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M AR i " u "

occupational
outlook

Bureau of Labor
Bulletin No. 1450

S t a t is t ic s

. Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

Pointers on Using the H andbook
To find out what is in this Handbook and how it is arranged, see Guide to the Handbook,
page 3.
To locate an occupation or industry in this book, see:
Table of Contents, page X III.
Alphabetical Index, page X III.
For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on A Look at
Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 10.
Forecasts of the future are precarious! In interpreting the statements on the outlook in
each occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 4, as well as the
methodology presented in the Technical Appendix, page 834.
The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your information
up to date, see the chapter on Where To Go for More Information or Assistance
page 6.
You may need local information too. The Handbook gives facts about each occupation
for the United States as a whole. For suggestions on where to get information
for your own locality, see page 7.

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

EM PLO YM EN T IN FO RM ATIO N O N O CCU PA TIO N S
FO R USE IN GU IDAN CE

1966-67 Edition

A Revised Edition of the
Handbook is Published

Every 2 Years

Bulletin No. 1450
(Revision of Bulletin 1 3 75)

U N ITED STA TE S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R STA TISTIC S
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $5.00

This volume was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, with the cooperation of the following offices
of the Department—
Manpower Administration
Stanley H . Ruttenberg, Administrator
Office of Manpower, Automation, and Training
Curtis C. A ller, Director
Bureau of Employment Security
Robert C. Goodwin, Administrator
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
Hugh C. Murphy, Administrator
V/omens Bureau
Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director
Bureau of Labor Standards
Nelson M . Bortz, Director
and the
U.S. Department of Agriculture
and
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Foreword
Never before in our history has the individual American devoted so much time
and thought to the selection o f a work career. Several factors are responsible for
this, but perhaps the most significant of these is the knowledge that today’s youthful
members of the work force can anticipate changing jobs three to four times over the
course o f a career.
This development affects not only these younger workers, but every American
with an interest in today’s job market. Once, the prospect o f an individual obtaining
and holding a job for a lifetime was a realistic one for almost all o f us. Today,
however, modern technology and the new skill demands it has brought about have
introduced on the American work scene an unprecedented era of change. It is change
so sweeping that it requires the continuing attention o f all o f us; as workers, as
parents, as young people still in school.
In line with these facts, the Department o f Labor’s Occupational Outlook Hand­
book for 1966-67 offers a broadly ranging consideration o f almost all o f the principal
occupational categories in the American economy. In terms o f the work our people
actually perform, the Handbook covers 90 percent of all 16 million individuals em­
ployed in professional, technical, and managerial occupations; nearly all o f the 4y2
million sales workers; about half o f the 10.7 million clerical workers; and about 40
percent o f the 9.3 million service workers.
The new volume also reevaluates the effects o f automation, the new technology,
and recent economic developments upon the occupations the Handbook covers. It
examines new jobs which have been developing as a direct result o f automation.
In short, the Handbook represents an effort to define the modem world o f work
in America. It seeks to provide a compendium of the Nation’s job opportunities for
the use o f parents and their youngsters, for guidance and counseling experts, and
for all others in our Nation who have a deep interest in the effective matching o f
jobs and people.
W . W i l l a r d W i r t z , Secretary o f Labor

Prefatory Note
Occupational guidance in career planning and training has always been important, but
today when the unemployment rate for teenagers in our country is about triple the rate
for adults, this guidance has become critical. In the face of the current revolution in
science and technology as well as in economic and social patterns, the occupational needs
of our Nation are changing rapidly. The rate of change seems to accelerate with each
new scientific and social development, making a biennial publication of the Occupational
Outlook Handbook imperative.
The information provided in the 1966-67 edition of the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book includes descriptions of the nature of work; places of employment; educational and
training requirements; the employment outlook for about the next 10 years, including,
in most cases, estimates of annual requirements for growth and replacement needs; and
earnings and working conditions. In developing the employment outlook, consideration
was given to the present and future demand that might arise from growth and turnover
for workers in particular occupations, and to the potential supply of workers, including
supply sources such as schools and other training institutions, transfers from other
occupations, and reentries to the labor force. The balance between the outlook for supply
and demand, in those occupations where such an assessment is possible, gives an indica­
tion of the nature of the job competition facing young people in the years ahead.
The first Handbook originated with a report in 1938 from the Advisory Committee on
Education appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Committee recom­
mended that an occupational outlook service be set up in the Bureau of Labor Statistics
to provide information for the use of individuals in choosing a career, and for the use of
counselors in planning educational and training programs. The first occupational out­
look publication, entitled “ Employment Outlook for Automobile Mechanics,” was
issued in 1945 and the first Handbook, in 1949, followed thereafter by several editions.
Since 1957, the Handbook has been issued every 2 years.
Two related publications also issued regularly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
are the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a periodical which provides a continuous flow of
current information between editions of the Handbook; and the Occupational Outlook
Report Series, a set of over 100 reprints of the Handbook statements on different fields
of work. Both of these publications offer aid to young people choosing a vocation.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation
received from hundreds of officials in industry, labor organizations, trade associations,
professional societies, government agencies, educational institutions, and other organi­
zations in preparing the Handbook. Without their help the quality of the Handbook
could not be maintained.
A r t h u r M. R o s s , Commissioner of Labor Statistics

Letter From the American Personnel and Guidance Association
Both the occupational structure of our society and the process of vocational coun­
seling are becoming more complex. Consequently, any tool or reference which helps
both counselor and counselee to grasp current occupational requirements, trends, and
characteristics should be a most welcome resource. The 1966-67 edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook, following a series of successful predecessors, fulfills the unique
demands of counselors for such a comprehensive, accurate, and factual volume.
Among the many sources of career information currently available, the Occupational
Outlook Handbook has several distinguishing features not found in other comparable
publications. A singular advantage held by this reference book is the rich experience
and wide research efforts of Bureau of Labor Statistics staff members who have compiled
the material. As one of a number of editions it has been constantly improved to meet
the exacting requirements of professionally trained educational and vocational counselors.
The recency, accuracy, and factual nature of the content separates this reference from
many similar publications. The straightforward style enhances the readability for both
counselor and counselee and permits wide use of the volume by parents and lay citizens
with minimum danger of misinterpretation. It is gratifying to note that editors of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook seem to be well aware of the standards for occupational
literature as developed by the Career Information Review Service committee of the
National Vocational Guidance Association, a division of the American Personnel and
Guidance Association.
The difficult process of effective vocational counseling requires a periodic careful
balance between characteristics and needs of the individual in relation to vocational
opportunities and requirements. The professionally qualified vocational counselor
must be aware not only of the basic research and theory undergirding sound career
decisionmaking but of the many difficult-to-measure variables which impinge on the
choice process. Such factors as the need patterns of the individual, his attitudes, and
his value structure are difficult to assess but of great significance. On the information
side, the perceived status of the occupation, regional variations in working conditions,
and the social value of the job outcomes are important elements to recognize. Finally,
the developmental character of career planning, involving a continuous review of these
variables, is a basic assumption of vocational guidance. Thus, for sound counseling the
skill and professional competency of the user of any compendium such as the Handbook
is as important as the quality of the publication itself.
The availability of the 1966-67 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook and its
companion periodical the Occupational Outlook Quarterly can help counselors keep abreast
of occupational developments both current and future. The American Personnel and
Guidance Association congratulates the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the editorial staff
of the Occupational Outlook Handbook for the excellence of this significant publication.
H a r o l d F. C o t t i n g h a m , President
American Personnel and Guidance
Association

Letter From the Veterans Administration
When, in 1943, the Veterans Administration became responsible for providing
counseling and training services to disabled veterans of World War II, an immediate
need for current and reliable occupational information was recognized. The Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook was developed from a project designed to meet this need. In
these days, when technological and other changes are rapidly bringing about a manpower
revolution, the vocational counselor must have available the most effective means for
analyzing occupations in terms of probable job requirements and the relationship be­
tween training, skills, and employment.
For more than 20 years, vocational counselors in programs of the Veterans Admin­
istration have rated the Handbook a prime source of occupational information. Because
of its consistently high quality, the continuation of this publication is welcomed as a
useful reference for all counselors.
W. J. D r i v e r
Administrator of Veterans Affairs

Letter From the Bureau of Employment Security
The Bureau of Employment Security welcomes the seventh edition of the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook, the most comprehensive yet published. This Handbook is a
necessary tool in carrying out the counseling functions of the Employment Service, and
will be in even greater use in the future. A copy of the Handbook is available for refer­
ence in each of the 1,900 local employment service offices.
Many people who come to the Public Employment Service for help in finding a job
need counseling; this resulted in more than 2 million interviews in 1964. Nearly 10.8
million job seekers came to the local employment service offices, and some 6.3 million
placements in nonagricultural jobs were made. One of the major difficulties people
face in choosing a vocation is their insufficient exposure to the variety of opportunities
available to them. Usually, they measure themselves only against the kind of work
done by others with whom they come in close contact, and as a result may choose their
job without considering other possibilities. An orderly and comprehensive comparison
of one field with another is desirable, and the Occupational Outlook Handbook makes
this possible with a minimum of effort for the counselor.
R

C. G o o d w i n , Administrator
Bureau of Employment Security
U.S. Department of Labor

obert

Letter From Vocational Rehabilitation Administration
In view of the many new challenging developments in our changing economy, the
information contained in this new edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook is par­
ticularly useful in helping the 90 State rehabilitation agencies in the State-Federal
vocational rehabilitation program to prepare disabled persons for suitable employment.
The data provided in this publication will continue to be especially valuable in meeting
the needs of the steadily expanding professionalized staff of vocational rehabilitation
counselors. The work of the counselors will be greatly facilitated in their efforts to
find jobs for the increasing numbers of hard-to-place handicapped people. I congratu­
late the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its part in providing such invaluable information
through the pages of its Handbook.
M

ary

E.

Commissioner of Vocational Rehabilitation
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

S w it z e r ,

Letter From the United States Office of Education
The individual realizes his highest occupational potential when he develops a career
suitable for him and useful to society. He must be cognizant of his abilities, aptitudes,
interests, and personality traits and he must also learn about a world of work charac­
terized by changes. Accurate knowledge of both sets of facts greatly increases the
probability that an individual will be able to find and maintain his proper place in this
vast and evolving occupational complex.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook properly used by the student and his counselor
becomes a very effective tool in gaining a knowledge of the world of work. The other
six editions of the Handbook have been very helpful to school counselors. They have
come to regard it as the basic publication on occupational information. With a con­
stantly increasing number of counselors in the schools, I am sure that there will be a
greater demand than ever before for this seventh and improved edition of the Handbook.
On behalf of the United States Office of Education, I congratulate the Bureau of
Labor Statistics and the Occupational Outlook Handbook staff for continuing to provide
this most useful Handbook.
F

r a n c is

K

eppel

U.S. Commissioner of Education
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Contributors
This Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Division o f Manpower and Occu­
pational Outlook, Sol Swerdloff, Chief, under the
general direction of Harold Goldstein, Assistant
Commissioner for Manpower and Employment
Statistics.
The general planning and coordination of the
Handbook was done under the direction o f How­
ard V. Stambler, Director of Special Projects,
with the assistance o f Maxine Stewart. Bernard
Michael, Chief o f the Branch of Occupational
Outlook and Specialized Personnel, and Mrs.
Stewart provided general supervision over the
research program on professional, technical, cleri­
cal, sales, service, and related occupations. The
research and preparation o f the chapters on these
fields were carried on under the direct supervision
o f Jane H. Palmer, Sheldon H. Luskin, Michael
R. Peevey, and Neal H. Rosenthal.
Bernard Yabroff, Chief of the Branch of
Skilled Manpower and Industrial Employment
Studies, with the assistance of Allan Salt, pro­
vided general supervision over the research pro­
gram on the skilled trades and major industries,
as well as the occupations associated with both
areas. The investigation and preparation o f the
chapters on these fields o f work were carried on
under the direct supervision o f Allan F. Salt,
Russell B. Flanders, and William J. Kelley.
Members o f the Division staff who contributed
sections were: Robert G. Ainsworth, A go Ambre,
Elaine G. Briccetti, Max L. Carey, Michael F.
Crowley, Henry P. Ewald, Edward H. Ghearing,
Annie Lefkowitz, Sam Leibovitz, William J. Mc­
Collum, Ludmilla K. Murphy, Dorothy M. Orr,
Judson M. Parker, Jr., William T. Peyton, Irving
P. Phillips, Charlotte Richmond, Joseph J.
Rooney, Norman Root, Joe L. Russell, Paul M.
VIII

Ryscavage, Gerard C. Smith, John W . Sprague,
and Annie B. Wimberly.
The statistical checking o f charts and manu­
scripts was supervised by Delores F. Booker, with
the assistance of Maxine J. Mitchell. Olive B.
Clay, Catherine G. Gilbert, Beatrice H. Meadows,
Evelyn T. Polance, and Jean F. Whetzel provided
research assistance and checked manuscripts for
accuracy. Gladys B. Wash coordinated the vari­
ous processes o f preparation and publication. The
photographs were assembled and edited by Elinor
W. Abramson.
Members o f the secretarial staff who performed
typing services were: Patricia I. Gibson, Bev­
erly V. Brown, Katherine A. Caldwell, Cecilia R.
Cooper, Margie Damron, Kerry H. Forester,
Lucretia L. Harris, Betty Hungerford, Elizabeth
A. Neal, and Sylvia A. Ravenell.
The chapter on Agricultural Occupations was
prepared in the Farm Economics Division, Eco­
nomic Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, under the direction of W ylie D.
Goodsell.
Analyses o f the occupational composition o f in­
dustries for use in the Handbook were prepared
in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, Division o f
Occupational Statistics, under the supervision o f
Harry Greenspan, James Metcalf, and Richard
Dempsey.
The graphic work in the Handbook was done
under the supervision o f Anna C. Rogers, Chief,
Graphic Presentation Section, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, and was prepared by Robert Cum­
mings, Sylvia B. DeMeritt, Robert E. Lembcke,
Melvin B. Moxley, Carole F. White, and Charles
F. Wood. Robert Cummings prepared the illus­
trations for the charts.

Photograph Credits
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics gratefully ac­
knowledges the cooperation of the many nongov­
ernmental sources o f the photographs used in this
edition o f the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
The following either contributed photographs or
made their facilities available to U.S. Depart­
ment o f Labor photographers: Acacia Mutual
L ife Insurance Co.; Acme Industries, Inc.; Air
Transport Association o f America; Allied Chemi­
cal Corp.; Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America; American Airlines; American Associa­
tion o f Medical Record Librarians; American As­
sociation o f Oilwell Drilling Contractors;
American Boiler Manufacturing Association;
American Dental Association; American Dental
Hygienists Association; American Dietetic Associ­
ation ; American Federation o f Teachers; American
Home Economics Association; American Insti­
tute o f Architects; American Institute of Certi­
fied Public Accountants; American Institute of
Planners; American Iron & Steel Institute;
American Optometric Association; American
Pharmaceutical Association; American Podiatry
Association; American Security and Trust Co.;
American Society of Landscape Architects; Amer­
ican Society of Radiologic Technologists; Ameri­
can Speech and Hearing Association; American
Telephone & Telegraph Co.; American Trucking
Association; American Veterinary Medical Asso­
ciation; Argonne Cancer Research Hospital; Argonne National Laboratory; Arrow Co., Division
o f Cluett, Peabody & Co., In c.; Associated General
Contractors o f America, Inc.; Association o f
American Geographers; Atlantic Coast Line Rail­
road ; Bell Telephone Laboratories; Blue Bird Cab
Co.; Bowman Technical School of Watchmaking
& Repairing; Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers
International Union o f America ; Brotherhood of
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers o f Amer­
ica; Brotherhood o f Railroad Trainmen; Brother­
hood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight
Handlers, Express and Station Employees; Bur­
roughs Corp.; Caterpillar Tractor Co.; Chesa­

peake and Potomac Telephone C o.; Chrysler
Corp.; Cincinnati Milling Machine Co.; Clark
Equipment Co.; Clissold Publishing Co.; Colum­
bia Broadcasting C o.; Columbia Records; Congoleum-Nairn, Inc.; Dr. Harold C. Conklin, Yale
University; Container Corporation o f America;
Culinary Institute o f America; D. C. Transit C o.;
Detroit Edison C o.; Dictaphone Corp.; E. I. Du­
pont deNemours & C o.; Edmonds Opticians; Edu­
cational Council of the Graphic Arts Industry,
Inc.; Electric Appliance Service News; Famous
Artists Schools; First National Bank o f Washing­
ton; Foote, Cone & Belding; Ford Foundation;
Ford Motor Co.; General Motors Corp.; George­
town University Hospital; Harris Intertype;
Hart, Schafner & Marx; Hilton Hotels Corp.;
Industrial Marketing; International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers; International In­
stitute o f Interior Design, In c.; International
Ladies’ Garment Workers U nion; International
Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine W ork­
ers ; International Union of Operating Engi­
neers; The Iron A ge; Kaiser Aluminum and
Chemical Corp.; Kimberly-Clark Corp.; Litton
Industries; The Machinist Weekly; Madison
H otel; McDonnell Aircraft Corp.; Metropoli­
tan Opera Association, Inc.; Minneapolis-Honey well Regulator Co.; National Association for
Careers in Medical Technology; National Associa­
tion of Barber Schools; National Association of
Cosmetology School, Inc.; National Association of
Dental Laboratories; National Association of
Home Builders; National Association of Real
Estate Boards; National Automatic Merchandis­
ing Association; National Broadcasting Co.; Na­
tional Cash Register Co.; The National Observer;
National Restaurant Association; National Society
o f Professional Engineers; National Wholesale
Druggists Association; Newr York Central Rail­
road; New York Employing Printers Association;
New York Stock Exchange; The New York
Times; Nordberg Manufacturing Co.; North
American Aviation; Oklahoma Publishing Co.;
IX

X

Oldsmobile Division, General Motors C orp.;
Otis Elevator Co.; Pan American W orld A ir­
ways; Pattern Makers’ League o f North Amer­
ica; Bob Peck Chevrolet; Penton Publishing Co.,
Inc.; Philadelphia Electric Co.; Philco Corp.;
Phillips Petroleum Co.; RCA Institutes, Inc.;
Retail Clerks International Association; Reyn­
olds Metals Co.; Santa Fe Railway; Sheffield
Corp.; Sheraton Park H otel; Society of Technical
Writers and Publishers, Inc.; Standard Brands,
In c.; Standard Oil Company of California;
Standard Studios; Systems Development Corpora­

O C CU PATION AL O UTLO O K H AN D B O O K

tion; Traffic W orld Magazine; Union Carbide
Corporation; United A ir Lines; United Associa­
tion o f Journeymen and Apprentices o f the
Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry of the United
States and Canada; United States Steel Corp.;
The Washington Post; W C B S -T V ; Westinghouse
Astronuclear Laboratory, Westinghouse Atomic
Power Division, Westinghouse Electric Corp.; and
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Some photographs were furnished by various
Government agencies, and are so indicated by the
credit lines accompanying these pictures.

Note
A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and other organizations
in industry are in a position to supply valuable information to counselors or young
people seeking information about careers. For the convenience of users of this Handbook,
the statements on separate occupations or industries list some of the organizations or
other sources which may be able to provide further information. Although these
references were assembled with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authority or
facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau has no way of knowing
in advance what information or publications each organization may send in answer to
a request, the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The listing of
an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or recommendation
by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of Labor, either of the organization and its activities
or of the information it may supply. Such information as each organization may issue is,
of course, sent out on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should not be used,
as standards fo r the determination of wages, hours, jurisdictional matters, appropriate
bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. These descriptive statements are
presented in a general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected to apply exactly
to specific jobs in a particular industry, establishment, or locality.
XI

Contents
Page

USING THE HANDBOOK IN GUIDANCE SEE V ICES___________________
GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK_____________________________________________
H ow the handbook is organized__________________________________________________________________
Some important facts about the occupational reports__________________________________________,

1
3
3
4

W HERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORM ATION OR ASSISTANCE________

6

Occupational outlook service publications_______________________________________________________
Services to jobseekers at public employment offices____________________________________________

6
7

A LOOK A T TOM ORROW ’S JOBS_________________________________________
PROFESSIONAL, M ANAGERIAL, AN D RELATED OCCUPATIONS_____
Business administration and related professions________________________________________________
Accountants__________________________________________________________________________________
Advertising workers______________________________________________
Industrial traffic managers__________________________________________________________________
Marketing research workers___________ _____________________________________________________
Personnel workers____________________________________________________________________________
Public relations workers________________________________________________________________________
Purchasing agents____________________________________________________________________________
Clergy______________________________________________________________________________________________
Protestant clergymen________________________________________________________________________
Rabbis________________________________________________________________________________________
Roman Catholic priests______________________________________________________________________
Conservation occupations________________________________________________________________________
Foresters____________________________________________________________________________ _________
Forestry aids_________________________________________________________________________________
Range managers______________________________________________________________________________
Counseling____________________________________________________________________________________________
School counselors_______________________________________________________________________________
Rehabilitation counselors____________________________________________________________________
Vocational counselors________________________________________________________________________
Engineering________________________________________________________________________________________
Aerospace_____________________________________________________________________________________
Agricultural__________________________________________________________________________________
Ceramic_______________________________________________________________________________________
Chemical______________________________________________________________________ ______ _________
Civil________________________________________________ __________________________________________
Electrical______________________________________________________________________________________
Industrial_____________________________________________________________________________________
Mechanical___________________________________________________________________________________
Metallurgical___ ________________________________________________________________________________
Mining________________________________________________________________________________________
Health service occupations_______________________________________________________________________
Chiropractors_____________________________________________________________________________ ^ Dental hygienists____________________________________________________________________________
Dental laboratory technicians_________ ______ _______ _______________________________________
Dentists_______________________________________________________________________________________
Dietitians_____________________________________________________________________________________
Hospital administrators---------------------- ----------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------Licensed practical nurses____________________________________________________________________
Medical record librarians____________________________________________________________________
X III

10
22
26
28
34
36
39
41
43
47
48
50
52
54
54
56
58
61
61
64
67
70
74
75
76
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
87
89
92
94
97
99

X IV

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Health service occupations— Continued
Page
Medical technologists_______________________
101
Medical X -ra y technicians____________________________________________
104
Occupational therapists____________________________________________________________
106
Optometrists__________________________________________________________________________________
108
Osteopathic physicians________________________________________ ______ ________________________
110
Pharmacists___________________________________________________________________________________
112
Physical therapists___________________________________________________________________________
115
Physicians______________________________________________________________________________ ______
117
Podiatrists_______________
120
Registered professional nurses____________________
122
Sanitarians____________________________________________________________________________________
125
Speech pathologists and audiologists________________________________________________________
128
Veterinarians______________________________________________________________________________
130
Mathematics and related fields______________________________________
134
Mathematicians______________________________________________________________________________
134
Statisticians___________________________________________________________________________________
137
Actuaries______________
140
Natural sciences___________________________________________________________________________________
143
Biological sciences____________________________________________________________________________
143
Earth sciences________________________________________________________________________________
149
Geologists_______________________________________
149
Geophysicists_____________________________________________________
152
Meteorologists___________________________________________________________________________
155
Oceanographers__________________________________________________________________________
158
Physical sciences--------------162
Chemists_________________________________________________________________________________
162
Biochemists______________________________________________________________________________
165
Physicists__________________ - ____________________________________________________________
168
171
Astronomers_____________________________________________________________________________
Performing arts___________
175
175
Actors and actresses-------------------- --------- ------------------------------------------ — _____________________
Dancers__________________________
178
Musicians and music teachers____________________________________________________________________181
Singers and singing teachers_________________________________________________________________
184
Other art related occupations____________________________________________________________________
187
Commercial artists___________________________________________________________________________
187
Industrial designers__________________________________________________________________________
190
Interior designers and decorators________________________________________________
192
Social sciences_____________________________________________________________________________________
196
Anthropologists_______________________________________________________________________________
197
Economists____________________________________________________________________________________
199
Geographers___________________________________________________________________________________
201
Historians_____________________________________________________________________________________
203
Political scientists____________________________________________________________________________
205
Sociologists__________________________________________________________________
207
Teaching____________________________________________________________________________________________
210
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers______________________________________________
211
Secondary school teachers___________________________________________________________________
214
College and university teachers_____________________________________________________________
216
Technicians___________ _ _________________________________ __________________________________________
•
220
Engineering and science______________________________________________________________________
220
Draftsmen_____________________________________________________________________________________
228
Writing occupations_______________________________________________________________________________
231
Newspaper reporters------------------------------231
Technical writers_________________________________________________________________
234
Other professional and related occupations______________________________________________________
237
Architects__________________
237
College placement officers-----------------240
Hom e economists______________________________________ _______ - --------- --------- ----------- ------------242

CONTENTS

XV
Other professional and related occupations— Continued
Page
Landscape architects___________________________________________________________________________
245
Lawyers_________________________________________________________________________________________
248
Librarians_____________________________________________________________________________________
251
Photographers_______________________________________________________________________________
255
Programers_____________________________________________________________________________________
258
Psychologists__________________________________________________________________
262
Recreation workers__________________________________
265
Social workers__________________________________________________________________________________
268
Surveyors____________________________________________
272
Urban planners_______________________________________________________________________________
274

CLERICAL AN D RELATED OCCUPATIONS_______________________________

278

Stenographers and secretaries.................................................................................
Typists------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Receptionists___________________________________________________________________________________
Bookkeeping workers________________________________________________________
Cashiers______________________________________________^______ _________________ _______ _______
Office machine operators_______________________________________________________________________
Electronic computer operating personnel_____________________________________________________
Telephone operators___________________________________________________________________________
Shipping and receiving clerks_________________________________________________________________

289
292
295
299
302

SALES OCCUPATIONS_______________________________________________________

305

Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores____________________________________________________
Automobile salesmen____ i ...........................................................................
Automobile parts countermen_____________________________________________
Automobile service advisors___________________________________________________________________
Salesmen in wholesale trade___________________________________________________________________
Manufacturers’ salesmen______________________________________________________________________
Insurance agents and brokers_________________________________________________________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers_____________________________________________________________
Securities salesmen___________________________________ _________________________ _ _______ _____

306

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS___________________________________________________
Private household workers__________________________________________________________________________
Protective service_____________________________________________________________
F B I agents_____________________________________________________________________________________
Firefighters_____________________________________________________________________________________
Policemen and policewomen___________________________________________________________________
Other service workers_______________________________________________________________________________
Cooks and chefs________________________________________________________________________________
Waiters and waitresses_________________________________________________________________________
Hospital attendants____________________________________________________________________________
Barbers_________________________________________________________________________________________
Cosmetologists__________________________________________________________________________________

SKILLED AN D OTHER M ANUAL OCCUPATIONS________________________
Building trades______________________________________________________________________________________
Asbestos and insulating workers______________________________________________________________
Bricklayers______________________________________________________________________________________
Carpenters______________________________________________________________________________________
Cement masons (cement and concrete finishers)___ __________________________
Construction laborers and hod carriers_______________________________________________________
Electricians (construction)_____________________________________________________________________
Elevator constructors__________________________________________________________________________
Floor covering installers_____________________________________________________________
Glaziers_________________________________________________________________________________________

281

28
286
287

312
314
317
319
322
324
327

331
334
338
338
340
342
347
347
350
352
355
357

360
366
372
374
377
380
382
384
388
389
393

XVI

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Building trades— Continued
Lathers__________________________________________________________________ -i------------------------------Marble setters, tile setters, andterrazzo workers______________________________________________
Operating engineers (constructionmachinery operators)_____________________________________
Painters and paperhangers___________________________________________________
Plasterers______________________________ ________________________________________________________
Plumbers and pipefitters______________________________________________________________ : _____
Roofers________ '_______________________________________________________________________________
Sheet-metal workers____________________________________________________________________________
Stonemasons____________________________________________________________________________________
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-ironworkers, riggers, and machine m o v ers-.
Driving occupations_________________________________________________________________________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers____________________________________________________________________
Local truckdrivers______________________________________________________________________________
Routemen_______________________________________________________________________________________
Intercity busdrivers____________________________________________________________________________
Local transit busdrivers______________________________________________________________________
Taxi drivers__________________________________________________________ ______ __________________
Forge shop occupations_____________________________________________________________________________
Machining occupations____________________________________________________________________________
All-round machinists_________________________________________________________________________
Machine tool operators___________________________________________ ___________ _______________
Tool and die makers____________________________________________________________________________
Instrument makers (mechanical)____________________________________________________________
Setup men (machine tools)__________________________________________________________________
Layout men______________________________________________________________________ _ ___________
■
Mechanics and repairmen_________________________________________________________________________
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics______________________________________________
Appliance servicemen________________________________________________________________________
Automatic bowling machine mechanics_______________________________________________________
Automobile body repairmen_________________________________________________________________
Automobile mechanics_______________________________________________________________________
Business machine servicemen__________________________________________________________________
Diesel mechanics_____________________________________________________________________________
Industrial machinery repairmen_______________________________________________________________
Instrument repairmen________________________________________________________________________
Maintenance electricians____________________________________________________________________
Millwrights___________________________________________________________________________________
Television and radio service technicians____________________________________________________
Truck mechanics and bus mechanics_______________________________________________________
Vending machine mechanics_________________________________________________________________
W atch repairmen_____________________________________________________________________________
Printing (graphic arts) occupations______________________________________________________________
Composing room occupations_________________________________________________________________
Photoengravers_______________________________________________________________________________
Electrotypers and stereotypers________________________________________________________________
Printing pressmen and assistants_____________________________________________________________
Lithographic occupations____________________________________________________________________
Bookbinders and related workers___________________________________________________________
Some other manual occupations__________________________________________________________________
Assemblers______________________________________________________________________________________
Automobile painters_________________________________________________________________________
Automobile trimmers and installation men (Automobile upholsterers)____________________
Blacksmiths_____________________________________________________________________________________
Boilermaking occupations___________________________________________________________________
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory mechanics___________________________________
Electroplaters_________________________________________________________________________________
Gasoline service station attendants_________________________________________________________
Inspectors (manufacturing)__________________________________________________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen_____________________________________________________________
Power truck operators______________________________________ __________ - ----------- ---------------------

Page
394
396
399
403
406
408
411
413
416
417
422
423
427
430
433
436
439
443
448
452
454
456
458
460
461
463
465
468
471
474
477
481
487
491
492
495
498
500
504
507
510
514
519
523
524
526
528
530
533
533
535
537
540
541
544
549
551
553
555
559

X V II

CONTENTS
Some other manual occupations— Continued
Production painters__________________________________________________________________________
Stationary engineers_________________________________________________________________________
Stationary firemen (boiler)__________________________________________________________________
Welders and oxygen and arc cutters________________________________________________________
SOM E

M AJO R

IN D U S T R IE S

AND

T H E IR

O C C U P A T I O N S __________________

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing________________________________________________
Apparel industry__________________________________________________________________________________
Atomic energy field_______________________________________________________________________________
Baking industry___________________________________________________________________________________
Banking____________________________________________________________________________________________
Bank clerks___________________________________________________________________________________
Tellers________________________________________________________________________________________
Bank officers__________________________________________________________________________________
Civil aviation______________________________________________________________________________________
Pilots and copilots_________________________________________________________ _______ __________
Flight engineers______________________________________________________________________________
Stewardesses__________________________________________________________________________________
Airplane mechanics__________________________________________________________________________
Airline dispatchers___________________________________________________________________________
Air traffic controllers_______________________________________________________________________ _
Ground radio operators and teletypists____________________________________________________
Traffic agents and clerks____________________________________________________________________
Electric power industry__________________________________________________________________________
Powerplant occupations_____________________________________________________________________
Transmission and distribution occupations_________________________________________________
Customer service occupations_______________________________________________________________
Electronics manufacturing________________________________________________________________________
Foundries__________________________________________________________________________________________
Patternmakers________________________________________________________________________________
Molders_______________________________________________________________________________________
Coremakers___________________________________________________________________________________
Hotels______________________________________________________________________________________________
Bellmen and bell captains___________________________________________________________________
Front office clerks____________________________________________________________________________
Housekeepers and assistants________________________________________________________________
Managers and assistants_____________________________________________________________________
Industrial chemical industry_____________________________________________________________________
Insurance business________________________________________________________________________________
Iron and steel industry___________________________________________________________________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing_______ ___________________________________________
Petroleum and natural gas production and processing_________________________________________
Petroleum and natural gas production occupations_______________________________________
Petroleum refining occupations_____________________________________________________________
Natural gas processing occupations_______________________________ _________________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industries______________________________________________________
Radio and television broadcasting_______________________________________________________________
Radio and television announcers____________________________________________________________
Broadcast technicians________________________________________________________________________
Railroads___________________________________________________________________________________________
Locomotive engineers________________________________________________________________________
Locomotive firemen (helpers)_______________________________________________________________
Conductors_________________________________ _________________________________________________
Brakemen_____________________________________________ _______________________________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen__________________________________________________
Station agents_________________________ _______________________________________________________
Clerks_______________ ______ _______________ ____________________________________________________
Shop trades___________________________________________________________________________________
Signal department workers_________________ \_______________________________________________
Track workers________________________________ _______________________________________________
Bridge and building workers_____ ______ ____________________________________________________
778-316 0 — 05— < 2
—

