laboratory technicians
generally have a higher level of skill
than assistants, but not the technical
knowledge of highly-trained tech­
nologists. Like technologists and as­
sistants, they may work in several
areas or specialize in one field.

Places of Employment

An estimated 110,000 medical
laboratory workers were employed
in 1970—two-fifths were medical
technologists. Approximately 80 to
90 percent of all medical laboratory
workers were women. However, the
number of men in the field has been
increasing in recent years.
About four-fifths of all medi­
cal laboratory workers are em­

The usual minimum educational
requirement for beginning medical
technologists is 4 years of college
including completion of a special­
ized training program in medical
technology approved by the Ameri­
can Medical Association.
Undergraduate work must in­
clude courses in chemistry, biologi­
cal science, and mathematics. Such
studies give the technologist a broad
understanding of the scientific prin­
ciples underlying laboratory work.
The specialized training usually re­
quires 12 months of study and in­
cludes extensive laboratory work. In
1970, such training was given in
about 800 hospitals and schools,
most of which were affiliated with
colleges and universities. A bache­
lor’s degree is often awarded upon
completion of the college affiliated
program. A few schools require a
bachelor’s degree for entry into the
Many universities also offer ad­
vanced degrees in medical technol­
ogy and related subjects for technol­
ogists who plan to specialize in the
laboratory or in teaching, admin­
istration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians



Medical technician uses automated chemistry machine.

employed in 1970 had obtained
their training in a variety of educa­
tional settings. Many had received
one or more years of post-secondary
education in junior or 4-year col­
leges and universities. Some techni­
cians have attended private schools,
which offer 12- to 18-month pro­
grams to high school graduates.
Some technicians have gained expe­
rience in the Armed Forces. The
Navy, for example, conducts a 14month program to train clinical lab­
oratory and blood bank technicians
and the Army has a 50 week “sen­
ior medical laboratory specialist”
program. A few technicians re­
ceived training in nonprofit voca­
tional and technical schools.

Most medical laboratory assist­
ants employed in 1970 received
their training on the job. In recent
years, however, an increasing num­
ber have received their training in
academic programs conducted by
hospitals or vocational schools and
junior colleges in cooperation with
hospitals. In the future, academic
training probably will be required
by most employers. Hospitals offer
the greatest number of training pro­
grams, some of which were estab­
lished under the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act and the
Vocational Education Act. For
entry into these programs, gradua­
tion from high school with courses
in science and mathematics is re­

quired generally. The programs last
a year and include classroom in­
struction and practical training in
the laboratory. These programs
often begin with a general orienta­
tion to the clinical laboratory and
are followed by courses in bacteriol­
ogy, serology, parasitology, hema­
tology, clinical chemistry, blood
banking, and urinalysis.
Certification examinations, ad­
ministered by the Board of Medical
Technologists of the American Soci­
(ASCP), are available to graduates
of AMA approved schools. Such
registration is important because it
indicates that a graduate has main­
tained educational standards recog­
nized by the medical profession.
ASCP-registered medical laboratory
personnel are preferred by most
In California, Florida, Hawaii,
Tennessee, New York City, and
Puerto Rico, medical technologists
and technicians also must be li­
Technologists may be promoted
to supervisory positions in certain
areas of laboratory work or, after
several years’ experience, to chief
medical technologist in a large hos­
pital. Graduate education in one of
the biological sciences or chemistry
usually speeds advancement in all
areas. Technicians and assistants
may have difficulty advancing to
medical technologists unless they
continue their education and obtain
a bachelor’s degree in biology or
chemistry, or a degree or certificate
in medical technology.
Personal characteristics impor­
tant for medical laboratory work in­
clude accuracy, dependability, and
the ability to work under pressure.
Manual dexterity and the ability to
discriminate colors accurately are
highly desirable.
Young people interested in a



medical laboratory career should se­
lect a training program with consid­
erable care. Information should be
obtained about the kinds of jobs ob­
tained by graduates, educational
costs, the length of time the training
program has been in operation, in­
structional facilities, and faculty

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory workers are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. New graduates having a
bachelor’s degree in medical tech­
nology will be sought for entry tech­
nologist positions in hospitals. A
particularly strong demand is antici­
pated for technologists having grad­
uate training in biochemistry, mi­
crobiology, immunology, and virol­
ogy. Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory technicians and
assistants also are expected to be
very favorable.
Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory personnel are
expected to expand as physicians in­
creasingly depend upon laboratory
tests in routine physical checkups as
well as in the diagnosis and treat­
ment of disease. Also, the con­
struction of additional hospital and
medical facilities will increase the
demand for these workers. Other
factors affecting growth in this field
include the country’s expanding
population; rising standards of liv­
ing; increasing health consciousness;
expanding medical services resulting
from new medical techniques and
drugs; expanding medical research
activities; and extension of prepay­
ment programs for medical care, in­
cluding Medicare.
Advances in technology in gen­
eral are expected to stimulate the
demand for workers in this occupa­

tion. Many new technological devel­
opments permit greater numbers
and more varieties of tests to be
performed. Newly developed auto­
mated equipment is not expected to
limit the growth of medical technol­
ogists. However, the development
of new automated equipment that
reduces the need for personnel to
do simple repetitive tasks may tend
to partially offset the growth in de­
mand for the services of medical
laboratory assistants.
In addition to medical laboratory
workers who will be needed to fill
openings resulting from the rapid
growth of this field, large numbers
also will be needed as replacements
because many workers are young
women who may leave their jobs for
marriage and family responsibilities.
Opportunities for part-time employ­
ment will continue to be available.
Opportunities also should be good
for qualified older workers and
handicapped persons.

ment in 1970 received $6,548.
Those having experience, superior
academic achievement, or a year of
graduate study entered at $8,098.
Depending on the amount and type
of education and experience, medi­
cal laboratory assistants and techni­
cians in the Federal Government
earned starting salaries ranging
from $4,621 to $5,853 a year in
Medical laboratory personnel
generally work a 40-hour week. In
hospitals, they can expect some
night or weekend duty. Hospitals
generally provide vacation and sick
leave benefits; some have retirement
Laboratories are in general well
lighted and clean. Although un­
pleasant odors and specimens of
many kinds of diseased tissue often
are present, few hazards exist if
proper methods of sterilization and
handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment are used.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Salaries of medical laboratory
workers vary by employer and geo­
graphic location of employment. In
general, medical laboratory workers
employed on the West Coast and in
large cities received the highest sal­
The average starting salary for
medical technologists was about
$7,500 in 1970, according to lim­
ited data available. Beginning sala­
ries for medical laboratory assist­
ants generally ranged from $150 to
$250 a month less than those paid
medical technologists. Technicians
received salaries ranging between
those paid technologists and assist­
Newly graduated medical tech­
nologists at the baccalaureate level
employed by the Federal Govern­

Information about education and
training for medical technologists,
technicians, and laboratory assist­
ants meeting standards recognized
by the medical profession and the
U.S. Office of Education as well as
career information on these fields of
work may be obtained from:
Registry of Medical Technologists
of the American Society of Clini­
cal Pathologists, 710 S. Wolcott
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60612.
American Society of Medical Tech­
nologists, Suite 1600, Hermann
Professional Bldg., Houston, Tex.

Information about technician
training programs offered in private
schools may be obtained from:
American Medical Technologists,
710 Higgins Road, Park Ridge,
111. 60068.



International Society of Clinical
Laboratory Technologists, 805
Ambassador Building, 411 North
Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo. 63101.

Information about employment
opportunities in government clinical
and research hospitals may be ob­
tained from the Department of
Medicine and Surgery, Veterans
Administration, Washington, D.C.
20421, and the Clinical Center, Na­
tional Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 20014.

(D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of the Work

Medical X-rays play a major role
in the diagnostic and therapeutic
fields of medicine. Radiologic tech­

nologists, also called medical X-ray
technicians, operate X-ray equip­
ment under the direction of physi­
cians who are usually radiologists
(specialists in the use of X-rays).
Most radiologic technologists
perform diagnostic work, using Xray equipment to take pictures of
internal parts of the patient’s body.
They may prepare chemical mix­
tures, such as barium salts, which
the patient swallows to make spe­
cific organs appear clearly in X-ray
examinations. The technician uti­
lizes proper radiation protection de­
vices and techniques that safeguard
against possible radiation hazards.
After determining the correct volt­
age, current, and desired exposure
time, the technician positions the
patient and makes the required
number of radiographs to be de­
veloped for interpretation by the
physician. The technician may use
mobile X-ray equipment at a pa­
tient’s bedside and in surgery. The
technician also is usually responsi­
ble for keeping treatment records.

Some radiologic technologists
perform radiation therapeutic work.
They assist physicians in treating
diseases, such as certain cancers, by
administering prescribed doses of
X-ray or other forms of ionizing ra­
diation to the affected areas of the
patient’s body. They also may assist
the radiologist in measuring and
handling radium and other radioac­
tive materials.
Other technicians work in the
field of nuclear medicine in which
radioactive isotopes are used to
diagnose and treat diseases. They
assist the radiologist in preparing
and administering the prescribed ra­
dioisotope and operating special
equipment for tracing and measur­
ing radioactivity.
Places of Employment

An estimated 80,000 radiologic
technologists were employed in
1970; about two-thirds were
Approximately one-third of all
radiologic technologists were em­
ployed in hospitals; most of the re­
mainder worked in medical labora­
tories, physicians’ and dentists’
offices or clinics, Federal and State
health agencies, and public school
systems. A few worked as members
of mobile X-ray teams, engaged
mainly in tuberculosis detection.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Radiologic technologist determines proper voltage current and exposure time
before taking X-ray.

Training programs in X-ray tech­
nology are conducted by hospitals
or by medical schools affiliated with
hospitals. A program in X-ray tech­
nology usually takes 24 months to
complete. A few schools offer 3- or
4-year programs, and 11 schools
award a bachelor’s degree in X-ray
technology. Also, some junior col­



leges coordinate academic training
with work experience in hospitals in
3-year X-ray technician programs
and offer an Associate of Arts de­
gree. In 1970, about 1,200 schools
of X-ray technology were approved
by the American Medical Associa­
tion (AMA). In addition to training
programs in approved schools,
training also may be obtained in the
military service. Some courses in
X-ray technology are offered by vo­
cational or technical schools.
All of the approved schools ac­
cept only high school graduates, and
a few require 1 or 2 years of college
or graduation from a nursing
school. High school courses in
mathematics, physics, chemistry, bi­
ology, and typing are desirable.
X-ray technology programs usu­
ally include courses in anatomy,
physiology, nursing procedures,
physics, radiation protection, dark­
room chemistry, principles of radi­
ographic exposure, X-ray therapy,
radiographic positioning, medical
ethics, department administration,
and the operation and maintenance
of equipment.
Registration with the American
Registry of Radiologic Technolo­
gists is an asset in obtaining highly
skilled and specialized positions.
Registration requirements include
graduation from an approved school
of medical X-ray technology and
the satisfactory completion of an ex­
amination. After registration, the
title “Registered Technologist, R.T.
(ARRT)” may be used. To become
certified in radiation therapy or
nuclear medicine, technicians must
have completed an additional year
of combined classroom study and
work experience.
As openings occur, some techni­
cians in large X-ray departments
may advance to chief X-ray techni­
cian and qualify as instructors in
X-ray techniques.

Good health and stamina are im­
portant qualifications for this field.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for ra­
diologic technologists are expected
to be very good through the 1970's.
Part-time opportunities also will be
very favorable.
Very rapid growth is expected in
the profession, primarily as a result
of the anticipated expansion in the
use of X-ray equipment in diagnos­
ing and treating diseases; more
workers also will be needed to help
administer radiotherapy as new
knowledge of the medical benefits of
radioactive material becomes wide­
spread. X-raying of large groups of
people will be extended as part of
disease prevention and control pro­
grams. For example, many em­
ployers now demand that chest Xrays be taken of all employees, and
most insurance companies include a
chest X-ray as part of the physical
examination required for an insur­
ance policy.
In addition to the radiologic tech­
nologists needed for new jobs, re­
placement demands are expected to
be high because of the large number
of women who leave their jobs each
year for marriage or family respon­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries of radiologic
technologists employed in hospitals
ranged from about $110 to $190 a
week in 1970, according to the
limited information available.
New graduates of AMA-approved schools of X-ray technology
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment received an annual salary of
$5,853 in 1970.
Full-time technicians generally

work 8 hours a day and 40 hours a
week but may be “on call” for some
night or emergency duty. Most are
covered by the same vacation and
sick leave provisions as other
workers in the same organization.
Precautionary measures to pro­
tect radiologic technologists from
the potential hazards of radiation
exposure include the use of safety
devices such as individual instru­
ments that measure radiation, lead
aprons, leaded gloves, and other
Sources of Additional Information
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists, 645 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.
The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, 2600 Wayzata Blvd., Minneapolis, Minn.

(D.O.T. 100.388)

Nature of the Work

Medical records contain medical
and surgical information on each
patient, including case histories of
illnesses or injuries, physical exami­
nation findings, reports on X-rays
and laboratory tests, physicians’ or­
ders and notes, and nurses’ notes.
These records are necessary for cor­
rect and prompt diagnosis and treat­
ment. In addition, they are used for
research, insurance claims, legal ac­
tions, evaluation of treatment and
medications prescribed, and for in­
struction in the training of medical,
nursing, and related personnel.


Medical information found in hospi­
tal records also is used to plan com­
munity health centers and programs
and in hospital and health care ad­
Medical record librarians plan,
prepare, maintain, and analyze rec­
ords and reports on patients’ illness
and treatments. They assist medical
staff members in research projects;
develop auxiliary records (such as
indexes of physicians, diseases
treated, and operations performed);
compile statistics; make summaries
or “abstracts” of medical records;
develop systems for documenting,
storing and retrieving medical infor­
mation; direct the activities of the
medical record department; and
train auxiliary personnel. They usu­
ally represent their department at
hospital staff meetings and may be
called to testify in court.
The size and type of institution
employing medical record librarians
will affect the duties and amount of
responsibility assigned to these
workers. In large hospitals, chief
medical record librarians supervise
other medical record librarians,
medical record technicians, and
clerical workers. In small hospitals,


they may be the only employee in
the medical record department and
may perform clerical as well as pro­
fessional duties.
Medical record librarians should
not be confused with the medical li­
brarians who work chiefly with
books, periodicals, and other publi­
cations. (See statement on Librari­
Places of Employment

About 13,000 medical record li­
brarians were employed in 1970. Of
these, about 4,200 were Registered
Record Librarians, according to the
American Medical Record Associa­
tion. In addition, about 41,000
other medical record personnel were
working in this field. Most medical
record librarians were employed in
hospitals. The remainder worked in
clinics, medical research centers,
nursing homes or other extended
care facilities, the medical depart­
ments of insurance companies and
industrial firms, and in local and
State health departments. Although
most medical record librarians are
women, the number of men in the
occupation is growing.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Medical record librarian operates
mechanized locator file.

In 1970, 28 schools approved by
the American Medical Association
offered training in medical record li­
brary science or medical record ad­
ministration. These schools are lo­
cated in colleges and universities
and in hospitals.
Most approved medical record li­
brarian educational programs last
4 years and lead to a bachelor’s
degree in medical record adminis­
tration. The concentration in medi­
cal record administration begins in
the third or fourth year of study.

One year certificate programs also
are available for those who already
have a baccalaureate degree and
specified courses in the liberal arts
and biological sciences.
The specialized curriculum in­
cludes both theoretical instruction
and practical experience. The re­
quired courses include anatomy,
physiology, fundamentals of medical
science, medical terminology, medi­
cal record science, ethics, manage­
ment, hospital organization and ad­
ministration, health law, statistics,
and data processing. Practical expe­
rience involves hospital admitting
and discharging procedures; stand­
ard indexing and coding practices;
compilation of statistical reports;
analysis of medical data from clini­
cal records; and experience with
medical record systems for the Xray, pathology, outpatients, and
other hospital departments.
Graduates of approved schools in
medical record science are eligible
for the national registration exami­
nation, given by the American Med­
ical Record Association. Upon pass­
ing this examination, they receive
professional recognition as Regis­
tered Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must be
accurate and interested in detail.
They also must be able to commu­
nicate clearly in speech and writing.
Because medical records are confi­
dential, they must be discreet in
processing and releasing informa­
tion. Administrators and supervisors
must be able to organize and ana­
lyze work procedures and to work
effectively with other hospital per­
Medical record librarians fre­
quently are supervisors or ad­
ministrators. They may be assistant
directors, directors of a single de­
partment, or coordinator of medical
record departments of several hospi­
tals. Others may become faculty



members of colleges and universi­
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
graduates of approved medical rec­
ord librarian programs are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. In addition to the positions
created by growth, many openings
will occur as young women leave
the field for marriage and family re­
sponsibilities. High school graduates
will have many opportunities to be­
come medical record technicians to
assist librarians.
The increasing number of hospi­
tals and the volume and complexity
of hospital records will contribute to
a growing demand for medical rec­
ord librarians.
The importance of medical rec­
ords will continue to grow rapidly,
due to the increased demand for
clinical data for research and the
use of new drugs. Special interest in
the care of the aged has necessitated
recording data on conditions of per­
sons in nursing homes and home
care programs. More consultants
also will be needed to standardize
records in these and other areas
where medical record librarians are
not available. The increasing use of
computers to store and retrieve
medical information should increase
the demand for medical record li­

to the American Medical Record
Newly graduated medical record
librarians employed by the Federal
Government generally started at
$6,548 a year in 1970; those hav­
ing bachelor’s degrees and high aca­
demic records were eligible to begin
at $8,098.
Medical record librarians usually
work a regular 40-hour week and
receive paid holidays and vacations.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about approved
schools and employment opportuni­
ties may be obtained from:
The American Medical Record As­

sociation, 875 N. Michigan Ave.,
Suite 1850, Chicago, 111. 60611.

(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)

Nature of the Work

Dietitians plan nutritious and ap­
petizing meals to help people main­
tain or recover good health. Their
work includes planning general and
modified menus that meet nutri­
tional requirements for health or for
medical treatment, supervising the
personnel who prepare and serve
the meals, managing purchases and

Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries of medical record li­
brarians are influenced by the loca­
tion, size, and type of employing in­
stitution, as well as by the duties
and responsibility of the position.
The average salary for chief medical
record librarians (registered) in
1970 was $9,000 a year, according

Dietitians discuss patient’s menu.


accounts, and providing guidance
on good eating habits. Administra­
tive dietitians form the largest group
in this occupation; the others are
therapeutic dietitians, teachers, or
research workers.
Administrative dietitians apply
the principles of nutrition and sound
management to large-scale meal
planning and preparation, such as
that done in hospitals, universities,
schools, and other institutions. They
supervise the preparation of meals;
select, train, and direct food-service
supervisors and workers; arrange
for the buying of food, equipment,
and supplies; enforce sanitary and
safety regulations; and prepare rec­
ords and reports. Dietitians who are
directors of a dietary department
also formulate departmental policy;
coordinate dietary service with the
activities of other departments; and
are responsible for the development
and management of the dietary de­
partment budget, which in large or­
ganizations may amount to millions
of dollars annually.
Therapeutic dietitians plan and
supervise the service of meals to
meet the nutritional needs of pa­
tients. They discuss food likes and
dislikes with patients and note their
intake of food. Other duties of ther­
apeutic dietitians include calculating
modified diets, conferring with doc­
tors regarding patients’ diets, in­
structing patients and their families
on the requirements and importance
of their diets, and suggesting ways
to help them stay on these diets
after leaving the hospital. In a small
institution, one person may serve as
both the administrative and thera­
peutic dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly those
in hospitals affiliated with medical
centers, teach dietetic, medical,
dental, and nursing students such
subjects as dietetics, foods and
nutrition, and diet therapy. A few


dietitians act as consultants to com­
mercial enterprises, including food
processors, equipment manufac­
turers, and utility companies.
Other members of the profession,
called public health nutritionists,
conduct studies or surveys of food
and nutrition. They also take part in
research projects, such as those
concerned with the nutritional needs
of the aging, persons having chronic
diseases, or space travelers.

Places of Employment

About 30,000 dietitians were em­
ployed in 1970—less than 10 per­
cent were men. More than two-fifths
of all dietitians worked in hospitals
and related institutions, including
nearly 1,000 who were employed by
the Veterans Administration and
the U.S. Public Health Service. A
sizable number were employed by
colleges, universities, and school
systems as teachers or as dietitians
in food-service programs. Most of
the remainder worked for public
health agencies, restaurants, or caf­
eterias, and large companies that
operated food-service programs for
their employees. Some dietitians
were commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for dietitians is a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in foods
and nutrition or institution manage­
ment. This degree can be obtained
in about 400 colleges and universi­
ties. Undergraduate work should in­
clude courses in foods and nutrition,
institution management, chemistry,
bacteriology, and physiology, and

such related courses as mathemat­
ics, psychology, sociology, and eco­
To qualify for professional recog­
nition, The American Dietetic As­
sociation recommends the comple­
tion after graduation of internship
programs or 2 years of pre-planned
experience. The programs and ex­
perience must be approved by the
Association. Many employers prefer
to hire dietitians who have com­
pleted an internship. An important
phase of the intern’s education is
clinical experience; the remainder
of the internship is devoted to class­
room study of menu planning,
budgeting, management, other ad­
vanced subjects, and to special proj­
ects. In 1970, 80 internship pro­
grams were approved by The
American Dietetic Association. Stu­
dents in a few schools can complete
a coordinated education program,
also approved by the Association,
which qualifies them to practice im­
mediately after graduation, without
further internship.
Experienced dietitians may ad­
vance to assistant director or direc­
tor of a dietary department in a
large hospital or other institution.
Graduate education is usually re­
quired for advancement to higher
level positions in teaching and re­
search. Those interested in becom­
ing public health nutritionists must
usually earn a graduate degree in
this field. Graduate study in institu­
tional or business administration is
valuable to those interested in ad­
ministrative dietetics.
Young persons planning to be­
come dietitians should have supervi­
sory ability to manage programs
and be able to work well with oth­
ers. They also should be neat and in
good health.



Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified dieti­
tians on both a full- and part-time
basis are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s.
The major factors expected to
contribute to increasing opportuni­
ties for dietitians include the expan­
sion of hospital and nursing home
facilities, more widespread use of
hospitals and medical services by an
increasing population, and the
growth of community health pro­
grams. An increasing number of
dietitians also will be needed to di­
rect food services for schools, in­
dustrial plants, and commercial eat­
ing places, and to engage in food
and nutrition research programs. In
addition, since many women select
this field because of their interest in
food and homemaking and then
leave the profession for marriage
and family responsibilities, replace­
ment needs probably will continue
to be high.
The number of men employed as
dietitians has been growing slowly
but steadily. Men are likely to find
increasing employment opportuni­
ties, especially as administrative
dietitians in college and university
food services, hospitals, and com­
mercial eating places.
In an effort to provide the die­
tetic services demanded, employers
increasingly are hiring workers to
assist dietitians. Opportunities will
be favorable in these positions for
college graduates who have majored
in fields such as chemistry or the life
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, hospitals offered new
graduates of approved internship
programs annual salaries ranging
from $8,900 to $9,750, according
to The American Dietetic Associa­

tion. New graduates without intern­
ship generally received lower start­
ing salaries. Experienced dietitians
in hospitals were paid between
$10,200 and $17,000 a year. Begin­
ning staff dietitians employed by
college and school food services re­
ceived annual salaries ranging from
$8,900 to $14,000; experienced
dietitians received $ 11,200 to
The entrance salary in the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 for those
who had completed internship was
$8,098 a year. Beginning dietitians
who had a master’s degree could
start at $9,881 a year. Most experi­
enced dietitians employed by the
Federal Government earned be­
tween $11,000 and $16,000 a year;
a few earned over $16,000. Dieti­
tians employed by State and local
governments in 1970 received year­
ly salaries ranging from about
$9,200 to $11,800, according to a
survey made by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Most dietitians are employed on
a weekly work schedule of 40
hours; however, dietitians in hospi­
tals may sometimes work on week­
ends, and those in commercial food
service have somewhat irregular
hours. Some hospitals provide laun­
dry service and meals in addition to
salary. Paid vacations, holidays, and
health and retirement benefits are
usually received.
Sources of Additional Information

Information on approved dietetic
internship programs, scholarships,
and employment opportunities, and
a list of colleges providing training
for a professional career in dietetics,
may be obtained from:
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chi­
cago, 111. 60611.

The U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion, Washington, D.C. 20415, has
information on the requirements for
dietetic interns and dietitians in
Federal Government hospitals.

(D.O.T. 187.118)

Nature of the Work

Hospital administrators hold the
highest executive positions in hospi­
tals; they manage all administrative
activities. They usually receive gen­
eral guidance from a hospital gov­
erning board with which they work
closely in developing plans and pol­
Administrators direct and coordi­
nate the many varied activities of
the hospital. They work closely with
the medical and nursing staffs and
make available to them needed aux­
iliary personnel and equipment.
They are responsible for hiring and
training workers; preparing and ad­
ministering the budget; establishing
accounting procedures; planning
current and future space needs; in­
suring the proper maintenance of
buildings and equipment; purchas­
ing supplies and equipment; and
providing for laundry, mail, tele­
phone, information, and other serv­
ices for the patients and staff.
In small hospitals, typically lo­
cated in rural or suburban areas, the
administrator generally assumes all
management functions. In large
hospitals, he is assisted by special­
ists trained either in hospital admin­
istration or in specialized mana­
gerial skills.
Under the direction of the gov-



Hospital administrator confers with member of staff.

erning board, administrators may
carry out large projects to expand
or develop the hospital’s services.
They may, for example, organize
fund-raising campaigns or plan new
medical care, research, or educa­
tional programs.
Administrators meet regularly
with their staff to discuss progress,
make plans and solve problems
concerning the functioning of the
hospital. Working with the medical
staff and department heads, they
may develop and maintain teaching
programs for nurses, interns, and
other hospital staff members. Ad­
ministrators also may address com­
munity gatherings, organize com­
munity health campaigns, and par­
ticipate in planning community
health care programs.

Places of Employment

About 17,000 hospital adminis­
trators were employed in hospitals
and related institutions in 1970.
About two-thirds worked in non­
profit or private hospitals and insti­
tutions, and the remainder generally
worked in Federal, State, and local
government hospitals. Of those em­
ployed by the Federal Government,
most were in Veterans Administra­
tion, Armed Forces, and Public
Health Service hospitals. About 15
percent of all administrators and
their assistants were women; many
were members of religious orders.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Educational requirements for hos­
pital administrators vary. Most

employers prefer applicants with at
least a master’s degree in hospital
administration from an accredited
graduate program. Others prefer
formal training in social or behav­
ioral sciences, industrial engineer­
ing, or business administration,
along with extensive experience in
the health field. A few require their
administrators to be physicians or
registered professional nurses. Spe­
cialized hospitals (such as mental or
orthopedic hospitals) may prefer
physicians whose medical specialty
is the same as that of the hospital.
Hospitals run by religious groups
may seek administrators of the same
In 1970, 29 colleges and univer­
sities in the United States offered
master’s degree programs in hospi­
tal administration. To enter these
programs, applicants must have a
bachelor’s degree, including courses
in natural sciences, psychology, so­
ciology, statistics, accounting, and
economics. The programs vary in
time allocated to academic study
and to administrative residency in
hospitals or health agencies but they
generally last 2 years. The mini­
mum amount of required academic
study is about a year; residency re­
quirements range up to a year.
The curriculum may include
courses such as hospital organiza­
tion and management, accounting
and budget control, personnel ad­
ministration, public health adminis­
tration, and the economics of health
care. The residency involves an ori­
entation to all hospital activities
under the supervision of the admin­
istrator or his assistant. A Ph. D. in
hospital administration, offered in
several universities, is especially
helpful for those interested in teach­
ing and research.
The American College of Hospi­
tal Administrators provides financial
loans and scholarships to a limited



number of students for graduate
work in hospital administration.
Some Federal Government awards
for graduate training in hospital ad­
ministration also are available.
New graduates with a master’s
degree in hospital administration
usually enter the field as assistant
administrators or department heads
and occasionally as administrators
in small hospitals. Some persons
without a master’s degree in hospi­
tal administration enter the field by
working in one of the specialized
administrative areas such as person­
nel, records, budget and finance, or
data processing. With this experi­
ence and some graduate work, they
may be promoted to department
head, to assistant administrator, and
eventually to administrator. The po­
sition of hospital administrator,
especially in a large hospital, repre­
sents a career goal, and these posi­
tions generally are filled by promo­
tion from within.
Personal qualifications needed
for success as a hospital administra­
tor include initiative, vitality, and
interest in helping the sick. Skills in
working with people, organizing and
directing large-scale activities, and
public speaking are important as­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
new graduates having the master’s
degree in hospital administration
are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. Applicants with­
out graduate education will find it
increasingly difficult to enter this
field. Some positions as administra­
tor are likely to continue to be filled
by physicians, nurses, or persons
experienced in a specialized admin­
istrative area.
The number of positions in hos­

pital administration is expected to
grow rapidly through the 1970’s. As
health facilities are expanded to
provide additional health services to
an increasing population, more po­
sitions are likely to be created for
hospital administrators, and for ad­
ministrative assistants, in charge of
specific functions or departments.
Graduates of programs of hospital
administration also will find increas­
ing employment opportunities in re­
lated facilities such as nursing
homes and other long-term care in­
stitutions, rehabilitation facilities,
public health centers, health care
planning agencies, and hospitaliza­
tion and health insurance programs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of hospital administrators
depend on factors such as size, type,
and location of the hospital, and
size of its administrative staff and
budget. Starting salaries for new
hospital administration graduates in
private hospitals generally ranged
from $10,000 to $13,000 a year in
1970. Salaries of experienced ad­
ministrators generally ranged from
$14,000 to $30,000, according to
limited data available. New gradu­
ates employed in Veterans Adminis­
tration (VA) hospitals started at
$9,881 a year in 1970. Salaries of
experienced VA hospital adminis­
trators, many of them physicians,
ranged from $26,547 to $33,627 a
Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces working as hospital
administrators hold ranks ranging
from second lieutenant to colonel or
from ensign to captain. Command­
ing officers of large Armed Forces
hospitals are physicians who may
hold higher ranks. Hospital admin­
istrators in the U.S. Public Health
Service are commissioned officers,

holding ranks ranging from lieuten­
ant (junior grade) to captain in the
Hospital administrators often
work long hours. Since hospitals op­
erate on a round-the-clock basis,
the administrator may be called
upon to settle emergency problems
at any time of the day or night. He
also may be called on to attend
meetings held at various locations
outside the hospital. Fringe benefits
usually include paid vacations and
holidays, sick leave, and pension
and insurance coverage.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information about
hospital administration and a list of
colleges and universities offering
this training may be obtained from:
American College of Hospital Ad­
ministrators, 840 North Lake
Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs
in Hospital Administration, 1
Dupont Circle, NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment awards for graduate training
in hospital administration may be
obtained from:
Bureau of Health Professions Edu­
cation and Manpower Training,
National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

(D.O.T. 079.118)

Nature of the Work

Sanitarians are specialists in envi­
ronmental health. To assure the
cleanliness and safety of the food



people eat, the liquids they drink,
and the air they breathe, sanitarians
perform a broad range of duties.
They inspect food manufacturing
and processing plants, dairies, water
supplies, hotels and restaurants,
nursing homes, hospitals and
schools, waste disposal plants,
swimming pools and other recrea­
tion facilities, housing, and other
places for health hazards. They seek
compliance with local regulations
and with State and Federal laws re­
lating to public health. They also
plan and conduct sanitation pro­
grams, administer environmental
health programs, and promote the
enactment of health regulations and
Sanitarians entering the profes­
sion usually begin in public health
or agriculture departments, or pri­
vate industry. They inspect facilities
and may collect samples of food,
air, and water to test for safety.
When necessary, they recommend
corrective action according to health

laws and regulations. As they pro­
gress to more responsible investiga­
tional work, they frequently are
required to give advice on more
complex individual and industrial
sanitation problems.
Sanitarians having supervisory
duties analyze reports of inspections
and investigations made by other
environmental health specialists,
and advise on difficult or unusual
sanitation problems. They also
may conduct investigations and give
evidence in court cases involving
public health regulations. In addi­
tion, they promote health laws and
engage in health education activi­
ties, sometimes teaching classes in
hygiene and speaking before student
assemblies, civic groups, and other
organizations. Those in top manage­
ment positions are involved with the
planning and administration of envi­
ronmental health programs and
their coordination with programs of
other agencies. Other duties may in­
clude advising government officials

Sanitarians discuss plan of sewage system.

on environmental health matters
and drafting health laws and regula­
Public health sanitarians work
closely with other health specialists
in the community (such as the
health officer, sanitary engineer, and
public health nurse) to investigate
and prevent outbreaks of disease,
plan for civil defense and emer­
gency disaster aid, make public
health surveys, and conduct health
education programs.
In large local and State health or
agriculture departments, and in the
Federal Government, sanitarians
may specialize in a particular area
of work, such as milk and other
dairy products, food sanitation, ref­
use and other waste control, air
housing, institutional sanitation, and
insect and rodent control. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be
responsible for a wide range of en­
vironmental health activities.
The professional sanitarian may
be assisted by a sanitarian techni­
cian during investigations to deter­
mine compliance or lack of compli­
ance with health regulations and
laws. The technician takes samples
for testing and often performs the
required tests.
Increasing numbers of sanitari­
ans are being employed outside gov­
ernment agencies. Many work in in­
dustry to prevent or minimize con­
tamination hazards and see that
clean, healthful, and safe working
conditions exist. For example, in a
food processing plant, the sanitarian
is concerned with the proper dis­
posal of refuse; the cleaning of plant
equipment; the control of micro-or­
ganisms; and the proper mainte­
nance of buildings, equipment, and
employee facilities.



Where Employed

An estimated 12,000 of the ap­
proximately 15,000 professional
sanitarians employed in 1970
worked for Federal, State, and local
governments. Most of the remainder
worked for manufacturers and pro­
cessors of food products. A small
number were teachers in colleges
and universities. A few were consul­
tants. Others worked for trade asso­
ciations, in hospitals, or for other
organizations. Probably less than 1
percent of all sanitarians are
Sanitarians are employed by
public health departments in every
State, and by private industry in
most States. About half of them
work in 10 States: California, Flor­
ida, Illinois, Indiana, New York,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vir­
ginia, and Wisconsin.
In addition to professional sani­
tarians, about 5,000 sanitarian tech­
nicians and aides were employed in
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in environ­
mental health is the preferred prep­
aration for a beginning job as a pro­
fessional sanitarian, although a
bachelor’s degree in a basic science
generally is acceptable. High level
positions usually require a graduate
degree in some aspect of public
health. In some cases, sanitarian
technicians having 2 years of college
and work experience can advance to
professional sanitarian positions.
However, as hiring standards are
raised, it will become harder for
persons without a degree to enter
the profession.
A typical curriculum leading to a
bachelor of science degree in envi­
ronmental health includes back­

ground courses in the humanities,
social sciences, mathematics, chem­
istry, physics and biology. Core
courses include microbiology (envi­
ronmental), biostatistics, epide­
miology, community health educa­
tion, public health organization
and administration, environmental
health, and field work.
Thirty-six colleges and universi­
ties offered undergraduate programs
in environmental health in 1970;
graduate training in environmental
health was available in about 100
universities. Some stipends are
available under Federal programs
for graduate study in this field.
Beginning sanitarians usually
start at the trainee level, where they
remain up to a year, working under
the supervision of experienced san­
itarians. They receive on-the-job
training in environmental health
practice and learn to evaluate con­
ditions and recommend corrective
action. After a few years of experi­
ence, they may be promoted to
minor supervisory positions with
more responsibilities. Increased re­
sponsibilities usually come with ad­
ditional experience; sometimes spe­
cialization begins at this level, espe­
cially in large local health offices.
Further advancement is possible to
top supervisory and administrative
To keep abreast of new develop­
ments and to supplement their aca­
demic training, many sanitarians
take specialized short-term training
courses in subjects such as occupa­
tional health, water supply and pol­
lution control, air pollution, radio­
logical health, milk and food protec­
tion, metropolitan planning, and
hospital sanitation.
In 1970, 35 States had laws
providing for registration of sani­
tarians; in some States, registration
is required to practice. Although re­
quirements for registration vary

considerably among the States, the
minimum educational requirement
usually is a bachelor’s degree, with
emphasis on the biological, physical,
and sanitary sciences.
Among the personal qualities
useful to sanitarians is the ability to
communicate effectively, since it is
necessary to write detailed reports
and to deal with persons tactfully
concerning the correction of unsani­
tary conditions. A mechanical apti­
tude also is helpful, since sanitarians
may operate various testing devices.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
sanitarians are expected to be very
favorable through the 1970’s.
Young people without a college de­
gree in one of the physical or bio­
logical sciences or in sanitary sci­
ence will face increasing difficulty in
obtaining professional positions in
this field.
Employment of sanitarians is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, as State and
local health agencies expand their
activities in the field of environmen­
tal health. Radiological health, oc­
cupational health, food protection,
solid waste management, and water
and air pollution are expected to re­
quire the services of more trained
personnel as health dangers grow
under the stimulus of an expanding,
highly technological society.
Air pollution is one example of
an existing environmental hazard
that has attracted widespread public
concern. The discomfort and danger
of air pollution and the possible re­
lationship between it and respira­
tory ailments have attracted atten­
tion to the problem. Government on
all levels has responded by enacting
extensive legislation in environmen­
tal quality control. Legislation


which regulates the quantity of sul­
fates or other chemical compounds
that can be emitted into the air will
increase the demand for profes­
sional sanitarians.
The expanding population is an­
other factor intensifying the demand
for more trained sanitarians. The
migration of people from rural to
urban areas, along with the growth
of industries, will place a greater
strain on the food-service, housing,
and water-disposal facilities of urban
communities. Some increase in de­
mand for sanitarians is expected in
private industry, primarily in the
food industry.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning sanitarians having a
college degree usually earned from
$7,000 to $7,500 in 1970, accord­
ing to the National Environmental
Health Association. Salaries of ex­
perienced professional sanitarians
generally ranged from $10,000 to
$14,000 a year; environmental
health directors often earned from
$14,000 to $30,000. Sanitary aides
and technicians without a college
degree generally earned from
$5,000 to $8,000 in 1970.
ployed in the Federal Government
began at $6,548 or $8,092 in 1970,
depending on their academic rec­
ords. Experienced sanitarians in the
Federal service generally earned
from $9,881 to $14,192.
Sanitarians spend considerable
time away from their desks. Some
come in contact with unpleasant
physical surroundings, such as sew­
age disposal facilities and slum
housing. Transportation or gasoline
allowances frequently are given, and
some health departments provide an


Sources of Additional Information


Information about careers as san­
itarians is available from the follow­
ing associations:

(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)

American Public Health Associa­
tion, 1790 Broadway, New York,
New York 10019.

Nature of the Work

International Association of Milk,
Food and Environmental Sani­
tarians, Blue Ridge Road, P.O.
Box 437, Shelbyville, Indiana
National Environmental Health As­
sociation, 1600 Pennsylvania Street,
Denver, Colorado 80203.

Information on stipends for grad­
uate study is available from:
Division of Allied Health Man­
power, Bureau of Health Profes­
sions Education and Manpower
Training, National Institutes of
Health, 9000 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Maryland 20014.

Veterinarians (doctors of veternary medicine) diagnose, treat, and
control numerous diseases and inju­
ries among animals. Their work is
important for the Nation’s food
production and for public health.
Veterinarians perform surgery on
sick and injured animals, and pre­
scribe and administer drugs, medi­
cines, serums, and vaccines.
Their work is vital to public
health because it helps to prevent
the outbreak and spread of diseases
among animals. Many of these dis­
eases can be transmitted to human
Veterinarians treat animals in
veterinary hospitals and clinics, or
on the farm and ranch. In addition,



veterinarians give advice on the
care and breeding of animals.
The majority of veterinarians are
general practitioners. Of those
who are specialists, the greatest
number treat small animals or pets.
Some specialize in the health care of
cattle, poultry, sheep, swine, or
horses. Many veterinarians inspect
meat, poultry, and other foods as a
part of Federal and State public
health programs. Still others serve
on faculties of veterinary colleges.
Some do research related to animal
diseases, foods, and drugs, or may
act as part of a medical research
team, to seek knowledge about
prevention and treatment of human

rural areas chiefly treat farm ani­
mals; those in small towns usually
engage in general practice; those in
cities and suburban areas frequently
limit their practice to pets.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is required to practice
veterinary medicine in all States and
the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, an applicant must have the
degree of Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.)
awarded upon graduation from a
veterinary school approved by the
American Veterinary Medical Asso­
ciation. He also must pass a State
Board examination, and, in a few
States, have some practical experi­
Places of Employment
ence tinder the supervision of a li­
censed veterinarian. A limited num­
About 25,000 veterinarians were
working in 1970; only 2 percent ber of States issue licenses without
were women. Almost two-thirds of further examination to veterinarians
all veterinarians were in private already licensed by another State.
For positions in research or
practice. The Federal Government
teaching, an additional master’s or
employed about 2,400 veterinarians,
chiefly in the U.S. Department of Ph. D. degree is usually required in
Agriculture; some worked for the a field such as pathology, physiol­
U.S. Public Health Service. About ogy, or bacteriology.
Minimum requirements for the
1,000 more were commissioned of­
ficers in the Veterinary Corps of the D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree are 2
Army and the Air Force. In addi­ years of preveterinary college work
tion, many worked for State and followed by 4 years of study in a
local government agencies and a college of veterinary medicine.
few worked for international health However, most candidates complete
agencies. Some were employed by 3 or 4 years of a preveterinary cur­
colleges of veterinary medicine, ag­ riculum (emphasizing the physical
ricultural colleges, medical schools, and biological sciences). Veterinary
research and development labora­ college training includes consider­
tories, large livestock farms, animal able practical experience diagnosing
food companies, and pharmaceuti­ and treating animal diseases and
cal companies manufacturing drugs performing surgery and laboratory
work in anatomy, biochemistry, and
for animals.
About two-fifths of all veterinari­ other scientific and medical sub­
ans in the United States were in jects.
There were 18 colleges of veteri­
seven States—California,
York, Texas, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, nary medicine in the United States
and Pennsylvania. Veterinarians in in 1970. Some of the qualifications

considered by these colleges in se­
lecting students were scholastic rec­
ord, amount and character of pre­
veterinary training, health, and an
understanding and affection for ani­
mals. Since veterinary colleges are
largely State supported, residents of
the State in which the college is lo­
cated usually are given preference.
In the South and West, regional ed­
ucational plans permit cooperating
States without veterinary schools to
send a few students to designated
regional schools. In other areas, col­
leges which accept a certain number
of students from other States usu­
ally give priority to applicants from
nearby States without veterinary
schools. The number of women stu­
dents in veterinary colleges is rela­
tively small; about 9 percent of the
students in 1970 were women.
Needy students may obtain loans
and scholarships of up to $2,500 a
year to pursue full-time study lead­
ing to the degree of Doctor of Vet­
erinary Medicine under provisions
of the Veterinary Medical Educa­
tion Act of 1966 and the Health
Manpower Act of 1968. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture offers
students who have completed their
junior year in schools of veterinary
medicine opportunities to serve as
trainees during the summer months.
Some veterinarians begin as as­
sistants to, or partners of, estab­
lished practitioners. Many start
their own practice with a modest fi­
nancial investment in drugs, instru­
ments, and an automobile. A more
substantial financial investment is
required to open an animal hospital
or purchase an established practice.
Newly qualified veterinarians may
enter the Army and Air force as
commissioned officers, or qualify for
Federal positions as meat and poul­
try inspectors, disease-control work­
ers, epidemiologists, or research



Veterinarians should have physi­
cal strength and courage to handle
animals who may become aggres­
sive because of pain or injury. They
should be able to work indepen­
dently and keep abreast of the ad­
vances in the profession.

from a trend toward suburban liv­
ing; and an increase in veterinary
research. Emphasis on scientific
methods of raising and breeding
livestock and poultry, and growth in
domestic and international public
health and disease-control programs
also will probably add to the oppor­
tunities for veterinarians.

