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OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, about 106,000 people
were employed as professional li­
brarians. Most of them worked full
time. School librarians accounted
for about two-fifths of all librar­
ians; public librarians represented
one-fourth; librarians in colleges
and universities and those em­
ployed in special libraries (in­
cluding libraries in government
agencies), each accounted for
about one-sixth. A small number
of librarians were employed as
teachers and administrators in
schools of library science.
About 85 percent of all librar­
ians are women. Men are more
frequently employed than women
in executive and administrative
positions in large library systems
and in special libraries concerned
with science and technology.
Most librarians work in cities
and towns. Those attached to
bookmobile units serve widely
scattered
population
groups,
mostly in suburban or rural areas.
Rural, suburban, and town public
libraries are being organized in­
creasingly into county and multi­
county systems, including central­
ized reference and technical
services.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
T o qualify as a professional li­
brarian, one must ordinarily have
completed a course of study in a
graduate library school. This usu­
ally means at least 5 years of
college— 4 to meet the require­
ments for a bachelor’s degree and
a fifth year or more of specialized
study in library science, after
which the master’s degree is con­
ferred. A growing proportion of
the persons in administrative and
other high-level library positions
have this training. A Ph. D. de­
gree is an advantage to those who




plan a teaching career in library
schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly
in a college or university library
or in a large school library sys­
tem. For those who are interested
in the special libraries field, a
doctorate in the subject of the li­
brary’s specialization also would
be highly desirable.
In 1968, 41 library schools in
the United States were accredited
by the American Library Associa­
tion. Many other colleges offer
courses within their 4-year un­
dergraduate programs, as well as
at the graduate level, which pre­
pare students for some types of
library work.
Entrance requirements to grad­
uate schools of library science
commonly include (1) graduation
from an accredited 4-year college
or university, (2) a good under­
graduate record, and (3) a read­
ing knowledge of at least one for­
eign language. Some schools also
require introductory undergrad­
uate courses in library science.
Most library schools emphasize
the importance of a liberal arts
undergraduate program with a
major selected from one of the
following: Social sciences, physi­
cal and biological sciences, the
arts, or comparative literature.
Some schools require entrance
examinations.
Special librarians and science
information specialists must have
extensive knowledge of their sub­
ject matter as well as training in
library science. In libraries de­
voted to scientific information,
librarians must know well one
foreign language or more. They
also must be well informed about
new equipment, methods, and
techniques used in storing and
recalling technical information.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs, combining their
academic program with practical
work experience in a library.

235
Most library schools make every
effort to arrange the student’s
schedule to permit him to take
the necessary courses while work­
ing part-time. Scholarships for
training in library science are
available under certain State and
Federal programs and from li­
brary schools, as well as from a
number of the large libraries and
library associations. Numerous
loans, assistantships, and financial
aids also are available.
School librarians must be cer­
tified in most States as having
met the requirements for both
librarians and teachers. Some­
times local, county, or State au­
thorities establish other require­
ments, that are based on different
combinations of education and
experience. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, beginning positions re­
quire completion of a 4-year col­
lege course and all the work re­
quired for a master’s degree in
library science or the equivalent
in experience.
In addition to an appropriate
educational background, a person
interested in becoming a librarian
should have above-average intelli­
gence, an interest in people, in­
tellectual curiosity, an ability to
express himself clearly, a desire
to search for and use recorded
materials, and an ability to work
harmoniously with others.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions
or to specialized work. Promotion
to these higher positions may be
limited, however, to those who
have completed graduate training
in a library school, or to those
who have had specialized training.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook for
trained librarians is expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s.
A nationwide shortage existed in
1968 and is expected to continue

236
despite the anticipated rise in the
number of library school grad­
uates. The best opportunities
probably will be in school and
college and university libraries,
especially in research, subject
specialties, and some languages.
Persons who have only a bach­
elor’s degree with a major in li­
brary science, probably will con­
tinue to find employment oppor­
tunities in libraries. Many parttime positions also will be avail­
able for persons trained in library
work.
The demand for fully qualified
professional librarians to meet
the requirements of a grow­
ing and increasingly well-edu­
cated population will be intensi­
fied by the vast and continuing
expansion in the volume and va­
riety of materials which must be
processed for reader use. Also, be­
cause of the ever-increasing de­
mands upon high-level executives
in business and industry, man­
agement will rely more heavily on
the services of special librarians
and science information special­
ists to keep abreast of new de­
velopments. The increase of Fed­
eral aid through the Library
Services and Construction Act of
1964, the Elementary and Sec­
ondary Education Act of 1965,
and the Higher Education Act of
1965, as amended, may further
increase the demand for librar­
ians. Improved standards for
school and college libraries and
the expanding student population
will also necessitate the employ­
ment of a growing number of fully
trained librarians. Furthermore,
as new methods of storing and
retrieving information by means
of computer equipment are de­
veloped, demand for science in­
formation specialists will be very
great. Some librarians will prob­
ably continue to find some oppor­
tunities for employment in the
Armed Forces and U.S. Informa­
tion Agency overseas. Several




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

thousand librarians also will be
needed each year to fill positions
vacated by young women who
leave their jobs to care for their
families, and to replace librarians
who transfer to other types of
work, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons. Opportunities for
women wishing to reenter the
field are favorable
Earnings and W orking Conditions
The annual starting salary of
new library school graduates av­
eraged about $7,500 in 1968. The
degree of responsibility and tech­
nical skill required, as well as
geographic location, size, and
type of library, are important fac­
tors determining individual sal­
aries. The higher paying positions
generally are found in college,
school, and special libraries. Col­
lege and university libraries of­
fered an average beginning salary
of about $8,000 in 1968. The
starting salary offered by school
libraries was about $7,900. New
graduates employed in special li­
braries received about $7,700;
those employed in public libraries
averaged about $7,000. Librarians
having extensive experience and
information specialists having a
Ph. D. degree in a subject matter
field generally earned between
$10,000 and $15,000 a year.
In the Federal Government,
the annual entrance salary for
librarians having at least 1 year
of graduate study leading to a
degree in library science was
$6,981 or $8,462 in late 1968, de­
pending on their academic rec­
ords. Experienced librarians gen­
erally earned from $10,200 to
$19,800. A few had salaries rang­
ing from about $23,000 to
$30,000.
The typical workweek for li­
brarians is 5 days, ranging from
35 to 40 hours. The work sched­
ule of public and college librar­

ians may include some Saturday,
Sunday, and evening work.
School librarians generally have
the same workday schedule as
classroom teachers. A 40-hour
week during normal business
hours is common for government
and other special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks.
Vacations may be longer in school
libraries, and somewhat shorter
in those operated by business and
industry. Many librarians are
covered by sick leave; life, health,
and accident insurance; and pen­
sion plans.
Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Additional information, par­
ticularly on accredited schools,
certification requirements, and
scholarships or loans may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50
East Huron St., Chicago, 1 1
1.
60611.

Information on requirements
and placement of special librar­
ians may be obtained from:
Special Libraries Association, 235
Park Ave., South, New York,
N.Y. 10003.

Information on Federal assist­
ance for library training under
the Higher Education Act of 1965
may be obtained from:
Division of Library Services and
Educational Facilities, Office of
Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Individual State library agen­
cies can furnish information on
scholarships available through
their offices, on requirements for
certification and general informa­
tion about career prospects in
their regions. State boards of edu­
cation can furnish information
on
certification
requirements
and job opportunities for school
librarians.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

LIBRARY TECHNICIANS

N atu re of the W ork
Library technicians, sometimes
called library assistants, perform
reader and technical services that
include furnishing information on
library services, facilities, and
rules. They also assist readers to
locate books and other materials
through the use of card catalogs
and indexes. Some answer “ ready
reference” questions that require
only brief consultation of a stan­
dard reference source. They work
under the supervision of a pro­

fessional librarian and may be re­
sponsible in turn for supervising
clerical staff.
Behind the scenes, library tech­
nicians may do some descriptive
cataloging of books. Such work in­
cludes identifying the title, au­
thor, edition, publisher, publica­
tion date, and number of pages.
They may make notations in the
card catalog to reflect the li­
brary’s use of a classification sys­
tem other than the Library of
Congress System. Some catalog
new editions of works already in
the library and compare informa­
tion in the new edition with that
on the cards already in the li­
brary’s catalog. In some libraries,
technicians may prepare orders
for library materials by looking
up prices and publisher informa­

237
tion; maintain files of special ma­
terials such as newspaper clip­
pings and pictures; and arrange
displays.
In a large library, technicians
may maintain controls on check­
outs, reserves, renewals, and over­
due materials. They may operate
and maintain audiovisual and
data processing equipment, in­
cluding phonographs, slide pro­
jectors, and tape recorders, as
well as readers that magnify, pro­
ject on a screen, and sometimes
print out information on micro­
film and microfiche cards. In some
libraries, they are responsible for
training and supervising clerical
staff.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 70,000 library
technicians were employed in
1968. About 70 percent were
women, although the proportion of
men in the occupation has been in­
creasing slowly since 1960. Most
technicians were employed in
public and school libraries. Small­
er numbers worked in college and
university libraries, and in busi­
ness, medical, and other special
libraries. In addition, the Federal
G overnm ent em ployed about
3,000 library technicians in 1967.

Train in g and A dvancem ent

Library technician checks invoices against list of books ordered.




Most library technicians em­
ployed in 1968 were trained onthe-job in programs that required
from 1 to 3 years to complete. R e­
cently, however, an increasing
number have received training in
formal post-high school programs.
In the future, such training may
be required by a larger number
of employers.
In 1968, about 100 colleges of­
fered a 2-year program for library
technicians which led to an asso-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

238
ciate of arts degree in library
technology. Programs are scat­
tered throughout the United
States; many are in California.
Curriculums generally include one
year of liberal arts and one year
of library-related work, such as
introductory courses in bibliogra­
phic science, cataloging, classifi­
cation, and basic reference service
and reference tools. Most pro­
grams also include principles of
library organization, and the pur­
poses, procedures, and develop­
ment of library science. Some of­
fer training designed to familiar­
ize the student with data process­
ing and audiovisual materials.
The number of junior and com­
munity colleges that offer library
technician programs is expected
to increase rapidly in the future,
continuing the trend of the 1960’s.
A high school diploma or its equiv­
alent is the standard entrance re­
quirement for both academic and
on-the-job training programs.
College programs for library
technicians vary greatly in objec­
tive and content since many of
them were established initially to
meet a particular local need. For
this reason, young people inter­
ested in careers as library tech­
nicians should select a training
program with considerable care
and obtain information on the
curriculum, instructional facili­
ties, faculty qualifications, and
the kinds of jobs obtained by
graduates. Students who may be
interested in becoming profession­
al librarians should be aware that
credits earned in a two-year col­
lege program in library technology
are not necessarily applicable to­
ward a professional degree in li­
brary science.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook is ex­
cellent for library technicians
through the 1970’s, particularly




for graduates of academic pro­
grams. The increasing demands
of a growing population for li­
brary services and the continuing
shortages of professional librar­
ians are among the chief factors
which underlie an expected very
rapid growth in employment re­
quirements for library techni­
cians. Recent Federal legislation
authorizing Federal funds for the
construction, expansion, and im­
provement of libraries is another
factor that influences demand.
For example, Federal grants
amounting to $145 million under
the Library Services and Con­
struction Act and the Higher Edu­
cation Facilities Act of 1963, as
amended, were used in the con­
struction of 715 or more new pub­
lic and academic libraries in fiscal
1966. In addition, purchases of
school library materials author­
ized by Title II of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act of
1965, as amended, amounted to
$78 million in that year.
The rapid growth in occupa­
tional requirements, however, is
not the only factor in determining
the number of job openings. Sev­
eral thousand technicians will be
needed annually through the
1970’s to replace those who die,
retire, transfer to other occupa­
tions, or leave the field for other
reasons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Salaries vary widely with the
size of the community and the li­
brary system in which library
technicians are employed. In large
cities and in large systems, annual
salaries generally range from
about $5,200 to $8,500; in small
towns and in smaller systems,
they tend to range from about
$3,800 to $5,500.
In the Federal Government, an­
nual salaries generally ranged
from about $5,100 to $7,000 in

mid-1968. A few technicians
earned $8,500 a year or more.
Library technicians employed
in public and private school sys­
tems usually work only during
school hours. The work schedule
in public and college libraries may
include some weekend and eve­
ning hours. In government and
special libraries, a 40-hour week
is common.
Most libraries provide fringe
benefits such as group insurance
and retirement pay. Additional
benefits offered by private busi­
ness often include educational as­
sistance programs. Library tech­
nicians employed by the Federal
Government receive the same em­
ployee benefits as other Federal
workers.

MODELS
(D.O.T. 297.868 and 961.868)

N ature of th e W ork
Models convey the idea that
life can become happier, more
glamorous, adventuresome, or se­
cure if people will buy the prod­
ucts or use the services adver­
tised by them. The attractive fe­
male model or the athletic male
model seeks to furnish the indis­
pensable image that can trigger
public demand for a new look or
product.
Most models specialize in some
line of either fashion or photog­
raphic work.
Fashion models employed by
apparel designers, manufacturers,
and wholesalers are called show­
room or wholesale models. Pros­
pective buyers from retail stores
are shown garments and acces­
sories quickly and effectively.
Fashion models wear clothing
and accessories gracefully and

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

exhibit an air of distinction. As
they walk, pivot, and turn to the
back and side, they reveal the
highlights of each garment for
prospective buyers. On some jobs,
they may stop before a prospec­
tive purchaser to mention the
price and the style number of the
garment that identifies it for that
season.
At peak seasons, showroom
models are on duty constantly.
During slack periods, when the
showroom is empty for many
hours each day, they may per­
form various clerical jobs. Fashion
models employed in department
stores, custom salons, and other
retail and specialty shops, are
called informal models. This type
of modeling is conducted for cus­
tomers and promotional purposes.
It is usually carried at a more
leisurely pace than in showrooms.




In the other major branch
of modeling— photographic— the
work usually is done for either
advertising or editorial purposes.
Photographic models generally
are employed by advertising
agencies or free-lance photogra­
phers who supply pictures for
magazine and newspaper ads or
features, as well as for catalogs
and pamphlets. For editorial fea­
tures, the model’s work is much
the same as in fashion photogra­
phy, except that newspaper or
magazine fashion editions use pic­
tures to illustrate fashion news,
the latest hair styles, clothing,
and accessories.
To a degree, photographic mod­
els must have acting ability, for
facial expression is important to
create the desired mood. T o show
pleasure, dissatisfaction, or sur­
prise with realism under bright
lights in a hard-to-hold pose is
not easy.
Photographic models may work
in a neighborhood photographers’
studio, or they may be asked to
fly to such places as Miami Beach
or even Bangkok to obtain photo­
graphs against an authentic back­
ground. The long trip, however,
is not the usual experience of
models.
Some types of modeling do not
fit into either fashion or photo­
graphic work. For example, mod­
els demonstrate new products
and services at manufacturers’
exhibits and industry trade
shows, in commercial or fashion
films, or on television. Some are
hired by designers for fittings.
Others pose for artists and sculp­
tors.

Places of Em ploym ent
Many of the more than 50,000
models employed in the United
States in 1968 worked part time,
and about 4 out of 5 were women
or girls. Although models are em­

239
ployed in most major population
centers throughout the country,
the largest number is in New
York City, center of the fashion
industry in the United States.
Large numbers also work in Chi­
cago, Dallas, Detroit, Los An­
geles, Miami, San Francisco, and
Washington, D.C.
A sizeable number work in
their hometowns doing local fash­
ion shows, modeling for manufac­
turers’ representatives, and par­
ticipating in trade shows and
product promotions.
Manufacturers, designers, and
wholesalers employ the largest
number of full-time models. In
New York City’s garment dis­
trict, for example, thousands of
firms and designers permanently
employ from one to four models.
Other large numbers work for
advertising agencies, retail stores,
mailorder houses, and magazines,
as well as for commercial artists,
sculptors, illustrators, fashion
artists, and art schools.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Employers prefer to hire mod­
els who have had training or
experience. Prospective models
therefore, should attend a model­
ing school to learn the proper
way to walk and stand, how to
style hair and use makeup, and to
select the appropriate clothing
and accessories. In photo model­
ing courses, students are taught
how to pose for the photographer
and how to express different emo­
tions through facial expressions.
Classes in developing personality
and poise are helpful.
Placement offices at modeling
schools provide jobs for many
students. Some jobseekers find
employment by registering at a
model agency. The agency usu­
ally asks the applicant to have
photos made in a number of mod-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

240
eling poses. These are arranged
in a portfolio and shown to
prospective clients. Department
stores sometimes hold auditions
to discover modeling talent and
then give inexperienced models
an opportunity to display the
stores’ newest styles. Some parttime, model-related jobs in de­
partment stores also provide use­
ful experience; among them are
advising customers on back-toschool clothing, and selling jobs
that provide opportunities to
handle clothing, observe custom­
ers, and occasionally to model.
Sometimes experience can be
gained in local charity fund-rais­
ing fashion shows.
Although no formal education­
al requirements are necessary for
many jobs, some employers re­
quire a high school diploma; a
few prefer some college. Courses
in art, speech, drama, dancing,
fashion design and salesmanship
are useful. The job demands not
only perfect grooming, poise, and
a pleasant personality, but also
physical stamina and a generous
helping of determination. The
wise aspirant also should take
typing, shorthand, or other prac­

tical courses as income insurance
during lean times that may occur
between modeling assignments.
Young fashion models must not
only have a flair for style, but in
most cases must be well propor­
tioned and slim, since they are
likely to model manufacturers’
samples— usually small sizes.
Many models, however, work for
manufacturers who specialize in
apparel for particular types of
individuals, such as sportsmen,
toddlers, the short, the tall, or the
stout. A female shoe model gen­
erally must be able to wear size
5, and a hosiery model must have
very long and graceful legs. The
male model in most cases should
be able to wear trim clothing—
usually a size 40 or 41 long suit.




In short, a fashion model is hired
to fit the clothing.
Not all attractive people have
physical characteristics acceptaable for commercial photography.
Women photographic models, for
instance, usually must be longwaisted and at least 5 feet 6 in­
ches tali, have good teeth, and a
face that is either pretty or re­
flects the style demand of the
period.
Modeling can serve as a step­
pings tone to other jobs in the
fashion field such as fashion co­
ordinator, editor on the staff of a
fashion magazine, or fashion con­
sultant. A few models, who serve
as doubles or stand-ins in movies
or television, may become actors
or actresses. Some work their
way through art school by model­
ing and are then in a position to
qualify for jobs as fashion
illustrators.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Full-time modeling should re­
main highly competitive through
the 1970’s. The glamour attached
to it makes this occupation at­
tractive to young people and, for
this reason, the number of job
hunters is expected to continue to
be much larger than the number
of full-time jobs. Employment op­
portunities for part-time work,
however, are expected to be
favorable.
Employment of models is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. Expanded
employment is anticipated in
such industries as apparel manu­
facturing, wholesale and retail
trade, and advertising— the major
employers of models. The com­
petition to gain a greater share
of the expected growing volume
of business will increase emphasis
on product promotion, which in
turn will increase the demand for
models.

Most openings for models will
result from the need to replace
those who leave the field. The
work span of most models is rela­
tively short— particularly in high
fashion modeling where the ac­
cent is on youth. Others are eased
out of the field because the work
with which they are identified
becomes outdated or their pic­
tures have been seen too often.
Many girls also leave modeling
to marry and raise a family. For
these reasons, female models sel­
dom work more than 8 years.
The working life of the male
model, on the other hand, is gen­
erally much longer— often 20
years or more.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
A model’s earnings depend on
such factors as the type and place
of employment and the nature,
frequency, and duration of as­
signments. Although the earnings
of a few top models are high,
ranging to $20,000 or more a year,
most models earn much less. Ac­
cording to the limited information
available beginning fashion mod­
els who work full time for manu­
facturers or wholesalers generally
earned from $85 to $90 a week in
1968. Those having experience
had weekly earnings of $90 to
$125. Beginning models employed
by retail stores were usually paid
from $50 to $80 a week, whereas
experienced retail models earned
from $90 to $100. Retail models
often supplement their weekly
salaries by modeling in fashion
shows which pay from $15 an hour
in some cities to $60 an hour for
experienced photographic models
in the New York City area.
Beginning photographic models
earned from $15 to $25 an hour
in 1967. This rate is deceptive
when considered on a weekly or
annual basis because many mod­
els— especially beginners— work

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

only a few hours each week. Al­
though photographic modeling of­
ten pays well, it can be an “ ex­
pensive” career. In many cases,
models must provide their own
accessories and pay for other ex­
penses. Occasionally, a complete
outfit is needed to get a job.
Television models earn at least
$75 an appearance as an extra,
and at least $125 an appearance
as a principal character, plus an
additional amount for each rerun.
They must be members of a un­
ion— either the Screen Actors
Guild, Inc., or the American Fed­
eration of Television and Radio
Artists.
Manufacturers, wholesalers, and
retailers usually employ models on
a permanent basis. They work a
5-day week and receive a 2-week
vacation and other supplemen­
tary benefits. Those who work
through agencies or on a free­
lance basis, however, receive no
supplementary benefits. Models
are usually paid time and a half
for work after 5:30 p.m. on week­
days, and for any time worked
on Saturdays and Sundays. The
client pays travel expenses out­
side the city. Additional compen­
sation also is received for hazard­
ous assignments, such as striking
a friendly pose with a lion or
alligator, or climbing a ship’s
rigging.
Modeling may influence the
model’s personal life. For example,
the camera highlights the effects
of keeping late night hours. In
addition, a woman model must
devote part of each evening to
beauty care, and sometimes must
prepare clothing and accessories
for the next day’s assignment. To
stay in the profession, the high
fashion model must remain very
slender.
Sources of Additional Inform ation
Young people interested in at­
tending a professional modeling




or charm school can write to the
Department of Education in their
State for a list of approved mod­
eling schools.
Catalogs describing the pro­
gram, entrance requirements, and
tuition costs, at particular mod­
eling schools may be obtained by
writing to their directors.
General information on train­
ing opportunities and modeling is
available from:
The American Model Festival,
P.O. Box 100, Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. 10520.
Modeling Association of America,
Suite 8, 145 East 53d St., New
York, N.Y. 10022.

PHOTOGRAPHERS
(D.O.T. 143.062, .282 and .382)

N ature of the W ork
Photography is an artistic and
technical occupation involving
much more than taking clear pic­
tures. Some photographers pro­
duce pictures which are so beau­
tifully composed, otherwise artis­
tic, and striking that they are
recognized as works of fine art.
Skillful portrait photographers
take pictures which are not only
natural looking and attractive but
express the personality of the in­
dividual. Photographing sports
and other news events also re­
quires special photographic skills,
as do other areas of photographic
work.
The work of photographers
varies greatly, depending upon
the particular area of specializa­
tion; however, all photographers
use equipment and materials that
are basically the same. Photogra­
phers use a variety of still and
motion picture cameras. These
cameras may be equipped with

241
telephoto, wide-angle, or other
special lenses, and have different
types of light filters that enable
the photographer to obtain the
particular effects desired in each
picture. Photographers also utilize
many kinds of film and must
know which to use for each type
of picture, lighting condition, and
camera. The photographer must
be able to select the proper filter
to be used with different film.
When taking pictures indoors or
after dark, photographers use
lighting equipment— flash bulbs
or strobe lights for some pictures,
flood and other special lights and
reflectors for others. In addition,
photographers must be able to
execute the chemical and mechan­
ical processing by which pictures
are developed, enlarged, and
printed. In small shops and photo­
graphic departments, the photog­
rapher often does all this technical
work; as a rule, large studios em­
ploy photographic technicians to
do the needed laboratory work.
The procedures involved in taking
motion pictures differ greatly
from those used in still photog­
raphy and, therefore, most pho­
tographers restrict themselves to
one field or the other.
Photographers also need some
knowledge of art and design, and
they should know how to use
makeup and props. In addition,
photographers must be able to ar­
range their subjects properly
against the background or setting.
Many professional photogra­
phers specialize in such areas as
portrait photography, commercial
photography, or industrial pho­
tography. Portrait photographers
usually work in their own studios,
although they also take pictures
in people’s homes and other
places. Commercial photographers
generally take pictures for use in
advertising real estate, furniture,
food, apparel, and other items,
but they also may do other kinds
of photographic work. The indus-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

242

phers, taking many kinds of pic­
tures and selling them to adver­
tisers, magazines, and other
customers.
Photographers work in all parts
of the country, in small towns as
well as large cities. They are con­
centrated, however, in States
which are heavily populated—
California, New York, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio and Illinois— and
which also have great numbers of
businesses and industrial estab­
lishments.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Photographer adjusts lens setting on copy camera.

trial photographer usually works
for a single firm or company,
mainly taking pictures that are
used in company publications and
for advertising company products
or services. He may take motion
pictures of workers on the job and
of equipment and machinery op­
erating at high speed; these pic­
tures are then used to simplify
work methods or to improve the
production process. Other photo­
graphic specialists include press
photography (photo journalism
that combines a “ nose for news”
with photographic ability); aerial
photography; instrum entation
photography; illustrative photog­
raphy; educational photography
(preparing slides, film strips, and
movies for use in the classroom);
and science and engineering pho­
tography (the development of
photographic techniques for use
in space photography and related
fields). Some photographers teach




in high schools or colleges, act as
representatives of photographic
equipment manufacturers, man­
age photo-finishing establish­
ments, sell photographic equip­
ment and supplies, produce docu­
mentary films, or do freelance
work.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 60,000 photographers
were employed in 1968. Approxi­
mately half of them worked in
portrait or commercial studios—
many in business for themselves,
the rest as salaried employees. In
addition, sizable numbers were
employed in industry; some
worked for Federal, State, and
local government agencies; and
others operated camera stores or
worked on the staffs of newspa­
pers and magazines. Still others
worked as freelance photogra­

After graduating from high
school, young people may prepare
for work as professional photog­
raphers through 2 or 3 years of
on-the-job training in a portrait
or commercial studio. A trainee
generally starts by working in the
darkroom, where he learns how to
develop and print film and do
other related work such as photo
printing and enlarging. Later, he
may set up lights and cameras
or otherwise assist an experienced
photographer in taking pictures.
Photographic training also can be
obtained in many colleges and
universities, trade schools, and
technical institutes, or by taking
correspondence school courses.
There are colleges, universities, or
other institutions in almost every
State that offer instructions in
some area of photography. Several
colleges and universities offer 4year curriculums leading to a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
photography. These curriculums
include liberal arts courses as well
as courses in professional photog­
raphy. The master’s degree with
a major in various specialized
areas, such as color photography,
is offered by some colleges and
universities. A few institutions
have 2-year curriculums leading
to a certificate or an associate

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

degree in photography. Training
in design at art schools or insti­
tutes is also useful, although these
schools usually do not provide the
technical training for camera
work. (See statement on Com­
mercial Artists.) Some photogra­
phers are trained in 3-year ap­
prenticeship
programs.
Also,
many young people learn photo­
graphic skills while serving in the
Armed Forces.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Employment opportunities are
expected to be favorable through
the 1970’s for talented and welltrained photographers, particular­
ly those having good technical
backgrounds. People who have
less ability and training are likely
to encounter keen competition
and limited chances of advance­
ment.
Competition for employment in
The kind and amount of train­
the portrait and commercial fields
ing obtained greatly influences
of photography is expected to be
the type of photographic work for
keen; nevertheless, opportunities
which a young person can qualify.
should exist for those who are
Amateur photographic experience
competent and well trained. These
may be helpful to the young per­
fields may be entered easily, since
son considering entry jobs in this
a photographer can go into busi­
field.
ness for himself with a modest
Considerable formal post-high financial investment. Moreover,
school training, plus some photo­ the available supply of portrait
graphic experience, is usually and commercial photographers is
needed to enter industrial, news, continually enlarged by people
or scientific photography. Photo­ who are employed in other occu­
graphic work in scientific and en­ pations but who take pictures in
gineering research generally re­ their spare time.
quires a background in science or
In coming years, the employ­
engineering, as well as skill in ment of industrial photographers
photography.
is expected to rise at a more rapid
The prospective photographer rate than that of either portrait
should have manual dexterity and or commercial photographers. Ma­
some artistic ability. In addition, jor factors contributing to this
a pleasant personality, the ability growth are the increasing use of
to put people at ease, and a good photographers in research and de­
business sense are needed by pho­ velopment and the more wide­
tographers who expect to go into spread production of audio-visual
business for themselves. Imagina­ aids for use by business, industry,
tion and originality are particular­ civic organizations, and govern­
ly important assets for successful ment. Because of advances in pho­
careers in commercial photogra­ tographic technology, such as
phy or freelance work. For press more sophisticated cameras and
photography, a knowledge of news improved color and high-speed
values and the ability to act photography, more and more busi­
quickly are important.
ness concerns and other organiza­
Beginning portrait and com­ tions are utilizing photographic
mercial photographers often work work. Microfilming will offer em­
in established studios until they ployment opportunities for per­
accumulate the capital and ex­ sons having basic photographic
perience needed to start their own skills. In this process, photo meth­
businesses, although some open ods are used to reduce large quan­
their own portrait or commercial tities of file material to 16 milli­
studios immediately after com­ meter film for easier filing and
pleting their training.
retrieval. In addition, opportuni­




243
ties are expected to be favorable
for photographers working in sci­
entific and engineering photogra­
phy, illustrative photography,
photo-journalism, and other high­
ly specialized areas that require
a thorough knowledge of photog­
raphy as well as training in a tech­
nical or scientific field. Population
expansion and the growth of the
suburbs also will create some op­
portunities for photographers to
open portrait studios in new shop­
ping centers.
It is estimated that approxi­
mately 2,200 workers will be
needed each year to fill new posi­
tions and to replace photogra­
phers who retire, die, or stop
working for other reasons. Still
more workers will be needed to
replace photographers who trans­
fer to other types of employment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Beginning photographers gen­
erally earned from $90 to $110 a
week in 1968, according to lim­
ited information from various
private sources. Many photogra­
phers who have established repu­
tations earned much more. For
newspaper photographers without
previous experience and employed
on most daily newspapers having
contracts with the American
Newspaper Guild, minimum start­
ing salaries ranged from about
$100 to $135 a week. For those
working on a few small dailies,
the Guild minimum starting sal­
aries were less than $95 a week;
on a few large dailies, Guild mini­
mum rates for beginning photog­
raphers approached $150 a week
or more. Photographers who have
a science or engineering back­
ground usually received beginning
salaries of between $8,000 and
$9,000 a year.
Minimum rates for newspaper
photographers having some ex­
perience (usually for those with

244
4 to 6 years) ranged from about
$165 to $200 a week in late 1968.
Contract minimums for experi­
enced newspaper photographers
on a few small dailies were less
than $150 a week; on a few large
dailies, they ranged from about
$210 to $235 a week. Many news­
paper photographers earn $250 a
week or more.
Depending on the level of ex­
perience, the entrance salary of
photographers in the Federal
Civil Service ranged from $5,145
to $8,462 a year in late 1968. In
addition, the salary schedule pro­
vides for periodic increases above
this amount. Most experienced
photographers in the Federal
G overnm ent earned between
$5,700 and $13,300 a year; a few
earned over $15,000 annually.
S e l f - e m p l o y e d photographers
generally earn more than salaried
workers, but their earnings are af­
fected greatly by business condi­
tions and many other factors such
as the type of community and size
of clientele.
Photographers who have sal­
aried jobs usually work the stan­
dard 5-day, 40-hour week and re­
ceive benefits such as paid holi­
days, vacations, and sick leave.
Photographers in business for
themselves frequently work longer
hours, especially during their busy
seasons. Working conditions are
generally pleasant. Freelance,
press, and commercial photogra­
phers may be required to travel
frequently.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about photography
as a career, as well as a list of
schools of photography, is avail­
able from:
Professional Photographers of
America, Inc., 1090 Executive
Way, Oak Leaf Commons, Des
Plaines, 111. 60018.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

sampling,
and
mathematical
methods, as tools of analysis. A f­
(D.O.T. 033.187, 012.168, 020.081 and ter analyzing the problem and
020.088)
devising a system for processing
data, systems analysts may rec­
ommend the type of equipment
N atu re of th e W ork
to be used and prepare instruc­
tions for programers. They also
Systems analysts are concerned may interpret final results and
with the planning, scheduling, translate them into terms which
and coordination of activities are understandable to manage­
which are required to develop ment, subject matter specialists,
systems for processing data and or customers.
obtaining solutions to complex
The number and type of databusiness, scientific, or engineer­ processing problems are so vast
ing problems. The methods of and solution processes so varied
systems analysis require that the and complex that many systems
individual parts of a problem be analysts tend to concentrate on
viewed within the context of the particular subject matter areas.
overall problem. Although a sys­ For example, in business offices,
tem can be developed to process analysts may specialize in ac­
data manually) mechanically, or counting or inventory control.
with electronic computers, most Systems analysts who work for
systems analysts are concerned scientific or engineering organi­
with developing methods for com­ zations may specialize in prob­
puter usage. (This statement dis­ lems such as determining the
cusses only the work of systems flight path of a space vehicle.
analysts who devise systems Other analysts may develop sys­
which use electronic computers to tems for planning and forecasting
process data and solve problems.) sales or marketing research.
Systems analysts employed by
Systems analysts also improve
large business firms may be en­ existing systems and develop en­
gaged in developing methods to tirely new data-processing meth­
process accounting, inventory, ods and applications. When work­
sales, and other business informa­ ing with systems already in use,
tion by using electronic comput­ they are concerned with improv­
ers. With the assistance of man­ ing and adapting the system to
agers or subject matter special­ handle additional or different
ists, they determine the exact types of data. Analysts engaged
nature of the data-processing in research are concerned with
problem. The systems analysts finding or devising new tech­
then define, analyze, and struc­ niques and methods of systems
ture the problem in a logical analysis. Often this work is de­
manner so that a system to elimi­ scribed as “ advanced” systems
nate the problem and obtain the design, and analysts engaged in
desired results can be developed. this type of activity usually have
They obtain all of the data mathematical, scientific, or engi­
needed and define exactly the neering backgrounds.
way it is to be processed. They
Some systems analysts may
prepare charts, tables, and dia­ have managerial and administra­
grams to describe the processing tive duties. They are responsible
system and the steps necessary for overall systems design and
to make it operate. Systems feasibility, and for assigning
analysts may use various tech­ analysts to various phases of a
niques, such as cost accounting, project. They also may plan, or-

SYSTEMS ANALYSTS

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ganize, and control systems anal­
ysis throughout the organization
in which they are employed and
prepare reports of their work.

Systems analysts work chiefly in
large cities.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Places of E m ploym ent
About 150,000 persons were
estimated to be employed as sys­
tems analysts in 1968. They work
mainly for insurance companies,
manufacturing concerns, banks,
wholesale and retail businesses,
and the Federal Government. A
growing number of systems anal­
ysts are employed by universities
and independent service organi­
zations which furnish computer
services to business firms and
other organizations on a fee basis.




There is no universally accept­
able way of preparing for work in
systems analysis. Some employ­
ers prefer that candidates have a
bachelor’s degree and experience
in mathematics, science, engi­
neering, accounting, or business.
Other employers stress a graduate
degree.
Educational preparation and
experience often determine the
kinds of job opportunities avail­
able to applicants. For example,
employers are likely to seek a

245
systems analyst who has a back­
ground in business administra­
tion to work in finance or similar
systems areas; those having an
engineering background are likely
to be sought for engineering or
scientifically oriented systems.
Applicants also may qualify for
work solely on the basis of pro­
fessional experience obtained in
scientific, technical, or manage­
rial occupations, or practical ex­
perience in such data processing
jobs as computer operator or
programer.
Most employers prefer to hire
people who have had some ex­
perience in computer program­
ing. A young person can learn to
use electronic data-processing
equipment on the job or can take
special courses offered by col­
leges, computer manufacturers,
or their employers. In the Fed­
eral Government, for example,
systems analysts usually begin
their careers as programers. After
gaining some experience, they
may be promoted to systems ana­
lyst trainees so they may qualify
as systems analysts.
In large electronic data-processing departments, a person who
begins as a junior systems ana­
lyst may be promoted to a posi­
tion of greater responsibility as
he gains experience. Responsible
positions in this field include
those of senior or lead systems
analyst. Systems analysts having
proven leadership ability also can
advance to positions as manager
of systems analysis, electronic
data-processing department man­
ager, or other managerial posi­
tions.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities
for systems analysts should be
excellent through the 1970’s. Sys­
tems analyst ranked among the
fastest growing professional oc-

246
cupations in recent years. Em­
ployers have experenced diffi­
culty in recruiting qualified sys­
tems analysts because of the
demand for people with similar
backgrounds especially from the
science and mathematics fields.
A growing demand for systems
analysts will result from the rap­
id expansion occurring in the
number of electronic data-processing systems used by busi­
nesses, government agencies, and
other organizations. Additional
opportunities for systems ana­
lysts will arise as computers and
peripheral equipment become
more sophisticated and are made
capable of solving more complex
problems in a wider variety of
fields. Greater emphasis will be
placed on developing computer
systems which will retrieve in­
formation more efficiently and
economically; solve complex busi­
ness, scientific, and engineering
problems; and monitor and con­
trol industrial processes. These
developments and others, such as
the extension of computer tech­
nology to small businesses, the
use of systems analysts in market
research and in determining the
locations of plants and stores,
and the growth of computer cen­
ters to serve individual clients on
a fee basis, signify a very rapid
rise in future employment levels
of systems analysts.
In addition to the many em­
ployment opportunities resulting
from growth in the field, some
openings will occur as systems
analysts advance to more respon­
sibility positions or leave their
jobs to enter other types of em­
p loym en t. Because many of the
workers are young, relatively few
positions will be available because
of retirement or death.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, beginning salaries of
systems analysts averaged be­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOI

tween $6,400 and $9,100 a year,
according to a private survey
which covered more than 37,000
workers in business, government,
and educational data-processing
installations in all parts of the
country. Earnings of experienced
systems analysts a v e r a g e d
$12,000 annually, and in some
cases they were paid $22,000 or
more a year.
The great majority of systems
analysts employed by the Federal
Government in late 1968 earned
from $8,462 to approximately
$14,400 a year. Top salaries for
experienced systems analysts
ranged up to about $18,700 per
year, although top managerial
positions pay even higher salaries.
The workweek for systems ana­
lysts is usually the same— about
40 hours— as for other profes­
sional and office workers. Unlike
many computer-oriented workers,
such as console operators who
work on two or three shifts, sys­
tems analysts usually work only
during the day. Occasionally,
evening or weekend work may be
necessary to complete emergency
or rush projects.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information about
the occupation of systems analyst
may be obtained from the follow­
ing sources:
American Federation of Informa­
tion Processing Societies, 210
Summit Avenue,
Montvale,
N.J. 07645.
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 1 1 60068.
1.

A list of reading materials on
career opportunities in the data
processing field may be obtained
from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.
10036.

PROGRAMERS
(D.O.T. 020.188)

N ature of the W ork
An electronic computer, evei
though sometimes called a “ me
chanical brain” can only follov
step-by-step instructions that tel
it exactly what to do. The pro
gramer prepares these instruc
tions.
A computer not only make;
mathematical calculations at fan
tastic speeds, but stores larg<
amounts of data in its “ memory’
and later uses it to perform it*
tasks, because computers are able
to work with masses of informa
tion at tremendous speed anc
with a high degree of accuracy
they are used for much “ date
processing” which would other­
wise require the time of manj
employees. They handle varied
assignments such as maintaining
inventories, controlling produc­
tion machinery in factories, mak­
ing long-range weather forecasts,
doing legal and medical research,
and analyzing air traffic patterns.
Every “ problem” processed in a
computer first must be carefully
analyzed so that exact and logical
steps for its solution can be
worked out. In some cases, the
preliminary work is done by an
experienced programer; in others,
it may be done by a specialist
known as a systems analyst. (See
the statement on systems ana
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.
Once this preliminary work ha
been completed, the “ program,1
or detailed instructions for proc
essing the data can be prepare<
by the programer. Exactly hov
he does this depends not only oi
the type of equipment to be usee
but on the nature of the problem
The mathematical calculation*
involved in billing a firm’s cus

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

tomers, for example, are very
different from those required in
most kinds of scientific and tech­
nical work. The programing tech­
niques are also different. Still
other techniques are required in
writing programing “ aids” which
reduce the amount of detail as­
sociated with programing. Be­
cause of these differences, many
programers specialize in certain
kinds of work.
In business offices, computers

are frequently used to bill cus­
tomers, make up payrolls, and
keep track of inventories. Here
the programer often starts his
work by determining exactly
what information must be used
to prepare the necessary docu­
ments and by ascertaining the
exact form in which this informa­
tion is entered on company rec­
ords. He then makes a flow chart,
or diagram, showing the order in
which the computer must perform

Computer programer consults flow diagram.




247
each operation, and for each op­
eration he prepares detailed in­
structions. These instructions,
when they are relayed to the com­
puter’s control unit, instruct the
machine exactly what to do with
each piece of information, in or­
der to produce each business
document. The programer also is
responsible for preparing an in­
struction sheet for the console
operator to follow when the pro­
gram is run on the computer.
(The work of the console opera­
tor is described in the statement
on Electronic Computer Operat­
ing Personnel.)
The final step in programing is
“ debugging” — that is, checking
on whether the instructions have
been correctly written and will
produce the desired information.
A program is usually debugged
in two steps. First, the programer
takes a sample of the data to be
processed and reviews step by
step exactly what will happen as
the computer follows the series
of instructions which make up the
program. Then, after he has re­
vised the instructions to take care
of any difficulties that have ap­
peared, he completes the test by
having a trial run made in the
computer. The console operator
sometimes helps with this part of
the debugging process.
A comparatively simple pro­
gram can be made for a computer
within a very few days. A pro­
gram which deals with a complex
problem or is designed to produce
many different kinds of informa­
tion may require a year or more
of preparation— sometimes by a
large number of programers. On
involved problems, several pro­
gramers at different levels of re­
sponsibility often work as a team,
under the supervision of a senior
programer.
The programer may perform
other related duties, such as de­
signing forms to use in data pres­
entation. In addition, existing

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

248
programs must be updated to
keep pace with administrative
changes or to improve efficiency.
Also, the introduction of larger
or newer model computers often
requires that many programs be
rewritten.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 175,000 programers were
employed in 1968. In addition,
some professional workers such
as engineers, scientists, math­
ematicians, economists, and ac­
countants spend a portion of their
time programing.
Programers are employed chief­
ly by large business organizations
and government agencies. A great
many work for insurance compa­
nies and banks, public utilities,
wholesale and retail establish­
ments, and manufacturing firms
of almost every kind. A consider­
able number are government em­
ployees doing work related either
to scientific and technical prob­
lems, or to the processing of the
vast amount of paperwork which
is handled in many government of­
fices. In addition, a growing num­
ber of programers are employed
by computer manufacturers and
independent service organizations
which furnish computer and pro­
graming services to business firms
and other organizations on a fee
basis.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The special abilities most
sought after by employers when
they hire programers are similar
for all types of positions, but re­
quirements regarding education
and experience may be very differ­
ent and may be dependent mainly
on the problems with which the
programer will be occupied. Some
programers are college graduates




having degrees in engineering, for
example, whereas others have had
years of experience in work such
as accounting or inventory con­
trol.
In selecting programers, em­
ployers look for people having an
aptitude for logical thinking and
the exacting kind of analysis
which is part of the job. The work
also calls for patience, persist­
ence, and the ability to work
with extreme accuracy. Ingenuity
and imagination are particularly
important in jobs where pro­
gramers have to solve problems in
new ways.
In organizations which use com­
puters for science and engineer­
ing, most programers are college
graduates, usually having degrees
in engineering, the physical sci­
ences, mathematics, or computer
science. Graduate degrees may be
required for some positions; for
almost all positions, an applicant
who has no college training is at
a severe disadvantage.
Employers who use computers
to process business records gener­
ally place somewhat less emphasis
on technical college training.
Many regard previous experience
in machine tabulation, payroll
work, or accounting equally as
important and fill many of their
programer positions by promot­
ing qualified employees having
such experience. When employers
find it necessary to hire outsiders,
however, they usually give pref­
erence to applicants having an
education beyond high school.
College courses in electronic data
processing or in accounting, busi­
ness administration, engineering,
or mathematics provide especially
good preparation.
Entrance requirements for jobs
in the Federal Government are
much the same as for those in pri­
vate industry. Practically all en­
try programer positions in the
Government require applicants to
have a college degree, preferably

with training in mathematics, or
the equivalent of such prepara­
tion in previous work experience.
Young people interested in pro­
graming can acquire some of the
necessary skills at a steadily in­
creasing number of technical
schools, colleges, and universities.
The instruction available ranges
from introductory home study
and extension courses to ad­
vanced work in computer tech­
nology at the graduate level.
High school courses in computer
programing are also offered to
students in many parts of the
country.
However, high school and posthigh school instruction do not en­
tirely eliminate the need for onthe-job training. Since techno­
logical changes are continually
taking place in this field and each
type of computer has its own spe­
cial programing requirements,
some additional training is usu­
ally necessary.
Most beginners in this occupa­
tion attend training classes for
a few weeks and then, as they
work on minor programing as­
signments, continue with further
specialized training. A year or
more of experience is usually nec­
essary before a programer can
handle all aspects of his job with­
out close supervision. Once he
becomes skilled, his prospects for
further advancement are good.
Eperienced and capable program­
ers are in strong demand. In or­
ganizations employing several
programers, promotion may be to
a senior programing job having
supervisory responsibilities or to
systems analyst. An increasing
number of programers eventually
move up to management positions
in their firms.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Many thousands of new jobs
for programers will become avail-

249
able each year through the 1970’s.
Employment is expected to in­
crease very rapidly, as an ex­
panding and increasingly complex
economy causes computers to be­
come more useful to business and
government, and as the number of
computer installations also rises
rapidly. The increase in employ­
ment is expected to be particular­
ly sharp in firms which use com­
puters to process business records
or to control manufacturing
processes.
The rise in employment could
well be accompanied by changes
in the nature of the work done by
programers. Advances in pro­
graming techniques and equip­
ment, such as “ automatic pro­
graming” and the use of programs
and program parts stored in li­
braries for future reference, will
eliminate much of the routine
work associated with writing a
program. As a consequence, pro­
fessionally
trained
personnel
qualified to handle both program­
ing and systems analysis are
likely to be increasingly in de­
mand, especially for work on sci­
entific and engineering problems.
For other positions, many of them
in large business offices where the
analysis is done by accountants
and other subject matter experts,
there is some evidence that 2
years of intensive training at the
post-high school level may pro­
vide a sufficient background for
beginning programers.
Most of the openings for pro­
gramers in the years just ahead
will be new jobs that arise as the
number of computer installations
continues to increase, and com­
puters are put to new uses. Some
openings also will occur as pro­
gramers advance to more respon­
sible positions, or as they leave
their jobs to enter other types of
employment. Because this occu­
pation includes many compara­
tively young workers, fewer posi­
tions are likely to become vacant




because of retirement or death
than in other occupations of sim­
ilar size.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, beginning salaries for
programers averaged $7,850 a
year, according to a private sur­
vey which covered more than 37,000 data processing workers in all
parts of the country. Experienced
programers averaged $10,600 a
year, with some earning up to
$17,000 annually. The average sal­
ary for programers having super­
visory duties was $12,000 a year;
some
programing
supervisors
earned up to $22,000 annually.
The survey indicated substan­
tial differences in the salaries of
the lowest and highest paid in­
dividuals in the same kinds of
positions, however, with some
earning up to four times as much
as others in the same group.
These differences were due partly
to the kind of data processed and
the kind of computer used, as
well as the industry involved and
its location.
Federal Government salaries
for programers are comparable
with those in private industry.
The great majority earn be­
tween $7,000 and $15,800 a year.
The minimum entrance salary for
beginners was $5,732 a year in late
1968, and the top salaries of ex­
perienced programers responsible
for complex programing or super­
visory and administrative work
ranged to $19,800 or more a year.
The standard workweek for
programers is about 40 hours. Un­
like many computer console and
auxiliary equipment operators
who work on a 2- or 3-shift basis,
programers usually work only
during the day. Occasionally,
evening or weekend worth may
be necessary— for example, when
it proves particularly difficult to
debug a program.

Work places are usually mod­
ern offices, well-lighted and air
conditioned. Employers recognize
the desirability of providing the
best possible work surroundings,
because programers working un­
der such conditions can concen­
trate more readily on the exacting
kind of analysis which is an es­
sential part of their job.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Additional general information
about the occupation of programer may be obtained from:
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 1 1 60068.
1.
American Federation of Informa­
tion Processing Societies, 210
Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J.
07645.

A list of reading materials on
career opportunities in program­
ing may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.
10036.

PSYCHOLOGISTS
(D.O.T. 045.088 and .108)

N a tu re of the W ork
The problems of severe emo­
tional stress and abnormal behav­
ior, the causes of low morale, or
the effective performance of an
astronaut, are among the concerns
of psychologists seeking to under­
stand people and to explain their
actions. Psychologists study the
behavior of individuals and groups
and often help individuals achieve
satisfactory personal a d ju st­
ments. Their work includes varied
activities such as teaching in col-

250
leges and universities; counseling
individuals; planning and con­
ducting training programs for
workers; performing basic and ap­
plied research; advising on psy­
chological methods and theories;
and administering psychology
programs in hospitals, clinics, re­
search laboratories, and other
places.
Psychologists obtain informa­
tion about the capacities, traits,
interests, behavior, and actions
of people in several ways. They
may interview individuals, devel­
op and administer tests and rating
scales, study personal histories,
and conduct controlled experi­
ments. In addition, psychologists
often conduct surveys, either by
personal interviews or by written
questionnaires.
Psychologists usually specialize
in one of the many interrelated
branches of the profession. Clinic­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

al psychologists are the largest
group of specialists. Generally,
they work in mental hospitals or
clinics and are concerned mainly
with problems of mentally or emo­
tionally disturbed people. They
interview patients, give diagnostic
tests, and provide individual and
group psychotherapy. Other spe­
cialties in psychology include ex­
perimental psychology (the study
of basic learning and motivation);
developmental psychology (the
study of special age groups such
as young children, teenagers, and
the aged); personality and social
(the study of the social forces
that affect i n d i v i d u a l s and
groups); school psychology (con­
cerned with phychological factors
involved in the educational per­
formance and general well being
of school age children; compara­
tive psychology (sometimes called
animal psychology); physiological

psychology (the relationship of
behavior to psysiological process­
es) ; counseling psychology (help­
ing people achieve satisfactory
personal, social, educational, or
occupational adjustments); edu­
cational psychology (the study
of educational processes); indus­
trial psychology (developing tech­
niques for selecting and training
workers and improving worker
motivation and morale); and en­
gineering psychology (the study
of man-machine and other com­
plex system relationships).

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 32,000 psychol­
ogists were employed in 1968.
About one-fifth of all psychol­
ogists are women.
Colleges and universities em­
ploy the largest number of psy­
chologists— nearly two-fifths of
the total. Government agencies—
Federal, State, and local— employ
the second largest group. Within
the Federal Government, the
agencies having the most psychol­
ogists are the Veterans Adminis­
tration, the Department of D e­
fense, and the Public Health Ser­
vice of the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.
Many psychologists also work
in elementary and secondary
schools, private industry, and
nonprofit foundations and clinics.
Some are in independent practice,
and others serve as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces and
the Public Health Service. In ad­
dition to positions with the title
“ psychologist,” many personnel
and administrative jobs are filled
by persons trained in psychology.

Training , O ther Q ualifications
and A dvancem ent
Generally, the master’s degree
with a major in psychology is the

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

minimum educational require­ predoctoral and post doctoral
ment for professional employment traineeships and research fellow­
in the field. Psychologists having ships. The National Science
this degree can qualify for posi­ Foundation, the U.S. Office of
tions where they administer and Education, the Rehabilitation Ser­
interpret psychological tests, col­ vices Administration, and the Na­
lect and analyze statistical data, tional Institute of Mental Health
conduct research experiments, also provide fellowships, grants,
and perform administrative du­ and loans for advanced training
ties. In addition, they may teach in psychology.
The American Board of Exam­
in colleges, help counsel students
or handicapped persons, or— if iners in Professional Psychology
they have had previous teaching awards diplomas in the specialties
experience— act as school psy­ of clinical, counseling, industrial,
chologists or counselors. (See and school psychology to those
statements on School Counselors having outstanding educational
records and experience and who
and Rehabilitation Counselors.)
The Ph. D. degree is needed pass the required examinations.
Some universities require an
for many entrance positions and
is becoming increasingly import­ undergraduate major in psychol­
ant for advancement. Psychol­ ogy for admission to graduate
ogists having doctorates are eligi­ work in that field. Others prefer
ble for the more responsible re­ students with a broader educa­
search, clinical, and counseling tional preparation, including not
positions, as well as for the higher only some basic psychology
level positions in colleges and uni­ courses but also courses in the
versities, and in Federal and State biological, physical and social sci­
ences, statistics, and mathematics.
programs.
Psychologists desiring to enter
At least 1 year of full-time
graduate study is needed to earn independent practice must meet
the master’s degree, and most stu­ certification or licensing require­
dents study longer. An additional ments in an increasing number of
3 to 5 years of graduate work States. In 1968, 43 States had
usually is required for the Ph. D. these requirements.
degree. In clinical or counseling
psychology, the requirements for
the Ph. D. degree generally in­
clude 1 year of internship or su­
Em ploym ent O utlook
pervised experience.
Many graduate students re­
ceive financial help from univer­
Employment opportunities for
sities and other sources in the
form of fellowships, scholarships, psychologists who have doctor’s
or part-time employment. Several degrees are expected to be excel­
Federal agencies provide funds to lent through the 1970’s. Psychol­
graduate students, generally ogists holding master’s degrees
through the educational institu­ also will be in demand, but their
tion giving the training. The Vet­ opportunities will be less favorable
erans Administration offers a than for those having the Ph. D.
large number of predoctoral train­ degree.
Continued very rapid expan­
eeships, during which time the stu­
dents receive payments and gain sion of the profession is expected
supervised experience in VA hos­ through the 1970’s. A large in­
pitals and clinics. The Public crease is anticipated in the num­
Health Service provides funds for ber of psychologists employed by




251
State and local agencies. Current­
ly understaffed mental hospitals,
mental hygiene clinics, and com­
munity mental health centers will
need many clinical, counseling,
social, and physiological psychol­
ogists. In addition, correctional
institutions are expected to use
psychologists more extensively in
the future.
Increasing awareness of the
need for testing and counseling
children, combined with growing
secondary school enrollments, is
expected to increase the need for
psychologists in schools. In col­
leges and universities, more psy­
chologists will be needed for stu­
dent personnel work, as well as
for teaching and research. In­
creased public concern for the de­
velopment of human resources as
evidenced by the Mental Retar­
dation Facilities and Community
Mental Health Centers Construc­
tion Act of 1963, as amended1
,
and “ Headstart” and other anti­
poverty programs will further in­
crease the demand for psychol­
ogists. The trend toward greater
use of psychological techniques
by private industry will create
new openings for experimental,
industrial, personnel, and human
engineering specialists.
Many openings for psychol­
ogists having Ph. D. degrees who
are specialists in clinical, counsel­
ing, experimental, human engi­
neering, physiological, social, and
personnel psychology are ex­
pected in the Veterans Adminis­
tration, the Department of De­
fense, and in State and local
governments.
Many vacancies also will occur
each year owing to retirements
and deaths. The transfer of psy­
chologists to do work of a purely
administrative nature also may
create some job vacancies. Most
opportunities, however, will result
from the rapid expansion that is
anticipated for the profession.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

252
Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, starting salaries for
male psychologists having a mas­
ter’s degree averaged about $9,100
a year, according to the American
Psychological Association. Begin­
ning salaries for males having the
doctoral degree averaged $12,800.
For women psychologists, start­
ing salaries averaged a few hun­
dred dollars less.
The median annual salary for
all psychologists in the National
Science Foundation’s Register of
Scientific and Technical Person­
nel was $13,200 in 1968. The me­
dian salary for those having a
Ph. D. was $14,500. According to
the Register, self-employed psy­
chologists generally have higher
incomes than salaried employees.
Median salaries in graduate de­
partments of psychology ranged
from $9,700 for assistant profes­
sors to $16,000 for full professors
during the academic year 1967-68
(9-10 months), according to a
survey conducted for the Confer­
ence of Chairman of Graduate
Departments of Psychology.
In the Federal Government,
psychologists having a Ph. D. de­
gree and limited experience
started at $12,243 in late 1968.
The annual average salary in the
Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
which requires the doctoral degree
for all specialties, was about
$16,300 in 1968.

Information on traineeships
and fellowships may be secured
from colleges and universities with
graduate psychology departments.

RECREATION WORKERS
(D.O.T. 079.128, 187.118, 195.288)

N ature of the W ork
Leisure used to be considered
the companion of idleness, silent­
ly stealing the time needed to
produce the necessities of life.
In recent years, however, new ma­
chines and technology have raised
the standard of living of most peo­
ple and have provided them with
leisure hours unheard of a genera­
tion ago. How people spend their
nonworking hours is now a major
concern. Recreation workers help
people to enjoy and use their
leisure time constructively by or-

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities, certification or li­
censing requirements, and educa­
tional facilities and financial as­
sistance for graduate students in
psychology may be secured from:
American Psychological Associa­
tion, 1200 17th St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.




Recreation worker gives pottery-making
demonstration.

ganizing individual and group
activities and by administering
physical, social, and cultural pro­
grams for all age groups at camps,
playgrounds, community centers,
and hospitals. They also operate
recreational facilities and study
the recreation needs of individ­
uals and communities.
Recreation workers employed
by local government and volun­
tary agencies direct activities at
neighborhood playgrounds and
indoor recreation centers. They
provide instruction in the arts
and crafts and in sports such as
tennis and basketball. They may
supervise recreational activities
at correctional institutions and
work closely with social workers
in organizing programs of recrea­
tion for the young and the aged
at community centers and social
welfare agencies.
Many personnel work in in­
dustrial, hospital, military, or
school
recreation.
Recreation
workers in industry plan the
recreation programs of company
employees and organize bowling
leagues, softball teams, and sim­
ilar activities. Sometimes, they
plan fund drives and company
social functions. Hospital recrea­
tion workers plan recreation pro­
grams for the ill and the handi­
capped in hospitals, convalescent
homes, and other institutions.
Working under medical direction,
they organize and direct sports,
dramatics, and arts and crafts for
persons suffering from mental
problems and physical disabilities.
School recreation workers orga­
nize the leisure-time activities of
school-age children during school­
days, weekends, and vacation
periods.
Some
part-time
recreation
workers and volunteers assist
full-time workers throughout the
year but mostly during the sum­
mer months. Part-time workers
are largely college students and
teachers. They work primarily as

253

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

recreation leaders and camp
counselors, organizing and lead­
ing games and other activities at
camps and playgrounds.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 40,000 professional rec­
reation workers were employed
full time in 1968; most of them
worked full time. The majority
worked for local governments and
voluntary agencies. Most of the
remainder were employed by re­
ligious organizations or by the
Federal Government in national
parks, the Armed Forces, the Vet­
erans Administration, and correc­
tional institutions. Some recrea­
tional workers were employed by
industry, and a few were teachers
in colleges and universities.
Recreation workers are em­
ployed in all parts of the country;
however, a large proportion are
employed in California, Massa­
chusetts, New Jersey, New York,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas.
About one-third of all recreation
workers are women.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most employers prefer persons
who have a bachelor’s degree and
a major in recreation, social sci­
ence, or physical education for
work in the recreation field. How­
ever, fewer than one-half of the
recreation workers currently em­
ployed have this educational
background. Persons interested in
becoming
recreation
workers
should take a broad range of
courses in college, including
philosophy, the humanities, natu­
ral sciences, and the arts. Spe­
cialized courses stressing the his­
tory, philosophy, and scope of
recreation; the techniques of
community organization; health
and safety procedures; and out­




door recreation are particularly
helpful. Advanced courses in rec­
reation or public administration
leading to the master’s degree are
desirable for persons interested
in higher level administrative po­
sitions. Students interested in the
field of industrial recreation may
find it desirable to take some
courses in business administra­
tion. It is important for those in­
terested in working as hospital
recreation specialists to take
course in psychology, health edu­
cation, and sociology. Training
leading to a bachelor’s degree
with a major in recreation was
available in over 130 schools in
1968. About 70 offered a master’s
degree and about 30 offered a
doctorate in recreation.
Good health, emotional matur­
ity, and a warm personality are
essential qualities for recreation
workers. T o increase their leader­
ship skills and their understand­
ing of people, interested students
should try to obtain related work
experience in high school and col­
lege. They may do volunteer,
part-time, and summer work in
recreation departments, camps,
youth-serving organizations, insti­
tutions, and community centers.
The majority of college grad­
uates entering the recreation field
begin as either recreation leaders
or specialists, although each year
a small number of college grad­
uates enter trainee programs that
lead directly to recreation ad­
ministration. These programs, of­
fered by a few large cities and
organizations, generally last 1
year.
Recreation leaders work direct­
ly with groups and individuals,
organizing or teaching diversified
activities such as athletics, danc­
ing, storytelling groups, and so­
cial recreation in indoor and out­
door centers. They also may su­
pervise the work of nonprofes­
sional workers and assist in the
administration of recreation pro­

grams. Recreation specialists are
responsible for the organization
and development of one activity,
such as swimming and archery,
or of several closely related ac­
tivities. Like recreation leaders,
they sometimes oversee the work
of nonprofessional workers.
After a few years’ experience,
recreation leaders and specialists
may become recreation directors;
those having graduate training,
however, may start at this level.
Directors are responsible for the
operation of the facilities, staff
supervision, and the development
and execution of programs at a
particular recreation center, as
well as the preparation of bud­
gets and the analysis of recrea­
tion programs.
Opportunities for advancement
to administrative positions often
are limited for persons who have
no graduate training. However, it
is sometimes possible to advance
through a combination of educa­
tion and experience. Administra­
tive jobs require varying years of
experience in full-time recreation
work, depending upon the size of
the community or organization
and the program. For example,
the minimum recommended ex­
perience to become a community
recreation supervisor ranges from
1 to 5 years.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of r e c r e a t i o n
workers is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
Several
thousand
recreation
workers will be needed annually
for growth and to replace per­
sonnel who leave the field be­
cause of retirements, deaths, or
transfers to other occupations. In
recent years, the number of col­
lege graduates having a major
in recreation has fallen far short
of the demand, and this pattern
is expected to continue. Thus,

254
many new recreation workers will
continue to be hired from the
fields of social science, physical
education, and health education.
Persons having less than full pro­
fessional training also will find
employment opportunities. As a
result of the great demand for
recreation workers, part-time and
volunteer personnel will be
needed, particularly in social wel­
fare agencies and at the local gov­
ernment level.
Factors that will contribute to
growth include increased leisure
time and rising levels of per
capita income. As income levels
rise, more persons will participate
in a variety of competitive and
noncompetitive sports and larger
numbers will travel to parks and
resorts for camping, hiking, fish­
ing, and other recreational pur­
suits. In addition, improvements
in the national highway system
will make many State parks and
national forests more accessible
to vacationing families. Popula­
tion growth also will create a de­
mand for more recreation workers
to expand existing recreation pro­
grams and to aid larger numbers
of mentally and physically handi­
capped persons. Longer life and
earlier retirements will increase
the number of clubs and organi­
zations for retired persons, and
thus increase the need for recrea­
tion workers.
Other reasons for the antici­
pated longrun expansion in the
number of recreation workers in­
clude a growing interest and par­
ticipation in recreation activities
by the general population; the
continued trend toward urban
living; the rise in industrial rec­
reation activities as more com­
panies promote recreation pro­
grams for their employees; in­
creased attention to physical fit­
ness by government, educators,
industry and others; and the init­
iation of programs to insure the
preservation of outdoor recrea­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tion areas. A number of recent
Federal laws also will contribute
to the rising demand for recrea­
tion workers. Among these are
the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act of 1965, which in­
cludes provisions for grants to
local educational agencies for im­
proving and expanding recreation
opportunities for the education­
ally deprived; and the Older
Americans Act of 1965, which
provides grants to States for pro­
grams, including recreation, for
older persons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Beginning recreation leaders
having a bachelor’s degree earned
between $6,600 and $7,500 an­
nually in 1968, according to the
National Recreation and Park
Association. In the same year, the
salaries of recreation supervisors
ranged from $7,500 to $10,000,
depending upon the size of the
community in which they were
employed and upon their qualifi­
cations. Salaries of recreation
directors or superintendents gen­
erally ranged from $8,000 in some
small communities to over $20,000 in many large cities. There
were some regional variations in
salary levels— higher salaries gen­
erally were paid in the West than
in other areas of the country.
In 1968, the annual starting
salary for inexperienced recrea­
tion workers in the Federal Gov­
ernment was $5,732 or $6,981,
depending on their academic rec­
ords or specialized training. Ex­
perienced recreation workers in
Federal
positions
generally
earned between $7,700 and $12,200 annually.
The average workweek for rec­
reation workers is 40 hours, al­
though some work upwards of 50
hours. A person entering the rec­
reation field should expect some
nightwork and irregular hours, for

many recreation personnel work
while other persons are enjoying
their leisure time. Most public
and private recreation agencies
provide from 2 to 4 weeks’ vaca­
tion and other fringe benefits,
such as sick leave and hospital
insurance.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about recreation
as a career and about employ­
ment opportunities in the field
may be obtained from:
National Industrial Recreation
Association, 20 North Wacker
Dr., Chicago, 11 . 60606.
1
National Recreation and Park As­
sociation, 1700 Pennsylvania
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20006.

Information about employment
opportunities in Veterans Admin­
istration hospitals may be ob­
tained directly from the hospitals
or the Department of Medicine
and Surgery, Veterans Adminis­
tration, Washington, D.C. 20421.

SOCIAL WORKERS
(D.O.T. 195.108, .118, .168,
.208, and .228)

N ature of the W ork
Development of a more com­
plex urban society has greatly in­
creased the need for organized
social services. Social workers pro­
vide the link between these ser­
vices, and individuals and families
who are not able to provide for
themselves or who need assistance
in solving their problems.
The problems which concern
social workers include poverty;
broken homes; physical, mental,
and emotional handicaps; antiso-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

cial behavior; racial tensions; and
unsatisfactory community condi­
tions such as inadequate housing
and medical care, and lack of edu­
cational, recreational, and cultur­
al opportunities. A variety of pub­
lic and voluntary agencies have
social work programs designed to
meet specific needs in specific
ways: for example, income main­
tenance programs; family and
child welfare services; social ser­
vices for the crippled, disabled, ill,
and aging; and programs for the
prevention of juvenile delin­
quency. Many social work agen­
cies emphasize service to individ­
uals or families; some place pri­
mary emphasis on working with
larger groups; and still others are
concerned mainly with the com­
munity’s social welfare. These ap­
proaches are reflected in the three
basic methods of social work prac­
tice: Casework, group work, and
community organization. Many
social workers use all three meth­
ods, but job titles usually reflect
the primary method used.
Caseworkers identify the social
problems of individuals and fam­
ilies through interviews. They aid




them in understanding their prob­
lems and in securing necessary
services, including financial as­
sistance, foster care, and home­
maker service. Group workers
help people through group activi­
ties to understand themselves and
others better, and to work with
others to achieve a common goal.
They plan and conduct activities
for children, adolescents, and old­
er persons in a variety of settings,
including settlement houses, hos­
pitals, homes for the aged, and
correctional institutions. Commu­
nity organization workers help
plan and develop health, housing,
welfare, and recreation services
for a neighborhood or larger area.
They often coordinate existing
social services and organize fund
raising for community social wel­
fare activities.
The majority of social workers
provide social services directly to
individuals, families, or groups.
However, a substantial number
perform executive, administrative,
or supervisory duties. Others are
college teachers, research workers,
or consultants. The wide range of
services provided by social work­

255
ers is suggested by the descrip­
tions of the principal areas of so­
cial work which follow:
Social workers in family service
positions in State and local gov­
ernments and voluntary agencies
provide counseling and social ser­
vices that strengthen family life
and help clients to improve their
social functioning. They also ad­
vise their clients on the construc­
tive use of financial assistance and
other social services.
Social workers in child welfare
positions in government and vol­
untary agencies improve the phys­
ical and emotional well-being of
deprived and troubled children
and youth. They advise parents
on child care and child rearing,
counsel children and youth with
social adjustment difficulties,
arrange homemaker services dur­
ing a mother’s illness, institute
legal action for the protection of
neglected or mistreated children,
provide services to unmarried
parents, and counsel couples who
wish to adopt children. They may
place children in suitable adoptive
or foster homes or in specialized
institutions.
Social workers employed by
schools aid children whose unsat­
isfactory behavior or progress in
school is related to their social
problems. These workers consult
and work with parents, teachers,
counselors, and other school per­
sonnel in identifying and seeking
a solution to the problems that
hinder satisfactory adjustment.
Social workers employed by
hospitals, clinics, health agencies,
rehabilitation centers, and public
welfare agencies aid patients and
their families with social problems
accompanying illness, recovery,
and rehabilitation. They usually
function as part of a medical team
composed of physicians, thera­
pists, and nurses.
Some social workers provide
services for patients in mental
health centers, hospitals, or clin-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

256
ics. As members of teams com­
posed of psychiatrists, psychol­
ogists, and other professional per­
sonnel, they develop and report
information on the patient’s fam­
ily and social background for use
in diagnosis and treatment. They
help patients respond to treat­
ment and guide them in their so­
cial adjustment to their homes,
jobs, and communities. They have
particular responsibility for help­
ing the families of patients to un­
derstand the nature of the ill­
ness. Social workers also partici­
pate in community mental health
programs concerned with the pre­
vention of mental illness and re­
adjustment of mental patients to
normal home and community liv­
ing. Some conduct research.
Social workers in rehabilitation
services assist emotionally or
physically disabled persons in ad­
justing to the demands of every­
day living. As part of a rehabilita­
tion team, which usually includes
physical or occupational thera­
pists, these social workers serve
as a link with the community
while patients are in the hospital;
later, they help them adjust to
home and community life. (Reha­
bilitation counselors, a related
occupational group, are discussed
in a separate statement.)
Probation and parole officers
and other correctional workers as­
sist persons on probation and
parole and juvenile offenders in
readjusting to society. They in­
vestigate the social history and
background of the person under
the jurisdiction of the court and
make reports to the court to help
the judge in his judicial decisions.
They also counsel persons on pro­
bation or parole, may help them
secure necessary education or em­
ployment, and direct them to
other services in the community.
They also seek to resolve prob­
lems in marital and parent-child
relationships.




Places of Em ploym ent
About 160,000 social workers
were employed in 1968; about 60
percent worked in State, county
and city government agencies and
about 5 percent were in Federal
Government agencies. Most of the
remainder were in voluntary or
private agencies. A small number
of experienced social workers from
the United States were serving in
other parts of the world as con­
sultants, teachers, or technicians
engaged in setting up agencies,
schools, or assistance programs.
They were employed by the Fed­
eral Government, the United Na­
tions or one of its affiliated agen­
cies, national professional asso­
ciations, or voluntary agencies.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

A bachelor’s degree, preferably
in social welfare, generally is the
minimum educational require­
ment for beginning jobs in social
work. In most fields of practice,
certain specialized areas require
a master’s degree in social work.
For teaching positions, a master’s
degree in social work is required,
and a doctorate is preferred. In
research work, training in social
science research methods is re­
quired, in addition to a graduate
degree and experience in social
work. In most States, beginners
must pass a written examination
in social work for employment in
a government agency.
A master’s degree in social work
is awarded on successful comple­
tion of 2 years of specialized study
and supervised field instruction in
an accredited school of social
work. Only graduates of these
schools are eligible for member­
ship in the National Association
of Social Workers (N A SW ).
Social workers having 2 years

of paid employment in social work
under the supervision of a certi­
fied social worker and 2 years of
membership in the National As­
sociation of Social Workers are
eligible for certification as mem­
bers of the Academy of Certified
Social Workers (A C SW ).
In 1968, 64 graduate schools of
social work in the United States
were accredited by the Council
on Social Work Education. For
admission to these schools, a stu­
dent must have a bachelor’s de­
gree representing broad knowledge
of the liberal arts, preferably in­
cluding courses in economics, his­
tory, political science, psychology,
sociology, and social anthropol­
ogy. Courses in biology, statistics,
writing, and public speaking also
are helpful.
Many scholarships and fellow­
ships are available for graduate
education. More than threefourths of the full-time students
in graduate schools receive some
scholarship aid granted either by
the schools or by employing agen­
cies. Some social welfare agencies,
both voluntary and public, offer
plans
whereby
workers
are
granted “ educational leave” to
obtain graduate education. The
agency may pay the expenses or
a salary, or both.
Personal qualities essential for
social workers include emotional
maturity, objectivity, sensitivity,
a basic concern for people and
their social problems, and the
ability to form and sustain good
working relationships and to en­
courage social adjustment in oth­
ers. Students should try to obtain
as much related experience as
possible during high school and
college to determine whether they
have the interest and capacity for
professional social work. They
may do volunteer, part-time, or
summer work in places such as
camps, settlement houses, com­
munity centers, or social-welfare
agencies. Some social welfare

257

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

agencies, both voluntary and pub­
lic, hire college students and, in
some cases, high school students
for nonclerical jobs in which the
students assist social workers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
social workers are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s. De­
spite the anticipated increase in
the number of graduates of mas­
ter’s degree programs in social
work, the demand for these highly
trained social workers is expected
to continue to exceed the supply.
The outlook for persons having
a bachelor’s degree in social wel­
fare or in related fields will con­
tinue to be very good. Qualified
and experienced women who wish
to work part time should have ex­
cellent employment prospects.
Many factors will contribute to
the need for more social workers
to maintain existing programs and
to staff new ones. The occupa­
tional structure of the economy
is expected to continue to change
and create severe problems for
many unskilled workers and
others whose jobs have been re­
placed by machines. In addition,
family life will continue to be aftion growth, especially the in­
fected by social change. Populacreasing numbers of the very
young and the very old, the age
groups most in need of social work
services, is expected to contribute
to the demand for social workers.
Many openings also will arise be­
cause of the need to replace work­
ers who retire, die, or otherwise
leave the profession.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, the median starting
salary of new graduates of accred­
ited social work programs was
about $8,500, according to a sur­




vey conducted by the National
Association of Social Workers.
The median starting salary of
those who entered community or­
g a n i z a t i o n w o r k was a b o u t
$9,300; for those in group work
it was about $8,500; and for case­
workers, about $8,200. Graduates
without prior work experience had
a median salary about $300 lower
than for all graduates. The sal­
aries offered by agencies to new
graduates in the western states
were considerably higher than in
other regions.
According to a survey of se­
lected occupations by the Public
Personnel Association, the aver­
age starting salary paid social
case workers by various State
agencies was about $5,800. This
figure, however, reflects very large
numbers of persons who do not
have a master’s degree in social
work. Case work supervisors in
State agencies had average an­
nual salaries ranging from $7,500
for those having little experience
to about $9,800 for those having
considerable experience. Salaries
of psychiatric social workers aver­
aged from $7,400 to $9,400; those
of probation and parole officers
averaged from about $6,600 to
$8,400.
Salaries of social workers in a
cross-section of cities and urban
counties were, on the average,
above those paid by State agen­
cies. For example, according to
the survey cited above, the aver­
age starting salary of social case
workers in selected urban areas
was about $6,300. Salaries of case
work supervisors averaged $8,400
for those with little experience to
about $10,500 for those with con­
siderable experience. Beginning
psychiatric social workers had
average salaries of about $8,300;
probation and parole officers aver­
aged about $7,100 a year.
In the Federal Government in
1968, graduates of accredited
schools of social work received

a starting salary of $6,981 a year.
Those with 1 year of experience
under professional supervision re­
ceived $8,462. Persons having a
bachelor’s degree or 3 years’ ex­
perience in technical or investiga­
tive work in a welfare activity
began at $5,732 a year.
The predominant scheduled
workweek for social workers in
1968 was generally 40 hours; how­
ever, as many as one-third reg­
ularly worked 3 7 ^ hours or less
a week. In some social work agen­
cies, the nature of the work re­
quires evening and/or weekend
work, for which social workers
usually receive compensatory
time off. Virtually all social work
agencies provide fringe benefits
such as paid vacations and sick
leave and retirement plans.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on admission re­
quirements and scholarships in
accredited graduate schools of so­
cial work and colleges offering
preprofessional courses in social
work, as well as on social work
as a career, may be obtained from
the National Commission for So­
cial Work Careers of the National
Association of Social Workers in
cooperation with the Council on
Social Work Education. Write to:
National Commission for Social
Work Careers, 2 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10016.

SURVEYORS
(D.O.T. 018.188)

N atu re of the W ork
Surveyors play an important
part in the construction of high­
ways, airfields, bridges, dams, and

258
other structures, by providing in­
formation on measurements and
physical characteristics of con­
struction sites. They also locate
land boundaries, assist in setting
land valuations, and collect in­
formation for maps, charts, and
plates.
The primary task of the sur­
veyor is to determine the precise
measurements and locations of
elevations, points, lines, and con­
tours on or near the earth’s sur­
face, and the distances between
points. The supervisor is directly
responsible for the survey and its
accuracy. He plans the fieldwork,
selects survey reference points,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and determines the precise loca­
tion of natural and manmade fea­
tures of the survey region. He re­
cords information disclosed by the
survey; makes mathematical cal­
culations based on such informa­
tion; verifies the accuracy of sur­
vey data; and prepares sketches,
maps, and reports.
In making his detailed meas­
urements, the surveyor is assisted
by workers in a field party which
he directs. A typical field party is
made up of from three to six
members in addition to the sur­
veyor (sometimes called the party
chief). Included in the typical
field party are instrument men,
who set up, adjust, and operate

surveying instruments, including
the theodolite, transit, level, alti­
meter, and electronic measuring
devices at the points designated
by the surveyor; chainmen, who
measure distances between points,
using a metal tape or surveyor’s
chain; and rodmen, who use a
level rod, stadia board, or range
pole to assist in measuring ele­
vations, distances, and directions
between selected points.
Surveyors often specialize in
one particular type of survey.
Those doing highway surveys are
concerned with establishing the
points, grades, and lines needed
for highway locations. Those per­
forming land surveys locate
boundaries of a particular tract
of land, prepare maps, record plats
of the land, and prepare legal de­
scriptions of it for deeds, leases,
and other documents. Surveyors
doing topographic surveys deter­
mine the elevations, depressions,
and contours of an area, and indi­
cate the location of distinguishing
surface features such as farms,
buildings, forests, roads, and
rivers.
Several closely related occupa­
tions are geodesy and photo grammetry. Geodesists measure
immense areas of land, sea, or
space, taking into account the
earth’s curvature and its geo­
physical characteristics.
(See
statement
on
geophysicists.)
Photogrammetrists apply analyti­
cal processes and mathematical
techniques to photographs and
imagery obtained by aerial or
ground surveys to make topo­
graphic maps, and to measure and
interpret the natural and man­
made features of an area.

Places of Em ploym ent
It is estimated that over 45,000
surveyors were employed in 1968;
less than 5 percent were women.
They were located in all parts of

259

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

the country— in small towns as
well as in large cities.
About one-third of all sur­
veyors work for Federal, State,
and local government agencies.
Among the Federal Government
agencies utilizing these workers
are the U.S. Geological Survey
and the Bureau of Land Manage­
ment of the Department of the
Interior, Corps of Engineers of
the Department of the Army, and
Forest Service of the Department
of Agriculture; Surveyors in State
and local government agencies
are employed mainly by high­
way departments and by urban
planning
and
redevelopment
agencies.
A large number of surveyors
work for construction companies
and for engineering and archi­
tectural consulting firms. A siz­
able number either work for or
head surveying firms which con­
duct surveys on a fee or contract
basis. Other significant numbers
work for the crude petroleum and
natural gas industries and for
utilities.

For a professional career in
photogrammetry, it i s usually
necessary to obtain a bachelor’s
degree in engineering or the phy­
sical sciences.
High school graduates having
no formal training in surveying
also may enter the field, usually
starting as rodmen. After several
years of on-the-job experience
and some formal courses in sur­
veying, young persons may ad­
vance successively through the
positions of chainman and instrumentman to that of party chief
or surveyor.

With
some
post-secondary
school courses in surveying, be­
ginners may start as instrumentmen. In many instances, promo­
tion to higher level positions is
made on the basis of a written
examination as well as on
experience.
About 40 States require licens­
ing or registration of land sur­
veyors responsible for locating
and describing land boundaries.
In some of these States, appli­
cants for licenses are expected to
know other types of surveying in
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
addition to land surveying. R e­
and A dvancem ent
quirements for licensing vary
The most common method of among the States, but in general
preparing for work as a surveyor include a combination of 4 to 8
is through a combination of post­ years’ experience in surveying
secondary school courses in sur­ and successful completion of an
veying and extensive on-the-job examination. If an applicant
training in survey techniques and has taken postsecondary school
in the use of survey instruments. courses related to surveying, most
Courses in surveying are offered States will reduce the length of
in extension divisions of many experience needed for licensing.
post-secondary schools and by In 1968, approximately 19,000
correspondence schools. Some land surveyors were registered
junior colleges, technical insti­ In addition, about 15,000 engi­
tutes, and vocational schools of­ neers were registered to do land
fer 1, 2, and 3-year programs in surveying, primarily as part of
surveying. The entrance require­ their civil engineering duties;
ment for most surveying pro­ however, these workers are con­
grams is high school graduation, sidered engineers rather than
preferably including courses in surveyors.
alegbra, geometry, trigonometry,
In addition to the necessary
calculus, drafting, and mechani­ training and experience, qualifi­
cal drawing.
cations for success as a surveyor




include sound health and a strong
liking for outdoor work. Because
most surveyors must supervise
and direct the work of others,
leadership qualities also are im­
portant.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
surveyors are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. It is antici­
pated that employment in the
field will continue to grow rapid­
ly. In addition to new positions
created by growth, many open­
ings will result each year from
the need to replace those who
transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. Prospects will be best
for people having postsecondary
school training in surveying.
Among the factors expected to
contribute to the favorable em­
ployment outlook is the rapid
growth of urban areas, which will
create requirements for addi­
tional surveyors to locate bound­
ary lines, and to lay out streets,
shopping centers, schools, and
recreation areas. Construction
and improvement of the Nation’s
roads and highways will require
many new surveyors.
Employment opportunities for
women surveyors may be limited,
primarily because much of the
surveyor’s work is strenuous.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In the Federal Government
service, in late 1968, surveyors
employed as field party chiefs
received starting salaries of
$6,321 or $6,981 a year, depend­
ing on experience. The majority
of party chiefs earned between
$7,000 and $9,500 per year,
whereas some surveyors in high
level positions earned more than
$10,000. In private industry, ac­
cording to the limited data avail-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

260
able, salaries for surveyors were
generally comparable to those of­
fered by the Federal Government
but varied somewhat between dif­
ferent areas of the country.
Surveyors usually work an 8hour day and 5-day week. How­
ever, they sometimes work longer
hours during the summer months
when weather conditions are most
suitable for surveying activities.
The work of surveyors is active
and sometimes strenuous. They
may stand for long periods and
may walk long distances or climb
mountains with heavy packs of
instruments and equipment. Be­
cause most of their work is done
out of doors, surveyors may be
exposed to all types of weather
conditions. Some duties, such as
planning surveys, preparing re­
ports and computations, and
drawing maps usually are per­
formed in an office.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

ing business and residential areas,
traffic congestion, inadequate
parks and recreation facilities,
shortages of suitable space for
industrial development, and air
pollution.
In addition, the growth of the
suburbs has added increased pres­
sure on the urban center to pro­
vide more and better transporta­
tion and parking facilities. Pro­
fessional urban planners try to
remedy these problems by devel­
oping comprehensive plans and
programs for the growth and
overall revitalization of urban
communities. Urban planners vis­
ualize future conditions in the
light of trends in population
growth and social and economic
change; they also estimate the
community’s long-range needs for
land, housing, community facil­
ities, transportation, recreation,
business, and industry. The ur­
ban planner analyzes alternatives
and proposes methods for achiev­
ing an efficient and attractive
community within a framework

determined by the community’s
elected governing body.
Before they can produce plans
for long-range community devel­
opment, however, urban planners
must make detailed studies, in­
cluding the preparation of maps
and charts, which show the cur­
rent use of land for residential,
business, and community pur­
poses; the arrangement of streets,
highways, and water and sewer
lines; and the location of such
community facilties as schools, li­
braries, and playgrounds. These
studies also provide information
on the types of industry in the
community, population densities
and characteristics, social fea­
tures, income levels, employment
and economic trends, and other
related information.
After they have analyzed and
evaluated the facts, urban plan­
ners design the layout of recom­
mended facilities and land use
and supervise the preparation of
illustrative materials. They also
prepare plans to show how their

Specific questions concerning
training and career opportunities
in surveying may be directed to:
American Congress on Surveying
and Mapping, Woodward Build­
ing, Washington, D.C. 20005.

General information on ca­
reers in photogrammetry may be
obtained from:
American Society of Photogram­
metry, 105 North Virginia Ave.,
Falls Church, Va. 22046.

URBAN PLANNERS
(D.O.T. 199.168)

N atu re of the W ork
City dwellers today face a
growing number of typically ur­
ban problems such as deteriorat­




Urban planners check layout of community renewal plans.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

proposed programs can best be
carried out and what the cost is
likely to be. Much of their time
is spent conferring with private
land developers, civic leaders, and
officials of public agencies who
do specialized planning. They also
may prepare materials for com­
munity relations programs, speak
at civic meetings, and appear be­
fore legislative councils and com­
mittees to explain and defend
their recommendations or pro­
posals.
In small planning organizations
having only one or two profes­
sional workers, the planners must
be able to handle several kinds
of work. In large organizations,
which may have several dozen
planners, each may specialize in
an area such as physical design,
survey and research, or commun­
ity relations work. Some special­
ize in new town planning, the
rehabilitation of city slum areas,
or the reconstruction of rundown
business districts.

Places of E m ploym ent
About 7,000 people were em­
ployed as professional urban
planners in early 1968. The ma­
jority of urban planners are em­
ployed by governmental agencies,
mainly city, county, and metro­
politan regional planning organi­
zations; a growing number are
employed by various State gov­
ernments and by the Federal
Government. About one-fifth of
the planners do consulting work,
either independently in addition
to their full-time job, or as an
employee or partner in a private
consulting firm providing services
for private developers or for gov­
ernment agencies. Urban plan­
ners also work for large land de­
velopers or private research or­
ganizations and teach in colleges
or universities.




261

tecture or engineering.
hold a bachelor’s degree in archiPlanners must have the ability
to think in terms of spatial rela­
Employers consider a master’s tionships and to visualize the ef­
degree in planning the most desir­ fects of their plans and designs.
able educational background for
Planners also must be able to
professional work in this field. In cooperate with others, since they
Federal agencies and in a growing sometimes encounter differing at­
number of other government titudes and viewpoints which
agencies, 2 years of graduate must be evaluated and accepted
work in city planning, or its or rejected with tact to achieve
equivalent, is required for most the desired goal. On occasion,
entrance level positions. How­ they face the discouragement
ever, young people having bach­ of seeing carefully designed plans
elor’s degrees in city planning, fall through because of con­
architecture, landscape architec­ flicting political interests or
ture, engineering, public adminis­ apathy. It is also important that
tration, and some other social sci­ they continue their professional
ence fields also may qualify for studies in order to broaden their
entrance level positions.
knowledge and keep abreast of
In 1968, more than 50 colleges new developments.
and universities awarded the
Beginners in urban planning
master’s degree in urban planning. offices are likely to spend some
For entrance into the programs, time doing routine work or mak­
most schools require that stu­ ing field surveys and compiling
dents have undergraduate degrees statistics required to make pro­
in fields such as architecture, jections for future plans. As they
landscape architecture, engineer­ become more experienced, work­
ing, economics, statistics, sociol- ers may be assigned to outline
ogy, public administration, or city proposed studies, write reports,
and regional planning. Nearly all design the physical layout of a
schools require students to spend large development, make statisti­
considerable time in workshop, cal analyses and projections, or
laboratory, or studio courses, perform other duties which re­
learning to analyze and solve quire a high degree of independ­
practical problems in urban plan­ ent judgment. When they become
ning. Most schools require candi­ senior planners and planning
dates for the master’s degree to directors, urban planners are
take 2 years of graduate work and likely to spend much time in
to prepare a thesis or take a final meeting with officials in other
comprehensive examination. A organizations, addressing civic
few schools have recently adopted groups, and supervising other
a 3-year master’s degree program. professionals. Advancement often
Nearly half of the schools require occurs through a transfer to a
some practical experience or in­ larger city, where the problems
ternship. This latter requirement are more complex and the re­
is usually fulfilled by regular paid sponsibilities for planning are
employment d u r i n g s u m m e r greater.
months in a planning office ap­
Candidates for the position of
proved by the school’s faculty. urban planner in Federal, State,
A very few schools which stress and local government agencies
physical design grant a master’s frequently must pass civil service
degree on completion of 1 year of examinations to become eligible
graduate work to students who for appointment. These examinaT rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

262
tion are often advertised nation­
ally and usually do not impose
residence restrictions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates having professional
training in city and regional plan­
ning are expected to continue to
be very good through the 1970’s.
Shortages of qualified planners
have been reported in recent
years, even though the number of
graduates has been rising. In
1968, the American Society of
Planning Officials estimated that
there were about 2,000 vacancies
in planning agencies because of
the shortage of well-qualified
planners. Although most open­
ings will stem from the need to
fill new planning positions, some
also will result from the need to
replace planners who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, die,
or leave the field for other
reasons. This profession is ex­
pected to grow through the 1970’s
as more communities turn to
professional planners for help in
determining the most effective
way to meet the rising require­
ments fro physical facilities that
result from urbanization and
growth in population. As urban
communities continue to spill in­
to neighboring areas or merge
with other urban areas, open
spaces for recreation disappear,
smog and traffic problems multi­
ply, and the need for more and
better planned facilties becomes
acute. Although many of the
openings for planners will be with




governmental agencies in fields
such as health planning, model
cities programs, and inter-govern­
ment planning relations, urban
planners also are being employed
more and more by private enter­
prises.
Federal programs of financial
assistance to communities for ur­
ban planning, for slum clearance
and urban renewal, for beautifi­
cation and open space land im­
provement, and for improvement
of other local facilities will con­
tinue to stimulate the demand for
planners. The construction of
completely new cities and towns
also is expected to contribute to
a rising need for planners and for
people in areas of interest related
to urban planning.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries of inexperi­
enced planners having only a
bachelor’s degree in planning
were between $6,800 and $7,800
a year in 1968. Starting salaries
for persons having a master’s de­
gree were generally higher, rang­
ing from $7,100 to $9,800 a year.
Planners having a master’s de­
gree and 2 to 5 years experience
earned annual salaries of between
$8,500 and $12,000 or more. Sal­
aries of Directors of Planning
depend to a great extent on the
size of the city in which they
are employed. In 1968, the aver­
age annual salary for a Planning
Director in a city of under 25,000
people was $11,700; however,
some Directors in similar size
cities earned annual salaries of

over $17,000. In cities of over
500,000 people, the average an­
nual salary of Planning Directors
was $19,000 and ranged up to
$30,000. Consultants are gener­
ally paid on a fee basis. Their
earnings are often high and vary
greatly according to their repu­
tation
and
previous
work
experience.
In late 1968, the usual en­
trance salary for urban planners
employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment was $8,462 a year. In a
few cases, individuals having less
than 2 years of graduate work or
its equivalent were hired as in­
terns at yearly salaries of $5,732
or $6,981, depending upon their
academic records.
Since most planners work for
government agencies, they usu­
ally have sick leave and vacation
privileges, and are covered by re­
tirement and health plans. Al­
though most city planners have a
scheduled workweek of 40 hours,
they sometimes work in the eve­
nings and on weekends because
of the need to attend meetings
with citizen’s groups.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

Additional information on plan­
ning and a list of schools offering
training may be obtained from:
American Institute of Planners,
917 15th St., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
American Society of Planning Of­
ficials, 1313 East 60th St., Chi­
cago, 11 . 60637.
1

MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS
The success or failure of busi­
ness enterprises depends heavily
on the way managers do their
job. About 5.5 million salaried
workers— 84 percent of them men
— were employed in 1968 to man­
age the business activities of our
Nation’s enterprises. An addition­
al 2.2 million were self-employed
who carried on all or part of the
activities necessary for the man­
agement of their own businesses.
In addition, many professional
workers also have managerial re­
sponsibilities. Business managers
are one of the fastest growing oc­
cupational groups in the country.
Between 1959 and 1968, the num­
ber of salaried management work­
ers increased nearly four times
as fast as all workers. (See
chart 19.)
This chapter describes salaried
managers as a group, and presents
individual statements on two such
occu pation s— industrial traffic
managers and purchasing agents.
Statements on related business
administration occupations are
presented elsewhere in the Hand­

book.




N ature of the W ork
A manager’s responsibilities de­
pend on his level of management
and type of employer. Although
salaried managers primarily direct
or plan the work of others, some
are chiefly policymakers.
First-level management posi­
tions are either supervisory or
trainee. Supervisors, the largest
group, direct workers in activities

such as sales, production, ac­
counting, and purchasing. A de­
partment manager in a retail de­
partment store, for example, has
a typical supervisory job. Respon­
sible for merchandising in one de­
partment or more, he may super­
vise as many as 50 employees.
Manager trainees, also in the first
management level, are sometimes
assigned to assist managers; or
they may be placed in a number
of different jobs for short periods
to learn several phases of the
business.
Higher in the managerial pyra­
mid are the middle-level manag­
ers; they have the top posts in
large and important departments
such as sales, accounting, research
and development, marketing, pro­
duction, purchasing, data process­
ing, and personnel. When faced
with nonroutine business prob­
lems, they must make decisions
promptly within the framework
of company policy. The manager
of a manufacturing company’s en­
gineering department, for exam­
ple, may (1) develop policies and
plans for making efficient use of

263

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

264
the firm’s space and facilities; (2)
assist the engineer in carrying out
the company’s safety program;
(3) set up and manage support
services (for example, mainte­
nance of equipment, buildings,
and ground).
Top-level managers make de­
cisions on what products or ser­
vices their firms should develop
and produce, whether and where
new plants should be built, and
how to finance them. This top
group includes the board of di­
rectors, the vice presidents, the
president, and the chairman of the
board of directors. Each vice
president is responsible for effi­
cient operation of one or more
company departments (for exam­
ple, finance, marketing and sales,
or production). He is a policy­
maker and administrator in his
own area, and reports directly to
the president. The president or
the chairman of the board has the
final responsibility for the com­
pany’s successful operation. He
usually presides at p e r i o d i c
meetings with his officers, confer­
ring with them not only on mat­
ters in their own areas of respon­




sibility, but also seeking their
help in solving company-wide
problems.
Management responsibilities in
government are similar to those
in private industry. However, a
major responsibility of many
managers is service to the public.

Places of Em ploym ent
Managers are employed in all
industries, but more are required
in some industries than in others.
Retail and wholesale trade, for in­
stance, accounted for nearly onethird of all salaried managers em­
ployed in private industry and
government in 1968. About onefifth had jobs in manufacturing
firms. Establishments in the fol­
lowing areas also employed con­
siderable numbers: Finance, in­
surance, real estate, services, and
transportation. Government
workers in managerial jobs made
up nearly one-tenth of all salaried
managers. Women find their best
opportunities in retail trade; one
third of all women managers are
employed in this field.

T rain in g
Employers increasingly require
beginning managers to have com­
pleted college. Although it is pos­
sible for an able person who
doesn’t have a degree to work his
way up through the ranks, his pro­
motional opportunities are becom­
ing more limited.
For beginning management
jobs, many emloyers look for in­
dividuals who have a college de­
gree in business administration,
with a major in accounting, eco­
nomics, or finance. Other em­
ployers look for applicants who
have technical training in engi­
neering, science, or mathematics
that will be useful in dealing with
technically complex industrial
processes. Still others hire grad­
uates holding liberal arts degrees
and give them training on the job.
The number of companies that
have formal management trainee
programs is relatively small. As a
result, entrance to management
jobs is more likely to come after
several years of progressively
more responsible work experience
in jobs such as salesman, account­
ant, or engineer.
The climb up the promotional
ladder may be in one area of work,
such as personnel, or in several
areas, such as shifts from sales to
marketing, or finance. Managerial
skills usually can be applied as
effectively in one firm or industry
as another. For this reason, man­
agers are able to change jobs with
relative ease.
To increase their knowledge of
management techniques, many
experienced managers take ad­
vantage of training programs
given by colleges and universities,
companies, and various profes­
sional and trade organizations.
For example, management asso­
ciations conduct educational pro­
grams for experienced managers
ranging from lectures and work­
shops of a few days duration to

265

MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

formal classroom courses lasting
several weeks. These educational
activities usually are led by ex­
perienced businessmen.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Management career opportuni­
ties should be good through the
1970’s. Employment of managers
is expected to grow at a moderate
rate through this decade; more­
over, many thousands of openings
are likely to occur annually as
managers retire, die, or leave the
field for other reasons.
It is anticipated that the busi­
ness world will need more manag­
ers as industries continue to ex­
pand, spurred by a growing popu­
lation whose rising living stan­
dards will create an increasing de­
mand for goods and services. The
employment of salaried managers
is likely to continue to increase
rapidly because large firms tend
to depend more on trained man­
agement specialists as they fur­
ther increase in size. Their prob­
lems of control and communica­
tion, their need for specialized
services, and their complex ma­
chinery demand a higher ratio of
managers to total employees than
is required by smaller firms. Gov­
ernment reacting to similar in­
fluences also will need more man­
agers. In addition, technological
advances creating new products
and even new industries are ex­
pected to increase the demand for
young people skilled in computer
technology and other areas to fill
management jobs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In private industry, starting
salaries for management trainees
who have bachelor’s degrees gen­
erally ranged from about $6,900




to $9,000 a year in 1968. Persons
with bachelor’s degrees entering
managerial work in the Federal
Government had starting salaries
of $5,732 or $6,981 a year. Train­
ees having master’s degrees in
private industry generally began
at higher salaries; starting sal­
aries ranged from about $8,700
to $11,000 a year. In the Federal
Government, new employees hav­
ing master’s degrees entered man­
agerial work at salaries of $6,981
or, if especially well qualified,
$8,462 a year.
At higher management levels,
salaries are related to company
size, scope of the job, and the na­
ture of the industry. Middlemanagement salaries ranged from
about $10,000 to $35,000 a year
in 1968. Very large companies
paid salaries up to $50,000 a year
in some middle-management posi­
tions. Top executives’ earnings
averaged about $45,000 in small
companies but in large corpora­
tions were as high as $200,000 a
year or more.
In addition to their salaries,
high-ranking management offi­
cials receive other compensation,
such as bonuses, stock options,
and participation in profit sharing
plans. Additional compensation
depends to a considerable extent
on a company’s profits. Bonuses
are a common type of extra com­
pensation and generally average
about 30 percent of executive
earnings. Many companies also
provide liberal life insurance,
health benefits, club member­
ships, and various special privi­
leges according to the individual’s
position in the firm. Social pres­
tige attained in the upper business
levels also may be rewarding.
First-level managers usually
work the standard workweek of
the company— from 35 to 40
hours a week. In more responsible
jobs, they carry heavier work­
loads and may work longer hours.
Nonroutine assignments carried

out on their own time may in­
volve travel, nightwork, speaking
engagements, and other activities.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
The American Management As­
sociation, 135 West 50th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10015.
Society for Advancement of Man­
agement, 1472 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10036.