\

Page
561
562
565
567
572
572
582
591
605
612
614
616
618
621
624
628
630
632
635
636
638
640
642
646
649
653
655
666
670
672
674
676
679
681
682
683
686
693
698
709
720
722
727
730
733
742
749
751
755
760
762
764
766
767
768
769
771
773
774
776

X V III

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page

Restaurants________________________________________________________________________________________
Telephone industry_______________________________________________________________________
Telephone craftsmen_________________________________________________________________________
Central office craftsmen________________________________________________________________
Central office equipment installers_____________________________________________________
Linemen and cable splicers_________
Telephone and P B X installers and repairmen________________________________________

OCCUPATIONS IN AG RICU LTU RE_______________________________________
Opportunities on farms_____________________
Opportunities on specific types of farms_________________________________________________________
Occupations related to agriculture_______________________________________________________________
Agricultural extension service workers______________________________________________________
Soil scientists_________________________________________________________________________________
Soil conservationists_________________________________________________________________________
Other professional workers_____________________________________________________________
Farm service workers________________________________________________________________________

OCCUPATIONS IN G O VERN M EN T______________________________________

777
780
784
784
786
787
789

792
793
795
800
800
801
802
804
806

808

Civilian employment_____________________________________________________________________________
Federal government______________________________________
Post office occupations________________________________________________________________
Mail carriers______________________________________________________________________
Postal clerks_______________________________________________________________________
State and local governments____________
Armed Forces_____________________________________________________________________________________

810
810
817
821
824
827
831

TECHN ICAL A P P E N D IX __________________________________________________
IN D E X TO OCCUPATIONS AND IN D U STRIES_________________________

834
837

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Using the Handbook in Guidance Services
The Occupational Outlook Handbook, now in
its seventh edition, has become an invaluable tool
in school guidance and placement programs. Over
the years, as both the Handbook and guidance
services have matured, they have become mutually
dependent on each other.
In the guidance field, the Handbook is used by
several groups. At the college level, the counselor
educator explains its contents to counselor train­
ees to help them understand specific job patterns,
characteristics of related occupations, and trends
affecting the nature and number of jobs. More
important, the counselor educator teaches the
future counselors to use this reference in everyday
guidance activities.
At the secondary school level, the teacher of
occupations finds this volume organized and writ­
ten in such readable language that his students
can use it as a reference book in understanding
different kinds and levels of work, and in discov­
ering information about careers of personal in­
terest.
However, at both secondary and collegiate
levels, the Handbook is most valued by the coun­
selor on the job, and the student who seeks help
in choosing a career. The counselor utilizes all
available facts about the youth sitting across the
desk, and about the jobs that might be suitable
for him.
In recent years, scientific knowledge has been
multiplying at an ever increasing rate. Predic­
tions are that it will increase in geometric pro­
portions in the near future. Consequently, most
occupations which are affected by scientific knowl­
edge— and what job is not?—will be subject to

change. As work patterns move with the times,
worker functions, too, will shift.
Since many occupations which will be impor­
tant a decade hence have not yet evolved, a stu­
dent with some years o f preparation before him
may be encouraged to elect a broad program of
courses and perhaps identify a general area of
interest such as science, social studies, or art.
Specialization may be delayed until a later date.
The further he goes in school, the more time he
will have to select his major field. The more fa­
miliar he is with areas o f work as described in the
Handbook, the better prepared he will be to plan
his own future as he goes along.
Most o f the career information in the Handbook
follows a uniform outline: Nature of W ork;
Where Employed; Training and Other Qualifica­
tions; Employment Outlook; Earnings and
Working Conditions; and Where To Go for More
Information. The comprehensive coverage in­
cludes basic information from which the counselor
can deduce values that contribute to job satisfac­
tion. Planning for the future requires interpreta­
tion of economic facts, anticipation o f the effect
of science and invention on various vocational
fields, and estimates o f changing occupational
emphasis. Counselors need this information and
the ability to correlate it for use in the guidance
program. The Handbook does part o f the job and
also enables the counselor to assist the student in
considering vocational goals or areas which will
utilize his strongest potentials— intelligence, spe­
cial talents, personality, interests, and values.
School counselors all over the country use the
Handbook as one o f their essential tools. It is
1

2

among the few volumes they keep on their desks for
constant reference. One counselor-trainer reports
that she always cautions her counselors-in-trainin g : “ Don’t rely on your memories for facts about
occupations. Consult the Handbook.” Surely the
counselor who fails to avail himself o f this and
other materials published by the Occupational
Outlook Service lacks some of the most authentic
and current data about occupations.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is fre­
quently used by counselors in conferring with
students who have completed a vocational interest
test and find certain occupational areas indicated
by test results. The use o f the reference makes it
easy to refer a pupil to a number of occupations
related to his vocational goals. For many coun­
selors, this book is their first reference, and from
this as a start they encourage the use o f other
materials.
The various descriptions of occupations in­
cluded in the Handbook are also available as
reprints. Counselors may place these under spe­
cific occupational headings in their reference file
and make them available to individual students
who express interest in particular occupations.
Counselors use the Handbook and related ma­
terials not only with students but also in helping
parents to counsel their children. Here the re­
prints are especially valuable, as they may be
borrowed easily for home reading.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The Handbook should broaden each student’s
background o f occupational information and un­
derstanding of the important factors influencing
occupations, thus helping him to develop desir­
able and satisfying plans for the future. Careful
study o f it by counselors, parents, and pupils
should help them to realize the many ways in
which occupations are changing, growing, and
declining. Such realization will emphasize the
need for flexible planning for the choice of a
major interest area as well as related occupations
to which these interests and abilities may lead.
Guidance services are permissive in nature and
should always be available in career planning. A
student matures and jobs evolve, making the
counselor’s function, in the present, one of effect­
ing a compatible union o f worker and work at
some time in the future. Intelligent use o f this
book can give a counselor the assurance that after
he understands what the counselee brings to his
potential vocation, he can suggest the various
areas of work which will meet these qualifica­
tions. A wise counselor, an inquiring student and
the Handbook make a good team.
F r a n k L. S ie v e r s , D irector
Guidance and Counseling Programs Branch
and
D o l p h C a m p , Chief
Occupational and Career Guidance Section
Office o f Education, 77.S. Department
o f Health, Education, and W elfare

Guide to the Handbook
This book answers many questions young
people ask when they are interested in choosing
an occupation. It provides many types of infor­
mation on occupations—the employment outlook

in each field, the nature o f the work, training and
other qualifications needed for entry, lines of
advancement, where jobs are located, and earn­
ings and working conditions.

How the Handbook Is Organized
The Handbook starts with three introductory
chapters designed to help counselors and students
make effective use o f the book and to give them
a general view of the world of work.
This chapter, the Guide to the Handbook,
describes the contents and organization o f the
book. It tells how the information was assembled
and discusses a number of points which need to be
kept in mind in interpreting the statements. The
second introductory chapter gives suggestions re­
garding supplementary sources of occupational
information and tells how readers can keep up
to date on developments affecting the employment
outlook in different occupations. This introduc­
tory chapter also contains a brief description
of the counseling, placement, and other services
available to jobseekers at local offices o f State
employment services affiliated with the U.S. Em­
ployment Service. The final introductory chapter
describes some o f the most important trends in
population and employment, both past and pro­
spective, and provides a background for interpret­
ing the reports on particular occupations.
Occupational Reports
The reports on different fields o f work make up
the main body of the book. The eight major divi­
sions o f the book are: Professional, managerial,
and related occupations; clerical and related occu­
pations; sales occupations; service occupations;
skilled and other manual occupations; some major
industries and their occupations; occupations in
agriculture; and occupations in government.

Within each o f these major divisions, occupations
are grouped into related fields.
Indexes and Appendix
To help the readers locate information on the
occupations in which they are interested, a de­
tailed list of the occupational reports, by field of
work, is included in the table o f contents at the
front o f the book. The index at the back of the
book lists occupations and industries alpha­
betically.
The technical appendix contains a discussion of
the sources and methods used in analyzing the
occupational outlook in different fields o f work.
It is designed for readers wishing more informa­
tion on this subject than is included in this chap­
ter. The appendix also contains an explanation
of the D.O.T. numbers given in the occupational
reports, to indicate where each occupation fits into
the classification system of the Dictionary o f Oc­
cupational Titles.
D.O.T. Numbers: The occupations covered in the Occur
pat tonal Outlook Handbook are organized according to
the occupational classification system developed by the
Bureau of Employment Security o f the U.S. Department
of Labor and published in the Dictionary of Occupa­
tional Titles. This Dictionary provides a code number
(the so-called D.O.T. number) for each occupation in­
cluded in it. The code numbers o f both editions of the
D.O.T. are listed, where possible, in parenthesis immedi­
ately below the main occupational group headings in the
Handbook. In the body o f the text in the Handbook,
code numbers only o f the new third edition are shown.
A table converting the code numbers o f the second edition
(the one in use at the time o f the publication o f the Hand­
book) to the code numbers o f the third edition will be
made available by the Bureau o f Employment Security at
the time the new D.O.T. is published.
3

4

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Some Important Facts About the Occupational Reports
Occupations Covered
The more then 700 occupations discussed in this
Handbook generally are those of greatest interest
to young people. Most of the large ones requir­
ing long periods o f education or training are dis­
cussed, as are a number of small but rapidly
growing fields and other occupations o f special
interest. Altogether, the occupations covered ac­
count for about 90 percent of all workers in pro­
fessional and related and in sales occupations;
nearly as high a proportion in skilled occupa­
tions ; about half in clerical and about 40 percent
in service occupations; and smaller proportions in
semiskilled occupations. The main types o f farm­
ing occupations are also discussed.
General information on many fields of work not
covered in the occupational reports is contained
in the introductions to the major divisions of the
book. These introductions are also designed to
aid the reader in interpreting the reports on indi­
vidual occupations.
Sources of Information
Information on employment trends and outlook
and the many related topics discussed in the occu­
pational reports was drawn from a great variety
o f sources. It is based in part on extensive field
investigation carried out by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics professional staff. Interviews with hun­
dreds o f persons in industry, unions, trade asso­
ciations, and public agencies provided a wealth of
up-to-date information. In addition, the Bureau’s
other research programs supplied data on employ­
ment in different industries, productivity and
technological developments, wages and working
conditions, trade union agreements, industrial
hazards, and a number o f other topics. Additional
data regarding the nature of the w
’ork in various
occupations, training and licensing requirements,
wages, and employment trends were provided by
other agencies of the Federal Government—
among them, the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training and Bureau of Employment Security in
the Department of Labor; the Bureau o f the
Census of the Department o f Commerce; the
Office of Education and the Vocational Rehabili­

tation Administration o f the Department of
Health, Education, and W elfare; the Veterans
Administration; the Civil Service Commission;
the Interstate Commerce Commission; the Civil
Aeronautics Administration; and the Federal
Communications Commission. Many other public
and private organizations— including State licens­
ing boards, educational institutions, business
firms, professional societies, trade associations,
and trade unions— also made available published
and unpublished data and supplied much helpful
information through interviews.
After the information from these many sources
was brought together and analyzed, conclusions
were reached as to prospective employment trends
in the occupations. In addition, estimates were
made of the numbers o f job openings that will be
created by retirements and deaths and transfers
out of the occupation. The supply o f new workers
likely to be available in particular fields was also
analyzed, by studying statistics on high school
and college enrollments and graduations, data on
the number o f apprentices in skilled trades, re­
entries to an occupation, and transfers into an
occupation.
Preliminary drafts of the occupational reports
were reviewed by officials of leading companies,
trade associations, trade unions, and professional
societies, and by other experts. The information
and conclusions presented in each report thus re­
flect the knowledge and judgment not only of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics staff but also of
leaders in the field discussed, although the
Bureau, of course, takes full responsibility for
all statements made.
Points To Bear in Mind in Using the Reports
In using the information on employment pros­
pects which this book contains, it is important to
keep.in mind that all conclusions about the eco­
nomic future necessarily rest on certain assump­
tions. Among the assumptions which underlie the
statements on employment outlook in this Hand­
book, are that high employment levels will be
maintained and that no cataclysmic events will
occur, such as a war or a severe and prolonged
economic depression. Such catastrophes would, of

GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK

course, create an entirely different employment
situation from that likely to develop under the
assumed conditions. But young people would
find it impossible to build their lifetime plans in
expectation o f such unpredictable catastrophes,
though, on the basis o f historical experience, they
must be prepared to weather economic ups and
downs during their working lives. The assump­
tions and methodology used in employment out­
look analysis are discussed in detail in the tech­
nical appendix, page 834.
To avoid constant repetition, the assumptions
are seldom mentioned in the reports on the many
fields o f work where the impact of a general de­
cline in business or a change in the scale of
mobilization would probably be about the same
as in the economy as a whole. On the other hand,
in the statements on occupations where employ­
ment tends to be either unusually stable or espe­
cially subject to ups and downs, the factors
affecting employment are delineated. Even in the
latter occupations, however, long-term trends in
employment are more important than short-run
fluctuations when appraising the prospects of an
individual in a career occupation.
The picture of employment opportunities given
in this book applies to the country as a whole
unless otherwise indicated. People who want sup­
plementary information on job opportunities in
their communities should consult local sources of
information, as suggested in the next chapter.
The information presented on earnings and
working conditions, as on other subjects, repre­
sents the most recent available when the Hand­
book was prepared early in 1965. Much of the
information came from Bureau of Labor Statis­

5
tics surveys, but many other sources were also
utilized. For this reason, the earnings data pre­
sented in the various occupational reports often
refer to different periods o f time, cover varying
geographic areas, and represent different kinds
of statistical measures. Comparisons between the
earnings data for different occupations should,
therefore, be made with great caution.
Reference has been made in several occupational
statements to training programs established under
the Manpower Development and Training Act
(M D T A ), to equip unemployed and underem­
ployed persons with skills needed in today’s world
of work. However, the absence o f a reference to
M D TA training for a particular occupation does
not necessarily mean that programs are not in
operation. In 1964, training programs (which last
from several weeks to 2 years) covered some 700
occupations—technical and
semiprofessional,
skilled and semiskilled, clerical and sales, service
and nonagricultural. To obtain information about
M D TA training offered in your area, contact the
local office o f the State employment service.
Finally, it should be kept in mind that infor­
mation on occupations and the employment op­
portunities they offer is only part of that needed
in making a career decision, which means match­
ing a person and an occupation. The other part
relates, o f course, to the aptitudes and interests of
the potential worker himself. In assessing their
own abilities and interests and in selecting the
occupation for which they are best suited, people
can obtain help from vocational counselors in
schools and colleges, State employment service
offices, Veterans Administration regional offices
and guidance centers, and many community agen­
cies.

W here To G o for More Information or Assistance
Persons using this Handbook may want more
detail on the occupations discussed in the occu­
pational reports, or information on fields of work
which are not covered in this publication.
Suggestions as to sources o f additional infor­
mation on the occupations discussed are given in
most of the occupational reports. In addition,
several types o f publications of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, including periodicals described
on pages 855-858, provide further information
on topics such as earnings, hours o f work, and
working conditions. Other sources likely to be
helpful include public libraries; schools; State
employment services; business establishments;
and trade unions, employers’ associations, and pro­
fessional societies. A brief description of each
follows.
Public Libraries
These libraries usually have many books, pam­
phlets, and magazine articles giving information
about different occupations. They may also have
several books and current indexes which list the
great numbers of publications on occupations,
and the librarians may be of assistance in finding
the best ones on a particular field of work.

has been assembled through special surveys made
by schools or other community agencies. Teachers
o f special subjects such as music, printing, and
shorthand can often give information about occu­
pations related to the subjects they teach.
State Employment Services
Counselors in local public employment offices
are in a particularly good position to supply in­
formation about job opportunities, hiring stand­
ards, and wages in their localities. (The services
available through the public employment offices
are described in the concluding section of this
chapter.)
Business Establishments
Employers and personnel officers can usually
supply information about the nature o f the work
performed by employees in their industry or busi­
ness and the qualifications needed for various
jobs, as well as other facts about employment con­
ditions and opportunities. The names o f local
firms in a particular industry can be found in the
classified sections o f telephone directories or can
be obtained from local chambers of commerce.

Schools

Trade Unions, Employers' Associations, and Pro­
fessional Societies

School libraries and guidances offices also often
have extensive reading materials on occupations.
In addition, school counselors and teachers usually
know o f any local occupational information which

Frequently, these organizations have local
branches, with officials who can supply informa­
tion relating to the occupations with which they
are concerned.

Occupational Outlook Service Publications
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has recently pub­
lished a Counselor's Guide to Occupational and
Other Manpower Inform ation, An Annotated B ib­
liography o f Selected Government Publications.
The bibliography, as the title suggests, lists the
6

major occupational and other manpower publica­
tions o f Federal and State government agencies
that will be useful to counselors and others in­
terested in trends and developments that have im­
plications for career decisions. This bulletin, No.

WHERE, TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION OR A S SIS T A N C E

1421, is available from the Superintendent o f Doc­
uments, Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C., 20402, at 50 cents a copy.
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics also issues a
periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quarterly,
to keep readers up to date between editions o f the
Handbook, on developments affecting employment
opportunities and on the findings of new occupa­
tional outlook research. In addition, the Bureau
issues at irregular intervals occupational outlook
bulletins which give much more detailed informa­
tion on various fields of work than can be included

7

either in the Handbook or in the Occupational Out­
look Quarterly. Further information about these
publications, and directions for ordering them, will
be found on page 855.
The Bureau will be glad to place the name of
any user of this Handbook on its mailing list to
receive announcements o f new publications and re­
leases summarizing the results o f new studies.
Anyone wishing to receive such materials should
send the request, with his address, to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C., 20212.

Services to Jobseekers at Public Employment Offices
Many of the readers o f the Handbook want as­
sistance in choosing suitable work and in finding
the right job. The U.S. Employment Service and
affiliated State employment services form a na­
tionwide organization which, through trained
employment counselors in 1,900 local offices
throughout the United States, finds jobs for
workers and workers for jobs.
A nationwide network o f Youth Opportunity
Centers in 142 presently designated metropolitan
areas will eventually be established as part o f the
Employment Service System. They will operate
in conjunction with the local community action
programs established under the Economic Oppor­
tunity Act. The goal of such centers will be to
develop an organized and coordinated community
effort toward helping young people, particularly
school dropouts and others who cannot compete
successfully in today’s job market, prepare for
and attain jobs. Outreach techniques will be
utilized to recruit and motivate youths who do
not come freely to the employment service for
help.
The centers will provide any youth under 22
with services that prepare him for employment,
develop his job opportunities, and place him in a
suitable job. These services will include explora­
tory interviewing, testing, counseling, referral to
training services, followup, and job placement.
Although the Employment Service is a FederalState system, each employment office is basically
a local community organization. It is concerned

with facilitating suitable and stable employment
for the community’s working population and with
meeting adequately the manpower needs of em­
ployers. The local office tries to do more than just
refer a worker to a job— it tries to match the
worker with the job so that the requirements of
each are satisfied. To do this, the public employ­
ment office has developed a number o f services
that are available to all jobseekers.
Counseling Services
Employment service counseling assists young
people who are starting their careers, as well as
experienced workers who wish or need to change
their occupation. The major purposes o f employ­
ment counseling are to help people gain insight
into their actual and potential abilities, their
interests, and their personal traits; to understand
the nature of occupations; and to make the best
use o f their capacities and preferences in the light
of available job opportunities.
In the employment service, the counselor has a
great store of resources, including testing facili­
ties and labor area and occupational information.
Testing. Most local offices provide testing services,
including the General Aptitude Test Battery
which measures basic abilities for many and var­
ied broad fields of work and specific jobs. These
tests help the applicant appraise his abilities and
may reveal aptitudes the jobseeker did not know
he had.

8

Job Inform ation. The State employment office
counselor has information about jobs in the com­
munity. He knows what kinds of jobs prevail in
local industry, which jobs are more plentiful,
what the hiring requirements and the opportuni­
ties for advancement are, and what the jobs pay.
In many labor areas, the counselor has informa­
tion about future occupational opportunities
based on area skill surveys, which usually cover
employers’ forecasts of their requirements for
periods up to 5 years; and on training needs sur­
veys, which include a 1- or 2-year forecast of the
labor supply and demand for a single or closely
related group o f occupations. He may also have
detailed occupational guides covering specific jobs
in the community. Since his office is a part o f the
nationwide employment service, the counselor also
has information regarding employment oppor­
tunities in other areas throughout the country.
The Job Guide fo r Young W orkers and the
Health Careers Guidebook are two publications
which the employment service counselor also uses.
The former provides job information for over 100
occupations specifically directed to the needs and
interests o f young workers. The latter includes
information on approximately 200 occupations in
the rapidly growing health services field.
Occupational Inform ation. The employment serv­
ice office has occupational information to help the
job applicant decide whether he is suited for a
particular kind of work. The Dictionary o f Occu­
pational Titles and other compilations describe
the work performed in various occupations, the
training required, lines of advancement, physical
demands, and working conditions for most occu­
pations.
Cooperative Arrangements W ith Other Com­
munity Groups. Local employment office counsel­
ors work closely with other public and private
agencies and organizations which provide special
services that the jobseeker may need in order to
be better prepared for employment. These groups
include educational, training, vocational rehabili­
tation, and health and welfare agencies.
Placement Services
The primary objectives o f the placement service
in the local employment office are to fill employers’

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

job openings with occupationally qualified work­
ers, and to locate for workers employment suited
to their skills, knowledge, and abilities. The em­
ployment office placement service is designed to
eliminate the waste of “ hit-or-miss” job hunting.
The public employment offices provide job­
seekers not only with assistance in finding employ­
ment, but also with information on the basic ele­
ments for getting and holding a job. The employ­
ment service personnel explain what to look for in
a job; what the sources are for job leads; how to
plan for job hunting; how to prepare for an in­
terview with an employer; what information and
papers to have ready; and what the proper atti­
tude and dress should be.
Local Openings. State employment office person­
nel maintain regular contacts with local employers
and know their hiring needs and their job open­
ings. Placement interviewers receive requests
from employers for many different kinds o f work­
ers. Through the local office, therefore, the job
applicant has access to a variety o f job vacancies
with many employers, just as the employer has
access to many applicants. When no suitable job
exists for an individual worker, the employment
service may attempt to find an opening for him
from likely employers.
Jobs Throughout the Country. The job clearance
system o f the nationwide network of State em­
ployment offices offers the applicant an oppor­
tunity to apply for jobs outside his area, else­
where in the State and the Nation, and even in
foreign countries. Each State employment service
prepares frequent inventories o f hard-to-fill jobs,
which are distributed to all other State employ­
ment services. This makes it possible for them to
refer local workers to out-of-area jobs for which
they qualify. In addition, a national network of
highly specialized professional placement offices
has been established in the State employment serv­
ice to speed the matching o f jobs and applicants
in professional fields.
Placement Aids. As in counseling, the informa­
tion which is available in the employment offices,
on local job opportunities for industries, occupa­
tions, and areas, and on occupational require­
ments, contributes greatly to getting the right job
for the worker, and the right worker for the job.

W H E R E TO GO FOR M O RE IN FO R M A TIO N OR A S SIS T A N C E

Also available to the jobseeker are aptitude and
proficiency tests which help determine whether an
applicant is qualified to perform satisfactorily on
specific jobs.
Services to Special Worker Groups
The Employment Service has developed tech­
niques and procedures for particular applicant
groups who may encounter special problems in
their search for suitable jobs.
For young people, special services include coun­
seling future high school graduates, and school
dropouts, and intensive efforts to promote em­
ployment opportunities. In many cities, employ­
ment service offices have long had cooperative ar­
rangements with high schools to provide counsel­
ing, testing, occupational information, and place­
ment services to seniors prior to their graduation,
as well as to those who leave school earlier. About
10,500 high schools had such arrangements in the
school year 1963-64. A nationwide network o f
Youth Opportunity Centers is being established
as part o f the Employment Service System.
The State employment offices have long main­
tained an active program for helping applicants
with vocational handicaps. In each local office,
a person is responsible for counseling and place­
ment o f the handicapped. In addition to matching
the vocational qualifications, he also matches the
physical and mental capacities o f the individual
with job requirements so that the handicap will
not affect job performance.
Special services for veterans are provided by
the employment service. Each local office has a
veterans’ representative who is fully informed

9

about veterans’ rights and benefits, and who car­
ries on job promotion for veterans. In addition,
he assists veterans in making use o f the usual
counseling, placement, and other services o f the
local office staff.
The Employment Service also has developed
techniques to deal with job problems o f middleage and older workers. Special attention is given
to assist them in making realistic job choices and
to overcome problems related to getting and hold­
ing a job. Employers have been encouraged to
remove age restrictions on hiring and to hire only
according to the qualifications o f the individual.
Similar attention is given to the employment
problems o f minority group members, and others
facing special difficulties in obtaining suitable em­
ployment. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 specifi­
cally requires the Employment Service to assist
all jobseekers without regard to their race, color,
religion, sex, or national origin. In carrying
out this mandate for equal employment oppor­
tunity, the service assists jobseekers in obtaining
employment consistent with their highest qualifi­
cations, and conducts an active program to en­
courage merit employment practices.
How To Locate the Local Employment Office
The addresses and telephone numbers of local
offices o f State employment services affiliated with
the U.S. Employment Service may be found in
local telephone directories. Jobseekers, employers,
schools, and public and private agencies helping
clients to find employment are invited to utilize
the services of the public employment offices in
their communities, and to avail themselves of the
job information maintained in these offices.

A Look at Tomorrow’s Jobs
Choosing a vocation is one of the most important
decisions a person will make in his lifetime.
Charting a career calls for not only an appraisal
by the counselor, teacher, parent, or student him­
self o f an individual’s abilities and interests, but
also for an assessment o f the fields o f work for
which there will be employment opportunities in
the future, the qualifications that will be in de­
mand, and the competition to expect from other
workers. The Handbook seeks to provide some of
this latter information, and this chapter will fur­
nish a background for understanding the outlook
and requirements in a particular occupation.
Ask a young boy or girl “ What are you going
to do for a living?” and the reply, most likely,
will be in terms of a specific occupation that in­
trigues him or her most. Although youths should
be encouraged to consider more than one occupa­
tion as their lifework— for reasons given later in
this chapter—getting all the facts about occupa­
tions is a good way to start exploring what it takes
to make one’s way in the world. Here, parents,
teachers, counselors, as well as the people employed
in a particular line of work, can help the young
clarify their impressions o f a given occupation.
But a career exploration should cover more than a
mere handful of the more popular fields.
New ways o f making things, new things to
make, and new patterns o f living are continuously
causing changes in the kinds of jobs available.
Awareness o f the dynamic changes going on in our
economy is important for both young and old. For
the young because they must adjust to what will
happen next in the world around them. For the
old because they advise and guide the young.
An attitude o f continuing curiosity, alertness, and
critical evaluation is essential to all who look for
ways to prepare for the future.

become more complex and specialized, thus pro­
viding an imposing and often confusing number
of choices.
How does one find the way through this grow­
ing forest of jobs? A first step is to stand back
and look at jobs in terms o f broad groupings—
jobs which have similar broad characteristics,
such as entrance requirements or potential earn­
ings, and offer a similar way o f life and labor.
Our civilian labor force o f over 70 million per­
sons can be separated into 11 different occupa­
tional groups. (See chart 1.) Semiskilled work­
ers make up the largest occupational category.
About 13 million people today are engaged in
assembling goods in factories; driving trucks,
buses, cabs; and operating machinery. There are
almost 11 million clerical workers, people who op­
erate computers and office machines, keep records,
CHART 1

EMPLOYMENT IN MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS
Millions of workers. 1964

Semiskilled workers

Clerical workers

Skilled workers

Professional & Technical

Proprietors & Managers
Service workers, exc.
Private Household
Sales workers

Unskilled workers, exc. farm

Private Household workers

Occupational Profile
As our industrial society grows bigger, more
complex, and more specialized, the occupations
reflect these changes; and the occupations in turn
10

Farmers & farm Managers

Farm Laborers & Foremen

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS

take dictation and type. Skilled workers, num­
bering about 9 million, include carpenters, tool
and die makers, instrument makers, all-around
machinists, electricians, and typesetters.
Professional and technical workers, the fourth
largest occupational group, include among their
8 Y2 million such highly trained personnel as
teachers, engineers, physicians, lawyers, and cler­
gymen. Proprietors and managers, people who are
in business for themselves or manage the opera­
tions o f commercial, industrial, or public em­
ployers, total about 7% million. There are almost
7 million service workers, men and women who
maintain law and order, assist professional nurses
in hospitals, give haircuts and beauty treatments,
serve food and beverages, and see to it that the
public is satisfactorily accommodated in hotels
and restaurants, airplanes, ships, and railroad
trains. Sales workers, about 41 million strong,
/2
are found in retail stores, wholesale firms, insur­
ance companies, real estate agencies, as well as
offering wares door-to-door.
Unskilled workers (excluding those in farming
and mining) amount to a little over 3 ^ million,
and for the most part, they are busy moving, lift­
ing, and carrying materials and tools in the Na­
tion’s workplaces. Private household workers—
maids, governesses, laundresses, caretakers, but­
lers—total about 5.3 million. Farmers and farm
managers, numbering about 2.3 million, get their
chores done with the help of a little over 2 million
farm laborers and foremen.

11

sis is on providing services. The efforts of most
American workers are claimed by such activities
as teaching; caring for the personal health and
well-being o f other people; selling; repairing and
maintaining all kinds of equipment; providing
recreation, transportation, delivery service and
utilities; and providing banking services and meet­
ing insurance needs.
This fairly general grouping o f industries into
goods and service producers, may be subdivided
into nine major groups, according to their product
or service. ( See chart 2.)
We can get an idea of how the major industry
groups have been changing by looking at some
employment figures by industry that were col­
lected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. A l­
though the total number o f employees in all
groups has increased by nearly a third since the
end of W orld W ar II, the same degree o f growth
did not occur in each industry group. (See chart
3.)
CHART 2

EMPLOYMENT IN M AJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS,
1964

____
Millions of workers-!/

0

5

Industrial Profile
Learning about work means knowing the place
where the work is done. The “ where” is quite im­
portant, for any skill may be sought by a wide va­
riety o f employers. A clear view of the “ where”
comes from a look at the industries which are the
source o f jobs. To help understand our industries,
they too can be grouped into major divisions, the
industries in each usually representing roughly
similar lines o f economic activity.
Industries may be viewed in terms o f whether
they produce goods or whether they produce serv­
ices. Production of goods—raising food crops,
building houses, extracting minerals, and manu­
facturing articles no longer occupies most o f the
Nation’s workforce. Today’s employment empha­

y

Wage and salary workers
except agriculture

10

15

20

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

12
CHART 3

INDUSTRIES PROVIDING SERVICES OFFER MORE JOBS
THAN THOSE PROVIDING GOODS___
M illio n s o f P e rso n s

u

except agriculture

Among the goods-producing industries—manu­
facturing, construction, and mining—which em­
ployed nearly 26 million workers on their payrolls
in 1964, employment has increased slowly in recent
years. Significant gains in productivity, resulting
from automation and other technological develop­
ments, as well as the growing skills of the work
force have permitted large increases in output
without corresponding increases in employment.
A griculture, which once employed more than
half o f all workers, employed only 6 percent, or
5 million workers in 1964, a drop of nearly 42
percent since 1947. Decreases in the number of
farms, rapid mechanization and improved ferti­
lizers, feeds, and pesticides have permitted large
increases in output at the same time that employ­
ment has fallen sharply.
Manufacturing— still the largest group with
about 17 million workers—had an employment in­
crease o f about 11 percent between 1947 and 1964.