Employment Outlook

Veterinarians are expected to
have good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. Although
an increase in the demand for their
services is anticipated, the number
of veterinarians will be restricted by
the limited capacity of schools.
However, some expansion in veteri­
nary school facilities is expected
because of passage of the Veteri­
nary Medical Education Act of
1966 which provides for funds to
assist in the construction of new
educational facilities for veterinary
colleges. Nevertheless, most vet­
erinarians who receive degrees will
be needed to replace those who re­
tire or die. As a result, the demand
for veterinarians will probably ex­
ceed the supply during the 1970’s.
Among the factors underlying in­
creasing need for veterinary services
are the following: An increase in
number of livestock and poultry to
feed an expanding population; a
growing pet population resulting

Earnings and Working Conditions

Veterinarians beginning their own
practice generally can cover their
expenses the first year and often add
to their earnings by working part
time for government agencies. As
they gain experience, their incomes
usually increase substantially.
Newly graduated veterinarians
without experience earned $10,539
in the Federal Government in 1970.
Those who had demonstrated supe­
rior ability in their studies started
at $11,905. Summer trainees in the
U.S. Department of Agriculture re­
ceived $155 each week they worked
(representing a rate of $8,098 a
year) in 1970. Experienced veteri­
narians working for the Federal
Government generally earned be­
tween $13,500 and $26,700 a year.
The income of veterinarians in pri­
vate practice usually is higher than
that of other veterinarians, accord­
ing to the limited data available.

Veterinarians sometimes may be
exposed to danger of physical in­
jury, disease, and infection. Those
in private practice are likely to have
long and irregular working hours.
Veterinarians in rural areas may
have to spend much time traveling
to and from farms and may have to
work outdoors in all kinds of
weather. Veterinarians can continue
working well beyond normal retire­
ment age because of many oppor­
tunities for part-time work.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on veteri­
nary medicine as a career, as well as
a list of schools providing training,
may be obtained from:
American Veterinary Medical Asso­
ciation, 600 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60605.

Information on opportunities for
veterinarians in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture is available
Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, Md. 20782.
Consumer and Marketing Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
536 South Clark St., Chicago, 111.


Mathematics is both a profession
and a tool essential for many kinds
of work. As a tool, mathematics, in
the form of mathematical language
and methods, has been fundamental
to understanding and expressing
ideas in science, engineering, and
human affairs. The application of
mathematical methods in these
fields has increased greatly because
of the widespread use of electronic
computers in the natural sciences,
medicine, engineering, and manage­
ment and administration. As a re­
sult, employment opportunities for
persons trained in mathematics ex­
panded rapidly through the 1960’s.
A young person considering a ca­
reer in mathematics should be able
to concentrate for long periods of
time. He should enjoy working in­
dependently with ideas and solving
problems, and must be able to pre­
sent his findings in finished reports.
This chapter includes descrip­
tions of the occupation of mathe­
matician and the two closely related
occupations of statistician and actu­
ary. Entrance into any of these
fields requires college training in
mathematics. For many types of
work, graduate education is neces­
In addition to professions cov­
ered in this chapter, many other
workers such as natural scientists
and those in data processing, dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook,
use mathematics extensively.
Secondary school teachers of
mathematics are not covered in this
chapter but are included in the
statement on Secondary School

knowledge has been instrumental in
many scientific and engineering
achievements. For example, a seem­
ingly impractical non-Euclidean ge­
ometry invented by Bernhard RieMATHEMATICIANS
mann in 1854 became an integral
part of the theory of relativity de­
(D.O.T. 020.088)
veloped by Albert Einstein more
than a half-century later.
Mathematicians in applied work
Nature of the Work
develop theories, techniques, and
Mathematics, one of the oldest approaches to solve problems in the
and most basic sciences, is also one physical, life, and social sciences.
of the most dynamic and rapidly They analyze a problem and de­
growing professions. Mathemati­ scribe the existing relationships in
cians today are engaged in a wide mathematical terms. Their work
variety of activities, ranging from ranges from the analysis of vibra­
the creation of new theories to the tions and stability of rockets in
translation of scientific and mana­ outer space to studies of the effects
gerial problems into mathematical of new drugs on disease.
Some mathematicians or mathe­
Mathematical work may be di­ matical statisticians—as they are
vided into two broad classes: pure often called, use mathematical the­
or theoretical mathematics; and ap­ ory to design and improve statistical
plied mathematics, which includes methods for obtaining and interpret­
mathematical computation. Theo­ ing numerical information. They de­
retical mathematicians develop velop statistical tools in areas such
principles and discover relationships as probability, experimental design,
among mathematical forms. They and regression analysis. They fre­
seek to increase basic knowledge quently work with statisticians when
without necessarily considering its planning and designing experimen­
use. Yet, this pure and abstract tal surveys.

Mathematicians analyze problem.




In applied mathematics, mathe­
matical knowledge and modern
computing equipment are used to
obtain numerical answers for spe­
cific problems. Some work in this
area requires a very high level of
mathematical knowledge, skill, and
ingenuity. However, much of the
work may not require the advanced
training and inventiveness of the
mathematician. (See statements on
Programers and Systems Analysts.)
Applied and pure mathematics
are not always sharply separated in
practice; many important develop­
ments in theoretical mathematics
have arisen directly from practical
problems. For example, in recent
years, John Von Neumann devel­
oped the theory of games of strategy
to improve the methods of analyzing
conflicts between competing inter­
ests, such as those occurring in war
and economics.
Approximately one-fourth of all
mathematicians work in research
and development. Nearly one-third
are primarily college teachers, many
of whom do research part-time. A
little less than one-third are in man­
agement and administration—about
one-half of whom manage and ad­
minister research and development
programs. Most of the remainder
are concerned chiefly with opera­
tions research or production and
inspection (quality control) of man­
ufactured products.

Places of Employment

An estimated 75,000 mathemati­
cians (including more than 5000
engaged in actuarial work) were
employed in the United States in
1970; about 10 percent were
women. More than one-half of all
mathematicians worked in private
industry, primarily in independent
research and development firms,

and in the ordnance, aircraft, ma­
chinery, and electrical equipment
industries. Other mathematicians
were employed as consultants.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than one-third of all
mathematicians, some of whom
have few or no teaching duties. Oth­
ers were employed by the Federal
Government, mostly by the Depart­
ment of Defense. A few worked for
nonprofit organizations and State
and local governments.
Mathematicians were employed
in all States. However, they were
concentrated in States having large
industrial areas and sizable college
and university enrollments. Nearly
half of the total were in seven States
—California, New York, Massachu­
setts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Mary­
land, and New Jersey. One-fifth
reside in three metropolitan areas—
New York, N.Y.; Washington,
D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long Beach,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational require­
ment for most beginning positions
in mathematics is the bachelor’s
degree with a major in mathematics,
or with a major in an applied field
—such as physics or engineering—
and a minor in mathematics. For
many entrance positions, particu­
larly in research or teaching, gradu­
ate training in mathematics is
required. Graduate study is also
valuable for advancement to more
responsible positions in all types of
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by over 1,200 col­
leges and universities throughout
the country. The undergraduate
mathematics curriculum typically
includes courses in analytical geom­

etry, calculus, differential equations,
probability and statistics, mathemat­
ical analysis, and modern algebra.
Advanced mathematics degrees
are conferred by more than 300 col­
leges and universities. In graduate
school, the student builds upon the
basic knowledge acquired in the un­
dergraduate curriculum. He usually
concentrates on a specific field of
mathematics, such as algebra, math­
ematical analysis, statistics, applied
mathematics, or topology, by con­
ducting intensive research and tak­
ing advanced courses in that field.
The bachelor’s degree is ade­
quate preparation for many posi­
tions in private industry and the
Federal Government, particularly
those connected with computer
work. Some new graduates having
the bachelor’s degree assist senior
mathematicians by performing com­
putations and solving less advanced
mathematical problems in applied
research. Others work as graduate
teaching or research assistants in
colleges and universities while
working toward an advanced de­
Advanced degrees are required
for an ever-increasing number of
jobs in industry and Government—
in research and in many areas of
applied mathematics. The Ph. D.
degree is necessary for full faculty
status at most colleges and universi­
ties, as well as for advanced re­
search positions.
For work in applied mathematics,
training in the field to which the
mathematics will be applied is very
important. Fields in which applied
mathematics is used extensively in­
clude physics, engineering, and op­
erations research; other fields in­
clude business and industrial man­
chemistry, the life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences. Training in nu­
merical analysis and programing is


especially desirable for mathemati­
cians working with computers.

Employment Outlook

In addition to opportunities re­
sulting from the very rapid growth
expected in this field, several thou­
sand mathematicians will be needed
each year to replace those who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die.
As in the 1960’s, there will be
strong demand for mathematicians
holding the Ph. D. degree for teach­
ing and research positions in col­
leges and universities. Not only is
the number of students majoring in
mathematics expected to increase
sharply, but the number of students
majoring in other fields and taking
mathematics courses will rise also.
Thus, colleges and universities will
continue to provide most of the em­
ployment opportunities for theoreti­
cal mathematicians.
Mathematicians also will be re­
quired in substantial numbers to
solve an increasingly wide variety of
complex research and development
problems in engineering, natural
and social sciences, military sci­
ences, operations research, and
business management. This work
requires a high degree of mathemat­
ical competence and a broad knowl­
edge of one of these fields of appli­
cation. Expenditures to support
these research and development ac­
tivities have increased steadily
through the 1960’s and are ex­
pected to continue to rise, although
more slowly than in the past.
Between 1970 and 1980, the
number of new graduates having
degrees in mathematics is expected
to at least double. Thus, the number
of persons seeking professional
mathematics employment is ex­
pected to rise sharply, and competi­


tion for entry positions may inten­
sify. Graduates who have advanced
degrees should find favorable em­
ployment opportunities. Those who
have only the bachelor’s degree,
however, probably will face keen
competition for entry positions.
The education and training nec­
essary for a degree in mathematics
is also an excellent foundation for a
number of other occupations, par­
ticularly in fields that rely heavily
on the application of mathematical
theories and methods. Thus, in­
creasing numbers of mathematics
graduates are likely to be hired for
jobs in high school teaching, statis­
tics, actuarial work, computer pro­
graming, systems analysis, econom­
ics, engineering, physics, geophys­
ics, and life sciences. Employment
opportunities in these related fields
probably will be best for those stu­
dents who combine their mathemat­
ics major with a minor in one of
these disciplines.

for the master’s degree could start
at $9,718 or $11,526; those having
the Ph. D. degree could begin at ei­
ther $13,096 or $14,192 a year.
According to the American
Mathematical Society, college and
university teachers in 1970 were
paid median salaries which ranged
from $8,700 (instructors) to
$18,000 (professors) for 9 months
of teaching. Some were paid over
$30,000 annually. Mathematicians
in educational institutions often sup­
plement their regular salaries with
income from summer teaching, spe­
cial research projects, consulting,
and writing.
The average (median) annual
salary for mathematicians in the
National Science Foundation’s Na­
tional Register of Scientific and
Technical Personnel was $14,300 in
1970. Only 10 percent earned less
than $9,000 a year, and about 10
percent earned $25,000 or more a

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Annual starting salaries in private
industry for mathematicians and
mathematical statisticians having
the bachelor’s degree were between
$9,300 and $9,600 in 1970, accord­
ing to limited available information.
New graduates having the master’s
degree received starting salaries
which ranged between $2,200 and
$2,600 a year higher. Yearly sal­
aries for new graduates having the
Ph. D. degree, most of whom had
some experience, averaged over
$16,000 in 1970.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, mathematicians having bache­
lor’s degrees and no experience
could start in the Federal Govern­
ment in 1970 at either $7,856 or
$9,718. Beginning mathematicians
who had completed all requirements

General information on the field
of mathematics—including career
opportunities, professional training,
colleges and universities having de­
gree-credit programs, and earnings
—may be obtained from Profes­
sional Training in Mathematics,
250, available from:
American Mathematical Society,
P.O. Box 6248, Providence, R.I.

Professional Opportunities in Math­
ematics, 35<p, and Guide Book to
Departments in the Mathematical
Sciences, 750, both available from:
Mathematical Association of Amer­
ica, 1225 Connecticut Ave. N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Specific information on careers in
applied mathematics and electronic



computer work may be obtained
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on careers in mathe­
matical statistics may be obtained
Institute of Mathematical Statistics,
Department of Statistics, Cali­
fornia State College at Hayward,
Hayward, Calif. 94542.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Other sources of information on
related occupations, such as Statisti­
cians, Actuaries, Programers, and
Systems Analysts may be found
elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work

More than ever before, the char­
acteristics of the world and its in­
habitants are being described in nu­
merical terms. Statisticians collect,
develop, analyze, and interpret
these data based on their knowledge
of statistics and of a particular field,
such as economics, demography,
behavioral science, education, life
science, physical science, or engi­
neering. They may forecast popula­
tion growth or economic conditions,

predict and evaluate the results of
new programs, develop quality con­
trol tests for manufactured prod­
ucts, or help decision-makers select
from alternative choices. Their
studies provide government and
business officials with the statistical
information needed to make deci­
sions and establish policy. Statisti­
cians sometimes work closely with
mathematicians and mathematical
statisticians. (See statement on
Mathematicians elsewhere in this
Many statisticians plan surveys,
design experiments, or analyze data.
Those who plan surveys select the
data sources, determine the type
and size of the sample groups, and
develop the survey questionnaire or
reporting form. They prepare the
instructions for those who will col­
lect or report the information and
for the workers who will code and

tabulate the returns. Statisticians
who design experiments prepare
mathematical models that will test a
particular theory. Those in analyti­
cal work interpret collected data
and summarize their findings in ta­
bles, charts, and written reports.
Another large group of statisticians
chiefly administer statistical pro­
grams. A few combine research
with teaching. The remainder are
involved in other activities such as
quality control, operations research,
production and sales forecasting,
and market research.
Because statistics has such a wide
use, it is sometimes difficult to dis­
tinguish statisticians from those sub­
ject-matter specialists making a lim­
ited use of statistics. For example, a
statistician working with data on eco­
nomic conditions may have the
title of economist.



Places of Employment

Approximately 24,000 statisti­
cians were employed in 1970; more
than one-third were women. Statis­
ticians are employed in nearly all
industries; about two-thirds of all
statisticians were employed by pri­
vate industry.
Federal, State, and local Govern­
ment agencies employed more than
one-fourth of all statisticians. The
Departments of Commerce; Agri­
culture; Defense; and Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare employed most
of those in the Federal Government.
Others were employed by colleges
and universities, nonprofit organiza­
tions, and research institutes.
Although statisticians were em­
ployed in all States and areas, about
one-third of them worked in three
metropolitan areas—New York,
N.Y.; Washington, D.C.; and Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Calif.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in statistics or mathematics is the
minimum educational requirement
for many beginning positions in sta­
tistics. For other beginning positions
in statistics, however, a bachelor’s
degree with a major in economics or
some other subject-matter field and
a minor in statistics is preferable. A
graduate degree in mathematics or
statistics is essential for faculty posi­
tions at most colleges and universi­
ties, as well as being an asset for ad­
vancement to top administrative and
consulting positions. Advancement
in analytical and survey work usu­
ally requires graduate training in the
subject-matter field as well as in sta­
Fewer than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer training leading to a
bachelor’s degree with a major in

statistics. Most schools, however,
offer either a degree in mathemat­
ics or a sufficient number of
courses in statistics to qualify gradu­
ates for beginning positions.
Courses essential for statisticians in­
clude college algebra, plane trigo­
nometry, analytical geometry, dif­
ferential and integral calculus, lin­
ear algebra, and at least one course
in statistical methods. Other impor­
tant courses cover sampling correla­
tion and regression analysis, experi­
mental design, probability theory,
and computer uses and techniques.
For many quality control positions,
training in engineering and in the
application of statistical methods to
manufacturing processes is desir­
able. For many market research,
business analysis, and forecasting
positions, courses in economics,
business administration, or a related
field are helpful.
Graduate degrees in statistics
were conferred by about 60 colleges
and universities in 1970, and many
other schools offered one or two
graduate level statistical courses.
Entrance into a graduate program
in statistics usually requires a bach­
elor’s degree with a good back­
ground in mathematics. The student
should attend a school where he can
do research in his subject-matter
field, as well as take advanced
courses in statistics.
Beginning statisticians who have
only the bachelor’s degree often
spend much of their time perform­
Through experience, they usually
advance to positions of greater tech­
nical and supervisory responsibility.
Those who have exceptional ability
and interest may be promoted to
top management positions.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions needed by statisticians are an
interest and facility in mathematics,

and the ability to translate problems
into statistical terms.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
well qualified statisticians are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
1970’s. In addition to new positions
resulting from the rapid growth ex­
pected in the profession, hundreds
of statisticians will be needed an­
nually to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields of
Statisticians will be required in
increasing numbers by private in­
dustry in quality control work in
manufacturing. Those having a
knowledge of engineering and phys­
ical sciences will be needed to work
with scientists and engineers in re­
search and development. Business
firms are expected to rely more
heavily on statisticians to forecast
sales, analyze business conditions,
modernize accounting procedures,
and solve other management prob­
Government agencies will need
statisticians for on-going and new
programs in fields such as social se­
curity, health, education, and eco­
nomics. Others will be required to
teach the anticipated growing num­
bers of college and professional
school students, especially as the
more widespread application of sta­
tistical methods makes such courses
increasingly important to non-math­
ematics majors.
Along with the expected growth
in demand for statisticians, a steady
increase in the number of statistics
graduates is expected. However, in
recent years, the number of these
graduates was barely enough to re­
place those statisticians who retired
or died. Thus, employment oppor­
tunities for new college graduates


who have degrees in statistics are
expected to be very good through
the 1970’s.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college
graduates employed as statisticians
in private industry generally aver­
aged between $7,000 and $8,500 a
year in 1970, according to the lim­
ited information available. Salaries
for beginning statisticians having the
master’s degree averaged about
$1,500 a year more than for those
having only the bachelor’s degree.
In the Federal Government serv­
ice in 1970, statisticians who had
the bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start at either $6,548 or
$8,098 a year, depending on their
scholastic records. Beginning statis­
ticians who had completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree
could start at $8,098 or $9,881.
Those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $11,905 or $14,192.
Statisticians employed by colleges
and universities generally earn
somewhat less than those employed
by private industry and the Federal
Government. Some indication of the
salary levels of statisticians em­
ployed as teachers may be obtained
from the earnings data for college
and university teachers as a group.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.) In addition to
their regular salaries, statisticians in
educational institutions sometimes
earn extra income from outside re­
search projects, consulting, and

American Statistical Association,
810 18th St., NW„ Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20414.

A list of reading materials on ca­
reer opportunities in the data proc­
essing field may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.

Nature of the Work

Actuaries are responsible for de­
signing insurance and pension plans
and for maintaining these programs
on a sound financial basis. They are
concerned with rates of mortality
(death), morbidity (sickness), in­
jury, disability, unemployment, re­
tirement, and property loss from ac­
cident, theft, fire, and other poten­
tial hazards. Actuaries use statistical
data and other pertinent informa­
tion to construct tables on the prob­
ability of insured loss. They develop
and analyze estimates of the insur­
er’s future earnings and investment
income, expenses, and policyholder

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities in statistics may be
obtained from:

Actuary works with tables showing sickness and death rates.



claims. Taking all these factors into
consideration, actuaries determine
the premium rates and policy con­
tract provisions for each type of in­
surance offered. Most actuaries spe­
cialize in either life and health in­
surance or property and liability
(casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effec­
tively, actuaries must keep abreast
of general economic and social
trends and legislative, health, and
other developments that may affect
insurance practices. Because of
their broad knowledge of insurance,
actuaries frequently work on prob­
lems arising in investment, under­
writing, group insurance, and pen­
sion sales and service departments.
Actuaries in executive positions
may help determine general com­
pany policy. In that role, they ex­
plain complex technical matters to a
variety of laymen, such as other
company executives and govern­
ment officials. They also testify be­
fore public agencies on proposed
legislation affecting the insurance
business or justify intended changes
in premium rates or contract provi­
Actuaries employed by the Fed­
eral Government usually deal with a
particular insurance or pension pro­
gram, such as social security (oldage, survivors, disability, and health
insurance) or life insurance for vet­
erans and members of the Armed
Forces. Actuaries in State govern­
ment positions supervise and regu­
late insurance companies, the oper­
ation of State retirement or pension
systems, and problems connected
with unemployment insurance or
workmen’s compensation. Consult­
ing actuaries set up pensions and
welfare plans and make periodic
evaluations of these plans for pri­
vate companies, unions, and gov­
ernment agencies.

Places of Employment

Approximately 5,200 persons
were engaged in actuarial work in
the United States in 1970. Over
1,700 had full professional status.
Less than 3 percent of all actuaries
were women. About one-half of all
actuaries were employed in the three
States that are the major centers of
the insurance industry—New York,
Connecticut, and Illinois.
Private insurance companies em­
ployed about four-fifths of all actu­
aries. Most worked for life insur­
ance companies; the remainder
worked for property and liability
(casualty) companies. The size of
an insurance company’s actuarial
staff depends primarily upon the
volume of its insurance work. Large
companies may employ as many as
50 to 100 actuaries. Small compa­
nies may have only a few actuaries
on their staffs or rely instead on rat­
ing bureaus or consulting firms.
Consulting firms and rating bureaus
(associations that supply actuarial
data to member companies) em­
ployed most of the remainder. Sev­
eral hundred actuaries worked for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal or State Gov­
ernment agencies. A few taught in
colleges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a thor­
ough foundation in calculus, proba­
bility, and statistics is required for
entry into actuarial work. The new
graduate having a major in fields
such as mathematics, statistics, eco­
nomics, or business administration
can usually qualify for beginning ac­
tuarial positions. The prospective
actuary should take courses in alge­

bra, analytical geometry, differential
and integral calculus, mathematical
statistics, and probability. Other de­
sirable courses include insurance
law, economics, investments, ac­
counting, and other aspects of busi­
ness administration. English and
other courses which help develop
communication skills also are rec­
ommended. Although only 17 col­
leges and universities offer training
specifically designed for actuarial
careers, several hundred institutions
offer some of the necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10
years after entering a beginning ac­
tuarial position to complete the en­
tire series of examinations required
for full professional status. These
examinations cover general mathe­
matics, specialized actuarial mathe­
matics, and all phases of the insur­
ance business. Those considering an
actuarial career should take the be­
ginning examinations covering gen­
eral mathematics while still in col­
lege. Success in passing these first
examinations helps the beginner to
evaluate his potential as an actuary.
Those who pass these examinations
usually have better opportunities for
employment and a higher starting
salary. The advanced examinations,
usually taken by those in junior ac­
tuarial positions, require extensive
home study and experience in insur­
ance work.
The 10 actuarial examinations
for the life insurance and pension
field are given by the Society of Ac­
tuaries, and the nine for property
and liability (casualty) insurance by
the Casualty Actuarial Society.
Since the first two parts of the ex­
amination series of either Society
are the same, the student may defer
the selection of his insurance spe­
cialty until he becomes familiar with
the field. “Associate” membership
is awarded after completion of five
examinations in either specialty; the



designation of “Fellow” is conferred
after the successful completion of
the entire series of examinations.
Employers frequently prefer ap­
plicants who have passed one or
more actuarial examinations, or
who have gained actuarial experi­
ence in special summer training
programs for college students of­
fered by some insurance companies.
A beginning actuary usually rotates
among different jobs to learn vari­
ous actuarial operations and to be­
come familiar with different phases
of insurance work. At first, his work
may be rather routine, such as pre­
paring calculations or tabulations
for actuarial tables or reports. As he
gains experience, he may supervise
actuarial clerks and prepare corre­
spondence and reports.
Advancement to more responsi­
ble work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely upon
the individual’s on-the-job perform­
ance and the number of actuarial
examinations he has successfully
completed. Many actuaries, because
of their broad knowledge of insur­
ance and related fields, qualify for
administrative positions in other
company activities, particularly in
underwriting, accounting, or dataprocessing departments. A signifi­
cant number of actuaries advance to
top executive positions.
Employment Outlook




actuaries are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. New gradu­
ates who have the necessary mathe­
matical education and have passed
some actuarial examinations will be
in particular demand as trainees.
Actuarial employment is ex­
pected to grow rapidly primarily be­
cause of the rising numbers of in­
surance policies of all kinds which
result, in part, from the existence of
an affluent and more insurance-con­
scious population and business com­
munity. Actuaries will be needed to
solve the growing number of prob­
lems arising from continuously
changing and increasingly complex
insurance and pension coverage.
The expanding number of group
health and life insurance plans and
pension and other benefit plans will
require actuarial services. Addi­
tional actuaries will be needed by
government regulatory agencies.
Demand will continue to be strong
for actuaries capable of working
with electronic computers. Some ac­
tuaries also will be needed each
year to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Depending on the individual’s
college records and experience, a
new college graduate entering actu­
arial work as a trainee in an insur­
ance company was paid from
$8,000 to $9,500 in 1970. Most in­

surance companies paid $200 to
$600 a year more if the trainee had
completed his first actuarial exami­
nation and another $600 to $1,100
when he completed the second ex­
Depending on their college rec­
ords, new graduates with the bache­
lor’s degree entering actuarial work
started at either $8,074 or $9,718 a
year in the Federal Government in
1970. Those with the master’s de­
gree started at $11,526.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a marked increase in earn­
ings as they gain professional expe­
rience and successfully complete
either Society’s series of examina­
tions. In insurance companies, merit
pay increases are given to those
who pass one or a group of the ex­
aminations. Fellows of either the So­
ciety of Actuaries or the Casualty
Actuarial Society earn over $18,000
a year and many actuaries earn
more than $25,000 a year. Those in
executive positions in large compa­
nies earn over $35,000.
Sources of Additional Information

Information on professional op­
portunities and qualifications may
be obtained from:
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East
42d St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South
LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 60604.

The natural sciences are con­
cerned with the physical world and
the living things in it. These sci­
ences may be divided into three
broad groups—physical, life, and
sciences—all of
which are discussed in this chapter.
Mathematics, often considered part
of the natural sciences, is discussed
in a separate chapter elsewhere in
the Handbook.
The physical sciences are the
largest field of employment among
the natural sciences; about 250,000
physical scientists were employed in
1970. Chemistry is the largest of the
physical science specialties; more
than 135,000 chemists were em­
ployed in 1970. Smaller num­
bers were employed as physicists
(50,000) and as astronomers
(1,400). There were more than
20,000 other physical scientists;
more than half were metallurgists.
An estimated 180,000 life scien­
tists specialized in 1 of 3 broad
fields—agriculture, biology, or med­
icine. The largest number, more
than 70,000, worked in biological
sciences. Nearly 50,000 were em­
ployed as agricultural scientists, and
over 60,000 worked on problems
related to medical science.
The environmental sciences are
relatively small fields of scientific
employment. In 1970, the number
of environmental scientists totaled
about 42,000. Of these, the largest
group were geologists (23,000).
Smaller numbers were employed as
geophysicists (8,200), oceanogra­
phers (6,200), and meteorologists
A bachelor’s degree is the usual
minimum educational requirement
for work in the natural sciences.
Graduate training is needed for
many positions, especially in teach­

ing and research, and is helpful for
advancement in all types of work.
In many fields, advanced degrees
are needed for most positions.
Employment in the natural sci­
ences has grown rapidly in recent
years and the outlook is for contin­
ued growth through the 1970’s.
Much of the past employment
growth resulted from increases in
Federal research and development
(R&D) expenditures for space,
health, and defense related pro­
grams. During the 1970-80 decade
R&D expenditures are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici-

pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of research expendi­
tures. These trends were evidenced
in the late 1960’s and in 1970.
Other factors contributing to the ex­
pected employment growth in the
natural sciences are the expansion
of industry; the increasing complex­
ity of industrial products and proc­
esses; and increased science enroll­
ments expected in college and uni­
versities, requiring more teachers.
The following chapter presents
descriptions of some of the major
occupations within the natural sci­
ences. In addition to these occupa­
tions, workers in many other fields
may require a strong background in
the natural sciences. Included are
health service occupations, which
are described elsewhere in the

E n v ir o n m e n t a l S c ie n t is t s
The environmental sciences are
concerned with the history, compo­
sition, and characteristics of the
earth’s land, water, interior, atmos­
phere, and its environment in
space. A large group of the scien­
tists in this field—mainly geologists
—explore for new sources of min­
eral fuels and ores. Some scientists
perform basic research to increase
scientific knowledge. Others work
mainly in applied research; they use
knowledge gained from basic re­
search to solve practical problems.
Meteorologists, for example, apply
scientific knowledge of the atmos­
phere to forecast weather condi­
tions for specific localities and
times. Some of these environmental
scientists teach in colleges and uni­
versities. Others may administer sci­
entific programs and operations.
Environmental scientists also have
an important role in solving the

problems of a polluted environment.
Many environmental scientists
specialize in one particular branch
of their broad occupational field.
This chapter discusses the spe­
cialties and the employment outlook
for four environmental science oc­
cupations—geologists, geophysicists,
meteorologists, and oceanographers.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work

Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust. Many geologists spend
a large amount of their time in field



work. They examine rocks, miner­
als, and fossils to determine the dis­
tribution and relationship both at
and beneath the earth’s surface.
They also gauge the thickness, di­
rection, and slope of rock layers
under the earth’s surface through
rock cores and cuttings by drilling
deep into the earth. Geologists also
search for natural resources such as
coal and water. Exploration usually
requires special skills in rock and
mineral identification, surveying,
map making, data gathering, and
technical note taking. Geologists
also spend considerable time in lab­
oratories where they examine items
or specimens obtained from field

work under controlled temperature
and pressure conditions. Research
includes analysis of physical and
chemical properties of minerals, ex­
periments with the flow of water
and oil through rocks of various
kinds, and study of fossil remains of
animal and vegetable life. Geolo­
gists use a variety of complex in­
struments such as the X-ray dif­
fractometer, which determines the
structure of minerals, and the petro­
graphic microscope, which permits
close study of rock formations and
modifications by earth processes.
Common tools used by many field
geologists include plane tables, lev­
els, transits, well logs, gravity me­

Geologist makes photo micrographs of rock.

ters, seismographs, magnetometers,
aneroid barometers, hammers, cam­
eras, and pocket lenses.
Some geologists administer re­
search and exploration programs.
Others teach and work on research
projects in colleges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in one
or a combination of three general
areas—earth materials, earth proc­
esses, and earth history.
Geologists concerned with earth
materials search for and develop
mineral and fuel resources (oil,
water, coal, and gas) and examine
and classify rocks and fossils accord­
ing to their chemical and physical
properties. They also try to deter­
mine the origin, distribution, and
migration of certain materials in or
on the earth’s crust. Economic geol­
ogists find and sometimes supervise
the development of mineral and
solid fuel resources. Petroleum
geologists specialize in the discovery
and recovery of liquid fuels—oil
and natural gas. Some petroleum
geologists spend much time near
drilling sites, while others interpret
regional geologic data to provide a
broad framework of petroleum-re­
lated geologic knowledge. Engineer­
ing geologists apply geological
knowledge to engineering problems
in the construction of roads, air­
fields, tunnels, dams, and other
large structures. They determine, for
example, whether underground rock
layers will bear the weight of vari­
ous structures and buildings, and
advise industrial and residential
planners. Petrologists classify and
determine the origin of rock masses.
Mineralogists examine, analyze, and
classify minerals and precious
stones according to composition and
structure. Geochemists study the
chemical composition and changes
in minerals and rocks to understand
better the distribution and migration
of elements in the earth’s crust.


Ground-water geologists specialize
in the sources, movement, quality
reserves, and availability of subsur­
face water for human consumption
and for industry and agriculture.
Geologists investigating earth
processes determine the nature and
origin of landforms and their con­
stituents such as rock masses and
sedimentary deposits. They also are
concerned with eruptive forces such
as volcanoes, and the effects of at­
mospheric conditions producing
erosion or glaciation. Volcanologists
study active and inactive volcanoes,
lava flows, and other eruptive activ­
ity. They also try to determine the
composition of the earth and the
elements composing its core. Sedimentologists investigate sedimentary
rocks to determine their characteris­
tics and formation processes such as
erosion, and deposition. Geomor­
phologists study landforms on the
earth’s surface and its change, in­
cluding erosion and glaciation,
which cause or change them.
Geologists specializing in earth
history try to understand and ex­
plain the earth’s development by
determining the age, position, and
nature of its fossils. Paleontologists
trace the evolution and develop­
ment of past life by studying fossil­
ized remains of plants and animals
in geologic formations. Geochronologists determine the ages of rocks,
ore deposits, or various landforms
by radioactive decay of one element
or more. Stratigraphers study the
distribution and relative arrange­
ment of sedimentary rock layers by
analyzing their fossil and mineral
Increasing numbers of geologists
specialize in new fields that require
a detailed knowledge of both geol­
ogy and one or more other sciences.
Among these specialists are Astrogeologists who are concerned with
the geology of extra-terrestrial bod­


ies. They work with lunar maps,
and apply knowledge of the earth’s
geology in studies of conditions on
the Moon and the planets. Com­
puter geologists use computers and
statistical analysis to solve geologic
problems. Geological oceanogra­
phers study the sedimentary and
other rocks on the ocean floor and
continental shelf. (See statements
on Oceanographers and Mining.)

Places of Employment

Approximately 23,000 geologists
were employed in the United States
in 1970, almost 4 percent were
women. Nearly three-fifths of all
geologists worked for private indus­
try, mostly for petroleum and natu­
ral gas producers. A number of the
employees of American petroleum
companies worked in foreign coun­
tries. Geologists also are employed
by mining and quarrying companies.
Some geologists specialized in prob­
lems related to the construction of
dams, bridges, buildings, and high­
ways. Still other geologists worked
as independent consultants offering
specialized services to industry and
The Federal Government em­
ployed more than 1,700 geologists,
two-thirds of whom worked for the
Department of the Interior in the
U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau
of Mines, and the Bureau of Rec­
lamation. State agencies also em­
ployed geologists, some of whom
worked on surveys conducted in
cooperation with the U.S. Geologi­
cal Survey. Although a few posi­
tions were in foreign countries, most
Federal jobs were in the United
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 6,000 geologists.
A few others worked for nonprofit
research institutions and museums.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in geology should
plan to earn an advanced degree.
The master’s degree is required for
beginning research and teaching and
for most positions in exploration.
Advancement in college teaching as
well as in high-level research and
administrative posts usually requires
the Ph. D. degree. The bachelor’s
degree is considered adequate train­
ing for only a few entry jobs, pri­
marily in exploration work.
More than 330 colleges and uni­
versities offer the bachelor’s degree
in geology. In the typical under­
graduate curriculum, students de­
vote about one-fourth of their time
to geology courses, including histor­
ical geology, structural geology,
mineralogy, petrology, and inverte­
brate paleontology. About another
third of the work is in mathematics,
the related natural sciences—such
as physics and chemistry—and in
engineering; the remainder is in
general academic subjects. Statistics
and computer usage also are recom­
More than 160 universities award
advanced degrees in geology. Grad­
uate students take advanced courses
in geology and specialize in one
branch of the science.
Geologists usually begin their ca­
reers on field projects, which in­
cludes field mapping, or some type
of field exploration. Some begin in
laboratories as research assistants.
After suitable experience, they can
be promoted to project leaders, pro­
gram managers, or other positions
in management or research.
The student planning a career in
exploration geology should like out­
door activities and have the physical
stamina for geological field work.
An increasing amount of the work,



As world population expands and
nations become more industrialized,
demand for petroleum and minerals
will rise, and increasing numbers of
geologists will be required to locate
these resources. Geologists also will
be needed to devise techniques for
exploring deeper within the earth’s
crust and to work with engineers to
develop more efficient methods of
recovering natural resources. In­
creased construction activity de­
mands sand, gravel, and other mate­
rials, as well as good building sites.
Geologists also will be needed to
help find and maintain adequate
water supplies, and to develop
waste disposal methods which do
Employment Outlook
not contaminate water. Increased
emphasis on the environment by
Employment opportunities for urban societies also should affect re­
geologists having advanced degrees quirements for geologists. For ex­
are expected to be - favorable ample, pollution control, land use
through the 1970’s. However, those and reclamation, and highways and
having a bachelor’s degree probably other large construction programs
will face keen competition for entry all require the assistance of geolo­
positions, and may have to enter gists.
semiprofessional positions, such as
Space activities will require geol­
technician or surveyor.
ogists to analyze data from the
Demand for geologists is ex­ Moon and planets. They also will
pected to grow moderately in Fed­ play an important role in setting up
eral agencies, particularly the U.S. computer systems to store and re­
Geological Survey. College and uni­ trieve geologic data.
versity employment probably will
The nature of domestic petro­
rise slightly, mainly for those having leum exploration may alter the need
Ph. D. degrees capable of perform­ for geologists from year to year, and
ing high-level research.
short-run demand can either exceed
Good opportunities exist for or fall short of the number availa­
those with training in geology out­ ble. However, indications are that
side the field. For instance, geolo­ employment prospects in petroleum
gists may take training to qualify as and mineral extraction will be less
science teachers in secondary favorable in the future than they
schools. These positions probably have been in the past.
will increase very rapidly in the next
Replacement of geologists who Earnings and Working Conditions
are promoted to managerial posi­
The average (median) annual
tions, or who transfer to other
fields, die, or retire, however, are starting salary for new geology
expected to be the chief source of graduates who have a bachelor’s de­
gree was $8,650 in private industry

formerly done in the field, is now
accomplished by photogeology, a
technique involving the use of color
film, infrared and radar imagery to
map general geologic features. In
addition, a growing number of spe­
cialities are laboratory-oriented.
For the most part, geologists
work as a team. A curious and ana­
lytical mind is necessary in working
with complex geological problems.
Geologists should be able to adapt
to changes brought about by travel
to distant points. The ability to ex­
press oneself orally and in writing
also is important.

in 1970 according to the American
Geological Institute’s annual survey.
New graduates who have a master’s
degree averaged $10,500 a year to
start. Starting salaries for those who
have doctor’s degrees averaged
$12,000 a year.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, new graduates who have a
bachelor’s degree could begin at ei­
ther $8,510 or $9,448 a year in
1970 in the Federal Government.
Those who have a master’s degree
could start at $9,448 or $10,539
and those who have the Ph. D. de­
gree, at $11,905 or $14,192.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (median) an­
nual salary of earth scientists in
1970 was $14,900. Only 10 percent
of the earth scientists earned less
than $10,000 and about 10 percent
earned more than $23,100.
Teachers often supplement their
regular salaries with income from
research, consulting, or writing.
Extra allowances generally are paid
geologists for work outside the
United States.
The work of geologists is often
active and sometimes strenuous.
When their work is outdoors, geolo­
gists may be exposed to all kinds of
weather. Many geologists travel a
great deal and may do field work
away from home for long periods.
Their hours of work often are un­
certain because their field activities
are affected by weather and travel.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities, training, and earnings
for geologists may be obtained
American Geological Institute, 2201
M St. NW., Washington, D.C.



Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work

Geophysics is an overall term
covering a number of sciences con­
cerned with the composition and
physical aspects of the earth—its
size and shape; interior; surface;
atmosphere; the land and bodies of
water on its surface and under­
ground; and the environment of the
earth in space. Geophysicists study

the earth’s physical characteristics,
such as its electric, magnetic, and
gravitational fields; the earth’s inte­
rior heat flow, vibrations, and solar
radiation. To conduct their investi­
gations, geophysicists apply the
principles and techniques of physics,
geology, meteorology, oceanogra­
phy, geodesy, mathematics, chemis­
try, and engineering. They use many
instruments, including highly com­
plex precision ones such as the
seismograph, which measures and
records the transmission time and
magnitude of earthquake waves or
vibrations through the earth; the
magnetometer which measures var­
iations in the earth’s magnetic field;
and the gravimeter which measures
minute variations in gravitational
attraction. Many tests are conducted
in outer space by satellites or inter­
planetary space probes. In geophys­
ical exploration, increasing use is
made of electronic computers to col­
lect and process pertinent data.