INDUSTRIAL TRAFFIC
MANAGERS
(D.O.T. 184.168)

N ature of the W ork
Determining the most efficient
way of shipping freight across the
country or around the world can
be a complicated matter. Piggy­
back trains and air freight, as
well as regular rail, truck, and
ship are the available methods
of transportation. The thousands
of freight classifications, rates,
routes, and regulations, however,
are factors to be considered in
deciding which method or com­
bination of methods should be
used. Trained specialists called
industrial traffic managers are re­
sponsible for analyzing transpor­
tation possibilities and determin­
ing the most efficient method to
use.
Industrial traffic managers and
their assistants arrange the trans­
portation of raw materials and
finished products to and from in­
dustrial and commercial firms.
They make sure that goods are
shipped in a manner that will
ensure prompt and safe delivery
at the lowest possible cost.
After taking into consideration
the kind and amount of goods to
be shipped, the time when deliv-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

266
ery is needed, and other factors,
they choose the type of trans­
portation, the route, and finally
the particular carrier or transpor­
tation company. (Traffic man­
agers employed by railroads, air­
lines, trucking firms, and other
transportation companies, who
chiefly are concerned with at­
tracting business to their firms,
are not covered by this state­
ment.)
The duties of industrial traffic

managers range from routine
tasks, such as checking freight
bills, to major planning and pol­
icymaking matters such as decid­
ing whether the company should
buy and operate its own fleet of
trucks. Other duties include as­
certaining the freight classifica­
tions and rates that apply to
goods shipped, routing and trac­
ing shipments, arranging with
carriers for transportation serv­
ices, preparing bills of lading and

other shipping documents, and
handling claims for lost or dam­
aged goods. In addition, traffic
managers are responsible for
maintaining records not only of
shipments but also of freight
rates, commodity classifications,
and applicable government regu­
lations. Sometimes traffic man­
agers are responsible for the
packaging of shipments and for
their companies’ warehouse facili­
ties and transportation equip­
ment.
In small companies or in firms
without separate traffic depart­
ments, transportation arrange­
ments for incoming goods may be
made by the purchasing depart­
ment, and for outgoing goods, by
the sales department. Employees
who handle transportation ar­
rangements in such firms must
have a broad knowledge of the
transportation field, but usually
they do not have the title “ traffic
manager.”
Since many aspects of trans­
portation are subject to Federal,
State, and local government regu­
lations, traffic managers must
know about these and any other
legal matters that apply to their
companies’ shipping operations.
Many traffic managers represent
their companies before rate-mak­
ing and regulatory bodies— such
as the Interstate Commerce Comsion, State Commissions, and lo­
cal traffic bureaus— to request or
oppose changes in rates, commod­
ity classifications, or types of
service provided by carriers.

Places of Em ploym ent

Industrial traffic managers discuss warehouse shipping facilities.




An estimated 15,000 people
held jobs as industrial traffic
managers in 1968. The majority
were employed by manufacturing
firms, although some worked for
stores and other types of estab­
lishments. A few traffic managers
are in business for themselves,

267

MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

acting as consultants on trans­
portation problems for various
clients. Most traffic managers are
men.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although persons having only
a high school education can
qualify for traffic manager posi­
tions on the basis of experience in
traffic departments, a college
education is becoming increas­
ingly important for a career in
this field. For some kinds of
work, college training may be re­
quired. For example, in order to
argue cases before the U.S. Gov­
ernment’s Interstate Commerce
Commission, a traffic manager
must meet certain “ qualification
standards” which generally in­
clude at least 2 years of college
training. In selecting college
graduates for trainee positions,
some employers prefer to hire
graduates of schools of business
administration who have majored
in transportation; others prefer
holders of degrees in liberal arts
who have had courses in trans­
portation, management, econom­
ics, statistics, marketing, or com­
mercial law.
The first jobs of new traffic de­
partment employees are often in
shipping rooms, where they gain
experience in routing shipments
and preparing bills of lading and
other shipping forms, or in gen­
eral traffic offices where they
may do clerical work such as fil­
ing schedules of freight rates and
calculating freight charges. After
gaining experience in various rou­
tine tasks, employees may be ad­
vanced to more technical work
such as analyzing rates and trans­
portation statistics. After further
experience, a competent worker
may advance to a supervisory
position, such as supervisor of




rates and routes. For the most
competent, promotion to assistant
manager and eventually to man­
ager is possible.
Workers in traffic departments
may prepare themselves for ad­
vancement by participating in
company-sponsored training pro­
grams, by taking courses in col­
leges, universities, and vocational
schools, or by attending seminars
sponsored by various private or­
ganizations. A mark of profession­
al recognition in traffic manage­
ment work is “ certified” mem­
bership in the American Society
of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc., which can be acquired by
successful completing the So­
ciety’s examinations and meeting
certain education and experience
requirements.

in shipping. A strong demand is
expected for specialists who know
how to classify products so as to
obtain the lowest possible freight
rates, choose the carriers that are
best able to handle each ship­
ment, and o t h e r w i s e protect
their companies from excessive
shipping expenses.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Young men having college de­
grees who started as business
trainees in the traffic depart­
ments of large industrial firms
often received annual salaries of
about $7,000 in 1968, according
to the limited data available. Be­
ginners having less schooling,
however, usually received lower
Em ploym ent O utlook
salaries.
Earnings of experienced traffic
A steady increase in employ­ managers are related generally to
ment in this occupation is ex­ their companies’ sales volume and
pected through the 1970’s. Some transportation costs. The average
large companies will follow the (median) salary of traffic man­
example already set by many cor­ agers in companies with trans­
porations and reorganize their portation costs totaling less than
shipping and receiving activities $1 million annually was about
into separate traffic departments $12,000 in 1968, according to the
with traffic managers in charge. limited information available. In
In other companies, new trans­ companies where transportation
portation jobs probably will be costs ranged between $4 million
located in purchasing or sales de­ and $10 million, annual salaries
partments and thus have differ­ averaged about $20,000. In firms
where these costs were still
ent job titles.
Among the factors expected to higher, some traffic executives
contribute to the growth in this earned considerably more than
field are the increasing emphasis $25,000.
in many industries on efficient
Traffic department employees
management of transportation usually work the standard work­
activities, and the trend toward week of their companies— gener­
procuring raw materials and fin­ ally from 35 to 40 hours. Those
ished products from more distant in particularly responsible jobs
places and distributing them to may have to spend some time
increasingly wider markets. Since outside regular working hours
transportation costs are a major preparing reports, attending meet­
factor in the price of many items, ings, and traveling to hearings
companies are becoming increas­ before State and Federal regula­
ingly concerned about economics tory agencies.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

268
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For information on the re­
quirements for certification write
to:
American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., 22 West
Madison St., Chicago, 1 1 60602.
1.

PURCHASING AGENTS
(D.O.T. 162.158)

N atu re of the W ork
In order for a company or other
organization to function, it has to
purchase materials, supplies, and
equipment. These necessities of­
ten represent a large part of the
total costs of operation and can
affect significantly a company’s
profits. Because of its importance,
purchasing usually is designated
as a separate responsibility to be
handled by one of the manage­
ment team— the purchasing agent.
What purchasing agents and
their assistants buy depends upon
the kinds of organizations em­
ploying them. For manufacturers,
it may be largely machinery, raw
materials, and product compo­
nents; for government agencies,
it may be office supplies, office
furniture, and business machines.
Whatever the organization, pur­
chasing agents are responsible for
obtaining goods and services at
the lowest cost consistent with re­
quired quality and for seeing that
adequate supplies are on hand.
Although the head of the pur­
chasing department usually is
called a purchasing agent, he may
have the title of vice president­
purchasing, procurement or pur­
chasing officer, director or man­
ager of purchasing, or buyer.
( “ Buyers” in retail stores and
others who are engaged in buying
merchandise for resale in its orig­




inal form are not included in this
report.) In a large firm, the head
of the purchasing department di­
rects the work of a staff including
assistant purchasing agents and
clerical workers. Each purchasing
assistant may be assigned to a
broad area. One person may be
responsible for buying raw mate­
rials; another, factory machinery;
and another, office supplies.
Others may specialize in buying
certain items— for example, steel,
lumber, cotton, or oil.
The purchasing agent receives
order forms or requisitions from
various departments of the com­
pany. These requisitions list and
describe needed items and include
information such as required
quantities and delivery dates.
Since the agent usually can pur­
chase from many sources, his

main job is to select the seller who
offers the best value. To do this,
the agent must consider many
factors, such as the exact specifi­
cations for the required items,
price, quality, quantity discounts,
transportation cost, and delivery
time. Much of the information is
obtained by comparing listings in
catalogs and trade journals and
by telephoning various suppliers,
but the purchasing agent also
meets with salesmen to examine
sample goods, watch demonstra­
tions of equipment, and discuss
items to be purchased. Sometimes,
suppliers are invited to bid on
large orders, and the purchasing
agent selects the lowest bidder
who meets the requirements re­
garding the specifications estab­
lished for the goods and date of
delivery.

Purchasing agent discusses new product design with other staff members
before buying parts.

269

MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS

It is important for purchasing
agents to develop good working
relations with their suppliers.
These relations can result in sav­
ings on purchases, favorable terms
of payment, and quick delivery
on rush orders or material in short
supply. They also work closely
with personnel in various depart­
ments of their own company. For
example, they frequently discuss
product specifications with com­
pany engineers or discuss ship­
ment handling problems with em­
ployees in the shipping and re­
ceiving, storage, or traffic depart­
ments.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, more than half of the
estimated 140,000 purchasing
agents and closely related types
of buyers worked in manufactur­
ing industries. Large numbers
were employed in government
agencies— Federal, State, and lo­
cal— and in the wholesale and re­
tail trade. Public utilities, trans­
portation companies, and service
institutions, such as schools and
hospitals, employed substantial
numbers of purchasing agents
and assistants. Even the smallest
industries employed some pur­
chasing personnel.
Most purchasing agents work
in firms that have fewer than 10
employees in the purchasing de­
partment. Some large firms, how­
ever, may have a hundred special­
ized buyers or more. More than
10 percent of all purchasing
agents are women.

in accounting, economics, and
purchasing. A few require grad­
uate training in business adminis­
tration. On the other hand, many
firms prefer experience with the
company and select purchasing
workers from among their own
personnel, whether or not they
have a college education. For ad­
vancement to high-level positions,
however, a college degree is be­
coming increasingly important.
Regardless of previous training
and experience, the beginner in
the purchasing field must spend
considerable time learning about
his company’s operations and pur­
chasing procedures. Some com­
panies provide classroom instruc­
tion and on-the-job training. The
beginner may be assigned to the
storekeeper’s section to learn
about operations such as keeping
inventory records, filling out forms
to initiate purchases of additional
goods, or providing proper storage
facilities. He then may work with
an experienced buyer to learn
about types of goods purchased,
prices, and sources of supply. Fol­
lowing the initial training period,
the trainee may become a junior
buyer of standard catalog items.
After he gains experience in the
various aspects of purchasing and
demonstrates ability to exercise
good judgment and accept respon­
sibility, he may be promoted to
assistant purchasing agent and
then to purchasing agent. In large
companies, purchasing agents or
heads of purchasing departments
may become vice presidents with
overall responsibility for purchas­
ing, warehousing, traffic, and re­
lated functions.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Em ploym ent O utlook

For beginning positions as pur­
chasing agents, many employers
prefer to hire graduates of schools
of business administration or en­
gineering who have had courses

Opportunities are expected to
be very good through the 1970’s
for young people to enter and
advance in purchasing occupa­
tions. Demand is expected to be

especially strong for graduates of
schools of business administration
who have taken courses in pur­
chasing. Demand also is expected
to be excellent for graduates
whose background in engineering
and science qualifies them for jobs
in purchasing departments of
firms that manufacture complex
machinery, chemicals, and other
technical products. Liberal arts
college graduates should be able
to obtain trainee positions in
many types of firms. Outstanding
persons who do not have a college
education will continue to be pro­
moted from clerical, sales, and
other types of jobs, but their op­
portunities for advancement to
high-level purchasing jobs will be
limited.
Employment of purchasing
agents and their assistants is ex­
pected
to
grow
moderately
through the 1970’s. Some of the
major factors underlying this ex­
pected growth are the continuing
increase in the size of business
and manufacturing firms, the de­
velopment of new products and
new sources of supply (including
foreign markets), and the ever-in­
creasing complexity and special­
ization of business functions.
Competition among manufactur­
ers for new, improved, and less
costly goods, raw materials, and
services will further direct the at­
tention of top management to the
importance of the purchasing
functions. In addition to job open­
ings resulting from growth, a few
thousand job opportunities are
expected annually because of the
need to replace personnel who re­
tire, transfer to other jobs, or
leave the field for other reasons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions




Beginning annual salaries of
male college graduates hired as
trainees in purchasing depart­
ments of large private firms ranged

270
between $5,700 and $6,800 in late
1968, according to the limited data
available. In the Federal Govern­
ment, beginning purchasing agents
who had college degrees started
at $5,732 or $6,981 in late 1968
depending on the individual’s col­
lege record.
In 1968, the annual earnings
of buyers in private firms, gener­
ally ranged from $7,300 to $9,000;
assistant purchasing agents’ earn­
ings ranged from about $9,000 to




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

$12,500; and purchasing agents,
from approximately $12,500 to
$20,000. Some top purchasing ex­
ecutives earned between $35,000
and $75,000.
Employees in purchasing de­
partments usually work the stan­
dard workweek of the company—
generally from 35 to 40 hours a
week. In addition, purchasing
agents may spend time attending
meetings, preparing reports, or
visiting suppliers’ plants.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Persons interested in a career
in purchasing may consult mem­
bers of local purchasing associa­
tions, or they may write to:
National Association of Purchas­
ing Management, 11 Park PI.,
New York, N.Y. 10007.

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Almost 13 million people were
employed in clerical or some
closely related kind of work in
1968. A great many of these
workers keep records and do
other paperwork required in of­
fices. Others handle communica­
tions through mail, telephone,
telegraph, and messenger serv­
ices; attend to the shipping and
receiving of merchandise; ring up
sales on the cash registers of
stores and restaurants; or do re­
lated work.
Clerical workers represent a
wide variety of skills and experi­
ence. Included, for example, are
title searchers and examiners in
real estate firms and executive
secretaries in business offices, as
well as workers in occupations
which can be entered with little
specialized training or experience
— messengers, file clerks, and
others. For women, clerical occu­
pations are a particularly large
field of employment. More than
half of all girls who go to work
after completing high school find
jobs in clerical and related occu­




pations; and 7 out of 10 clerical
workers are women.
By far the largest single group
of clerical workers— 1 out of 5—
work as secretaries or stenograph­
ers. Bookkeepers and accounting
clerks, who represent a little more

than one-tenth of the total, make
up the next largest group. Chart
20 shows employment in these
and in other major clerical occu­
pations discussed in this chapter
or elsewhere in the Handbook.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
For all but the most routine
clerical positions, the minimum
educational requirement is usu­
ally graduation from high school.
High school graduates who have
had instruction in business sub­
jects are regarded by most em­
ployers as particularly well quali­
fied. Some companies cooperate
with local high schools and busi­
ness schools in office education
programs which provide opportu­
nities for students to work part
time, under trained supervision,
while still attending school. This
experience is useful to beginners
seeking office jobs after gradua271

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

272
tion. The Federal Government
also sponsors training for some
clerical occupations under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act. Reading
comprehension, a knowledge of
spelling and grammar, and ability
in arithmetic are important for
many types of clerical work.
Some employers test applicants
for clerical aptitude to determine
their qualifications for work in
this field.
Practically all beginning cleri­
cal workers receive some on-thejob training. They learn, for ex­
ample, how their employer keeps
the firm’s records, and what kinds
of business forms are used. They
also may learn to operate adding
and duplicating machines and
other equipment which they will
use occasionally. If they are to
operate tabulating machines or
other
specialized
equipment,
their employers may have them
attend a school to receive the
necessary training.
Many types of clerical work
offer good prospects for advance­
ment. Some of the better paid
positions— insurance claim ad­
juster and executive secretary,
for example— require a general
knowledge of company policies
and procedures, and very often
are filled by promotion from
within. In other instances, pro­
motion may be to more difficult
and higher paid assignments in a
related type of work, as in the
case of a keypunch operator who
is selected and trained to operate
a tabulating machine. In large
business offices, promotion even­
tually may lead to supervisory
or managerial positions.
Experience within an organiza­
tion is often an important con­
sideration in selecting employees
for promotion. Emphasis also is
placed on the individual’s train­
ing ability, and personal qualifi­
cations. For workers without a
good educational background, op­




portunities for advancement are
likely to be limited. Many people
in clerical occupations are high
school graduates who have had
some additional education in col­
leges, junior colleges, private
business schools, or other post­
secondary institutions. Some are
college graduates who start as
office workers to gain experience
which will later qualify them for
professional or administrative
positions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in clerical occu­
pations is expected to rise mod­
erately through the 1970’s. As
employment rises to meet the
needs of an expanding economy,
more than 300,000 new clerical
and related positions will be
added each year. An even greater
number of clerical workers will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire or leave their
jobs for other reasons. Employee
turnover is especially high among
clerical workers because many of
the women who do this kind of
work leave their jobs to care for
their families.
Employment opportunities will
be numerous for secretaries and
stenographers, typists, bookkeep­
ing and accounting clerks, and
other workers who handle paper­
work in the offices of private and
public organizations. These work­
ers will be needed particularly in
banks and insurance companies;
in manufacturing establishments
and in wholesale and retail trade;
and in government offices, edu­
cational institutions, and profes­
sional service organizations.
The growth in the number of
clerical workers is expected to
result primarily from the increas­
ing amount of paperwork which
will accompany the growth of
large and complex organizations.
However, more and more me­

chanical equipment will speed the
process of keeping business rec­
ords, and in some offices, the
number of clerical employees may
be reduced. For the economy as
a whole, however, the new posi­
tions created by growth are ex­
pected to far outnumber the
clerical jobs eliminated by me­
chanization. Furthermore, many
types of clerical workers are in
jobs unlikely to be materially
affected by mechanization— for
example, secretaries, reception­
ists, people responsible for col­
lecting bills and handling com­
plaints, and others whose duties
bring them into contact with the
public and require them to exer­
cise initiative and judgment.
The increased use of electronic
computers and other mechanical
devices to process routine and
repetitive work can be expected
to bring about reductions in the
number of clerks employed to
prepare payrolls, keep track of
inventories, bill customers, sort
checks in banks, and do other
routine work. As work of this
kind is transferred from clerks to
machines, a limited number of
new positions for various kinds
of machine operators will be cre­
ated. This shift in type of clerical
personnel will occur chiefly in
large business firms and in the
metropolitan areas where such
firms tend to be concentrated.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The average salaries of women
office workers in metropolitan
areas surveyed by the Bureau of
Labor
Statistics in
1966-67
ranged from $64.50 a week for file
clerks doing the most routine
kind of work to about $128.50 a
week for skilled secretaries. With­
in each of the 17 office occupa­
tions covered by this survey, the
differences in the salaries paid
some individuals were consider-

273

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

able; for example, a few payroll
clerks earned less than $50 a
week; a few others whose work
was complex earned $140 or more.
Men generally were paid higher
salaries than women employed in
the same localities. For example,
the average for office boys was
$2.50 a week more than for office
girls, and men employed as ac­
counting clerks averaged about
$20 a week more than women in
the same kinds of jobs. T o some
extent, these differences in the
salary levels of men and women
were due to differences in the in­
dustries where they were em­
ployed. Minor differences in the
duties and responsibilities as­
signed to men and women also
may affect the level of pay.
Office emloyees worked a 40hour week in most of the cities
included in the survey. In some,
especially in the northeastern
part of the country, the scheduled
workweek was 3 7 ^ or 35 hours.
Office workers in large cities
generally receive pay for 6 holi­
days or more a year and 2 weeks
of annual vacation after working
1 year. Longer vacations, granted
on the basis of additional years
of service, may range up to 4
weeks or more with pay. Life in­
surance; hospitalization; surgical,
and medical insurance; and sick
benefits are also generally avail­
able, as are retirement pension
plans supplementing benefits paid
under the Federal social security
program.

Division of Vocational and Tech­
nical Education, Bureau of
Adult Vocational and Library
Programs, U.S. Office of Edu­
cation, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Or by contacting their:
State Supervisor of Office Occu­
pations Education, State De­
partment of Education, State
Capitol.

A directory of private business
schools located in 300 cities
throughout the country may be
obtained from:
United Business Schools Associa­
tion, 1101 17th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

Information on wages and re­
lated benefits for office workers
in 85 metropolitan areas is given
in the following publication:
W a g e s and R e la te d B e n e fits , P a rt
I : 8 5 M e tr o p o lita n A r e a s , 1966-

67 (BLS Bulletin 1530-87) No­
vember 1967. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D.C.
20402. Price 50 cents.

Information on wages and re­
lated benefit earnings in 227
metropolitan areas is summarized
for the northeastern, southern,
north central, and western reg­
ions, and for the United States
as a whole, in the following
publication:

records of its financial affairs.
Maintaining these records is the
job of bookkeeping workers who
record day-to-day business trans­
actions in journals and ledgers
and on other accounting forms.
At regular intervals they also pre­
pare summary statements show­
ing the amount of money received
and paid out by the firm, and
from whom it came and to whom
it went.
In many small establishments,
one general bookkeeper (D.O.T.
210.388, does all of the analysis,
recording, and other work neces­
sary to keep a complete set of
books. Although employees in po­
sitions of this kind may use sim­
ple office equipment, such as add­
ing machines, they do most of
their work by hand. Often, they
also file, answer the telephone,
prepare and mail out customers’
bills, and perform other general
office work.
Large business organizations
usually have bookkeeping depart-

W a g e s and R e la te d B e n e fits , P a rt
I I : M e tr o p o lita n A r e a s , U n ited
S ta te s an d R eg io n a l S u m m a ries,

1966-67 (BLS Bulletin 1530-87)
July 1968. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D.C.
20402. Price 65 cents.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

BOOKKEEPING WORKERS
Many State employment serv­
ice offices maintain occupational
guides giving local information
about earnings, hours, and em­
ployment opportunities in clerical
occupations.
Teachers may obtain informa­
tion concerning training for of­
fice occupations from:




(D.O.T. 210.368 through .588; 216.388;
and 219.388 and.488)

N ature of the W ork
Every business concern must
have systematic and up-to-date

Bookkeeping worker checks business

274

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

merits where many employees
work under the direction of a
head bookkeeper. In most depart­
ments of this kind, the book­
keepers (D.O.T. 210.388), and

bookkeeping
and
accounting
clerks (D.O.T. 219.488) each
handle one or a few of the many
kinds of work involved in keeping
a complete set of books. Some of
these workers may post items in
accounts payable or receivable
ledgers, and others may take trial
balances, prepare summary re­
ports, or do additional bookkeep­
ing work. Accounting clerks do
much of their work by hand, but
occasionally use adding machines.

Places of Em ploym ent
Of the more than 1.2 million
workers employed in bookkeeping
jobs in 1968, seven out of eight
were women. The great majority
of bookkeeping workers do gen­
eral bookeeping or are account­
ing clerks. Large numbers of
bookkeeping workers are em­
ployed in retail stores, banks, in­
surance companies, and manu­
facturing firms of almost every
kind.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
In selecting workers for book­
keeping jobs, most employers pre­
fer high school graduates who
have taken business arithmetic
and bookkeeping. Some prefer ap­
plicants who have completed a
post-high school business training
program or junior college. Train­
ing which includes typewriting
and the use of office machines is
often helpful, since many book­
keeping workers perform a va­
riety of office duties. An increas­
ing number of large companies
offer some on-the-job training for
newly hired accounting clerks. In




some localities, companies coop­
erate in work-study programs
sponsored by high schools and
business schools; students en­
rolled in these programs gain
practical experience in part-time
jobs that may be helpful in ob­
taining full-time employment af­
ter graduation.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions that general bookkeeping
and accounting clerks should have
is an above-average aptitude for
working with numbers. An abiliity to concentrate on details also
is useful in their work.
Beginning bookkeeping work­
ers, who usually start out record­
ing routine transactions, may ad­
vance to more varied assignments
involving greater responsibility.
Experienced bookkeepers, for ex­
ample, prepare summary reports
and operate complex equipment
such as the bookkeeping ma­
chines used in banks. Some ac­
counting clerks may be promoted
to supervisory bookkeeping posi­
tions. Bookkeepers who complete
the necessary college training
may advance to accountant
positions. (The occupation of Ac­
countant is discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of bookkeeping
workers is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s.
The number of openings to be
filled should exceed 75,000 each
year as new jobs are created and
replacements are needed for em­
ployees who retire or stop work­
ing for other reasons. Additional
thousands of workers will be
needed annually to replace book­
keeping workers who transfer to
other types of employment.
Employment in this field is ex­
pected to rise mainly as a result
of the long-term growth of busi­
ness and recordkeeping needs re­

sulting from population expan­
sion and economic prosperity.
The increasing use of electronic
data processing equipment and
other mechanized bookkeeping
machines, however, is expected to
limit somewhat the growth of
employment requirements for
bookkeeping workers. Many types
of machines, such as posting ma­
chines, punchcard machines, and
electronic computers, can process
accounting and bookkeeping data
more accurately, rapidly, and
economically than can be done by
hand. Nevertheless, the need for
bookkeeping workers will prob­
ably outpace the laborsaving im­
pact of office machines over the
next 10 to 15 years.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
A Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey, covering office workers in
227 metropolitan areas through­
out the country, provides in­
formation about the average sal­
aries of some bookkeeping work­
ers in 1966-67. This survey shows
that average weekly earnings
were considerably higher for
“ Class A ” accounting clerks (ex­
perienced employees who worked
on relatively difficult assign­
ments) than for “ Class B ” em­
ployees (who performed more
routine work.) A similar differ­
ence existed between men’s and
women’s salaries for the same
work. Average weekly earnings
for male accounting clerks were
higher than for women in this
occupation.
Accounting clerks:
Class A ...........
Class B ...........

Average weekly
earnings, 1966-67
Women
Men

$104.00
$82.00

$124.50
$101.50

Working conditions for book­
keeping employees are similar to
those of other office workers in
the same firms. (See introduc-

275

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

tory section to this chapter for
more information on Earnings
and Working Conditions and for
Sources of Additional Informa­
tion.)

CASHIERS
(D.O.T. 211.138, .368, .468, and
.488 and 299.468)

N ature of the W ork
Practically all cashiers receive
the payments made by customers
for goods and services. Apart from
this, their duties may vary con­
siderably, according to where they
work. Job titles also differ. In a
theater, for example, the cashier
may be called box office cashier
or ticket seller; in a supermarket,
checkout clerk or grocery checker;
in an electric light and power com­
pany, teller or bill clerk; and in a
cafeteria, cashier-checker. Very
large business firms that have sev­
eral cashiers sometimes use other
special job titles such as disburse­

ment clerk, cash accounting clerk,
or credit cashier. (The occupation
of bank cashier, which is different
from other kinds of cashier jobs
is discussed elsewhere in the

Handbook.)
Regardless of job title or em­
ployer, most cashiers accept
money paid by customers and cli­
ents, make change when neces­
sary, and give some kind of re­
ceipt for the payment. They also
keep records of the amount of
money involved in each transac­
tion so that cash accounts can be
balanced at the end of the day.
Many cashiers prepare cash and
checks for deposit at the bank.
Some pay out cash or write com­
pany checks to cover expenses
such as the purchase of supplies
and equipment; some prepare pay




envelopes or paychecks, make out
sales tax reports, and do related
work.
Most cashiers in receiving pay­
ment for goods or services, use
cash registers which print a rec­
ord of the amount of the sale on
a paper tape and release a money
drawer. On some registers, cash­
iers list and total individual items
purchased by each customer and
record other details relating to the
transaction.
Other
machines,
somewhat like accounting ma­
chines, are used by cashiers in
hotels and hospitals to record the
charges for telephone, medical,
and other services which are in­
curred and to prepare the item­
ized bills which cashiers present
to guests or patients as they
check out. Cashiers also may use
adding machines, change-dispens­
ing machines, and other special
equipment.
Many cashiers have additional

duties peculiar to the nature of
their employers’ businesses. In a
theater, for example, the cashier
may operate a ticket-dispensing
machine and answer telephone in­
quiries. A restaurant cashier may
handle reservations for meals and
special parties, type menus, or be
responsible for a candy and cig­
arette counter. In supermarkets
and other self-service stores, cash­
iers often wrap or bag each cus­
tomer’s purchases and, during
slack periods, restock shelves,
mark prices on articles, and per­
form other work. In a hotel or
motel, the cashier’s special duties
usually include recording charges
for telephone, valet, and other
services used by each guest, and
notifying the room clerk when
guests check out.
Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, over 730,000 cashiers
were employed in the United

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

276
States— more than 80 percent
were women. They work for busi­
ness firms of all types and sizes.
More than half are employed in
grocery, drug, and other retail
stores; large numbers also are em­
ployed in restaurants, theaters,
and hotels and motels. Most of
these establishments and other
businesses which employ cashiers
are located in cities and in the
shopping centers of heavily pop­
ulated suburban areas; however,
many also are found in small
towns.
Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Employers hiring beginners to
fill jobs as cashiers prefer people
who have completed high school.
Courses in business arithmetic,
bookkeeping, typing, and other
business subjects are good prep­
aration. In some large cities, busi­
ness organizations and schools
offer brief courses through which
students learn to operate a cash
register and perform other duties
of a cashier. Cashier training also
may be offered as part of public
school distributive education pro­
grams which include courses in
retail selling or food service work.
For some kinds of cashier jobs,
employers want persons who have
special skills or business experi­
ence; for example, cashiers who
know how to type or have had
selling experience. Sometimes
cashier jobs are filled by promot­
ing clerk-typists in offices, bag
boys in supermarkets, and other
qualified people already employed
by the firm.
Beginners usually are trained
in their duties by their employers.
In most cases, this training is
given informally as the new cashier
works on the job under the close
supervision of an experienced em­
ployee; sometimes trainees under­
go a brief period of classroom in­
struction, particularly in large




firms. Some firms provide train­
ing for all newly hired cashiers,
regardless of previous experience.
To perform their duties rapidly
and efficiently, cashiers should
have an aptitude for working with
figures, finger dexterity, and a
high degree of eye-hand coordina­
tion. Accuracy is particularly im­
portant. Since cashiers deal with
the public, they also should be
tactful, neat in appearance, and
able to deal with their customers
in a pleasant and courteous man­
ner.
Promotional opportunities for
cashiers are likely to be limited,
particularly in small firms. The
cashier’s job, nevertheless, affords
a young person a good opportun­
ity to learn how his employer’s
business affairs are conducted and
so may serve as a steppingstone
to a more responsible clerical job
or to some types of managerial
positions. In large hotels, for ex­
ample, men who have worked as
cashiers may advance to jobs as
room clerks. In chainstores and
other large retailing enterprises,
some cashiers eventually may be
advanced to positions as depart­
ment or store managers, particu­
larly if they supplement their ex­
perience with work in retail store
management.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in this large occu­
pation is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. It is
estimated that roughly 75,000
workers will be needed each year
to fill new positions and to re­
place cashiers who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Still
other workers will be needed to
replace cashiers who transfer to
other types of employment.
Employment is expected to in­
crease mainly because of the an­
ticipated expansion in business
activities. In addition, more retail

stores will undoubtedly adopt
self-service and other merchandis­
ing techniques which create jobs
for cashiers. The increase in em­
ployment due to changes of this
kind, however, probably will be
somewhat less marked than dur­
ing the 1950’s when conversion to
self-service on the part of some
kinds of retailers was widespread.
The continued use of vending ma­
chines, changemaking machines,
and other mechanical equipment
which replaces cashiers or speeds
up their work also will tend to
limit the expansion in employ­
ment during the coming decade.
Opportunities probably will
continue to be best for cashiers
having typing, bookkeeping, or
other special skills. There also
should be many opportunities for
cashiers who wish to work part
time.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The salaries earned by begin­
ning cashiers in routine jobs are
often at or near the minimum
wage required by State and Fed­
eral laws. In several States and
in establishments covered by the
Federal law, the minimum was
$1.60 an hour in 1968; elesewhere,
starting salaries were somewhat
lower. Unionized cashiers, as well
as some others in jobs which in­
volve a considerable degree of re­
sponsibility or require specialized
training, may earn considerably
more than the legal minimum;
often more than $2 an hour. Gro­
cery checkers employed by super­
markets may earn more than $3
an hour.
Cashiers’ hours may differ from
those of many other clerical work­
ers because they often work dur­
ing rush periods which are outside
regular office hours. Holiday,
weekend, late afternoon, and eve­
ning work may be required, es­
pecially in theaters, restaurants,

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

and food stores. Many cashiers in
these establishments work part
time or on split shifts. Cashiers
employed full time in supermar­
kets and other large retail estab­
lishments usually work a 5-day,
40-hour week but, since Saturday
is a busy day in retailing, most
cashiers usually work on that day
and have another day off during
the week.
Most cashiers work indoors, of­
ten in small booths or behind
counters near the entrances of
stores, theaters, and other estab­
lishments. In some cases, their
quarters may be uncomfortable
because they are exposed to cold
drafts in the winter and consider­
able heat during the summer.
(See introductory section of
this chapter for Sources of Addi­
tional Information.)

ELECTRONIC COMPUTER
OPERATING PERSONNEL
(D.O.T. 213.138, .382, .582, and .588
and 233.387)

N ature of the W ork
Many specialized operators of
mechanical equipment may be
required whenever an electronic
computer is used to process data.
First, the computer’s “ input”
must be prepared in a special
code which enables the computer
to process the data. Then, the
computer console must be oper­
ated while the work is being
done; finally, the computer’s
“ output” must be translated back
into words and numbers which
can be read. The procedures em­
ployed in accomplishing this work
vary from one computer system
to another; often they are more
involved and more difficult to




learn than the operation of the
equipment itself. The number and
kinds of employees needed also
vary for different computer in­
stallations. A small system— and
some computers are no bigger
than an office desk— may be op­
erated entirely by one or two
employees. A large system, on the
otherhand, usually requires sev­
eral workers, each of whom is
assigned a specific task.
A computer’s input consists of
the data to be processed and
the step-by-step instructions pre­
pared by programers which tell
the machine how to do the work.
(Information about the occupa­
tion of Programer is given else­
where in the Handbook.) In
many computer systems, the in­
put consists of punched cards pre­
pared by keypunch operators
(DO.T. 213.582) or of paper
tapes prepared by data typists
(D.O.T. 213.588). Less frequent­
ly, input may be prepared by oper­
ators of adding or bookkeeping
machines having special attach­
ments which perforate tapes. The
work of these machine operators
is similar to that performed by
those who use the same general
type of equipment for other pur­
poses. (For additional informa­
tion on these occupations, see
statements on Typists, Office
Machine Operators, and Book­
keeping Workers in this chapter.)
In some computer systems,
punched cards or paper tapes can
be used directly to feed informa­
tion into the central computer.
In other systems, small computers
or terminals, linked to the cen­
tral computer by telephone lines,
supply the information. The fast­
est computer systems, however,
get their input from a variety of
“ direct access” devices featuring
magnetic surfaces on which data
are recorded by means of spots.
Input devices of this type include
magnetic tapes, discs, data cells,
and data drums. These computer

277
systems include auxiliary equip­
ment which records data directly
on magnetic surfaces or transfers
it from punched cards or paper
tapes to the magnetic surface.
In some systems, this data
transfer work is done by small
computers. Other machines, used
for the same purpose, are called
converters and are run by

card-to-tape converter operators.
(D.O.T. 213.382.) Converter op­
erators may be required to wire a
fairly simple plugboard, and they
must know how to interpret sig­
nals from a panel of lights on
the machine. They also should
have sufficient understanding of
the whole computer system to
recognize any errors that may
have occurred in preparing input
or to identify other situations
which could prevent the system
from operating properly.
Once the facts and figures to be
processed have been converted
into the form used by the com­
puter, the data are ready for the
“ run” — that is, for processing in
the computer. Operating the com­
puter is the responsibility of the
console operator (D.O.T. 213.382), or computer operator, as he
is sometimes called. The console
operator first examines the programer’s instruction sheet for the
run and ascertains the procedure
to be followed. He then readies
the equipment, makes sure the
computer is loaded with the tape,
discs, or cards needed, and starts
the run. As he operates the console
during the run, he may have
dozens of switches to manipulate
and lights to observe. If the com­
puter stops running or its lights
signal an error, he must try to
locate the source of the trouble.
Before a computer’s output can
be read, it must be translated
from machine language to words
and numbers. In some systems,
this is done by machines directly
connected to the computer and
run by the console operator or his

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

278
assistant. In many large systems,
however, this work is done on
converters, highspeed printers,
and other machines run by
auxiliary equipment operators—

tape-to-card converter operators
(D.O.T. 213.382), high speed
printer operators (D.O.T. 213.382), and others. Like operators
of other kinds of auxiliary equip­
ment, these operators may have
to wire plugboards and watch for
machine lights which signify er­
rors. Some types of auxiliary
equipment are relatively difficult
to operate and, when computer
systems include such equipment,
operators sometimes specialize on
one kind of machine. Many oper­
ators, however, run all kinds of
auxiliary equipment used in a
computer system.

The tape, discs, or cards used in
processing data on a computer are
stored after the run and are often
used again and again— as, for ex­
ample, in making up a payroll at
the end of every pay period. A
tape librarian (D.O.T. 223.387)
or a console operator or auxiliary
equipment operator may be re­
sponsible for storing tapes and
making them available when they
are needed again. The use of tele­
phone lines for transmission of
data to and from computers has
expanded the range of tasks an
auxiliary equipment operator is
required to perform. Many oper­
ators run communications as well
as computing equipment.
Many electronic computers are
operated for as long as 16 to 24
hours a day. In such cases, they
may be operated by two or three
different shifts of workers. Usu­
ally, all operators work under the
general direction of a chief super­
visor, and employees on each shift
work under the direct supervision
of the console operator on that
shift.
Places of Em ploym ent
The number of console and
auxiliary equipment operators
employed in 1968 is estimated at
roughly 175,000. Jobs for operat­
ing personnel are found chiefly
in government agencies and in in­
surance companies, banks, whole­
sale and retail businesses, trans­
portation and public utility com­
panies, and manufacturing firms.
Many operators also are em­
ployed in independent service or­
ganizations which process data
for other firms on a fee basis.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Computer technicians and auxiliary
equipment operators work in teams.




When installing electronic com­
puters, employers often fill as
many of their new operator posi­

tions as possible by transferring
employees from other types of
jobs. Such transfers are frequent­
ly from jobs as operators of the
tabulating and bookkeeping ma­
chines which may no longer be
needed after the computer is in­
stalled. Many computer operators
also are recruited from outside
the firm.
In hiring outsiders, private em­
ployers usually require at least
a high school education. For con­
sole operator positions, some col­
lege training may be preferred. In
the Federal Government, appli­
cants for auxiliary equipment op­
erator jobs must be high school
graduates, unless they have had
specialized training or previous
experience in some related work.
Console operators employed by
the Federal Government gener­
ally are required to have a high
school education and some work
experience. They also may quali­
fy for appointment on the basis
of previous experience in com­
puter work and a general apti­
tude for it, as demonstrated by
special tests. Many private em­
ployers also screen applicants for
operating positions by giving
them tests designed to measure
their aptitude for the work, es­
pecially their ability to reason
logically.
Beginners hired for work of this
kind or transferred to it from
other positions in their firms, are
seldom expected to have had
specific training as operators.
Most employers provide the nec­
essary training after the worker
is hired. The training of auxiliary
equipment operators may require
a few weeks, that of console oper­
ators somewhat longer. Console
operators usually attend classes
where they learn how to mount
tapes and operate the console.
They must become sufficiently
familiar with the equipment they
are using to be able to trace the
causes of mechanical failures.

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

This training is supplemented by
further instruction on the job.
As they gain experience, op­
erating personnel may be as­
signed to operate more complex
pieces of equipment. Eventually
they may be promoted to super­
visory positions or jobs which
combine some supervisory duties
with console operation. Console
operators may acquire sufficient
understanding
of
programing
through on-the-job experience to
qualify for work as programers.

Em ploym ent Outlook
A growing and increasingly
complex economy is expected to
cause the use of electronic dataprocessing equipment to continue
to increase very rapidly through
the 1970’s. Computers are being
adapted to new uses almost daily,
and, as the tasks they perform
become even more varied, many
more business firms will be utiliz­
ing them. Although the size of
the staff required to operate a
computer installation may be
reduced somewhat as new types
of equipment are developed, the
total number of computer and
auxiliary equipment operators is
expected to increase very rapidly.
Thousands of operators will be
needed to fill new jobs, both in
firms having their own computer
installations and in service cen­
ters which rent computer time to
businessmen. Many operators
also will be needed to replace
operators of computer systems
who transfer to other kinds of
work or stop working. As in the
past, employers will fill some po­
sitions by training people already
in their employ, but many others
will be filled by hiring outsiders.
The equipment changes which
are expected in computers also
may produce changes in job re­
quirements for console and auxil­
iary equipment operators. Be­




cause of advances in technology,
much of the equipment in use to­
day is far less complex to operate
than the first computers of the
early 1950’s; and future changes
may bring further simplification.
As a consequence, newcomers to
this field may find it easier to
qualify for the openings available
than have applicants in the past.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Information about the salaries
of computer operating personnel
is available from a nationwide
private survey conducted in 1968.
The average salary for beginning
console operators was $116 a
week. Experienced console oper­
ators averaged up to $154 a week.
The weekly salary of experienced
keypunch
operators averaged
$105. The difference between the
salary of the lowest and highest
paid employees in each of the job
classifications surveyed was much
greater than these figures sug­
gest, however. For example, the
highest salary reported for a
skilled console operator was $288
a week— more than three times
the lowest salary reported for a
comparable job. Many variations
of this kind were due to differ­
ences in salary levels in various
parts of the country and among
individual companies and indus­
tries ; to some extent, they also
were due to differences in the
complexity of the work performed
by operators having the same job
titles.
Salaries of computer personnel
in the Federal Government are
roughly comparable with those
in private industry. In late
1968, beginning console oper­
ators started at about $100 a
week and auxiliary equipment
operators at about $82 a week.
The maximum salary paid to ex­
perienced console operators in the
Federal Government was about
$210 a week; a few in supervisory

279
positions may earn up to $325 a
week, usually after several years
of experience. Skilled auxiliary
equipment operators earned up
to $145 a week after several years
of experience.
Operators of electronic com­
puter systems generally work the
same number of weekly hours
and are allowed the same holi­
days, vacations, and other bene­
fits as most office employees.
Since many computers are oper­
ated on a two- or three-shift basis,
scheduled hours for some console
and auxiliary equipment oper­
ators include late evening or
nightwork. Tape librarians usu­
ally work only when day shifts
are on duty. (See introduction
to this chapter for additional in­
formation on Working Condi­
tions.)

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information on careers in elec­
tronic data processing may be ob­
tained from:
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 11 . 60068.
1

A list of reading materials giv­
ing information about computer
operating personnel may be ob­
tained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.
10036.

OFFICE MACHINE
OPERATORS
(D.O.T. 207.782, .884 and .885; 208.782;
213.582, .782 and .885; 214.488; 215.388;
216.488; 234.582 and .885)

N atu re of the W ork
The types of machines used to
speed the paperwork in modem

280
business offices are so varied that
it would be almost impossible to
list all of them. They range from
simple mechanical devices that
open letters to electronic equip­
ment capable of performing highly
involved
computations.
This
statement is concerned with the
work done by people whose main
job is to operate some of the more
common types of office machines.
Many of these workers, such as
the keypunch operator and billing
machine operator, have job titles
related to the kinds of equipment
they use. (Typists, operators of
transcribing machines, and oper­
ators of electronic computer sys­
tems are not included in this
statement, but are discussed in
other sections of this chapter.
Others not included are clerical
workers who occasionally use
equipment such as copying ma­
chines, adding machines, and
other mechanical devices; and sta­
tistical clerks who use calculating
machines extensively in connec­
tion with their regular duties.)

B illing m achine operators
(D.O.T. 214.488) use machines
that both type and add while pre­
paring statements relating to cus­
tomers’ purchases. By striking
lettered and numbered keys on
the machine, the operator enters
on each bill such information as
the customer’s name and address,
the items bought, and the amounts
of money involved in each trans­
action. Then, when other keys are
pressed, the machine calculates
and prints totals, discounts, and
other items.

Bookkeeping machine oper­
ators (D.O.T. 215.388) use office
machines that record all the fi­
nancial transactions of a business.
By pressing the necessary keys on
a machine, the operator makes
entries on bookkeeping forms
which have identifying headings,
calculates and posts totals, nets
amounts, and does other compu­
tations. Through the use of book­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

keeping machines, operators also
prepare periodic trial balances,
summary reports, and other sta­
tistical information.

Adding and calculating ma­
chine operators (D.O.T. 216.488)
use electrically and manually op­
erated machines to make the com­
putations needed in preparing
payrolls and invoices, and in doing
other statistical work. By striking
numbered keys, operators “ put
into” these machines the numbers
involved in each calculation.
Then, when other keys are
pressed by the operator, the ma­
chines compute the desired totals
and record the results automatic­
ally. Adding machine operators
use their machines to add and
subtract numbers, and sometimes
to multiply. The calculator is
more complex than the adding
machine and has a much larger
keyboard. Calculating machine
operators use the calculator, not
only to add, subtract, multiply,
and divide, but to get square
roots, figure percentage distribu­
tions, and do other computations.
Many office workers who operate
adding machines and calculators
part time also perform other office
duties. However, operators of the
most complex calculating ma­
chines— i.e., key-driven calcula­
tors which require considerable
skill and knowledge— usually are
occupied full time in this job.

Mail preparing and mail hand­
ling machine operators (D.O.T.
234.582 and .885) run automatic
equipment which handles incom­
ing and outgoing mail. Only in
offices which handle a very large
volume of mail does this work re­
quire a full-time operator. Some
operators feed incoming mail into
machines which open the enve­
lopes. Other operators place out­
going mail on the loading racks of
machines which fold enclosures
and/or insert them in envelopes
or address, seal, or stamp enve­
lopes. Operators of addressing ma­

chines, who work mainly in offices
where circulars, magazines, and
other materials are regularly sent
to people on mailing lists, run ma­
chines which print addresses and
related information either from
stencils which have been cut by
typists or from plates prepared
by embossing machine operators
(D.O.T. 208.782) on a special
kind of typing machine.
Operators of duplicating ma­
chines handle equipment which
produces copies of typewritten,
printed, and handwritten docu­
ments more quickly and/or inex­
pensively than is possible by typ­
ing. Although some equipment of
this kind can be operated by al­
most any office employee, the
more complicated duplicating ma­
chines, which are capable of pro­
ducing thousands of copies of
typewritten and handwritten doc­
uments in a single “ run,” are usu­
ally operated by trained dupli­
cating machine operators (D.O.T.
207.782, .884 and .885) who spend
most of their time doing this
work. The operators who use these
machines insert in the machine a
“ master” copy of the document
to be reproduced and then adjust
the mechanism and start the ma­
chine. Each operator must see
that the machine is kept properly
adjusted so that it produces legi­
ble copies. On some machines, the
operator also feeds in the paper
used for making copies and re­
moves finished batches of work
manually; on other machines,
feeding and offbearing are done
automatically.

Operators of tabulating ma­
chines and related equipment
(D.O.T. 213.782) run machines
designed to sort and count large
quantities of accounting and sta­
tistical information. Information
to be processed in a tabulating
machine is first transferred to
cards by keypunch operators
(D.O.T. 213.582). By using ma­
chines similar in action to type-

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

writers, these workers punch holes
in the cards in such a position that
each hole can be identified as rep­
resenting a specific item of infor­
mation. These punched cards may
be used with electronic computers
as well as tabulating machines
(See statment on Electronic Com­
puter Operating Personnel else­
where in this chapter.) Sorting
machine operators (D.O.T. 213.885) then run the punched cards
through sorting machines which
automatically separate the cards
according to the location of the
holes and arrange them in any
desired order. Next, tabulating
machine operators (D.O.T. 213.782) insert the batches of punched




cards into machines which count
the various items punched on each
card, multiply and make other
calculations, and print the results
on accounting records and other
business forms.
Places of Em ploym ent
About 325,000 people were em­
ployed as office machine oper­
ators in 1968. (This total does
not include 175,000 operators
who run electronic computer sys­
tems. This occupation is dis­
cussed elsewhere in this chapter.)
About three-fourths of all office
machine operators are women.
Women outnumber men in prac­

281
tically all types of jobs except
those which involve the operation
of tabulating machines.
Office machine operators are
employed chiefly in firms hand­
ling a large volume of recordkeep­
ing and other paperwork. Conse­
quently, a great many operators
work in large cities where such
firms are usually located. Ap­
proximately one-third of all office
machine operators work for
manufacturing companies. Others
work for banks and insurance
companies, government agencies,
and wholesale and retail firms.
Some office machine operators
are employed in “ service centers”
— agencies which are equipped
with various kinds of office ma­
chines and contract to handle,
for other firms without this
equipment, tasks such as prepar­
ing monthly bills and mailing cir­
culars to lists of prospective
customers.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Graduation from high school
or business school is the minimum
educational requirement for all
but the most routine office ma­
chine operator jobs. For work
such as operating key driven cal­
culators and some kinds of tabu­
lating and duplicating equipment,
specialized training is usually
necessary. For many beginning
positions, however, a general
knowledge of the equipment used
is usually sufficient. Public and
private school courses in the op­
eration of office machines are
helpful, and business arithmetic
is valuable for the many jobs in­
volving work with figures. It is
helpful also for office machine
operators to have some knowledge
of typing, or to be able to operate
more than one type of office
equipment, since many office po­
sitions entail varied assignments.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

282
Employers usually give newly
hired office machine operators
some on-the-job training. Even
employees who have some earlier
training or experience in office
machine operation need to be­
come familiar with the particular
equipment they will be using on
the job; differences exist between
the calculating machines pro­
duced by one manufacturer and
by another, for example, and new
models sometimes differ consider­
ably from older models.
The amount of instruction and
on-the-job experience needed by
a beginner varies, depending
chiefly on the type of machine.
A few days may be sufficient to
train operators of some duplicat­
ing machines; however, a few
weeks may be needed for the
training of keypunch and cal­
culating machine operators. Gen­
erally, several weeks are required
for operators of tabulating ma­
chines to learn how to set and
adjust their equipment and do
simple wiring of plugboards. Op­
erators of tabulating equipment
are often trained at company ex­
pense in special schools establish­
ed by equipment manufacturers.
Finger dexterity, coordination
of eye and hand movements, and
good vision are important for
most office machine operator
jobs. It is helpful for billing and
calculating machine operators to
have a sufficient sense of mathe­
matical relationships to enable
them to quickly detect obvious
errors in computations. Some me­
chanical ability is advantageous,
especially for duplicating and
tabulating machine operators.
Most employers follow a pro­
motion-from-within policy, taking
into consideration seniority and
on-the-job performance as shown
by supervisors’ ratings and rec­
ommendations. Promotion may
be from a beginning, routine ma­
chine job to a more complex one,
or the promotion may be to a




related clerical job. Often, em­
ployers provide the additional
training required in such cases.
Advancement for office machine
operators employed in firms
which have large clerical staffs
may be to positions in which they
are responsible for training begin­
ners and for the accuracy of their
work, or else to supervisory posi­
tions as section or department
heads.

Em ploym ent Outlook
About 25,000 job openings for
office machine operators are ex­
pected to occur each year through
the 1970’s. Most of these open­
ings will arise as business organiz­
ations continue to grow in size
and number, and the volume of
billing, computing, duplicating,
and other work continues to
mount. Other openings for office
machine operators probably will
be created by the introduction of
new types of mechanical office
equipment which speed recording,
copying, and other office work.
Still other openings will occur be­
cause of the need to replace work­
ers who retire or stop working for
other reasons. Many machine op­
erators are young women who
stop working after a few years
of employment to stay at home
and care for their families.
The number of office machine
operators is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
In some offices, however, the
number of workers needed to op­
erate tabulating, billing, and

other types of machines may be
reduced due to the spread of
automated recordkeeping systems
and further advances in office
automation. Also, advances in in­
teroffice communications devices
for
transmitting
data
and
electronic computer technology
should enable many large firms
and government agencies to cen­
tralize recordkeeping functions.
Thus, the requirements for office
machine
operators in small
branch offices will be reduced.
Nevertheless, any reduction in
employment is expected to be
limited to a relatively small num­
ber of offices and will be more
than offset by the new jobs cre­
ated as the volume of paperwork
continues to increase in business
establishments of all kinds.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
A 1966-67 Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, covering firms
in metropolitan areas, provides
salary information for several of­
fice machine operator occupa­
tions. For keypunch and tabulat­
ing machine operators, the aver­
ages are given separately for dif­
ferent skill groups. Operators in
Class A were generally experi­
enced emloyees who performed
comparatively
difficult
work,
while Class B and Class C oper­
ators worked on more routine as­
signments and used simpler types
of equipment. The average weekly
salaries reported by this survey
are shown in the accompanying
tabulation.
Average weekly salaries, 1966-67
Women
Men

Billing machine operators .............................................
Comptometer operators .................................................
Duplicating machine operators.....................................
Keypunch operators:
Class A ....................................................................
Class B .....................................................................
Tabulating machine operators:
Class A ......................................................................
Class B ......................................................................
Class C .....................................................................

$ 82.50
88.00
79.50

$108.50
99.00
85.00

94.50
81.50

107.50
95.00

116.00
97.00
82.50

127.50
107.50
86.50

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Because of the noise created by
their machines, groups of oper­
ators often work in areas which
are apart from other company of­
fices. In other respects, working
conditions for office machine op­
erators usually are similar to
those of other office workers in
the same firms. (See introductory
section to this chapter for fur­
ther information on Working
Conditions and for Sources of
Additional Information.)

RECEPTIONISTS
(D.O.T. 237.368)

283

fication card and see that an es­
cort is available to accompany
him to the office of the official
with whom he has business. In
connection with these duties,
many receptionists also keep rec­
ords showing the name of each
caller, the nature of his business,
the time of his call, and the person
to whom he was referred.
Most receptionists, particularly
in small offices, have some time
when they are not occupied with
callers, and they may handle
other office tasks. Many receive
and route telephone inquiries to
the proper company officials. T yp­
ing, sorting and opening mail,
filing, keeping books or petty cash
accounts, or operating an office
telephone switchboard may be
among their additional responsi­
bilities.

N ature of the W ork
Most large offices and institu­
tions— and many small ones—
employ receptionists to receive
and give information to the cus­
tomers and other people who call.
It is the receptionist’s job to de­
termine the nature of each caller’s
business, and then to direct him
to those in the office who may
be able to help him.
Receptionists who work for
large establishments usually refer
each caller to the appropriate
company employee or official, or
else contact his office by tele­
phone and arrange an appoint­
ment. Other receptionists, be­
cause of the nature of the busi­
ness or institution where they
work, may have somewhat differ­
ent duties. In a hospital clinic,
for example, the receptionist may
direct each patient to the proper
waiting room; in a beauty shop,
she may arrange an appointment
and accompany the customer to
the operator’s booth; and in a
large defense plant, it may be
part of the receptionist’s job to
provide the caller with an identi­




Places of Em ploym ent
Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
It is estimated that over 240,000
receptionists were working in the
United States in 1968. About 1
out of 4 was a part-time worker
who spent fewer than 35 hours a
week on the job. More than 95
percent were women.
Although jobs for receptionists
exist in practically all kinds of
establishments, over half of the
people in this occupation are em­
ployed in the offices of physicians,
attorneys, and other professional
people. Many others are employed
by hospitals and educational in­
stitutions, and still others by
banks, insurance companies, real
estate offices, manufacturing con­
cerns, and beauty shops. The re­
latively small number of men who
are employed as receptionists
work principally in medical ser­
vice and hospital jobs, in manu­
facturing, and in banking and
credit agencies.

When hiring receptionists, em­
ployers seldom specify any formal
educational requirements beyond
a high school diploma. Neverthe­
less, about 1 receptionist out of
5 has some college training. Busi­
ness courses, including English,
spelling, typewriting, elementary
bookkeeping, and business prac­
tice, are assets for a beginner. The
ability to operate an office tele­
phone switchboard also may be
desirable, although this skill often
is acquired through on-the-job
training. (See statement on Tele­
phone Operators.)
Because the receptionist’s job is
to act as her employer’s public
representative, personal charac­
teristics, such as a pleasant man­
ner and an even disposition, are
very important. An attractive
personal appearance, pleasant
speaking voice, good judgment,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

284
punctuality, and the ability to
communicate information accu­
rately also are necessary qualities.
To perform her job effectively,
the receptionist should acquire a
thorough understanding of how
her employer’s business is or­
ganized.
The receptionist’s job generally
offers limited opportunities for
promotion
and
advancement.
However, work as a receptionist,
plus business training, may lead
to a better paying position as a
secretary or an administrative
assistant.
E m ploym ent O utlook
The number of receptionists is
expected to increase very rapidly
during the 1970’s. More than
30,000 workers will be needed
annually because of employment
growth and the need to replace
receptionists who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Addi­
tional openings will arise as re­
ceptionists transfer to other types
of employment. However, young
applicants probably will meet
strong competition, since many
older and more experienced work­
ers also seek this type of work.
A few opportunities will continue
to be available for men.
The chief factor affecting em­
ployment growth in this occupa­
tion is the expected general busi­
ness expansion associated with
population increase and continued
economic prosperity. In addition,
more business firms are realizing
the importance of the reception­
ist in promoting good public re­
lations. Since the receptionist’s
work is of a person-to-person na­
ture, it is unlikely to be affected
by office automation.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, switchboard op­




erator-receptionists earned an
average of $83 a week in 1966-67;
weekly earnings for a few were
less than $65 a week; for others,
they were $100 or more.
In the Federal Government,
workers employed as information
receptionists started at about $80
a week ($4,231 a year) in 1968.
For experienced workers, starting
salaries were higher— about $88
or $99 a week ($4,600 or $5,145
a year), depending on the nature
of their previous experience.
Particularly in large business
offices, receptionists usually work
in well-furnished front offices, free
from noise and overcrowding. In
hospitals, beauty shops, and some
other types of businesses, sched­
uled hours may include some
weekend and evening work. (See
introductory section to this chap­
ter for further information on

Working Conditions and for
Sources of Additional Informa­
tion.)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING
CLERKS
(D.O.T. 222.138 through .687)

N ature of the W ork
Shipping and receiving clerks
keep track of goods transferred
from one place to another by
wholesalers, manufacturers, and
other business firms. Their spe­
cific duties depend on the size
and type of establishment which
employs them. In a great many
companies, one clerk keeps rec-

285

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ords of all shipments sent out and
received by his employer. In
larger companies, however, ship­
ping and receiving clerks may be
employed in separate depart­
ments under supervisors called
head shipping clerks or head re­
ceiving clerks — or sometimes
warehouse managers.
Before a shipment is sent from
a business establishment to a cus­
tomer, shipping clerks check to
be sure the customer’s order has
been correctly filled. They pre­
pare the invoices and other ship­
ping forms needed, look up freight
and postal rates, record the
weight and cost of each shipment,
and check to see that the ship­
ment is properly addressed. They
also keep records of the date and
other details associated with each
shipment. Sometimes shipping
clerks requisition from the firm’s
stockroom the merchandise need­
ed to fill each order, wrap and
pack the shipment, and direct its
loading on company trucks. They
ensure that the weight is evenly
distributed and fragile items are
safely placed.
Receiving clerks do similar
work when shipments reach their
destination. They find out wheth­
er their employer’s orders have
been correctly filled by verifying
incoming shipments against the
original order and the accompany­
ing bill of lading invoice, or other
record; and they check to see
whether the merchandise in each
shipment has arrived in good con­
dition. Receiving clerks record
all incoming shipments and the
condition in which they were re­
ceived, and they do other clerical
work related to damaged or lost
shipments. Routing shipments to
the proper department of the
company or section of the ware­
house or to the stockroom may
also be part of their job.




Places of Em ploym ent
The number of shipping and re­
ceiving clerks employed in 1968
is estimated at more than 370,000. About two out of every three
worked in manufacturing firms
and another fairly large group
worked for wholesale houses or
retail stores. The remainder were
employed by transportation and
freight forwarding companies, and
by many other kinds of business
firms. Almost 90 percent of all
shipping and receiving clerks are
men.
Shipping and receiving clerks
are employed in large factories,
warehouses, and stores. Most
work in metropolitan areas, where
such establishments tend to be
concentrated.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
High school graduates are pre­
ferred for beginning jobs in ship­
ping and receiving departments.
Business arithmetic, typing, and
other high school business sub­
jects are helpful in preparing for
the work. The ability to write
legibly is important. Dependabil­
ity and an interest in learning
about the firm’s business activi­
ties are also qualities which em­
ployers seek.
New employees are usually
given on-the-job training under
the supervision of an experienced
worker. This training covers the
special care and skill required
when the shipments handled in­
clude such merchandise as gar­
ments or scientific instruments;
and a knowledge of the regula­
tions which apply to shipments
abroad when merchandise is re­
ceived from or forwarded to other
countries.
In some firms, beginners may
help stockroom workers for a time
until they acquire a knowledge

of the firm’s products and busi­
ness transactions. In shipping and
receiving rooms, newly hired
clerks often start by doing rou­
tine work such as filing; checking
addresses; attaching labels to
shipments; and checking the
items included. As clerks acquire
experience, they may be assigned
tasks requiring a good deal of
independent judgment— for ex­
ample, handling problems that
arise because of damaged mer­
chandise, or supervising other
shipping
or
receiving
room
workers.
Work as a shipping or receiving
clerk provides an excellent oppor­
tunity for an ambitious young
man to learn about his company’s
products and business connec­
tions. Some clerks, particularly
those who acquire post high
school training or take courses in
transportation, may eventually
advance to warehouse managers,
industrial traffic managers, or
purchasing agents. (The work of
industrial traffic managers and
purchasing agents is discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Em ploym ent O utlook
During the 1970’s, more than
15,000 openings for shipping and
receiving clerks are expected an­
nually as employment in this oc­
cupation rises and as replace­
ments are needed for workers
who retire or stop working for
other reasons. In addition, other
job opportunities will occur as
workers transfer to other types
of employment.
As the quantity of goods dis­
tributed increases with popula­
tion growth, rising income levels,
and business expansion, the num­
ber of shipping and receiving
clerks is likely to rise moderately
through the 1970’s. Employment
will probably not increase as fast
as the volume of goods distrib-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

286
uted. Shipping and receiving de­
partments in firms handling large
quantities of merchandise will un­
doubtedly be able to handle a
greater volume of work with fewer
clerks, as they continue to in­
crease efficiency by streamlining
recordkeeping and modernizing
warehouses through installation
of moving belts and other laborsaving equipment. Even so, there
probably will be a gradual in­
crease in the number of clerks
whose main job assignment is in
shipping or receiving work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
According to a 1966-67 Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey cover­
ing 227 metropolitan areas, ship­
ping and receiving clerks earned
an average of $2.77 an hour. Av­
erage earnings were lowest in the
Southern region, $2.59 an hour,
and highest in the North Central
region, where shipping and receiv­
ing clerks earned an average
$2.92 an hour. Salary levels of
shipping and receiving clerks in
comparable jobs varied also, due
to differences in the industries in
which they were employed.
Shipping and receiving clerks
generally work a 40-hour week.
Many receive time and a half for
work over 40 hours. Nightwork
and overtime, including work on
Saturdays, Sundays, and holi­
days, may be necessary when raw
materials are needed immediately
on factory production lines, when
shipments have been unduly de­
layed in arriving, or in other emer­
gencies. Shipping and receiving
clerks do much of their work in
warehouses and shipping and re­
ceiving rooms; they may do some
of it on outside loading platforms.
Work places are often large, un­
partitioned areas which may be
drafty and cold, and littered with
packing materials and containers.
Some of the work done by ship­




ping and receiving clerks requires
physical stamina and strength.
Most clerks must stand for long
periods while they check quanti­
ties of merchandise. Locating
numbers and descriptions on car­
tons often requires a great deal
of bending, stooping, and stretch­
ing. In addition, it may be neces­
sary for clerks to help load or un­
load shipments or move materials
about in the warehouse. Occa­
sionally , the work must be per­
formed under considerable pres­
sure in order to move shipments
on time. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for Sources of
Additional Information.)

STENOGRAPHERS AND
SECRETARIES
(D.O.T. 201.268 and .368 and 202.388)

N ature of the W ork
About 2.5 million persons were
employed in occupations requir­
ing stenographic skills in late
1968. More than 95 percent were
women. Practically all stenogra­
phers and secretaries take dicta­
tion and transcribe it on a type­
writer. They usually have addi­
tional duties related to the nature
of their employer’s business; they
sometimes have special job titles
which reflect their skill levels or
work specialties.
Stenographers (D.O.T. 202.388)
take dictation from one or more
persons and then transcribe their
notes on a typewriter. Most ste­
nographers record their notes in
shorthand; some use machines
which print symbols as different
keys are pressed. In addition to
taking and transcribing dictation,
many stenographers also do other
kinds of typing, answer tele­
phones, operate various types of

office machines, and perform
other clerical duties. Some ste­
nographers, including most be­
ginners, are classified as general
eral stenographers; they take fair­
ly routine dictation and perform
routine office tasks. More experi­
enced senior stenographers have
a higher degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy, and perform
more responsible clerical work.
Some senior stenographers, called
technical stenographers, take dic­
tation in medical, legal, or scien­
tific terms; others take dictation
in a foreign language; and still
others work as public stenog­

raphers.
Some stenographers specialize
in shorthand reporting. Included
in this group are court reporters,
who record proceedings in law
courts. Other reporting stenog­
raphers record proceedings at con­
ventions and other meetings; re­
port statements made at press
conferences and before Govern­
ment legislative committees; and
do other kinds of word for word
reporting. Reporting stenogra­
phers take their notes by machine
or, less frequently, in written
shorthand. Then, they either
transcribe them on a typewriter
or dictate them onto sound-pro­
ducing records which are later
transcribed by typists. Stenog­
raphers who do this kind of work
must be exceptionally rapid and
accurate— sometimes taking notes
in technical language from many
speakers and for extended periods
of time.
Secretaries (D.O.T. 201.268), in
addition to their stenographic
work, relieve their employers of
numerous routine duties and of­
ten handle a variety of business
details on their own initiative.
Duties vary, depending on the na­
ture of the employer’s business
activities and also on the secre­
tary’s own experience and capa­
bilities. Secretaries often handle
tasks such as scheduling appoint-

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ments for their employers, arrang­
ing for airline tickets and hotel
reservations, taking care of some
kinds of correspondence, and han­
dling private or confidential rec­
ords. Sometimes they also super­
vise other clerical personnel. Some
secretaries, like stenographers,
specialize in legal, medical, or oth­
er technical work. Others, who are
social secretaries (D.O.T. 201.268), make arrangements for so­
cial functions and attend to other
personal and social matters for
their employers.
Places of Em ploym ent
Stenographers and secretaries
are employed by public and pri­
vate organizations of practically
every size and type. A few—
chiefly public stenographers and
some reporting stenographers—
are self-employed.
Particularly large numbers of
stenographers and secretaries
work for manufacturing firms,
government agencies, schools and
colleges, insurance companies,
banks, and hospitals. Many, in­
cluding technical stenographers
and secretaries, are employed in
the offices of physicians, attor­
neys, and other professional peo­
ple. Stenographic and secretarial




jobs for men tend to be concen­
trated in educational and other
professional services, and in man­
ufacturing and public administra­
tion. Many of the nearly 15,000
stenographers who specialize in
shorthand reporting are men.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Adequate performance as a ste­
nographer or secretary requires
a good basic education as well as
technical training. Graduation
from high school is essential for
practically all positions. Gradu­
ates whose high school courses
have included shorthand, typing,
and other business subjects meet
the requirements of many em­
ployers. Some employers prefer a
background of academic high
school subjects, supplemented by
technical training taken after
graduation.
Daytime and evening courses
that prepare students for steno­
graphic and secretarial work are
offered by hundreds of public
schools, private business schools,
and colleges throughout the coun­
try. In connection with high
school courses in business sub­
jects, some public schools conduct

287
cooperative programs which en­
able students to acquire practical
work experience under trained su­
pervision. Also, the Federal Gov­
ernment sponsors training pro­
grams for unemployed and under­
employed workers for entry posi­
tions as stenographers under pro­
visions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act. Associate
degrees in the field of secretarial
studies are conferred by a great
number of junior and community
colleges. Bachelor's degrees in the
field of executive secretary are
conferred by the schools of busi­
ness and commerce in many uni­
versities; a few confer the master’s
degree.
Some courses which train for
stenographic work are limited to
shorthand and typing and can be
completed in a few months. In
other courses which usually last
longer, students also may be
taught additional office skills and
receive instruction in general bus­
iness practices and office conduct.
Some courses provide intensive
training to prepare students for
stenographic reporting or for legal,
technical, or medical-dental sectarial work.
The shorthand system used
helps determine the time needed
for students to learn shorthand
and the speed they may develop.
There are many different short­
hand systems, some of which are
faster than others. Employers sel­
dom have strong preferences
about the system a stenographer
uses, but they usually regard the
rate of speed as an important fac­
tor. To qualify for positions in the
Federal Government — and for
employment in many private
firms — stenographers must be
able to take dictation at a rate of
at least 80 words a minute and
type 40 words or more a minute.
Although speed requirements in
some positions may be less than
this, in others— especially short­
hand reporting— they are much

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

288
greater. Many shorthand report­
ing jobs require speeds of 200
words or more a minute. For be­
ginning stenographers in the Fed­
eral Government, the minimum is
160 words a minute.
Good hearing and a working
knowledge of spelling, punctua­
tion, grammar, and vocabulary
are essential in stenographic and
and secretarial positions. Employ­
ers seek workers who are poised,
alert, and have pleasant person­
alities. Discretion, good judg­
ment, and initiative are also im­
portant, particularly for the more
responsible secretarial positions.
Capable and well-trained ste­
nographers and secretaries have
excellent opportunities for ad­
vancement. Many stenographers
advance to better paying positions
as secretaries; others, who acquire
the necessary speed through ex­
perience or additional training,
may become reporting stenogra­
phers. Both stenographers and
secretaries may eventually be pro­
moted to jobs such as administra­
tive assistant, office supervisor,
executive secretary, or some other
responsible position requiring spe­
cialized knowledge of the employ­
er’s industry or business.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
workers that have stenographic
skills are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. As modern
businesses continue to expand in
size and complexity, the increased
paperwork will lead to a rapid ex­
pansion in the employment of sec­
retaries and stenographers. The
increasing use of dictating, dupli­
cating, and other office machines
will undoubtedly continue, but
technological changes of this kind
are not expected to greatly affect
the growth of employment in
these occupations.
Openings for stenographers and




secretaries are expected to total
more than 230,000 annually.
Many thousands of workers will
be hired to fill new jobs, but an
even greater number will be need­
ed to replace stenographers and
secretaries who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Turn­
over among stenographic workers
is high because many young wom­
en leave to care for their families.
Some openings also will occur as
stenographers and secretaries
leave their jobs to enter other
types of employment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1967, persons employed as
general stenographers in metro­
politan areas surveyed by the
BLS earned average salaries of
$405 a month. Salaries earned by
senior and technical stenogra­
phers working in metropolitan
areas averaged $468 a month.
The salaries earned by individ­
uals included in the survey varied
considerably, partly because of
differences in the location and in­
dustry where they were employed,
but also because of differences in
experience. The earnings of re­
porting stenographers generally
are considerably higher than
those of other stenographic
workers.
The entrance salary for begin­
ning stenographers in the Federal
Government in late 1968 was
$4,600 a year. In the Federal Civil
Service, shorthand reporters (oth­
er than court reporters) capable
of reporting a minimum of 160
words per minute start at $5,732
a year, and may advance to
$6,321 or more per year.
Salaries of secretaries to super­
visors in small organizational
units or nonsupervisory staff spe­
cialists averaged $463 a month,
according to another BLS survey
conducted in 1968.
Secretaries to officers in small

companies and to middle manage­
ment executives in large compa­
nies earned average monthly sal­
aries of $522 and $557, respec­
tively.
Secretaries having even greater
responsibilities earned average
salaries of $606 a month. (See
introductory section of this chap­
ter for more information on work­
ing conditions.)

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Additional information on ca­
reers in secretarial work, as well
as a directory of business schools,
may be obtained from:
United Business Schools Associa­
tion, 1730 M Street, N W , Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

Information regarding short­
hand reporting may be obtained
from:
National Shorthand Reporters As­
sociation, 25 West Main St.,
Madison, Wis. 53703.

See introductory section of this
chapter for additional sources of
information.
For information on becoming a
certified professional secretary,
write to:
The Institute for Certifying Sec­
retaries, 1103 Grand Avenue,
Suite 410, Kansas City, Mo.
64106.

TYPISTS
(D.O.T. 203.138 through .588; 208.588;
and 209.388 through .588)

N ature of the W ork
Typists operate the one ma­
chine found in practically every
business office— the typewriter.
Their main job assignment is to

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

produce typed copies of printed
and handwritten materials; in
this respect, their work differs
from that of many other office em­
ployees, who also do some typing
but whose principal job assign­
ment is different.
Practically all typewriters, in­
cluding the electric machines be­
ing used in an increasing number
of offices, have the same type key­
board and are operated in much
the same way. Some typing jobs
are considerably more difficult
than others, however. Beginners,
sometimes called junior typists,
often address envelopes, type
headings on form letters, copy di­
rectly from handwritten or typed




drafts, and do other routine work.
Experienced, or senior typists,
generally perform work requiring
a particularly high degree of ac­
curacy or independent judgment;
they may work from rough drafts
which are difficult to read and
which contain technical material,
or they may plan and type com­
plicated statistical tables, com­
bine and rearrange materials from
several different sources, or pre­
pare master copies of material to
be reproduced by photographic
processes. A few specially trained
typists operate teletypewriters,
proportional spacing typewriters,
and other special kinds of type­
writing machines.

289
Because many typists use spe­
cial equipment or have jobs in­
volving special duties, they also
have special job titles. Thousands
who combine typing with filing,
sorting mail, answering the phone,
and other general office work are
called clerk typists (D.O.T. 209.588). Other much smaller groups
of typists include transcribing ma­
chine operators (D.O.T. 208.588),
who type letters and other docu­
ments as they listen to dictation
recorded on tape or on sound-pro­
ducing records; and data typists
(D.O.T. 213.588) and tape perfo­
rator operators (D.O.T. 203.588),
who use specially equipped elec­
tric typewriters to transfer coded
instructions to magnetic or paper
tapes for use in electronic compu­
ters. Still other typists having spe­
cial duties and job titles include
policy writers (D.O.T. 202.388)
in insurance companies, waybill
clerks (D.O.T. 209.588) in rail­
road offices, and mortgage clerks
(D.O.T. 203.588) in banks.
Places of Em ploym ent
About 700,000 workers were
employed as typists in 1968; over
95 percent were women. In ad­
dition, hundreds of thousands of
workers in other kinds of clerical
occupations also use typing skills
in connection with their main job
assignments.
Typists are employed in private
and public enterprises of practi­
cally every kind— particularly in
manufacturing firms, banks, in­
surance companies, and Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. At least one-half of all typ­
ists worked i n such establish­
ments in 1968.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most employers require appli­
cants for typing positions to meet

290

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

certain standards of typing speed Although a rapid increase in em­
and accuracy. Usually, employers ployment is anticipated, many
have applicants take tests which additional openings will become
show how rapidly and accurately available for workers to replace
they are able to type. For most typists who retire or stop working
positions, typists generally must for other reasons. Turnover in this
be able to type at least 40 or 50 field is high because many young
words a minute. Typists also women leave to care for their fam­
should have a good understanding ilies.
of spelling, vocabulary, punctu­
As modern businesses continue
ation, and grammar.
to expand in size and complexity,
Practically all prospective typ­ greater numbers of typists will be
ists obtain the training needed by needed. However, duplicating ma­
attending day or evening classes chines and other mechanical ein public or private schools. High quipment probably will be used
school graduates generally are frequently for routine typing and
preferred by employers. High other clerical work done in offices,
school business training, including thereby limiting somewhat the de­
training in the operation of some mand for junior typists. The
of the simpler office machines such greatest demand is likely to be
as transcribing, copying, and add­ for typists who are able to do the
ing machines, may be helpful to relatively difficult work in senior
the applicant. Also, the Federal typing jobs, and for typists who
Government sponsors training also can do other kinds of office
programs for unemployed and un­ work.
deremployed workers for entry
positions as typists under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
Earnings and W orking Conditions
ment and Training Act.
Important aptitudes and per­
In 1968, the average monthly
sonality traits for this occupation
salary for beginning typists em­
include finger dexterity, accuracy,
neatness, arid the ability to con­ ployed in metropolitan areas sur­
centrate in the midst of distrac­ veyed by the BLS was $350; those
tions. A friendly manner and an having more experience and re­
attractive personality are great sponsibility earned average salar­
assets. Transcribing machine op­ ies of $407 a month. The salaries
erators should have good hearing. paid to individuals included in the
Promotion for a typist may be survey varied considerably, partly
from a junior to a senior typing because of differences in the lo­
position, or to other clerical work cation and the industry where
involving greater responsibility they were employed, but also be­
and higher pay. Typists who com­ cause of differences in experience.
In the Federal Government, the
plete training in shorthand may
advance to stenographic or secre­ entrance salary for beginning typ­
ists was $4,231 a year. Working
tarial work.
conditions for typists usually are
similar to those of other office
workers in the firms where they
E m ploym ent Outlook
are employed. (See introductory
section of this chapter for informa­
Employment opportunities for
typists are expected to be very tion on Working Conditions and
good in the years ahead. About Sources of Additional Informa­
60,000 new job openings are ex­ tion.)
pected yearly through the 1970’s.




TELEPHONE OPERATORS
(D.O.T. 235.862)

N ature of the W ork
Although millions of telephone
calls are dialed each day without
the assistance of a telephone op­
erator, practically every telephone
user sometimes makes a call that
cannot be completed without the
operator’s help. Often the opera­
tor is asked to reverse charges on
a long distance call, locate a par­
ticular individual, or provide in­
formation about the cost of the
call. Frequently, the caller needs
help because he does not have the
correct telephone number. The
operator’s services also may be
needed to call the police in an
emergency, assist a blind person
who is unable to dial for himself,
or arrange a conference telephone
call which will enable business ex­
ecutives in several different loca­
tions to confer by telephone.
These and many other services
are provided by two groups of
telephone operators— those who
work at the switchboards in cen­
tral offices of telephone compa­
nies; and operators or attendants
who work at private branch ex­
change (P B X ) switchboards in
other types of enterprises. Usu­
ally, workers in both groups oper­
ate their equipment by inserting
and removing plugs attached to
cords, by manipulating keys and
dials, and by listening and speak­
ing into their headsets. Some
switchboards are of the keyboard
type and are operated by push­
buttons and dials.
Central office operators are
usually contacted only when
callers need assistance. Because
assistance is most frequently
sought for long distance calls,
most central office operators are
long distance operators. They ob-

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

291
in 1968 — aproximately threefifths as central office operators
in telephone companies, and twofifths as P B X operators in other
types of establishments. Although
P B X operators worked in estab­
lishments of all kinds, a particu­
larly large number were employed
in manufacturing plants, hospi­
tals, schools, and department
stores. Jobs for both central office
and P B X operators tend to be
concentrated in heavily populated
areas. Nearly one-fifth of the total
operators were employed in the
New York, Chicago, and Los An­
geles metropolitan area. Practi­
cally all operators were women.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

tain from each caller the informa­
tion needed to complete the call,
make the necessary connections
with the party being called, and
record the details of each call for
billing purposes. Many informa­
tion operators (D.O.T. 235.862)
also work in telephone companies;
they provide callers and long dis­
tance operators with telephone
numbers by searching in tele­
phone directories and other rec­
ords for addresses, numbers of
new subscribers, and other infor­
mation. Central office supervisors
are responsible for training newly
hired operators; they also aid op­
erators in completing difficult
calls. In each central office, all op­
erators in completing especially
difficult calls. In each central of­
fice, all operators work under the
direction of a chief operator, who
is responsible for the overall oper­
ation of the office.
PBX operators (D.O.T. 235.862) operate switchboards which
serve groups of telephone users in
business offices and other estab­
lishments, and which are connec­
ted with telephone company lines.




In addition to making connec­
tions for interoffice or house calls,
they answer and relay to the
proper parties the calls from the
outside, assist other company em­
ployees in making outgoing calls,
supply information to callers, and
record charges for the calls which
go through their switchboards.
Many operators work at large
P B X boards which serve dial tele­
phones; their duties are very
much the same as those of central
office operators. In many small
establishments, however, PBX
operators work at switchboards
which serve only a limited num­
ber of telephones, and, when not
busy at their swichboards, these
operators do other office work
such as typing or sorting mail.
Many act as receptionists or in­
formation clerks. (The work of
the receptionist is described else­
where in this chapter.)

Places of Em ploym ent
Almost 400,000 people were
employed as telephone operators

In hiring beginners, employers
prefer young people who have at
least a high school education.
Courses in English and business
arithmetic provide good prepara­
tion. Since many P B X operator
positions combine switchboard
duties with other office work,
courses in typing and other com­
mercial subjects also may be
helpful.
Although brief courses in
switchboard operation are avail­
able at a limited number of pri­
vate and public schools, practi­
cally all newly hired operators re­
ceive some on-the-job training to
familiarize themselves with the
equipment they will use, the
kinds of records to be kept, and
any additional duties for which
they will be responsible. In tele­
phone company central offices, op­
erators first learn the various pro­
cedures used in handling calls.
They then put through practice
calls. Following this period of in­
struction and practice— which us­
ually lasts from 1 to 3 weeks—
they are assigned to the regular
operating force in a central office
where they receive further in-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

292
struction in handling special types
of calls not included in their in­
itial training.
Many P B X operators handle
comparatively routine calls and,
therefore, their period of training
may be somewhat shorter than
that of central office operators. In
a large business, training often is
given by a training supervisor in
the company’s employ or by an
instructor who works for the local
telephone company. In a small
establishment, another employee
who is experienced in switchboard
operation usually does the train­
ing. The telephone operator’s job
is becoming less repetitive, largely
because of the increasing use of
direct dialing. Thus, public con­
tacts make up an increasing pro­
portion of their work. Operators
must be tactful and courteous. In
providing the services requested
by telephone users, they often
must exercise initiative as well as
patience and persistence. A pleas­
ing telephone voice with no no­
ticeable speech impediment is im­
portant. A high degree of eyehand coordination and normal
eyesight and hearing also are
helpful. Most telephone compa­
nies and many large business
firms require applicants to pass
physical examinations and gen­
eral intelligence tests. Ability to
type and other clerical skills may
be required for some PBX posi­
tions.
An experienced central office
operator may be promoted to cen­
tral office supervisor and, eventu­
ally, to chief operator. Promotion
also may be to a clerical job or
some other position within the
telephone company at a higher
salary. Similar opportunities exist
for P B X operators in large firms;
in many small businesses, how­
ever, opportunities for advance­
ment are limited.




Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of telephone op­
erators is expected to rise moder­
ately through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition, many thousands of job op­
enings will become available an­
nually in this large occupation.
Most openings — an estimated
21,000 each year — will be to re­
place central office and P B X oper­
ators who retire or stop working
for other reasons. Turnover is
high, particularly because most
telephone operators are young
women who work for only a few
years and then leave to care for
their families. Additional opera­
tors also will be needed to replace
workers who transfer to other
types of employment.
Direct
dialing
and
other
changes have been under way for
some years in telephone company
offices and have tended to restrict
growth in central office oper­
ator employment. Technological
change probably will continue. At
the same time, however, further
increases are anticipated in the
volume of calls handled by tele­
phone companies. Consequently,
only a small growth in the em­
ployment of central office opera­
tors is expected through the
1970’s.
The number of P B X operators,
on the other hand, is expected to
rise at a more rapid pace through­
out the 1970’s. Employment in
most P B X installations is expec­
ted to be relatively unaffected by
further
technological
change.
Some large P B X installations
may install modern laborsaving
equipment, but its limiting effect
on employment should be more
than offset by the number of new
jobs created as more businesses
require PBX services.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Central office operators in
training averaged $1.94 an hour in

December 1967, according to a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey.
For experienced telephone opera­
tors, the average was $2.29 an
hour; for service assistants (cen­
tral office supervisors), $2.83; and
for chief operators, $3.66. Salary
levels varied in different sections
of the country; they were highest
in the Pacific States, where ex­
perienced
operators
averaged
$2.47 an hour. Pay scales estab­
lished by contracts between
unions and telephone companies
generally provide for periodic sal­
ary increases to operators. Cen­
tral office operators usually re­
ceive extra pay for work on eve­
nings, Sundays, and holidays.
The median weekly earnings of
Class A PBX operators in metro­
politan areas in February 1967
was $97.50; for Class B P B X op­
erators, the average was $76.50.
Earnings varied according to
the industry in which P B X oper­
ators were employed and the sec­
tion of the country. Average earn­
ings were highest in public util­
ities and lowest in retail trade and
services. By geographic areas,
earnings were highest in the West
and lowest in the South.
The workweek for most central
office and P B X operators aver­
aged between 35 and 40 hours. Of­
ten, their scheduled hours are ap­
proximately the same as those of
other clerical workers in the busi­
ness community. In telephone
companies, however, and in ho­
tels, hospitals, and other estab­
lishments where telephone service
is maintained on a 24-hour basis,
operators usually work on shifts
and on holidays and weekends.
Some central office operators
work split shifts— that is, they
are on duty during the peak call­
ing periods which occur in the
late morning and early evening,
and have time off between these
two periods.
Operators in most telephone
companies and other large estab-

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

lishments usually work in welllighted and pleasant surroun­
dings. Attractive lounges often
are provided for relaxation during
“ breaks”
in their scheduled
hours. Insurance and pension
paid holidays and vacations are




much the same as those for other
types of clerical employees.
Many operators employed by
telephone companies are members
of the Communications Workers
plans and practices relating to

293
of America and the Alliance of
Independent Telephone Unions.
See telephone industry chapter
and introductory section of this
chapter for sources of additional
information.




SALES OCCUPATIONS

Saleswork offers career oppor­
tunities for young people who
have not completed high school,
as well as for those who have a
college degree; for men and wom­
en who like to travel and those
who do not; and for people who
want salaried employment, as
well as those who aspire to run
their own business.
Workers in this occupational
group sell for manufacturers, in­
surance companies, and other
producers of goods and services;
for wholesalers who stock large
quantities of goods so that
smaller lots may be purchased
and resold by retail stores; and
for drugstores, dress shops, and
other retailers who deal directly
with the public. Their customers
include housewives buying grocer­
ies, college students buying text­
books, and businessmen purchas­
ing items such as machine tools,
office furniture, or stationery.
More than 4.6 million workers
were employed in sales occupa­
tions in 1968. About one-fourth
were part-time employees who

usually worked fewer than 35
hours a week. Two out of five
were women, employed mainly in
retail stores. In insurance, real
estate, and other saleswork out­

A m ong The N e a rly 4.6 M illion W orkers In Sales
Occupations In 1968
A b o u t Three-Fifths W ere Em ployed In Retail Trade
ALL OTHER
SECURITIES SALESMEN
REAL ESTATE AGENTS
INSURANCE AGENTS
AND BROKERS
MANUFACTURERS'
SALESMEN
WHOLESALE
SALESWORKERS

RETAIL
SALESWORKERS




side retail stores, the great ma­
jority of employees were men.
Chart 21 shows the employment
in the major sales occupations
discussed in this chapter. This
chapter also includes individual
statements for automotive salesworkers.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Training requirements for dif­
ferent kinds of saleswork— like
the work itself— vary greatly.
Thousands of salespersons have
routine jobs selling standardized
merchandise such as magazines,
candy, cigarettes, and cosmetics.
In such cases, the salesworker
needs to do little more than
“ wait on” people who already
have made their selections from
the stock displayed. Employers
seldom require salespeople in
295

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

296
such jobs to have specialized
training. They usually learn their
duties on the job as they work
with experienced sales-clerks or,
in some large stores, they may at­
tend brief training courses. Even
in the most routine kinds of sell­
ing, however, a high school di­
ploma is an asset to a beginner
seeking a job. High school courses
in business subjects, as well as
specialized courses in distributive
education offered in some city
school systems, are regarded by
most employers as particularly
good preparation for saleswork.
The Federal Government also
sponsors training for some salesworkers under provisions of the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act.
The salesman who sells com­
plex products or services— elec­
tronic equipment or liability in­
surance, for example— has a job
which is altogether different from
that of most retail salesclerks.
Beginners on jobs of this kind
sometimes receive training which
lasts many months. For some po­
sitions, salesmen must be college
graduates who have specialized
in engineering or some other field.
Other salesmen dealing in spe­
cialized services and products
may acquire the necessary tech­
nical knowledge by taking courses
offered at universities or by
manufacturers. Still others gain
knowledge through years of onthe-job experience, often supple­
mented by home study. Thus, a
salesman of real estate may quali­
fy better for his job by taking
university extension courses; a
beauty counselor in a department
store may participate in an in­
dustry-sponsored training pro
gram before beginning her sales
duties; or a salesman of fine jew­
elry may acquire his knowledge
of gems during years of observa­
tion and study as he works on
the job.
Successful salespeople must




have the ability to understand
the needs and viewpoints of their
customers, and a readiness to be
of assistance to them. Saleswork
also requires people with poise
who are at ease in dealing with
strangers. Other important at­
tributes in many types of selling
are energy, self-confidence, imagi­
nation, the ability to communi­
cate, and self-discipline. In almost
all sales work, except retail
stores, the salesman must have
the initiative to locate his own
prospective customers and plan
his own work schedule.

special circumstances and the
employment prospects for sales­
workers in retail stores and other
major fields is given in the sec­
tions which follow. Factors af­
fecting the demand for various
sales occupations also are dis­
cussed in the sections which
follow.

AUTOMOBILE PARTS
COUNTERMEN
(D.O.T. 289.358)

Em ploym ent Outlook
N ature of the W ork
During the 1970’s, employment
in sales occupations is expected
to rise moderately. Openings cre­
ated by growth and vacancies
which arise as salesworkers retire
or stop working for other reasons,
are expected to result in a need
for 275,000 workers each year;
additional thousands of workers
will be needed to replace people
now employed in saleswork who
transfer to other types of employ­
ment.
As employment rises, the pro­
portion of part-time workers—
already higher than in most oc­
cupational groups— is also likely
to increase. In the growing num­
ber of suburban shopping centers,
where many retail stores remain
open several nights a week, a
larger proportion of the sales
force is likely to be made up of
part-time workers.
The main reason for the anti­
cipated rise in employment is the
prospect of increased sales re­
sulting from population growth,
business expansion, and rising in­
come levels. Within retail stores,
however, special circumstances
which have restricted employ­
ment growth in the recent past
probably will continue to do so.
Information about some of the

Automobile parts countermen
sell replacement parts and acces­
sories for automobiles, trucks,
and other motor vehicles. Most
of them work in automobile parts
wholesale stores and automobile
dealer parts departments where
they sell directly over the coun­
ter and take telephone orders for
varied items such as piston rings,
head gaskets, shock absorbers,
rearview mirrors, and seat covers.
Parts countermen employed by
wholesalers sell parts for many
different makes of automobiles
and trucks to independent repair
shops, self-employed mechanics,
service station operators, “ do-ityourselfers,” and other custom­
ers. Parts countermen employed
by automobile and truck dealers
usually sell only parts used on
the particular makes of automo­
biles and trucks sold by the deal­
ers. They may spend most of their
time supplying parts to mechanics
employed by the dealer.
A parts counterman identifies
the part the customer needs— of­
ten, only on the basis of a general
description— and locates the part
in the stockroom. By knowing
how to use parts catalogs and by
knowing the layout of the stock-

297

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

brake riveting machines, brake
drum lathes, valve refacers, and
engine head surfacers.

Places of Em ploym ent

Automobile parts counterman identifies part customer needs.

room, he readily can find any one
of several thousand items. If a
customer needs a part that is not
stocked, the parts counterman
may suggest one that is inter­
changeable, place a special order
for the part, or refer the customer
elsewhere.
The parts counterman deter­
mines the prices of parts by re­
ferring to price lists, receives
cash payment or charges the cus­
tomer’s account, fills out sales
receipts and, when necessary,
packages the item sold.
In addition to their sales du­
ties, parts countermen may keep
catalogs and price lists up to
date, order parts to replenish
stock, unpack incoming ship­




ments of parts and distribute
them in the stockroom, maintain
sales records, and take inventor­
ies. In many large wholesale
stores, some of these nonselling
duties are performed by other
workers such as stock clerks and
receiving clerks.
Parts countermen may use mi­
crometers, calipers, fan belt
measurers, and other devices to
measure parts for interchangeability. They also may use coil
condenser testers, spark plug
testers, and other types of testing
equipment to determine whether
parts are defective. In some stores
— particularly in small wholesale
establishments— they may repair
parts, using equipment such as

Most of the estimated 65,000
automobile parts countermen em­
ployed in 1968 worked for auto­
bile dealers and automobile
parts wholesalers. Most dealers
employed 1 to 4 parts counter­
men; many wholesalers employed
more than four. Other employers
include truck dealers, retail auto­
mobile parts stores, automobile
parts and accessories departments
of department stores, and ware­
house distributors of automobile
parts. Trucking companies and
buslines employ some parts
countermen to maintain stockrooms and dispense parts to the
mechanics who repair their fleets.
Parts countermen can find jobs
throughout the country in auto­
mobile dealerships and automo­
bile parts wholesale stores. Parts
countermen who work for ware­
house distributors, department
stores, trucking companies, and
buslines are employed mainly in
large towns and cities.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Automobile parts countermen
should have a knowledge of the
different types of motor vehicle
parts and their functions and an
aptitude for working with num­
bers. They should be neat, friend­
ly, even-tempered, and tactful
since they deal with many dif­
ferent types of customers. The
ability to write legibly and con­
centrate on details, plus a good
memory, also are desirable qual­
ifications. High school or voca­
tional school courses in automo­
bile mechanics, commercial arith­
metic, salesmanship, or book-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

298
keeping are helpful to young men
interested in becoming parts
countermen. Practical experience
gained from working in a gaso­
line service station or working on
automobiles as a hobby also is
helpful. Employers generally pre­
fer to hire high school graduates
for entry jobs.
Most automobile parts counter­
men learn the trade through in­
formal on-the-job training. Be­
ginners usually are hired as parts
delivery men or trainees. In some
large firms, beginners start as
stock or receiving clerks. The
trainees gradually acquire a
knowledge of the different types
of parts, learn how to use catalogs
and price lists, and memorize the
layout of the stockroom. Al­
though trainees may start wait­
ing on customers after a few
months’ experience, it generally
takes about 2 years to become a
qualified parts counterman.
Automobile parts countermen
that have supervisory and busi­
ness management capabilities
may become parts department or
store managers. Others may be­
come “ outside salesmen” for parts
wholesalers
and
distributors.
These salesmen call on automo­
bile repair shops, service stations,
trucking companies, and other
businesses that buy parts and ac­
cessories in large quantities.
Some parts countermen may es­
tablish their own automobile
parts stores.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of automobile
parts countermen is expected to
increase moderately through the
1970’s. In addition to the job op­
portunities resulting from em­
ployment growth, an estimated
1,300 job openings are expected
annually to replace experienced
workers who retire or die. Job
openings also will occur as some




parts countermen transfer to
other lines of work.
Continued growth in the em­
ployment of parts countermen is
anticipated because more replace­
ment parts will be needed to
maintain the increasing number
of motor vehicles in use. More­
over, the variety of replacement
parts is growing. In recent years,
automobile manufacturers have
offered consumers a greater se­
lection of makes and models, and
optional equipment. As a result,
automobile dealers and parts
wholesalers are selling a larger
variety of parts, although many
parts are interchangeable among
various models. Employment in
this occupation is expected to in­
crease even though more and
more replacement parts are being
sold by retail outlets that do not
employ parts countermen.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Information obtained from a
number of union-management
agreements indicated that most
automobile parts countermen who
were employed by new car deal­
ers and were paid a straight sal­
ary earned between $2.25 and
$3.25 an hour in 1968. Earnings
vary depending on factors such
as experience and geographic lo­
cation. Many automobile parts
countermen receive commissions
based on sales.
Most parts countermen work
between 40 and 48 hours a week.
In many firms, they work half a
day on Saturday.
Many employers of parts coun­
termen provide paid holidays and
vacations, and pay part or all of
additional benefits such as life,
health, and accident insurance.
Others also contribute to retire­
ment plans.
Stock rooms usually are clean
and well lighted. The work of
parts countermen is not physi­

cally strenuous, but they spend
much of their time standing or
walking. They frequently have to
work rapidly when waiting on
more than one customer and
simultaneously answering tele­
phone calls.
Many automobile parts coun­
termen belong to the following
unions: the International Asso­
ciation of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the Sheet Metal
Workers’
International
Asso­
ciation; and the International
Brotherhood of T e a m s t e r s ,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America.
Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
For further information regard­
ing work opportunities for auto­
mobile parts countermen, inquir­
ies should be directed to local
employers, such as automobile
dealers and automobile parts
wholesalers; locals of the unions
previously mentioned; or the lo­
cal office of the State employ­
ment service. The State employmen service also provides in­
formation about the Manpower
Development and Training Act
of 1962 and other training pro­
grams.
General information about the
work of automobile parts coun­
termen may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry As­
sociation, 168 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 1 1 60601.
1.
National Automotive Parts Asso­
ciation, 29 East Madison St.,
Chicago, 11 . 60602.
1

AUTOMOBILE SALESMEN
(D.O.T. 280.358)

N ature of the W ork
Automobile salesmen are im­
portant links between dealers and

299

SALES OCCUPATIONS

buyers of new and used cars.
Many salesmen sell only new or
used cars. Others sell both new
and used cars, as well as trucks.
(This statement does not discuss
salesmen who sell trucks only.)
The
automobile
salesman
spends much of his time waiting
on customers in the dealer’s
showroom or used-car lot. After
greeting a customer, he deter­
mines the kind of car the cus­
tomer has in mind, and the fea­
tures that interest him by asking
questions and encouraging him to
comment on the cars on display.
For example, one customer may
indicate that he is primarily in­
terested in economy and ease of
operation, but another may be
more impressed with styling and
performance. In his sales presen­

tation, the salesman emphasizes
the points that satisfy the cus­
tomer’s desires and stimulate his
willingness to buy. T o illustrate
features such as smoothness of
ride and ease of operation, he
may invite the customer to test
drive the car.
Because the purchase of a car
involves a considerable sum of
money, many customers must be
convinced that they are making
a wise decision. Successful sales­
men have an ability to overcome
the customer’s hesitancy to buy
and get the order (called closing
the sale). Since closing the sale
frequently is difficult for begin­
ning salesmen, experienced sales­
men or sales managers often lend
assistance. Salesmen may quote
tentative prices and trade-in al­

lowances when conferring with
customers, but these figures usu­
ally are subject to the approval
of sales managers. Salesmen may
arrange financing and insurance
for the cars they sell. They also
register cars and obtain license
plates.
Before the salesman approves
delivery he makes sure the car
has been serviced properly and
has the accessories specified by
the customer. He answers the cus­
tomer’s questions on subjects
such as the car’s controls and the
maintenance warranty. Following
delivery of the car, he may con­
tact the customer by phone or
mail t^ express appreciation for
the customer’s business and to in­
quire about his satisfaction with
the car. From time to time, he
also may send the customer bro­
chures on new-car models and
other literature. By keeping in
contact with his customers, the
salesman builds repeat business.
Automobile salesmen develop
and follow leads on prospective
new customers. For example, they
obtain names of prospects from
sources such as automobile reg­
istration records and dealer sales,
service, and finance records. A
salesman also can obtain leads
on prospective customers from
gasoline service station operators,
parking lot attendant, barbers,
and others whose work brings
them into frequent contact with
people. He also may contact pros­
pects by phone or mail.