New products for industrial and consumer mar­
kets and the rapid growth o f the defense-space
market have spearheaded the post W orld War I I
employment growth.
Contract construction employment, now at 3 mil­
lion, has increased 57 percent between 1947 and
1964. The Nation’s rapidly growing need for
homes, offices, stores, highways, bridges, dams, and
other physical facilities resulted in a sharp in­
crease in construction employment.
Mining, which had fewer than 1 million workers
in 1964 has declined considerably in importance
since 1947. Between 1947 and 1964, mining em­
ployment fell by more than 33 percent, primarily
because of laborsaving technological changes and
a shift to sources of power other than coal.
There were 37 million workers on the payrolls
o f the service-producing industries in 1964, and
employment has increased markedly since 1947.
The major reasons have been (1) population
growth; (2) increasing urbanization, with its ac­
companying need for more city services; (3) ris­
ing income and living standards with coincident
demand for improved services such as health,
education, and security. Except for the transpor­
tation and utilities group, all service industries
have grown in both size and importance as a source
of jobs in the past decade and a half.
Trode has expanded sharply since 1947. Whole­
sale and retail outlets have multiplied in large
and small cities to satisfy the needs o f our increas­
ingly urban society. Employment in trade totaled
12 million in 1964, an increase of more than 36
percent since 1947.
Government employment has grown faster than
any other industry— an increase of nearly 74 per­
cent between 1947 and 1964. This growth has been
mostly in State and local governments, which ac­
counted for three-quarters o f all government em­
ployment in 1964. Employment increases have
been greatest in education, health and hospitals,
sanitation, and police services. Overall total gov­
ernment employment rose from 5.5 million in 1947
to 9.5 million in 1964.
Services and miscellaneous industries. Our
rapidly growing needs for maintenance and re­
pairs, advertising, domestic service, laundry, hotel
service, and other services have resulted in rapid
employment increases in these industries. Over

13

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS

the 1947-64 period, total service employment rose
from slightly more than 5.0 million workers to
more than 8.5 million.
Transportation and other utilities. The tre­
mendous jump in air and bus travel has been more
than offset by declines in the railroad industry,
resulting in an overall drop o f nearly 5 percent
in employment in this industry group since 1947.
Employment fell from 4.2 million in 1947 to 4.0
million in 1964.
Finance, insurance, and real estate, though
relatively small in employment, has grown rap­
idly since 1947. During the 1947-64 period, em­
ployment in this industry grew from 1.8 million
to 2.9 million, an increase o f nearly 68 percent.
The Forces of Change
What people do for a living and how they do it
depends on the size and needs of the population to
be served, the educational and skill levels of
workers, scientific discoveries and their applica­
tion in industrial technology, changes in the or­
ganization o f business functions and tasks, and
the shifts in demand for goods and services.
Recent years have seen dramatic technological
breakthroughs. Molecular miracles have been per­
formed in research laboratories to produce the
materials that can withstand the rigors of the
nuclear and space age, materials that are also
extremely useful in earthbound endeavors. The
quest for perfection in measuring instruments and
sensing devices to explore the outer space as well
as the inner space—secrets now locked in the
heavens above and the earth and ocean below—
pays off even in improving ways of refining oil,
producing steel, making television sets and appli­
ances, or processing food.
We are also in the midst o f a revolution in man­
agement techniques. The electronic computer—
hallmark o f automation— has been accompanied
on the business and industrial scene by the trend
toward a “ systems” approach. This means that
all activities in an enterprise— such as produc­
tion, warehousing, sales, finance, personnel, and
purchasing—are ever more closely coordinated so
that an organization can reach its goals with least
effort at least cost. In many places of business,
this means drastic changes.

The Outlook for Industrial Change
As industries change, so do their manpower
needs: A new machine or a newly automated
process may require new ways o f working, differ­
ent worker skills and characteristics, or perhaps
may even create an entirely new occupation; a
change in the amount produced may affect the
number o f workers needed; an invention may all
but eliminate an industry. Having looked at what
has happened in the past and where we stand now,
those about to choose a career will want to know
what can be expected to happen next. This is
where projections come in— estimates o f future
requirements based on the best available informa­
tion.
In general, job growth will continue to be faster
in the service-producing industries than in the
goods-producing industries. However, the indus­
try divisions within the goods-producing sector
are expected to show an inconsistent pattern, as
shown in chart 4.
One of the major industry groups facing a con­
tinuing decline in manpower needs is agriculture.
Continuation o f the factors resulting in past de­
clines—rapid mechanization, improved fertilizer
CHART 4

WHILE TOTAL EMPLOYMENT WILL GO UP BY
ONE-FOURTH BY 1975 . . . .
Industry Growth Rates Will Vary Widely
Projected employment growth

Industry

Decline

No
change

Less
than
average

Average

G o v e rn m e n t

S e rv ic e s
C o n tra c t
c o n stru c tio n
W h o le s a le an d
retail tra d e
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e
a n d re a l esta te
M a n u fa c tu rin g

T r a n s p o r ta t io n a n d
p u b lic u tilities

M in in g

A g r ic u ltu r e

■ /V
/

/

More
than
average

14
and feeds, and a decrease in the number of farms,
particularly the small low-income-producing
units— is likely to continue. The outlook is for a
1975 farm work force one-fifth lower than in 1964.
Mining is the only major nonagricultural indus­
try division in which no increase in manpower
requirements is expected. In bituminous coal min­
ing, where the number of production workers has
dropped sharply in recent years— from 425,600 in
1947 to 133,300 in 1964—employment by 1975 may
drop somewhat below’ the 1964 level. Minor em­
ployment increases may occur in quarrying and
other nonmetallic mining. In total, the job level
in the entire mining group, which fell by one-third
from 955,000 in 1947 to 635,000 in 1964, will prob­
ably experience little change in the next decade.
Contract construction is expected to grow at a
more rapid rate than the average for all nonfarm
industries, if general business conditions remain
good. (See qualifiers at end o f this chapter for
discussion o f assumptions underlying these pro­
jections.) A healthy and expanding economy will
spur the construction o f industrial plants and
commercial establishments such as office buildings,
stores, and banks. The volume of construction
maintenance and repair, which now is about onethird o f new construction activity, is also expected
to growr significantly in the next 10 years. Home
and apartment building will be stimulated by the
increase in population and new family formation,
by higher income levels, and by continuing shifts
o f families from cities to the suburbs. Large gov­
ernment expenditures for school construction,
roads, and urban renewal are also very likely.
Overall, the outlook is for construction employ­
ment to increase by more than one-third between
1964 and 1975.
Manufacturing employment may grow by al­
most one-fifth in the decade ahead, although the
growT will vary for individual manufacturing
th
industries. Electrical equipment and supplies,
and instruments and related products makers are
expected to be hiring the largest number o f new
personnel. Machinery makers, too, should do rela­
tively well in additional hiring. In the ordnance
industry (including missiles), the rapid employ­
ment growth o f recent years is not expected to
continue, and manpower needs should remain rela­
tively unchanged over the next 10 years. Pro­
ducers of rubber and plastic products, paper,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

chemicals, and printing will be among the other
growth industries. In some manufacturing in­
dustries, however, manpower needs may actually
decline, as in the petroleum refining, tobacco,
leather, and textile mill products industries.
Government—mostly State and local—will be
a major source of new jobs in the coming decade.
The employment level in government may be as
much as one-half higher in 1975 than in 1964. The
great bulk of the openings in government will be
for people who work for State and local govern­
ment—teachers, policemen, firemen, and public
health service personnel. Local governments—
cities, counties, townships, school districts—and
State governments employed about 7.2 million
workers in 1964, and their manpower needs may
increase by nearly two-thirds over the 1964—
75
period. The Federal Government has fewer than
214 million civilian workers and its employment
needs are expected to change little during this
period.
Service industries will be among the fastest
growing industries during the next 10 years.
About one-half more workers will be employed in
this industry division in 1975 than in 1964. As
our population becomes increasingly needful of
health services due to the increases in the numbers
of both the young and old, medical and health
services will have to be expanded substantially.
Business services—advertising, accounting, audit­
ing, and data processing; collection agencies; and
maintenance firms—are also certain to grow.
Manpower requirements in educational services
(public and private) are expected to grow espe­
cially fast, as more young people attend schools
at all levels. Manpower requirements in educa­
tion are also expected to be affected sharply by
expanded government programs to provide voca­
tional and adult education and training and edu­
cation for youth, the poverty-stricken, and the
unemployed.
Employment in wholesale and retail trade may
grow by nearly one-fourth between 1964 and 1975,
somewhat more slowly than nonfarm employment
as a whole. Although an ever-increasing volume
o f merchandise will be distributed to a growing
market, the rate o f increase in manpower needs
will be slowed down by the growing use of selfservice, vending machines, electronic data-processing, and automated warehousing techniques.

15

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS

A substantial part of the job growth in retail
trade will come from the need for part-time
workers, especially women, as suburban shopping
centers multiply and stay open during evening
hours.
Job growth in finance, insurance, and real
estate will keep in step with the overall employ­
ment advance in the nonfarm economy. The fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate group by 1975
may expand their payrolls by one-fourth over the
3 million employed in 1964. That is a slower
growth rate than the industry division registered
in the past.
The most rapid employment advance in the
division will be made by banking. An industry
that now employs every fourth worker in the
group—banking—may employ about 50 percent
more workers 10 years from now. H alf o f the
finance, insurance, and real estate work force now
consists of women, a pattern that is not likely to
change materially in the years ahead. Thus, this
industry division will continue to provide a prom­
ising field of job opportunities for women.
The number of jobs in transportation and public
utilities is expected to show little or no change by
1975. Widely differing employment trends—in­
creases in air and motor freight transportation;
little or no change in communication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; and decline in railroad em­
ployment—may just about offset one another.
The Outlook for Occupational Change
Increased mechanization and streamlining of
work have led to fundamental changes in the Na­
tion’s occupational structure. White-collar work­
ers— professional, managerial, office, and sales
workers—on the increase since the beginning of
this century, outnumbered blue-collar or manual
workers— craftsmen, operatives, and laborers—
for the first time in 1956. (See chart 5.) We may
expect a continuation of the more rapid growth of
the white-collar occupations; a slower growth in
the blue-collar occupations; a faster-than-average
growth among service workers; and a further de­
cline among farmers and farm laborers.
Compared with the expected growth of about
one-quarter in total employment between 1964
and 1975, an increase o f nearly one-third is an­
ticipated for white-collar jobs, and nearly a fifth
for blue-collar occupations. By 1975, white-collar
(778—
316 O— 65------ 3

CHART 5

EMPLOYMENT HAS SHIFTED TOWARD
WHITE-COLLAR OCCUPATIONS.........

M illion s of p e rso n s

jobs may make up nearly one-half of all employed
workers, compared with slightly more than twofifths in 1964.
The greater growth expectation for white-collar
jobs reflects the continued expansion anticipated
for the service-producing industries that employ
a high proportion of white-collar workers; (see
chart 6) also important are the growing demands
for personnel capable of performing research and
applying scientific findings in industry; the in­
creasing needs for educational and health services;
and a continuing growth in the amount o f paper­
work necessary in all types o f enterprises. A l­
though the number of blue-collar workers as a
group will increase at a much slower rate than
that of white-collar workers, the number o f crafts­
men will grow at about the same rate as total em­
ployment. The following section describes in
somewhat greater detail the changes expected to
occur in the broad occupational groups over the
next decade.
The fastest growing occupation during the next
10 years (see chart 7) will continue to be the
professional, technical, and kindred occupations.
Personnel in these areas will be in sharp demand
as the Nation explores new approaches to educa-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

16
CHART 6

PROPORTION OF WHITE-COLLAR, BLUE-COLLAR,AND
SERVICE WORKERS IN MAJOR NONAGRICULTURAL
INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1964. . . .
Percent

0

20

40

60

80

100

A L L N O N A G R IC U LTU R A L
IN D U STR IES

Finance, insurance, and real
estate
Public administration

Wholesale and retail trade
Services (including educational,
medical, and other)
Transportation, communication,
and other public utilities
Manufacturing

Forestry, fishing, and mining

Construction

tQQOQOj White-collar
.V x W v l workers

| 1 I "— ] Blue-collar
l
IlSI&SSal workers

ice workers in hospitals and other institutions is
also anticipated. Other categories o f service
workers for which requirements are expected to
increase rapidly include waiters and waitresses,
cooks, counter and fountain workers, and char­
women and cleaners. The chief reason for antici­
pating growth in these latter occupations is the
expected expansion in the food service business
and in hospitals and other types of public build­
ings and institutions. The group may see their
rapid growth facilitated by the new Federal pro­
grams to train workers in these occupations.
Clerical workers will be in strong demand, par­
ticularly those qualified to handle jobs created by
the change to electronic data processing, and those
skilled in work involving public contacts. The
demand is expected to be slow for file clerks, calcu­
lator operators, pen-and-pencil recordkeepers.
The need for clerical workers as a group is ex­
pected to increase by more than one-third between
1964 and 1975.
While the demand for skilled workers is spurred
by the growing needs for mechanics and repair-

Service
workers

CHART 7

tion, bends greater effort towards America’s so­
cioeconomic progress, urban renewal, transporta­
tion, harnessing the ocean, enhancing the beauty
o f the land, and conquering outer space. Today,
thousands o f men and women are working in fields
that were little known only a decade ago— cryo­
genics, bionics, ultrasonics, microelectronics. The
quest for scientific and technological knowledge
is bound to grow, thus sharply boosting the de­
mand for both specialists and those who can func­
tion effectively in several fields. The next decade
will see a new emphasis on the social sciences, and
educational and medical services. Overall, by
1975 the requirements for those workers may be
more than two-fifths higher than in 1964.
Service workers, a diverse group, may also in­
crease by as much as two-fifths by 1975, or nearly
as rapidly as professional workers. A relatively
rapid rise in demand for protective service work­
ers such as policemen and firemen is to be ex­
pected as the population increases in urban and
suburban communities. A very substantial in­
crease in the demand for attendants and other serv­

JOB OPPORTUNITIES GENERALLY WILL INCREASE
FASTEST IN OCCUPATIONS REQUIRING THE MOST
EDUCATION AND TRAINING. . . .

Projected employment growth

Decline

Major
Occupational Group
Professional, technical.

S e r v ic e w o r k e r s

C le r ic a l w o rk e rs

S k ille d w o rk e rs

M a n a g e r s , o f f ic ia ls ,
p ro p rie to rs

1 g' 1 a n d

S a le s w orkers

• -i S e m is k ille d

w o rk e rs

L a b o re r s (nonfarm )

Fa rm w o rk e rs

No
change

Less
than
average

Average

More
than
average

, ]

17

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS

men, building trades craftsmen, and foremen,
there are technological changes underway in the
manufacturing industries which tend to limit the
expansion o f the group. About average growth is
expected between 1964 and 1975.
Managers, officials, and 'proprietors as a group
also will increase at about the average rate for all
occupations. The demand for salaried managers
and other officials in business organizations and
government is expected to continue to increase at
a fairly rapid rate. Although the number of in­
dependent businessmen declined substantially dur­
ing the post war period, this trend is expected to
level off in the years ahead.
Although the activity at both retail and whole­
sale level will rise considerably in the coming
decade, the number of sales workers will increase
more slowly than other white-collar groups.
Changes in distribution methods, such as selfservice, automated vending, and allied techniques
are likely to have a restrictive influence on em­
ployment growth. Nevertheless, the overall in­
crease in the needs for sales workers will be about
average for all workers—about a one-fourth in­
crease between 1964 and 1975.

First, there is the matter of numbers. Just as
our population provides the market for most of
the goods and services the Nation produces, it
also provides the men and women who will work
to produce these goods and services. Not all of
the 195 million people in the Nation work today;
neither will all o f the 226 million people the
country will have in 1975. (See chart 9.) The
CHART 8

JOB OPPORTUNITIES ARE DETERMINED BY
GROWTH PLUS REPLACEMENT . . . .

0

Thousands of Workers Needed 1965-75
200
400
600
800
1000

Elementary School Teachers

Engineers

Registered Professional Nurses

Electricians

Tool and Die Makers

A Word About Job Openings
Job opportunities spring from two sources; net
growth and replacement needs. The next decade
will see at least as many job openings created
through the need to replace workers who retire,
die, or leave the work force for other reasons, as
from the net growth in employment. Replacement
needs will be particularly acute in occupations
with a large proportion o f older workers who have
relatively few years o f working life left; and in
those occupations with a large proportion of
women, because many women leave the labor force
to take care o f family responsibilities. On the
other hand, in rapidly growing occupations made
up mainly o f young men with a long working life
ahead o f them, growth in the occupation will be
the principal source of new jobs. (See chart 8.)

CHART 9

POPULATION WILL REACH 226 MILLION IN 1975
16 PERCENT MORE THAN IN 1965 . . . .
M illio n s

Future Working Population
Turning from the types of workers likely to be
in demand in the coming decade, the next question
is whether our manpower resources will match job
requirements.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

1200

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

18

labor force—men and women age 14 and over, who
are working or looking for work—now numbers
about 78 million and is likely to grow almost 20
percent over the next 10 years, reaching nearly 94
million in 1975.
Although the number of all workers and job­
seekers will increase by about 20 percent from
1965 to 1975, as shown in table 1, the growth in
the labor force is really a story o f young people.
Young men and women between the ages of 25
and 34 will increase in number at a rate double
that for the labor force as a whole. The people
who will be in the 25 to 34 age group in 1975 are
today in the 14 to 24 age bracket— an age group
whose primary concern now would ordinarily be
with education and training.
What happens if a young person lacks the quali­
fications, education, and training that are the raw
materials necessary to build a career ? Present ex­
perience shows that the less education and train­
ing, the less chance a worker has for a good, steady
job. (See charts 10 and 11.) Unemployment
falls heaviest on workers with the least education.
Young workers having completed less than 8 years
of school will have 7 times the unemployment rate
of college graduates. Similarly, workers in the
least skilled group— laborers—are 7 times as likely
to be unemployed as professional workers.
Education and Training for Occupational Change
The developments in every broad occupational
group seem to call for ever ipore education and
training. And the need for educational and skill
upgrading will not be confined to the rapidly
growing professional and technical fields, nor
even to white-collar employment generally. The
demand for better educated and trained workers
appears to be all-inclusive.
The need for education is further underscored
by the likelihood that a person may face several
job changes during his working career. No longer
can a boy or girl expect just one occupation to
cover a lifetime of work. Even today, a 20-yearold man could be expected to change jobs 6 or 7
times, during his work life expectancy of 43 years.
Being able to adjust to changing ways of work
applies to women as well, because little is likely
to remain the same over the 40 years a single wom­

T

a b l e

1.

C

h a n g e s

in

t h e

L

a b o r

F

o r c e

,

1965-75

Number of persons
(in millions)
Labor force group

Esti­
mated,
1965

Projected,
1975

Percent
change,
1965-75

78.4

In the career commitment age range, 25-34:
In the career peak age range, 35-54:
In the advanced career age range, 55 and
over:

93.6

19.4

10.5
6.3

13.9
8.6

32.0
36.3

10.7
4.2

15.0
6.1

40.4
45.0

21.7
11.5

In the formal education age range, 14-24:

21.5
12.6

-.8
9.7

9.0
4.6

9.9
6.0

10.3
32.4

N o t e : Because of rounding; sums of individual items may not equal
totals. Percentages computed from unrounded figures.

an can, on the average, plan on working. Even
married women, on the average, can count on
rather lengthy work life expectancies—about 30
years for those without children, and about 25
years for those with children. To be able to switch
from one specific job to another, a person must
C H A R T 10

U N E M P LO Y M E N T RATES ARE H IG H E ST FO R
Y O U N G W O R K E R S A N D F O R T H O S E W IT H
TH E L E A S T S C H O O L I N G
YEARS OF SCHOOL
COMPLETED
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Less than 8 years

8 years

HIGH SCHOOL
1 to 3 years

4 years

COLLEGE
1 to 3 years

4 years or more

Unemployment Rate. March 1964

0

5

10

15

20

19

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS
C H A R T 11

U N E M P L O Y M E N T H IT S H A R D E S T A M O N G T H O S E IN T H E L E A S T S K IL L E D J O B S

P e rc e n t u n e m p lo y e d , 1964

I 5 ---------------------------------

LABORERS

OPERATIVES

SERVICES

SKILLED

CLERICAL

SALES

PROFESSIONAL
AND TECHNICAL

MANAGERIAL.
O
FFICIALS, AND
PROPRIETORS

have an educational background broad enough to
enable him to absorb the training and retraining
that will be necessary to permit him to switch.
“ Stay in school” is indeed the motto for the
decade ahead. Today, just about 2 out o f 3
workers in the 25 to 34 age group—people who
have more or less obtained the education and
training necessary for beginning a career—have
a high school education or better. By 1975, 3 out
of 4 workers in this age group will be similarly
equipped. Thus, those without a high school edu­
cation are likely to face tough sledding in finding
satisfactory and rewarding work. There was a
time when experience alone carried a lot of weight
on an application form. Experience, to be sure,
remains an important consideration, but an effec­
tive formula for advancement today calls for an­
other important ingredient—education. Experi­
ence carries must less weight these days than, say,
20 years ago. Much of it can become obsolete over­
night due to technological change.
The monetary advantages of education, depicted
in tables 2 and 3, are significant. The value
o f an education—besides the many intangible
yet important ways it enhances a person’s life—

T a b l e 2. E s t im a t e d A v e r a g e L if e t im e E a r n in g s of
E l e m e n t a r y a n d H ig h S c h o o l M a l e G r a d u a t e s ,
S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t io n s
Lifetime earnings from age 18 to 64
Occupation

High
Elementary
school
school
graduates graduates

Differen­
tial

C raftsmen , F orem en , and K indred
W orkers

Average_______________________

$207,000

$243,000

$36,000

Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile
setters---------- . -------------------------------Carpenters____________ ___________ .
Compositors and typesetters--------------____ _______ ___________
Electricians—
Linemen and servicemen, telegraph,
telephone, power------ ------ ---------------

204,000
178,000
229,000
236,000

233,000
209,000
254,000
257,000

29,000
31.000
25.000
21,000

228,000
215.000
191.000
167,000
197,000
222,000
264,000

263,000
239.000
216.000
189,000
239,000
252,000
282,000

35,000
24.000
25.000
22,000
42,000
30,000
18,000

Average....... ..................................

186,000

210,000

24,000

Busdrivers............................... ................
Mine operatives and laborers_________
Truck and tractor drivers...... ................
Operatives and kindred workers______

172,000
173,000
189,000
188,000

196,000
212,000
212,000
212,000

24,000
39,000
23,000
24,000

147,000

181,000

34,000

184,000
215,000
192,000

189,000
244,000
230,000

5,000
29,000
38,000

Mechanics and repairmen......................
Painters, construction and maintenancePlasterers----------------------------------------Plumbers and pipefitters......................
Toolmakers, and diemakers and setters.
O peratives

and

K indred W orkers

S ervice W o rkers , I ncluding P ri ­
vate H ousehold

Average......... ...........................
Barbers....... ............ ............... ...............
Firemen, fire protection______________
Policemen and detectives..... ..................

S o u r c e : Basic data from the 1960 Census of Population, U.S. Department
of Commerce.

20
is also demonstrated in chart 12. People with a
better education are not only likely to earn more,
but they are likely to see their earnings rise for a
longer period than those with limited schooling.
These facts point out that education and occu­
pation are together an index to probable future
income and chances for steady employment.
Young people who have acquired a skill or good
basic education will have a better chance at in­
teresting work, good wages, and steady employ­
ment. Getting as much education and training as
one’s abilities and circumstances permit should
therefore be top priority for today’s youth.
Qualifiers
No one can accurately forecast the future, but
the estimates presented in the Hundbook are
based on the best information available. O f
course, some aspects o f the future are easier to
predict and can be predicted more accurately than
others. For example, the number o f young peo­
ple who will be 18 years old in 1975 can be esti­
mated with a very high degree o f accuracy, be­
cause these are the same individuals whom the
census counted as 3-year olds in 1960. On the
other hand, forecasting employment o f automo­
bile assemblers in 1975 is extremely difficult. The
first estimate o f 18 year-olds will be affected only
by the death rate among boys and girls who were
3 years old in 1960, and this rate, extremely low,
stays about the same from year to year. Em­
ployment o f automobile assemblers, however, can
be affected by the changing demand for Ameri­
can-made automobiles, shifts in buyers’ prefer­
ences (toward the “ compact” car, for instance),
changes in the ways cars are made (more auto­
mation or greater use of turbine engines) and
economic developments outside the automobile in­
dustry that are almost impossible to foresee.
Nevertheless, using the wealth o f information
available and the best judgment o f informed ex­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

perts, it is possible to describe at least in broad
terms, what the work future will be like.
To forecast the demand for certain kinds of
workers, specific assumptions have to be made
about general economic movements and broad
national policy. The picture o f the future as re­
flected in the Handbook is based on four funda­
mental assumptions:
(1) that high levels o f economic activity and
employment will be maintained over the long run,
even though there may be temporary recessions;
(2) that there will be no major war, but at the
same time, the defense program will continue at
about the current level;
(3) that scientific and technological advances
will continue;
(4) that the institutions and fundamental eco­
nomic structure o f the United States will not
change significantly.

T able 3. E stim at e d A verage L if e t im e E ar n in g s
f e ss io n a l

Men,

by

L evel

of

of

P ro­

E ducation

Lifetime earnings from age 18 to 64
Occupation
Average

4 years of
high school

$721,000
594.000
642.000

$717,000
589.000
621.000
Engineers:
Aeronautical - ............... .............
Electrical______________________
Mechanical____________________
Civil__________________________
Natural scientists:
Chemists____ ____ ____________
Social scientists:

Teachers:

Accountants_______________________
Clergymen............................................

4 or more
years of
college

395,000
372,000
360,000
335,000

$378,000
327,000
339,000
285,000

418,000
406,000
399,000
380,000

446.000
415.000
327.000
310,000

274,000

470.000
431.000
351.000
322,000

413.000
335.000
335.000

432.000
345.000
387.000

232.000
261.000
324.000
313.000
175,000

241.000
265.000
328.000
362.000
184,000

286,000
156,000

Source : Basic data from the 1960 Census of Population, U.S. Department
of Commerce.

21

A LOOK AT TOMORROW’ S JOBS
C H A R T 12

Professional, Managerial, and Related Occupations
Professional and administrative occupations
have many attractions for young people choosing
a career. These occupations offer opportunities
for interesting and responsible work and, in many
cases, lead to high earnings. As a rule, however,
they can be entered only after long periods o f
specialized education or other preparation, be­
cause a broad knowledge of one’s field is an essen­
tial requirement for success in these types o f work.
Nearly one-fourth o f all workers in 1965 were
in professional, administrative, and related occu­
pations. These occupations—employing more
than 16^ million people—accounted for more
than half o f all white-collar employment.
The professions generally require either college
graduation— often with an advanced degree—
or experience o f such kind and amount as to
provide comparable knowledge. Professional oc­
cupations are o f two main types. Most profes­
sional occupations, including those o f engineer,
architect, physician, lawyer, and teacher, require
specialized, theoretical knowledge o f a specific
field. The other group, including occupations such
as editor and actor does not require as much spe­
cialized, theoretical knowledge, but demands a
great deal o f creative talent and, also, skill ac­
quired chiefly through experience. Licenses are
required for practice in many professions—medi­
cine, dentistry, and pharmacy, for example— with
licensing authorities determining the minimum
qualifications which members must have. In ad­
dition, professional societies set up membership
standards, which tend to define their respective
fields.
The professions provide many employment op­
portunities for women. They represented about
one-third o f all professional, technical, and kin­
dred employment in 1964. In several very large
professional occupations — teaching, nursing,
library work, and social work—women predomi­
nate.
22

It is not easy to prepare for and enter pro­
fessional work. Often, institutions providing pro­
fessional training do not accept applicants for
professional training unless their school grades
are high, and employers generally give prefer­
ence in hiring to graduates whose grades put
them high in their class.
Closely related to the professions is a wide
variety of technical occupations. People in these
occupations work hand-in-hand with engineers,
scientists, mathematicians, physicians, and other
professional personnel. Their job titles include
those o f draftsmen; engineering aid; programer;
and electronics, laboratory, or X -ray technician.
Employment in these technical occupations usu­
ally requires a combination of basic scientific
knowledge and specialized education or training
in some particular aspect o f technology or science.
Such training may be obtained in technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges, and other schools, or
through equivalent on-the-job training. Many of
the duties of technicians may be performed also
by beginning professional workers. However,
because o f their more limited educational back­
ground, technicians generally find it difficult to
advance to professional level jobs.
The major professional, technical, and related
occupations are shown in chart 13.
People in administrative and related occupa­
tions run the Nation’s businesses and manage a
wide variety of other organizations, both private
and governmental. The problems they deal with
are as varied as the affairs they manage. Whether
their organizations are small or large, employing
only a few people or many thousands, the de­
cisions they reach and their effectiveness in get­
ting these decisions carried out contribute greatly
to the success or failure of the enterprise.
About 6.5 million men and 1.1 million women
were managers, officials, or proprietors in 1965.
O f these more than 7y2 million people, managers

23

PROFESSIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

and officials in salaried positions accounted for
almost 60 percent. Executives and other man­
agerial personnel in business firms make up the
largest part o f this salaried manager group. In
addition, several hundred thousand more people
in this category are officials o f Federal, State, and
local government agencies and nonprofit organ­
izations of many kinds. Also grouped with man­
agerial workers are persons in a variety of official
and administrative positions; for example, mem­
bers o f Congress, ship captains, railroad conduc­
tors, and trade union officials.

C H A R T 14
G R O W TH OF P R O F E S S IO N A L, TEC H N IC A L,
A N D KIN D R ED O C C U P A T IO N S . . . .

Employment Trends
Employment in professional, technical, and re­
lated occupations has risen rapidly over the years.
From less than half a million in 1870, the number
of these workers has grown to about 8.9 million
in 1965. (See chart 14.) Moreover, during the
1950 decade, the rate of growth in the professions
was more than twice that for clerical workers,
C H A R T 13
TEA CH IN G A ND EN G IN EERIN G ARE THE LA RG EST
PRO FESSIO N A L O C C U P A T IO N S . . . .
Em ploym ent in selected professional,
technical and kin d re d occupations
Thousands of Workers, 1965

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

14 00

1600

the second fastest growing occupational group at
that time. Moreover, thus far in the 1960’s,
growth in the professional, technical, and related
worker group continues to exceed that o f any
other broad occupational group.
A major reason for the increase in the total
number o f workers in professional and related
occupations has been the development o f various
fields, some unknown until recent years. Engi­
neering, mathematics, and other closely related
scientific professions have had a spectacular
growth over the past 60 years. Other major fields,
which have developed wholly or largely during
the present century include social work, account­
ancy, personnel work, programing, other dataprocessing specialties, and electronics. Some of
this growth has accompanied the expansion in
scientific and engineering professions. As scien­
tific and technical work has become more highly
organized, particularly in the laboratories and
engineering departments o f large firms and in
government agencies, more technical assistance
has been provided for the professional worker.

24
Similarly, large numbers of technicians and as­
sistants work in the health fields, thereby freeing
the professional personnel for work requiring
more training.
Between 1965 and 1975, employment in the pro­
fessional and technical group is expected to rise
by nearly 40 percent—almost twice the rate for
total employment. However, there will naturally
continue to be differences in the rates of growth
among the professions.
The number o f people in administrative and
managerial positions in the United States is
growing, although by no means as fast as the
number of professional workers. Employment in
this field as a whole is expected to continue in­
creasing moderately. By 1975, the total number
of people in managerial, administrative, and re­
lated positions may be almost 9.5 million, nearly
one-fourth more than in 1965.
Most of this increase in employment will be in
salaried positions. Growth in the number o f selfemployed proprietors will be relatively slow in
the years ahead, in part because o f the trend
toward the formation of larger businesses. In the
retail field, for example, supermarkets are replac­
ing the small general store, the separate meat
market, and the corner grocery store. On the other
hand, the number of managers and salaried officials
in larger business organizations and government
agencies is mounting rapidly.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

nical knowledge required for effective perform­
ance in many professional and administrative jobs.
The growth in the professional, administrative,
and related occupations has been accompanied by
a great increase in the numbers o f young men and
women graduating from college, who are the chief
source o f professionally trained workers. The
proportion o f young people completing college
(represented as a percent o f all persons 22 years
o f age) rose from 2.5 percent in 1920 to 8 percent
in 1940, and 19 percent in 1964, as shown in the
inset in chart 15. (The level reached in 1950 is
artificially high, reflecting the large number o f
veterans who went to college under the veterans’
education program and who, in many cases, would
have completed college earlier if it had not been
for the war.)
The recent rapid increase in the proportion o f
young people graduating from college (chart 15)
reflects a number of basic social trends. Because
family incomes are higher, more people can afford
to put off going to work and to pay the costs o f
education. More families want a college education
for their children. Scholarships and loans are
available for more students; part-time work op­
portunities are also available. Finally, a college

C H A R T 15
NUMBER O F B A C H ELO R ’S DEGREES G R A N T E D . . .