Geophysicist uses seismograph to study earth vibrations.

Geophysicists usually specialize
in one of three general phases of
the science—solid earth, fluid earth,
and upper atmosphere.
Geophysicists engaged in work
related to the solid earth are con­
cerned with the location of oil and
mineral deposits, accurate mapping
of the earth’s surface, and the be­
havior of the earth’s crust and its
properties under the great pressures
from its interior.
Exploration geophysicists search
for oil and mineral deposits, using
the knowledge of earthquake vibra­
tions, the magnetic field, gravita­
tional attraction, and other basic
geophysical techniques. Others con­
duct research, usually to develop
new or improved techniques and in­
struments for prospecting.
Seismologists study the structure
of the earth’s interior and the vibra­
tions of the earth caused by earth­
quakes and manmade explosions.
They may explore for oil and min­
erals, provide information for use in
designing bridges, dams, and build­
ings in earthquake regions, or study
the problems involved in detecting
underground nuclear explosions.
Seismologists also play an important
role in interpreting data received
from the seismograph set up on the
moon during the Apollo 12 mission.
Geodesists study the size, shape,
and gravitational field of the earth.
Their principal task is the accurate
mapping of the earth’s surface. With
the aid of orbiting satellites, geodes­
ists study the earth’s surface by de­
termining the positions, elevations,
and distances between points on or
near it, measure the intensity and
direction of gravitational attraction,
and determine the distribution of
mass within the earth. As man pen­
etrates deeper into space, this task
will be extended to other celestial


Hydrologists are concerned pri­
marily with the fluid earth phase.
They study the surface and under­
ground waters in the land areas of
the earth, with regard to their oc­
currence, circulation, distribution,
and physical properties. Hydrolo­
gists measure rivers and streams,
study rainfall, and investigate gla­
ciers, snow, and permafrost. In
practical application, some hydrolo­
gists are concerned with water sup­
plies, irrigation, flood control, and
soil erosion.
sometimes classified as geophysical
scientists, are described elsewhere
in this chapter.)
Geophysicists involved in the up­
per-atmosphere phase investigate
the forms and properties of the
earth’s magnetic and electric fields,
and its upper and outer atmosphere.
In doing so, some compare and con­
trast the composition and atmos­
phere of the Moon, the Sun, and
the planets to that of the composi­
tion and atmosphere of the earth.
Geomagneticians and Aeronomists
are concerned with the earth’s mag­
netic field—its variations, courses,
and forms in space—and with many
aspects of space science. Paleomagneticians learn about past magnetic
fields from rocks or lava flows that
captured the earth’s magnetism
when they solidified. Tectonophysicists study the structure of moun­
tains and ocean basins, the prop­
erties of materials forming the
earth’s crust, and the physical
forces that formed the mountains
and the ocean basins. Planetologists
study the composition and atmos­
phere of the Moon, planets, and
other massive bodies in the solar
system. They depend on the findings
of deep space probes manned by as­
tronauts or equipped with geophysi­
studying solar-planetary relation­
ships are concerned not only with


the Sun’s warming rays and visible
light but also with its radio, in­
frared, ultraviolet, X-ray, and ener­
getic particle radiations. These
phenomena are investigated by
means of radio beams from the
earth’s surface, and by instruments
on satellites and deep space probes.
Meteorologists, sometimes classified
as geophysical scientists, are dis­
cussed separately in this chapter, as
is the closely related occupation of
geologists. (See also the statement
on “Mining”.)

Places of Employment

More than 8,000 geophysicists
were employed in the United States
in 1970. Private industry employed
the majority, chiefly in the petro­
leum and natural gas industry.
Other geophysicists were employed
by mining companies, exploration
and consulting firms, and research
institutions. A few were in business
for themselves as consultants and
provided services on a fee or con­
tract basis to companies and indi­
viduals engaged in prospecting or
other activities using geophysical
Geophysicists in private industry
were employed mainly in the south­
western and western sections of the
United States, including the Gulf
Coast, where most of the country’s
large oil and natural gas fields and
mineral deposits are located. Some
geophysicists employed by Ameri­
can firms are assigned to work in
foreign countries for varying periods
of time.
In 1970, Federal Government
agencies employed nearly 1,900
geophysicists, geodesists, and hy­
drologists, mainly in the U.S. Geo­
logical Survey; the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA); the Army Map Service;

and the Naval Oceanographic
Office. Colleges and universities,
State governments, and nonprofit
research institutions employed small
numbers of geophysicists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in geophysics or in one of the geo­
physical specialties qualifies young
persons for many beginning jobs in
exploration geophysics. A bache­
lor’s degree in a related science or
in engineering also is adequate
preparation for many beginning
jobs, especially in geophysical ex­
ploration. However, this study
should include courses in geophys­
ics, physics, geology, mathematics,
chemistry, and engineering. Some
background in electronic data proc­
essing is useful.
For geophysical specialties other
than exploration, and for the more
responsible positions in exploration
work, graduate education in geo­
physics or in a related physical sci­
ence usually is required. A doctor’s
degree with a major in geophysics,
or in a related science with ad­
vanced courses in geophysics, gen­
erally is required for teaching
careers. The Ph. D. is required
frequently for positions involving
fundamental research and for ad­
vancement in most types of geo­
physical work.
The bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics is awarded by more than 55
colleges and universities. These un­
dergraduate programs provide train­
ing, chiefly in exploration geophys­
ics. Other curriculums that offer the
required training for beginning jobs
as geophysicists include geophysical
technology, geophysical engineer­
ing, engineering geology, petroleum
geology, and geodesy.



The master’s degree and Ph. D.
in geophysics are granted by about
70 universities. For admission to a
graduate program, a bachelor’s de­
gree and a good background in
geology, mathematics, physics, or
engineering, or a combination of
these subjects are the usual require­
ment. In general, the graduate stu­
dent should attend a school in which
he can take advanced courses and
carry out research projects in the
aspect of geophysical science in
which he has a special interest.
Beginning geophysicists having
only the bachelor’s degree are usu­
ally given on-the-job training in the
application of geophysical principles
to their employers’ projects. If a
new employee has not taken the
courses in geophysics needed for his
job, he is taught geophysical meth­
ods and techniques on the job.
Federal Government agencies
also have training programs in
which a few geophysicists are sent
each year to universities for gradu­
ate training. Some Federal Govern­
ment agencies provide a few sum­
mer jobs for promising undergradu­
ates and make permanent positions
available to them after graduation.
Generally, young geophysicists
begin their careers in the field, en­
gaged in either field mapping or ex­
ploratory activities. Others may as­
sist senior geophysicists in a re­
search laboratory. Advancement
may be to project leader, program
manager, or another management
or top research position.
The prospective geophysicist
should be energetic and in excellent
health, since geophysicists often
have to work outdoors under some­
what rugged conditions. A willing­
ness to travel is also important,
since a geophysicist may be re­
quired to move from place to place
in the course of his employment.
Young students planning careers as

geophysicists should be adaptable to
these changes.
Geophysicists generally work as
part of a team. A curious and ana­
lytical mind is necessary in working
with complex geophysical problems.
The ability to express oneself both
orally and in writing also is impor­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
new graduates having degrees in
geophysics are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Opportunities
will be best for those having the
master’s or doctor’s degree. There
also should be favorable opportuni­
ties in geophysical work for wellqualified people having degrees in
other sciences if they have had
some formal training in geophysics.
Very rapid growth is expected in
this profession through the 1970’s.
Federal Government agencies will
need specialists for new or ex­
panded geophysical programs. The
petroleum and mining industries
will need geophysicists for explora­
tion activities, which are expected
to expand in the 1970’s. Several
hundred new geophysicists also will
be needed each year to replace
those who leave the profession, re­
tire, or die.
Although the number of job
openings for geophysicists is not ex­
pected to be large in any 1 year,
the number of new graduates having
degrees in the science also is ex­
pected to be small. As in past years,
the number of geophysics graduates
who are seeking work as geophysi­
cists probably will be insufficient to
meet employers’ needs, and welltrained persons having degrees in
related sciences and in engineering
probably will continue to be hired
for geophysical positions.

Over the long run, further growth
in the profession is expected. As in­
creasing population leads to more
demand for petroleum and mineral
products, both the mining industry
and the petroleum industry indicate
plans to increase their employment
of geophysicists. They will be
needed to operate highly sophisti­
cated electronic equipment to find
the more concealed fuel and min­
eral deposits, in the face of antici­
pated slow-downs in conventional
exploration activities.
In addition, persons with ad­
vanced training in hydrology, seis­
mology, geodesy, and other geo­
physical specialties will be needed
for increasingly important basic re­
search as well as for development of
new techniques and instruments. In
the Federal Government, more geo­
physicists will be needed to study
problems of the Nation’s water sup­
ply and mineral resources and to
work on both flood control, and airpollution control and abatement
measures. They may be needed also
to do research into radioactivity and
cosmic and solar radiation as well as
to help with exploration of the outer
atmosphere and space, through the
use of vehicles such as sounding
rockets and artificial satellites. Geo­
physicists also will be needed to es­
tablish workable systems for infor­
mation storage and retrieval for
geophysical libraries.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In private industry in 1970 new
graduates having bachelor’s degrees
typically received average starting
salaries of $8,650 a year, according
to the American Geological Insti­
tute’s annual salary survey. New
graduates having master’s degrees
averaged $10,500 a year to start.
Beginning salaries for those who


have doctor’s degrees averaged
$12,000 a year. In private industry,
geophysical scientists working out­
side the United States usually re­
ceived bonuses and allowances.
In the Federal Government in
late 1970, graduates having bache­
lor’s degrees and no experience
could enter most types of geophysi­
cal work at either $8,292 or
$10,258 a year, depending upon
their college records. Those who
had completed all requirements for
the master’s degree could start at
$10,258 or $11,526; those having
the Ph. D. could start at $13,096 or
$14,192. In the Federal Govern­
ment as in industry, geophysicists
stationed outside the United States
are paid an additional amount.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (median) an­
nual salary of earth scientists in
1970 was $14,900. Only 10 percent
of the earth scientists earned less
than $10,000 and about 10 percent
earned more than $23,100.
In educational institutions, start­
ing salaries are generally lower than
in private industry or in the Federal
Government. University teachers,
however, may supplement their in­
come by consulting, writing, or re­
search activities.
The work of geophysicists is
often active and sometimes strenu­
ous. Exploration geophysicists are
subject to reassignment in various
locations as exploration activities
shift. Their working hours may be
irregular and frequently are deter­
mined by the requirements of field

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities, training, and earnings


for geophysicists may be obtained
American Geophysical Union, 2100
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20037.
Society of Exploration Geophys­
icists, P. O. Box 3098, Tulsa,
Okla. 74101.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 025.088)

Nature of the Work

Meteorology is the study of at­
mospheric phenomena—not only of
the earth, but of all celestial bodies.
Meteorologists attempt to describe
and understand the atmosphere’s
constituents, motions, processes,
and influences. Their knowledge
helps solve many practical problems
in agriculture, transportation, com­
munications, health, defense, and
Meteorologists usually specialize
in one branch of the science.
Weather forecasters, known profes­
sionally as synoptic meteorologists,
are the largest group of specialists.
They interpret current weather in­
formation (such as air pressure,
temperature, humidity, wind veloc­
ity) reported by observers in many
parts of the world and by radio­
sondes and weather satellites. They
use their interpretations to make
short- and long-range forecasts for
specific regions. Some forecasters

still prepare and analyze weather
maps, but most interpret data di­
rectly from computers. Climatolo­
gists analyze past records on wind,
rainfall, sunshine, temperature, and
other weather data for a specific
area to determine the general pat­
tern of weather which makes up the
area’s climate. Paleoclimatologists
study historical climate conditions.
Such studies are useful in planning
heating and cooling systems, design­
ing structures, and aiding in effec­
tive land utilization. Dynamic me­
teorologists investigate the physical
laws governing atmospheric mo­
tions. These motions range from the
great global atmospheric circula­
tions around the earth and other
planets, to restless eddies (contrary
movements of air). Physical meteor­
ologists study the physical nature
of the atmosphere, including its
chemical composition and electrical,
acoustical, and optical properties.
They study also the effect of the at­
mosphere on transmission of light,
sound, and radio waves, as well as
factors affecting formation of
clouds, precipitation, and other
weather phenomena. Meteorologi­
cal instrumentation specialists de­
velop the devices that measure, re­
cord, and evaluate data on atmos­
pheric processes. For example,
some of these instruments are used
to measure size and number of drop­
lets in a cloud, structure of winds,
and pressure, humidity, and temper­
ature miles above the earth.
Specialists in applied meteorol­
ogy, sometimes called industrial me­
teorologists, study the relationship
between weather and specific
human activities, biological proc­
esses, and agricultural and in­
dustrial operations. For example,
they make weather forecasts for in­
dividual companies, attempt to in­
duce rain or snow in a given area,
and work on problems such as



electronic computers to tabulate
and file large amounts of data.
A number of meteorologists
teach or do research—frequently
combining the two activities—in
universities or colleges. In colleges
without separate departments of
meteorology, they may teach geog­
raphy, mathematics, physics, chem­
istry, or geology, as well as meteor­

Places of Employment

Meteorologist compares predicted circulation patterns with those of previous

smoke control and air pollution
Almost one-third of all civilian
meteorologists are engaged in re­
search and development. They are
concerned, for example, with devis­
ing mathematical models of atmos­
pheric motion as an aid to changing
weather conditions, or in carrying

out experiments designed to modify
the formation of rain. Approxi­
mately one-third are engaged pri­
marily in weather forecasting, and
about one-fourth manage or admin­
ister forecasting and research pro­
grams. In both weather forecasting
and research, meteorologists use

Nearly 4,400 civilian meteorolo­
gists were employed in the United
States in 1970; approximately 2 per­
cent were women. The National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis­
tration (NOAA), which includes
the National Weather Service, em­
ployed by far the largest number
of civilian meteorologists—nearly
2,000—at 300 stations in all parts
of the United States, the polar re­
gions, Puerto Rico, Wake Island,
and other Pacific area sites. A few
worked for other Federal Govern­
ment agencies. The Armed Forces
employed more than 300 civilian
professional meteorologists.
More than 800 meteorologists
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed several
hundred to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots on
atmospheric conditions. Others
worked for private weather consult­
ing firms, which provided special
weather information for a fee, for
companies that designed and manu­
factured meteorological instru­
ments, and for large firms in aero­
space, insurance, utilities, and other
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 1,000 meteorolo­
gists in research and teaching. Sev­
eral hundred others worked for


State and local governments and for
nonprofit organizations.
In addition to these civilian me­
teorologists, more than 2,400
officers and 1,500 enlisted members
of the Armed Forces were engaged
in forecasting and other meteorolog­
ical work in 1970.
Although meteorologists are em­
ployed in all States, nearly two-fifths
were located in just two States—
California and Maryland. More
than one-tenth of all meteorologists
were employed in the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in meteorology is the usual mini­
mum educational requirement for
beginning meteorologists in weather
forecasting. However, a bachelor’s
degree in a related science or in en­
gineering is acceptable for many po­
sitions, provided the applicant has
credit for courses in meteorology.
For example, the Federal Govern­
ment’s minimum requirement for
beginning positions is a bachelor’s
degree, at least 20 semester hours of
study in meteorology (6 hours each
in synoptic meteorology and dy­
namic meteorology) and additional
training in physics and mathematics,
including calculus.
For research and teaching and
for many top-level positions in other
meteorological activities, an ad­
vanced degree is essential, prefera­
bly in meteorology. However, per­
sons having graduate degrees in
other sciences also may qualify if
they have taken advanced meteorol­
ogy, physics, mathematics, and
About 55 colleges and universi­
ties in 1970 offered degree-credit
programs in meteorology or special­


ized meteorological disciplines; 32
of these schools granted advanced
degrees in the atmospheric sciences.
Many other institutions offered
courses in meteorology.
Meteorology training is given or
supported by the Armed Forces. In
1970, more than 500 commissioned
officers received university training
in meteorology at either the under­
graduate or graduate level. In addi­
tion, over 200 enlisted personnel
were being sponsored in college and
university programs leading to an
undergraduate degree and commis­
sion. Ex-servicemen who have ex­
perience as meteorologists fre­
quently are qualified for civilian me­
teorologist positions, not only with
the Armed Forces, but with other
employers as well.
The NO A A has an in-service
training program under which some
of its meteorologists are attending
college for advanced or specialized
training. Some college students pre­
paring for careers in meteorology
may obtain summer jobs with this
agency. Promotions for regular
full-time employees are made ac­
cording to U.S Civil Service Com­
mission regulations. (See chapter on
Occupations in Government.)
Meteorologists in the Federal
Government generally begin their
careers in 2-year training positions
at weather stations. Duties include
making weather observations, brief­
ing pilots, and disseminating
weather forecasts. Advancement is
to assistant forecaster, and fore­
somewhat limited opportunities for
advancement. However, after con­
siderable work experience, they
may advance to flight dispatcher or
to various supervisory or adminis­
trative positions. A few well-trained
meteorologists having a background
in science, engineering, and busi­

ness administration may establish
their own weather consulting serv­

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for ci­
vilian meteorologists is expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s. In
addition to job opportunities result­
ing from the rapid growth expected
in this profession, several hundred
new meteorologists will be needed
each year to replace those who
transfer to other fields, retire, or
Meteorologists having advanced
degrees will be in demand to con­
duct research, teach in colleges and
universities, and engage in manage­
ment and consulting work. The ad­
vent of weather satellites, manned
spacecraft, world-circling weather
balloons, new international cooper­
ative programs, and the use of elec­
tronic computers to make weather
forecasts have expanded greatly the
boundaries of meteorology. These
advances have opened new fields of
activity in the study of weather on a
global scale. Meteorologists will be
in demand to develop and improve
instruments used to collect and
process weather data.
Employment opportunities for
meteorologists with commercial air­
lines, weather consulting services,
and other private companies also
are expected to increase, as the
value of weather information to all
segments of our economy receives
further recognition. This recognition
also may create opportunities in re­
search positions with private re­
search organizations and colleges
and universities. The number of
teaching positions for meteorolo­
gists also should rise, primarily be­
cause of anticipated increases in



total college enrollments and in me­
teorology programs.
In addition, there will be a con­
tinuing demand for meteorologists
to work in existing programs, such
as weather measurements and fore­
casts, storm and flood forecasts, and
research on the problems of severe
storms, turbulence, and air pollu­

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970 meteorologists with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience
could start in Federal Government
service at $8,292 or $10,258 a year,
depending on their college records.
Meteorologists who had completed
all requirements for the master’s de­
gree could start at $10,258 or
$11,526; those having the Ph. D.
degree could begin at $13,096 or
$14,192. Workers stationed outside
the United States were paid an ad­
ditional amount. Employee benefits
for Federal Government meteorolo­
gists were the same as for other civil
service workers. (See chapter on
Occupations in Government.)
Airline meteorologists received a
starting salary ranging from $9,700
to $12,300 a year in 1970 accord­
ing to the Air Transport Associa­
tion. Meteorologists generally re­
ceive the same benefits as other air­
line employees. (See chapter on
Occupations in Civil Aviation.)
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (median) an­
nual salary of meteorologists in
1970 was $15,200. Only 10 percent
of the meteorologists earned less
than $10,000 and about 10 percent
earned more than $22,300.
Jobs in weather stations, which
are operated on a 24-hour, 7-day
week basis, often involve nightwork

and rotating shifts. Most stations are
at airports or at places in or near
cities; some are in isolated and re­
mote areas. Meteorologists gener­
ally work alone in smaller weather
stations, and as part of a team in
larger ones.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities, educational facilities,
and professional development in
meteorology may be obtained from:
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass.
American Geophysical Union, 2100
Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20037.

Information on employment op­
portunities with the NOAA Na­
tional Weather Service and on its
student-assistance program may be
obtained from:
Personnel Division AD42, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad­
Blvd., Rockville, Md. 20852.

Information on the Air Force
meteorological training programs
may be obtained from the nearest
USAF recruiting office or from:
Commander, USAF Recruiting Serv­
ice, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)

Nature of the Work

The ocean, which covers more
than two-thirds of the earth’s sur­
face, provides man with valuable

foods, fossil fuels, and minerals. It
also influences the weather, serves
as a “highway” for transportation,
and offers many varieties of recrea­
tion. Oceanographers study the
ocean—its characteristics, move­
ments, physical properties, and
plant and animal life. The results of
their studies not only extend basic
scientific knowledge but also con­
tribute to development of practical
methods for forecasting weather,
fisheries development, mining ocean
resources, and National defense.
Some oceanographers perform
tests, make observations, and con­
duct surveys and experiments from
ships or stationary platforms in the
sea. They may collect and study
data on the ocean’s tides, currents,
waves, mountain ranges and valleys.
They also may study its tempera­
ture, density, and acoustical prop­
erties; its sediments; its sub-bottom;
its shape; its interaction with the at­
mosphere; and marine plants and
Other oceanographers perform
equally important functions in labo­
ratories on land. For instance, in
some research laboratories, fish are
measured and photographed, and
their stomach contents analyzed; ex­
otic sea specimens dissected, cata­
logued, and bottled; and plankton
(floating microscopic plants and an­
imals) identified, separated, and
sometimes counted. At other labo­
ratories, data collected from meas­
uring and detecting devices are
plotted on maps or fed to electronic
computers to test theories such as
sea-floor spreading and continental
drift. To present the results of their
studies, oceanographers prepare
charts, tabulations, reports, and
manuals, and write papers for scien­
tific journals.
In developing and carrying out
tests and observational programs,
oceanographers use the principles



and techniques of the natural sci­
ences, mathematics, and engineer­
Current exploration techniques
involve the use of instrumented
probes from surface ships and lowflying aircraft. Oceanographers use
instruments such as current meters
that reveal the circulation of very
deep water; echo sounders; the
magnetometer and gravimeter that
measure the earth’s magnetic and
gravity fields; heat probes that de­
termine the flow of heat from the

earth’s interior; and sediment corers
to extract samples from the ocean’s
floor. They also employ instruments
to test temperature and chemical
composition of the water. Specially
developed cameras equipped with
strong lights are used to photograph
marine organisms and the ocean
floor. Sounding devices are vital to
the oceanographer for communicat­
ing with teammates above the water,
and for measuring, mapping, and
locating ocean materials.
Future oceanographers may rely

Oceanographer lowers current meter to study circulation of deep waters.

on instrumented buoys to record
data at all depths, satellites to ob­
serve the ocean’s surface, and deep
research vessels (DRV’s)—small,
versatile submersibles to provide
“aquanauts” with a closer view of
the underwater world.
Most oceanographers are special­
ists in one of the branches of the
profession. Biological oceanogra­
phers (marine biologists) study the
ocean’s plant and animal life and
the environmental conditions affect­
ing them. For instance, they investi­
gate marine animals that generate
light and electricity (photolumi­
nescence), study the effects of
ocean organisms on manmade mate­
rials, search for ways to extract
drugs from seaweeds or sponges,
and determine the effects of ra­
dioactivity and pollution on the
growth of fish. Physical oceanogra­
phers (physicists and geophysicists)
study the physical properties of the
ocean, such as its density, tempera­
ture, and ability to transmit light
and sound; the movements of the
sea; and the relationship between
the sea and the atmosphere which
may lead to control over the
weather. Geological oceanographers
(marine geologists) study the topo­
graphic features, rocks, and sedi­
ments of the ocean floor. They also
help determine the location and
availability of deposits of mineral,
oil, and gas on the ocean floor.
Chemical oceanographers investi­
gate the chemical composition of
ocean water and sediments, as well
as chemical reactions that occur in
the sea. For example, they are con­
cerned with processes such as desal­
ination (removing salt from sea
study the interaction of the atmos­
phere and the ocean, and the proc­
esses by which weather over the
ocean is generated. Oceanographic
engineers and electronic specialists



design and build the systems, de­
vices, and instruments used in
oceanographic research and opera­
tions. Other tasks include laying ca­
bles, supervising underwater con­
struction, and locating sunken ships
and recovering their cargos.
About 3 out of 4 oceanographers
are engaged primarily in performing
or administering research and de­
velopment activities. A number
teach in colleges and universities; a
few are engaged in technical writing
or consulting and in the administra­
tion of activities other than re­
Places of Employment

An estimated 5,400 oceanogra­
phers and closely related technical
personnel were employed in the
United States in 1970. About fourfifths were employed by the Federal
Government and colleges and uni­
versities. Those Federal agencies
employing substantial numbers of
oceanographers were the Naval
Oceanographic Office, and the Na­
tional Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), a newly
created agency combining several
Federal oceanographic-related of­
fices such as the Bureau of Com­
mercial Fisheries, and the Environ­
mental Science Services Administra­
A number of oceanographers
work in private industry for firms
that design and develop instruments
and vehicles for oceanographic re­
search. A few work for fishery labo­
ratories of State and local govern­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning professional

positions in oceanography is the
bachelor’s degree with a major in
oceanography, biology, a geo-science, one of the other basic sciences,
mathematics, or engineering. To
qualify for professional positions in
research and teaching as well as for
advancement to high-level positions
in most types of work, graduate
training in oceanography or one of
the basic sciences usually is re­
Undergraduate training in ocean­
ography, marine science, ocean en­
gineering, or fisheries was offered
by only about 24 colleges and uni­
versities in 1970. Only nine institu­
tions offered the bachelor’s degree
with a major in oceanography.
However, since oceanography is an
interdisciplinary field, training in the
related basic sciences, when coupled
with a strong interest in oceanogra­
phy, is adequate preparation for
most beginning positions or for
entry into graduate school.
Important undergraduate courses
for the prospective oceanographer
are in the fields of mathematics,
geology, meteorology, and biology.
In general, the student should spe­
cialize in the particular science field
which is closest to his area of inter­
est in oceanography. For example,
students interested in chemical
oceanography should obtain a de­
gree in chemistry.
In 1970 about 22 colleges and
universities offered advanced de­
grees in oceanography, and about
21 other institutions offered ad­
vanced courses in fisheries, marine
science, or oceanographic engineer­
ing. The academic work of the grad­
uate student in oceanography con­
sists primarily of extensive training
in a basic science combined with
further training in oceanography.
The graduate student usually works
part of the time aboard ship, doing

oceanographic research for his dis­
sertation and acquiring familiarity
with the sea and techniques used to
obtain oceanographic information.
A variety of summer courses is of­
fered also by universities at the var­
ious marine stations along our
coasts. These are intended for both
undergraduate and graduate stu­
dents and are recommended partic­
ularly for students from inland uni­
The beginning oceanographer
with the bachelor’s degree usually
starts as a research or laboratory as­
sistant, or in routine data collection,
analysis, or computation. Most new
oceanographers receive on-the-job
training related to the specific work
at hand. The nature and extent of
the training vary with the back­
ground and needs of the individual.
Thus, the new graduate who has a
degree in a basic science rather than
in oceanography usually can be pro­
vided enough understanding of
oceanographic principles to enable
him to perform adequately in this
Beginning oceanographers having
advanced degrees usually can qual­
ify for research and teaching posi­
tions. Experienced oceanographers
may be selected for administrative
positions in which they may super­
vise a research laboratory or direct
specific survey or research projects.
Most oceanographers work part
of the time aboard oceanographic
ships at sea. These voyages may last
from a few days to several months.
A few oceanographers work nearly
all of the time aboard ship. On the
other hand, some oceanographers
never go to sea; they analyze data
collected by other scientists or pur­
sue mathematical or theoretical
studies ashore.



Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
those having advanced degrees in
oceanography—especially the Ph.
D. degree—are expected to be fa­
vorable through the 1970’s. Welltrained persons with bachelor’s de­
grees in oceanography and related
sciences will find opportunities
mainly as research assistants in rou­
tine analytical positions.
The outlook is for very rapid
growth in this profession through
the 1970’s. Growing recognition of
the importance of the oceans to the
Nation’s welfare and security has
heightened interest in oceanography
and has opened new fields for spe­
cialists. In the years ahead, improv­
ing the Nation’s defenses against
submarines and surface vessels will
require oceanographic research into
underwater sound, surface and sub­
surface currents, and configuration
of the ocean’s floor. Oceanogra­
phers will be needed too for
weather and iceberg forecasting and
to study air-sea interaction in longrange forecasts. They will be
needed to develop new technologies
for discovering and mining the fuel
and mineral resources of the ocean’s
floor, and to protect waters from
damage by pollution and land from
damage by waves and tides. Other
oceanographers may improve meth­
ods of taking foods and pharmaceu­
ticals from the oceans, manage fish­
eries, and develop economical
means of harnessing the ocean for
energy and of providing fresh water
from the sea.
The demand for oceanographers
qualified to teach in colleges and
universities also is expected to ex­
pand. As interest in oceanography
grows and more courses in oceanog­
raphy are offered, more teachers in
the science will be needed.
Replacement of oceanographers

who transfer to other fields, retire,
or die also will provide some oppor­
Since oceanography is a relatively
small profession, job openings will
not be numerous in any 1 year.
On the other hand, the number of
new graduates having advanced de­
grees in this science is small and is
expected to remain so. As a result,
these new oceanography graduates
should continue to have favorable
employment opportunities.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government serv­
ice in 1970, oceanographers hav­
ing the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could begin at $8,292 or
$10,258 a year, depending on their
college records. Beginning oceanog­
raphers who had completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree
could start at $10,258 or $11,526;
those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $13,096 or $14,192.
Scientists in geological and biologi­
cal specialties had somewhat lower
starting salaries.
In private industry in 1970, new
graduates having bachelor’s degrees
received median starting salaries of
$8,650 a year, according to a salary
survey conducted by the American
Geological Institute. New graduates
having master’s degrees averaged
$10,500 a year, and those holding
doctor’s degrees averaged $12,000
a year to start in 1970. According
to the National Science Founda­
tion’s National Register of Scientific
and Technical Personnel, the aver­
age (median) annual salary of earth
scientists in 1970 was $14,900.
Only 10 percent of the earth scien­
tists earned less than $10,000 and
about 10 percent earned more than
Beginning oceanographers in ed­

ucational institutions receive the
same salary as other beginning fac­
ulty members. (See statement on
“College and University Teach­
ers.” ) In addition to their regular
salaries, many experienced ocean­
ographers in educational institutions
earn extra income from consulting,
lecturing, and writing activities.
Oceanographers engaged in re­
search requiring sea voyages are
frequently away from home for
weeks or months at a time, some­
times living and working in cramped
quarters. Young persons who like
the sea, however, may find these
voyages very satisfying.

Sources of Additional Information

opportunities, professional training,
colleges and universities having
applicable degree-credit programs,
earnings, and the economic signifi­
cance of oceanographic activities—
may be obtained from:
International Oceanographic Foun­
dation, 1 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Virginia Key, Miami, Fla. 33149.
National Oceanography Association,
1900 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, Room 218, Bldg.
5, 6010 Executive Blvd., Rock­
ville, Maryland 20852.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

The bulletin University Curricula
in the Marine Sciences and Related
Fields may be obtained from:
Marine Sciences Affairs Staff, Bldg.


159E, Rm. 476, Washington Navy
Yard, Washington, D.C. 20390.

The booklet, Oceanography In­
formation Sources ’70, lists the
names and addresses of industrial
organizations involved in oceanog­
raphy and publishers of oceano­
graphic educational materials, jour­
nals, and periodicals. Copies may be
purchased from:
Printing and Publishing Office, Na­
tional Academy of Sciences, 2101
Constitution Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20418.

fairs— Selecting Priority Programs
(April 1970), contains information
on the national oceanography pro­
gram. Copies may be obtained from:
Superintendent of Documents, Gov­
ernment Printing Office, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20402.

Some information on oceano­
graphic specialties may be obtained
from professional societies listed
elsewhere in the Handbook. (See
statements on Geologists, Geophysi­
cists, Life Scientists, Meteorologists,
and Chemists.)

The bulletin, Marine Science Af-

L ife S c ie n c e O c c u p a tio n s
Life scientists study all living or­
ganisms and the processes that de­
termine the nature of life. They are
concerned with men and microbes,
plants and animals, and health and
disease, as well as how these organ­
isms relate to their environment.
Some scientists in these fields
perform research to expand our un­
derstandings of living things. Oth­
ers, who teach, pass this knowledge
on to students. Many scientists pur­
sue both activities. Still others apply
scientific concepts and principles to
the solution of practical problems,
such as the development of new
drugs or varieties of plants, and
seek solutions to problems of pollu­
This chapter discusses life scien­
tists as a group since they receive
comparable basic training and have
similar employment and earning
prospects. Brief descriptions are
provided about the nature of the
work of a number of life scientists
—including botanists, zoologists, mi­
crobiologists, biophysicists, ecolo­
gists, pathologists, and pharmacolo­
gists. This chapter also contains a
separate statement on biochemists.

More detailed statements for other
professional workers in the life sci­
ences—soil scientists, soil conserva­
tionists, foresters, and range manag­
ers—are discussed elsewhere in the

(D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 070.081, and

Nature of the Work

Life scientists study living organ­
isms, their structure, evolutionary
development, behavior, and life
processes. They emphasize the rela­
tionship between animals, plants,
and micro-organisms and their envi­
ronments. The number and variety
of plants and animals are so vast
and the life processes so varied and
complex that life scientists must
specialize in one of three broad
areas—agriculture, biology, medi­

Two-fifths of all life scientists are
engaged in research and develop­
ment. Many conduct basic research,
which is aimed at adding to our
knowledge of living organisms with
only secondary regard to its applica­
tion. Nevertheless, the development
of insecticides, disease-resistant
crops, and antibiotics have resulted
from this type of research.
Research in the life sciences may
take many forms. A botanist explor­
ing the volcanic Alaskan valleys to
see what plants live in this strange
environment and a zoologist search­
ing the jungles of the Amazon val­
ley for previously unknown kinds of
animals are both doing research;
likewise, an entomologist in a labo­
ratory tests various chemical insecti­
cides for effectiveness and possible
hazards to human and animal life.
Life scientists must be familiar
with fundamental research tech­
niques and the use of light and elec­
tron microscopes and other complex
laboratory equipment. Advanced
techniques and principles from
chemistry and physics are applied
widely. Knowledge of mathematical
and statistical procedures, as well as
of the operation of electronic com­
puters, often is needed in experi­
Teaching in a college or univer­
sity is the major function of nearly
one-fourth of all life scientists.
Many teachers combine independ­
ent research with their regular
teaching duties, and in some large
educational institutions, use the
major portion of their time on re­
More than one-fourth of all life
scientists are engaged in manage­
ment and administrative work, pri­
marily the planning, supervision, and
administration of programs of re­
search or testing of foods, drugs,
and other products. Others provide
liaison between the Federal Gov-



Life scientist induces sea urchin to shed eggs for experiment.

ernment and the agricultural experi­
ment stations at State universities,
assisting in the planning, develop­
ment, and evaluation of research
programs at these stations.
The remaining life scientists are
engaged in a variety of other types
of work, such as consulting, writing,
testing, and inspection. A few are
employed in technical sales or field
service work for industrial firms;
such work may include, for exam­
ple, teaching company salesmen and
prospective purchasers the value
and proper use of new chemicals.
Some are engaged in research in
natural history museums, zoos, and
botanical gardens.
Life scientists may be classified
into three broad groups character­

ized by the general type of organism
with which they work: Botanists,
who study plants; zoologists, who
are concerned with animals; and mi­
crobiologists, who work with micro­
Botanists study all aspects of
plant life. Plant taxonomists identify
and classify plants. Plant ecologists
study the interrelationships between
environmental elements and plant
life and distribution. Other botanists
include plant morphologists, con­
cerned with the structure of plants
and plant cells; plant physiologists,
interested in the life processes of
plants; and plant pathologists, en­
gaged in determining the cause and
control of plant diseases.
Zoologists study animal life—its

origin, classification, behavior, life
processes, diseases, and parasites
—and the ways in which animals in­
fluence and are influenced by their
environment. Some zoologists con­
duct experimental studies with live
animals, and in some cases, study
them in their natural environment.
Others work mainly in laboratories
dissecting animals and examining
them under the microscope. Zoolo­
gists who specialize in the study of
certain classes of animals may use
titles that indicate the kind of ani­
mal studied, such as ornithologists
(birds), herpetologists (reptiles
and amphibians), ichthyologists
(fishes), and mammalogists (mam­
Microbiologists investigate the
growth, structure, and general char­
acteristics of bacteria, viruses,
molds, and other organisms of mi­
croscopic or submicroscopic size.
Although the terms bacteriology
and microbiology are sometimes
used interchangeably, microbiology,
the broader term, is preferable
when referring to the study of all
microscopic organisms. Microbiolo­
gists isolate and make cultures of
these organisms in order to examine
them with a variety of highly spe­
cialized equipment. Some micro­
biologists pursue medical prob­
lems, such as the relationship be­
tween bacteria and infectious dis­
ease, or the effect of antibiotics on
bacteria. Others specialize in soil
bacteriology (the study of soil mi­
croorganisms and their relation to
soil fertility), virology (the study of
viruses), immunology (the study of
the mechanisms that fight infec­
tion), or serology (the study of ani­
mal and plant fluids, including
blood serums).
Life scientists also may be classi­
fied according to the type of ap­
proach used—some of which are
wholly within 1 of the 3 major



groupings, and others which may be
found in all 3 groups. Some life sci­
entists are classified according to
the specific type of organism stud­
ied. Some life scientists whose work
cuts across more than one of these
major groupings, as often in the
case of college and university teach­
ers, simply may call themselves bi­
ologists. A description of the work
of some life scientists follows.
Agronomists are concerned with
improving crops and the soil. Those
working with the soil analyze it,
map the soils of an area, or develop
and apply new methods for increas­
ing acreage yields. They also study
ways to conserve water and to de­
crease erosion. Agronomists in­
volved in crop science develop new
methods of growing crops for im­
proved quality, higher yield, and
more efficient production. They
seek new, hardier varieties of crops
and better methods of controlling
disease, pests, and weeds.
Anatomists study the form and
structure of organisms. Those who
specialize in the structure of cells
are known as cytologists, whereas
those who specialize in the structure
of tissues and organs are known as
histologists. Anatomists may exam­
ine structures visible to the naked
eye or of microscopic size, or those
of submicroscopic size, visible only
through the use of the electron mi­
croscope. Many anatomists special­
ize in human anatomy.
Biochemists, who are trained in
both chemistry and biology, study
the chemical processes of living
things. A more detailed description
of their work is contained in a sepa­
rate statement elsewhere in this
Biological oceanographers, or
marine biologists, study the plant
and animal life in the oceans and
the environmental conditions affect­
ing them. (See separate statement on

Oceanographers elsewhere in the
Biophysicists who are trained in
both physics and biology, investi­
gate the physical principles of living
cells and organisms, and their re­
sponses to physical forces, such as
heat, light, radiation, sound, and
electricity. They may use the elec­
tron microscope to make tissues vis­
ible down to the smallest units and
they may use nuclear reactors to
study the effect of radiation on
cells and tissues.
Ecologists study the mutual rela­
tionship among organisms and be­
tween them and their environment.
They are interested in the effects of
environmental influences such as
rainfall, temperature, and altitude
on these organisms. For instance,
ecologists extract samples of phyto­
plankton, microscopic plants which
produce most of the world’s atmos­
pheric oxygen, from bodies of water
to determine the effects of pollution
on their growth, or measure the ra­
dioactive content of fish by tracing
tagged elements as they pass
through their systems.
Embryologists study the develop­
ment of an organism from fertiliza­
tion of the egg through the hatching
process or gestation period. They
investigate the physiological, bio­
chemical, and genetic mechanisms
that control and direct the processes
of development, how and why this
control is accomplished, and the
causes of abnormalities in develop­
Entomologists are concerned with
insects and their relation to plant
and animal life. They identify and
classify the enormous number of
different kinds of insects. Some en­
tomologists seek to control harmful
insects through the use of chemi­
cals, predatory birds, or other meth­
ods. Others develop ways to encour­

age the growth and spread of bene­
ficial insects, such as honeybees.
Geneticists explore the origin,
transmission, and development of
hereditary characteristics. Geneti­
cists engaged primarily in improving
plant and animal breeds of eco­
nomic importance—such as cereal
and tobacco crops or dairy cattle
and poultry—may be classified as
plant or animal breeders, agrono­
mists, or animal science specialists.
Theoretical geneticists search for
the mechanisms that determine in­
herited traits in plants, animals, or
Horticulturists work with orchard
and garden plants, such as fruits,
nuts, vegetables, flowers and orna­
mental plants, and other nursery
stocks. They develop new or im­
proved plant varieties and better
methods of growing, harvesting,
storing, and transporting horticul­
tural crops. Horticulturists usually
specialize in either a specific plant
or a particular technical problem,
such as plant breeding.
Husbandry specialists (animal)
conduct research on the breeding,
feeding, management, and diseases
of domestic farm animals to im­
prove the health and yield of these
Nutritionists examime the proc­
esses through which food is utilized,
the kinds and quantities of food ele­
ments—such as minerals, fats, sug­
ars, vitamins, and proteins—that
are essential to build and repair
body tissues and maintain health,
and how these food elements are
transformed into body substances
and energy. Nutritionists also ana­
lyze food to determine its composi­
tion in terms of essential ingredients
or nutrients.
Pathologists study the nature,
cause, and development of disease,
degeneration, and abnormal func­
tioning in humans, in animals or in



plants. Many specialize in the study
of the effects of diseases, parasites,
and insect pests on cells, tissues, and
organs. Others investigate genetic
variations and other abnormal ef­
fects caused by drugs. The term
“pathologist” is normally reserved
for specialists in human pathology
(medical pathology). Specialists in
animal pathology are usually veteri­
narians. (See statement on Veteri­
narians.) Those who study plant
diseases may be called plant pathol­
ogists or phytopathologists; their

work is discussed under the section
on botanists.
Pharmacologists conduct tests
with animals such as rats, guinea
pigs, and monkeys to determine the
effects of drugs, gases, poisons,
dusts, and other substances on the
functioning of tissues and organs,
and relate their findings with medi­
cal data. They may develop new or
improved chemical compounds for
use in drugs and medicines.
Physiologists study the structure
and functions of cells, tissues, and

Life scientist observes plasma through filter glass.

organs and the effects of environ­
mental factors on life processes.
They may specialize in cellular ac­
tivities or in one of the organ sys­
tems, such as the digestive, nervous,
circulatory, or reproductive systems.
The knowledge gained in such re­
search often provides the basis for
the work of many other specialists,
such as biochemists, pathologists,
pharmacologists, or nutritionists.