Places of Em ploym ent

Automobile salesman explains controls to customer.




An estimated 120,000 automo­
bile salesmen were employed in
1968. More than four of every
five automobile salesmen were
employed by new-car dealers,
many of whom also sell used cars.
The remainder work for used-car
dealers. Although many used-car
dealers employ only 1 salesman,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

300
a few new-car dealers employ
more than 50 salesmen. Some
used-car dealers do not employ
full time salesmen.
Automobile salesmen can find
employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s
throughout the country, although
most opportunities are found in
large urban areas and in the most
populous States.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most beginning salesmen are
trained on the job by sales man­
agers and experienced salesmen.
Many large firms also provide
formal training in special classes
before beginners start selling.
These classes generally last for
several days and include instruc­
tion on obtaining customer leads,
making sales presentations, and
closing sales. Beginners frequent­
ly are given training manuals
and other educational material
published by automobile manu­
facturers. Experienced and be­
ginning salesmen receive continu­
ing guidance and training from
sales managers, both on the job
and at periodic sales meetings.
Salesmen also may attend train­
ing programs offered by automo­
bile manufacturers.
Most sales managers regard a
high school diploma as the mini­
mum educational requirement for
beginning automobile salesmen. A
growing number of automobile
salesmen have completed addi­
tional education. Courses in pub­
lic speaking, commercial arith­
metic, English, business law, psy­
chology, and salesmanship pro­
vide a good background for sell­
ing. Previous sales experience or
work requiring contact with the
public is helpful. Many automo­
bile salesmen previously have
been furniture salesmen, route
salesmen, door-to-door salesmen,
automobile parts countermen, or




gasoline service station attend­
ants. However, many sales man­
agers will hire inexperienced ap­
plicants whose personal and edu­
cational qualifications are satis­
factory.
Age requirements for beginning
salesmen vary among employers,
although many prefer that be­
ginners be at least in their midor late twenties. Age require­
ments sometimes are waived if
the employer considers the ap­
plicant to be a mature individual.
However, most employers con­
sider 21 years the minimum age
for beginning salesmen.
Automobile salesmen must be
tactful, well groomed, express
themselves well, and have the
other personal qualities that
make a good impression on cus­
tomers. Initiative and aggressive­
ness also are important because
the volume of sales usually is re­
lated to the number of prospec­
tive customers contacted. Be­
cause automobile salesmen oc­
casionally have the discouraging
experience of going for days with­
out making a sale, they need selfconfidence and determination to
get through these slow periods.
Successful salesmen who have
managerial ability may advance
to assistant sales manager, sales
manager, or general manager.
Some sales managers and general
managers who acquire the neces­
sary capital acquire their own
dealerships or become partners in
dealerships.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Thousands of job openings for
automobile salesmen are antici­
pated through the 1970’s, mostly
to replace salesmen who transfer
to other fields of work. Although
selling cars is rewarding for many
people, others leave to seek other
jobs because they are not suited
for the work. In addition to em­

ployment opportunities resulting
from transfers out of the occupa­
tion, about 2,300 openings will
arise annually to replace experi­
enced salesmen who retire or die.
In addition to replacement
needs, the number of automobile
salesmen is expected to grow
moderately, because of the ex­
panding demand for cars. Annual
sales of new and used cars will
rise during the next decade as a
result of increases in driving age
population, multicar ownership,
and income. Car sales have fluc­
tuated from year to year in the
past as a result of changes in
general business conditions, con­
sumer preferences, and the avail­
ability of credit. Employment of
automobile salesmen also has
fluctuated, but has tended to be
more stable than sales.

Earnings and W orking C onditions
Most automobile salesmen are
paid a commission which usually
is based on the selling price of a
car or the gross profit received by
the dealer. Additional commis­
sions may be paid when cars are
financed and insured through the
dealer. Although salesmen work
year-round, their sales (and their
commissions) may vary from
month to month. T o provide
commission salesmen with a
steady income, many dealers pay
a modest weekly or monthly base
salary. Others advance salesmen
money against their future com­
missions. A few dealers pay their
salesmen a straight salary. Deal­
ers may guarantee beginners a
modest income for a few weeks
or months. Thereafter, they are
paid on the same basis as the
more experienced salesmen.
In 1968, most full-time auto­
mobile salesmen earned between
$125 and $225 a week. However,
some salesmen earned substan­
tially more. Earnings vary widely

SALES OCCUPATIONS

depending on factors such as in­
dividual ability and experience,
geographic location and the size
of the dealership.
A large number of employers
furnish salesmen with demonstra­
tor cars free of charge. Others al­
low salesmen to buy or lease them
at a discount, often at dealer’s
cost. Salesmen also receive dis­
counts on cars bought for their
personal use. Most dealers pro­
vide paid vacations. Many pro­
vide life insurance, hospitaliza­
tion, and surgical and medical
insurance.
Because many customers find
shopping after work convenient,
salesmen frequently work during
the evenings. In some areas, they
may work on Sundays and take
a day off during the week. Many
dealers assign salesmen “ floor­
time” — hours they spend in the
showroom greeting customers.
For example, a salesman may be
scheduled to work on the show­
room floor from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
one week, from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m.
the next week, and all day on
Saturdays. When not assigned to
the floor, salesmen may spend a
few hours each day delivering cars
to customers and looking for new
customers.

301

AUTOMOBILE SERVICE
ADVISORS
(D.O.T. 620.281)

N ature of the W ork
Many automobile dealers and
some large independent garages
employ service advisors to wait
on customers who bring their au­
tomobiles for maintenance and
repairs. The automobile service
advisor (sometimes called service
salesmen or service writer) is the
link between the customer and
the automobile mechanic. He
confers with the customer to de­
termine his service requirements
and arranges for a mechanic to
perform the work.
Many times, such as when re­
quests are made for a routine
checkup, the advisor merely
writes the customer’s requests for
services on a repair order. How­
ever, when the customer com­

plains of mechanical or electrical
trouble, the service advisor may
ask him about the nature of the
trouble and test drive the auto­
mobile. For example, if the cus­
tomer says his automobile is dif­
ficult to start, the service advisor
may try to determine if the trou­
ble occurs when the engine is cold
or after it has warmed up. He
writes a brief description of these
symptoms on the repair order to
help the mechanic locate the
cause of the trouble. The advisor
also records other information on
the repair order, including iden­
tification of the customer and
his automobile. If the repairs are
covered by a factory warranty, he
records the automobile engine
and body numbers, and the auto­
mobile’s mileage and purchase
date.
The service advisor tells cus­
tomers what repairs are needed,
their approximate cost, and how
long the work will take. He may
advise on the necessity of having
work done, by pointing out that

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Information regarding employ­
ment opportunities for automo­
bile salesmen may be obtained
from local automobile dealers or
the local office of the State em­
ployment service. General in­
formation about the work of auto­
mobile salesmen may be obtained
from:
National Automobile Dealers As­
sociation, 2000 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.




Service advisor records customer’s maintenance needs.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

302
it will assure improved perform­
ance, safer operation, and prevent
more serious trouble. In addition
to advising customers on service
needs, he also may sell automo­
bile accessories. For example,
while talking with customers, the
service advisor may suggest the
purchase of air-conditioners, ra­
dios, or seat covers.
If the service advisor is unable
to tell the customer what repairs
are needed until a mechanic has
inspected the automobile, he re­
cords the customer’s phone num­
ber and contacts him later to ob­
tain permission to perform the
necessary repairs.
The service advisor gives the
repair order to the shop dis­
patcher who in turn usually com­
putes the cost of repairs and as­
signs the work to a mechanic. In
some shops, service advisors may
compute the cost of repairs. If
the mechanic has questions about
the repair order, he contacts the
service advisor. After the me­
chanic has completed the repair
work, the service advisor may test
drive the automobile to be sure
the problem has been corrected.
When the customer returns for
his automobile, the service ad­
visor answers questions regarding
the repairs and settles complaints
about their cost or quality. If the
automobile is to be returned to
the shop because the customer is
dissatisfied, or the cost of repairs
is to be adjusted, the service ad­
visor usually must obtain the au­
thorization of his supervisor, the
service manager. In some dealer­
ships, the most experienced serv­
ice advisor substitutes for the
service manager when he is ab­
sent.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 10,000 automo­
bile service advisors were em­
ployed in 1968. Most of them




worked for large automobile deal­
ers that employed from one to
four service advisors. Few small
automobile dealers employ serv­
ice advisors. Some service advis­
ors are employed by large inde­
pendent automobile repair shops.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Service advisors are trained on
the job under the guidance of ex­
perienced service advisors and the
service manager. In many shops,
the trainee’s first assignment is
to assist the service department
dispatcher or cashier. By work­
ing with the dispatcher, he learns
how repair orders are routed
through the shop, how long it
takes to complete different types
of repairs, and how to compute
repair costs. At the cashier’s coun­
ter, he learns the cost of differ­
ent types of repairs and how ex­
perienced service advisors handle
customer complaints. The begin­
ner usually can become a quali­
fied service advisor in 1 to 2
years, although it may take
longer if his duties include esti­
mating automobile-body repairs.
Employers usually promote
qualified young men from within
their own organization when va­
cancies
for
service
advisor
trainees arise. For example, a
young man may apply for a job
as service advisor trainee after he
has gained experience in the firm
as an automobile m e c h a n i c
trainee or parts c o u n t e r m a n
trainee.
For service advisor trainees,
employers prefer high school
graduates who are over 21 years
of age and have work experience
in automobile repair or related
activities. Some employers hire
only qualified automobile me­
chanics. A driver’s license is usu­
ally a requirement. Because he
is likely to be the only employee

who deals directly with the cus­
tomer, the manner in which the
service advisor does his job is
very important in establishing
customer satisfaction. Therefore,
employers look for applicants
who are neat, courteous, eventempered, attentive listeners, and
good conversationalists.
High
school and vocational school
courses in automobile mechanics,
commercial arithmetic, salesman­
ship, public speaking, and Eng­
lish are helpful to young men
interested in becoming service
advisors.
Service advisors with super­
visory ability may advance to
service manager. Some service ad­
visors open their own automobile
repair shops.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of automobile
service advisors is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the 1970’s
as a result of the increasing num­
ber of automobiles in operation.
However, because this is a rela­
tively small occupation, only a
few hundred new jobs will be
added annually. In addition to
the job opportunities resulting
from employment growth, a few
hundred job openings will result
annually to replace experienced
service advisors who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
The number of automobiles
registered in the United States is
expected to grow because of in­
creases in driving age population,
consumer purchasing power, and
multicar ownership. The growing
number of automobiles and their
increasing complexity will result
in additional repair work; conse­
quently, many automobile deal­
ers will need additional service
advisors. Also, some small deal­
ers, who presently do not employ
service advisors are expected to
hire them as the volume of service
work increases.

303

SALES OCCUPATIONS

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Information obtained from a
limited number of union-manage­
ment agreements indicate that
automobile service advisors who
were paid a salary received be­
tween $3.65 and $4.60 an hour in
1968. Many service advisors are
paid a salary plus a commission.
The commission usually is based
on both the cost of repairs and
the price of accessories sold. Some
service advisors are paid on a
straight c o m m i s s i o n basis.
Commission earnings may vary
as a result of fluctuations in the
volume of repair work.
Many employers of service ad­
visors provide paid holidays and
vacations, and pay all or part of
the cost of life, and health and
accident insurance. Others also
contribute to retirement plans.
Laundered uniforms are furnished
free of charge by many employers.
Most service advisors work
from 40 to 48 hours a week. They
are busiest in the early morning
when most customers bring their
cars for repairs, and in late after­
noon when they return. During
these peak hours, some advisors
may be rushed to wait on cus­
tomers.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

INSURANCE AGENTS
AND BROKERS

For further information re­
garding employment opportuni­
ties for automobile service advis­
ors, inquiries should be directed
to local automobile dealers or re­
pair shops; locals of unions pre­
viously mentioned; or the local
office of the State employment
service.

(D.O.T. 250.258)

General information about the
work of automobile service ad­
visors may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry As­
sociation, 168 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60601.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 11 . 60605.
1

N atu re of th e W ork
Insurance agents and brokers
sell policies or contracts which
protect individuals and businesses
against future losses and financial
pressures. They also provide their
customers with many services re­
lated to the insurance they sell.
They may, for example, assist in
planning the financial protection
which best meets the special
needs of a customer’s family; ad­
vise about the types of insurance
best suited for the protection of
an automobile, home, business es­
tablishment, or other property;
or help a policyholder in obtain-

Service advisors stand much of
the time and may be outdoors in
all kinds of weather. Their work
is not physically strenuous. Oc­
casionally, they have to deal with
disgruntled customers, but most
customers are pleasant.
Unions that organize service
advisors include the International
Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International As­
sociation; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Help­
ers of America (Ind.).




Insurance agents go to client.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

304
ing settlement of an insurance
claim.
Two basic types of insurance
are available— life insurance, and
property and liability (or cas­
ualty) insurance. Agents and
brokers usually specialize in sell­
ing one of these types of insur­
ance. Policies sold by life insur­
ance agents provide payment to
survivors in the event of the pol­
icyholder’s death; they also may
provide annuities, funds for the
education of children when they
reach college age, and other bene­
fits which the policyholder has
arranged in anticipation of a fu­
ture need for these funds. Prop­
erty and liability insurance poli­
cies protect policyholders from
financial losses which they might
otherwise incur because of auto­
mobile accidents, fire and theft,
or other hazards. Agents selling
either of these two types of in­
surance also may sell health in­
surance.
An insurance agent may be
either an insurance company em­
ployee or an independent busi­
nessman who is under contract to
act as the authorized representa­
tive of one insurance company or
more. A broker occupies a some­
what different position; he is not
under contract to any particular
company but places the policies
he sells with whatever insurance
company he feels best meets his
clients’ needs. In other repects,
agents and brokers do much the
same kind of work.
Agents and brokers spend most
of their time discussing different
types of insurance policies with
prospective customers. Some time
must be spent in office work—
planning insurance programs that
are specially tailored to prospects’
needs, preparing reports, main­
taining records, and drawing up
lists of prospective customers. Be­
cause an agent’s or a broker’s suc­
cess depends on his ability to
make sales, he must have the




initiative to locate new prospects.
He also must have a thorough
knowledge of insurance funda­
mentals to be able to evaluate his
clients’ insurance needs and ex­
plain policy terms clearly. Equal­
ly important is the ability to es­
tablish friendly relations and
maintain the confidence of his
clients, who often seek advice as
well as information about their
insurance requirements.
(See chapter on Occupations in
the Insurance Business for addi­
tional information about life and
property and liability insurance
companies.)

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 400,000 agents and
brokers sold insurance in 1968.
About half of them were engaged
primarily in selling life insurance,
and the remainder sold property
and casualty insurance. Nine out
of ten agents and brokers were
men. Many additional agents—
both men and women— sold in­
surance on a part-time basis.
Insurance agents and brokers
are employed in all parts of the
country, but the greatest number
work in large cities.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although employers seldom
specify age limits or formal edu­
cational requirements, practically
all agents hired in recent years
have been at least 21 years of age,
and more than half of them have
had some college training. Many
were college graduates. College
training, although not essential,
may be an aid to the agent in
grasping insurance fundamentals
and in establishing good personal
relationships with prospective
clients. Courses in accounting,
economics, finance, and business

law, as well as courses in insur­
ance subjects, are considered
helpful. A liberal arts curriculum
may be equally desirable in pre­
paring the prospective agent.
Sales ability also is important.
Some skill in salesmanship can
be acquired through experience
and from a study of the principles
and techniques of selling, but
much comes from natural apti­
tude. A capacity for meeting and
talking easily with strangers, a
cheerful personality, self-confi­
dence, and enthusiasm also are
valuable assets to the prospective
agent or broker.
All insurance agents and most
brokers must obtain licenses in
the States where they plan to sell
insurance. In most States, li­
censes are issued only to appli­
cants who pass written examina­
tions covering insurance funda­
mentals and the State insurance
laws.
Before new agents sell, they
usually receive training at insur­
ance company home offices or at
the agencies and brokerage firms
where they will be working. Some
insurance
companies
sponsor
classes in sales problems and in­
surance principles. This instruc­
tion may be given over a period
of several weeks or a few months.
In other cases, training takes the
form of working on the job under
the supervision of experienced
sales personnel.
Agents and brokers have oppor­
tunities to broaden their knowl­
edge of the insurance business by
enrolling in intermediate and ad­
vanced courses available at many
colleges and universities and by
attending institutes, conferences,
and seminars sponsored by insur­
ance organizations. As an agent
or broker acquires experience and
broadens his knowledge of the
life insurance business, he can
qualify for the designation. Char­
tered Life Underwriter (CLU)
by passing a series of examina-

305

SALES OCCUPATIONS

tions given by the American So­
ciety of Chartered Life Under­
writers. In much the same way, a
property and liability agent, by
passing an examination given by
the American Institute for Prop­
erty and Liability Underwriters,
Inc., will qualify for the Char­
tered Property Casualty Under­
writer (CPCU) designation. The
CLU and CPCU designations are
recognized marks of achievement
in their respective fields.
Insurance agents who demon­
strate sales ability and leadership
qualities may be promoted to
positions as sales or agency man­
agers in district offices or to other
managerial positions in home of­
fices of insurance companies. A
few may advance to top posi­
tions as agency superintendents
or company vice-presidents or
presidents. Many agents who
have built up a good clientele
prefer to remain in sales work.
Some, particularly in the prop­
erty and liability field, eventually
establish their own independent
agencies or brokerage firms.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Over 16,000 job openings for
insurance agents and brokers are
expected to arise each year
through the 1970’s. Some will be
news jobs created as employment
expands, and others will be to
replace agents and brokers who
retire or stop working for other
reasons. Because the rate of turn­
over is high among beginners in
this occupation, many workers
also will be needed to replace
insurance agents who enter other
types of employment.
The number of insurance agents
and brokers is expected to grow
moderately. As population and
incomes rise and life expectancy
increases, more families will de­
pend on life insurance and on
policies which provide protection




in the form of retirement income,
medical care, and funds for a col­
lege education. Expansion in in­
dustrial plant and equipment and
increases in major consumer pur­
chases, such as a home or auto­
mobile, will contribute to in­
creased sales of property and li­
ability insurance. Despite the ex­
pected increase in the number of
policies issued, however, insur­
ance selling will remain a keenly
competitive field.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Beginners in this occupation
often are guaranteed moderate
salaries or advances on commis­
sions while they are learning the
business and building up a clien­
tele. Thereafter, most agents are
paid on a commission basis. The
size of the commission varies, de­
pending on the type and amount
of insurance sold, and on whether
the transaction involves a new
policy or the renewal of a policy
already in force. After a few
years, an agent’s commissions on
new policies sold and on renew­
als may range from $8,000 to
$20,000 annually. A number of
established and highly success­
ful agents and brokers earn
$30,000 a year or more.
Agents and brokers generally
pay their own automobile and
traveling expenses. In addition,
those who own and operate inde­
pendent businesses must pay of­
fice rent, clerical salaries, and
other operating expenses out of
their earnings.
Although insurance agents usu­
ally are free to arrange their own
hours of work, they often sched­
ule appointments during evenings
and weekends for the convenience
of clients. Some agents spend
more than the customary 40
hours a week on the job.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on the oc­
cupation of insurance agent and
broker may be obtained from
the home office of many life in­
surance and property and liability
insurance companies. Information
on State licensing requirements
may be obtained from the depart­
ment of insurance at any State
capital.
Additional information about
life insurance agents may be ob­
tained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
10017.
Life Insurance Agency Manage­
ment Association, 170 Sigourney
St., Hartford, Conn. 06105.
The National Association of Life
Underwriters, 1922 F St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about property
and liability agents and brokers
can be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute,
110 William St., New York,
N.Y. 10038.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, Inc., 96 Fulton St., New
York, N.Y. 10038.

MANUFACTURERS’
SALESMEN
(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)

N ature of the W ork
Practically all manufacturers—
whether they make electronic
computers or everyday can open­
ers— employ salesmen. Manufac­
turers’ sales representatives sell
mainly to other businesses— fac­
tories, railroads, banks, whole­
salers, and retailers. They also
sell to hospitals, schools, and
other institutions. The manner in

306
which they go about this depends
to a large extent on whether they
are selling technical products
such as factory machinery, met­
als, or chemicals, or nontechnical
products such as clothing, canned
foods, or stationery.
The great majority of manufac­
turers’ salesmen sell nontechnical
products; their customers are
chiefly wholesalers, and less often
big retail stores. Salesmen in this
kind of work must be well in­
formed about their firms’ prod­
ucts, which sometimes number
in the hundreds, and also about
the special requirements of their
customers. When a salesman vis­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

its firms in his assigned territory,
he uses a sales approach adapted
to the particular line of merchan­
dise he carries. Thus, a salesman
of crackers or cookies may em­
phasize the wholesomeness of his
manufacturer’s products, the at­
tractive way they are packaged,
and the many kinds available. A
clothing salesman, on the other
hand, may stress style, design,
fabrics, and the details of man­
ufacture. Sometimes salesmen
promote sales of their companies’
products by setting up displays
in hotels and holding conferences
with wholesalers and other cus­
tomers.

A salesman of highly technical
products, such as electronic
equipment, often is called a sales
engineer or an industrial sales­
man. In addition to having a
thorough knowledge of his firm’s
products and the art of selling, he
must be able to help prospective
buyers with technical problems.
For example, he may spend days
or weeks analyzing a firm’s
manufacturing problems to de­
termine the kinds of equipment
and materials best suited to its
operation. He then presents his
solution to company officials and
tries to negotiate the sale. Often,
sales engineers work with the re­
search and development depart­
ments of their own companies in
devising ways to adapt products
to a customer’s specialized needs.
Salesmen of technical products
sometimes train their customers’
employees in the operation and
maintenance of new equipment,
and make frequent return visits
to be sure that it is giving the
desired service.
Although manufacturers’ sales­
men spend most of their time
visiting prospective customers,
they also do some paperwork.
They must write sales reports,
plan their work schedules, make
appointments, compile lists of
prospects, conduct some sales cor­
respondence, make out expense
accounts, and study literature re­
lating to their products. They
also may be required to write
reports on sales prospects in their
territories, or on their competi­
tors’ products, or customers’
credit ratings.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 500,000 manufacturers’
salesmen were employed in 1968;
nearly 35,000 were sales engineers
in
manufacturing
industries.
Some manufacturers’ salesmen
work out of company “ home of-

307

SALES OCCUPATIONS

fices,” which often are located at
manufacturing plants. The ma­
jority, however, work out of
branch sales offices, which usu­
ally are in big cities where the
greatest numbers of prospective
customers are found.
More salesmen work for com­
panies which produce food prod­
ucts than for any other industry.
Industries which also employ
large numbers of salesmen include
printing and publishing, chemi­
cals, fabricated metal products,
and electrical and other machin­
ery. The largest employers of
sales engineers are companies pro­
ducing transportation equipment,
fabricated metal products, and
heavy machinery. About 10 per­
cent of all manufacturers’ sales­
people are women, most of whom
are employed in industries pro­
ducing food products.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
College graduates sometimes
are preferred for training as man­
ufacturer’s salesmen because cer­
tain employers find that a college
education is helpful in dealing
with company officials. However,
many persons with little or no
training beyond high school who
are well qualified in other re­
spects can achieve successful ca­
reers as manufacturers’ salesmen.
Manufacturers of nontechnical
products often prefer college
graduates who have a degree in
liberal arts or business adminis­
tration. Training at a college of
pharmacy usually is required for
jobs as drug salesmen. As a rule,
the sales engineer or industrial
salesman who sells complicated
equipment needs a technical edu­
cation. For example, manufactur­
ers of electrical equipment, heavy
machinery, and some types of
chemicals prefer to hire collegetrained engineers or chemists.




(Information on chemists, engi­
neers, and other professionally
trained workers who may be em­
ployed as industrial salesmen is
given elsewhere in the Hand­

book.)
Although prospective salesmen
often are hired by applying di­
rectly to sales offices or manufac­
turing concerns, many are re­
cruited by manufacturers who
send representatives to interview
students who will soon graduate
from college. Recruiters look for
students who are well qualified
academically and who have par­
ticipated in extracurricular ac­
tivities. As salesmen, they must
be able to meet and get along well
with many types of people. Re­
cruiters also consider the stu­
dent’s personality traits and ap­
pearance. Preference is likely to
be given to those with pleasant
but forceful personalities who
make a favorable impression in
manner, speech, and dress. A re­
cruiter may hire directly for his
company or he may arrange for
those applicants he feels are
qualified to be interviewed by
company officials before final se­
lections are made.
Beginning salesmen are given
specialized training before they
start on the job. Some companies,
especially those manufacturing
complex technical products, have
formal training programs lasting
2 years or longer. In some of these
programs, trainees are rotated
among jobs in several depart­
ments of the plant and office to
learn all phases of production, in­
stallation, and distribution of the
product. Other trainees receive
formal instruction in classes at
the plant; sometimes, this prep­
aration is followed by intensive
on-the-job training in a branch
office under the supervision of
field sales managers.
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to positions

such as sales supervisors, branch
managers, or district managers.
Those having unusual ability and
managerial skill eventually may
advance to sales manager or other
executive positions; many top
executive jobs in industry are
filled by men who started as
salesmen.
Because salesmen have fre­
quent contacts with businessmen
in other firms, they often find op­
portunities to transfer to better
jobs. Some salesmen go into busi­
ness for themselves as manufac­
turers’ agents selling similar
products of several manufactur­
ers. Experienced salesmen often
find opportunities in advertising,
market research, and other fields
related to selling.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
manufacturers’ salesmen are ex­
pected to be very good during the
1970’s. More than 30,000 open­
ings will occur annually as em­
ployment in this occupation rises
and as existing jobs become va­
cant because of retirements or
deaths. Still other vacancies will
occur as salesmen leave their jobs
to enter other types of employ­
ment.
The number of manufacturers’
salesmen is expected to rise very
rapidly, partly because of general
economic growth, and also be­
cause maufacturers will be plac­
ing greater emphasis on their sales
activities. The development of
new products and improvements
in marketing techniques probably
will heighten competition be­
tween the manufacturers. Be­
cause of the increase in the vol­
ume of business transacted with
some customers— modern indus­
trial complexes, chain store or­
ganizations, and large institutions
of many kinds— competition be­
tween the manufacturers supply-

308
ing these organizations will fur­
ther the need for effective sales
organizations. Despite the fact
that they will be filling thousands
of sales jobs each year, manufac­
turers are expected to be selective
in hiring. They will look for am­
bitious young people who are
both well trained and tempera­
mentally suited for their jobs. As
markets for technical products
expand, the demand for technic­
ally trained salesmen is likely to
be particularly strong.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

According to the limited data
available, starting salaries for be­
ginning salesmen averaged about
$8,000 a year in 1968. By includ­
ing commissions and bonuses
most salesmen earned more than
this amount annually. The high­
est starting salaries generally
were paid by manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equip­
ment, construction materials,
hardware and tools, and scien­
tific and precision instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns
pay experienced salesmen a
straight commission, based on
their dollar amount of sales; oth­
ers pay a fixed salary; and still
others— the majority— use a com­
bination salary-plus-commission
plan. The amount earned through
commissions varies according to
the salesman’s efforts and ability,
the percentage commission, loca­
tion of his sales territory, nature
of the products sold, types of cus­
tomers, and other factors. In
1968, the salary of many experi­
enced salesmen was between
$16,000 and $22,000 annually.
Most earned considerably more
because of bonuses and commis­
sions.
Some manufacturers’ salesmen
have large territories and do con­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

siderable traveling. Others usu­
ally work in the neighborhood of
their “ home base.” For example,
a salesman of heavy industrial
equipment may be assigned a ter­
ritory covering several States and
often may be away from home for
days or weeks at a time. On the
other hand, a salesman of food
products may work in a small
area which is within commuting
distance of his home.
When on business trips, sales­
men are reimbursed for expenses
such as transportation costs, ho­
tel bills, meals, tips, telephone
calls, and stenographic services.
Some companies either provide a
car or pay an allowance to sales­
men who use their own cars.
Salesmen often work irregular
hours. They make calls at the
time most convenient to their
customers, and may have to
travel at night or on weekends to
meet their schedules. Frequently,
they spend evening hours writing
reports and planning itineraries.
However, some salesmen are able
to plan their work schedules so
that they can take time off when
they want it. Most salesmen who
are not paid on a straight-com­
mission basis receive paid vaca­
tions of from 2 to 4 weeks, de­
pending on their length of service.
They usually share in company
benefit programs, including life
insurance, pensions, and hospital,
surgical, and medical benefits. \

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

For more information on the
occupation
of manufacturers’
salesman, write to:
Sales and Marketing Executives—
International, Youth Education
Division, 630 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

REAL ESTATE SALESMEN
AND BROKERS
(D.O.T. 250.358)

N ature of the W ork
Real estate salesmen and bro­
kers are at the center of most
property transactions. They rep­
resent property owners who want
to sell and find potential buyers
for residential and commercial
properties. Salesmen and brokers
also may be called real estate
agents, or if they are members of
the National Association of Real
Estate Boards, “ Realtors.”
Salesmen are employed by bro­
kers to show and sell real estate;
some handle rental properties.
Brokers are independent business­
men who not only sell real estate
but sometimes rent and manage
properties, make appraisals, ar­
range for loans to finance pur­
chases, and develop new building
projects. In addition, brokers
manage their offices, advertise
properties, and do other things
necessary to operate their busi­
nesses. Some who possess the nec­
essary qualifications combine
other work, such as selling insur­
ance or practicing law, with their
real estate businesses.
Most real estate salesmen and
brokers sell residential property,
and sometimes specialize in homes
within a certain price range or in
a particular area of the city. A
few, usually those in large real
estate firms, specialize in com­
mercial, industrial, or other types
of real estate. Each specialty re­
quires knowledge of and experi­
ence in the particular type of
property. For example, salesmen
who specialize in commercial sales
or leasing must understand leas­
ing practices, business trends, and
location needs. Salesmen selling
or leasing industrial properties

309

SALES OCCUPATIONS

Real estate agent shows client property
location on plat map.

must be able to supply informa­
tion on transportation, utilities,
and labor supply. Salesmen who
handle farm properties must have
considerable knowledge of soil
types, water supply, drainage, and
transportation facilities.
One of a salesman’s important
duties is obtaining “ listings” (get­
ting owners to place properties
for sale with the firm). A sales­
man spends much time on the
telephone, to seek such listings
and answer inquiries about prop­
erties. He obtains leads for listings
through advertising and personal
contact.
Because a real estate purchase
is a large investment, most people
buy only after careful investiga­
tion and deliberation. A real es­
tate salesman must therefore
spend much time away from his
office showing and discussing
properties with prospective buy­
ers. When a number of houses




are for sale in a new development,
the salesman may operate from a
model home. He explains special
features which will meet particu­
lar needs of the prospective buyer
(or renter) such as location of
schools, churches, parks, stores;
neighbors; community facilities;
mortgage possibilities; water sup­
ply; rubbish disposal; and public
transportation facilities. With a
businessman, he may discuss the
income potential of the property
and answer questions about zon­
ing, transportation, and commu­
nity facilities. He also must be
familiar with tax rates and in­
surance needs. It is important
that he try to meet the buyer’s
needs and preferences and, at the
same time, follow the seller’s in­
structions. When bargaining on
price is necessary, the salesman or
broker must be a skillful negoti­
ator who considers both the buy­
er’s and the seller’s interests. In
the closing stages of the sale, the
real estate salesman or broker
often arranges for a loan, a title
search, and the meeting at which
details of the transaction are
agreed upon and the new owner
takes possession of the property.
Real estate salesmen and bro­
kers usually spend some of their
time checking listings of proper­
ties for sale or rent and making
telephone calls to prospective cli­
ents. They also may answer tele­
phone inquires about properties,
arrange appointments to show
real estate, and keep records of
properties listed, shown, sold, or
rented.

Places of Em ploym ent
The number of people whose
main occupation was selling real
estate in 1968 is estimated at
about 225,000; more than two of
every three were men. A large
number of people also sold real
estate part time. The total num­

ber of men and women licensed
to sell was about 800,000 in 1967,
according to the National Asso­
ciation of Real Estate License
Law Officials.
Most real estate salesmen work
for small business establishments;
a few, in metropolitan areas, work
for firms having large sales staffs.
Brokers generally are self-em­
ployed. Although salesmen and
brokers are found in every part
of the country, they are concen­
trated in large urban areas and
in smaller but rapidly growing
communities.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license is required to work as
a real estate salesman or broker
in every State and in the District
of Columbia. All States require
prospective agents to pass written
examinations, which generally in­
clude questions on the fundamen­
tals of real estate transactions
and on laws affecting the sale of
real estate. The examination is
more comprehensive for brokers
than for salesmen. In more than
three-fifths of the States, candi­
dates for the broker’s license also
must have a specified amount of
experience as a real estate sales­
man or the equivalent in related
experience or education (general­
ly from 1 to 3 years). In some
States, college credits in real es­
tate courses may be substituted
for experience. State licenses usu­
ally can be renewed annually
without reexamination.
Although a specified amount of
education is seldom required, em­
ployers prefer to hire persons who
have at least a high school edu­
cation. A broad academic pro­
gram in high school including
such courses as English, mathe­
matics, salesmanship, architectur­
al drawing, business law, econom­
ics, and public speaking is con-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

310
sidered helpful for those planning
a career in real estate. Most real
estate agents have some college
training and many are college
graduates. College courses in real
estate subjects as well as psychol­
ogy, economics, finance, and busi­
ness administration are an asset
to persons seeking to enter real
estate sales.
Characteristics important for
success in selling real estate in­
clude a pleasing personality, neat
appearance, enthusiasm for the
job, maturity, integrity, and tact
and patience in dealing with pros­
pective customers. Agents also
should remember names and faces
as well as prices and other facts
relative to the business.
Young men and women inter­
ested in beginning jobs as real
estate salesmen often apply to
brokers in their own communities,
where their knowledge of local
neighborhoods is an advantage.
The beginner usually works un­
der the direction of an experi­
enced salesman or broker while
he learns the practical aspects of
his job.
Training
opportunities
are
available both for beginners and
experienced agents. Many firms
offer formal training programs for
salesmen. More than 200 colleges
and universities offer one or more
courses in real estate. At many,
a student can earn the bachelor’s
degree with a major in real es­
tate; others offer advanced de­
grees. An increasing number of
junior colleges are including real
estate courses. Many local real
estate boards which are members
of the National Association of
Real Estate Boards (N AREB)
sponsor courses in subjects such
as real estate fundamentals; prin­
ciples and practices of real estate;
real estate law; and real estate fi­
nancing. Advanced courses in ap­
praisal, mortgage financing, and
property development and man­
agement
also
are
available




through local real estate boards
and NAREB affiliates such as the
American Institute of Real Estate
Appraisers, the National Institute
of Real Estate Brokers, the Na­
tional Institute of Farm and Land
Brokers, the Society of Industrial
Realtors, and the Institute of
Real Estate Management.
Salesmen with experience and
training can advance in many
ways. In a large real estate firm,
a salesman may become a sales
manager. A few, especially in
large real estate firms, may be
promoted to general manager.
Those who become licensed brok­
ers may open their own offices.
Training and experience in esti­
mating the value of property can
lead to work as a real estate ap­
praiser. Persons familiar with op­
erating and maintaining rental
properties may specialize in
property management. Those who
gain wide general experience in
real estate and a thorough knowl­
edge of business conditions and
property values in their localities
may enter mortgage financing or
real estate counseling.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Several thousand openings for
real estate salesmen are expected
to arise each year during the
1970’s. Many will be new posi­
tions created by the need for more
salesmen to serve a growing popu­
lation. Most, however, will be
openings resulting from turnover.
Because the average age of real
estate salesmen and brokers is
considerably higher than that of
workers in most occupations,
death and retirement losses are
high. In addition, a relatively
large number of agents— many of
them beginners— transfer to other
types of work.
Most of the full-time jobs that
become available will be for men.
Women will find increasing oppor­

tunities in real estate, however,
because of their familiarity with
home features of special interest
to housewives, who share deci­
sions on home purchases. Many
openings are likely to be filled by
mature workers, including persons
who transfer from other kinds of
sales work. The proportion of
salesmen employed part time may
decline, as State licensing require­
ments change and more special­
ized knowledge is necessary for
the agent who handles real estate
transactions.
Employment of real estate
salesmen and brokers is expected
to rise moderately during the ear­
ly 1970’s, when the many young
people bom shortly after World
War II will be purchasing or rent­
ing their own homes. Other fac­
tors contributing to a growing
need for agents are: The expected
expansion in residential and com­
mercial construction resulting
from the increase in population
and economic activity, migration
to metropolitan areas, and urban
renewal. Although this field is
likely to remain highly competi­
tive, persons with an aptitude for
selling real estate will find that it
offers many career opportunities
in the future.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Commissions on sales are the
usual source of earnings for most
real estate salesmen and brokers.
A few are paid on a straight salary
basis, although this is the excep­
tion rather than the rule. Com­
missions paid on the sale of farm
and commercial properties and
unimproved land usually are
higher than those on the sale of a
home.
Commissions on the sale of
properties may be shared by sev­
eral employees of a real estate
firm. Often, when a sale is made, a
small proportion of the commis-

SALES OCCUPATIONS

sion is paid to the salesman who ers. Some salesmen, especially
obtained the listing of the proper­ those who work for large firms,
ty. The rest of the commission are provided with group life,
either is retained by the broker, health, and accident insurance.
if he made the sale, or shared by
the broker and the agent who han­
dled the transaction. An agent’s Sources of Additional Inform ation
share of the commissions on the
Information on licensing re­
sales he makes varies greatly from
one real estate firm to another; quirements for real estate sales­
frequently it is about half of the men and brokers is available from
the real estate commission or
commission.
Many full-time real estate a- board located in each State capi­
gents earn between $5,000 and tal. This information can also be
$10,000 a year, according to the obtained from most local real es­
limited data available. Beginners tate organizations. Many States
usually earn less. At the other ex­ can furnish manuals which help
treme, many experienced sales­ applicants prepare for the re­
men earn $15,000 or more a year. quired written examinations.
Additional information on op­
Income usually increases as an
agent gains experience, but earn­ portunities in the real estate field,
ings also are affected by individual and a list of colleges and univer­
ability, type of property sold, geo­ sities offering real estate courses
graphic location, economic condi­ may be obtained by writing to:
tions, and other factors. Those
National Association of Real Es­
salesmen who are active in com­
tate Boards, Department of
munity organizations and on local
Education, 155 East Superior
St., Chicago, 1 1 60611.
1.
real estate boards can broaden
their contacts and, as a result,
may increase their earnings.
Earnings, especially for beginning
salesmen, often are irregular; a
RETAIL TRADE
few weeks or even months may go
SALESWORKERS
by without a sale, and then sever­
(D.O.T. 260. through 298.877)
al sales may be made within a
short period. For this reason,
some brokerage firms pay their
salesmen a “ draw” against future
N ature of the W ork
commissions. Because this prac­
tice is not usual with beginners,
The success of any retail busi­
however, most new salesmen
should have enough money to sup­ ness depends largely on its sales­
port themselves until their income people. Courteous and efficient
from commissions becomes large service from behind the counter
enough to meet their living ex­ or on the sales floor does much to
satisfy customers and to build a
penses.
Brokers provide office space but store’s reputation. Contact with
salesmen are expected to furnish customers is a part of all sales
their own automobiles. Although jobs, but in other ways the duties,
salesmen and brokers have much skills, and responsibilities of sales­
independence in planning their people are as different as the
working schedules, often it is nec­ kinds of merchandise they sell.
In selling items such as furni­
essary for them to work in the
evenings and during weekends to ture, electrical appliances, or
meet the convenience of custom­ some types of wearing apparel, the




311
salesworker’s primary job is to
create an interest in the merchan­
dise the store has to offer. The
salesman or saleswoman may an­
swer questions about the con­
struction of an article, demon­
strate its use, explain how it is
cared for, show various models
and colors, and otherwise help the
customer make a selection. In
some stores, special knowledge or
skills may be needed to sell the
merchandise carried— for exam­
ple, in a pet shop, information
about the care and feeding of
animals.
People who sell standardized
articles, such as many of the items
in hardware and drugstores, are
called upon less frequently to give
customers this kind of assistance.
Often, they do little more than
assemble and wrap the items pur­
chased by each customer. In
stores where goods are clearly la­
beled and arranged so that cus­
tomers can easily make their se­
lections from shelves or counters
— as in supermarkets and some
drugstores— salesclerks may be
replaced by cashiers who wrap or
bag purchases, receive payments,
and make change. (See statement
on Cashiers.)
In addition to their selling du­
ties, most retail salespeople make
out sales or charge slips, receive
cash payments, and give change
and receipts. They also handle re­
turns and exchanges of merchan­
dise for the customer. Salesper­
sons usually are responsible for
keeping their work areas neat and
presentable. In small stores, they
may assist in ordering merchan­
dise, stocking shelves or racks,
marking price tags, taking inven­
tories, preparing attractive mer­
chandise displays, and promoting
sales in other ways. (Route sales­
men, who sell bread, milk, and oth­
er products directly to customers
on a regular route, are discussed
in the chapter on Driving Occu­
pations. )

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

312
Places of Em ploym ent

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Nearly 2.8 million salespersons
— three-fifths of them women—
were employed in 1968, in close
to 100 different kinds of retail
businesses. They worked in stores
that range in size from the small
drug or grocery store, which em­
ploys only one part-time sales­
clerk, to the giant department
store with hundreds of salesworkers. They also worked for door to
door sales companies and mail or­
der houses. The largest employers
of retail salesworkers are depart­
ment and general merchandise,
food, and apparel and accessories
stores. Men predominate in stores
selling furniture, household appli­
ances, hardware, farm equipment,
shoes, and lumber, and in auto­
mobile dealerships. Women out­
number men in department and
general merchandise, variety, ap­
parel and accessories, and in
drugstores.

Employers generally prefer to
hire high school graduates for
sales jobs. Subjects such as sales­
manship, commercial arithmetic,
and home economics help to give
the student a good background
for many selling positions. Some
Sales jobs are found in practi­
cally every community in all parts
of the country. The vast majority
of salespersons, however, work in
large cities and in heavily popu­
lated suburban areas,
high schools have distributive ed­
ucation programs, which include
courses in merchandising and
principles of retailing and retail
selling; many programs also pro­
vide an opportunity for students
to gain practical experience under
trained supervision by working
part time in local stores. Such
part-time selling experience may
be helpful in obtaining full-time
employment.




Young people interested in ob­
taining sales jobs may apply to
the personnel office in larger retail
establishments. Applicants are in­
terviewed and sometimes are re­
quired to take special tests which
indicate their aptitude for sales
work. Among the characteristics
that employers seek are a pleasing
personality, an interest in sales
work, a neat appearance, and the
ability to communicate clearly.
Prospective
salespersons
also
should be in good general health
and able to stand for long per­
iods of time.
Newly hired sales personnel us­
ually receive on-the-job instruc­
tion in making out sales slips and
operating the cash register. They
learn about credit and other store
policies and may be given the spe­
cialized training required to sell
certain products. In many small
stores, new employees receive
their training on the job under the
close supervision of an experi­
enced employee or the proprietor.
In large stores, training programs
are likely to be more formal, and
beginners usually attend training
sessions for a few days.
Executive positions in large re­
tail businesses often are filled by
promoting college graduates orig­
inally hired as trainees and as­
signed sales jobs to gain practical
experience. However, retail selling
is one of the few fields in which an
employee who has initiative and
ability may be selected for promo­
tion, regardless of his education.
Many stores offer opportunities
for persons without a college de­
gree to advance to executive posi­
tions. Some salespersons eventu­
ally become buyers, department
managers, or store managers;
others, particularly in large stores,
may transfer to office positions
which afford opportunities for fur­
ther promotion to administrative
work in personnel, advertising, or
other fields. Opportunities for ad­
vancement are relatively limited

313

SALES OCCUPATIONS

in small stores where one person,
often the owner, performs most
managerial functions. Retail sales
experience often is a valuable as­
set in qualifying for jobs such as
selling for wholesalers or manu­
facturers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
A moderate increase is expected
in the number of salesworkers em­
ployed in retail trade through the
1970’s. Openings created by
growth and vacancies, which must
be filled as salespersons retire or
stop working for other reasons,
are expected to total approxi­
mately 170,000 each year; addi­
tional thousands of jobs will be­
come available as retail saleswork­
ers transfer to other types of em­
ployment.
Among the major factors con­
tributing to the anticipated rise
in retail sales jobs are population
and economic growth, and the re­
sulting increase in the volume of
sales.The trend for stores to re­
main open for longer hours, while
the number of weekly hours
worked by salespersons continues
to decline, also will contribute to
the need for more salespersons.
In addition to full-time sales jobs,
there will be many opportunities
for part-time workers, as well as
for temporary workers during
peak selling periods such as the
Christmas season.
Changes in the way goods are
sold are likely to limit the number
of sales workers employed in some
types of stores, and affect the
kinds of openings that occur in
others. Because self-service— al­
ready the rule in most food stores
— is being extended rapidly to
drug, variety, and other kinds of
stores, customers will purchase
more articles without the help of
salesworkers. On the other hand,
rising income levels probably will
increase the demand for some




kinds of merchandise which re­
quire the salesperson to spend a
good deal of time with each cus­
tomer: some examples are electri­
cal appliances and automobiles,
which prospective customers may
want demonstrated. In view of
these developments, it appears
likely that sales employment will
increase somewhat more slowly
than the volume of sales. Little of
the increase is likely to be in
routine sales jobs; much of the
demand will be for workers who
are skilled in salesmanship and
well informed about the merchan­
dise they sell.
Salesworkers have more stable
employment than workers in
many other occupations. When re­
tail sales are affected by down­
turns in the economy, employers
— particularly in large stores—
can reduce the number of em­
ployees by not filling vacancies
that result from turnover or by
eliminating some part-time jobs.
Competition for sales jobs tends
to increase when other jobs are
scarce, however, because workers
in other occupations often can
qualify for sales work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, young people starting
in routine jobs where they were
required to do little more than
“ wait on” customers generally
were paid $1.60 an hour (in many
establishments, the minimum
wage required by law). In stores
where salesmanship is more im­
portant, starting salaries some­
times were higher than this; in
small establishments not covered
by the minimum wage law, they
were somewhat lower. Salaries
usually are lower in rural than in
metropolitan areas.
Experienced salesworkers, in­
cluding those whose pay scales
are determined by union con­
tracts, often earn $2 an hour or

more. Many are paid on a straight
salary basis; some also receive
commissions— that is, a percen­
tage of the sales they make; and
still others are on a straight com­
mission basis. Earnings are likely
to be highest in jobs which require
special skill in dealing with cus­
tomers, or technical knowledge of
the merchandise sold. Among the
highest paid are people who sell
automobiles, major appliances,
and furniture.
Salespersons in many retail
stores are allowed to purchase
merchandise at a discount, often
from 10 to 25 percent below regu­
lar prices. This privilege some­
times is extended to the employ­
ee’s family. Some stores, especial­
ly the large ones, pay all or part
of the cost of employee benefits
such as life insurance, retirement,
hospitalization, and surgical and
medical insurance.
Some full-time salespersons
work a 5-day, 40-hour week, al­
though in many stores, the stan­
dard workweek is longer. Some
stores are required by law to pay
overtime rates for more than 40
hours’ work a week. Since Satur­
day is a busy day in retailing, em­
ployees usually work that day and
have another weekday off. Longer
than normal hours may be sched­
uled before Christmas and during
other peak periods, and employees
who work overtime receive addi­
tional pay or an equal amount of
time off during slack periods.
Some salespersons regularly work
one evening a week or more, es­
pecially those employed by stores
in suburban shopping centers.
Part-time salespersons general­
ly work during the store’s peak
hours of business— daytime rush
hours, evenings, and weekends.
Salespeople in retail trade usu­
ally work in clean, well-lighted
places. Many stores are air condi­
tioned. Some sales positions re­
quire work outside the store; a
salesman of kitchen equipment

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

314
may visit prospective customers
at their homes, for example, to
assist them in planning renova­
tions, and a used-car salesman
may spend much of his time work­
ing at an outdoor lot.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information on retailing courses
given in high schools may be ob­
tained from local Superintendents
of Schools or from the State Sup­
ervisor of Distributive Education
in the Department of Education
at each State capital.
Additional information on ca­
reers in retailing may be obtained
from the personnel offices of local
stores; from State merchants’ as­
sociations; or from local unions
of the Retail Clerks International
Association.

SECURITIES SALESMEN
(D.O.T. 251.258)

N atu re of the W ork
Almost every time an investor
buys or sells stocks, bonds, or
shares in mutual funds, it is the
securities salesman who puts the
“ market machinery” into opera­
tion. A salesman’s services are re­
quired not only by the individual
having a few hundred dollars to
invest, but also by the large in­
stitution having millions. Securi­
ties salesmen are often called cus­

tomers’ brokers, registered repre­
sentatives, or account executives.
In executing a buy or sell trans­
action, a securities salesman usu­
ally relays the order through his
firm’s order room to the floor of a
securities exchange. In the overthe-counter market, he sends the
security to his firm’s trading de­




partment. After the transaction
has been completed, the salesman
notifies the customer to that ef­
fect. He also provides many kinds
of related services for his custom­
ers. To an inexperienced investor,
for example, he may explain the
meaning of stock market terms
and trading practices. For cus­
tomers having a variety of hold­
ings, the salesman may offer sug­
gestions about the purchase or
sale of a particular security. Cus­
tomers’ investment objectives
vary. For example, an individual
may prefer long-term investments
designed to provide a steady in­
come over the years or short-term
investments which appear likely
to rise in price quickly. Salesmen,
therefore, may be called on to
furnish information about the ad­
vantages and disadvantages of
each type of investment. Salesmen
often are expected to furnish the
latest stock and bond quotations
as well as information regarding
the activities and financial posi­
tions of corporations.
Some salesmen perform these
services for all types of customers;
others deal solely with individual
investors or institutional inves­
tors. Many specialize in certain
kinds of securities. For example,
a salesman may handle only
transactions in municipal bonds
or only shares in mutual funds.
Salesmen employed by invest­
ment bankers and other firms
which underwrite “ new issues,”
such as the securities issued by
corporations needing funds for
plant expansion, may take part
in the initial sale of these new
securities.
Establishing a clientele is very
important to the securities sales­
man’s success. Most salesmen new
to the occupation spend much of
their time contacting potential in­
vestors and individuals who once
did business with their firm, or
seeking new customers in other
ways. On the other hand, an ex­

perienced salesman may spend
most of his time servicing the ac­
counts of his established cus­
tomers.

Places of E m ploym ent
In 1968, more than 135,000
men and women spent all or a
part of their time selling securi­
ties. The great majority were
men. Approximately three-fifths
were full-time employees of secur­
ities firms, and most of these were
salesmen. The rest— partners,
branch office managers, security
analysts, and others — spent only
part of their time in sales activi­
ties. Other people who sold secur­
ities— roughly 55,000 in all— were
men and women regularly em­
ployed in jobs outside the securi­
ties business; most of these per­
sons sold shares in mutual funds
in the evenings and on weekends.
Securities salesmen are employ­
ed by hundreds of brokerage
firms, investment bankers, and
mutual fund firms in all parts of
the country. Many of these firms
are very small. Most salesmen,
however, work for a relatively
small number of large firms that
operate main offices located in big
cities (especially in New York
C ity), as well as approximately
6,000 branch offices.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Almost all States require secu­
rities salesmen to be licensed.
State
licensing
requirements
vary: Personal bonds may be re­
quired or applicants may have to
pass written examinations.
In addition, practically every
salesman must be registered as a
representative of his firm accor­
ding to the regulations of the se­
curities exchange or exchanges
through which it does business,

315

SALES OCCUPATIONS

or the National Association of Se­
curities Dealers, Inc. (N A S D ), or
both. Before beginning salesmen
can qualify as registered repre­
sentatives, they must pass the
Commissioner’s general securities
examination, or those prepared by
the exchanges and/or the NASD.
These examinations test their
knowledge of the securities busi­
ness. Character investigations al­
so are required.
To assist their salesmen in
meeting the requirements for reg­
istration, most employers provide
training for beginners. In many
firms, including all those which
are members of the New York
Stock Exchange, the training per­
iod lasts for at least 6 months.
In large firms, training programs
are sometimes quite elaborate.
Trainees may receive classroom
instruction in subjects such as se­
curity analysis and effective
speaking, take courses offered by
schools of business and other in­
stitutions and associations, and
undergo a period of on-the-job
training. Other training pro­
grams, particularly in small firms,
may be relatively informal and
brief. In programs of this type, the
trainee may read assigned mater­
ials and observe other salesmen
as they transact business.
Because a securities salesman
must be well informed about eco­
nomic conditions and trends, a
college education is becoming in­
creasingly important for begin­
ners who seek to enter this field.
Although employers seldom re­
quire specialized training, a de­
gree in business administration or
economics, or a background in
liberal arts is regarded as good
preparation for the work. Courses
in finance and other subjects re­
lated to the securities business,
available at colleges and univer­
sities throughout the country,
also are helpful.
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as important as ac­



ademic training in specialized
fields.Employers seek people who
are well groomed, who possess the
ability to deal with people, and
who are ambitious and have a
sense of responsibility. Because
maturity also is important, many
employers feel that it is desirable
for prospective salesmen to have
had experience in other jobs. Be­
fore being hired, applicants are
sometimes given tests to deter­
mine their aptitude for this kind
of sales work.
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities salesmen is an
increase in the number and the
size of the accounts they handle.
Beginning salesmen, who usually
start by servicing the accounts of
individual investors, eventually
may handle very large accounts
such as those of institutional in­
vestors. Some experienced sales­
men may advance to branch office
managers, who supervise the work
of other salesmen while executing
buy and sell orders for their own
customers. A few salesmen may
become partners in their firms or
do other administrative work.

and the funds they have to invest
will continue to increase, not only
because of economic growth and
rising personal incomes, but be­
cause of a number of other factors.
These include interest stimulated
by the activities of investment
clubs and associations, plans en­
abling small investors to make
monthly payments toward the
purchase of securities, and the in­
creasing need for parents to set
aside funds for their children’s
education and their own retire­
ment. Institutional investors also
can be expected to have more
funds for investment in the future
as more people purchase insur­
ance; participate in pension plans;
contribute to the endowment
funds of colleges, universities and
other nonprofit institutions; and
deposit their savings in banks.
Many more securities salesmen
also will be needed to sell new
securities issued by expanding
corporations and by State and lo­
cal governments which are finan­
cing the construction of new roads
and other public improvements.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
securities salesmen are expected
to be good through the 1970’s.
Some new positions will be cre­
ated to serve the growing number
of individuals and institutions in­
vesting money in securities of all
kinds. Most positions, however,
will be vacancies that occur as
salesmen retire or leave the oc­
cupation for other reasons.
The number of beginners who
leave the occupation tends to be
high because of the difficulty new
salesmen have in establishing a
clientele.
Employment of securities sales­
men is expected to increase mod­
erately during the 1970’s. The
number of individual investors

Trainees are usually paid a sal­
ary until such time as they are
able to meet licensing and regis­
tration requirements. After reg­
istration, a few firms continue to
pay a salary until the new sales­
man’s commissions increase to a
minimum amount. The salaries
paid during the training period
usually range from $400 to $500
a month; those employed in large
firms receive somewhat higher sal­
aries. Factors which help deter­
mine salary during the training
period include locality of the firm
and the individual’s educational
background, and his experience.
Once the salesman has comple­
ted his training, earnings are usu­
ally in the form of commissions
from the sale and purchase of se-

316
curities by customers. The size of
the commission depends partly on
the policies of the firm where the
salesman works and partly on the
type of security bought or sold,
and whether it was traded on a
stock exchange or in the over-thecounter market. Commission ear­
nings may fluctuate a great deal
because of extremes in market
activity. When there is much buy­
ing and selling of securities, ear­
nings are likely to be high; when
there is a severe slump in market
activity, the opposite is likely to
be true. To provide their salesmen
with a steady income, most firms
pay a “ draw against commission”
— that is, a minimum salary based
on the commissions which sales­
men can be expected to earn—
plus any commissions from ad­
ditional sales. A few firms pay
salesmen only a salary and bo­
nuses which are usually deter­
mined by company business.
According to the limited data
available,
securities
salesmen
working full time generally earned
between $8,000 and $17,000 a
year in 1968. Many successful
salesmen have i n c o m e s over
$25,000 a year, however. Sales­
men paid on a commission may
also receive annual bonuses when
business is good.
A securities salesman works in
an office in which a great deal of
activity occurs. In large offices,
there are likely to be rows of sales­
men sitting at desks in front of
“ quote boards” and wall screens,
which continually flash informa­
tion on securities transactions
and prices. Most offices provide
seats so that customers and others
may watch the latest market de­
velopments.
Although securities salesmen
are not usually required to ob­
serve fixed hours of work, many
work approximately the same
hours as others in the business
community. Some salesmen must
adjust their time to accommodate




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

WHOLESALE TRADE
SALESWORKERS
(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)

N ature of the W ork

those customers who can meet
with them only outside business
hours— for example, at home in
the evenings or on weekends.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Further information about the
work of the securities salesman in
firms which are members of the
New York Stock Exchange and
about the nature of the securities
business is available from:
New York Stock Exchange, 11
Wall St., New York, N.Y. 10005.

Information about the invest­
ment banking business and sales
positions with investment bankers
may be obtained from:
Investment Bankers Association of
America, 425 13th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20004.

Salesworkers in wholesale trade
play an important part in moving
goods from the factory to the
consumer. Each salesman may
represent a company that dis­
tributes hundreds of similar prod­
ucts. A wholesale drug company,
for example, may stock its ware­
house with many brands of drugs,
soap, and cosmetics to supply
drug, variety, and other stores
that sell directly to the consumer.
In much the same way, a whole­
sale building materials dealer
sells hardware and construction
materials to builders who would
otherwise have to deal with many
manufacturers.
At regular intervals, the sales­
man visits buyers for retail, in­
dustrial, and commercial firms,
as well as those for institutions
such as schools and hospitals. He
shows them samples, pictures, or
catalogs listing the items his
company stocks. The salesman
seldom urges customers to pur­
chase any particular product,
since he handles a very large
number of items; his objective is
to persuade buyers to become
regular customers of the whole­
sale firm he represents. His suc­
cess depends on establishing a
good reputation by keeping his
customers well supplied at all
times
and
otherwise
giving
prompt and dependable service.
Wholesale salesmen render a
variety of special services which
are becoming an increasingly im­
portant part of their job. Retail­
ers sometimes depend on them to
check their store’s stock and pre­
pare orders for items which will
be needed before the next visit.

317

SALES OCCUPATIONS

ment, and electrical appliances
and other items for home use; or
those who sell products such as
machinery and building materials
for use by industrial and business
firms.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

In addition, salesmen often ad­
vise retailers about advertising
products, what prices to charge,
and how to arrange window and
counter displays. A salesman of
specialized products— for exam­
ple, air-conditioning equipment—
may give technical assistance on
problems such as installation and
maintenance.
Salesmen are responsible for
some paper and detail work. They
must write orders and forward
them to the wholesale house, pre­
pare expense accounts and re­
ports, plan their work schedule,
make appointments, compile lists
of prospects, and study literature
relating to the products they sell.
Some salesmen also collect the
money owed to their companies.




Places of Em ploym ent
More than 530,000 salespeople,
about 95 percent of them men,
worked for wholesalers in 1968.
Wholesale houses are located
mainly in cities, but the territor­
ies assigned to their salesmen
may be in any part of the coun­
try. A salesman’s territory may
cover a small section of a city
having many retail stores and in­
dustrial users, or, in less popu­
lated regions, it may cover half a
State or more.
Leading employers of whole­
sale salesmen are companies that
sell foods and food products.
Other large employers are whole­
salers dealing in drugs, dry goods
and apparel, motor vehicle equip­

In hiring trainees for sales
work, most wholesalers look for
young men with friendly, outgo­
ing personalities. Other traits
helpful to salesmen include selfconfidence, enthusiasm for the
job, and an understanding of hu­
man nature. High school gradua­
tion is the usual educational re­
quirement, although many com­
panies selling technical and sci­
entific products such as heating
and air-conditioning equipment,
medical supplies, and electronic
equipment prefer men with spe­
cialized training beyond high
school. In some cases, engineer­
ing degrees are required.
A prospective salesman may
begin his career with a wholesale
firm in a nonselling job, or he
may be hired as a sales trainee.
In either case, the beginner usu­
ally must work in several kinds
of nonselling jobs before being
assigned as a salesman. He may
begin in the stockroom or ship­
ping department, where he be­
comes familiar with the thou­
sands of items the wholesaler car­
ries. Later, he may transfer to the
pricing desk to learn the prices
of articles and discount rates for
goods sold in quantities. Next,
he is likely to become an “ inside
salesman,” writing orders that
come from customers by tele­
phone. In this job, and later as
he accompanies an experienced
salesman on his calls, the trainee
comes to know some of the firm’s
customers. The amount of time
spent in these initial jobs varies
among companies; it usually

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

318
takes 2 years or longer to prepare
the trainee for outside selling.
Only after he has become familiar
with the company’s products and
the proper techniques of selling
is he assigned a territory of his
own.
Experienced
salesmen
who
have the necessary leadership
qualities and sales ability may
advance to supervisory and man­
agerial jobs in the sales field or to
other executive positions in
wholesale firms.

and this in turn will add to the
need for sales personnel. As chain
stores and other large business
firms continue to centralize
their purchasing activities, the
value of the sales which whole­
salers make to individual cus­
tomers will become larger and
competition for sales correspond­
ingly greater. To meet this com­
petition, wholesalers can be ex­
pected to place increasing em­
phasis on sales activities.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
salesworkers in wholesale trade
are expected to be good through
the 1970’s. In addition to new
positions which will be created
as a result of growth in the field,
thousands of job openings will
occur each year as salesmen re­
tire, die, or enter other types of
employment. Retirements and
deaths alone may result in more
than 12,000 job openings annual­
ly. Additional openings will arise
as workers transfer to other kinds
of work; turnover among new en­
trants is high.
The number of wholesale sales­
men is expected to rise moder­
ately, as the amount of business
transacted by wholesale houses
increases due to population ex­
pansion and economic growth.
In the next decade, wholesale
salesmen will spend an increasing
proportion of their time render­
ing special services to customers,
such as advising about displays,




According to the limited infor­
mation available, most beginning
salesmen earned around $7,200 a
year in 1968. Experienced sales­
men averaged $10,000 annually,
and many earned considerably
more.
Most employers pay a salary
plus a commission which is a per­
centage of each salesman’s dollar
sales; others pay a straight com­
mission. Practically all wholesale
salesmen have steady year-round
work, but their sales (and their
commissions) vary from month to
month because the demand for
some products— for example, airconditioning equipment or ap­
parel— is greater during certain
seasons than others. To provide
salesmen with a steady income
regardless of how sales fluctuate,
many companies pay their experi­
enced salesmen, at regular in­
tervals, a “ draw” against the
commissions they can be expected
to earn annually. Most companies
provide each salesman with a car

or an allowance if he uses his own
car, and reimburse him for cer­
tain expenses on the road.
The salesman often works long,
irregular hours. He calls on cus­
tomers when they are open for
business and, if his territory is
large, he may travel at night or
on weekends to meet his sched­
ule. However, most salesmen are
seldom away from their homes for
more than a few days at a time.
Many of their evenings may be
spent writing reports and orders.
Salesmen generally carry heavy
catalogs and sample cases and are
on their feet for long periods of
time.
Most salesmen have paid vaca­
tions of from 2 to 4 weeks, de­
pending on length of service with
their employers. Many are cov­
ered by company benefit pro­
grams, including health and life
insurance and retirement bene­
fits.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

Information on jobs in whole­
sale selling may be obtained di­
rectly from local wholesale houses
or from associations of wholesal­
ers in many of the larger cities.
If no local association is avail­
able, write to:
National Association of Whole­
salers, 1725 K St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.
Sales and Marketing Executives—
International, Youth Education
Division, 630 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Workers in service occupations
police the streets, serve food, put
out fires, clean our homes and
buildings, and, in numerous other
ways, provide services to the
American people. The nearly 9.4
million service workers who were
employed in 1968 included a wide
range of diverse occupations such
as babysitters, policemen, fire­
men, cleaning women, golf cad­
dies, theatre ushers, barbers, and
laundresses. The major groups of
service workers are discussed
below:

Occupations related to food
preparation and service. In 1968,
about 2.5 million people, or ap­
proximately three-tenths of all
service workers were employed in
this group which includes occupa­
tions such as cooks and chefs,
kitchen workers, waiters and wait­
resses, counter and fountain
workers, and bartenders. These
workers are employed in hotels,
restaurants, and other institu­
tions, such as hospitals, schools,
and plant cafeterias.

Building cleaning and servicing
occupations. The nearly 2 million
persons employed to clean and
provide other services in hotels
and other buildings made up the
second largest group of service
workers in 1968. This group in­
cludes workers in occupations
such as janitors, charwomen,
chambermaids, porters, and ele­
vator operators.

Private

household

workers.

About 1.7 million people were em­
ployed as private household work­
ers. Altogether they made up the
third largest group of service
workers and constituted almost
one-fifth of all service worker em­
ployment.
Private
household
workers perform tasks that are
familiar to all homemakers. They
prepare and serve meals, make




beds, do cleaning and laundering,
take care of children, and perform
other household duties as well.
(This chapter includes a detailed
statement covering private house­
hold workers.)
Protective service workers, an­
other large group of service work­
ers, are needed to help safeguard
lives and property. More than
900,000 workers, or one-tenth of
all service workers, were employed
in protective service occupations.
The majority of these workers are
policemen, guards, or firemen.
Policemen and detectives together

account for more than one-third
of the total number of protective
service workers. Most policemen
and detectives are government
employees, but some work for ho­
tels, stores, and other businesses.
Guards and watchmen, another
large group of protective service
workers, are employed chiefly by
private companies to protect their
property and enforce company
rules and regulations. Some
guards and watchmen are em­
ployed in jails, prisons, and other
government establishments. Fire­
men, also a significant group of
319

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

320

M ore Than 9 M illion People W orked in Service Occupations
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

MILLIONS OF WORKERS, 1968

FOOD PREPARATION
AND SERVICE
BUILDING CLEANING
AND SERVICE
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
WORKERS

protective service workers, work
mainly for city governments. The
remaining protective service work­
ers are sheriffs and bailiffs, cross­
ing watchmen and bridge tend­
ers, and marshals and constables.
This chapter includes separate
statements for FBI special agents,
police officers (local government),
State police officers, and fire
fighters.
The remaining service workers
— those concerned with providing
health care, grooming and per­
sonal services, and people in oc­
cupations related to entertain­
ment and leisure time activities—
accounted for nearly 2 million
workers. About 1 million were em­
ployed in health service occupa­
tions, which include workers such
as hospital attendants and nurse
aides. Service occupations con­
cerned with grooming and personal
services, such as barbers and cos­
metologists, provided employment
for over 650,000 workers. About
100,000 workers were employed in
occupations related to entertain­
ment. This group includes occu­
pations such as ski instructors,
ushers, and check room attend­
ants. All other service workers,
about 370,000 were in occupa­




tions such as airline stewardess
and travel guide.
Some of the occupations men­
tioned briefly in this introduction
are described in greater detail
later in this chapter. They are
cook and chef, waiter and wait­
ress, hospital attendant, barber,
and cosmetologist. Other personal
service occupations, including the
airline stewardess, hotel bellman,
and hotel housekeeper and as­
sistant, are discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Training and skill requirements
differ greatly among the various
service occupations. FBI agents,
for example, must have a college
degree. Barbers, beauty operators,
and some other workers need spe­
cialized vocational training. For
still other occupations— general
maid, waitress, elevator operator,
and hotel bellman, for example—
formal educational requirements
for entry usually are not specified.
A high school diploma is always
an advantage, however. The Fed­

eral Government also sponsors
training for many service occupa­
tions under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act.
For many service occupations,
special personality traits and abil­
ities may be as important as for­
mal schooling. Thus, physical
strength and endurance are a ne­
cessity for work as a porter, life
guard, or window cleaner; and a
pleasing manner and appearance
are especially important for the
theater usher, elevator operator,
and checkroom girl. Other service
workers, including store and hotel
detectives and travel guides,
should possess good judgment and
ingenuity and be skillful in deal­
ing with people.
Some service workers eventual­
ly go into business for themselves
— as caterers or restaurant oper­
ators, for example, or proprietors
of barber or beauty shops. Others,
such as elevator operators and
ushers, may advance to supervis­
ory positions. Advancement from
service occupations that require
little specialized training or skill
may be difficult, however, partic­
ularly for young people without a
good basic education and some
knowledge of the business in
which they are employed.

Em ploym ent Trends and Outlook
For many years, the number of
workers in service occupations has
been increasing much faster than
the labor force as a whole. Be­
tween 1960 and 1968, overall ser­
vice worker employment has in­
creased by nearly 40 percent,
whereas, employment of all work­
ers in the economy increased by
about 14 percent. Among service
workers, health service employ­
ment has increased most rapidly
— nearly 80 percent. Employment
in building maintenance services
and entertainment has risen near-

SALES OCCUPATIONS

ly one-half; protective services
and personal appearance services
by about 40 percent; and food
services by nearly one-third. Pri­
vate household worker employ­
ment, which increased by about
one-fourth, was the slowest grow­
ing service worker group.
Employment in service occupa­
tions is expected to continue to
increase rapidly in the years
ahead as income levels rise and
leisure time increases. By 1980,
as many as 4 million more work­
ers may be providing the services
that add to people’s comfort and
enjoyment and protect life and
property. As total employment
rises, however, different occupa­
tions within the service group are
likely to be affected quite differ­
ently— some growing very rapid­
ly, others only moderately, and a
few decreasing in size.
Most of the employment in­
crease in future years is expected
to be among policemen and other
protective service workers; at­
tendants in hospitals and in busi­
nesses rendering professional and
personal services; beauty oper­
ators; and cooks, waiters, and
others who prepare and serve
meals outside private homes. All
of these large occupations are ex­
pected to grow rapidly. Some of
the factors responsible for their
growth are the added medical care
related to the increase in popula­
tion, especially the number of
older people; the greater need to
protect life and property as ur­
banization continues and cities
become more crowded; and the
more frequent use of restaurants,
beauty parlors, and other services
by families and individuals as in­
come levels rise and as an increas­
ing number of housewives take
jobs outside the home.
Although service workers are
employed throughout the coun­
try, hospital attendants, maids,
hotel service employees, and at­
tendants at theaters and other




321
places of amusement are found
chiefly in the larger towns and
cities.

BARBERS
(D.O.T. 330.371)

N ature of the W ork
Barbers provide many services
related to the care of hair, face,
and scalp. They also may give

hair and scalp treatments, shaves,
facial massages, and shampoos.
Their main task, however, is to
cut hair to satisfy each customer.
In recent years, an increasing
proportion of the male public has
desired additional barbering serv­
ices, such as hairstyling and col­
oring. Specially trained barbers,
called “ hairstylists,” are provid­
ing these services in some barber­
shops and styling salons. These
barbers shampoo, cut the hair
with a razor, and style it. They
also may color the hair and fit
hair pieces.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

322
A barber builds a steady clien­
tele by giving good haircuts, put­
ting customers at ease, giving
them efficient, courteous service,
and keeping a clean, attractive
shop. He also cleans his work area
and may sweep the shop. Usual­
ly, each barber keeps his barbering instruments sterilized and in
good condition. Those who own or
manage a shop have additional re­
sponsibilities such as ordering
supplies, paying bills, keeping
records, and hiring employees.

Places of Em ploym ent
The total number of barbers
employed in 1968, is estimated at
about 210,000, most of whom
were men. More than half of all
barbers own and operate their own
shops. Most barbers work alone in
small shops, either as the owner
or with one other barber. Many
barbers also work in large shops
in suburban shopping centers,
hotels, or office buildings in
downtown city districts. Some
barbers work in combination bar­
ber and beauty shops; a few work
for government agencies and in
places such as hospitals or ocean
liners.
All cities and towns and many
very small communities have bar­
bershops. However, employment
is concentrated in large cities and
in the most populous States.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
T o obtain a license which prac­
tically all States require, a candi­
date must have graduated from a
State-approved barber school.
In addition, he must meet cer­
tain health requirements, usually
be at least 16 (or 18) years old,
and have completed at least the
eighth grade. All but a very few
States require the beginner to




take an examination for an ap­
prentice license; then, usually
after working 1 or 2 years as an
apprentice barber, he takes a sec­
ond examination for his license
as a registered barber. The ex­
aminations usually include both
a written test a demonstration of
the applicant’s ability to cut hair.
The fees charged for these ex­
aminations generally range from
$5 to $25. A few States do not
require a fee for their apprentice
examination. Barbers who move to
another State must meet the li­
censing requirements of that
State.
Barber training is offered in
many public and private schools
and a few vocational schools.
Courses usually last 6 to 11
months and include from 1,000
to 2,000 hours of instruction. The
trainee customarily purchases
his own tools which cost $100 or
more. He studies the basic serv­
ices— haircutting, shaving, mas­
saging, and facial and scalp treat­
ments— and, under supervision,
practices these services on fellow
students and customers in school
“ clinics.” Besides attending lec­
tures on barber services and the
use and care of barber’s instru­
ments, the student takes courses
in anatomy, sanitation, and hy­
giene, and learns how to recog­
nize certain skin conditions. In­
struction is also given in sales­
manship and general business
practices. Advanced courses are
available in some localities for
those registered barbers who wish
to specialize in hair styling and
coloring.
A beginner may locate his first
job through the barber school he
attended, or through the local
barber’s union of employer’s as­
sociation.
Some experienced barbers ad­
vance by becoming managers of
large shops or by opening their
own shops. A few, who meet the
requirements, may teach at bar­

ber schools. Barbers who go in­
to business for themselves must
have the capital to buy or rent
a shop and install equipment. The
required capital differs, because
some owners buy used equipment
and fixtures at reduced prices,
whereas others pay higher prices
for new equipment. Equipping a
one-chair shop with new equip­
ment usually costs from $1,200
to $2,500.
Dealing with customers re­
quires patience and a better-thanaverage disposition. Good health
and stamina also are important,
because a barber must stand for
long periods and work with both
hands at shoulder level.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Several thousand job openings
for barbers are expected to arise
each year through the 1970’s.
Most positions become vacant
through turnover; retirements
and deaths alone are expected to
create more than 8,000 openings
yearly. Replacement needs in this
occupation are relatively high,
because barbers are somewhat
older, on the average, than work­
ers in many other occupations.
Openings also will occur as more
barbering services are required
to meet the needs of a growing
population. The recent trend
toward hair styling for men may
result in additional job openings
for qualified barbers.
A moderate rise in employment
is anticipated through 1970’s.
The small shop with only one or
two barbers will probably remain
the most common type of estab­
lishment; however, the continued
growth of suburban communities
should result in opportunities to
open large shops in these areas,
and also to expand staffs in es­
tablished shops.

323

SALES OCCUPATIONS

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

Barbers rc :eive income from
commissions or wages and from
tips. Most barbers who are not
shop owners normally receive 65
to 75 percent of the money they
take in; a few are paid straight
salaries.

Information on State licensing
requirements may be obtained
from the State Board of barber
examiners or other State author­
ity at each State capital; and in­
formation about approved barber
schools, frm the division of vo­
cational education at each State
capital.
General information on train­
ing facilities, and State licensing
laws may also be obtained from:

Weekly earnings of experienced
barbers (including tips), gener­
ally ranged between $125 and
$160 in 1968, according to lim­
ited information available. A few
expert barbers, as well as some
barbers who operated their own
shops, earned more than $200 a
week. Apprentice barbers usually
earned about $85 to $125 a week.
Earnings depend on such fac­
tors as the size and location of the
shop, customers’ income levels
and tipping habits, competition
from other barbershops, the bar­
ber’s skill at his trade, his ability
in attracting and holding regular
customers, and the prices he can
charge for his services. In 1968,
the cost of a haircut in most
areas ranged from $1.50 to $2.75.
Most full-time barbers work
more than 40 hours a week; a
workweek of over 50 hours is not
uncommon. A barber may have
a steady stream of customers dur­
ing peak hours and especially on
Saturdays, but during slack per­
iods he may have time off for
personal matters. Under some
union contracts, barbers receive
1- or 2-week paid vacations, in­
surance, and medical benefits.
The principal union which or­
ganizes barbers— both employees
and shopowners— is the Journey­
men Barbers, Hairdressers, Cos­
metologists and Proprietors’ In­
national Union of America. The
principal trade association which
represents and organizes shopowners and managers is the As­
sociated Master Barbers and
Beauticians of America.




National Association of Barber
Schools, Inc., 750 Third Ave.,
Huntington, W. Va. 25701.

Additional information on this
occupation is also available from:
Associated Master Barbers and
Beauticians of America, 219
Greenwich Rd., P.O. Box 17782,
Charlotte, N.C. 28211.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdress­
ers, Cosmetologists, and Propri­
etors’ International Union of
America, 1141 North Delaware
St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207.

COSMETOLOGISTS
(D.O.T. 332.271 and .381;
331.878; and 339.371)

N ature of the W ork
Cosmetologists provide a vari­
ety of beauty services, most of
which are related to the care of
hair. They shampoo, cut, set, style,
straighten, bleach, and tint hair
and give permanent waves. They
also may give manicures and scalp
and facial treatments, provide
makeup analysis, shape eyebrows,
and clean and style wigs and hair
pieces. Other duties include mak­
ing appointments for patrons,
cleaning their equipment, and
sanitizing implements. Cosmetol­

ogists are also called beauty op­
erators, hairdressers, or beauti­

cians.
Beauty operators may special­
ize in different phases of the work
such as manicurist, tint specialist,
or hair stylist. Many men em­
ployed as cosmetologists are hair
stylists.
The owner-operator of a beauty
salon, in addition to working as
an operator, usually performs a
number of managerial duties, such
as recordkeeping, property main­
tenance, control of supplies, and
supervision of employees.

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 475,000 people were
employed as hairdressers and cos­
metologists in 1968. More than 10
percent were men. The proportion
of part-time workers is relatively
high.
Most cosmetologists are em­
ployed in salons which are oper­
ated as independent establish-

324
ments or in conjunction with ho­
tels and department and specialty
stores. Smaller numbers work in
a variety of other establishments
— for example, in motion picture
and television studios, in hospi­
tals, and on ocean liners.
Although employment is con­
centrated in urban areas, many
operators work in small towns and
rural areas in all parts of the coun­
try. Most beauty salons are small
and have fewer than four em­
ployees. More than half of all
beauty salons are owner-operated.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
All States require that beauty
operators be licensed. Before ap­
plicants are eligible to take State
licensing examinations in the the­
ory and practice of cosmetology,
they usually must be at least 16
years of age, present certificates
of good health, and have com­
pleted at least the 8th grade— in
many States the 10th, and in a
few the 12th. Successful comple­
tion of a State-approved cosme­
tology course is recognized as ade­
quate preparation for these exam­
inations in all States; in some, a
period of apprenticeship may be
substiuted. More than threefourths of the States provide for
reciprocity, and therefore oper­
ators licensed to work in one
State can often move to another
and continue their work without
taking an examination to qualify
for another license.
About 3,500 public vocational
schools and private schools offer
training which meets State licens­
ing requirements for cosmetol­
ogists. In many of them, instruc­
tion preparing students for a gen­
eral operator’s license is available
in evening classes as well as in
full-time day classes. Many day­
time courses offered by public and
private schools require from 6




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

months to a year to complete.
Other public school courses, which
include academic subjects re­
quired for a high school diploma,
last from 2 to 3 years. Apprentice
training usually continues over 1
or 2 years. Many States issue
special manicurists’ licenses which
require substantially fewer hours
of training than general operator’s
licenses.
Both public and private school
training programs include class­
room study, lectures, demonstra­
tions, and practical work. Begin­
ning students usually practice by
working on each other or on mani­
kins and, when they have satis­
factorily completed a period of
preliminary training, they may
practice on patrons in school
“ clinics.” Practically all beauty
schools help their students find
jobs after graduation.
Some cosmetologists start as
manicurists or shampooers, while
others begin as all-round oper­
ators performing a variety of ser­
vices. Advancement may come in
higher earnings, as operators gain
experience and build up a steady
clientele, or as they become skilled
specialists in one or more phases
of the work. For those who wish
to specialize, advanced courses in
hair styling, hair coloring, and
other types of work are available
in many localities, sometimes of­
fered by public or private schools,
and sometimes by manufacturers
of beauty preparations or by other
individuals and organizations. Ex­
perienced operators may also ad­
vance to positions in which they
manage large salons or open sal­
ons of their own. Others advance
to teaching positions in cosmetol­
ogy schools, or use their knowl­
edge and skills in some different
type of employment— working as
demonstrators for manufacturers
of cosmetics, for example, or as
beauty editors for newspapers and
magazines, or inspectors for State
cosmetology boards.

To be successful, a cosmetol­
ogist should keep abreast of
changing hair styles and beauty
techniques. Ability to get along
with people is also important, as
are good grooming, dexterity, a
sense or form and artistry, and
willingness to follow patrons’ in­
structions. An operator’s job also
calls for physical stamina, because
much standing is normally re­
quired.
Operators usually furnish their
own uniforms, and a few salons,
require them to furnish such im­
plements as brushes, combs, and
clips.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Through the 1970’s, job oppor­
tunities are expected to be very
good for newcomers to this field,
as well as for experienced cos­
metologists and those who are
seeking part-time work. Employ­
ment in this occupation is ex­
pected to continue to expand very
rapidly. Among the factors re­
sponsible for this expected em­
ployment growth are the popula­
tion increase and the more fre­
quent use of beauty salons as
income levels rise and more wom­
en take jobs outside the home.
In addition to new job oppor­
tunities created by growth, the
number of replacements needed
as cosmetologists retire or stop
working for other reasons will
average more than 20,000 each
year. Still other openings will be­
come available as jobs are vacated
by workers leaving to enter other
kinds of employment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Many cosmetologists are paid
on a straight commission basis.
Others receive a salary plus com­
mission and still others, a straight
salary. Estimating total earnings

325

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

is difficult because, in addition to
salaries and commissions, most
cosmetologists receive tips, and
tipping practices vary in different
localities. Earnings of cosmetol­
ogists also depend on experience,
speed of performance, skill, loca­
tion of the salon, and the ability
to satisfy patrons and build up a
clientele.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

Many beginning operators earn
between $65 and $90 a week, ac­
cording to limited information
available. A very few top stylists
and others in highly specialized
jobs may earn $300 or more a
week.

National Beauty Career Center,
3839 White Plains Rd., Bronx,
N.Y. 10467.

Most full-time operators work
40 hours or longer a week, which
usually includes late afternoon
and Saturday work. Many parttime operators are also employed
during these busy periods.
In many large salons, depart­
ment stores, and hotels, operators
may participate in group life and
health insurance and other em­
ployee benefit plans sponsored by
the employer. Some establish­
ments allow their employees an­
nual paid vacations of at least 1
week after a year’s service.
The most active union in this
occupational field is the Journey­
men Barbers, Hairdressers, Cos­
metologists and Proprietors’ In­
ternational Union of America.
Other organizations in the field
are the National Hairdressers and
Cosmetologists Association, Inc.,
which includes both shopowners
and operators; The Associated
Master Barbers and Beauticians
of America, representing salon
owners and managers; the Na­
tional Assoication of Cosmetol­
ogy Schools, Inc. representing
school owners and teachers; and
the National Beauty Culturists’
League, made up of Negro oper­
ators, teachers, managers, and
salon owners.




State boards of cosmetology
can supply information about ap­
proved training schools and re­
quirements for licensing.
Additional information about
careers in beauty culture, and
State licensing requirements, can
be obtained from:

General information about cos­
metology may be obtained from:
National Hairdressers and Cos­
metologists Association, 175
Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.
10010.

Journeymen Barbers, Hairdress­
ers, Cosmetologists, and Propri­
etors’ International Union of
America, 1141 North Delaware
St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46207.

COOKS AND CHEFS
(D.O.T. 313.131 through .887; 314.381
through .878; and 315.131 through
.381)

N ature of the W ork
People who eat meals away
from home appreciate the work
of a good cook— or chef, as an
expert in this occupation often is
called. A restaurant’s success as
a business enterprise depends in
large part on the skill of the
workers who prepare the dishes
served. This statement discusses
the work of cooks and chefs em­
ployed in business establishments
and institutions. It does not cover
cooks who work in private homes.
The nature of a cook’s job de­
pends partly on where he works.
There is a good deal of difference,
for example, in preparing food for

students in a high school cafe­
teria, for passengers on a jet air­
liner, or for patients in a hospital.
Similarly, the “ home cooking”
which is the trademark of many
small establishments is far dif­
ferent from the elaborate cuisine
featured in some cosmopolitan
restaurants; and the cook who
works in a steak house prepares
food that is quite different from
that prepared by the cook in a
restaurant which serves Chinese
dishes.
Equally important, from the
standpoint of a cook’s duties, is
the size of the establishment in
which he works. In many small
restaurants, one cook— perhaps
aided by a short order cook and
one or two kitchen helpers— pre­
pares all the foods served. Often,
the menu consists of a few dishes
prepared on a short order basis,
plus pies and other baked goods
purchased at a local bakery.
Large eating places are more
likely to have varied menus, and
to prepare on the premises all of
the food served. The kitchen staff
in a large establishment often in­
cludes several cooks— sometimes
called assistant cooks— and many
kitchen helpers. Each cook usu­
ally has a special assignment and
often a special job title— pastry
cook, fry cook, roast cook, vegeta­
ble cook, or sauce cook, for ex­
ample. The head cook or chef—
or, in a large restaurant or hotel,
the executive chef— coordinates
the work of the kitchen staff and
is almost always a highly skilled
cook who often may take direct
charge of certain kinds of food
preparation. He decides on the
size of the food portions served,
and sometimes plans menus and
purchases food supplies. In addi­
tion, he has the important re­
sponsibility of seeing that the
dishes served taste good and are
attractive in appearance. Because
of their skill in creating new
dishes and improving the flavor

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

326

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

of familiar ones, some chefs who
rank at the top in this occupa­
tion have acquired national and
international
reputations
for
themselves and for the restau­
rants and hotels where they work.

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 670,000 cooks and
chefs were employed in 1968.
Most of these workers were res­
taurant cooks, but large numbers
were employed in public and pri­
vate schools and in hotels and




hospitals. Railroad dining cars,
ocean liners, government agen­
cies, manufacturing plants, pri­
vate clubs, and many other kinds
of establishments also employed
cooks and chefs.
Three out of every five of these
workers were women. About half
of the cooks in restaurants and
the great majority of those em­
ployed in schools and hospitals
were women. Men out-numbered
women in hotels and private
clubs, aboard ships, and on rail­
road dining cars. Also, most head
cooks and practically all chefs
were men.

Most cooks— particularly those
who work in small eating places
— acquire their skills on the job
while emloyed as kitchen helpers.
Less frequently, they are trained
as apprentices under trade union
contracts or the training pro­
grams which some large hotels
and restaurants conduct for their
new employees.
For work in some large restau­
rants and hotels, where hiring
standards are often higher than in
small establishments, young peo­
ple usually will find it a distinct
advantage to have had courses
in restaurant cooking. Such train­
ing is offered in a number of
schools and other institutions.
Although the curriculum may
vary usually a major part of each
student’s time is spent in learning
professional
food
preparation
through actual practice in wellequipped kitchens. The student
receives instruction in baking,
broiling, and other methods of
preparing food, and in the use
and care of kitchen equipment.
Instruction also may be given in
selecting and storing food, de­
termining the size o f individual
portions, planning menus, and
buying food supplies in quantity,
as well as in hotel and restaurant
sanitation and the public health
aspects of food handling.
Many vocational schools— both
public and private— offer this
kind of training to high school
students. Other courses, open in
some cases only to high school
graduates and ranging from a
few months to 2 years or more
in length, are given under the
auspices of restaurant associa­
tions, hotel management groups,
and trade unions, and in technical
schools and colleges. In addition,
programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers for
jobs as bakers and various types

327

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

of cooks were operating in several
cities in 1968 under provisions of
the Manpower Development and
Training Act. Many school dis­
tricts also provide on-the-job
training opportunities for cooks
during the s c h o o l y e a r as
well as in workshops during the
summer
months.
Frequently,
cooks for the many new schools
opening each year are selected
from those employees who have
participated in workshops and
who show the greatest aptitude
for the work. These training pro­
grams usually are planned in co­
operation with the State Voca­
tional Education Departments.

Em ploym ent O utlook

This occupation is expected to
offer excellent opportunities for
employment through the 1970’s.
The number of cooks and chefs
will rise rapidly, as new restau­
rants, hotels, and other establish­
ments which serve food are
opened. Most openings will re­
sult from workers retiring or
leaving their jobs for other rea­
sons, retirements and deaths
alone are expected to create
about 30,000 vacancies each year.
Small restaurants and other
eating places where the food
preparation is fairly simple will
afford young people the greatest
number of opportunities to ob­
Inexperienced cooks usually tain starting jobs as cooks. Be­
are assigned as helpers until they ginners— especially those who
acquire sufficient skills. Acquir­ have taken training in restaurant
ing the all-round skill necessary cooking— also will find starting
to qualify as an expert and even­ positions available in hotel and
tually advance to a position as restaurant kitchens where foods
head cook or chef in a fine res­ are prepared more elaborately.
taurant often takes many years. The shortage of skilled cooks and
Many cooks obtain higher paying chefs is acute, and employment
positions and acquire new cooking opportunities for well qualified
skills by moving from establish­ beginners will be especially good.
ment to establishment. Some ex­
A continued expansion in the
perienced cooks eventually go in­ business of serving meals away
to business for themselves as cat- from home— and in the number
terers or restaurant proprietors; of workers who prepare these
others may become instructors at meals— is expected, not only be­
vocational schools and other in­ cause of population growth, but
stitutions offering training in this also because of the relatively
occupation.
rapid increases which are likely
among some groups in the popula­
Cleanliness, the ability to work tion who customarily eat meals
under pressure during busy pe­ away from home. Large increases
riods, physical stamina, and a are expected in the number of
keen sense of taste and smell are young people entering jobs for
among the important qualifica­ the first time, the number of mar­
tions needed for this occupation. ried women taking employment
A cook or chef in a supervisory outside their homes, and the
position not only must be an ex­ number of students attending
pert cook, but also must be able schools and colleges. In hospitals
to organize and direct kitchen and other institutions, a con­
operations effectively. Health tinued increase is foreseen in the
certificates, indicating that cooks number of patients, attendants,
and chefs are free from com­ and others who regularly eat
municable diseases, are required meals prepared on the premises.
In addition, travel for business
by the laws of many States.




and pleasure is expected to in­
crease; as a result, more people
will be patronizing eating places.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Limited wage data obtained
from union-management con­
tracts, in effect in 1969, covering
eating and drinking places in
large metropolitan areas on the
East and West Coasts and in the
Midwest, provide an indication of
earnings for cooks and chefs. In
these contracts, straight-time
hourly pay rates generally ranged
from $2.53 to $4.36 for chefs;
$1.65 to $3.87 for cooks of vari­
ous types (such as pastry, fry,
roast, and vegetable cooks); and
$1.49 to $3.50 for assistant cooks.
However, most cooks and chefs
are not covered by union-manage­
ment contracts. Wages in this
occupation also vary greatly ac­
cording to geographical location
and type of establishment. In
large restaurants and hotels many
cooks earn considerably more
than the minimum rates. Head
cooks and chefs in such establish­
ments may earn up to $15,000
annually; some chefs with nation­
al reputations make more than
$25,000 a year.
In addition to their wages, res­
taurant cooks usually receive at
least one free meal a day at their
place of work and are furnished
with uniforms. Paid vacations
and holidays are common, and
various types of health insurance
programs also are provided.
Scheduled hours in restaurants
include late evening, holiday, and
weekend work, and range from
40 to 48 a week, depending on
the section of the country. Wom­
en and men employed in public
and private schools work during
the school year only— usually 9
months. The hours worked fre­
quently coincide with the schools
hours.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

328
Many of the kitchens in which
these workers are employed are
air conditioned, have convenient
work areas, and are furnished
with modern equipment and la­
borsaving devices. Others— par­
ticularly kitchens in small eating
places— are often less well-equip­
ped and working conditions may
be less desirable. In kitchens of
all kinds, however, cooks often
spend long periods on their feet
and may be required to lift heavy
pots and other objects or work
near hot ovens or ranges.
The principal union organizing
cooks and chefs is the Hotel &
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information about res­
taurant cooks and chefs is avail­
able from the:
Educational Director, National
Restaurant Association, 153
North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
11 . 60610.
1
The Educational Institute, Amer­
ican Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion, 221 West 57th Street, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

A list of public and private
schools offering courses in cook­
ing may be obtained from:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, Statler
Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca,
N.Y. 14850.

WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
(D.O.T. 311.138 through .878)

N atu re of the W ork
Whether they work in small
lunchrooms or fashionable res­
taurants, all waiters and wait­
resses have jobs that are essential­




ly the same. They take customers’
orders, serve food and beverages,
make out customers’ checks, and
sometimes they take payments as
well. The manner in which waiters
and waitresses go about their
work may vary considerably, how­
ever, because food service in very
small eating places differs from
that in large ones; and service in
restaurants that emphasize speed
and efficiency is different from
that where dining is formal and
leisurely. (This statement covers
the work of table waiters and
waitresses employed in restaur­
ants, hotels, and other eating
places. Workers employed in pri­
vate homes or counter waiters and
waitresses in restaurants, hotels,
and other establishments are not
covered.)
Many thousands of eating
places, such as those which often
are patronized by working people
on their lunch hours, emphasize
quick service and a minimum of
frills. In addition to waiting on
tables, the waiters and waitresses
in these establishments usually
perform a variety of other duties
associated with food service. Of­
ten, they set up and clear tables,
and carry dishes back to the
kitchen; and sometimes, when the
establishment is very small, they
may combine waiting on tables
with counter service, preparing
sandwiches, or cashiering.
However, in most large restaur­
ants and in places where meal ser­
vice is formal, waiters and wait­
resses are relieved of most of these
additional duties associated with
serving. In such establishments,
busboys and busgirls often set up
tables, keep water glasses filled,
and perform other routine tasks,
leaving the waiters and waitresses
free to devote practically all of
their time to taking guests’ or­
ders and seeing that meals are
properly served.
In those eating places where
meals are served elaborately and

a great deal of emphasis is placed
on the satisfaction and comfort of
each guest, a waiter may be called
upon to advise about the choice
of a wine or answer questions
about the preparation of items on
the menu. Sometimes, from a side
table, he may prepare and serve
salads to guests or flame certain
dishes such as crepes suzettes.

Places of E m ploym ent
More than 960,000 waiters and
waitresses were employed in early
1968. The great majority— about
7 out of every 8— were women.
The proportion of part-time work­
ers was high. About 2 out of 5
were employed fewer than 35
hours a week.
Approximately four-fifths of all
workers in this occupation were
employed in restaurants and other

329

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

retail establishments that serve
food. Hotels and educational in­
stitutions of all kinds also employ
many waiters and waitresses. Jobs
for waiters tended to be concen­
trated in those restaurants, hotel
dining rooms, private clubs, and
other establishments where meal
service is formal.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although this occupation in­
cludes many workers who do not
have extensive schooling, more
and more employers prefer that
beginners have at least 2 or 3
years of high school. Home eco­
nomics courses and special courses
for waiters and waitresses which
are offered by some public and
private schools provide good prep­
aration. Restaurant associations
also offer training in this field.
In addition, programs to train un­
employed and underemployed
workers for jobs as carhops, wait­
ers and waitresses were operating
in several cities in 1968, under
provisions of the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act.
Practically all newly hired
workers without previous experi­
ence as a waiter or waitress under­
go a period of on-the-job training,
during which they learn about the
type of food service offered in
their employer’s establishment.
Sometimes they work as busboys
or busgirls before being assigned
a station as a waiter or waitress.
Waiters and waitresses must be
able to make the calculations nec­
essary to total guests’ checks and
compute taxes. Personal appear­
ance, a pleasant manner, an even
disposition, and the ability to cope
with the rush of business that usu­
ally occurs at mealtimes are very
important. In a few restaurants,
knowledge of foreign language
may be desirable. Waiters and
waitresses often are required by




State law to obtain health certi­
ficates to assure that they are
free of communicable diseases.
Physical stamina also is needed
because they are on their feet dur­
ing their working hours.
In many small eating places,
opportunities for promotion are
limited. However, after gaining
experience, a waiter or waitress
who starts in a job of this kind
may transfer to a larger restaur­
ant where earnings and prospects
for advancement are likely to be
better. Advancement may be to a
position as cashier or to super­
visory work as a headwaiter or
hostess. Some supervisory work­
ers eventually advance to man­
agerial positions in restaurant
operation.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
waiters and waitresses are ex­
pected to be good throughout the
1970’s. Most of the openings will
occur as workers retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons; re­
tirements and deaths alone will
create an estimated 44,000 open­
ings each year. Turnover is par­
ticularly high in the many eating
places which employ waitresses
because many women leave their
jobs to take care of family respon­
sibilities.
In addition to the vacancies
that occur because of turnover,
thousands of jobs will be created
by employment growth, as the
number of eating places increases
to meet the needs of the country’s
growing population. Also contrib­
uting to an increased need for
restaurant services are factors
such as rising income levels; more
travel, both for business and
pleasure; and the expected in­
crease in the number of house­
wives employed outside the home.
Eating places which employ wait­
ers and waitresses probably will

share only part of the additional
business created. Some of it will
be handled by the growing num­
ber of vending machines dispens­
ing prepared foods, and some of
it will go to the drug stores, lim­
ited price variety stores, and cafe­
terias where meal service is pro­
vided by counter and fountain
workers. Nevertheless, the num­
ber of waiters and waitresses
probably will rise rapidly through
the 1970’s.
Most of the jobs openings that
arise because of growth and turn­
over will be for waitresses. The
number of men in this occupation
have been diminishing for some
years, while at the same time jobs
for waiters have become more con­
centrated in formal dining estab­
lishments; these trends are ex­
pected to continue. As in the past,
both waiters and waitresses seek­
ing employment in restaurants of
this kind will find competition
keen for the jobs that become
available. Since there are relative­
ly few such positions, hiring stan­
dards are high, and turnover is
usually very low. Beginners will
continue to find their best oppor­
tunities for employment in the
thousands
of
establishments
where food
service is less
elaborate.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Because most waiters and wait­
resses receive tips from the guests
they serve, as well as wages paid
by their employers, estimating
average weekly earnings is diffi­
cult. Wages generally are lower
than in other occupations, and the
amount received in tips is usually
somewhat greater than the wages
paid. Tips very greatly in amount,
however, depending on the skill
of the waiter or waitress, the tip­
ping customs in the community,
and especially on the type of res­
taurant. Because tips often aver-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

330
age between 10 and 15 percent
of guests’ checks, earnings from
tips are usually highest in res­
taurants where prices are also
highest.
Limited wage data obtained
from union-management con­
tracts, in effect in 1969, covering
eating and drinking places in
large metropolitan areas on the
East and West Coasts and in the
Midwest, provide an indication of
earnings for waiters and wait­
resses.
In
these
contracts,
straight-time hourly pay rates
generally ranged from $.82 to
$2.14 for waiters and waitresses.
Many waiters and waitresses are
not covered by union-manage­
ment contracts. Wages in this oc­
cupation also vary greatly accord­
ing to geographical location and
type of establishment.
In addition to wages and tips,
the majority of waiters and wait­
resses receive free meals at their
place of work. Many also are fur­
nished with uniforms. Paid vaca­
tions, after qualifying periods of
service, are customary, and vari­
ous types of health, insurance, and
pension plans also may be offered.
Waiters and waitresses often
work split shifts— that is, they
work for several hours during the
middle of the day, take a few
hours off in the afternoon, and
then return to their jobs for the
evening hours. Scheduled hours
include some work on holidays
and weekends. Large restaurants
and dining rooms usually are fur­
nished comfortably with conve­
nient working areas, and are often
air conditioned. Workers in other
eating places— particularly small
ones— may find working condi­
tions less desirable, and the pace
of work very rushed at times. In
restaurants of all types, workers
often spend long periods on their
feet and may be required to lift
heavy trays. Work hazards in­
clude the possibility of burns and
cuts.