Educational Trends
The professional and managerial occupational
groups engaged 8 in every 10 workers with a
college education in 1964, and the concentration
o f college graduates among these occupations is
steadily increasing. In addition to the many pro­
fessional occupations for which college graduation
has long been an entry requirement, demand for
college graduates is increasing at the entry level in
other professional fields, and in many administra­
tive and related occupations. Graduates are
sought for many positions which either did not
exist a few decades ago or which were formerly
filled by employees selected primarily on the basis
o f their experience and personal characteristics.
This emphasis on a college education will be rein­
forced in the years ahead, in view o f the growing
complexity of modern industry and technology,
which is constantly increasing the amount of tech­

Thousands of degrees

25

PROFESSIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

education is becoming necessary for an increasing
proportion o f jobs, and in many professions the
amount of education needed is increasing. Since
these factors will probably continue to be influ­
ential in the future, the proportion of young peo­
ple who are being graduated from college is
expected to go on increasing for many years. The
college-age population is also growing. The num­
ber o f people age 18 to 21 is expected to increase
by nearly 4 million between 1965 and 1975. These
factors, considered together, point to a great in­
crease in college graduations, assuming that the
Nation’s colleges and universities build the class­
rooms, laboratories, dormitories, and other facili­
ties and hire the faculty members needed to provide
for the greatly increased numbers of students. It
is likely that the number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded annually will be more than 60 percent
greater by 1975 than in 1964. Projections pre­
pared by the U.S. Office of Education in 1964 indi­
cate an increase from the 502,104 bachelor’s de­
grees granted in 1964 to 731,000 in 1970 and
815,000 in 1975.
The number o f students taking graduate train­
ing has also risen very rapidly during the last
few decades, and will probably continue to mount
in the years ahead. A master’s degree is usually
earned through 1 or 2 years of study beyond the
bachelor’s degree. To earn -the Ph.D. degree usu­
ally requires 3 years or more beyond the bachelor’s
degree. As a rule, graduate study is concentrated
in the major subject field o f the student’s interest,
whereas undergraduate study is broader in con­
tent.
Chart 16 shows the vast increase in graduate
degrees awarded since 1920 in all fields taken
together. The numbers o f master’s and doctor’s
degrees granted reached unprecedented heights in
the early 1950’s, following the record number of
bachelor’s degrees granted a few years before.
After a slight decline in the mid-1950’s, master’s
degrees rose to about 101,000 in 1964 and are ex­
pected to approach 150,000 in 1970, if past trends
continue. The number of doctorates awarded

(about 14,500 in 1964) may reach 18,000 by 1970.
According to projections made by the U.S. Office
o f Education, the number o f master’s degrees
conferred may exceed 160,000 and doctorates may
approach 25,000 in 1975.
These projections obviously imply a great in­
crease in the supply o f personnel which will be
available for professional employment. Since the
demand for personnel is also expected to show
continued growth, there is promise of expanding
employment opportunities for the increasing num­
bers of college graduates. The anticipated in­
creases in college-trained personnel raise the pos­
sibility, however, of increasing competition .dur­
ing the late 1960’s and early 1970’s for the better
professional positions in at least some fields of
work.
C H A R T 16

NUMBER OF MASTER’S AND DOCTOR’S
DEGREES GRANTED . . . .

1890
Source:

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

I960

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education

1970 1980

B U SIN ESS A D M IN IS T R A T IO N A N D R E L A T E D P R O F E S S IO N S
The success or failure o f a business enterprise
probably depends more on how well its managers
do their job than it does on anything else. Close
to 4% million salaried workers—85 percent o f
them men— were employed in 1964 to manage the
business activities o f our Nation’s enterprises.
Many others are self-employed managers who
carry on all or a part of the activities necessary
for the management o f their own businesses. In
addition, many professional workers also have
managerial responsibilities. Business managers
are one of the fastest growing occupational groups
in the country. Between 1958 and 1964, the num­
ber o f salaried management workers increased
more than twice as fast as the number o f workers
in all nonagricultural occupations combined.
Many management workers are college gradu­
ates who have taken their major course work in
the field o f business and commerce. This field of
training is second only to teacher training and
the social sciences in the numbers o f degrees
awarded. Degrees in business and commerce ex­
ceed those granted in such large fields as engineer­
ing, law, and medicine. In recent years, the grad­
uates in this field have exceeded 50,000 annually
and have accounted for more than 10 percent of
all bachelor’s degrees awarded. In 1920, 1,559 de­
grees in business administration were awarded,
representing only about 3 percent o f all degrees.
Chart IT shows the number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded in business and commerce since 1920.
Company management workers are involved in
work similar to that o f a small business owner,
but on a much larger scale. The man who runs a
small television repair service, for example, may
attempt to attract new customers through adver­
tisements in local papers. The workers in charge
of advertising the household appliances produced
by a large manufacturing company may use news­
paper advertisements also, but these advertise26

C H A R T 17
B A C H E LO R S D EG R EES G R A N TED IN
B U S IN E S S A N D CO M M ERCE

Thousands of Degrees

80

-----------

1920

1930

1940

1950

I9 6 0

1961

'62 '63

'6 4

'65

Source: U.S. Department o< Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education

ments are likely to be bigger, more elaborate, and
published in newspapers throughout the country.
The company’s products will probably be adver­
tised also through radio, television, and other
channels. Similarly, the small businessman has,
at most, only a few employees to direct, whereas
the personnel workers in a large corporation must
consider the welfare and productiveness of thou­
sands o f employees.
At the top o f the management ladder are the
corporation presidents, vice presidents, and other
company officials. These people set company
goals, coordinate company activities, and make

27

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

the major decisions which establish company wide
policies. In small companies, they may also carry
through with the plans they develop, taking di­
rect charge of the work done in connection with
store displays, financial reports, employee recrea­
tional activities, or other projects. In large corpo­
rations, however, the plans and policies developed
by officials at the top are more likely to be carried
out with the assistance of management workers in
subordinate positions—the middle-level managers
who direct the work of sales, accomiting, person­
nel, engineering, and other departments. (See
chart 18, illustrating how management functions
might be organized within a large company.)
Companies with branch plants and chain stores
have managers in charge of these operations.
Some companies also have many supervisory posi­
tions which involve management responsibilities.
Persons in positions of this kind are responsible
for keeping the units under their direction operat­
ing efficiently and in accordance with the broad
policies established for the company as a whole.
A t the bottom o f the management ladder are
the beginners who are gaining experience which
may later qualify them for management positions.
Many are college graduates who have been re­
cruited because their ability, personality traits,
and training make them promising candidates for
managerial work. Such trainees are usually placed
in jobs where they have particularly good oppor­
tunities to become acquainted with the firm’s
business activities and policies. Some work as
assistants to people in management positions,
while others are given job assignments which are
changed periodically so that they may have an
opportunity to learn all phases o f their employ­
er’s business operations. A limited number are
offered formal executive trainee programs.
Although many people enter administrative
jobs only after several years o f work experience,
often in work unrelated to management, an in­
creasing number o f employers are now seeking to
develop the qualities which make for successful
management through company-sponsored train­
ing programs open to selected groups of em­
ployees.

Employment in this field o f work is expected to
expand considerably through the mid-1970’s be­
cause o f the increasing dependence on trained
management specialists and the general industrial
expansion in our country. About 260,000 new
salaried workers or more per year are expected
to be needed through the mid-1970’s to take care
o f growth needs. Additional openings will arise
also because of the need to replace management
workers who retire or leave their jobs for other
reasons. Many positions will be filled by people
who have already acquired a substantial amount
o f experience in other phases of their employer’s
operations, or by outsiders with work experience
related to the positions to be filled. Opportunities
for many young people to start on the road to a
career in business management will also be pro­
vided as the entry jobs farther down on the ladder
are vacated by people who move up to better
positions.
C H A R T 18

SAMPLE O R G A N IZA T IO N CHART O F A LAR G E

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

28

Accountants
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-01 .)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 160.188)

Nature of Work
Keeping track o f where the money goes in the
maze o f financial transactions in today’s business
and government requires the services of experts.
These experts — called accountants — numbered
about 450,000 in 1965, of whom more than 80,000
were certified public accountants (C P A ’s).
Accounting is one o f the largest fields o f pro­
fessional employment for men. Only about 2 per­
cent o f the C P A ’s, and less than 10 percent o f all
accountants are women. However, the proportion
of women may grow in the future as an increas­
ingly complex and expanding economy demands
more accounting services.
Accountants compile and analyze business rec­
ords and prepare financial reports, such as profit
and loss statements, balance sheets, cost studies,
and tax reports. The major fields of employment
are public, private, and government accounting.
Public accountants are independent practitioners
who work on a fee basis for business enterprises
or for individuals wishing to use their services,.
or as a member or employee o f an accountancy
firm. Private accountants, often referred to as in­
dustrial or management accountants, handle the
financial records o f the particular business firm
for which they work on a salary basis. Govern­
ment accountants work on the financial records of
government agencies and often audit the records
of private business organizations and individuals
whose dealings are subject to government regula­
tions.
Accountants in any field of employment may
specialize in such areas as auditing, tax work,
cost accounting, budgeting and control, or sys­
tems and procedures. Public accountants are likely
to specialize in auditing—that is, in reviewing
financial records and reports and giving opinions
as to their reliability. They also advise clients on
tax matters and other financial and accounting
problems. Most private accountants do cost or
other management accounting. Sometimes they
specialize in tax work, or in internal auditing—
that is, examining and appraising financial sys­
tems and management control procedures in their
company. Many accountants in the Federal Gov­

ernment are employed as Internal Revenue agents,
investigators, and bank examiners, as well as in
regular accounting positions.
Where Employed
More than half of all accountants do private
accounting work for the business and industrial
firms that employ them. Perhaps an additional
third are engaged in public accounting as pro­
prietors, partners, or employees o f independent
accounting firms. About 10 percent work for
Federal, State, and local government agencies.
A smaller number teach in colleges and universi­
ties.
Accountants are employed wherever business,
industrial, or governmental organizations are
located. The majority, however, work in large
metropolitan centers where there is a particu­
larly heavy concentration of public accounting
firms and central offices o f large business orga­
nizations.

Auditor verifies inventory to validate company’s financial
statement.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Training in accounting can be obtained in uni­
versities, 4-year colleges, junior colleges, account­
ing and private business schools, and correspond­
ence schools. Graduates o f all these institutions
are included in the ranks o f successful account­
ants; however, a bachelor’s degree with a major
in accounting or a closely related field is increas­
ingly an asset, and for better positions it may be
required. Candidates with a master’s degree in
accounting, as well as college training in other
business and liberal arts subjects, are preferred
by many firms. Previous work experience can be
o f great value also, in qualifying for private em­
ployment. A number of colleges offer students an
opportunity to get such experience through in­
ternship programs conducted in cooperation with
public accounting or business firms. For begin­
ning accounting positions, the Federal Govern­
ment requires 4 years of college training (includ­
ing 24 semester hours in accounting) or an
equivalent combination of education and experi­
ence. Most universities require the master’s degree
or the doctorate with the Certified Public A c­
countancy Certificate.
A ll States require that anyone practicing in the
State as a “ certified public accountant” hold a
certificate issued by the State board of account­
ancy. Well over half the States also restrict the
title “ public accountant” to those who are licensed
or registered. Requirements for licensing and
registration vary considerably from one State to
another, and information on these requirements
may be obtained directly from the board of ac­
countancy in the State where the student plans
to practice. Almost half the States have laws that
will, by 1970, require CPA candidates to be college
graduates. A ll States use the CPA examination
provided by the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants. In recent years, more than
9 out o f 10 successful CPA candidates have been
college graduates. Before the CPA certificate is
issued, at least 2 years of public accounting ex­
perience, or its equivalent, is required in nearly
all States.
Inexperienced accountants usually begin with
fairly routine work. Junior public accountants
may be assigned to counting cash, verifying ad­
ditions, or performing other detailed work. They
usually advance to semisenior positions in 1 or 2

29

years and to senior positions within another 1 or
2 years. In the larger firms, those successful in
dealing with top executives in industry often
become supervisors, managers, or partners, or
transfer to executive positions in private ac­
counting. Many become independent practitioners.
Beginners in private accounting may start as
ledger or cost clerks, timekeepers, junior internal
auditors, or, occasionally, as trainees for technical
and executive positions. They may rise to chief
plant accountant, chief cost accountant, senior in­
ternal auditor, or manager of internal auditing,
depending on their specialty, and some become
controllers, treasurers, and even corporation presi­
dents. In the Federal Government, beginners are
hired as trainees and are usually promoted in a
year or so. Although advancement may be rapid
for able accountants, those with inadequate aca­
demic preparation are likely to be assigned to
routine jobs and find themselves handicapped in
obtaining promotion. In colleges and universities,
those with minimum training and experience may
receive the rank of instructor without tenure, with
advancement and permanent faculty status de­
pendent upon further education.
Accountants who want to get to the top in their
profession usually find it necessary to continue
their study of accountancy and related problems—
even though they may have already obtained
college degrees or CPA certificates. Even ex­
perienced accountants may spend many hours in
study and research in order to keep abreast of
legal and business developments that affect their
work. For example, more and more accountants
are studying computer operation and programing
methods so as to adapt accounting procedures to
new methods of processing business data.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for accountants
were very good in 1965 and are expected to remain
so into the mid-1970’s. As many as 10,000 account­
ants may be needed annually during this period
to replace those who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations. Provided no major setback
occurs in the general level of business activity,
at least as many more accountants will be needed
each year for growth in the occupation. De­
mand for college-trained accountants will rise
faster than demand for people without this broad

30
background o f training, because o f the growing
complexity o f business and its accounting require­
ments. However, graduates of business and other
schools offering thorough training in accounting
should also have good job prospects during this
period.
Over the long run, accounting employment is
expected to expand rapidly because of such fac­
tors as the greater use o f accounting information
in business management ; complex and changing
tax systems; the growth in size and number of
business corporations required to provide finan­
cial reports to stockholders; and the increasing
use o f accounting services by small business or­
ganizations. Highly trained accountants will be
in even greater demand as consultants to business
managers in planning new recordkeeping sys­
tems and accounting procedures for use with
electronic data-processing equipment.
Increasing numbers of women will be engaged
in professional accounting, though most public
accounting firms will probably remain reluctant
to employ them—because o f tradition, and pref­
erences expressed by individual clients, and because
some types o f travel and factory assignments are
considered better suited to men than to women.
However, those women who rank high among
college graduates with accounting majors and who
secure the C P A certificate will, in time, undoubt­
edly break down these barriers.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for new college graduates av­
eraged about $6,400 a year in 1964, according to a
private survey o f over 100 large business organ­
izations recruiting college seniors for accounting
positions. Smaller firms, especially the small CPA
firms, generally pay somewhat lower rates. Sal­
aries o f senior accountants with about 5 years’
experience are generally about 50 percent higher
than salaries o f beginners; salaries of those with
10 years’ experience are about twice as high as the
rate for beginners.
Chief accountants in other than public account­
ing firms averaged between $10,000 and $16,000 a
year in 1964. Chief internal auditors in large
industrial organizations earned from $18,000 to
$28,000 a year, according to the limited data avail­
able. Accountants in managerial accounting posi­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tions, such as controllers and financial vice presi­
dents, earned much more.
Self-employed certified public accountants in
1963 who were working as individual practitioners
averaged $11,000 a year. Individually, those who
were partners in small firms averaged almost $17,500, and those in medium-size firms averaged
nearly $24,000, according to the American Insti­
tute o f Certified Public Accountants. Top part­
ners in very large accounting firms may have
earned individually more than $100,000 a year.
In the Federal Civil Service, the entrance
salary for junior accountants and auditors was
$5,000 in early 1965. Some candidates with su­
perior academic records could qualify for a start­
ing salary o f $6,050. Many experienced account­
ants in the Federal Government made between
$10,000 and $11,000 a year, and some, with ad­
ministrative responsibilities, earned more than
$14,000 in 1964.
Public accountants are likely to work especially
long hours under heavy pressure during the tax
season. They do most of their work in their clients’
offices, and sometimes do considerable traveling
to serve distant clients. A few private and gov­
ernment accountants also do a great deal of
traveling and work irregular hours, but the ma­
jority remain in one office and work between 35
and 40 hours a week, under the same general
conditions as their fellow office workers.
Where To G o for More Information
Information, particularly on C P A ’s and on the
aptitude and achievement tests now given in many
high schools and colleges and by many public ac­
counting firms, may be obtained from :
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
666 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on specialized fields o f ac­
counting may be obtained from :
National Association of Accountants,
505 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
Financial Executives Institute,
50 W est 44th St., New York, N .Y.

10036.

The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc.,
60 W a ll St., New York, N.Y. 10005.

A leaflet describing accounting as a career may
be obtained free from :
The American Accounting Association, College
of Business Administration,
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

31

Advertising Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-81. and 0-06.94)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 162.158; 164.068 through .168; and 132.088)

Nature of Work
Through advertisements published in news­
papers and magazines, broadcast on the radio,
shown on television, displayed on billboards, sent
through the mail, or even written in smoke in the
sky, businessmen try to reach potential customers
and persuade them to buy their products or serv­
ices. Advertising workers plan and prepare these
advertisements and get them before the public.
They include executives responsible for planning
and overall supervision, copywriters who write the
text, artists who prepare the illustrations, layout
specialists who put copy and illustrations into the
most attractive arrangement possible, administrative and technical workers who are responsible
for the satisfactory reproduction of the “ ads,”
and salesmen who sell advertising space in publi­
cations or time on radio or television programs.
In a very small advertising organization, one per­
son may do all these things. Large organizations
employ specialists for research, copywriting, and
layout work, and sometimes have staff members
who specialize in writing copy for particular
kinds of products or for one type o f advertising
media such as radio, popular magazines, or direct
mail. The following are the specialized occupa­
tions most commonly found in advertising work.
Advertising managers head the advertising de­
partments of manufacturing companies and other
advertisers and o f newspapers and other media.
Since most businesses use the services of advertis­
ing agencies to handle all or part of their adver­
tising programs, the company’s advertising man­
ager works mostly on policy questions— for
example, the type of advertising, the size o f the
advertising budget, and the agency to be em­
ployed. He then works with the agency in plan­
ning and carrying through the program. He may
also supervise the preparation of special sales
brochures, display cards, and other promotional
materials.
The advertising manager of a newspaper, radio
station, or other advertising medium is chiefly con­
cerned with selling advertising time or space; his
778-316 0 — 65------ 4

functions are similar to those o f the sales manager
in other businesses.
Accoim t executives are employed in advertising
agencies to handle relations between the agency
and its clients. An account executive studies the
client’s sales and advertising problems, develops a
plan to meet the client’s needs, and seeks his ap­
proval of the proposed program. Account execu­
tives must be able to sell ideas and maintain good
relations with clients. They must know how to
write copy and use artwork, even though they
usually call on copywriters and artists to carry out
their ideas and suggestions.
Some advertising agencies have account super­
visors who oversee the work of the account execu­
tives. In others, account executives are directly
responsible to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create the headlines,
slogans, and text that attract buyers. They collect
information about the products and the people
who might use them. They use their knowledge of
psychology and writing techniques to prepare
copy especially suited for readers or listeners and

Account executive shows advertisins layout to client represent­
atives.

32
for the type of advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in copy that appeals
to certain groups—housewives, businessmen, sci­
entists, or engineers—or even in copy that deals
with specific products such as lipsticks or washing
machines. In advertising agencies, copywriters
work closely with account executives, though they
may be under the supervision of a copy chief.
Media directors (or space buyers and time buy­
ers) are employed by advertisers and advertising
agencies to determine where and when advertising
should be carried in order to reach the largest
group of prospective buyers at the least cost.
They must have a vast amount of information
about the cost o f advertising in all media and the
relative size and characteristics o f the reading or
listening audience which can be reached in various
parts of the country by specific publications,
broadcasting stations, and other media.
Production managers and their assistants ar­
range to have the final copy and art work con­
verted into printed form. They deal with print­
ing, engraving, and other firms involved in the
reproduction o f advertisements. The production
manager must have a thorough knowledge of
various printing processes, typography, photog­
raphy, paper, inks, and related technical materials
and processes.
Research directors and their assistants assemble
and analyze information needed for effective ad­
vertising programs. They study the possible uses
o f the product, its advantages and disadvantages
compared with competing products, and the best
ways of reaching potential purchasers. Such
workers may make special surveys o f the buying
habits and motives o f customers, or may try out
sample advertisements to find the most convin­
cing selling theme or most efficient media for car­
rying the advertising message. The research
director is an important executive in advertising
organizations. More information on this occupa­
tion is contained in the statement on Marketing
Research Workers.
A rtists and layout men are part of a key creative
group in advertising work. They work closely
with advertising managers, copwriters, and other
advertising personnel in planning advertisements.
More information about this group appears in the
separate statements on Commercial Artists and on
'Photographers.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Where Employed
In 1964, about 125,000 men and women were
employed in professional or other positions re­
quiring considerable knowledge o f advertising,
according to an estimate by the Advertising Fed­
eration o f America. Perhaps a third o f these
workers are employed in advertising agencies,
and more than half of the agency workers are
employed in the New York City and Chicago
metropolitan areas. However, there are many in­
dependent agencies in other cities, and many lead­
ing agencies operate branch offices outside the
major centers.
Advertising workers not employed in advertis­
ing agencies work for manufacturing companies,
stores, and other organizations having products
or services to sell; for advertising media, such as
newspapers and magazines; and for printers, en­
gravers, art studios, product and package de­
signers, and others who provide services to
advertisers and advertising agencies. Large num­
bers of advertising workers—especially those em­
ployed by advertising service and media firms—
are located in the New York and Chicago met­
ropolitan areas, but many are found in smaller
cities throughout the country.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Most employers, in hiring advertising trainees,
prefer college graduates with liberal arts training
or majors in marketing, journalism, or business
administration. However, there is no typical edu­
cational background for success in advertising.
Some successful advertising people have had no
college training; others started in such varied oc­
cupations as engineer, teacher, chemist, artist, or
salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a flair for lan­
guage, both spoken and written. Since every
assignment requires individual handling, a liking
for problem-solving is also very important. A d ­
vertising personnel should have a great interest
in people and things, to help them sell their ideas
to their superiors, to advertisers, and to the public.
They must be able to accept criticism and to gain
important points with tact.
Young people planning to enter the avertising
field should get experience in copywriting or other

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

work for their school publications and, if possible,
through summer jobs in selling, interviewing, or
other work connected with marketing research
services. Some large advertising organizations
recruit outstanding college graduates and train
them through programs which cover all aspects of
advertising work. Most beginners, however, have
to locate their own jobs by applying directly to
possible employers. Young men sometimes begin
as mail clerks, or as messengers and runners who
pick up and deliver messages and proofs for de­
partments and agency clients. Some start as as­
sistants in research or production work or as space
or time salesmen. A few begin as junior copy­
writers. In most advertising organizations, women
begin as secretaries or, if they have the required
education, as research assistants. The best avenue
o f entrance to advertising work for women is
through advertising departments in retail stores.
Employees with initiative, drive, and talent
may progress from beginning jobs to creative, re­
search, or managerial work. For management
positions, they should have experience in all
phases of the advertising business including some
work with advertising agencies, media, and ad­
vertisers.
Copywriters and account executives can usually look forward to rapid advancement i f they
demonstrate exceptional ability in dealing with
clients, since the success o f an advertising organ­
ization depends upon satisfied advertisers. Many
o f these workers prefer to remain in their own
specialties and for them advancement can be to
more responsible work at increased pay. Some
topflight copywriters and account executives set
up their own agencies.
Employment Outlook
Many young people are attracted to the adver­
tising field, and those seeking entry will face stiff
competition through the mid-1970’s. Good oppor­
tunities, however, will continue to exist for those
who are very well qualified by background and
aptitude.
Employment in advertising is expected to in­
crease moderately during the next 10 years.
Among the factors that will contribute to the
demand for advertising workers are the overall
growth o f industry, the development o f new prod­

33

ucts and services, and the increase in competition
among producers of industrial and consumer
goods. In addition to those needed to fill new
positions, several thousand advertising workers
will be needed each year to replace those who
transfer to other types o f work, or who retire, die,
or leave the field for other reasons. The greatest
demand is likely to occur in advertising agencies,
since the present trend is for advertisers to turn
over more and more o f their advertising work to
agencies.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for beginning advertising
workers ranged from $60 to $150 a week in 1964,
according to the limited information available.
The higher salaries were most frequently paid in
very large firms recruiting outstanding college
graduates, and the lower salaries in stores and
small advertising agencies.
Salaries o f workers above the trainee level are
also likely to be highest in the very large firms,
according to a private survey. In advertising
agencies doing a yearly business o f $2 million or
less, the annual salaries o f copywriters ranged
from $3,200 to $12,800 in early 1962; account
executives’ salaries ranged from $4,500 to $16,500
a year. In agencies doing an annual business o f
$10 million or more, salaries ranged from $4,500
to $24,000 for copywriters and from $12,500 to
$25,000 for account executives. Salaries reported
for copy chiefs, account supervisors, and other top
executive personnel were usually, but not always,
substantially higher. According to another pri­
vate survey, earnings of advertising managers in
firms other than advertising agencies generally
ranged from $7,000 to $21,000 annually. The wide
spread in salaries reflects the great difference in
experience, function, talent, and degree o f respon­
sibility among workers with the same job title.
Advertising workers frequently work under
great pressure. Working hours are extremely ir­
regular, because publication deadlines must be met
and last minute changes are not uncommon. Peo­
ple in creative jobs often work evenings and
weekends to finish important assignments.
At the same time, advertising offers a satisfying
career to people who enjoy variety, excitement,
and a constant challenge to their creative ability,

34

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and who can meet the competition. The copy­
writer and the artist have the satisfaction of see­
ing their work in print or hearing it over the
radio, even though they remain unknown to the
public at large.

Where To G o for More Information
Advertising Federation of America,
655 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.

10021.

American Association of Advertising Agencies,
200 Park Ave., New York, N.Y.

10017.

Industrial Traffic Managers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-97.66)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 184.168)

Nature of Work
Determining the best way to move freight about
the country or around the world can be a compli­
cated matter. There is piggyback and air freight,
as well as regular rail, truck, and steamship; and
there are thousands o f freight classifications,
rates, routes, and regulations. Trained specialists
called industrial traffic managers are responsible
for handling this job.
Industrial traffic managers and their assistants
arrange for transportation of raw materials and
finished products to and from industrial and com­
mercial firms. They see that goods are shipped in
a way that will ensure prompt and safe delivery
at the lowest possible cost.
After taking into consideration the kind and
amount o f goods to be shipped, the time when de­
livery is needed, and other factors, they choose
the type o f transportation, the route, and finally
the particular carrier, or transportation company.
(Traffic managers employed by railroads, airlines,
trucking firms, and other transportation compa­
nies, who are chiefly concerned with attracting
business to their firms, are not covered by this
statement.)
The duties of industrial traffic managers and
their assistants range from routine tasks, such as
checking freight bills, to major planning and
policymaking matters, such as deciding whether
the company should buy and operate its own fleet
of trucks. Other duties include ascertaining the
freight classifications and rates that apply to
goods shipped, routing and tracing shipments, ar­
ranging with carriers for transportation services,
preparing bills o f lading and other shipping docu­
ments, and handling claims for lost or damaged
goods. In addition, traffic managers are responsi­
ble for maintaining records not only of shipments

but also of freight rates, commodity classifications,
and applicable government regulations. Some­
times traffic managers are responsible for the
packaging o f shipments and for their companies’
warehouse facilities and transportation equip­
ment.
In small companies, or in firms without separate
traffic departments, transportation arrangements
for incoming goods may be made by the purchas­
ing department, and for outgoing goods, by the
sales department. Employees who handle trans­
portation arrangements in such firms must have a
broad knowledge of the transportation field, but

Industrial traffic managers arrange combinations of transportation
facilities for shipments.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

usually they do not have the title “ traffic man­
ager.”
Since many aspects of transportation are sub­
ject to Federal, State, and local government regu­
lations, traffic managers and their assistants must
know about these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’ shipping opera­
tions. Many traffic managers represent their com­
panies before ratemaking and regulatory bodies—
such as the Interstate Commerce Commission,
State Commissions, and local traffic bureaus—to
request or oppose changes in rates, commodity
classifications, or types of service provided by
carriers.
Where Employed
About 15,000 people held jobs as industrial
traffic managers in 1965. The majority were em­
ployed by manufacturing firms, although some
worked for stores and other types o f establish­
ments. A fewr traffic managers are in business for
themselves, acting as consultants on transporta­
tion problems for various clients. Most traffic
managers are men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Although it is still possible for those with a
high school education to qualify for traffic man­
ager positions on the basis of previous experience
in traffic departments, a college education is be­
coming increasingly important for a career in this
field. For some kinds o f work, college training
may be required. For example, in order to argue
cases before the U.S. Government’s Interstate
Commerce Commission, a traffic manager must
meet certain “ qualification standards” which gen­
erally include at least 2 years of college training.
In selecting college graduates for trainee posi­
tions, some employers prefer to hire graduates of
schools o f business administration who have ma­
jored in transportation; other prefer holders of
degrees in liberal arts who have had courses in
transportation, management, economics, statistics,
marketing, or commercial law.
The first jobs o f new traffic department employ­
ees are often in shipping rooms, where they gain
experience in routing shipments and preparing
bills o f lading and other shipping forms, or in
general traffic offices, where they may do clerical

35

work such as filing schedules of freight rates and
calculating freight charges. After gaining experi­
ence in various routine tasks, employees may be
advanced to more technical work such as analyz­
ing rates and transportation statistics. After fur­
ther experience, a competent worker may ad­
vance to a supervisory position, such as super­
visor o f rates and routes. For the most competent,
promotion to assistant manager, and eventually to
manager, is possible.
Workers in traffic departments may prepare
themselves for advancement by participating in
company-sponsored training programs, by taking
courses in colleges, universities, and vocational
schools, or by attending seminars sponsored by
various private organizations. A mark of pro­
fessional status and recognition in traffic manage­
ment work is “ certified” membership in the Amer­
ican Society o f Traffic and Transportation, Inc.,
which can be acquired by successfully completing
the Society’s examinations and meeting certain
experience requirements.
Employment Outlook
A steady increase in employment in this occupa­
tion can be expected through the mid-1970’s. Some
large companies will probably follow the example
already set by many corporations and reorganize
their shipping and receiving activities into sepa­
rate traffic departments with traffic managers in
charge. In other companies, new transportation
jobs will probably be located in purchasing or
sales departments and thus have different job
titles.
Among the factors expected to contribute to
the growth in this field are the increasing
emphasis in many industries on efficient manage­
ment o f transportation activities and the trend
toward procuring raw materials and finished
products from more and more remote places and
distributing them to increasingly wider markets.
Since transportation costs are a major factor in
the price of many items, companies are becoming
increasingly concerned with economies in ship­
ping. Undoubtedly, there will be strong demand
for specialists who know how to classify products
so as to obtain the lowest possible freight rates,
choose the carriers that are best able to handle
each shipment, and otherwise protect their com­
panies from excessive shipping expenses.

36

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Although college training will probably be em­
phasized increasingly for entry jobs, experience
and demonstrated ability in the fields just indi­
cated will remain the most important factors in
qualifying for promotion, especially to high-level
traffic management positions.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Young men with college degrees who started as
business trainees in the traffic departments of
large industrial firms often received annual sal­
aries o f about $6,200 in 1965 according to the
limited data available. Beginners with less school­
ing, however, usually received lower salaries.
Earnings o f experienced traffic managers are
related generally to their companies’ sales volume
and transportation costs. The average (median)
salary o f traffic managers in companies with
transportation costs totaling less than $1 million
annually was about $9,000 in 1964 according to
the limited information available. In companies
where transportation costs ranged between $4
million and $10 million, the average was approxi­
mately $17,500. In firms where these costs were

still higher, some traffic executives earned con­
siderably more than $25,000.
Traffic department employees usually work the
standard workweek o f their companies—generally
from 35 to 40 hours. Those in particularly respon­
sible jobs may have to spend some time outside
regular working hours preparing reports, attend­
ing meetings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agencies.
Where To G o for More Information
Young people interested in careers in industrial
traffic management may consult members o f local
traffic and transportation associations or they may
write t o :
Associated Traffic Clubs,
207 Pine St., Seaford, Del.

19973.

For information on the requirements for certi­
fication by the American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., write to:
American Society of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc.,
22 W est Madison St., Chicago, 111.

60602.

Marketing Research Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.11)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of Work
Businessmen make decisions daily regarding the
marketing o f their goods and services. Marketing
research workers help to increase the fund o f in­
formation upon which these basic business deci­
sions are made. They act as factfinders—seeking
out, analyzing, and interpreting many different
kinds o f information. They prepare reports and
recommendations to help management make deci­
sions on such widely differing problems as fore­
casting sales; selecting a brand name, package, or
design; choosing a new plant location; deciding
whether to move goods by rail, truck, or other
method; and determining the kinds of advertising
likely to attract the most business. In investi­
gating these and other problems, they consider
expected changes in population, income levels, and
consumer credit policies, or other subjects rele­
vant to marketing policies.