Places of Employment

An estimated 180,000 persons
were employed in the life sciences
in 1970. About 10 percent were
women. Of this total, nearly 48,000
worked in agricultural science, more
than 71,000 worked in biological
science, and about 61,000 worked
on problems related to medical sci­
Nearly three-fifths of the total
were employed by colleges and uni­
versities in teaching and research
positions. Medical schools and their
associated hospitals employed par­
ticularly large numbers of life scien­
tists in the medical field. State agri­
cultural colleges and agricultural
experiment stations operated by
universities in cooperation with
Federal and State Governments
employed sizable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, animal hus­
bandry specialists, entomologists,
and other agriculture-related spe­
The Federal Government in 1970
employed more than 25,000 life sci­
entists, two-thirds of whom were
employed in the Department of Ag­
riculture. The Department of the
Interior employed nearly all the fish
and wildlife biologists in the Federal
Government. Other large numbers
of life scientists were employed by
the Department of the Army and
the National Institutes of Health.



State and local governments, com­
bined, employed about 21,000 biol­
ogists—mostly fish and wildlife
specialists, microbiologists, and
entomologists—for work in conser­
vation, detection and control of dis­
eases, and plant breeding.
Approximately 26,000 life scien­
tists worked for private industry in
1970. Among the major industrial
employers were manufacturers of
pharmaceuticals, industrial chemi­
cals, and food products. A few were
self-employed. More than 5,000 life
scientists worked for privately
financed research organizations and
other nonprofit foundations.
Although life scientists were em­
ployed in all States, nearly one-third
were located in five States—Califor­
nia, New York, Pennsylvania, Illi­
nois, and Maryland. More than
one-tenth of all life scientists were
located in only two metropolitan
areas—Washington, D.C., and New
York, N.Y.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in the life sciences
should plan to obtain an advanced
degree—preferably a Ph. D.—in
their field of interest. The bachelor’s
degree with a major in one of the
life sciences may be adequate prep­
aration for some beginning jobs, but
promotional opportunities for those
without graduate training are gener­
ally limited to intermediate level po­
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for higher level college
teaching positions and for independ­
ent research. It is also necessary
for many positions involving the ad­
ministration of research programs.
New graduates having a master’s
degree may qualify for most entry

positions in applied research and for
some types of positions in college
Those having a bachelor’s degree
may qualify for positions involving
testing, production and operation
work, technical sales and service,
and duties connected with the en­
forcement of government regula­
tions. They also may obtain posi­
tions as advanced technicians, par­
ticularly in the medical area. Some
graduates having a bachelor’s de­
gree may take courses in education
and choose a career as a high school
teacher of biology rather than one
as a life scientist. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers.)
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree with a major in one of the
life science specialties is offered by
nearly all colleges and universities.
Courses differ greatly from one col­
lege to another, and it is important
that a student determine which col­
lege program best fits his interests
and needs. In general, liberal arts
colleges and universities emphasize
training in the biological sciences
and medical research. State univer­
sities and land-grant colleges offer
special advantages to those inter­
ested in agricultural sciences be­
cause their agricultural experiment
stations provide many opportunities
for practical training and research
Prospective life scientists should
obtain the broadest undergraduate
training possible in all branches of
biology and in related sciences, par­
ticularly biochemistry, organic and
inorganic chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. Courses in statistics,
calculus, biometrics and computer
programming analysis are becoming
increasingly essential. Training and
practice in laboratory techniques, in
the use of laboratory equipment,
and in fieldwork are also important.
Advanced degrees in the life sci­

ences also are conferred by a large
number of colleges and universities.
Requirements for advanced degrees
usually include fieldwork and labo­
ratory research, as well as class­
room studies and preparation of a
Young people planning careers as
life scientists should be able to work
independently, or as part of a team.
The ability to express oneself both
orally and in writing also is impor­
tant. Physical stamina and an in­
quiring mind are necessary for those
interested in research in remote

Employment Outlook

Employment in the life sciences
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
those needed to fill openings result­
ing from growth, thousands of life
scientists will be needed to replace
those who transfer to other fields of
work, die, or retire. However,
along with the growing number of
job openings, the number of life sci­
ence graduates also is projected to
increase rapidly. As a result, keen
competition is expected for the
more desirable positions. Those
holding advanced degrees, espe­
cially the Ph. D., should experience
less competion than bachelor’s de­
gree recipients for jobs. Opportuni­
ties for those holding only under­
graduate degrees will probably be
limited to research assistant or tech­
nician positions.
One of the major factors which
will tend to increase the employ­
ment of life scientists is the antici­
pated continued growth in research
and development, particularly in
medical research programs spon­
sored by the Federal Government
and voluntary health agencies. For
example, the Federal Government


is expected to allocate additional
millions of dollars for cancer re­
search during the next few years.
Other areas of concentrated medical
study include heart disease and
birth defects. Research in such rela­
tively new areas as space biology,
radiation biology, environmental
health, biological oceanography,
and genetic regulation also will
probably increase.
Industry also is expected to in­
crease its spending for research and
development in the biological sci­
ences. Furthermore, the stringent
health standards of the Federal reg­
ulatory agencies are likely to result
in a heightened demand for addi­
tional life scientists in industry to
perform research and testing before
new drugs, chemicals, and process­
ing methods are made available to
the public.
Another factor which should in­
crease employment of life scientists
is the substantially larger college
and university enrollments expected
during the 1970’s. Although the re­
sulting rise in demand for teachers
will be to a large extent for Ph.
D.’s, there may be some openings
for qualified people holding master’s
degrees, especially in community

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
1970, life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$6,548 or $8,098 a year, depending
on their college records. Beginning
life scientists having the master’s
degree could start at $8,098 or
$9,881, depending upon their aca­
demic records. Those having the
Ph. D. degree could begin at
$11,905 or $14,192.
Life scientists in colleges and uni­
versities earned median salaries be­


tween $15,800 and $16,500 a year
in 1970, according to the limited
information available. (For further
information, see statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.) Life
scientists in educational institutions
sometimes supplement their regular
salaries with income from writing,
consulting, and special research
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Sci­
entific and Technical Personnel, ag­
ricultural scientists earned about
$12,800 a year in 1970; about 10
percent received less than $8,800 a
year, while 10 percent earned at
least $19,500. The average (me­
dian) annual salary for biological
scientists was $15,000 in 1970, ac­
cording to the Register; only 10
percent earned less than $8,700 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$26,100 or more. In general, life
scientists in private industry tend to
have higher salaries than those in
either colleges and universities or
Government employment.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
in the life sciences may be obtained
American Institute of Biological Sci­
ences, 3900 Wisconsin Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20016.
American Society of Horticultural
Science, 615 Elm Street, St.
Joseph, Michigan 49085.
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda,
Maryland 20014.
Ecological Society of America, Con­
necticut College, New London,
Connecticut 06320.

Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­

ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 041.081)

Nature of the Work

The biochemist has an important
role in modern science’s search for
the basis of life and the factors that
sustain it. His professional interests
range from what determines hered­
ity to how living things react to
space travel.
Biochemists study the chemical
composition of living organisms.
They identify and analyze the
chemical processes related to bio­
logical functions, such as muscular
contraction, reproduction, and me­
tabolism. Biochemists investigate
the effects on organisms of such
chemical substances as foods, hor­
mones, and drugs. They study the
chemical changes in living tissue
caused by genetic and environmen­
tal factors.
Biochemists study a wide variety
of substances, ranging from very
small molecules to giant macro­
molecules. They analyze chemical
compounds such as minerals and
sugars. Biochemists deal with prob­
lems in genetics, enzymology, hor­
mone action, bioenergetics, and the
phenomena of biochemical control.
Foremost among the areas of ap­
plication of biochemistry are medi­
cine, biomedicine, nutrition, and ag­
riculture. In the medical field,
biochemists may investigate the
causes and cures of disease or de­
velop diagnostic procedures. In the
biomedical area, they contribute to
our understanding of genetics, he-



devise new instruments and analyti­
cal techniques as needed. They usu­
ally report the results of their re­
search in scientific journals and
sometimes lecture before scientific
More than 3 out of 4 bio­
chemists are engaged in re­
search. The vast majority pursue
basic research. A small group work­
ing in applied research use the dis­
coveries of basic research to solve
practical problems or develop useful
products. For example, through
basic research, biochemists discover
how a living organism forms a hor­
mone. This knowledge is put to use
by synthesizing the hormone in the
laboratory and then producing it on
a mass scale to enrich hormonedeficient organisms. The distinction
between basic and applied research,
however, is often one of degree;
biochemists may engage in both
types of work.
Some biochemists combine re­
search with teaching in colleges and
universities. Small proportions are
engaged in production and testing
activities or private consulting.

Places of Employment

Biologist isolates granules from heart tissue.

redity, brain function, and physio­
logical adaptation. In the nutritional
field, they may identify the nutrients
necessary to maintain good health
and the effects of specific defi­
ciencies on various kinds of per­
formance, including the ability to
learn. In agriculture, biochemists in­
vestigate soils, fertilizers, and
plants, and undertake studies to dis­
cover more efficient methods of
crop cultivation, storage, and utili­
zation, and the design and use of
pest-control agents.

Biochemists apply the principles
and procedures of chemical and
physical analysis to their research
problems. Routine laboratory tasks
include weighing, filtering, distilling,
drying, and culturing substances or
materials. Some experiments re­
quire more sophisticated tasks such
as designing and constructing chem­
ical apparatus or performing tests
using radioactive tracers. Biochem­
ists use a variety of instruments
including electron microscopes and
radioactive isotope counters, and

Approximately 11,000 biochem­
ists were employed in the United
States in 1970. The number of
women in biochemistry is not
known. However, almost one-third
of all advanced degrees in biochem­
istry in recent years have been
awarded to women. More than half
of all biochemists were employed by
colleges and universities in 1970.
Many of these scientists were teach­
ing and performing research in uni­
versity-operated laboratories and
hospitals. Another 700 biochemists
worked for nonprofit organizations,
such as research institutes and foun­



Biochemist constructs molecular model.

Private industry employed more
than one-fifth of all biochemists.
The largest group of these worked
in the chemical industry, primarily
for manufacturers of drugs, insecti­
cides, and cosmetics.
Several thousand biochemists
worked for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. Most of these
scientists were employed by Federal
agencies concerned with health or
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­

quirement for beginning positions in
biochemistry is the bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in biochemistry or
chemistry, or with a major in biol­
ogy and a minor in chemistry. For
most entrance positions in research
and teaching, graduate training in
biochemistry is required. Graduate
work also is needed for advance­
ment to most high-level positions in
all types of work.
Approximately 40 schools award
the bachelor’s degree in biochemis­
try. However, nearly all colleges
and universities offer a major in bi­
ology or chemistry. The prospective
biochemist should take undergradu­

ate courses in chemistry, biology,
biochemistry, mathematics, and
More than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer graduate degrees in
biochemistry. For entrance into a
graduate program, schools usually
require the student to have a bache­
lor’s degree in biochemistry, biol­
ogy, or chemistry. However, stu­
dents who have the bachelor’s de­
gree in another basic science but
who have had several undergradu­
ate courses in chemistry usually are
In graduate school, the student
builds upon the basic knowledge
obtained in the undergraduate cur­
riculum. He takes advanced courses
and conducts research in many
areas of biochemistry. For the doc­
toral degree, he usually specializes
in a particular field of biochemistry
by doing intensive research and
writing a thesis.
Some graduate schools have a
reputation for training students in a
particular field of biochemistry. For
example, a university affiliated with
a medical school or hospital often
has the facilities and equipment
available to study the biochemistry
of disease. Therefore, a student who
desires to specialize should investi­
gate the specialties of the various
schools and make his selection care­
New graduates having the bache­
lor’s degree usually begin work as
research assistants. These positions
involve testing and analysis. In the
drug industry, for example, research
assistants analyze the ingredients of
a product to verify and maintain its
purity or quality. Some graduate
students become research or teach­
ing assistants in colleges and univer­
Beginning biochemists having ad­
vanced degrees usually qualify for
research or teaching positions.


Some experienced biochemists who
have Ph. D. degrees advance to
high-level administrative positions
and supervise research programs.
Other highly qualified biochemists,
who prefer to devote their time to
research, often become leaders in a
particular field of biochemistry.
Young people planning careers as
biochemists should be able to work
independently or as part of a team.
Preciseness, keen powers of obser­
vation, and mechanical aptitude also
are important. Prospective biochem­
ists should have analytical and cu­
rious minds while possessing the pa­
tience and perseverance needed to
complete hundreds of experiments
to solve one problem.

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook is likely
to be good for biochemists through
the 1970’s. In addition to new op­
portunities resulting from the very
rapid growth expected in this field,
several hundred will be needed each
year to replace workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
Although biochemistry is a rela­
tively small profession and job
openings will not be numerous in
any one year, the number of gradu­
ates who have degrees in this sci­
ence also is fairly small and is ex­
pected to remain so. Thus, the em­
ployment outlook should continue
to be favorable for biochemistry
The greatest demand will be for
the biochemist who has the Ph. D.
degree, to conduct independent re­
search or to teach.
The major factor underlying the
anticipated growth is the continued
increase in expenditures for re­
search and development in life sci­


The greatest growth in employ­
ment of biochemists is expected in
expanding areas of medical re­
search. For instance, the Federal
Government is expected to allocate
millions of dollars for cancer re­
search during the next few years.
Other areas of concentrated medical
study include heart disease, muscu­
lar dystrophy, and mental illness.
Also, an increasing number of
biochemists will be needed to work
in clinical laboratories associated
with hospitals. Additional biochem­
ists will be needed to implement
the more stringent drug standards
that have been established by Con­
gress and the Federal regulatory
agencies. Biochemistry also is be­
coming important in other fields,
such as environmental studies.
Growing college enrollments,
especially of students majoring in
chemistry and the life sciences, will
strengthen the demand for biochem­
ists qualified to teach in colleges
and universities.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries paid to biochem­
ists employed by colleges and uni­
versities are comparable to those for
other professional faculty members.
Biochemists in educational institu­
tions often supplement their income
by engaging in outside research or
consulting work.
In 1970, the average (median)
earnings for all biochemists who
had a bachelor’s degree was
$10,800; for those having a mas­
ter’s degree, $12,500; and for those
having a Ph. D., $15,800.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
in biochemistry may be obtained
American Society of Biological
Chemists, 9650 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

P h y s ic a l S c ie n t is t s
The physical sciences deal with
the basic laws of the physical world.
Many physical scientists conduct
basic research designed to increase
man’s knowledge of the properties
of matter and energy. Others con­
duct applied research and use the
knowledge gained from basic re­
search to develop new products and
processes. For example, chemists in
applied research use their knowl­
edge of the interactions of various
chemicals to develop new fuels for
rockets and missiles. Physical scien­
tists also teach in colleges and uni­
versities and supervise research and
development programs.
This chapter describes three
major physical science occupations

—chemist, physicist, and astrono­
mer—and food scientists, who
apply scientific principles to the
processing of food. Engineers, life
scientists, and earth scientists also
require a background in the physi­
cal sciences; these occupations are
described in separate chapters else­
where in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)

Nature of the Work

The clothes we wear, the food we
eat, the houses in which we live—in


fact, most of the things which help
to make our lives more comfortable,
healthy, and productive—have re­
sulted, in part, from the chemist’s
continuing search for new knowl­
edge. Although the day-to-day ac­
tivities of chemists generally receive
little notice, some of their discov­
eries have led to the creation of
whole new industries, such as the
plastics, frozen foods, and manmade
fibers industries.
Chemists investigate the prop­
erties and composition of matter,
and the laws that govern the combi­
nation of elements in a seemingly
endless variety of forms. They
search for new knowledge about
substances and try to utilize this
knowledge for practical use. In con­
ducting studies, they apply scientific
principles and techniques and use a
variety of specialized instruments to
measure, identify, and evaluate
changes in matter. Chemists main­
tain accurate records of their work
and prepare clear and concise re­
ports showing results of tests or ex­
periments. They often present their
findings in scientific publications or
in lectures before scientific groups.
The activities of chemists are var­
ied. Some chemists develop new
substances such as rocket fuels, sol­
ids for transistors, or vaccines.
Other chemists, by observing how
light is absorbed by a substance or
how X-rays or beams of electrons
are affected when passed through it,
determine the chemical composition
of a substance and the atomic make­
up of its molecules. Other chemists
are interested in bulk properties
rather than individual molecules of
matter; they examine the behavior
of solids, liquids, and reactions on
surfaces. Another group of chemists
study the rate at which matter un­
dergoes changes in composition,
ranging from the combustion in a jet
engine to the growth of a living or­


Chemist checks fire-resistant compound.

ganism. A sizable number of chem­
ists make qualitative and quantita­
tive measurements of the properties
of matter and develop analytical in­
struments and techniques. Biochem­
ists challenge the problems related
to the chemistry of life processes.
(See separate statement on Biochem­
ists elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Nearly two-fifths of all chemists
are engaged in research and devel­
opment. Many research chemists
work on applied research projects
to create new products or improve
or find new uses for existing ones.
Chemists in applied research have
helped to develop a vast range of
new products including antibiotics,
plastics, synthetic rubbers, deter­

gents, insecticides, and manmade
fibers. Many other chemists work
on basic research to extend scien­
tific knowledge rather than to solve
immediate practical problems. Re­
sults of basic research frequently
apply immediately to practical
problems. For example, basic re­
search on polymerization—how and
why small molecules unite to form
giant molecules—resulted in the de­
velopment of synthetic rubber,
nylon, and plastics.
More than one-fourth of all chem­
ists are employed in management
and administration—especially re­
search and development activities.
Approximately one-tenth of all



chemists devote most of their time to
teaching, often combining it with re­
search. Analysis and testing is an­
other major activity of chemists be­
cause various kinds of tests must be
made at practically every stage in
the manufacture of a product, from
initial development to final produc­
tion. Nearly one-fifth of all chemists
are engaged in production and
inspection activities which may in­
sure, for instance, the quality of
final products or the improvement
of products and processes. Others
work as marketing experts or sales
representatives of chemical compa­
nies and other manufacturers in po­
sitions where the employee must be
familiar with the technical aspects
of products. Some chemists work as
private consultants to private indus­
try firms and government agencies.

ployed more than 25,000 chemists.
A smaller number worked for non­
profit research organizations. A
number of chemists were employed
by Federal Government agencies,
chiefly the U.S Departments of De­
fense; Health, Education, and Wel­
fare; Agriculture; and Interior.
Small numbers worked for State and
local governments, primarily in
agencies concerned with health or
Chemists were employed in all
States, in small as well as large cit­
ies. However, they were usually
concentrated in large industrial
areas. Nearly one-fifth of all chem­
ists were located in four metropol­
itan areas—New York, Chicago,
Philadelphia, and Newark. About
half of the total worked in six States
—New York, New Jersey, Califor­
nia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illi­

Places of Employment

Chemistry is by far the largest
field of employment in the physical
sciences. Nearly 137,000 chemists
were employed in the United States
in 1970; about seven percent were
Approximately three-fourths of
all chemists were employed by pri­
vate industry in 1970. The chemi­
cals manufacturing industry em­
ployed almost half of these chem­
ists. Relatively large numbers of
other chemists were found in the in­
dustries manufacturing food, scien­
tific instruments, petroleum, rubber,
paper, textiles and apparel, electri­
cal equipment, and primary metals
products. Independent laboratories
and research institutes providing
consulting services and distributors
of chemical, pharmaceutical, food,
and petroleum products also em­
ployed significant numbers of chem­
Colleges and universities em­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in chemistry is usually the minimum
educational requirement for starting
a career as a chemist. Graduate
training is essential for many posi­
tions, particularly in research and
college teaching, and is helpful for
advancement in all types of work.
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in chemistry is offered by
about 1,000 colleges and universi­
ties throughout the country. In addi­
tion to the required chemistry
courses in analytical, inorganic, or­
ganic, and physical chemistry, the
undergraduate chemistry major also
takes courses in mathematics (espe­
cially analytical geometry and cal­
culus) and physics.
Advanced degrees in chemistry
are awarded by 300 colleges and
universities, many of which offer fi­

nancial assistance to students inter­
ested in graduate study. In graduate
school, the student usually special­
izes by taking several courses in a
particular field of chemistry. Re­
quirements for the master’s or doc­
tor’s degree vary by institution, but
usually include a thesis based on in­
dependent research.
New graduates having the bache­
lor’s degree usually qualify for be­
ginning positions in analysis and
testing, quality control, technical
service and sales, or assist senior
chemists in research and develop­
ment work. Most chemists having
only the bachelor’s degree start
their careers in industry or govern­
ment. In industry, employers often
have special training programs for
new chemistry graduates. These
programs supplement college train­
ing with specific industry techniques
and help determine the type of
work for which the new employee is
best suited. Some chemists who
have the bachelor’s degree teach or
do research in colleges and universi­
ties while working toward advanced
degrees. They also may qualify as
secondary school teachers.
Chemists having the master’s de­
gree often qualify for applied re­
search positions in government or
private industry. They also may
qualify for some teaching positions
in colleges and universities and in
2-year colleges.
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for basic research, for
higher level faculty positions in a
college or university, or for ad­
vancement to top-level positions in
administration and in other activi­
Students planning careers as
chemists should enjoy studying
science and mathematics, and work­
ing with their hands to build scientific
apparatus and perform experiments.
Perseverance and the ability to con­



centrate on detail and work inde­
pendently are essential to the
prospective chemist. Other desira­
ble assets include an inquisitive
mind, good memory, and imagina­
tion. The ability to write is impor­
tant in preparing reports on experi­
ments. Chemists also should have
good eye-hand coordination and

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for
chemists is expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new opportunities resulting from the
rapid growth expected in the profes­
sion, thousands of new chemists will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Chemists will continue to be
needed to perform research and de­
velopment work. Through the
1970’s, research and development
(R&D) expenditures of Govern­
ment and industry are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
R&D expenditures not only create
jobs for chemists in research and
development, but also produce new
products that result in new positions
for chemists in other types of work.
Another factor increasing the op­
portunities for chemists is the grow­
ing demand for industrial products.
These include plastics, manmade
fibers, drugs, fertilizers, and high
energy and nuclear fuels for missiles
and space ships.
Chemists also will be required to

teach at colleges and universities
through the 1970’s to accommodate
larger enrollments expected at these
institutions. The greatest demand in
colleges and universities will be for
those who have Ph. D. degrees, but
many openings, especially in 2-year
colleges, also should arise for chem­
ists who have master’s degrees.
(See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.)
New graduates also will find
openings in high school teaching,
provided they have completed the
professional education courses and
other requirements for a State
teaching certificate. However, they
usually are regarded as teachers
rather than as chemists. (See state­
ment on Secondary School Teach­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced chemistry gradu­
ates having a bachelor’s degree had
an average (median) starting salary
of about $9,400 a year in private in­
dustry in 1970, according to a sur­
vey conducted by the American
Chemical Society. Inexperienced
graduates having the master’s de­
gree averaged about $ 11,000 a year
and those having the Ph. D. degree,
about $15,000.
In academic institutions, the av­
erage (median) annual starting sal­
ary for the few entrants having the
bachelor’s degree and no experience
was about $6,600, according to the
American Chemical Society. The
average salary for inexperienced
graduates having the master’s de­
gree was about $8,000, and for
those having the Ph. D degree,
$11,200. Many experienced chem­
ists in educational institutions sup­
plement their regular salaries with
income from consulting, lecturing,
and writing. Depending on the indi­

vidual’s college records, the annual
starting salary in the Federal Gov­
ernment in 1970 for an inexperi­
enced chemist having the bachelor’s
degree was either $8,292 or
$10,258. Beginning chemists who
have 1 year of graduate study could
start at $10,258 and those who have
2 years of graduate study at
$11,526. Chemists having the Ph.
D. degree could start at $13,096 or
The average (median) annual sal­
ary for all chemists was $15,300 in
1970, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel. Only 10 percent of all chem­
ists earned less than $9,600 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$24,000 or more.
Chemists spend most of their
time working in modern, wellequipped, well-lighted laboratories,
offices, or classrooms. Chemists
work with chemicals that can be
dangerous if handled carelessly.
However, when safety regulations
are followed, health hazards are

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities and earnings for chem­
ists may be obtained from:
American Chemical Society, 1155
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Associa­
tion, Inc., 1825 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

For additional sources of infor-


laws governing phenomena such as
gravity, electromagnetism, heat
flow, and radioactivity, potential
difficulties can be anticipated and
Physicists observe and analyze
various forms of energy, the struc­
ture of matter, and the relationship
between matter and energy. From
their research, physicists develop
theories and discover fundamental
laws that describe the behavior of
(D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)
the forces at work within the uni­
verse. Their studies have continued
to broaden man’s understanding of
the physical world and have enabled
Nature of the Work
him to make increasing use of natu­
The flight of astronauts through ral resources. Physicists have con­
space, the probing of the oceans’ tributed to scientific progress in re­
depths, or even the safety of the cent years in areas such as nuclear
family car depend on research by energy, electronics, communica­
physicists. By determining basic tions, and aerospace.

mation, see statements on Biochem­
ists, Chemical Engineers, and In­
dustrial Chemical Industry. Infor­
mation on chemical technicians may
be found in the statement on Tech­
nician Occupations.

Physicist examines hydrogen detection material.


Nearly three-fifths of all physi­
cists are engaged in research and
development. Some conduct basic
research to increase scientific
knowledge with only secondary re­
gard to its practical applications.
Some of these, called theoretical
physicists, attempt to describe in
mathematical terms interactions be­
tween matter and energy. Others,
called experimental physicists, make
careful systematic observations and
perform experiments to identify and
quantify these interactions. For ex­
ample, they try to identify and meas­
ure the lifetime of tiny particles of
matter which may exist within the
nucleus of the atom. Experimental
physicists use apparatus such as
particle accelerators, X-ray spec­
trometers, microwave devices, las­
ers, and phase and electron micro­
scopes. They may design new kinds
of instruments. The difference be­
tween theoretical and experimental
physicists is often merely one of
emphasis. Some members of the
profession are skilled in both types
of work.
A large number of physicists who
are engineering-oriented engage in
applied research and development.
They use the knowledge gained
from basic research to solve practi­
cal problems or to develop new or
improved products. For example,
the work of physicists specializing in
solid-state physics led to the devel­
opment of transistors and microcir­
cuits, which have replaced vacuum
tubes in many types of electronic
equipment ranging from hearing
aids to guidance systems for mis­
About one-fifth of all physicists
teach in colleges and universities.
Approximately another fifth are en­
gaged in management and adminis­
tration, especially research and de­
velopment programs. A small num­
ber work in activities related to the



production of industrial products
such as inspection and quality con­
trol. Some physicists do consulting
Most physicists specialize in one
or more branches of the science—
mechanics, thermal phenomena,
high energy physics, optics, acous­
tics, electromagnetism, electronics,
atomic and molecular physics, nu­
clear physics, physics of fluids,
solid-state physics, or classical theo­
retical physics. They may concen­
trate in a subdivision of one of these
branches. For example, within
solid-state physics they may special­
ize in ceramics, crystallography, or
semiconductors, among others. In
addition, emerging knowledge con­
tinually opens new areas of re­
search. For example, the develop­
ment of lasers and masers has led to
new experimentation in optics and
other fields. However, since all
physics specialties rest on the same
fundamental principles, the physi­
cist’s work often overlaps a number
of specialties.
Physicists often apply the the­
ories and methodology of their sci­
ence to problems originating in
other sciences, including astronomy,
biology, chemistry, and geology.
Growing numbers of scientists spe­
cialize in fields that combine physics
and a related science. Thus, a num­
ber of specialties have developed on
the borderline between physics and
other fields—astrophysics, biophys­
ics, chemical physics, and geophys­
ics. (Information on these occupa­
tions is continued elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Furthermore, the prac­
tical applications of physicists’ work
have increasingly merged with engi­

Places of Employment

Approximately 48,000 physicists

were employed in the United States
in 1970; nearly 4 percent were
women. Private industry employed
more than 18,000; two-fifths of
whom worked in the electrical
equipment, ordnance, and chemicals
industries. Commercial laboratories
and independent research institutes
employed more than one-fourth of
the physicists in private industry.
In 1970, colleges and universities
employed almost 22,000 research
or teaching physicists, many of
whom combined both activities.
Federal government agencies em­
ployed approximately 6,600 physi­
cists in 1970, more than threefourths of whom worked for the De­
partment of Defense. The National
Bureau of Standards and the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration also employed signifi­
cant numbers of physicists. Non­
profit organizations employed more
than 1,500 physicists.
Physicists were employed in all
States. However, their employment
was greatest in those areas having
industrial concentrations and large
colleges and universities. Nearly
one-fourth of all physicists were
employed in four metropolitan
areas—Washington, D.C., Boston,
New York, and Los Angeles-Long
Beach. More than one-third of the
total were employed in three States
—California, New York, and Mas­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in physics is generally the minimum
entrance requirement for young
people seeking careers as physicists.
Graduate training is required for
many entry positions and is helpful
for advancement in all areas of

A doctor’s degree usually is re­
quired for full faculty status at col­
leges and universities. Also, the
doctorate generally is needed for
employment in positions involving
responsibility for research and de­
velopment with any type of em­
Physicists having master’s de­
grees qualify for many research jobs
in private industry, educational in­
stitutions, and government. Some
also instruct in colleges and univer­
sities. Usually, graduate students
working toward a doctor’s degree
are assigned to teach elementary
college courses, conduct laboratory
sessions, or assist senior faculty
members on research projects.
Physicists having bachelor’s de­
grees qualify for a variety of jobs in
applied research and development
work in private industry or the Fed­
eral government. Some become re­
search assistants in colleges and
universities while working toward
advanced degrees. Many persons
having a bachelor’s degree in the
sciences do not work as physicists
but enter nontechnical work, other
sciences, or engineering.
Over 800 colleges and universi­
ties offer training leading to the
bachelor’s degree in physics. In ad­
dition, many engineering schools of­
fered a physics major as part of the
general curriculum. The undergrad­
uate program in physics provides a
broad background in the science,
which serves as a base for later spe­
cialization either in graduate school
or on the job. A few of the physics
courses typically offered in an un­
dergraduate program are mechan­
ics, electricity and magnetism, op­
tics, thermodynamics, and atomic
and molecular physics. In addition,
courses in chemistry and mathemat­
ics are required.
Approximately 250 colleges and
universities offer advanced degrees



in physics. In graduate school, the
student, with faculty guidance, usu­
ally works in a specific field. The
graduate student, especially the can­
didate for the Ph. D. degree, spends
a large portion of his time in re­
Students planning a career in
physics should have an inquisitive
mind, good memory, and imagina­
tion. Perseverance and the ability to
concentrate on detail also are im­
portant. The occupation requires
constant study and the ability to
work independently. Prospective
physicists should also possess good
eye-hand coordination and eyesight.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
physicists are expected to be favora­
ble through the 1970’s. In addition
to opportunities resulting from the
rapid growth expected in this field,
other physicists will be needed each
year to replace those who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
Graduate training is increasingly
the hallmark of full professional sta­
tus in physics. As in recent years, a
demand is expected for physicists
who have advanced degrees to teach
in colleges and universities. Among
the factors contributing to the de­
mand for physics teachers are the
rapid increase in graduate enroll­
ments and the growing need for
physics training in other science and
engineering programs.
Physicists also will be required in
substantial numbers to do complex
research and development work re­
lated to physics, engineering, or
other natural sciences. Through the
1970’s, research and development
(R&D) expenditures of Govern­
ment and industry are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate

than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
New graduates also will find op­
portunities in other occupations that
utilize their training. For example,
they may become high school teach­
ers, provided they complete the re­
quired professional educational
courses and obtain a State teaching
certificate. However, they are usu­
ally regarded as teachers rather
than as physicists. (See statement
on Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for physicists
having bachelor’s degrees were usu­
ally about $9,900 a year in private
industry in 1970, according to the
limited information available. Phys­
icists having master’s degrees re­
ceived starting salaries about
$1,900 higher than those having
bachelor’s degrees. Depending on
specialty and experience, graduates
having Ph. D. degrees generally re­
ceived entrance salaries of around
$15,000 annually, although some
were paid considerably less.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, physicists having bachelor de­
grees and no experience could start
work in the Federal Government in
1970 at either $8,292 or $10,258.
Beginning physicists who had com­
pleted all the requirements for the
master’s degree could start at
$10,258 or $11,526. Physicists
having the Ph. D degree could begin
at $13,096 or $14,192.
Starting salaries for physicists
having the Ph. D. degree on college

and university faculties averaged
$1,000 per month in 1970. (For
further information, see statement
on College and University Teach­
ers.) Many faculty physicists sup­
plement their regular incomes and
satisfy their professional interests
through consulting work and special
research projects.
The average (median) annual sal­
ary for physicists was $15,900 in
1970, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Sci­
entific and Technical Personnel.
Only 10 percent earned less than
$10,000 a year, and about 10 per­
cent earned $25,000 or more.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities in physics may be ob­
tained from:
American Institute of Physics, 335
East 45th St., New York, N.Y.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 021.088)

Nature of the Work

Astronomy often is considered
the most theoretical of all sciences,
although it has many practical ap­
plications. Astronomers study the
structure, extent, and evolution of
the universe. They collect and ana­



lyze data on the sun, moons, plan­
ets, and stars, and attempt to de­
termine the sizes, shapes, surface
temperatures, chemical composi­
tion, and motions of these bodies
and make studies of the gases and
dust between them. They compute
the positions of the planets; calcu­
late the orbits of comets, asteroids,
and artificial satellites; make statisti­
cal studies of stars and galaxies and
study the origin and nature of
cosmic radiation. Astronomers also
study the size and shape of the earth
and the properties of its upper at­
mosphere. Astronomical observa­
tions are valuable to navigation and
the accurate measurement of time.
In making detailed observations
of the heavens, astronomers use
complex photographic techniques,
light-measuring instruments, and
other optical devices. Astronomers
actually spend a limited amount of
time at the telescope, the major in­
strument used for observation. De­
vices for making specialized obser­
vations are usually attached to the

Astronomer uses telescope to
determine position of stars.

telescope. Other methods of obser­
vation include the use of rock­
ets, balloons, and satellites carrying
various measuring devices. In proc­
essing and analyzing the vast
amounts of data derived from their
observations, astronomers often use
electronic computers and spectro­
Astronomers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the sci­
ence. In astrophysics, they apply
physical laws to stellar atmospheres
and interiors. Some astronomers
work in the field of dynamical as­
tronomy, one of the oldest fields of
astronomy that has recently ac­
quired new importance. This branch
deals, in part, with the motions of
objects in the solar system, and
hence has a particular application in
the calculation of the orbits of
spacecraft and artificial earth satel­
lites and the paths of ballistic mis­
siles. Radio astronomy is a tech­
nique used to study the source and
nature of celestial radio waves by
means of radio telescopes. Among
the many other specialties are
astrometry (measurement of angular
positions and movements of celestial
bodies); photoelectric and photo­
graphic photometry (measurement
of the intensity of light); spectros­
copy of astronomical sources (wave
length analyses of radiation from
celestial bodies); and statistical as­
tronomy (statistical study of large
numbers of celestial objects, such as
stars, to determine their average
More than two-thirds of all as­
tronomers are engaged in research
activities. Nearly a fifth are em­
ployed in colleges and universities,
primarily as teachers. In some
schools not having separate depart­
ments of astronomy or having only
small enrollments in the subject, as­
tronomers may teach courses in
mathematics or physics as well as

astronomy. Other members of the
profession are engaged in a variety
of activities, including administra­
tion of research programs, develop­
ment and design of astronomical in­
struments, and consultation in areas
to which astronomy is applied.
Places of Employment

Astronomy is one of the smallest
of the physical sciences; in 1970,
the total number of astronomers in
the United States was estimated to
be about 1,300. Nearly threefourths of all astronomers were em­
ployed by colleges and universities.
Many of these worked in univer­
sity-operated observatories, where
they usually devoted most of their
time to research. Other astronomers
worked for observatories financed
by nonprofit organizations.
The Federal Government em­
ployed more than 100 astronomers
in 1970. Most of these were em­
ployed by the Department of De­
fense, mainly by the U.S. Naval Ob­
servatory and the U.S. Naval Re­
search Laboratory. A couple
hundred astronomers were em­
ployed in private industry, many by
firms in the aerospace field. A few
astronomers worked for museums
and planetariums.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in astronomy should
obtain an advanced degree—prefer­
ably the Ph. D. The doctorate usu­
ally is required for high-level posi­
tions in teaching and research and is
important for other types of work in
this field. Although the bachelor’s
degree is adequate preparation for
some entry jobs, astronomers with­
out graduate work usually find that



opportunities for promotion are lim­
Undergraduate curriculums lead­
ing to the bachelor’s degree in as­
tronomy are offered by only about
40 colleges and universities. The
undergraduate work of the prospec­
tive astronomer is weighted heavily
with courses in physics and mathe­
matics. Courses in chemistry, statis­
tics, and electronics also are useful.
A few of the courses often taken by
astronomy undergraduates are me­
chanics, electricity and magnetism,
introductory courses in astronomy
and astrophysics, and astronomical
techniques and instruments.
The prospective astronomer is
not necessarily handicapped if the
college he has selected for his un­
dergraduate study does not offer a
major in astronomy. Well-qualified
students having a bachelor’s degree
in physics or mathematics with a
physics minor usually are able to
enter and pursue graduate programs
in astronomy without difficulty.
Programs leading to the doctor­
ate in astronomy are available at
about 30 institutions located in vari­
ous sections of the country. The
graduate student takes advanced
courses primarily in astronomy,
physics, and mathematics. A few
graduate schools offer celestial me­
chanics, galactic structure, radio as­
tronomy, stellar atmospheres and
interiors, theoretical astrophysics,
and binary and variable stars. Some
schools require that graduate stu­
dents spend several months in resi­
dence at an observatory. In most in­
stitutions, the program of work
leading to the doctorate is flexible
and allows the student to take the
courses which will be of most value
in his particular area of interest.
New graduates having a bache­
lor’s or master’s degree in astron­
omy usually begin as assistants in
observatories, planetariums, large

departments of astronomy in col­
leges and universities, Government
agencies, or industry. Some persons
having only the bachelor’s degree
work as research assistants while
studying toward advanced degrees;
others, particularly those in Govern­
ment employment, receive on-thejob training in the application of
astronomical principles. New gradu­
ates having the doctorate can
usually qualify for college teaching
positions and for research positions
in educational institutions, Govern­
ment, and industry.
Young persons planning a career
in astronomy should have inquisi­
tive minds, imagination, and they
should like working with ideas. Per­
severance, the ability to concentrate
on detail and to work independently
also are important.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for as­
tronomers having the Ph. D. degree
are expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. Well-qualified
persons with only bachelor’s or
master’s degrees in astronomy will
have favorable employment pros­
pects, primarily as research and
technical assistants. As in the past,
however, the higher level profes­
sional positions in astronomy will be
filled mainly by persons having the
The outlook is for a rapid growth
of this small profession through the
1970’s. However, because astron­
omy is a small profession, the num­
ber of job openings in any 1 year
will not be large. On the other hand,
because relatively few college stu­
dents are expected to receive ad­
vanced degrees in astronomy each
year, those who do should have
good employment opportunities.
Among the factors underlying the

expected increase in demand for as­
tronomers is the progress of the
space age—the age of rockets, mis­
siles, manmade earth satellites, and
space exploration. Astronomers will
be needed to analyze the data col­
lected by rockets and spacecraft.
They also will be needed to plan
and give direction to the astronomi­
cal observations that can only be
carried out by means of equipment
placed in space vehicles.
Increased research activities in
astronomy by educational institu­
tions, Government, and industry are
expected to add to the demand for
astronomers. In recent years, the
growth of Federal Governmentsponsored research, in the form of
grants to educational institutions
and observatories (for astronomical
research and for new buildings, ob­
servatories, and equipment), has
opened many new positions for as­

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, beginning astronomers
having the Ph. D. were eligible to
enter Federal Government service at
a salary of $13,096 or $14,192 a
year, depending on their college
record. Astronomers having the
bachelor’s degree could start at
$8,292 or $10,258 a year; those hav­
ing a bachelor’s degree and some
graduate study could begin at
$10,258 or $11,526.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical
Personnel, the average (median) an­
nual salary of all astronomers hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree was $15,100 in
1970. Those with master’s degrees
averaged $13,100 and bachelor’s
degree holders also averaged
$13,100 in 1970.
Some astronomers make visual



photographic or photoelectric ob­
servations at night. Others make ob­
servations only 4 or 5 nights each
month, or even only a few nights a
year, and study and analyze photo­
graphic plates, photoelectric trac­
ings, and other material during
usual daytime working hours. Ob­
servational work at a telescope in­
volves exposure to the outside air
through the open dome of the ob­
servatory, sometimes on cold winter
nights. In general, however, the
physical requirements of astronomi­
cal work can be met by a reasona­
bly healthy person.

occupations are employed in food
processing, this statement is con­
cerned with only the food scientist
or food technologist.
Food scientists investigate the
fundamental chemical, physical, and
biological nature of food and apply
this knowledge to processing, pre­
serving, and storing an adequate, nu­
tritious, and wholesome food sup­
ply. About two-fifths of all scientists
in food processing are employed in
basic or applied research, and de­
velopment. Others work in a quality
assurance laboratory, or in the

production or processing area of a
food plant. Some teach or do basic
research in colleges and universities.
Food scientists in basic research
study the structure and composition
of foods and their changes in proc­
essing or storage. For example,
they may be interested in develop­
ing new sources of proteins, study­
ing the effects of food processing on
microorganisms, or searching for
factors that affect the flavor, tex­
ture, or appearance of foods.
In applied research and develop­
ment, food scientists create new

Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
in astronomy may be obtained
American Astronomical Society, 211
FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton, N.J.