The principal union organizing
waiters and waitresses is the Ho­
tel & Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information about res­
taurant waiters and waitresses is
available from:
Educational Director, National
Restaurant Association, 1530
North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
1 1 60610.
1.

FBI SPECIAL AGENTS
(D.O.T. 375.163)

N ature of the W ork
Federal Bureau of Investiga­
tion (FBI) Special Agents inves­
tigate many types of violations of
Federal laws, such as bank
robberies, kidnappings, frauds
against the Government, thefts
of Government property, espio­
nage, and sabotage. The FBI,
which is part of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Justice, has jurisdiction
over more than 180 Federal in­
vestigative
matters.
Special
Agents may be assigned to any
type of case, but those having
specialized training in account­
ing are likely to be assigned chief­
ly to cases involving complex fi­
nancial records; for example,
frauds involving Federal Reserve
Bank records.
The FBI is a fact-gathering and
fact-reporting agency, and its
Special Agents function strictly
as investigators. (Its authority
does not include affording per­
sonal protection to individuals
nor does it include police func­
tions to assure that the law is
obeyed. Such matters are within

the purview of local and State
law enforcement agencies.) To
perform their duties, Special
Agents may interview people, ob­
serve the activities of suspects,
and participate in raids; their
duties may involve extensive
travel. Because of the highly con­
fidential nature of the FBI’s
work, Special Agents may not dis­
close any of the information
which they gather in the course
of their official duties to unau­
thorized persons, including mem­
bers of their families. Special
Agents may have to testify in
court about cases that they in­
vestigate, but they do not make
recommendations pertaining to
prosecution, express opinions con­
cerning the guilt or innocence of
suspects, nor issue “ clearances”
of any kind.
In most assignments, Special
Agents work alone but must
maintain continued contact with
their superiors by radio or tele­
phone. For potentially dangerous
duties, such as arrests and raids,
two agents or more are assigned
to work together.

Places of Em ploym ent

Most of the more than 6,600
Special Agents employed in mid1968 were assigned to the FBI’s
58 field offices located through­
out the Nation and in Peurto
Rico. These agents work either
in the city where the field office
headquarters is located or in resi­
dent agencies (suboffices) estab­
lished under the supervision of
the field office to provide prompt
and economic handling of inves­
tigative matters arising through­
out the field office territory.
Some agents are assigned to the
Bureau headquarters staff in
Washington, D.C., which sup­
ervises all FBI activities.

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

331
years of age, and willing to serve
anywhere in the United States or
Puerto Rico. They must be at
least 5 feet 7 inches tall and
capable of strenuous physical ex­
ertion; they must have excellent
hearing and vision, normal color
perception, and no physical de­
fects which would prevent their
using firearms or participating in
dangerous assignments. Each ap­
plicant must pass a rigid physical
examination, as well as written
and oral examinations testing his
knowledge of law or accounting
and his aptitude for meeting the
public and conducting investiga­
tions. All of the tests except the
physical examinations are given
by the FBI at its facilities. Ex­
haustive background and charac­
ter investigations are made of all
applicants. Appointments are
made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year
of satisfactory service.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
T o be eligible for appointment
as an FBI Special Agent, an ap­
plicant must have graduated from
a State-accredited resident law
school or a 4-year resident college
with a major in accounting. The
law school training must have




been preceded by at least 2 years
of resident undergraduate college
work. Accounting graduates also
must have had at least 3 years of
experience in accounting or aud­
iting or a combination of both.
Applicants for the position of
FBI Special Agent must be male
citizens of the United States, at
least 23 and not more than 40

Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given approximately 14
weeks of training before he is as­
signed to a field office. He receives
most of this training at FBI head­
quarters at Washington, D.C.,
and the rest at the FBI Academy
at the U.S. Marine Corps Base
in Quantico, Va. During this pe­
riod, he receives intensive train­
ing in defensive tactics and fire­
arms. In addition, he is also thor­
oughly schooled in Federal crimi­
nal law and procedures, FBI rules
and regulations, fingerprinting,
and investigative work. After as­
signment to a field office, the new
agent usually works closely with
an experienced agent for a period
of about 2 weeks before handling
any assignments independently.
All administrative and super­
visory positions are filled from
within the ranks by selecting
those FBI Special Agents who
have demonstrated the ability to
assume more responsible po­
sitions.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

332
Em ploym ent O utlook

POLICE OFFICERS

The FBI has experienced a
substantial expansion in its juris­
diction over the years. Although
it is impossible to forecast Special
Agent personnel requirements,
employment may be expected to
increase with growing FBI re­
sponsibilities.
The FBI provides a career serv­
ice and its rate of personnel turn­
over is traditionally low. Never­
theless, the FBI is always inter­
ested in applications from quali­
fied men who would like to be
considered for the position of
Special Agent.

(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868)

N ature of the W ork
Police officers— whether direct­
ing traffic at busy intersections
or arresting dangerous criminals
— are helping to preserve law and
order. As local government em­
ployees, their job is to prevent
criminal activities, to investigate

crimes, and to apprehend and as­
sist in the prosecution of offend­
ers. Whether on or off duty, they
are expected to exercise their au­
thority whenever necessary. (This
report covers policemen and po­
licewomen employed by local gov­
ernments. It does not include ci­
vilian employees of police depart­
ments; State and Federal Govern­
ment police employees; or police­
men and detectives employed by
private businesses.)

c A >

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The entrance salary for FBI
Special Agents as of late 1968
was $9,297 a year. FBI Special
Agents are not appointed under
Federal Civil Service regulations,
but, like other Federal employees,
they receive periodic withingrade salary raises if their work
performance is satisfactory, and
they can advance in grade as they
gain experience. The top salary
for regular field Special Agents
as of late 1968 was about $18,700.
Agents in supervisory and admin­
istrative positions received higher
salaries.
Special Agents are subject to
call 24 hours a day and must be
available for assignment at all
times and places. They frequently
work longer than the customary
40-hour week and, under certain
specified conditions, receive over­
time pay up to a maximum of
$2,329 a year. They are granted
paid vacations, sick leave, and
annuities on retirement.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The Federal Bureau of Investiga­
tion, U.S. Department of Jus­
tice, Washington, D.C. 20535.




Policeman registers child’s bicycle.

333

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The policeman who works in a
small community customarily
handles many kinds of police du­
ties. In the course of a day’s work,
he may direct traffic at the scene
of a fire, investigate a house­
breaking, and give first aid to an
accident victim. In a large police
department, officers usually are
assigned to a specific type of po­
lice duty. Most policemen are de­
tailed either to patrol or traffic
duty; smaller numbers are as­
signed to special work, such as
accident prevention or operating
communications systems. Some
officers are detectives (plainclothesmen) assigned to criminal
investigation; others are experts
in chemical and microscopic anal­
ysis, firearms identification, hand­
writing and fingerprint identifi­
cation, and other investigative
specialties. In very large cities, a
few officers may be specially
trained to work with mounted
and motorcycle police, harbor pa­
trols, helicopter patrols, canine
corps, mobile rescue teams, youth
aid and emergency service, or
other special units.
An increasing number of city
police departments include wom­
en on their police forces. Police­
women usually are assigned cases
which involve women and young
people. They may work with ju­
venile delinquents, try to locate
lost children and runaways, or
search, question, book, and finger­
print women prisoners. Less fre­
quently, they are assigned to de­
tective squads, where they work
mainly on crimes involving wom­
en. Policewomen rarely are as­
signed traffic duty.
Most newly recruited police­
men begin on patrol duty, which
has become particularly important
as a means of preventing crime
and providing other services to
the public. Patrolmen may be as­
signed to congested business dis­
tricts, outlying residential areas,
or other sections of a community.




They may cover their beats alone
or with other patrolmen, and they
may ride in a police vehicle or
walk on “ foot” patrol. In any
case, they become thoroughly fa­
miliar with conditions throughout
their area and, while on patrol, re­
main alert for anything unusual.
They note suspicious circum­
stances, such as open windows or
lights in vacant buildings, as well
as hazards to public safety such
as bumed-out street lights or
fallen trees. Patrolmen also may
watch for stolen automobiles and
enforce traffic regulations. At reg­
ular intervals, they report to po­
lice headquarters through call
boxes, by radio, or by walkietalkie giving and receiving infor­
mation about any situations
which require action. They also
prepare reports about their a ctiv ­
ities, and they may be called upon
to give testimony in court when
cases result in legal action.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 285,000 full-time
policemen and policewomen were
employed in 1968 by local govern­
ment police departments. The
great majority— well over 95 per­
cent— were men. Some cities—
including New York City with
over 31,000 police officers, and
Chicago with over 11,000 have
very large police forces; hundreds
of small communities employ
fewer than 25 policemen each.
Policewomen work mainly in large
cities.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Local civil service regulations
govern the appointment of police
officers in practically all large
cities and in many small ones.

Candidates must be U.S. citizens,
usually at least 21 years of age,
and be able to meet certain height
and weight standards. Eligibility
for appointment also is deter­
mined by the candidates’ perform­
ance on competitive examinations,
their physical and personal quali­
fications, and their education and
experience. The physical examina­
tions often include tests of
strength and agility. Also, because
personal characteristics such as
honesty, good judgment, and a
sense of responsibility are espe­
cially important in police work,
candidates usually are inter­
viewed by a senior officer at police
headquarters, and their character
traits and background may be in­
vestigated.
Some police departments ac­
cept men who have less than a
high school education as recruits,
particularly if they have had work
experience in a field related to law
enforcement. In large police de­
partments, where most jobs are
to be found, applicants usually
must have at least a high school
education. A few cities require
some college training and some
hire law enforcement students as
police interns.
Police departments are placing
increasing emphasis on post-high
school training in subjects such
as sociology, psychology, and
minority group relations. As a
result, more than 200 colleges and
universities now offer major pro­
grams in law enforcement. Other
courses— high school as well as
college— which are considered
helpful in preparing for a police
career include English, American
history, civics and government,
business law, and physics. Phys­
ical education and sports activi­
ties are especially helpful to men
in developing the physical stam­
ina and agility needed for police
work. College training is likely to
be required for policewomen be­
cause of their specialized assign-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

334
ments. Training or experience in
social work, teaching, or nursing
is desirable.
Young men who have com­
pleted high school and do not
want to wait until they are 21
years old before entering police
work can start in some very large
cities by working as police cadets,
or trainees, while still in their
teens. As paid civilian employees
of the police department, they at­
tend classes part of the time to
learn various aspects of police sci­
ence; they also do clerical and
o t h e r n o n e n f o r c e m e n t work.
When police cadets or trainees
reach the age of 21, and providing
they qualify in other respects,
they may be appointed to the
police force.
Before being sent out on their
first assignments, policemen usu­
ally go through a period of train­
ing. The instruction is given in­
formally in many small communi­
ties, as recruits work for a week
or so with experienced officers.
More extensive training, such as
that provided in large city police
departments, may extend over a
period of several weeks or a few
months; this training includes
classroom instruction in constitu­
tional law and civil rights, as well
as in State laws and local ord­
nances, and in the procedures to
be followed in accident investiga­
tion, patrol, traffic control, and
other police work. Recruits learn
how to use a gun, defend them­
selves from attack, administer
first aid, and deal with other
emergencies.
Policemen and policewomen
generally become eligible for pro­
motion after completing specified
periods of service on the force. In
a large department, promotion
may open the way for an officer
to specialize in one of several
kinds of law enforcement activi­
ties— laboratory work, traffic con­
trol, communications, work with
juveniles, and many others. Pro­




motions to the rank of sergeant,
lieutenant, and captain are made
according to each candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as
determined by his performance on
written examinations and his
work as a police officer. Oppor­
tunities to advance generally are
most numerous in large police de­
partments, where the work is car­
ried on in separate bureaus under
the direction of administrative
officers and their assistants. Most
top ranking positions are occupied
by men. Opportunities for women
to advance beyond the rank of
sergeant are mainly in the few
police departments which have
separate bureaus for women and
juveniles.
Many types of training are
available to help police officers
improve their performance on the
job and prepare themselves for
advancement. Through training
given at police department aca­
demies, and at colleges and other
institutions, officers may keep
abreast of such varied subjects as
crowd-control techniques, civil de­
fense, legal developments which
affect policemen, the interroga­
tion of suspects and witnesses,
and the advances in law enforce­
ment equipment. Many police de­
partments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
police officers are expected to be
very favorable through the 1970’s.
Many new positions will arise as
cities increase the size of their po­
lice forces to meet the needs of a
growing population. Most open­
ings, however, will be vacancies
that occur as policemen and po­
licewomen retire or leave their
jobs for other reasons. Police offi­
cers usually retire at a somewhat
younger age than workers in most

other occupations, and replace­
ment rates are relatively high for
this reason.
Police employment is expected
to rise moderately during the next
10 years, as population and eco­
nomic growth create a need for
more officers to protect life and
property, regulate traffic, and
provide other police services. The
police jobs that arise in the
future are likely to be affected
to a considerable degree by
changes now occurring in police
methods and equipment. Spe­
cialists are becoming more and
more essential in the effective op­
eration of modern city police de­
partments. In an increasing num­
ber of departments, for example,
electronic data processing is being
used to compile administrative,
criminal, and identification rec­
ords. There also is a greater need
for officers with specialized train­
ing since engineering techniques
now are applied to traffic control,
and social work techniques are
used in crime prevention. At the
same time, relatively fewer offi­
cers are required for such routine
assignments as directing traffic,
because the use of automatic sig­
nal lights has reduced the number
of policemen needed for this work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, entrance salaries for
police officers ranged from more
than $3,000 a year in some small
cities to $9,000 in several large
ones, according to information ob­
tained from private surveys. The
average (median) entrance salary
in middle-size cities (50,000 to
100,000 population) was about
$6,200 a year.
Most policemen and police­
women receive regular pay in­
creases during the first few years
of employment until a specified
maximum is reached. Sergeants,
lieutenants, and captains are paid

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

progressively higher basic salaries
than patrolmen in the same police
departments. Top salaries are
paid to police chiefs or commis­
sioners, and in 1968, their salaries
ranged from less than $5,000 a
year in some small cities to
$35,000 in the largest cities.
Police departments usually pro­
vide officers with special allow­
ances for uniforms and furnish re­
volvers, night sticks, handcuffs,
and other required equipment.
The scheduled workweek for
police officers is usually 40 hours,
and in localites where the work­
week is longer weekly hours are
gradually being reduced. Police
protection must be provided
round the clock; therefore, in all
but the very smallest communi­
ties, some officers usually are on
duty over weekends, on holidays,
and at night. Policemen are sub­
ject to call at any time their ser­
vices may be needed and in emer­
gencies may work overtime. In
some departments, overtime is
paid at straight time or at time
and a half; in others, officers may
be given an equal amount of time
off on another day of the week.
Police officers generally are
covered by liberal pension plans,
under which many are able to
retire at half pay by the time they
reach age 55. Paid vacations, sick
leave, and medical, surgical, and
life insurance plans are among the
other benefits frequently pro­
vided.
Policemen may be assigned to
work outdoors for long periods in
all kinds of weather. The injury
rate is higher than in many occu­
pations and reflects the risks po­
lice officers take in pursuing
speeding motorists, capturing law­
breakers, and dealing with dis­
orderly conduct cases.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about local en­
trance requirements may be ob­




335
tained from local civil service com­
missions or police departments.
Additional information on the
occupations of policemen and po­
licewomen may be obtained from:
International Association of Chiefs
of Police, 1319 13th St. N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Association of Wom­
en Police, 100 North LaSalle St.,
Chicago, 11 . 60602.
1
Fraternal Order of Police, PickCarter Hotel, 1012 Prospect
Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44115.

Additional information on the
salaries and hours of work of po­
licemen in various cities is pub­
lished by The International City
Managers’ Association in its
Municipal Yearbook, available in
many libraries.

STATE POLICE OFFICERS
(D.O.T. 375.118, .138, .168, .228,
.268, and .388)

N ature of the W ork
State policemen (sometimes
called State highway patrolmen
or troopers) are protective service
officers whose primary responsi­
bility is to enforce the laws and
regulations governing the use of
highways. Officers spend most of
their time patroling highways to
insure that traffic laws are obeyed
and issue traffic tickets to motor­
ists who violate the laws. When
necessary, they testify in court.
State police officers assist at
the scene of traffic accidents.
They give first aid to injured
persons, summon ambulances
and other emergency equipment,
and direct traffic to avoid addi­
tional accidents. Patrolmen con­
duct investigations of accidents
and write reports which include

information that may be used as
legal evidence in determining
cause and liability. In addition,
State police officers provide serv­
ices to motorists on the highways.
For example, they radio for road
service in case of mechanical trou­
ble, direct tourists to their destina­
tion, or provide information about
lodging, restaurants, and tourist
attractions.
State police officers also pro­
vide traffic assistance and control
during road repairs, fires, and
other emergencies, as well as for
special occurrences such as pa­
rades, celebrations, and sporting
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles,
conduct driver examinations, and
serve as public safety information
officers.
In some States, these police­
men may investigate crimes such
as thefts, murders, and narcotics
violations. However, the jurisdic­
tion of the State police in such
matters usually is limited to those
areas that do not maintain their
own police forces. Nevertheless,
they sometimes are requested to
assist municipal or county police
forces in the investigation of
crimes, the apprehension of crimi­
nals, and the control of civil dis­
turbances and riots.
Some police officers spend part
or all of their time in specialized
work. Fingerprint classification,
chemical or microscopic analysis,
instruction of trainees in State
police schools, and piloting police
aircraft— are
some
examples.
Some work with special State po­
lice units such as the mounted
police, canine corps, and harbor
patrols.
State police officers also have
clerical duties. They prepare re­
ports and maintain police records.
Some State police officers have
broad administrative duties; for
example, they may be chief of a
division or bureau responsible for
training or investigation, or they

336

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

State police officers investigate scene of accident.

may command all police opera­
tions in an assigned area.

Places of E m ploym ent
Nearly 35,000 State police of­
ficers— virtually all men— were
employed throughout the 49
States that maintained a police
force in 1968. The size of State
police forces varies considerably.
The largest force (in California)
has almost 3,000 officers. The
smallest (in Nevada) has fewer
than 100.




O ther T rain in g Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State
police officers. All candidates
must be citizens of the United
States. Other entry requirements
vary by State, but most States
require that applicants have a
high school education or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience and be at
least 21 years of age.
State police officers must pass
a competitive examination and

meet physical and personal re­
quirements. Physical require­
ments include standards of height,
weight, and eyesight. Often, tests
of strength and agility are re­
quired. Personal characteristics,
such as honesty, good judgment,
and a sense of responsibility, are
especially important in police
work. Thus, investigation of an
applicant’s character traits and
background is necessary.
In all States, recruits enter a
formal training program that ex­
tends over a period of several
months. The minimum period of
training usually is 12 weeks. Re­
cruits receive classroom instruc­
tion in State laws and jurisdic­
tions. They also study procedures
to be followed in accident inves­
tigation, patrol, traffic control,
and other police work. They learn
to use a gun, defend themselves
from attack, handle an automo­
bile at high speeds, administer
first aid, and deal with other
emergencies. After gaining ex­
perience, some State police offi­
cers take advanced or specialized
training in police science, admin­
istration, law enforcement, or
criminology. Classes are held at
junior colleges, colleges and uni­
versities, or special police institu­
tions such as the National Acad­
emy of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation.
High school and college courses
in English composition, reading
comprehension, American history,
civics and government, psychol­
ogy, sociology, and physics are
considered helpful in preparing
for a career in police work. Physi­
cal education and sports activities
are useful, for they develop
needed stamina and agility. Com­
pletion of a driver education
course also is beneficial. In addi­
tion, training received in military
police schools is an asset to per­
sons interested in State police
careers.

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Police officer recruits must
serve a probationary period rang­
ing from 6 months to 2 years,
and occasionally to 3 years. After
a specialized period of time, State
police officers become eligible for
promotion. Most States have
merit promotion systems that re­
quire officers to pass a competi­
tive examination to qualify for
the next highest rank. Although
the organization of State police
forces differs among States, the
typical avenue of advancement
is from private to corporal, to
sergeant, to first sergeant, to lieu­
tenant, and then to captain. If
police officers demonstrate ad­
ministrative ability, they may be
considered for higher level posi­
tions such as commissioner or
director.
High school graduates who do
not want to wait until they are
21 years old before entering po­
lice work can, in some States, be­
come police cadets. As paid ci­
vilian employees of the police
organization, they attend classes
to learn various aspects of police
work. They also are assigned
clerical, communications, and
other nonenforcement duties. At
age 21, cadets may be appointed
to the State police force if they
qualify.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
qualified applicants seeking State
police jobs are expected to be ex­
cellent. Although the number of
job applicants in many States
exceeds the number of job open­
ings, many applicants cannot
meet the State civil service and
other entry requirements.
State police employment is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly
through the 1970’s. More than
1,000 job openings are expected
to result each year from growth
in employment requirements; a




337
somewhat smaller number of
openings will stem from the need
to replace officers who retire, die,
or otherwise leave the occupation.
Additional State police will be
needed in criminal investigation
and other nonhighway functions.
However, most of the increasing
need will be for highway patrol
and related activities. This is the
result of a growing and more mo­
bile population. Along with an in­
creasing number of motor vehi­
cles, the nature of highway sys­
tems also is rapidly changing.
Limited access highways require
increased police patrol to control
high speeds, prevent accidents,
and assist stranded motorists.
Also, the newer dual highways re­
quire more patrolmen, since offi­
cers can effectively patrol only one
side of these highways.
Because law enforcement work
is becoming more complex, some
specialists will be needed to work
in crime laboratories and elec­
tronic data processing centers
that are being used to create bet­
ter administrative, criminal, and
identification information sys­
tems.

earnings also may increase above
these levels as they are promoted
to a higher rank, such as corporal
or sergeant.
State police agencies usually
provide officers with uniforms,
firearms, and other necessary
equipment, or furnish special al­
lowances for their purchase.
In many States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. In some States, the work­
week is longer, but weekly hours
in excess of 40 are gradually be­
ing reduced. Since police protec­
tion must be provided around the
clock, some officers are on duty
over weekends, on holidays, and
at night. Police officers also are
subject to emergency calls at any
time.
State police usually are covered
by liberal pension plans. Paid va­
cations, sick leave, and medical,
surgical, and life insurance plans
frequently are provided.
The work of State police offi­
cers is sometimes hazardous.
They always run the risk of an
automobile accident while pur­
suing speeding motorists or flee­
ing criminals. Police officers also
face the risk of bodily harm while
apprehending criminals or con­
trolling disorders.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, entrance salaries for
State policemen ranged from
about $400 to nearly $800 per
month, according to a private sur­
vey. The most common entry
rates ranged from $400 to $600
per month. Average monthly
starting rates are highest in the
Western States and lowest in the
South.
State policemen generally re­
ceive regular salary increases,
based on experience and perform­
ance, until a specified maximum
is reached. The 1968 maximums
ranged from $590 to over $900 a
month; most ranged between
$600 and $800 a month. Their

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Information about specific en­
trance requirements may be ob­
tained from State civil service
commissions or State police head­
quarters, usually located in each
State capitol.
Additional information on the
occupation of policeman may be
obtained from:
International Association of Chiefs
of Police, 1319 18th Street N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

338

FIREFIGHTERS

Places of Em ploym ent

(D.O.T. 373.118 through .884)

The number of full-time fire­
fighters employed in 1968 by city
fire departments is estimated at
more than 180,000. In addition,
thousands of paid “ call men” and
hundreds of thousands of parttime volunteer firemen are organ­
ized in small towns and rural com­
munities throughout the Nation
to help fight fires. A few very large
cities have several thousand fire­
men; some small cities have fewer
than 25.

N atu re of the W ork
Firefighters help protect us
from a hazard that costs thou­
sands of lives and millions of dol­
lars in property damage each year.
Without their services, the loss
of life and property from fires
would be even greater. This state­
ment gives information about fire­
fighters who are full-time, paid
employees of city and town fire
departments. It does not cover
part-time volunteer firemen and
others who serve only when the
alarm signals that they are needed
at a fire.
During their hours on duty at
the fire station, firefighters must
be prepared at a moment’s notice,
to rush to a fire and handle any
emergency that occurs. Because
firefighting is dangerous and com­
plicated, it requires teamwork
and must be well organized. At
every fire, firefighters perform
specific jobs assigned to them by
a commanding officer; they may
connect hose lines to hydrants,
operate a pressure pump, position
ladders, or perform some other
duty. Furthermore, depending on
the judgment of the officer in
charge, the assigned duties of in­
dividual firefighters may be
changed several times while the
company is in action. Under emer­
gency conditions firefighters are
often called on to use their own
initiative and judgment. Fire­
fighters, therefore must be pro­
ficient in many different kinds of
firefighting activities, as well as
being capable of helping people to
safety, administering first aid,
and taking care of other emer­
gencies.
Fire prevention is another im­
portant responsibility of city fire




Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

departments. Specially trained
personnel inspect factories, the­
aters, and other public buildings
for conditions that might cause a
fire and for compliance with local
regulations relating to fire es­
capes, fire doors, storage of flam­
mable materials, and other pos­
sible hazards. Educating the pub­
lic about fire prevention and safe­
ty measures is also a part of the
firefighter’s job. Frequently, they
speak on this subject before school
assemblies and civic groups. In
many communities, they regularly
inspect private homes, at the
owner’s request, in an effort to
prevent fires by pointing out pos­
sible hazards to homeowners.
Between alarms, firefighters
spend considerable time at their
local stations, improving their
knowledge of firefighting and do­
ing maintenance work. They also
participate in practice drills, clean
and lubricate firefighting equip­
ment, stretch hoses to dry, stand
watch at fire alarm instruments,
and verify and record alarms.

To become eligible for an ap­
pointment as a firefighter, an
applicant must pass a written in­
telligence test, a medical examin­
ation, and tests of strength, phys­
ical stamina, and agility, as
specified by local civil service
regulations. In most communities,
these examinations are open only
to men who are at least 21 years
of age, meet certain height and
weight requirements, and have a
high school education. The men
who receive the highest grades on
their examinations have the best
chances for appointment. Extra
credit usually is given for military
service. Experience gained as a
volunteer fireman or through fire­
fighting training in the Armed
Forces also may improve an ap­
plicant’s chances for appointment.
As a rule, beginners in large fire
departments are given training
for several weeks at the city’s fire
school. Through classroom in­
struction and practice drills, the
recruits study such fundamentals
as firefighting techniques, local
building codes, fire prevention,
and first aid; and learn about the
use of axes, chemical extinguish­
ers, ladders, and other firefighting
equipment. Upon completion of
this training, they are assigned to

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

local fire companies. Opportuni­
ties for promotion are good in
most fire departments. As fire­
fighters gain experience, they may
be advanced to progressively high­
er ratings, and, after 5 to 10 years
or more of service, become eligible
for promotion to the grade of lieu­
tenant. The line of further pro­
motion is usually to captain, then
battalion chief, assistant chief,
and finally to chief. Chances for
advancement generally depend
upon each candidate’s position on
the promotion list, as determined
by his rating on a written exam­
ination, his work as a fireman,
and his seniority. Throughout
their service, many firefighters
continue to study fire prevention
and related subjects to improve
their performance on the job and
prepare for promotional examina­
tions. Programs conducted by
many State governments and city
fire departments throughout the
country provide training of this
kind for tens of thousands of fire­
fighters each year. Some univer­
sities offer courses in fire engineer­
ing.
Among the important personal
qualities of firefighters are men­
tal alertness, courage, mechanical
aptitude, and endurance. Initia­
tive and good judgment are ex­
tremely important, because fire­
fighters often must make quick
decisions as situations change
while companies are in action.
Leadership qualities are valuable
assets for officers, who have the
responsibility for establishing and
maintaining a high degree of dis­
cipline and efficiency, as well as
planning and directing the acti­
vities of the firefighters in their
companies.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Several thousand openings for
firefighters are expected to occur
each year through the 1970’s.




339
Many openings will arise from the the average annual starting salary
need to replace men who retire, was about $5,500.
Experienced firefighters also
die, or otherwise leave the occu­
pation. The replacement rate for usually earn more money in the
firefighters is higher than that for larger cities. In cities of over
many occupations, largely because 250,000 persons, the average sal­
they are often permitted to retire ary received by experienced fire­
at an earlier age than people in fighters was $7,800 a year. In
many other occupations. New jobs nearly all other cities, the average
also will become available as city salary received was over $6,000 a
fire departments enlarge their year.
In 1968, fire chiefs were re­
staffs and as paid departments
replace volunteer fire companies ceiving average salaries ranging
in smaller, growing communities. from $8,200 a year in the smaller
In addition, some openings prob­ cities to almost $18,000 a year in
ably will be created as city fire cties that had populations over
departments continue to shorten 250,000.
the scheduled hours that individ­
Practically all fire departments
ual firemen are on duty.
furnish pay allowances for pro­
The number of young men who tective firefighting clothing (hel­
qualify for firefighter jobs in large mets, boots, and rubber coats)
cities usually is greater than the and many also provide dress
number of job openings, even uniforms.
though the written examination
In some cities, firemen are on
and physical requirements elim­ duty for a 24-hour shift, then off
inate many applicants. Competi­ for 24 hours, and receive an extra
tion among candidates is apt to day off at intervals. In other
be keen since employment in this cities, the day shift is 10 hours
occupation is very stable.
and the night shift is 14 hours,
The number of firefighters is and firemen rotate shifts at fre­
expected to increase rapidly to quent intervals. Firemen’s sched­
meet the needs for fire protection uled hours range from 40 hours a
in growing urban communities. As week in some cities to 60 hours in
cities become more crowded, others; the national average work­
however, officials will give more week is about 56 hours. The
emphasis to activites associated scheduled workweek in metropol­
with fire prevention, and many itan centers having large fire
fire-fighters will spend a greater departments tends to be con­
amount of their time inspecting siderably shorter than in small
buildings for compliance with fire communities, but recent develop­
regulations and participating in ments in collective bargaining
fire prevention campaigns.
have resulted in a general trend
toward reducing the workweek of
the firefighter. Some metropolitan
areas are already recording 48Earnings and W orking Conditions hour workweeks and others have
workweeks as low as 40 hours.
Firefighters in the larger cities Scheduled hours on duty usually
usually receive the highest start­ include some time when firemen
ing salaries. In 1968, the average are free to read, study, or pursue
salary for beginning firefighters other personal interests.
In addition to their scheduled
was about $6,400 a year in cities
which had populations of more hours, firefighters must work as
than 250,000. In cities which had many extra hours as necessary to
populations of 10,000 to 25,000, bring a fire under control. When

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

340
overtime is worked, most city fire
departments either give compen­
satory time off or extra pay for
the additional hours.
The job of a firefighter involves
risk of life or injury from sudden
cave-ins of floors or toppling walls,
as well as hazards associated with
exposure to flames, smoke, and
bad weather. In fighting fires in
industrial establishments, fire­
fighters may come in contact with
poisonous, flammable, and explo­
sive gases and chemicals.
Firefighters generally are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans,
many of which provide for retire­
ment at half pay at age 50 after
25 years of service, or at any age
if disabled in the line of duty.
Firefighters also receive regular
paid vacations. Provisions for sick
leave usually are very liberal;
health and surgical benefit plans
are offered in many fire depart­
ments; and compensation also is
provided for firefighters injured
in the line of duty. Most fire de­
partments either allow paid holi­
days— ranging up to 11 or more
a year— or time off for working
on holidays.
Most firefighters are members
of the International Association
of Fire Fighters (AFL-CIO ).

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on how to obtain
a job as a firefighter may be se­
cured from your local civil service
commission or fire department.
General information on the oc­
cupation may be obtained from:
International Association of Fire
Fighters, 905 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Association of Fire
Chiefs, 232 Madison Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10016.

Additional information on the
salaries and hours of work of fire­
men in various cities is published




annually by The International
City Managers Association in its
Municipal Yearbook, available in
many libraries.

HOSPITAL ATTENDANTS
(D.O.T. 079.368 and .378;
and 355.687 through .887)

N ature of the W ork
Under the direction of regis­
tered nurses and licensed practi­
cal nurses, hospital attendants
perform a variety of duties. Most
of these duties require relatively
little specialized training but con­
tribute to the comfort and care
of patients. The help they provide
enables nurses to devote more
time to work that requires pro­
fessional and technical training.
Women employed as hospital
attendants usually are called
nursing aides and men often
are known as orderlies. Other
job
titles
include
nursing

assistant, auxiliary nursing work­
er, and (in mental institutions)
psychiatric aid. Among the
tasks performed for patients by
nursing aides are answering pa­
tient’s bell calls and delivering
messages, serving meals, feeding
patients who are unable to feed
themselves, making beds, and
bathing or dressing patients.
Duties also may include giving
massages, taking temperatures
and assisting patients in getting
out of bed and walking. Orderlies
provide many of the same services
for male patients and, in addition,
perform tasks such as wheeling
patients to operating and examin­
ing rooms, and transporting and
setting up heavy equipment. A t­
tendants also may be assigned to
tasks less directly associated with
patient care— for example, work­

ing in hospital pharmacies or
helping with sterile supplies.
Other duties that may be per­
formed by hospital attendants de­
pend on the policies of the insti­
tutions employing them, the type
of patient being cared for, and—
equally important— the capacities
and resourcefulness of the nurs­
ing aide or orderly. In some hos­
pitals, for example, the nursing
aide’s work may include house­
hold tasks such as cleaning pa­
tient’s rooms whereas in others it
may be limited to assisting in the
care of patients. Even the tasks
performed for patients may differ
considerably, depending, for ex­
ample, on whether the patient is
confined to his bed following
major surgery, or is learning to
walk again after a disabling acci­
dent or illness, or is infirm be­
cause of advanced age and re­
quires assistance with daily ac­
tivities.

341

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 800,000 attend­
ants were employed in 1968—
more than three-fourths were
women. Most of them worked in
hospitals. Others were employed
primarily in sanitariums, nursing
homes, and other institutions pro­
viding facilities for care and re­
cuperation.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although some employers hire
persons with less than a high
school education as hospital at­
tendants, high school graduates
are preferred. Many employers
accept applicants 17 or 18 years
of age. Others— particularly in
nursing homes and in mental hos­
pitals— prefer to hire more ma­
ture men and women who are at
least in their mid-twenties.
Hospital attendants generally
are trained in their duties after
they are hired. In some institu­
tions, on-the-job training under
the close supervision of registered
and licensed practical nurses is
combined with classroom instruc­
tion that includes demonstrations
in taking and recording tempera­
tures, bathing patients, changing
linens on beds which are occu­
pied by patients, moving and lift­
ing patients, and other duties.
Training may be continued over a
period of several days or a few
months, depending on the policies
of the hospital, the attendant’s
aptitude for the work, and the
nature of the duties assigned.
Many of the training programs
for hospital attendants are aided
by funds provided by the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and the Vocational Educa­
tion Act.
Courses in home nursing and
first aid, offered by many public
school systems and other com­




munity agencies, provide a useful
background of knowledge for the
work. Volunteer work and tem­
porary summer jobs in hospitals
and similar institutions also may
furnish experience that is helpful.
Applicants for work of this kind
should be in good health. Per­
sonal qualities, such as tact, pa­
tience, understanding, emotional
stability, and dependability are
important. For work as an at­
tendant, as in other health oc­
cupations, a basic requisite is a
genuine interest in people and a
desire to be of help to them.
Promotional opportunities are
limited for hospital attendants,
unless they undertake further
training. By acquiring specialized
training, some may prepare them­
selves for better paying positions
such as hospital operating room
or oxygen technicians.
For employment as licensed
practical nurses, hospital attend­
ants first must complete the year
of training usually required for li­
censure. (See statement on Li­
censed Practical Nurses elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of hospital at­
tendants is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
In addition to those needed for oc­
cupational growth, many thou­
sands of hospital attendants will
be needed each year to replace
those who die, retire, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
Most new jobs that become
available for nursing aides and
orderlies during the 1970’s will
be in hospitals, but many open­
ings also will occur in nursing
homes, convalescent homes, and
other long term care facilities.
Reasons for the expected growth
in employment are the increase
in population, the increasing
numbers of elderly people in the

population— a group which is par­
ticularly susceptible to long term
illness; the increasing ability of
persons to pay for health care
because of rising incomes and the
growth of public and private
health insurance plans; and the
emphasis being placed on reha­
bilitation in mental hospitals and
other institutions. Many addi­
tional jobs for aids and orderlies
are expected because of Medicare
and Medicaid. In addition, em­
ployment opportunities will arise
as hospitals continue to have at­
tendants perform tasks which, al­
though associated with patient
care, do not require the training
of registered and licensed prac­
tical nurses.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Average weekly earnings of at­
tendants employed by hospitals
in 1968 ranged between $70 and
$90, according to limited data
available. Attendants employed
full-time by nursing homes and
related facilities averaged weekly
earnings of $58 in early 1968, ac­
cording to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey.
In some institutions, free lodg­
ing may be furnished hospital at­
tendants. Free meals or meals at
cost, as well as uniforms and
laundering of uniforms, also are
provided hospital attendants in
some institutions.
With few exceptions, the sched­
uled workweek of attendants in
hospitals is 40 hours or less. Be­
cause nursing care must be avail­
able to patients on a 24-hour-aday basis, scheduled hours in­
clude nightwork and work on
weekends and holidays.
According to the limited infor­
mation available, attendants who
are employed in hospitals and
similar institutions generally re­
ceive paid vacations which, after
1 year of service, may be a week

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

342
or more in length. Paid holidays
and sick leave, hospitalization
and medical benefits, and pension
plans also are available to many
hospital employees.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information about employment
opportunities and duties may be
obtained from local hospitals and
other health agencies.
Additional information about
the work of hospital attendants
also may be obtained from:
ANA-NLN Committee on Nurs­
ing Careers, American Nurses’
Association, 10 Columbus Cir­
cle, New York, N.Y. 10019.
Division of Health Careers, Amer­
ican Hospital Association, 840
North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
1 1 60611.
1.

PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
WORKERS
(D.O.T. 301.887; 302.887; 303.138 and
.878; 304.887; 305.281; 306.878; 307.878; and 309.138 through .999)

N atu re of the W ork
Private household work is one
of the largest areas of work for
women who accounted for nearly
all of the more than 1.7 million
household workers employed in
late 1968. Although all household
workers provide help in the home,
many different jobs are involved.
Most women household employ­
ees work as maids of various
kinds. The general maid (or day
worker, if employed by the hour
or day), performs a variety of
duties, such as cleaning household
furnishings, floors, and lavatories;
changing and making beds; at­
tending children at play; washing
dishes; buying, cooking, and serv­




ing food; and washing and ironingclothes. The mother's helper, un­
der her employer’s supervision,
performs similar duties while
learning on the job. More special­
ized duties are performed by other
kinds of maids. The personal maid
performs personal services for a
woman employer, such as keeping
her employer’s clothes in good
condition by mending, cleaning,
washing, and pressing garments,
or by having these services per­
formed; cleaning and keeping pri­
vate quarters tidy; and helping her
employer dress. The nursemaid
cares for children, gives baths,
supervises play activities and out­
ings, washes and irons clothes,
and prepares meals. When caring
for infants, she is called an in­
fant's nurse and her duties include
sterilizing bottles and other feed­
ing equipment, preparing formu­
las, and feeding the child at sched­
uled periods during the day and
night. Babysitters may perform
some or all of the duties of a
nursemaid or infant’s nurse, but
on a daily or an hourly basis.
Housekeepers usually have
more responsibility and are under
less supervision than maids. The

home housekeeper manages a
household where there is a large
staff of other household employ­
ees. She directs their activities,
orders food and cleaning supplies,
keeps an expenditure record, and
may hire and discharge employ­
ees. The working housekeeper, or
her rural counterpart, the farm
housekeeper, often is the only em­
ployee in homes where the house­
wife is absent or is unable to do
her own housework. Her house­
hold duties combine those of the
general maid and the usual re­
sponsibilities of a housekeeper.
The farm housekeeper also assists
in light farm chores, such as feed­
ing chickens, and picking fruits
and vegetables for the table.
As their titles suggest, the cook
and the laundress usually handle
only one aspect of household
work. The laundress washes and
irons household laundry, but sel­
dom does other housework. The
cook prepares meals. She plans
her own menus or follows instruc­
tions. She prepares vegetables and
meats for cooking, or supervises
a cook's helper who performs
these tasks and other work re­
quiring little skill. The cook also

343

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

may serve meals and perform spe­
cial cooking duties such as mak­
ing preserves and fancy pastries.
A companion lives with a con­
valescent or a person who is alone,
and acts as an aid and friend; she
generally has the same social
background as the employer. A
companion attends to the the em­
ployer’s personal needs and looks
after social or business affairs.
She may entertain her employer
by reading or conversing. A gov­
erness has charge of children in a
home; usually she supervises their
recreation, diet, health, and edu­
cation, according to parents’ in­
structions. Among her duties are
teaching music and languages, ar­
ranging outings, and taking dis­
ciplinary measures.
Although women predominate
in household work, some occupa­
tions are typically performed by
men. The man-of-all-work, some­
times called the handyman or
odd-job man, performs a variety
of duties to keep a private home
clean and in good condition, such
as dusting furniture, washing win­
dows, waxing and polishing floors,
tending the furnace, repairing
screens, painting fences, and car­
ing for the yard. When employed
the year-round, he may be called
a caretaker, and when concerned
only with taking care of the house,
a houseman. The valet performs
personal services for a male em­
ployer, such as brushing, cleaning,
ironing, mending, and laying out
clothing; mixing and serving
drinks; and running errands. The
butler may supervise household
workers, by assigning and coordi­
nating their work; receive and an­
nounce guests; answer the tele­
phone; serve food and drinks; or
act as a valet. Households not
large enough to require both a
butler and a chauffeur, or butler
and a houseman, may employ one
person who is referred to as but­
ler-chauffeur, or butler-houseman.




Places of Em ploym ent
Private household workers are
employed in all types of resi­
dences throughout the country
but are concentrated in heavily
populated urban areas.
Almost all household workers
spend most of their working time
in their employer’s residence;
laundresses, the exception, may
work either in their own or their
employer’s home. Few household
workers “ live in” their employ­
er’s home.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
For most household workers,
there are no formal educational
requirements. The ability to cook,
sew, wash and iron, clean house,
and care for children is generally
acquired by girls while helping
with the housework in their own
homes. This ability also may be
acquired by working for about a
year as an assistant to an ex­
perienced household worker or
housewife. Most employers prefer
workers who can operate house­
hold equipment such as vacuum
cleaners, floor waxers, dishwash­
ers, and electric mixers. Home
economics courses offered in high
schools, vocational schools, and
junior colleges, as well as train­
ing courses sponsored by Federal
agencies, State employment serv­
ice offices, and local welfare de­
partments help to develop domes­
tic service skills beyond the level
ordinarily reached in the home.
With the knowledge acquired
at home or as a mother’s helper,
a woman can take a job as a gen­
eral household worker or nurse­
maid. With this experience or
with the skill acquired in a spe­
cial training program, she can
progress to personal maid, in­
fant’s nurse, cook, or housekeeper.
For the positions of governess

and companion, actual work ex­
perience is less important than
educational and cultural back­
ground. A companion should be
similar to the employer in age, in­
terests, and background. Prac­
tical nursing experience is help­
ful if the employer is feeble or
an invalid. A broad educational
background in the arts is useful
to a governess. Special skills in
music, in a foreign language, and
in teaching young children are
helpful.
Because of the close contact be­
tween household workers and
members of the families for whom
they work, employers look for
agreeable and trustworthy work­
ers who are neat, clean, and in
good health. Some employers re­
quire their household workers,
particularly cooks and infant’s
nurses, to have a health certi­
ficate; they may arrange and pay
for
the
necessary
physical
examination.
Advancement other than a
wage increase is generally not
available within households with
only one or two workers. T o get
a better job, a domestic worker
usually must change to a home
where a job requiring greater skill
is available; these opportunities
are limited in number.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
private household workers are
expected to be excellent through
the 1970’s. The demand for these
workers, created by such factors
as rising family incomes and the
added number of wives and moth­
ers working outside the home, is
expected to be greater than the
number of people seeking jobs in
domestic employment. In addi­
tion to new jobs resulting from
growth of the occupation, more
than 100,000 job openings will oc­
cur each year as private house-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

344
hold workers retire or die. Addi­
tional openings will arise as work­
ers transfer to other kinds of
work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Wages of household workers
vary according to factors such as
the size of the employer’s income,
kind of work performed, and local
standards of pay. Wages tend to
be higher in larger cities, espe­
cially in the northern part of the
country. Workers who “ live in”
generally are paid the same wage
rates as those who “ live out,” and
get free room and board. Workers
who “ live out” usually receive a
free meal plus the cost of their
transportation. According to lim­
ited data available, most private
household workers earn between
$0.90 and $2.00 an hour.
Even though modern washing
and cleaning equipment and ma­
terials have helped considerably,
housework involves some hard la­
bor at times, especially for dayworkers, who are usually given
the-heavier tasks in the home.
“ Live-ins” in homes with no other
household workers are likely to
be alone most of the time; length
and irregularity of working hours
isolates the worker from family
and friends.
Dayworkers generally acquire
customers for whom they do
cleaning on a part-time basis at
specific intervals (once or twice
a week, or maybe at longer inter­
vals) for part or all of a day. Du­
ties are negotiated with each em­
ployer, sometimes on a day-today basis. Frequently there is no
supervision, as when the employer
works away from home during
the day and the employee has her
own key to the home or apart­
ment.
Most household workers are
employed part time. Full-time
workers generally work at least




35 hours a week; those who live
in usually work longer hours.
There is some added demand for
dayworkers during holiday sea­
sons; the demand for other work­
ers remains steady throughout the
year, but slackens somewhat dur­
ing the summer vacation months.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Information about employment
opportunities in private-house­
hold work or about available
training programs may be ob­
tained from the local office of the
State employment service.
Additional
information
on
training can be obtained from:
National Committee on Household
Employment, 1346 Connecticut
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

BUILDING CUSTODIANS
(D.O.T. 187.168; 381.137, .887;
382.138, .884)

N ature of the W ork
Building
custodians,
often
called janitors or cleaners, are
responsible for the upkeep and
maintenance of hotels, hospi­
tals, office buildings, apartment
houses, and other buildings. Their
jobs include the responsibility
that heating and ventilating
equipment function properly, that
the building is kept clean and or­
derly, and that they attend to
many other tasks that maintain a
building in good condition. On a
typical day a custodian may wet
and dry-mop floors, vacuum car­
pets, clean furniture and other
equipment, make minor repairs,
and eradicate insects and rodents.
Custodians use many different
tools and cleaning materials to

perform their duties. For one job,
they may need only a simple mop;
for another, they may use an elec­
tric polishing machine and a spe­
cial cleaning compound. In re­
cent years the maintenance of a
building has required less and
less physical labor, in part be­
cause chemical cleaners and
power equipment have reduced
the physical effort needed for
cleaning jobs. Custodians must be
familiar with cleaning equipment
and materials that are designed
for specific tasks because impro­
per use of a chemical cleaner or
machine will not only result in a
poor job but may actually harm
the surfaces involved.

345

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Most women employed in cus­
todial occupations are assigned
tasks such as mopping, dusting,
and furniture waxing. Men usu­
ally perform the maintenance
tasks that require more physical
effort; for example, furniture
moving, removing refuse cans, and
operating floor polishers and
buffers.
Some custodians have super­
visory positions. Supervisors are
responsible for seeing that the
entire building or sections of a
building are properly cleaned and
maintained. They see that cer­
tain jobs, such as floor waxing or
furniture polishing, are being per­
formed correctly throughout the
building.
Places of Em ploym ent
More than 1.1 million building
custodians were employed in
1968— approximately three-quar­
ters were male. They are em­
ployed in cities and towns
throughout the Nation, and the
distribution of jobs is parallel to
the population patterns of the
United States.
Many building custodians are
employed by hospitals and hotels.
Large numbers are employed in
manufacturing plants and retail
stores; many others work in
apartment houses and office
buildings. Some are employed by
contract firms that provide build­
ing maintenance service on a fee
basis.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most building custodians learn
their skills while working on the
job. Usually, an inexperienced
worker begins by doing simple
cleaning and maintenance tasks.
As the worker gains experience
with the various cleaners and ma­




chines, he is given more complex
duties.
There are no formal educa­
tional requirements for most po­
sitions in custodial work. How­
ever, entry workers should be able
to do simple arithmetic and fol­
low instructions. Also, high school
shop courses may help the build­
ing service worker perform the
many handymen tasks that are
required such as minor plumbing
repair or carpentry.
In some cities, training pro­
grams where prospective building
custodians can learn the neces­
sary skills, are provided by unions
and government agencies. Stu­
dents are taught the properties
of the different surfaces, and the
correct way to clean each sur­
face. They learn to operate and
maintain machines such as wet
and dry vacuums, buffers, and
polishers. Instructions on how to
make minor electrical, plumbing,
and other repairs also is given.
In addition to specific courses
that involve custodial tasks, stu­
dents learn to plan their work
and to deal with the public. A
few training programs for these
workers offer remedial courses in
reading, writing, and arithmetic.
Advancement opportunities for
custodial workers often are lim­
ited because the custodian often
is the only maintenance employee
in a building. However, where a
large maintenance staff is em­
ployed, custodians can advance
to supervisory positions. For ad­
vancement to supervisory posi­
tions, a high school diploma is
helpful. Some custodians go into
business for themselves after be­
coming thoroughly familiar with
their job and maintain buildings
for clients on a fee basis.
Custodial workers may obtain
employment by answering adver­
tisements in the newspapers or
by applying directly to a com­
pany. Jobs also may be obtained
through State employment of­

fices. For government positions,
it is necessary to fill out an ap­
plication for employment and
contact civil service or personnel
headquarters.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Opportunities to enter build­
ing custodian jobs are expected to
be very favorable through the
1970’s. In addition to moderate
growth in the number of new jobs
that will be created, thousands
of job openings will occur each
year as experienced custodians
retire, die, or transfer to other
types of employment.
The employment of building
custodians is expected to increase
moderately as continued high lev­
els of economic activity, increases
in population, and large numbers
of young families spur the de­
mand for new apartments, hospi­
tals, offices, recreation centers
and other buildings. However, re­
cent improvements in cleaning
and maintenance technology will
limit the growth of custodial jobs.
Buildings are being designed with
surfaces that are specially treated
for easy maintenance, and new
cleaners and solvents work much
more efficiently than those used
previously. The growing use of
new machines, such as ultra
sonic Venetian blind cleaners, will
reduce the time needed to per­
form maintenance tasks.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of building cus­
todial workers vary with the in­
dustry in which they are em­
ployed. A survey of workers em­
ployed in private industry cover­
ing 227 metropolitan areas in
1966-67 reports the following
average hourly earnings of build­
ing custodians:

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

346
Average Hourly Earnings
Men
Industry

Manufacturing ...... . $2.37
2.37
Public Utilities ......
2.03
Wholesale Trade ...
1.74
Retail Trade .........
1.98
Finance .................
1.77
Services .................

Women

$2.15
2.01
1.64
1.49
1.72
1.73

Earnings tend to be highest in
the large cities of the West Coast
and North Central section of the
country.
In the Federal Government,
building custodial workers pay
rates are similar to those paid by
private industries in the same
local areas.
Most building service workers
receive paid vacations and health
insurance. Some employers give
paid holidays.




Custodians usually work in­
side of heated, well-lighted build­
ings. However, sometimes they
may work outdoors doing tasks
such as sweeping walkways, mow­
ing lawns, or shoveling snow.
Those primarily concerned with
machinery
maintenance
and
building heating systems may
find themselves working in noise
and grease. Building custodians
often suffer from minor cuts,
bruises, and burns caused by ma­
chines, hand tools, and chemicals.
Custodial workers spend most
of their time on their feet. Many
of the tasks, such as dusting or
sweeping, require constant bend­
ing, stooping, and stretching.
Some custodial workers work dur­
ing the evening because many

buildings and offices are cleaned
after the regular staff has left
for the day. When there is a need
for 24-hour maintenance, custod­
ial workers may be assigned to
shifts.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

For information about oppor­
tunities in custodial work and
training programs set up under
provisions of the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act of
1962, contact the local office of
your State employment service.

SKILLED AND OTHER MANUAL
OCCUPATIONS

The 27.5 million manual (bluecollar) workers— skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled— employed
in 1968 made up more than onethird of all employed workers.
They worked in hundreds of dif­
ferent occupations, including di­
verse jobs such as instrument
maker, sewing machine operator,
and construction laborer. Men
and women who work in manual
occupations perform important
functions in our economy. They
transform the ideas of scientists
and the plans of engineers into
goods and services. They operate
transportation systems, commu­
nication facilities, and atomic in­
stallations. They build homes, of­
fice buildings, and factories. They
fabricate, install, control, main­
tain, and repair the complex
equipment necessary for operat­
ing our highly mechanized society.
They repair automobiles, tele­
vision sets, washing machines, and
other household appliances. Man­
ual workers move raw materials,
wrap and pack finished products,
and load and unload supplies and
equipment of all kinds.
Young persons that have me­
chanical interests and abilities, or
others who enjoy working with
their hands, will find most of their
employment opportunities among
the hundreds of occupations in
this group.
Technological progress is caus­
ing major changes in the occupa­
tional composition of the Nation’s
labor force. Rapid advances in the
industrial applications of scienti­
fic knowledge and invention are
making possible increasing use of
automatic devices that operate
the machinery and equipment
used in manufacturing. Nonethe­
less, the number of skilled and
semiskilled workers is expected to




continue to increase through the
1970’s, despite this rapid mechan­
ization and automation of produc­
tion processes. It is expected that
our increasingly complex technol­
ogy generally will require higher
levels of skill to operate and ser­
vice this machinery and related
equipment.
Although blue-collar workers
declined slightly as a proportion
of total employment between
1958 and 1968, their number in­
creased by slightly more than 4
million. Semiskilled workers ac­
counted for more than three-fifths
of the increase and skilled workers
for almost two-fifths. Employ­
ment of unskilled workers de­
clined slightly during the last
decade.
Through the 1970’s, employ­
ment of manual workers is ex­

pected to increase only about half
as fast as total employment. How­
ever, different rates of growth are
expected for each of the three
major occupational groups that
make up the manual worker cate­
gory. For example, employment
of skilled workers is likely to in­
crease at about the same rate as
total employment; semiskilled
workers will grow at a much slow­
er rate; and no significant change
is expected in the number of un­
skilled workers.
In addition to the large number
of job opportunities expected to
be available for manual workers
because of employment growth,
an even larger number is ex­
pected to result from the replace­
ment of experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work. Replacement needs
347

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

348

fifths of all skilled workers are
employed by private firms; others
are self-employed or work for
Federal, State, or local govern­
ments. The building trades have
a fairly high percentage of selfemployed craftsmen. As might be
expected, the skilled work force
is concentrated in the highly in­
dustrialized States, such as New
York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, and Ohio. Job opportuni­
ties for skilled workers, however,
are found in every State. A very
small proportion (about 3 per­
cent) of skilled workers are
women.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
due to retirements and deaths
alone should provide about 600,000 job openings annually. For
skilled
workers,
replacement
needs are expected to offer about
the same number of job oppor­
tunities as employment growth.
For semiskilled workers, replace­
ment needs are expected to offer
more than twice as many job
opportunities
as
employment
growth. For unskilled workers,
virtually all job opportunities will
be to fill replacement needs.
The skilled, semiskilled, and un­
skilled occupation groups are dis­
cussed separately in the following
section. Following these general
discussions are more detailed
statements on selected manual oc­
cupations. Many other manual
occupations also are described in
individual industry statements
elsewhere in the Handbook.

S K IL L E D
W O RKERS
(C ra fts m e n , Forem en, and
Kindred W orkers)
The Nation’s economic strength
depends to a great extent on the




initiative and competence of its
craftsmen. Skilled workers make
the patterns, models, tools, dies,
machines, and equipment without
which industrial processes could
not occur. Skilled craftsmen re­
pair the equipment used in indus­
try, and the mechanical equip­
ment and appliances used by con­
sumers. They also build homes,
commercial and industrial build­
ings, and highways.
In 1968, there were 10.0 million
skilled workers. More than half of
them were employed in two broad
occupational groupings— co n ­
struction craftsmen and mechan­
ics and repairmen. (See chart 23.)
Two occupations had more than
three-fourths of a million workers
each— carpenters and automotive
mechanics. About a dozen addi­
tional skilled occupations had
more than 100,000 workers each.
(See chart 24.) However, many
skilled occupations, such as elec­
trotypers, blacksmiths, and paperhangers, had fewer than 20,000
workers each.
Although skilled workers are
employed in almost every branch
of industry, nearly two-thirds are
employed in manufacturing and
construction. More than four-

Skilled workers must have a
thorough knowledge of the pro­
cesses involved in their work.
They often exercise independent
judgment and may be responsible
for valuable equipment or prod­
ucts. Consequently, they require
considerable training to qualify
for their jobs. A large proportion
of skilled workers learn their
trades through informal on-thejob training and experience. Many
others learn their trades through
apprenticeship or other formal
training programs. Large num­
bers of young men also acquire
skills in the armed services. For
others, vocational school training
plays an important role.
Most training authorities agree
that the best way to learn a skilled
trade is through a formal appren­
ticeship program. Apprenticeship
is a period of systematic on-thejob training, supplemented by re­
lated trade instruction, which is
designed to familiarize the ap­
prentice with the materials, tools,
and principles of the trade. The
apprenticeship program provides
the trainee with a balanced
knowledge of his trade. The for­
mal apprenticeship agreement

SKILLED AND OTHER MANUAL OCCUPATIONS

©

M a n y Skilled Occupations
H a ve M ore Than A H undred Thousand W orkers
HUNDRED THOUSAND WORKERS, 1968*0
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

CARPENTERS
AUTOMOTIVE MECHANICS
ELECTRICIANS (construction & maintenance)
PAINTERS (construction & maintenance)
ALL ROUND MACHINISTS
PLUMBERS AND PIPEFITTERS
OPERATING ENGINEERS<*>
STATIONARY ENGINEERS
APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN
BRICKLAYERS*3*
COMPOSITORS AND TYPESETTERS
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRMEN
TELEPHONE & PBX INSTALLERS & REPAIRMEN*4*
TOOL AND DIE MAKERS
AIRCRAFT MECHANICS
TV & RADIO SERVICE TECHNICIANS
AIR CONDITIONING, REFRIGERATION AND
HEATING MECHANICS
(1) ESTIMATED
<2} EXCAVATING. GRADING, AND ROAO MACHINERY OPERATORS

specifies the training time the ap­
prentice is to receive in the various
aspects of the trade. Most appren­
ticeship programs last 4 years, but
may range from 2 to 6 years.
Apprenticeship has several ad­
vantages over less formal methods
of learning a trade. An apprentice
receives broad training and ex­
perience that enable him to ad­
just to constantly changing job
requirements, and to work in a
wide range of jobs. The comple­
tion of an apprenticeship gives the
worker a recognized status that
is an advantage in finding and
holding jobs. It also may increase
his opportunities for promotion
to a foreman or supervisory-level
job.
Many companies have training
programs that also provide sys­
tematic on-the-job training. Fre­
quently, these programs include
supplementary classroom instruc­
tion.
Many young persons move from
one semiskilled job to another
and, over a period of years, ac­
quire knowledge and skills suffi­
cient to become skilled workers.
Others begin learning a skilled
trade in vocational, trade, or tech­
nical schools. A small proportion




349
earnings, more job security, bet­
ter chances for promotions, and
more opportunities to open their
own businesses than most workers
having lesser skills. Among the 11
occupational groups that make up
our labor force, only men in the
professional,
managerial,
and
salesworker groups had higher
earnings than the average $7,646
a year earned by skilled men in
1967.

Em ploym ent Trends and Outlook

{3} INCLUDING TILE SETTERS. STONEMASONS. AND MARBLE SETTERS
(4) INCLUDING CENTRAL OFFICE CRAFTSMEN

of these students move directly
into jobs in their trade and, after
acquiring on-the-job experience,
qualify as skilled workers. Other
young persons, who already are
employed in semiskilled or un­
skilled jobs, move into skilled oc­
cupations
through vocational
training related to their work,
such as correspondence courses,
manufacturers’ training programs,
and night school courses.
Large numbers of young men
in the Armed Forces acquire skills
that enable them to qualify, with
additional training, for skilled
jobs in civilian life, such as auto­
mobile mechanic, electronic tech­
nician, aircraft mechanic, electri­
cian, or office machine repairman.
Many supervisors and men in
high administrative positions in
industry have come from the
ranks of craftsmen. Employers
long have recognized the value of
executives who have both indus­
trial know-how and administra­
tive ability.
Young people who do not ex­
pect to go to college should con­
sider the definite advantages the
skilled trades offer, compared with
semiskilled and unskilled occupa­
tions. Skilled workers have higher

Employment in skilled occupa­
tions grew from about 8.5 million
workers in 1958 to 10.0 million in
1968. Continued growth in the
number of skilled jobs is expected
in the years ahead. Job opportu­
nities also will result from the re­
placement of skilled workers who
transfer to other fields of work,
are promoted, retire, or die. More
than 200,000 skilled workers are
expected to be needed each year
to replace those who retire or die.
Employment in skilled occupa­
tions is expected to rise moder­
ately through the 1970’s because
of industrial growth and tech­
nological advances that increase
the need for skilled workers. As
in the past, rates of employment
growth will differ among the
skilled occupational groups. Em­
ployment of mechanics and re­
pairmen, for example, should con­
tinue to grow more rapidly than
the skilled work force as a whole.
The numbers of skilled workers
in the building trades and the
major skilled machining occupa­
tions are expected to increase at
more moderate rates. On the
other hand, employment in the
printing trades is expected to
show little or no change.
Young men who acquire a
good basic education (including
courses in mathematics and the
sciences), as well as thorough job
training, will be better able to

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

350
compete for higher paying skilled
jobs than applicants without this
training.

S E M IS K IL L E D
W O RKERS
(O p eratives)
Semiskilled workers make up
the largest occupational group in
the Nation’s labor force. About 14
million workers— almost 1 out of
5— were employed in semiskilled
jobs in 1968. Of the 8.9 mil­
lion semiskilled workers em­
ployed in manufacturing indus­
tries (chart 25), large numbers
were engaged in making clothing,
automobiles, automobile parts,
food, textiles, machinery, and
electrical and electronic equip­
ment. The broad field of semi­
skilled jobs will provide hundreds
of thousands of employment op­
portunities for young people in
the years ahead.




Truckdrivers account for the
largest single group of semiskilled
workers. Millions of other semi­
skilled workers operate power
driven machines in factories.
Many use sewing machines to
join fabrics for clothing, awnings,
and other items. Others operate
machines to stamp out metal
parts; still others use machine
tools, such as engine lathes and
milling machines, to shape metal
to precise sizes. A considerable
number of these workers operate
materials moving equipment, such
as powered forklift trucks, to
move raw materials and manufac­
tured products from place to
place in factories.
Large numbers of semiskilled
workers are employed as assem­
blers and inspectors. Assemblers
install components and subassem­
blies into end products such as
radios and television sets. Inspec­
tors examine and test products to
find out whether their quality is
satisfactory. Many semi-skilled
workers in factories are employed
as helpers or assistants to more
skilled workers. For example,
stationary firemen help skilled

stationary engineers operate and
maintain steam boilers.
In 1968 about 4 million wom­
en accounted for 30 percent
of all semiskilled workers. Semi­
skilled jobs, such as sewing ma­
chine operators, packers and
wrappers, assemblers, and laun­
dry and drycleaning operators,
were by far the largest source of
employment for women in manu­
facturing industries. The number
of women operatives employed in
the different manufacturing in­
dustries
varied
considerably.
Women accounted for more than
8 out of 10 operatives in the ap­
parel industry. Other manufac­
turing industries having large
numbers of women operatives
were textiles and food. On the
other hand, plants that produce
iron and steel petroleum prod­
ucts employed relatively few
women. In general, operatives
work with their hands. Many of
these workers use a variety of
handtools, such as screwdrivers,
pliers, files, soldering irons, meas­
uring devices, and cutting tools.
Many of these workers also make
elementary adjustments and do
minor maintenance work on the
machines they operate. Some are
required to keep simple records
of their work.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Semiskilled workers ordinarily
receive only brief on-the-job
training. Usually, they are told
exactly what to do and how to do
it, and their work is supervised
closely. They often repeat the
same motions or the same routine
throughout the working day.
Semiskilled workers do not
need to invest many years in
learning their jobs. The simplest
repetitive and routine semiskilled
jobs can be learned in a day and
mastered in a few weeks. Even

SKILLED AND OTHER MANUAL OCCUPATIONS

these jobs that require a higher
degree of skill, such as truckdriver, can be learned in a few
months. At the same time, adapt­
ability— the ability to learn new
jobs quickly, including the opera­
tion of new machines— is an im­
portant qualification for semi­
skilled workers.
New employees beginning in
semiskilled jobs are not expected
to be highly proficient. After a
short training period, however,
they must work at a standard,
fast, and steady pace. Frequently,
good eyesight and good coordina­
tion are required.
Semiskilled jobs often pay well.
Some semiskilled workers who
are paid on an incentive basis are
among the highest paid workers
in manufacturing. However, the
average annual earnings of semi­
skilled men in 1967 was $5,740,
$1,446 less than those of skilled
men. Also, semiskilled workers
are more likely to lose their jobs
during a business recession, and
to remain unemployed longer
than skilled or white-collar em­
ployees.

Em ploym ent O utlook

The employment of semiskilled
workers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s; how­
ever, it is expected that this group
will decrease somewhat as a pro­
portion of the working popula­
tion. More than two-thirds of all
job opportunties for semiskilled
workers are expected to result
from the need to replace work­
ers who are promoted, transfer
out of semiskilled jobs, retire, or
die. More than 300,000 semi­
skilled workers will be needed
each year to replace those who
die or retire. Transfer rates for
semiskilled workers are high be­




351

cause a large proportion of them
are young workers who tend to
change jobs frequently, and wom­
en workers who leave their jobs
to marry, raise families, or move
to other areas when their hus­
bands change jobs.

U N S K IL L E D
W O RKERS

The continuing growth in the
use of commercial motor vehicles
will result in some increase in
employment opportunities for
truck and bus drivers. Greater
substitution of power equipment
for unskilled manual labor in lift­
ing, hauling, digging, and similar
heavy physical work will create
other employment openings for
semiskilled workers, such as
power equipment operators. Op­
portunities for employment in
manufacturing will be limited by
increasing automation of produc­
tion processes. There are many
industrial processes, however, to
which automation is not likely to
be applied in the next 10 years,
and many industries in which the
impact of automation will be lim­
ited.
Young men and women who
have no training beyond high
school will continue to find a ma­
jor area of job opportunities in
factory operator and other semi­
skilled jobs. The most rapid gains
in the Nation’s employment, how­
ever, will be in professional, tech­
nical and other white-collar oc­
cupations and in skilled occupa­
tions. If possible, young people
having ability should obtain the
additional training and education
that these occupations require.
Semiskilled workers, however,
even those who did not complete
high school, are not cut off perma­
nently from advancement if they
take advantage of the many edu­
cational opportunities available
in their communities. They may
take courses in evening schools
or enter apprentice training pro­
grams and eventually qualify for
better jobs.

Unskilled laborers work in
manual occupations that gener­
ally require no special training.
Frequently, these jobs involve
handling and moving materials,
for example, loading or unloading,
digging, hauling, hoisting, wrap­
ping, and mixing. Some of these
jobs involve heavy physical work.
Unskilled laborers are employed
mainly in manufacturing estab­
lishments, on construction work,
in wholesale and retail trade, and
in transportation jobs.
Although some of these jobs
pay well, particularly in construc­
tion work, the average annual
earnings of unskilled men in 1967
was $4,059, $1,581 less than those
of semiskilled men. Moreover,
unskilled workers are usually the
first to lose their jobs during a
business recession and have the
highest unemployment rate of all
the major occupational groups.
The longrun decline in employ­
ment of unskilled workers has oc­
curred largely because mechan­
ized equipment has replaced man­
ual labor. In 1968, employment of
unskilled laborers was approxi­
mately 3.5 million— 5 percent of
the Nation’s work force. In the
future, total employment in this
occupational group is expected to
show little change. Nevertheless,
there will be thousands of oppor­
tunities for new workers to get
jobs as unskilled laborers because
of the need to replace workers who
transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die. Deaths and retire­
ments alone will result in about
65,000 job openings each year.
The replacement of unskilled
workers by machinery will con­
tinue through the 1970’s. Powerdriven equipment, such as forklift

(Laborers)

352
trucks, derricks, cranes, hoists,
and conveyor belts will take over
more and more materials-handling
work in factories, freight termi­
nals, and warehouses. Other pow­
er-driven machines will do exca­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

vating, ditchdigging, and similar
work. Integrated systems of pro­
cessing and materials-handling equipment, a more advanced step
in automation, will be installed in
an increasing number of plants in

the years ahead. Industrial expan­
sion, however, is expected to cre­
ate a need for unskilled laborers
which will about offset the jobs
lost to laborsaving mechanical
equipment.

FO REM EN

N ature of the W ork
Foremen play a strategic role in
our Nation’s economy. They su­
pervise and coordinate the activ­
ities of highly skilled, semiskilled,
and unskilled blue-collar workers,
and are often responsible for mil­
lions of dollars worth of equip­
ment and material. They may
oversee workers engaged in as­
sembling television sets, servicing
automobiles, laying bricks, un­
loading ships, or any thousands
of other activities. Foremen often
are referred to by different titles.
For example, in the textile indus­
try they are referred to as second

hands; on board ship they are
called boatswains; and in con­
struction they are known by titles
such as overseer, strawboss, gang
leader, or pusher.
Supervising workers is the most
important part of the formen’s
job. Many blue-collar workers
never work under supervisors
above the rank of foreman, and it
is through their foremen that they
get their work orders, their disci­
pline, and their recognition. Fore­
men interpret and communicate
company policy to the workers.
They are responsible for the guid­
ance and instruction necessary to
assure that workers are qualified

to handle their assignments and
see that new employees are prop­
erly trained for their jobs.
In some enterprises, foremen,
in addition to their supervisory
responsibilities, work at specific
crafts. “ Working foremen” are
common in contruction, where,
for example, bricklayer foremen
supervise the work of journeymen
bricklayers and helpers and also
lay brick. Working foremen in
some cases belong to the same
labor union as the workers they
supervise. Foremen must plan and
schedule the work of their sub­
ordinates and maintain produc­
tion and employee records. They
spend part of their time partici­
pating in meetings and preparing
reports on production, cost, per­
sonnel, and safety. Foremen must
exercise considerable judgment in
their planning and allow for un­
foreseen contingencies such as ab­
senteeism and machinery break­
down.
Foremen see that safety rules
and regulations are observed and
instruct employees in safety prac­
tices. In unionized plants, fore­
men may meet with union repre­
sentatives to discuss work prob­
lems and grievances. They must
know the provisions of labor-man­
agement agreements and run their
operation according to the agree­
ments.

Places of Em ploym ent

Foreman ponders production problem.




Foremen are employed in al­
most every business enterprise
and government agency that em­
ploys blue-collar workers. More
than 1.4 million persons were em­
ployed as foremen in 1968, about
90 percent of whom were men. In
addition, many workers employed
in occupations such as carpenter
and machinist also have foreman
responsibilities.
Employment of foremen is cen­
tered in the highly industrialized
sections of the Nation. About
353

354
three-fifths of the foremen are em­
ployed in manufacturing indus­
tries such as those making ma­
chinery, metals, transportation equipment, food, chemicals, and
paper products. Large numbers of
foremen also are found in con­
struction, trade, and service in­
dustries. Female foremen, or fore­
ladies, are primarily employed in
the apparel, electrical machinery,
leather products, and laundry and
drycleaning industries.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Unlike entry requirements for
most supervisory positions, em­
ployers generally look for experi­
ence and skill rather than specific
educational background when
choosing foremen. Most foremen
rise through the ranks— that is,
they are promoted from the ma­
chine or work bench or construc­
tion craft. By performing different
jobs over a period of time, they
develop their skills and acquire a
thorough knowledge of the pro­
cesses involved in the work they
supervise. During this time, they
also learn much about their fellow
worker, individually and collec­
tively, and about management
policies and employee attitudes
toward these policies. Very often,
foremen are former union mem­
bers who have served as elected
representatives and learned about
grievance procedures, collective
bargaining, and the provisions of
the labor management contracts.
The experience gained by fore­
men rising through the ranks gives
them the advantage of knowing
how a job should be done, possible
problems involved, and helps
them know what to expect from
the workers they supervise. Be­
cause of the time it takes to ac­
quire the necessary experience




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and skills, the average foreman is
about 45 years of age, about 5
years older than the average
worker.
Most workers who are pro­
moted to foremen jobs are high
school graduates who have learn­
ed their skills on-the-job. Many
have acquired technical skills
through apprenticeship or other
formal training programs, and
some have benefited from courses
offered through Armed Forces
training schools. Although fewer
than one-tenth of all foremen are
college graduates, a growing num­
ber of employers are hiring fore­
men trainees with college back­
grounds. This practice is most
prevalent in industries that have
highly technological production
processes such as the chemical, oil
and electronics industries. Em­
ployers generally look for college
graduates with backgrounds in
business administration, indus­
trial relations, mathematics, en­
gineering, or science. The new
workers are hired as foremen
helpers and undergo on-the-job
training until they are capable of
accepting the supervisory respon­
sibilities of foremen. After attain­
ing this experience, foremen hav­
ing college training often are pro­
moted to higher management
levels.
Employers look for leadership
qualities when considering per­
sons for foremen positions. Es­
pecially helpful is the ability to
motivate employees, command re­
spect, and get along with people.
Foremen with outstanding abil­
ity, particularly those with posthigh school education, may move
up to higher management posi­
tions. In manufacturing, for ex­
ample, foremen may advance to
jobs such as department head,
general foremen, and plant man­
ager. In the construction industry,
some foremen use the experience
and skills they acquire to go into
business for themselves.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of foremen is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. In addition to
the substantial number of job op­
portunities expected to occur as a
result of employment growth, an
even greater number of job open­
ings will occur each year as ex­
perienced foremen are promoted,
transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. Retirement and
deaths alone are expected to re­
sult in more than 30,000 openings
annually.
Most foremen will continue to
be males employed in manufac­
turing industries. However, al­
most half of the increase in the
number of foremen during the
1970’s will be due to the rapid ex­
pansion of nonmanufacturing in­
dustries — construction, trade,
service, and public utilities. The
number of foremen in construc­
tion is expected to grow very
rapidly.
Factors underlying the expec­
ted growth of foremen are the in­
crease in the size of business op­
erations and government services
requiring blue-collar workers, and
the growing trend towards in­
creased supervision as industrial
production
processes
become
more technical. More foremen, for
example, will be required for func­
tions such as inspection and pro­
duction scheduling.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Salary levels of foremen gener­
ally are keyed to the earnings of
the highest paid workers they su­
pervise. Some companies have a
formal policy to maintain specific
wage differentials between fore­
men and the workers they super­
vise that range from about 10 per­
cent to 40 percent. However, these
differentials do not take into ac­
count overtime payments to

FOREMEN

hourly workers. Foremen are
usually salaried and not paid for
overtime. If they are paid for
overtime, they normally do not
get the premium rate that workers
under their supervision receive. In
1967, the median earnings of fore­
men who worked full time during
the year were $8,721.
Working conditions of foremen
vary widely from industry to in­
dustry. As the lc west level su­
pervisory group, foremen spend
much of their time with the work­
ers on the plant floor or at the
construction site. Plant foremen




355
are apt to get dirty around ma­
chinery and materials and may be
subjected to noisy manufacturing
operations. Construction foremen
often are subject to unpleasant
weather conditions. Foremen gen­
erally work more than 40 hours a
week and often are expected to
be at work before their subordi­
nates arrives, and to remain there
after they leave.
Some foremen who have limited
authority may feel isolated, nei­
ther a member of the workforce
nor a significant part of manage­
ment. On the other hand, the fore­

man position hold more prestige
than that of bluecollar workers
and the work is often more chal­
lenging and rewarding.

Sources of Additional Inform ation

American Management Associa­
tion, 135 West 50th Street, New
York, N.Y. 10020.
National Foremen’s Institute, 24
Rope Ferry Road, Waterford,
Conn. 06385.




B U IL D IN G T R A D E S

Building trades craftsmen rep­
resent the largest group of skilled
workers in the Nation’s labor
force. Altogether, there were more
than 2% million of these crafts­
men employed in 1968— about 3
out of 10 skilled workers.
The more than two dozen
skilled building trades vary great­
ly in size. Several major trades—
carpenter, painter, plumber, pipe­
fitter, bricklayer, operating engi­
neer (construction machinery op­
erator), and consruction electri­
cian— each had more than a hun­
dred thousand workers. (See
chart 26.) Carpenters alone num­
bered nearly 870,000 — nearly
one-third of all building crafts­
men. By contrast, only a few
thousand workers were employed
in each of several trades such as
marble setter, terrazzo worker,
glazier, and stonemason.

of buildings, highways, airports,
and other structures, including
substantial work in the Nation’s
missile and space programs. The
wide range of materials and skills
used in construction has resulted
in the specialization of various
work operations. Thus, building
trades workers who use essentially
the same materials or skills have
tended to become identified with
distinct trades. For example,
bricklayers and stonemasons both
work with masonry materials. Al­
though operating engineers do not
work with particular materials,
they have a group of related skills
that enables them to handle vari­
ous types of excavating, grading,
hoisting, and other equipment.
The building trades consist pri­
marily of journeymen (crafts­
men) who generally must have a
high level of skill and a sound
knowledge of assembly and con­
struction operations. They often
are assisted by apprentices, tend­
ers, and laborers.
The work of journeymen may
be grouped into three broad clas­
sifications— structural, finishing,

W hat Are the B uilding Trades?
Building trades craftsmen are
employed mainly in the construc­
tion, maintenance, repair, and al­
teration of homes and other types

Em ploym ent In The Building Trades
1

2

HUNDRED THOUSAND WORKERS, 1 9 6 8 at
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

CARPENTERS
PAINTERS (const. & maintenance)
PLUMBERS & PIPEFITTERS
OPERATING ENGINEERS(2)
BRICKLAYERS <
3>
ELECTRICIANS (construction)
STRUCTURAL-METAL WORKERS (4)

and mechanical. However, some
craftsmen— for example, carpen­
ters— may do finishing as well as
structural work. Generally, each
building trade is classified in one
of these three categories, as
follows:
Occupations mainly concerned
with structural work: Carpenter,
operating engineer (construction
machinery operator), bricklayer,
structural-iron worker, ornamen­
tal-iron worker, cement mason,
reinforcing-iron worker (rodman),
rigger and machine mover, stone­
mason, and boilermaker.
Occupations mainly concerned
with finishing work: Lather, plas­
terer, marble setter, tile setter,
terrazzo worker, painter, paperhanger, glazier, roofer, floor cov­
ering installer, and asbestos
worker.
Occupations mainly concerned
with mechanical work: Plumber,
pipefitter, construction electri­
cian, sheet-metal worker, elevator
constructor and millwright.
Most building trades occupa­
tions are described individually
later in this chapter. These de­
scriptions are necessarily brief
and incomplete. They do not ap­
ply fully to all localities because
of local differences in the types
of work done by the various
trades.
Also, they are not statements
or recommendations concerning
the work jurisdiction of these
trades and are inappropriate for
use in jurisdictional negotiations
or the settlement of jurisdictional
questions.
Detailed descriptions of the na­
ture of the work, training, employ­
ment outlook, and other informa­
tion concerning boilermakers and
millwrights appear elsewhere in
the Handbook.

CEMENT MASONS(5>
ROOFERS & SLATERS
PLASTERERS

W here Building Trades W orkers
Are Em ployed

ALL OTHERS
(1) ESTIM ATED
(2 ) EXC AVATING . GR ADING . AN D ROAD M A C H IN ER Y O P ERATO RS
(3 ) IN C LU D ES STO N EM A SO N S, MARBLE SETTERS. A N D TILE SETTERS




(4) STR U C TU R A L AN D O R NAM ENTA L, IRON W ORKERS
(5) INCLUD ES TERRAZZO W ORKERS

Building trades workers are em­
ployed mainly by contractors in
357

358
the contract construction indus­
try. Many others are employed
in industries other than construc­
tion, mainly to do maintenance
and repair work. Some work di­
rectly for business firms or gov­
ernment agencies that have their
own construction force, and others
are self-employed.
The building trades craftsmen
who work in the contract con­
struction industry are employed
by general and special-trade con­
tractors. General contractors may
be classified as building (residen­
tial, commercial, or industrial),
highway, or heavy construction
contractors, since most general
contractors limit their operations
to one of these activities. They
construct buildings and other
structures, such as dams, bridges,
tunnels, and roads, taking full
responsibility for the complete
job, except for specified portions
of the work that may be omitted
from the general contract. Gen­
eral contractors may do a large
part of the work with their own
crews, but they often sub-contract
particular phases of the construc­
tion job to special-trade contrac­
tors.
Special-trade contractors usu­
ally do the work of only one trade,
such as painting, carpentry, or
electrical work, or of two or more
closely related trades, such as
plumbing and heating, or plaster­
ing and lathing. Beyond fitting
their work to that of other trades,
they have no responsibility for the
structure as a whole. The specialtrade contractors obtain orders
for their work from general con­
tractors, architects, or from prop­
erty owners. Repair work is done
almost always on direct order
from owners, occupants, archi­
tects, or rental agents.
There are several hundred
thousand contractors (both gen­
eral and special-trade); most of
them operate within a limited geo­
graphical area. The great majority




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are small— generally employing
fewer than 10 workers. Some
firms employ several thousand
workers each.
Thousands of building trades
workers are employed in factories,
stores, mines, hotels, and most
other types of large business es­
ta b lis h m e n ts . F or e x a m p le,
plumbers and pipefitters are em­
ployed by firms to maintain, re­
pair, and install piping systems.
In addition, large firms frequently
employ crews of building trades
workers to construct houses, office
buildings, and other new struc­
tures. Government agencies also
employ many construction crafts­
men to build, maintain, and repair
highway, water, and sanitation
systems.
Many building trades workers
are self-employed. Self-employed
journeymen work directly for
property owners on small jobs.
They may be paid by the hour
or the day, or they may be paid
an agreed price for the job. They
may provide the materials and
include them in the price, or use
materials provided by the owner.
Self-employment is most common
in carpentry and painting, but
also is characteristic of other
skilled building trades.
The work of skilled building
craftsmen is identified with a spe­
cific trade, such as carpentry or
bricklaying, rather than with an
individual contractor or even a
broad group of contractors. Thus,
a carpenter may be employed
mainly by a particular builder
but, in the course of a year, he
also may be employed by a con­
crete contractor to build forms
for a concrete bridge; by an elec­
trical or plumbing contractor to
build a temporary structure at a
large construction site; or he may
contract to do a small repair job
on his own.
In some of the trades, work
may be performed away from the
construction site. For example,

sheet-metal workers may be em­
ployed in shops where ducts are
fabricated for installation in a
building. In other trades, crafts­
men may work in the central shop
of the contractor or in fabrication
shops at the job site.
Employment of these workers
is distributed geographically in
much the same way as the Na­
tion’s population. Thus, their em­
ployment is concentrated general­
ly in the industrialized and highly
populated States, such as Cali­
fornia, New York, Illinois, Penn­
sylvania, Ohio, and Texas.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding national joint labor-man­
agement apprenticeship commit­
tees established for most of the
building trades, recommend for­
mal apprentice training as the
best way to acquire the allaround proficiency of craftsmen
in the building trades. Appren­
ticeship is a prescribed period of
on-the-job training, supplemented
by related classroom instruction,
which is designed to develop skill
by making the apprentice familiar
with the materials, tools, and
principles of his trade. This type
of training provides the appren­
tice with a balanced knowledge
of his field of work and enables
him to perform its operations
competently. Formal apprentice­
ship agreements are registered
with a State apprenticeship agen­
cy or the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
Many building trades workers
have acquired the skills of their
trades informally by working as
laborers and helpers, observing or
being taught by experienced
craftsmen. Some building trades
craftsmen have acquired their
skills, or part of their skills, by

BUILDING TRADES

attending vocational or trade
schools or by taking correspond­
ence school courses.
Apprentices in the building
trades generally are required to
be between 18 and 25, and be in
good physical condition. The
maximum age limit may be waived
for veterans or others having ex­
perience or special qualifications.
A high school education, or its
equivalent, including courses in
mathematics and the sciences, is
desirable and, in a few trades, ac­
tually required. Often, applicants
are given tests to determine their
aptitude for a particular trade. For
some skilled building trades, it is
important to have considerable
manual dexterity, mechanical ap­
titude, and an eye for proper
alinement of materials.
The formal registered appren­
ticeship agreement generally stip­
ulates a training period of 2 to 5
years of relatively continuous em­
ployment and training, in addi­
tion to a minimum of 144 hours
a year of related classroom in­
struction. The journeymen on the
job and the foreman explain to
the apprentice how the work is
done and show him how different
operations are performed and the
way different tools are used. Or­
dinarily, most of this instruction
is given by a particular journey­
man to whom the apprentice is
assigned. The apprentice is re­
quired to do work of progressively
increasing difficulty and with pro­
gressively less supervision.
Related classroom instruction
varies among the skilled building
trades, but usually includes
courses such as history of the
trade; characteristics of the ma­
terials used; shop mathematics
related to the work of the trade;
some basic principles of engineer­
ing, where appropriate (particu­
larly for pipework, work on ven­
tilating systems, and electrical
w ork); sketching, elementary
drafting, and interpretation of




359
drawings; safety practices; and
special-trade theory such as color
harmony for painters and elemen­
tary sanitation for plumbers. Such
related instruction seldom is of­
fered in small communities where
there may be only a few appren­
tices and a small number of jour­
neymen in a particular trade. In
these areas, apprentices receive
instruction through courses of­
fered in the local high school or
by visiting instructors, generally
furnished by the State. Other sub­
ject matter requirements are met
through personal instruction by
local journeymen and contractors
or, sometimes, through correspon­
dence courses.
The formal registered appren­
ticeship agreements also stipulate
the length of time the apprentice
is to be required to work in each
major operation of the trade, as
well as his rate of pay at succes­
sive intervals of advancement.
The apprentice is paid at an ad­
vancing rate, usually starting at
50 percent of the journeyman’s
pay. The apprentice’s rate in­
creases at 6-month or 1-year in­
tervals until a rate of about 90
percent of the journeyman’s rate
is reached in the final months of
training. Often, advanced appren­
ticeship standing and pay are
given to apprentices who have ac­
quired trade skills in the Armed
Forces or through trade school in­
struction. Advanced standing is
granted on an individual basis and
usually is determined by a demon­
stration of trade skill and knowl­
edge.
In most communities, the ap­
prenticeship programs are super­
vised by joint apprenticeship
committees composed of repre­
sentatives of the local employers
or employer groups and the local
union. The apprentices sign their
apprenticeship agreements with
these committees. The committee
determines the need for appren­
tices in the locality and estab­

lishes minimum apprenticeship
standards of education, experi­
ence, and training. Whenever em­
ployers cannot provide the variety
of experience necessary to give an
apprentice all-round instruction
in the various branches of the
trade, or relatively continuous
employment over the entire peri­
od of apprenticeship, the commit­
tee transfers the apprentice to
another employer. Where special­
ization by contractors is extensive
— for instance, in electrical work
— it is customary for the joint
committee to rotate apprentices
among several contractors in the
trade at intervals of about 6
months. In some large cities, the
local joint apprenticeship commit­
tee employs an apprenticeship
program coordinator.
In areas where these commit­
tees have not been established,
the apprenticeship agreement is
solely between the apprentice and
an employer or employer group.
Many journeymen have received
valuable training under this type
of apprenticeship program, but
such a program may involve some
element of risk for the apprentice.
In those instances, there is no joint
committee to supervise the train­
ing offered, to settle differences
over the terms and conditions of
apprentice training, or to arrange
a transfer in cases of personal dis­
agreements between the appren­
tice and the employer. The ap­
prentice’s training depends prin­
cipally on his employer’s business
prospects and policies. If the em­
ployer lacks continuous work or
does only a restricted type of
work, he cannot provide the ap­
prentice with the broad training
needed to develop journeyman
skills.
In early 1968, about 133,000
men were registered in apprentice
training programs in the construc­
tion trades, and perhaps more
than 20,000 other apprentices
were in unregistered programs. In

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

360
future years, opportunities for
many young men to receive ap­
prentice training will be available
in all parts of the country. In ad­
dition, thousands of other work­
ers will be able to learn construc­
tion trades informally.
Some indication of the location
of future apprenticeship oppor­
tunities in the building trades is
available from the latest data
showing the geographical distri­
bution of registered apprentices
in these trades. The following
eight States accounted for nearly
one-half of the registered appren­
tices in training for selected build­
ing trades in early 1969: Califor­
nia, New York, Ohio, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, Texas, Michigan,
and New Jersey.
In many localities, craftsmen,
most commonly construction elec­
tricians and plumbers, are re­
quired to have a journeyman’s li­
cense to work at their trade. To
qualify for these licenses, they
must pass an examination, dem­
onstrating a broad knowledge of
the job and of State and local
regulations.
Building trades craftsmen may
advance in a number of ways. For
example, a journeyman may be­
come a foreman in charge of a
crew. In most localities, small jobs
are run by “ working foremen”
who work at the trade along with
members of their crews. On larger
jobs, the foremen supervise only.
A craftsman also can become an
estimator for a contractor. In this
job, he estimates material re­
quirements and labor costs to en­
able the contractor to bid on the
work of a particular construction
project. Some craftsmen advance
to jobs as superintendents on
large projects. Others become in­
structors in trade and vocational
schools, or salesmen for building
supply companies. In addition,
many thousands of journeymen
have become contractors, partic­
ularly in the homebuilding field.




It is easier to start a small con­
tract construction business than
a small business in many other in­
dustries. Only relatively moderate
financial investment is needed be­
cause liberal credit arrangements
make it easier to buy materials,
and it is possible to conduct a
fairly substantial business from
the proprietor’s home. However,
the contract construction field is
highly competitive, and the rate
of business failure is especially
high among small contractors. To
be successful, the proprietor of a
small contracting firm must have
the ability to plan work, to foresee
needs and problems, to direct
others, and to estimate material
and labor requirements for jobs
on which he is bidding. He also
must have a sound knowledge of
business practices and financing.
Sound journeyman knowledge in­
creases chances for success. Some
States or municipalities require
contractors to be licensed.

Em ploym ent Outlook

Employment in the building
trades is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s,
assuming relatively full employ­
ment nationally and the high
levels of economic activity needed
to achieve this goal. If the high
levels of economic activity are not
achieved, employment in the
building trades will increase at a
slower rate than that projected.
In addition to
employment
growth, tens of thousands of job
openings will result from the need
to replace experienced workers
who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirement
and deaths alone will provide
more than 70,000 job openings in
the building trades each year
through the 1970’s.
The moderate increase in total
employment in the building trades

(7 out of 10 of whom are employed
in the construction industry) is
expected to result primarily from
a rapid rise in construction ac­
tivity. The factors that will stim­
ulate construction activity include
anticipated large increases in pop­
ulation and households; a contin­
uing shift of families from the
cities to the suburbs; increases in
government expenditures for high­
ways and schools; a rise in expeditures for new industrial plant
capacity; and higher levels of per­
sonal and corporate income. In
addition, there will be a growing
demand for alteration and mod­
ernization work on existing struc­
tures, as well as maintenance and
repair work on the expanding
highway system and on the in­
creasing
numbers
of
dams,
bridges, and similar projects.
Employment of building trades
workers outside the construction
industry is expected to expand as
a result of the anticipated high
levels of economic activity, which
will stimulate the construction of
commercial and industrial build­
ings and, therefore, increase main­
tenance and repair requirements.
The increase in building trades
employment will not be as great
as the total expansion in construc­
tion activity because continued
technological developments in
construction methods, tools and
equipment, and materials will per­
mit increasing output per con­
struction worker. An important
development
in
construction
methods is the increasing use of
prefabricated components, which
are installed as complete units at
the job site for almost all types
of construction projects. For ex­
ample, preassembled outside walls
and partitions can be lifted into
place in one operation, and elec­
tric circuit boxes and switch­
boards are being prewired at the
factory instead of being wired by
the electrician at the job site. An
important extension of prefabri-

BUILDING TRADES

cation is “ module building” in
which units, including complete
rooms or buildings, are available
in standard sizes. Furthermore,
standardization of components
will contribute to their greater use
in the future.
Technological advances in con­
struction tools and equipment
also will increase the efficiency
of building trades workers. Power
handtools, such as shock resistant,
cordless, electric-powered tools,
are improving worker efficiency.
Items formerly unloaded and
moved to the construction site by
hand, such as concrete and brick,
now are being moved by forklift
trucks, motorized wheelbarrows,
and conveyor belts. The size,
speed, durability, and mobility of
large cranes, construction ma­
chines, including bulldozers and
scrapers, have increased consid­
erably. Many of these machines
can do many times more work
than even the largest machines
of a few years ago, but still re­
quire only one operator. New
types of machines that reduce
labor requirements also are being
developed, including concrete
paving machines that perform the
work formerly done by four sep­
arate machines.
New and improved construction
materials also are expected to lim­
it employment growth among
building trades workers. For ex­
ample, lightweight and durable
plastics are being used for a grow­
ing variety of components, includ­
ing partitions, wall panels, siding,
insulation, and roofing. Other new
and improved products are ad­
hesives that eliminate the need for
conventional fasteners, nails that
have improved holding power,
paints that last twice as long as
paints in common use, and wood
products that come from the fac­
tory prepainted with the prime
coat and even the final coat.
The rates of employment
growth will differ among the vari­




361
ous building trades. Employment
growth is expected to be most
rapid for glaziers; structural-metal
workers; excavating, grading, and
road machinery operators; and
cement masons. Among the trades
that will have a slower growth rate
are stonemasons, painters, and
carpenters.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Hourly wage rates paid to
building trades craftsmen are
among the highest paid to skilled
workers. However, because con­
struction work is seasonal and
time also is lost for other reasons,
average annual earnings of build­
ing trades craftsmen are not as
high as the hourly rates of pay
would indicate.
The hourly rates of pay for
skilled workers in the building
trades vary by trade and locality.
Generally, the highest hourly
rates are paid in the larger com­
munities. Union minimum hourly
rates for journeymen and for
helpers and laborers in selected
building trades in 68 large cities,
on July 1, 1968, averaged as
follows:
Union
minimum
average
h o u r ly ra te

All building trades .....
Journeymen ..........................
Asbestos workers ..............
Bricklayers ........................
Carpenters ........................
Cement masons (finishers)
Electricians
(inside wiremen) ..........
Elevator constructors .......
Glaziers ..............................
Lathers...............................
Marble setters ..................
Terrazzo workers ..............
Tile setters ........................
Painters ..............................
Paperhangers ....................
Pipefitters ..........................
Plasterers ..........................
Plumbers ............................
Roofers, composition.........
Roofers, slate and tile.......
Sheet-metal workers .........

$5.14
5.43
5.51
5.63
5.35
5.12
5.57
5.54
4.99
5.35
5.38
5.66
5.25
5.01
4.97
5.70
5.34
5.73
5.11
4.89
5.48

Stonemasons ......................
Structural-iron workers ....
Rodmen ..............................
Helpers and laborers ...........
Bricklayers’ tenders...........
Building laborers ..............
Composition roofers’
helpers ............................
Elevator constructors’
helpers ................................
Marble setters’ helpers.....
Terrazzo workers’ helpers
Tile setters’ helpers...........
Plasterers’ laborers ..........
Plumbers’ laborers.............

Union
minimum
average
hourly rate

5.49
5.59
5.48

4.05
4.29
3.96
3.09
3.92
4.46
4.64
4.39
4.22
4.24

Union rates for these occupa­
tions are negotiated between
trade unions and employers. They
do not include overtime, bonuses,
or payments for special qualifica­
tions or for other reasons.
Construction work frequently
requires
prolonged
standing,
bending, stooping, and working in
cramped quarters. Exposure to
cold, hot, and inclement weather
is common, as much of the work
is done outdoors or in partially
enclosed structures. During the
winter, when the building is suf­
ficiently enclosed, heat is some­
times provided. Many persons
prefer construction work to other
skilled occupations because they
can work outdoors.
Construction work generally is
more dangerous than work in
manufacturing, but the risk of in­
jury is lessened considerably when
proper work practices are followed.
Forty hours was the standard
workweek for a vast majority of
union building trades workers in
1968. Time and one-half generally
was paid for hours worked beyond
the standard workday of 8 hours.
Time and one-half or double-time
rates were usually paid for work
on Saturdays and Sundays or
holidays.
A substantial proportion of or­
ganized building trades workers
are included in health, insurance,
and pension programs negotiated

362
between unions and employers,
and financed entirely by employer
contributions.
There are several reasons why
young men may wish to consider
one of the building trades as a
career. These trades offer espe­
cially good opportunities for those
who are not planning to go to
college, but who are willing to
spend several years in learning a
skilled occupation. Well-trained
building trades craftsmen can
find job opportunities in all parts
of the country. Their hourly wage
rates generally are much higher
than those of most other manual
workers. As previously noted,
building trades craftsmen with
business ability have greater op­
portunities to establish their own
businesses than workers in many
other skilled occupations. In ad­
dition, there will be job opportu­
nities for workers in the major
building trades in nonconstruc­
tion industries, mainly in mainte­
nance and repair activities. This
work is generally less seasonal
than contract construction work.
A principal disadvantage of
work in the building trades is the
employment fluctuations that re­
sult from changes in general busi­
ness conditions. Another disad­
vantage is that even during years
of high levels of construction ac­
tivity, annual earnings of workers
in the building trades are limited
somewhat by the seasonal nature
of construction work. Worktime
is lost as a result of bad weather
and other interruptions.
A large proportion of building
trades workers are members of
trade unions affiliated with the
Building and Construction Trades
Department of the American Fed­
eration of Labor and Congress of
Industrial Organizations.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

ASBESTOS AND
INSULATING WORKERS

Information about opportuni­
ties for apprenticeship or other
types of construction employment
in a particular locality should be
obtained from individual con­
struction firms, employer associa­
tions, locals of the building trades
unions, the nearest office of the
State apprenticeship agency, or
the local office of the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. Many
apprenticeship programs are su­
pervised by local joint unionmanagement apprenticeship com­
mittees. In these instances, an
apprentice applicant may apply
directly to the coordinator of the
joint apprenticeship committee if
there is one in his locality. In ad­
dition, the local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide train­
ing opportunities.
For additional information on
jobs in the building trades, in­
quiries should be directed to the
organizations listed below:

(D.O.T. 863.381, .781, and .884)

American Federation of Labor and
Congress of Industrial Organiza­
tions, Building and Construction
Trades Department, 815 16th
St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20006.
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
National Association of Home
Builders, 1625 L St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

For the names of labor organi­
zations and trade associations
concerned with specific building
trades, see the discussions of in­
dividual building trades later in
this chapter.