Most marketing research starts with the collec­
tion o f facts from published materials, from the
firm’s own records, and from specialists on the
subject under investigation. For example, research
workers analyzing the fluctuations in a company’s
sales, may first study sales records in a number of
different cities to determine periodical changes in
sales volume. They may then compare these
changes with changes in population, income levels,
the size o f the company’s sales force, and the
amounts spent by the company for advertising in
each city and, from these comparisons, discover
the reasons for changes in the volume of sales.
Other marketing research workers may study
changes in the quantity of company goods on
store shelves, or make door-to-door surveys to
learn how many company products are already
used in households.
Marketing research is often concerned with the
personal opinions of the people who are using

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

company products or who might use them in the
future. For example, a survey intended to help
management decide on the design and pricing of
a new line of television sets may involve the use
o f a questionnaire to learn from a limited number
o f consumers the price they would be willing to
pay and their preferences in such things as the
color and size o f the set.
A survey of this kind is usually carried on
under the supervision o f marketing research
workers who specialize in research on consumer
goods—that is, merchandise sold to the general
public. In planning the survey, the marketing re­
search worker may get help from a statistician in
selecting a group (or “ sample” ) of individuals to
be interviewed, in order to be confident that the
opinions obtained from them represent those held
by the many other potential customers. He may
also consult a specialist in “ motivational re­
search”— an expert in framing questions that will
produce reliable information about the motives
that lead people to make the purchases they do.
When the investigation gets underway, the mar­
keting research worker may supervise a number of
interviewers who call on consumers to obtain an­
swers to the questions. He also may direct the
work o f the office employees who tabulate and ana­
lyze the information collected. His report sum­
marizing the survey findings may also include
other information that company officials need in
making decisions about the new line.
Marketing research surveys concerned with
products used by business and industrial firms
may be conducted somewhat differently from con­
sumer goods surveys. Because research on some
industrial products requires interviewers with a
technical knowledge o f the product involved, the
interviews are often conducted by the marketing
research worker himself (or by several research
workers, if the survey is a particularly extensive
one). In his interviews, the worker not only tries
to get opinions about the proposed product, but
keeps on the lookout for possible new ways of
adapting it to industrial needs. He must, there­
fore, be a specialist both in marketing research
and in the industrial uses of the product involved.
Where Employed
More than 15,000 people were employed full
time as marketing research workers in 1965. This

37

number included research assistants and others in
junior positions, who helped experienced analysts
collect information and prepare reports, as well
as research supervisors and directors. The major­
ity o f these workers were men; positions held by
women were most frequently at the junior pro­
fessional levels.
In addition to these marketing research workers,
a limited number o f other professional employees
(statisticians, economists, psychologists, and soci­
ologists) and several thousand clerical workers
(clerks who code and tabulate survey returns,
typists, and others) were employed full time in
this field. Thousands o f other workers, many o f
them women, were employed on a part-time or
temporary basis as survey interviewers.
Among the principal employers o f marketing
research workers are manufacturing companies
and independent advertising and marketing re­
search organizations which do this kind o f work
for clients on a contract basis. Marketing research
workers also are employed by very large stores,
radio and television firms, and newspapers; others
work for university research centers, government
agencies, and other organizations which provide
information for businessmen. Marketing research
organizations range in size from one-man enter­
prises to large firms with a hundred employees or
more.
The largest number of marketing research
workers are in New York City, where many major
advertising and independent marketing research
organizations are located and where many large
manufacturers have their central offices. The
second largest concentration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers are employed
in many other cities—wherever there are central
offices of large manufacturing and sales organiza­
tions.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Many people go into marketing research after
having worked in other kinds of research jobs or
having been employed in work related to the field
of marketing. University teachers with experience
in teaching marketing research or statistics some­
times are chosen by employers to head new
marketing research departments.
A college degree is usually required o f people
hired as trainees in marketing research. Market­

38
ing, statistics, English composition, speech, psy­
chology, and economics are among the courses
considered most valuable as preparation for this
field o f work. Candidates for some marketing
research positions need specialized training in
engineering or other technical subjects, or a sub­
stantial amount o f sales experience and a thor­
ough knowledge o f the company’s products. A
knowledge o f electronic data-processing proce­
dures is becoming important because o f the grow­
ing use o f electronic computers in sales fore­
casting, distribution, cost analysis, and other
aspects o f marketing research. Graduate training
may be necessary for some kinds o f work—for ex­
ample, motivational research or sampling and
other statistical work connected with large-scale
surveys.
Trainees in marketing research usually start as
research assistants or junior analysts. A t first,
they are likely to do considerable clerical work,
such as copying information from published
sources, editing and coding questionnaires, and
tabulating results of questionnaires returned in
surveys. They also learn how to conduct inter­
views and how to write reports on survey findings.
After a few years o f experience, assistants and
junior analysts may advance to higher level posi­
tions, with responsibility for specific marketing
research projects, or to supervisory positions. An
exceptionally able individual may eventually be­
come marketing research director or vice president
in charge of marketing and sales.
Marketing research workers must have excep­
tional ability in recognizing and defining prob­
lems, and imagination and ingenuity in applying
marketing research techniques to their solution.
Above all, this work calls for the ability to analyze
information and to write reports which will con­
vince management of the significance of the
information.
Employment Outlook
College graduates well prepared in marketing
research methods and statistics are likely to find
very good job opportunities in this growing occu­
pation through the mid-1970’s. In addition to
growth needs, many openings will occur each year
as persons retire, die, or leave the field for other
reasons. However, competition for top jobs is
expected to be keen as the number o f experienced

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

marketing research workers continues to grow.
The demand for marketing research services is
expected to increase during the next 10 years as
the constant stream of new products heightens
competition for customers. Business managers
will find it increasingly important to obtain the
best information possible for appraising market­
ing situations and planning marketing policies.
As marketing research techniques improve and
more statistical data accumulate, company officials
are likely to turn to marketing research workers
for information and advice with increasing fre­
quency. It is anticipated, therefore, that existing
marketing research organizations will expand and
that many new marketing research departments
and new independent research firms will be set up.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for market research trainees
averaged about $525 a month in 1965, according
to the limited data available. People with master’s
degrees in related fields usually started at higher
salaries.
Earnings are substantially higher for experi­
enced marketing research workers who attain
positions with considerable responsibility. For
example, in 1962 earnings of marketing research
directors averaged about $14,000, while senior
analysts averaged $9,600.
Marketing research workers usually work in
modern, centrally located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent research firms, do
a considerable amount of traveling in connection
with their work. Also they may frequently work
under pressure and for long hours to meet dead­
lines.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about specialized types of market­
ing research is contained in a report entitled
“ Selecting Marketing Research Services” which
may be obtained from:
Small Business Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20416.

Additional information on marketing research
may be obtained from :
American Marketing Association,
230 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.

60601.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

39

Personnel Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-39.81 through .88 and 0-68.70 through .78)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 166.088 through .268 and 169.118 and .168)

Nature of Work
Attracting and keeping the best employees
available, and matching them to jobs they can do
effectively are important for the successful opera­
tion o f business and government. Personnel
workers are responsible for helping their em­
ployers attain these objectives. They develop
recruiting and hiring procedures, interview job
applicants, and select and recommend the ones
they consider best qualified for the openings to be
filled. In addition, personnel workers counsel
employees, deal with disciplinary problems,
classify jobs, plan wage and salary scales, develop
safety programs, and conduct research in per­
sonnel methods. Employee training, the adminis­
tration o f retirement and other employee benefit
plans, and labor-management relations—includ­
ing the negotiation o f agreements with unions—
are also important aspects o f their work.
Many personnel jobs require only limited con­
tact with people; others involve frequent contact
with employees, union representatives, job appli­
cants, and other people in and outside the com­
pany.
Business organizations with large personnel de­
partments employ personnel workers in many

different levels o f responsibility. Usually, the
department is headed by an executive with the
title o f Personnel Director; other titles sometimes
used are Industrial Relations Director, Labor Re­
lations Director, or Employee Relations Director.
The director formulates personnel policy, advises
other company officials on personnel matters, and
administers his department. Within the depart­
ment, supervisors and various personnel special­
ists—in labor relations, wage administration, train­
ing, safety, job classification, and other aspects of
the personnel program—may be responsible for
the work o f staff assistants and clerical employees.
Small business organizations employ relatively
few personnel workers. Sometimes one person may
be responsible for all the personnel activities and
may have other duties as well.
Personnel workers in Federal, State, and local
government agencies do much the same kind of
work in about the same kind o f departmental
organization as do those employed in large busi­
ness firms. Government personnel workers, how­
ever, spend considerably more time in activities
related to classifying jobs, and in devising, ad­
ministering, and scoring the competitive exami­
nations given to job applicants.
Where Employed

Interviewing job applicants is important in personnel work.

Personnel workers are employed in nearly all
kinds o f business enterprises and government
agencies. The total number employed in 1965 was
estimated to be nearly 100,000. W ell over half of
all personnel workers were employed by private
firms. The next largest number was employed by
Federal, State, and local government agencies. A
considerably smaller group o f personnel workers
were in business for themselves, often as manage­
ment consultants or labor relations experts. In
addition, colleges and universities employed a
number o f professionally trained personnel
workers as teachers o f courses in personnel ad­
ministration, industrial relations, and similar
subjects.
Most personnel workers are employed in large
cities and in the highly industrialized sections of

40
the country. More than three-fourths of all per­
sonnel workers are men. Many women, however,
occupy personnel positions in organizations that
employ large numbers of women workers— for ex­
ample, in department stores, telephone companies,
insurance companies, banks, and government
agencies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A college education is becoming increasingly
important for entrance into personnel work. Some
employers hire new graduates for junior personnel
positions, and then provide training programs to
acquaint them with their operations, policies, and
problems.
Other employers prefer to fill their personnel
positions by transferring people who already have
first hand knowledge of operations, such as em­
ployees in administrative and sales positions. A
large number o f the people now in personnel work
who are not college graduates entered the field in
this way.
College courses that provide good preparation
for personnel work include personnel manage­
ment, business management, applied psychology,
statistics, labor economics, political science, soci­
ology, English, and public speaking. Many em­
ployers in private industry prefer college grad­
uates with a major in personnel administration,
while some prefer graduates with a general busi­
ness administration background. Other employers
consider a liberal arts education the most desirable
preparation for personnel work. Young people
interested in personnel work in government are
often advised to major in public administration,
political science, or personnel administration;
however, those with other college majors are also
eligible for personnel positions in government.
For some positions, more specialized training
may be necessary. Jobs involving testing or em­
ployee counseling often require a bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in psychology and sometimes
a graduate degree in this field. An engineering
degree may be desirable for work dealing wfith
time studies or safety standards, and a degree
with a major in industrial relations may be help­
ful for work involving labor relations. A back­
ground in accounting may be useful for posi­
tions concerned with wages, or pension and other
employee benefit plans.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

After the initial period of orientation, through
formal or on-the-job training programs, college
graduates may progress to classifying jobs, inter­
viewing applicants, or handling other personnel
functions. Eventually, after they have gained
experience, those with exceptional ability may
be promoted to executive positions such as that
of personnel director. Personnel workers some­
times advance by transferring to other organiza­
tions with larger personnel programs or from a
middle-rank position in a big corporation to the
top job in a smaller one.
Personal qualities regarded as important for
success in personnel work include the ability to
speak and write effectively and a better-than-average skill in working with people o f all levels of
intelligence and experience. In addition, the pros­
pective personnel worker should be the kind of
person who can see the employee’s point of view
as well as the employer’s, and should be able to
give advice in the best interests o f both. A liking
for detail, a high degree of persuasiveness, and
a pleasing personality are also important.
Employment Outlook
College graduates are expected to find many
opportunities to enter personnel work through the
mid-1970’s. However, competition for beginning
professional positions is likely to be keen in many
parts of the country, and employment prospects
will probably be best for college graduates who
have specialized training in personnel administra­
tion. Opportunities for young people to advance
to personnel positions from production, clerical,
or subprofessional jobs will be limited.
Employment in personnel work is expected to
expand rapidly as the Nation’s employment rises.
More personnel workers will be needed to carry
on recruiting, interviewing, and related activi­
ties. Also, many employers are recognizing the
importance o f good employee relations, and are
depending more heavily on the services o f trained
personnel workers to achieve this.
Employment in some specialized areas of per­
sonnel work will rise faster than others. More
people will probably be engaged in psychological
testing; the need for labor relations experts to
handle relations with unions will probably con­
tinue to increase; and the growth of employee
services, safety programs, pension and other bene­

41

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

fit plans, and personnel research is also likely to
continue.
Earnings and Working Conditions
A national survey indicated that the average
annual salary of job-analyst trainees employed
in private industry was about $6,600 in early
1964; experienced job analysts averaged $10,200;
directors o f personnel who worked in companies
employing between 250 and 750 workers aver­
aged $9,700; directors o f personnel in very large
companies averaged $16,500, and some top person­
nel and industrial relations executives in very
large corporations earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, inexperienced
graduates with bachelor’s degrees started at
$5,000 a year in early 1965; those with exception­
ally good academic records or master’s degrees
began at $6,050; a few especially well-qualified
master’s degree holders received $7,220. Federal
Government personnel workers with higher levels
o f administrative responsibility and several years

o f experience in the field were paid about $12,000;
some in charge o f personnel for major depart­
ments o f the Federal Government earned $17,000
or more a year.
Employees in personnel offices generally work
35 to 40 hours a week. During a period o f inten­
sive recruitment or emergency, they may work
much longer. As a rule, personnel workers are
paid for holidays and vacations, and share in the
same retirement plans and other employee bene­
fits available to all professional employees in the
organizations where they work.
Where To G o for More Information
General information on personnel work as a
career may be obtained by writing t o :
American Society for Personnel Administration,
52 East Bridge St., Berea, Ohio 44017.

Information about government careers in per­
sonnel work may be obtained from :
Public Personnel Association,
1313 East 60th St., Chicago, 111.

60637.

Public Relations Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-06.97)
(3d ed. D.O.' r. 165.068)

Nature of Work
A ll organizations—both profit and nonprofit—
want the public to view them in a favorable light.
Public relations workers help their employers
build and maintain such a public image by keep­
ing themselves informed about the attitudes and
opinions o f customers, employees, and other
groups important to the interests of their em­
ployers.
Public relations workers often provide infor­
mation about their employers’ business to news­
papers and magazines, radio and television, and
other channels o f communication. They plan the
kind o f publicity which they believe will be most
effective, contact the people who may be interested
in using it, and prepare and assemble the needed
material. Many items in the daily papers, human
interest stories in popular magazines, and pam­
phlets giving information about a company, the
product it makes and job opportunities with it,
have their start at public relations workers’ desks.

These workers also may play an important part
in arranging speaking engagements for com­
pany officials, and sometimes write speeches for
them to deliver. Often they participate in com­
munity affairs, serving as their employers’ repre­
sentatives during safety campaigns and other
community projects. Showing a film at a school
assembly, staging a beauty contest, calling a press
conference, and planning a convention may all
be part of a public relations worker’s job.
Public relations workers tailor their programs
to their employers’ particular needs. In a busi­
ness firm, the public relations worker is usually
concerned with his employer’s relationships with
employees, government agencies, civic organiza­
tions, and other community groups.
Some public relations workers—for example,
the press agent who handles publicity for an indi­
vidual and the man who is in charge o f a limited
public relations program for a university, fra­
ternal organization, or small business firm—may
handle all aspects o f the work. They make their

42
own contacts with outsiders, do the necessary
planning and research, prepare material for pub­
lication, and otherwise carry out plans previously
made. Such public relations workers may be toplevel officials or they may occupy positions farther
down the management ladder. They may com­
bine public relations duties with advertising or
other managerial work.
In large firms with extensive public relations
programs, staffs assigned to this work sometimes
number 100 or more. Responsibility for develop­
ing overall plans and policies may be shared be­
tween a vice president or other top executive who
is responsible for final decisions, and the director
o f a public relations department. In addition to
the public relations department’s writers and re­
search workers, there may be specialists in d if­
ferent kinds o f public relations work—in prepar­
ing material for publication in the daily press, for
example, or in writing reports sent to stockholders.
Where Employed
In 1965, there were an estimated 50,000 public
relations workers according to the limited data
available. About one-fourth were women. In re­
cent years, an increasing number of women have
entered public relations work, particularly in de­
partment stores, hospitals, hotels, and restaurants.
The majority o f public relations workers are
employed by manufacturing firms, stores, public
utilities, trade and professional associations, and
labor unions. Others are in consulting firms which
provide counsel and other kinds o f public rela­
tions services to clients on a fee basis. In 1964,
there were about 2,000 public relations consulting
firms, as well as a number of advertising agencies
which offered public relations services; and there
were about 5,000 corporations which either used
services of consulting firms or had public relations
staffs of their own.
Employment in public relations work tends to
be concentrated in big cities where press services
and other communications facilities are readily
available and where large corporations and trade,
professional, and other associations have their
headquarters. More than half of the consulting
firms are either in New York City or in Los A n ­
geles, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A college education is generally regarded as the
best preparation for public relations work; how­
ever, employers differ in the specific type of col­
lege background they require of applicants. Some
prefer graduates with majors in English, journal­
ism, or public relations; others prefer candidates
with a background in science or some other field
related to the firm’s business activities. In 1964,
14 colleges offered a bachelor’s degree in public
relations and 5 offered the master’s degree. In
addition, over 200 colleges offered at least one
course in public relations.
Among the college subjects considered desirable
as preparation for a career in public relation are
journalism, economics and other social sciences,
business administration, psychology, public speak­
ing, literature, and physical sciences. Extracur­
ricular activities, which may provide students
with some valuable experience, include writing or
other work connected with school publications,
participation in student government activities,
and part-time or summer employment in selling,
public relations, or related fields o f work.
Among the personal qualifications usually con­
sidered important for work in this field are crea­
tivity, initiative, drive, the ability to express
thoughts clearly and simply. Fresh ideas are so
important to effective public relations work that
some experts in this field spend all o f their time
providing ideas and planning programs but take
no active part in carrying out the programs. In
selecting new employees, many employers prefer
people who have had some previous work experi­
ence, particularly in journalism or some related
field.
Some companies—particularly those with large
public relations programs for which they recruit
young men with excellent college records as public
relations trainees—have formal training pro­
grams for new employees. In other companies,
new employees learn on the job by working under
the guidance o f experienced staff members. Be­
ginners often start out maintaining files of ma­
terial about the company and its activities, scan­
ning newspapers and magazines for appropriate
articles to clip, and doing the research needed to
assemble information for speeches and pamphlets.
After gaining experience, they may be given pro­
gressively more difficult assignments, such as

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND RELATED PROFESSIONS

writing press releases, speeches, and articles for
publication. Promotion to supervisory and man­
agerial positions may come as the worker demon­
strates ability to handle more difficult and crea­
tive assignments. The most skilled public rela­
tions work—initiating and developing plans and
maintaining the outside contacts which are so im­
portant in a successful program—is usually in the
hands o f the director o f the department and his
most experienced staff members. Some experi­
enced public relations workers eventually open
their own consulting firms, while others move on
to better positions with other employers.
Employment Outlook
Employment in this field is expected to expand
rapidly through the mid-1970’s. In addition to
the new jobs created, as expanding business firms
require the services of more public relations spe­
cialists, other openings will occur because of the
need to replace workers who retire or leave the
field for other reasons. However, the number of
jobs at the top is limited and competition for them
will remain keen.
The demand for public relations workers is ex­
pected to grow during the next 10 years and over
the longer run as population increases and the
general level o f business activity rises. In recent
years there has been an increase in the amount of
funds spent on public relations, and many com­
panies have newly organized public relations de­
partments. This development will continue in
future years.

43

who were employed by consulting firms in major
cities and who were very well qualified from the
standpoint o f educational background and previ­
ous work experience. Many public relations
workers, after a few years o f experience, earn be­
tween $8,000 and $12,000 a year.
The salaries o f experienced public relations
workers are generally highest in large companies,
where public relations programs are likely to be
more extensive than elsewhere. A director o f pub­
lic relations employed by a medium-size firm may
earn $12,000 or more annually, and those em­
ployed by large corporations may have salaries in
the $15,000 to $25,000 range, according to the Pub­
lic Relations Society o f America. Top officials,
such as vice presidents in charge of public rela­
tions, may earn from $25,000 to $50,000 a year or
more. Many consulting firms employ fairly large
staffs o f experienced public relations specialists
and often pay salaries which are somewhat higher
than the salaries paid public relations workers in
other business organizations. In social welfare
agencies, nonprofit organizations, and universities,
salary levels tend to be somewhat lower.
The workweek for public relations workers is
usually the same as for other officials in their
organizations—35 to 40 hours. Irregular hours
and overtime may often be necessary, however, to
meet deadlines, prepare or deliver speeches, at­
tend meetings and community functions, and
make trips out o f town. Sometimes, because of
the nature o f their regular assignments or because
of special events, they may be on call on a roundthe-clock basis with the workweek stretching to
6 or 7 days instead o f the usual 5.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Most trainees in public relations work in 1964
received starting salaries o f about $5,000 a year,
according to the limited data available. The high­
est starting salaries were paid chiefly to beginners

Where To G o For More Information
The Information Center, Public Relations Society of
America, Inc.,
845 Third Ave., New York, N .Y. 10022.

Purchasing Agents
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-91.60)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 162.158)

Nature of Work
In order for a company or other organization
to function, it has to purchase materials, supplies,
and equipment. Such necessities often represent

a large part o f total costs of operation and can
significantly affect a company’s profits. Because
o f its importance, purchasing has been designated
as a separate responsibility to be handled by one

44

Before buying parts, purchasing agent discusses a new product’s
design with other staff members.

o f the management team—the purchasing agent.
What purchasing agents and their assistants
buy depends upon the kinds of organizations em­
ploying them. For a manufacturer, it may be
largely machinery, raw materials, and product
components; for a government agency, it may be
office supplies, office furniture, and business ma­
chines. Whatever the organization, purchasing
agents are responsible for obtaining goods and
services at the lowest cost consistent with required
quality and for seeing that adequate supplies are
on hand.
Although the head o f the purchasing depart­
ment is usually called a purchasing agent, he may
have the title o f vice president-purchasing, pro­
curement or purchasing officer, director or man­
ager of purchasing, or buyer. (“ Buyers” in retail
stores, and others who are engaged in buying
merchandise for resale in its original form are not
included in this report.) In a large firm, the head
of the purchasing department directs the work of
a staff including assistant purchasing agents and
clerical workers. Each purchasing assistant may
be assigned to a broad area. One person may be
responsible for buying raw materials; another,
factory machinery; and another, office supplies.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Others may specialize in buying certain items—
for example, steel, lumber, cotton, or oil.
The purchasing agent receives order forms or
requisitions from the various departments of the
company. These requisitions list and describe
needed items and include such information as re­
quired quantities and delivery dates. Since the
agent can usually purchase from many sources,
his main job is to select the seller who offers the
best value. To do this, the agent or his staff mem­
bers must consider many factors, such as the exact
specifications for the required items, price, qual­
ity, quantity discounts, transportation cost, and
delivery time. Much of the information is ob­
tained by comparing listings in catalogs and trade
journals and by telephoning various suppliers,
but the purchasing agent also meets with sales­
men to examine sample goods, watch demonstra­
tions of equipment, and discuss items to be pur­
chased. Sometimes, suppliers are invited to bid
on large orders, and the purchasing agent selects
the lowest bidder who meets requirements with
respect to the specifications set up for the goods
and date of delivery.
It is important for purchasing agents to develop
good working relations with their suppliers. Such
relations can result in savings on purchases, fa­
vorable terms of payment, and quick delivery on
rush orders or material in short supply. They
also work closely with personnel in various de­
partments o f their own company. For example,
thej' frequently discuss product specifications with
company engineers or discuss shipment handling
problems with employees in the shipping and re­
ceiving, storage, or traffic departments.
Where Employed
More than half of the over 125,000 purchasing
agents and closely related types o f buyers em­
ployed in 1965 were- in manufacturing industries.
Large numbers were employed in government
agencies—Federal, State, and local— and in
wholesale and retail trade. Public utilities, trans­
portation companies, and service institutions, such
as schools and hospitals, employed substantial
numbers of purchasing agents and assistants.
Even the smallest industries employed some pur­
chasing personnel.

B U SIN E SS A D M IN IST R A T IO N A N D R E L A T E D PRO FESSIO NS

Most purchasing agents work in firms that have
fewer than 10 employees in the purchasing de­
partment. Some large firms, however, may have
a hundred or more specialized buyers. Probably
fewer than 10 percent o f all purchasing agents
and closely related types o f buyers are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Although employers differ greatly in the quali­
fications required for purchasing personnel, it is
evident that a college degree is becoming increas­
ingly important for promotion to a high-level
purchasing position. Many employers prefer
graduates o f schools o f business administration
or engineering who have had courses in account­
ing, economics, and purchasing. A few require
graduate training in business administration. On
the other hand, many firms give great weight to
experience with the company and select purchas­
ing workers from among their own personnel,
whether or not they have a college education.
Regardless o f previous training and experience,
the beginner in the purchasing field must spend
considerable time learning about his company’s
operations and purchasing procedures. Some
companies provide classroom-type instruction and
on-the-job training. The beginner may be assigned
to the storekeeper’s section to learn about opera­
tions such as keeping inventory records, filling
out forms to initiate purchases o f additional stock,
or providing proper storage facilities. He may
then work with an experienced buyer to learn
about types o f goods purchased, prices, and
sources o f supply. Following the initial training
period, the trainee may become a junior buyer of
standard catalog items. After he gains experience
in the various aspects o f purchasing and dem­
onstrates ability to exercise good judgment and
accept responsibility, he may be promoted to as­
sistant purchasing agent, and then to full-fledged
purchasing agent. In large companies, purchas­
ing agents or heads o f purchasing departments
may become vice presidents with overall responsi­
bility for purchasing, warehousing, traffic, and
related functions.
Employment Outlook
Opportunities are expected to be good through
the mid-1970’s for well-qualified young people

45

to enter and advance in purchasing occupations.
Demand is expected to be strong for graduates of
schools o f business administration who have had
courses in purchasing. Demand is also expected
to be above average for graduates whose back­
ground in engineering and science qualifies them
for jobs in purchasing departments of firms that
manufacture complex machinery, chemicals, and
other technical products. Liberal arts college
graduates should be able to obtain trainee posi­
tions in many types o f firms. Outstanding per­
sons who do not have a college education will
continue to be promoted from clerical, sales, and
other types o f jobs, but their opportunities for
advancement to high-level purchasing jobs will
tend to decrease.
Employment o f purchasing agents and their
assistants is expected to grow rapidly through
1975. Some o f the major factors underlying this
expected growth are the continuing increase in
the size o f business and manufacturing firms, the
development o f new products and new sources of
supply (including foreign markets), and the everincreasing complexity and specialization o f busi­
ness functions. Competition among manufac­
turers for new, improved, and less costly goods,
raw materials, and services will further direct the
attention o f top management to the importance o f
the purchasing function. Many job opportunities
are expected to result from the need to replace
personnel who retire, transfer to other jobs, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning annual salaries o f male college grad­
uates hired as trainees in purchasing departments
o f large private firms averaged about $6,200 in
1965. In the Federal Government, beginning pur­
chasing agents who had college degrees usually
started at $5,000 or $6,050 in early 1965, depend­
ing on the individual’s college record.
According to limited data available, in 1965 the
earnings o f buyers in private firms ranged from
$7,000 to $8,500 a year; assistant purchasing
agents ranged from $8,500 to $12,000; and pur­
chasing agents, from $12,000 to $20,000. Some top
purchasing executives earned from $25,000 to
$50,000.

46
Employees in purchasing departments usually
work the standard workweek of the company—
generally from 35 to 40 hours a week. In addition,
purchasing agents may spend time outside the
regular hours to attend meetings, prepare reports,
visit suppliers’ plants, or travel.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Wheire To G o for More Information
Young people interested in a career in purchas­
ing may consult members o f local purchasing as­
sociations, or they may write to:
National Association of Purchasing Agents,
11 Park PL, New York, N .Y. 10007.

THE CLER G Y
The choice of the ministry, priesthood, or rab­
binate as one’s lifework involves considerations
that do not influence to the same degree the selec­
tion o f a career in most other occupations. When
young people decide to become clergymen, they
do so primarily because o f their religious faith
and their desire to help others. Nevertheless, it
is important for them to know as much as possible
about the profession and how to prepare for it,
the kind of life it offers, and its needs for person­
nel. They should understand also that the civic,
social, and recreational activities o f clergymen
are often influenced, and sometimes restricted, by
the customs and attitudes o f their community.
The number of clergymen needed is broadly
related to the size and geographic distribution of
the Nation’s inhabitants and their participation
in organized religious groups. These factors affect
the number of churches and synagogues that are
established and, thus, the number of pulpits to be
filled. A sharp rise in church and synagogue mem­
bership has occurred since 1940. Over 118 million
people were members of organized religious
groups in 1963—representing more than 63 per­
cent of the total population, whereas in 1940,
slightly less than half the population belonged to
religious groups. In addition to those who serve
congregations, many clergymen teach in semi­
naries and other educational institutions, serve as
missionaries, and perform various other duties in
meeting their religious responsibilities.
Young people considering a career as a clergy­
man should seek the counsel of a religious leader
of their faith to aid them in evaluating their quali­
fications for the profession. Besides a desire to
serve the spiritual needs of others and to lead
them in religious activities, they need a broad
background o f knowledge and the ability to speak
and write clearly. Emotional stability is neces­
sary, since a clergyman must be able to help others
in times of stress. Furthermore, young people
should know that clergymen are expected to be
examples o f high moral character.

The amount of income clergymen receive de­
pends, to a great extent, on the size and financial
status o f the congregation they serve and usually
is highest in large cities or in prosperous suburban
areas. Earnings o f clergymen, as o f most other
professional groups, usually rise with increased
experience and responsibility/ Most Protestant
churches and a number o f Jewish congregations
provide their spiritual leaders with housing. R o­
man Catholic priests ordinarily live in the rectory
o f a parish church or are provided lodgings by
the religious order to which they belong. Many
clergymen receive allowances for transportation
and other expenses necessary in their work.
Clergymen often receive gifts or fees for officiat­
ing at special ceremonies such as weddings and
funerals. In some cases, these gifts or fees are an
important source of additional income; however,
they are frequently donated to charity by the
clergymen. Some churches establish a uniform
fee for these services, which goes directly into the
church treasury.
More detailed information on the clergy in the
three largest faiths in the United States—Protes­
tant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is given in the
following statements which were prepared in co­
operation with leaders of these faiths. Informa­
tion on the clergy in other faiths may be obtained
directly from leaders o f the respective groups.
Numerous other church-related occupations—
those of the missionary, teacher, director of youth
organizations, director of religious education, edi­
tor of religious publications, music director,
church secretary, recreation leader, and many
others—offer interesting and satisfying careers.
In addition, opportunities to work in connection
with religious activities are present in many
other occupations. Clergymen or educational di­
rectors o f local churches or synagogues can pro­
vide information on the church-related occupa­
tions and other areas offering opportunities for
religious service.
47

778-316 O— 6i

5

48

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Protestant Clergymen
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-08.)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work
Protestant clergymen lead their congregations
in worship services and may administer the rites
o f baptism, confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons and give other
talks, instruct people who are to be received into
membership of the church, perform marriages,
and conduct funerals. They counsel individuals
who seek guidance, visit the sick and shut-in, com­
fort those who are bereaved, and serve their
church members in many other ways. Protestant
ministers may also write articles for publication
and engage in interfaith, community, civic, edu­
cational, and recreational activities sponsored by
or related to the interests of the church. A few
clergymen teach in seminaries, colleges, and uni­
versities.
The types o f worship services which ministers
conduct differ among Protestant denominations
and also among congregations within a denomina­
tion; in some denominations, ministers follow a
traditional order o f worship, whereas in others
they adapt the services to different occasions.
Most o f these services include Bible reading, hymn
singing, prayers, and a sermon. Bible reading by
a member o f the congregation and individual testi­
monials may constitute a large part o f the service
in some denominations.
Ministers serving small congregations generally
work on a close personal basis with their parish­
ioners. Those serving large congregations usu­
ally have greater administrative responsibilities
and spend considerable time working with com­
mittees, church officers, and staff, besides per­
forming their other duties. They may have one or
more associates or assistants who share specific
aspects o f the ministry, such as a Minister of
Education who assists in educational programs
for different age groups.
Where Employed
In 1965, about 240,000 people were serving as
ministers of churches, composing over 225 Protes­
tant denominations or other groups. In addition,

thousands of ordained clergymen were in other
occupations—many closely related to the ministry.
The greatest number o f clergymen are affiliated
with the four largest groups of churches—
Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian—
to which about 7 out of every 10 of the 65 million
Protestant church members belong. Most minis­
ters serve individual congregations; some are en­
gaged in missionary activities in the United
States and in foreign countries; others serve as
chaplains in the Armed Forces, in hospitals, and
in other institutions; still others teach in educa­
tional institutions, engage in other religious ed­
ucational work, or are employed in social welfare
and related agencies. Less than 5 percent o f all
ministers are women; however, about 80 denomi­
nations ordain women. In addition, in some de­
nominations an increasing number of women who
have not been ordained are serving as pastors’
assistants. Also, in a growing number o f denomi­
nations certain orders of women workers are re­
ferred to as deaconesses.
A ll cities and most towns have one or more
Protestant churches with a full-time minister. The
majority o f ministers are located in cities and
towns. Many others live in less densely populated
areas where each may serve the religious needs of
two or more congregations in different communi­
ties. A larger proportion o f Protestants than
members o f other faiths live in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications
The educational preparation required for entry
into the ministry has a wider range than that for
most professions. Some religious groups have no
formal educational requirements, and others or­
dain persons who have received varying amounts
of training in liberal arts colleges, Bible colleges,
or'Bible institutes. An increasingly large number
of denominations, however, require a 3-year course
o f professional study in theology following college
graduation. After completion of such a course in
a theological school, the degree of bachelor of di­
vinity or sacred theology is awarded.