Specific information on Federal
Government career opportunities
may be obtained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 022.081, 040.081, 041.081)

Nature of the Work

Someone has estimated that the
average family of four consumes
over 5,000 pounds of food a year.
In the past, most food processing
was done at home but today, almost
all food is processed by industry.
Although people in many different

Food scientist adds flavor to enhance product.


foods and develop processes for
new products. They also improve
existing foods by making them more
nutritious and enhancing their
flavor, color, or texture. They may
formulate an idea for a new product
or modify an existing item. The idea
is submitted to management and, if
accepted, a new research project is
The scientist must ensure that
each new product will retain its
characteristics and nutritive value
during storage. He also may con­
duct chemical and microbiological
tests to see that products meet both
industry and government standards.
Other food scientists test additives
for purity, investigate changes that
take place during processing or stor­
age, or develop mass-feeding meth­
ods for food service institutions.
Food scientists also maintain rec­
ords of their work and prepare re­
ports showing results of tests or ex­
Food scientists in quality control
laboratories check raw ingredients
to note freshness, maturity, or suita­
bility for processing. For example,
the product may be tested for ten­
derness by using machines that
gauge the amount of force necessary
to shear or puncture the item. Peri­
odically, they inspect processing­
line operations and perform chemi­
cal and bacteriological tests during
and after processing to insure con­
formity with established industry
and government standards. These
tests vary according to the product
and processing method. Canned
goods, for example, may be tested
for sugar, starch, protein, fat, and
mineral content. In a frozen food
plant, the scientist must determine
that various enzymes are inactive
after the product has been proc­
essed so that the food does not lose
its flavor during storage. Other sci­
entists are concerned with packag­


ing materials that maintain shelf life
and product stability.
Whether in research or quality
control, food scientists must be fa­
miliar with fundamental research
techniques and standard testing
equipment, such as vacuum gauges
and reflectance meters.
Food scientists in quality control
laboratories often supervise techni­
cians who assist in product testing.
(See statements on Food Processing
Food scientists engaged in pro­
duction and processing schedule
processing operations, prepare pro­
duction specifications, maintain
proper temperature and humidity in
storage areas, and supervise sanita­
tion, including the efficient and eco­
nomical disposal of wastes. Food
scientists are responsible for ways to
increase processing efficiency. For
example, they may advise manage­
ment on the purchase of equipment
and recommend new sources of

Places of Employment

Approximately 7,300 food sci­
entists were employed in the food
processing industry in 1970. Less
than 10 percent were women. Food
scientists are employed in all sectors
of the food industry and in every
State, particularly California, Illi­
nois, New York, Pennsylvania,
Texas, Ohio, New Jersey, Wisconsin,
Michigan, and Iowa.
Some food scientists are em­
ployed in research by Federal Gov­
ernment agencies such as the Food
and Drug Administration, and the
Departments of Agriculture and
Defense. A few are employed by
private consulting firms and interna­
tional organizations. Some teach or
do research in colleges and universi­

ties. (See statement on College and
University Teachers.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in food science or one of the physi­
cal or life sciences such as chemistry
and biology is the usual minimum
educational requirement for a be­
ginning food scientist. Graduate
training is essential for many posi­
tions, particularly research and col­
lege teaching, and for many man­
agement level jobs in industry.
Nearly 40 colleges and universi­
ties throughout the U.S. offer train­
ing leading to the bachelor’s degree
in food science. Undergraduate
courses generally include food
chemistry, analysis, microbiology,
engineering, and processing. Under­
graduate courses include other
physical sciences such as physics
and mathematics, the social sciences
and humanities, and business ad­
Advanced degrees are offered by
most of those colleges and universi­
ties that provide undergraduate
food science programs. In graduate
school, students usually specialize in
a particular area of food science.
Requirements for the master’s or
doctor’s degree vary by institution,
but usually include laboratory work
and a thesis.
A food scientist with a bachelor’s
degree might start work in produc­
tion as a quality assurance chemist
or an assistant production manager.
After obtaining sufficient experi­
ence, the food scientist in produc­
tion could advance to more re­
sponsible management positions.
The scientist also might begin as a
junior food chemist in the applied
research and development labora­
tory of a food company and be



promoted to section head or other
research management positions.
Graduates who have a master’s
degree might begin as senior food
chemists in research and develop­
ment. Graduates who have the Ph.
D. probably would begin their ca­
reers doing basic research.
Young persons planning careers
as food scientists should like techni­
cal work and have analytical minds
oriented toward detail. Flexibility
and innovativeness are important in
meeting food needs for an expand­
ing population.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
graduates of food science programs
at all degree levels are expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s. In
addition to the scientists needed to
fill new positions, several hundred
will be needed -each year to replace
those who retire or die. Among the
factors underlying the anticipated
increase in requirements for food
scientists is an expanding population
that is demanding a greater variety

of quality convenience foods.
Food-service institutions that supply
outlets, such as airlines and restau­
rants, also require many types of
convenience foods. An increasing
number of scientists also will be re­
quired in research and product de­
velopment. Expenditures for re­
search and development in the food
industry have shown moderate in­
creases in recent years and probably
will continue to rise. Research could
produce new foods from modifica­
tions of wheat, com, rice, and soy­
beans. For example, some of the
“meat” in the future will be manu­
factured to resemble beef, pork, and
chicken. Additional food scientists
will be needed in production and
quality control because of the com­
plexity of products and processes
and the application of higher proc­
essing standards.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced food science grad­
uates (and graduates of other scien­
tific disciplines) with a bachelor’s
degree had starting salaries of about

$760 per month in 1970, based on
limited data. Inexperienced gradu­
ates having the master’s degree av­
eraged about $940 per month, and
those having the Ph. D. degree,
about $1,200 per month.
The average (median) salary for
all food scientists was $16,000 in
1970, according to the National
Science Foundation’s National Reg­
ister of Scientific and Technical
Most food scientists work in
modern, well-lighted and ventilated
laboratories. However, food scien­
tists may face a slight hazard from
slippery floors in pilot or processing
Sources of Additional information

Information on a variety of ca­
reers in food science, and a list of
schools offering programs in food
science may be obtained from:
The Institute of Food Technologists,
Suite 2120, 221 North LaSalle
Street, Chicago, Illinois 60601.

The performing arts include
music, acting, singing, and the
dance. In these fields, the number
of talented persons seeking employ­
ment generally greatly exceeds the
number of full-time positions availa­
ble. As a result, many performers
supplement their incomes by teach­
ing, and others work much of the
time in different types of occupa­
The difficulty of earning a living
as a performer is one of the facts
young persons should bear in mind
in considering an artistic career.
They should consider, therefore, the
possible advantages of making their
art a hobby rather than a profes­
sion. Aspiring young artists usually
must spend many years in intensive
training and practice before they are
ready for public performances.
They need not only great natural
talent but also determination, a will­
ingness to work long and hard, and
an overwhelming interest in their
chosen field.
The statements which follow this
introduction give detailed informa­
tion on musicians, singers, actors,
and dancers.

Only a few of the approximately
15,000 actors and actresses in the
United States in 1970 have
achieved recognition as stars—on
the stage, in motion pictures, or on
television or radio. A somewhat
larger number are well-known, ex­
perienced performers, who fre­
quently are cast in supporting roles.
However, most of these workers are
struggling for a toehold in the pro­
fession, and are glad to pick up
parts wherever they can.
New actors generally start in
“bit” parts, where they speak only a
few lines. If successful, they may
progress to larger, supporting roles,
of which there are several in most

stage, television, and screen produc­
tions. Actors who have minor parts
in stage productions also may serve
as understudies for the principals. If
a leading player misses a perform­
ance, the understudy has a chance
to demonstrate his acting ability.
Actors who prepare for roles ei­
ther on the stage, in television, or in
the movies spend many hours in re­
hearsal. They must memorize their
lines and know their cues. Radio ac­
tors typically read their parts. They
have to be especially skilled in ex­
pressing character and emotion
through the voice, since this is their
sole means of creating an imperson­
ation for their audience.
In addition to the actors with
speaking parts, “extras,” who have
no lines to deliver, are used in al­
most every motion picture and
many television shows and theatre

(D.O.T. 150.028 and 150.048)

Nature of the Work

Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job that has
great glamour and fascination. It is
also hard and demanding work that
requires special talent and involves
many difficulties and uncertainties.




productions. In spectacular produc­
tions, a large number of extras take
part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs
as dramatic coaches or become
directors of stage, television, radio,
or motion picture productions. A
few teach in schools of acting or in
the drama departments of colleges
and universities.

Places of Employment

Stage plays, motion pictures (in­
cluding films made especially for
television), and commercials are
the largest fields of employment for
actors, although some are employed
by “live” television and radio.
In the winter, most employment
opportunities on the stage are in
New York and other large cities. In
the summer months, stock compa­
nies in suburban and resort areas
throughout the Nation provide
many opportunities for employ­
ment. In addition many cities now
have “little theaters,” repertory
companies and dinner theaters,
which provide opportunities for
local talent as well as for profes­
sional actors and actresses from
New York and other centers. Plays
that go “on the road,” moving from
city to city, are normally produced
in New York City with casts se­
lected there.
Although employment opportuni­
ties in motion pictures and film tele­
vision are centered in Hollywood, a
few studios are in New York City;
Miami, Fla.; and other parts of the
country. In addition, many films are
shot on location, providing employ­
ment for nonprofessionals who live
in the area as “extras.” An increas­
ing number of American-produced
films are being shot in foreign coun­
tries. In live television and radio,
most opportunities for actors are at

the headquarters of the major net­
works—in New York, Los Angeles,
and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television and radio sta­
tions occasionally employ actors.

Training and Other Qualifications

Young people aspiring to acting
careers should get as much acting
experience as possible by taking
part in high school and college
plays, or working with little theaters
and other acting groups in their
home towns.
Formal training in acting is in­
creasingly necessary. Such training
can be obtained at special schools of
the dramatic arts, located chiefly in
New York, and in over 500 colleges
and universities throughout the
country. College drama curriculums
usually include courses in liberal
arts, speech, pantomime, play pro­
duction, and the history of the
drama, as well as practical courses
in acting. From these, the student
develops an appreciation of the great
plays and a greater understanding of
the roles he may be called on to
play. Graduate degrees in the fine
arts or in drama are necessary for
college teaching positions.
Acting demands patience and
total commitment since aspiring ac­
tors and actresses must wait for
parts or filming schedules, must
work long hours, and often must do
much traveling. Flawless perform­
ances require long rehearsal sched­
ules and the tedious memorizing of
lines. The actor needs stamina to
withstand the heat of stage or studio
lights, or the adverse weather condi­
tions which may exist “on location.”
Above all, young persons planning a
career in acting must have talent
and the creative ability to portray
different characters. They must
have poise, stage presence, and ag­

gressiveness to project themselves
to the audience. At the same time,
the ability to follow directions is im­
In all media, the best way to start
is to use local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such experi­
ence. Many actors who are success­
ful in local dramatic productions
eventually try to appear on the New
York stage. Inexperienced actors
usually find it extremely difficult to
obtain employment in New York or
Hollywood. The motion picture
field is especially difficult to enter,
and employment often results from
previous experience on Broadway.
To become a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by Central
Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild
and supplies all extras to the major
movie studios in Hollywood. Appli­
cants are accepted only when the
number of people of a particular
type on the list—for example, ath­
letic young men, old ladies, or small
children—is below the foreseeable
need. In recent years, only a very
small proportion of the total num­
ber of applicants has succeeded in
being listed. Extras have very little,
if any, opportunity to advance to
speaking roles in the movies.
The length of an actor’s working
life depends largely on his skill and
versatility. Great actors and ac­
tresses can work almost indefinitely.
On the other hand, employment op­
portunities become increasingly lim­
ited by middle age, especially for
those who become typed in roman­
tic, youthful roles.

Employment Outlook

Overcrowding has existed in the
acting field for many years and it is
expected to persist. In the legiti­
mate theater and also in motion pic-


tures, radio, and television, numbers
of job applicants greatly exceed the
jobs available. Moreover, many ac­
tors are employed in their profes­
sion for only a small part of the
The development of motion pic­
tures, radio, and TV has greatly re­
duced employment opportunities for
actors in the theater. Although a
motion picture production may use
a very large number of actors, they
are employed only during filming
and the films are widely distributed
and may be used for years. Also,
the increasing number of Ameri­
can-produced films being shot in
foreign countries will reduce em­
ployment opportunities for Ameri­
can actors. Radio uses few actors.
The number of filmed TV dramas
and commercials using actors is in­
creasing, but not enough to offset
the decline in other media. More­
over, television stations often
broadcast “taped” dramas rather
than live productions, and, like mo­
tion picture films, these tapes may
be widely distributed and used
many times.
One possibility for future growth
in the legitimate theater lies in the
establishment of year-round profes­
sional acting companies in more cit­
ies. The number of communities
with such acting groups is growing.
The recent growth of summer stock
companies, repertory companies,
and dinner theaters also has in­
creased employment. Further in­
creases also are likely in the em­
ployment of actors on television due
partly to the expanding Public
Broadcasting System and UHF sta­
tions. In addition, increased em­
ployment opportunities are ex­
pected as a result of the expanded
use of cable TV (pay TV). Also,
the development and wider use in
the future of video cassettes will re­


sult in more employment opportuni­
In the acting field as a whole,
however, employment opportunities
are expected to change little
through the 1970’s. The number of
new entrants to the profession is ex­
pected to outnumber employment
opportunities. Even highly talented
young people are likely to face stiff
competition and economic diffi­
culties in the profession.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Actors and actresses employed in
the legitimate theater belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association. If em­
ployed in motion pictures, including
television films, they belong to the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to the
Screen Extras Guild, Inc. If em­
ployed in television or radio, they
belong to the American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists.
These unions and the show produc­
ers sign basic collective bargaining
agreements which set minimum sal­
aries, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment. In addition,
each actor enters into a separate
contract which may provide for
higher salaries than those specified
in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for
actors in Broadway productions was
about $165 in 1970. Those appear­
ing in small “off-Broadway” the­
aters received a minimum of $75 a
week. For shows on the road, the
minimum rate was about $220 a
week. Earnings for rehearsal time
were about $165 a week in Broad­
way shows and much lower in small
“off-Broadway” theaters. (All mini­
mum salaries are automatically, by
union contract, adjusted upward
commensurate with increases in the
cost of living as reflected in the Bu­

reau of Labor Statistics Consumer
Price Index.)
Motion picture actors and ac­
tresses had a minimum daily rate of
$120 in 1970. For extras, the mini­
mum rate was about $33 a day. Ac­
tors on network television received
a minimum program fee of about
$ 180 for a single half-hour program
and 10 hours of rehearsal time; ac­
tors on radio received about $50 for
a half-hour performance, including
one rehearsal hour. To encourage
more stable employment on radio
and TV, minimum guarantees for
those actors with contracts for a se­
ries of programs are sometimes dis­
counted below the single program
guaranteed fee. Because of the fre­
quent periods of unemployment
characteristic of this profession, an­
nual earnings may be low for many
of the lesser known performers. In
all fields, many well-known actors
and actresses have salary rates
above the minimums. Salaries of the
few top stars are many times the fig­
ures cited.
Eight performances amount to a
week’s work on the legitimate
stage, and any additional perform­
ances are paid for as overtime. The
basic workweek after the opening of
a show is 36 hours, including 12
hours for rehearsals. Before the
opening, however, the workweek
usually is longer to allow enough
time for rehearsals. Evening work
is, of course, a regular part of a
stage actor’s life. Rehearsals may be
held late at night and on weekends
and holidays. When plays are on the
road, traveling over the weekend
often is necessary.
Most actors are covered by a
pension fund and a growing number
have hospitalization insurance to
which their employers contribute.
All equity members have paid vaca­
tions and sick leave. Most stage ac­
tors get little if any unemployment



compensation solely from acting,
since they seldom have enough em­
ployment in any State to meet the
eligibility requirements. Conse­
quently, when a show closes, they
often have to take any casual work
obtainable while waiting for another

(D.O.T. 151.028 and 151.048)

Nature of the Work

Dancing is an ancient and world­
wide art, having many different
forms. Professional dancers may
perform in classical ballet or mod­
ern dance, in dance adaptations for
musical shows, in folk dances, or in
tap and other popular kinds of
dancing. In the classical ballet,
movements are based on certain
conventional or styled “positions,”
and women dance “en pointe” (on
the tips of their toes). In the mod­
em dance, movements are much
more varied but are nonetheless
carefully planned and executed to
follow a pattern.
In dance productions, the per­
formers most often work together as
a chorus. However, a group of se­
lected dancers may do special num­
bers, and a very few top artists do
solo work.
Many dancers combine teaching
with their stage work or teach full
time in schools of the dance or in
colleges and universities. The few
dancers who become choreogra­
phers create new ballets or dance
routines. Others are dance directors
who train dancers in new produc­
(This statement does not include

instructors of ballroom and other
social dancing.)

Places of Employment

In 1970, there were approxi­
mately 23,000 dancers and dancing
teachers in the United States. More
than half of this number were teach­
ers employed at schools of the
dance and in other schools and col­

leges. Most of the other dancers
were performers on the stage,
screen, and television. A few teach­
ers trained in dance therapy were
employed by hospitals to work in
the treatment of mental disorders.
About 90 percent of all dancers are
women, but in some types of dance,
particularly ballet and modern,
women constitute about one-half of
the performers.
Dancing teachers are located


chiefly in large cities, but many
smaller cities and towns have
schools of the dance. New York
City is the hub for the majority of
performing dancers; others are situ­
ated in most large cities.

in physical education and concen­
trated on the dance, majored in a
dance program designed to prepare
students to teach dance, or majored
in a dance program designed to pre­
pare students as professional dance
artists. Some of these schools also
give graduate degrees.
A college education is an advan­
Training and Other Qualifications
tage in obtaining employment as a
Serious training for a dancing ca­ teacher of professional dancing or
reer traditionally begins by age 12 choreography. However, dancers
or earlier. For example, girls wish­ who postpone their first audition for
ing to become ballet dancers should openings in classical ballet until
begin taking lessons at the age of 7 graduation may compete at a disad­
or 8. From 2 to 3 years of prior vantage with younger dancers.
preparation is needed before the
A teaching position in profes­
young girl should start dancing “en sional schools usually requires expe­
pointe.” Professional training in rience as a performer; in colleges
ballet typically takes from 10 to 12 and conservatories graduate degrees
lessons a week for 11 or 12 months are generally required, but experi­
in the year and many additional ence as a performer often may be
hours of practice. The length of the substituted. Maturity and a broad
training period depends on the stu­ educational background are also im­
dent’s ability and physical develop­ portant for teaching positions.
ment, but most dancers have their
The dancer’s life is one of rigor­
professional audition by age 17 or ous practice, perfecting of the art,
and self-discipline. Good health and
The selection of a professional physical stamina are necessary, both
dancing school is important for two to keep in good condition and to
reasons. First, the school must use follow the rugged travel schedule
expert judgment in setting the pace imposed on many dancers.
of training, since too early and too
Height and body build should not
severe exercise can permanently vary much from the average. Good
damage the legs and feet. Second, the feet and normal arches are also re­
school’s connections with producers quired. Above all, one must have a
may help the students in obtaining natural aptitude for dancing, a cre­
ative ability to express oneself
Because of the strenuous training through dance.
Seldom does a dancer perform
program in the professional schools,
the general education received by unaccompanied. Therefore, young
students in these schools may not persons considering a dancing ca­
exceed the legal minimum. How­ reer should be able to function as
ever, a dancer’s education should part of a team. They also should be
include subjects such as music, liter­ prepared to face the anxiety of un­
ature, and history to aid him in his stable working conditions brought
interpretation of dramatic episodes on by show closings, audition fail­
ures, and the like.
and music.
For women dancers, employment
About 200 colleges and universi­
ties confer bachelor’s degrees on in ballet companies is very difficult
students who have either majored to obtain after the age of 30, except


for outstanding stars. Women past
25 are rarely hired for Broadway
shows unless they have already had
experience in such productions.
Men who are ballet dancers, and
men and women who perform in
modern dance productions, can usu­
ally continue somewhat longer.
After the employable age as per­
formers has passed, some dancers
teach in colleges or conservatories,
or establish their own schools. The
few who become choreographers or
dance directors can continue work­
ing as long as persons would in most
other occupations.

Employment Outlook

Opportunities in this field will be
limited both by the small number of
full-time jobs available and the rela­
tively large supply of applicants
seeking full-time work. The supply
of trained dancers has exceeded the
demand for many years. The irregu­
lar employment that has persisted
for many years is expected to con­
tinue despite a few recent unionmanagement contracts aimed at
guaranteeing some dancers full or
near-full employment each year.
Among the factors affecting demand
are the decline in the total number
of stage productions because of
competition from motion pictures
and television. Few stage shows run
more than 26 weeks and many
“fold” after the first week.
On the other hand, the number of
shows being produced is increasing,
and there is a growing trend toward
using professional dancers at in­
dustrial exhibitions, such as auto
shows. Also, some new professional
dance companies are being devel­
oped around the country, and tele­
vision will offer some additional em­
ployment opportunities. Civic and
community dance groups are in­


creasing in number, and opportuni­
ties for dancers will expand as these
develop into professional groups.
Nevertheless, employment oppor­
tunities for dance performers will
remain limited, and most of the
openings for dancers in the years
ahead will stem from the need to re­
place those who leave the field.
The employment outlook for
dancers who have the personal and
educational qualifications for teach­
ing will be much better than for
those trained only as performers.
The growing interest in the dance as
one of the fine arts is contributing to
the demand for teachers of dancing.
The increase in college enrollments
will be another factor which will
tend to enlarge teaching opportuni­
ties. (See statement on “College
and University Teachers.” )
Men dancers face less competi­
tion for employment than do
women dancers, since fewer men
than women seek dancing as a ca­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Dancers who perform profession­
ally are members of one of the un­
ions affiliated with the Associated
Actors and Artists of America
(AFL-CIO). Dancers who perform
in opera ballets, classical ballet, and
the modem dance belong to the
American Guild of Musical Artists,
Inc.; those who perform on televi­
sion belong to the American Feder­
ation of Television and Radio Art­
ists; and those who appear in musi­
cal comedies join Actors’ Equity
Association. Dancers may also be
members of other unions, depend­
ing upon the field in which they per­
form. (See statement on Singers and
Singing Teachers.) Minimum salary
rates, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment are specified


in basic agreements signed by the
unions and the producers. The sep­
arate contract signed by each danc­
er with the producer of the show
may be more favorable than the
basic agreement regarding salary,
hours of work, and working condi­
The minimum salary for dancers
in ballet and other stage productions
was about $155 a week in 1970.
The minimum rate for rehearsal
time was about $135 a week. Danc­
ers performing on tour receive a
small allowance to defray the cost
of room and board. The rate of per
diem in 1970 was $11. The em­
ployer pays the cost of transporta­
tion. If a dancer signs a contract for
a brief appearance in a perform­
ance on television or a few days’
work in a movie, the minimum rate
is higher, relative to time worked.
However, this difference is offset by
the brevity of the engagement and
the long period likely to be spent
waiting for the next one. A few per­
formers, of course, have much
higher salaries.
Some dancers qualified to teach
in schools of the ballet are able to
combine this work with engage­
ments as performers. A much
greater number of dancers have to
supplement their incomes by other
types of work.
Salaries of teachers in the techni­
cal schools of the ballet vary with
the location and prestige of the
school. Dancers employed as teach­
ers in colleges and universities are
paid on the same basis as other fac­
ulty members. (See statement on
“College and University Teach­
ers.” )
The normal workweek is 30
hours spent in rehearsals and mati­
nee and evening performances.
Extra compensation is paid for
hours worked outside the normal
workweek. Most stage perform­

ances take place, of course, in the
evening, and rehearsals may require
very long hours, often on weekends
and holidays. When shows are on
the road, traveling over the week­
end is often required.
Dancers are entitled to some paid
sick leave and various health and
welfare benefits provided by their
unions, to which the employers con­
Sources of Additional Information

Information on colleges and uni­
versities and conservatories of
music which give a major in the
dance or some courses in the dance,
and details on the types of courses
and other pertinent information
may be obtained from the Dance
Directory, compiled by the Ameri­
can Association for Health, Physical
Education and Recreation, a divi­
sion of the National Educational
Association, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Information on wages and work­
ing conditions may be obtained
American Guild of Musical Artists,
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 152.028 and 152.048; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

Nature of the Work

Professional musicians—whether
they play in a symphony orchestra,
dance band, rock group, or “jazz
combo”—generally have behind
them many years of study and in-



tensive practice. As a rule, musi­
cians specialize in either popular or
classicial music; only a few play
both types professionally.
Musicians who specialize in pop­
ular music usually play the trum­
pet, trombone, clarinet, saxophone,
organ, or one of the “rhythm” in­
struments—the piano, string bass,
drums, or guitar. Dance bands play
in nightclubs, restaurants, and at
special parties. The best known
bands, jazz groups, rock groups,
and solo performers sometimes give
concerts and perform on television.
Musicians specializing in classical

music play in opera and theater or­
chestras, symphony orchestras, and
for other kinds of performances re­
quiring orchestral accompaniments.
The instruments played by most of
these musicians are the strings,
brass, and wood winds. Some form
small groups—usually a string quar­
tet or a trio—to give concerts of
chamber music.
Many pianists accompany vocal
or instrumental soloists or choral
groups or provide background
music in restaurants or other places.
Most organists play in churches,
often directing the choir. A few ex­

ceptionally brilliant musicians be­
come well-known concert artists.
They give their own concerts and
appear as soloists with symphony
orchestras. Both classical and popu­
lar musicians often make record­
ings, either individually or as mem­
bers of a group.
A very high proportion of all mu­
sicians teach in the Nation’s schools
and colleges. These teachers may be
members of the faculty of music
schools or conservatories or of col­
leges which offer instruction in in­
strumental and vocal music. Some
are music teachers in elementary or
secondary schools where they direct
vocal and instrumental music pro­
grams, teach general classroom
music appreciation, and give group
instruction on an instrument. Pri­
vate lessons are given by many
teachers employed by school sys­
tems, and by performing musicians,
either in their own studios or in
pupils’ homes.
A few musicians work in the field
of music therapy in hospitals, and in
music libraries.

Places of Employment

About 210,000 musicians and
music teachers were employed in
1970. Most professional musicians
who perform work in cities, where
the Nation’s entertainment and re­
cording activities are concentrated
such as New York, Chicago, Los
Angeles, Nashville, Miami Beach,
and New Orleans. Music teachers in
elementary and secondary schools,
as well as in colleges and universi­
ties, are employed all over the
country. Moreover, almost every
town and city has at least one pri­
vate music teacher. Dance bands
and civic orchestras also are located
in many communities, although in
the smaller towns, their members


usually are part-time musicians with
other regular jobs.
In addition to the people primar­
ily employed as musicians or music
teachers, thousands of qualified in­
strumentalists have other full-time
jobs and only occasionally work as
musicians. Most of these part-time
musicians belong to dance bands,
which are hired to play at private
parties or for special occasions.
Others, with a background in classi­
cal music, play occasionally in an
orchestra, become conductors or
composers, or do some part-time

Training and Other Qualifications

Most people who become profes­
sional musicians begin studying an
instrument at an early age. To
achieve a career as a performer or
as a music teacher, young people
need intensive
through private study with an ac­
complished musician, in a college
or university which has a strong
music program, or in a conservatory
of music. They need to acquire not
only great technical skill but also a
thorough knowledge of music, and
they must learn how to interpret
music. Before a young person can
qualify for advanced study in a
music conservatory or in a college
or university school of music, an au­
dition frequently is necessary. Many
teachers in these schools are accom­
plished artists who will train only
promising young musicians.
Over 550 conservatories of music
and college and university schools
of music offer 4-year programs
leading to a bachelor’s degree in
music education. Students who
complete these programs can qual­
ify for the State certificate required
for elementary and secondary
school positions. Conservatories and


collegiate music schools also fre­
quently award the degree of bache­
lor of music to students who major
in instrumental or vocal music. The
4-year program leading to either of
these degrees provides not only
training as a performer but also a
broad background in musical his­
tory and theory, together with some
liberal arts courses. Advanced de­
grees usually are required for col­
lege teaching positions, but excep­
tions may be made for especially
well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and
other popular music must have an
understanding of and feeling for
that style of music, but skill and
training in classical styles may ex­
pand their employment opportuni­
ties. As a rule, they take lessons
with private teachers when young,
and seize every opportunity to play
in amateur or professional perform­
ances. Some groups of young people
form their own small dance bands
or rock groups. As they gain experi­
ence and become known, the play­
ers may have opportunities to audi­
tion for other local bands, and, still
later, for the better known bands
and orchestras.
Young persons considering ca­
reers in music should have both mu­
sical talent and creative ability.
They should also have poise and
stage presence for facing large au­
diences. Since quality of performance
requires constant study and prac­
tice, self-discipline is vital. More­
over, musicians must have the
stamina for considerable travel in
meeting concert and nightclub en­
gagements, as well as rugged time
schedules, often including long night

Employment Outlook

As a field of employment, music

performance has been overcrowded
for many years, and it is expected to
remain so through the 1970’s. Op­
portunities for concerts and recitals
are not numerous enough to provide
adequate employment for all the pi­
anists, violinists, and other instru­
mentalists qualified as concert art­
ists. Competition is usually keen for
positions which afford some stability
of employment—for example, jobs
with major orchestras and teaching
positions in conservatories and col­
leges and universities. Because of
the ease with which a musician can
enter private music teaching, the
number of music teachers has been
more than sufficient to give instruc­
tion to all the young people seeking
lessons, and will probably continue
to be. Although many opportunities
can be expected for single and
short-term engagements, playing
popular music in night clubs, the­
aters, and other places, the supply
of qualified musicians seeking such
jobs is likely to remain greater than
the demand. On the other hand,
first-class, experienced accompa­
nists and well-trained, outstanding
players of stringed instruments are
likely to remain relatively scarce;
and public school systems will prob­
ably continue to need more fully
qualified music teachers and super­
Employment opportunities for
performers are expected to increase
slightly over the long run. Although
the number of civic orchestras in
smaller communities has been grow­
ing steadily, many of these orches­
tras provide only part-time employ­
ment for musicians who work
chiefly as teachers or in other occu­
pations. Moreover, the openings
created by the establishment of
these orchestras have been more
than offset by the decline in oppor­
tunities in the theater, radio, motion
pictures, and other places; this has



resulted, in part, from the greatly
increased use of recorded music.
Some additional employment op­
portunities are expected to result
from the expanded use of cable
TV (pay TV). Also, the devel­
opment and wider use, in the future,
of video cassettes will result in some
employment opportunities.
The employment outlook in
music education for people who are
qualified as teachers as well as mu­
sicians is better than for those quali­
fied as performers only. The num­
ber of schools with music programs
is growing and interest in music as
an avocation also is rising. Thus,
over the long run, an increase can
be expected in the employment of
elementary and secondary school
music teachers and also in the
teaching staffs of college and uni­
versity music schools and conserva­
tories of music.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The amount received for a per­
formance by either classical or pop­
ular musicians depends to a large
extent on their professional repu­
tations. Musicians who were mem­
bers of 1 of the 28 major symphony
orchestras in the United States had
minimum salaries ranging from
about $5,100 to $16,500 a year in
1970 according to the American
Symphony Orchestras League, Inc.
Six orchestras—New York, Boston,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincinnati,
and Chicago—have year-round sea­
sons and minimum salaries ranging
from $10,900 to $16,500. The re­
maining 22 orchestras have seasons
ranging from 32 to 49 weeks. In­
strumentalists who were members
of small ensembles reportedly re­
ceived as much as $200 a concert.
Those who played in dance bands
were paid from $60 to $300 a week

in 1970, according to the limited in­
formation available.
The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers. (See statements on Ele­
mentary and Secondary School
Teachers.) However, they fre­
quently supplement their earnings
by giving private music lessons and
taking church positions. Earnings
from private lessons are uncertain
and vary according to the musician’s
reputation, the number of teachers
in the locality, the number of stu­
dents desiring lessons, and the eco­
nomic status of the community.
Musicians who are performers
customarily work at night and on
weekends. They must also spend
considerable time in regular daily
practice and in rehearsal of new
Many musicians, primarily those
employed by symphony orchestras,
work under master wage agree­
ments, which guarantee them a sea­
son’s work lasting up to 52 weeks.
Musicians in other areas, however,
may face relatively long periods of
unemployment between jobs and,
thus, the overall level of their earn­
ings generally is lower than that of
many other occupations. Moreover,
they do not usually work steadily
for one employer. Consequently,
some performers cannot qualify for
unemployment compensation, and
few have either sick leave or vaca­
tions with pay.
Most musicians who play profes­
sionally belong to the American Fed­
eration of Musicians (AFL-CIO).
Concert soloists also belong to the
American Guild of Musicial Artists,
Inc. (AFL-CIO).

Sources of Additional Information

Information about wages, hours

of work, and working conditions for
professional musicians is available
American Federation of Musicians
(AFL-CIO), 641 Lexington Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10022.

Information about the require­
ments for certification of organists
and choir masters may be secured
American Guild of Organists, 630
Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.

A list of accredited schools of
music is available from:
National Association of Schools of
Music, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools is available from:
Music Educators National Confer­
ence, The National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

Nature of the Work

Professional singing is an art that
usually requires not only a fine
voice but also a highly developed
technique and a broad knowledge of
music. A small number of singing
stars make recordings or go on
concert tours in the United States
and abroad. Somewhat larger num­
bers of singers obtain leading or
supporting roles in operas and pop­
ular music shows, or secure en­
gagements as solists in oratorios and
other types of performances. Most


professional singers of classical
music are soloists in churches or syn­
agogues. Some singers also become
members of opera and musical com­
edy choruses or other professional
choral groups. Popular music sing­
ers perform in musical shows of all
kinds—in the movies, on the stage,
on radio and television, and in
nightclubs and other entertainment
places. The best known popular
music singers make and sell many


where they are qualified to teach
general music courses and lead cho­
ruses. Others give voice training or
direct choral groups in churches, in
music conservatories, or in colleges
and universities with schools or de­
partments of music.

Places of Employment

In 1970, about 75,000 people
were employed as professional sing­
ers or singing teachers. Opportuni­
ties for singing engagements are
mainly in New York City, Los An­
geles, and Chicago—the Nation’s
chief entertainment centers. Nash­
ville, Tenn., a major center for
country and western music, is one
of the most important places for
employment of singers for both
“live” performances and recordings.
Persons trained as singers who
teach music in elementary and sec­
ondary schools, colleges, universi­
ties, and conservatories of music are
employed throughout the country.
Many singers are employed part
time, chiefly as church singers and
choir masters.

Training and Other Qualifications

Since most singers of both classi­
cal and popular music have only
part time or irregular employment
as singers, they often have full-time
jobs of other types and sing only in
the evenings or on weekends. Some
give private voice lessons. A num­
ber of singers are employed in ele­
mentary and secondary schools,

Young persons who want to per­
form professionally as singers
should acquire a broad background
in music, including its theory and
history. The ability to dance may be
helpful, since singers are sometimes
required to dance. In addition,
those interested in a singing career
should start piano lessons at an
early age. As a rule, voice training
should not begin until after the indi­
vidual has matured physically, al­
though young boys who sing in
church choirs receive some training
before their voices change. More­
over, because of the work and ex­

pense involved in voice training—
which often continues for years
after the singer’s professional career
has started—it is important that a
prospective singer have great deter­
mination. It is also important to au­
dition before a competent voice
teacher to decide whether profes­
sional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for ca­
reers as singers of classical music by
enrolling in a music conservatory,
or a school or department of music
connected with a college or univer­
sity, or by taking private voice les­
sons. These schools provide not
only voice training, but other train­
ing necessary for understanding and
interpreting music, including mu­
sic-related training in foreign lan­
guages and sometimes dramatic
training. After completing a 4-year
course of study, a graduate may be
awarded either the degree of bache­
lor of music, bachelor of science or
arts (in music), or bachelor of fine
Young singers who plan to teach
music in public elementary or sec­
ondary schools need at least a bach­
elor’s degree with a major in music
education and must meet the State
certification requirements for teach­
ers. Such training is available in
over 550 colleges and universities
throughout the country. College
teachers usually are required to
have a master’s degree and some­
times a doctor’s degree, but excep­
tions may be made for especially
well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an
asset for singers of popular music,
many with untrained voices have
had successful careers. The typical
popular song does not demand that
the voice be developed to cover as
wide a range on the musical scale as
does classical music, and the lack of
voice projection may be overcome
by using a microphone.



Young singers of popular songs
may become known by participating
in amateur and paid performances
in their communities. These engage­
ments may lead to employment with
local dance bands and possibly later
with better known ones.
In addition to musical ability,
perseverance, an outstanding per­
sonality, an attractive appearance,
and good contacts, good luck often
is required to achieve a singing ca­
reer. Singers also may be required
to have stamina for traveling to con­
cert and night club engagements.
They must be able to adapt to rigor­
ous time schedules, often working
night hours.

Employment Outlook

The employment situation for
singers will probably remain highly
competitive through the 1970’s.
Competition among popular singers
will continue to be especially keen.
A great number of short-term jobs
are expected in the entertainment
field—the opera and concert stage,
movies, theater, nightclubs, radio
and television, dance bands, and
other places—but not enough to
provide steady employment for all
qualified singers.
Little growth in overall employ­
ment opportunities for singers is
likely over the long run. The use of
recorded music has practically re­
placed the “live” singer on radio;
also, the number of television per­
formances given by singers is lim­
ited, although it may increase in fu­
ture years. However, there is a
growing demand for singers to
record popular music and commer­
cials for both radio and television
advertising. Some additional em­
ployment opportunities are ex­
pected from the expanded use of
cable TV (pay TV). Also, the

development and wider use in the
future of video cassettes will result
in more employment opportunities.
The outlook for singers who can
meet State certification require­
ments for positions as music teach­
ers, or who can qualify for college
teaching, will be considerably better
than for performers. The demand
for music teachers in the Nation’s
elementary and secondary schools is
expected to grow, and some in­
creased employment of music teach­
ers can be expected in colleges and
universities. In addition, music
teachers will be needed to replace
those who will transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
A singing career is sometimes rel­
atively short, since it depends on a
good voice and public acceptance of
the artist, both of which may be af­
fected by age. Due to these circum­
stances, singers may be subject to
unstable employment conditions
and the pressure of unreliable finan­
cial circumstances.

Singers generally work at night
and on weekends. School teachers
have regular working hours; private
voice teachers often give lessons
after school or business hours or on
weekends. Work in the entertain­
ment field is seasonal and few per­
formers have steady jobs.
Singers who perform profession­
ally usually belong to one branch or
another of the AFL-CIO union, the
Associated Actors and Actresses of
America. Singers who perform on
the concert stage or in opera belong
to the American Guild of Musical
Artists, Inc.; those who sing on radio
or television or who make phono­
graph recordings are members of the
American Federation of Television
and Radio Artists; singers in the
variety and night club field belong
to the American Guild of Variety
Artists; those who sing in musical
comedy and operettas belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association; and
those who sing in the movies belong
to the Screen Actors Guild, Inc.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Except for a few well-known con­
cert soloists, opera stars, top re­
cording artists of popular music,
and some singers regularly em­
ployed by dance bands and the mo­
tion picture industry, most profes­
sional singers experience difficulty
in obtaining regular employment
and have to supplement their sing­
ing incomes by doing other types of
The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers in their school system. The
fees that private music teachers
charge depend on the teacher’s rep­
utation, the economic status of the
families in the community, and
other factors.

Information about accredited
schools and departments of music
may be obtained from:
National Association of Schools of
Music, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools is available from:
Music Educators National Confer­
ence, The National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information concerning salary
and working conditions in opera
and concert fields is available from:
American Guild of Musical Artists,
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281 and
.381, and 979.381)

Nature of the Work

A team of commerical artists
often creates the artwork in news­
papers and magazines and on bill­
boards, brochures, catalogs, and
television commericals. The art
director supervises this team of art­
ists having varying skills and special­
izations. He may develop the art as­
pects of an advertising plan which
he turns over to a layout man for
further refinement. The layout artist
constructs or arranges elements of
the advertisement, selects and lays
out illustrations, photographs, and
typography, and determines color
and other elements of design. He
then prepares a “rough visual” or
sketch. After consulting with the

director, he may change the visual
and complete a more comprehen­
sive layout for the customer.
Working with the layout man in
turning out the finished product are
a variety of specialists, including
Tenderers, who make rough magic
marker drawings; letterers, who ex­
ecute appropriate lettering either
freehand or with mechanical aids;
illustrators, who sketch and draw in
more finished form; and paste-up
and mechanical men, who cut and
paste basic parts of the advertise­
ment or other artwork by using a
ruling pen and other drafting tools.
Some workers, called general
boardmen, spend nearly all their
time at the drawing board perform­
ing many of these specializations.
Often supporting the general boardmen or other specialists are appren­
tices, who primarily do routine jobs
such as separating colors and cut­
ting mats.
In a small office, the art director

may perform the layout and boardwork with the aid of apprentices. In
a large Office, the art director devel­
ops concepts with the copywriter;
sets standards; deals with clients;
and purchases needed photographs,
illustrations, lettering, and other art
work from freelancers or art services.
Advertising artists create the con­
cept and artwork for a wide variety
of promotional items or “collateral
material” including direct mail ad­
vertising, catalogs, and counter dis­
plays to supplement newspaper and
magazine ads or television commer­
cials. They also prepare slides, film
strips, and other visual aids.
Commercial artists also create
the formats of magazines and other
publications, by designing or laying
out the editorial pages and features
and producing or purchasing the
necessary illustrations or artwork.
Some commercial artists specialize
in fashion illustrations, greeting
cards, book illustrations, or in tech­
nical drawings for industry.