N ature of the W ork
Asbestos and insulating work­
ers cover pipes, boilers, furnaces,
ducts, and other related equip­
ment with insulating materials,
such as cork, felt, asbestos, fiber­
glass, polyurethane, and mag­
nesia. The insulating materials
which these workers install serve
many purposes. For example, the
insulation of pipework and duct­
work retains heat and thus saves
fuel. Insulation of piping in re­
frigeration systems prevents heat
absorption. Insulation material
placed in walls and ceilings, in
addition to providing thermal in­
sulation, controls the dispersion
of sound.
Insulating materials are in­
stalled by pasting, wiring, taping,
stud-welding, spraying, or plas­
tering. When covering pipework,
asbestos workers cut either block
or preformed insulation to the
required size and shape and then
wrap this material around the
pipe. Care is required to com­
pletely cover joints, flanges, el­
bows, and other connections.
They secure the insulating mate­
rial by using wire bands, or by
covering the insulated pipework
further with tar paper, cloth or
canvas, sewed or stapled into
place.
When covering flat surfaces,
asbestos workers may spot weld
or screw wire studs to the surface
and fasten the insulating material
to the studs. They may coat
joints with an asbestos cement
and then wrap the joints with
tape to provide a tight seal. In
some instances, asbestos workers
may spray or plaster the insulat­
ing material to a wire netting

BUILDING TRADES

363
establishments which have ex­
tensive steam installations for
power and heating. Some large
establishments which have cold
storage facilities also employ as­
bestos workers for maintenance
work.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Asbestos worker fits covering over
insulated pipe.

placed on the surface to be cov­
ered. The wire netting provides
adhesion and structural strength.
The final coat is smoothed with a
trowel, straightedge, and float.
Asbestos and insulating work­
ers use handtools such as trow­
els, brushes, scissors, sewing
palms and heavy-duty needles,
hammers, saws, pliers, and stud­
welding guns. Powersaws, as well
as handtools, are used to cut in­
sulating materials.

Places of E m ploym ent
Most asbestos workers are em­
ployed by insulation contractors
in new industrial and commercial
construction. A substantial num­
ber are employed in the altera­
tion and maintenance of insulated
pipework in chemical plants, pe­
troleum refineries, atomic energy
installations, and other industrial




Most asbestos workers learn
their trade through a 4-year “ im­
provership” program similar in
many respects to apprenticeship
programs in other building trades.
The improvership program con­
sists of a specified period of onthe-job training in which the new
worker learns how to handle the
tools of the trade and to work
with insulating materials.
Applicants for improvership
programs are generally required
to be between 18 and 30 and in
good physical condition. Hourly
wage rates under the improvership programs start at about 50
percent of the journeyman’s rate
and, if the trainee progresses sat­
isfactorily, his rate is increased
10 percent each year until 80 per­
cent of the journeyman’s rate is
reached during the final stage of
the program. At the end of the
improvership program, trainees
are required to pass an examina­
tion which demonstrates their
knowledge of the trade.
A skilled asbestos worker may
advance to foreman, shop super­
intendent, or estimator, or he
may open his own insulation con­
tracting business.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of asbestos and
insulating workers— estimated at
about 22,000 in 1968— is expected
to increase moderately through
the 1970’s. In addition to the job
openings resulting from the

growth of the trade, other oppor­
tunities will arise from the re­
placement of workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths
alone will result in nearly 300
job openings annually through
the 1970’s.
Employment growth will result
mainly from the anticipated large
rise in the volume of construc­
tion activity, particularly of com­
mercial and industrial buildings.
(See discussion, p. 360.) The in­
creasing use of pipe in numerous
manufacturing processes and in
air-conditioning and refrigera­
tion installations will expand the
need for asbestos workers in in­
stallation and maintenance work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for asbestos workers aver­
aged $5.51, compared with $5.43
for all journeymen in the build­
ing trades, on July 1,1968, accord­
ing to a national survey of build­
ing trades workers in 68 large cit­
ies. Among individual cities, the
minimum hourly rates for asbes­
tos workers ranged from $4.40 in
Charlotte, N.C., to $7.06 in Cleve­
land, Ohio. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, insur­
ance, or pension funds, for asbes­
tos workers in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to show wage rates from
various regions and areas of the
country, on July 1, 1968, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Birmingham ............................ $4.55
Buffalo ..................................... 5.60
Columbus .................................. 5.82
Denver ....................................... 4.48
Indianapolis ............................ 5.40
Memphis ................................... 4.60
Minneapolis-St. Paul ............... 4.75
Newark ..................................... 5.90
Pittsburgh ................................ 5.67
San Diego ............................... 6.25
Springfield .............................. 5.45
Tampa ....................................... 4.74

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

364
Asbestos and insulating work­
ers spend most of the workday
on their feet, either standing,
bending, stooping, or squatting.
Working from ladders or in tight
or inaccessible spaces when cover­
ing pipes and ducts may be neces­
sary. When old insulation is re­
moved before new materials are
installed, the work may be par­
ticularly dusty and dirty.
A large proportion of the work­
ers in this trade are members of
the International Association of
Heat and Frost Insulators and
Asbestos Workers.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
For further information regard­
ing asbestos workers’ improvership programs or other work op­
portunities in this trade, inquiries
should be directed to local asbes­
tos contractors or to a local of the
International Association of Heat
and Frost Insulators and Asbes­
tos Workers. In addition, the lo­
cal office of the State employ­
ment service may be a source of
information about work and
training opportunities, including
training programs operated un­
der the Manpower Development
and Training Act.

BRICKLAYERS
(D.O.T. 861.131, .381, .781, and .884)

N ature of the W ork
Bricklayers (or brickmasons)
are craftsmen who construct
walls,
partitions,
fireplaces,
chimneys, and other structures
from brick. They also work with
various other masonry materials,
such as concrete or cinder block;
precast panels made of concrete,




stone, or marble; porcelain glazed
tile; structural tile; and terra
cotta (a hard baked clay mate­
rial used for ornamental pur­
poses). They also install the
brick linings of industrial kilns
and furnaces.
When building a brick wall,
comers are usually constructed at
each end of the building or wall
using plumb lines and a mason’s
level. The bricklayer is then able
to stretch a horizontal line (gage
or course line) from corner to cor­
ner as a guide for each course or
layer of brick. The line is raised
when the course is completed. On
longer walls, a brick is often set
at fixed points along the wall,
plumbed for accuracy, and the
course line is trigged to this brick.

The line trig overcomes sag in the
course line; lessens line move­
ment from the wind and from
other bricklayers working on the
wall; and overall, helps to insure
the accuracy of the finished
brickwork.
In laying brick, a bricklayer
first spreads a layer or “ bed” of
mortar. He then applies a full
cross-joint of mortar to one end
of the brick to be laid or to the
end of the last brick laid. In a
single motion, he places the brick
on the bed joint while position­
ing the cross-joint between the
bricks to the desired width. A tap
or two with his trowel positions
the brick to the course line. He
cuts off the excess mortar with
his trowel and is then ready to

365

BUILDING TRADES

lay the next brick. Once the
course is completed (or some­
times sooner), the mortar joints
between the brick are struck
(jointed) with special finishing
tools to achieve a neat and uni­
form appearance.
If two or more thicknesses of
brick are being laid, the brick­
layer lays a “ bond” or “ header”
course at regular intervals (usu­
ally every sixth or seventh
course); that is, he arranges a
course of bricks crosswise or in
another bond pattern in order to
tie the interior and exterior walls
into a single unit. Whether the
bricklayer works with brick,
block, or other masonry mate­
rial, the work is essentially the
same.
Bricklaying requires careful,
accurate work combined with
planning and proper layout so
that the structure will have a uni­
form appearance and the brick­
work will line up with windows,
doors, and other openings in an
acceptable manner. Craftsmen in
this trade mainly use handtools,
including trowels, brick hammers,
levels, jointers, brick cutting
chisels, and rules. Powersaws are
often used for cutting and fitting
masonry materials; however, a
bricklayer will usually cut brick
with his trowel, brick hammer,
or brick chisel. Journeymen
bricklayers are usually assisted
by hod carriers or helpers (de­
tailed descriptions of the nature
of the work, employment outlook,
and other information concerning
construction laborers and hod
carriers appear elsewhere in the
Handbook) who stock scaffolds
with mortar, bricks, and blocks;
mix the mortar; and set up and
move scaffolding.

Places of E m ploym ent
The great majority of brick­
layers work mainly on new build­




ing construction. Some are em­
ployed in sewer construction to
build manholes and catch basins.
Bricklayers do a considerable
amount of alteration work, es­
pecially in the larger cities where
construction of fire-resistant par­
titions, store front remodeling,
and similar modernization work
are often done. They also do a
substantial amount of mainte­
nance and repair work.
Bricklayers also work for such
industrial establishments as fac­
tories making glass or steel,
where furnaces and kilns require
special fire brick and refractory
brick linings. For example, in a
steel manufacturing plant, the
bricklayer lines c o n v e r t e r s ,
cupolas, and ladles which hold
molten metal. Bricklayers must
have additional training to do re­
fractory brick work.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training a u t h o r i t i e s ,
including the National Joint
(labor-management) Bricklaying
Apprenticeship
and
Training
Committee, recommend the com­
pletion of a 3-year apprenticeship
program as the best way to learn
this trade. Many workers in this
trade have acquired bricklaying
skills informally, by working as
helpers or hod carriers, observing
or being taught by experienced
bricklayers. Many of these per­
sons have gained additional
knowledge of their trade by tak­
ing trade school courses.
Apprenticeship applicants are
generally required to be between
17 and 24, but this requirement
may be waived for veterans. A
high school education or its
equivalent is desirable. The abil­
ity to solve arithmetic problems
quickly and accurately is an
asset.
The apprenticeship program

generally consists of 6,000 hours
(3 years) of on-the-job training,
in addition to related classroom
instruction. In a typical 3-year
bricklayer training program, the
apprentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and
handle safely the tools, machines,
equipment, and materials com­
monly used in the trade; lay,
bond, and tie brickwork; build
footings and foundations; do ex­
terior brickwork such as straight
wall work, steps, and arches;
build columns, piers, and corners;
plan and build chimneys, fire­
places, and hearths; lay stone;
point brick and stone; clean
stone, brick, and tile using acid
solutions, and by sandblasting;
cut, set, and point concrete and
cinder blocks, artificial stone, and
glass blocks; and fireproof and
waterproof structures. The ap­
prentice receives related class­
room instruction in blueprint
reading, layout work, measure­
ment and sketches, and welding.
In fact, some apprenticeship pro­
grams conduct actual welding in­
structions that qualify trainees as
bricklayer-welder upon comple­
tion of their training. In addition,
the apprentice trainee learns the
relationship between bricklaying
and other building trades.
In some areas, formal appren­
tice training for bricklayers in­
cludes brief preliminary instruc­
tion at a vocational school or
some other type of prejob instruc­
tion. This training is designed to
give the apprentice a basic
knowledge in the handling of
tools and materials to prepare
him for the start of his on-the-job
training.
Hourly wage rates for brick­
layer apprentices generally start
at 50 percent of the journeyman
rate and increase periodically un­
til 95 percent of the journeyman’s
rate is reached during the last
period of the apprenticeship.
A bricklayer must have an eye

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

366
for straight lines and proportions.
Good physical condition and man­
ual dexterity are important as­
sets. Since the other building
craftsmen must usually fit their
work to his, he should know how
the parts of a structure fit to­
gether.
Bricklayers may advance to
jobs as foremen. They also may
become estimators for bricklaying
contractors. Estimators compute
material requirements and labor
costs. Some journeymen advance
to the position of bricklaying su­
perintendent on large construc­
tion projects, while others may
start their own bricklaying con­
tracting business.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of bricklayers—
estimated at about 175,000 in
1968— is expected to rise mod­
erately through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition, to new jobs created by
employment growth, thousands of
job opportunities will result from
the replacement of journeymen
who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone will result in
about 2,900 job openings annual­
ly through the 1970’s.
Much of the expected growth
in this trade will result from the
anticipated large increase in con­
struction activity. (See discus­
sion, p. 360.) The demand for
bricklayers also will be favorably
affected by such factors as the in­
creasing use of structural clay
tile for fire-resistant partitions;
glass blocks for exterior walls;
and ornamental brickwork for
structures,
such as exterior
screenwalls and lobbies and foy­
ers. In addition, the use of brick
masonry load-bearing walls is
growing, particularly in apart­
ment building construction.
These favorable developments
will be offset to some extent by
other construction techniques




that reduce the amount of brick­
work per structure. For example,
the use of steel framework and
reinforced concrete in structures
permits the elimination of loadbearing exterior brick walls. Also,
the use of metal, glass, and pre­
cast concrete wall panels in build­
ings results in less masonry work.
Other recent developments that
have increased the efficiency of
bricklayers include high-strength
mortars that can be applied with
caulking guns or compressor-pow­
ered extruders.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Hourly wage rates for brick­
layers rank among the highest in

the building trades. Union mini­
mum hourly wage rates for brick­
layers, on July 1, 1968, averaged
$5.63, compared with an average
of $5.43 for all journeymen in the
building trades, according to a
national survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the
minimum hourly rates for brick­
layers ranged from $4.38 in
Tampa, Fla., to $6.33 in Pitts­
burgh, Pa. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, insur­
ance, or pension funds, for brick­
layers in 12 of the 68 cities se­
lected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1968, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.

367

BUILDING TRADES

Although these hourly rates in­
dicate high annual incomes for
bricklayers, time lost because of
inclement weather and occasional
periods of unemployment between
jobs make average annual earn­
ings less than hourly rates of pay
imply.
City

Rate per hour

Atlanta................... ..................... $5.05
Boston ................... ..................... 5.95
Charlotte ............... ..................... 4.65
Chicago ................. ..................... 6.30
Detroit ................... ..................... 6.15
Indianapolis ......... ................. 5.70
Memphis ............... ..................... 5.50
Milwaukee ........... ................. 5.71
Newark ................. ................. 6.05
Sacramento ........... ..................... 5.45
Seattle ................... ..................... 5.67
Topeka ................... ..................... 5.15

The work of the bricklayer is
active and sometimes strenuous,
like the work in other building
trades. It involves stooping to
pick up materials, moderately
heavy lifting, and prolonged
standing. Most of the work is
done outdoors.
A large proportion of brick­
layers are members of the Brick­
layers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing bricklaying apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local bricklaying con­
tractors; a local of the Bricklay­
ers, Masons and Plasterers’ In­
ternational Union of America; a
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and Train­
ing, U.S. Department of Labor.
In addition, the local office of the
State employment service may
be a source of information about
the Manpower Development and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and




other programs that provide
training opportunities. Some lo­
cal employment service offices
provide services such as screen­
ing applicants and giving apti­
tude tests.
General information about the
work of bricklayers may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plaster­
ers’ International Union of
America, 815 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
Structural Clay Products Institute,
1750 Old Meadow Road, Mc­
Lean, Va. 22101.

CARPENTERS
(D.O.T. 860.281 through .781)

N ature of the W ork
Carpenters, the largest group
of building trades workers, are
employed in almost every type of
construction activity. They erect
the wood framework in buildings,
including subflooring, sheathing,
partitions, floor joists, studding,
and rafters. When the building is
ready for trimming, they install
molding, wood paneling, cabinets,
window sash, doorframes, doors,
and hardware, as well as build
stairs and lay floors. Carpenters,
when doing finish work, must
concern themselves with the ap­
pearance, as well as the struc­
tural accuracy, of the work.
Carpenters also install heavy
timbers used to build docks, rail­
road trestles, and similar struc­
tures. They build the forms
needed to pour concrete decks,
columns, piers, and retaining
walls used in the construction of
bridges, buildings, and other

structures. They also erect scaf­
folding and temporary buildings
at the construction site. Carpen­
ters also may install linoleum,
asphalt tile, and similar softfloor coverings.
Carpenters also saw, fit, and
assemble plywood, wallboard, and
other materials. They use nails,
bolts, wood screws, or glue to
fasten materials. Carpenters use
handtools such as hammers, saws,
chisels, and planes, and power
tools such as portable power saws,
drills, and rivet guns.
Because of the wide scope of
the work performed in the trade,
some carpenters specialize in a
particular type of carpentry. For
example, some carpenters spe­
cialize in installing acoustic pan­
els on ceilings and walls; others
specialize in the installation of
millwork and finish hardware
(trimming), laying hardwood
floors, or building stairs. Spe­
cialization is more common in the
large cities; in small communities,
carpenters ordinarily do all types
of carpentry. In rural areas, car­
penters may do the work of other
craftsmen, particularly painting,
glazing, or roofing. Carpenters
generally stay in a particular field
of construction, such as home,
bridge, or highway construction,
or in industrial maintenance.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most carpenters work in the
construction industry and are em­
ployed mainly by contractors and
homebuilders at the construction
site. Although most carpenters
are employed in new construction,
a substantial number are em­
ployed on alteration, remodeling,
or building repair. Some carpen­
ters alternate between wage em­
ployment for contractors and selfemployment on small jobs. Some
work for government agencies or
nonconstruction firms which em-

368

ploy a separate work force to
perform their own construction.
A large number of carpenters do
maintenance work in factories, ho­
tels, office buildings, and other
large establishments. Others are
employed in shipbuilding, in min­
ing, and in the production of
many kinds of display materials.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Carpentry Ap­
prenticeship and Training Com­
mittee recommend the comple­
tion of a 4-year apprenticeship
program as the best way to learn
carpentry. A substantial number
of workers in this trade, however,
have acquired some carpentry
skills informally, for example, by
working around a farm. Many of
these men also have gained some
of the knowledge of the trade by




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

taking correspondence or trade
school courses.
Apprenticeship applicants are
generally required to be from 17
through 27 years of age; a high
school education or its equivalent
is desirable. Good physical con­
dition, a good sense of balance,
and lack of fear of working on
high structures are important as­
sets. Aptitudes which the appren­
tice should have include manual
dexterity and the ability to solve
arithmetic problems quickly and
accurately.
The apprenticeship program
usually consists of 8,000 hours (4
years) of on-the-job training, in
addition to a minimum of 144
hours of related classroom in­
struction each year. During the
apprenticeship period, the ap­
prentice learns elementary struc­
tural design and becomes familar
with the common systems of
frame and concrete form con­
struction, and to use, care for,
and handle safely the tools, ma­

chines, equipment, and materials
used in the trade. He also learns
how to lay out work, do rough
framing, do outside and inside
finishing work (for example,
hanging doors, setting and finish­
ing windows, fitting hardware, and
flooring and stair work), weld, do
acoustic and dry-wall construc­
tion, and erect scaffolding and
shoring.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in drafting
and blueprint reading, mathe­
matics applicable to layout work,
and the use of woodworking ma­
chines. Both in the classroom
and on the job he learns the re­
lationship between carpentry and
the other building trades because
the work of the carpenter is basic
to the construction process.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices usually start at about 50
percent of the journeyman rate
and increase by about 5 percent
in each 6-month period until a
rate of 85 to 90 percent is reached
during the last period of ap­
prenticeship.
It is important for young men
interested in entering carpentry
to obtain the all-around training
given in apprenticeship programs,
particularly because technologi­
cal innovations increasingly are
affecting carpentry. Carpenters
having such training will have
especially favorable long-range
job prospects. They will be in
much greater demand and have
better opportunities for advance­
ment than those in the trade who
can do only the relatively simple,
routine types of carpentry.
Carpenters may advance to car­
penter foremen or to general con­
struction foremen. Carpenters
usually have greater opportuni­
ties than most building craftsmen
to become general construction
foremen, since carpenters are in­
volved with the entire construc­
tion process. The proportion of
self-employed is higher among

BUILDING TRADES

carpenters than among most
other skilled building trades.
Some self-employed carpenters
are able to become contractors
and employ other journeymen.

E m p loym en t O utlook

Employment of carpenters—
who numbered nearly 870,000 in
1968— is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s. In
addition, to new jobs created by
employment growth, tens of thou­
sands of jobs for carpenters will
be available each year to replace
experienced carpenters who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths
alone are expected to provide
nearly 21,000 job openings an­
nually.
The large rise expected in con­
struction activity (see discussion,
p. 360) is expected to result in a
growing demand for carpenters.




369

In addition, more carpenters will
be needed in the maintenance de­
partments of factories, commer­
cial establishments, large resi­
dential projects, and government
agencies. H o w e v e r , employ­
ment growth will continue to be
limited by technological develop­
ments. For example, the use of
construction materials prepared
away from the building site is
expected to increase. These mate­
rials, which include floors, par­
titions, and stairs, are designed
for easy and speedy installation.
Walls and partitions can be lifted
into place in one operation.
Beams and, in some instances,
roof assemblies are lifted into
place by cranes. Because of the
standardization of prefabricated
components, the use of such mate­
rials will increase further.
More widespread use of im­
proved tools and equipment will
increase the efficiency of carpen­

ters. These products include new
types of nails that have improved
holding properties; hence, fewer
nails and less hammering are re­
quired. Stronger adhesives are
being used that reduce the time
needed to join pieces of wood and
other materials. Power tools in
widespread use include stud
drivers, screwdrivers, sanders,
saws, staplers, and nailing ma­
chines. One type of power tool
can drill and nail in one opera­
tion. New types of scaffolding are
easier to erect, adaptable to vary­
ing construction situations, and
safer to use.
Employment of carpenters also
will be affected by the increased
use of construction materials and
techniques that reduce
the
amount of carpentry required in
residential buildings. For exam­
ple, where houses are framed with
steel, the use of curtain-wall pan­
els, which can be fastened into
place quickly, is possible. In addi­
tion to the speed with which they
can be put in place, curtain-wall
panels also may reduce the need
for carpenters because they are
available in nonwood materials
such as glass, aluminum, and por­
celain-coated steel. The use of
plastics in construction is in its
infancy, but their greater use is
expected. Already available are
siding, curtain walls, partitions,
roofing, ornamental screening,
and insulation materials made of
plastic. Under development are
foam plastic roofs and even entire
houses of plastic that can be con­
structed on site.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for carpenters averaged
$5.35, compared with $5.43 for
all journeymen in the building
trades, on July 1, 1968, accord­
ing to a national survey of build­
ing trades workers in 68 large

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

370
cities. Among individual cities
surveyed, minimum hourly rates
for carpenters ranged from $3.60
in Charlotte, N.C., to $6.40 in
New York City. Straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health,
insurance, or pension funds, for
carpenters in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1968, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Atlanta.................... ................ $4.60
Boston .................... ................ 5.55
Chicago .................. ................. 5.75
Denver .................... ................ 5.07
Detroit .................... ................. 5.96
Los Angeles............ ................ 5.33
New Orleans .......... ................ 4.70
Philadelphia .......... ................ 4.85
Pittsburgh .............. ................ 5.90
St. Louis.................. ................ 5.83
San Diego .............. ................ 5.44
Seattle .................... ................ 5.10

As other building trades, the
work of the carpenter is active
and sometimes strenous, but ex­
ceptional physical strength is not
required. However, prolonged
standing, as well as climbing and
squatting, is often necessary. Car­
penters risk injury from slips or
falls, from contact with sharp or
rough materials, and from the use
of sharp tools and power equip­
ment. Many young persons like
carpentry because they are able
to work outdoors.
A large proportion of carpen­
ters are members of the United
Brotherhood of Carpenters and
Joiners of America.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing carpentry apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local carpentry contractors or
general contractors; a local union
of the United Brotherhood of Car­
penters and Joiners of America;




a local joint union-management
apprenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State appren­
ticeship agency or the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In ad­
dition, the local office of the
State employment service may be
a source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities. Some local
employment services screen ap­
plicants and give aptitude tests.
General information on appren­
ticeship in this trade is also avail­
able from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners of America, 101
Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20001.

CEMENT MASONS (CEMENT
AND CONCRETE FINISHERS)
(D.O.T. 844.884 and 852.884)

N atu re of the W ork
The principal work of cement
masons is finishing the exposed
concrete surfaces on many types
of construction projects. These
projects range from small jobs,
such as the finishing of patios,
floors, and sidewalks, to work on
huge dams, miles of concrete high­
ways, foundations and walls of
large buildings, airport runways,
and missile launching sites. On
small projects, a cement mason,
assisted by one or two helpers,
may do all the concrete work; on
large projects, a crew of several
cement masons and many helpers
may be employed.
In preparing the site for pour­

ing (placing) the concrete mix­
ture, the cement mason makes
sure that the forms, which hold
the concrete, are set for the de­
sired pitch and depth of the con­
crete mixture and are properly
alined. On larger (and wider)
pours, a screed (guide) may be
placed to section the pour into
12-15 foot widths, which allows
easier handling and greater ac­
curacy in the initial leveling pro­
cess.
The cement mason directs the
pouring of the concrete. He usu­
ally supervises the laborers who
“ strike off” (place and spread the
mixture to its approximate level)
the concrete using shovels or spe­
cial rakes. The cement masons
then level the surface further
using a “ straightedge” (a rod
made of wood or lightweight
metal long enough to extend
across
the
freshly
poured
concrete), leaving the concrete
ready for its intermediate and
final finishing.
The
finisher
works the surface using special
tools, such as a float, whip, or
darby, to fill minor depressions
and remove high spots. This agi­
tation tends to draw surface fines
(a rich mixture of cement and
fine sand) to the top while im­
bedding coarser aggregates in
preparation for the final finishing.
Final finishing is usually de­
layed until the concrete has hard­
ened sufficiently to support the
weight of a finisher on kneeboards. While the concrete is still
workable, the craftsmen use handtools— a wood or magnesium float
and a finishing trowel— to bring
the concrete to the proper con­
sistency and obtain the desired
finish. Concrete finishing also may
be done with the aid of poweroperated trowels; however, edges,
comers, and other inaccessible
places for power-operated tools
must still be finished by hand.
On most small building pro­
jects, such as sidewalks, drive-

371

BUILDING TRADES

the curing of cement, the skilled
mason must recognize by sight
and touch what is occurring in the
cement mixture so that he may be
able to prevent defects and
achieve the specified results.

Places of Em ploym ent
Cement masons work principal­
ly on large buildings, but many
are employed on highway or other
nonbuilding construction. Cement
masons work directly for general
contractors who are responsible
for constructing entire projects
such as highways, or large indus­
trial, commercial, and residential
buildings. They also work for con­
crete contractors who do only the
concrete work on a large con­
struction project or who work
on smaller projects such as side­
walks, driveways, and basement
floors. Some work for specialty
floor contractors installing com­
position resilient floors, such as
trowel applied epoxies, latex underlayments, and simulated terrazzo floors. A small number
Cement masons screed concrete using straightedge.
work for municipal public works
ways, and patios, concrete finish­ form appearance for the concrete departments, public utilities, and
ing generally involves hand oper­ surfaces.
manufacturing firms which do
Some cement masons specialize their own construction work.
ations. On highways and other
large-scale projects,
however, in laying a mastic coat (a fine Some cement masons are self-em­
power-operated floats and cement asphalt mixture) over concrete, ployed and do small cement jobs,
finishing machines are used ex­ particularly in buildings where such as sidewalks, driveways,
sound-insulated or acid-resistant patios, and curb and gutter work.
tensively.
On concrete work which is ex­ floors are specified. The mastic is
posed (for example, columns, applied while hot, then smoothed,
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
piers, ceilings, and wall panels), using heavy hand tools.
The cement mason’s knowledge
and A dvancem ent
cement masons must correct sur­
face defects and air pockets (often of his materials is essential to the
Most training authorities, in­
called honeycombs) when the quality of his work. He must be
forms are stripped from the hard­ familiar with the working charac­ cluding the National Cement
ened concrete. This involves pre­ teristics of various cement and Masonry, Asphalt, and Composi­
paring the surface with a rubbing concrete mixes, such as those con­ tion Joint (labor-management)
and
Training
brick (silicon carbide) to remove taining substances to speed or Apprenticeship
any high spots. A rich cement slow the setting time, and those Committee, recommended the
mixture is rubbed into the con­ which are used to construct completion of a 3-year appren­
crete surface using a sponge rub­ weight-supporting walls or sur­ ticeship program as the best way
ber float or piece of burlap cloth faces of specified strengths. In to learn this trade. A substantial
to fill the imperfections and voids. addition, because of the effects number of workers, however, have
The end result is a smooth uni­ that heat, cold, and wind have on acquired cement masonry skills




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

372
informally by working on build­
ing and road construction jobs as
laborers assisting cement ma­
sons. Others have worked with
specialty contractors constructing
sidewalks and doing other ma­
sonry work. These workers have
learned their skills by observing
or being taught by experienced
cement masons.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be between
18 and 25. Good physical con­
dition and manual dexterity are
important assets.
The apprenticeship program
usually consists of 6,000 hours (3
years) of on-the-job training, in
addition to related classroom in­
struction. During the apprentice­
ship period, the apprentice learns,
among other things, to use and
handle the tools, equipment, and
materials of the trade. He also
learns finishing, layout work, and
safety techniques. The apprentice
receives related classroom in­
struction in subjects such as ap­
plied mathematics and related
sciences, blueprint reading, archi­
tectural drawing, estimating ma­
terials and costs, and local build­
ing regulations. Although a high
school education is not required,
education above the grade school
level, preferably including mathe­
matics, is needed to understand
the classroom instruction.
Cement masons may advance
to jobs as foremen. They may
also become estimators for con­
crete contractors. Estimators cal­
culate material requirements and
labor costs. Others may start
their own concrete contracting
business.

by employment growth, thou­
sands of job opportunities will re­
sult from the replacement of
craftsmen who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Re­
tirements and deaths alone will
result in about 1,100 job openings
annually through the 1970’s.
Employment of cement masons
is expected to increase mainly be­
cause the anticipated rapid in­
crease in construction activity
(see discussion, p. 360) will be ac­
companied by the growing use of
concrete and concrete products.
Prestressed concrete makes pos­
sible wide spans where columnfree construction is desired.
Lightweight concrete wall panels
that are fire- and weather-resist­
ant are being used increasingly
on nonload-bearing walls. These
panels, available in different fin­
ishes, colors, and designs, can be

speedily fastened into place. In
some instances, buildings made
with concrete wall panels can be
easily dismantled and reerected
elsewhere. Artistic and functional
shapes can be incorporated into
structures where prestressed con­
crete is used. In addition, the use
of concrete and concrete products
has expanded to include thinshell
dome roofs, ornamental grill
work, and slab and arch roofs in
residential buildings; and bridge
girders,
columns, piles, and
beams. Also, concrete can be
poured year round by using heat­
ed, temporary shelters made of
sheet plastic.
Employment of cement masons
is not expected to increase as rap­
idly as the use of cement and
concrete products. Many concrete
products are now precast away
from the construction site, and

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of cement masons
— estimated at about 60,000 in
1968— is expected to increase
r a p i d l y through the 1970’s.
In addition to new jobs created




Cement mason smooths concrete using trowel and float.

373

BUILDING TRADES

these products generally do not
require finishing. The efficiency
of on-site masons also has in­
creased through the use of new
and improved construction meth­
ods, materials, and equipment.
Concrete slabs for floors and roofs
can be processed at ground level
and raised into place with syn­
chronized hydraulic jacks or
cranes. Walls can be processed in
the same manner and tilted into
place. For certain jobs, concrete
can be applied pneumatically
through hoses. Glass-fiber-rein­
forced plastic forms provide a
smooth surface, reducing rubbing
and patching work. Steel and
plastic-covered wood forms that
can be reused many times are
now available. Adhesives reduce
the need for bolts and other types
of fasteners. Worker efficiency
has also been increased by the in­
troduction in recent years of new
machines, including powered con­
crete conveyors, such as powered
wheelbarrows; portable, powered
screeds; electric concrete vibra­
tors; hydraulic joint-forming ma­
chines; powered concrete cutting
saws; and cement-finishing ma­
chines.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for cement masons averaged
$5.12 compared with $5.43 for all
journeymen in the building
trades, on July 1, 1968, according
to a national survey of building
trades workers in 68 large cities.
Among individual cities surveyed,
the minimum hourly rates for ce­
ment masons ranged from $3.40
in Norfolk, Va., to $6.50 in New
York City. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, insur­
ance, or pension funds, for ce­
ment masons in 12 of the 68 cit­
ies selected to show wage in­
formation from various areas and




regions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Birmingham ............................ $4.18
Boston ..................................... 6.00
Columbus ................................. 5.50
Dallas ....................................... 4.45
Denver ..................................... 4.90
Fresno ..................................... 5.02
Jacksonville.............................. 3.80
Milwaukee................................ 5.10
Newark ................................... 6.05
Pittsburgh ................................ 5.95
Salt Lake City ........................ 4.85
Washington, D.C..................... 4.88

Cement masons usually receive
premium pay for hours worked in
excess of the regularly scheduled
workday or workweek. Overtime
work for these craftsmen often
occurs because once concrete has
been poured, the work must be
completed.
The work of the cement mason
is active and strenuous, like the
work of skilled building trades­
men generally. Since most cement
finishing is done on floors
or at ground level, the cement
mason is required to stoop, bend,
or kneel. Much of his work is
done outdoors.
A large proportion of cement
masons are union members. They
belong either to the Operative
Plasterers’ and Cement Masons’
International Association of the
United States and Canada, or to
the Bricklayers, Masons and
Plasterers’ International Union
of America.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing cement mason apprenticeships
or other work opportunities in the
trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local cement finishing
contractors; local of unions pre­
viously mentioned; a local joint
union-management
apprentice­
ship committee; or the nearest of­

fice of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. De­
partment of Labor. In addition,
the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source
of information about the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, apprenticeship, and other
programs that provide training
opportunities.
General information about the
work of cement masons may be
obtained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plaster­
ers’ International Union of
America, 815 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
Operative Plasterers’ and Cement
Masons’ International Associa­
tion of the United States and
Canada, 1125 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

CONSTRUCTION LABORERS
AND HOD CARRIERS
(D.O.T. 809.887; 844.887; 850. through
852.887; and 859. through 862.887)

N ature of the W ork
Construction laborers work on
all types of building construction
and on other types of construc­
tion projects, such as highways,
dams, pipelines, and water and
sewer projects. Their work in­
cludes the loading and unloading
of construction materials at the
worksite and the shoveling and
grading of earth. Laborers stack
and carry materials, including
small units of machinery and
equipment, and do other work
that aids building craftsmen.
They also erect and dismantle
scaffolding, set braces to support
the sides of excavations, and clean

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

374

Construction laborer tamps earth with
pneumatic tool.

up rubble and accumulated debris
to provide clear work areas.
On alteration and moderniza­
tion jobs, laborers tear out the
existing work. They perform most
of the work done by wrecking and
salvage crews during the demoli­
tion of buildings.
When concrete is mixed at the
worksite, laborers unload and
handle materials and fill handloaded mixers with ingredients.
Whether the concrete is mixed
on-site or hauled in by truck, la­
borers pour and spread the con­
crete, and spade or vibrate it to
prevent air pockets. In highway
paving laborers clean the rightof-way, fine grade and prepare
the site, handle and place the
forms into which wet concrete is
poured, and cover new pavement
with straw, burlap, or other ma­
terials to prevent excessive dry­
ing.
Bricklayers’ tenders and plaster
tenders, both commonly known as




hod carriers, serve journeymen in
their respective trades, mixing
and supplying materials, setting
up and moving portable scaffold­
ing, and providing the many other
services needed. Hod carriers
must be familiar with the work
of the journeymen and have some
knowledge of the materials and
tools used. Laborers also tend ce­
ment finishers, and some who
have started as laborers have
learned that trade.
Building and construction la­
borers are commonly classified as
unskilled workers, but this term
can be misleading. Their work
covers a wide range of require­
ments. Many type of construc­
tion-laborer and hod-carrier jobs
require training and experience,
as well as a broad knowledge of
construction methods, materials,
and operations. Rock blasting,
rock drilling, tunnel construction,
and concrete work are examples
of work in which “ know-how” is
important. Construction laborers
who work with explosives drill
holes in rock, handle explosives,
and set charges. These workers
must know the effects of different
explosive charges under varying
rock conditions so that proper
measures can be taken to pre­
vent injury and property damage.
Construction laborers learn how
to handle and use blasting ma­
terials through job experience and
instruction from foreman in
charge of blasting work. Also, in
the construction of tunnels, and
dam and bridge foundations, contruction laborers must have spe­
cific on-the-job experience. They
do all the work in the boring and
mining of a tunnel, including op­
erations which would be done by
journeymen if the job were lo­
cated above ground.
Places of Em ploym ent
Laborers are employed by all
types of construction contractors.

A large number of these workers
also are employed by State and
municipal public works and high­
way departments, and by public
utility companies in road repair­
ing and maintenance, and exca­
vating.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Little formal training is re­
quired to obtain a job as a build­
ing or construction laborer. Gen­
erally, to be employed in these
jobs, a young man must be at
least 18 years of age and in good
physical condition. A laborer’s
first job is usually on the sim­
plest type of work, but as he
gains experience, he does more
difficult work. If he works closely
with a skilled craftsman for sev­
eral years, he may be able to
pick up the skills of the trade.
However, in their work as con­
struction laborers, relatively few
workers have such opportunities.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of construction
laborers and hod carriers— esti­
mated at about 750,000 in 1968
— is expected to increase slowly
through the 1970’s. However,
thousands of additional job open­
ings will arise from the replace­
ment of construction laborers who
transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone are expected to pro­
vide about 13,000 job openings
annually.
The anticipated large increase
in construction activity (see dis­
cussion p. 360) is expected to
result in a growing demand for
laborers and hod carriers, but the
increase in their employment will
be somewhat limited by more
widespread use of mechanized
equipment. For example, con-

BUILDING TRADES

375
specialized equipment such as
trenchers and front-end loaders,
is also increasing.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for bricklayers’ tenders and
building laborers averaged $4.29
and $3.96, respectively, on July 1,
1968, according to a national sur­
vey of building trades workers in
68 large cities. Among individual
cities surveyed, the minimum
hourly rates for bricklayers’ tend­
ers ranged from $2.20 in Nor­
folk and Richmond, Va., to $5.40
in New York City. The rates for
building laborers ranged from
$2.10 in Jackson, Miss., and Nor­
folk and Richmond, Va., to $5.65
in New York City. Straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health, in­
surance, or pension funds, for
bricklayers’ tenders and building
laborers in 12 of the 68 cities
selected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1968, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.
Construction work is physically
strenuous, since it requires fre­
quent bending, stooping, and
heavy lifting. Much of the work
is performed outdoors. Many la­
borers are members of the Labor­
ers’ International Union of North
America.
City

Construction crew releases concrete from bucket.

struction materials formerly handied at the construction site, such
as brick, concrete, and lumber,
are moved by forklift trucks,
powered wheelbarrows, and con-




veyor belts. Materials are lifted
to the upper floors of multistoried
buildings by automatic lifts and
heavy duty cranes. The use of
earth moving machines, including

Rate per hour
Bricklayers’ Building
tenders
laborers

Albuquerque ..... ........ $3.48
Baltimore.......... ........ 3.18
Buffalo .............. ........ 4.29
Columbus .......... ......... 4.11
Des Moines ....... ......... 3.93
Fresno .............. ......... 4.60
Los Angeles ..... ........ 4.32
Omaha .............. ......... 3.73
Phoenix ............ ......... 4.33
Providence........ ......... 3.75
Seattle .............. ......... 4.60
Tampa .............. ......... 2.75

$3.18
3.03
4.29
3.91
3.93
4.43
3.97
3.70
3.76
3.75
4.30
2.60

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information re-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

376
garding work opportunities as a
construction laborer, inquiries
should be directed to local build­
ing or construction contractors,
or a local of the Laborers’ Inter­
national Union of North America.
In addition, the local office of the
State employment service is a
source of information about work
opportunities.
General information about the
work of construction laborers may
be obtained from:
Laborers’ International Union of
North America, 905 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

ELECTRICIANS
(CONSTRUCTION)
(D.O.T. 821.381; 824.281; and 829.281
and .381)

N ature of the W ork

Construction electricians lay
out, assemble, install, and test
electrical fixtures, apparatus, and
wiring used in electrical systems.
These systems provide heat, light,
power, air conditioning, and re­
frigeration in residences, office
buildings, factories, hospitals,
schools, and other structures.
Construction electricians also in­
stall and connect electrical ma­
chinery, electronic equipment,
controls, and signal and com­
munications systems. (Mainte­
nance electricians do work which
is similar in many respects to
that performed by construction
electricians. A discussion of
maintenance electricians is pre­
sented elsewhere in the Hand­

book.)
Construction electricians usu­
ally follow blueprints and speci­
fications when installing electri­
cal components. If there is no




electrical drawing, the electrician
terminates the incoming electrical
service into a central load center.
The electrician then installs in­
terior circuits and outlets accord­
ing to the amount of electrical
current expected to be used in the
various sections of the building.
He also installs fuses or circuit
breakers of the proper rating in
the incoming and interior circuits
to prevent overloading, which
causes overheating of wires, ap­
pliances, and motors. The con­
struction electrician must know
and follow National Electrical
Code regulations and, in addition,
must fulfill State, county, and
municipal regulations.
When installing wiring, the
construction electrician uses a
mechanical or hydraulic bender
to shape conduit (pipe or tub­
ing). The conduit usually must
fit inside partitions, walls, con­
cealed areas of the ceiling, or
within other narrow and inacces­
sible spaces. He pulls insulated
wires or cables through the con­
duit to complete the circuit be­
tween the electrical outlet and
the switch. Next, he connects the
wires or cables to circuit break­
ers, switch-gear motors, trans­
formers, or other components.
Wires are spliced (joined) by
soldering or mechanical means.
When these operations are com­
pleted, the electrician tests the
electrical circuits to make sure
that the entire system is properly
grounded, the connections prop­
erly made, and the circuits do not
carry excessive current.
The electrician furnishes his
own handtools, such as pliers,
screwdrivers, brace and bits,
knives, and hacksaws. The em­
ployer furnishes test meters and
heavier tools and equipment, such
as pipe threaders, conduit bend­
ers, chain hoists, electric drills,
power fasteners, and ladders. In
residential construction, heavier
tools are not usually required.

Construction electrician pulls wire for
telephone jack.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most construction electricians
work for electrical contractors.
Substantial numbers are self-em­
ployed. Others work for govern­
ment agencies or business estab­
lishments that do their own elec­
trical work. Construction elec­
tricians usually work for a large
number of different employers
during their work life because of
the intermittent needs of individ­
ual contractors. However, many
construction electricians work
for the same electrical contractor
for long periods of time. During
a single year, a construction elec­
trician may work for an electrical
contractor in the construction of
new homes or office buildings, for
a manufacturing firm in remodel­
ing its plant or offices, or he may
do electrical repairs for homeowners or business firms.

377

BUILDING TRADES

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Apprenticeship
and Training Committee for the
Electrical Industry, recommend
the completion of a 4-year ap­
prenticeship program as the best
way to learn all aspects of the
electrical trade. However, in the
past, some construction elec­
tricians have acquired skills of
the trade informally by working
for many years as helpers, observ­
ing or being taught by experi­
enced craftsmen. Many of these
persons have gained additional
knowledge of the trade by taking
trade school or correspondence
courses, or through special train­
ing when in the Armed Forces.
The International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers and the Na­
tional Electrical Contractors As­
sociation have jointly developed
an extensive apprenticeship pro­
gram. Apprenticeship applicants
generally are required to be be­
tween 18 and 24, but exceptions
may be made for veterans. A
high school education is required;
courses in mathematics and phy­
sics are desirable. Applicants are
usually required to take tests to
determine their aptitude for the
trade.
All apprenticeship programs
are conducted under written
agreement between the appren­
tice and the local joint unionmanagement apprenticeship com­
mittee, which supervises the
training. The committee deter­
mines the need for apprentices in
the locality, establishes minimum
apprenticeship standards, and
schedules a diversified, rotating
work program. This program is
designed to give the apprentice
all-round training by having him
work for several electrical con­
tractors who engage in particular
types of work.




The apprenticeship program
usually requires 8,000 hours (4
years) of on-the-job training, in
addition to a minimum of 144
hours of related classroom in­
struction each year. In a typical
4-year training program, the ap­
prentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and han­
dle safely the tools, equipment,
and materials commonly used
in the trade; do r e s i d e n t i a l ,
commercial, and industrial elec­
trical installations; and maintain
and repair installations. In ad­
dition, he receives related class­
room instruction in such subjects
as electrical layout, blueprint
reading, mathematics, and elec­
trical theory, including elec­
tronics. After completing their
apprenticeship, many journeymen
electricians enroll in courses,
which may include advanced elec­
tronics, to keep abreast of the
latest developments in this rap­
idly changing occupation.
Hourly wage rates of appren­
tices usually start at 40 to 50
percent of the journeyman rate
and increase by 5 percent in each
6-month period until 80 to 85
percent of the journeyman rate is
reached during the last period of
the apprenticeship.
An experienced construction
electrician who has learned all the
aspects of the craft through ap­
prenticeship can transfer readily
to other types of electrical work.
For example, many take jobs as
maintenance electricians in fac­
tories or in commercial estab­
lishments, and others work as
electricians in shipbuilding and
aircraft manufacturing.
Because improperly installed
electrical work is hazardous, most
cities require electricians to be
licensed. To obtain a license, the
electrician must pass an exami­
nation which requires a thorough
knowledge of the craft and of
State and local building codes.
Many journeymen electricians

become foremen or superintend­
ents for electrical contractors on
construction jobs. These crafts­
men may also become estimators
for electrical contractors, comput­
ing material requirements and
labor costs.
Many construction electricians
go into business for themselves.
As they expand their activities,
they may employ other workers
and become contractors. In most
large urban areas, a master elec­
trician’s license is required to en­
gage in an electrical contracting
business.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of construction
electricians— who numbered more
than 185,000 in 1968— is ex­
pected to increase r a p i d l y
through the 1970’s. In addition to
the growth that is anticipated in
the trade, many thousands of job
opportunities will result from the
replacement of journeymen who
transfer to other types of elec­
trical work, leave the trade for
other reasons, retire, or die. R e­
tirements and deaths alone will
result in about 3,700 job openings
annually.
The increase in employment of
electricians is expected mainly
because of the anticipated large
expansion in construction activ­
ity. (see discussion, p. 360.) Oth­
er factors expected to contribute
to the growth of this trade are
greater requirements for electric
outlets, switches, and wiring in
homes to accommodate the in­
creasing use of appliances and airconditioning systems; and the ex­
tensive wiring systems needed for
the installation of electronic dataprocessing equipment and electri­
cal control devices being used
increasingly in commerce and in­
dustry. Other recent develop­
ments expected to expand the de­
mand for construction electricians

378
include an increase in the number
of “ all-electric” homes, and the
use of outdoor radiant heat­
ing, and snow- and ice-melting
systems.
Technological
developments
are expected
to
limit the
employment growth of this
trade. A major technological de­
velopment increasing the effi­
ciency of electricians is the pre­
fabrication of electrical equip­
ment. For example, preassembled
conductors and raceways that can
be installed in one operation are
available. Switch boxes and
switchboards, which formerly had
to be wired on site, are now pre­
assembled at the factory. Also
available are “ packaged” (pre­
assembled and prewired) ceiling
units, which the electrician con­
nects to the power source, elimi­
nating the need to wire the com­
plete system and install the fix­
tures.
Improved tools and equipment
being used increasingly by elec­
tricians include more efficient




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

conduit benders; multiple spindle
drills; cordless electric drills,
saws, and other tools; and “ kits”
of splicing materials that have
reduced the time needed to do
field insulation of cable splices.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Hourly wage rates of construc­
tion electricians are among the
highest in the skilled building
trades. Furthermore, because the
seasonal nature of construction
work affects electricians less than
most other construction workers,
their annual earnings generally
are among the highest in the
building trades.
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for electricians averaged
$5.57 compared with $5.43 for all
journeymen in the building
trades on July 1, 1968, accord­
ing to a national survey of build­
ing trades workers in 68 large
cities. Among individual cities
surveyed, the union minimum

hourly rates for construction elec­
tricians ranged from $4.35 in
Charlotte, N.C., to $6.59 in San
Francisco, Calif. Straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health,
insurance, or pension funds, for
construction electricians in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Birmingham ............................ $5.05
Buffalo ....................................... 6.11
Columbus.................................... 5.68
Des Moines ................................ 5.55
Fresno ....................................... 5.92
Grand Rapids............................ 5.72
Little Rock ................................ 4.85
Louisville .................................... 5.30
Providence ................................ 5.20
Spokane ..................................... 5.16
Trenton ......................
Washington, D.C........................ 5.65

The work of the construction
electrician, like that of other
building trades, is active but
does not require great physical
strength. Frequently, the con­
struction electrician stands for
prolonged periods; sometimes he
works in cramped quarters. Be­
cause most of his work is indoors,
the construction electrician is
less exposed to unfavorable
weather conditions than most
other skilled building trades
workers. Electricians risk falls
from ladders and scaffolds, cuts
from sharp tools, electrical shock,
blows from falling objects, and
burns from “ live” wires. However,
safety practice learned during ap­
prenticeship and other types of
training have helped to reduce
the injury rate for these workers.
The number of injuries per mil­
lion man-hours worked by em­
ployees in contract electrical work
has been lower than in contract
construction work as a whole, but
higher than that for production
workers in manufacturing in­
dustries.

379

BUILDING TRADES

A large proportion of construc­
tion electricians are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.

ELEVATOR CONSTRUCTORS
(D.O.T. 825.381)

N atu re of the W ork
Sources of A dditional Inform ation

For further information regard­
ing electrician apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local electrical contrac­
tors; a local union of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electri­
cal Workers; a local joint unionmanagement apprenticeship com­
mittee, or the nearest office of the
State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local of­
fice of the State employment
service may be a source of in­
formation about the Manpower
Development and Training Act,
apprenticeship, and other pro­
grams that provide training op­
portunities. Some local employ­
ment service offices provide serv­
ices such as screening applicants
and giving aptitude tests.
General information about the
work of electricians may be ob­
tained from:
International
Brotherhood
of
Electrical Workers, 1200 15th
St. N W , Washington, D.C.
20005.
National Electrical Contractors
Association, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.
National Joint Apprenticeship
and Training Committee for the
Electrical Industry, 1730 Rhode
Island Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.




Elevator constructors
(also
called elevator mechanics) assem­
ble and install elevators, escala­
tors, dumb waiters, and similar
equipment. In new buildings, this
equipment is installed on-site
while the building is under con­
struction. In older buildings,
these craftsmen may replace an
earlier installation with the latest
available elevator equipment.
Once the elevator equipment is in
service, elevator mechanics per­
form regular maintenance and re­
pair work. Installation or repair
work is usually performed by
small crews consisting of skilled
mechanics and their helpers.
In elevator construction work,
the crew first installs the guide
rails of the car in the elevator
shaft of the building. Then they
install the hoisting machines, the
car frame and platform, the coun­
terweight, the elevator chassis,
and the control apparatus. Next,
the car frame is connected to the
counterweight with cables, the
cab body and roof are installed,
and the control system is wired.
Finally, the entire assembly, in­
cluding cables, wire, and electri­
cal control apparatus, is carefully
adjusted and tested.
Alteration work on elevators is
important because of the rapid
rate of innovation and improve­
ment in elevator engineering.
This work is similar to new in­
stallation work because all ele­
vator equipment except the old
rail, car frame, platform, and
counterweight is generally re­
placed. In maintenance and re­
pair work, elevator mechanics in­
spect elevator and escalator in­
stallations periodically and, when

necessary, adjust cables and lu­
bricate or replace parts.
To install and repair modern
elevators, most of which are elec­
trically controlled, elevator con­
structors must have a working
knowledge of electricity, elec­
tronics, and hydraulics. They also
must be able to repair electric
motors, as well as control and sig­
nal systems. Because of the va­
riety of their work, they use many
different handtools, power tools,
and mechanical and electrical
testing meters and gages.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 14,500
journeymen elevator constructors
employed in 1968, worked for
elevator manufacturers, doing
new installation and moderniza­
tion work and elevator servicing.
Some elevator constructors are
employed by small, local contrac­
tors who specialize in elevator
maintenance and repair. Others
work for government agencies or
business establishments that do
their own elevator maintenance
and repair. Elevator constructors
also are employed as elevator in­
spectors for municipal or other
government licensing and regula­
tory agencies.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although elevator constructors
are highly skilled craftsmen,
training is comparatively informal
and is obtained through employ­
ment as a helper for a number of
years. The helper-trainee must be
at least 18 years of age, in good
physical condition, and have a
high school education or its
equivalent, preferably including
courses in mathematics and phy­
sics. Mechanical aptitude and an

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

380
interest in machines are impor­
tant assets.
T o become a skilled elevator
mechanic, at least 2 years of con­
tinuous job experience, including
6 months’ on-the-job training at
the factory of a major elevator
firm, is usually necessary. During
this period, the helper learns to
perform all of the operations in­
volved in the installation, mainte­
nance, and repair of elevators,
escalators, and similar equip­
ment. The helper-trainee gener­
ally attends evening classes in vo­
cational schools. Among the sub­
jects studied are mathematics,
physics, electrical and electronic
theory, and proper safety tech­
niques.

Elevator mechanics may ad­
vance to positions as foremen for
elevator manufacturing firms. A
few may establish an individually
owned small contracting busi­
ness, however, opportunities are
limited.

Em ploym ent O utlook
A slow increase in employment
of elevator constructors is ex­
pected through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition to new jobs created by em­
ployment growth, a few thousand
job opportunities for new workers
will result from the replacement
of experienced workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,

or die. Employment growth and
retirements and deaths in this
small occupation will provide
about 500 job openings annually.
More elevator constructors will
be needed as a result of the an­
ticipated large expansion in new
industrial, commercial, and large
residential building. (See discus­
sion, p. 360.) In addition, techno­
logical developments in elevator
and escalator construction will
spur modernization of older in­
stallations and thus will con­
tribute to the growing need for
these craftsmen. For example,
modern high speed elevators hav­
ing automatic control systems re­
quire more work and higher skill
for the installation and adjust­
ment of electrical and electronic
controls.
Earnings and W orking Conditions

Elevator constructors work on mechanism that drives elevator cars.




Both the hourly wage rates and
the annual earnings of elevator
constructors are among the high­
est in the skilled building trades.
These craftsmen lose less work­
time because of seasonal factors
than do most other building
trades workers.
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for elevator constructors av­
eraged $5.54, compared with
$5.43 for all journeymen in the
building trades, on July 1, 1968,
according to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68
large cities. Among the individual
cities surveyed, the minimum
hourly rates for elevator con­
structors ranged from $4.23 in
Norfolk, Va., to $6.67 in Cleve­
land, Ohio. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, insur­
ance, or pension funds, for ele­
vator constructors in 12 of the 68
cities selected to show wage in­
formation from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.

381

BUILDING TRADES
Rate per hour

City

Baltimore............... ................. $5.32
Chicago .................. ................. 6.15
Denver ..................................... 5.06
Fresno ..................................... 6.52
Houston ................................... 5.03
Jacksonville........... ................. 4.49
Little Rock ............ ................. 4.59
Los Angeles............ ................. 5.95
Madison ................. ................. 5.64
Philadelphia ......... ................. 5.68
Providence............. ................. 5.20
Rochester............... ................. 6.08

Some work operations in ele­
vator construction involve lifting
and carrying heavy equipment
and elevator parts, but this is
usually done by helpers. Some of
the work must be done in
cramped or awkward positions.
Most of the work is done indoors.
Most elevator constructors are
members of the International Un­
ion of Elevator Constructors.
Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
For further information regard­
ing work opportunities as a helper
in this trade, inquiries should be
directed to elevator manufactur­
ers, elevator constructors, or a lo­
cal of the International Union of
Elevator Constructors. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about work
opportunities in this trade.
General information about the
work of elevator constructors may
be obtained from the Interna­
tional Union of Elevator Con­
structors, 12 South 12th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107.

FLOOR COVERING
INSTALLERS
(D.O.T. 864.781)

N atu re of th e W ork
Floor covering installers (also
called floor covering mechanics




and floor layers) install, replace, material, applies the proper ad­
and repair resilient tile, linoleum hesive, and installs the floor cov­
and vinyl sheet goods, and carpet­ ering. He must take care in cut­
ing on the floors of residential, ting, matching, and fitting floor
commercial, and industrial build­ covering, particularly at door
ings. The craftsman installs these openings, along irregular wall sur­
coverings over wood, concrete, faces, and around permanent
metal, and other subfloors which floor fixtures, such as columns or
may vary in size from a small kit­ piping. Special care must be ob­
chen or bathroom to a large su­ served in cutting out and setting
permarket floor or hotel lobby. in decorative designs in the floor­
When installing resilient floor ing. After the flooring is installed,
covering, such as asphalt tile or a floor roller is run over it to in­
vinyl sheet goods, the floor cover­ sure good adhesion to the sub­
ing installer first inspects the floor.
floor to be covered to be sure that
The carpet craftsman, like the
it is firm, dry, smooth, and free of installer of resilient floor cover­
loose dust or dirt. He may sand a ings, first inspects the floor to be
rough or painted floor; fill cracks, covered to determine its condi­
indentations, or other irregulari­ tion. Then he plans his layout
ties with a filler material; or, if a carefully to minimize waste of
floor is extremely uneven, resur­ materials. He also allows for ex­
face it with plywood, hardwood, pected foot-traffic patterns so
or synthetic underlayments.
that best appearance and long
The installer also may test for wear will be obtained, and that
moisture content in newly poured carpet sections expected to re­
concrete floors or floors laid over ceive heavy traffic can be replaced
earthwork at ground level or be­ easily.
low. If the moisture in the floor
When installing the carpet, the
is too great, he may suggest post­ installer may fasten “ tackless
poning installation of floor cover­ strip/’ with adhesive or nails
ing or recommend a type of floor along the borders of the installa­
covering technique particularly tion. (The strip secures the car­
suited to the condition of the pet when it is installed.) Instead
floor. For this reason, the installer of using strip, the floor layer may
should be familiar with the many use tacks to secure carpeting.
types of adhesives and floor cov­ Padding, which is placed under
erings recommended by manu­ the carpet, is cut and placed
facturers for specific subfloor within the framework of the strip
conditions.
and the carpet then is placed ap­
The floor covering installer pre­ proximately into position. If the
pares for the installation of resili­ carpet has not been precut and
ent floor covering by carefully seamed in the workroom of the
measuring and marking off the floor covering firm, the installer
floor in accordance with the floor will do this work before stretching
covering plan. The plan may be in the carpet into place. He then
the form of architectural draw­ trims the edge of the carpet so
ings specifying every detail of that it will be held securely and
the floor covering design, or it smoothly by tacks or by nails pro­
may be a simple, verbal descrip­ truding from the border strip.
tion by the customer. When the Finishing touches may include
floor layout is completed, the the use of a special roller to ob­
craftsman, assisted, when neces­ scure seam markings that may
sary, by an apprentice or other result when carpet sections are
worker, cuts and fits the flooring joined.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

382
Floor covering craftsmen gen­
erally specialize either in carpet
installations or resilient floor in­
stallations, although some me­
chanics can install both types of
coverings. Some may specialize
even further. For example, the
most skilled installers generally
are employed by commercial floor
covering firms which install the
more expensive carpeting, and re­
silient sheet flooring with many
intricate designs. Many floor in­
stallers specialize in the installa­
tion of resilient tile. Some also
install resilient wall and counter
coverings.
The tools used by floor cover­
ing installers include hammers;
pry bars; knives, shears, and
other cutting devices; measuring
and marking tools, such as tape

measures, compasses, straight­
edges, scribes, chalk, and chalk­
lines; and a variety of specialized
tools, such as notched adhesive
trowels, carpet stretching devices,
and floor rollers.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most floor covering installers
are employed by flooring contrac­
tors who may specialize in com­
mercial and industrial flooring
work, in residential floor covering,
or in specific types of installa­
tions such as resilient tile. Many
others work for retailers special­
izing in floor covering who pro­
vide installation service. Floor
covering installers also are em­
ployed by furniture and depart­

Floor layer fits tile around metal standpipe.




ment stores that sell and install
floor coverings, and by home al­
teration and repair contractors.
Heavy concentrations of these
workers are found in large busi­
ness centers where high levels of
commercial construction as well
as residential building prevail.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
In considering applicants for
floor covering installation jobs,
employers are particularly inter­
ested in those having manual
abilities. They prefer applicants
with a high school education, but
this qualification is not generally
required. Most employers want
applicants between 17 and 30
years of age having at least aver­
age physical strength. A neat ap­
pearance and a pleasant business­
like manner are important at­
tributes because the work is
performed on the customer’s
premises.
Training authorities generally
recommend a 3- or 4-year appren­
ticeship program as the best way
to learn the floor covering trade.
Most apprenticeship programs in­
clude 6,000 hours (3 years) or
8,000 hours (4 years) of on-thejob training in addition to related
classroom instruction. In these
training programs, the trainee
learns the techniques of floor cov­
ering installation and how to
handle the tools of the trade.
Through work assignments with
skilled craftsmen on a wide va­
riety of floor covering jobs, he
learns to plan and execute differ­
ent types of jobs in a minimum
of time and with the most effi­
cient and decorative use of mate­
rials. Most apprentices are re­
quired to attend class twice a
week to learn about the nature
of the materials they will be us­
ing, the use and care of tools and
equipment, mathematics of lay-

BUILDING TRADES

out work, interpretation of archi­ 1970’s. Many additional job open­
tectural drawings, and planning ings will arise from the need to
and layout of floor covering replace experienced workers who
transfer to other occupations, re­
installations.
Some apprenticeship programs tire, or die. Retirements and
may combine training in the in­ deaths alone are expected to pro­
stallation of resilient floor and vide nearly 900 job openings an­
wall covering with training in the nually through the 1970’s.
The projected increase in em­
laying of carpets. Other programs
may be limited to the installation ployment of floor covering install­
ers is expected mainly because of
of resilient coverings.
Many workers in this trade the anticipated expansion in con­
have acquired their skills through struction activity. (See discus­
informal training methods, such sion, p. 360.) Moreover, the use of
as working as a trainee or laborer, resilient floor coverings and walland observing or being taught by to-wall carpeting will become
experienced floor covering install­ more widespread. More versatile
ers. Many of these men also have materials and colorful patterns
gained some knowledge of floor are expected to contribute to a
covering installation by attending growing demand for floor cover­
trade school or floor covering ings. For example, epoxy mate­
manufacturers’ training courses, rials now are being used as a floor
covering. This relatively new ma­
and through home study.
Many informal training pro­ terial is extremely durable and
grams limit the trainee’s work can be used in many ways— as a
experience to installation of re­ solid floor covering that can be
silient tile, or to residential floor painted a variety of colors, and
covering work of limited complex­ as an adhesive or base for laying
ity. This lack of all-round experi­ resilient flooring.
The best job opportunities will
ence, however, may be partially
offset by trade school and home- be for floor installers having all­
study courses and manufacturers’ round training in the installation
training programs. A young man of resilient tile and sheet goods
interested in becoming a floor or carpeting.
covering installer should direct in­
quiries to several firms about
their training programs before ac­
cepting employment as a trainee. Earnings and W orking Conditions
Skilled floor covering installers
No national wage data on floor
may advance to the position of
foreman or installation manager covering installers are available.
for a large floor laying firm. Some However, wage information from
become salesmen or estimators a limited number of firms indi­
for floor covering firms. Floor cov­ cates that, in 1968, most experi­
ering installers having business enced floor layers were paid be­
ability may form their own firms tween $4 and $5 per hour, al­
and employ their own mechanics. though wage rates for skilled
workers ranged from about $3 an
hour in some areas to as much
as $6 an hour in others. Wage
Em ploym ent Outlook
rates for these workers may also
Employment of floor covering vary within an area because of
installers— estimated at about differences in level of skill or de­
37,000 in 1968— is expected to gree of work specialization. Start­
increase moderately, through the ing wage rates for apprentices and




383
other trainees usually are about
half of the mechanic’s rate.
Most floor covering craftsmen,
including those under union-man­
agement agreements, are paid on
an hourly basis. In some nonun­
ion shops, part of the installer’s
pay may be in the form of bonuses
for work performed within a
specified time period. In others,
installers receive a monthly salary
or are paid on the basis of the
number of square feet or square
yards of floor covering they
install.
Floor covering installers gener­
ally work regular daytime hours.
Particular circumstances, how­
ever, such as installing a floor in
a store, or office, may require
work during evening hours or on
weekends when stores and offices
are not open for business.
Floor covering installation work
is usually not affected by weather
conditions, since it is performed
indoors.
During
the
winter
months most work is done in
heated buildings. Job hazards are
not numerous, but installers fre­
quently experience knee injuries
because they do much of their
work while kneeling; back injur­
ies occur occasionally as a result
of twisting and lifting on the job.
Most of these injuries can be
avoided, however, if proper work
procedures are followed. Gener­
ally, an installer is assisted by a
helper in heavy lifting, and usu­
ally has proper equipment avail­
able to move heavy objects.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing floor covering apprenticeships
or other work opportunities in
this trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local flooring contrac­
tors or floor covering retailers; a
local union of the United Broth­
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners
of America (in Eastern States);

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

384

1968 worked for glazing contrac­
tors engaged in new construction,
alteration
and modernization
work, and on the replacement of
broken glass, particularly for
store windows. Some glaziers
were employed by government
agencies or business establish­
ments which do their own con­
struction work.
About 11,000 glaziers worked
outside the construction indus­
try. Many are employed in fac­
tories where they install glass in
sash, doors, mirror frames, and
partitions. Others, using skills
similar to those used by glaziers,
install glass or mirrors in furni­
ture and ships or replace glass in
automobiles.

a local union of the Brotherhood
of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America (in West­
ern States); or the nearest office
of the State apprenticeship agen­
cy or the Bureau of Apprentice­
ship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. In addition, the
local office of the State employ­
ment service may be a source of
information about apprenticeship,
the Manpower Development and
Training Act, and other pro­
grams that provide training
opportunities.
General information about the
work of floor covering installers
may be obtained from:
Carpet and Rug Institute, Empire
State Bldg., New York, N.Y.
10001.

Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile
Institute, 101 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

GLAZIERS
(D.O.T. 865.761)

N atu re of the W ork
Glaziers engaged in construc­
tion work cut, fit, and install
plate glass, ordinary window
glass, mirrors, and special items
such as leaded glass panels. When
installing glass, the glazier cuts
the glass to size or uses precut
glass. The glazier puts a bed of
putty into the wood or metal sash
(frames) and presses the glass
into place. He fastens the glass
using wire clips or triangular
metal points and then places and
smoothes another strip of putty
on the outside edges of the glass
to keep out moisture.
When
installing
structural
glass, which is used to decorate
building fronts, walls, ceilings, and
partitions, the glazier (and some­




T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications

times the marble setter, see dis­
cussion, p. 388) applies mastic ce­
ment to the supporting backing
and presses the glass into it. The
glass may have to be trimmed
with a glass cutter if it is not pre­
cut to specifications. Glaziers gen­
erally install all types of struc­
tural glass, both interior and ex­
terior, that is set or glazed with
putty, moulding, rubber, and
mastic. For example, they install
shower doors and bathtub enclo­
sures, mirrors of all types, and
window glass. These craftsmen
also set a wide variety of auto­
matic doors, and fabricated units
constructed of glass that are in­
stalled in many buildings.
In addition to handtools, such
as glass cutters and putty knives,
glaziers use power cutting tools
and grinders.
Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 9,000
construction glaziers employed in

Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Glazier and
Glassworker Apprenticeship Com­
mittee, recommend the comple­
tion of a 3-year apprenticeship
program as the best way to learn
the skills of the construction
glazier. A substantial proportion
of glaziers, however, have learned
the trade informally. They have
acquired their skills by working
with experienced glaziers and ob­
serving or being taught by them.
In smaller communiities, many
journeymen painters and paperhangers also have learned to do
glazier work as part of the ap­
prentice training for their trade.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be at least
18 years of age, but they should
not have reached their 26th birth­
day. Eligible veterans are exempt
from the minimum age limit. A
high school diploma or its equiva­
lent is required.
The apprenticeship program
usually consists of 6,000 hours (3
years) of on-the-job training, in
addition to a minimum of 144

385

BUILDING TRADES

hours a year of related classroom
instruction. During the appren­
ticeship, the trainee learns how
to use and handle the tools, ma­
chines, and materials of the trade.
Instruction is given in safety
measures and first aid, and the
reading of specifications and blue­
prints, and scaffolding. The pro­
gram also includes on-the-job
training in the glazing of wood
and metal sash in doors, windows,
partitions, and other openings;
and the setting and replacement
of all types of store front installa­
tions, structural glass, mirrors,
showcases, partitions and fixtures,
and automobile glass.
Hourly wage rates for glazier
apprentices usually start at 50
percent of the journeyman rate
and increase periodically until the
journeyman rate is reached at
the completion of training.
Em ploym ent Outlook
A very rapid increase in employ­
ment of construction glaziers is
expected through the 1970’s. In
addition to new jobs created by
employment growth, many job
opportunities will result from the
replacement of construction gla­
ziers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die.
The large increase anticipated
in construction activity (see dis­
cussion, p. 360) and the increasing
use of glass in building construc­
tion are expected to result in
more work for construction gla­
ziers. Replacement and moder­
nization work, frequently involv­
ing large glass installations, also
will contribute to the demand for
these workers. The long-range
outlook for this occupation gen­
erally can be considered very
favorable.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for construction glaziers av­




eraged $4.99 compared with $5.43
for all journeymen in the build­
ing trades, on July 1, 1968, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68
large cities. Among individual cit­
ies surveyed, the union minimum
hourly wage rate for construction
glaziers ranged from $3.40 in
Jackson, Miss., to $6.00 in New
York City. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, in­
surance, or pension fund, for con­
struction glaziers in 12 of the 68
cities selected to show wage rates
from various regions and areas of
the country on, July 1, 1968,
appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Albuquerque .......... ................. $3.95
Atlanta..................................... 4.40
Baltimore................................. 4.55
Dallas ....................................... 4.30
Detroit ..................................... 5.40
Kansas City............ ................. 4.71
Los Angeles............ ................. 5.47
Madison ................................... 4.61
Providence ............ ................. 4.58
San Diego .............. ................. 5.29
Spokane ................. ................. 4.20
Trenton ................................... 5.48

Glaziers are exposed to some
hazards in their work, such as
cuts from glass edges and sharp
tools used in cutting glass, back
injuries caused by lifting plate
glass, and falls from scaffolding.
However, employers and unions
attempt to eliminate injuries by
promoting safety training and
procedures.
A large proportion of glaziers
employed in construction work
are members of the Brotherhood
of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing glazer apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be directed

to local glazing contractors or
general contractors; a local of the
Brotherhood of Painters, Decora­
tors and Paperhangers of Ameri­
ca; a local joint union-manage­
ment apprenticeship committee;
or the nearest office of the State
apprenticeship agency or the
Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of La­
bor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may be a source of information
about the Manpower and Devel­
opment Training Act, apprentice­
ship, and other training opportu­
nities.
General information about the
work of glaziers may be obtained
from the Brotherhood of Painters,
Decorators and Paperhangers of
America, 1925 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

LATHERS
(D.O.T. 842.781)

N ature of the W ork
Lathers install the support
backings on which plaster, stucco,
or concrete materials are applied.
These supports are usually of two
types— metal lath (strips of ex­
panded metal or a metal wire
mesh) or gypsum lath. The plas­
ter easily adheres to either type
of lath when mixed to the proper
proportion and consistency.
When installing metal lath, the
lathers first build a light metal
framework (furring), which is fas­
tened securely to the structural
framework of the building. On
ceilings or interior walls, the lath
may be attached directly to the
wood framework or partitions. A t­
tachment to the furring or frame­
work may be done by nailing,
clipping, tying, or machine stap-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

386

wire mesh separated by a layer of
felt, to act as a base.
The tools of the trade include
measuring rules and tapes, drills,
hammers,
chisels,
hacksaws,
shears, wirecutters, boltcutters,
punches, pliers, hatchets, stapling
machines, and powder- or poweractuated fastening devices.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most lathers— who numbered
about 30,000 in 1968— work for
lathing and plastering contractors
on new residential, commercial, or
industrial constmction. They also
work on modernization and alter­
ation jobs. Some lathers also are
employed outside the construc­
tion industry; for example, they
make the lath backing for plaster
display materials or scenery.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Lathers tack gypsum lath to ceiling joists.

ling. As the lath is being installed,
the lathers cut openings for elec­
trical outlets and piping.
Gypsum lath is installed in
much the same way. These lath
boards are usually 16 by 48 inches
(% inch thick) and cover three
studs (upright 2 by 4 inches
framework, placed 16 inches on
center). The gypsum lath is cut
by using a lath hatchet to score
one side, and then easily broken
with a sharp blow on the opposite
side. Openings for electrical out­
lets and other openings must be
cut before attaching the lath to
the wall or ceiling.
Lathers also install wire mesh
reinforcement in all inside angles
and comers to prevent structural
cracking. On outside or exposed
comers, a metal reinforcement
called a corner bead is attached as




a guide for the pasterer. It pro­
vides protection and structural
strength to the finished comer.
Lathers also install the metal
studs and framework for metal
interior partitions which receive
lath and plaster or gypsum board.
They erect the light iron furring
which supports acoustical ceilings.
The method of installation var­
ies slightly in other types of lath
work. For example, when cornices
or other ornamental plaster
shapes are specified, the lather
builds the framework that ap­
proximates the desired shape or
form. Metal lath is then attached
to the framework by the lather.
When stucco (a mixture of
Portland cement and sand) is to
be applied over wood framework,
the lather installs two layers of

The National Joint (laborm anagem ent) Apprenticeship
Committee for the Lathing In­
dustry and many other training
authorities r e c o m m e n d the
completion of a minimum of 2
years of apprenticeship as the
best way to learn lathing. How­
ever, many lathers, particularly
in small communities, have ac­
quired skills informally, by work­
ing as helpers, observing or being
taught by experienced lathers.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be between
16 and 26, and in good physical
condition. Aptitude tests are of­
ten given to applicants to deter­
mine whether they have manual
and finger dexterity, as well as the
other qualifications required. Ap­
prentices generally must pass ex­
aminations that are given at the
end of each 6-month period.
During the apprenticeship peri­
od, the apprentice learns to use

387

BUILDING TRADES

and handle the tools and mate­
rials of the trade. For example,
he installs gypsum lath, wall fur­
ring, and metal lathing. In addi­
tion, he generally receives related
instruction in subjects, such as
applied mathematics, geometry,
reading of blueprints and sketch­
es, welding, estimating, and safety
practices. Today, a high school
education is encouraged, and edu­
cation above grade school level,
particularly courses in mathemat­
ics, is needed to understand the
related instruction.
Hourly wage rates for lather
apprentices usually start at 50
percent of the journeyman rate.
The rate is increased periodically
by 5 percent every third or fourth
month until a rate of 85 percent is
reached in the final quarter of
the second year of training.
Skilled and experienced lathers
may become foremen. Others may
be able to start their own lath
contracting business.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of lathers is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, many job opportunities
will result from the replacement
of experienced lathers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths
alone are expected to result in
about 600 job openings annually.
Growth of the trade depends
principally upon the anticipated
large increase in construction ac­
tivity. (See discussion p. 360.)
Moreover, there will be a growing
need for lathing work because of
the increasing use of new kinds of
plaster and improved methods of
applying plaster. Improved, light­
weight plasters are being used in­
creasingly because of their excel­




Metal lathers attach metal furring to ceiling.

lent fireproofing qualities and
ease of handling. There is also a
trend toward the greater use of
curved surfaces and ceilings made
of plaster, both as a form of archi­
tectural treatment and to achieve
special lighting and acoustical ef­
fects. The use of “ plaster veneer”
as a surface finish is expected to
expand because of time and cost
economy. Machine plastering and
fireproofing are growing in im­
portance. Because these machines
reduce the cost of plastering, their
greater use should increase the
demand for plaster work and for
lathers. These developments are
expected to more than offset the
loss of lathing work resulting from
the use of nonplaster (dry-wall)
construction.

Earnings
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for lathers averaged $5.35,
compared with $5.43 for all jour­
neymen in the building trades, on
July 1, 1968, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. Among
individual cities surveyed, the
minimum hourly rates for lathers
ranged from $3.00 for gypsum
lathers in Norfolk, Va., to $6.75
for metal lathers in New York
City. Straight-time hourly earn­
ings, excluding fringe benefits or
payments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for lathers in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to pre­
sent wage data from various areas
and regions of the country, on July

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

388
1,1968, appear in the accompany­
ing tabulation.
City

Rate per hour

Boston .................... ................. $5.65
Des Moines ............ ................. 5.08
Knoxville ................ ................. 4.38
j gypsum 5.19
Los Angeles............
) metal
5.05
Louisville ................ ................. 4.79
Newark .................. ................. 5.61
Peoria ....................................... 5.23
Philadelphia .......... ................. 5.31
Rochester .............. ................. 5.78
Sacramento ............ ................. 5.25
Shreveport ............ ................ 4.63
Washington, D.C...................... 4.87

A large proportion of lathers
are members of The Wood, Wire
and Metal Lathers International
Union.

The Wood, Wire and Metal Lath­
ers International Union, 6530
New Hampshire Ave., Takoma
Park, Md. 20012.

MARBLE SETTERS, TILESETTERS, AND TERRAZZO
WORKERS
(D.O.T. 861.381 and .781)

N ature of the W ork
Marble setters, tilesetters, and
terrazzo workers cover interior or
exterior walls, floors, or other sur­
faces with marble, tile, or ter­

razzo. Craftsmen in each of these
distinct trades work primarily
with the material indicated by
their job title.
Marble setters install marble,
shop-made terrazzo panels and
artificial marble, and structural
glass when it is used in a building
interior. The marble setter does
little fabrication work because
the marble and other materials
are cut to size and polished be­
fore they are delivered to the
worksite. However, he may do
some minor cutting to make the
materials fit exactly. In setting
marble, he lays out the work,
drills anchor holes in the marble
for wall-work, fastens the nonferrous anchors to the marble,

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing lathers’ apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade, a young man should apply
to a lathing contractor in his area;
a local of The Wood, Wire, and
Metal Lathers International Un­
ion; a local joint labor-manage­
ment apprenticeship committee;
or the nearest office of the State
apprenticeship agency or the Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and Train­
ing, U.S. Department of Labor. In
addition, the local office of the
State employment service may be
a source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide train­
ing opportunities.
General information about the
work of lathers may be obtained
from:
Contracting Plasterers’ and Lath­
ers’ International Association,
304 Landmark Bldg., 1343 H St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Bureau for Lathing and
Plastering, 938 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.
National Lathing Industries Joint
Apprenticeship Program, 140
Main St., Annapolis, Md. 21401.




Marble setters use tools of their trade to place marble slab floor.

389

BUILDING TRADES

and then applies a special plaster
mixture to the backing material
and sets the marble pieces in
place. When necessary, he braces
the marble until the setting plas­
ter has hardened. Special grout
is packed into the joints between
the marble pieces, and the joints
are “ pointed up”
(slightly in­
dented) with a pointing trowel
or wooden paddle. Bolt holes have
to be drilled if attachments to the
marble are necessary, and for the
installation of all marble toilet
and shower compartments. The
setting of marble on floors in­
volves the preparation of the
Portland cement mortar, applying
sufficient mortar for one piece of
marble, and then placing the mar­
ble on the mortar and tamping it
to the proper elevation. The
craftman then removes the mar­
ble piece, brushes or trowels a
coat of neat cement to the back
surface and, finally, resets the
piece of marble on the setting bed
and retamps it to the proper line
and elevation. Each marble setter
has a helper to prepare plaster,
carry marble slabs, and clean the
surface of the completed work.
The tilesetter attaches tile (a
thin slab of baked clay, stone, or
other material) on walls, floors,
or ceilings according to blueprints
or other instructions. For walls
and ceilings, the tilesetter applies
a setting bed to the surface or
other support backing on which
the tile is to be installed. This
setting bed consists of a coat of
sand, cement, and a small amount
of lime, plus a bond coat of pure
Portland cement mixed with
water, or one of a number of pat­
ented portland cement mixtures.
This bond coat is troweled direct­
ly on the mortar setting bed or is
applied to the back of each in­
dividual tile, but regardless of the
method used, it is done immedi­
ately before the placement of the
individual tiles to the setting bed.
By using patented portland ce­




ment mixtures, one can wait for
the setting bed to harden, and
using the same procedure, set the
tile on the hardened setting bed
the following day or even the fol­
lowing week. Tiles are tapped
into place on the setting bed with
a trowel handle. In laying tile
floors, the tilesetter applies the
mortar setting bed on the floor,
tamping the mortar firmly and
screeding (leveling) the bed to
the correct elevation. A bond coat
of neat cement is then brushed or
troweled to the setting bed or to
the back of the tiles. The crafts­
man places the tile on the setting
bed, and they are tapped firmly
into the mortar. He chips the tile
with a hammer and chisels or
cuts it with pincers to make it fit
into irregular areas, into corners,
or around pipes.
Small tiles, such as those laid
in bathrooms, are available on
paperbacked strips and sheets
that can be attached to the floor
as a unit, using portland cement
or various adhesives. This elimi­
nates the setting of individual
tiles. The tilesetter usually is as­
sisted by a helper who mixes
mortar, sets up scaffolds, supplies
the setter with material, grouts
(fills) the joints after the tile set­
ting is completed, and cleans the
completed work.
Terrazzo is a type of orna­
mental concrete used mainly for
floors. Marble chips are used as
the coarsest concrete ingredient.
After the terrazzo hardens, it is
ground and polished to give a
smooth surface on which the mar­
ble chips are exposed against the
background of the material in
which the chips are mixed.
A terrazzo worker starts his
work by laying a base of concrete
mortar. When laying a concrete
base, he levels it with a long, flat
tool called a straightedge, and
tamps it. Then he places metal
strips in the base wherever there
is to be a joint or a change of

Tile setters apply ceramic tile.

color between panels or to create
a pattern, and imbeds their bot­
tom edges into the base. If there
is to be lettering or an ornamen­
tal figure, he also imbeds a shopmade mold. Finally, he mixes the
top course of cement and marble
chips, pours it onto the base, and
rolls and levels it. A separate mix­
ture is made for each color.
Where no concrete base is re­
quired, the craftsman mixes the
marble chips with epoxy polyester
resins, or latex, and this mixture
is poured directly onto the floor.
After the mixture has hardened
for a few days, a terrazzo helper
grinds and polishes the floor with
an electric-powered grinding ma­
chine.
The terrazzo worker is as­
sisted by helpers in the mixing
and placing of the base course,
but he alone does the leveling and
placing of the metal strips. Help­
ers handle sand, cement, marble

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

390
chips, and all other materials
used by the terrazzo worker. They
rub and clean marble, mosaic,
and terrazzo floors and perform
other work required in helping
a terrazzo craftsman. The ter­
razzo worker generally supervises
mixing of the top course that,
along with the grinding, governs
its final appearance.

Places of Em ploym ent
Marble setters, tilesetters, and
terrazzo workers are employed
mainly in new building construc­
tion and in the large urban areas.
Substantial numbers of terrazzo
workers are employed in Florida
and California.

training, in addition to related
classroom instruction. In a typi­
cal 3-year training program for
terrazzo workers,
apprentices
learn, among other things, to use,
care for, and handle safely the
tools, equipment, and materials
commonly used in the trade; mix,
place, tamp, and level concrete
and terrazzo material; and select,
set, and level metal dividing
strips. The apprentice also learns
the selection and placement of
materials according to the design
of the job; the rough and final

finishing of bases and coves; and
hand and machine rubbing.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in blueprint
reading, layout work, basic math­
ematics, and shop practice.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices in each of these trades start
at about 50 or 60 percent of the
journeyman rate and increase
periodically until 95 percent of
the journeyman rate is reached
during the last period of appren­
tice training.
Skilled and experienced tile,
terrazzo, or marble setters may

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the national joint labormanagement apprenticeship com­
mittees that set the training
standards in these trades, recom­
mend the completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program as the
best way to learn each of these
trades. A substantial proportion
of tilesetters, terrazzo workers,
and marble setters, however,
have acquired their skills inform­
ally by working as helpers, ob­
serving, or being taught by ex­
perienced craftsmen.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be between
17 and 22; a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent is desirable.
Good physical condition and
manual dexterity are important
assets. Applicants should have an
eye for quickly determining prop­
er alinements of tile, terrazzo, and
marble, and have a good sense
of color harmony.
The apprenticeship programs in
each of these trades generally con­
sist of 6,000 hours of on-the-job




Terrazzo worker and helper pour top course of cement and marble chips.

391

BUILDING TRADES

become foremen. Others may be
able to start their own small con­
tracting businesses.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Combined employment esti­
mated at about 30,000 in 1968
in the three trades— marble set­
ter, tilesetter, and terrazzo work­
er— is expected to increase mod­
erately through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition, job opportunities will re­
sult from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
die. However, employment growth
and retirements and deaths will
provide only several hundred job
openings annually.
Total employment in these
trades is expected to increase
mainly because of the anticipated
rapid expansion in construction
activity. (See discussion, p. 360.)
However, the rate of employment
growth will vary sharply among
these trades.
The demand for terrazzo work­
ers is expected to increase rap­
idly. Because terrazzo is durable
and attractive, the number of
terrazzo installations is expected
to continue to increase substan­
tially. Growth of the trade also
will be stimulated by the use of
new terrazzo materials, especially
epoxy and latex terrazzo. These
products, which are lighter and
occupy less space than cementbased terrazzo, are being used in­
creasingly, especially on the up­
per floors of multistoried build­
ings. A small number of skilled
terrazzo workers have been re­
cruited from abroad to meet
shortages of these workers in
some areas.
A moderate increase is ex­
pected in the employment of tilesetters. Growth of this trade will




be limited by the increasing use
of competing materials, such as
asphalt floor tile, structural glass,
plastic tile, and plastic-coated
wallboards, which usually are in­
stalled by workers other than
tilesetters.
Little change in the employ­
ment of marble setters is ex­
pected. However, the excellent
properties of marble as a building
material will insure its continued
use and provide work for marble
setters, despite the relatively
higher costs of marble compared
with competitive materials.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for terrazzo workers aver­
aged $5.66; for marble setters,
$5.38; and for tilesetters $5.25; on
July 1, 1968, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 large cities. These
rates compared with the average
of $5.43 for all journeymen in the
building trades. Among the indi­
vidual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for terrazzo
workers ranged from $3.45 in Salt
Lake City, Utah, to $6.24 in
Rochester, N.Y. For marble set­
ters, the hourly rates ranged from
$3.75 in Norfolk, Va., to $6.55 in
Newark, N.J., and New York City.
The rates for tilesetters ranged
from $3.75 in Norfolk, Va., to
$6.24 in Rochester, N.Y. Straighttime hourly earnings, excluding
fringe benefits or payments to
health, insurance, or pension
funds, for marble setters, tileset­
ters, and terrazzo workers in 12
of the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.

City

Rate per hour
Marble Tile- Terrazzo
setters setters workers

Atlanta ............ .... $4.75 $4.75 $4.75
Baltimore........ .... 5.35 4.69 4.69
Boston ............ .... 5.75 5.75 5.75
Chicago .......... .... 5.55 5.60 5.50
Cleveland ........ .... 6.53 5.94 6.31
Dallas .............. .... 4.75 4.20 4.20
Denver ............ .... 5.05 5.05 5.05
Detroit ............ .... 6.15 5.47 5.82
Little Rock ..... .... 4.20 4.20 4.20
New Orleans ........ 4.93 4.30 4.30
5.45 5.41
Sacramento .....
Spokane .......... .... 5.36 5.41 5.65

Marble setters and terrazzo
workers work both indoors and
outdoors, depending on the types
of installation. Tilesetters work
mostly indoors.
A large proportion of the work­
ers in each of these trades are,
members of one of the following
unions— Bricklayers, Masons and
Plasterers’ International Union of
America; and International As­
sociation of Marble, Slate and
Stone Polishers, Rubbers and
Sawyers, Tile and Marble Set­
ters’ Helpers and Marble Mosaic
and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing apprenticeship or other work
opportunities in these trades, in­
quiries should be directed to local
tile, terrazzo and marble setting
contractors or to locals of the un­
ions previously mentioned. In ad­
dition, the local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of marble setters, tilesetters,
and terrazzo workers may be ob­
tained from:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plaster­
ers’ International Union of
America, 815 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

392

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

International Association of Mar­
ble, Slate and Stone Polishers,
Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and
Marble Setters’ Helpers and
Marble Mosaic and Terrazzo
Workers’ Helpers, 821 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Terrazzo and Mosaic As­
sociation, Inc., 716 Church St.,
Alexandria, Va. 22314.
Tile Contractors’ Association of
America, Inc., 112 North Alfred
St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

OPERATING ENGINEERS
(CONSTRUCTION
MACHINERY OPERATORS)
(D.O.T. 850.782 through .887; 851.883
and .887; 852.883; 853.782 and .883;
859.782; and 859.883)

N atu re of the W ork
Operating engineers operate
and maintain various types of
power-driven construction ma­
chinery. These machines include
power shovels, cranes, derricks,
hoists, pile drivers, concrete mix­
ers, paving machines, trench ex­
cavators, bulldozers, tractors, and
pumps. Operating engineers often
are identified by the types of ma­
chines they operate or the type of
work they perform— for example,
craneman, bulldozer operator,
derrick operator, or heavy equip­
ment mechanic. These craftsmen
have a wide range of skills be­
cause they work with many dif­
ferent types of machines— some
complex and others relatively
simple. The range of skills may
be illustrated by describing the
work performed by an engineer
who operates a crane and one who
operates an earth-boring machine.
The crane operator manipulates
various pedals and levers to rotate
the crane on its chassis and to
raise and lower the crane boom
and the loadline. The operator




also manipulates a number of dif­
ferent attachments to the crane
boom for various construction
purposes. For example, he ma­
nipulates buckets for excavation
work; pile drivers to drive steel
beams, wood, and concrete piling
into the ground; and wrecking
balls for demolition work. Good
eye-hand-foot coordination, skill
in precision handling of heavy
equipment, and judgment in esti­
mating proper load size are among
the essential aptitudes needed to
do the crane operator’s job. In
contrast, the operation of earth­
boring machines that dig holes
for poles or posts is one of the
less skilled tasks performed by
operating engineers. The operator
sets the proper auger (drill) in the
spindle, starts the machine, and
stops it when the auger has pene­
trated to the correct depth.
Although the skills required of

an operating engineer vary, there
is an increasing trend toward
more versatility in this field, and
an individual who desires steady
employment, particularly in con­
struction, should know how to op­
erate several different types of
equipment. Operators prefer to
work on the more complex types
of machines because they are paid
higher wage rates for operating
such machines.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 285,000 operating
engineers were employed as ex­
cavating, grading, and road ma­
chinery operators in 1968. In ad­
dition, thousands of operating en­
gineers were employed as opera­
tors of other types of construction
machinery, including cranes, der­
ricks, hoists, diesel engines, air-

BUILDING TRADES

393

compressors, trench-pipe layers,
and dredges.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

The majority of operating engi­
neers work on construction proj­
ects. Most of the construction
machinery operators are em­
ployed by contractors engaged in
highway, dam, airport, and other
large-scale engineering projects.
On building projects, they are em­
ployed in excavating, grading,
landscaping and in hoisting con­
crete, steel, and other building
materials. Others are employed
by utility companies, manufac­
turers, and other business firms
that do their own construction
work, as well as by State and local
public works and highway depart­
ments. Relatively few operating
engineers
are
self-employed.
Those who are self-employed are
usually owner-operators of con­
struction equipment, such as bull­
dozers, small cranes, and backhoes.

Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (labormanagement) Apprenticeship and
Training Committee for Operat­
ing Engineers, recommend the
completion of a 3-year apprentice­
ship as the best way to qualify for
journeyman status as an operat­
ing engineer. Many men having
mechanical aptitude, however, en­
ter this occupation by obtaining
jobs as oilers (operating engi­
neer’s assistants) or as helpers to
heavy
equipment
repairmen.
Workers on these jobs gain a
knowledge of the machinery, how
to keep it in good working order,
and how to make repairs. Oilers
and helpers must perform their
work well and demonstrate initia­
tive before they are given the
instruction from experienced op­
erators that is necessary for ad­
vancement. They also must dem­
onstrate interest in and ability to
learn the correct methods of
handling equipment and be able
to recognize hazards that must be
avoided.
Some men having mechanical
experience, such as that obtained
from operating farm equipment,
may get jobs operating the simpler
construction machines. Operating
knowledge of a broad range of re­
lated equipment and attachments,
however, is ordinarily necessary to
obtain continuous employment.
This all-round knowledge is ob­
tained best through a formal ap­
prenticeship program or by work­
ing as an oiler or helper, usually
for a much longer period of time
than it takes to complete an
apprenticeship.
Apprenticeship standards pro­
vide training in the operation of
each of the following types of
equipment: (1) Universal equip­
ment (hoists, shovels, cranes, and
related equipment), (2) grading
and paving equipment, and (3)

In addition to employment in
construction work, operating en­
gineers operate cranes, hoists, and
other power-driven machinery in
factories and mines. In some
cases, the duties of operating en­
gineers in nonconstruction jobs
are about the same as those in
construction work. For example,
operation of a crane to unload
cars of coal at a factory is very
similar to operation of a crane to
unload barges of sand and gravel
for a street paving job. On the
other hand, the work of a steel
pourer (craneman) in a steel mill
differs considerably from that of
a crane operator in the construc­
tion industry.
Construction machinery oper­
ators are employed in every sec­
tion of the country. Their work,
however, may often take them to
remote locations where highways
and heavy engineering projects,
such as dams, are being built.




plant equipment (such as mate­
rial mixing and crushing ma­
chines) . These standards also pro­
vide for the training of heavyduty construction machinery re­
pairmen. The apprenticeship pro­
gram for each training classifica­
tion consists of at least 6,000
hours (3 years) of on-the-job
training. Training is given either
by a lead engineer, a journeyman,
or a master mechanic. In a typical
universal equipment training pro­
gram, the apprentice learns,
among other things, to use,main­
tain, and handle safely the equip­
ment and tools used in the trade;
set grade stakes; and read plans
and instructions. He also learns to
use welding and cutting equip­
ment and the different types of
greases and oils. In addition to
on-the-job training, the appren­
ticeship program includes a mini­
mum of 144 hours a year of re­
lated classroom instruction in
subjects such as reading of grade
plans, elements of electricity,
physics, welding, and automotive
maintenance.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally must be between 18 and 25
and must be physically able to
perform the work of the trade. A
high school education or its equiv­
alent is required to complete satis­
factorily the related theoretical
instruction. Applicants also must
demonstrate the ability and apti­
tude necessary to master the rudi­
ments of the trade.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices start at a stipulated propor­
tion of the journeyman rate (at
least 65 percent in most cases)
and increase periodically until the
journeyman rate is reached at the
completion of the apprenticeship.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of construction
machinery operators is expected
to increase rapidly through the

394
1970’s. Thousands of additional
job opportunities will result from
the need to replace experienced
workers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. R e­
tirements and deaths alone are
expected to provide about 4,200
job openings annually.
The rapid rise in employment
of operating engineers will occur
mainly because of the anticipated
growth in construction activity.
(See discussion, p. 360.) The
growing volume of highway con­
struction, resulting from the Fed­
eral Government’s long-range
multibillion dollar highway devel­
opment program, will be especial­
ly important in providing thou­
sands of job opportunities for
operating engineers. Job oppor­
tunities also will result from the
need to maintain and repair the
Nation’s expanding highway sys­
tem.
The trend toward the increas­
ing use of construction machinery
shows every indication of continu­
ing. More specialized and more
complex machines, particularly
those used in earth-moving, as
well as smaller machines suitable
for small construction projects,
are being developed continually
and are expected to be used to a
greater extent. The increasing
mechanization of materials move­
ment in factories and mines also
should result in growing employ­
ment of operating engineers out­
side of construction.
Technological
improvements
are expected to limit somewhat
the growth in employment of con­
struction machinery operators.
For example, the increased size,
speed, mobility, and durability of
construction machines has ex­
panded operators’ work efficiency.
Mobile truck cranes are now in
use that can lift 125 tons to a
height of 330 feet (equivalent to
a 33-story building). These mo­
bile cranes can travel over high­
ways at speeds up to 35 m.p.h.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Scrapers are in use that can scoop
up and carry from 75 to 150 tons
of dirt in one load. Earth moving
machines now move many times
the amount of material that could
be moved by the largest machine
in use a few years ago. Redesign
of equipment has reduced break­
downs and improved maintenance
efficiency.
In addition to improvements in
conventional machinery, many
types of laborsaving equipment
developed in recent years are ex­
pected to gain widespread use in
the next decade. Frequently,
these machines combine the func­
tions of several conventional ma­
chines. One example is the slipform paver that spreads, vibrates,
forms, and finishes concrete pav­
ing in one continuous operation.
The slipform paver replaces at
least four other machines formerly
used in concrete paving. A pipe­

laying machine digs a trench, low­
ers the pipe into the trench, and
fills the trench after the pipes are
connected. In addition, electronic
controls on construction equip­
ment are being used increasingly.
For example, the use of electronic
grade controls on highway paving
equipment results in smoother
pavements and greater efficiency
of the paving operation.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The wage rate structure for
operating engineers is more com­
plicated than for any other con­
struction trade. Hourly rates are
established not only for operators
of different types of machines, but
also for operators of machines of
the same type but having differ­
ent capacity. Moreover, in some
cases there are different rates for

Power shovel operator delivers load to waiting truck.