TH E

49

CLERGY

Ninety of the theological institutions in the
Nation in early 1965 were accredited by the
American Association of Theological Schools.
Accredited institutions admit only students who
have received the bachelor’s degree, or its equiva­
lent, from an approved college. In addition, cer­
tain character and personality qualifications must
be met, and endorsement by the religious group
to which the applicant belongs is required. The
American Association of Theological Schools
recommends that preseminary studies be concen­
trated in the liberal arts. Although courses in
English, philosophy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student
should take courses also in the natural and social
sciences, religion, and foreign languages. The
standard curriculum recommended for accredited
theological schools divides the course of studies
into four major fields: Biblical, historical, theo­
logical, and practical. There is a trend toward
adding more courses in psychology, pastoral coun­
seling, sociology, religious education, administra­
tion, and other studies of a practical nature. Many
accredited schools require that students gain ex­
perience in church work under the supervision of
a faculty member or experienced minister. Some
institutions offer the master o f theology and the
doctor o f theology degrees to students completing
1 year or more of additional study.
In general, each large denomination has its own
school or schools of theology which reflect its par­
ticular interests and needs; however, many of
these schools are open to students from various
denominations.
Several
interdenominational
schools associated with universities give both un­
dergraduate and graduate training covering a
wide range of theological points of view.
Among the personal qualifications which most
denominations seek in a candidate for the ministry
are a deep religious conviction, a sense o f dedica­
tion to Christian service, a genuine concern for
and love o f people, a wholesome personality and
high moral and ethical standards, and a vigorous
and creative mind. Because o f the demands of the
ministry, good health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have met denominational quali­
fications for the ministry are usually ordained
following graduation from a seminary. In denomi­

nations which do not require seminary training,
clergymen are ordained at various appointed
times. Clergymen often begin their careers as
pastors of small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches. Protestant clergymen in
many of the larger denominations— especially
those groups which have a well-defined church
organization— often are requested to serve in
positions o f great administrative and denomina­
tional responsibility.

Outlook
A shortage of well-qualified Protestant minis­
ters exists, and probably will continue through the
mid-1970’s, especially among those denominations
where the extent o f formal training requires many
years o f preparation for the ministry. Although
the number of students graduating from theo­
logical schools has increased over the past 10
years, the gains have not been great enough to
replace the thousands o f ministers who retire, die,
or leave the profession each year and at the same
time to meet the needs of newly established con­
gregations and to supply assistant ministers where
needed.
Many congregations—mainly those in rural
areas—did not have a full-time ordained minister
in 1965. Some had to rely on the services of theo­
logical students or lay persons or shared the
services of a pastor with another congregation.
Some large congregations were unable to fill open­
ings for assistant ministers with specialized skills.
In addition, ordained ministers were being sought
for teaching positions; to serve in foreign mis­
sions, in relief work, and in religious educational
activities; as chaplains in the Armed Forces; and
in universities, hospitals, penitentiaries, and other
institutions.
Over the long run, the total number o f minis­
ters needed by Protestant churches will probably
increase as a result o f the expected growth in pop­
ulation and in the number of congregations. The
greatest expansion is anticipated in the suburbs
of large cities. The increasing opportunities for
ministers in fields such as youth and family rela­
tions work, the campus ministry, and religious ac­

50

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tivities including chaplaincies in institutions and
industry, also point toward a need for additional
clergymen. Replacement of those who retire, die,
or leave the ministry for other causes also will
require an ever-increasing number o f newly
trained ministers. In addition, there is a grow­
ing demand for clergymen to serve as faculty
members in departments o f religion in public and
private universities.

Where To G o for More Information
Young people who wish to enter the Protestant
ministry should seek the counsel o f a minister or
church guidance worker. Additional information
on both the ministry and other church-related
occupations are also available from many denomi­
national offices. Information on admission re­
quirements may be obtained directly from each
theological school.

Rabbis
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-08.)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work

Where Employed

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their con­
gregations and teachers and interpreters o f Jewish
law and tradition. They conduct daily services
and hold special services on the Sabbath and on
holidays. Rabbis are customarily available at all
times for counsel to members of their congrega­
tions, other followers o f Judaism, and the com­
munity at large. Many o f the rabbis’ functions—
preparing and delivering sermons, performing
wedding ceremonies, visiting the sick, conducting
funeral services, comforting the bereaved, help­
ing the poor, supervising religious education pro­
grams, engaging in interfaith activities, assuming
community responsibilities, and counseling indi­
viduals— are similar to those performed by clergy­
men o f other faiths. Rabbis may also write for
religious and lay publications, and teach in theo­
logical seminaries, colleges, and universities.
Rabbis serve congregations affiliated with 1 of
the 3 branches o f American Judaism—Orthodox
(traditional), Conservative, or Reform (liberal).
Regardless o f their particular point o f view, all
Hebrew congregations preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The congregations
differ in the extent to which they follow the tra­
ditional form o f worship— for example, in the
wearing o f head coverings or in the use o f He­
brew as the language of prayer, or in the use of
music. Because o f these differences, the format of
the worship service and therefore the ritual that
the rabbis use may vary even among congrega­
tions belonging to the same branch of Judaism.

About 4,500 rabbis served over 5 ^ million fol­
lowers o f the Jewish faith in this country in 1965.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest are about
equally divided between the Conservative and
Reform branches o f Judaism. Most rabbis act as
the spiritual leaders o f individual congregations;
some serve as chaplains in the Armed Forces, in
hospitals, and in other institutions; others teach
in educational institutions; and others are em­
ployed in social welfare agencies and in religious
education work for such organizations as the
Hillel Foundation.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in
those States which have sizable Jewish popula­
tions, particularly New York, California, Penn­
sylvania, New Jersey, Illinois, and Massachusetts.
Training and Other Qualifications
To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi,
a student must complete the prescribed course of
study at a Jewish theological seminary.
Entrance and training requirements depend
upon the branch o f Judaism with which the semi­
nary is associated. The Hebrew Union College—
Jewish Institute of Religion (Reform) and The
Jewish Theological Seminary of America (Con­
servative) are the only seminaries that train
rabbis for their respective branches o f Judaism.
Both schools require the completion o f a 4-year
college course, as well as prior preparation in
J ewish studies, for admission to the rabbinic pro­

TH E

51

CLERGY

gram leading to ordination. Although 5 years are
normally required to complete the rabbinic course
at the Reform seminary, exceptionally well-pre­
pared students can shorten this period o f study
to a minimum o f 3 years. The course at the Con­
servative seminary can be completed in 4 years
if the student has a strong background in Jewish
studies; otherwise, the course may take as long
as 6 years.
About 15 seminaries train Orthodox rabbis.
These schools have programs o f various lengths,
all leading to ordination. A t one o f the larger
Orthodox seminaries, well-qualified students who
are college graduates may complete the rabbinic
program in 3 years; however, students who are not
college graduates may spend a longer period at
this seminary and complete the requirements for
the bachelor’s degree at the same time they are
pursuing the rabbinic course. Orthodox semi­
naries do not require a college degree to qualify
for ordination; however, in most cases students
qualifying for ordination have completed 4 years
of college.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish theo­
logical seminaries provide students with a compre­
hensive grasp o f all aspects o f Jewish knowledge,
Bible, Rabbinic literature, Talmud, Jewish his­
tory, theology, and other courses such as pastoral
psychology and public speaking. The Reform
seminary places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature and offers a
broad course o f study that includes such subjects
as human relations and Jewish religious educa­
tion. Some seminaries grant advanced academic
degrees in such fields as Biblical and Talmudic
research. A ll Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available to students.
Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as leaders
of small congregations, as assistants to experi­
enced rabbis, or as chaplains in the Armed Forces.
As a rule, the pulpits of large and well-established
synagogues and temples are filled by experienced
rabbis.
The choice o f a career as a rabbi should, of
course, be made on the basis of a fervent belief in
the religious teachings and practices o f Judaism
and o f a desire to serve the religious needs of
others. In addition to having high moral and
ethical values, the prospective rabbi should have

good judgment and be able to write and speak effec­
tively.
Outlook
At present, the number o f rabbis in this country
is inadequate to meet the expanding needs of
Jewish congregations and other organizations de­
siring their services. This situation is likely to
persist through the mid-1970’s. In recent years,
many congregations—especially those located in
States where there are relatively few persons of
the Jewish faith—were unable to secure the spiri­
tual leadership of a full-time ordained rabbi and
had to rely on the services o f senior theological
students and lay readers. Rabbis also have been
sought to lead the many new congregations which
had been organized in and around New York,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Boston—
where the majority of the Jewish population is
concentrated.
The recent increases in Jewish religious affilia­
tion and in the number o f synagogues and temples
seem likely to continue. Furthermore, an increas­
ing demand for rabbis to work with social welfare
and other organizations connected with the Jewish
faith is anticipated.
Although the number o f students graduating
annually from the Jewish theological seminaries
is expected to increase also, there will probably
not be enough new graduates to replace the rabbis
who retire or die, and to fill the openings which
will be created by the expanding work of the large
congregations and by the formation of new con­
gregations. Immigration, once an important
source o f supply of rabbis, is no longer significant.
In fact, graduates of American seminaries are now
in demand for Jewish congregations in other
countries.
Where To G o For More Information
Young people who are interested in entering
the rabbinate should seek the guidance of a rabbi.
Additional information on how to prepare for
service in the rabbinate o f a particular branch
of Judaism, including school admission require­
ments, may be obtained from each theological
school.

52

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Roman Catholic Priests
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-08.)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work
Roman Catholic priests attend the spiritual,
moral, and educational needs of the members of
their Church. Their duties include offering the
Sacrifice o f the Mass; hearing confessions; ad­
ministering the Sacraments (including the sacra­
ment o f marriage) ; visiting and comforting the
sick; conducting funeral services and consoling
survivors; counseling those in need o f guidance;
and assisting the poor. Priests give religious in­
struction at Mass in the form o f a sermon. They
have numerous other responsibilities to assure that
all laws o f the Church are fulfilled.
Priests spend long hours performing services
for the Church and the community. Their day
usually begins with morning meditation and Mass
and may end with an evening visit to the local
hospital or the hearing o f confessions. In addi­
tion, each day priests spend several hours in
prayer and reading their breviaries. Many of
them serve on Church committees or in civic or­
ganizations and assist in community projects.
Various societies that carry on charitable and so­
cial programs also depend upon priests for direc­
tion.
Although all priests have the same powers ac­
quired through ordination by a bishop, they are
classified in two main categories— diocesan and
religious—by reason o f their way of life and the
type o f work to which they are assigned. Diocesan
priests (sometimes called secular priests) gen­
erally work as individuals in the parishes to which
they are assigned by the bishop of their diocese.
Religious priests are members of religious orders—
for example Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans—
and generally work as members o f a community
T
in specialized activities, such as teaching or mis­
sionary work, assigned to them by the superiors of
the orders to which they belong.
Both religious and secular priests hold teaching
and administrative posts in the Catholic semi­
naries, universities and colleges, and high schools.
Priests attached to religious orders staff a large
proportion o f the institutions of higher education
and many high schools, whereas secular priests
are primarily concerned with the parochial schools

attached to parish churches and with diocesan
high schools. The members o f religious orders do
most o f the missionary work conducted by the
Catholic Church in this country and in the for­
eign field.
Where Employed
About 58,000 priests served over 44 million
Catholics in the United States in 1965. There are
priests in nearly every city and town and in many
rural communities; however, the majority are in
heavily populated metropolitan areas, where most
of the Catholic population is located. Catholics
are concentrated in the Northeast and the Great
Lakes regions, with smaller concentrations in
California, Texas, and Louisiana. A large num­
ber of priests are located in communities near
Catholic educational and other institutions. Many
are stationed throughout the world as missionar­
ies. Others travel constantly on missions to local
parishes throughout the country. Some priests
serve as chaplains with the Armed Forces or in
hospitals or other institutions.
Training and Other Qualifications
The course of study for the priesthood takes at
least 8 years after graduation from high school.
Most students take this training in theological
seminaries—first, in a minor seminary (usually for
2 years), then in a major seminary which offers
6 years o f advanced training. In 1964, over 48,000
students, known as seminarians were enrolled in
459 seminaries in the United States. High school
graduates with the desired scholastic back­
ground—an academic course, including Latin—
can complete the minor seminary in 2 years and
then advance to the major seminary. Elementary
school graduates may enter the minor seminary
where they complete their high school work before
taking the 2 years of college level work. Courses
include Christian doctrine, Latin, Greek, English,
at least one other modern language, rhetoric and
elocution, history, geography, bookkeeping,
mathematics, natural sciences, and Gregorian
chant.

TH E

53

CLERGY

A t the major seminary, the first 2 years are de­
voted to the study of philosophy, scripture, church
history, and the natural sciences as related to reli­
gion. During the remaining 4 years, the course o f
study includes sacred scripture; apologetics; dog­
matic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics;
church history; liturgy; and canon law. Diocesan
and religious priests attend different major semi­
naries, where slight variations in the training re­
flect the differences in the type of work expected
o f them as priests. During the later years o f his
seminary course, the candidate receives from his
bishop a succession of orders culminating in his
ordination to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theology is taken
either at Catholic University o f America (Wash­
ington, D.C.) or at the ecclesiastical universities in
Rome. Many priests also do graduate work at
other universities in fields unrelated to theology.
Priests are commanded by the law of the Catholic
Church to continue their studies, at least infor­
mally, after ordination.
Young men are never denied entry into semi­
naries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the bishop may make arrangements
for loans to the students. Those in religious semi­
naries are often financed by contributions of
benefactors.
Among the qualities considered most desirable
in candidates for the Catholic priesthood are a
love of and concern for people, a deep religious
conviction, a desire to spread the Gospel of Christ,
at least average intellectual ability, capacity to
speak and write correctly, and more than average
skill in working with people. Candidates for the
priesthood must understand that priests are not
permitted to marry and are dedicated to a life of
chastity.
The first assignment o f a newly ordained secu­
lar priest is usually that o f assistant pastor or

curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders
are assigned to the specialized duties for which
they are trained.
Outlook
A growing number of priests will be needed in
the years ahead to provide for the spiritual-, edu­
cational, and social needs of the rising number of
Catholics in the Nation. Although the number o f
seminarians has increased steadily in recent years,
the number o f ordained priests is not sufficient to
fill the needs o f newly established parishes and ex­
panding colleges and other Catholic institutions,
and to replace priests who die. Priests usually
continue at their work longer than persons in
other professions, but the varied demands and
long hours create a need for young priests to
assist the older ones. Also, an increasing rmmber
of priests have been serving in many diverse
areas— for example, in religious radio, newspaper,
and television work, labor-management mediation
and in foreign posts, particularly in countries with
a shortage o f priests. Continued expansion o f such
activities, in addition to the expected further
growth in Catholic population, will require a
steady increase in the number of priests, at least
through the mid-1970’s.
Where To G o for More Information
Young men interested in entering the priest­
hood should seek the guidance and counsel o f their
parish priest. Additional information regarding
different religious orders and the secular priest­
hood, as well as a list of the various seminaries
which prepare students for the priesthood, may be
obtained from Diocesan Directors of Vocations,
or from the diocesan chancery office.

C O N S E R V A T IO N O C C U P A T IO N S
Forests, rangelands, wildlife, and water are
part of our country’s great wealth of natural re­
sources. Conservationists protect, develop, and
manage natural resources to assure that they are
not needlessly exhausted, destroyed, or damaged,
and that future needs for the resources will be
met.
Specialized training is generally required to
work in conservation occupations. Many positions

can be filled only by those having a bachelor’s de­
gree. For other positions, the desired training
may be obtained on the job.
This chapter includes descriptions of three con­
servation occupations— forester, forestry aid, and
range manager. Other conservation workers in­
clude soil conservationists, whose work is dis­
cussed elsewhere in this Handbooh.

Foresters
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.07)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work
Forests are one o f America’s greatest natural
resources, covering more than one-third of the
land area o f the country. Foresters manage, de­
velop, and protect these valuable lands and their
resources—timber, water, wildlife, forage, and
recreation areas. They estimate the amount and
value of these resources. They plan and supervise
the harvesting and cutting of trees, purchase and
sale o f trees and timber, and reforestation activi­
ties (renewing the forest cover by seeding or
planting). Foresters also safeguard forests from
fire, destructive animals and insects, and diseases.
Some foresters are responsible for wildlife pro­
tection and watershed management, as well as for
the management of camps, parks, and grazing
land.
Foresters usually specialize in one area o f work
such as timber management, fire control, forest
economics, outdoor recreation, watershed manage­
ment, wildlife management, or range manage­
ment. Some o f these areas are becoming recog­
nized as distinct professions. The profession of
range managers, for example, is discussed in a
separate statement in this chapter. Foresters may
also specialize in such activities as research, writ­
ing and editing, extension work (providing for54

estry information to farmers, logging companies,
and the public), forest marketing, and college and
university teaching.
Where Employed
An estimated 21,000 persons were employed as
foresters in the United States in 1965. The largest
group, more than 7,500, were employed by the
Federal Government mainly in the Forest Serv­
ice of the Department o f Agriculture. Other Fed­
eral agencies employing significant numbers of
foresters were the Departments of the Interior
and Defense. State governments employed sev­
eral thousand foresters, and a few hundred were
employed by local governments.
About 8,000 foresters were employed in private
industry in 1965, mainly by pulp and paper, lum­
ber, logging, and milling companies. Some for­
esters were managers of their own land, were in
business for themselves as consultants, or were
employed by consulting firms. Colleges and uni­
versities employed more than 1,000 foresters.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in forestry is
the usual minimum educational requirement for

55

CONSERVATION OCCUPATIONS

firsthand experience in forest or conservation
work.
Beginning positions for forestry graduates
often involve performing routine duties under the
supervision o f experienced foresters. As they
gain experience and are given more responsi­
bility, foresters may advance to positions such as
that of branch forester, district ranger, forest
supervisor, and managing forester.
Qualifications for success in forestry include an
enthusiasm for outdoor work and the ability to
meet and deal effectively with people. Many jobs
also require physical stamina and a willingness to
work in remote areas.
Employment Outlook

Courtesy of the U.S. Forest Service

Forester inspects young tree.

young persons seeking professional careers in
forestry. An advanced degree is generally re­
quired for teaching and research positions.
Training in forestry leading to a bachelor’s or
higher degree was offered in 1964 by about 45
colleges and universities. The curriculums in most
of these schools include specialized forestry
courses in five essential areas: (1) Silviculture
(methods o f growing and improving forest
crop s); (2) forest protection (primarily against
fire, insects, and disease) ; (3) forest management
(the application of business methods and techni­
cal forestry principles to the operation of a
forest prop erty); (4) forest economics (study of
the factors affecting the supply of and the de­
mand for forest products) ; and (5) forest utili­
zation (the harvesting, processing, and market­
ing of the forest crop and other forest resources).
The curriculums also include related courses in
the management o f recreational lands, watershed
management, and wildlife management, as well as
courses in mathematics, science, engineering, eco­
nomics, and the humanities. In addition, the
great majority of colleges require that students
spend one summer in a field camp operated by the
college. Forestry students are also encouraged
to work other summers in jobs that will give them

Employment opportunities for forestry gradu­
ates are expected to be favorable through the mid1970’s. There will be a strong demand for wellqualified personnel with advanced degrees for
college teaching positions and for research in
areas such as forest genetics, forest diseases and
insects, forest products utilization, and fire be­
havior and control. Among the major factors un­
derlying this anticipated demand are the coun­
try’s growing population and rising living stand­
ards, which will tend to increase the demand for
forest products, and the use of forests for recrea­
tion areas.
Private owners of timberland are expected to
offer increasing numbers of employment oppor­
tunities to foresters, because they are becoming
increasingly aware of the profitability of im­
proved forestry and logging practices. The forest
products industries also will require additional
foresters to apply new techniques for utilizing
the entire forest crop, and for cutting trees once
regarded as unprofitable for timber operations.
In addition, competition from metal, plastics, and
other materials is expected to stimulate further
research to develop new and improved wood
products.
The Federal Government is likely to offer in­
creasing employment opportunities for foresters
in the years ahead, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture. Among the
factors expected to contribute to this expansion
are the demands for the use of national forest
resources, the trend toward more scientific man­
agement o f these lands, and expanding research

56

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

programs in areas such as outdoor recreation,
watershed management, wildlife protection, and
range management.
State government agencies should also offer
additional employment opportunities for fores­
ters. Forest fire control, protection against in­
sects and diseases, provision o f technical assist­
ance to owners o f private forest lands, and other
Federal-State cooperative programs are usually
channeled through State forestry organizations.
Growing demands for recreation facilities in for­
est lands are likely to result in expansion of State
parks and other recreational areas.
In addition to new positions created by the
rising demand for foresters, a few hundred open­
ings will arise each year owing to retirements,
deaths, and transfers out of the profession.
Opportunities for women in outdoor forestry
work will probably continue to be limited, largely
because o f the strenuous physical requirements of
much o f the work. The few women presently em­
ployed in forestry are engaged chiefly in research,
administration, and educational work, and future
opportunities for women are also likely to be
primarily in these fields.

could begin at $6,050 or $7,220; those with the
Ph.D. degree, at $8,650 or $10,250.
Beginning salaries o f foresters employed by
State governments vary widely. However, in
1964, the average starting salary for State gov­
ernment foresters was estimated to be $5,100.
Annual salaries o f beginning foresters with
bachelor’s degrees employed by private industry
were generally between $5,200 and $6,500 in 1964,
according to the limited information available.
Starting salaries of new graduates with master’s
degrees were usually between $6,500 and $7,500
a year. Those with doctor’s degrees usually re­
ceived starting salaries o f more than $7,500.
In colleges and universities, salaries of forestry
teachers were generally the same as those paid
other faculty members. (See statement on College
and University Teachers.) Foresters in educa­
tional institutions sometimes supplement their
regular salaries with income from part-time con­
sulting, lecturing, and writing books and articles.
As part o f his regular duties, the forester—par­
ticularly in beginning positions—spends consider­
able time outdoors under all kinds o f weather
conditions. Many foresters put in extra hours in
emergency duty such as firefighting.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To G o for More Information

In the Federal Government in early 1965, be­
ginning foresters with the bachelor’s degree could
start at either $5,000 or $6,050 a year, depending
on their college record. Those with the bache­
lor’s degree and 1 or 2 years of graduate work

Society of American Foresters,
1010 16th St. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20036.

Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250.
American Forest Products Industries, Inc.,
1816 N St. N W ., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Forestry Aids
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-68.24)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 441.384)

Nature of Work
Forestry aids, sometimes called forestry tech­
nicians, assist foresters in managing and caring
for both public and private forest lands. (See
statement on Foresters earlier in this chapter.)
Some o f their duties include estimating the
amount, growth, and value of timber in a forest
by sampling techniques; marking timber for harv­
est; pruning trees to improve the quality o f the
timber; spraying trees with pesticides to protect

them from insects and diseases; collecting infor­
mation on the condition o f watershed projects;
and investigating the causes o f stream and lake
pollution. Forestry aids also conduct road sur­
veys and maintain forest trails. They may super­
vise timber sale operations and manage recreation
facilities.
Forestry aids may be engaged in all phases of
fire prevention and control. I f a fire occurs, they
may lead fire fighting crews. After the fire has

57

CONSERVATION OCCUPATIONS

been suppressed, they take inventory o f the burned
out area and plant new trees and shrubs. Fire
precautions are also stressed by the aids as they
instruct persons using the forest for recreation
purposes to assure that no harm will come to them
or to the forest.
Some aids employed in laboratories assist sci­
entists in tests and experiments to discover ways
to expand the utilization o f forest products.

for State governments. About 4,000 forestry tech­
nicians were employed in private industry in 1965,
primarily by lumber, logging, and paper milling
companies. Other forestry aids worked in tree
nurseries or in forestation projects of mining,
railroad, or oil companies.
Forestry aids are located chiefly in the heavily
forested States of Washington, California, Ore­
gon, Idaho, Utah, and Montana.

Where Employed

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

An estimated 10,000 persons were employed as
forestry aids or technicians in the United States
in 1965. The largest group, more than 4,000, were
employed by the Federal Government, mainly by
the Forest Service o f the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Approximately 1,800 were working

Young persons qualify for beginning positions
as forestry aids either by completing a specialized
1- or 2-year post-secondary school curriculum or
through work experience. Curriculums designed
to train forestry aids are offered in technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges, and ranger schools (schools
that specialize in training forestry aids). Among
the specialized courses are forest mensuration
(measurement of the number and size of trees in
the forest), forest protection, dendrology (iden­
tification o f trees and shurbs), wood utilization,
and silviculture (methods of growing and improv­
ing forest crops). In addition, the student takes
courses, such as drafting, surveying, report writ­
ing, and first aid and spends time in a forest or
camp operated by the school, where he obtains
experience in forestry work.
Persons who have not had post-secondary school
training must usually have had experience in
forest work, such as felling or planting trees and
fighting fires, to qualify for beginning forestry
aid Jobs. In the Federal Government, the mini­
mum experience requirement is two seasons of re­
lated work. Those who have had some technical
experience such as estimating timber resources
may qualify for more responsible positions.
Qualifications considered essential for success in
this field are an enthusiasm for outdoor work,
physical stamina, and the ability to carry out
tasks without direct supervision. Many jobs also
require a willingness to work in remote areas.
Employment Outlook

Courtesy of the U.S. Forest Service

Forestry aids use special rulers and compasses to estimate
timber volume.

Employment opportunities for forestry aids are
expected to be good through the mid-1970’s. Pros­
pects will be especially good for those with posthigh school training in a forestry curriculum. As

58

OCCUPATIONAir OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the employment of foresters continues to grow,
increasing numbers of forestry aids will be needed
to assist them. Also, it is expected that forestry
aids will assume some o f the more routine jobs
being done by foresters.
Private industry is expected to provide many
additional employment opportunities for forestry
aids. Forest products industries are becoming in­
creasingly aware o f the profitability of employ­
ing technical persons knowledgeable in the practi­
cal application of scientific forest practices.
The Federal Government is also likely to offer
increasing employment opportunities for forestry
aids through the mid-1970’s, mainly in the Forest
Service o f the Department of Agriculture. Simi­
larly, State governments will probably increase
their employment o f forestry aids. Growth in
Government employment will stem from factors
such as increasing demand for recreational facili­
ties, the trend toward more scientific management
of forest land and water supplies, and an increas­

ing amount of timber cutting on Federal forest
land.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government, beginning forestry
aids and technicians earned $4,005, $4,480 or
$5,000 a year in early 1965, depending on the
applicants’ education and experience. Beginning
salaries for forestry aids employed in private
industry also ranged between $4,000 and $5,000
a year, according to fragmentary data.
As part o f their regular duties, forestry aids
must spend considerable time outdoors under
all weather conditions. In emergencies, such as
firefighting, forestry aids work many extra hours
without rest.
Where To G o for More Information
Forest Service, U.S. Department o f Agriculture,
Washington, D.C.

20250.

Range Managers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of Work
Rangelands cover more than 700 million acres
in the United States, mostly in the Western and
Southern States. Range managers, also called
range conservationists or range scientists, are re­
sponsible for the management, development, and
protection of these rangelands and their resources.
They establish systems and plans for grazing that
will yield the highest production of livestock
while preserving conditions of soil and vegetation
necessary to meet other land-use requirements—
wildlife grazing, recreation, growing timber, and
watersheds. Range managers evaluate forage re­
sources; estimate the amount of forage that can
be properly utilized; decide on the number and
appropriate type of livestock to be grazed and
the best season for grazing; restore deteriorated
rangelands through seeding or plant control; and
determine other range conservation and develop­
ment needs. Range fire protection, pest control,
and grazing trespass control are also important
areas of work.

The range managers’ activities may include re­
search in range maintenance and improvement,
report writing, teaching, extension work (provid­
ing information about range management to hold­
ers of privately owned grazing lands), or perform­
ing technical assignments in foreign countries.
Wheire Employed
In 1965, an estimated 3,500 professional range
managers were employed in the United States.
Approximately 1,500 were employed by Federal
Government agencies, primarily in the Forest
Service o f the Department of Agriculture and in
the Bureau o f Land Management o f the Depart­
ment of the Interior. State governments also em­
ployed significant numbers of range managers.
In private industry, many range managers are
employed by privately owned range livestock
ranches. Some are in business for themselves as
consultants, or are employed by consulting firms.
Others are employed in manufacturing, sales, and
service enterprises. Colleges and universities also

59

CONSERVATION OCCUPATIONS

Courtesy of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management

grant the master’s degree, and a few such schools
award the doctorate.
The essential courses for a degree in range man­
agement are botany, plant ecology, and plant
physiology; zoology; animal husbandry; soils;
chemistry; mathematics; and special courses in
range management, such as identification and
characteristics of range plants, range management
principles and practices, and range management
methods and techniques. Desirable elective courses
include economics, statistical methods, physics,
geology, watershed management, wildlife man­
agement, surveying, and forage crops.
Federal Government agencies—primarily the
Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Manage­
ment—hire many college juniors and seniors for
summer jobs in range management. This experi­
ence helps students qualify for permanent posi­
tions as range managers when they complete col­
lege.
Because most range managers must meet and
deal with other people, individually or in groups,
they should be able to communicate their ideas ef­
fectively, both in writing and speaking. Many
jobs require the stamina to perform vigorous
physical activity, and a willingness to work in
arid and sparsely populated areas.

Range manager outlines summer grazing plans.

employ range managers in teaching and research
positions.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The bachelor’s degree with a major in range
management or range conservation is the usual
requirement for persons seeking employment as
range managers in the Federal Government. A
bachelor's degree in a closely related subjectmatter field, such as agronomy, animal husbandry,
botany, forestry, soil conservation, or wildlife
management, with courses in range management
and range conservation, is also accepted as ade­
quate preparation. Graduate degrees are generally
required for teaching and research work.
Training leading to a bachelor’s degree with a
major in range management was offered in 1964
by 18 colleges and universities, mainly in Western
and Southwestern States. Most schools conferring
the bachelor’s degree in range management also

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for graduates with
degrees in range management are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1970’s. The demand
will be especially good for well-qualified persons
with advanced degrees to fill research and teach­
ing positions.
Opportunities will probably be best in Federal
agencies. Favorable opportunities are also ex­
pected in private industry, since range livestock
producers and private timber operators are hiring
increasing numbers of range managers to improve
their range holdings. Some openings are expected
for range managers to give technical assistance
overseas, particularly in developing countries of
the Middle East, Africa, and South America.
Among the major factors underlying the antici­
pated growth in demand for range managers are
population growth, increasing per capita con­
sumption of animal products, and the growing use
of rangelands for hunting and other recreational
pursuits. Many openings are expected because of

60
the more intensive management of range resources
with increasing emphasis on multiple uses of
rangelands. Range managers will also be needed
to help rehabilitate deteriorated rangelands, im­
prove semiarid lands, and deal with watershed
problems.
Along with growing demand for range manag­
ers, an increase is expected in the number o f range
management graduates. In the past, however, the
annual number o f graduates with degrees in range
management was small. For example, according
to the Range Management Education Council, in
1964 only 157 bachelor’s degrees, 34 master’s de­
grees, and 8 Ph. D. degrees were granted in this
field. Therefore, unless the number o f graduates
should increase substantially, college graduates
with degrees in range management should have
favorable employment opportunities.
Opportunities for women in this profession are
limited because o f the rigorous work generally
required, and the remote locations o f employment.
However, a few women, usually with training in
botany, work on classification and identification
o f range plants.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government in early 1965, start­
ing salaries for range managers with the bache­
lor’s degree were either $5,000 or $6,050 a year,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

depending upon their college record. Beginning
salaries for those with the bachelor’s degree and
1 or 2 years o f graduate work were $6,050 or
$7,220; and for those with the Ph. D. degree,
$8,650 or $10,250.
Starting salaries for range managers employed
by State governments and private industry in
mid-1964 were about the same as those paid to
range managers employed by the Federal Govern­
ment. In colleges and universities, starting sal­
aries were generally the same as those paid other
faculty members. (See statement on College and
University Teachers.) Range managers in edu­
cational institutions may augment their regular
salaries with income from part-time consulting
and lecturing, and writing books and articles.
Range managers may spend considerable time,
away from home to work in remote parts of the
range. They may also spend much time outdoors.
Where To G o for More Information
American Society of Range Management,
Box 5041, Portland, Oreg. 97213.
Forest Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.
Bureau of Land Management,
U.S. Department of Interior,
Washington, D.C. 20240.

C O U N S E L IN G
The objective of professional counseling, in its
broadest sense, is to help others understand them­
selves better, and to apply that understanding
toward living and working more effectively.
Whatever the area o f counseling—personal, edu­
cational, or vocational— all counselors are con­
cerned with the well-being of the person in rela­
tion to his particular need or problem. People
who counsel professionally need to have under­
standing, tolerance, the ability to accept others as
they are, and a concern for people combined with
a capacity for remaining objective.
This chapter deals in detail only with three
counseling areas that are generally recognized as
separate specialties in the field: School counsel­
ing, rehabilitation counseling, and vocational
counseling.
School Counselors are the largest counseling
group. They are concerned with the planning and
achievement of educational and vocational goals
as well as with the day-to-day development of
pupils in their school environment.
Rehabilitation Counselors work with the physi­
cally or mentally disabled. Although their coun­
seling is, in large part, vocationally oriented, it
also involves personal counseling, particularly as
it relates to the individual’s acceptance of his
disability.