Places of Employment

An estimated 60,000 commercial
artists were employed in 1970;
about two-fifths were women. Most
commercial artists were employed
in big cities, such as New York and
Chicago, where the largest users of
commercial art are to be found.
Some, however, are employed in
nearly every city.
Most commercial artists are paid
a regular salary as staff artists by
advertising agencies, commercial art
studios, advertising departments of
large companies, printing and pub­
lishing firms, textile companies,
television and motion picture stu­
dios, department stores, and a vari­
ety of other business organizations.
Many work as freelance artists, sell­
ing their artwork to any customer
—chiefly to the same types of or­
ganizations that employ salaried art­


ists. Some salaried commercial art­
ists also do freelance work in their
spare time. A number of commer­
cial artists work for Federal Gov­
ernment agencies, principally in the
Defense Department. A few teach
in art schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Artistic ability and good taste are
the most important qualifications
for success in commercial art, but it
is essential that these qualities be
developed by specialized training in
the techniques of commercial and
applied art. In addition, education
in the fine arts—painting, sculpture,
or architecture—and in academic
studies provides a good foundation
for obtaining employment in com­
mercial art and may be essential for
The most widely accepted train­
ing for commercial art is the in­
struction given in art schools or in­
stitutes that specialize in commer­
cial and applied art. To enter art
school, a high school education usu­
ally is required. Some schools admit
only applicants who submit accepta­
ble work samples. The course of
study, which may include some aca­
demic work, generally takes 2 or 3
years, and a certificate is awarded
on graduation. A growing number
of art schools, particularly those in
or connected with universities, re­
quire 4 years or more of study and
confer a bachelor’s degree—com­
monly the bachelor of fine arts
(B.F.A.). In these schools, com­
mercial art instruction is supple­
mented by liberal arts courses, such
as English and history. Limited
training in commercial art also may
be obtained through public voca­
tional high schools, private homestudy schools, and practical experi­


ence on the job, but supplemental tion. After considerable experience,
training usually is needed for ad­ may commercial artists leave sala­
ried employment for freelance
The first year in art school may work. Most illustrators are freelanc­
be devoted primarily to the study of ers; many of them have an agent.
fundamentals—perspective, design,
Commercial artists usually as­
color harmony, composition— and semble their best artwork into a
to the use of pencil, crayon, pen “portfolio,” to display their work. A
and ink, and other art media. Sub­ good portfolio is essential in obtain­
sequent study, generally more spe­ ing initial employment and free­
cialized, includes drawing from life, lance assignments as well as in
advertising design, graphic design, changing jobs.
lettering, typography, illustrations,
and other courses in the student’s
particular field of interest. Artistic
Employment Outlook
judgment, imagination, and ability
to visualize ideas on paper are basic
Employment and advancement
requirements for a successful career opportunities for talented and wellin commercial art.
trained commercial artists in most
The various specialties, however, kinds of work are expected to be fa­
differ in some of the specific abili­ vorable through the 1970’s. Young
ties required. For example, letterers people having only average ability
and retouchers must do precise and and little specialized training, how­
detailed work requiring excellent ever, probably will encounter com­
coordination, whereas illustrators petition for beginning jobs and will
and designers need imagination, a have limited opportunity for ad­
distinctive art style, and, in most vancement.
cases, the ability to draw well. Some
Employment of commercial art­
experience with photography, ty­ ists through the 1970’s is expected
pography, and printing production to increase slowly primarily as a re­
is useful in art direction or design. sult of the upward trend in business
Freelance commercial artists must expenditures for visual advertising.
sell both ideas and finished work to This demand includes television
clients. A knowledge of type specifi­ graphics, packing design, poster and
cations and printing production is window displays, and greeting
very helpful. Also, a business sense cards. In addition, the expanding
and responsibility in meeting dead­ field of industrial design is expected
lines are assets. Art directors need a to require more qualified artists to
strong educational background in do three-dimensional work with en­
art and business practices and the gineering concepts. (See statement
liberal arts. Advertising art directors on Industrial Designers.) In addition
require a special kind of creativity to openings that result from growth,
—the ability to conceive ideas that some employment opportunities will
will stimulate the sale of the clients’ arise each year from the need to re­
products or services.
place commercial artists who retire
Beginning commercial artists usu­ or leave the field for other reasons.
ally need some on-the-job training
The demand for commercial art­
to qualify for other than strictly rou­ ists will continue to vary with the
tine work. Advancement is based specialization: For example, de­
largely on the individual’s artistic mand for pasteup and mechanical
talent, creative ability, and educa­ artists is expected to increase


slightly. Jobs for designers, art
directors, and layout men are fewer,
much sought after, and open only to
experienced, highly talented, and
creative artists. Fewer staff positions
are expected as a result of increased
use of highly skilled freelance artists
for specialized jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, beginning commercial
artists having no training beyond
vocational high school typically
earned from $70 to $75 a week;
graduates of 2-year professional
schools generally received from $80
to $85 a week; and graduates of 4year post-high school programs typ­
ically received $85 to $100 a week,
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Talented artists having strong
educational backgrounds and a
good portfolio, however, sometimes
started at higher salaries. After a
few years of experience, qualified
artists may expect to earn $125 to
$175 a week or more. Art directors,
designers, executives, well-known
freelance illustrators, and others in
top positions generally have much
higher earnings, from $15,000 to
$20,000 a year or more.
Earnings of freelance artists have
an especially wide range, since they
are affected by factors such as skill
level, variety, and popularity of
work, which ultimately effects the
amount and price of artwork sold.
In 1970, a freelancer received from
$25 for a single black and white
fashion sketch to $750 for a figure
in full color with a background;
from $1,000 to $2,000 for a color
cover for a national magazine; or
from $75 to $300 for a book jacket
or record album. Freelance artists
may be paid by the hour or by the
assignment. Experienced pasteup


and mechanical artists may earn at
least $4 to $8 an hour.
Salaried commercial artists gen­
erally work 35 to 40 hours a week,
but sometimes they must work addi­
tional hours and under a considera­
ble amount of pressure in order to
meet deadlines. Freelance artists
usually have irregular working
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in commer­
cial art may be obtained from:
National Art Education Association,
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

product may be used. Then, he
sketches a variety of possible de­
signs, which are examined by vari­
ous departments. For example, the
designer consults his company’s en­
gineers, production supervisors, and
sales and market research staffs for
their opinions on the practicability
of producing a newly designed
product, or changing the design of
an old product, as well as the sales
potential of the proposed designs.
After the most suitable design is se­
lected by company officials, a model
may be made by the designer. The
first model of a new design is often
made of clay so that it can be al­
tered easily to reflect modifications.
The final or working model is usu­
ally made of the material to be used
in the finished product. If the model
is approved in this form, it is put
into production.

(D.O.T. 142.081)

Nature of the Work

Industrial designers combine
technical knowledge of materials,
machines, and methods of produc­
tion with artistic talent to improve
the appearance and functional de­
sign of machine-made products.
Since the consuming public has wide
choice of styles in products such as
radios, television sets, automobiles,
refrigerators, and furniture, a pri­
mary objective of the industrial de­
signer is to design his own em­
ployer’s product to compete favora­
bly with similar goods on the
As a first step, the industrial de­
signer does historical research on
the product or related products. He
studies competition in the market
and the different ways in which the

Industrial designers also may do
related types of work. For example,
they may design containers and
packages, prepare small exhibits for
display purposes, or design the en­
tire layout for industrial fairs. Some
also design the interior layout of



special purpose commercial build­
ings, such as gasoline stations and
Industrial designers employed by
a manufacturing company usually
find their work limited to the one or
few products made by their em­
ployer; many senior designers, how­
ever, are now given a free hand to
engage in long-range planning for
new or diversified products. Design­
ers who work as consultants to
more than one industrial firm, either
as freelance designers or as mem­
bers of consulting firms, may plan
and design a great variety of prod­

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 10,000 in­
dustrial designers in 1970 were em­
ployed by large manufacturing com­
panies and by design consulting
firms. Of the remainder, the greatest
number did freelance work or com­
bined salaried employment with it.
Some also worked for architects,
and a few were on the staffs of firms
of interior designers.
Industrial designers employed by
consulting firms are located mainly
in large cities. For example, the
New York and Chicago areas have
the largest number of design con­
sulting organizations. Those em­
ployed by industrial firms are found
in small and middle size cities as
well, since most work in the decen­
tralized manufacturing plants of
their companies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The completion of a course of
study in industrial design—in an art
school, an art department of a uni­
versity, or a technical college—is

the usual requirement for entering
this field of work. People from
other areas, however, notably engi­
neering and architecture, may qual­
ify as industrial designers if they
have appropriate experience and ar­
tistic talent.
Formal education in industrial
design at the college or university
level usually takes 4 years to com­
plete, and a few schools require 5
years of study. These schools award
the bachelor’s degree in industrial
design or fine arts; about half of
these schools also award the mas­
ter’s degree for advanced study in
the field. A few schools, usually pri­
vate art schools or those associated
with large art museums, offer a 3year course of study in industrial
design which leads to a diploma. In
the past few years, however, most
art and museum schools have
moved toward accreditation or
affiliation with a university, usually
offering a 4-year program and a
bachelor’s degree.
Entrance to the course of study
in industrial design is limited, with
rare exceptions, to qualified high
school graduates; in addition, some
schools may require students to pre­
sent sketches and other examples of
their artistic ability. Some schools
also require students to complete
their freshman or sophomore years
before they select an industrial de­
sign major.
Industrial design curriculums dif­
fer considerably among schools.
Some schools stress the engineering
and technical aspects of the field,
and others give students a strong
cultural background in art. Nev­
ertheless, most industrial design
curriculums include at least one
course in two-dimensional design
(color theory, spatial organization,
etc.) and one in general three-di­
mensional design (abstract sculpture
and art structures), including a sub­

stantial amount of studio practice in
the actual design of three-dimen­
sional products. In the studio
course, students learn to make
working drawings and models with
clay, wood, plaster, and other easily
worked materials. In schools that
have the necessary machinery, stu­
dents gain experience in making
models of their designs while learn­
ing to use metalworking and wood­
working machinery. Some schools
require the completion of courses in
basic engineering and in the compo­
sition of materials. All schools
which offer 4- or 5-year courses
leading to a bachelor’s degree also in­
clude academic subjects, such as
English, history, psychology, eco­
nomics, and science in their curricu­
Creative ability, skill in drawing,
and the ability to anticipate con­
sumer needs are the most important
personal qualifications needed by
young people aspiring to work in
this field. A mechanical interest also
is desirable for some types of work.
Applicants for jobs will find it help­
ful to have previously assembled a
“portfolio” which demonstrates
their skill in designing and their cre­
ative talent. Since industrial design­
ers are required frequently to work
cooperatively with engineers and
other staff members, the ability to
work and communicate well with
others is important. Those who plan
to practice industrial designing on a
consulting basis should have a
knowledge of business practices and
possess sales ability.
New graduates of industrial de­
sign courses frequently start as as­
sistants to experienced designers.
They are usually given relatively
simple assignments which do not in­
volve making structural changes in
the product. As they gain experi­
ence, designers may be assigned to
supervisory positions with major re­



sponsibility for the design of a prod­
uct or a group of products. Those
who have an established reputation
in the field, as well as the necessary
funds, may start their own consult­
ing firms.

Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to ex­
pand moderately through the
1970’s. Employers will be actively
seeking applicants having a college
degree and outstanding talent. Some
employment opportunities also will
arise each year from the need to re­
place designers who retire or leave
the field for other reasons.
A number of factors will affect
employment of industrial designers.
Rapid obsolescence of household
and commercial equipment and the
rising population will increase the
demand for newly designed prod­
ucts. As in the past, manufacturers
will strive to hold or increase their
share of these markets through the
creation of new products, improve­
ments in the design of existing ones,
and change in package designs and
other modernizations in the appear­
ance and use of their products.
Small companies probably will
make increasing use of services of­
fered by industrial design consulting
firms to compete more effectively
with larger firms. All these factors,
in addition to rising per capita in­
come, will contribute to the long­
term growth in the employment of
industrial designers. However, as in
the past, new entrants trained spe­
cifically in industrial designing are
likely to encounter keen competi­
tion for beginning jobs from persons
with engineering, architectural, and
related educational backgrounds
who have artistic and creative tal­

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for inexperi­
enced industrial designers employed
by manufacturing firms ranged from
$125 to $150 a week in 1970, ac­
cording to the limited information
available. Beginning salaries for
those employed by consulting firms
were usually lower. Salaries of ex­
perienced industrial designers vary
greatly, depending on such factors
as individual ability, and size and
type of firm in which employed.
Those having several years of ex­
perience earned salaries ranging
from $8,000 to $14,000 annually.
Some large manufacturing firms paid
$25,000 or more to experienced and
talented designers.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms,
alone or as members of a partner­
ship, vary widely, and may fluctuate
markedly from year to year. In re­
cent years, earnings of most con­
sultants were between $12,000 and
$25,000 and heads of large wellknown firms earned considerably
Sources of Additional Information

General information about ca­
reers in industrial design and a list
of schools offering courses and de­
grees in industrial design may be
obtained from:
Industrial Designers Society of
America, 60 West 55th St., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of the Work

The creative work of interior de­
signers and decorators enhances the
attractiveness of our homes and
other buildings. Designers and dec­
orators plan the functional arrange­
ment of interior space and coordi­
nate the selection (including colors)
of furniture, draperies and other
fabrics, floor coverings, and interior
accessories. They may work on the
interiors of residential or commer­
cial structures, as well as on ships
and aircraft. Some design stage sets
used for motion pictures and televi­
sion. Interior designers are more in­
volved than decorators in space
planning and other interior design;
they often work for clients on large
design projects such as the interiors
of entire office buildings, hospitals,
and libraries. Generally, their plans
include the complete layout of the
rooms within the space allowed by
the exterior walls and other frame­
work. Sometimes they redesign the
interiors of old structures. When
their plans have been completed,
the architect checks them against
his blueprints to assure compliance
with building requirements and to
solve structural problems. Some in­
terior designers also design the fur­
niture and accessories to be used in
interiors and then arrange for their
Many professionals in this field
have their own establishments, ei­
ther alone or as a member of a firm
with other designers and decorators;
they may sell some or all of the
merchandise with which they work.
Some work independently or as as­
sistants; others have large staffs,



sometimes including salespeople.
Many of the larger department
and furniture stores have separate
departments of interior decorating
or interior design, or both, to advise
customers on decorating and design
plans. The main function of these
departments is to help sell the
store’s own merchandise, although
materials from outside sources may
be used when they are essential to
the plans developed for the custom­
er. Department store decorators
and designers frequently advise the
stores’ buyers and executives about
style and color trends in interior

Interior designer helps client select

Interior designers and decorators
usually work directly with clients to
determine preferences and needs in
furnishings. They may do “boardwork,” particularly on large assign­
ments, which includes work on floor
plans and elevations and the crea­
tion of sketches, or other perspec­
tive drawings in such media as watercolor, pastels, or tempera, so
clients can visualize their plans.

They also provide cost estimates.
After the client approves both the
plans and the cost estimates, ar­
rangements are made for the pur­
chase of the furnishings; for the su­
pervision of the work of painters,
floor finishers, cabinetmakers, carpetlayers, and other craftsmen; and
for the installation and arrangement
of furnishings.

Places of Employment

More than 15,000 people were
engaged full time in interior design
and decoration in 1970. About half
were women. Men, however, pre­
dominate in the interior design field.
Many in design and decorating
work on a part-time basis.
Most workers in this field are lo­
cated in large cities. In recent years,
large department and furniture
stores have become increasingly im­
portant sources of employment for
professional interior designers and
decorators. Some designers and dec­
orators have permanent jobs with
hotel and restaurant chains. Others
are employed by designers of space
like architects or suppliers of furni­
ture and materials for use in the
space, like antique dealers, office
furniture stores, furniture and tex­
tile manufacturers, or other manu­
facturers in the interior furnishings
field. They may also work for peri­
odicals that feature articles on
homefurnishings. Some large in­
dustrial corporations employ inte­
rior designers on a permanent basis.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Formal training in interior "design
and decoration is becoming increas­
ingly important for entrance into
this field of work, although many

present members of the profession
achieved success without this train­
ing. Most department stores, wellestablished design and decorating
firms, and other major employers
will accept only professionally
trained people for beginning jobs.
Usually, the minimum educational
requirement is completion of either
a 2- or 3-year course at a recog­
nized art school or institute special­
izing in interior decorating and de­
sign, or a 4-year college course
leading to a bachelor’s degree with
a major in interior design and deco­
ration. The course of study in inte­
rior design and decoration usually
includes the principles of design,
history of art, freehand and me­
chanical drawing, painting, the
study of the essentials of architec­
ture as they relate to interiors, de­
sign of furniture and exhibitions,
and study of various materials, such
as woods, metals, plastics, and fab­
rics. A knowledge of furnishings, art
pieces, and antiques is important. In
addition, courses in salesmanship,
business procedures and other busi­
ness subjects are of great value.
Membership in either the Ameri­
can Institute of Interior Designers
(AID) or the National Society of
Interior Designers (NSID), both
professional societies, is a recog­
nized mark of achievement in this
profession. Membership usually re­
quires the completion of 3 or 4
years of post-high school education,
the major emphasis having been on
training in design, and several years
of practical experience in the field,
including responsibility for supervi­
sion of all aspects of decorating
New graduates having training in
interior design and decorating usu­
ally serve a training period, either
with decorating firms, in department
stores, or in the firm of an estab­
lished designer. They may act as re­



ceptionists, as shoppers with the
task of matching materials or find­
ing accessories, or as stockroom
assistants, assistant decorators, or
junior designers. In most instances,
from 1 to 3 years of on-the-job
training is required before a trainee
is considered eligible for advance­
ment to the job of decorator. Begin­
ners who do not obtain trainee jobs
often work as salespeople for fabric,
lamp, or other interior furnishings
concerns to gain experience in deal­
ing with customers and to become
familiar with the merchandise. This
experience often makes it easier to
obtain trainee jobs with a decorat­
ing firm or department store; it also
may lead to a career in merchandis­
After considerable experience,
decorators and designers with abil­
ity may advance to decorating or
design department head, interior
furnishings coordinator, or to other
supervisory positions in department
stores or in large decorating or de­
sign firms; if they have the neces­
sary funds, they may open their own
establishments. Talented people
usually advance rapidly.
Artistic talent, imagination, good
business judgment, and the ability
to deal with people are important
assets for success in this field.

decorators is anticipated through
the 1970’s. Population growth,
larger expenditures for home and
office furnishings, the increasing
availability of well-designed furnish­
ings at moderate prices, a growing
recognition among middle-income
families of the value of decorators’
services, and increasing use of de­
sign services for commercial estab­
lishments should contribute to a
greater demand for these workers.
In addition to newly created jobs,
some openings will arise each year
from the need to replace designers
and decorators who die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Department and furniture stores
are expected to employ an increas­
ing number of trained decorators
and designers. These stores also are
expected to share in the growing
volume of design and decorating
work for commercial establishments
and public buildings, formerly han­
dled almost entirely by independent
decorators. This development will
result in increased opportunities in
salaried employment. Interior de­
sign firms also are expected to con­
tinue to expand. However, employ­
ment of interior decorators and de­
signers is sensitive to changes in
general economic conditions be­
cause people often defer this kind of
expenditure when the economy
slows down.

are paid straight salaries; some re­
ceive salaries plus commissions
which usually range from 5 to 10
percent of the value of their sales;
others receive commissions only,
which may be as much as one-third
of the value of their sales.
Many interior decorators having
only average skill in this field earn
$5,000 to $7,500 a year, even after
many years of experience. Talented
decorators who are well known in
their localities may earn up to
$15,000 or more. Designers and
decorators whose abilities are na­
tionally recognized may earn well
beyond $25,000 yearly.
Self-employed decorators have an
especially wide range of earnings;
their profits are related to factors
such as the volume of business,
their prestige as decorators, eco­
nomic level of their clients, their
own business competence, and the
percentage of wholesale prices they
receive from the sale of furnish­
Hours of work for decorators are
sometimes long and irregular. They
usually adjust their workday to suit
the needs of their clients, meeting
with them during the evenings or on
weekends, when necessary. Design­
ers’ schedules follow a more regular
workday pattern.

Employment Outlook
Sources of Additional Information

Talented art school or college
graduates who major in interior de­
sign will find good opportunities for
employment through the 1970’s.
Applicants who can design and plan
the functional arrangement of inte­
rior space will be in strong demand.
Young people without formal train­
ing will find it increasingly difficult
to enter the field.
A slow but steady increase in em­
ployment of interior designers and

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries ranged gener­
ally from $75 to $90 a week in
1970 for art school or college grad­
uates having formal training in inte­
rior design and decoration; some
graduates of 3- or 4-year design
schools received salaries of $100 or
more a week, according to limited
data available.
Some designers and decorators

Information about employment
and scholarship opportunities may
be obtained from:
National Society of Interior De­
signers, Inc., 315 East 62nd Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021.


(D.O.T. 055.088)

The social sciences are concerned
with all aspects of human society
from the origins of man to the latest
election returns. Social scientists,
however, generally specialize in one
major field of human relationships.
Anthropologists study primitive
tribes, reconstruct civilizations of
the past, and analyze the cultures
and languages of all peoples, past
and present. Economists study the
allocation of land, labor, and capi­
tal. Geographers study the distribu­
tion throughout the world of people,
types of land and water masses, and
natural resources. Historians de­
scribe and interpret the people and
events of the past and present. Po­
litical scientists study the theories,
objectives, and organizations of all
types of government. Sociologists
analyze the behavior and relation­
ships of groups—such as the family,
the community, and minorities—to
the individual or to society as a
Besides these basic social sci­
ences, a number of closely related
fields are covered in separate state­
ments elsewhere in this Handbook.
(See statements on Statisticians,
Psychologists, and Social Workers.)
About 80,000 persons were em­
ployed professionally in the basic
social sciences in 1970; about 1 out
of 10 was a woman. Overlapping
among the basic social science fields
and the sometimes hazy distinction
between these and related fields
such as business administration, for­
eign service work, and high school
teaching, make it difficult to deter­
mine the exact size of each profes­
sion. Economists, however, are the
largest social science group, and an­
thropologists the smallest.
Most social scientists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities.

A large number are employed by
the Federal Government and private
industry. The trend in some indus­
tries is to hire increasing numbers of
social science majors as trainees for
administrative and executive posi­
tions. Research councils and other
nonprofit organizations provide an
important source of employment for
economists, political scientists, and
Employment in the social sci­
ences has been increasing and is ex­
pected to grow very rapidly through
the 1970’s, mainly because of the
anticipated rise in college teaching
positions. The reasons for this ex­
pected increase are discussed in the
statement on College and University
Teachers. A rise in employment in
government also is expected. Em­
ployment in government agencies
often is greatly affected by changes
in public policy. For example, more
social scientists will be needed to
handle research and administrative
functions resulting from programs
established by Congress to relieve
unemployment and eliminate pov­
erty. Rising employment of social
scientists in private industry and
nonprofit organizations also is ex­
pected. In addition, several thou­
sand social scientists will be needed
each year to replace those who
leave the field because of retire­
ment, death, or other reasons.
Social scientists having doctor’s
degrees will find favorable employ­
ment opportunities through the
1970’s in both teaching and non­
teaching positions. For those having
less training, the outlook is different
for the various fields and is dis­
cussed in the statements that follow.

Nature of the Work

Anthropologists study man, his
origins, physical characteristics, cul­
ture, traditions, beliefs, customs,
languages, material possessions, and
his structured social relationships
and value systems. Although an­
thropologists may specialize in any
one of these areas, they are ex­
pected to have a general knowledge
in all of them.
Most anthropologists specialize in
cultural anthropology sometimes
called ethnology. Ethnologists may
spend long periods living with tribal
groups or in other communities, to
learn about their ways of life. The
ethnologist takes detailed and com­
prehensive notes describing the so­
cial customs, beliefs, and material
possessions of the people. He usu­
ally learns their language in the proc­
ess. He may make comparative
studies of the cultures and societies
of various groups. In recent years,
his investigations have included com­
plex urban societies.
Archeologists excavate the places
where people lived in the past to re­
construct their history and customs
by studying the remains of homes,
tools, clothing, ornaments, and
other evidences of human life and
activity. For example, archeologists
are digging in the Pacific Coast area
between northern Mexico and Ec­
uador to find evidences of trade and
migration in the pre-Christian Era.
Some archeologists are excavating
ancient Mayan cities in Mexico and
restoring temples. Others are work­
ing in the Missouri River valley to
salvage remnants of Indian villages
and sites of early military forts and
trading posts.
Some anthropologists specialize
in linguistics, the scientific study of



Most anthropologists teach in
colleges and universities and often
combine research with their teach­
ing. Some anthropologists specialize
in museum work, which generally
combines management and adminis­
trative duties with fieldwork and re­
search on anthropological collec­
tions. A few are engaged primarily
in consulting, nontechnical writing,
or other activities.

Places of Employment

Anthropologist examines item obtained
on field trip.

the sounds and structures of lan­
guages and of the historical rela­
tionships among languages. They
study the relationship between the
language and the behavior of peo­
ple, and their work assists in recon­
structing the prehistory of mankind.
Physical anthropologists apply in­
tensive training in human anatomy
and biology to the study of human
evolution, and to the scientific meas­
urement of the physical differences
among the races and groups of man­
kind as influenced by heredity and
environment. Because of their
knowledge of body structure, physi­
cal anthropologists occasionally are
employed as consultants on projects
such as the design of driver seats,
space suits, cockpits for airplanes
and spaceships, and the sizing of
clothing. They may consult on proj­
ects to improve environmental con­
ditions and on criminal cases. They
are increasingly employed in medi­
cal schools.

About 3,100 people were em­
ployed as anthropologists in 1970.
About a fifth of them were women.
Most anthropologists were em­
ployed in colleges and universities.
Several hundred worked in private
industry and nonprofit organiza­
tions. The Federal Government em­
ployed a small number, chiefly in
museums, national parks, in the Bu­
reau of Indian Affairs, and in tech­
nical aid programs. State and local
government agencies also employed
some anthropologists, usually for
museum work or health research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people who are interested
in careers in anthropology should
obtain Ph. D. degrees. College grad­
uates with bachelor’s degrees often
obtain temporary positions and assistantships in the graduate depart­
ments where they are working for
advanced degrees. A master’s de­
gree, plus field experience, is suffi­
cient for many beginning profession­
al positions, but promotion to top
positions is generally reserved for in­
dividuals holding the Ph. D. degree.
In many colleges and most univer­
sities, only anthropologists holding

the Ph. D. degree can obtain perma­
nent teaching appointments.
Some training in both physical
and cultural anthropology is neces­
sary for all anthropologists. Mathe­
matics is helpful since statistical
methods and computers are becom­
ing more widely used for research in
this field. Undergraduate students
may begin their field training in ar­
cheology by arranging, through
their university department, to ac­
company expeditions as laborers or
to attend field schools established
for training. They may advance to
supervisor in charge of the digging
or collection of material and finally
may direct a portion of the work of
the expedition. Ethnologists and lin­
guists usually do their fieldwork
alone, without direct supervision.
Most anthropologists base their doc­
toral dissertations on data collected
through field research; they are,
therefore, experienced fieldworkers
by the time they obtain the Ph. D.
In 1970, departments of anthro­
pology in the U.S. numbered over
200. Most universities having grad­
uate programs also offer undergrad­
uate training in anthropology. The
choice of a graduate school is very
important. Students interested in
museum work should select a school
that can provide experience in an
associated museum having anthro­
pological collections. Similarly,
those interested in archeology
should choose a university that of­
fers opportunities for summer expe­
rience in archeological fieldwork or
should plan to attend an archeologi­
cal field school elsewhere during
their summer vacations.
Young people planning careers in
anthropology should have an above
average interest in natural history or
social studies and enjoy reading, re­
search, and writing. A desire to
travel and the ability to cope with



the disadvantages of remote work
areas are sometimes necessary for

Employment Outlook

The number of anthropologists is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. The largest increase in
employment will be in the college
teaching field. Some additional posi­
tions will be found in museums, ar­
cheological research programs,
mental and public health programs,
and in community survey work. Op­
portunities in other fields are likely
to be limited largely to the replace­
ment of personnel who retire, die or
leave their positions for other rea­
Anthropologists holding the doc­
torate are expected to have good
employment opportunities through
the 1970’s. Graduates with only the
master’s degree are likely to face
persistent competition for profes­
sional positions in anthropology
and may enter related fields of
work. A few who meet certification
requirements may secure high
school teaching positions. Others
may find jobs in public administra­
tion and in nonprofit organizations
and civic groups, which prefer per­
sonnel with social science training
as a general background.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, starting salaries for an­
thropologists having a Ph. D. gener­
ally ranged between $8,000 and
$10,000 a year. Experienced an­
thropologists may earn twice that
amount. Anthropologists employed
by educational institutions received
a median salary of $15,500 for the
calendar year or $14,000 for the ac­
ademic year, according to the Na­

tional Science Foundation’s Na­
tional Register of Scientific and
Technical Personnel.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary was $9,881 for an­
thropologists having an M.A. and
$11,905 for those having a Ph. D.
Experienced anthropologists earned
from $14,000 to more than $20,000
a year.
Many anthropologists employed
in colleges and universities supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from other sources such as
summer teaching and research
Anthropologists doing archeologi­
cal fieldwork sometimes are required
to work in adverse weather condi­
tions and perform manual labor.
They also must adapt themselves to
cultural environments which are
materially and socially different.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information concern­
ing employment opportunities and
schools offering graduate training in
anthropology may be obtained
The American Anthropological As­
sociation, 1703 New Hampshire
Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C.

Specific inquiries about anthro­
pology as a career may be ad­
dressed to:
Smithsonian Institution,
ton, D.C. 20560.


(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work

Economists study the problems
that arise in the utilization of lim­
ited resources of land, raw mate­
rials, and manpower to provide
goods and services. In this connec­
tion, they may analyze the relation
between the supply of and demand
for goods and services, and the
ways in which goods are produced,
distributed, and consumed. Some
economists are concerned with
practical problems such as the con­
trol of inflation, the prevention of
depression, and the development of
farm, wage, tax, and tariff policies.
Others develop theories to explain
the causes of employment and un­
employment or the ways in which
international trade influences world
economic conditions. Still others
collect and interpret data on a wide
variety of economic problems.
Economists employed in colleges
and universities teach the principles
and methods of economics and con­
duct or direct research. They fre­
quently engage in writing and con­
sulting and formulate many of the
new ideas that directly or indirectly
influence government and industry
Economists in government plan
and carry out studies for use in as­
sessing economic conditions and the
need for changes in government
policy. Their work may include the
collection of basic data, analysis, and
the preparation of reports. Most
government economists are in the
fields of agriculture, business,
finance, labor, or international trade
and development.
Economists employed by business
firms provide management with in-



formation for decision making on
matters such as markets for and
prices of company products, the ef­
fect of government policies on busi­
ness or international trade, the ad­
visability of adding new lines of
merchandise, opening new branch
operations, or otherwise expanding
the company’s business.

cities and in university towns. The
largest numbers are in the New
York and Washington, D.C. metro­
politan areas. Some are employed
overseas, mainly by the U.S. De­
partment of State and the Agency
for International Development.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Places of Employment

Economics is the largest of the
basic social science fields. About
33,000 economists were employed
in 1970. Industry and business em­
ployed more than one-half; colleges
and universities, more than onefourth; and government agencies—
chiefly Federal—roughly one-sixth.
A few were self-employed, or
worked for private research organi­
Economists are found in all large

Economists must have a thorough
grounding in economic theory and
methods of economic analysis. An
increasing number of universities
also emphasize the value of mathe­
matical methods of economic analy­
sis. Since many beginning jobs for
economists in government and busi­
ness involve the collection and com­
pilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge of basic statistical procedures
usually is required.
A bachelor’s degree with a major

in economics is sufficient for many
beginning research jobs in govern­
ment and private industry, although
persons employed in such entry jobs
are not always regarded as profes­
sional economists. In the Federal
Government, candidates for en­
trance positions must have a mini­
mum of 21 semester hours of eco­
nomics and 3 hours of statistics, ac­
counting, or calculus.
Graduate training is very impor­
tant for young people planning to
become economists. Students inter­
ested in research should select
schools that emphasize training in
research methods and statistics and
provide good research facilities.
Those who wish to work in agricul­
tural economics will find good op­
portunities to gain experience in
part-time research work at State
universities having agricultural ex­
periment stations.
The master’s degree generally is
required for appointment as a col­
lege instructor, although in large
schools graduate
sometimes are awarded to superior
students working toward their mas­
ter’s degree. In many large colleges
and universities, completion of all
the requirements for the Ph. D. de­
gree, except the dissertation, is nec­
essary for appointment as instruc­
tor. In government or private indus­
try, economists holding the master’s
degree usually can qualify for more
responsible research positions than
are open to those having only the
bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for
a professorship in a high-ranking
college or university and is an asset
in competing for other responsible
positions in government, business,
or private research organizations.
Persons considering a career as
an economist should be accurate,
like details, and prepared to spend
much time doing research. Fre­


quently, the ability to work as part
of a team is required. Economists
must be objective in their work and
have oral and writing skills.

Employment Outlook

Employment of economists is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. Colleges and universities
will need hundreds of new instruc­
tors annually to handle an antici­
pated rapid increase in enrollments
and to replace economists who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Employment of economists
by industry is expected to increase
rapidly as businessmen become
more accustomed to rely on scien­
tific methods of analyzing business
trends, forecasting sales, and plan­
ning purchasing and production op­
erations. Employment of economists
at the Federal, State, and local levels
also will increase rapidly to meet
the need for more extensive data
collection and analysis, and to pro­
vide the staff for programs aimed at
reducing unemployment and pov­
Economists having the doctorate
are expected to have very good op­
portunities for employment. Em­
ployment opportunities for econo­
mists having a master’s degree will
be favorable, especially for those
with good training in statistics and
mathematics. Young people having
bachelors’ degrees in economics
may find employment in govern­
ment and as management trainees in
industry and business.


According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the median salary of econo­


mists employed by colleges and
universities in 1970 was $18,000.
The median salary for those in busi­
ness, industry, and nonprofit or­
ganizations was $20,000. Econo­
mists having Ph. D.’s were paid high­
er salaries than those who have lesser
degrees and similar experience. A
substantial number of economists
supplement their basic salaries by
consulting, teaching, and other ac­
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary in 1970 for begin­
ning economists having a bachelor’s
degree was $6,548; however, those
with superior academic records
could begin at $8,098. Those hav­
ing 2 full years of graduate training
or experience could qualify for posi­
tions at an annual salary of $9,881.
Most experienced economists in the
Federal Government earned from
$14,000 to $23,000 a year; some
having greater administrative re­
sponsibilities earned considerably
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on a ca­
reer as an economist is available
American Economic Association,
1313 21st Avenue South, Nashville,
Tenn. 37212.

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in econom­
ics and related fields is given in the
following publications :
The Foreign Service in the Seven­
ties, U.S. Department of State, Pub­
lication 8535, Washington, D.C.
20520. Free.
(Economist), Professional Talent
Search, Office of Personnel and
Manpower, Agency for Interna­
tional Development, Washington,
D.C. 20523. Free.

(D.O.T. 029.088 and 059.088)

Nature of the Work

Geographers study the spatial
characteristics of the earth’s terrain,
minerals, soils, water, vegetation,
and climate. They relate these char­
acteristics to changing patterns of
human settlement—where people
live, why they are located there, and
how they earn a living.
The majority of geographers are
engaged in college and university
teaching; some may combine teach­
ing and research. This research may
include the study and analysis of the
distribution of land forms, climate,
soils, vegetation, and mineral and
water resources, sometimes utilizing
surveying and meteorological instru­
ments. They also analyze the distri­
bution and structure of political or­
ganizations, transportation systems,
marketing systems, and urban sys­
tems. Many geographers spend con­
siderable time in field study, and in
analyzing maps, aerial photographs,
and observational data collected in
the field. Photographs and other
data from remote sensors on satel­
lites are used increasingly. Other ge­
ographers construct maps, graphs,
and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in
one main branch or more of geog­
raphy. Those working in economic
geography deal with the geographic
distribution of economic activities
—including manufacturing, mining,
farming, trade, and communica­
tions. Political geography is the study
of the way political processes affect
geographic boundaries on subna­
tional, national, and international
scales, and the relationship of
geographic conditions to political
processes. Urban geography, a



phers. Among the major agencies
employing these workers are the
United States Army Topographic
Command and other defense re­
lated agencies; the Department of
the Interior; and the Department of
Commerce. State and local govern­
ments also employ a small number
of geographers, mostly on city and
State planning and development
Most of the relatively small but
growing number of geographers em­
ployed by private industry work for
marketing research organizations,
map companies, textbook publish­
ers, travel agencies, manufacturing
firms, or chain stores. A few geogra­
phers work for scientific founda­
tions, or chain stores. A few geogrations and research institutes. A
small number are employed as map

growing field for geographers, is
concerned with the study of cities
and community planning. (See
statement on Urban Planners.) Spe­
cialists in physical geography study
the earth’s physical characteristics
and those of the moon as well. Re­
gional geography pertains to all the
physical, economic, political, and
cultural characteristics of a particu­
lar region or area, which may range
in size from a river basin or an is­
land, to a State, a country, or even a
continent. Geographers in the field
of cartography design and construct
maps, as well as compile data for
Many geographers have job titles
which describe their specialization,
such as cartographer, map cataloger,
or regional analyst, rather than
the title geographer. Others have ti­
tles relating to the subject matter of
their study such as photo-intelli­
gence specialist or climatological an­

alyst. Still others have titles such as
community planner, market or busi­
ness analyst, or intelligence special­
ist. Most of those who teach in col­
leges and universities are called

Places of Employment

An estimated 7,100 geographers
were employed in the United States
in 1970; about 15 percent were
More than two-thirds of all geog­
raphers are employed by colleges
and universities. Those teaching in
institutions which do not have sepa­
rate departments of geography usu­
ally are associated with departments
of geology, economics, or other
physical or social sciences.
The Federal Government em­
ploys a large number of geogra­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning positions in
geography usually is a bachelor’s
degree with a major in the field. For
most positions in research and
teaching, and for advancement in
many other types of work, graduate
training is required.
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in geography was offered by
400 colleges and universities in
1970. Undergraduate study usually
provides a general introduction to
geographic knowledge and research
methods and often includes some
field studies. Typical courses offered
are physical and cultural geography,
weather and climate, economic ge­
ography, political geography, urban
geography, location analysis, quan­
titative methods, and regional
courses, such as the geography of
North America, Western Europe,


the U.S.S.R., and Asia. Courses in
cartography and in the interpreta­
tion of maps and aerial photographs
are offered also.
In 1970, 165 institutions offered
training leading to the master’s de­
gree, and 55 offered the Ph. D. For
admittance to a graduate program
in geography, a bachelor’s degree
with a major in geography is the
usual requirement. However, most
universities admit students with
bachelor’s degrees in any of the so­
cial or physical sciences, some if
they have background in geography.
Requirements for advanced degrees
include field and laboratory work,
as well as classroom studies and
thesis preparation.
New graduates having only the
bachelor’s degree in geography usu­
ally find positions connected with
making, interpreting, or analyzing
maps; or in research, either working
for the government or industry.
Others enter beginning positions in
the planning field. Some obtain em­
ployment as research or teaching
assistants in educational institutions
while studying for advanced de­
grees. Some earn library science de­
grees and become map librarians.
New graduates having the master’s
degree can qualify for some teach­
ing and research positions in col­
leges and for many research posi­
tions in government and industry.
The Ph. D. degree usually is re­
quired for high-level posts in college
teaching and research and may be
necessary for advancement to toplevel positions in other activities.
Young persons considering a ca­
reer as a geographer should be pre­
pared for a life of reading, studying,
and research. New research meth­
ods used by the geographer require
some mathematical abilities and
knowledge of computer capabilities.
As with all the sciences, geogra­
phers must be willing to work with


ideas and theories and should be
originative. They must be able to ex­
press themselves clearly.The ability
to work independently is important.

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for ge­
ographers is expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. The de­
mand will be especially strong for
geographers having the Ph. D. to fill
research and teaching positions in
colleges and universities and re­
search jobs in industry and govern­
ment. Those having the master’s de­
gree are likely to find some compe­
tition. Geographers with advanced
training in fields such as economics
or business administration also will
be in strong demand.
Colleges and universities are ex­
pected to offer the greatest number
of employment opportunities as col­
lege enrollments increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. Rising
interest in foreign countries and
growing awareness of the value of
geography training in several other
fields of work, such as the foreign
service, should also result in in­
creased enrollments in geography
and in a need for additional teach­
ers at the college level. A growing
demand for geography teachers in
secondary schools also is antici­
Employment of geographers in
government is also likely to in­
crease. The Federal Government
may need additional personnel in
positions related to regional devel­
opment; urban planning; resource
management; planning, construc­
tion, and interpretation of maps;
and in intelligence work. State and
local government employment of
geographers also will expand, par­
ticularly in areas such as conserva­
tion, highway planning, and city,

community, and regional planning
and development.
The number of geographers em­
ployed in private industry also is
expected to rise. Market research and
location analysis should continue to
grow rapidly. Opportunities also
should increase in private area plan­
ning and development work.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
1970, geographers having the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience
started at $6,548 or $8,098 a year,
depending on their college record.
Geographers having 1 or 2 years of
graduate teaching could start at
$8,098 or $9,881; and those having
the Ph. D. degree, at $11,905.
In colleges and universities, sala­
ries of geographers depend on their
teaching rank. Assistant professors
entering the field with a Ph. D. re­
ceived at least $11,500 in 1970. Ex­
perienced professors frequently
earned $20,000. (For further infor­
mation, see statement on College
and University Teachers.) Geogra­
phers in educational institutions
usually have an opportunity to earn
income from other sources, such as
consulting work, special research
projects, and publication of books
and articles.
Working conditions of most geog­
raphers are similar to those of other
teachers and office workers. Geo­
graphic research frequently requires
extensive travel in foreign countries,
as well as in the United States.