395

BUILDING TRADES

the same machine, depending up­
on the type of construction for
which it is used. The wage scale
also varies among different parts
of the country and the operators
of machines having the top wage
rates in one area do not necessar­
ily receive the top wage rates in
other areas.
Shovel operators, who generally
are among the highest paid con­
struction machinery operators,
had union minimum hourly rates
ranging from $4.28 in Memphis,
Tenn., to $7.25 in Newark and
Trenton, N.J., and Providence,
R.I., on July 1, 1968, according
to a national survey of building
trades workers in 68 large cities.
The rates for bulldozer operators
ranged from $3.60 in Charlotte,
N.C., to $6.25 in New York City.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­
cluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for shovel oper­
ators and bulldozer operators in
12 of the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas and
regions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
City

Rate per hour
Shovel
Bulldozer
operator
operator

Baltimore........... ...... $5.06
Boston ............... ...... 5.94
Cleveland ........... ...... 6.74
Denver ..................... 4.60
Erie.................... ....... 5.77
Houston ............ ...... 4.85
Los Angeles....... ....... 5.56
Milwaukee......... ...... 5.61
Omaha ............... ...... 4.88
Phoenix ............ ....... 5.60
San Diego ........ ...... 5.56
Tampa .............. ...... 4.95

$4.21
5.82
6.07
4.45
5.77
4.85
5.46
5.44
4.53
5.24
5.46
3.87

The operating engineer’s work
is performed outdoors; conse­
quently, he usually works steadily
during the warmer months and
experiences slow periods during
the colder months. The work is
active and sometimes strenuous.
The operation of some machines,
particularly bulldozers and some




types of scrapers, is physically
tiring because the constant move­
ment of the machine shakes or
jolts the operator.
A large proportion of operating
engineers are members of the In­
ternational Union of Operating
Engineers.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing operating engineer apprentice­
ships or work opportunities in this
occupation, inquiries should be
directed to local general contrac­
tors; a local of the International
Union of Operating Engineers; a
local joint apprenticeship commit­
tee; or the nearest office of the
State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training, U.S. Department
of Labor. In addition, the local
office of the State employment
service may be a source of infor­
mation about the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportu­
nities.
General information about the
work of operating engineers may
be obtained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Union of Operating
Engineers, 1125 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

PAINTERS AND
PAPERHANGERS
(D.O.T. 840.131, .381, .781, .884, and
.887 and 841.781)

N ature of th e W ork
Painting and paperhanging are
separate, skilled building trades,

although many craftsmen in these
trades do both types of work.
Painters prepare the surfaces of
buildings and other structures
and then apply paint, varnish,
enamel, lacquer, and similar ma­
terials to these surfaces. Paperhangers cover room interiors with
paper fabric, vinyls, or other ma­
terials.
One of the primary duties of
the painter— especially in re­
painting— is to prepare the sur­
face. Loose paint must be re­
moved by scraping or by heating
with a blowtorch and then scrap­
ing. Grease must be removed, nail
holes and cracks filled, rough
spots sandpapered, and dust
brushed off. Usually, new sur­
faces must be covered with a
prime coat or sealer to provide a
suitable surface or base on which
to apply fresh paint. Paint is ap­
plied to many kinds of materials,
including wood, structural steel,
and clay products, generally by a
brush, spray gun, or roller.
A painter must be skilled in
handling brushes and other paint­
ing tools in order to apply paint
thoroughly, uniformly, and rap­
idly to any type of surface. He
must be able to mix paints, match
colors, and must have a knowl­
edge of paint composition and
color harmony. He also must
know the characteristics of com­
mon types of paints and finishes
from the standpoints of durabil­
ity, suitability for different pur­
poses, and ease of handling and
application.
Painters often use spray guns
to paint surfaces or objects that
are difficult to paint with a
brush, such as lattices, cinder and
concrete block, and metal fencing.
They also use spray guns on large
areas that can be sprayed with a
minimum of preparation. When
using a roller (a rotating applica­
tor covered with soft material),

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

396
the painter rolls the applicator
over the surface to be covered.
Painters must know how to
erect the scaffolding from which
they
often
work,
including
“ swing stages” (scaffolds sus­
pended by ropes or cables at­
tached to roof hooks) and
“ bosun chairs,” which they use
when working on tall buildings
and other structures.
The paperhanger first prepares
the surface to be covered. In new
work, he applies “ sizing,” a pre­
pared material that makes the
plaster less porous and assures
better sticking of the paper to
the surface. In redecorating work,
it may be necessary to remove old
paper by soaking or, if there are
many layers, by steaming. Fre­
quently, it is also necessary for
paperhangers to do minor plaster
patching in order to get a smooth
base for the covering material.
When the wall has been pre­
pared, the paperhanger measures
the area to be covered. He cuts a
length from the roll of wallpaper,
and carefully positions the pat­
terns so they will match at the
ceiling and baseboard. He mixes
a paste and applies it to the re­
verse side of the paper. The pastecoated paper strip then is placed
on the wall and smoothed into
place with the hand and a dry
brush. The paperhanger removes
air bubbles by smoothing toward
the outer edges. In this final step,
the craftsman matches the adja­
cent edges of the patterned paper,
cuts and fits the horizontal edges
at the ceiling and base; smooths
the seams between strips with a
roller or other special tool; and
makes a thorough inspection for
air bubbles and other imperfec­
tions in the work. Then he is
ready to place the next wallpaper
strip. When working with wall
coverings other than paper, the
paperhanger follows the same
general procedure.




Places of Em ploym ent
Most painters and paperhang­
ers work for contractors engaged
in new construction activity. Sub­
stantial numbers of painters and
paperhangers also are employed
by contractors to do repair, alter­
ation, or modernization work. Ho­
tels, office buildings, shipyards,
utility companies, manufacturing
firms, schools and other govern­
ment units, and other organiza­
tions that own or manage exten­
sive property holdings commonly
employ maintenance painters.
When interior redecorating in­
volves wall papering, as in hotels
or apartment buildings, mainte­
nance painters also may do the
paperhanging.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Painting and
Decorating Apprenticeship and
Training Committee recommend
the completion of a 3-year formal
apprenticeship as the best way
to become a journeyman painter
or paperhanger. A substantial
proportion of painters and paperhangers, however, have learned
the trade informally, by working
as helpers or handymen, observ­
ing or being taught by experi­
enced craftsmen. Workers with­
out formal apprentice training
have gained acceptance as jour­
neymen more easily in these

BUILDING TRADES

crafts than in most of the other
building trades.
Apprentice applicants gener­
ally are required to be between
16 and 25 and in good physical
condition. A high school educa­
tion is preferred although not es­
sential. Applicants should have
manual dexterity and a discern­
ing color sense. They should not
be allergic to paint fumes or to
the other materials used in these
trades, such as varnish, turpen­
tine, and lacquer.
The apprenticeship for painters
and paperhangers generally con­
sists of 6,000 hours (3 years) of
on-the-job training, in addition
to 144 hours a year of related
classroom instruction. Many ap­
prenticeships combine painting
ing and paperhanging. In a typi­
cal 3-year training program, the
apprentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and han­
dle safely the tools, machines,
equipment, and materials com­
monly used in the trade; prepare
surfaces, including sizing, sand­
papering, and patching walls;
match and mix colors; apply vari­
ous types of interior and exterior
materials, including stain, lac­
quer, enamel, oil, and varnish;
and erect scaffolding.
In addition, the apprentice re­
ceives related classroom instruc­
tion in color harmony; paint
chemistry; estimating costs; and
making, mixing, and matching
paints. He also learns the rela­
tionship between painting and
paperhanging work and the
work performed by the other
building trades craftsmen.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices usually start at 50 percent
of the journeyman rate and in­
crease periodically until the jour­
neyman rate of pay is reached up­
on completion of apprenticeship.
Painters and paperhangers may
advance to foreman. They also
may advance to jobs as estima­
tors for painting and decorating




397
contractors— computing material
requirements and labor costs.
Some may become superintend­
ents on large contract painting
jobs, or they may establish their
own businesses as painting and
decorating contractors.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of painters— esti­
mated at about 422,000 in 1968—
is expected to increase moder­
ately through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition to employment growth,
thousands of job openings will
arise from the replacement of ex­
perienced painters who transfer
to other occupations, retire, or
die. Retirements and deaths
alone are expected to provide
nearly 11,000 job openings annu­
ally.
The large rise anticipated in
construction activity (see discus­
sion, p. 360) is expected to result
in a growing demand for painters.
Moreover, recently developed
paints, such as polyester and
vinyl coatings and epoxys, that
are heat-, abrasion-, and corro­
sion resisting have resulted in
new uses for paints and additional
job opportunities for painters.
Furthermore, a growing number
of painters are expected to be
needed in the maintenance de­
partments of large industrial and
commercial firms.
Technological developments are
expected to limit the employment
growth of painters. New types of
paint that are more easily applied
and have improved “ covering
power” have made it easier for in­
experienced workers to do work
that is acceptable to some cus­
tomers. Other paints that are be­
ing introduced promise to length­
en the “ life” of present-day
paints. Spray painting requires
fewer painters to do the same
amount of work. In addition,
many items formerly painted at

the building site now come from a
factory with a prime coat and of­
ten with a final coat. Aluminum
building products, which often re­
quire no painting, have become
increasingly common in recent
years.
Employment of paperhangers—
estimated at about 8,000 in 1968
— is expected to increase by a
few thousand through the 1970’s.
In addition, some job openings
will result from the replacement
of experienced paperhangers who
transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone are expected to re­
sult in more than 300 job openings
annually.
Growth in the employment of
paperhangers is expected mainly
because of the anticipated in­
crease in construction activity.
Also the more widespread use of
fabric, plastic, and other types of
wall coverings should contribute
to the demand for these workers.
However, the use of paints for in­
terior walls, as well as wallpapers
designed for easier application by
“ do-it-yourselfers,” will tend to
limit the employment growth of
paperhangers.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for painters and paperhang­
ers in 68 large cities averaged
$5.01 and $4.97, respectively, on
July 1, 1968, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers. In comparison, the av­
erage rate for all journeymen in
the building trades was $5.43 an
hour. Among individual cities
surveyed the minimum hourly
rates for painters ranged from
$3.20 in Richmond, Va., to $5.81
in Cleveland, Ohio. The rates for
paperhangers ranged from $3.20
in Richmond, Va., to $6.10 in
Trenton, N. J. Straight-time hour­
ly earnings, excluding fringe

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

398
benefits or payments to health,
insurance, or pension funds, for
painters and paperhangers in 12
of the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas and
regions of the country, on July
1, 1968, appear in the accompany­
ing tabulation.
City

Rate per hour
Painters Paperhangers

Atlanta.............. .... $4.95
Boston .............. .... 5.15
Chicago ............ .... 5.30
Cincinnati ......... .... 4.93
Detroit ................... 5.45
Houston ............. .... 4.59
Newark ............. .... 5.45
New Orleans ..... .... 3.75
Philadelphia ..... .... 4.67
Salt Lake City ...... 4.30
San Diego ......... .... 5.44
Spokane ............. .... 4.86

$5.20
5.30
4.93
5.45
4.59
3.63
4.64
4.50
5.57
4.86

Painters and paperhangers of­
ten are required to stand for long
periods of time, to climb, and to
bend at their work. A painter
must have strong arms because
much of the work is done with
arms raised overhead. Painters
and paperhangers risk injury
from slips or falls from ladders
and scaffolds.
A large proportion of painters
and paperhangers are members of
the Brotherhood of Painters, Dec­
orators and Paperhangers of
America. A few are members of
other unions.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing painting and paperhanging
apprenticeships or other work op­
portunities in these trades, in­
quiries should be directed to local
painting and decorating contrac­
tors; a local of the Brotherhood
of Painters, Decorators and Pap­
erhangers of America; a local
joint union-management appren­
ticeship commitee; or the nearest
office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­




ticeship and Training, U.S. De­
partment of Labor. In addition,
the local office of the State em­
ployment service may be a source
of information about the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, apprenticeship, and other
programs that provide training
opportunities.
General information about the
work of painters and paperhang­
ers may be obtained from:
Brotherhood of Painters, Decor­
ators and Paperhangers of
America, 1925 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Painting and Decorating Contrac­
tors Association of America,
2625 West Peterson Ave., Chi­
cago, 1 1 60605.
1.

PLASTERERS
(D.O.T. 842.381 and .781)

N ature of the W ork
The plasterer is the building
craftsman who applies a plaster
coating to interior walls and ceil­
ings to form fire-resistant and re­
latively sound-proof surfaces,
which then may be decorated with
paint or wallpaper covering. They
also apply more durable cement
plaster or stucco to exterior walls,
and form and cast ornamental de­
signs in plaster.
In interior work, three distinct
coats of plaster— scratch, brown,
and finish, usually are applied to
ceilings and walls. On wire or met­
al lath, the initial or scratch coat
is applied directly to the lath
(backing to which plaster readily
adheres), scratched before set
with a special raking tool, and
then allowed to set (harden) for
a day or more before applying the
brown coat, or second layer of
plaster. On gypsum lath or ma­

sonry walls, the same procedure
may be used; however, the brown
coat can usually be applied im­
mediately after the scratch coat
has been completed.
The plasterer uses a hawk (a
square plate of lightweight metal
with a handle, about 14 by 14
inches), which holds several trow­
elfuls of material, and a trowel to
apply the wet material. While ap­
plying the brown coat, the plas­
terer plumbs and straightens cor­
ners, angles, and wall and ceiling
surfaces, using a straightedge, rod,
or beveledge. The craftsman then
uses a darby (a wood or metal
float with handles, about 4 by 42
inches) to bring the main body
of the walls and ceiling to a
smooth and uniform finish. The
brown coat is allowed to start its
initial set and is then floated
(rubbed lightly using a circular
motion) using a wood hand float
with slightly protruding nails.
The nails scratch the undercoat
which, in turn, leaves the under­
coat coarse and provides greater
adhesion for the final finish coat.
Before applying the finish or
white coat, the brown coat must
dry for several days. During cold
weather, heat may be necessary
to prevent the freezing and failure
of materials, and aid the drying
process of the plaster. When the
brown-coated walls are considered
ready for the final coat by the
plasterer, the white coat is mixed
on a plaster board by the crafts­
man. The plasterer mixes only
enough white coat to cover an
area in which he can apply a prop­
er finish. The white coat is a rela­
tively thin covering, must be ap­
plied carefully and quickly, and
finished smooth with trowel,
brush, and water before the mix­
ture sets. The white coat sets very
quickly and, in a few days, dries
to a very durable and hard finish.
Plaster wall surfaces may be
finished in a number of ways by
using different tools, methods, or

399

BUILDING TRADES

materials. Instead of a white coat
as described above, there are a
variety of decorative textures,
such as stipple (dots), swirl, and
sand finishes.
A plasterer may perform more
complex types of plastering work,
such as decorative and ornamen­
tal plastering. For example, he
may be called upon to mold or
form intricate ornamental de­
signs such as cornices, paneling,
or recesses for indirect lighting.
Plasterers who do this type of
work must be able to follow blue­
prints and other specifications
furnished by the architect.
In exterior stucco work, the
plasterer applies a mixture of
Portland cement and sand to ma­
sonry, expanded metal, or metal
wire lath in the same manner as
in interior plastering. The finish
coat usually consists of a mixture
of white cement and sand or a
patented finish material, which
may be applied in a variety of
colors and textures. Also, marble
or gravel chips may be imbedded
into the soft plaster to form a
textured surface.




Apprentices work with journey­
men plasterers so that they may
acquire a full knowledge of the
craft and develop the necessary
skills. Laborers (hod carriers)
mix base coat materials and some
finish materials and carry them
to the plasterer; they also erect
scaffolding when needed.
In recent years, plasterers have
been making increasing use of ma­
chines that spray plaster on walls,
ceilings, and structural sections of
buildings. These machines are
particularly desirable when used
to apply the newly developed
lightweight plasters. Machines
used to mix plaster have been in
general use for many years.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most plasterers work on new
building construction. In addition,
plasterers work on extensive
building alterations, particularly
where special architectural and
lighting effects are part of the
building modernization. There is
a small amount of work for plas­
terers in the repair and mainte­
nance of older buildings.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Plastering
Industry Joint (labor-manage­
ment) Apprenticeship and Train­
ing Committee, r e c o m m e n d
completion of a 3- or 4-year ap­
prenticeship as the best way to
learn plastering. However, many
workers in this trade have ac­
quired some plastering skills by
working as helpers or laborers, ob­
serving or being taught by experi­
enced plasterers.
Apprentice applicants in this
trade generally are required to be
between 17 and 25, but this re­
quirement may be waived for vet­

erans. Good physical condition
and manual dexterity are import­
ant assets.
Apprenticeship programs gen­
erally consist of 6,000 to 8,000
hours (3 or 4 years) of on-the-job
training, in addition to at least
144 hours of related classroom in­
struction annually. In a typical
4-year training program, the ap­
prentice learns, among other
things, to use and handle the tools
of the trade, and the properties
and appropriate handling of the
different kinds of materials and
mixtures used in plastering. In
addition, he learns how to apply
scratch (first) coat and brown
(second) coat; aline walls and
beams to given measurements;
apply white coat and sand finish;
install acoustical plaster and stuc­
co, and acoustical tile, cork, and
similar materials; use machines
to apply and finish plaster; and
lay out arches and ceilings. He
also learns texture finishing.
The apprentice receives class­
room instruction in such subjects
as drafting, blueprint reading, and
mathematics applicable to layout
work. In the classroom and on the
job, the apprentice becomes fa­
miliar with the work of other
trades so that he may determine,
for example, whether lathing or
other preparatory work is satis­
factory.
Plasterers may advance to fore­
man, superintendent, or estimator
for a plastering contractor. Many
plasterers are self-employed and
may employ other plasterers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
A moderate increase in the em­
ployment
of plasterers— esti­
mated at about 40,000 in 1968—
is expected for the remainder of
this decade and during the 1970’s.
In addition, the need to replace
experienced plasterers who trans­
fer to other fields of work or who

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

400
retire or die will provide many job
openings for new workers. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in slightly more
than 700 job openings annually.
The growth in employment of
these workers will result primarily
from the anticipated large in­
crease in construction activity.
(See discussion, p. 360.) In addi­
tion, recent changes in plastering
materials and improved methods
of applying these materials are
increasing the scope of the craft
and creating work opportunities
for plasterers. For example, im­
proved lightweight plasters are
being used increasingly because
of their excellent soundproofing,
acoustical, and fireproofing quali­
ties. Another development that is
expanding job opportunities for
plasterers is the growing use of
curved surfaces and ceilings made
of plaster, both as a form of archi­
tectural treatment and to achieve
special lighting and acoustical ef­
fects. Machine plastering and fire­
proofing have become widespread.
Still other developments are the
increasing use of “ plaster veneer”
or “ high density” plaster, a thin,
extremely hard material used to
create a finished surface, and
“ marblecrete,” a type of stucco in
which varicolored marble chips
have been imbedded.
The growth in employment re­
sulting from these favorable de­
velopments will be limited by the
continuing use of nonplaster (drywall) construction, which can be
installed by craftsmen other than
plasterers.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly rates
for plasterers averaged $5.34,
compared with $5.43 for all jour­
neymen in the building trades, on
July 1, 1968, according to a na­
tional survey of building trades
workers in 68 cities. Among indi­




vidual cities surveyed, the mini­
mum hourly rates for plasterers
ranged from $4.10 in Jackson,
Miss., to $6.14 in Rochester,
N.Y. Straight-time hourly earn­
ings, excluding fringe benefits or
payments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for plasterers in 12
of the 68 cities selected to show
wage rates from various areas
and regions of the country, on
July 1, 1968, appear in the ac­
companying tabulation.
Plastering requires considerable
standing, stooping, and lifting.
Plasterers work both outdoors do­
ing stucco work, and indoors plas­
tering walls and ceilings and form­
ing and casting ornamental
designs.
A large proportion of plasterers
are members of unions. They are
represented by either the Opera­
tive Plasterers’ and Cement Ma­
sons’ International Association of
the United States and Canada, or
the Bricklayers, Masons and Plas­
ters’ International Union of
America.
City

Rate per hour

Birmingham ........... ................ $4.32
Chicago ................................... 5.76
Dayton ..................................... 5.40
Detroit ..................................... 5.32
Grand Rapids ......... ................ 5.25
Little Rock ............. ................ 4.39
Madison................................... 5.10
New Haven ............. ................ 5.35
New Orleans ........... ................ 4.35
Philadelphia ........... ................ 5.39
Sacramento ............. ................ 5.15
Spokane .................. ................ 5.27

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing plastering apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local plastering contractors;
locals of the unions previously
mentioned; a local joint unionmanagement apprenticeship com­
mittee; or the nearest office of the
State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and

Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local of­
fice of the State employment ser­
vice may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act, appren­
ticeship, and other programs that
provide training opportunities.
General information about the
work of plasterers may be ob­
tained from:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plas­
terers’ International Union of
America, 815 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
Contracting Plasterers’ and Lath­
ers’ International Association,
304 Landmark Bldg., 1343 H St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Bureau for Lathing and
Plastering, 938 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.
Operative Plasterers’ and Cement
Masons’ International Associa­
tion of the United States and
Canada, 1125 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

PLUMBERS AND
PIPEFITTERS
(D.O.T. 862.381)

N atu re of the W ork
Plumbers and pipefitters are
craftsmen who install pipe sys­
tems that carry water, steam, air,
or other liquids or gases needed
for sanitation, industrial produc­
tion, or other uses. They also al­
ter and repair existing pipe sys­
tems and install plumbing fix­
tures, appliances, and heating and
refrigerating units.
Although plumbing and pipe­
fitting are sometimes considered
to be a single trade, journeymen
can specialize in either craft, par­
ticularly in large cities. Water,
gas, and waste disposal systems,
especially those connected to pub-

401

BUILDING TRADES

lie utility systems, are installed
by plumbers. These installations
are made in residential and com­
mercial buildings, schools, indus­
trial plants, and other structures.
In homes, for example, plumbers
initially “ rough in” (install) the
pipe system as the building pro­
gresses. During the final construc­
tion stages, they install the heat­
ing and air conditioning units, and
connect radiators, water heaters,
and plumbing fixtures, such as
bathtubs and sinks.
Pipefitters install both highand low-pressure pipes that carry
hot water, steam, and other li­
quids and gases, especially those
in industrial and commercial
buildings and defense establish­
ments such as missile launching
and testing sites. Pipefitters, for
example, install ammonia-carry­
ing pipelines in refrigeration
plants, complex pipe systems in
oil refineries and chemical and
food-processing plants, and pipe­
lines for carrying compressed air
and industrial gases in many
types of industrial establishments.
Some plumbers and pipefitters
specialize in gas fitting, steam
fitting, or sprinkler fitting. Gas
fitters install and maintain the
gas fittings and the central gas
main extensions that connect the
main gas line with those leading
to homes. Steamfitters assemble
and install steam or hot water
systems for commercial and in­
dustrial uses. Sprinkler fitters in­
stall and maintain all types of
fixed piping fire extinguishing
systems.
Plumbers and pipefitters use a
variety of skills when installing
pipe systems. For example, they
bend pipe and weld, braze, calk,
solder, or thread joints. After a
pipe system is installed, the
plumber or pipefitter tests for
leaks by filling the pipes with
liquid or gas under pressure.
Plumbers and pipefitters use
wrenches, reamers, drills, braces




and bits, hammers, chisels, saws,
and other handtools. Power ma­
chines often are used to cut, bend,
and thread pipes.Hand-operated
hydraulic pipe benders are also
used. In addition, plumbers and
pipefitters use gas or acetylene
torches and welding, soldering,
and brazing equipment in their
work.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most plumbers and pipefitters
are employed by plumbing and
pipefitting contractors in new

construction activity, mainly at
the construction site. A substan­
tial proportion of plumbers are
self-employed or work for plumb­
ing contractors doing repair, al­
teration, or modernization work.
Some plumbers install and main­
tain pipe systems for government
agencies and public utilities, and
some work on the construction of
ships and aircraft. Others do
maintenance work in industrial
and commercial establishments.
Pipefitters, in particular, are em­
ployed as maintenance personnel
in the petroleum, chemical, and
food-processing industries where
the industrial operations include

Plumber connects cast iron pipe using special calking tools.

402
the processing of fluids through
pipes.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the national joint labormanagement apprenticeship com­
mittees for the plumbing and
pipefitting industries, recommend
a formal 5-year apprenticeship
for plumbers or for pipefitters as
the best way to learn all aspects
of these trades. A large number
of plumbers and pipefitters, how­
ever, have acquired plumbing and
pipefitting skills informally by
working for several years with
craftsmen, and by observing and
receiving instruction from them.
Many of these persons have
gained some knowledge of their
trade by taking trade or corre­
spondence school courses.
Apprentice applicants generally
are required to be between 16
and 25, and in good physical con­
dition. A high school education or
its equivalent, including courses
in mathematics, physics, and
chemistry, is generally recom­
mended. Applicants often are re­
quired to take aptitude tests, par­
ticularly to determine whether
they have the high degree of me­
chanical aptitude required in this
field.
Most apprentice training pro­
grams for plumbers and pipefit­
ters are conducted under written
agreements between the appren­
tices and local joint apprentice­
ship committees, composed of un­
ion and management representa­
tives, who supervise the training.
The apprenticeship committee de­
termines the need for apprentices
in the locality, establishes mini­
mum apprenticeship standards of
training and, if necessary, sched­
ules a rotating work program.
This program is designed to give
the apprentice diversified train­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ing by having him work for sev­
eral plumbing or pipefitting
contractors.
The apprenticeship program for
plumbers or for pipefitters usu­
ally consists of 10,000 hours of
on-the-job training, in addition
to at least 144 hours of related
classroom instruction annually.
In a typical 5-year training pro­
gram, the plumber or pipefitter
apprentice learns, among other
things, how to use, care for, and
handle safely the tools, machines,
equipment, and materials used in
the trades. They also learn weld­
ing and soldering techniques and
general repair work; the use of
ladders and the erection and dis­
mantling of scaffolding; and the
proper use of plastic and glass
piping. The plumber apprentice­
ship program includes training in
the basic skills of the trade and
in the installation of sewers,
drains, and services outside the
building; private water supply
and drainage systems; building
water supply systems; building

drainage and vent systems; water
heaters and treatment equip­
ment; appliances; the testing, re­
pair, and maintenance of these
systems and equipment; and also
in estimating the materials re­
quired. The pipefitter apprentice­
ship program includes training in
the installation and maintenance
of radiators, pumps, boilers, stok­
ers, oil burners, and gas furnaces;
hot water, steam panel, and radi­
ant-heating systems; air-condi­
tioning and powerplant piping
systems; and pneumatic control
systems and instrumentation.
The apprentice receives related
classroom instruction in subjects
such as drafting and blueprint
reading, mathematics applicable
to layout work, applied physics
and chemistry, and local building
codes and regulations that apply
to the trade.
Hourly wage rates of appren­
tices in these trades usually start
at 40-50 percent of the journey­
man rate and increase in each 6month period until a rate of 85-90

Plumbers use auger to clear waste line.

403

BUILDING TRADES

percent is reached during the last
period of the apprenticeship.
In some localities, a journey­
man’s license is required for
plumbers. T o obtain this license,
a person must pass a special ex­
amination to demonstrate his
knowledge of the local building
codes. The examination also tests
his all-round knowledge of the
trade.
Some journeymen plumbers
and pipefitters may become fore­
men for plumbing or pipefitting
contractors. Many journeymen
go into business for themselves.
As they expand their activities,
they may employ other workers
and become plumbing and pipe­
fitting contractors. In most local­
ities, contractors are required to
obtain a master plumber’s license.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of plumbers and
pipefitters— who numbered about
330,000 in 1968— is expected to
rise rapidly through the 1970s. In
addition to new jobs created by
employment growth, thousands of
job opportunities will arise to re­
place experienced plumbers and
pipefitters who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. R e­
tirements and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in about 7,000 job
openings annually.
The most important factor that
will contribute to the projected
rise in employment is the antici­
pated large increase in construc­
tion activity. (See discussion, p.
360.) Furthermore, plumbing and
heating work is expected to be­
come more important in many
types of construction. For exam­
ple, the trend toward more bath­
rooms per dwelling unit is likely
to continue. The installation of
appliances, such as washing ma­
chines for clothes or dishes, gas
dryers, and waste disposals, also
will continue. The number of au­
tomatic heating system installa­




Pipefitter tack welds pipe.

tions probably will increase. Also,
in industry generally, plumbers
and pipefitters will be required
for necessary installation and
maintenance work. For example,
the chemical industry, which uses
extensive pipework in its process­
ing activities, is expected to ex­
pand its facilities. Those indus­
tries that are automating more
of their production activities will
require more pipefitting work.
The increasing industrial activi­
ties related to atomic energy and
the greater use of refrigeration
and air-conditioning equipment
also will result in more work for
plumbers and pipefitters. Finally,
maintenance and repair, and
modernization of existing plumb­
ing or heating systems will create
additional employment opportu­
nities for these craftsmen.
Technological developments are
expected to limit the growth in
the number of jobs for plumbers

and pipefitters. For example, pre­
fabricated plumbing assemblies
can now be installed as a unit,
thereby reducing the amount of
on-site plumbing required. Pack­
aged gas vents also are available.
Ventpipe sections come in stand­
ardized lengths that can be fas­
tened together by locking joint
bands, thus eliminating cement­
ing operations. Some builders are
preassembling their own waste,
vent, and other systems compon­
ents. This work— usually per­
formed by the employers’ regular
crew in well-equipped shops set
up near the building site— can be
performed during periods of in­
clement weather or other “ slow”
periods.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for plumbers and for pipe-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

404
fitters averaged $5.73 and $5.70,
respectively, on July 1, 1968, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68
large cities.. At the same time,
the average hourly rate for all
journeymen in the building trades
was $5.43. Among individual cit­
ies surveyed, the union minimum
hourly wage rates for plumbers
ranged from $4.30 in Norfolk,
Va., to $7.35 in Oakland, Calif.;
pipefitters’ rates ranged from
$4.30 in Norfolk, Va., to $7.85 in
Oakland, Calif.
Straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding fringe
benefits or payments to health,
insurance, or pension funds, for
plumbers and pipefitters in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show
wage information from various
areas and regions of the country,
on July 1, 1968, appear in the
accompanying tabulation. Annual
earnings of workers in this field
are among the highest in the
building trades because plumbing
and pipefitting are affected less
by seasonal factors than are most
other building crafts.
City

Rate per hour
Plumbers Pipefitters

Atlanta ............. ........ $5.45
Boston ............. ........ 6.00
Chicago ........... ....... 5.85
Dallas ............... ........ 5.27
Kansas City...... ........ 5.75
Memphis ......... ........ 5.18
Newark ........... ........ 6.10
Phoenix ........... ........ 5.75
Pittsburgh ........ ........ 6.26
Sacramento ...... ........ 6.72
Shreveport........ ........ 5.40
Tulsa ............... ........ 5.01

$5.45
5.80
5.90
5.27
5.70
5.08
6.10
5.75
5.44
6.72
5.40
5.16

The work of plumbers and pipfitters is active and sometimes
strenuous, as is the work in the
other building trades. They fre­
quently must stand for prolonged
periods and occasionally work in
cramped or uncomfortable posi­
tions because much of their work
is done in relatively inaccessible
places.
Workers in this trade risk the
danger of falls from ladders, cuts




from sharp tools, and burns from
hot pipes or steam. The number
of injuries per million man-hours
worked by employees of plumbing,
heating, and air-conditioning con­
tractors in the contract construc­
tion industry has been lower than
that for contract construction as
a whole, but higher than the
average for production workers in
manufacturing industries.
A large proportion of plumbers
and pipefitters are members of
the United Association of Jour­
neymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipe Fitting In­
dustry of the United States and
Canada.

National Association of PlumbingHeating-Cooling
Contractors,
1016 20th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
National Automatic Sprinkler and
Fire Control Association, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
10007.
United Association of Journeymen
and Apprentices of the Plumb­
ing and Pipe Fitting Industry of
the United States and Canada,
901 Massachusetts Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

ROOFERS
(D.O.T. 804.281; 843.844; and 866.381)

Sources of Additional Inform ation

N atu re of the W ork

For further information regard­
ing plumber or pipefitter appren­
ticeships or work opportunities in
these trades, inquiries should be
directed to local plumbing, heat­
ing, and air-conditioning contrac­
tors; a local union of the United
Association of Journeymen and
Apprentices of the Plumbing and
Pipe Fitting Industry of the
United States and Canada; a lo­
cal joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State appren­
ticeship agency or the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In ad­
dition, the local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities. Some lo­
cal employment service offices
provide such services as screening
applicants and giving aptitude
tests.
General information about the
work of plumbers, pipefitters and
sprinkler fitters may be obtained
from:

Roofers apply composition roof­
ing and other materials, such as
tile and slate, to the roofs of build­
ings. They also waterproof and
dampproof walls and other build­
ing surfaces.
In applying composition roof­
ing, the roofer first places over­
lapping strips of asphalt or tar
impregnated felt over the entire
surface. He then applies a coating
of coal tar pitch, asphalt, or other
bituminous material. This process
is repeated until at least three
layers of felt are in place. Finally,
he applies a surfacing of coal tar
pitch, or asphalt and gravel, or a
smooth surface asphalt to protect
the roofing materials from the
weather.
In applying other types of com­
position roofing, such as roll roof­
ing and asphalt shingles, the roof­
er overlaps and then fastens the
roofing material to the roof base
with nails or asphalt cement. If
necessary, he cuts the material to
fit corners, pipes, and chimneys.
The roofer then cements or nails
flashing (strips of felt or metal)
wherever two roof surfaces inter­
sect. Flashing is installed to make

BUILDING TRADES

the intersections (joints) water­
tight.
Roofers also use metal, tile, and
slate for the more expensive types
of roofs. Metal roofs are con­
structed by soldering metal sheets
together and nailing them to the
wood sheathing. In installing tile
and slate roofs, the roofer places
a covering of roofing felt over the
wood sheathing. He punches holes
in the slate or tile that he nails
to the sheathing. Each row of
slate or tile is placed to overlap
the preceding row. Finally, the
roofer covers the exposed nailheads with roofing cement to
avoid rusting and water leakage
around the nailheads. Handtools
usually are used in applying roof
surfaces— for example, hammers,
roofing knives, mops, pincers, and
calking guns.
Roofers also waterproof and
dampproof structures other than
roofs, such as masonry or concrete
walls or swimming pools and other
tanks. The roofer prepares sur­
faces to be waterproofed by re­
moving rough projections and
roughing glazed surfaces, using a
hammer and chisel or rubbing
brick. He then applies a coat of
liquid compound with a brush. He
also may paint or spray surfaces
with a waterproofing material or
nail waterproofing fabric to sur­
faces. When dampproofing, he
usually sprays a coating of tar or
asphalt on interior or exterior sur­
faces to avoid the penetration of
moisture.

Places of Em ploym ent
Roofers work for roofing con­
tractors on new building construc­
tion. They also do maintenance
and repair work, especially on
composition roofing. A few roofers
are self-employed, doing either
roofing on small, new buildings or
repairs and alterations. Roofers
also work for government agencies




405
or business establishments that do
their own construction and repair
work.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Apprenticeship
and Training Committee for the
Roofing Industry, recommend
completion of a 3-year apprentice­
ship program, covering all types
of roofing work, as the superior
way to learn this trade. A sub­
stantial proportion of workers,
however, have acquired roofing
skills informally, by working as
helpers or handymen, observing
or being taught by experienced
roofers.
Apprenticeship applicants are
required to be at least 18 and not
over 30 years of age; however, ex­
ceptions may be made for veter­
ans. A high school education or
its equivalent is desirable. Good
physical condition and a good
sense of balance are important
assets.
The 3-year apprenticeship pro­
gram generally consists of a mini­
mum of 1,400 hours of on-the-job

training annually, in addition to
related classroom instruction. In
a typical training program, the
apprentice learns, among other
things, to use, care for, and handle
safely the tools, equipment, and
materials commonly used in the
trade; work with composition, tar,
and asphalt; prepare roof surfaces
for covering; apply pitch and
other materials; spread gravel; in­
stall slate, tile, and terra cotta;
and dampproof and waterproof
structures.
The trainee receives related
classroom instruction in such sub­
jects as blueprint reading and
mathematics applicable to layout
work.
Hourly wage rates for appren*
tices usually start at 65 percent
of the journeyman rate and in­
crease periodically until 90 per­
cent of the journeyman rate is
reached in the final 6 months of
the training period.
Roofers may advance to fore­
man and to superintendent for a
roofing contractor. Also, they may
enter business for themselves and
hire other roofers.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of roofers— who
numbered about 55,000 in 1968—
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition
to new jobs created by employ­
ment growth, thousands of job
opportunities will result from the
replacement of journeymen who
transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone are expected to re­
sult in more than 800 job open­
ings annually.
Employment of roofers is ex­
pected to increase mainly because
of the anticipated rapid increase
in construction activity. (See dis­
cussion, p. 360.) New construction
and repairs on existing structures
will provide most of the work for

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

406
these craftsmen. However, damp­
proofing and waterproofing are
expected to provide an increasing
proportion of roofers’ work.
Although the projected increase
in construction activity will result
in rising employment of roofers,
employment growth will be lim­
ited by the increasing use of
spray-on or fluid roofing systems;
improved roofing materials and
roofing techniques that increase
the “ life” of roofs; improved tools,
such as nailing machines; and
more efficient materials handling
equipment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for composition roofers aver­
aged $5.11, on July 1, 1968, ac­
cording to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68
large cities. For slate and tile roof­
ers, the rate was $4.89. By com­
parison, the average for all jour­
neymen in the building trades was
$5.43 an hour. Among individual
cities surveyed, the minimum
hourly rates for composition roof­
ers ranged from $2.50 in Norfolk,
Va., to $6.47 in Newark, N.J.
Slate and tile roofers had hourly
rates ranging from $2.50 in Nor­
folk, Va., to $6.41 in Detroit,
Mich. Straight-time hourly earn­
ings, excluding fringe benefits or
payments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for roofers in 12 of
the 68 cities selected to show
wage information from various
areas and regions of the country,
on July 1, 1968, appear in the
accompanying tabulation.




City

Rate per hour___
Composition Slate and tile

Atlanta ..............
Boston ................
Cleveland ..........
Dallas ................
Kansas C ity.......
Milwaukee ........
New Orleans .....
New York City ..
Pittsburgh .........
San Diego .........
Spokane ............
Syracuse ............

$3.75
5.55
6.41
3.85
4.45
5.02
4.30
5.80
5.70
5.05
4.93
5.45

$4.00
5.55
6.41
4.00
4.45
5.17
4.30
6.02
5.70
5.05
4.93
5.45

Roofers’ work, like that of other
building tradesmen, is sometimes
strenuous. It involves prolonged
standing, as well as climbing,
bending, and squatting. These
workers risk injuries from slips or
falls from scaffolds or roofs. They
may have to work outdoors in all
types of weather, particularly
when doing repair work. Roofing
work may be especially hot during
the warmer months.
A large proportion of roofers are
members of the United Slate, Tile
and Composition Roofers, Damp
and Waterproof Workers Associa­
tion.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information con­
cerning roofing apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be directed
to local roofing contractors; a lo­
cal of the United Slate, Tile and
Composition Roofers, Damp and
Waterproof Workers Association;
a local joint union-management
apprenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State appren­
ticeship agency or the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In
addition, the local office of the
State employment service may be
a source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other training opportunities.
General information about the

work of roofers may be obtained
from:
National Roofing Contractors As­
sociation, 1515 North Harlem
Ave., Oak Park, 1 1 60302.
1.
United Slate, Tile and Composi­
tion Roofers, Damp and Water­
proof Workers Association, 1125
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

SHEET-METAL WORKERS
(D.O.T. 804.281 and .884)

N atu re of the W ork
Sheet-metal workers engaged
in construction-related work fab­
ricate and install ducts used in
ventilating, air-conditioning, and
heating systems. They also fabri­
cate and install a wide variety of
other products made from thin
metal sheets, such as roofing and
siding, partitions, store fronts,
and metal framework for neon
signs. Skilled construction sheetmetal workers should not be con­
fused with assembly-line factory
operatives who also make sheetmetal products, but can perform
only a few specific operations.
In heating or air-conditioning
duct work, the sheet-metal worker
lays out and plans the job and
determines the size and type of
sheet metal to be used. The ducts
are often fabricated at the sheetmetal shop. Sheet-metal workers
cut the metal with hand snips,
power-driven shears, and other
cutting tools. They shape the
metal with a variety of machines,
hammers, and anvils; then weld,
bolt, rivet, solder, or cement the
seams and joints. However, fac­
tory fabricated ducts in standard
sizes are often available and these
require little additional fabrica­
tion by sheet-metal workers.
Some duct fabrication is done at

407

BUILDING TRADES

small shops manufacturing spe­
cialty products, such as custom
kitchen equipment for hotels and
restaurants. Firms making blow­
ers, exhausts, electrical generat­
ing and distributing equipment,
food products machinery, steam
engines, and turbines also em­
ploy skilled sheet-metal workers.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Sheet-metal worker fabricates duct at workbench.

the work site. In the installation
of ducts, the components are fit­
ted together. Hangers and braces
are installed to support ducts,
and points may be soldered, con­
nected, or welded. Some journey­
men specialize in shopwork or on­
site installation work. However,
skilled workers must know all
aspects of the trade.

Places of Em ploym ent
Sheet-metal workers are em­
ployed mainly by firms that fab­
ricate and install heating, refrig­
eration,
and
air-conditioning
equipment, and by contractors
engaged in residential, industrial,




and commercial building. In resi­
dential construction, these work­
ers also may work for roofing con­
tractors who specialize in metal
roofing work. Many of these
craftsmen work for government
agencies or business establish­
ments that do their own construc­
tion and alteration work. Others
are self-employed, mainly on re­
pair work or on smaller types of
installation.
In addition to sheet-metal
workers who perform construc­
tion-related work, thousands of
skilled sheet-metal workers are
employed in nonconstruction in­
dustries; for example, the rail­
road, aircraft, or shipbuilding in­
dustries. Some are employed in

Most training authorities, in­
cluding the National Joint (la­
bor-management) Apprenticeship
and Training Committee for the
Sheet Metal Industry, recom­
mend the completion of a 4-year
apprenticeship program as the
best way to learn the sheet-metal
trade. Some sheet-metal workers,
however, have acquired skills of
the trade informally, by working
as helpers or handymen, observ­
ing or being taught by experi­
enced craftsmen. Many of these
persons have gained additional
knowledge of the trade by taking
correspondence or trade school
courses.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be between
17 and 23, but special considera­
tion may be given for military
service. A high school education
or its equivalent is required. Good
physical and mechanical aptitude
are necessary assets.
The apprenticeship program
usually consists of 8,000 hours (4
years) of on-the-job training, in
addition to related classroom in­
struction. In a typical training
program, the apprentice learns,
among other things, to use, care
for, and handle safely the tools,
machines, equipment, and mate­
rials commonly used in the trade.
Also, he learns how to do welding,
soldering, and seaming; air-con­
ditioning, heating, and ventilat­
ing work; residential installations
such as roofing, gutters, and

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

408
downspouts; and architectural
and industrial sheet-metal work.
In addition, he learns general
work processes such as cutting,
forming, folding, grooving metal
material, bending edges, and
punching and drilling holes.
The trainee receives related
class room instruction in subjects
such as drafting, blueprint read­
ing, and mathematics applicable
to layout work. In addition, he
learns the relationship between
sheet-metal work and other build­
ing trades.
Hourly wage rates for sheetmetal apprentices generally start
at 45 percent of the journeyman
rate and increase periodically un­
til 80 percent of the journeyman
rate is reached during the final
portion of the training period.
Sheet-metal workers in the
construction industry may ad­
vance to foreman, superintendent
of large projects, or go into busi­
ness for themselves as sheetmetal contractors. Experienced
workers in this trade have more
job mobility than many other
building trades workers because
they can transfer their skills to
nonconstruction industries.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment of sheet-metal
workers— who numbered about
50,000 in 1968— is expected to
increase rapidly through the
1970’s. In addition to new jobs
created by employment growth,
thousands of job opportunities
will result from the replacement
of journeymen who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone are
expected to result in more than
800 job openings annually.
The projected increase in em­
ployment of sheet-metal workers
is expected mainly because of the
anticipated large expansion in
residential, commercial, and in­




dustrial construction. (See dis­
cussion, p. 360.) In addition, yearround, central air-conditioning
systems are expected to be in­
stalled in a greater number of
homes, office buildings, schools,
hospitals, department stores, and
factories. Many of these instal­
lations will be in existing struc­
tures. Sheet-metal work should
also result from growth in the
number of large refrigeration sys­
tems. Such equipment will be
needed in the production and
storage of growing quantities of
food and other perishable items
required by an expanding popula­
tion. The shops that fabricate
sheet-metal products used in con­
struction also are expected to re­
quire more of these skilled
craftsmen.
Prefabrication is not likely to
affect the growth of employment
in this occupation as much as in
most other building trades, be­
cause much sheet-metal work is
custom made. The fabrication of
ducts and fittings for ventilating
installations is limited by the
need to tailor these installations
to meet a wide variety of struc­
tural conditions, such as the di­
mensions of the building and the
space allowed for ducts, and also
by the cost of storage space
needed to store prefabricated
ducts and fittings.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for sheet-metal workers av­
eraged $5.48 compared with
$5.43 for all journeymen in the
building trades on July 1, 1968,
according to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68
large cities. Among individual cit­
ies surveyed, the minimum hourly
rates for sheet-metal workers
ranged from $4.05 in Norfolk,
Va., to $7.00 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Straight-time hourly earnings, ex­

cluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for sheet-metal
workers in 12 of the 68 cities se­
lected to show wage information
from various areas and regions of
the country, on July 1, 1968, ap­
pear in the accompanying tabu­
lation.
City

Rate per hour

Albuquerque ...................... ..... $4.93
Boston ............................... ..... 5.73
Buffalo ............................... ..... 5.55
Cincinnati .......................... ..... 5.54
Des Moines ........................ ..... 4.90
Houston .............................. ..... 4.89
Kansas City ...................... ..... 5.03
Pittsburgh .......................... ..... 6.18
Sacramento ........................ ..... 6.30
San Diego .......................... ..... 6.00
Tampa ............................... ..... 4.65
Washington, D.C................ ..... 5.31

Many
sheet-metal
workers
spend considerable time at the
construction site, where they may
work either indoors or outdoors.
Other sheet-metal workers may
work primarily indoors, doing
fabricating and layout work.
When installing gutters, sky­
lights, and cornices, they may
work high above the ground level.
When installing ventilation and
air-conditioning systems, they
may work in awkward and rela­
tively inaccessible places. Sheetmetal workers run the risks of
cuts and burns from the mate­
rials, tools, and equipment used
in their trade.
A large proportion of sheetmetal workers are members of the
Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing sheet-metal apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in this
trade, inquiries should be di­
rected to local sheet-metal con­
tractors or heating, refrigeration,
or air-conditioning contractors; a
local of the Sheet Metal Workers’

409

BUILDING TRADES

International Association; a local
joint union-management appren­
ticeship committee; or the near­
est office of the State apprentice­
ship agency or the Bureau of Ap­
prenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor. In addi­
tion, the local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of sheet-metal workers may
be obtained from:
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors’ National Associa­
tion, Inc., 1611 North Kent St.,
Arlington, Va. 22209.
Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association, 1000 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

STONEMASONS
(D.O.T. 861.131 and .781)

N ature of the W ork
Stonemasons build the stone
exteriors of structures. They
work primarily with two types of
stones— natural cut stone, such
as marble, granite, limestone, or
sandstone; and artificial stone,
which is made to order from ce­
ment, marble chips, or other
types of masonry materials. Much
of the work of these craftsmen is
the setting of cut stone for com­
paratively high-cost structures,
such as office buildings, hotels,
churches, and public buildings.
The stonemason often works
from a set of drawings in which
each stone has been numbered for
identification. A helper locates
the pieces needed and brings
them to the mason. A derrickman




using a hoist may be required to
lift large stones into place. The
stonemason sets the stone in mor­
tar and moves it into position
with a mallet, hammer, or crow­
bar. He alines the stone with a
plumb line and finishes the joints
between the stones with a point­
ing trowel. When necessary, he
may fasten the stone to supports
with metal ties, anchors, or by
welding.
Occasionally, the stonemason
may have to cut stone to an exact
size. To do this, he must deter­
mine the grain of the stone select­
ed and strike blows along a prede­
termined line with a stonemason’s
hammer. Valuable stones are of­
ten cut with an abrasive saw to
make them fit.
Stonemasons also do some
stone veneer work, in which cut
stone is applied in various pat­
terns to the exterior of a building.
In some sections of the country,
stone is used extensively to ve­
neer homes. In one specialized
branch of the trade known as
alberene stone setting, stone­
masons set acid-resistant soap­
stone linings for vats, tanks, and
floors.
The principal handtools of the
stonemason are trowels, heavy
hammers, wooden or hard rubber
mallets, and chisels. For rapid
stone cutting, pneumatic tools are
used, such as hammers, drills, and
brushing tools. Special power
tools smooth the surface of large
stones. An abrasive saw is used
for fine cutting.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most stonemasons work on new
construction, particularly on the
more expensive residential and
commercial and public build­
ings. A few work for government
agencies or business establish­
ments that do their own construc­
tion and alteration work. Stone-

Stonemasons reconstruct old church.

masons are employed mainly in
the larger urban areas. In many
areas which have no stonemasons,
bricklayers perform the work.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most training authorities, in­
cluding
the
National
Joint
(labor-management) Bricklaying
Apprenticeship Committee, rec­
ommend the completion of a 3year apprenticeship program as
the best way to learn stonemasonry. A substantial propor­
tion of stonemasons, however,
have picked up the trade by
working as helpers, observing or
being taught by experienced
stonemasons.
Apprenticeship applicants gen­
erally are required to be between
17 and 24; a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent is desirable.
Good physical condition is an im­
portant asset.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

410
The apprentice training pro­
gram for stonemasons generally
requires 6,000 hours (3 years) of
on-the-job training, in addition to
related classroom instruction.
During the apprenticeship, the
trainee learns to use, care for,
and handle safely the tools, ma­
chines, and materials of the trade,
and to lay out and install walls,
floors, stairs, and arches. The
apprenticeship program in this
occupation is similar to that for
bricklayer. (See discussion, p.
365.)
Stonemasons may advance to
jobs as foremen. They may also
become estimators for stonemasonry contractors. Estimators
compute labor and material re­
quirements for competitive job
bidding. A few of these craftsmen
may start their own contracting
business.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Little increase in the employ­
ment of stonemasons is expected
through the 1970’s, despite the
anticipated large expansion in
construction activity. (See dis­
cussion, p. 360.) Less use of stone
masonry work is expected because
modern architectural design has
emphasized simple lines, little
ornamentation, and large window
areas. Replacement needs will
provide a small number of job
opportunities for new workers
each year.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for stonemasons averaged
$5.49, compared with $5.43 for
all journeymen in the building
trades, on July 1, 1968, according
to a national survey of building
trades workers in 68 large cities.
Among individual cities surveyed,
the minimum hourly rates for




stonemasons ranged from $4.38 in
Tampa, Fla., to $6.70 in New
York City. Straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding fringe bene­
fits or payments to health, insur­
ance, or pension funds, for stone­
masons in 12 of the 68 cities se­
lected to show wage rates from
various areas and regions of the
country, on July 1, 1968, appear
in the accompanying tabulation.
City

prenticeship and other training
opportunities.
General information about the
work of stonemasons may be ob­
tained from:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plas­
terers’ International Union of
America, 815 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

Rate per hour

Albuquerque .............. ............ $5.28
Birmingham .............. ............ 5.00
Boston ........................ ............ 5.95
Chicago ...................... ............ 6.30
Des Moines ................ ............ 5.58
Houston ...................... ............ 5.00
Knoxville .................... ............ 5.35
Los Angeles................ ............ 5.30
Phoenix ...................... ............ 5.53
Pittsburgh .................. ............ 6.38
Seattle ........................ ............ 5.67
Washington, D.C......... ............ 5.55

Since most stonemasonry is
done outdoors, working hours are
often lost because of inclement
weather. The work of the stone­
mason is active and sometimes
strenuous, as it involves lifting
heavy materials.
A large proportion of stone­
masons are members of the Brick­
layers, Masons and Plasterers, In­
ternational Union of America.

W here To Go For M ore Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing apprenticeships for stonema­
sons or other work opportunities
in this trade, inquiries should be
directed to local bricklaying con­
tractors; a local of the Brick­
layers, Masons and Plasterers’ In­
ternational Union of America; a
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and Train­
ing, U.S. Department of Labor.
In addition, the local office of the
State employment service may be
a source of information about ap­

STRUCTURAL-,
ORNAMENTAL-, AND
REINFORCING-IRON
WORKERS, RIGGERS, AND
MACHINE MOVERS
(D.O.T. 801.131, .134, .281, .381, .781,
.884; 809.130, .131, .134, .380, .381,
.781, .884, .887; and 869.883)

Ironworkers erect, assemble, or
install fabricated metal products
mainly in the construction of in­
dustrial, commercial, and large
residential buildings. They also
may rig heavy construction ma­
chinery (prepare the machinery
for moving with the proper lines,
cables, and accessories) and de­
liver the machinery to the new
site. In addition to new construc­
tion, ironworkers do some alter­
ation work. For example, they
may install steel stairs in, or
add windows guards to, exist­
ing buildings. In addition, they
remodel existing structures and
do repair work, such as replace­
ment of metal bridge parts. Iron­
workers comprise four related
trades— structural-iron
worker,
rigger and machine mover, orna­
mental-iron worker, and reinforc­
ing-iron worker (rodman). Al­
though these are distinct trades,
many craftsmen are skilled in,
and do the work of, two or more
of these trades.

S tru ctu ra l-iron

workers

(D.O.T. 809.381) erect the steel
framework of bridges, buildings,

BUILDING TRADES

411
riggers and machine movers study
the size, shape, and weight of the
object to be moved; choose the
lines and cables with which the
object can be safely moved; and
select the points of attachment
that will provide a safe and se­
cure hold on the load. Next, they
attach the lifting device to both
the hoisting equipment and the
item to be moved, and direct the
load into position by giving hand
signals and other directions to the
hoisting machine operator. In
many instances, special rigging
equipment must be built on the
job to move or lift materials and
machines having unusual shapes.
This work requires a knowledge
of both the uses and limitations
of the hoisting equipment and
lifting devices.

O rn am ental-iron

Structural-iron workers wrestle heavy members into position.

and other structures including
metal storage tanks and overhead
crane runways that support heavy
equipment. They install floor
decking and the doors and frames
of vaults.
In erecting a steel framework
or structure, structural-iron work­
ers push, pull, or pry fabricated
steel beams and girders into their
proper position in the structure
while the steel parts are held by
hoisting equipment. Next, they
temporarily connect all the steel
members with bolts, accurately
aline the structure using plumb




bobs and levels, and then fasten
the pieces by welding, bolting, or
riveting. In the construction of
a large building, ironworkers gen­
erally specialize in particular op­
erations, such as welding or rivet­
ing. Structural-iron workers of­
ten rig, as well as erect, steel
structures.

Riggers and machine movers
(D.O.T. 869.883) set up and rig
hoisting equipment for erecting
and dismantling structural steel
frames and for moving heavy con­
struction machinery and equip­
ment. In performing their work,

w orkers

(D.O.T. 809.381) install metal
stairways, catwalks, floor grat­
ings, iron ladders (such as those
used extensively in powerhouses
and chemical plants), metal win­
dow sash and doors, grilles and
screens (such as those used in
bank tellers’ compartments and
elevators), metal cabinets, and
safety deposit boxes. They also
install lampposts, gates, fences,
and decorative ironwork on
balconies.
In addition to iron and steel,
ornamental-iron workers work
with aluminum, brass, and bronze
metal shapes, frames, and panels.
The products which they install
have usually been fabricated in a
factory or a shop— for example,
the recently developed curtainwall and window-wall, and the
many types and designs of orna­
mental and functional building
facades. Ironworkers fasten these
metal products to a building or
other structure by bolting or
welding.
Reinforcing-iron workers ( rodmen) (D.O.T. 801.884) set steel
bars in concrete forms to reinforce
concrete structures. They place

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

412
the steel bars on suitable sup­
ports in the concrete form and tie
the bars together at intersections
so that each bar receives its in­
tended structural load. The bars
are placed in the concrete form
according to blueprints, specifica­
tions, or verbal instruction. The
rodmen use steel pliers and other
tying tools to wire the rods se­
curely in place. Some concrete re­
inforcing is in the form of coarse
mesh made of welded wire (usu­
ally 6- by 6-inch grids). When
using mesh, the rodmen measure
the surface to be covered, cut and
bend the mesh to the desired
shape, and place the mesh over
the area to be reinforced. When
the concrete crew pours the slab,
one rodman or more use a
hooked rod to position the wire
mesh in the freshly poured mix­
ture.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 75,000 structural- and
ornamental-iron workers were
employed in 1968. Thousands of
additional workers were em­
ployed as riggers, machine mov­
ers, and reinforcing-iron workers.
A large proportion of these
craftsmen are employed by gen­
eral contractors on large building
projects, by steel-erection con­
tractors, or ornamental-iron con­
tractors. Many are employed by
large steel companies or their sub­
sidiaries engaged in the construc­
tion of bridges, dams, and large
buildings. Some work for govern­
ment agencies, public utilities, or
large industrial establishments
that do their own construction
work. Few of these craftsmen are
self-employed.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
Most training authorities rec­
ommend the completion of a 3-




year apprenticeship as the best
way to learn these trades.
Apprenticeship applicants are
required to be between 18 and 30.
Good physical condition is re­
quired. A high school education
or its equivalent is desirable.
The apprenticeship program
for ironworkers usually consists
of 6,000 hours (3 years) of onthe-job training, given either by
the foreman or an experienced
journeyman. In a typical training
program, the apprentice learns,
among other things, to use, care
for, and handle safely the tools,
machines, equipment, and mate­
rials commonly used in the trade;
read blueprints and working
drawings; form, shape, drill, tap,
and erect and assemble various
metal structures; lay out and as­
semble steel stairs, fire escapes,
grilles, railings, fences, doors, and
related metal structures; and
erect, place, and tie reinforcing
iron. He also learns arc and gas
welding; acetylene cutting; rig­
ging, bolting; and riveting; and
how to repair and alter metal
structures.
The apprenticeship program
generally includes a minimum of
144 hours a year of related class­
room instruction in subjects such
as drafting, blueprint reading,
and mathematics applicable to
layout work.
Areawide apprenticeship pro­
grams, sometimes covering an en­
tire State or region, are found
extensively in ironworking trades.
They are supervised by joint
apprenticeship committees com­
posed of representatives of the In­
ternational Association of Bridge,
Structural and Ornamental Iron
Workers’ local unions and local
management groups.
Hourly wage rates for appren­
tices start at 60 percent of the
journeyman rate and increase
periodically until the journeyman
rate is reached at the completion
of the apprenticeship. In some

localities, the starting rate may
be as high as 75 percent of the
journeyman rate.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in these trades is
expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new jobs created by employment
growth, the replacement of ex­
perienced ironworkers who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or
die will provide a few thousand
job opportunities each year. Re­
tirements and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in about 1,300
job openings annually.
A continued rapid rise in em­
ployment of these workers is ex­
pected principally because of the
anticipated large increase in con­
struction activity. (See discus­
sion, p. 360.) The job outlook in
these trades also will be affected
favorably by the increased use of
structural steel in smaller build­
ings. Also, the development of
lightweight and specialty steels
has improved the competitive po­
sition of steel as a construction
material and resulted in increas­
ing job opportunities for struc­
tural-iron workers. Work oppor­
tunities
for
ornamental-iron
workers will result from the
growing use of ornamental panels
of aluminum, porcelainized steel,
or other metals which are at­
tached to the exterior walls of
large buildings; and by the use of
metal frames to hold large glass
installations. The demand for rig­
gers and machine movers is ex­
pected to increase because of the
expanding use of heavy construc­
tion machinery. The use of pre­
stressed concrete in a growing
variety of structures will increase
job opportunities for reinforcingiron workers.
Technological developments are
expected to limit employment
growth of iron workers. For ex-

413

BUILDING TRADES

ample, the development of a com­
pact squirt-welding machine has
greatly reduced the time needed
for field welding. Structural steel
frames are being assembled on
the ground and hoisted into a
vertical position; the amount of
iron work required above ground
is reduced. The use of prestressed
steel beams makes possible longer
spans with less steel; these beams
are being used increasingly in
bridge construction. Also avail­
able are almost completely pre­
fabricated and painted shortspan bridges made of prestressed
steel, which can be erected in 1
day. Also, prefabricated reinforc­
ing mats or fabrics are being used
increasingly in concrete highway
and building construction. These
prefabricated mats reduce re­
quirements for on-site rod bend­
ing, tying, and welding by rein­
forcing-iron workers. In addition,
an increasing variety of orna­
mental metal products are being
designed by manufacturers for
more efficient on-site installation.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Union minimum hourly wage
rates for structural-iron workers
and rodmen averaged $5.59 and
$5.48, respectively, on July 1,
1968, according to a national sur­
vey of building trades workers in
68 large cities. The average for all
journeymen in the building trades
surveyed was $5.43. Among in­
dividual cities, the minimum hour­
ly rates for structural-iron work­
ers ranged from $4.10 in Lubbock,
Tex., to $6.95 in Newark, N.J.
The rates for rodmen ranged




from $4.10 in Lubbock, Tex., to
$6.95 in Newark, N.J. The rates
for ornamental-iron workers, rig­
gers, and machine movers are
generally about the same as those
for structural-iron w o r k e r s .
Straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding fringe benefits or pay­
ments to health, insurance, or
pension funds, for structural-iron
workers and rodmen in 12 of the
68 cities selected to show wage
rates from various areas and re­
gions of the country, on July 1,
1968, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
City

Rate per hour
Structural-iron
workers
Rodmen

Atlanta........... ........ $4.90
Baltimore....... ........ 5.51
Boston ........... ........ 5.94
Chicago ......... ....... 6.10
Denver ........... ........ 5.00
Detroit ........... ........ 5.75
Los Angeles ........... 5.98
MinneapolisSt. Paul .............. 5.25
Philadelphia ........... 5.80
St. Louis ....... ........ 5.63
San Diego .............. 5.98
Tulsa ............. ........ 4.60

$4.90
5.36
5.94
6.10
5.00
5.87
5.83
5.25
5.65
5.63
5.83
4.60

Since the materials used in the
ironworking trades are heavy and
bulky, above average physical
strength is necessary. Agility and
a good sense of balance also are
required because some structural
work is done at great heights and
on narrow footings. Although
many ironworkers risk injury
from falls, the use of safety de­
vices, such as nets, safety belts,
and scaffolding, has reduced the
frequency of accidents in recent
years.
Ironwork often involves con­
siderable travel. In most local­
ities, the demand for ironwork is
insufficient to keep local crews con­

stantly employed. Consequently,
workers must be brought in from
outside the area to handle the
occasional
large
construction
projects, such as a steel frame of­
fice, factory building, or suspen­
sion bridge. Large contractors
may keep a small crew continu­
ally employed by moving them
from job to job and city to city.
A large proportion of workers
in these trades are members of
the International Association of
Bridge, Structural and Orna­
mental Iron Workers.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
For further information con­
cerning apprenticeships or other
work opportunities in these
trades, inquiries should be direct1
ed to local general contractors; a
local of the International Associa­
tion of Bridge, Structural and
Ornamental Iron Workers; a lo­
cal joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State appren­
ticeship agency or the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. In ad­
dition, the local office of the
State employment service may be
a source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of ironworkers may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.




D R IV IN G O C C U P A T IO N S

More than 2.5 million em­
ployees were engaged in moving
passengers and goods over high­
ways and city streets in 1968.
They transported thousands of
products used in homes, schools,
and factories, and also trans­
ported millions of people every
day. In 1968, about 16 million
privately
owned
motortrucks
were registered. They were oper­
ated by stores, dairies and other
farm enterprises, industrial firms,
and for-hire motor carriers. In ad­
dition, Federal, State, and local
governments
operated
about
860.000 trucks. Of the 360,000
buses registered in 1968, about
250.000 were schoolbuses, and
most of the remainder were com­
mercial vehicles. About 50,000 of
the commercial buses were used
for local transit work; 22,000 for
intercity passenger traffic; and
the remainder for sightseeing,
charter, and other services.
Some men drive practically all
of their working time. Others are
occupied much of the time in
loading and unloading goods,
making pickups and deliveries,

and collecting money. Still oth­
ers, like the routeman, spend a
good deal of their time selling.
The individual statements that
follow deal only with employ­
ment opportunities for those
whose principal occupation is
driving intercity and local trucks
and buses and taxis. For exam­
ple, they do not cover schoolbus
drivers, chauffeurs, part-time taxi
drivers, ambulance drivers, or
employees whose driving is in­
cidental to their regular duties.
Many driving jobs require a
high degree of responsibility.
Drivers, for the most part, oper­
ate large and expensive equip­
ment which they must drive care­
fully, obeying safety regulations
and traffic laws, to deliver their
passengers and freight safely.
These men are free from direct
supervision.
During the 1970’s, employment
of local and over-the-road truckdrivers is expected to expand as a
result of increases in the freight
moved by motor carrier. Employ­
ment in other driving jobs is not
expected to change much in the

1 O u t of E very 19 M ale W orkers
M akes His Living as a D rive r or D e live rym a n
100
LOCAL
TRUCK DRIVERS
OVER-THE-ROAD
TRUCK DRIVERS
ROUTEMEN
TAXICAB
DRIVERS




200

THOUSAND OF WORKERS, 1968
300 400 500 600 700 800

900 1,000 1,100

years ahead. Normal turnover in
this large occupational field also
will provide many job opportuni­
ties each year.
Driving jobs offer excellent op­
portunities for young men who
are not planning to attend col­
lege and have no interest in or
aptitude for craft or technical
occupations. The pay of most
drivers is relatively high, and
working conditions are fairly
good. Many young men also will
enjoy the freedom from close su­
pervision and the frequent con­
tacts with people, which are
characteristic of most of these
jobs.

OVER-THE-ROAD
TRUCKDRIVERS
(D.O.T. 903.883; 904.883; 905.883; and
909.883)

N ature of the W ork
The men at the wheel of the
big trucks on highways and turn­
pikes are the top professional
drivers. They drive the largest
and most expensive equipment
and receive the highest wages of
all drivers. They are on their own
practically all the time and have
much responsibility. The work re­
quires initiative, because they
must transport goods of great
value which must be delivered
safely and on time.
Most over-the-road drivers op­
erate gasoline or diesel powered
tractor-trailers. (The tractor is the
short-chassis vehicle that draws
the trailer.) They deliver goods
over long distances— frequently
driving at night.
Unlike the local truckdriver
who spends considerable time in
loading and unloading, the overthe-road driver (sometimes.called
intercity line-haul or long-haul
driver) drives practically all of
415

416
his working time. He sometimes
may handle the freight. Some
drivers, for example, may have to
unload the goods they deliver to
stores at night when receiving
crews are not available. Drivers
of long-distance moving vans gen­
erally have to load or unload their
cargoes with the assistance of lo­
cal helpers.
The truckdriver must back up
big trailers to loading platforms;
this requires the ability to ma­
neuver the trailers while driving
in reverse. He must also be able
to judge distance accurately while
driving around corners or through
narrow passageways.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Because the over-the-road truckdriver spends most of his time
driving, safe driving practices and
courtesy are of the utmost im­
portance. Everyone has seen the
emergency warning signals set
out by a driver near his disabled
truck. Many motorists have noted
the courtesy of truckdrivers who
pull off the road at the top of
the hill to allow the accumulated
traffic to pass.
U.S. Department of Transpor­
tion (U SD T) regulations require
drivers to inspect their trucks be­
fore and after trips and make out
reports on the condition of the
vehicle at the end of the run.

Drivers also are required to keep
a daily log of their activities. If
a driver has an accident, he must
make out a detailed report. These
regulations also prescribe special
safety precautions concerning
packing and loading flammable,
explosive, or otherwise hazardous
materials, and over-the-road driv­
ing of trucks containing these
materials.

W here Em ployed

An estimated 640,000 over-theroad drivers were employed
throughout the United States in
1968. Many work out of large cit­
ies such as Chicago and Los An­
geles; however, some large com­
panies have their operating head­
quarters in small towns.
Over-the-road drivers are em­
ployed by private and for-hire
carriers. Private carriers are com­
panies, such as chain food stores
or manufacturing plants, which
use their own or leased trucks to
transport their goods. For-hire
carriers are either common car­
riers (trucking companies serving
the general public) or contract
carriers (trucking firms hauling
goods under contract for certain
companies). Although the drivers
on long intercity runs are em­
ployed more often by common
carriers, an increasing number in
recent years have been working
for private or exempt (from
U SDT regulation) carriers, or for
specialized carriers handling large
pieces of machinery, explosives,
or missiles. On shorter hauls,
many drivers are employed by
contract and common carriers to
make deliveries of machinery,
food, petroleum products, house­
hold appliances, and other items,
from plants to warehouses and
from warehouses to large volume
purchasers.

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Regulations of the USDT es­
tablish minimum qualifications
for over-the-road drivers engaged
in interstate or foreign commerce.
The driver must be at least 21
years of age, able-bodied, with
good hearing and vision of at
least 24/40 with or without
glasses. He must be able to read
and speak English, have at least
1 year’s driving e x p e r i e n c e
(which may include driving pri­
vate automobiles), and a good
driving record. Most States re­
quire truckdrivers to have a
chauffeur’s license, which is a
commercial driving permit ob­
tained from State Motor Vehicle
Departments.
Most fleet operators have high­
er hiring standards than those
described above. Many firms will
not hire drivers under age 25;
some specify height and weight
limitations. Many require at least
a grade school education; others
require 2 years of high school.
Some companies employ only ap­
plicants who have had several
years of experience in handling
vehicles of the type they would
be required to drive.
The standards for over-theroad drivers generally are higher
than those for local truckdrivers.
Furthermore, these standards are
more strictly adhered to than
those for local drivers, whose
standards may be lowered when
there are not enough applicants
for jobs.
Tractor-trailers usually cost
between $25,000 and $40,000,
and the load inside may be worth
more than $100,000. The owners
of such valuable equipment,
therefore, e m p l o y experienced
drivers who also can accept great
responsibility.
Many training authorities and
employers recommend that young
men interested in becoming pro­




417
fessional drivers should begin by
taking the driver-training courses
offered by many high schools. If
such a course is not available, the
driving schools which operate in
most large cities are recom­
mended. A high school course in
automotive mechanics also is
helpful.
A small number of private
technical-vocational schools offer
truck driving courses. Students
receive instructions on driving
large vehicles in close quarters
and on the highway, with em­
phasis on safe driving practices.
Instructions also are given on
care of equipment and freight,
and compliance with Federal,
State, and local regulations.
Long-haul driving is a senior
driving job, and most of these
drivers have had previous experi­
ence in local trucking. Usually,
they enter this occupation by
first driving a small truck; then,
after gaining experience, they get
jobs driving the larger and more
complicated trucks. A young man
also may begin as a helper to a
local truckdriver, assisting him
in loading and unloading the
truck, and occasionally doing
some relief driving.
All employers are interested in
obtaining good, safe, reliable
drivers, but the methods of se­
lection and training vary. Some
companies have formal tests and
training programs. Others hire
on the basis of personal inter­
views and have training programs
consisting of a “ break-in” period
during which the new employee
observes and works with an ex­
perienced driver.
Applicants for jobs as over-theroad drivers are required to pass
a physical examination which is
usually paid for by the employer.
Many firms also give written traf­
fic and driving knowledge tests.
Some employers give tests to
measure factors such as sharpness
and field of vision, reaction time,

ability to judge speed, and emo­
tional stability. The last step in
the selection of drivers is the road
test. The applicant is expected
to demonstrate his ability to
handle, under a variety of driving
conditions, a vehicle of the type
and size he will operate in regu­
lar service. A few States require
such a test before licensing a
driver to operate a tractor-trailer.
A new driver may be given a
brief indoctrination course cov­
ering company policy and the
preparation of various forms he
will use on the job. He then will
make one or more training trips
with an instructor or an experi­
enced driver.
Drivers employed by common
carriers frequently start on the
“ extra board,” bidding for regular
runs on the basis of seniority as
vacancies occur. (The extra board
is a list of men, assigned in ro­
tation, who substitute for regular
drivers or who make extra trips
when necessary.) Drivers for pri­
vate carrier are more likely to
begin with assigned regular
routes.
Opportunities for promotion in
this occupation are limited. A
few drivers may advance to jobs
as safety supervisors, driver su­
pervisors, and dispatchers. How­
ever, these jobs are often unat­
tractive to over-the-road truckdrivers, since the starting pay is
usually less than the pay on
truckdriving jobs. Most drivers
can expect to advance only on the
basis of seniority to driving runs
that provide increased earnings or
preferred schedules and working
conditions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of over-the-road
truckdrivers is expected to in­
crease moderately through the
1970’s. Substantial growth in the
volume of intercity freight is an-

418
ticipated, resulting from in­
creased commercial and indus­
trial activity and the continued
decentralization of industry. A
large number of job openings also
will be created by transfers from
this field of work or to local
truckdriving jobs. Approximately
8,400 additional job openings are
expected each year as a result of
retirements and deaths, and the
number may be increased some­
what by the trend toward earlier
retirements.
Freight carried by over-theroad trucks has been increasing
as a result of the general eco­
nomic growth of the Nation, and
this trend is expected to continue.
Many factories, warehouses, and
stores are being located at great
distances from each other in su­
burban or semirural areas where
rail facilities are nonexistent or
extremely limited. The intercity
highway building program has
aided the trucking industry in
this regard. Furthermore, the
growth of chainstores and the
trend to smaller inventories and
decentralization of factories re­
quire daily coordination of ship­
ping which can be handled best
by trucks.
Improvements in trailer design
also have contributed to more
over-the-road trucking, by making
it possible to ship certain kinds
of freight, such as frozen goods
and livestock, over longer dis­
tances.
Demand for trucking services
may increase as a result of new
trucking methods which promise
reduced handling and shipping
time and, therefore, reduced
freight costs for small loads. One
example is the increasing use of
“ double-bottoms” — two trailers
hitched in tandem to a tractor.
When two trailers are used, they
can be unhitched at the truck
terminal and promptly delivered
to the customers, thus eliminat­
ing the need to unpack a larger




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

trailer, separate its contents, and
repack on local delivery trucks.
Handling time also is being re­
duced through the practice of
packing all freight destined for a
single customer or area into large
containers or cargo cages which
can be handled at the truck
terminal more conveniently and
quickly than individual packages.
Some recent freight transpor­
tation innovations will limit
somewhat the anticipated in­
crease in trucking business and
driver employment. For example,
the movement of highway trailers
on railroad flatcars, ocean vessels,
and aircraft saves the cost of
driver, fuel, and tractor, and ap­
pears to have prospects for con­
siderable expansion. To compen­
sate for job displacement that
may arise from these innovations,
there is a growing practice under
labor-management agreements to
provide for retirement at an
earlier age.
Further limitations on employ­
ment expansion among over-theroad drivers are related to
changes in State laws. State lim­
itations on truck weight, size, and
speed are becoming less restric­
tive as a result of the construc­
tion of better highways and im­
proved travel arteries inside the
cities. The movement of bigger
loads at higher average speeds
could result in a need for fewer
drivers than would otherwise be
required.
In the long run, however, the
total volume of goods shipped and
the convenience and mobility of
motor transport are expected to
be great enough to insure con­
tinued growth of driver employ­
ment.
The over-the-road driver has a
better chance of remaining em­
ployed during business recessions
than workers in many other oc­
cupations. Although the total
tonnage moved may temporarily
decline, over-the-road trucking is

less affected than other means
of transportation. It gets a larger
share of any shrinking transpor­
tation business because manufac­
turers and merchants who are un­
able to buy merchandise in rail­
road carload lots can reduce in­
ventories and still maintain their
diversified stock by small daily
shipments by truck.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Most over-the-road drivers
earned more than $150 a week in
1968. Drivers employed by class
I common carriers of genera]
freight (carriers with gross op­
erating revenues of $1 million or
more a year) had estimated an­
nual average earnings of $11,000
in 1968. More experienced overthe-road drivers can earn consid­
erably more than this average.
The rates are fairly uniform be­
cause this is a highly unionized
field, and union-employer con­
tracts are generally master agree­
ments covering all employers
within a region— an area includ­
ing a number of States. Further­
more, regional contracts tend to
be quite uniform because drivers
working under different contracts
often travel the same routes. The
earnings of an individual driver
are affected by factors such as
mileage driven, number of hours
worked, type of equipment driven
or the weight of the loads carried,
and type of “ run” (whether or
not pickup or delivery en route
is required). Earnings also are af­
fected by the nature of the cargo
carried, with premium rates paid
for transporting flammable or
otherwise hazardous commodities.
Drivers on the longer runs
generally are paid on a mileage
basis for actual driving time. For
all other time during which the
driver is required to be on duty,
he is paid at an hourly rate. This
includes waiting time, delay time

419

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

owing to breakdown of equipment
or impassable highways, layover
time (time spent at a terminal
away from home beginning at
some designated hour after his
run ends), and time spent in
making pickups or deliveries en
route. Regular drivers usually are
assured minimum pay for a cer­
tain number of hours— generally
8 hours a day.
Some private carriers pay their
drivers on the same basis as their
other employees— a m o n t h l y ,
weekly, or daily wage. Generally,
such a wage is for a specified num­
ber of hours, and, if the driver
works additional hours, he re­
ceives extra pay.
Motor carriers engaged in inter­
state or foreign commerce are sub­
ject to the USDT rules govern­
ing hours of work and other mat­
ters. These regulations limit the
hours over-the-road drivers may
work in order to be certain the
driver receives a reasonable
amount of rest. For example, no
driver may be on duty for more
than 60 hours in any 7-day peri­
od, but for carriers operating ev­
ery day of the week, the driver
may remain on duty for a maxi­
mum of 70 hours in any period
of 8 consecutive days. The regu­
lations also provide that no driver
may drive more than 10 hours
without first having an off-duty
period of at least 8 hours. For
drivers who drive less than 10
hours, but perform other work
for the motor carrier in a garage,
warehouse, or other place, the
regulations prohibit resumption
of driving after any combination
of driving time and other on-duty
work which totals 15 hours, un­
less the driver has first had at
least 8 hours off duty. Many
drivers, particularly on the very
long runs, work fairly close to the
maximum hours permitted. A
workweek of at least 50 hours is
very common.
Most drivers receive pay for 6




or more National, State, and local
holidays. They also have paid va­
cations, usually from 1 to 4
weeks, depending upon their
length of service. Health insur­
ance and pension plans, paid for
by the employers, are very com­
mon.
Over-the-road truckdrivers of­
ten are required to spend time
away from home— particularly
when they drive long runs. The
driver often starts out in the eve­
ning and arrives at the terminal
in the other city the following
morning. In such instances, the
company provides lodging for him
either in a company dormitory
or a hotel. In the evening, he
starts on his return trip and ar­
rives at the home terminal the
following morning. He may make
two or three such round trips a
week, and, if the trips are part of
a relay operation, another driver
works a similar schedule starting
from the other end of the run.
Some companies use two-man
sleeper teams on their very long
runs. One drives while the other
sleeps in a berth behind the cab.
The vehicle goes straight through
to the end of the run where there
may be a layover before the re­
turn trip. A 4-hour rest in the
truck berth after each 5 hours
of driving meets the U SDT re­
quirement of 8 hours off duty
following 10 hours of driving.
This means that the drivers on a
run may remain with the truck in
some cases for over 100 hours.
Although earnings on sleeper
runs are the highest in this field
of work, few drivers stay with
this type of run very long. The
work is very tiring and requires
being away from family and
friends for days and even weeks.
However, many drivers go back
to sleeper runs after they have
had a rest or have done some re­
lay driving. The earnings of driv­
ers of long-distance moving vans
are quite high, but their hours

are long and the work is strenu­
ous. They drive more miles than
the average over-the-road driver
and also work more hours in load­
ing and unloading goods.
Largely because of intensive
safety programs and drivers’ skill,
the accident rate in over-the-road
trucking is low. Injuries occur
less frequently than in other
forms of motor transportation.
The physical strain of over-theroad truckdriving has been re­
duced by more comfortable seat­
ing, better highways, and more
stringent safety regulations. Sit­
ting in one place for hours at a
time, however, is tiring and the
nervous strain of sustained driv­
ing at night also is fatiguing.
Most over-the-road drivers are
members of the International
Brotherhood of T e a m s t e r s ,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.). Some
drivers of private carriers belong
to unions representing the plant
employees of the companies for
which they work.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information on career opportu­
nities may be obtained from:
American Trucking Associations,
1616 P St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

LOCAL TRUCKDRIVERS
(D.O.T. 900.883; 902.883; 903.883;
906.883; and 909.883)

N atu re of the W ork
Much of the food, clothing, and
other products required by con­
sumers is transported by trucks.
The men who move these goods
from
terminals,
warehouses,
mines, and factories to whole-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

420
salers, retailers, and consumers
in the local area must be skilled
drivers to avoid accidents on con­
gested city streets. They also
must be able to maneuver big
trucks or tractor-trailers into
tight parking spaces, through nar­
row alleys, and up to loading
platforms. (Telephone linemen,
repairmen, and many thousands
of other workers for whom driv­
ing is incidental to their primary
duties are not included in this
discussion.)
When the local truckdriver re­
ports to work at the terminal or
warehouse, he receives his assign­
ment to make deliveries, pickups,
or both. He also receives the de­
livery forms he will need and
checks the condition of his truck.
His truck generally is loaded for
him by platform men. If he does
the loading himself, however, and
must make many deliveries, he ar­
ranges the items in proper se­
quence so that there will be a
minimum of handling. At the cus­
tomer’s place of business, the
driver generally loads and un­
loads the merchandise himself. If
he has heavy loads such as ma­
chinery or if he has many deliv­
eries to make during the day, he
may have a helper to assist him.
The driver of a moving van usu­
ally has a crew of helpers to as­
sist him in loading and unloading
household or office furniture.
At the delivery points, the
driver gets customers to sign re­
ceipts and freight bills, and he
sometimes collects money for
freight, c.o.d. deliveries, and other
charges. At the end of his day,
he turns in all receipts and cash
collected and records his time
and the deliveries made. He also
reports whatever maintenance or
repair is needed before his truck
is used again.
Some of these workers drive
special types of trucks, such as
dump or oil trucks, which require
the operation of mechanical lev­




ers, pedals, or other equipment.
If they haul heavy machinery,
they operate mechanical hoists to
load and unload the machines.

Places of Em ploym ent
Nearly 1.2 million workers
were employed as local truckdrivers in 1968, mostly in and
around large metropolitan areas.
They work in all localities, how­
ever, including the smallest
villages.
A large majority of local
drivers work for businesses which
deliver their own products and
goods— such as d e p a r t m e n t
stores, meatpackers and other
food processors, wholesale dis­
tributors, grocery chains, petro­
leum companies, and construction
companies. Many others are em­
ployed by local for-hire operators
— trucking c o m p a n i e s which
serve the general public or spe­

cific companies under contract.
Some are employed by the Fed­
eral Government, particularly the
Post Office Department, and by
States and municipalities. A large
number are in business for
themselves.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Qualifications for local truckdrivers vary considerably, de­
pending upon factors such as the
type of equipment to be operated
and the nature of the employer’s
business. Generally, applicants
must be 21 years of age or older.
Some employers prefer applicants
who have completed 2 to 4 years
of high school. The applicant
must be physically able to lift
heavy objects and otherwise be
in good health. He should have
good hearing and good vision
(with or without glasses). Since

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

a driver often deals directly with
the public, employers look for
men who are tactful and courte­
ous.
An applicant must have a
chauffeur’s license, which is a
commercial driving permit. Fa­
miliarity with traffic laws and
safety measures is necessary, and
some previous experience in driv­
ing a truck is helpful. A young
man may obtain such experience
by working as a truckdriver’s
helper. Employers also give con­
sideration to driving experience
gained in the Armed Forces.
Since he will be responsible for
costly vehicles and cargo, a truckdriver must be cautious, alert,
and able to judge distances and
to coordinate his reactions to
avoid accidents in congested traf­
fic. T o demonstrate these quali­
fications, an applicant’s driving
ability is tested, and he may have
to pass a written examination as
well as a general physical exami­
nation. Employers generally will
check applicants for traffic and
police records.
Training given to new drivers
is often informal and may consist
only of riding with and observing
an experienced driver on the job.
Additional training may be given
if they are to drive a special type
of truck. Some companies give a
brief indoctrinaton course which
lasts 1 or 2 days and covers gen­
eral duties, the efficient operation
and loading of a truck, company
policies, and the preparation of
delivery forms and company
records.
Although most new employees
are assigned immediately to regu­
lar driving jobs, some start as
extra drivers, covering the routes
of regular drivers who are ill or
on vacation, or making extra trips
when necessary. They receive
regular assignments when open­
ings occur.
Local truckdrivers may get
jobs as dispatchers or advance to




421
jobs such as terminal managers,
supervisors, or to traffic work,
i.e., planning delivery schedules.
However, these jobs are relatively
few. For the most part, advance­
ment for a local truckdriver con­
sists of earning higher hourly
wages by driving heavy or special
type truck loads instead of light
trucks, or by transferring to overthe-road truckdriving.
An experienced truckdriver
who has some business ability
and ambition can start his own
trucking company when he has
sufficient capital to purchase ex­
pensive trucking equipment and
meet other business expenses.
Truckers who own one or two
vehicles continue to account for
a sizable proportion of local forhire trucking business.

Em ploym ent Outlook
A moderate increase in the em­
ployment of local truckdrivers is
anticipated through the 1970’s
because of the expected increase
in volume of freight. Many new
workers also will be needed to
replace drivers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone
will result in more than 15,000
job openings each year for local
truckdrivers.
The rise in total business ac­
tivity anticipated in the years
ahead will increase the volume of
freight. Since trucks carry vir­
tually all freight for local dis­
tribution and do not compete for
hauling with other types of car­
riers, this anticipated increase in
total intercity and local freight
volume will expand local trucking
business and, thereby, truckdriver employment. The con­
tinued growth of suburban areas
will contribute to the employ­
ment of more drivers.
Some recent developments may
offset somewhat the growth in

the number of local truckdrivers
that would otherwise occur with
an increase in freight volume. For
example, the trend toward larger
deliveries to relatively fewer re­
tail outlets is the result of the
growth of chainstores and shop­
ping centers. (On the other hand,
as suburban areas expand, local
truckers tend to service a wider
area, increasing the travel time
per truck.) The introduction of
new equipment, such as power
tailgates for loading and unload­
ing also may affect the number
of drivers who will be needed to
deliver large and heavy loads.
Also, the use of radio telephones
to instruct drivers en route will
reduce the time needed for deliv­
eries. Innovation in local trucking
will continue to be limited, how­
ever, by narrow city streets,
heavy traffic, and local city ordi­
nances controlling the size and
weight of local delivery trucks.
However, urban renewal and ur­
ban highway building projects
may improve driving conditions.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
On the average, hourly union
wage scales were $3.78 for local
truckdrivers and $3.36 for helpers
on July 1, 1968, according to a
survey in 68 large cities. Average
hourly pay scales for drivers
ranged from $3.12 in Washington,
D.C. to $4.48 in Sacramento,
Calif. However, wage scales vary,
even in the same city, depending
on the type of trucking service
(such as general freight hauling
or local moving and storage), the
types of product hauled, and the
size and type of truck operated.
As a rule, local truckdrivers are
paid by the hour and receive ex­
tra pay for working overtime,
usually after 40 hours. Some driv­
ers are guaranteed minimum
daily or weekly earnings. Local
truckdrivers frequently work 48

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

422
hours or more a week and thus
often drive 6 days a week. Al­
though daytime work is custom­
ary, nightwork or early morning
work is sometimes necessary, par­
ticularly for drivers handling
foodstuffs for chain grocery
stores, produce markets, or baker­
ies. Most drivers deliver over
regular routes or runs, although
some may be assigned different
routes when they report to work
each day.
Local truckdrivers generally
have paid vacations of 1 or 2
weeks after a year of service and
up to 4 weeks after 15 years. In
addition, they usually receive pay
for 7 or more National, State, and
local holidays.
A majority of local truckdriv­
ers belong to unions. Most of
them belong to the International
Brotherhood of T e a m s t e r s ,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.). Some
local truckdrivers employed by
private carriers are members of
unions representing the plant
workers of their employers.
Practically all unionized local
truckdrivers and their helpers are
covered by life and health insur­
ance and pension plans which
are almost always paid for by the
employer. When uniforms are re­
quired, the cost usually is paid
for entirely or partly by the em­
ployer, who also may provide for
their upkeep.
Local truckdrivers, b e c a u s e
they drive in heavy traffic, are
subject to nervous strain. The ac­
tual operation of a truck has be­
come less physically demanding
because of improvements such as
power steering and more comfort­
able seating. However, when local
drivers make many deliveries
during a day, their work can be
exhausting. Some drivers may de­
velop physical disorders, such as
back strain and hernia. Local
truckdrivers do, however, have
certain work advantages, such as




steady employment. Unlike overthe-road drivers, they usually
work a regular daytime schedule
and return home in the evenings.

ROUTEMEN
(D.O.T. 292.358)

N ature of the W ork
Routemen are as much sales­
men as they are drivers. In fact,
they are sometimes known as
driver-salesmen or route-sales­
men. They must, through their
selling ability, increase sales to
existing customers and obtain
new business by canvassing po­
tential customers within their
territories. Routemen drive panel
or light trucks over an assigned
route, selling and delivering
goods, or providing services, such
as collecting and delivering laun­
dry and dry cleaning, to retail
establishments (wholesale routemen) or directly to the public
(retail routemen). Wholesale
routemen usually drive heavier
trucks. These trucks are refriger­
ated when dairy products or
frozen foods are carried.
Before starting on his daily
route, the routeman loads or su­
pervises the loading of his truck.
The amount of merchandise in
his truck generally is checked by
another employee. Some routemen deliver merchandise previ­
ously ordered and obtain orders
for future delivery. Others make
immediate sales from the stock in
the truck. In either case, they
must collect payments and keep
records of their transactions.
When they check in at the plant
after completing their routes,
they empty their trucks and turn
in their collections to the cashier.
The retail routemen s e r v i n g

homes make from 5 to 10 times
as many stops as the wholesale
routemen who serve stores and
other business establishments.
Routemen’s work varies ac­
cording to the industry in which
they are employed, the type of
routes they have (retail or whole­
sale), and the company employ­
ing them. Some specific exam­
ples, however, may describe in
a general way what most routemen do. A typical day for a drycleaning routeman begins when
he picks up cleaned garments at
the processing plant and loads his
truck, which is equipped with
carrying racks. He delivers the
garments to homes or business
establishments and picks up soil­
ed clothing. He marks the soiled
articles so that they may be iden­
tified at the plant. Sometimes, he
makes notes of the type of stains
or of special processes to be used
such as waterproofing. Each
cleaned garment has an itemized
bill attached so that he can col­
lect the amount of money due.
Although all routemen must be
able to get along well with peo­
ple, it is particularly important
for the drycleaning and laundry
routeman. His reaction to com­
plaints and requests for special
services may be the difference
between increasing business or
losing customers. Periodically, he
calls at homes and business es­
tablishments along his route
which are not using his company’s
services to try to get their trade.
A wholesale routeman, for ex­
ample, may deliver bakery prod­
ucts to grocery stores. His truck
is loaded the night before or early
in the morning, and he checks
to see whether he has the proper
variety and quantity of products
before starting on his route. He
stops at from 10 to 50 grocery
stores. At each stop, he brings
the orders of bread and other
bakery products into the store
and arranges them on the display

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

racks, in the best possible display
space he can secure. Together
with the store owner or manager,
he checks the merchandise he has
delivered. He also credits the
store for the value of the stale
bread and cakes left over from
the previous delivery.
The routeman prepares a list
of products he plans to deliver
the next day. This represents his
estimate of the amount of bakery
products that will be sold by the
grocery stores. From time to time,
he calls on grocers along his
route, who are not his customers,
and tries to get orders from them.
Although the vending machine
routeman merchandises his prod­
ucts through machines, he, like
other routemen, must try to an­
ticipate customers’ needs for
service and preferences for mer­
chandise. In his continuing ef­
fort to find profitable locations
for the vending machines he serv­
ices, the routeman discusses with
managers of commercial and
other business establishments the
placement and relocation of ma­
chines. He caters to customer
demand by noting their prefer­
ences for merchandise sold at
each machine location, and stocks
the machines with items that sell
best.
The vending machine routeman
also must make certain that his
machines are adequately supplied
with merchandise, that they
function properly, and are clean
and attractive. At each location,
the routeman checks the items
remaining in the machine and
the money deposited in the cash
box to determine that what has
been sold is accounted for. He
tests stock delivery and change­
making mechanisms to make sure
that items and change are dis­
pensed properly when coins are
inserted; and he may make minor
adjustments to machines that are
not working properly. He cleans
the machine, removing waste,




423
spillage, and accumulated dust,
and then replaces depleted stock.
The routeman keeps an exact
record of the merchandise that
goes into each machine and a
precise account of how much
money is removed.
Places of Em ploym ent
About 235,000 routemen work­
ed for a wide variety of busi­
nesses in 1968. Since most of
them were employed by compa­
nies which distributed food prod­
ucts or provided personal services,
they worked in small towns as
well as in large cities throughout
the country. The greatest con­
centration of employment, how­
ever, was in dairies, bakeries, food
and beverage distributors, and
drycleaning plants in the large
cities.
Some were engaged in whole­
sale distribution of goods and
services to stores and other busi­
ness establishments, although the
majority distributed goods and
services to homeowners and
apartment dwellers. Many com­
panies employed both wholesale
and retail routemen.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
In addition to being a good
driver, a routeman must have
sales ability. To induce people
to buy, he must have a thorough
knowledge of the product or serv­
ice he is selling and a persuasive
personality. Other i m p o r t a n t
sales qualifications are a pleas­
ant voice, ability to speak well,
and a neat appearance. He also
needs to have self-confidence,
initiative, and tact.
He must be able to work with­
out direct supervision, do simple
arithmetic, and write legibly. In
most States, a routeman is re­
quired to have a chauffeur’s li­

cense, which is a commercial driv­
ing permit. Information regarding
this license can be obtained from
State Motor Vehicle Depart­
ments.
Applicants for jobs as vending
machine routemen should have
some mechanical ability. Routemen are expected to check the
operation of automatic dispens­
ing devices and make necessary
adjustments and minor repairs.
In case of major malfunctions in
equipment, they should be able to
report the nature of the trouble.
Most employers require their
routemen to be high school grad­
uates, preferably 25 years of age
or older. Many large companies
give applicants aptitude and
other psychological tests to deter­
mine whether they will make
good salesmen and safe drivers.
Those who handle a great deal of
money may be required by em­
ployers to be bonded.
High school courses in sales­
manship, public speaking, driver­
training, bookkeeping and busi­
ness arithmetic, and school-work
programs in retail and wholesale
merchandising are helpful to a
person interested in entering this
occupation. Immediately follow­
ing high school, valuable experi­
ence may be obtained as a sales
clerk in a store or in some other
type of selling job.
Another method of entering
this occupation is to get a job as
a routeman helper
(D.O.T.
292.887). For this job, employers
usually hire boys 18 years of age
or over who have a driver’s li­
cense. Helpers are not likely to be
used in the dairy or vending ma­
chine industries, however. Still
another way of becoming a routeman is to get a job (plant or
office) in a bakery, dairy, laun­
dry, or drycleaning establish­
ment. After learning something
about the business, a young man
may get a job as a routeman
when an opening occurs.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

424
Most companies give their
routemen on-the-job t r a i n i n g
which varies in length and thor­
oughness. Many large companies
have classes in salesmanship.
Some companies assign newly
hired routemen for brief periods
to jobs in the different depart­
ments of the plant to familiarize
them with all the processing op­
erations so that they can answer
customers’ questions intelligently
and be better salesmen.
Routemen may be promoted to
route foreman or sales supervisor,
but these jobs are relatively
scarce. Advancement usually is
limited to moving from a retail
to a wholesale route, where earn­
ings are generally higher. How­
ever, some routemen obtain bet­
ter paying sales jobs as a result
of the experience gained in route
selling.

E m ploym ent O utlook

The total number of routemen
is expected to increase slowly in
the 1970’s, although job opportu­
nities will vary among different
types of employers. There will be
a few thousand additional open­
ings for new workers each year as
experienced workers transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
The number of retail routemen
declined in the decade following
World War II, particularly among
drivers handling milk and dairy
products. However, the decline
appears to have run its course,
and some employment upturn is
likely. The convenience of home
delivery to suburban families con­
suming large quantites of milk
and dairy products makes such
service popular, despite the
growth of local shopping centers.
For laundry and drycleaning re­
tail routemen, the outlook is for
an increase in employment, in line
with population growth, especial­




ly in areas with a large concen­
tration of apartment houses. The
increasing number of married
women working outside the home
will also result in more laundry
or cleaning work being done
commercially.
Employment of w h o l e s a l e
routemen probably will remain at
about present levels or rise slight­
ly. Although large supermarkets
have been replacing small neigh­
borhood stores, more supermar­
kets are being built in the subur­
ban areas. The number of routemen will not increase correspond­
ingly, however. There has been
a growing trend toward larger de­
livery trucks. Moreover, in recent
years, some manufacturers and
wholesale food companies have
replaced their routemen with
salesmen who cover assigned ter­
ritories by automobile, and truckdrivers who make the deliveries.
In the long run, population ex­
pansion, higher family incomes,
and the growing tendency for
housewives to take outside em­
ployment will create a continuing
need for the door-to-door services
of retail routemen. The demand
for wholesale routemen will in­
crease because of larger sales of
traditional products and the in­
troduction of new items. New
lines of frozen foods, for example,
often are introduced and mar­
keted by wholesale routemen.
Opportunities for employment
as vending machine routemen
will be excellent through the
1970’s because of the expected
rapid increase in the volume of
machine-vended m e r c h a n d i s e .
Some of the factors expected to
stimulate the industry’s growth
are the development of new and
improved machines and the
greater use of automatic food
service in industrial plants,
schools, hospitals, department
stores, and other high-traffic
areas.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Most routemen receive a mini­
mum salary plus a percentage of
the sales they make. Thus, the
earnings of routemen are deter­
mined largely by their selling
ability and initiative. According
to limited information available
in early 1969, wholesale routemen
in the dairy and baking industries
had minimum weekly salaries
ranging from $100 to $160. In­
cluding commissions on sales,
many of these routemen earned
$200 a week and more. Wholesale
routemen usually earn more than
retail routemen because they sell
much larger quanties of products.
However, they receive a lower
commission on each sale.
The number of hours worked
by routemen varies. Some work
only about 30 hours a week; oth­
ers may work as many as 60
hours or more a week, depending
upon whether the individual has
a
well-established
route
or
whether he is trying to build up
a new one; whether he has a
retail or a wholesale route; and
how ambitious he is. For some,
the hours of work generally are
limited by union-management
contract. In other cases, the con­
tract specifies merely the earliest
hour that work may begin and
the latest quitting time. The
hours may also vary according to
seasonal peaks and lows. During
the spring cleaning season, for ex­
ample,
drycleaning
routemen
may work about 60 hours a week;
in the winter, they may work
less than 30 hours a week.
Many companies require routemen to wear uniforms. Some em­
ployers pay for the uniforms and
for keeping them clean.
Most routemen receive paid va­
cations, generally ranging from 1
to 4 weeks, depending upon
length of service, and 6 paid holi­
days or more a year. Many em­
ployers provide hospitalization

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

and medical benefits; some have
pension plans.
The routeman is on his own to
a great extent. He does not work
under strict supervision and, with­
in certain broad limits, may de­
cide how fast he will work and
where and when he will have his
lunch or rest period. This free­
dom of action and the daily meet­
ing and dealing with people on
the route appeal to many young
men. On the other hand, a retail
routeman has to make deliveries
in bad weather and do a great
deal of lifting, carrying, and walk­
ing up and down stairs. He also
may have to work unusual hours.
For example, retail routemen de­
livering milk generally work in the
very early morning hours.
Many routemen, particularly
those delivering bakery and dairy
products, are members of the
International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Ware­
housemen and Helpers of Amer­
ica (Ind.). Some belong to the
unons which represent the plant
workers of their employers.

INTERCITY BUSDRIVERS
(D.O.T. 913.363 and .463)

N atu re of th e W ork
The drivers of the buses which
travel between cities are selected
on the basis of their driving skill,
emotional stability, and courtesy.
A driver’s duties generally begin
when he reports to the terminal
for his assignment. Before begin­
ning his scheduled trip, he in­
spects the bus carefully at the
terminal or garage. He checks the
fuel, oil, water, and tires, and
makes certain that the bus is car­
rying safety equipment, such as
fire extinguishers, first-aid kits,




425
flags, and flares. The driver also
picks up the tickets, change, re­
port blanks, and other items
needed for his trip. He receives
a listing of the package express
and mail to be carried.
The driver moves his empty bus
from the terminal or garage to
the proper loading platform,
where he takes on his passengers.
He collects fares— tickets usu­
ally— from the passengers as they
board the bus and announces the
destination, route, time of of ar­
rival, and other information con­
cerning the trip. The driver also
loads or supervises the loading of
baggage and package express into
the baggage compartment. He
checks the loading plan so that
the baggage can be unloaded at
the proper destination with mini­
mum effort. He also collects cash
fares from passengers who board
the bus between stations where
tickets are sold.
The driver operates the bus
carefully at speeds which will en­
able him to arrive at and leave
regular bus stops according to es­
tablished time schedules. On
many runs, he also stops momen­
tarily at other designated points
to discharge or pick up passen­
gers, and load or unload baggage
and package express wherever
necessary. He announces regular
stops and rest or lunch stops. The
driver also regulates lighting,
heating,
and
air-conditioning
equipment for the passengers’
comfort. In an emergency, he
sometimes is required to make
minor road repairs, such as chang­
ing tires, for which he generally
receives extra pay.
Upon arriving at his final des­
tination, the driver unloads or
supervises the unloading of the
remaining baggage and turns in
the lists of packages or mail car­
ried. He prepares reports on mile­
age, time, and fares, as required
by company rules. He also keeps
a log of hours as required by the

U.S. Department of Transporta­
tion (U S D T ). The driver must
make a complete report if an ac­
cident or unusual delay occurs.