Vocational Counselors are concerned primarily
with vocational planning and job adjustment.
They may work with the young, the old, the ablebodied, and the disabled.
Some people who are identified with other pro­
fessional occupations also provide counseling serv­
ices. The most closely related occupation in this
category is that o f counseling psychologist. Simi­
larly, a great many social workers provide coun­
seling services to families and individuals. These
professional occupations and several other groups
o f professional workers who also do some coun­
seling but whose primary training is in another
field (such as teaching, health service, law, re­
ligion, or personnel work) are covered elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Student personnel workers and other staff mem­
bers of colleges and universities make up another
large group that provides counseling services.
This chapter does not deal with these workers,
nor does it include personnel workers in govern­
ment and industry who may perform some coun­
seling but whose primary concern is with the effi­
cient use o f manpower in their organizations.
(See statements on Personnel Workers and Col­
lege Placement Officers.)

School Counselors
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.40)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of Work
School counselors help students make and carry
out plans for their education and work. They also
assist them in understanding and adjusting to
their school and social environment. Besides
working directly with students, counselors con­
sult with classroom teachers, school administra­
tors, and parents to further the development of

individual pupils and the objectives of the gen­
eral educational program. In addition, counselors
may lead discussion groups on various topics re­
lated to students’ interests and problems. Some
counsel only part time, and may also teach classes
in occupational information, social studies, or
other subjects.
Counselors interview students to obtain rele­
vant information that will help these young peo61

62

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

pie understand themselves. Additional informa­
tion about each student may be obtained from
tests, administered by a specialist in testing or by
the counselor, and from school and medical rec­
ords. These data are analyzed and interpreted by
the counselor who then works with the student
and his parents to develop educational and occu­
pational plans that fit the student’s interests and
abilities. (Schools often have a psychologist who
may work with counselors. See statement on Psy­
chologists.)
In the course of such planning, counselors in
junior and senior high schools assist students in
selecting courses to fit their career or college plans.
They make information available on colleges and
college admission requirements. They may also
aid students in selecting other types o f post-high
school training and in finding part-time work
while in school or full-time employment after
leaving school. To aid students and their parents
in developing the students’ plans, counselors main­
tain files or libraries of occupational, college, and
other information, arrange for showing o f educa­
tional and vocational films, schedule appointments
with college admissions officers, conduct “ career
day” programs, or arrange trips to factories, busi­
ness firms, and colleges. Many counselors may
also help students with their personal problems.

A sizable number of counselors make followup
studies of recent graduates and dropouts, and co­
operate in surveys of local job opportunities. They
may also conduct or cooperate in research con­
cerning the effectiveness o f the educational pro­
gram.
The methods used in counseling elementary
school children necessarily differ in many respects
from those used with older students. Special
tests and play activity are among the additional
techniques used with children in the lower grades.
Elementary school counselors spend much of their
time consulting with teachers and parents and
often serve more than one school.
As with classroom teachers, many full-time
counselors perform a variety o f other duties, such
as supervising school clubs or other extra-class
activities (often after regular school hours). In
some schools, counselors do their own record­
keeping and other paperwork; however, most
large schools provide clerical assistance.
Where Employed
Approximately 42,000 persons performed some
counseling functions in the public secondary
schools during the 1964-65 school year, according
to the U.S. Office o f Education. More than 20,500
persons were full-time counselors; another 11,000
spent at least half time in counseling activities;
and the remainder worked less than half time as
counselors. Counseling services in the elementary
schools are being steadily expanded, but the num­
ber o f trained counselors at this level is still small.
The majority of counselors are in large schools.
An increasing number of school districts, however,
are providing guidance services to their small
schools by assigning several schools to a counselor.
About one-third of all high school counselors
are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of the U.S. Office of Education

High school counselor and students discuss postgraduation plans.

Most States require counselors to have both a
teaching certificate and a counseling certificate
(see statement on Elementary and Secondary
School Teachers for teaching certificate require­
ments). A counseling certificate usually requires
graduate level work in the guidance field, and
from 1 to 5 years of teaching experience. Seven­
teen States require a master’s degree in counsel­

63

COUNSELING

in g ; and about half the States require some work
experience outside the teaching field. A young
person planning to counsel should obtain the spe­
cific requirements of the State in which he plans
to work, for requirements vary considerably
among the States and are changing rapidly.
Undergraduate college students interested in
becoming school counselors usually take the regu­
lar program o f teacher education, preferably with
additional courses in psychology and sociology.
After graduating from college, they may acquire
the needed teaching or other experience, either
before or while studying for their advanced de­
grees. In some school systems, teachers who have
completed half of the courses required for the
master’s degree may counsel under supervision
while taking additional courses. The subject
areas o f the required graduate level courses usu­
ally include lectures on the counseling process,
understanding the individual, educational and
occupational opportunities, and testing and meas­
urement. Some knowledge of statistics is also
necessary for interpreting tests. Counselor educa­
tion programs at the graduate level are available
in about 325 colleges and universities, most fre­
quently in the departments o f education or psy­
chology. To obtain a master’s degree, a student
must complete 1 to 2 years o f graduate study.
Supervised practice in guidance is provided in an
increasing number of training programs.
Advancement for school counselors is most fre­
quently to supervisory or other administrative
positions within the school system. For those with
a doctor’s degree, advancement may be to college
teaching positions in the guidance field.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for well-trained
school counselors are expected to be excellent
through the mid-1970’s. In early 1965 the supply
o f qualified counselors was inadequate to meet
the existing demand, and this imbalance is ex­
pected to persist in the years ahead. Job openings
for counselors are expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1970’s just to keep pace with the
anticipated growth in school enrollments. Thus,
a substantial increase in the number of counselors
is expected without allowing for any further
strengthening of counseling services. The average
778-316 o — 6 5 - ^ 6

ratio o f counselors to students in the country, as a
whole, is still well below generally accepted stand­
ards, despite the financial aid which the Federal
Government has provided to States for school
counseling programs under the National Defense
Education Act o f 1958, as amended. Furthermore,
recent Federal legislation has provided for the
extension o f counseling services to children in the
7th and 8th grades. At the same time, job-en­
trance requirements are being steadily increased
to include specialized graduate-level training; this
rise in hiring standards, at least temporarily, has
had the effect of restricting the supply of qualified
counselors.
In addition to the number o f counselors needed
to take care o f enrollment growth and strengthen­
ing of counseling services, several thousand new
counselors will also be required each year to
replace those leaving the profession. According
to recent data from the U. S. Office of Education,
about 10 percent of all counselors leave the field
annually because of family responsibilities, retire­
ment, promotion to administrative jobs, or for
other reasons.
Among the factors affecting the employment
growth of counselors are the great number of
young students planning to go to college during
a period when admission requirements are being
tightened; and the steadily increasing numbers
of young people who will be entering the labor
force for the first time, and seeking advice on the
rising educational requirements for entry jobs,
the job changes caused by automation and other
technology, and where employment can be found.
Also contributing to the increased demand for
counseling services is the growing public aware­
ness of the value o f guidance services in helping
students with personal and social problems which,
in turn, may help reduce the number of school
dropouts. In addition, there is an increasing rec­
ognition of the need to identify and counsel
talented children at an early age, so that they may
develop their potential to the maximum benefit—
both to themselves and to the Nation.
Earnings and Working Conditions
According to the U.S. Office o f Education, the
average annual salary o f school counselors was

64

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

about $7,500 in the 1964-65 school year. Many
school counselors had annual earnings higher
than those o f classroom teachers with comparable
educational preparation and experience. (See
statements on Kindergarten and Elementary
School Teachers and Secondary School Teachers.)
Some o f these counselors had extra earnings be­
cause they work 1 or 2 months longer each year
than the classroom teachers. However, some
school systems paid counselors an additional
amount unrelated to the numbers of months
worked.
In most school systems, counselors receive reg­
ular salary increases as their counseling experi­
ence increases and as they obtain additional edu­
cation. Some counselors supplement their income
by part-time employment in consulting or other

work with private or public counseling centers,
government agencies, or private industry.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on colleges and universities offer­
ing training in guidance and counseling, as well
as on the certification requirements of each State,
may be obtained from the State department of
education at the State capital and from the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office o f Education, Guidance and Counseling
Programs Branch, Washington, D.C., 20202.
Additional information on this field of work
may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.
20009.

Rehabilitation Counselors
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.40)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of Work
The rehabilitation counselor interviews physi­
cally or mentally disabled persons to obtain as
much information as possible about them, their
emotional problems, and the nature of the dis­
ability. During the early interviews, the coun­
selor attempts to establish free and easy com­
munication to ensure a relationship of mutual
trust and confidence. Information developed in
the interviews is used with other medical, psycho­
logical, and social data to help the handicapped
person evaluate himself in relation to the kind of
work that is suitable to his physical and mental
capacity, interests, and talents. A plan of reha­
bilitation may then be worked out jointly by the
counselor, the handicapped person, and those pro­
viding medical treatment and other special serv­
ices. The counselor holds regular interviews with
the disabled person to discuss the program, check
on the progress made, and help resolve problems.
When employment becomes appropriate the coun­
selor assists in finding a suitable job and often
makes followup visits to be sure that the place­
ment is satisfactory.
An increasing number of counselors specialize
in a particular area of rehabilitation; for example,
some work almost exclusively with the blind, some

with alcoholics, and others with the mentally ill
or retarded. Additional specialties are expected
to develop as services for other types of difficulties
are included in rehabilitation programs.
The time spent in the direct counseling of each
individual depends upon the person and the na­
ture of his disability as well as the counselor’s
workload. Some rehabilitation counselors may
have the responsibility for many persons in vari­
ous stages o f rehabilitation at the same time; on
the other hand, those with less experience, or spe­
cialized counselors working with the severely
handicapped, may handle relatively few cases at
a time. In addition to working directly with the
handicapped person, the counselor must also main­
tain close contact with other professional people
working with handicapped persons, members of
their families, other agencies and civic groups,
and private employers who hire the handicapped.
The counselor is often responsible for related ac­
tivities, such as employer education and com­
munity publicity for the rehabilitation program.
Where Employed
Every State provides a public rehabilitation
program that is financed cooperatively with Fed­
eral and State funds. In 1965, about three-fourths

COUNSELING

/

Courtesy of the U.S. Vocational Rehabilitation Administration

Rehabilitation counselor evaluates handicapped worker’s job
adjustment.

of the estimated 3,600 full-time rehabilitation
counselors worked in these State and local re­
habilitation agencies. In addition, more than 350,
most of whom were counseling psychologists,
worked for the Federal Government in the Vet­
erans Administration. The remainder were em­
ployed by hospitals, labor unions, insurance com­
panies, special schools, rehabilitation centers,
sheltered workshops, and by other public and
private agencies that conducted rehabilitation pro­
grams and job placement for the disabled.
An estimated 20 percent o f all rehabilitation
counselors are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A general requirement for entry into this occu­
pation is graduation from a college or university
with course credits in counseling, psychology, and
related fields. A t present, however, there are no
uniform requirements as to the specific kind and
amount of education needed to qualify for work in

65
this field. Some employers prefer to hire people
with a master’s degree who have majored in voca­
tional or rehabilitation counseling; others find the
master’s degree with a major in a related disci­
pline—social science, psychology, education, or
social work—satisfies their needs; a few require
the doctorate, with a major in counseling psychol­
ogy. Employers are placing increasing emphasis
on the master’s degree as the minimum educational
standard for the profession. Work experience in
related fields, such as vocational counseling and
placement, social work, psychology, education,
and other types of counseling, is also given con­
siderable weight by some employers, especially
when considering applicants with only the bache­
lor’s degree.
It usually takes from 1% to 2 years to complete
the master’s degree in the fields of study preferred
for rehabilitation counseling. The curriculum for
the master’s degree may include a basic founda­
tion in psychology and such courses as: Medical
Aspects of Rehabilitation, Cultural and PsychoSocial Aspects of Disability, Survey of Therapeu­
tic Care and Rehabilitation, Legislative Aspects
of Rehabilitation, Counseling Techniques, Occu­
pational and Educational Information, Commu­
nity Resources, and Placement and Follow-Up.
To earn the doctorate in rehabilitation counsel­
ing or in counseling psychology may require 4 to
6 years o f graduate study. For the doctorate, in­
tensive training in psychology, other social sci­
ences, and the biological sciences as well as re­
search methodology is required.
In 1964, 38 colleges and universities offered fi­
nancial assistance to a limited number o f gradu­
ate students specializing in rehabilitation counsel­
ing through training grants provided by the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration. In
these graduate programs an internship (super­
vised work in a rehabilitation setting) is required.
In approximately three-fourths o f the State
Rehabilitation Agencies, applicants are required
to comply with State civil service and merit sys­
tem rules. In most cases these regulations require
the applicants to take a written competitive ex­
amination, which is sometimes supplemented by an
individual interview and evaluation by a board
of examiners. A few States require counselors to
be residents of the State in which they work.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

66
Counselors with little experience are usually
assigned the least difficult cases; experienced and
highly trained counselors are assigned persons
with extreme or multiple disabilities that repre­
sent difficult rehabilitation problems. After ob­
taining considerable experience, rehabilitation
counselors may be advanced to supervisory posi­
tions or to top administrative jobs.
Among the personal qualifications needed for
success in this field are an understanding o f hu­
man behavior, patience, and a capacity for work­
ing with people in solving their problems.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for well-qualified
rehabilitation counselors are expected to remain
excellent through the mid-1970’s. Persons with
graduate work in rehabilitation counseling or in
a related field will have the best opportunities for
employment. Opportunities will also be available
to applicants with a bachelor’s degree and some
related work experience.
The supply of qualified rehabilitation coun­
selors was inadequate to meet the counseling needs
o f the mentally and physically handicapped in
early 1965. Most of the disabled war veterans
have been rehabilitated, but the number o f other
people needing rehabilitation counseling is in­
creasing. It is estimated by the Vocational Re­
habilitation Administration that over 2 million
persons in the Nation needed rehabilitation coun­
seling in early 1965, and at least 800 to 1,200 new
counselors will be needed annually through the
mid-1970’s to staff new and expanding programs
and to replace counselors who leave the profes­
sion. This annual demand exceeds considerably
the number presently being trained at graduate
levels and entering the field. Over the next few
years, the supply o f rehabilitation counselors will
probably be augmented to some extent by people
from related fields, but the most closely related
disciplines (psychology, social work, and educa­
tion) are those in which the demand for qualified
workers with graduate degrees is also expected to
exceed the supply for several years to come.
Among the factors contributing substantially to
the long-run demand for the services of rehabili­
tation counselors will be population growth, with
related increases in the number o f handicapped to
be served; the extension of vocational rehabilita­

tion to the more difficult and chronic disabilities
including the mentally retarded; increasing sup­
port for social welfare in general; and the grow­
ing awareness that expenditures for rehabilitation
are often returned as savings on the appropria­
tions for programs involving health and custodial
care, public assistance, and other types o f welfare.
Earnings and Working Conditions
According to the U.S. Department o f Health,
Education, and Welfare, the beginning average
(mean) salary o f rehabilitation counselors em­
ployed in State agencies in 1964 ranged between
$5,790 and $7,270 a year. Counselors with a doc­
torate in psychology working with the disabled in
the Veterans Administration were hired in early
1965 at annual salaries ranging generally from
$8,650 to $16,460 depending on the applicant’s ex­
perience and other qualifications.
Counselors may spend only part of their time
counseling in their offices, and the remainder in
the field working with prospective employers,
training agencies, and the disabled person’s fam­
ily. For field work, it is often necessary to be able
to drive a car.
Generally, rehabilitation counselors work a
40-hour week or less with little overtime work
required; however, they often attend community
and civic meetings in the evenings. They are
usually covered by sick and annual leave benefits,
and pension and health plans.
Where To G o for More Information
Additional information on rehabilitation coun­
seling as a career may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.
20009.
American Psychological Association, Inc.,
1 2 0017th St. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20036.

National Rehabilitation Association,
1025 Vermont Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20005.

A list o f colleges and universities that have
received grants to provide rehabilitation traineeships on a graduate level is available from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare,
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration,
Washington, D.C.

20201.

67

COUNSELING

Vocational Counselors
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.40)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of Work
Vocational counselors (including employment
counselors) help people develop and accept an
adequate career goal that will make use of the in­
dividual’s potential as well as bring personal satis­
faction. They assist clients by planning with them
on how to prepare for, enter, and progress in their
work. The extent o f the counseling assistance
available, however, differs among agencies pro­
viding such service.
Counselors interview the person seeking their
counsel to obtain vocationally significant infor­
mation about his personal traits, interests, train­
ing, work experience, and work attitudes. During
or after such sessions, counselors record the ap­
plicant’s responses to their questions as well as
their own general observations about the inter­
view. They may assist the individual in filling
out questionnaires concerning his personal history
and background, which are then reviewed to­
gether. Additional data on the person’s general
intelligence, aptitudes and abilities, physical
capacities, knowledge, skills, interests, and values
are also obtained from tests and personal inven­
tories which may be administered or recorded by
the counselor or a specialist in testing. Further
information may be assembled by the counselor or
by the client from sources such as former em­
ployers, schools, and health or other agencies.
In subsequent interviews, counselors assist the
applicant in evaluating and understanding his
own work potential and provide him the informa­
tion he needs in making plans appropriate to Ins
talents and interests. Job requirements and em­
ployment opportunities or training facilities are
discussed. An employment plan is jointly devel­
oped by the counselor and his client, and a train­
ing or work program may be developed. In some
agencies a vocational plan may be worked out in
a staff conference— which may be attended by
supervisors, the psychologist, the testing special­
ist, and a labor market or occupational analyst.
In many cases the vocational or employment
counselor will refer the client to another agency

Courtesy of the U.S. Bureau of Employment Security

Vocational counselor discusses possible jobs.

for physical restoration, psychological, or other
services before, or concurrent with, counseling.
The vocational counselor must be familiar with
the services available in the community and be
able to recognize what services might be beneficial
to a particular client.
Counselors may help the client by suggesting
feasible employment sources and appropriate ways
of applying for work. In instances where the
client needs further support and assistance, the
counselor may contact employers, although clients
seeking employment are usually sent to placement
interviewers following counseling. After job
placement or entrance into training, counselors
may follow up to determine resolution of the
problem or if additional assistance is needed.
Where Employed
In early 1965, the largest number of vocational
counselors— 1,700 full-time and 1,200 part-time—
were employed in State employment service offices,
usually located in large cities. The next largest
number—probably about 1,000—worked for vari­
ous private or community agencies offering voca­
tional counseling, primarily in the larger cities.
In addition, some worked in institutions such as
prisons, mental hospitals, and training schools for
delinquent youths. The Federal Government em­

68
ployed a limited number of vocational counselors,
chiefly in the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the
Veterans Administration. Some people trained in
vocational counseling are engaged in research or
graduate teaching in the vocational guidance field.
About half of all vocational counselors are women.
Training/ Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The generally accepted minimum educational
requirement for employment counselors in State
employment service offices is a bachelor’s degree,
preferably with a major in one of the social sci­
ences, plus 15 semester hours in counseling and
related courses. An increasing number o f States
are adopting a 3-level counselor classification sys­
tem which includes a counselor intern, or trainee,
,
requiring a bachelor’s degree with 15 hours of
undergraduate or graduate work in counseling
related courses; a counselor requiring a master’s
degree or 30 graduate hours in counselor related
courses; and a master counselor requiring a
master’s degree and 3 years o f experience, 1 of
which should be in employment service counseling.
Minimum entrance requirements are not stand­
ardized among private and community agencies,
but most o f them prefer, and many require, a
master’s degree in vocational counseling or in a
related field such as psychology, personnel ad­
ministration, education, or public administration.
Most private agencies prefer to have at least one
staff member with a doctorate in counseling psy­
chology or a related field. For those lacking an
advanced degree, employers usually emphasize ex­
perience in closely related work such as rehabilita­
tion counseling, employment interviewing, school
or college counseling, or teaching.
The public employment service offices in each
State provide in-service training programs for
their new counselors or trainees; their experienced
counselors are often given some additional train­
ing in counseling at nearby colleges and univer­
sities or, in some cases, at summer institutes.
Private and community agencies also often pro­
vide in-service training opportunities.
The professional educational curriculum for
employment counselors generally includes, at the
undergraduate level, a basic foundation in psy­
chology with some emphasis on sociology. A t the
graduate level, requirements usually include

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

courses such as Techniques of Appraisal and
Counseling for Vocational Adjustment, Group
Guidance Methods, Counseling Followup Tech­
niques, Psychological Tests in Vocational Counsel­
ing, Educational Psychology, Psychology of
Occupations, Industrial Psychology, Job Analysis
and Theories of Occupational Choice, and some
course work in research methods and statistics.
Counselor education programs at the graduate
level are available in about 325 colleges and uni­
versities, most frequently in the departments of
education or psychology. To obtain a master’s
degree, students must complete 1 to 2 years of
graduate study which often includes supervised
practice in counseling.
An increasing number o f States require coun­
selors in their public employment offices to meet
State civil service or merit system requirements
that include certain minimum educational and ex­
perience standards. They may also require a
written or oral examination, or both.
Counselors who demonstrate that they are well
qualified may, after considerable experience, ad­
vance to supervisory or administrative positions
in their own or other organizations; some may
become directors of agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors o f guidance pro­
grams ; some become consultants; and others, with
the doctorate, may obtain teaching appointments
as professors in the guidance field.
Employment Outlook
Vocational counselors with a master’s degree
and those with recognized related experience in
the field will have excellent employment oppor­
tunities in both public and private agencies
through the mid-1970’s. In addition, college grad­
uates with only a bachelor’s degree and 15 hours
o f undergraduate or graduate work in counselor
related courses who are interested in becoming
counselor interns, aides, and youth advisors, will
find many opportunities in State and local em­
ployment service offices.
The employment o f counselors in State employ­
ment service offices is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1970’s. Among the factors con­
tributing to the increasing demand for counseling
services in these offices are three recent major Fed­
eral laws: the Vocational Education Act of 1963,
which provides for vocational guidance and coun­

69

COUNSELING

seling for people who are out. of school and seeking
employment; the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1965, which provides for counsel­
ing in connection with the occupational training
or retraining of large numbers of unemployed
workers, and the Econoriiic Opportunity Act of
1964, which also provides for counseling to imple­
ment such programs as the Job Corps, WorkTraining Programs, and the Urban and Rural
Community Action Programs. In addition, a
sharp increase is expected in the number of young
workers entering the labor force during the late
1960’s which will be reflected in larger numbers
seeking vocational counsel.
Besides the counselors needed to take care of
growth in the occupation, many more will be
needed to replace workers who retire, die, or leave
the profession for other reasons, each year through
the mid-1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The annual average (mean) salaries for em­
ployment counselors in State employment service
offices ranged between $5,346 and $6,727 in mid1964. Some voluntary agencies in large cities indi­
cate that trainees for vocational counseling posi­
tions were being hired at about $5,500 a year;
annual salaries reported for experienced coun­
selors ranged up to $15,000 or more in 1964.
Trainees in Federal agencies in early 1965 gen­
erally started at $6,050 a year; experienced coun­

selors with some administrative and supervisory
responsibility earned $10,250 a year.
Most counselors work about 40 hours a week and
have various benefits, including vacations, sick
leave, pension plans, and insurance coverage.
Counselors employed in community agencies may
work overtime.

Where To Go for More Information
General information on employment or voca­
tional counseling may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association, Inc.,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. N W ., Washington, D.O.
20009.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
W elfare, Office of Education,
Guidance and Counseling Programs Branch,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Information on entrance requirements for posi­
tions in the public employment service offices
may be obtained from the State civil service or
merit system office in each State capital, or from
local employment offices.
A list o f about 160 private agencies offering
vocational counseling services that meet certain
professional criteria set forth by the American
Board on Counseling Services, Inc., is provided in
the D irectory o f A pproved Counseling Agencies,
1965-66, available from the American Personnel
and Guidance Association, Inc., at $2 a copy.

E N G IN E E R IN G
Engineers contribute in countless ways to the
welfare, technological progress, and defense o f the
Nation. They develop complex electric power,
water supply, and waste disposal systems to meet
the problems of urban living. They design in­
dustrial machinery and equipment needed to
manufacture goods on a mass production basis,
and heating, air conditioning, and ventilation
equipment for the comfort of man. Also, they
develop scientific equipment to help probe the
mysteries o f outer space and the depths of the
ocean, and design and supervise the construction
of highways and rapid transit systems for safe
and more convenient transportation.
This chapter contains an overall discussion of
engineering, followed by separate statements on
several branches of the field—aerospace, agricul­
tural, ceramic, chemical, civil, electrical, indus­
trial, mechanical, metallurgical, and mining engi­
neering. Although most engineers specialize in
these or other specific branches o f the profession,
a considerable body o f basic knowledge and meth­
odology is common to most areas of engineering.
Therefore, young people considering engineering
as a career should become familiar with the gen­
eral nature of engineering as well as with its vari­
ous branches.
Nature of Work
Engineers develop methods for converting the
raw materials and sources of power found in
nature into useful products at a reasonable cost in
time and money. They use basic scientific prin­
ciples discovered by scientists to solve the practical
problems involved in designing goods and services
and developing methods for their production. The
emphasis on the use o f scientific principles, rather
than on their discovery, is the main factor that
distinguishes the work of the engineer from that
of the scientist. For example, a physicist may dis­
cover that the properties of a gas change when it
is converted into a liquid at extremely low temper­
70

atures, but the engineer attempts to develop uses
for the liquid, or economical methods for its pro­
duction.
In designing or developing a new product, engi­
neers must consider many factors. In designing a
space capsule, for example, they must calculate
just how much heat, radiation, air pressure, and
other forces the capsule must withstand during its
flight. Experiments must be conducted which re­
late these factors to various construction materials,
as well as to the many possible capsule sizes,
shapes, and weights. In addition, the engineer
must take into account the relative cost o f the required materials and the cost and time of the
fabrication process. Similar factors must be con­
sidered by engineers who design and develop a
wide variety o f products ranging from transistor
radios and washing machines to electronic com­
puters and industrial machinery.
Besides design and development, engineers are
engaged in many other activities. Many work in
inspection, quality control, and other activities re­
lated to production in manufacturing industries,
mines, and farms. Others are in administrative
and management positions, where knowledge of
engineering methods is of great importance. A
large number plan and supervise the construction
of buildings and highways. Many are employed
in sales positions, where they must discuss the
technical aspects of a product or assist in planning
its installation or use. (See statement on Manu­
facturers’ Salesmen.) Some conduct research
aimed at supplying the basic technological data
needed for the design and production of new or
improved products. Smaller numbers inspect and
supervise the maintenance of the Nation’s high­
ways. Some engineers with considerable experi­
ence work as consultants. A relatively small group
teach in colleges and universities or engineering
schools.
Most engineers specialize in one o f the many
branches o f the profession. More than 25 engi­

71

ENGINEERING

neering specialties are recognized by the profes­
sion or in engineering school curriculums. Besides
the major branches— 10 o f which are discussed
separately in this chapter—there are many sub­
divisions o f these branches. Structural and high­
way engineering, for example, are subdivisions of
civil engineering. Engineers may also become spe­
cialists in the engineering problems of one in­
dustry, or in a particular field of technology such
as propulsion or guidance systems. Nevertheless,
the basic knowledge required for all areas of engi­
neering often makes it possible for engineers to
shift from one field of specialization to another,
particularly for those beginning their careers.
Engineers within each of the branches may
apply their specialized knowledge to engineering
problems in many fields. For example, electrical
engineers may work in the fields o f medicine, mis­
sile guidance, or electric power distribution. Be­
cause engineering problems are usually complex,
the work in some applied fields cuts across the
traditional branches. Thus, engineers often work
closely with specialists in other branches of
engineering.
is *

Where Employed
Engineering is the second largest professional
occupation, exceeded in size only by teaching; for
men it is the largest profession. Approximately
975,000 engineers were employed in the United
States in mid-1964.
Manufacturing industries employed more than
half o f all engineers—about 575,000 in mid-1964.
The manufacturing industries employing the larg­
est numbers o f engineers were the electrical equip­
ment, aircraft and parts, machinery, chemicals,
ordnance, instruments, primary metals, and fabri­
cated metal products industries. About 225,000
engineers were employed in nonmanufacturing in­
dustries in mid-1964, primarily in the construc­
tion, public utilities, engineering and architectural
services, and business and management consulting
services industries.
Federal, State, and local government agencies
employed another large group o f engineers—more
than 140,000 in mid-1964. About half of these
were employed by the Federal Government, chiefly
by the Department o f Defense. Other Federal
agencies which employed significant numbers of
engineers were the Departments o f the Interior,
Agriculture, and Commerce, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most
engineers in State and local government agencies
were employed by highway and public works de­
partments.
Educational institutions employed approxi­
mately 30,000 engineers in mid-1964, in research as
well as in teaching positions. A small number
were employed by nonprofit research organiza­
tions.
Engineers are employed in every State, in small
cities as well as large, and in some rural areas. The
profession also offers opportunities for employ­
ment overseas. Some branches of engineering are
concentrated in particular industries, as indicated
in the statements presented later in this chapter.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Electrical engineers confer on design of electronic equipment.

A bachelor’s degree in engineering is the gen­
erally accepted educational requirement for en­
trance into engineering positions. Well-qualified
graduates with training in physics, one o f the
other natural sciences, or in mathematics may
qualify for some beginning positions in engineer­

72
ing. Some persons without a degree are able to
become engineers after long experience in a re­
lated occupation— such as draftsman or engineer­
ing technician— and some college-level training.
Advanced training is being emphasized for an
increasing number o f jobs. Graduate degrees are
desirable for beginning teaching and research
positions, and are helpful for advancement in
most types o f work. Furthermore, in some engi­
neering specialties, such as nuclear engineering,
training is generally available only at the graduate
level.
Education leading to a bachelor’s degree in
engineering is offered by about 250 colleges, uni­
versities, and engineering schools located through­
out the country. Although curriculums in the
larger branches of engineering are offered in most
schools, some of the smaller engineering specialties
are taught in relatively few institutions. A stu­
dent who desires to specialize in one of the smaller
branches should, therefore, investigate the cur­
riculums offered by the various schools before
selecting his college. For admission to an under­
graduate program, engineering schools usually re­
quire high school courses in mathematics and the
physical sciences and place emphasis on the gen­
eral quality o f the applicant’s high school work.
In the typical 4-year engineering curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent mainly in studying basic
science—mathematics, physics, and chemistry—
and the humanities, social sciences, and English.
The last 2 years are devoted chiefly to advanced
study in basic science, and to engineering courses
with emphasis on the branch o f engineering in
which the student is specializing. Some engineer ing programs offer only general engineering train­
ing in the undergraduate curriculum, allowing the
student to choose a specialty in graduate school or
acquire one through work experience.
Some engineering curriculums require more
than 4 years to complete. Approximately 25 insti­
tutions have 5-year programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree. In addition, about 50 engineer­
ing schools have arrangements with liberal arts
colleges whereby a student spends 3 years in the
college and 2 years in the engineering school, re­
ceiving a bachelor’s degree from each. This type
of program usually offers the student an oppor­
tunity for greater diversification in his studies.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Some institutions have 5- or 6-year cooperative
plans under which students spend alternate
periods in engineering school and in employment
in industry or government. Under most such
plans, classroom study is coordinated with practi­
cal industrial experience. In addition to the prac­
tical experience he gains in this type o f program,
the student is provided an opportunity to finance
part of his education.
Engineering graduates usually begin work as
trainees or as assistants to experienced engineers.
Many large companies have special training pro­
grams for their beginning engineers which are de­
signed to acquaint them with specific industrial
practices. These programs are valuable in deter­
mining the type of work for which the individual
is best suited. As they gain experience, engineers
may move up to positions o f greater responsibility.
Those with proven ability are often able to ad­
vance to the high-level technical supervisory and
administrative positions, and an increasingly large
number are being promoted to top executive posts.
A ll 50 States and the District of Columbia have
laws providing for the licensing (or registration)
o f those engineers whose work may affect life,
health, or property. In 1964, about 250,000 engi­
neers were registered under these laws in the
United States. Generally, registration require­
ments include graduation from an accredited
engineering curriculum, plus at least 4 years of
experience and the passing of a State examination.
Examining boards may accept a longer period of
experience as a substitute for a college degree.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for engineers are
expected to be very good through the mid-1970’s.
Engineering has been one of the fastest growing
professions in recent years, and it is anticipated
that the demand for engineers will continue to
grow. There will probably be an especially strong
demand for new engineering graduates with train­
ing in the most recently developed engineering
principles and techniques. New graduates with
advanced degrees will have excellent opportunities
in research and teaching.
Among the factors underlying the anticipated
increase in demand for engineers is the growth in
population, and the resulting expansion o f indus­
try to meet the demand for additional goods and

73

ENGINEERING

services. The need for engineers will probably
also rise as a result of the increasingly larger
amount of engineering time required for the de­
velopment o f complex industrial products and
processes and the increasing automation o f in­
dustry.
Another factor which will tend to increase the
demand for engineers is the expected continued
growth of expenditures for research and develop­
ment. Such expenditures have increased very
rapidly in recent years, and it is likely that they
will continue to rise through the mid-1970’s,
although somewhat more slowly than in the past.
The growth o f research activities will result in
the expansion of existing fields o f work and in the
creation of new ones, especially in the fields of
automated machinery and computers.
Because a large proportion o f all engineers are
engaged in defense and related work (estimated
to be about one-fourth of the total in 1964), expen­
ditures for defense and space programs will play
an important role in determining the overall level
o f demand for engineers. The level of such expen­
ditures is not expected to change substantially in
the years ahead, but should this occur, the employ­
ment o f engineers would be affected accordingly.
In addition to the engineers needed to fill new
positions, thousands more will have to be trained
to replace those who transfer to other occupations,
retire, or die. These losses to the profession—
estimated to be about 20,000 in 1964— are expected
to rise slowly in the future.
Along with the anticipated growth in demand
for engineers, the number o f new engineering
graduates at all academic levels is also projected
to increase in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.
Despite this increase, the number of new grad­
uates seeking employment in the profession may
still fall short o f demand. Thus, employment
opportunities for new graduates will probably
continue to be very good through the 1970’s.
Women engineers, who represent less than 1
percent of the profession, are also expected to
have favorable employment opportunities during
the next 10 years.
The preceding analysis relates to the outlook
for the engineering profession as a whole. The
employment outlook in various branches o f engi­
neering is discussed in the statements on these
branches later in this chapter.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Average (median) starting salaries for engi­
neering graduates with the bachelor’s degree were
about $7,425 a year in private industry in mid1964, according to a survey conducted by the
Engineering Manpower Commission. Graduates
with the master’s degree and no experience usually
received from $1,000 to $1,500 a year more than
those with only the bachelor’s degree. Salaries for
graduates with the doctor’s degree were generally
between $10,500 and $12,700 a year.
Starting salaries for new engineering graduates
with the bachelor’s degree varied considerably by
industry, as may be seen in the following tabulation based on the same 1964 survey.
U pper
I n d u s tr y

Chemicals_________
_____ __ .
Communications _ _
Construction _
Consulting services__
Electrical machinery and
electronics.- . . __
Instruments
Machinery (except electrical).
Missiles, aircraft, and parts___
M otor vehicles
Petroleum
Research and development
activities
Utilities (electric and gas)____

1
d ecile 2
$7, 415 $7, 955
6, 850
7, 370
7 ,2 1 0
8, 010
6, 925
7, 645
M e d ia n

7,
8,
7,
7,
7,
7,

490
150
320
635
600
450

7, 740
7, 275

8,
9,
7,
8,
7,
7,

340
615
980
585
955
955

8, 395
7, 855

L ow er
decile 3

$7, 010
6 ,2 1 5
6, 325
6, 135
7,
7,
6,
6,
7,
6,

015
145
660
930
120
785

7, 180
6, 720

1 50 percent earned more and 50 percent earned less than amounts shown.
2 10 percent earned more than amounts shown.
3 90 percent earned more than amounts shown.