Sources of Additional Information
Association of American Geogra­
phers, 1710 16th St. NW , Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.



(D.O.T. 052.088)

Nature of the Work

History is the record of the past
—past events, institutions, ideas,
people. Historians use these records
to describe and analyze this past—
through writing and teaching, for in­
stance. They also may relate this
knowledge of the past to current
events, in an effort to explain the
Historians may specialize in the
history either of a specific country
or area, or in a particular period of
time—ancient, medieval, or mod­
ern. They may specialize also in the
history of a field, such as econom­

ics, culture, military affairs, the
labor movement, art, or architec­
ture. The number of specialties in
history is constantly growing. Newer
fields include the history of business
and of the relationship between
technological and other aspects of
historical development. In this
country, most historians still spe­
cialize in the political history of ei­
ther the United States or modem
Europe; however, a growing num­
ber are now specializing in African,
Latin American, Asian, or Near
Eastern history. Some historians
also specialize in phases of a larger
historical field, such as Civil War
history or Ancient Greek civiliza­
Most historians are employed as
college teachers who may also
write, lecture, or take part in re­

Economic historian uses trend data in analysis.

search. Some, called archivists,
work with documentary materials of
historical value, and specialize in
identifying and preserving them and
making them available. Other his­
torians specialize in writing or edit­
ing historical materials, preparing ex­
hibits, or speaking for museums,
special libraries, and historical soci­
eties. A few serve as consultants to
editors, publishers, and producers
of materials for radio, television,
and motion pictures. Historians are
employed by governments mainly in
connection with research projects,
as researchers or administrators;
they also may prepare studies, arti­
cles, and books on research find­

Places of Employment

About 15,500 persons were em­
ployed as historians in 1970. Ap­
proximately 85 percent of all his­
torians were employed in colleges
and universities. About 4 percent
were employed in Federal Govern­
ment agencies, principally the Na­
tional Archives and the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, and
State. Small but growing numbers
were employed by other govern­
ment organizations (State, local,
and international), by nonprofit
foundations, research councils, spe­
cial libraries, State historical soci­
eties, museums, and large corpora­
Since history is taught in all U.S.
institutions of higher education, his­
torians are found in all college com­
munities. Many of the historians in
the Federal Government are em­
ployed in Washington, D.C. Histori­
ans in other types of employment
usually work in localities which
have museums or libraries with col­
lections adequate for historical re­



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Graduate education usually is
necessary for employment as an his­
torian. A master’s degree in history
is the minimum requirement for the
position of college instructor. In
many colleges and universities,
however, a Ph.D. degree is essential
for high-level teaching, research,
and administrative positions. Most
historians in the Federal Govern­
ment and in nonprofit organizations
have Ph.D. degrees, or their equiva­
lent in training and experience.
Although for some beginning jobs
in government—either Federal,
State, or local—a bachelor’s degree
with a major in history is sufficient
training; persons in such jobs may
not be regarded as professional his­
torians. A knowledge of archival
work is helpful, since these begin­
ning jobs are likely to be concerned
with collection and preservation of
historical data. For jobs in interna­
tional relations and journalism, an
undergraduate major in history is
considered helpful.

Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
At the college level, hundreds of
new history teachers probably will
be needed annually, because of ex­
panding enrollments, as well as to
replace those faculty members who
retire, die, or leave for other types
of work. In archival work, the num­
ber of positions for historians also is
expected to rise, although more
With the doctorate, historians are
expected to have relatively favor­
able employment opportunities
through the 1970’s, although they

may face increasing competition for
jobs in college teaching. Historians
having only the master’s degree
probably will encounter considera­
ble competition. Others will find it
difficult to obtain professional posi­
tions as historians. On the other
hand, history majors who meet
State school certification require­
ments may find openings in high
school teaching. Some history ma­
jors also qualify as administrative
and management trainees in govern­
ment agencies, foundations, civic
organizations, and private industry.


The average (median) salary of
historians employed by colleges and
universities was $12,200 in 1970
according to the limited data avail­
able. In the Federal Government,
the starting salary for persons having
a bachelor’s degree was $6,548 in
1970. Those having a superior aca­
demic record or a year of graduate
training were eligible for positions
at an annual salary of $8,098. The
median annual salary for historians
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment in 1970 was about $14,000.
Some historians, particularly
those in college teaching, supple­
ment their income by summer
teaching or writing books or arti­
cles. A few earn additional income
from lectures.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities for histori­
ans may be obtained from:
American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 051.088)

Nature of the Work

Political science is the study of
government—what it is, what it
does, and how and why. Political
scientists are interested in govern­
ment at every level—local, county,
State, regional, national, and inter­
national. Many of them specialize in
one general area of political science,
such as political theory, U.S. politi­
cal institutions and processes, com­
parative political institutions and
processes, or international relations
and organizations. Some specialize
in a particular type of political insti­
tution or in the politics of a specific
Political scientists are employed
most frequently as college and uni­
versity teachers. They may combine
research, consultation, or adminis­
trative duties with teaching. Some
teach at universities in other coun­
tries, where they prepare students
for careers in public administration
and assist in the development of
training programs for government
personnel. Many political scientists
are engaged mainly in research.
They may survey public opinion on
political questions for private re­
search organizations. They may
study proposed legislation for State
or municipal legislative reference
bureaus or for congressional com­
mittees. Other political scientists
may analyze the operations of gov­
ernment agencies or specialize in
foreign affairs research, either for
government or nongovernment or­
ganizations. Others engage in ad­
ministrative or managerial duties.
Some work as legislative aids to
congressmen and as staff members
of congressional committees.



Places of Employment

About 11,000 political scientists
were employed in 1970, largely in
colleges and universities or in gov­
ernment agencies. Most of the re­
mainder worked in research bu­
reaus, civic and taxpayers’ associa­
tions, and large business firms.
Political scientists are employed
in nearly every college in the United
States, since courses in political sci­
ence or government are taught
widely. Most other political scien­
tists are located in Washington,
D.C., in other large cities, or in
State capitals. Some, however, are
employed in overseas jobs, mainly
by the U.S. Department of State,
particularly for positions with the
Foreign Service, the U.S. Agency
for International Development, and
the U.S. Information Agency.

Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training generally is re­
quired for employment as a political
scientist. College graduates having a
master’s degree can qualify for vari­
ous administrative and research po­
sitions in government and in non­
profit research or civic organiza­
tions. Nearly 100 colleges and
universities offer graduate degrees in
political science; over 50, in public
administration. Many provide field
training and offer internships for ex­
perience in government work. Many
universities award graduate degrees
in international relations, foreign
service, and area studies, as well as
political science in general. A mas­
ter’s degree in any of these fields is
very helpful in obtaining a position
in a Federal Government agency
concerned with foreign affairs.
Completion of all requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the
doctoral dissertation, is the usual

prerequisite for appointment as a
college instructor. The Ph. D. de­
gree itself usually is required for ad­
vancement to the position of profes­
Some young persons having only
a bachelor’s degree in political sci­
ence may qualify as trainees in
public relations or research work, or
in jobs such as budget analyst, per­
sonnel assistant, or investigators in
government or industry. Many stu­
dents having the bachelor’s degree
in political science go on to study
law; others obtain graduate training
in public administration, interna­
tional relations, or some other spe­
cialized branch of political science.
Young persons planning careers
as political scientists should be pre­
pared for a life of reading, study,
and research. An increasing reliance
upon mathematical and statistical
methods in some specialties within
the field make some knowledge of
these disciplines useful. As with all
social sciences, political scientists
must be willing to work with ideas
and theories, and able to originate
and to express themselves clearly in
writing and speaking. The ability to
work independently also is impor­

Employment Outlook

Employment of political scientists
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. The greatest in­
crease in employment will take
place in colleges and universities. In
government agencies also, the num­
ber of political scientists in adminis­
trative jobs will probably rise be­
cause of a growing recognition of
the value of specialized training in
developing and planning new pro­
grams and analyzing policy alterna­
tives. Government agencies con­
cerned with foreign affairs will con­

tinue to employ many political
scientists. In private industry, on the
other hand, a slow growth is antici­
pated in employment of political
scientists. In addition to those re­
quired to staff new positions, many
political scientists will be needed to
fill positions vacated because of re­
tirements, deaths, or transfers.
Employment opportunities will
be more limited for those having
less than the Ph. D. degree, but
openings will be available to them
in Federal, State, and municipal
government agencies; research bu­
reaus; political organizations; and
civic and welfare agencies. For new
graduates having only the bachelor’s
degree, opportunities for employ­
ment in the political science field
probably will continue to be very
limited. However, those planning to
continue their studies in law, foreign
affairs, journalism, and other re­
lated fields will find their political
science background very helpful.
Some who meet State certification
requirements will be able to enter
high school teaching.


In educational institutions the av­
erage beginning salary of political
scientists having the master’s degree
was $6,000 to $8,500 in 1970, ac­
cording to a recent survey. The Na­
tional Science Foundation reports
that the median salary for all those
in educational institutions was
$12,000 for the academic year and
$15,300 for the calendar year.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for political scientists
having a bachelor’s degree was
about $6,500 a year in 1970. Those
having a superior academic record
or a year of graduate training were
eligible for positions at an annual
salary of about $8,100. Most of the



experienced political scientists in
the Federal Government earned
considerably more.
Some political scientists, particu­
larly those in college teaching, sup­
plement their income by doing sum­
mer teaching or consulting work.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in political
science and public administration
may be obtained from the following
American Political Science Associa­
tion, 1527 New Hampshire Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 054.088)

Nature of the Work

Sociologists study the groups
which man forms in his association
with others—families, tribes, com­
munities, and States, and a great va­
riety of social, religious, political,
business, and other organizations.
They study the behavior and inter­
action of these groups, trace their
origin and growth, and analyze the
influence of group activities on indi­
vidual members.
Some sociologists are concerned
primarily with the characteristics of
the social groups and institutions
themselves; others are more inter­
ested in the ways individuals are af­
fected by groups to which they be­
Many work in specialties such as
social organization, social psychol­
ogy, or rural sociology; others spe­

cialize in intergroup relations, fam­
ily problems, social effects of urban
living, population studies, or analy­
ses of public opinion. Some conduct
surveys or concentrate on research
methods. Growing numbers apply
sociological knowledge and methods
in penology and correction, educa­
tion, public relations in industry,
and regional and community plan­
ning. A few specialize in medical
sociology—the study of social fac­
tors that affect mental and public
Most sociologists are college
teachers, but, as a rule, these teach­
ers also conduct research. Sociologi­
cal research often involves the col­
lection of data, preparation of case
studies, testing, and the conduct of
statistical surveys and laboratory
In their research work, sociolo­
gists may study individuals, families,
or communities in an attempt to dis­
cover the causes of social problems
—such as crime, juvenile delin­
quency, or poverty; the normal pat­
tern of family relations; or the dif­
ferent patterns of living in commu­
nities of varying types and sizes.
They may collect and analyze data
from official government sources to
illustrate population trends, includ­
ing changes in age, sex, race, and
other population characteristics; and
also the extent of population move­
ment among rural, suburban, and ur­
ban areas and among different geo­
graphic areas.
Sociologists may conduct surveys
which add to basic sociological
knowledge or which may be used in
public opinion, marketing, and ad­
vertising research. Some specialize
in the use of mass communication
facilities, including radio, television,
newspapers, magazines, and circu­
Sociologists sometimes supervise
research projects or the operation of

social agencies, including family and
marriage clinics. Others are consult­
ants and advise on such diverse
problems as the management of
hospitals for the mentally ill, the re­
habilitation of juvenile delinquents,
or the development of effective ad­
vertising programs to promote public
interest in particular products.

Places of Employment

Approximately 12,000 persons
were employed as sociologists in
1970. Numerous others were em­
ployed in positions requiring some
training in this field, including many
in social, recreation, and public
health work.
About three-fourths of all sociol­
ogists are employed in colleges and
universities. The remainder work in
Federal, State, local, or interna­
tional government agencies, in pri­
vate industry, in welfare or other
nonprofit organizations, or are selfemployed.
Since sociology is taught in most
institutions of higher learning, soci­
ologists may be found in nearly all
college communities. They are most
heavily concentrated, however, in
large colleges and universities which
offer graduate training in sociology
and opportunities for research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A master’s degree with a major
in sociology usually is the minimum
requirement for employment as a
sociologist. The Ph. D. degree is es­
sential for attaining a professorship
in most colleges or universities, and
is commonly required for directors
of major research projects, impor­
tant administrative positions, or


Sociologists with master’s degrees
may qualify for many administrative
and research positions, provided
they are trained in research meth­
ods and statistics. They may be re­
sponsible for specific portions of a
survey or for the preparation of
analyses and reports under general
supervision. As they gain experi­
ence, they may advance to supervi­
sory positions in both public and
private agencies. Sociologists with
the master’s degree may qualify for
some college instructorships. Most
colleges, however, appoint as in­
structors only people with training
beyond the master’s level—fre­
quently the completion of all re­
quirements for the Ph. D. degree
except the doctoral dissertation.
Outstanding graduate students often
can get teaching or research assistantships which will provide both fi­
nancial aid and valuable experience.
Young people with only a bache­
lor’s degree in sociology are not
usually recognized by the profes­
sion as sociologists, although they
may secure jobs as interviewers or
as research assistants working under
close supervision. Many are em­
ployed as caseworkers, counselors,
recreation workers, or administra­
tive assistants in public and private
welfare agencies. Sociology majors
with sufficient training in statistics
may obtain positions as beginning
statisticians. Those who meet State
certification requirements may teach
high school.
The choice of a graduate school
is very important for people plan­
ning to become sociologists. Stu­
dents interested in research should
select schools which emphasize
training in research methods and
statistics, and provide opportunities
to gain practical experience in re­
search work. Professors and chair­


men of sociology departments fre­
quently aid in the placement of
Sociologists may spend much
time studying and doing research
and must possess the necessary oral
and writing skills to communicate
the results of their research. Sociol­
ogists should have mathematical
skills and the ability to work inde­

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
sociologists having the Ph. D. are
expected to be good during the
1970’s. Those having only the mas­
ter’s degree will probably continue
to face considerable competition.
Sociologists well trained in re­
search methods and advanced statis­
tics will have the widest choice of
jobs. Employment opportunities are
expected to be very good for re­
search workers in rural sociology,
community development, popula­
tion analysis, public opinion re­
search, and various branches of
medical sociology. Employment op­
portunities also will increase in
other applied fields, such as the
study of juvenile delinquency and
education. Some openings are antic­
ipated in a relatively new area, the
sociology of law.
Growth in employment of sociol­
ogists is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. Because of ex­
panding enrollments, most new po­
sitions will be in college teaching.
Some of these openings will result
from the growing trend to include
sociology courses in the curricula of
other professions, such as medicine,
law, and education. A substantial
rise in the number of sociologists in
nonteaching fields is anticipated to

cope with social and welfare prob­
lems and to implement educational
and social legislation to develop
human resources. In addition, sev­
eral hundred openings will occur
each year to replace sociologists
who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.


In 1970, the median academic
year salary of sociologists in educa­
tional institutions was $12,200, ac­
cording to the National Science
Foundation. Sociologists working in
nonprofit organizations and indus­
try had average annual salaries of
$14,700 and $16,200, respectively.
In the Federal Government, the
beginning salary in 1970 for sociol­
ogists having a master’s degree and
a superior academic record was
$9,881. Salaries of experienced so­
ciologists in the Federal Govern­
ment generally ranged between
$11,905 and $19,643 a year.
In general, sociologists with the
Ph. D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those with the
master’s degree. Many sociologists
supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources,
such as summer teaching and con­
sulting work. Sociologists employed
by colleges and universities are the
most likely to have additional earn­

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on sociol­
ogists may be obtained from:
The American Sociological Associa­
tion, 1001 Connecticut Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.


Teaching is the largest of the pro­
fessions. About 2.6 million men and
women were full-time teachers in
the Nation’s elementary schools,
secondary schools, and colleges and
universities in the 1970-71 school
year. In addition, thousands taught
part time; among them were many
scientists, physicians, accountants,
members of other professions and
graduate students. Similarly, large
numbers of craftsmen instructed
part time in vocational schools.
Many other people taught in adult
education and recreation programs.
No other profession offers
women so many employment op­
portunities. About 1.7 million or al­
most 2 Vi times as many women are
teachers as registered nurses, the
second largest profession for
women. Women teachers far out­
number men in kindergarten and
elementary schools and hold more
than half the teaching positions in
secondary (junior and senior high)
schools. However, only about onefourth of all college and university
teachers are women.

The number of teachers needed
by the Nation’s schools depends
chiefly on the number of students
enrolled. At the beginning of the
1970-71 school year, 59.2 million
people—almost 30 percent of the
country’s total population—were
enrolled in the Nation’s schools and
colleges. Through the 1970’s, con­
tinued growth of the school and col­
lege population and continued in­
creases in high school and college
attendance rates are expected to
produce a slight increase in school
enrollments and a very rapid rate of
increase in college enrollments.
Total enrollments in all schools and
colleges combined, according to
U.S. Office of Education estimates,
may exceed 62 million by 1980.
To staff the new classrooms that
must be provided for the rising
numbers of students, and to con­
tinue to improve the student-teacher
ratio, the Nation’s full-time teaching
staff in 1980 will need to be about 7
percent or almost 180,000 more
than in 1970. An even larger num­
ber of teachers—perhaps as many

Growth in teacher requirements is closely related
to student enrollment patterns
Percent change 1970-80
-1 0


Secondary school
Elementary school
Secondary school
Elementary school



as 1.8 million—will be required to
replace those who leave the profes­
The outlook for teachers at each
educational level—in elementary
and secondary schools and also in
colleges and universities—is dis­
cussed in the following statements.

(D.O.T. 092.228)

Nature of the Work

Elementary school teaching is the
largest field of professional employ­
ment for women and is a growing
field for men. In the 1970-71 school
year, over 1.2 million kindergarten
and elementary teachers were em­
ployed. In addition, an estimated
60,000 principals and supervisors
were working in public and private
elementary schools.
Kindergarten teachers conduct a
program of education for young
children. Most frequently, they
teach one group in the morning and
another group in the afternoon.
Some, however, work with one
group all day. They provide the
children with experiences in play,
music, artwork, stories, and poetry;
and introduce them to science,
numbers, language, and social stud­
ies. In a variety of ways, kindergar­
ten teachers help to develop chil­
dren’s curiosity and zeal for learn­
ing, as well as to stimulate their
ability to think. After school hours,
kindergarten teachers may plan the
next day’s work, prepare the chil­
dren’s school records, confer with
parents or professional personnel
concerning individual children, par211


ticipate in teachers’ in-service activ­
ities, and locate and become famil­
iar with teaching resources.


tion, including teaching machines
and “talking typewriters,” and the
increasing use of teacher aids are
freeing growing numbers of elemen­
tary and kindergarten teachers from
routine duties and allowing them to
give more individual attention to
their students.

Places of Employment

Elementary school teachers are
employed in all cities, towns, vil­
lages, and in rural areas. As a result
of reorganization of school districts,
many teachers are employed in con­
solidated schools in small towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Elementary school teachers usu­
ally work with one group of pupils
during the entire schoolday. They
teach several subjects and supervise
various activities such as lunch and
play periods. In some school sys­
tems, however, teachers in the
upper elementary grades may teach
one or two subjects to several
groups of children. Many school
systems also employ special teach­
ers to give instruction and to assist
classroom teachers in certain sub­
jects such as art, music, physical ed­
ucation, industrial arts, foreign lan­
guages, and homemaking. Teachers
in schools which have only a few
students, largely in rural areas, may
be required to teach all subjects in
several grades. Programed instruc­

All States require that teachers in
the public schools have a certificate.
Several States require certification
for teachers in parochial and other
private elementary schools.
In 1970, 47 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia issued regular
teaching certificates only to persons

having at least 4 years of approved
college preparation. Teacher certifi­
cation in most States also requires
professional education courses.
Twelve States require that teachers
work toward a fifth year or master’s
degree within a certain number of
years. Some school systems have
higher educational requirements
than those for State certification.
In nearly all States, certificates
are issued by State departments of
education on the basis of transcripts
of credits and recommendations
from approved colleges and univer­
sities. Certificates may be issued to
teachers from other States if the
prescribed programs have been
completed at accredited colleges or
if the teachers meet the academic
and other requirements of the State
to which they are applying. Under
certain conditions, usually related to
a shortage of qualified teachers,
most States will issue emergency or
temporary certificates to partially
prepared teachers. However, these
certificates must be renewed an­
All States have certain additional
requirements for public school



teaching. For example, they may re­
quire a health certificate, evidence
of citizenship, or an oath of alle­
giance. The prospective teacher
should inquire about the specific re­
quirements of the area in which he
plans to work by writing to the State
department of education or to the
superintendent of the local school
Most institutions of higher educa­
tion offer teacher preparation. In a
4-year teacher-preparation curricu­
lum, prospective elementary school
teachers spend about one-fourth of
the time in professional courses—
learning about children, the place of
the school in the community, and
materials and methods of instruc­
tion—including student teaching in
an actual school; the remainder of
their time is devoted to liberal arts
subjects. Some study of human be­
havior and learning usually is in­
After gaining experience, teach­
ers will find opportunities for ad­
vancement through annual salary
increases in the same school system;
by transferring to a system with a
higher salary schedule which recog­
nizes experience gained in another
school system; by appointment to a
supervisory, administrative, or spe­
cialized position in the school sys­
tem; or by transferring to higher
levels of teaching for which their
training and experience may qualify
Among the most important per­
sonal qualifications for elementary
school teaching are an enjoyment
and understanding of children.
Teachers must be patient and selfdisciplined, and have high standards
of personal conduct. A broad
knowledge and appreciation of the
arts, sciences, history, and literature
also are valuable. Customs and atti­
tudes of the community may influ­
ence and sometimes restrict the

civic, Social, and recreational activi­
ties of teachers.
Employment Outlook

Enrollments in kindergartens and
elementary schools in 1980 are ex­
pected to be below the 1970 levels.
As a result, the number of teaching
positions is expected to decline
slightly despite an anticipated re­
duction in the pupil-teacher ratio.
Nevertheless, large numbers of
teachers will be needed to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons. Also,
more than 50,000 teachers will be
needed to replace persons not meet­
ing certification requirements. In­
creasing emphasis on the education
of very young children, children in
low-income areas, the mentally re­
tarded, and other groups needing
special attention may result in larger
enrollments and smaller studentteacher ratios than trends would in­
dicate, with an accompanying in­
crease in the number of teachers
The number of persons qualified
to teach in elementary schools will
exceed the number of openings if
patterns of entry and reentry to the
profession continue in line with past
trends. New graduates, therefore,
may face keen competition for jobs
during the 1970’s. Young people
seeking their first teaching assign­
ment will find schools placing great
emphasis on their academic work
and the quality of their training.
Nevertheless, employment opportu­
nities may be very favorable in
urban ghettos, rural districts, and in
all geographic areas where teaching
salaries are low and better paying
opportunities are available in other
fields in the community. The out­
look for teachers who are trained to
work with children having various
handicaps also will be favorable.

Many students, however, who are
considering elementary teaching as
a career will have to change their
occupational choice and pursue
other careers.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary for classroom
teachers in public elementary
schools, according to National Edu­
cation Association (NEA) esti­
mates, was $9,025 in 1970-71. In
the five highest paying States
(Alaska, New York, California,
Michigan, and Hawaii), teachers’
salaries averaged $10,000 or more;
in the six States having the lowest
salaries (Mississippi, South Dakota,
Arkansas, North Dakota, South
Carolina, and Idaho), they were
less than $7,000. An increasing
number of States (31 in the 197071 academic year) have established
minimum salary levels.
Although the average time spent
in the classroom (less than 6 hours)
usually is less than the average
workday in most other occupations,
the elementary school teacher must
spend additional time each day giv­
ing individual help, planning work,
preparing instructional materials,
developing tests, checking papers,
making out reports, and keeping
records. Conferences with parents,
meetings with school supervisors,
and other professional activities also
frequently occur after classroom
Since most schools are in session
fewer than 12 months a year, teach­
ers often take courses for profes­
sional growth or work at other jobs
during the summer. Some school
systems, however, are extending the
teachers’ working year to 12
months, including a 1-month vaca­
tion in the summer.
Employment in teaching is steady



and usually is not affected by
changes in business conditions. Ten­
ure provisions protect teachers from
arbitrary dismissal. Pension and
sick leave plans are common, and a
growing number of school systems
grant other types of leave with pay.
An increasing number of teachers
are being represented by profes­
sional teacher associations or by un­
ions that bargain collectively for
them on wages, hours, and other
conditions of employment.
Sources of Additional Information

Information on schools and certi­
fication requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at each State capital.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of


Other sources of general informa­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
National Commission on Teacher
Standards, National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.118 through .228)

Nature of the Work

Secondary school teachers—
those employed in junior and senior

high schools—usually specialize in a
particular subject. They teach sev­
eral classes every day, either in
their main subject, in related sub­
jects, or both. The most frequent
combinations are English and his­
tory or other social sciences; mathe­
matics and general science; and
chemistry and biology or general
science. Teachers in some fields,
such as home economics, agricul­
ture, commercial subjects, driver
education, music, art, and industrial
arts, less frequently conduct classes
in other subjects. The teaching
method may vary from formal lec­
tures to free discussions, depending
on the subject and the students’
needs and aptitudes. The choice of
method usually is left to the teacher.
Besides giving classroom instruc­
tion, secondary school teachers plan
and develop teaching materials, de­

velop and correct tests, keep rec­
ords and make out reports, consult
with parents, supervise study halls,
and perform other duties. The
growing use of teaching machines,
teacher aids relieves the teacher of
many routine tasks. Many teachers
supervise student activities, such as
clubs and social affairs—sometimes
after regular school hours. Main­
taining good relations with parents
and the community is an important
aspect of their jobs.
More than 1 million teachers
were employed in the Nation’s
public and private secondary
schools in 1970-71. Almost half the
classroom teachers in public sec­
ondary schools were men. Men far
outnumber women as supervisors
and administrators in both public
and private schools.



Places of Employment

The number of grades in second­
ary schools depends on the way the
local school system is organized.
Many secondary school teachers are
employed in 6-year combined jun­
ior-senior high schools (grades
7-12); others are in separate junior
high schools of either two or three
grades (7-8 or 7-9); and the re­
mainder teach in 4-year high
schools (grades 9-12) and in senior
high schools (grades 10-12).

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In every State, a certificate is re­
quired for public secondary school
teaching. To qualify for this certifi­
cate, the prospective teacher must
have at least the equivalent of onehalf year of education courses, in­
cluding practice teaching, plus pro­
fessional courses in one or more
subjects commonly taught in sec­
ondary schools.
Twelve States require a fifth year
of study or qualification for a mas­
ter’s degree within a specified period
following the teacher’s beginning
employment. Many school systems,
especially in large cities, have re­
quirements beyond those needed for
State certification. Some systems re­
quire additional educational prepa­
ration, successful teaching experi­
ence, or special personal qualifica­
College students preparing for sec­
ondary school teaching usually de­
vote about one-third of the 4-year
course to their major, which may be
in a single subject or a group of re­
lated subjects. About one-sixth of
the time is spent in education courses
—learning about children, the
place of the school in the commu­
nity, and materials and methods of

instruction—including student teach­
ing in an actual school situation. The
remaining time is devoted to general
or liberal arts courses. Accepted
teacher-preparation curriculums are
offered by universities with schools
of education, by colleges with strong
education departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by
teachers’ colleges.
Although certification require­
ments vary among the States, the
person who is well prepared for sec­
ondary school teaching in one State
usually has little trouble meeting re­
quirements in another State. A
well-qualified teacher ordinarily can
obtain temporary certification in a
State while preparing to meet its ad­
ditional requirements.
Qualified secondary school teach­
ers may advance to department
heads, supervisors, assistant princi­
pals, principals, superintendents, or
other administrative officers as
openings occur. At least 1 year of
professional education beyond the
bachelor’s degree and several years
of successful classroom teaching are
required for most supervisory and
administrative positions. Often, a
doctorate is required for appoint­
ment as superintendent. Some expe­
rienced teachers are assigned as
part- or full-time guidance counsel­
ors or as teachers of handicapped
or other special groups of children.
Usually, additional preparation and
sometimes special certificates are
required for these assignments.
Probably the most important per­
sonal qualifications for secondary
school teaching are an appreciation
and understanding of adolescent
children. Patience and self-disci­
pline are desirable traits, as are high
standards of personal conduct. In
addition to an enthusiasm for the
subjects they teach, a broad knowl­
edge and appreciation of the arts,
sciences, history, and literature also

are desirable. Civic, social, and rec­
reational activities of teachers may
be influenced, and sometimes re­
stricted, by the customs and atti­
tudes of their community.

Employment Outlook

A slowing of enrollment growth
in secondary schools is expected dur­
ing the 1970’s. Most teaching posi­
tions will result, therefore, from
the need to replace the large number
of women teachers who leave the
profession for family responsibilities.
If the total number of degrees
awarded increases as projected by
the U.S. Office of Education, and
if trends in the proportion of grad­
uates prepared to teach in second­
ary schools continues through the
1970’s, the total number of new
graduates available for secondary
school teaching positions will in­
crease significantly. In addition,
many women will continue to wish
to reenter teaching after a period of
full-time homemaking. New gradu­
ates, therefore, may face keen com­
petition for jobs. Also, young people
planning to teach, therefore, are
likely to find school boards placing
much greater emphasis on the type
and quality of an applicant’s profes­
sional training and academic per­
Despite the anticipated improved
supply situation, opportunities will
be very favorable in some geographic
areas and in subject fields such
as the physical sciences, for which
the demand in private industry
and government is also great. In
addition, increased demand for
teachers trained in the education of
children who are mentally retarded
or physically handicapped are ex­
pected. Considerable additional de­
mand for teachers also may be gen­
erated by Federal legislation that


provides for supplementary educa­
tional centers and services and the
Teacher Corps. These extensive ad­
ditions to present teaching services
will be available to both public and
private school children. Neverthe­
less, if patterns of entry and reentry
to the profession continue in line
with past trends, the number of per­
sons seeking to enter secondary
teaching will significantly exceed re­
quirements. Many students, there­
fore, who are considering secondary
teaching as a career, will have to
change their occupational choice
and pursue other careers.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average annual salary for all
classroom teachers in public sec­
ondary schools was about $9,540 in
1970-71, according to estimates by
the National Education Association.
In Alaska, California, and New
$11,400 or more. The average was
$7,500 or less in Mississippi, Ar­
kansas, Idaho, South Carolina, Ken­
tucky, Alabama, and Oklahoma. At
the beginning of the 1970-71 aca­
demic year, 31 States had minimum
teacher salary laws.
Teachers of vocational education,
physical education, and other spe­
cial subjects often receive higher
salaries than other teachers. Under
salary schedules in effect in most
school systems, teachers in all sub­
ject fields get regular salary in­
creases as they gain experience and
additional education.
Teachers’ salaries usually are
lower in towns and small cities than
in larger cities or suburbs, but
higher educational and experience
requirements are likely to prevail in
large city school systems. On the
average, salaries of principals in the
largest cities, where administrative


responsibilities are great, are much
higher than in towns and small cit­
ies. Salaries of superintendents in
1970-71 averaged nearly $40,000
in the largest school systems.
Teachers often add to their in­
comes by teaching in summer
school, working as camp and recre­
ational counselors, or doing other
work. Some teachers supplement
their incomes during the regular
school year. They may teach in
adult or evening classes, work parttime in business or industry, or
write for publication.
Some form of retirement is pro­
vided for most teachers. Nearly all
school systems have some provision
for sick leave, and an increasing
number grant other types of leave
with pay.
According to a recent survey, the
average workweek of secondary
school teachers is about 46 hours a
week, of which 23 V2 hours are
spent in classroom instruction and
the remainder in out-of-class in­
struction and other duties. An in­
creasing number of teachers are rep­
resented by professional teacher as­
sociations or by unions that bargain
collectively for them on wages,
hours, and other conditions of em­

Sources of Additional Information

Information on schools and certi­
fication requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at the State capital.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Edu­
cation, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of information are:

American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
National Commission on Teacher
Standards, National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 090.168 and .228)

Nature of the Work

About 720,000 teachers were
employed in the Nation’s 2,600 col­
leges and universities in the fall of
1970. Approximately 336,000 were
full-time teachers of degree credit
courses; in addition, 167,000 taught
such courses part time. The remain­
der included junior instructional
staff (primarily graduate students),
and staff who taught non-degree
courses and gave instruction by
television, radio, or mail.
Most full-time college and uni­
versity teachers instruct in the social
sciences, teacher education, English
and journalism, fine arts, mathemat­
ics, physical or biological sciences,
engineering, or the health profes­
sions. Teaching duties may include
preparing and delivering lectures,
leading class discussions, directing
graduate students in teaching fresh­
man courses, preparing tests and in­
struction materials, counseling and
assisting individual students, and
checking and grading assignments
and tests. Grading sometimes is
done by teaching assistants or, for
objective tests, by computers. In
many 4-year institutions, the usual
teaching load is 12 to 15 hours a
week. Associate professors and full



professors—who advise graduate
students and often engage actively
in research—may spend only 6 to 8
hours a week in actual classroom
In addition to teaching, many col­
lege teachers conduct or direct re­
search, write for publication, or aid
in college administration. Some act
as consultants to business, in­
dustrial, scientific, or government

Places of Employment

About nine-tenths of all full- and
part-time teachers were employed
by universities and 4-year colleges
in 1970; most of the remainder
were in 2-year institutions.
Men predominate in college
teaching and hold more than ninetenths of the positions in engineer­
ing, the physical sciences, agricul­
ture, and law. However, most teach­
ers in nursing, home economics, and
library science are women.
College teachers are concen­
trated in the States having the larg­
est college enrollments. In the fall
of 1970, resident and extension en­
rollments exceeded 1.1 million in
California and were over 700,000 in
New York. Three other States had

enrollments of more than 400,000:
Illinois, Texas, and Pennsylvania.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To qualify for most beginning po­
sitions, applicants must have at least
the master’s degree, and for many,
they must have completed all re­
quirements for the doctorate except
the dissertation. A number of States
require State certification to teach in
public 2-year colleges. To obtain
such a certificate, the master’s de­
gree and certain courses in educa­
tion are required.
To enter college teaching, spe­
cialization in some subject field is
necessary. In addition, undergradu­
ate courses in the humanities, social
sciences, natural sciences, and the
mastery of at least one foreign lan­
guage are important. Intensive in­
struction in the selected field of spe­
cialization is given in graduate
school. Outstanding graduate stu­
dents receive valuable experience
through part-time teaching assistantships. Some students develop
teaching competence by participat­
ing in informal seminars or meetings
teaching methods.
prospective college teachers, espe­

cially those in education depart­
ments and junior colleges, gain ex­
perience in high school teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and univer­
sities recognize four academic
ranks: Instructor, assistant profes­
sor, associate professor, and full
professor. A National Education
Association survey indicates that
one-quarter of the teaching faculty
are professors, nearly one-quarter
associate professors, one-third are
assistant professors, and almost onefifth are instructors or lecturers.
Few institutions grant tenure
(permanent appointment) to in­
structors having less than 3 years of
service. Advancement to associate
professorship generally requires
considerable teaching experience
and often a doctor’s degree. In
some institutions, research and pub­
lication also may be required. A
doctor’s degree and 7 or more years
of teaching experience usually are
necessary to become a full profes­
sor. Outstanding achievements, gen­
erally through research or publica­
tions, hastens advancement.
Beginning teachers in fields that
are in strong demand, such as engi­
neering, mathematics, and medi­
cine, sometimes are appointed at
higher ranks than other teachers
having comparable experience and
education. A doctor’s degree is re­
quired particularly for advancement
in the biological sciences, physical
sciences, psychology, social sci­
ences, philosophy, and religion; it is
least likely to be a requirement in
business and commerce, engineer­
ing, fine arts, health and physical
education, and home economics.
Fellowships are available under
the National Defense Education Act
to candidates for doctoral degrees
who plan careers in college or uni­
versity teaching. The Education
Professions Development Act of
1967 authorizes Federally supported



fellowships for master’s degree
study for those planning to enter or
already engaged in teaching at twoyear colleges, four-year colleges, and

Employment Outlook

College teaching opportunities
are expected to be good for those
having doctoral degrees or having
completed all requirements for the
doctorate except the dissertation.
Opportunities also will be favorable
for new entrants having the master’s
degree, particularly in 2-year col­
A great increase in college enroll­
ment is in prospect. The number of
young people in the 18- to 21-year
age group is expected to rise by
nearly 2.7 million between 1970
and 1980. At the same time, larger
proportions of young people of col­
lege age will attend college— owing
to rising family income, recent Fed­
eral legislation to help needy college
students, and greater demand for
college-trained personnel. The an­
ticipated increase in the number of
community colleges and schools of­
fering evening classes also will per­
mit more young people and adults
to attend. If the proportion contin­
ues to increase and facilities are
available, college enrollments for
degree credit will increase from 7.6
million in 1970 to more than 11.2
million in 1980, according to the
U.S. Office of Education.
Taking all these factors into ac­
count, the Office of Education esti­
mates that the full-time college
teaching staff for resident degree
credit courses will increase from
336,000 in 1970 to 460,000 in
1980, or by 37 percent.
The supply of new college teach­
ers, which consists largely of stu­
dents receiving graduate degrees,

also is expected to grow. The U.S.
Office of Education estimates that
the number of doctorates conferred
through 1980 will average about
50,000 a year, and the number of
master’s degrees about 360,000 an­
nually. It is difficult, however, to say
how many of these will enter teach­
ing. Industry, government, and non­
profit organizations also offer em­
ployment opportunities to persons
having graduate degrees, often at
higher salaries than colleges. How­
ever, a smaller proportion of each
year’s doctor’s degree recipients will
be needed to meet the demand for
college teachers. As a result, per­
sons may face some competition in
obtaining positions of their choice.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The median salary of full-time
faculty who were engaged primarily
in teaching in 4-year institutions
was estimated at $11,745 in 196970 (9 mo.), based on National Ed­
ucation Association data. Salaries
generally were higher in universities
than in colleges, and highest in large
universities. Highest median salaries
were paid in the Far West and New
England. Estimated median salaries
by rank were:
Associate P rofessor..................... 12,985
Assistant Professor ..................... 10,698
Instructor or Lecturer................. 8,416

The median salary paid full-time
faculty in public 2-year colleges in
1969-70 was estimated at $10,850.
Teachers in nonpublic 2-year col­
leges received an estimated median
salary of $8,190.
Faculty members who teach year
round usually receive higher salaries
than those employed for the aca­
demic year only. Teachers in pro­
fessional schools (medicine, dentis­
try, etc.) and graduate schools gen­

erally receive higher salaries than
teachers in other colleges.
Some faculty members supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from a variety of sources.
The chief source is additional teach­
ing (often in summer sessions).
Consulting work may be a major
source of extra income, particularly
in engineering and physical sci­
ences. Research grants are now
common, especially in many large,
well-known universities; fees for
lecturing and royalties on publica­
tions are other possible sources of
income. Opportunities for addi­
tional income usually increase as
the faculty member gains recogni­
tion. For most college teachers, ad­
ditional income is small.
Retirement plans differ consider­
ably among institutions, but an in­
creasing number are participating in
the Government social security pro­
gram, often as an accompaniment to
plans of their own. The greatest
number of institutions have set 65
years as the normal retirement age,
although most of these extend the
age limit if desired.
Many colleges and universities
provide benefits such as: Sabbatical
leaves of absence—typically, 1
year’s leave with half salary or a
half-year’s leave at full salary after
6 or 7 years of employment; other
types of leave for advanced study;
life, sickness, and accident insur­
ance; reduced tuition charges or
cash-tuition grants for children of
faculty members; housing allow­
ances; travel funds for attending
professional meetings; and other

Sources of Additional Information

Information on college teaching
as a career is available from:


U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Washington,

American Association of University
Professors, 1 Dupont Circle NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Council on Education,
1 Dupont Circle NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Professional societies in the vari­
ous subject fields will generally
provide information on teaching re­

quirements and employment oppor­
tunities in their particular fields.
Names and addresses of societies
are given in the statements on spe­
cific professions elsewhere in the


doing highly technical work, among
them assistants to engineers and sci­
The workers’ job titles may be
descriptive of their technical level
(for example, biological aid, or en­
gineering technician) or their work
activity (for example, quality-con­
trol technician, production analyst,
tool designer, materials tester, or
time-study analyst). Some em­
ployees use the word “technician,”
preceded by adjectives, such as me­
chanical, electrical, electronics, or
chemical, which describes areas of
technology in which their personnel
are employed.
The jobs of engineering and sci­
ence technicians are more limited
than those of the professional engi­
neer or scientist, and have a greater
practical orientation. Many techni­
cian jobs require the ability to ana­
lyze and solve engineering and sci­
ence problems and to prepare for­
(D.O.T. .002 through .029)
mal reports on experiments, tests,
or other projects. Most of these jobs
require some aptitude in mathemat­
ics; others, the ability to visualize
Nature of the Work
objects and to make sketches and
The term “technician,” as used drawings. Design jobs often require
here, refers to workers whose jobs creative ability. Many technician
require both knowledge and use of jobs require some familiarity with
scientific and mathematical theory; one or more of the skilled trades,
specialized education or training in although not the ability to perform
some aspect of technology or sci­ as a craftsman. Others demand ex­
ence; and who, as a rule, work di­ tensive knowledge of industrial ma­
rectly with scientists and engineers. chinery, tools, equipment, and proc­
There is no generally accepted defi­ esses. Some jobs held by these tech­
nition of the term “technician.” For nicians are supervisory and require
example, it is used by employers to both technical knowledge and the
refer to workers in a great variety of ability to supervise people.
In carrying out their assignments,
jobs, requiring a wide range of ed­
ucation and training. The term is engineering and science technicians
applied to employees doing rela­ frequently use complex electronic
tively routine work, to persons per­ and mechanical instruments, experi­
forming work requiring skills within mental laboratory apparatus, and
a limited sphere, and to persons drafting instruments. Almost all of

growing rapidly because of the
needs of an expanding and increas­
ingly technical economy matched to
the growing recognition of the im­
portance of technicians. This chap­
ter is concerned with the technicians
who work with engineers and scien­
tists, and with draftsmen, also usu­
ally considered technicians. Infor­
mation on surveyors, often classified
as technicians, and on technical oc­
cupations in the health field—in­
cluding dental laboratory techni­
cians, radiological technologists,
and dental hygienists—is presented
elsewhere in the Handbook.


the technicians whose jobs are de­
scribed in this statement must be
able to use engineering handbooks
and computing devices, such as the
slide rule or calculating machine.