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 24,000 intercity
busdrivers were employed by
about 1,050 bus companies in
1968. About three-fourths of these
drivers worked for class I intercity
companies— those with annual
revenues of over $200,000. Inter­
city busdrivers are employed in
the many small communities
served by bus, as well as in the
larger cities where home and re­
gional offices and major terminals
of bus companies are located.

Training , O ther Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
All intercity busdrivers are re­
quired to meet minimum age,
health, and experience qualifica­
tions established by the USDT.
The minimum age requirement is
21 years. The applicant must be
able-bodied and have good hear-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

426
ing and at least 20/40 eyesight
with or without glasses. He must
have at least 1 year’s driving ex­
perience (through all four sea­
sons) with a good driving record
and must be able to read and
speak English.
Many intercity bus companies,
however, have considerably high­
er requirements. Most of these
companies prefer applicants to be
at least 23 years of age and have
a high school education or its
equivalent. Applicants often are
given comprehensive examina­
tions to determine their driving
skill, intelligence, temperament,
and personality.
Young persons interested in be­
coming busdrivers should have
good foot, hand, and eye coordina­
tion, be able to judge distances
accurately, and react quickly. An
even temperament and emotional
stability are other important qual­
ifications because busdrivers work
under considerable tension when
they operate large vehicles in
heavy and swiftly moving traffic.
Since they represent their com­
panies in dealing with passengers,
busdrivers also must be courteous
and tactful.
Although previous experience in
the operation of a truck or bus
is not required, it is preferred by
some employers. In most States,
the law requires that a trainee for
a busdriver’s job must have or
obtain a chauffeur’s license, which
is a commercial driving permit.
Most intercity bus companies
conduct training programs for be­
ginning drivers. These programs,
which usually last from 2 to 6
weeks but can extend to 3 months,
include both classroom and driv­
ing instruction. In the classroom,
the trainee is instructed in com­
pany and USDT rules; State and
municipal regulations; safe driv­
ing practices; rates, schedules,
and timetables; and how to deal
with the public. He also is taught
how to keep clerical records, check




supplies, inspect the bus, and
make minor emergency repairs.
The trainee then rides with a
regular driver to observe correct
driving practices and other as­
pects of the job. He also makes
trial runs, without passengers, to
demonstrate his driving skill. A f­
ter satisfactorily completing the
training, which generally includes
final driving and written examina­
tions, the new driver begins a
“ break-in” period. During this
period, working under strict su­
pervision, he makes regularly
scheduled trips with passengers.
New workers start out on the
“ extra board,” which is a list of
drivers on call who are given tem­
porary assignments. While on the
extra board, the new driver may
substitute for a regular driver who
is ill or on vacation, drive a second
or overload section, make an extra
trip if necessary, or drive char­
tered buses. Extra drivers may
have to wait several years before
they have the necessary seniority
to receive a regular assignment.
However, if it becomes necessary
for a company to lay off some of
its drivers, the extra drivers will
be the first to lose their jobs and
the last to be rehired. In almost
all companies, it is necessary for
a beginning employee to serve a
probationary period lasting, as a
rule, from 30 to 90 days.
Opportunities for promotion
are generally somewhat limited,
particularly in small companies.
An experienced driver may be pro­
moted to a job as dispatcher, su­
pervisor, or terminal manager. For
most drivers, advancement con­
sists of receiving better assign­
ments with higher earnings as
their seniority increases.

Em ploym ent Outlook
The upward trend in the em­
ployment of intercity busdrivers
in recent years is expected to con­

tinue. The number of these drivers
is expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s as a result of
further increase in intercity bus
travel. Several hundred additional
openings also will be available
each year in this relatively small
occupation as a result of transfers
to other fields of work, retire­
ments, and deaths.
Population growth and higher
consumer incomes during the
years ahead should result in an
increase in travel generally, a por­
tion of which is expected to be by
bus. More new and improved high­
ways, which will probably con­
tinue to cut scheduled running
time, are expected to contribute to
increases in travel by bus. Bus
traffic also will be affected favor­
ably by touring and charter serv­
ices, and by bus delivery of pack­
age express and first-class mail
which have become important
sources of revenue in the past sev­
eral years. The further curtail­
ment or elimination of railroad
passenger service in many areas
also is increasing intercity bus
traffic.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The wages of intercity busdrivers typically are computed on
a mileage basis. Rates ranged
from 9 to 14 cents a mile in 1968.
Drivers (including extra men)
employed by Class I intercity bus
companies had estimated annual
average earnings of $8,800 in
1968. Many regular drivers em­
ployed by these companies earned
considerably more than $10,000 a
year.
Most regular drivers are guar­
anteed specified wages in terms of
miles or hours per pay period. For
all work other than their regular
assignments or “ tour of duty,”
they receive additional pay, cus­
tomarily at premium rates.

427

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

Extra drivers usually are paid
by the hour when they are on
call but not driving, and are paid
the regular mileage rate when ac­
tually driving. Drivers usually
start at a minimum rate and re­
ceive increases at intervals of 6
months or a year. The maximum
rate generally is reached at the
end of 2 years. Extra men gen­
erally earn slightly less than reg­
ular drivers but, if enough work
is available, they may earn as
much or more than regular driv­
ers. Extra drivers receive a weekly
or biweekly guarantee either in
minimum hours, mileage, or earn­
ings.
Most drivers who work for the
large companies average between
32 and 36 hours driving time a
week. Driving schedules may
range from 6 to 10 hours a day
and from 3% to 6 days a week.
USDT regulations limit the
hours of work of intercity busdrivers. According to these regu­
lations, intercity drivers may
drive no more than 10 hours with­
out having at least 8 hours off.
Drivers also are limited to 60
hours of “ on-duty” time in a 7day period; those who work for
carriers that operate every day
of the week, however, are limited
to 70 hours in an 8-day period.
“ On-duty” is the period from the
time the driver is required to re­
port for work until he is relieved.
For those who drive less than 10
hours but perform other work for
the bus company, the regulations
prohibit resumption of driving
after any combination of driving
and other on-duty time which
totals 15 hours, unless the driver
first has had at least 8 hours off
duty.
Most intercity busdrivers be­
long to the Amalgamated Transit
Union. The Brotherhood of Rail­
road Trainmen, and the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and




Helpers of America (Ind.) also
have organized intercity busdrivers in some areas.
Labor-management contracts
covering many intercity busdriv­
ers provide for health and life
insurance paid for by the employ­
er, whereas pension plans under
such agreements are usually fi­
nanced jointly by the workers
and their employers.
Drivers are given vacations
with pay ranging from 1 to 4
weeks, depending on the company
for which they work and their
length of service. Many also re­
ceive 8 paid holidays. When away
from home terminals overnight,
drivers employed by some com­
panies receive pay for food and
lodging.
Driving an intercity bus usual­
ly is not physically burdensome,
but it is demanding and requires
steady nerves. The busdriver is
given a great deal of independence
in his job and is solely responsible
for the safety of the passengers
and bus. Many drivers enjoy
working without direct super­
vision and take pride in assuming
these responsibilities. Some driv­
ers enjoy the opportunity to
travel and to meet the public.
Among the less desirable as­
pects of this job are weekend and
holiday work and the necessity of
being away from home for vary­
ing periods. Also, extra drivers
are on call at all hours and may
be required to work at any time
on very short notice. In addition,
drivers that have little seniority
sometimes may be laid off when
business declines.
Sources of Additional Inform ation
For information regarding job
opportunities for an intercity busdriver, a young man should apply
to intercity bus companies or the
local office of the State employ­
ment service.

LOCAL TRANSIT
BUSDRIVERS
(D.O.T. 913.363 and .463)

N ature of the W ork
Local busdrivers transport mil­
lions of Americans to and from
work, schools, and homes every
day. These drivers follow definite
time schedules and routes over
city and suburban streets to get
passengers to their destinations
on time.
The local busdriver’s workday
begins when he reports to the ter­
minal or garage. There, he is as­
signed his bus and receives his
change, tokens, transfers, passes,
and any other items needed. Be­
fore starting the run, the driver
usually is required to check the
tires, brakes and lights. Some
very small local bus companies
also may require him to check the
water, oil, and fuel.
On most runs, the driver makes
regular stops every block or two,
where he operates the controls of
the bus doors to enable passengers
to enter and leave the vehicle. As
the passengers board the bus, the
driver collects cash fares, tokens,
tickets, or transfers, and also is­
sues transfers, sells tokens, and
makes change. The local busdriv­
er often answers questions con­
cerning schedules, routes, trans­
fer points, and street numbers,
and sometimes is required to call
out the name of the street at each
regular bus stop. He also reg­
ulates heating, air conditioning,
and lighting equipment to keep
the passengers comfortable.
At the end of his day’s run, the
busdriver turns in a trip sheet
which usually includes a record of
fares received, trips made, and
any delays in schedule. In case of
an accident or unusual delay, the

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

428
driver must make out a compre­
hensive report on its nature and
cause.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, about 65,000 busdrivers were employed by about
1,100 local transit bus companies.
A small proportion of these driv­
ers were women. Approximately
one-half the total worked in large
cities where the transit system
was publicly owned, such as Bos­
ton, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Pittsburg, St. Louis, and San
Francisco. In addition to those
employed by the local transit bus
industry, some local drivers work
for charter and sightseeing lines,
government agencies, and for
companies which specialize in op­
erating schoolbuses. (There are
also more than 200,000 schoolbus
drivers, most of whom are parttime drivers.) A few drivers are
employed by Federal, State, and
local governments.
Although many drivers work in
major metropolitan areas such as
New York, Chicago, and Detroit,
some are employed in almost ev­
ery community in the Nation.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Applicants for busdriver posi­
tions should be between the ages
of 21 and 40, of average height
and weight, and have good eye­
sight— with or without glasses.
The applicant must be in good
health, have no physical disabili­
ties, and must be able to pass the
written and physical examina­
tions given by most employers. He
must be able to judge distance
accurately; have good foot, hand,
and eye coordination; and have
quick reflexes. Because the driver
often works under pressure and




deals with many different per­
sonalities, an even temperament
and emotional stability are im­
portant. Although educational re­
quirements are not high, many
employers prefer applicants that
have a high school education or
its equivalent.
A motor vehicle operator’s per­
mit and, generally, 1 or 2 years
of driving experience on some type
of motor vehicle are basic require­
ments. A good driving record is
essential because a busdriver is re­
sponsible for the safety of his pas­
sengers. Most States require busdrivers to have a chauffeur’s
license which permits the holder
to operate commercial motor ve­
hicles. This license may be ob­
tained either during or immedi­
ately after the driver’s training
period. Some employers prefer
drivers who have had experience
operating a truck or bus.
Most local transit companies
conduct training courses which
may last several weeks and in­
clude both classroom and driving
instructions. In the classroom, the
trainee is taught company rules,
safety regulations, and safe driv­
ing practices. He is taught how
to keep records and how to deal
tactfully and courteously with
passengers. The trainee’s driving
instruction consists of supervised
trips both with and without pas­
sengers. At the conclusion of his
training, the new driver often is
required to pass a written and
final driving examination before
he starts on a run.
After passing the examinations,
he is placed on the “ extra” list.
While on this list, he substitutes
for regular drivers who are ill or
on vacation and also makes extra
trips in the morning or evening
rush hours. He also may drive
charter or sightseeing runs and
other extra runs such as special
service buses for public meetings
and sporting events. In almost all
companies it is necessary for a

beginning employee to serve a
probationary period— generally
lasting for 30 to 90 days. He re­
mains on the extra list until he
has the necessary seniority to ob­
tain a regular run. It may take
from several months to several
years before he is assigned a
regular run.
Promotional opportunities in
regular driving jobs are generally
limited. Experienced drivers may
advance to jobs such as instructor,
dispatcher, road supervisor, and,
sometimes, executive. Promotion
in municipally owned bus systems
is usually by examination. The
opportunities for advancement of
most drivers are limited to assign­
ments to more desirable runs
Only after acquiring sufficient se­
niority do the drivers receive
these assignments.

Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be a small number of
opportunities for new workers to
enter this occupation each year
through the 1970’s, even though
employment of local busdrivers is
expected to continue to decline
(but at a slower rate than in the
past). These openings will result
from the need to replace drivers
who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone may account for
about 1,300 openings each year.
In recent years, there has been
a considerable decline in the vol­
ume of passenger traffic handled
by the local transit bus industry.
The main cause of this decline has
been the rapid rise in the number
of private automobiles and their
increasing use in both city and
suburban areas. Another factor
has been the rapid growth of sub­
urbs, most of which have a wide
variety of stores, theaters, res­
taurants, and other services in
their shopping centers. Because
most suburban shopping centers

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

have good parking facilities and
are easily reached by automobile,
many suburban residents have
found it unnecessary to use public
transportation for shopping or
other activities. The increasing
number of people employed in
suburban areas are likely to rely
more on private automobile trans­
portation than those employed in
downtown areas. In addition, in­
creasing traffic congestion and
parking problems in most down­
town sections have led to the de­
cline of many central business
districts. This, in turn, has re­
sulted in some curtailment of
downtown bus service between
rush hours.
As local transit bus traffic de­
clined steadily in recent years and
bus schedules and routes were
curtailed or entirely eliminated,
the employment of busdrivers also
declined. The decline in employ­
ment was limited, however, partly
because transit companies are not
completely free to curtail or elim­
inate unprofitable routes, since
the companies are usually reg­
ulated by State or municipal
authorities.
Downtown traffic congestion
and parking problems will con­
tinue to encourage bus travel in
downtown areas, and the growing
need for bus service for school
children in the suburbs is an addi­
tional factor which may slow the
downward trend in busdriver em­
ployment. Some increase in the
number of publicly owned com­
panies may occur. This would
favorably affect busdriver employ­
ment, since such companies often
provide service on unprofitable
routes in the public interest.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Local transit busdrivers are
usually paid by the hour, and
earnings vary according to local­
ity, length of service, size of com­




429
pany or city, and length and type
of run. Nearly all companies pay
the maximum job rate after 12
months’ service. According to a
survey of basic hourly wage scales
set by union-employer contracts
for busdrivers in 67 large cities,
the average hourly rate was $3.40
on July 1, 1968. For more than
two-thirds of the busdrivers cov­
ered by the contracts, scales
ranged from $3.20 to $4.00 an
hour. Hourly scales were highest
in the larger cities in the Great
Lakes, Pacific, New England, and
Middle Atlantic regions. Among
the cities surveyed, the hourly pay
scales for experienced busdrivers
ranged from $2.07 in Topeka,
Kansas to $4.00 in Boston, Mass.
Wage scales for beginning drivers
were generally 5 to 15 cents an
hour less.
Most busdrivers have a stan­
dard work schedule of 8 hours a
day, 40 hours a week. For addi­
tional work, drivers usually re­
ceive l 1 times their hourly rates.
/}
In many companies, drivers often
work in excess of their standard
work schedule, thereby increasing
their weekly earnings. Drivers on
the extra list generally are guar­
anteed a minimum number of
hours of work or a minimum week­
ly salary.
The workweek for regular driv­
ers usually consists of any 5 con­
secutive days, with Saturdays and
Sundays being counted as regular
workdays. Most transit companies
run some buses in the evening and
a few companies operate 24 hours
a day. Therefore, some drivers
have to work at night. To accom­
modate the varying demands of
commuter travel, it is necessary
for many local transit busdrivers
to work “ swing shifts.” On these
runs the operator drives for sev­
eral hours, is off duty for a period
of time, then returns to work for
several hours. If the total elapsed
time between the beginning and
end of a swing shift exceeds 10 or

11 hours, the driver generally re­
ceives extra pay. Other assign­
ments are “ straight runs” which
are unbroken except for meal peri­
ods. Some union contracts require
50 to 60 percent of all assign­
ments to be straight runs.
Nearly all local transit busdrivers are covered by labor-man­
agement contracts which provide
for life and health insurance, and
pension plans; the major pension
plans are financed jointly by the
workers and their employers,
while many life and health insur­
ance plans are paid for solely by
the employer. Drivers also are
given vacations with pay ranging
from 1 to 5 weeks or more, de­
pending on the length of service,
and usually 6 or 7 or more paid
holidays a year.
Although driving a bus is not
physically exhausting, busdrivers
are exposed to the nervous tension
which arises from driving a large
vehicle on heavily congested
streets and dealing with many
types of passengers. In addition
to driving a bus, they must collect
fares, answer questions, see that
passengers are clear of the doors,
and request riders to move to the
rear.
Among the more favorable as­
pects of this job is steady yearround employment once a driver
receives a regular assignment.
Busdrivers are usually free of di­
rect supervision— which many
drivers also find desirable. Drivers
take pride in being solely respon­
sible for the safety of the passen­
gers and bus and in acting as the
bus company’s representative to
the general public.
Most busdrivers are members of
the Amalgamated Transit Union.
Drivers in New York City and
several other large cities belong
to the Transport Workers Union
of America. The Brotherhood of
Railroad Trainmen and Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

430
Helpers of America (Ind.) have
also organized some local transit
busdrivers.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
For information on employment
opportunities for local busdrivers,
inquiry should be made at the
transit company in the local area
or to the local office of the State
employment service.

TAXI DRIVERS
(D.O.T. 913.363)

N atu re of th e W ork
In practically all communities,
taxicabs are an essential part of
the regular transportation sys­
tem. Taxicab drivers, in addition
to providing transportation, also
perform other services. For exam­
ple, they assist passengers in and
out of the cab, handle their lug­
gage, and also may pick up and
deliver packages. In some com­
munities, cabs are used for trans­
porting crippled children to and
from school. Cabdrivers occasion­
ally provide sightseeing tours for
out-of-town visitors.
Drivers get their “ fares” or
passengers in one or more ways.
The majority of taxicab fleets
are equipped with two-way radio
systems over which requests for
taxicabs are transmitted to the
driver. These companies also
have cabstands at which drivers
may wait for phone calls from
their central dispatching office
which will direct them to pick up
passengers. Many drivers wait in
front of theaters, hotels, bus
terminals, railroad stations, and
other buildings which may have
large numbers of prospective pas­




sengers. In small cities and in
suburban areas, drivers may work
from a central location, such as
a terminal, to which they return
after each trip. Passengers also
may be picked up while the driver
is returning to his stand or stat­
ion. A good driver keeps himself
informed on what is happening
in the city, where crowds will
gather (for example, at theaters,
and baseball and football games)
and when the crowds will disperse.
Drivers usually are required to
keep records, such as the date,
time, and place passengers were
picked up, and the destination,
time of arrival, and amount of
fare collected. If the cabdriver
owns his own cab or if he rents
a cab over an extended period of
time, he must periodically clean
the cab, as required by regula­
tions in many municipalities. In
large cab companies, this job
generally is performed by clean­
ers employed by company.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, nearly 85,000 taxi
drivers, including a small number
of women, were employed full
time in the taxicab industry,
which is made up of both private­
ly owned cabs and fleets of com­
pany-owned vehicles. In addition,
perhaps as many were employed
part time.
Although taxicab drivers are
employed in every metropolitan
area in the country, the greatest
concentration of these workers is
found in large cities. New York
City, Washington, D.C., Chicago,
Philadelphia, Boston, New Or­
leans, Detroit, St. Louis, and
Baltimore lead in the employ­
ment of cabdrivers.
Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
T o become a taxi driver in
most large cities, it is necessary

431

DRIVING OCCUPATIONS

to have, in addition to a Stateissued chauffeur’s license, a spe­
cial taxicab operator’s license is­
sued by the local police, safety
department, or Public Utilities
Commission. Although licensing
requirements vary considerably
among cities, in general, appli­
cants must be over 21 and in
good health, have a good driving
record, and have no criminal rec­
ord. A driver’s record is checked
for arrests, both locally and
through the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (F B I).
Most large communities re­
quire an applicant for a taxi
driver’s license to pass a written
examination on taxicab and traf­
fic regulations. The examination
may include questions on street
locations, insurance regulations,
accident reports, lost articles,
zoning or meter rules, and pas­
senger pickup and deliveries. In
some cities, the cab company will
teach the driver-applicant taxi­
cab regulations and the location
of streets and important build­
ings. In other cities, the driver
may prepare himself for the li­
cense examination. After the
driver has passed the examina­
tion, he pays an annual license
fee, generally ranging from 50
cents to $5.
Although formal education is
seldom required, many companies
prefer applicants for a taxi driv­
ing job to have at least an eighthgrade education. A neat, wellgroomed appearance is desirable,
as is the ability to deal tactfully
and courteously with all types of
people. Good foot, hand, and eye
coordination particularly are de­
sirable because taxi drivers often
must operate their cabs in fast
moving and heavy traffic.
Opportunities for advancement
for taxi drivers are extremely
limited, with promotion to the
job of dispatcher often the only
possible advancement. Some driv­
ers, however, have become road




supervisors, garage superintend­
ents, or claims agents. Many
drivers who work for companies
try to purchase their own cabs
so that they can become their
own employers. In some large cit­
ies, however, the number of cabs
is restricted by ordinances, which
may limit the opportunity to own
cabs in such areas.
Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be many opportu­
nities for new workers to become
taxi drivers t h r o u g h o u t the
1970’s, primarily because of the
high turnover in this occupation.
The number of taxi drivers has
been slowly declining during the
past decade, and this trend is
expected to continue through the
1970’s.
In the past, the employment of
taxi drivers has been adversely
affected by the increased use of
privately owned automobiles,
rented cars, and the continuing
population shift to the suburbs
where most people drive their
own cars. However, increasing
population, higher consumer in­
comes, parking difficulties, and
higher local transit bus fares are
some of the factors which may
lead to a greater use of taxicabs
and limit the decline in employ­
ment of taxi drivers.
The high turnover in this oc­
cupation results from the lack of
assurance of a steady income,
long hours, and the use of this
job by some workers as stopgap
employment when better jobs are
not available. Transfers from this
occupation are expected to be the
major reason that employment
opportunities will be available for
many new workers who wish to
enter this field of driving.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Based on the limited data
available, taxi drivers in many of

the larger cities earned, with tips,
more than $2 an hour in 1968.
Most taxi drivers employed by
taxicab companies are paid a per­
centage— usually between 40 and
50 percent— of the total fare.
Drivers also frequently receive
tips, ranging from 10 to 20 per­
cent of the fare. Some taxi drivers
covered by union-employer con­
tracts have guaranteed minimums
up to $60 or $70 a week.
Many drivers rent their cabs
from the company by the day for
a set price. Any receipts above
the cab rental and other operat­
ing expenses are retained by the
drivers.
A large percentage of full-time
taxi drivers work 9 or 10 hours a
day for 6 days a week. They usu­
ally begin work between 6 a.m.
and 8 a.m. Many drivers work
nights, starting between 3 p.m.
and 5 p.m. Some drivers work on
Sundays and holidays.
Many college students have
been able to work their way
through school by driving cabs on
a part-time basis and during sum­
mer and spring holidays. Some
workers also become part-time
drivers to supplement their regu­
lar income.
Driving a taxicab is not phy­
sically strenuous. Most drivers do
not change tires or do other
heavy repair work. Drivers are,
however, subject to nervous ten­
sion from driving in heavy traffic
in all kinds of weather, and dealwith different types of passengers.
Many drivers find the lack of
direct supervision by an employer
one of the more desirable aspects
of their job. They may, however,
be subject to municipal regula­
tions which govern their personal
appearance, the fares they charge,
and their driving practices.
Taxi drivers in many of the
large cities belong to labor un­
ions, particularly those drivers
who work for the large taxicab
companies. The main union in

432
this field is the International
Brotherhood of T e a m s t e r s ,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.).
Taxi drivers usually work long




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

hours and do not receive over­
time pay. Many of them do not
receive fringe benefits, such as
pensions and severance pay, that
workers in many other occupa­

tions receive. When economic
conditions decline, their earnings
generally are reduced because of
increased competition for less
business.

M A C H IN IN G O C C U P A T IO N S

Almost every product made by
American Industry c o n t a i n s
metal parts or is manufactured
by machines made of metal parts.
Many of these metal parts are
shaped to precise dimensions by
skilled and semiskilled machin­
ing workers who use a wide va­
riety of machine tools. Machin­
ing workers make up the largest
single occupational group in the
metalworking trades. In 1968,
more than 1.1 million workers
were employed as machinists, tool
and die makers, instrument mak­
ers, machine tool operators, setup
men, and layout men.

N ature of the W ork
The principal job of most ma­
chining workers is to operate ma­
chine tools. A machine tool is a
stationary, power-driven machine
that holds firmly both the piece
of metal to be shaped and a cut­
ting instrument, or “ tool,” and
brings them together so that the
metal is cut to the desired shape.
In some cases, the cutting tool
is moved, and the metal is held
stationary; in others, the metal is
moved against a stationary tool.
The most common types of ma­
chine tools are lathes, grinding
machines, drilling and boring ma­
chines, milling machines, shapers,
broachers, and planers. Lathes
turn and shape metal against a
sharp cutting tool. Grinding ma­
chines smooth metal parts by
means of power-driven abrasive
wheels. Drilling machines make
holes in metal. Boring machines
enlarge holes already drilled.
Milling machines cut or remove
excess metal with tools that have
several cutting edges. Shapers,
planers, and broachers are ma­
chine tools that produce flat sur­
faces. In addition to these com­




mon machining methods, several
new metal shaping techniques
have been introduced in recent
years. For example, metal can
now be shaped using chemicals,
electricity, magnetism, s o u n d ,
light, and liquids under con­
trolled conditions.
Accuracy is of prime impor­
tance for most metal machining
work. Motors, farm machinery,
and typewriters are included
among the wide variety of prod­
ucts made of separate metal parts
that must be made to precise di­
mensions so that they are inter­
changeable and can be easily as­
sembled for mass-production pur­
poses. Metal parts sometimes are
machined to tolerances of 10 mil­
lionths of an inch. Machining
workers follow directions gener­
ally given in the form of a draw­
ing or blueprint, upon which ex­
act dimensions of the finished
part are specified; some instruc­
tions may be less detailed. Ma­
chining workers frequently use
micrometers and other precision­
measuring instruments to check
the accuracy of their work against
the required specifications.
In addition to operating ma­
chine tools, skilled tool and die
makers, instrument makers, ma­
chinists, and layout men spend a
considerable portion of their time
doing precision handwork, such as
laying out and assembling metal
parts. After the separate parts
have been machined, they use
files, scrapers, emery cloths, and
miscellaneous small handtools in
filing, scraping, and polishing the
parts for exact fit in the final
assembly.
All-round machinists are skill­
ed workers who can operate most
types of machine tools. Machine
tool operators commonly operate
only one kind of machine tool.
Tool and die makers specialize in

making dies for use with presses
and diecasting machines, devices
to guide drills into metal, and
special gages to d e t e r m i n e
whether the work meets specified
tolerances. Instrument makers
use machine tools to produce
highly accurate instrument parts
made of metal or other materials.
In plants that produce large
numbers of metal products, ma­
chinists may specialize in setup
and layout work. Setup men ad­
just machine tools so that semi­
skilled machine tool operators
can run the machines. Layout
men mark machining specifica­
tions on metal so that an operator
can perform the proper machin­
ing operations. (Detailed discus­
sions of the types of work per­
formed by workers in each of
these machining occupations are
presented later in this chapter.)
Since continuous attention is
required when machine tools are
in operation, the work may be
tedious, especially on simple and
repetitive machining jobs. How­
ever, where the work is varied
and complex and standards of ac­
curacy high, a worker can experi­
ence the satisfaction that comes
to a capable and conscientious
craftsman in a highly skilled
trade.

Location of M achining W ork
An estimated 500,000 machine
tool operators; 400,000 machin­
ists, layout men, and instrument
makers; 150,000 tool and die
makers; and 70,000 setup men
were employed in 1968. About
four-fifths of all machining work­
ers were employed in the metal­
working industries, mostly in the
machinery,
except
electrical;
transportation equipment; fabri­
cated metal products; and elec­
trical machinery and equipment
industries. Many thousands also
were employed in repair shops of
railroads and maintenance shops
of factories that make textiles,
433

434
paper, glass, or chemicals. A
small number worked in research
laboratories and shops that fabri­
cate models of new products.
Machining workers are em­
ployed in every State and in al­
most every city in the country.
However, more than half of all
machining workers are employed
in California, Ohio, New York,
Michigan, Illinois, and Pennsyl­
vania. Other States having large
numbers of machining workers
are New Jersey, Massachsuetts,
Indiana, Connecticut, Wisconsin,
and Texas. Most instrument
makers are employed in New
York City, Chicago, and a few
other large cities.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The common method of enter­
ing skilled machining occupations
is through apprenticeship— a pe­
riod of formal on-the-job training
during which the new worker
learns all the aspects of his trade.
He is taught to operate machine
tools and to use handtools and
measuring instruments. In addi­
tion to shop training, the appren­
tice is given classroom instruction
in blueprint reading, mathe­
matics, and related subjects. In
choosing apprentices, employers
usually prefer young men who
have a high school or trade school
education. Some companies use
aptitude tests to help determine
whether applicants for machining
jobs have the necessary mechani­
cal ability and the temperament
to perform this exacting work.
Machining workers also must
have good vision and superior
judgment of depth and distance.
Most machine tool operators
and some machinists, tool and die
makers, and instrument makers
“ pick up” the skills of their trade
informally through experience on
several jobs. They generally start




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in the less skilled machining jobs
working under the supervision of
experienced
craftsmen.
They
gradually advance to more skilled
jobs as they acquire experience
and knowledge. Some workers im­
prove their skills and increase
their chances for advancement by
taking courses in blueprint read­
ing, electronics, hydraulics, and
shop mathematics. An increasing
number of machining workers are
participating in intensive train­
ing programs provided by ma­
chinery manufacturers or spon­
sored by labor unions. Some of
these programs train machining
workers to maintain and repair
numerically controlled machine
tools.
Programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers, pri­
marily for entry jobs in the ma­
chining occupations, were operat­
ing in many cities in 1968 under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act. The majority of
these programs, which continue
up to a year, were for machine
tool operators, but some were for
other machining occupations. The
programs stressed the funda­
mentals of machine tool opera­
tion. Graduates of these programs
may eventually become skilled
machining workers by gaining ad­
ditional training and experience.
Although women are sometimes
employed as machine tool oper­
ators, relatively few are employed
in skilled machining occupations.
Machining workers have sev­
eral advancement opportunities.
For example, many can advance
to foremen. Individuals having
extensive machine shop experi­
ence may, with specialized train­
ing, become programers who pre­
pare the coded paper tapes used
to operate numerically controlled
machines. Tool and die makers
and instrument makers can ad­
vance to technical positions such
as tool and die designer or in­
strument technician. Machining

workers also can open their own
tool and die shops or machine
shops.

Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be thousands of job
openings for machining workers
through the 1970’s. Most of these
openings will result from the need
to replace experienced workers
who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone will provide
about 21,000 job openings an­
nually. Replacement needs will
be a particularly important fac­
tor in the skilled machining occu­
pations, which have a relatively
high proportion of older workers.
Transfers of semiskilled machine
tool operators to other occupa­
tions are fairly common, and
some openings also will result
from these transfers. Other open­
ings are expected to result from
the anticipated slow increase in
the demand for these workers,
assuming the realization of rela­
tively full employment nationally
and high rates of economic
growth necessary to achieve this
goal.
Employment in the various ma­
chining occupations is expected
to increase at different rates. For
example, the number of instru­
ment makers is expected to in­
crease rapidly, whereas little or
no change is expected in the em­
ployment of machine tool oper­
ators. Laborsaving technological
changes are expected to slow the
employment growth of most ma­
chining occupations.
The anticipated increase in the
employment of machining work­
ers is expected to result from the
rapid rise in the demand for ma­
chined products. Increases in
population and in the number of
households, plus higher levels of
personal disposable income an-

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

ticipated during the decade
ahead, are expected to result in a
large increase in the demand for
metal consumer products, such
as automobiles, heating and airconditioning
equipment,
and
household appliances. Higher lev­
els of corporate income and rising
expenditures for industrial plant
capacity should stimulate the de­
mand for metal products, such as
machine tools, engines, pumps,
and instruments. The production
of machined products used in the
exploration of outer space often
involves new metals and alloys
that must be worked to extremely
close tolerances. Special machin­
ing skills will be required to per­
form this type of work.
Employment
of
machining
workers is not expected to expand
as fast as the demand for ma­
chined products because techno­
logical developments will increase
output per worker. For example,
automated machining lines, in
which machine tools are linked
together for production opera­
tions, are being used increasingly.
The cutting and feeding speeds of
machine tools also are increasing.
New processes that will be used
more frequently in the future for
metal removal include chemical
and electrical milling, electrical
discharge and ultrasonic machin­
ing, and machining by electron
beams and lasers. The use of
powdered metals and advances in
metal forming, both of which
significantly reduce the amount
of machining necessary to pro­
duce a final product, also may
gain more widespread application
in the future.
Of all the widespread techno­
logical changes that are expected
to affect the future employment
of workers in machining occupa­
tions, the greatest impact is ex­
pected to arise from the expand­
ing application of numerically




435
controlled machine tools. The use
of numerically controlled ma­
chine tools broadly involves the
following sequence of operations:
Engineers or draftsmen translate
part dimensions and tolerances,
cutter shapes and sizes, cutting
paths and sequences, and other
data into numbers or codes rep­
resenting numbers. These num­
bers are punched on tapes or
cards which are inserted into
electronic or mechanical devices
that translate numbers into mo­
tions or actions, such as drilling
or cutting. The machine tool op­
erator simply installs the tool,
inserts and removes the workpiece, and changes the tapes or
cards.
Numerically controlled ma­
chine tools greatly simplify the
jobs of many machining workers
and increase their efficiency. On
the other hand, the more sophis­
ticated applications of numerical­
ly controlled machine tools will
require some operators to have
greater skill and knowledge of
machining operations. In addi­
tion, the growing use of numeri­
cally controlled machine tools
will limit the employment growth
of some machining workers, par­
ticularly semi-skilled operators.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of skilled machin­
ing workers compare favorably
with those of other skilled indus­
trial workers. Tool and die mak­
ers and instrument makers are
the highest paid workers in the
machining group, and are among
the highest paid skilled workers
in manufacturing. Earnings in­
formation for most of the individ­
ual machining occupations is pre­
sented later in this chapter.
Most machine shops are rela­
tively clean and well lighted. Be­
cause they work with high speed
machine tools and sharp cutting

instruments, workers in these oc­
cupations need good safety hab­
its. Persons working around ma­
chine tools are prohibited from
wearing loose fitting clothing.
They frequently wear safety
glasses and other protective
equipment.
Machining work is not usually
physically strenuous. The ma­
chine tools do the actual cutting
while the machining worker sets
the machine, watches the con­
trols, and checks the accuracy of
the work. The workers, however,
usually stand at their jobs most
of the day and move about fre­
quently.
Companies that employ ma­
chining workers generally provide
paid holidays and paid vacations.
Life insurance, hospitalization,
medical and surgical insurance,
sickness and accident insurance,
and pensions also are often
provided.
The great majority of workers
in machining occupations are
members of unions. Among the
labor organizations in this field
are the International Association
of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the International Un­
ion, United Automobile, Aero­
space and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; the
International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; the United
Steelworkers of America; and the
Mechanics Educational Society
of America.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The National Machine Tool
Builders Association, 2139 Wis­
consin Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C.
20007— whose
members
build a large percentage of all
machine tools used in this coun­
try— will, on request, supply in­
formation on career opportunities
in the Machine Tool Industry.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

436
The National Tool, Die and
Precision Machining Association,
1411 K St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005, offers information on
apprenticeship training, including
R ecom m e n d e d Apprenticeship
Standards for Tool and Die Mak­
ers, certified by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor’s Bureau of Ap­
prenticeship and Training.
Many local offices of the State
employment service, affiliated
with the U.S. Employment Serv­
ice, offer free aptitude testing to
persons interested in determining
their capacity to acquire the
skills necessary to become an all­
round machinist or tool and die
maker. In addition, it also may
be a source of information about
training opportunities under the
Manpower D e v e l o p m e n t and
Training Act. The State employ­
ment service also refers appli­
cants for apprentice programs to
employers. In many communities,
applications for apprenticeship
also are received by labor-man­
agement apprenticeship commit­
tees.

ALL-ROUND MACHINISTS
(D.O.T. 600.280 and .281)

N ature of the W ork
The all-round machinist is a
skilled worker who uses machine
tools to make metal parts. A ma­
chinist can set up and operate
most types of machine tools. His
wide knowledge of shop practice
and the working properties of
metals, plus his understanding of
what the various machine tools
can accomplish, enable him to turn
a block of metal into an intricate
part meeting precise specifica­
tions.
Variety is the main character­
istic of the work of an all-round
machinist. He plans and carries
through all operations needed in
turning out machined products.
He may switch frequently from
the production of one kind of
product to another. An all-round
machinist selects the tools and

material required for each job and
plans the cutting and finishing
operations in order to complete
the finished work according to
blueprint or written specifica­
tions. He makes standard shop
computations relating to dimen­
sions of work, tooling, feeds, and
speeds of machining. He often
uses precision-measuring instru­
ments, such as micrometers and
gages, to measure the accuracy
of his work to thousandths or
even millionths of an inch. After
completing machining operations,
he may finish the work by hand,
using files and scrapers, and then
assemble the finished parts with
wrenches and screwdrivers. The
all-round machinist may also
“ heat treat” cutting tools and
parts to improve machinability.
Machinists employed in main­
tenance departments to make or
repair metal parts of machines
and equipment also have a broad
knowledge of mechanical princi­
ples. They sometimes adjust and

Apprenticeship information al­
so may be obtained from the fol­
lowing international u n i o n s
(which have local offices in many
cities):
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers,
1300 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of
America, 8000 East Jefferson
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical
Radio and Machine Workers,
1126 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.




Machinist operates vertical turret lathe.

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

test the parts they have made or
repaired for a machine.

Places of E m ploym ent
Almost every factory using a
substantial amount of machinery
employs all-round machinists to
keep its mechanical equipment
operating. Some all-round ma­
chinists work in the production
departments of metal-working
factories where large quantities of
identical parts are produced;
others work in machine shops
where a limited number of varied
products are made. Most all­
round machinists work in the fol­
lowing industries: Machinery, in­
cluding electrical; transportation
equipment;
fabricated
metal
products; and primary metals.
Among the other industries em­
ploying substantial numbers of
these workers are the railroad,
chemical, food processing, and
textile industries. The Federal
Government also employs all­
round machinists in Navy yards
and other installations.
An important advantage of this
occupation is that machinists can
be employed in almost every lo­
cality and industry because their
skills are required to maintain all
types of machinery.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
According to most training
authorities, a 4-year apprentice­
ship is the best way to learn the
machinist trade. Many machin­
ists, however, have qualified with­
out an apprenticeship by learning
the trade through years of varied
experience in machining jobs.
Several companies have training
programs which qualify some of
their employees as machinists in
less than 4 years.
A young person interested in
becoming a machinist should be




437
mechanically inclined and tem­
peramentally suited to do highly
accurate work that requires con­
centration as well as physical ef­
fort. A high school or vocational
school education, including
courses in mathematics, physics,
or machine shop training, is de­
sirable. Some companies require
their experienced machinists to
take additional courses in mathe­
matics and electronics, at com­
pany expense, so that they can
service and operate the numeric­
ally controlled machine tools com­
ing into greater use. In addition,
equipment builders generally pro­
vide training in the electrical, hy­
draulic, and mechanical aspects
of machine-and-control systems.
A typical machinist apprentice
program lasts 4 years and consists
of approximately 8,000 hours of
shop training and about 570 hours
of related classroom instruction.
Shop training includes learning
the operation of various types of
machine tools. The apprentice
also is taught chipping, filing,
hand tapping, dowel fitting, rivet­
ing, and other hand operations.
In the classroom, the apprentice
studies blueprint reading, me­
chanical drawing, shop mathe­
matics, and shop practices.
Numerous promotional oppor­
tunities are available to all-round
machinists. Many advance to fore­
man of a section or to other super­
visory jobs. Others who receive
additional training may become
tool and die makers or instrument
makers. A skilled machinist has
excellent opportunities to advance
into other technical jobs in ma­
chine programing and tooling.
Machinists also can open their
own machine shops.

Em ploym ent Outlook
The number of all-round ma­
chinists is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s, as a

result of the anticipated expan­
sion of metalworking activities.
(See discussion, p. 434.) How­
ever, most job openings will arise
from the need to replace experi­
enced machinists who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone
will result in approximately 7,000
job openings annually.
The employment of machinists
is expected to increase, especially
in maintenance shops, as indus­
tries continue to use a greater
volume of complex machinery and
equipment. Skilled maintenance
machinists are needed to prevent
costly breakdowns in highly me­
chanized plants where machine
tools often are linked together by
transfer equipment. In such
plants, a breakdown of one ma­
chine may stop many other
machines.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of all-round ma­
chinists compare favorably with
those of other skilled factory
workers.
Maintenance machinists em­
ployed in various industries in 85
metropolitan areas surveyed in
1967-68 received average straighttime hourly earnings ranging from
$2.59 in Greenville, S.C., to $4.96
in Detroit, Mich. A v e r a g e
straight-time hourly earnings of
maintenance machinists employed
in the following cities were:
Atlanta........................................... $3.60
Birmingham ................................... 3.87
Chicago ......................................... 3.97
Cincinnati ...................................... 3.73
Detroit ............................................ 4.29
Houston .......................................... 3.90
Los Angeles-Long Beach .............. 4.07
Memphis ........................................ 3.50
Milwaukee..................................... 4.08
Minneapolis-St. Paul.................... 3.97
New York ...................................... 4.04
Portland, Oreg................................ 3.95
Rockford, 11
1................................... 3.53
San Francisco-Oakland................ 4.15
Worcester ...................................... 3.36

438

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Machinists must follow strict
safety regulations when working
around high-speed machine tools.
The greater use of safety glasses
and other protective devices in
recent years has reduced the ac­
cident rate for these workers.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by machin­
ing workers, unions that organize
these workers, and sources of ad­
ditional information.

MACHINE TOOL
OPERATORS
(D.O.T. 600.280; 601.280; 602.280
through .885; 603.280 through .885;
604.280 through .885; 605.280 through
.885; and 606.280 through .885)

Machine tool operators shape
metal to precise dimensions by the
use of machine tools. Most oper­
ators can operate only one or two
types of machine tools; some can
operate several. Many operators
are semiskilled machine tenders
who perform simple, repetitive
operations that can be learned
quickly. Other operators, how­
ever, are skilled workers who can
perform complex and varied ma­
chining operations.
A typical job of a semiskilled
operator is to place rough metal
stock in a machine tool on which
the speeds and operation sequence
have already been set by a skilled
worker. The operator watches the
machine and calls his supervisor
when it is not functioning cor­
rectly. Special, easy-to-use gages
help him to measure the work
quickly and accurately. The op­
erator who has limited training
may make minor adjustments to
keep his machine tool operating,
but he depends on skilled machin­
ing workers for major adjust­
ments.




The work of skilled machine
tool operators usually is limited
to a single type of machine and
involves little or no hand fitting
or assembly work. He plans and
sets up the correct sequence of
machining operations according
to blueprints, layouts, or other
instructions. He adjusts speed,
feed, and other controls, and se­
lects the proper cutting instru­
ments or tools for each operation.
He must be able to use all the spe­
cial attachments of his machine
because adjustments during ma­
chining operations and changes in
the setup may be required. Upon
completing his work, he measures
tolerance limits with micrometers,
gages, and other precision-meas­
uring instruments to see whether
the work meets specifications. The
skilled machine tool operator also
may select cutting and lubricating
oils used to cool metal and tools
during machining operations.
Lathes, drill presses, boring ma­
chines, grinding machines, milling
machines, and automatic screw
machines are among the machine
tools used by machine operators.
Both skilled and semiskilled op­
erators have job titles related to
the kind of machine they operate,
such as engine lathe operator,
milling machine operator, and
drill press operator.

Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
Most machine tool operators
learn their skills on the job. A be­
ginner usually starts by observing
a skilled operator at work. When
the learner first operates a ma­
chine, he is supervised closely by
a more experienced worker. The
beginner learns how to use meas­
uring instruments and to make
elementary computations needed
in shop work. He gradually ac­
quires experience and learns to
operate a machine tool, read blue­
prints, and plan the sequence of
machining work.
Individual ability and effort
largely determine how long it
takes to become a machine tool
operator. Semiskilled machine
tool operators generally learn
their jobs within a few months.
However, it usually takes 1 ^ to
2 years of on-the-job training and
experience to become a skilled
machine tool operator. Some
skilled machine tool operators’
jobs are filled by men who have
completed machinists’ apprentice­
ships. Some companies have for­
mal training programs to acquaint

Places of Em ploym ent
Machine tool operators are em­
ployed mainly in factories that
manufacture fabricated metal
products, transportation equip­
ment, and machinery in large
quantities. Skilled machine tool
operators work in production de­
partments, maintenance depart­
ments, toolrooms, and job shops.
Because of their limited training,
few semiskilled operators work in
maintenance departments or in
job shops.

Machine tool operator monitors
numerically controlled milling machine.

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

new employees with the details of
machine tool operation and ma­
chining practice.
Although there are no special
educational
requirements
for
semiskilled operator jobs, young
persons seeking such jobs can im­
prove their job opportunities by
completing courses in mathemat­
ics and blueprint reading. In hir­
ing beginners, employers often
look for persons who have me­
chanical aptitude and some ex­
perience working with machinery.
Skilled machine tool operators
can advance to jobs as all-round
machinists and tool and die mak­
ers. They also may advance to
jobs in machine programing and
maintenance.

Em ploym ent Outlook
The number of machine tool
operators is expected to show lit­
tle change through the 1970’s de­
spite the anticipated expansion of
metalworking activities. (See dis­
cussion, p. 434.) However, tens of
thousands of workers will be hired
to replace experienced machine
tool operators who transfer to
other jobs, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone should
result in approximately 9,000 job
openings annually.
T ech n ological developm ents
will continue to affect both the
number and skill requirements of
machine tool operators. The use
of faster and more versatile auto­
matic machine tools and the in­
creasingly widespread use of nu­
merically controlled machine tools
will result in greater output per
worker and tend to limit employ­
ment growth. Other factors that
may contribute to the slow growth
in this occupation are the new
processes that are becoming in­
creasingly important in metal re­
moval, such as chemical milling,
electrical milling, electrical dis­
charge and ultrasonic machining,




439
and machining by electron beams
and lasers. Advances in metal
forming and the use of powdered
metals also may limit employ­
ment growth since they reduce
the amount of machining neces­
sary to produce a final product.
Workers who have thorough
backgrounds in machining oper­
ations, mathematics, blueprint
reading, and a good working
knowledge of the properties of
metals will be better able to ad­
just to the changing job require­
ments that will result from these
technological advances.

duced the accident rate for these
workers.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by machin­
ing workers, unions that organize
these workers, and sources of ad­
ditional information.

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS
(D.O.T. 601.280, .281, .380, and .381)

N ature of the W ork
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Tool and die makers are highly
skilled, creative workers whose
products— tools, dies, and special
guiding and holding devices— are
the basis of mass production in
metalworking industries. Toolmakers specialize in producing
jigs and fixtures (devices requir­
ed to hold metal while it is be­
ing shaved, stamped, or drilled).
They also make gages and other
measuring devices that are used
in manufacturing precision metal
parts. Die makers construct metal
forms (dies) which are used in
Boston ..............................
$3.37 stamping and forging operations
Buffalo........................................... 4.23 to shape metal. They also make
Chicago .......................................... 3.83
Cincinnati ...................................... 3.89 metal molds used in diecasting
Cleveland ........................................ 3.71 and in molding plastics. Tool
Detroit ............................................ 4.33 and die makers also repair worn
Houston .......................................... 3.40 or damaged dies, gages, jigs, and
Los Angeles-Long Beach .............. 3.89
Milwaukee..................................... 3.98 fixtures. Some tool and die mak­
New York ...................................... 3.42 ers help design tools and dies.
Pittsburgh ...................................... 3.64
In comparison with most other
Portland, Me.................................. 3.83 machining workers, tool and die
Tampa-St. Petersburg.................. 3.00
makers have a broader knowledge
St. Louis......................................
3.87
San Francisco-Oakland................ 3.88 of machining operations, shop
Worcester ...................................... 3.01 practices, mathematics, and blue­
print reading, and can work to
Machine tool operators are re­ closer tolerances and do more
quired to wear protective glasses precise handwork. Tool and die
and to avoid wearing loose-fitting makers use almost every type of
garments when working around machine tool and precision-meas­
high speed machine tools. Increas­ uring instrument. They work
ing emphasis upon these and with all metals and alloys com­
other safety regulations has re­ monly used in manufacturing and
Machine tool operators are paid
hourly or incentive rates, or on
the basis of a combination of both
methods. In 85 selected metro­
politan areas surveyed in 1967-68,
machine tool operators received
straight-time hourly earnings
ranging from $2.83 in Portland,
Maine to $4.33 in Detroit, Mich.
Average straight-time h o u r l y
earnings of machine tool opera­
tors employed in the following
cities were:

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

440
must be familiar with the ma­
chining properties of these vari­
ous metals.

Places of Em ploym ent
The largest numbers of tool
and die makers are employed in
plants producing manufacturing,
construction, and farm machinery
and equipment. The automobile,
aircraft, and other transportation
equipment industries also employ
large numbers of tool and die
makers. Several thousand of these
craftsmen work in small tool and
die jobbing shops, making tools,
dies, and other machine tool ac­
cessories for use in metalworking
factories. Companies manufactur­
ing electrical machinery and
fabricated metal products are
other important employers of tool
and die makers. Many nonmetal­
working industries also employ
them.

shop training, which includes
learning how to use the drill
press, milling machine, lathe,
grinder, and other machine tools.
The apprentice also learns in­
spection work plus the use of
handtools in fitting and assem­
bling tools, gages, and other me­
chanical equipment. Tool and die
maker apprentices study heat
treating and other metalworking
processes. Classroom training is
becoming increasingly important
and includes shop mathematics,
shop theory, mechanical drawing,
tool designing, and blueprint
reading. After apprenticeship,
several years’ experience often is
necessary to qualify for more dif­
ficult tool and die work. Some
companies have separate appren­

ticeship programs for toolmaking
and die making.
Many metal machining workers
have become tool and die makers
without completing formal ap­
prenticeships. After acquiring
years of experience as skilled ma­
chine tool operators or as machin­
ists plus additional classroom
training, these men have devel­
oped into all-round workers who
can skillfully perform tool and
die making.
The increasing complexity of
modern machinery and metal­
working equipment is raising the
technical requirements for tool
and die making. A knowledge of
mathematics, the basic sciences,
electronics, and hydraulics will
give young persons entering this

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Tool and die making requires
several years of varied training
and experience which can be ob­
tained through formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent on-the-job
training. Since this work is highly
skilled, persons planning to enter
the trade should have a good
working knowledge of mathemat­
ics and physics as well as consid­
erable mechanical ability, finger
dexterity, and an aptitude for do­
ing very precise work. In selecting
apprentices, most employers pre­
fer young men who have high
school or trade school education.
Some employers test apprentice
applicants to determine their me­
chanical aptitudes and their
abilities in mathematics.
A tool and die apprenticeship
ordinarily lasts 4 or 5 years. Most
of the time is devoted to practical




Experienced tool and die maker gives die construction pointers to apprentice.

441

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

occupation greater opportunities
to advance their careers.
Men who have had tool and die
training often advance to super­
visory and administrative posi­
tions in industry. Many tool and
die makers become tool designers.
Some open their own tool and
die shops.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of tool and die
makers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. How­
ever, most job opportunities will
become available as experienced
tool and die makers transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone
should provide approximately
3,000 job openings annually.
The anticipated long-range ex­
pansion in the machinery, elec­
trical equipment, transportation
equipment, and other metal­
working industries will result in
a continued need for tool and die
makers to make the tools and dies
used to produce the large num­
bers of identical metal parts re­
quired in these industries. They
also will be needed to help put
many technological developments
into affect. However, the expand­
ing use of electrical-discharge ma­
chines and numerical control ma­
chines has significantly changed
tool making processes. Numeri­
cally controlled machining oper­
ations require fewer of the special
tools and jigs and fixtures that
are now made by tool and die
makers. In addition, numerically
controlled machines could replace
many of the conventional ma­
chines now used in manufacturing
tools, jigs, and fixtures, thus in­
creasing output per tool and die
maker.
Tool and die makers, as a
group, have a longer working life
than many other workers in the




labor force. Their jobs require
extensive skill and knowledge
that can be acquired only after
many years of experience. For
this reason, companies are re­
luctant to lay off tool and die
makers, even when production is
decreased. Tool and die makers
also have greater occupational
mobility than other less skilled
workers. They can transfer to
jobs as instrument makers or ma­
chinists.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Tool and die makers are among
the highest paid machining
workers.
Those employed in various
industries in 85 metropolitan
areas surveyed in 1967-68 were
paid average straight-time hourly
earnings ranging from $3.06 in
Portland, Maine, to $4.54 in D e­
troit, Mich. Straight-time hourly
earnings of tool and die makers
employed in the following cities
were:
Atlanta........................................... $4.15
Baltimore....................................... 3.85
Birmingham ................................. 3.49
Boston ........................................... 3.71
Buffalo......................................
4.17
Chicago ......................................... 4.26
Cleveland ....................................... 3.96
Dallas ............................................. 3.64
Detroit ........................................... 4.54
Houston ......................................... 3.64
Los Angeles-LongBeach .............. 4.09
Milwaukee..................................... 4.28
Minneapolis-St.Paul .................... 3.88
Newark-Jersey City .................... 3.91
New York ..................................... 3.84
Philadelphia ................................. 3.78
St. Louis ............................
4.26
San Francisco-Oakland................ 4.47
Worcester ..................................... 3.26

See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by ma­
chining workers, unions that or­
ganize these workers, and sources
of additional information.

INSTRUMENT MAKERS
(MECHANICAL)
(D.O.T. 600.280)

N atu re of th e W ork
The expanding use of instru­
ments in production, research, de­
velopment, and testing work in
industry and Government is
making the work of the instru­
ment maker increasingly impor­
tant. Instrument makers (also
called experimental machinists
and modelmakers) work closely
with engineers and scientists in
translating designs and ideas into
experimental models, special lab­
oratory equipment, and custom
instruments. They also modify
existing instruments for special
purposes. Experimental devices
constructed by these craftsmen
are used, for example, to regulate
heat, measure distance, record
earthquakes, and control indus­
trial processes. The mechanical
instrument parts and models
made by these workers range
from simple gears to intricate
parts of navigation systems used
in guided missiles.
Instrument makers fabricate
metal parts by operating machine
tools, such as lathes and milling
machines, and by using handtools, such as files and chisels.
Because accuracy is important,
they measure finished parts with
a wide variety of precision-meas­
uring equipment, including mi­
crometers, verniers, calipers, profilometers, and dial indicators, as
well as standard optical measur­
ing instruments.
Instrument makers work from
rough sketches, verbal instruc­
tions, or ideas, as well as detailed
blueprints. Thus, in making
parts, they frequently use con­
siderable imagination and inge-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

442

nuity. Instrument makers some­
times work on parts that must
not vary from specifications by
more than ten millionths of an
inch. T o meet these standards,
they commonly use special equip­
ment or precision devices, such
as the electronic height gage,
which are used only infrequently
by other machining workers.
They also work with a variety of
materials, including plastics and
rare metals such as titanium, tan­
talum, and rhodium.
An instrument maker may con­
struct instruments from start to
finish— making and assembling
all the parts and testing finished
instruments for proper operation.
However, in large shops or where
electrical or electronic compon­
ents are to be incorporated into
an instrument, they frequently
work with other instrument mak­
ers, such as electronic specialists,
each making a part of a compli­
cated instrument.
Because they usually work on
their own and have highly devel­
oped manual skills and reasoning
abilities, instrument makers have
considerable prestige among their
fellow employees.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Some instrument makers ad­
vance from the ranks of machin­
ists or skilled machine tool oper­
ators. These craftsmen, working
at first under close supervision
and doing the simpler jobs,
usually need 1 to 2 years or
more of instrument shop experi­
ence to qualify as instrument
makers.
Most instrument makers learn
their trade through apprentice­
ships which generaly last 4 or 5
years. A typical 4-year instru­
ment maker apprenticeship pro­
gram consists of approximately
8,000 hours of shop training and
about 570 hours of related class­
room instruction. The appren­
tice’s shop training emphasizes
the use of machine tools, handtools, and measuring instruments,
and the working properties of
various materials. Classroom in­
struction covers related technical
subjects such as mathematics,

physics, blueprint reading, chem­
istry, electronics, and funda­
mental instrument design. The
apprentice must learn enough
shop mathematics to enable him
to plan his work and use hand­
book formulas. A basic knowl­
edge of mechanical principles is
needed in solving gear and link­
age problems.
For apprenticeship programs,
employers generally prefer appli­
cants who have a high school edu­
cation, including courses in alge­
bra, geometry, trigonometry, sci­
ence, and machine shop work.
Further technical schooling in
electricity and electronics is often
desirable, and may make possible
future promotions to technician
positions.
A person interested in becom­
ing an instrument maker should
have a strong interest in me­
chanical subjects, and a betterthan-average ability to work with
his hands. He must have initia­
tive and resourcefulness because
instrument makers often work

Places of Em ploym ent
Many instrument makers are
employed by firms which manu­
facture instruments. Research
and development laboratories
also employ instrument makers
to make the special devices re­
quired in scientific research. The
Federal Government employed
several thousand i n s t r u m e n t
makers in 1968.
The main centers of instrument
making are located in and around
a few large cities, particularly
New York City, Chicago, Los
Angeles, Boston, Philadelphia,
Washington, D.C., Detroit, Buf­
falo, Cleveland, and Rochester.




Instrument maker adjusts string gage on wind tunnel instrument.

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

alone and almost always under
minimum or no supervision. Since
the instrument maker often faces
new problems, he must be able
to develop original solutions. The
instrument maker
frequently
must visualize the relationship
between individual parts and the
complete instrument. He must
understand how the instrument
is used and the principles of its
operation. Because of the nature
of his work, the instrument
maker has to be very conscien­
tious and take considerable pride
in creative work.
As the instrument maker’s skill
improves and as he broadens his
knowledge, he may advance to in­
creasingly responsible positions.
Up to 10 years’ experience is re­
quired to rise to the top skill level
instrument making. By gaining
additional training beyond the
high school level in subjects such
as physics and machine design,
some instrument makers may
advance to technician jobs. In
these jobs, they plan and esti­
mate time and material require­
ments for the manufacture of in­
struments, or provide specialized
support to professional personnel.
Others may become supervisors
of less skilled instrument makers
and help in their training.

443
openings annually are expected
to result from the need to replace
experienced workers who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire,
or die.
Growing numbers of instru­
ment makers will be needed to
make models of new instruments
that may be mass-produced in the
future, and also to make custom
or special purpose instruments
that are not needed in large num­
bers. Many devices made by these
craftsmen will be needed in the
expanding fields of nuclear en­
ergy and industrial automation.
Also, many new precision instru­
ments, which will be even more
versatile and sensitive than those
in current use, can be expected
to emerge from growing research
and development programs of
universities, Government agen­
cies, private laboratories, and
manufacturing firms. New instru­
ments are needed to solve many
technical and scientific problems.
For example, scientists who work
with atomic reactors need better
control systems for handling ra­
dioactive materials, as well as
improved “ thermometers” that
can measure temperatures in the
millions of degrees.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Em ploym ent Outlook
The employment of instrument
makers is expected to increase
rapidly through the 1970’s, as a
result of anticipated expansion
of metalworking activities and
the growing use of instruments in
manufacturing processes and re­
search and development work.
(See discussion p. 434.) However,
this is a relatively small occupa­
tion and the number of openings
resulting from e m p l o y m e n t
growth in any one year will be
small. In addition to employment
growth, several hundred job




Earnings of instrument makers
compare favorably with those of
other highly skilled metalwork­
ers. Instrument makers employed
by the Federal Government re­
ceived straight-time hourly earn­
ings in selected areas in early
1968, as follows:
Atlanta ..................................$3.04-4.46
Birmingham ........................... 3.06-4.37
Boston .................................... 3.14-4.68
Chicago ................................. 3.53-5.01
Cleveland ............................... 3.38-4.80
Denver .................................... 3.45-4.25
Detroit .................................... 3.31-4.74
Hartford ................................. 2.98-3.93
Jacksonville ........................... 3.11-4.26
Los Angeles-Long Beach ...... 3.32-4.31

New York ..............................
Philadelphia ..........................
San Francisco-Oakland .......
Washington, D.C...................

3.19-4.47
3.24-4.62
3.47-5.21
3.25-4.55

These wage rates are generally
comparable to those paid by pri­
vate industry in the same locality.
Instrument shops usually are
clean and well lighted. Room
temperatures usually are con­
trolled in shops where precision
measuring instruments are used.
Instrument assembly rooms are
usually clean and are sometimes
known as “ White Rooms,” where
almost sterile conditions are
maintained.
Serious work accidents are not
common, but machine tools and
flying particles sometimes cause
finger, hand, and eye injuries.
Safety rules generally require the
wearing of special glasses, aprons,
tightly fitted clothes, and shirts
with elbow-length sleeves; the
wearing of neckties is prohibited.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by ma­
chining workers, unions that or­
ganize these workers, and sources
of additional information.

SETUP MEN
(MACHINE TOOLS)
(D.O.T. 600.380; 604.280 and .380;
605.380; and 619.380)

N atu re of th e W ork
The setup man, often called a
machine tool job setter, is a skilled
specialist employed in plant and
machine shops that do machining
in large volume. His main job is
to set up machine tools— that is,
to get machine tools ready for use
by semiskilled operators. He also
may explain to these workers the
operations to be performed, and
show them how to check the accu-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

444
racy of their work. Usually a setup
man is assigned a number of ma­
chine tools which often are one
type, such as turrent lathes. How­
ever, he may set up several differ­
ent kinds, such as milling ma­
chines and automatic screw ma­
chines. Working from drawings,
blueprints, written specifications,
or job layouts, he determines the
rate at which the material is to be
fed into the machines, operating
speeds, tooling, and operation se­
quence. He then selects and in­
stalls the proper cutting or other
tools and adjusts guides, stops,
and other controls. He may make
trial runs and adjust the machine
and tools until the parts produced
conform to specifications. The
machine is then turned over to a
semiskilled operator. The setup
man may make additional adjust­
ments later to maintain standard­
ized production.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most setup men are employed
in factories that manufacture fab-

ricated metal products, transpor­
tation equipment, and machinery.
These workers usually are em­
ployed by large companies that
employ many semiskilled machine
tool operators. They usually are
not employed in maintenance
shops or in small jobbing shops.

preset tools, instruct operators,
and check the first few parts that
are produced. Since setup men are
skilled workers, their chances for
advancement or transfer into
other jobs such as parts program­
mer, will remain good.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
To become a setup man, a
worker usually must qualify as an
all-round machinist or skilled
machine tool operator. A setup
man must be thoroughly trained
in the operation of one or more
kinds of machine tools. He must
read blueprints and make compu­
tations in selecting speeds and
feeds for machine tools. The abil­
ity to communicate clearly is im­
portant since he must explain to
a semiskilled machine tool opera­
tor how to perform machining
operations and how to check ma­
chining accuracy. Above all, a set­
up man must be skilled in select­
ing the sequence of operations so
that metal parts will be made
exactly to specifications. Open­
ings for setup men usually are
filled from within a shop by pro­
motion or reassignment.

The earnings of setup men com­
pare favorably with those of other
skilled machining workers. In
1968, straight-time hourly earn­
ings of setup men generally were
between $3 and $4 an hour for a
standard workweek.
Good safety habits are impor­
tant since the setup man must
handle sharp-cutting tools. He
also may be exposed to high
speed machine tools which have
sharp-cutting instruments when
he makes the trial runs to test the
accuracy of the setup.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by ma­
chining workers, unions that or­
ganize these workers, and sources
of additional information.

LAYOUT MEN
Em ploym ent O utlook

Setup man prepares jig borer.




Employment of setup men is
expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s, as a result
of the anticipated expansion of
metal-working activities. Addi­
tional job opportunities will arise
from the need to replace experi­
enced setup men who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
Retirements and deaths alone are
expected to result in approxi­
mately 1,000 job openings an­
nually. The use of numerically
controlled machine tools may
change the duties of setup men.
In the future, setup men may only

(D.O.T. 600.381)

N ature of the W ork
The layout man is a highly
skilled specialist who marks metal
castings, forgings, or metal stock
to indicate where and how much
machining is needed. His work
enables other workers to use ma­
chine tools simply by following
his lines, points, and other in­
structions. He uses many instru­
ments, such as the scriber, with
which he marks lines on the sur­
face of the metal; the center

445

MACHINING OCCUPATIONS

Places of Em ploym ent

punch, to indicate the centers on
the ends of metal pieces to be ma­
chined or drilled; the key seat or
box rule, for drawing lines and
laying off distances on curved sur­
faces; dividers, for transferring
and comparing distances; L- or Tsquares for determining right
angles; and height gages, calipers
and micrometers for accurate
measurement. N ot only must the
layout man work with extreme
accuracy, but he also must be fa­
miliar with the operation and
capabilities of standard machine
tools.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications

Layout man measures before marking
metal.

From 6 to 10 years’ training
and experience are needed to de­
velop the necessary skill for this
occupation. Required training in­
cludes a machinist apprenticeship,
or an equivalent knowledge of ma­
chine tools, machining qualities
of metals, and the proper se­
quence of machining operations.
Layout men must learn to visu­
alize the sequence of machining
operations so they can correctly
prepare detailed work plans for
less skilled workers. A layout man
must be well trained in mathe­
matics and blueprint reading and
be able to use various precision­
measuring tools. Mechanical abil­
ity and the ability to perform very
precise work are other important
qualifications for layout men.
The ability to communicate
clearly is very important since the
layout man must be able to un­
derstand detailed information
from a designer or engineer and
instruct a machine tool operator




Layout men work primarily in
the mass production metalwork­
ing industries employing large
numbers of machine tool opera­
tors. Most layout men work in
plants producing fabricated metal
products, machinery, and trans­
portation equipment. Their skills
generally are needed when a rela­
tively small number of a particu­
lar item is required.

on how to perform the actual
machining.
Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of layout men is
expected to show little or no
change through the 1970’s. Be­
cause this is a small occupation,
only a few hundred job openings
annually are expected to result
from the need to replace experi­
enced layout men who transfer
to other occupations, retire, or die.
The increasing use of numeri­
cally controlled machine tools is a
major factor that is expected to
limit employment growth in this
occupation. (See discussion, p.
434.) However, correct position­
ing of metal stock and tools will
continue to be important, and
layout men will be needed to
mark accurate reference points.
In addition, layout men can eas­
ily transfer to other work such as
machine programing, which will
become more important with fur­
ther technological development.
A survey of union management
contracts revealed that the wages
of layout men compare favorably
with those earned by other skilled
machining workers. In 1968,
straight-time hourly earnings of
layout men were between $3 and
$4 an hour for a standard work­
week.
See introductory section of this
chapter for a discussion of non­
wage benefits received by ma­
chining workers, unions that or­
ganize these workers, and sources
of additional information.




M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A IR M E N

or through apprenticeship train­
ing. Some acquire their basic
training in vocational and tech­
nical school, or attend such
schools to increase their skills.
Others qualify by taking corre­
spondence courses. Training and
experience in the armed services
also may help young men prepare
for occupations such as aircraft
mechanic and television and ra­
dio serviceman.
Many employers consider a
formal apprentice training pro­
gram to be the best way to learn
skilled maintenance and repair
work. An apprenticeship consists
of 3 to 6 years of paid on-thejob training, supplemented each
year by at least 144 hours of re­
lated classroom instruction. For­
mal apprenticeship agreements
are registered with a State ap­
prenticeship agency or the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training.
Employers look for applicants
who have mechanical aptitude
and manual dexterity. Many em­
ployers prefer people whose hob­
bies or interests include automo­
bile repair, model building, or
radio and television repair. A
high school education often is re­
quired for employment. Employ­
ers also favor applicants who have

Mechanics and repairmen— the portation equipment, machinery,
skilled workers who keep our au­ primary metals, and fabricated
tomobiles, airplanes, industrial metal products. Another 20 per­
machinery, household appliances, cent of the mechanics and repair­
and similar equipment operating men were employed in retail
properly— make up one of the trade-—mainly by firms that sell
fastest
growing
occupational and service automobiles, house­
groups in the Nation’s labor force. hold appliances, farm equipment,
This occupational field offers a and other mechanical equipment.
variety of career opportunities to Approximately 15 percent were
young men who are mechanically employed in shops that specialize
inclined and are willing to invest in servicing such equipment.
Most of the remaining mechanics
a few years in learning a trade.
Employment of mechanics and and repairmen were employed in
repairmen totaled 2.6 million in the transportation, construction,
1968. More than one-third (825,- and public utilties industries, and
000) of these were automotive by Government at all levels.
Most employment opportuni­
mechanics, such as automobile
mechanics, truck or bus mechan­ ties for mechanics and repairmen
ics, and automobile body repair­ occur in the more populous and
men. Other large occupations— industrialized States. About half
each employing more than 100,- of them work in eight states:
000 workers— were appliance ser­ California, New York, Pennsyl­
vicemen, industrial machinery re­ vania, Ohio, Illinois, Texas,
pairmen, television and radio Michigan, and New Jersey.
service technicians, aircraft me­
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
chanics, and business machine
and A dvancem ent
servicemen. (See Chart 28.) Em­
ployment in some occupations,
including vending machine me­
Many mechanics and repair­
chanic, electric sign serviceman, men learn their skills on the job
bowling-pin-machine
mechanic
and X-ray equipment serviceman,
was relatively small.
Em ploym ent In
In addition to the 2.6 million
Selected M aintenance A n d R epair Occupations
mechanics and repairmen em­
HUNDRED THOUSAND WORKERS, 1968 ^
ployed in 1968, about 500,000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
workers were employed in four
AUTOMOTIVE M ECHANICS
mechanics and repairmen related
M AINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS
occupations: maintenance elec­
APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN
trician, telephone repairman, mill­
INDUSTRIAL M ACHINERY REPAIRMEN
TEL. & PBX INSTALLERS & REPAIRMEN i /
wright, and watch repairman.
AIRPLANE MECHANICS
Altogether, these 3.1 million
TV & RADIO SERVICE TECHNICIANS
maintenance and repair workers
BUSINESS MACHINE SERVICEMEN
represented about 3 out of every
AIR COND.,REFRIG., & HEATING MECHANICS
10 skilled workers.
INSTRUMENT REPAIRMEN
Nearly 30 percent of the me­
M ILLW RIGHTS
FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
chanics and repairmen were em­
WATCH REPAIRMEN
ployed in manufacturing indus­
VENDING MACHINE MECHANICS
tries, and the majority of these
J J ESTIMATED
were employed in plants that pro­
INCLUDES CENTRAL OPFICE CRAFTSMEN
duce durable goods such as trans­




8

li

447

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

448
had courses in mathematics,
chemistry,
physics,
blueprint
reading, and machine shop. Gen­
erally, apprentice applicants and
other trainees are required to be
at least 18 years old and in good
health.
Physical requirements for work
in this field vary greatly. For ex­
ample, a millwright should be
strong and agile, since he may
need to climb ladders, lift heavy
equipment, and work in awkward
positions in cramped spaces. On
the other hand, instrument and
watch repairmen need patience,
finger dexterity, and good vision.
Persons with certain physical
handicaps can repair watches.
Workers in most maintenance
and repair occupations have sev­
eral avenues of advancement.
Some move into a supervisory po­
sition, such as foreman, mainte­
nance manager, or service man­
ager. Specialized training pre­
pares others to advance to sales,
teaching, technical writing, and
technician jobs. Substantial num­
bers of servicemen have opened
their own businesses.

E m ploym ent Outlook
Employment in maintenance
and repair occupations as a whole
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. Job openings
resulting from e m p l o y m e n t
growth, deaths, and retirements
are expected to average more
than 140,000 a year during this
period. Additonal job openings
will result as experienced work­
ers transfer to other occupations.
Automotive mechanics, appliance
servicemen, maintenance electri­
cians, aircraft mechanics, busi­
ness machine servicemen, tele­
vision and radio service techni­
cians, and instrument repairmen
will find many employment op­
portunities.
Many factors are expected to




contribute to the growing demand
for mechanics and repairmen.
The anticipated rise in expendi­
tures for new plant and equip­
ment will result in more mechani­
zation and the use of more com­
plex machinery and equipment
in many industries. Greater re­
search and development expendi­
tures probably will yield new and,
in many cases, more complex
products for use by industry and
consumers. Growing numbers of
household and higher levels of
personal spendable income will
contribute to an increased de­
mand for household appliances,
automobiles, lawnmowers, boats,
and other items that mechanics
and repairmen service.
In the future, applicants for
maintenance and repair jobs will
have to meet higher standards of
performance to maintain and re­
pair the increasingly complex
equipment coming into general
use. Young men who acquire a
good basic education (including
courses in mathematics and sci­
ence), as well as thorough job
training, will be prepared better
than other applicants to compete
for the higher paying jobs that
are likely to be available.
This chapter includes state­
ments on the following mainte­
nance and repair workers: Airconditioning, refrigeration, and
heating mechanics; appliance
servicemen; bowling-pin-machine
mechanics; automobile body re­
pairmen; automobile mechanics;
business machine servicemen;
diesel mechanics; electric sign
servicemen; farm equipment me­
chanics; industrial machinery re­
pairmen ; instrument repairmen;
maintenance electricians; mill­
wrights; television and radio serv­
ice technicians; truck and bus
mechanics; vending machine me­
chanics; and watch repairmen.
Other maintenance and repair
workers are discussed in other
chapters in the Handbook. For

example, aircraft mechanics are
discussed in Civil Aviation Occu­
pations and telephone and PBX
installers and repairmen in Occu­
pations in the Telephone Indus­
try.

AIR-CONDITIONING,
REFRIGERATION, AND
HEATING MECHANICS

(D.O.T. 637.281 and .381; 862.281 and
.381; and 869.281)

N ature of th e W ork
Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics work on
cooling and heating equipment
used in homes, offices, schools,
and other buildings. Major occu­
pations in this field are air-con­
ditioning and refrigeration me­
chanics, furnace installers, oil
burner mechanics, and gas burner
mechanics. Although these are
distinct trades, many workers are
skilled in more than one of them.
This statement does not cover
mechanics who work on railroad,
truck, automotive, or marine airconditioning and refrigeration
equipment.

Air-conditioning and refrigera­
tion mechanics (D.O.T. 637.281
and .381) install and repair
equipment ranging in size from
small window air-conditioners to
large central-plant type air-con­
ditioning or refrigeration systems.
When i n s t a l l i n g new equip­
ment, the mechanic puts the mo­
tors, compressors or absorption
equipment,
evaporators,
and
other components in place, fol­
lowing blueprints and design
specifications. He connects duct
work, refrigerant lines, and other
piping and then connects the
equipment to an electrical power
source. After completing the in-

449

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Air-conditioning mechanic repairs high-speed gear.

stallation, he charges the system
with refrigerant and checks it
for proper operation.
When air-conditioning and re­
frigeration equipment breaks
down, the mechanic diagnoses the
cause and makes the necessary
repairs. When looking for defects,
he may inspect components such
as relays, thermostats, motors,
and refrigerant lines. An air-con­
ditioning and refrigeration me­
chanic uses a variety of tools and
equipment,
including electric
drills, pipe cutters and benders,
acetylene torches, and testing de­
vices such as psychrometers, re­
frigerant gages, vacuum gages,
and ammeters.




Furnace installers
(D.O.T.
862.381 and 869.281) install oil,
gas, and electric heating units,
following blueprints or other
specifications. After setting the
heating unit in place, they install
fuel pipes, air ducts, blowers, and
other components. They then
connect electrical wiring and con­
trols, and check the unit for pro­
per operation.
Oil burner mechanics (D.O.T.
862.281) keep oil-fueled heating
systems in good operating condi­
tion. During the fall and winter,
they spend their time repairing
and adjusting oil burners. The
mechanic determines the reason
a burner is not operating prop­

erly by checking the thermostat,
burner nozzles, controls, and
other parts. He uses various types
of testing equipment to locate the
cause of the trouble. The me­
chanic may carry a large stock
of replacement parts in his truck,
so that he can make repairs in
the customer’s home or business.
However, if major repairs are nec­
essary, he may complete the work
in the repair shop. During the
summer, the mechanic may spend
his time servicing heating units,
replacing oil and air filters, and
vacuum cleaning vents, ducts,
flues, and other parts of the heat­
ing system that accumulate soot
and ash.
Gas burner mechanics (D.O.T.
637.281), also called gas appli­
ance servicemen, have duties
similar to those of oil burner me­
chanics. They diagnose malfunc­
tions in gas-fueled heating sys­
tems and make necessary repairs
and adjustments. They also may
repair cooking stoves, clothes dry­
ers, and hot water heaters. Dur­
ing summer months, gas burner
mechanics employed by gas util­
ity companies may spend some
of their time in the shop inspect­
ing and repairing gas meters.
Furnace installers, oil burner
mechanics, and gas burner me­
chanics use a variety of tools, in­
cluding
hammers,
wrenches,
metal snips, electric drills, pipe
cutters and benders, and acety­
lene torches. They also use test­
ing devices such as vacuum
gages, volt meters, air velocity
meters, and electronic circuit
testers.
Cooling and heating systems
may be installed or repaired by
craftsmen other than the me­
chanics discussed here. For ex­
ample, on a large air-condition­
ing installation job, especially
where workers are covered by un­
ion-management contracts, duct
work might be done by sheetmetal workers; electrical work by

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

450
electricians; and installation of
piping, condensers, and other
components by pipefitters. Ap­
pliance servicemen often install
and repair window air condition­
ers. Additional information about
appliance servicemen appears
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Places of Em ploym ent

An estimated 100,000 air-con­
ditioning, refrigeration, and heat­
ing mechanics were employed in
1968. Major employers of these
mechanics and repairmen were
dealers and contractors that spe­
cialized in selling and servicing
cooling and heating equipment;
construction companies; fuel oil
dealers; and gas utility compa­
nies. Air-conditioning and refrig­
eration mechanics, as well as fur­
nace installers, were employed
primarily by cooling and heating
dealers and contractors. Fuel oil
dealers employ most oil burner
mechanics, and gas utility compa­
nies employ most gas burner
mechanics.
Air-conditioning and refrigera­
tion mechanics, and furnace in­
stallers are employed in all parts
of the country. Generally, the
geographic distribution of these
workers is similar to that of our
population. The employment of
oil burner mechanics is concen­
trated in States where oil is a
major heating fuel. About half of
these workers are employed in
New York, Masachusetts, Pen­
nsylvania, New Jersey, and Illi­
nois. Similarly, the employment
of gas burner mechanics is con­
centrated in States where gas is
a major heating fuel. About half
of these workers are employed in
California, Ohio, Illinois, Michi­
gan, Pennsylvania, and New
York.




Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most air-conditioning, refrigera­
tion, and heating mechanics start
as helpers and acquire their skills
informally by working for sev­
eral years with experienced
craftsmen. Usually, the begin­
ners’ work consists of performing
relatively simple jobs such as in­
sulating refrigerant lines or clean­
ing furnaces. As trainees gain ex­
perience, they are given progres­
sively more complicated tasks
such as installing pumps and
burners and checking electrical
circuits. A growing number of
employers p r e f e r on-the-job
trainees to be high school grad­
uates who have had courses in
mathematics, physics, and blue­
print reading.
Many high schools and voca­
tional schools in cooperation
with local employers and orga­
nizations such as the Air-Con­
ditioning and Refrigeration In­
stitute, and the National Oil Fuel
Institute, offer courses designed
to prepare students for entry
jobs as air-conditioning and re­
frigeration mechanics or oil burn­
er mechanics. These courses,
which may last from 2 to 3 years,
consist of shop training in man­
ual skills and classroom instruc­
tion in air-conditioning, refrigera­
tion, and heating theory and re­
lated subjects. Additional on-thejob training and work experience
can qualify these students as
mechanics.
Apprenticeship programs for
the pipefitter, electrician, and
sheetmetal worker often include
training in air conditioning, re­
frigeration, and heating work.
Journeymen in these trades often
specialize in installing and main­
taining air-conditioning, refriger­
ation, and heating equipment. Ad­
ditional information about these
trades appears elsewhere in the

Handbook.

Mechanical aptitude and an in­
terest in electricity are impor­
tant qualifications for air-condi­
tioning, refrigeration, and heat­
ing mechanics. Good physical
condition also is important be­
cause mechanics often are re­
quired to lift and move heavy
equipment.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of air-condition­
ing, refrigeration, and heating
mechanics is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
In addition to the anticipated
employment growth, more than
1,600 job openings will arise an­
nually to replace experienced me­
chanics who retire or die. Open­
ings also will occur as experi­
enced mechanics transfer to other
types of work.
Most new job openings will be
for air-conditioning and refrig­
eration mechanics. The number
of homes having central air con­
ditioning increased fourfold be­
tween 1960 and 1967. Anticipated
increases in household formations
and rising personal incomes in­
dicate continued rapid growth in
home air conditioning. Air con­
ditioning in offices, stores, hos­
pitals, schools, and other nonresidential buildings also is ex­
pected to increase. In addition,
more refrigeration equipment will
be needed in the production,
storage, and marketing of food
and other perishables.
Employment of furnace instal­
lers and gas burner mechanics
is expected to follow the rapid
growth trends in the construction
of homes and businesses. How­
ever, these workers may experi­
ence some competition for jobs
as a result of the small but rap­
idly growing number of electrical­
ly heated homes and businesses.
Electric heating systems usually
are installed and serviced by
electricians.

451

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Employment of oil burner me­
chanics is expected to remain
fairly stable during the next dec­
ade, since relatively few new
homes are being built with oil
heating systems. Nevertheless,
employment opportunities for oil
heating mechanics will occur as
experienced mechanics retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Earnings data for air condi­
tioning, refrigeration, and heating
mechanics are not available on
a national basis. Information ob­
tained from several employers in
1968, however, indicated that be­
ginning rates for helpers ranged
from about $1.75 to $2.50 per
hour, and the rates for mechan­
ics ranged from about $3.50 to
$6.00 per hour. The rates of pay
for helpers and mechanics de­
pended on factors such as level
of skill, type of equipment
worked on, and geographic area.
For example, mechanics who
worked on both air-conditioning
and heating equipment frequent­
ly had higher rates of pay than
those who worked on only one
type of equipment.
Wage rates may range consid­
erably higher for electricians,
pipefitters, and sheet-metal work­
ers who are employed by con­
struction firms specializing in airconditioning, refrigeration, and
heating work. Union minimum
hourly rates for journeymen con­
struction electricians, pipefitters,
and sheet-metal workers averaged
$5.57, $5.70, and $5.48, respec­
tively, on July 1, 1968. (See in­
dividual statements on these
trades for additional wage in­
formation.)
Most mechanics work a 40hour week. However, during sea­
sonal peaks they often work over­
time or irregular hours. Air-con­
ditioning and refrigeration me­




chanics are busiest during spring
and summer. Oil burner me­
chanics and gas burner mechan­
ics are busiest during fall and
winter. Most employers try to
provide their mechanics with a full
workweek the year round, but
they may temporarily reduce
their hours of work or lay off
some of them when seasonal
peaks end. However, employment
in most shops that install and
service both air-conditioning and
heating equipment is fairly stable
throughout the year.
Mechanics sometimes are re­
quired to work at great heights
when installing new equipment.
They also may work in awkward
or cramped positions to reach
motors or other parts of the
equipment they are repairing.
Common hazards in this trade
include electrical shock, torch
burns, muscle strains, and other
injuries that may result from
handling heavy equipment.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Employment opportunities for
air-conditioning, r e f r i ger a t i on,
and heating mechanics can be ob­
tained from the local office of the
State employment service, as well
as firms that employ these work­
ers. The State employment serv­
ice also may be a source of in­
formation about training oppor­
tunities available under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, apprenticeship, and other
training programs.
Information about advanced
training in air conditioning and
refrigeration may be obtained
from the Refrigeration Service
Engineers Society, 433 North
Waller Ave., Chicago, 111. 60644.
Information about oil heating
systems training may be obtained
from the Education Department,
National Oil Fuel Institute, 60
East 42nd St., New York, N.Y.

10017, or its local or State or­
ganization.
General information about gas
burner mechanics may be ob­
tained from the American Gas
Association, Inc., 605 Third Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10016.

APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN
(D.O.T. 637.281 and 723.381)

N ature of the W ork
Appliance servicemen repair
appliances that r a n g e f r o m
small, relatively uncomplicated
items such as toasters and irons,
to large appliances that may
have complex control systems,
such as refrigerators and auto­
matic washing machines. T o re­
pair appliances, the serviceman
first determines why they do not
operate properly and then installs
new parts, repairs parts, or makes
adjustments. Appliance service­
men usually specialize in the re­
pair of either electric or gas ap­
pliances, and in the case of large
appliances, specialize in the re­
pair of a single type, such as
home laundry appliances, refrig­
erators, freezers, or dishwashers.
To determine why an appli­
ance is not operating properly,
servicemen may ask customers
how the appliance performed
when it was used previously.
They may operate an appliance
to detect unusual noises; over­
heating; excess vibration; and
broken, worn, or loose parts.
Servicemen also look for common
sources of trouble such as faulty
gas, electric, and fluid lines and
connections. To check electric
and gas systems, they use special
tools and testing devices, includ­
ing ammeters, ohmmeters, volt­
meters and manometers, combus-

452

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

order parts and sell new or used
appliances.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 205,000 appliance
servicemen w e r e e m p l o y e d
throughout the country in 1968.
More than half of these service­
men owned or were employed by
independent repair shops. About
one-fourth were employed in
service centers of retail establish­
ments such as department and
appliance stores. The remainder
were employed in service centers
operated by appliance manufac­
turers and wholesale distributors
of appliances and by gas and
electric utility companies.
Appliance servicemen are em­
ployed in almost every commun­
ity. Most servicemen, however,
are employed in the more highly
populated States and metropoli­
tan areas.

tion test equipment, and vacuum
and pressure gages.
After servicemen determine
why an appliance is not operat­
ing properly, they make the nec­
essary repairs and adjustments.
This work frequently involves re­
placing parts that receive extra
wear, such as electric cords on
small appliances, or cleaning
parts such as the lint filters in
clothes dryers. To remove old
parts and install new ones, serv­
icemen use common handtools,
including screwdrivers and pliers,
and may use special wrenches
and other handtools designed for
use on particular appliances.
Most refrigerators and other
large appliances are repaired in
the customers’ homes. However,
if major repairs are necessary,
the appliance is removed to a
repair shop. Small appliances




usually are brought to a repair
shop by the customer.
An important part of the work
of most appliance servicemen is
personal contact with customers.
They answer customers’ ques­
tions and complaints about ap­
pliances and frequently advise
customers about their care and
use. For example, they may dem­
onstrate to housewives the proper
loading of automatic washing ma­
chines or how to arrange dishes in
dishwashers.
Appliance servicemen have va­
riety in their work. They may
drive light trucks or automobiles,
some equipped with two-way
radios. They may give estimates
to customers on the cost of repair
jobs, and usually keep records of
parts used and hours worked on
each repair job. Some servicemen

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Appliance servicemen usu­
ally are hired as helpers and ac­
quire their skills through on-thejob training and work experience.
Inexperienced men are given rela­
tively simple work assignments.
In some companies, they work
for the first few months helping
to install appliances in custom­
ers’ homes, driving service trucks,
and learning street locations. In
other companies, they begin to
learn the skills of appliance serv­
icemen by working in the shop
where they rebuild used parts
such as washing machine trans­
missions. Trainees g r a d u a l l y
learn how motors, gears, and
other appliance parts operate.
They progress from simple repair
jobs, such as replacing a switch,
to more difficult jobs such as ad­
justing automatic washing ma-

453

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

chine controls. In addition to
practical experience on the job,
trainees frequently receive class­
room instruction given by appli­
ance manufacturers and local dis­
tributors. Many trainees take
correspondence courses in basic
electricity and electronics or at­
tend technical schools to increase
their skills in appliance repair.
Trainees usually are super­
vised closely for 6 to 12 months.
By this time, most gas-appliance
servicemen can repair several
kinds of appliances on their own,
and they may be given respon­
sibility for their own service
trucks and for appliance parts
and tools. Electrical-appliance
servicemen usually need up to 3
years’ on-the-job experience to
become fully qualified. Many ex­
perienced servicemen a t t e n d
training classes (often on com­
pany time) and study service
manuals to become familiar with
new appliances and the best ways
to repair them.
Programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers for
entry jobs in the appliance serv­
ice field were operating in many
cities in 1968 under the Man­
power Development and Train­
ing Act. These programs lasted
from several weeks to a year;
most lasted longer than 5 months.
Through additional training and
experience, gradautes of these
programs eventually may become
skilled servicemen.
Employers prefer applicants
having good mechanical aptitude,
particularly high school grad­
uates who have had courses in
electricity, mathematics,
and
physics. They must understand,
in a practical way, how to use
equipment that measures elec­
tricity and how to use measure­
ments to determine whether elec­
trical currents in appliances are
flowing properly. A knowledge of
wiring diagrams that show elec­
trical connections and current




flow between appliance parts also
is important. A knowledge of
electronics is necessary to per­
form some appliance repair jobs.
Appliance
servicemen
who
work in large repair shops or serv­
ice centers and show technical
proficiency may be promoted to
foreman, assistant service man­
ager, or service manager. Prefer­
ence is given to men who also
have shown ability to cooperate
with other servicemen and with
customers. A general knowledge
of bookkeeping and other sub­
jects related to managing a busi­
ness is helpful. Because of their
experience in repairing appliances
and dealing with customers, ap­
pliance servicemen often become
successful appliance salesmen.
Experienced servicemen who have
sufficient funds may open their
own appliance sales or repair
shops.
Servicemen who work for ap­
pliance manufacturers may be­
come instructors, who teach serv­
icemen to repair new models of
appliances, or technical writers,
who prepare service manuals. A
few servicemen may advance to
managerial positions such as re­
gional or national service or parts
manager.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of appliance serv­
icemen is expected to grow rap­
idly through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to many thousands of job op­
portunities resulting from employ­
ment growth, about 4,200 job
opportunities will arise annually
to replace experienced servicemen
who retire or die. Transfers of
servicemen to other kinds of work
will provide additional job open­
ings.
The number of household ap­
pliances in use is expected to in­
crease rapidly during the 1970’s.
Factors that will contribute to

this growth include increasing
population and family formations
and rising level of personal dis­
posable income. The demand for
appliances also will be stimulated
by the introduction of new appli­
ances, some of which may be
cordless like many automatic
toothbrushes now in use, and by
the improved styling and design
of appliances to make them more
attractive and easier to operate.
In addition, more widespread use
of appliances such as electric can
openers, waste disposers, home
clothes dryers, dishwashers, and
knife sharpeners is expected.
Employment of appliance serv­
icemen is not expected to increase
as rapidly as the number of ap­
pliances in use. Although the
automatic operation of some
types of appliances has tended to
make them more complicated,
manufacturers are designing ap­
pliances with more durable com­
ponents, and appliances that can
be taken apart and repaired more
easily. In addition, employers are
inreasing the efficiency of serv­
icemen through more effective
training.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
National earnings data are not
available for appliance service­
men. However, data obtained
f r o m union-management con­
tracts, in effect in late 1968, and
covering a large number of these
workers employed by appliance
manufacturers, service shops, and
gas and electric utility compa­
nies, indicated that appliance
servicemen in entry jobs had
straight-time hourly wage rates
ranging from about $2.18 to
$2.91. Experienced servicemen
had rates ranging from approxi­
mately $2.77 to $4.22 an hour.
The wide variation in wage rates
for servicemen reflects differences
in type of employer, geographical

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

454
location of the job, and the type
of equipment serviced. Many ap­
pliance servicemen work more
than 8 hours a day and receive
higher rates of pay for overtime
hours. They also may receive
commissions for sales leads. Most
appliance
servicemen
receive
paid vacations, sick leave, health
insurance, and other employee
benefits, as well as credit toward
retirement pensions.
Shops in which appliance serv­
icemen work are relatively quiet,
well lighted, and adequately ven­
tilated. When repairing small ap­
pliances, servicemen usually sit at
benches. Working conditions out­
side the shop vary considerably.
Servicemen sometimes work in
narrow spaces, uncomfortable po­
sitions, and places that are not
clean. Servicemen who jepair
large appliances may spend sev­
eral hours a day driving in any
kind of weather.
Appliance repair work gener­
ally is safe, although accidents
are possible while the serviceman
is driving, handling electrical
parts, or lifting or moving large
appliances. Inexperienced men
are shown how to use tools safely
and instructed in simple pre­
cautions against electric shock.
The work of appliance service­
men often is performed with lit­
tle direct supervision. This fea­
ture of the job may appeal to
many young people.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Further information about jobs
in the appliance service field may
be obtained from local appliance
repair shops, appliance dealers,
gas and electric utility compa­
nies, appliance manufacturers,
and local offices of the State em­
ployment service. Local voca­
tional schools that offer courses
in appliance servicing, electricity,
and electronics can provide help­




ful information about training.
The State employment service
also may provide information
about the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act and other
programs that provide training
opportunities.
Information about training
programs or work opportunities
in this field also may be obtained
from:
Association of Home Appliance
Manufacturers, 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 1 1 60606.
1.
National Appliance and Radio-TV
Dealers Association, 364 Mer­
chandise Mart, Chicago, 1 1
1.
60654.

AUTOMOBILE BODY
REPAIRMEN
(D.O.T. 807.381)

N ature of the W ork
Automobile body repairmen are
skilled craftsmen who repair dam­
aged motor vehicles by straighten­
ing bent frames, removing dents
from fenders and body panels,
welding torn metal, and replacing
badly damaged parts. Body re­
pairmen usually are qualified to
repair all types of vehicles, al­
though most work mainly on
automobiles and small trucks.
Some specialize in repairing large
trucks, buses, or truck trailers.
Before making repairs, body re­
pairmen generally receive instruc­
tions from their supervisors, who
determine which parts are to be
restored or replaced, and who es­
timate the amount of time the
repairs should take. When repair­
ing damaged fenders and other
body parts, the body repairman
may first remove body hardware,
window operating equipment, and
trim in order to gain access

to the damaged area. T o reshape
the metal, he may push large
dents out with a hydraulic jack or
hand prying bar, or knock them
out with a hand tool or pneumatic
hammer. He smoothes remaining
small dents and creases by holding
a small anvil against one side of
the damaged area while hammer­
ing the opposite side. Very small
pits and dimples are removed
from the metal by pick hammers
and punches. The body repairman
may remove badly damaged sec­
tions of body panels with a pneu­
matic metalcutting gun or acety­
lene torch, and weld in new sec­
tions. If the damage tears the
metal, he welds the tom edges.
He shrinks stretched metal by re­
peatedly heating the area with an
acetylene torch and striking it
with a hammer to restore the
metal’s original shape.
The automobile body repair­
man uses solder or plastic to fill
small dents that he cannot work
out of the metal. Before applying
solder, he cleans the dent and
coats it with liquid tin so that
the solder will adhere to the sur­
face. He softens the solder with a
torch and uses a wooden paddle
or other tool to mold it to the
desired shape. When the solder
has hardened, the body repair­
man files or grinds it down to the
level of the adjacent metal.
After being restored to its orig­
inal shape, the repaired surface
is sanded in preparation for paint­
ing. In most shops, automobile
painters do the painting. (These
workers are discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Some smaller
shops employ workers who are
combination body repairmen and
painters.
The automobile body repair­
man uses special machines to aline
damaged vehicle frames and body
sections. He chains or clamps the
machine to the damaged metal
and applies hydraulic pressure to
straighten it. He also may use

455

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Automobile body repairman uses hand tools to straighten damaged frame.

special devices to aline damaged
vehicles that have “ unit-bodies”
instead of frames. In some shops,
the straightening of frames and
unit-bodies is done by a body re­
pairman who specializes in this
type of work.
The body repairman’s work is
characterized by variety because
the repair of each damaged vehi­
cle presents a different problem.
Therefore, in addition to having
a broad knowledge of automobile
construction and repair tech­
niques, he also must develop ap­
propriate methods for each repair
job. Most body repairmen find
their work challenging and take
pride in being able to restore dam­
aged automobiles.
Automobile body repairmen
usually work by themselves with
only general directions from fore­
men. In some shops, they may be
assisted by helpers.
Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 100,000
automobile body repairmen em­




ployed in 1968 worked in repair
shops that specialize in automo­
bile body repairs and painting,
and in the service departments of
automobile and truck dealers.
Other employers included organi­
zations that maintain their own
fleets of motor vehicles, such as
trucking companies and buslines,
and Federal, State, and local gov­
ernments. Motor vehicle manu­
facturers employed a small num­
ber of these workers.
Automobile body repairmen
can find employment opportuni­
ties in every section of the coun­
try. About half of them work in
the eight States with the largest
number of automobiles: Califor­
nia, New York, Texas, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan,
and Florida.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most automobile body repair­
men learn the trade on-the-job.