Technicians engage in virtually
every aspect of engineering and sci­
entific work. In research, develop­
ment, and design, one of the largest
areas of employment, they conduct
experiments or tests; set up, cali­
brate, and operate instruments; and
make calculations. They also assist
scientists and engineers in develop­
ing experimental equipment and
models by making drawings and
sketches and, under the engineer’s
direction, frequently do some design
Technicians also work in jobs re­
lated to production, usually follow­
ing a program course laid out by
the engineer or scientist, but often
without close supervision. They may
aid in the various phases of produc­
tion operation, such as working out
specifications for materials and
methods of manufacture, devising
tests to insure quality control of
products, or making time-and-motion studies (timing and analyzing



the worker’s movements) designed
to improve the efficiency of a partic­
ular operation. They also may per­
form liaison work between engi­
neering and production or other de­
Technicians often do work that
might otherwise have to be done by
engineers. They may serve as tech­
nical sales or field representatives of
manufacturers; advise on installa­
tion and maintenance problems of
complex machinery; or write speci­
fications and technical manuals.
(See statement on Technical Writ­
The following sections describe a
number of technological fields in
which engineering and science tech­
nicians are trained and employed.
Aeronautical Technology. Tech­
nicians specializing in this area of
technology work with engineers and
scientists in many phases of the de­
sign and production of aircraft, heli­
copters, rockets, guided missiles,
and spacecraft. Many aid engineers
in preparing layouts of structures,
control systems, or equipment in­
stallations by collecting information,
making calculations, and perform­
ing many other tasks. They work on
projects involving stress analysis,
aerodynamics, structural design,
flight test evaluation, or weight con­
trol. For example, under the direc­
tion of an engineer, a technician
might estimate weight factors, cen­
ters of gravity, and other items af­
fecting load capacity of an airplane
or missile. Other technicians work­
ing on engineering projects prepare
or check drawings for technical ac­
curacy, practicability, and economy.
Technicians sometimes help to
estimate the cost of the materials
and labor needed to manufacture
aircraft and missiles. They also may
be responsible for liaison between
the engineers who do the planning
and development work, and the

craftsmen who convert the engi­
neers’ ideas into finished products.
For example, as an aircraft or mis­
sile is built, the liaison technician
checks it for conformance to speci­
fications, keeps the engineer in­
formed as to progress, and in­
vestigates any production engi­
neering problems that arise. He
changes in the design, the ma­
terials, or the method of fabri­
Other aeronautical technicians
are employed as manufacturer’s
field service representatives, serving
as the link between their company
and the military, commercial air­
lines, and other customers. Techni­
cians often prepare instruction man­
uals, bulletins, catalogs, and other
technical materials. (See statements
on Aerospace Engineers and Air­
plane Mechanics, and chapter on
Occupations in Aircraft, Missile,
and Spacecraft Manufacturing.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Technology. Air-con­
ditioning technology involves the
control of air including its heating,
cooling, humidity, cleanliness, and
movement. Technicians in this field
often become specialists in one area
of work, such as refrigeration, and
sometimes in a particular type of
activity, such as research and devel­
opment or design of layouts for
heating, cooling, or refrigeration
In the manufacture of air-condi­
tioning, heating, and refrigeration
equipment, technicians work in re­
search and engineering depart­
ments, usually as aids to engineers
and scientists. They may be as­
signed to such jobs as devising
methods for testing equipment or
analyzing production methods.
Technically trained personnel also
assist in designing the air-condition­
ing, heating, or refrigeration sys­

tems for a particular office, store, or
other location and prepare instruc­
tions for their installation. In de­
signing the layout for an air-condi­
tioning or heating system, they must
determine the cooling or heating re­
quirements, decide what kind of
equipment is most suitable, and es­
timate costs. Technicians employed
as salesmen by equipment manufac­
turers must be able to supply con­
tractors who design and install sys­
tems with information on such tech­
nical subjects as installation, main­
tenance, operating costs, and ex­
pected performance of equipment.
(See also statement on Refrigera­
tion and Air-Conditioning Mechan­
Chemical Technology. Techni­
cians specializing in this area work
mainly with chemists and chemical
engineers in the development, pro­
duction, sale, and utilization of chem­
ical and related products and equip­
ment. The field of chemistry is so
broad that chemical technicians
often become specialists in the
problems of a particular industry,
such as food processing, or in a par­
ticular activity, such as quality con­
Most chemical technicians work
in research and development, test­
ing, or other laboratory work. They
conduct experiments and tabulate
and analyze the results. In testing
work, technicians make chemical
tests of materials to determine
whether the materials meet specifi­
cations or whether particular sub­
stances are present and, if so, in
what quantities. They may, for ex­
ample, analyze steel for carbon,
phosphorous, and sulfur content, or
water for the amount of silica, iron,
and calcium present. They also per­
form experiments to determine the
characteristics of substances such as
the specific gravity and ash content
of oil. Technicians employed in re­


search or testing laboratories often
assemble and use such apparatus
and instruments as dilatometers
(which measure the dilation or ex­
pansion of a substance), analytical
balances, and centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemical
technicians are sometimes employed
to supervise various operations in
the production of chemical products
and as technical salesman of chemi­
cals and chemical equipment. (See
also statements on Chemists and
Chemical Engineers, and chapter on
Occupations in the Industrial
Chemical Industry.)
Civil Engineering Technology.
Technicians trained in this area as­
sist civil engineers in performing
many of the tasks necessary in the
planning, design, and construction
of highways, railroads, bridges, via­
ducts, dams, and other types of
structures. During the planning
stage, technicians may help to esti­
mate costs, to prepare specifications
for materials, or participate in sur­
veying, drafting, detailing, or de­
signing work. Once the actual con­
struction work has begun, they may
assist the contractor or superintend­
ent in scheduling construction activ­
ities or inspecting the work to as­
sure conformance to blueprints and
specifications. (See also statements
on Civil Engineers, Draftsmen, and
Electronics Technology. This
field includes radio, radar, sonar,
telemetering, television, telephony,
and other forms of communication;
industrial and medical measuring,
recording, indicating, and control­
ling devices; navigational equip­
ment; missile and spacecraft guid­
ance and control instruments; elec­
tronic computers; and many other
types of equipment using vacuum
tubes, transistors, semiconductors,
and printed circuits. Because the
field is so broad, technicians gener­


ally become specialists in one area
—for example, induction or dielec­
tric heating, servomechanisms, au­
tomation controls, or ultrasonics.
Technicians working with engi­
neers and scientists in the field of
electronics do complex technical
work that is more difficult than rou­
tine operating and repair work.
(For additional information on
broadcast technicians see chapter
on Occupations in Radio and Tele­
vision Broadcasting.)

Industrial Production Technol­
ogy. Technicians trained in this area
are sometimes called industrial
technicians or production techni­
cians. They assist industrial engi­
neers on problems involving the ef­
ficient use of personnel, materials,
and machines in the production of
goods or services. Their work in­
cludes preparing layouts of machin­
ery and equipment, planning the
flow of work, and making statistical
studies and analyses of production

costs. The industrial technician also
may conduct time-and-motion stud­
In the course of their duties,
many industrial technicians acquire
experience which enables them to
qualify for other jobs. For example,
those expert in machinery and pro­
duction methods may move into the
field of industrial safety. Others who
specialize in job analysis may be­
come involved in the setting of job
standards and in the interviewing,
testing, hiring, and training of per­
sonnel. Still others may move into
production supervision. (See state­
ments on Personnel Workers and
Industrial Engineers.)
Mechanical Technology. Me­
chanical technology is a broad term
usually used to cover a large num­
ber of specialized fields, including
automotive technology, diesel tech­
nology, tool design, machine design,
and production technology.
Technicians in the above areas of
mechanical technology often assist
engineers in design and develop­
ment work by making freehand
sketches and rough layouts of pro­
posed machinery and other equip­
ment and parts. They help to deter­
mine whether a proposed design
change in a product is practical and
how much the product will cost to
produce. They also may be required
to solve design problems such as
those involving tolerance, stress,
strain, friction, and vibration.
The planning and testing of ex­
perimental machines and equipment
for performance, durability, and ef­
ficiency provide a large area of
work for technicians. In the testing
procedure, they record data, make
computations, plot graphs, analyze
results, and write reports. They
sometimes make recommendations
for design changes to improve per­
formance. Their jobs often require
skill in the use of instruments, test


equipment and gages, such as dyna­ engineers and scientists who de­
mometers, as well as the ability to velop and design these highly com­
prepare and interpret drawings.
plex devices, as well as with those
One of the better known spe­ who use them for research and de­
cialties which may be grouped velopment work. (See also state­
under mechanical engineering tech­ ment on Instrument Makers.)
Another new area of work for
nology is that of tool designer. The
tool designer designs tools and de­ technicians, which has resulted from
vices for the mass production of recognition of the need for a more
manufactured articles. He originates scientific approach toward the re­
and prepares sketches of the designs duction of industrial hazards, is
for cutting tools, jigs, dies, special safety technology. In the rapidly
fixtures, and other attachments used growing atomic energy field, in par­
in machine operations. He also may ticular, technicians work with scien­
make detailed drawings of these tists and engineers on problems of
tools and fixtures or supervise oth­ radiation safety, inspection, and
ers in making them. Besides devel­ decontamination. (See chapter on
oping new tools, designers fre­ Occupations in the Atomic Energy
quently redesign tools to improve Field.) Other new areas include the
their efficiency.
environmental control field, where
Machine drafting, with some de­ technicians are concerned with the
signing, is another major area of problems of air and water pollution.
work often grouped under mechani­
cal technology. The work is de­
scribed elsewhere in this chapter.
Some mechanical technicians are
Places of Employment
employed in manufacturing depart­
An estimated 650,000 engineer­
ments to help develop plans for test­
ing and inspecting machines and ing and science technicians, not in­
equipment, or to work with engi­ cluding draftsmen and surveyors,
neers in eliminating production were employed in 1970— about 11
problems. Some obtain jobs as tech­ percent were women. Nearly
nical salesmen. (See statements on 460,000 of these technicians (more
Mechanical Engineers, Automobile than 7 out of 10) were employed by
Mechanics, Manufacturers’ Sales­ private industry. The manufacturing
industries employing the largest
men, and Diesel Mechanics.)
As industry becomes increasingly numbers of engineering and science
mechanized, new technical occupa­ technicians were electrical equip­
tions continue to emerge. For exam­ ment, chemicals, machinery, and
ple, instrumentation technology has aerospace. In the nonmanufacturing
evolved from the introduction of au­ sector, large numbers of technicians
tomatic controls and precision-meas­ were employed in the communica­
uring devices in manufacturing op­ tions industry and by engineering
erations. In industrial plants and and architectural firms.
In 1970, the Federal Government
laboratories, instruments are used to
record data, to control and regulate employed over 85,000 engineering
the operation of machinery, and to and science technicians; chiefly as
measure time, weight, temperature, engineering aids and technicians,
speed of moving parts, mixtures, electronic technicians, equipment
volume, flow, strain, and pressure. specialists, cartographic aids, mete­
Technicians in this field work with orological technicians, and physical


science technicians. Of these engi­
neering and science technicians, the
largest number worked for the De­
partment of Defense. Most of the
others were employed by the De­
partments of Transportation, Agri­
culture, Interior, and Commerce.
State Government agencies em­
ployed nearly 50,000 engineering
and science technicians in 1970 and
local governments about 12,000.
The remainder were employed by
colleges and universities, mostly in
university-operated research insti­
tutes, and by nonprofit organiza­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young men and women who wish
to prepare for careers as engineer­
ing or science technicians can obtain
the necessary training from a great
variety of educational institutions or
can qualify for their work right on
the job. Most employers, however,
seek workers who have had some
form of specialized training for
more responsible technician jobs.
Specialized formal training pro­
grams are offered in post-secondary
schools—technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, area voca­
tional technical schools, and exten­
sion divisions of colleges and univer­
sities—as well as in technical and
technical-vocational high schools.
Other ways in which persons can
become qualified for technician jobs
are by completing an on-the-job
training program, through work ex­
perience and formal courses taken
on a part-time basis in post-second­
ary or correspondence schools, or
through training and experience ob­
tained while serving in the Armed
Forces. In addition, many engineer­
ing and science students who have
not completed all the requirements


for a bachelor’s degree, as well as
some other persons having a college
education in mathematics and sci­
ence, are able to qualify for techni­
cian jobs after they obtain some ad­
ditional technical training and expe­
rience. In general, post-secondary
school technical training is required
for a growing number of engineer­
ing and science technician jobs.
Engineering and science techni­
cians usually begin work as trainees
or in the more routine positions
under the direct supervision of an
experienced technician, scientist, or
engineer. As they gain experience,
they are given more responsibility,
often carrying out a particular as­
signment under only general super­
vision. Technicians may move into
supervisory positions. Those having
exceptional ability sometimes obtain
additional formal education and are
promoted to professional engineer­
ing positions.
For admittance to most schools
offering post-secondary technician
training, a high school diploma is
usually required. Some schools, how­
ever, admit students without a high
school diploma if they are able to
pass special examinations and other­
wise demonstrate their ability to per­
form work above the high school
level. All engineering and science
occupations require basic training
in mathematics and science, thus
students should obtain a sound back­
ground in these subjects when in
high school. Many post-secondary
schools have arrangements for help­
ing students make up deficiencies in
these subjects.
Programs offered by schools spe­
cializing in post-secondary technical
training require 1, 2, 3, or 4 years
of full-time study. The majority are
2-year programs leading to an asso­
ciate of arts or science degree. Eve­
ning as well as day sessions are gen­
erally available. The courses offered


in science, mathematics, and engi­
neering are usually at the college
level. They include instruction in
laboratory techniques and the use of
instruments, and emphasize the
practical problems met on the job.
Students also are instructed in the
use of machinery and tools to give
them a familiarity with this equip­
ment rather than to develop skills.
Some 4-year programs for the
bachelor’s degree in technology
place more emphasis on courses in
the humanities and business admin­
istration than the 2-year programs,
while other 4-year programs em­
phasize additional technical train­
Because of the variety of educa­
tional institutions and the differ­
ences in the kind and level of edu­
cation and training, persons seeking
a technical education should use
more than ordinary care in selecting
a school. Information should be se­
cured about the fields of technology
in which training is offered, accredi­
tation, the length of time the school
has been in operation, instructional
faculty qualifications,
transferability of credits toward the
bachelor’s degree, and the type of
work obtained by the school’s grad­
Briefly discussed here are some
of the types of post-secondary edu­
cational institutions and other
sources where young people can ob­
tain training as technicians.
Technical Institutes. Technical
institutes offer training designed to
qualify the graduate for a specific
job or cluster of jobs immediately
upon graduation with only a mini­
mum of on-the-job training. In
general, the student receives inten­
sive technical training but less theo­
retical and general education than is
provided in curriculums leading to a
bachelor’s degree in engineering
and liberal arts colleges. A few

technical institutes and community
colleges offer cooperative programs
in which a student spends part of
his time in school and part in paid
employment related to the occupa­
tion for which he is preparing him­
Some technical institutes are op­
erated as regular or extension divi­
sions of colleges and universities.
Others are separate institutions op­
erated by States or municipalities,
privately endowed institutions, and
proprietary schools.
Junior Colleges and Community
Colleges. Many junior and com­
munity colleges offer the necessary
training to prepare students for
technician occupations. Some of
these schools offer curriculums that
are similar to those given in the
freshman and sophomore years of
4-year colleges. Graduates can
transfer after the junior college into
a 4-year college or qualify for some
technician jobs. Most large com­
munity colleges offer 2-year techni­
cal programs, and many employers
express a preference for graduates
having this more specialized train­
ing. Junior college courses in tech­
nical fields are often planned
around the employment needs of
the industries in their locality.
A rea V o ca tio n a l-T ech n ical
Schools. Area vocational-technical
schools are post-secondary public
institutions that are established in
central locations to serve students
from several surrounding areas. In
general, the admission requirements
of vocational-technical schools are
as rigid as those of other schools of­
fering post-secondary technician
training. Area school curriculums
are usually designed to train the
types of technicians most needed in
the area.
Other Training. Some large cor­
porations conduct training programs
to meet their need for technically


trained personnel. This type of
training is primarily technical and
rarely includes any general studies.
Training for some occupations in
the technician category—tool de­
signer and electronic technican, for
example—may be obtained through
a formal apprenticeship.
Some training also is available in
special purpose institutions that spe­
cialize in a single field, such as elec­
Correspondence schools also pro­
vide technician training for those
who wish to learn more about their
Technician training is offered by
all branches of the Armed Forces.
Many of the technicians trained by
the military utilize their training in
civilian employment, especially in
the field of electronics, after they
leave the Armed Forces.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
engineering and science technicians
are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. The demand
will be strongest for graduates of
post-secondary school technician
training programs.
Among the factors underlying the
increase in demand for technicians
are the anticipated expansion of in­
dustry and the increasing complex­
ity of modern technology. As prod­
ucts and the methods by which they
are manufactured become more
complex, more technicians will
probably be required to assist engi­
neers. They may be needed in such
activities as production planning,
and maintaining liaison between
production and engineering depart­
ments, and in technical sales work.
Furthermore, as the employment of


scientists and engineers continues to should continue to find favorable
grow, increasing numbers of techni­ employment opportunities, chiefly
cians will be needed to assist them. in designing jobs, in chemical and
The trend toward automation of in­ other laboratory work, and in com­
dustrial processes will probably also putation and other work requiring
add to the demand for technical the application of mathematics.
personnel; so will the growth of new Over the long run, it is likely that
areas of work, such as those related more women will be trained and
to space and oceanographic explo­ will find employment in these and
ration, atomic engery, environmen­ other technician occupations.
tal control, or urban development.
In addition to the technicians
needed to fill new positions, thou­
sands will be needed each year
through the 1970’s to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
In general, a technician’s earn­
Another factor supporting the ex­ ings depend upon his education and
pected increase in demand for engi­ technical specialty, as well as his
neering and science technicians is ability and work experience. Other
the growth anticipated in research important factors which influence
and development (R&D) expendi­ his earnings are the type of firm for
tures. During the 1970 decade, which he works, his specific duties,
R&D expenditures of Government and the geographic location of his
and industry are expected to in­ job.
In Federal Government agencies
crease, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­ in 1970, beginning engineering and
pated slowdown in Federal R&D science technicians were offered
spending basically reflects antici­ $5,212, $5,853 or $6,548, depend­
pated reductions in the relative im­ ing upon the type of job vacancy
portance of the space and defense and the applicant’s education and
components of R&D expenditures. other qualifications. Some Federal
These trends were evidenced in the Government agencies hire high
late 1960’s and in 1970.
school graduates and train them for
Expenditures for defense and technician jobs. Beginning salaries
space programs also affect the de­ for these jobs were $4,621 a year.
Starting salaries in private indus­
mand for technical personnel, be­
cause a large number are engaged try in 1970, for technicians holding
in activities related to the defense associate degrees, ranged from
and space programs. The above about $6,500 to $8,300 a year; the
outlook for technicians is based on average was about $7,400.
Most technicians can look for­
the assumption that defense activity
as measured by expenditures will be ward to an increase in earnings as
somewhat higher than the level be­ they move to higher positions. In
fore the Vietnam buildup, approxi­ 1970 annual salaries of workers in
mating the level of the early 1960’s. responsible technician positions in
If defense activity should differ sub­ private industry averaged almost
stantially from that level, the de­ $11,000 and approximately onemand for technicians would be af­ fourth of the workers had annual sal­
aries above $ 11,900, according to a
fected accordingly.
Well-qualified women technicians Bureau of Labor Statistics survey.



Sources of Additional Information


General information on careers
for engineering and science techni­
cians may be obtained from:

(D.O.T. 001. through 019.)

American Society for Engineering
Education, Suite 400, 1 Dupont
Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036.

Nature of the Work

Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Council of Technical
Schools, 1835 K. Street, NW.,
Room 907, Washington, D.C.

Information on training oppor­
tunities may also be obtained from
the Engineers’ Council for Profes­
sional Development, a nationally
recognized accrediting agency for
engineering technology programs;
the National Council of Technical
Schools; and the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Division of
Higher Education and/or Division
of Vocational and Technical Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.
State departments of education at
each State capital also have infor­
mation about approved technical in­
stitutes, junior colleges, and other
educational institutions within the
State offering post-high school train­
ing for specific technical occupa­
tions. Other sources include:
American Association of Junior Col­
leges, Suite 410, 1 Dupont Circle,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council, 1601
18th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

In making a space capsule or an
electric iron, a nuclear submarine or
a television set, a bridge or a type­
writer, detailed drawings are needed
that give the exact physical dimen­
sions and specifications of the en­
tire object and each of its parts. The
workers who draw these plans are
Draftsmen translate the ideas,
rough sketches, specifications, and
calculations of engineers, architects,
and designers into working plans
which are used in making a product.
Draftsmen may calculate the
strength, reliability, and cost of ma­
terials. In their drawings and speci­
fications, they describe exactly what
materials and workers are to use on
a particular job. To prepare their
drawings, draftsmen use instruments
such as compasses, dividers, pro­
tractors, templates and triangles, as
well as machines that combine the
functions of several devices. They
also may use engineering hand­
books, tables, and slide rules to as­
sist in solving technical problems.
Draftsmen are often classified ac­
cording to the type of work they do
or their level of responsibility. Sen­
ior draftsmen use the preliminary
information provided by engineers
and architects to prepare design
“layouts” (drawings made to scale
of the object to be built). Detailers
make drawings of each part shown
on the layout, giving dimensions,
material, and any other information
necessary to make the detailed
drawing clear and complete. Check­
ers carefully examine drawings for
errors in computing or in recording
dimensions and specifications. Un­

der the supervision of draftsmen,
tracers make minor corrections and
prepare drawings for reproduction
by tracing them on transparent
cloth, paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen also may specialize in
a particular field of work, such as
mechanical, electrical, electronic,
aeronautical, structural, or architec­
tural drafting.

Places of Employment

An estimated 310,000 draftsmen
were employed in 1970; almost 4
percent were women. About 9 out
of 10 draftsmen are employed in



private industry. Manufacturing
industries that employ large num­
bers are those making machinery,
electrical equipment, transportation
equipment and fabricated metal
products. Nonmanufacturing indus­
tries employing large numbers are
engineering and architectural con­
sulting firms, construction compa­
nies, and public utilities.
Over 20,000 draftsmen worked
for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments in 1970. Of those employed
by the Federal Government, the
large majority worked for the De­
partments of the Army, Navy, and
Air Force. Draftsmen employed by
State and local governments worked
chiefly for highway and public
works departments. Several thou­
sand draftsmen were employed by
colleges and universities and by
nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young persons interested in be­
coming draftsmen can acquire the
necessary training from a number of
sources, including technical insti­
tutes, junior and community col­
leges, extension divisions of uni­
versities, vocational and technical
high schools, and correspondence
schools. Others may qualify for
draftsmen jobs through on-the-job
training programs combined with
part-time schooling or through 3- or
4-year apprenticeship programs.
The prospective
training, whether obtained in high
school or post-high school drafting
programs, should include courses
in mathematics and physical sci­
ences, as well as in mechanical
drawing and drafting. The study of
shop practices and the learning of
some shop skills also are helpful,
since many higher level drafting

jobs require knowledge of manufac­
turing or construction methods.
Many technical schools offer courses
in structural design, strength of ma­
terials, and physical metallurgy.
Young people having only high
school drafting training usually start
out as tracers. Those having some
formal post-high school technical
training can often qualify as junior
draftsmen. As draftsmen gain skill
and experience, they may advance
to higher level positions as check­
ers, detailers, senior draftsmen, or
supervisors of other draftsmen.
Some may become independent de­
signers. Draftsmen who take
courses in engineering and mathe­
matics are sometimes able to trans­
fer to engineering positions.
Qualifications for success as a
draftsman may include the ability to
visualize objects in three dimen­
sions as well as the ability to do
freehand drawing. Although such
artistic ability is not generally re­
quired, it may be very helpful in
some specialized fields.
Drafting work also requires good
eyesight (corrected or uncorrected),
eye-hand coordination, and manual

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
draftsmen are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Prospects
will be best for those having posthigh school drafting training. Wellqualified high school graduates who
have had only high school drafting,
however, also will be in demand for
some types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result of
the increasing complex design prob­
lems of modern products and proc­
esses. In addition, as engineering
and scientific occupations continue

to grow, more draftsmen will be
needed as supporting personnel. On
the other hand, photoreproduction
of drawings and expanding use of
electronic drafting equipment and
computers are eliminating some
routine tasks done by draftsmen.
This development will probably
bring about a reduction in the need
for some less skilled draftsmen.
In addition to draftsmen needed
to fill new positions, many will be
required each year to replace those
who retire, die, or move into other
fields of work.


In private industry, persons in
beginning drafting positions earned
an average of about $470 a month
in 1970, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. As they
gain experience, draftsmen may
move up to higher level positions
with a substantial increase in earn­
ings. For example, the earnings of
senior draftsmen averaged about
$850 a month. Most earned about
$700 per month.
In the Federal Civil Service in
1970, the entrance salary for high
school graduates without work ex­
perience who were employed in
trainee-draftsman positions was
about $380 a month. For those hav­
ing post-high school education or
some experience in drafting, en­
trance salaries were higher. The
majority of experienced draftsmen
working for the Federal Govern­
ment earned between $600 and
$740 a month.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
for draftsmen may be obtained



American Institute for Design and
Drafting, Post Office Box 2955,
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101.
American Federation of Technical
Engineers, 1126 16th Street, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

See also section on Sources of
Additional Information in the state­
ment on Engineering and Science

(D.O.T. 022.281, 029.381)

Nature of the Work

In contrast with the past, when
most foods were processed in the
home, almost all foods we now eat
are processed by industrial firms. A
small but important group of work­
ers employed by these firms are food
processing technicians.
Food processing technicians as­
sist food scientists in research and
development, and in the quality as­
surance laboratories of processing
plants. They also serve as assistant
supervisory personnel in production
related operations such as process­
ing, packaging and sanitary mainte­
nance, and waste disposal.
Titles of operating and laboratory
technicians in the food processing
industry vary from plant to plant
and industry to industry, as do their
responsibilities, which often overlap
from one area to the other. Food
processing technicians may be
known as Laboratory or Quality
Assurance Technicians, PhysicalScience Aide, Plant Facilities Tech­
nician, Biological Aide, Laboratory
Analyst, and Research and Develop­
ment Technician.
In research and development,
food processing technicians assist

food scientists in improving exist­
ing food products, creating new
food items, and developing and im­
proving processes related to produc­
tion. Duties may include weighing
out ingredients, performing micro­
biological tests, and conducting
chemical analysis. Technicians also
set up panels for organoleptic test­
ing (taste, smell, sight). Other du­
ties include gathering and storing
samples for testing; operating and
maintaining laboratory equipment;
and experimenting with new meth­
ods for testing products. Techni­
cians often are required to prepare
formal reports on experiments,
tests, and other projects. They fre­
quently use instruments such as bal­
ances, spectrophotometers (to meas­
ure color intensity), autoclaves
(for sterilizing), microscopes, and
cryoscopes (to determine the freez­
ing point of liquids).
In quality assurance laboratories,
they conduct bacteriological, chemi­
cal, and physical tests on raw ingre­
dients and finished products to en­
sure conformance with established
industry and government standards.
They use equipment such as incuba­
tors, refractometers (to measure
heat), centrifuges (to separate
particles of substances), torsion bal­
ances, color comparison charts, and
pH meters (to determine the de­
gree of acidity). Other duties may
include making brand comparison
checks, filling sample orders, and
checking samples received against
product reports or shipping mani­
In production operations, food
processing technicians assist in the
supervision of the overall processing
of food products. For example, they
work closely with fieldmen to in­
sure a steady flow of products from
farm to plant; they inspect incoming
raw materials to make certain they
are suitable for processing and that

they are stored under proper tem­
peratures. Technicians recommend
measures to improve production
methods, equipment performance,
and quality of product, and suggest
changes in working conditions and
use of equipment to increase proc­
essing efficiency. Some technicians
supervise packaging operations;
others are concerned primarily with
sanitation in all areas of a food proc­
essing plant. They help identify
bacterial problems on the line or in
the plant, recommend cleaning and
sanitizing solutions, and direct clean­
ing crews.
Places of Employment

An estimated 3,400 food process­
ing technicians were employed in the
food processing industry in 1970.
Food processing technicians can be
found in all major food industries
and are employed in most States.
The largest number of food techni­
cians are in those States having the
heaviest concentration of food proc­
essing workers: California, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, Texas, Ohio, New
Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa,
and New York.
Food technicians, in addition to
being employed by food processors,
may be employed by State and Fed­
eral Government food inspection
agencies, food brokers, and super­
market chains. Others are in related
fields where their specialized train­
ing can be utilized, including food
packaging companies, food ware­
housing and transporting compa­
nies, and manufacturer of food proc­
essing equipment.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young men and women wishing
to prepare for a career as a food



processing technician can obtain the Some schools, for example, have
necessary training from a variety of programs in food processing tech­
educational institutions, or can nology geared towards an individual
qualify for their work on the job. food processing industry, such as
Most employers, however, prefer the dairy industry. Many 2-year
workers who have had some form schools require work experience in
of specialized training for more re­ some phase of the industry between
sponsible technician jobs. Special­ the first and second years, and oth­
ized formal training programs are ers recommend that their students
offered in post-secondary schools obtain this kind of practical expe­
—technical institutes, junior and rience. The school’s placement bu­
community colleges, and technical reau often assists the prospective
divisions of four-year universities. technician in finding this type of em­
For admittance to most schools of­ ployment. Besides providing prac­
fering post-secondary technician tical experience, this aids the student
training, a high school diploma is in paying his tuition expenses and
frequently leads to full-time posi­
Students wishing to prepare for a tions after graduation.
Persons can qualify for techni­
career as a food processing techni­
cian should take a year each of biol­ cian jobs by completing on-the-job
ogy and chemistry, and two years of training programs, or through work
mathematics (algebra and geome­ experience and formal courses
try) while in high school. English taken on a part-time basis in post­
and social science courses also are secondary schools. In addition,
recommended. Some post-second­ many students from various science
ary schools, however, admit stu­ disciplines who have not completed
dents on the basis of successful all the requirements for a bachelor’s
work experience in the food indus­ degree are able to qualify for tech­
try and on the recommendation of nician jobs after they obtain some
additional technical training and ex­
their employer.
Programs offered by schools spe­ perience. In general, post-secondary
cializing in post-high school techni­ school technical training is required
cal training generally require one, for a growing number of food proc­
two, and in very few cases, three or essing technician jobs. Laboratory
four years of full-time study. The technicians in the dairy industry
majority are 2-year programs lead­ must meet licensing requirements in
ing to an associate of applied sci­ most States. These requirements
ence degree. The courses offered vary, but generally include a written
usually include chemistry, micro­ test. Some states require an appli­
biology, mathematics, and special­ cant to demonstrate his capabilities.
Food processing technicians usu­
ized courses in food processing,
quality control, packaging, plant ally begin work as trainees under
and environmental sanitation, and the direct supervision of an experi­
technical report writing. Elective enced food scientist, and are sys­
courses such as accounting, eco­ tematically
nomics, and English generally are throughout the plant. Technicians
offered by the post-secondary may begin their careers at a lower
level supervisory capacity and—
Curriculums may vary considera­ depending on training, ability, and
bly among the schools offering pro­ experience—can work up to the
grams in food science technology. mid-management level. Food techni­

cians working in laboratories are as­
signed more demanding functions as
they gain experience and may ad­
vance to other positions such as
salesman, purchasing agent, or fieldman.
Food processing technicians gen­
erally work as part of a team. Be­
cause the quality of processed food
may affect many people, the food
technician must work to exacting
standards and be dependable. He is
frequently required to make oral or
written reports on the results of his

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
food processing technicians are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
1970’s. The demand will be strong­
est for graduates of post-secondary
technical training programs.
Among the factors underlying the
increase in demand for food proc­
essing technicians are the desire
for more convenience foods in the
home, and the need for these prod­
ucts by food service institutions.
Also, the complexity of new food
products and their related processes
will create a need for more techni­
cians to assist food scientists and
management personnel in such
areas as production planning, tech­
nical sales work, purchasing, pack­
aging, personnel work, and ware­
house management. The need for
technicians will be especially criti­
cal in quality assurance areas as
higher quality and safety standards
are set and as more technical super­
vision in processing becomes neces­
sary. Many smaller processing
firms, which currently operate with­
out the aid of technicians, are ex­
pected to require them in the future.
Furthermore, as the employment of
food scientists continues to grow,



increasing numbers of technicians
will be needed to assist them. In ad­
dition to the technicians needed to
fill new positions, others will be
needed each year through the
1970’s to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­

firm for which he works, his specific
duties, and the geographic location
of his job. Beginning food process­
ing technicians were offered starting
salaries of $7,000 per year in 1970,
based on limited data.
Most technicians can look for­
ward to an increase in earnings as
they gain experience and advance to
higher level positions.


In general, a technician’s earn­
ings depend upon his education,
ability, and work experience. Other
important factors are the type of

Sources of Additional Information

For further information regarding
careers as food processing techni­

cians, students should contact their
school counselors for help in locat­
ing technical institutes, junior and
community colleges, and universi­
ties offering programs in food proc­
essing technology. (See also sec­
tion on Sources of Additional Infor­
mation in the statement on Engi­
neering and Science Technicians.)


(D.O.T. 132.268)

Nature of the Work

Newspaper reporters gather in­
formation on current events and use
it to write stories for publication in
daily or weekly newspapers. In cov­
ering events, they may interview
people, review public records, attend
news happenings, and do research.
As a rule, reporters take notes or
use electronic recording devices
while collecting the facts, and write
their stories upon return to the
office. Sometimes, to meet dead­
lines, they telephone their stories to
other staff members known as “re­
write men,” who write the stories
for them.

Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “beats,” such as
police stations or the courts, to
cover news originating in these
places. Other local news, such as a

story about a lost child or an obit­
uary of a community leader, is han­
dled by general assignment re­
porters. Specialized reporters, who
are well-versed in a subject-matter
field as well as in writing, increas­
ingly are interpreting and analyzing
the news in fields such as medicine,
politics, science, education, busi­
ness, labor, and religion. Reporters
on small newspapers get broad ex­
perience; they not only cover all as­
pects of local news, but also may
take photographs, write headlines,
lay out inside pages, and even write
editorials. On the smallest weeklies,
they also may solicit advertise­
ments, sell subscriptions, and per­
form general office work.
Places of Employment

An estimated 39,000 newspaper
reporters were employed in the
United States in 1970; more than
35 percent were women. The ma­
jority of reporters work for daily
newspapers; others work for weekly
papers, press services, and newspa­
per syndicates.
Reporters work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. Of the 1,760 daily and
9,000 weekly newspapers, the great
majority are in medium-size towns.
Large numbers of reporters, how­
ever, are in cities, since big city
dailies employ many reporters,
whereas a small-town paper gener­
ally employs only a few.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most newspapers will consider
only applicants having a college ed­
ucation. Graduate work is increas­

ingly important. Some editors prefer
graduates who have a degree in
journalism, which usually involves a
liberal arts education as well as pro­
fessional training. Other editors
consider a degree in liberal arts
equally desirable. Although talented
writers having little or no academic
training beyond high school some­
times become reporters on city news­
papers, most reporters without col­
lege training begin—and usually
remain—on rural, small-town or
suburban papers.
Professional studies leading to a
bachelor’s degree in journalism can
be obtained in nearly 200 colleges;
about two-thirds of these have sepa­
rate departments or schools of jour­
nalism. The typical undergraduate
journalism curriculum is offered
during the junior and senior years
of college, and is divided about
equally between cultural and pro­
fessional subjects. Among the pro­
fessional courses are reporting,
copyreading, editing, feature writ­
ing, and the history of journalism.
Over 250 junior colleges offer
journalism programs. Credit se­
cured in most is transferable to the
4-year college programs in journal­
ism. In addition, some junior col­
leges offer programs especially de­
signed to prepare the student di­
rectly for employment as a general
assignment reporter on weekly and
small daily newspapers.
The master’s degree in journal­
ism is awarded by 52 schools; 20 of
them offer the doctor’s degree in
mass communications.
Young people who wish to pre­
pare for newspaper work through a
liberal arts curriculum should take
English courses that include writing,
as well as subjects such as sociol­
ogy, political science, economics,
history, psychology, and speech.
Ability to read and speak in a for­
eign language and some familiarity
with mathematics also are desirable.
Those who look forward to becom­


ing technical writers, or reporters
in a special field such as science,
should concentrate on course work
in their subject matter areas as
much as possible. (See statement on
Technical Writers.)
The Armed Forces also provide
some training in journalism. The
Department of Defense maintains a
Defense Information School at Fort
Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis,
Summer internships on newspa­
pers, providing college students an
opportunity to learn the rudiments
of reporting or editing, are available
from the Newspaper Fund and indi­
vidual newspapers. Moreover, in
addition to many loan programs,
more than 2,800 journalism schol­
arships, fellowships, and assistantships were offered in 1970 by uni­
versities, newspapers, and profes­
sional organizations.
Important personal characteris­
tics include a “nose for news,” curi­
osity, persistence, initiative, re­
sourcefulness, an accurate memory,
and the physical stamina necessary
for an active and often fast-paced
life. Skill in typing generally is re­
quired since reporters usually must
type their own news stories. On
small papers, a knowledge of news
photography also is valuable.
Some who compete for regular
positions, find it is helpful to have
had experience as a “stringer”—one
who covers the news in a particular
area of the community for a news­
paper and is paid on the basis of the
stories printed. Experience on a
high school or college newspaper
also may be helpful in obtaining
Many beginners work on weekly
or on small daily newspapers. Some
college graduates are hired as gen­
eral assignment reporters; others
start on large city papers as copy
editors. Beginning reporters usually


are assigned to news events such as
reporting on civic and club meet­
ings, summarizing speeches, writing
obituaries, interviewing important
visitors to the community, and cov­
ering police court proceedings. As
they gain experience, they may re­
port more important developments,
cover an assigned “beat,” or spe­
cialize in a particular field of knowl­
Newspapermen also may advance
to reporting for larger papers or for
press services and newspaper syndi­
cates. Some experienced reporters
become columnists, correspondents,
editors, top executives, or publish­
ers; these positions represent the
top of the field and competition for
them is keen. Other reporters trans­
fer to related fields such as writing
for magazines, or preparing copy
for radio and television news re­

Employment Outlook

Well-qualified beginners with ex­
ceptional writing talent will find fa­
vorable employment opportunities
through the 1970’s. In 1970, editors
of large newspapers were seeking
young reporters with exceptional
talent. Other beginners, however,
were facing competition for jobs,
especially on large city dailies, and
probably will continue to do so. In
addition to seeking young reporters
with exceptional talent, editors also
were looking for reporters who
were qualified to handle news about
highly specialized or technical sub­
Weekly or daily newspapers lo­
cated in small towns and suburban
areas will continue to offer the most
opportunities for beginners entering
newspaper reporting. Openings
arise on these papers as young peo­

ple gain experience and transfer to
reporting jobs on larger newspapers
or to other types of work. Prefer­
ence in employment on small papers
is likely to be given to beginning re­
porters who are able to help with
photography and other specialized
aspects of newspaper work and are
acquainted with the community.
Large city dailies will provide
some openings for the inexperi­
enced with good educational back­
grounds and a flair for writing to
enter as reporter trainees. Some op­
portunities may continue to be
available for young people who
enter as copy boys and advance to
reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper
reporting, new college graduates
who have journalism training may
enter related fields such as advertis­
ing, public relations, trade and tech­
nical publishing, radio, and televi­
sion. Some job opportunities also
will be found in teaching journal­
The broad field of mass commun­
ication, which has grown rapidly in
recent years, will continue to ex­
pand in the future. Factors contrib­
uting to this continuing expansion
include rising levels of education and
income; increasing expenditures for
newspaper, radio, and television ad­
vertising; and a growing number of
trade and technical journals and
various types of company publica­
tions. As newspapers share in this
growth, employment of reporters is
expected to increase slowly. The
greatest number of job openings,
more than a thousand each year,
will continue to arise from the need
to replace reporters who are pro­
moted to editorial or other positions,
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or leave the profession for
other reasons.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102