Young men usually start as help­
ers and pick up the skills of the
trade from experienced workers.
Helpers begin by assisting body
repairmen in tasks such as re­
moving damaged parts, installing
repaired parts, and sanding re­
paired surfaces in preparation for
painting. They gradually learn
how to remove small dents and
make other minor repairs, and
progress to more difficult tasks as
they gain experience. Generally,
3 to 4 years of on-the-job training
is necessary to become a fully
qualified body repairman.
Although most workers who be­
come automobile body repairmen
pick up the skills of the trade in­
formally through on-the-job ex­
perience, most training authorities
recommend the completion of a
3- or 4-year formal apprentice­
ship program as the best way for
young men to learn this trade.
These programs include both onthe-job and related classroom
instruction.
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed work­
ers for entry automobile body re­
pairmen jobs were in operation in
1968 in many cities, under pro­
visions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act. These
programs, which last up to a year,
stress the fundamentals of auto­
mobile body repair. Men who com­
plete these programs need addi­
tional on-the-job or apprentice­
ship training before they can
qualify as skilled body repairmen.
Young men interested in be­
coming automobile body repair­
men should be in good physical
condition and have good eye-hand
coordination. Courses in automo­
bile body repair— offered by a rel­
atively small number of high
schools, vocational schools, and
private trade schools— provide
helpful experience, as do courses
in automobile mechanics. Al­
though completion of high school
is not generally a requirement for

456

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

an entry job, many employers be­
lieve graduation indicates that a
young man can “ finish a job.”
Automobile body repairmen
usually are required to own their
handtools, but power tools ordi­
narily are furnished by the em­
ployer. Many of these craftsmen
have a few hundred dollars in­
vested in tools. Trainees are ex­
pected to accumulate tools as
they gain experience.
An experienced automobile
body repairman with supervisory
ability may advance to shop fore­
man. Many body repairmen open
their own shops.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of automobile
body repairmen is expected to in­
crease moderately through the
1970’s. In addition to a few
thousand job openings antici­
pated to occur annually as a result
of employment growth, an esti­
mated 1,400 job openings are ex­
pected to result each year from
the need to replace experienced
body repairmen who retire or die.
Job openings also will occur as
some body repairmen transfer to
other lines of work.
The number of body repairmen
is expected to increase primarily
as a result of the increasing num­
ber of motor vehicles damaged in
traffic accidents. This toll is ex­
pected to continue to increase as
a result of the increasing number
of motor vehicles in use, even
though new and improved high­
ways, driver training courses,
added safety features on new ve­
hicles, and stricter law enforce­
ment may slow down the rate of
increase.
The favorable employment ef­
fect of the rising number of motor
vehicle accidents will be offset
somewhat by developments that
will increase the efficiency of body
repairmen. For example, the grow­




ing practice of replacing rather
than repairing damaged parts, the
use of plastics for filling dents,
and improved tools will enable
these workers to complete jobs in
less time.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Information obtained from a
limited number of automobile
dealers indicated automobile body
repairmen had straight-time hour­
ly earnings ranging from $3.45 to
$4.60 in 1968. Individual earnings
are related to the experience of
the repairmen and geographic
location. Automobile body repair­
men employed in metropolitan
areas generally earn more than
those employed in smaller towns.
Many experienced body repair­
men employed by automobile
dealers and independent repair
shops are paid a percentage— usu­
ally about 50 percent— of the
labor cost charged to the custom­
er. Under this method, a worker’s
earnings depend mainly on the
amount of work he is assigned
and how fast he completes it.
Some repairmen are paid a weekly
salary plus a commission on jobs
completed. Body repairmen em­
ployed by trucking companies,
buslines, and other organizations
that repair their own vehicles usu­
ally receive an hourly wage rate.
Most body repairmen work 40 to
48 hours a week.
Many employers of body re­
pairmen provide holiday and
vacation pay, and additional
benefits such as life, health, and
accident insurance. Some also
contribute to retirement plans.
Body repairmen in some shops
are furnished with laundered uni­
forms free of charge.
Automobile body shops are
noisy because of the banging of
hammers against metal and the
whir of power tools. Most shops
are well ventilated, but often they

are dusty and the odor of paint
is noticeable. Body repairmen of­
ten work in awkward or cramped
positions, and much of their work
is strenuous and dirty. Hazards
include cuts from sharp metal
edges, burns from torches and
heated metal, and injuries from
power tools.
Many automobile body repair­
men are members of unions, in­
cluding the International Asso­
ciation of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the International
Union, United Automobile, Aero­
space and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America; the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International As­
sociation; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Help­
ers of America (Ind.). Most body
repairmen who are union mem­
bers are employed by large auto­
mobile dealers and by trucking
companies and buslines.
Sources of Additional Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing work opportunities for auto­
mobile body repairmen, inquiries
should be directed to local em­
ployers, such as automobile body
repair shops and automobile deal­
ers; locals of the unions previously
mentioned; or the local office of
the State employment service.
The State employment service
also may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act of 1962,
apprenticeship, and other pro­
grams that provide training op­
portunities.
General information about the
work of automobile body repair­
men may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry As­
sociation, 168 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 1 1 60601.
1.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 1 1 60605.
1.

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

457

AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS
(D.O.T. 620.131 through .381, .782, and
.885; 721.281 and 825.281)

N ature of the W ork
Automobile mechanics keep the
Nation’s automobiles in good op­
erating condition. They perform
preventive maintenance, diagnose
breakdowns, and make repairs.
(Although truck mechanics, who
repair large trucks; bus mechan­
ics, who repair large buses; and
automobile body repairmen are
sometimes called “ automobile me­
chanics,” they are discussed sep­
arately in the Handbook.)
Preventive maintenance— the
systematic examination, adjust­
ment, repair, or replacement of
the operating parts of a motor ve­
hicle— is an important responsi­
bility of the automobile mechanic
because it is vital to safe and
trouble-free driving. When per­
forming preventive maintenance,
the mechanic may follow a
“ checklist” to be sure he examines
all important parts of the car. He
may, for example, examine and
decide whether to replace worn
parts, such as distributor points;
clean, adjust, or replace spark
plugs; adjust the carburetor; and
balance the wheels.
When mechanical or electrical
troubles occur, the mechanic first
obtains a description of the symp­
toms from the owner. If the
cause of the trouble is not evident
immediately, he may visually in­
spect and listen to the motor, or
drive the car. He also may use a
variety of testing equipment, such
as motor analyzers, spark plug
testers, compression gages, and
electrical test meters. The ability
to make an accurate diagnosis in
a minimum of time is one of the
mechanic’s most valuable skills
and requires analytical ability as
well as a thorough knowledge of




a car’s operations. Many skilled
mechanics consider diagnosing
“ hard to find troubles” one of
their most challenging and satis­
fying duties.
When the mechanic locates the
cause of the trouble, he adjusts,
repairs, or replaces defective
parts. For example, he may re­
place a fuel pump, grind valves,
adjust the ignition timing, clean
the carburetor, or machine the
brake drums.
In addition to the testing
equipment mentioned previously,
automobile mechanics use many
other kinds of tools and equip­
ment. These may range from sim­
ple
handtools
(screwdrivers,
wrenches, pliers), to complicated
and expensive machines and
equipment that help the mechanic
make repairs. Examples of this
equipment are wheel alinement
machines and headlight aimers.

Mechanics also consult repair
manuals and parts catalogs, since
different makes of automobiles re­
quire different parts and adjust­
ments.
Most automobile mechanics
perform a variety of repairs. Some
mechanics, such as automatic
transmission specialists, tune-up
men, automobile air-conditioning
specialists, front-end mechanics,
and brake mechanics specialize in
one or two types of repair. How­
ever, specialists with all-round
skills also may perform general
automobile repair work. Other
specialists, such as automobile
radiator mechanics and automo­
bile glass mechanics, who do not
have all-round skills, usually work
exclusively at their specialties.
The types of work done by some
mechanic specialists are described
briefly below:

Automatic transmission special-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

458

ists repair and replace linkage,
gear trains, couplings, hydraulic
pumps, and other parts of auto­
matic transmissions. Automatic
transmissions are complex me­
chanisms; their repair requires
considerable experience and train­
ing, including a knowledge of hy­
draulics. Tune-up men adjust the
ignition timing and valves, and
adjust or replace spark plugs, dis­
tributor breaker points, and other
parts to insure efficient engine
performance. They often use sci­
entific test equipment to locate
malfunctions in fuel and ignition
systems. Automobile air-condi­
tioning specialists install air-con­
ditioners and repair and adjust
compressors,
condensers, and
other components. Front-end me­
chanics aline and balance wheels
and repair steering mechan­
isms and suspension systems.
They frequently use special alinement testing equipment and
wheel-balancing machines. Brake
mechanics adjust brakes, replace
brake linings, resurface brake
drums, repair hydraulic cylinders,
and make other repairs on brake
systems. Those employed in re­
pair shops that specialize in brake
service also may replace shock ab­
sorbers, springs, and mufflers. In
some shops, combination frontend and brake mechanics are em­
ployed. Automobile-radiator me­
chanics clean radiators with caus­
tic solutions, locate and solder
radiator leaks, and install new
radiator cores. They also may re­
pair heaters and solder leaks in
gasoline tanks. Automobile-glass
mechanics replace broken or pit­
ted windshield and window glass
and repair manual and powerwindow mechanisms. They cut
window replacement glass from
flat sheets by using window pat­
terns and glass cutting tools.
Shops that repair both automobile
radiators and glass may employ
mechanics who are skilled in both
specialties.




Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the more than 600,000
automobile mechanics employed
in 1968 worked in independent
repair shops (those that do all
kinds of automobile repairs or
specialize in repairing particular
components such as brakes, auto­
matic transmissions, radiators,
and glass), in service departments
of new and used car dealers, and
in gasoline service stations. Many
others were employed by Federal,
State, and local governments,
taxicab and automobile leasing
companies, and other organiza­
tions that maintain and repair
their own automobiles. Some me­
chanics also were employed by
automobile
manufacturers
to
make final adjustments and re­
pairs at the end of the assembly
line. A small but growing number
of mechanics were employed by
department stores that have
automobile service facilities.
Most automobile mechanics
work in shops employing from one
to five mechanics, but some of
the largest repair shops employ
more than a hundred. Generally,
more mechanics are employed by
individual automobile dealers
than by independent repair shops.
Automobile mechanics can find
employment opportunities in ev­
ery section of the country. About
half of them work in the eight
States with the largest number
of automobiles: California, New
York, Texas, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Illinois, Michigan, and Florida.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most automobile mechanics
learn the trade through on-thejob experience. Young men usu­
ally start as helpers, lubrication
men, or gasoline service station
attendants, and gradually acquire
the necessary knowledge and

skills by working with experiienced mechanics. Although a be­
ginner can learn to do simple
kinds of repair work after a few
months’ experience, 3 to 4 years
are required to become an all­
round mechanic, and an addi­
tional year or two to learn a dif­
ficult specialty, such as automatic
transmission repair. In contrast,
radiator machanics, glass mechan­
ics, and brake specialists, who
do not need an all-round knowl­
edge of automobile repair, may
learn their specialties in about 2
years.
Most training authorities rec­
ommend the completion of a 3or 4-year formal apprenticeship
program as the best way for
young men to learn this trade.
These programs include both onthe-job training and related class­
room instruction in nearly all
phases of automobile repair.
For entry jobs, employers look
for young men who understand
automobile construction and op­
eration, like mechanical work,
and have mechanical aptitude.
Generally, a driver’s license is
required. A background in auto­
mobile repair gained from work­
ing as a gasoline service station
attendant, training in the Armed
Forces, or experience repairing
automobiles as a hobby is valu­
able. Courses in automobile re­
pair offered by many high
schools, vocational schools, and
private trade schools also are
valuable. Courses in science and
mathematics help a young man
better understand how an auto­
mobile operates.
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed work­
ers seeking entry jobs as auto­
mobile mechanics are in opera­
tion in a large number of cities
under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act. These programs, which last
up to a year, stress basic mainte­
nance and repair work. Men who

459

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

complete this training are able
to make simple repairs, but they
still need additional on-the-job
or apprenticeship training before
they can qualify as skilled me­
chanics.
Completion of high school is an
advantage in obtaining an entry
mechanic job because to most
employers high school graduation
indicates that a young man can
“ finish a job,” and has potential
for advancement.
Most mechanics are required
to purchase their handtools. Be­
ginners are expected to accumu­
late tools while they gain experi­
ence. Many experienced mechan­
ics have several hundred dollars
invested in their tools. Employers
furnish engine analyzers and
other test equipment, and special
tools for servicing units such as
automatic transmissions.
Employers sometimes send ex­
perienced mechanics to factory
training centers to learn how to
repair new car models, or receive
special training in subjects such
as automatic transmission or airconditioning repair. Manufactur­
ers also send representatives to
local shops to conduct short
training sessions. A relatively
small number of young high
school graduates are selected by
automobile dealers to attend fac­
tory-sponsored mechanic training
programs for beginners.
Capable and experienced auto­
mobile mechanics in a large
shop may advance to a super­
visory position, such as repair
shop foreman or service manager.
Many mechanics open their own
repair shops or gasoline service
stations.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of automobile me­
chanics is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s.
In addition to the several thou­




sand job openings anticipated to
occur annually as a result of
e m p l o y m e n t growth, nearly
9,000 job openings are expected
to result each year from the need
to replace experienced mechan­
ics who retire or die. Job open­
ings also will occur as some me­
chanics transfer to other lines of
work.
Employment of automobile me­
chanics is expected to increase
primarily as a result of the in­
creasing numbers of automobiles.
Increases in driving age popula­
tion, consumer purchasing power,
and multicar ownership are ex­
pected to increase the number
of automobiles. The demand for
automobile mechanics also is ex­
pected to increase because a
growing number of new automo­
biles will be equipped with fea­
tures such as air conditioning,
power steering, power brakes, and
devices that reduce exhaust
fumes— all of which increase
maintenance.
The favorable employment ef­
fects of an increasing number of
automobiles and their greater
complexity will be offset partially
by greater efficiency in the shop.
For example, increased mechanic
specialization and growth in the
use of test equipment such as dy­
namometers and engine analyzers
should reduce the time needed to
diagnose malfunctions and check
the quality of repairs. A recent
development is “ diagnostic cen­
ters” — large repair shops that
feature production line diagnosis
of automobile malfunctions. In
these shops, mechanics who are
skilled in operating dynamomet­
ers and other kinds of test equip­
ment determine needed repairs
and route the automobiles to me­
chanics who specialize in a par­
ticular kind of repair work. Other
developments expected to im­
prove efficiency include greater
emphasis on replacement rather
than on repair of defective parts,

better shop management,
improved training methods.

and

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Automobile mechanics had
straight-time hourly e a r n i n g s
from $3.45 to $4.60 in 1968, based
on information obtained from a
limited number of automobile
dealers. Automobile mechanics
employed in large metropolitan
areas generally had higher earn­
ings than those employed in small
towns. All-round mechanics, auto­
matic transmission specialists,
and tuneup men generally had the
highest earnings.
A large proportion of the auto­
mobile mechanics employed by
automobile dealers and inde­
pendent repair shops are paid a
percentage— usually about 50
percent— of
the
labor
cost
charged to the customer. Under
this method, the mechanic’s
weekly earnings depend on the
amount of work he is assigned and
how fast he completes it. Many
other mechanics receive a weekly
salary plus a commission. Some
mechanics— for example, those
employed by organizations that
repair their own fleets of auto­
mobiles— receive an hourly rate.
Most mechanics work between 40
and 48 hours a week but may
work even longer during busy pe­
riods. Mechanics paid on an
hourly basis frequently receive
overtime rates for hours worked
in excess of 40 a week.
Many employers of automobile
mechanics provide holiday and
vacation pay, and additional
benefits such as life, health, and
accident insurance. Some also
contribute to retirement plans.
Laundered uniforms are fur­
nished free of charge by some
employers.
Generally, a mechanic works
indoors. Modern automobile re­
pair shops are well ventilated,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

460
lighted, and heated, but older
shops may not have these ad­
vantages.
The work of the mechanic fre­
quently requires working with
dirty and greasy parts, working
in awkward positions, and lifting
heavy objects. Minor cuts and
bruises are common. Serious ac­
cidents usually are avoided by
observing safety practices.
Some mechanics are members
of labor unions. Among the
unions organizing these work­
ers are the International Associa­
tion of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the International Un­
ion, United Automobile, Aero­
space and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; the
Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association; and the In­
ternational B r o t h e r h o o d of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Ware­
housemen and Helpers of Amer­
ica (Ind.).

W here To Go for M ore Inform ation
For further information regard­
ing work opportunities for auto­
mobile
mechanics,
inquiries
should be directed to local em­
ployers
such
as automobile
dealers and independent repair
shops; locals of the unions pre­
viously mentioned; or the local
office of the State employment
service. The State employment
service also may be a source of
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act of
1962, apprenticeship, and other
programs that provide training
opportunities.
General information about the
work of atuomobile mechanics
may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry As­
sociation, 168 North Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 1 1 60601.
1.
Independent Garage Owners of
America, Inc., 624 South Michi­
gan Ave., Chicago, 1 1 60605.
1.




National Automobile Dealers As­
sociation, 2000 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

BOWLING-PIN-MACHINE
MECHANICS
(D.O.T. 639.381 and 829.281)

N atu re of the W ork
Bowling-pin-machine (or auto­
matic pinsetting) mechanics re­
pair, maintain, and adjust the
tens of thousands of pinsetting
machines in use today. When a
breakdown occurs, the mechanic
determines its cause and makes
the necessary adjustments or re­
pairs. He may partially or com­
pletely disassemble components
of a machine to repair or replace
defective parts. After he reassem­
bles the machine, he adjusts for
proper operation.
A pinsetting machine is a com­
plex mechanism that automatic­
ally performs a series of opera­
tions— returns the bowling ball
to the bowler, clears the pin deck
of fallen pins, and conveys and
distributes the pins to a pinset­
ting mechanism that resets them
on the pin deck. These machines
are controlled either mechanical­
ly or electrically. Both types of
machines are electrically pow­
ered and have both mechanical
and electronic components. Typi­
cally, the duties of the automatic
pinsetting machine mechanic in­
clude maintaining various gap or
clearance adjustments in belts,
chains, and other drive devices;
making clutch and brake adjust­
ments; and inspecting bearings,
sliding surfaces, and shock ab­
sorbers. If the machine is con­
trolled electrically, the mechanic
also maintains the electrical con­
trol system.
Much of the mechanic’s work­

time is spent in preventive main­
tenance. He regularly inspects
and tests pinsetting machines,
and he cleans, oils, greases, and
adjusts them. In his work, the
mechanic applies k n o w l e d g e
gained through training, on-thejob experience, and the use of
operating and troubleshooting
manuals.
When servicing mechanical
equipment, the mechanic uses
many different types of tools and
equipment, such as p l i e r s ,
wrenches, screwdrivers, hammers,
portable hoists, and lubricating
guns. In electrical maintenance
and repair work, the mechanic
may use soldering irons, feeler
gages, and crimping tools. He
uses continuity testers, ammet­
ers, and voltmeters to test electri­
cal circuits, relays, solenoids,
transformers and motors. To as­
sist him in this work, he uses
diagrams of electrical circuits.
Mechanics also use special tools
in their work which are supplied
by the employer. Often the me­
chanic will purchase his own set
of handtools.
The mechanic may supervise
one or more assistant mechanics,
trainees, and pinchasers. He is
often called upon to instruct
trainees in locating and correct­
ing minor malfunctions in pin­
setting machines. Such instruc­
tion includes demonstrating how
the machine operates as well as
disassembling components and ex­
plaining their function. He shows
trainees and pinchasers how to
break minor jams and recondition
bowling pins. He also explains
proper safety procedures.
Some clerical work is done by
the mechanic. He maintains a
stock of repair parts by keep­
ing inventory records and order­
ing replacements when necessary.
He also may keep records of ma­
chine breakdowns and estimate
maintenance costs.

461

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Mechanic searches for source of trouble in control chassis of pin setting machine.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 6,500 mechanics were
employed in 1968. Most worked
in commercial bowling establish­
ments. The remainder, about 5
percent, were employed by manu­
facturers of automatic pinsetting
machines to install and service
machines of bowling establish­
ments. Although the primary re­
sponsibility of manufacturers’
mechanics is to inspect equip­
ment periodically for proper op­
eration, they may be called in to
repair major breakdowns that
mechanics in bowling establish­
ments cannot handle.
Although mechanics and their
assistants are employed in every
State, employment is concen­




trated in the more populated
areas, where there are many
bowling establishments. Of the
more than 10,000 bowling estab­
lishments in operation in early
1968, the majority were located
in New York, Pennsylvania, Illi­
nois, Ohio, Michigan, California,
Wisconsin, Minnesota, New Jer­
sey, and Texas.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Pinsetting machine mechanics
usually start out as pinchasers,
assisting mechanics in individual
bowling establishments. Many
pinchasers, who demonstrate me­
chanical ability and willingness

to learn, become trainees and are
sent
to a mechanics’ training
school maintained by bowlingmachine manufacturers. T o be­
come a trainee at a f a c t o r y
school, candidates are required
to take written tests to determine
their mechanical aptitude and
personality traits. Usually, train­
ees must be at least 16 years old.
Trainees’ wages and expenses
during the training period— usu­
ally 4 weeks— are paid by em­
ployers. During the training pro­
grams, trainees study the struc­
ture and operation of the par­
ticular type of machine manufac­
tured by the firm operating the
school and learn to locate typical
sources of trouble. They learn
preventive maintenance proced­
ures, how to read wiring dia­
grams, and how to use the tools
of the trade. Their training also
includes actual repair work on
demonstration machines. After
attending factory schools, train­
ees usually need several months
of on-the-job experience before
they acquire the skills of the
trade.
Trainees who do not attend
factory schools acquire their
skills on the job by observing ex­
perienced mechanics at work and
by receiving instruction in ma­
chine operation and maintenance,
typical malfunctions, and safety
procedures. They also do actual
repair work, progressing from
simple to more complex jobs as
their skills increase. Usually, 1 to
2 years of such training and ex­
perience is necessary for trainees
to acquire mechanics’ skills.
Employers prefer to hire pin­
chasers who are high school
graduates, although many work­
ers in this trade have not com­
pleted high school. Courses in
electricity, blueprint reading, and
machine repair are useful.
Qualified mechanic trainees
employed in commercial bowling
establishments may be promoted

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

462
to assistant mechanic and then
to head mechanic. Mechanics can
become managers or proprietors
of bowling establishments. Those
who work for manufacturers may
advance to the position of service
manager or instructor in a train­
ing school.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Little or no change in the num­
ber of bowling-pin-machine me­
chanics is expected through the
1970’s. However, a few hundred
job openings will result each
year to replace workers who retire,
die, or leave their jobs for other
reasons.
Trends in the growth of bowl­
ing facilities, as well as develop­
ments in pinsetting machine
technology, will be a major influ­
ence in the employment of bowl­
ing-pin-machine mechanics in the
future. Although the demand for
bowling facilities is likely to grow
with the expanding population,
rising income levels, and more
leisure time for recreation, there
is not likely to be an increase in
the employment of mechanics.
Improvements in the manufac­
ture of pinsetting machines are
being reflected in fewer repairs.
In addition, an increasing pro­
portion of the preventive mainte­
nance that these machines re­
quire is expected to be performed
by less skilled workers. These
developments will tend to reduce
the overall need for bowling-pinmachine mechanics, and also pos­
sibly permit a mechanic to serv­
ice more than one bowling
establishment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
National wage data are not
available for pinsetter mechanics
and their assistants. However,
wage data are available from un­




ion-management contracts, in
effect in mid-1968, covering a
large number of these workers
employed in commercial bowling
establishments in large metropol­
itan areas on the East and West
Coasts and in the Midwest. Al­
though these contracts show a
very wide range of straight-time
hourly pay rates for mechanics
and their assistants, the major­
ity provide for hourly rates rang­
ing from about $2.40 to $3.55 for
mechanics and from $2.00 to
$2.80 for assistant mechanics. It
should be noted that many me­
chanics and their assistants are
not covered by union-manage­
ment contracts.
On the East Coast and in the
Midwest, most mechanics and
their assistants work a 48-hour,
6-day week. On the West Coast,
most of them work a 40-hour, 5day week. Nightwork and work
on Sundays and holidays is com­
mon. Workers covered by unionmanagement contracts receive
premium pay for overtime work.
Also, union-management agree­
ments usually provide for 2
weeks’ paid vacation after a
year’s service and for 3 weeks
after 5 years’ service, and from 4
to 8 paid holidays a year. Many
contracts provide health insur­
ance and pension plans financed
entirely by employers.
Mechanics and their assistants
work in a long, relatively narrow
corridor at one end of a bowling
establishment where the auto­
matic machines are located. The
work area includes space for a
workbench. The workspace is
usually well lighted and well ven­
tilated, but quite noisy when the
lanes are in operation. When
making repairs and adjustments,
repairmen frequently have to
climb and balance their bodies
on the framework of the pinset­
ting machines, and to stoop,
kneel, crouch, and crawl around
the machines. Mechanics em­

ployed by manufacturers to in­
stall and service pinsetting ma­
chines are required to do
considerable traveling.
Repairmen are not usually re­
quired to wear any special safety
devices, such as goggles. Safety
guards are provided on the pin­
setting machines, but workers are
subject to common shop hazards,
such as electrical shock, cuts,
falls, and bruises. Repairmen
often wear coveralls to protect
themselves from grease and dirt.
Mechanics, assistant mechan­
ics, and trainees employed in
large metropolitan areas general­
ly are members of unions; usually
the Service Employees’ Interna­
tional Union or the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen, and Help­
ers of America (Ind.).

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
A young man who wishes to
obtain further information about
training or work opportunities in
this trade should direct his in­
quiry to proprietors of commer­
cial bowling establishments in
his area, the local bowling pro­
prietors’ association, or locals of
the unions previously mentioned.
The local office of the State em­
ployment service is another
source of information about em­
ployment and training opportuni­
ties.

BUSINESS MACHINE
SERVICEMEN
(D.O.T. 633.281 and 828.281)

N ature of th e W ork
and Places of Em ploym ent
Business machine servicemen
maintain and repair the increas-

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

ing numbers and types of office ment generally are brought to
equipment used for correspond­ the shop of the servicing com­
ence, for recording and process­ pany. Here, servicemen disassem­
ing transactions, and for dupli­ ble the machine; inspect com­
cating and mailing information. ponents; remove and replace
Equipment used for these pur­ worn bearings, cams, and other
poses includes typewriters, add­ parts; and install new belts and
ing and calculating machines, feed rolls where necessary. If
cash registers, electronic com­ the machine has electric motors
puters and other data-processing or controls, these also may re­
devices, dictating and transcrib­ quire adjustments or replacement
ing machines, and mailing, dupli­ of parts.
In addition to common handcating, copying, and microfilm
equipment. These machines are tools, such as screwdrivers, pliers,
becoming increasingly complex as and adjustable wrenches, busi­
electric and electronic control ness machine servicemen fre­
components are incorporated in quently use gages and meters
and other test equipment and
them.
Servicemen do much of their tools designed for special pur­
work in the offices where the poses. In larger service shops,
machines are used. Servicemen servicemen use power tools such
may maintain this equipment as drill presses, lathes, and other
on a regular basis, returning at power equipment.
Business machine servicing of­
frequent intervals to inspect the
machines, to clean and oil them, fers considerable variety in work
and to make minor adjustments assignments. This work requires
or repairs. They also may be the application of analytical abil­
called to an office to check or ity to a wide range of problems.
repair a defective machine. On Many persons find considerable
office calls, servicemen usually satisfaction in being able to diag­
question the operator about the nose and correct the cause of
condition of the machine. They trouble in a faulty machine.
often have to explain to opera­ Some manufacturers’ servicemen
tors how various features of the have the opportunity to evaluate
machines can best be used and and report on recommended im­
provements in new and existing
how to avoid machine damage.
When inspecting business ma­ company products.
Besides
responsibilities
for
chines, the serviceman usually
checks the operation of various maintenance and repair, service­
parts of the equipment to see if men may engage in sales activi­
they work properly or to find the ties. Most commonly, they sell
source of reported trouble. For preventive maintenance contracts
example, he may strike the keys for machine servicing on a regular
of a typewriter or calculator, ro­ basis. Some servicemen also are
tate the drum of a duplicating expected to sell supplies, such as
machine, or feed punchcards to a special paper, ink, ribbons, and
tabulator or sorter. In addition, stencils, used with particular ma­
he may check type or photo­ chines. Generally, commissions
graphic devices for alinements or bonuses based on sales are
and rollers for dryness or com­ paid in addition to wages.
Business machine servicemen
pactness. He may make voltage
checks of electric or electronic are employed in several types of
firms. Manufacturers of business
components.
When overhaul or major repair machines employ more than half
is necessary, small units of equip­ of these workers in their sales




463
and service offices throughout
the country. Another large pro­
portion of the estimated 115,000
business machine servicemen em­
ployed in 1968, worked in local
i n d e p e n d e n t establishments;
some of these shops specialize in
repair work, whereas others com­
bine sales and service. The re­
mainder were employed in large
organizations which had enough
machines in daily use to justify
employing full-time servicemen.
Business machine servicemen
employed in a manufacturer’s
branch office usually work on the
manufacturer’s products exclu­
sively. In the large branch offices
of some companies, they may spe­
cialize in servicing one or two of
the various types of machines
sold. In other companies, even in
the larger branches, the fully
trained servicemen work on the
full line of company equipment.
In manufacturers’ branches in
the smaller cities, where fewer
servicemen are needed, most are
“ full line” servicemen, since the
size of the operation makes it
impractical to have the men spe­
cialize on one type of machine.
In these instances, service also
may be combined with selling
new equipment.
Servicemen employed by inde­
pendent dealers maintain and re­
pair the many makes and models
of office machines used in the
community. Most dealers sell and
service typewriters. Some also
sell and service adding machines,
dictating machines, and less com­
plex types of duplicating and
copying equipment. Other dealers
specialize in the sales and service
of adding and calculating ma­
chines, cash registers, and book­
keeping-accounting mac h i n e s .
Most independent dealers employ
fewer than 5 servicemen, al­
though some large dealers may
employ as many as 10 or 15.
Business machine servicing
jobs are found throughout the

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

464

regular typewriters, and exten­
sive training, usually provided by
the manufacturer, is required be­
fore servicemen may qualify to
repair them.
Typewriter servicemen are em­
ployed both in the sales and serv­
ice branches of typewriter manu­
facturers and by local independ­
ent dealers. Many servicemen
operate their own maintenance
and repair shops. Typewriter
servicemen are found in almost
every s i z a b l e c o m m u n i t y
throughout the Nation.

Adding Machine
Repairman adjusts typewriter
mechanisms.

Servicemen

(D.O.T. 633.281). About 9,200
business
machine
servicemen
were engaged mainly in the serv­

icing of adding machines in early
1968. These machines are less
complex than most other office
calculating devices. In some
cases, servicing of both adding
machines and calculators is done
by the same employee. The repair
of adding machines and simpler
calculating machines often pro­
vides experience for advancement
to work on more complicated
equipment such as bookkeeping
and accounting machines. In
some
independent
establish­
ments, adding machines are serv­
iced by men who also repair
typewriters.
Adding machine servicemen
are employed both in manufac-

country. Even relatively small
communities usually have at
least one or two shops which re­
pair machines. However, most
business
machine
servicemen
work in large cities, where the
majority of business machines
are located.

Typewriter

Servicemen

(D.O.T. 633.281). The principal
work of the estimated 34,000
typewriter servicemen employed
in early 1968, was the mainte­
nance and repair of manual and
electric typewriters. Typewriters
are the most widely used business
machines. They are used in al­
most every business office, as well
as by many individuals in their
homes. Though the operation of
electric typewriters and mechani­
cal typewriters differs, the two
types are similar enough that,
with additional training, the serv­
icemen who specialize in the re­
pair of mechanical typewriters
usually can learn to repair the
electric machines. Some service­
men maintain and repair more
sophisticated equipment, such as
tape-fed automatic typewriters
and interchangeable typeface
machines, some of which operate
in conjunction with small com­
puters. These machines are con­
siderably more complicated than




Serviceman adjusts cash register.

465

M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A IR M E N

turers’ sales and service branches
and by independent dealers.
Other sources of employment are
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments, and a few large banks and
other firms which use large num­
bers of adding machines.

Calculating Machine Service­
men (D.O.T. 633.281). About
12,000 calculating machine serv­
icemen were employed in 1968.
Calculating machines, which have
complex mechanisms, add, sub­
tract, divide, multiply, and per­
form combinations of these oper­
ations. In some shops, servicing
of calculators is combined with
the servicing of other business
machines, particularly adding
machines and accounting-bookkeeping machines.
Most of the men who service
calculators are employed in
manufacturer’s sales and service
branches.
Some
independent
dealers employ men skilled in the
maintenance and repair of cal­
culators. Others are employed by
the Federal Government and
some large business organiza­
tions.

Cash Register S e r v i c e m e n
(D.O.T. 633.281). Cash register
repair and maintenance was the
main work of more than 7,700
business machine servicemen in
1968. Next to typewriters, cash
registers are the most widely
used business machines. The sim­
plest models merely record trans­
actions, add receipts, and provide
a change drawer. The more com­
plicated cash registers simultan­
eously record several different
kinds of information on each
transaction (such as identifica­
tion of the clerk, department,
type of merchandise, payment
given, and change due), provide
printed receipts, and dispense
change and trading stamps to the
customer.
The great majority of service­
men engaged primarily in repair­
ing cash registers are employed in




the sales and service branches of
the few manufacturing firms
making these machines. Some of
the repair work, especially in
smaller communities, is done by
independent dealers who also
maintain and repair other busi­
ness machines.

Accounting-Bookkeeping Ma­
chine S e r v i c e m e n (D.O.T.
633.281). The repair of account­
ing-bookkeeping machines was the
main work of more than 5,000
business machine servicemen em­
ployed in 1968. These machines
perform a variety of operations.
Some post entries and some do
billing, but others combine the
functions of typewriters and
computing devices. All models
have keyboards, like those on
typewriters and adding machines.
These machines are used in firms
that have a great deal of account­
ing and bookkeeping work, such
as department stores, large retail
and wholesale businesses, and
banks. Many of the newer mod­
els are adjusted to fit the ac­
counting procedures used in an
individual customer’s office. Serv­
icemen set up the controls or
programs for these machines
from plans which have been de­
vised by the customers and

manufacturers’ salesmen.
Most
accounting-bookeeping
machine servicemen are employ­
ed in the sales and service
branches of companies manufac­
turing this equipment. Very few
work in independent repair shops.

Data-Processing
Equipment
Servicemen (D.O.T. 828.281).
More than 31,000 men were em­
ployed in 1968 to install, modify,
and maintain groups of machines
(systems) used to process large
volumes of accounting-statistical
data. These men are the most
skilled business machine service­
men. The machines that they
service include mechanical and
electro mechanical devices of
varying complexity and highly
complicated electronic computers.
However, even those machine
systems which include the most
advanced computers depend to
a high degree on associated
equipment having
electrome­
chanical operating and control
mechanisms.
This
auxiliary
equipment feeds information to
the computer for data processing
and converts the processed data
to printed form for immediate
use and to magnetic tape and
punchcards for record keeping
and further processing. Ma-

Serviceman cleans and repairs computer equipment.

466
chines used in data-processing
systems include computers, tabu­
lators, card punchers, sorters,
collators, converters, tape trans­
ports, printers, and numerous
other devices.
Servicemen who work on these
machines must have a good basic
knowledge of electricity, in addi­
tion to mechanical skill. In most
firms, only men with training in
electronics are hired to service
these machines. Many of these
men have learned electronics in
technical schools or in the Armed
Forces. In other companies, ex­
perienced men who can repair
other types of business machines
are given training in electronics
by their employers.
Data-processing machine serv­
icemen are employed principally
by firms which manufacture and
service this equipment. They may
be assigned by their companies
to work anywhere in the United
States, but they are usually sta­
tioned in the larger cities. Some
are assigned to a large system
in one location; others have ter­
ritories containing a number of
machines or systems.

Dictating Machine Servicemen
(D.O.T. 623.281). About 1,500
men were employed to repair and
service dictating machines in
1968. These machines are used
in business offices to record dic­
tation on disks, belts, or tape
which can be played back for
typing. In addition to standard
office dictating machines, service­
men install and maintain central
recording and transcribing sys­
tems.
Dictating machine servicemen
must have a knowledge of elec­
tronic fundamentals to maintain
and
repair
sound-amplifying
components of this equipment.
Mechanical skills are essential in
maintenance work on drive me­
chanisms needed to control the
movement of the recording disk
or belt.




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Dictating machine servicemen
are employed throughout the
country with concentrations in
the large business and commer­
cial centers. Most servicemen
work in the sales and service
branches of business equipment
manufacturers or for their dis­
tributors. Typewriter and adding
machine servicemen employed by
some independent dealers also
service dictating machines.

Duplicating and Copying Ma­
chine S e r v i c e m e n (D.O.T.
633.281). Nearly 10,000 men
were employed in 1968 to main­
tain and repair duplicating and
copying machines. These ma­
chines are used to make one or
more paper copies of printed or
written information. The proc­
esses used in these machines
range widely, from highly com­
plex methods for large volume
reproduction to relatively simple
methods used in desk-top copiers.
The office duplicator is essen­
tially a printing press requiring a
special plate for reproduction. A
serviceman should be familiar
with basic printing principals and
technologies. Frequently, an of­
fice duplicator is operated in con­
junction with photo-mechanical
plate making equipment that also
may be serviced by the office
duplicator serviceman.
The office copier is an electro­
mechanical device which pro­
duces single or multiple copies
direct from an original. The
equipment used in a single proc­
ess may vary considerably, from
relatively simple hand-operated
devices used to make up to five
paper copies to highly complicat­
ed electro mechanical machines
having automatic controls which
can quickly duplicate several
hundred copies.
When servicing duplicating or
copying machines, the service­
man adjusts, oils, repairs, or re­
places parts such as rollers, belts,
or gear mechanisms. If the equip­

ment has electric or electronic
components, he may check volt­
ages to determine the need for
adjustment or replacements of
parts. He also may clean the ma­
chine so that it will function
properly and produce clear copy.
Duplicating and copying ma­
chine servicemen employed by
some companies also service mi­
crofilm equipment used in office
operations. The maintenance and
repair of paperhandling mechan­
isms used to speed the movement
of documents, including draw­
ings, through the photographic
equipment is generally similar to
that used in duplicating ma­
chines. The men who service this
equipment, however, must under­
stand the photographic process
used in order to properly aline
the optical devices so as to pro­
duce clear, sharp negatives.
Most duplicating and copying
machine s e r v i c e m e n are em­
ployed in the branch sales and
service offices of manufacturers
or by their distributors.

Servicemen of Postage and
Mailing E q u i p m e n t (D.O.T.
633.281). More than 4,000 serv­
icemen were employed in 1968 to
maintain and repair the many dif­
ferent types of office machines
and equipment needed to handle
the billions of pieces of mail sent
each year by business firms in
this country. These office ma­
chines included postage meters,
addressing and imprinting ma­
chines, and folding and inserting
equipment. Data-processing ma­
chines used for tabulating and
imprinting account information
also are used in addressing oper­
ations where the volume of ac­
counts justifies.
Servicemen who work on these
predominantly electromechanical
machines install the equipment,
and adjust, oil, clean, and repair
or replace, components to keep
the equipment in working order.
As with most paper handling

467

M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A IR M E N

equipment, rollers and other
manipulating devices driven by
belt or gear mechanisms are the
components most frequently re­
quiring maintenance. Since most
postage and mailing equipment
is electrically powered, and an
increasing number of machines
use electric or electronic controls,
the servicemen must have a basic
knowledge of electricity. In ad­
dition, a knowledge of electronic
theory is a decided advantage.
Most men who service postage
and mailing equipment are em­
ployed in the branch offices of
equipment manufacturers.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Employers prefer applicants
for entrance jobs as business ma­
chine servicemen to be under 30
years of age. The early years of
a serviceman’s career can be very
active ones. In addition to meet­
ing the requirements of a type of
work that requires tact, good
humor, and technical competence
in servicing office machines
throughout a local area, the serv­
iceman is encouraged to devote at
least some of his evenings each
week to home-study or academic
training, to broaden his technical
knowledge of business equipment
and increase his general educa­
tion. Men up to the age of 40,
however, may be considered by
some employers provided they
have had applicable training or
experience.
Trainees usually are required
to have at least a high school
education. Applicants who have
not completed high school, how­
ever, are accepted by some com­
panies if they can demonstrate
superior mechanical aptitude, or
have had qualifying mechanical
or electrical experience. Comple­
tion of high school becomes par­




ticularly important, however,
when a serviceman has acquired
basic skills and is seeking to
work on more complex equipment
or to be promoted to supervisor.
Applicants interested in servicing
complex electromechanical and
electronic equipment are re­
quired to have 1 or more years’
training or experience in me­
chanics or electronics, in addition
to a high school education, to
qualify.
Some employers require busi­
ness machine servicemen to be
bonded. Applicants for these jobs
must have a record of honesty
and trustworthiness because, in
their work,
servicemen
are
brought in proximity to large
sums of money and other valu­
ables in banks, offices, and other
establishments. Servicemen also
may collect money for services
performed and office supplies de­
livered to their customers.
Applicants for entrance jobs
frequently must pass one or more
tests. Mechanical aptitude is the
characteristic most frequently
tested, although a knowledge of
basic electricity or electronic
fundamentals is increasingly be­
ing tested. Applicants also may
be tested for manual dexterity,
general intelligence, and abstract
reasoning.
Employers look for applicants
who have a pleasant, cooperative
manner. Most machine servicing
is done in customers’ offices, and
a serviceman’s ability to do his
work with the least interference
to office routine is very impor­
tant. A neat appearance and
ability to converse effectively also
are desired characteristics.
Young men entering the busi­
ness machine servicing field gen­
erally begin as trainees and ac­
quire their skills through on-thejob training, work experience,
and instruction in manufacturers’
training schools. Courses in busi­
ness machines maintenance and

repair, conducted by some State
and city vocational schools and
by private c o r r e s p o n d e n c e
schools, are available to trainees
and others interested in this field
of work. In addition, programs to
train unemployed and underem­
ployed workers as office machine
servicemen were operating in sev­
eral cities in 1968 under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act.
Business machine servicemen
who are hired for work in a
manufacturer’s branch office are
trained to service only the com­
pany’s line of machines. Inde­
pendent shops, which look for
men who can service many makes
of machines either will hire men
that have previous experience on
one or more type of machines
or will give a new man informal
training on several different
makes. Training programs lasting
from 2 to 4 years are conducted
by some manufacturers and inde­
pendent dealers.
Men hired as trainees in manu­
facturers’ branch offices usually
are sent to company schools for
periods lasting from s e v e r a l
weeks to several months, depend­
ing on the type of machine they
will service. They then receive
from 1 to 3 years of practical ex­
perience and on-the-job training
before they are considered fully
qualified. During this period,
they may occasionally go back to
factory schools for additional
training. Even after becoming
skilled workers, they may return
to school for special instruction
in new business machine develop­
ments. In addition to training in
company schools, servicemen at
manufacturers’ branch offices are
encouraged to broaden their
technical and general knowledge
during their nonworking hours.
Many companies provide full or
partial tuition grants for a va­
riety of courses at academic in­
stitutions, as well as for home-

468
study courses in subjects related
to the serviceman’s work.
Men in independent establish­
ments generally learn the trade
by working with experienced
servicemen who instruct them in
the skills of the trade. Occasion­
ally, men employed by an inde­
pendent dealer who is authorized
to sell and service a manufactur­
er’s products will be sent to the
manufacturer’s school for train­
ing. Generally, however, men in
independent shops receive little
formal training.
Length of training depends on
the kind of establishment in
which a man is employed. In in­
dependent shops, the time re­
quired to become a skilled serv­
iceman tends to be somewhat
longer than in manufacturers’
branches because of the greater
variety of machines and the gen­
erally informal nature of the
training.
The training period also varies
in relation to the complexity of
the equipment, and the service­
man’s ability to become thor­
oughly skilled in the mainte­
nance, repair, and other activities
associated with less complicated
business machines, such as type­
writers, adding machines, and
some photocopy equipment. For
the servicing of calculating ma­
chines, about 2 years of training
and experience are required.
Cash register repairmen learn
their work in from 2% to 3 ^
years, the last 6 months of which
are usually spent in the company
school. Skilled accounting-bookkeeping machine repairmen gen­
erally must have at least 3 to 4
years of training and experience.
The first 1 to 2 years may con­
sist of servicing adding machines,
calculators, or cash registers,
since this is considered valuable
background for servicing account­
ing-bookeeping machines.
Most machines used in dataprocessing systems contain elec­




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

trical equipment; many have
electronic components. The com­
panies which, manufacture and
service these machines, therefore,
usually require that applicants
have some knowledge of electric­
ity or electronics. In qualifying
for employment in the mainte­
nance of the complex electronic
data-processing machines, college
or technical institute courses in
engineering are helpful, if not
essential. Young veterans who
have had electronics training in
the Armed Forces are specially
desired by employers in this
field. Because of the complexity
of some computer systems, these
servicemen usually must have
considerable a n a l y t i c a l abil­
ity, as well as a broad technical
background. For example, they
may have to be familiar with
computer programing to identify
programing procedures as a pos­
sible cause of a malfunction. Men
hired as trainees generally spend
their first 2 months in on-the-job
training. If they prove satisfac­
tory, they are sent to a company
school for a period of from 3 to
6 months. After completing the
course, they work under super­
vision until they acquire enough
skill to service and repair on their
own. This period usually lasts
from 12 to 18 months.
Servicemen frequently have
the opportunity to move into
sales positions where their earn­
ings may be greater. In some
cases, service and sales work are
combined. Men who show excep­
tional abilities also have opportu­
nities for promotion to foreman,
service manager, or other super­
visory positions, and to service­
man training or product engi­
neering divisions of their compa­
nies. Experienced men sometimes
open their own repair shops; men
who work in the branch offices of
some manufacturers are some­
times given sales franchises from

the company and become inde­
pendent dealers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The rapidly growing business
machine industry will provide
many thousands of job opportu­
nities for servicemen each year
during the 1970’s. Job opportuni­
ties also will occur because of
the need to replace experienced
workmen who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The estimated 115,000 em­
ployed in 1968 were more than
triple the number working dur­
ing the mid-1950’s. The greater
employment of servicemen has
been due to the increasing use
of many types of office machines
that do all kinds of clerical work
in the Nation’s expanding com­
mercial and industrial establish­
ments. In recent years, there
have
been
many
technical
changes in long established types
of business machines. For exam­
ple, electrically driven mechani­
cal equipment, such as typewrit­
ers and adding machines, has all
but taken the place of the non­
electrical mechanical machines
which do the same work. The in­
creasing use of this more complex
equipment, which requires addi­
tional maintenance, also has in­
creased the need for business ma­
chine
servicemen,
especially
those who have good mechanical
ability and a knowledge of elec­
tricity or electronics.
Opportunities for employment
in the servicing of electronic busi­
ness machines systems will be
particularly favorable in the
years ahead. The use of these
machines has expanded greatly
in recent years, and demand for
this equipment is expected to be
even greater in the future. Addi­
tional job opportunities will arise
as a result of the rapidly growing
use of data-processing equipment.

M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A IR M E N

Business machine servicemen
have year-round employment—
steadier than many other skilled
trades. The office machines serv­
iced by these men must be main­
tained, even when business slack­
ens, since business records must
be kept, correspondence carried
on, and statistical reports pre­
pared. Men who establish them­
selves in the business machine
service field can expect continu­
ing employment for many years.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Information obtained from a
number of employers of business
machine servicemen in 1968 in­
dicated that earnings of experi­
enced servicemen g e n e r a l l y
ranged from $95 to $288 a week,
depending on the type of ma­
chine they serviced, where they
were employed, and their length
of service with employers. Wages
were lowest for men who repair
only typewriters, adding ma­
chines, or less-complex types of
photocopy equipment; the earn­
ings of these workers usually
ranged from $95 to $230 per
week. Cash registers, calculators,
accounting-bookeeping machines,
and nonelectronic accountingstatistical machines require more
skill to repair. Consequently, the
men who work on them receive
somewhat higher pay rates, gen­
erally from $115 to $245 a week.
Highest rates are paid to men
who service electronic data-processing machines. The most highly
skilled electronic computer serv­
icemen were earning as much as
$288 a week.
Servicemen trainees begin at
wages considerably below these
levels; they receive pay increases
as they become increasingly
skilled during the training pe­
riod. Starting wages generally
ranged from $85 to $100 a week.
Men having previous electronics




469
training in the Armed Forces or
civilian technical schools gener­
ally receive somewhat higher be­
ginning wages. In addition, many
business equipment manufactur­
ers have a merit rating plan that
provides for periodic review of
employee salaries. The merit sal­
ary increases resulting from this
review usually are based on the
serviceman’s ability, training,
and customer relationship.
In addition to their salaries,
servicemen in some companies
receive commissions for selling
supplies or service contracts.
Many servicemen employed by
manufacturers and independent
dealers are covered by group life
and hospitalization insurance
plans and pension plans.
Servicing of business machines
is cleaner and lighter work than
the work in most other mechani­
cal trades. Servicemen generally
wear business suits and perform
most of their work in the offices
where the machines are used. The
occupation is comparatively free
from the danger of accident.
Some of these positions involve
considerable traveling within the
area served by the employer. For
this reason, many employers re­
quire that servicemen own or
have the use of a car. The serv­
iceman generally is reimbursed
for company use of his car on a
mileage basis. Other servicemen
may work in a very concentrated
area, depending on the city size
and the number of machines.
Work tools usually are supplied
by the employer.

W here To Go for M ore Inform ation
Additional information about
employment in the field of busi­
ness machines servicing may be
obtained from local dealers who
sell and service typewriters, add­
ing, and dictating machines, as
well as from branch sales and

service offices of equipment man­
ufacturers. Technical and voca­
tional schools that offer courses
in electricity, electronics, or of­
fice machine maintenance and re­
pair can provide helpful informa­
tion about the kind of training
needed to qualify as a business
machine serviceman. In addition,
the local office of the State em­
ployment service will provide in­
formation about training pro­
grams under the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act.

DIESEL MECHANICS
(D .O .T . 625.281)

N ature of the W ork
Diesel mechanics repair and
maintain diesel engines that
power transportation equipment
such as heavy trucks and buses,
ships and boats, locomotives and
other railroad equipment; con­
struction equipment such as bull­
dozers, earthmovers, and cranes;
and farm equipment such as trac­
tors and irrigation pumps. In ad­
dition, they maintain and repair
a variety of other diesel-powered
equipment, such as generators,
compressors, and pumps, used in
public utilities or oil-well drilling
rigs.
Before making repairs, a diesel
mechanic inspects and tests en­
gine components to determine
why an engine is not operating
properly. After the cause of the
trouble has been located, he re­
pairs or replaces defective parts
and makes necessary adjust­
ments. Preventive maintenance—
avoiding trouble before it starts—
is another major responsibility of
the mechanic. For example, he
may periodically inspect, test, and
adjust engine components. Many

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

470

brake and steering systems, trans­
missions, and other truck parts.
(See statement on Truck Me­
chanics and Bus Mechanics.)
Diesel mechanics use common
h a n d t o o l s , s u c h a s pliers,
wrenches, and screwdrivers, as
well as special tools including
valve refacers and piston pin-fit­
ting machines. In addition, they
may use complex testing equip­
ment, such as a dynamometer,
which measures engine power, and
special fuel injection testing
equipment. Mechanics may also
use machine tools to make re­
placement parts for diesel-pow­
ered equipment. They use pow­
ered hoists and other materials
handling equipment for lifting
and moving heavy parts.

Places of Em ploym ent

Diesel mechanics reassemble engine after repair is completed.

diesel mechanics make all types
of diesel engine repairs; others
specialize, for example, in rebuild­
ing engines or in repairing fuel
injection systems, turbochargers,
cylinder heads, or starting sys­
tems. Some diesel mechanics also
repair large natural gas engines
which are used to power genera­
tors, pumps, and other industrial
equipment.
Diesel mechanics often have job
titles that indicate the type of
diesel-powered equipment they
repair. For example, those who
repair the diesel engines in trucks
may be called truck mechanics




(diesel). Those who work on con­
struction equipment, such as bull­
dozers and earthmovers, are usu­
ally called heavy equipment me­
chanics (diesel). Railroads classi­
fy the workers who repair locomo­
tive diesel engines as machinists,
electricians, or sheet-metal work­
ers, depending on the type of die­
sel repair work they perform. In
addition to engine maintenance
and repair, the mechanics listed
above (except those employed by
railroads) may work on other
parts of diesel-powered equip­
ment. For example, truck me­
chanics (diesel) may work on

An estimated 100,000 persons
were employed in 1968 to repair
and maintain diesel engines and
related equipment. Many diesel
mechanics are employed in service
departments of distributors and
dealers that sell diesel engines,
farm and construction equipment,
and trucks. Diesel mechanics also
are employed by companies and
government agencies that repair
and maintain their own dieselpowered equipment. This group
includes local and intercity bus­
lines, construction companies,
trucking companies, railroads,
and State highway departments.
Other employers of diesel me­
chanics include manufacturers of
diesel engines and independent
repair shops that specialize in the
repair of diesel engines.
Diesel mechanics are employed
in all parts of the country. Large
numbers of these workers, how­
ever, are employed in California,
New York, Illinois, and Texas—
States where high levels of con­
struction, commercial, industrial,
and farming activity have resulted

471

M E C H A N IC S A N D R E P A IR M E N

in the use of large numbers of
diesel-powered machines.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Diesel mechanics learn their
skills in several different ways.
Most young men first work as
mechanics repairing gasoline-pow­
ered automobiles, trucks, and
buses. They usually start as help­
ers to experienced gasoline engine
mechanics and become skilled in
this work in 3 or 4 years. When
employed by firms that use or re­
pair diesel-powered equipment,
they are given 6 to 18 months’
training in the maintenance and
repair of this equipment. While
learning to fix diesel engines,
many of these men find it helpful
to take courses in the repair and
maintenance of diesel equipment,
offered by vocational, trade, and
correspondence schools.
Some diesel mechanics, such as
those employed by diesel engine
manufacturers, learn their trade
through formal apprenticeship
programs. These programs, which
generally last 4 years, give
trainees a combination of class­
room training and practical ex­
perience in repairing diesel en­
gines. Apprentices receive class­
room instruction in blueprint
reading, hydraulics, welding, and
other subjects related to their
work. In their practical training,
they learn about valves, bearings,
injection systems, starting sys­
tems, cooling systems, and other
parts of diesel engines.
Some young men prepare for
diesel mechanic jobs by full-time
attendance at trade or technical
schools that offer comprehensive
training in diesel engine mainte­
nance and repair. These training
programs generally last from sev­
eral months to 2 years, and pro­
vide practical experience and re­
lated classroom instruction. Grad­




uates of these programs, however,
usually need additional on-thejob training before they become
skilled mechanics.
Training programs for diesel
mechanics and others in occupa­
tions that involve diesel engine
repair work were in operation in
several cities in 1968, under the
provisions of the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act. Un­
employed and underemployed
workers who meet certain mini­
mum requirements are eligible to
apply for this training, which
usually lasts at least 36 weeks.
Other young men learn the
trade through less formal training
programs. Generally, they are
hired as trainees and are taught
by experienced mechanics to do
all kinds of diesel repair jobs.
Experienced diesel mechanics
employed by companies that sell
diesel-powered equipment are
sometimes sent to special training
classes conducted by diesel en­
gine manufacturers. In these
classes, mechanics learn to main­
tain and repair the latest diesel
engines, using the most modern
equipment.
Employers prefer to hire
trainees and apprenticeship appli­
cants who have a high school edu­
cation as well as mechanical abil­
ity. Shop courses in automobile
repair and machine-shop work,
which are offered by many high
schools and vocational schools,
are helpful as are courses in sci­
ence and mathematics. Young
persons interested in becoming
diesel mechanics should be in good
physical condition because the
work often requires lifting heavy
parts.
Many diesel mechanics are re­
quired to buy their own handtools. A beginner is expected to
accumulate tools as he gains ex­
perience. Experienced mechanics
usually have several hundred dol­
lars invested in their tools.
Diesel mechanics who work for

organizations that operate or re­
pair large fleets of diesels, such
as buslines or diesel equipment
distributors, may advance to leadman and to supervisory positions
— shop foreman or service man­
ager.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of diesel mechan­
ics is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition to employment growth,
many job openings will result
from the need to replace experi­
enced mechanics who are promot­
ed, retire, transfer to other fields
of work, or die.
Increased employment of diesel
mechanics is expected mainly be­
cause most industries that use
diesel engines in large numbers
are expected to expand their ac­
tivities in the years ahead. In
addition, diesel engines will con­
tinue to replace gasoline engines
in a growing variety of equip­
ment. For example, small delivery
trucks powered by diesel engines
are in limited use today, but are
expected to be used increasingly
in the future. Also, diesel-pow­
ered farm equipment will become
more common.
Most new job openings in this
field will be filled by mechanics
who have experience in repairing
gasoline engines. Companies that
replace gasoline engine equipment
with diesel-powered equipment
usually retrain their experienced
mechanics to service the diesel
equipment. Men who have school
training in diesel repair, but no
practical experience, may be able
to find jobs only as trainees.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
National wage data are not
available for diesel mechanics.
However, wage data, collected

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

472
from employers of workers who
repair trucks, buses, construction
equipment, and stationary en­
gines, indicate that most diesel
mechanics earned from $3.00 to
$5.50 an hour in 1968.
The weekly work schedule of
diesel mechanics usually ranges
from 40 to 48 hours a week. Many
mechanics work at night or on
weekends, particularly if they
work on buses, diesel engines
used in powerplants, or other die­
sel equipment used in serving the
public. Some of these workers are
subject to call for emergencies at
any time. Diesel mechanics gener­
ally receive a higher rate of pay
when they work overtime hours,
evenings, or weekends.
Many diesel mechanics receive
paid vacations and holidays. In
addition, they may receive health
and life insurance benefits, which
are at least partially paid by their
employers.
Most larger repair shops are
pleasant places in which to work,
but some small shops have poor
lighting, heating, and ventilation.
Diesel mechanics who work for
buslines or construction compan­
ies sometimes make repairs out­
doors where the breakdowns
occur. If proper safety precau­
tions are not taken, there is some
danger of injury when repairing
heavy parts supported on jacks
or hoists. In most jobs, mechanics
handle greasy tools and engine
parts. It is sometimes necessary
to stand or lie in awkward or
cramped positions for extended
periods of time.
Many diesel mechanics belong
to labor unions such as the Inter­
national Association of Machin­
ists and Aerospace Workers; the
Amalgamated Transit Union; the
Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association; the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Im­
plement Workers of America; and




the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Young people who wish to ob­
tain additional information about
work opportunities in this trade
should direct their inquiries to
the local office of the State em­
ployment service and to firms
that use or service diesel-powered
equipment, such as truck and bus­
lines, truck dealers, and construc­
tion and farm equipment dealers.
The State employment service
also may be a source of informa­
tion about the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act, appren­
ticeship, and other programs that
provide training opportunities.
Unions listed below may be con­
tacted for information on work
and training opportunities or for
the names and addresses of local
unions that can provide such
information:
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers,
1300 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association, 1000 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of
America, 8000 East Jefferson
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.

ELECTRIC SIGN
SERVICEMEN
(D.O.T. 824.281)

N atu re of the W ork
The electric signs— neon and il­
luminated plastic— that advertise
the names, products and services

of the hundreds of thousands of
factories, stores, restaurants, ho­
tels, and other types of business
and commercial establishments
across the country are maintained
and repaired by electric sign serv­
icemen. These repairmen also may
build and assemble signs in elec­
tric signmaking and repair shops
and install the signs on location.
Although the duties of electric
sign servicemen may range from
painting and cleaning signs to re­
pairing small cracks in them, their
main concern is to maintain the
electrical systems in the signs.
Electric sign servicemen diag­
nose the cause of trouble in im­
properly operating signs. Minor
repairs, such as replacing burnedout lamps, are performed at sign
locations, whereas signs needing
an overhaul may be taken to sign
shops for repair. Sometimes faulty
components, such as a motor, are
removed and also taken to the
shops for repair. After the signs
or components have been re­
paired, the servicemen return
them to their locations and install
or replace them. In their work,
electric sign servicemen use handtools such as wrenches, pliers,
screw drivers, and tin snips. They
also use such devices as test lamps
and voltmeters.
On service calls for neon signs,
the servicemen may find trans­
formers at fault. They then will
replace them with new units of
the same size and power. If neon
tube units are defective, the serv­
icemen remove them, insert jump­
er wires so that the signs continue
to operate, and take the defective
tubes to the shops for repair. The
servicemen may repaint portions
of neon tubing to increase the
readability of the signs and make
the letters stand out. In addition,
they may tighten or weld parts
which have been loosened in high
winds or dented during erection.
They also may paint the beams,
columns, and other exterior

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

473
ommend changing the color of
neon tubing, attaching flashers, or
raising the height of a sign.
Servicemen usually must fill
out reports, noting the date, place,
and nature of service calls. They
also may estimate the cost of ser­
vice calls and sell maintenance
contracts to sign owners. Chief
servicemen prepare work sched­
ules for other electric sign service­
men.

Places of Em ploym ent

framework of the signs before
leaving.
On service calls for an illum­
inated plastic sign, the service­
men may find burned-out ballasts
or defective sockets. In replacing
ballasts, the servicemen may refer
to wiring diagrams and charts
that indicate connections, voltage
out reports, noting the date, place,
needed to install ballasts. Defec­
tive s o c k e t s usually appear
cracked and are replaced with new
ones. Small cracks in the plastic
face of the sign also may be re­




paired by the servicemen before
they complete their calls.
Electric sign servicemen also
perform preventive maintenance.
They check signs and remove such
things as birds’ nests and accumu­
lated water and replace missing
handhole covers. Also, gears,
drives, pinions, bearings, and
other parts of revolving signs may
be checked, adjusted, and lubri­
cated. Servicemen sometimes sug­
gest to customers ways to increase
the attractiveness and visibility of
signs. For example, they may rec­

About 6,100 electric sign serv­
icemen were employed in 1968,
primarily in small shops that man­
ufacture, install, and service elec­
tric signs. Some servicemen also
were employed in independent
electric sign repair shops. Both
types of shops may service signs
that have been mass produced in
large sign manufacturing estab­
lishments and shipped elsewhere
for installation. A few electric sign
servicemen were employed in out­
door advertising establishments
and commercial sign shops that
manufacture, erect, and maintain
electrical signs in addition to per­
forming their regular functions.
Electric sign servicemen are
employed in every State. How­
ever, more than half are employed
in New York, Illinois, California,
Ohio, and Pennsylvania, where
there are large numbers of indus­
trial and commercial centers.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most electric sign servicemen
are hired as trainees and learn
their trade informally while on
the job. Trainees rotate through
the various phases of signmaking
to obtain a general knowledge of
sign fabrication— such as cutting
and assembling metal and plastic
signs; mounting neon tubing; wir-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

474
ing signs; and installing sockets,
lamps, time switches, and photo­
electric circuits. During each
phase, they observe, work with,
and receive instructions from ex­
perienced craftsmen. The dura­
tion of the training varies with the
individual’s capabilities and his
prior education and experience.
At least 3 years are required to
become a fully qualified service­
man. After completion of training,
trainees are usually assigned to a
permanent job, depending on
their preferences and employers’
needs.
Some servicemen learn their
trade through electricians’ ap­
prentice programs, and specialize
in signmaking and repairing. Ap­
plicants for these programs are
generally required to be between
the ages of 18 and 25, have me­
chanical aptitude and an interest
in electricity. These programs
generally last from 3 to 5 years
and include on-the-job training in
signmaking and repairing, and
classroom instruction in such
fields as mathematics, electrical
theory and codes, and blueprint
reading. A few servicemen acquire
their skills through special ap­
prenticeship programs in sign
construction, erection, and servic­
ing. Such programs usually in­
clude courses in metal and plastic
sign fabrication, wiring of signs,
installation t e c h n i q u e s , and
trouble shooting, in addition to
courses similar to those taken by
electrician apprentices. During
the apprenticeship period, the be­
ginners learn to use and handle
the tools, equipment, and mate­
rials of the trade.
Employers p r e f e r to hire
trainees who have a high school
education. They look for men who
have mechanical ability and an
interest in learning the sign busi­
ness. All electric sign servicemen
are familiar with the National
Electric Code; some also must be
familiar with local electric codes.




Many cities require servicemen
to be licensed. Licenses can be
obtained by passing a comprehen­
sive examination in electrical the­
ory and its application.
Servicemen need good color
vision because electric wires are
frequently identified by color.
Electrical sign servicemen are
generally required to purchase
their own handtools, but power
tools are usually furnished by
employers. Many of these workers
invest up to $100 in handtools.
Highly skilled servicemen may
become electric sign foremen and
supervise the work of other serv­
icemen. Because of their experi­
ence in servicing signs and deal­
ing with customers, electric sign
servicemen sometimes become
sign salesmen. Also, servicemen
with sufficient funds can open
their own sign manufacturing or
repair shops.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of electric sign
servicemen is expected to increase
rapidly during the 1970’s, produc­
ing several hundred new job op­
enings annually. A few hundred
job openings also will result each
year from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or trans­
fer to other fields of work.
The demand for electric sign
servicemen will be spurred by a
very rapid increase in the number
of signs in use. The establishment
of many new business and com­
mercial enterprises, competition
among businesses in attracting
customers, and the modernization
of established enterprises will re­
sult in an expanding number of
new sign installations. In addi­
tion, the many electric signs al­
ready in use will continue to re­
quire servicing over the period.
Although the number of signs
in use is expected to grow very
rapidly, the employment of elec­

tric sign servicemen will not show
a corresponding increase. Since
the 1950’s, there has been a trend
from neon to illuminated plastic
signs which are lighter in weight
and easier to maintain. This trend
is expected to continue in the fu­
ture. In addition, new equipment,
such as highly versatile boom and
ladder trucks, has become avail­
able to speed the servicing of
signs. The substitution of pres­
sure cleaning equipment for man­
ual cleaning methods is another
factor tending to limit somewhat
the growth in requirements for
sign servicemen.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of electric sign
servicemen compare favorably
with those of other skilled work­
ers. According to a survey of
wages and fringe benefits in 1968,
covering 82 cities in 27 States, the
average hourly union wage rate
of experienced electric sign serv­
icemen ranged from $2.20 to
$6.41. In nearly three-fourths of
the cities surveyed, straight-time
hourly earnings for these crafts­
men ranged between $3.50 and
$5.00 an hour. Apprentice rates
usually started at about half the
journeyman’s hourly wage rate
and increased every 6 months,
moving up to about 90 percent of
the journeyman’s rate during the
final year of the program.
According to the survey, most
electric sign servicemen worked
an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, and
received premium pay for over­
time work in 1968. In some cities,
they also received premium pay
for working at heights in excess
of 30 feet. Servicemen received
a week of paid vacation after 1
year’s service, and 2 weeks or
more thereafter, depending on the
length of service. They also re­
ceived from 6 to 9 paid holidays
a year. In addition, many em-

475

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

ployers paid part or all of the cost
of life, health, and accident in­
surance; some also contributed to
retirement plans. When uniforms
were required, the cost was usual­
ly partly or entirely paid for by
the employer, who sometimes
provided for their upkeep.
Because most signs are dis­
played out of doors, electric sign
servicemen are constantly ex­
posed to all types of weather con­
ditions. In addition, they are
sometimes required to make
emergency repairs at night, on
weekends, and on holidays. Serv­
icemen often work from scaffolds,
catwalks, and ladders; sometimes
in awkward or cramped quarters.
Some servicemen occasionally
work at night, patroling areas in
search of improperly operating
signs. Common personal hazards
in the trade include electrical
shock, burns, and falls from high
places. Emphasis on safety prin­
ciples in training programs, how­
ever, has helped reduce such acci­
dents. In addition, the use of
safety belts and baskets on boom
trucks for easy access to signs
also has reduced the frequency
of these accidents.

FARM EQUIPMENT
MECHANICS
(D.O.T. 624.281)

Much of the equipment used
by farmers to plant, cultivate,
and harvest food is serviced by
farm
equipment
mechanics.
These craftsmen maintain the
electrical, mechanical, and hy­
draulic systems in all types of
farm machinery such as tractors,
combines, pick-up balers, corn
pickers, crop dryers, field har­
vesters, and elevators and con­
veyors. In addition, they may as­
semble new farm implements and
machinery that have been ship­
ped in sections to farm equip­

ment dealers. Sometimes, they
may be required to repair dented
and torn sheet metal on farm
equipment. Much of the me­
chanics’s time, however, is spent
repairing and adjusting dieseland gas-powered tractors. When
a tractor is malfunctioning, it
may be driven or hauled to a
shop for repair. In planting or
harvesting seasons, however, the
mechanic may travel to the farm
where the tractor is located.
Farm equipment mechanics
use a variety of testing equip­
ment. For example, they may use
a dynamometer, a device which
measures engine performance. A
compression tester also may be
used to determine whether piston
rings are worn or cylinder valves

Sources of Additional Inform ation

For further information regard­
ing work opportunities for elec­
tric sign servicemen, inquiries
should be directed to local sign
manufacturing shops, the local
office of the State employment
service, or locals of the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers.
General information about the
work of electric sign servicemen
may be obtained from:
National Electric Sign Associa­
tion, 600 Hunter Drive, Oak
Brook, 1 1 60521.
1.




Farm equipment mechanic assembles transmission shaft of tractor.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

476
leak. After determining the
cause of the trouble, mechanics
make the necessary repairs. They
may repair the transmission and
tune or overhaul the engine com­
pletely. If parts of the engine are
worn or broken, they may repair
or replace them. They may use
welding equipment or power
metalworking tools to repair
broken parts. They also use
handtools in their work such as
wrenches, pliers, hammers, and
micrometers. Often mechanics
must make emergency repairs to
equipment so that ripening crops
can be harvested before they
spoil. The skill of mechanics of­
ten is determined by their ability
to keep equipment operating.
Mechanics also perform pre­
ventive maintenance. Periodical­
ly, they test parts of farm machin­
ery, clean vital components, and
tune engines. In large shops, me­
chanics may specialize in certain
types of repair, such as engine
overhaul or clutch and brake re­
pair. They also may specialize in
repairing particular types of
equipment such as tractors or
hay balers. T o guide their work,
farm equipment mechanics use
instruction books and mainte­
nance manuals that describe the
way farm equipment is assem­
bled and maintained. Some farm
equipment mechanics also repair
plumbing, electrical, irrigation,
and other equipment located on
farms.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 40,000
farm equipment mechanics em­
ployed in 1968 worked in service
departments of farm equipment
dealers. These dealers sell and
service new and used farm equip­
ment. Other mechanics worked in
independent repair shops, in re­
pair shops on large farms, and in




service departments of farm
equipment manufacturers.
Most farm equipment repair
shops employed fewer than five
mechanics. These shops were lo­
cated in the agricultural areas of
the country. About half of the
mechanics were employed in Il­
linois, Texas, Iowa, California,
Minnesota, Indiana, Missouri,
Ohio, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kan­
sas, and New York.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Most farm equipment mechan­
ics are hired as helpers and learn
the trade working on the job.
As helpers, they assist qualified
mechanics and assemble new
farm equipment and perform
rough body repair work. The dur­
ation of on-the-job training var­
ies with the helper’s aptitude
and prior experience. Some help­
ers can do simple repair jobs af­
ter 6 months. Generally, how­
ever, at least 3 years of on-thejob training are necessary before
a person can become a qualified
mechanic.
A few mechanics also learn the
trade by completing an appren­
ticeship training program. Ap­
prentice trainees are usually
chosen from among shop helpers.
These programs last from 3 to 4
years and include on-the-job
training in all the phases of
maintaining and repairing farm
equipment and related classroom
instruction. Upon completion of
an apprenticeship program, train­
ees become qualified mechanics.
A small number of farm equip­
ment mechanics also have re­
ceived training in programs ap­
proved under the provisions of
the Manpower Development and
Training Act. Typically, these
programs last between 29 and
56 weeks and include training
in basic electricity, transmissions,

welding, hydraulics, and diesel
engines. Trainees who complete
these programs are able to make
simple repairs and can qualify as
skilled mechanics after some onthe-job experience.
Some farm equipment mechan­
ics and trainees receive refresher
training in short-term programs
conducted by manufacturers of
farm equipment. These programs
usually last several days. A com­
pany representative explains the
design and function of equip­
ment, and teaches maintenance
and repair on new models of farm
equipment.
Employers prefer to hire young
men with a farm background and
an aptitude for mechanical work.
They prefer farm equipment me­
chanics who have high school di­
plomas, but some emloyers will
hire young men having less edu­
cation. In general, emuloyers
stress prior experience or training
in diesel and gasoline engines, hy­
draulics, and welding— subjects
that may be learned in high
schools and vocational schools.
Farm equipment mechanics
may advance to shop foremen.
Some mechanics open repair
shops. Mechanics improve their
opportunities for advancement by
attending
the
manufacturersponsored training sessions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of farm equip­
ment mechanics is expected to in­
crease slowly through the 1970’s.
In addition to the openings that
will arise from growth in the
field, many job openings will re­
sult from the need to replace ex­
perienced mechanics who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields of
work. Deaths and retirements
alone are expected to provide
about 700 job openings each year
through the 1970’s.
Employment requirements for

477

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

farm equipment mechanics will
be determined mainly by the
number of farms, the extent of
farm mechanization, and the in­
creased reliability of new farm
machinery— especially tractors
which account for much of the
repair work. The decrease in the
number of farms and the increas­
ing reliability of farm machinery
is expected to limit the demand
for farm equipment mechanics.
These limiting factors will be
partially offset, however, by the
expected increases in farm me­
chanization, and the widespread
adoption of specialized farm
equipment such as the tomato
harvester. Furthermore, farm op­
erators will find it more economi­
cal to have farm machinery serv­
iced on a regular basis as farms
become larger.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Wage data collected from a
small number of employers indi­
cated that in 1968, average hour­
ly wages of farm equipment me­
chanics were generally between
$2.10 and $3.00.
Farm equipment mechanics
usually work a 44-hour week
which includes 4 hours on Sat­
urday. In the spring, however,
they often work 6 to 7 days
each week, 10 to 12 hours daily.
In winter months, they may work
fewer than 40 hours a week.
Many mechanics receive from 1
to 2 weeks’ paid vacation an­
nually, and 7 paid holidays each
year. Most farm equipment me­
chanics are covered by health
plans.
Farm equipment mechanics of­
ten travel many miles to repair
equipment. When working in the
field, they may be exposed to
the elements. They come in con­
tact with grease, gasoline, rust,
dust, and dirt. There is danger
of injury when they repair heavy




parts which are supported on
jacks or by hoists. Engine burns
and cuts from sharp edges of
farm implements are also pos­
sible.
The few farm equipment me­
chanics that belong to labor un­
ions are members of the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about work op­
portunities in this trade may be
obtained from the local offices of
the various State employment
services, local farm equipment
dealers, and independent service
shops. The State employment
services also can provide informa­
tion about programs set up under
provisions of the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act of
1962. General information about
the occupation can be obtained
from:
Farm Equipment Institute, 850
Wrigley Building N., 410 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 1 1
1.
60611.
National Farm and Power Equip­
ment Dealers Association, 2340
Hampton Ave., St. Louis, Mo.
63139.

INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
REPAIRMEN
(D.O.T. 625. through 632.281, and 637.
through 639.281)

N ature of the W ork
The great variety of machinery
and equipment used throughout
American industry is kept in ef­
ficient operating condition by
tens of thousands of industrial
machinery r e p a i r m e n— often

called maintenance mechanics.
These skilled workers maintain
and repair machinery and other
mechanical equipment used in a
wide variety of manufacturing
establishments.
When break­
downs occur, r e p a i r m e n must
quickly determine the cause of
the trouble, make the necessary
repairs, and return the equip­
ment to proper working order in
minimum time. In this process,
they may completely or partly
disassemble a machine to repair
or replace defective parts. After
the machine is reassembled, they
make the necessary mechanical
adjustments to insure its proper
operation.
When not engaged in repairing
machinery, much of a repair­
man’s time is spent in preventive
maintenance. By regularly in­
specting the equipment, oiling
and greasing machines, and
cleaning and repairing parts, he
prevents trouble which could
cause breakdowns later. He also
may keep maintenance records of
the equipment he services.
The types of machinery on
which industrial machinery re­
pairmen work depend to a great
extent on the particular industry
in which they are employed. For
example, in the apparel indus­
try, these skilled workers may
repair industrial sewing ma­
chines. They may take sewing
machines apart to repair belts,
adjust treadles, or replace motor
bearings. In printing and p u b ­
lishing establishments, skilled
industrial machinery repairmen
may maintain and repair equip­
ment such as printing presses and
folders.
Repairmen often follow blue­
prints, lubrication charts, and
e n g i n e e r i n g specifications in
maintaining and repairing equip­
ment. They also may use parts
catalogs to order replacements
for broken or defective parts.
When replacement parts are not

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

478

machinery, and rubber industries.
Because industrial machinery
repairmen work in a wide variety
of industrial plants, they are em­
ployed in every section of the
country. The largest numbers of
these workers are found in New
York, Pennsylvania, California,
Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, New
Jersey, Massachusetts, and other
heavily industrialized States.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications

Industrial machinery repairman repairs
sawmill motor.

readily available or the situation
demands quick action to return
a machine to production, repair­
men may sketch a part that may
be fabricated by the plant’s ma­
chine shop.
Industrial machinery repair­
men use wrenches, screwdrivers,
pliers, and other handtools, as
well as portable power tools.
They also may use welding
equipment in repairing broken
metal parts.

Places of E m ploym ent
Industrial machinery repair­
men work in almost every indus­
trial plant that uses large
amounts of machinery and equip­
ment. However, a majority of the
nearly 175,000 repairmen esti­
mated to be employed in 1968
worked in the following indus­
tries: Food and kindred products,
p r i m a r y metals, machinery,
chemicals, fabricated metal prod­
ucts, and transportation equip­
ment. Many repairmen also were
employed in the paper, electrical




Most workers who become in­
dustrial machinery repairmen
start as helpers and pick up the
skills of the trade informally
through several years of experi­
ence. Others learn the trade
through formal apprenticeship
programs. Apprenticeship train­
ing usually lasts 4 years and con­
sists of both on-the-job training
and related classroom (or corre­
spondence school) instruction.
Apprentices learn the use and
care of the tools of the trade,
and the operation, lubrication,
and adjustment of the machinery
and equipment which they will
maintain. Classroom instruction
is given in shop mathematics,
blueprint reading, safety, hy­
draulics, welding, and other sub­
jects related to the craft.
Mechanical aptitude and man­
ual dexterity are important quali­
fications for workers in this
trade. Good physical condition
and agility also are necessary be­
cause industrial machinery re­
pairmen are sometimes required
to lift heavy objects or do con­
siderable climbing in order to re­
pair equipment located high
above the floor.
Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of industrial ma­
chinery repairmen is expected to
increase moderately through the
1970’s. In addition to employ­

ment growth, thousands of job
openings will result from the
need to replace experienced re­
pairmen who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are ex­
pected to result in nearly 4,000
job openings annually.
Employment of industrial ma­
chinery repairmen is expected to
increase mainly because of the
anticipated use of more machin­
ery and equipment to fabricate,
process, assemble, inspect, and
handle industrial production ma­
terials. In addition, as automatic
equipment and continuous pro­
duction lines become more wide­
spread, breakdowns will lead to
possible greater losses of produc­
tion and make repair work and
preventive maintenance more
essential.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Average straight-time hourly
earnings of industrial machinery
repairmen employed by a wide
variety of manufacturing estab­
lishments in 80 metropolitan
areas in 1967-68, ranged from
$2.65 in Lubbock, Tex., to $4.22
in Detroit, Mich. Nearly twothirds of the repairmen covered
by these surveys earned $3.40 an
hour or more. Straight-time
hourly earnings for industrial
machinery repairmen in 12 of the
80 metropolitan areas, selected
to present wage data from vari­
ous areas and regions of the coun­
try, appear in the accompanying
tabulation.
Metropolitan area

Rate per hour

Baltimore....................................$3.72
Boston ......................
3.17
Chicago ..................................... 3.66
Houston ..................................... 3.63
Miami......................................... 2.75
Minneapolis-St. Paul ............... 3.50
New York .................................. 3.64
Phoenix ..................................... 3.46
Pittsburgh .................................. 3.49
San Francisco-Oakland............. 3.86
Seattle-Everett .......................... 3.74
South Bend................................ 3.52

479

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Industrial machinery repair­
men are not usually affected by
seasonal changes in production.
During slack periods, when some
production workers are laid off,
repairmen are often retained.
Many companies use machine re­
pairmen to do major repair and
overhaul jobs during such periods.
Because motors and other
parts of machines are not always
readily accessible, maintenance
mechanics may work in stooped
or cramped positions in limited
quarters or from the tops of lad­
ders. Industrial machinery re­
pairmen are subject to common
shop injuries such as cuts and
bruises. However, accidents have
been reduced by the use of gog­
gles, metal-tip shoes, safety hel­
mets, and other protective de­
vices. Repairmen must frequently
work on dirty and greasy equip­
ment. Lighting and ventilation
are usually good.

Most industrial machinery re­
pairmen belong to labor unions.
Some of the unions to which
these workers belong are the
United Steelworkers of America;
the International Union, United
Automobile, Aerospace and Agri­
cultural Implement Workers of
America; the International As­
sociation of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; and the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio
and Machine Workers. Most em­
ployer-union contracts covering
industrial machinery repairmen
provide for fringe benefits such
as paid holidays and vacations,
health insurance, life insurance,
and retirement pensions.

INSTRUMENT REPAIRMEN
(D.O.T. 710.131; 710.281; 710.381;
710.884; 729.281; 823,281; and 828.281)

N ature of the W ork

Instrument repairmen make connections
on test atomic reactor.




Instrument repairmen install
and service the complex indus­
trial and scientific instruments
that measure, record, or control
variables such as heat, electricity,
pressure, liquid flow, and chemi­
cal composition. These workers
service instruments used to re­
fine oil, guide airplanes and mis­
siles, generate electricity, con­
duct laboratory experiments, and
manufacture steel. They also
service a wide variety of instru­
ments used in fields such as nu­
clear energy, o c e a n o g r a p h y
medicine, dentistry, optics, pho­
tography, and others. Instrument
repairmen (also called instru­
ment
mechanics,
instrument
maintenance men, or instrument
men) sometimes specialize in re­
pairing particular kinds of in­
struments such as electronic, hy­
draulic, or pneumatic instru­

ments. However, most repairmen
are able to service many kinds of
instruments.
When an instrument is not func­
tioning correctly, instrument re­
pairmen first determine whether
the trouble is caused by a mal­
function of the instrument itself
or by other equipment connected
to the instrument. They may dis­
assemble malfunctioning instru­
ments and examine and test me­
chanisms and circuitry for de­
fects. They use testing equip­
ment such as pressure and vac­
uum gages, speed counters, and
electrical testing instruments;
for example, voltmeters, oscillo­
scopes, ammeters, and potentio­
meters. Readings shown on test
equipment are compared with
readings that would be shown if
the instruments were operating
properly.
Instrument repairmen work
with instruments at the site of
trouble or in specially equipped
shops. They may perform major
overhauls, replace worn or dam­
aged parts, or make minor re­
pairs such as resoldering loose
connections. They use handtools
such as screwdrivers, wrenches,
pliers, and soldering irons, and
bench tools such as jewelers’
lathes, pin vises, small buffer
grinders, and ultrasonic cleaners
for small metal parts. In some
companies, instrument repairmen
operate drill presses, grinders,
polishers, and other machine
tools to make new parts or to
change standard parts to fit par­
ticular instruments. When an in­
strument must be set to a precise
tolerance, they may use jewelers
loupes, micrometers, or micro­
scopes. As guides in their work,
instrument repairmen frequently
use instruction books and main­
tenance manuals that describe
how to install, operate, and main­
tain instruments. They also use
schematic diagrams, assembly
drawings, and blueprints. When

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

480
instruments are reassembled, re­
pairmen give them final checks
for accurate operation.
Instrument repairmen follow
preventive maintenance schedules
that enable them to correct de­
fects that might cause break­
downs resulting in production
losses. They also clean, lubricate,
and adjust the instruments.
Some instrument repairmen
install and test new instruments
and advise operators on how to
use and care for them. Sometimes
they modernize older instruments
by substituting new parts.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 85,000 instrument re­
pairmen were employed in 1968,
primarily by gas and electric util­
ities; by petroleum and chemical
plants; by manufacturers of in­
struments, pulp and paper, met­
als, rubber, missiles, and auto­
mobiles; and by airlines. Several
thousand repairmen worked for
Federal agencies, mainly the Air
Force, Navy, and Army.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
At least 4 years of on-the-job
training and study is usually re­
quired to become a fully quali­
fied instrument repairman. How­
ever, training time may vary con­
siderably, depending upon in­
dividual ability, previous experi­
ence and training, and complex­
ity of the instruments serviced.
Instrument repairmen general­
ly are selected from production
employees or hired as trainees.
They may learn their trade in­
formally by assisting experienced
repairmen or through formal ap­
prenticeship or other special on-the-job training programs. Ap­
prenticeship programs generally
last 4 years and in addition to




actual work experience, may in­
clude courses in instrumentation
theory, mathematics, blueprint
reading, process theory, physics,
electronics, and chemistry. These
courses may be taken by corre­
spondence or at local schools dur­
ing or after working hours.
Some young men train for in­
strument repair work in technical
institutes and junior colleges.
Programs
offered
by
these
schools usually last about 2 years
and emphasize basic engineering
courses, science, and mathemat­
ics. As instruments become more
complex, technical school train­
ing will become increasingly im­
portant and young men with this
kind of training will have bet­
ter advancement opportunities.
Armed Forces technical schools
also offer training in instrument
servicing. Young men who enter
the Armed Forces may wish to
investigate
opportunities
for
training and work experience
while in military service. Skills
acquired in this way may help
to qualify men for civilian jobs as
instrument repairmen.
Several instrument manufac­
turers offer specialized training
to experienced instrument repair­
men employed by companies that
buy their products. These train­
ing courses generally last from 1
week to 9 months, depending
upon the number and complexity
of the instruments. Courses are
given in theory, maintenance,
and operation of the instruments
produced by these manufactur­
ers. Students learn how to check
instruments and where to find
further information about instru­
ment servicing.
Men hired as trainees or ap­
prentices generally must be high
school graduates. Courses in al­
gebra,
trigonometry,
physics,
chemistry, electricity, electronics,
machine-shop practice, and blue­
print reading are considered par­
ticularly useful. Some employers

give tests to applicants to deter­
mine their mechanical or elec­
trical aptitude. Building and
maintaining a ham radio station
or hi-fi set is good experience for
an individual planning to become
an instrument repairman.
Instrument repairmen who
meet the public are expected to
present a neat appearance and
to get along well with people.
Other important qualifications
include ability to work with lit­
tle supervision and to perform a
variety of duties often character­
ized by frequent change. Instru­
ment repairmen must be able to
evaluate data revealed by tests
and observations and to work to
precise standards and tolerances.
Good eye-hand coordination and
finger dexterity are needed when
handling d e l i c a t e instrument
parts.
Instrument repairmen having
supervisory ability may become
group leaders or foremen in main­
tenance and repair departments.
Some may advance to positions
as service representatives in the
branch offices of instrument
manufacturing companies. A few
instrument repairmen become en­
gineering assistants. Because the
use of electronic components in
instruments is expected to in­
crease, a basic knowledge of elec­
tronics may increase the possi­
bility of advancement.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of instrument re­
pairmen is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
In addition to job openings re­
sulting from the growth of the
occupation, many job opportuni­
ties will stem from the need to re­
place experienced repairmen who
transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die. Deaths and retire­
ments alone are expected to result

481

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

in more than 1,700 job openings
annually.
More instrument repairmen
will be needed during the 1970’s,
because the use of instruments is
expected to increase significantly
for a wide variety of scientific,
industrial, and technical pur­
poses. Rapid increases are ex­
pected in areas such as oceano­
graphy, air and water pollution
monitering, nuclear instrumenta­
tion, and in the health service
field. The number of industrial
instruments used for process con­
trol in industries such as metals,
petroleum, chemicals, food, rub­
ber, and paper also is expected to
increase substantially. In addi­
tion, more instruments will be
needed for research laboratories;
flight and navigation systems of
aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft;
automotive repair shops; applica­
tions of laser technology; tem­
perature control of commercial
and residential buildings; and
for optical applications.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

According to a national sur­
vey, instrument repairmen em­
ployed in the basic iron and steel
industry in late 1967 received
average straight-time h o u r l y
earnings of $3.85, with more than
two-thirds
receiving
between
$3.60 and $4.20 an hour. Addi­
tional information obtained from
a number of union-management
agreements in the paper and al­
lied products and petroleum in­
dustries indicated that most in­
strument repairmen in 1968 re­
ceived between $2.75 and $4.55
an hour. Those specializing in the
repair of electronic instruments
often receive higher wages than
other instrument repairmen. Some
highly skilled instrument repair­
men were paid rates up to $5.00 an




hour. Instrument repairmen em­
ployed by Federal agencies in
Washington, D.C., in 1968 were
paid from $4.02 to $4.96 an hour,
about the same rates received by
most nongovernment repairmen.
Most instrument repairmen
work a 40-hour, 5-day week.
Those employed in petroleum re­
fineries and chemical plants that
operate 24 hours a day and 7 days
a week may work on any of three
shifts or rotate among shifts. Re­
pairmen also may be called to
work with emergency crews on
Sundays and holidays. They re­
ceive premium pay for night and
holiday work, and most compa­
nies provide holiday and vacation
pay. Many companies provide ad­
ditional employee benefits such
as life insurance, hospitalization,
medical and surgical insurance,
sickness and accident insurance,
and retirement pensions.
Working conditions for instru­
ment repairmen vary from serv­
icing instruments located on fac­
tory floors amid noise, oil, and
grease, to working at benches in
quiet, clean, well-lighted repair
shops. In some industries, such
as chemical, petroleum, and steel,
repairmen may be required to
work outdoors. Those employed
by instrument manufacturers
may have to travel frequently.
Many instrument repairmen
belong to unions, including the
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers;
International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; International
Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite
and Paper Mill Workers; Inter­
national Chemical Workers Un­
ion; International Union of Elec­
trical, Radio and Machine Work­
ers; International Union, United
Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultral Implement Workers of
America; Oil, Chemical and
Atomic Workers International
Union; and Utility Workers Un­
ion of America.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The local office of the State
employment service may be a
source of information about the
Manpower
Development
and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide
training opportunities for per­
sons who wish to enter this oc­
cupation. Additional information
about training, as well as employ­
ment opportunities in the field of
instrumentation, may be obtain­
ed from:
Instrument Society of America,
530 William Penn PL, Pitts­
burgh, Pa. 15200.
Scientific Apparatus Makers As­
sociation, Process Measurement
and Control Section, 370 Lexing­
ton Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Inquiries concerning positions
with the Federal Government
should be made at the regional of­
fices of the U.S. Civil Service
Commission.

MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICIANS
(D.O.T. 825.281 and 829.134 and .281)

N ature of th e W ork
Maintenance electricians ( elec­
trical repairmen) maintain and
repair many different types of
electrical equipment. In addition,
they sometimes modify and in­
stall electrical equipment such
as motors, transformers, genera­
tors, controls, instruments, and
lighting sytems used in indus­
trial, commercial, and public es­
tablishments.
A large part of a maintenance
electrician’s work is preventive
maintenance— periodic inspec­
tion of equipment to locate and
repair defects before breakdowns

482
occur. When trouble does occur,
he must find and repair the
faulty circuit or equipment
quickly to prevent costly produc­
tion losses and inconvenience. In
emergencies, he may advise man­
agement whether i m m e d i a t e
shutdown of equipment is neces­
sary, or if continued operation
would be hazardous.
In his daily work, the mainte­
nance electrician does many dif­
ferent things. For example, he
may make repairs by replacing
units or parts such as wiring,
fuses, circuit breakers, coils, or
switches. When performing repair
or installation work, the electri­
cian may connect wires by splic­
ing or by using mechanical con­
nectors. He may measure, cut,
bend, thread, and install con­
duits through which wires are
run to outlets, panels, and boxes.
He also may adjust equipment
controls and check and adjust in­
struments.
The maintenance electrician
uses devices such as test lamps,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ammeters, volt-ohm meters, and
oscilloscopes in testing electrical
equipment and wiring. He some­
times works from blueprints, wir­
ing diagrams, or other specifica­
tions. He may make mathemati­
cal computations to determine the
current carrying capacities of
electrical wiring and equipment.
Maintenance
electricians
use
pliers, screwdrivers, wire cutters,
drills, reamers, conduit bending
and threading tools, and other
hand and power tools.
Although all maintenance elec­
tricians have the same basic skills,
the nature of their work depends
mainly on the size of the plant
and the particular industry in
which they work. In manufac­
turing plants, these workers usu­
ally maintain electrical equip­
ment used in the manufacture of
a particular product. For exam­
ple, steel mills and aluminum
plants require a large number of
electricians to maintain the elec­
trical and electronic equipment
used to power and control rolling

mills, presses, and other produc­
tion machinery. In plants that
use large amounts of electrical
equipment, electricians may spe­
cialize in the maintenance of par­
ticular types of equipment, such
as motors, welding machines, or
transformers. In small plants,
electricians usually are responsi­
ble for all types of electrical re­
pair work. Maintenance electri­
cians employed in large office
buildings,
apartment
houses,
and hospitals maintain lighting
systems and other electrical
equipment, such as that used in
air-conditioning systems.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 240,000 mainte­
nance electricians were employed
throughout the country in 1968.
More than half of these crafts­
men were engaged in servicing
equipment and machinery used
in the manufacturing plants of
industries such as transportation
equipment, primary metal prod­
ucts, electrical and nonelectrical
machinery, chemicals, and fabri­
cated metal products.
Nonmanufacturing firms that
employed large numbers of main­
tenance
electricians
included
transportation, communications,
and public utilities industries;
services; and mining. Federal,
State, and local governments also
employed many of these skilled
workers.
Maintenance electricians are
employed in every State. Large
numbers work in heavily indus­
trialized States such as Califor­
nia, New York, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, and Ohio.
Skilled workers in this occupa­
tion have the advantage of being
able to transfer to maintenance
electrician jobs in many differ­
ent industries. After some addi­
tional training, they also may
qualify as construction eletrician.

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Maintenance electricians learn
the skills of their trade through
formal apprenticeship programs
or by accumulating experience
through i n f o r m a l on-the-job
training. Training authorities
generally agree that apprentice­
ship programs give trainees more
thorough knowledge of the trade
and improved job opportunities
during their working life.
Apprenticeship programs for
maintenance electricians usually
last 4 years. Apprentices are
given on-the-job training and re­
lated technical classroom instruc­
tion in subjects such as mathe­
matics, electrical and electronic
theory, and blueprint reading.
Training may include motor re­
pair, wire splicing, commercial
and industrial wiring, installation
of light and power equipment, in­
stallation and repair of electronic
controls and circuits, and weld­
ing and brazing.
A young man employed in a
plant as a helper to a skilled
maintenance electrician gradual­
ly may acquire the skills of this
craft by observing the electrician
and following his instructions.
Others learn the trade by work­
ing in the maintenance depart­
ment of a plant and picking up
some fundamentals of the job.
By moving from job to job, they
eventually acquire sufficient ex­
perience to qualify as skilled
workers. However, it generally
takes more than 4 years to be­
come a maintenance electrician
through
informal
on-the-job
training.
A young man interested in be­
coming a maintenance electrician
should include courses in mathe­
matics (such as algebra and
trigonometry) and basic science
in his high school or vocational
school curriculum. Because the
electrician’s craft is subject to




483
constant technological change,
many experienced electricians
continue to acquire additional
technical knowledge and learn
new skills. For example, some
maintenance electricians who en­
tered the trade years ago must
now learn basic electronics to serv­
ice the new electronic equipment
being introduced in the Nation’s
industrial establishments and
large commercial and residential
buildings.
In selecting apprentice appli­
cants or trainees, employers look
for young men who have manual
dexterity and are interested in
learning how electrical equip­
ment functions. These young
men also need good color vision
because electrical wires are fre­
quently identified by their dif­
ferent colors. Although great
physical strength is not essential,
agility and good health are
important.
All maintenance electricians
should be familiar with the Na­
tional Electric Code; some must
be familiar with local building
codes. A growing number of cit­
ies and counties require mainte­
nance electricians to be licensed.
An electrician can obtain a li­
cense by passing a comprehensive
examination that tests his knowl­
edge of electrical theory and its
application.
Skilled maintenance electri­
cians may become foremen who
supervise the work of other
maintenance electricians or other
maintenance personnel. Occa­
sionally, they may advance to
jobs such as plant electrical su­
perintendent or plant mainte­
nance superintendent.
Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of maintenance
electricians is expected to in­
crease moderately through the
1970’s. Most openings will stem
from the need to replace workers

who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work. Retirements and
4,300 job openings annually. In
addition a few thousand job
openings are expected each year
because of the growing volume of
electrical and electronic equip­
ment in use in industry.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In general, earnings of main­
tenance electricians compare fa­
vorably with those of other
skilled workers. The average
straight-time hourly earnings of
maintenance electricians in es­
tablishments in 82 cities and
areas in 1967-68 ranged from
about $2.69 in Greenville, S.C.,
to $4.36 in Detroit, Mich. In
about four-fifths of the cities sur­
veyed, however, average straighttime hourly earnings of these
craftsmen ranged from $3.15 to
$4.03.
In establishments that operate
an apprenticeship program, ap­
prentices start at about 60 per­
cent of the journeyman’s basic
hourly pay rate. They receive in­
creases every 6 months, rising to
85 or 90 percent of the journey­
man’s rate during the last period
of apprenticeship.
During a single day, an electri­
cian employed in a plant may
repair electrical equipment both
in a clean air-conditioned office
and on the factory floor, sursurounded by the noise, oil, and
grease of machinery. Mainte­
nance electricians may be re­
quired to climb ladders, work on
scaffolds, or work in awkward
or cramped positions when re­
pairing or installing electrical
equipment.
Because maintenance electri­
cians often work near high-volt­
age industrial equipment, they
must be alert and accurate when
performing their duties. Errors in
wiring installations could have

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

484
dangerous consequences, both to
the electrician and the operating
employees.
Safety
principles,
part of all electrician training
programs, have greatly reduced
the frequency
of
accidents.
Maintenance
electricians
are
taught to use protective equip­
ment and clothing, to respect the
destructive potential of electric­
ity, and to handle small electrical
fires.
Various labor unions have
maintenance electricians in their
membership. Many of these
craftsmen are members of the
International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers. Other unions
to which maintenance electri­
cians belong are the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio
and Machine Workers; the Inter­
national Association of Machin­
ists and Aerospace Workers; the
International Union, United Au­
tomobile, Aerospace and Agri­
cultural Implement Workers of
America; and the United Steel­
workers of America. Most labormanagement contracts covering
maintenance electricians provide
major benefit programs that may
include paid holidays and vaca­
tions; hospitalization, medical,
and surgical insurance; life insur­
ance; and retirement pensions.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
A young man who wishes to
obtain further information regard­
ing electrician apprenticeships or
other work opportunities in the
trade should apply to local firms
that employ maintenance electri­
cians; to a local joint union-man­
agement apprenticeship commit­
tee, if there is one in his locality;
or to the local office of the Bu­
reau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local of­
fice of the State employment
service may be a source of in­




formation about training oppor­
tunities. Some State employment
service offices provide services
such as screening applicants and
giving aptitude tests.

MILLWRIGHTS
(D.O.T. 638.281)

N atu re of th e W ork
Millwrights are skilled crafts­
men whose principal duty is to
move and install heavy industrial
machinery and other equipment.
These workers must have a thor­
ough knowledge of the complex
industrial equipment on which
they work because it is frequently
necessary for them to dismantle,
reassemble, and aline this equip­
ment to move or install it. In as­
sembling machinery, millwrights
fit bearings, aline gears and
wheels, attach motors, and con­
nect belts. Millwrights often con­
struct concrete foundations and
platforms or fabricate metal
framework on which machinery is
to be mounted. To do this work,
they must be able to read blue­
prints and work with wood, steel,
concrete, and other building
materials.
When installing machinery,
millwrights use a wide variety of
tools and equipment. In moving
heavy machinery, for example,
millwrights use hoists, cranes,
jacks, crowbars, wood blocking,
and other assorted rigging de­
vices. In dismantling and assem­
bling
equipment,
they
use
wrenches, screwdrivers, p l i e r s ,
hammers, and various other handtools and portable power tools. In
alining and leveling equipment,
they use measuring devices, such
as micrometers, calipers, squares,

plumb bobs, and leveling instru­
ments.
Millwrights employed by com­
panies doing contract installation
work and by construction com­
panies are required to install a
wide variety of heavy machinery,
including turbines and automatic
assembly equipment. Those em­
ployed in factories may be re­
sponsible for the maintenance
and repair, as well as the instal­
lation, of the particular types of
machinery used in the industry
in which they are employed. For
example, millwrights sometimes
repair and maintain plant equip­
ment, such as conveyors, cranes,
hoists, scaffolds, pumps, and
blowers. This work may include
replacing worn or broken belts,
welding metal parts, and lubri­
cating machinery. Millwrights
sometimes work as part of a main­
tenance team of pipefitters and
machinery repairmen to keep in­
dustrial equipment in efficient
operating condition.

Places of Em ploym ent
The vast majority of the esti­
mated 75,000 millwrights em­
ployed in 1968 worked in manu­
facturing establishments. T h e
greatest number were employed
in primary metals, metalworking
industries, paper, lumber, and
chemical products firms. Most of
the remaining millwrights in the
nonmanufacturing sector were
employed in the construction
industry.
Some millwrights are em­
ployed by companies that spe­
cialize in moving, installing, and
maintaining industrial machinery
on a contract basis. Others work
for machinery manufacturers who
employ millwrights to install their
products in customers’ plants.
Millwrights work in every
State. However, about half of
them are employed in the heavily


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102