In the Federal Government service in early
1965, engineers with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at $5,990 or $7,050 a year,
depending on their college records. Beginning
engineers with the bachelor’s degree and 1 or 2
years o f graduate work could start at $7,050 or
$7,710. Those with the Ph. D. degree could begin
at $8,945 or $10,250.
In colleges and universities, the salary of begin­
ning engineers with the bachelor’s degree averaged
about $5,800 a year; with the master’s . degree,
$6,250 a year; and with the Ph. D. degree, $8,650.
(Also see statement on College and University
Teachers.)
Most engineers can look forward to an increase
in earnings as they gain experience. For example,
in industry in 1964, the average (median) salary
o f engineers with 21-25 years of experience was
about $14,500, nearly twice that o f beginning engi­

74

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

neers. Only 10 percent of those with 21-25 years
of experience earned less than $10,500 a year, and
over 10 percent earned $20,000 or more. A small
number in top-level executive positions had much
higher earnings.
Although engineers generally work under quiet
conditions found in modern offices and research
laboratories, they may be involved in more active
work— at a missile site preceding the launching of
a space vehicle, in a mine, at a construction site,
or at some other out-of-doors location.
Where To G o for More Information
General information on engineering careers—
including student selection and guidance, profes­
sional training and ethics, and salaries and other
economic aspects o f engineering—may be obtained
fro m :
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

10017.

Information on engineering schools and curriculums and on training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the profession may also
be obtained from the Engineers’ Council for Pro­
fessional Development. Information on registra­
tion o f engineers may be obtained from the Na­
tional Society of Professional Engineers.
In addition to the organizations listed above,
other engineering societies represent the indi­
vidual branches of the engineering profession;
some are listed with the branches presented later
in this chapter. Many other engineering organi­
zations are listed in the following publications
available in most libraries.
Engineering Societies Directory, published by
Engineers Joint Council.
Scientific and Technical Societies of the United
States and Canada, published by the National
Academy of Sciences, National Research Coun­
cil.

Some engineers are members o f labor unions.
Information on engineering unions may be ob­
tained from :
The American Federation of Technical Engineers
(A F D -C IO ),
900 F St. N W ., Washington, D.C. 20004.

National Society of Professional Engineers,
2029 K St. N W „ Washington, D.C. 20006.

Aerospace Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-19.03)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 013.081)

Nature of Work
Aerospace engineers play a vital role in
America’s space age activities. Engineers in this
branch of the profession work on all types of air­
craft and spacecraft including missiles, rockets,
and conventional propeller-driven and jetpowered planes. They are concerned with all
phases o f the development of aerospace products
from the initial planning and design to the final
manufacture and testing.
Aerospace engineers usually specialize in a par­
ticular area o f work, such as structural design,
instrumentation, propulsion systems, materials, re­
liability testing, or production methods. They
may also specialize in a particular type of aero­
space product such as conventional passenger
planes, jet-powered military aircraft, rockets,
satellites, or manned space capsules. Engineers
working in the conventional aircraft field are

usually called aeronautical engineers. Those in
the field of missiles, rockets, and spacecraft are
often referred to as astronautical engineers.
Where Employed
Nearly 60,000 aerospace engineers were em­
ployed in mid-1964, mainly in the aircraft and
parts industry. Some worked for Federal Govern­
ment agencies, primarily the National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration and the Depart­
ment of Defense. Small numbers worked for com­
mercial airlines, consulting firms, and colleges and
universities.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for aerospace engi­
neers are expected to be favorable through the
mid-1970’s. The relatively small number of new

75

ENGINEERING

graduates in aeronautical engineering will be
barely enough to replace those who leave the field
due to retirements, deaths, or transfers to other
occupations. Because expenditures for defense,
the major area of work o f aerospace engineers, are
not expected to increase in the years ahead, open­
ings due to growth will probably not be signifi­
cant.
Becent technological developments have shifted
the focus o f aerospace engineering from propellerdriven and jet-powered aircraft to rocket-powered
missiles and vehicles for outer space travel. The
ever-increasing complexity o f these aerospace
products is expected to create some increase in

the demand for aerospace engineers. Besearch
aimed at developing new aircraft—such as verti­
cal takeoff and landing and supersonic transport
planes—and improving those now in use should
also require some additional engineers. (See intro­
ductory section o f this chapter for discussion on
training requirements and earnings. Also see
chapter on Occupations in Aircraft, Missile, and
Spacecraft Manufacturing.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Inc.,
2 East 64th St., New York, N.Y. 10021.

Agricultural Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-19.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 013.081)

Nature of Work
Agricultural engineers use basic engineering
principles and concepts to develop equipment and
methods to improve the efficiency and economy of
the production, processing, and distribution of
agricultural products. They are concerned pri­
marily with the design o f farm machinery, equip­
ment, and structures; the utilization of electrical
energy on farms and in agricultural processing
plants; the conservation and management of soil
and water resources; and the design and oper­
ation of processing equipment to prepare agri­
cultural products for market. They usually spe­
cialize in a particular area o f work, such as
research and development, design, testing and
application, production, sales, or management.
Where Employed
Most o f the 5,000 to 10,000 agricultural engi­
neers in mid-1964 were employed in private indus­
try, especially by manufacturers of heavy farm
equipment and specialized lines o f field, barnyard,
and household equipment; electrical service com­
panies; and distributors of farm equipment and
supplies. Some worked for engineering consul­
tants who supply technical or management services
to farmers and farm related industries; others
were independent consultants.

The Federal Government employed about 1,000
agricultural engineers in 1964—chiefly in the Soil
Conservation Service and Agricultural Besearch
Service o f the Department o f Agriculture. Col­
leges and universities employed nearly an equal
number. A few were employed by State and local
governments.
Employment Outlook
Employment o f agricultural engineers is ex­
pected ' grow through the mid-1970’s. Among
the factors which will contribute to a greater
demand for these engineers are the growing
mechanization of farm operations, increasing
emphasis on conservation o f resources, and the
broadening use o f agricultural products and
wastes as industrial raw materials. Additional
engineers will be needed to work on problems con­
cerning the enormous energy and power require­
ments of farms. (See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training requirements
and earnings. Also see chapter on Occupations in
Agriculture.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
420 Main St., St. Joseph, Mich. 49085.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

76

Ceramic I engineers
.
(2d ed. D.O.' C 0-15.11)
.
(3d ed. D.O.' C 006.081)

Employment Outlook

Nature of Work
Ceramic engineers develop methods for process­
ing clay, silicates, and other nonmetallic minerals
into a wide variety of ceramic products, ranging
from glassware, cement, and bricks, to coatings
and refractories for missile nose cones. They may
also design and supervise the construction of the
plant and equipment used in the manufacture of
these products. Many ceramic engineers are en­
gaged in research and development work. Some
are employed in administration, production, and
sales; others work as consultants or teach in col­
leges and universities.
Ceramic engineers usually specialize in one or
more products— for example, products o f refrac­
tories (fire- and heat-resistant materials, such as
firebrick); whiteware (such as porcelain and
china dinnerware or high voltage electrical insu­
lators) ; structural materials (such as brick, tile,
and terra co tta ); protective and refractory coat­
ings for metals; glass; and abrasives.
Where Employed
Most o f the estimated 5,000 to 10,000 ceramic
engineers in mid-1964 were employed in manufac­
turing industries—primarily in the stone, clay, and
glass industry. Others worked in the iron and
steel, electrical equipment, and chemicals indus­
tries which produce or use ceramic products. Some
were employed by educational institutions, inde­
pendent research organizations, and the Federal
Government.

The outlook is for rapid growth in the employ­
ment o f ceramic engineers through the mid-1970’s.
Although ceramic engineering is a small field and
the number o f openings in any one year will be
small compared with those in the large branches
of engineering, the number o f graduates with de­
grees in ceramic engineering is also small. Thus,
opportunities for new graduates should be ex­
cellent.
The growth of programs related to nuclear
energy, electronics, and space exploration will
provide many o f the opportunities for ceramic
engineers. Ceramic materials which are corrosionresistant, and capable o f withstanding radiation
and extremely high temperatures are becoming in­
creasingly important in the development of
nuclear reactors and space vehicles. Increasing
use of the more traditional ceramic products such
as whiteware and abrasives, both for consumer
and industrial use, will also require additional
ceramic engineers to improve and adapt these
products to new requirements. The growing use
o f structural-clay and tile products in construction
will add to employment opportunities in the pro­
duction o f these items. Furthermore, the develop­
ment o f new glasses of unusual properties and the
expanding use of conventional glasses in the con­
struction and in the container field probably will
create additional openings for ceramic engineers.
(See introductory section o f this chapter for dis­
cussion on training requirements and earnings.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Ceramic Society,
4055 North High St., Columbus, Ohio

43214.

Chemical Engineers
(2d ed. D.O,,T. 0-15.01)
(3d ed. D.O ,T. 008.081)

Nature of Work
Chemical engineers design the chemical plants
and equipment required to manufacture chemicals
in large quantities. They also determine the best
combination o f the many chemical operations that

will result in the most effective manufacturing
process. They often test their work by designing
and operating pilot plants.
The work in this branch of engineering is so
diversified and complex that chemical engineers

77

ENGINEERING

frequently become specialists in a particular type
o f chemical operation such as oxidation, polymeri­
zation, distillation, or hydrogenation. Others spe­
cialize in the manufacture o f a specific product
such as plastics, paper, or rubber. Chemical engi­
neers may be engaged in research and develop­
ment, production, plant operation, design, sales,
management, or teaching.
Where Employed
Approximately four-fifths o f the more than
45,000 chemical engineers in the United States in
mid-1964 were employed in manufacturing indus­
tries—primarily in the chemicals industry. Some
were employed by government agencies and by
colleges and universities. A small number worked
for independent research institutes or engineering
consulting firms, or as independent consulting
engineers.
Employment Outlook
The outlook is for continued growth o f employ­
ment in chemical engineering through the mid1970’s. The major factors underlying this expected
growth are expansion of industry—the chemicals
industry in particular—and continued high levels

o f expenditures for research and development, in
which about one-third o f all chemical engineers
are employed. The increasing complexity of
chemical processes and the growing trend toward
automation o f these processes, especially in the
chemicals and petroleum industries, will require
additional chemical engineers for work related
to designing, building, and maintaining the neces­
sary plants and equipment. Chemical engineers
will also be needed in many relatively new areas
o f work, such as the design and development of
nuclear reactors for industrial use, and research
aimed at developing new and better solid and
liquid fuels for rockets. Furthermore, the devel­
opment o f new chemicals for use in the manufac­
ture of consumer goods such as fertilizers, drugs,
and paints will probably create additional open­
ings for chemical engineers. (See introductory
section o f this chapter for discussion on training
requirements and earnings. Also see statement on
Chemists and chapter on Occupations in the In­
dustrial Chemical Industry.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Civil Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-16.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 005.081)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Civil engineers design and supervise the con­
struction o f roads, harbors, airfields, tunnels,
bridges, water supply and sewage systems, build­
ings, and many other types o f structures. Civil
engineering is so broad that many specialties have
developed within it—among them are structural,
highway, hydraulic, and sanitary engineering.
Many civil engineers are in supervisory or ad­
ministrative positions, ranging from that o f site
supervisor o f a construction gang or head of a
drafting department to top-level executive posi­
tions. Some are engaged in design, planning, re­
search, inspection, or maintenance activities.
Others teach in colleges and universities or work
as consultants.

About 180,000 civil engineers were employed
in the United States in mid-1964. The majority
were employed by Federal, State, and local gov­
ernment agencies and the construction industry.
Large numbers were employed by consulting engi­
neering and architectural firms, or worked as
independent consulting engineers. Some were em­
ployed by public utilities, railroads, and educa­
tional institutions. Others worked in the iron and
steel industries and other major manufacturing
industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts o f the country,
in every State and city—usually in or near the
major industrial and commercial centers. How­
ever, since these engineers are frequently called
upon to work at construction sites, they are some-

78

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

times stationed in remote areas of the United
States or in foreign countries. Furthermore, civil
engineers in some positions are often required to
move from place to place to work on different
projects.

for continued growth through the mid-1970’s.
Growth in this branch, however, is not likely to
be as rapid as in electrical and mechanical engi­
neering, the other large branches .of the profession.
The expanding employment opportunities for
civil engineers will result from the growing needs
for housing, industrial buildings, and highways
created by an increasing population and expand­
ing economy. Work related to the problems of
urban living, such as water and sewage systems,
air and water pollution, and giant urban redevel­
opment projects, may also require additional civil
engineers.
Large numbers o f civil engineers will be needed
each year to replace those leaving the field. As a
group, civil engineers are older than those in other
engineering specialties, and the proportion lost to
the profession each year by retirement or death is
therefore relatively high. The number of civil
engineers needed annually to fill such vacancies—
estimated to be 3,500 in 1964—will probably rise
slowly in the future. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Employment Outlook

Where To G o for More Information

Civil engineers discuss electric power transmission facility model.

The outlook in civil engineering—one o f the
largest and oldest branches of the profession— is

American Society of Civil Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Electrical Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-17.01 and .02)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 003.081, .151, and .187)

Nature of Work
Electrical engineers design, develop, and super­
vise the manufacture o f electrical and electronic
equipment— including electric motors and gen­
erators; communications equipment; electronic
apparatus such as television, radar, computers,
and missile guidance systems; and electrical appli­
ances o f all kinds. They also design and partici­
pate in the operation of facilities for generating
and distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers usually specialize in a
major area of work such as electronics, electrical
equipment manufacturing, communications, or
power. Many specialize in subdivisions of these

broad areas; for example, electronics engineers
may specialize in computers, or in missile guidance
and tracking systems.
A large number of electrical engineers are en­
gaged in research, development, and design activ­
ities. Another large group is employed in ad­
ministrative and management positions. Others
are employed in various manufacturing operations,
or in technical sales or teaching positions.
Where Employed
Electrical engineering is the largest branch of
the profession. It is estimated that more than
200,000 electrical engineers were employed in the

80

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Industrial engineers plan production operations.

through the mid-1970’s. The increasing complex­
ity o f industrial operations and the expansion of
automated processes, coupled with the continued

growth o f the Nation’s industries, are among the
major factors expected to increase the demand for
industrial engineers. Growing recognition of the
importance o f scientific management and safety
engineering in reducing costs and increasing pro­
ductivity is also expected to stimulate greatly the
demand for persons in this branch of engineering.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, addi­
tional numbers o f industrial engineers will be
required each year to replace those who retire or
die. The number needed to fill such vacancies,
estimated to be approximately 1,700 in 1964, will
probably rise slowly in the future. (See introduc­
tory section o f this chapter for discussion on
training requirements and earnings.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Mechanical Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-19.01, .05, .81, and .91)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181, and .187; 011.081; and 019.187)

Nature of Work
Mechanical engineers are concerned with the
production, transmission, and use o f power. They
design and develop machines which produce
power, such as internal combustion engines, steam
and gas turbines, jet and rocket engines, and nu­
clear reactors. They also design and develop a
great variety of machines which use power—
refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment,
elevators, machine tools, printing presses, steel
rolling mills, and many others.
Many specialized areas of work have developed
within mechanical engineering. Among these spe­
cialties are those concerned with motor vehicles,
marine equipment, railroad equipment, rocket en­
gines, steam power, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, hydraulics or fluid mechanics, in­
strumentation, ordnance, and machines for spe­
cialized industries, such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers o f mechanical engineers are en­
gaged in research, development, and design.

Many are also employed in administrative and
management activities. Others work in mainte­
nance, sales, and activities related to production
and operations in manufacturing industries. Some
teach in colleges and universities or work as con­
sultants.
Where Employed
More than 180,000 mechanical engineers were
employed in the United States in mid-1964. Near­
ly all manufacturing and nonmanufacturing in­
dustries employed some members of the profes­
sion. However, nearly three-quarters of all
mechanical engineers were employed in manu­
facturing industries—mainly in the primary and
fabricated metals, machinery, transportation
equipment, and electrical equipment industries.
Others were employed in government agencies,
educational institutions, and consulting engineer­
ing firms. Some worked as independent consulting
engineers.

79

ENGINEERING

United States in mid-1964. They were employed
chiefly by manufacturers of electrical and elec­
tronic equipment, aircraft and parts, business
machines, and professional and scientific equip­
ment. Many were employed by telephone and tele­
graph and electric light and power companies.
Sizable numbers were employed by government
agencies and by colleges and universities. Others
worked for construction firms, for engineering
consultants, or as independent consulting engi­
neers.
Employment Outlook
The outlook is for continued rapid growth of
employment in electrical engineering through the
mid-1970’s. An increased demand for electrical
equipment to automate and mechanize produc­
tion processes, especially for such items as com­
puters and numerical controls for machine tools,
is expected to be among the major factors con­
tributing to this growth. The anticipated grow­
ing need for electrical and electronic consumer
goods is also expected to create many job open­
ings for electrical engineers.

A large number of electrical engineers are en­
gaged in defense and space work. As a result, a
significant increase or decrease in expenditures for
these activities would change the overall demand
for electrical engineers accordingly. However, if
such expenditures change little through the mid1970’s, as expected, employment of electrical en­
gineers in these activities should remain relatively
stable.
In addition to those needed to fill new posi­
tions, many electrical engineers will be required
to replace personnel lost to the profession be­
cause of retirement or death. The number needed
to fill such vacancies, estimated to be about 2,700
in 1964, will probably rise slowly in the future.
(See introductory section o f this chapter for dis­
cussion of training requirements and earnings.
Also, see chapter on Occupations in Electronics
Manufacturing.)
Where To G o for More Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

10017.

Industrial Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-18.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 012.081, .168 and .188)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Industrial engineers determine the most effec­
tive method o f using the basic factors of produc­
tion—machines, materials, and personnel. They
may specialize in planning plant layouts so that
the production process w ill be efficient, or in
T
selecting and designing the machines and equip­
ment to be used in manufacturing operations.
Some plan automated manufacturing processes
and supervise the installation of industrial equip­
ment. Among numerous other specialties of in­
dustrial engineers are the design of work meas­
urement systems, including wage incentive sys­
tems; production methods and standards; cost
control and records; quality control; safety en­
gineering; systems engineering; and operations
research.

More than two-thirds o f the estimated 110,000
industrial engineers employed in mid-1964 were
in manufacturing industries. They were more
widely distributed among manufacturing indus­
tries than were those in other branches o f engi­
neering. Some worked for insurance companies,
construction and mining firms, and public utili­
ties. Others were employed by retail organiza­
tions and other large business enterprises to
improve operating efficiency. Still others worked
for government agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering firms. A few
were independent consulting engineers.

778-31© O—©5------7

Employment Outlook
The outlook is for continued rapid growth of
employment in this branch o f the profession

ENGINEERING

81

Employment Outlook
The outlook in mechanical engineering—the
second largest branch of the profession—is for
rapid growth through the mid-1970’s. The ex­
pected expansion of industry with the consequent
demand for industrial machinery and machine
tools, and the increasing technological complexity
of industrial machinery and processes will be
among the major factors contributing to greater
employment. Continued growth of expenditures
for research and development will also be a fac­
tor in the growth of this branch o f the profes­
sion. Moreover, newer areas of work, such as
atomic energy and missile and spacecraft devel­

opment, will probably provide additional open­
ings for large numbers o f mechanical engineers.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, large
numbers of mechanical engineers will be required
each year to replace those who retire or die. The
number needed to fill such vacancies, estimated
to be 3,000 in 1964, will probably rise slowly in
the future. ( See introductory section of this chap­
ter for discussion on training requirements and
earnings.)

Where To G o for More Information
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Metallurgical Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-14.10 and .20)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 011.081)

Nature of Work

Employment Outlook

Metallurgical engineers develop methods of
processing and converting metals into useful prod­
ucts. These engineers usually work in 1 of 2 main
branches of metallurgy—extractive or physical.
Extractive metallurgy deals with the extraction
o f metals from their ores, and with refining them
to obtain pure metal. Physical metallurgy deals
with the properties of metals and their alloys,
and with methods of converting refined metals
into useful final products. Persons working in the
field of metallurgy may be referred to as either
metallurgists or metallurgical engineers.

Employment in this small branch of the pro­
fession is expected to grow rapidly through the
mid-1970’s. Increasing numbers of metallurgical
engineers will be needed by the metalworking in­
dustries to work on problems involved in the
adaptation of metals and alloys to new needs. For
example, the development of such products as
supersonic jet aircraft, missiles, satellites, and
spacecraft has brought about a need for light­
weight metals capable of withstanding both ex­
tremely high and extremely low temperatures.
Metallurgical engineers will also be needed to
solve metallurgical problems connected with the
efficient use of nuclear energy. Furthermore, as the
supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more metal­
lurgical engineers will be needed to find ways of
processing low-grade ores now regarded as un­
profitable to mine. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. Also see chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Iron and Steel Industry.)

Where Employed
The metalworking industries—primarily the
iron and steel and nonferrous metals industries—
employed over one-half o f the estimated 5,000 to
10,000 metallurgical engineers in mid-1964. Many
metallurgical engineers worked in the machinery,
electrical equipment, and aircraft and parts indus­
tries. Others were employed in the mining in­
dustry, and in government agencies, consulting
firms, independent research organizations, and
educational institutions.

Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and
Petroleum Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

82

Mining Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-20.01 and .11)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 010.081, .168, and .187)

Nature of Work
Mining engineers are responsible for the extrac­
tion o f minerals from the earth and for the prepa­
ration of minerals for use by manufacturing
industries. They design the layouts of mines, su­
pervise the construction of mine shafts and
tunnels in underground operations, and devise
methods of transporting extracted minerals to
processing plants. Mining engineers are responsi­
ble for the efficient operation of mines and mine
safety, including ventilation, water supply, com­
munications, and maintenance of equipment.
Some mining engineers work with geologists, locat­
ing and appraising new ore deposits. Others con­
duct research to develop new mining equipment
and to devise improved methods of processing ex­
tracted minerals.
Mining engineers frequently specialize in the
extraction o f specific metal ores or coal and other
nonmetallic minerals. Engineers who specialize
in the extraction o f petroleum and natural gas are
usually considered members of a separate branch
o f the profession—Petroleum Engineering.
Where Employed
Approximately three-quarters o f the estimated
14,000 mining engineers were employed in the
mining and petroleum industries in mid-1964.
Most o f the remainder worked in colleges and uni­
versities or government agencies, or as independent
consultants.
Mining engineers are usually employed at the
location o f mineral deposits. Therefore, they may
w ork near small communities or in out-of-the-way
T
places. However, those engaged in research, teach­

ing, management, or consulting, are often located
in large metropolitan areas.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for mining engi­
neers are expected to be favorable through the
mid-1970’s. Although employment is expected to
grow more slowly here than in most other
branches of engineering, the number of new col­
lege graduates with degrees in mining engineering
will be barely large enough to replace mining en­
gineers who transfer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. For example, it is estimated that about 300
persons left the field in 1964, while only 144 bache­
lor’s degrees were granted in mining engineering.
Exploration for most minerals has declined in
recent years, and it is unlikely that these activities
will expand significantly in the near future. How­
ever, easily mined deposits are being depleted,
thus creating a growing need for mining engineers
to devise new methods for finding new deposits,
and to develop more efficient methods for mining
low grade ores. Additional areas o f employment
for mining engineers will arise as the development
of new alloys and the discovery of new uses for
metals increase the demand for less widely used
ores. ( See introductory section to this chapter for
discussion on training requirements and earnings.
See also chapter on Petroleum Production and Re­
fining Occupations.)
Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and
Petroleum Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

H E A L T H S E R V IC E O C C U P A T IO N S
Almost everyone knows something about the
professional services provided by doctors, dentists,
and pharmacists. Many people also have some
firsthand knowledge of the duties performed by
nurses, attendants, and other workers who take
care o f patients in hospitals. Less well known, but
also of great importance to the public health, are
the large number o f people employed behind the
scenes in other health service occupations, such as
the laboratory or X -ray technician. Altogether,
about 2.5 million people were employed in the
health field in early 1965. Employment in this
field has increased rapidly in recent years.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and dentists
are the largest of the professional health occupa­
tions. In early 1965, the numbers in these occupa­
tions ranged from nearly 100,000 dentists to over
580,000 registered professional nurses. Other pro­
fessional health occupations with sizable employ­
ment are dietitian, veterinarian, optometrist,
chiropractor, osteopathic physician, and hospital
administrator. Other health service workers in­
clude technicians of various types, such as medical
technologist, medical X -ray technician, dental
hygienist, and dental laboratory technician. Large
numbers— over three-quarters of a million—
worked as practical nurses and auxiliary nursing
workers, including orderlies, nursing aids, hospi­
tal attendants, and psychiatric assistants.
Workers in the health field are employed in
hospitals, clinics, laboratories, pharmacies, nurs­
ing homes, industrial plants, public health agen­
cies, mental health centers, private offices, and pa­
tients’ homes. Those employed in health-related
occupations work mainly in the more heavily pop­
ulated and prosperous sections of the Nation.
Many women are employed in the health field.
Nursing, the largest of the major health service
occupations, is second only to teaching as a field
of professional employment for women. Other

health service occupations in which women pre­
dominate are practical nurse, medical X-ray tech­
nician, medical technologist, dietitian, physical
therapist, occupational therapist, speech patholo­
gist and audiologist, dental hygienist, and medical
record librarian. On the other hand, the majority
of dentists, optometrists, physicians, veterinari­
ans, pharmacists, hospital administrators, and
sanitarians are men.
The educational and other requirements for work
in the health field are as diverse as the health oc­
cupations themselves. For example, professional
health workers—physicians, dentists, pharmacists,
and others—must complete a number of years of
preprofessional and professional college education
and pass a State licensing examination. On the
other hand, some health service occupations can be
entered with little specialized training.
A continued rapid expansion of employment in
the health field is expected through the mid-1970’s,
although the rates o f growth will differ consider­
ably among the various health service occupations.
In general, the factors which are expected to con­
tribute to an increase in the demand for health
care are the country’s expanding and aging popu­
lation; wider health education and the resultant
rising health consciousness of the general public;
extension o f prepayment programs for hospitaliza­
tion and medical care, including the programs for
the aged provided in the Social Security Amend­
ments of 1965; rapid expansion of expenditures for
medical research; and increasing expenditures by
Federal, State, and local governments for health
care and services. In addition, many new workers
will be needed each year to replace those who re­
tire, die, or—particularly in the case of women—
leave the field for other reasons. Thus, there will
be many opportunities for employment in the
health services.
83

84

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Chiropractors
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-39.90)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of Work
Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the principle that the nervous system largely de­
termines a person’s health and that interference
with this system impairs his normal functions and
lowers his resistance to disease. Chiropractors
treat their patients primarily by manual manipu­
lation o f parts of the body, especially the spinal
column. Many also use such supplementary meas­
ures as water, light, and heat therapy and pre­
scribe diet, exercise, and rest. Because of the em­
phasis on the importance of the spine and its posi­
tion, most chiropractors use X-ray extensively to
aid in locating the source o f patients’ difficulties.
Chiropractic as a system for healing does not in­
clude the use o f drugs or surgery.
Where Employed
About 23,500 chiropractors were employed in
the United States in early 1965—approximately
10 percent were women. The largest group of
chiropractors were engaged in independent private
practice. Some were salaried assistants o f estab­
lished practitioners, or worked for chiropractic
clinics, athletic organizations, and industrial
firms. Others taught or conducted research at
chiropractic schools. About 45 percent o f all chiro­
practors were located in California, New York,
Texas, Missouri, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Most States and the District of Columbia regu­
late the practice o f chiropractic and grant licenses
to chiropractors who meet certain educational re­
quirements and pass a State board examination.
The type of practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for licensure vary consider­
ably from one State to another. In 1965, three
States—Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Missis­
sippi— did not regulate the practice of chiroprac­
tic nor issue licenses to chiropractors.
Most States require the successful completion of
a 4-year chiropractic course following high school
graduation. About one-half of the States also re­

quire 1 or 2 years of preparatory college work
before chiropractic training. About half the States
also require that chiropractors pass a basic science
examination. Chiropractors licensed in one State
may generally obtain a license in another State
without further examination.
Some of the 12 chiropractic schools in the
United States in 1965 restricted their teaching to
manipulation and spinal adjustments, while the
others offered a broader curriculum including
such subjects as chiropractic physiotherapy and
nutrition. In most chiropractic schools, the first 2
years of the 4-year curriculum are devoted chiefly
to classroom and laboratory work in subjects such
as anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. The
last 2 years are spent in obtaining practical ex­
perience in the schools’ clinics. The degree of
Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.) is awarded by all
schools to students completing 4 years o f chiro­
practic training.
Among the personal qualities considered desir­
able for a chiropractor is the ability to deal with
people sympathetically. The work requires con­
siderable dexterity with the hands but does not
call for unusual strength or endurance.
Most newly licensed chiropractors either set up
a new practice or purchase an established prac­
tice. Some start as salaried chiropractors to ac­
quire experience and funds necessary to establish
their own practice. A moderate financial invest­
ment is usually necessary to open and equip an
office.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for chiropractors is
expected to be favorable through the mid-1970’s.
Only a slight increase in the demand for chiro­
practic services is expected, but the number of new
graduates o f chiropractic colleges is also expected
to be small and probably will be barely enough
to fill openings left by chiropractors who retire,
die, or stop practicing for other reasons. In view
of the trend in many States toward raising edu­
cational requirements for chiropractic practice,

85

H E A LTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

opportunities may be best for those with the most
thorough training.
Opportunities for new graduates to begin their
own practice are likely to be best in those parts
o f the country where chiropractic is most fully
accepted as a method of treatment. Opportunities
should also be good for those who wish to enter
salaried positions in chiropractic clinics, chiro­
practic schools, and other organizations employ­
ing chiropractors.
The expected slight growth in demand for
chiropractors’ services will be related to an ex­
panding population and its increasing demand for
various types of health care, including chiroprac­
tic treatment.
Women are expected to have good opportunities
in chiropractic, since some women and children
prefer to go to women chiropractors for treat­
ment. A ll chiropractic schools accept women as
students.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In chiropractic, as in other types of independent
practice, earnings are relatively low at the begin­
ning but rise after the first few years. Though
incomes o f chiropractors vary widely, experienced
chiropractors generally had average yearly in­
comes ranging from $10,000 to $15,000 in early
1965, according to the limited data available.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on State licensing requirements
may be obtained from the State board of licensing
in the capital of the State in which the individual
plans to practice.
General information on chiropractic as a career
may be obtained from :
American Chiropractic Association,
American Building, 2200 Grand Ave.,
P.O. Box 1535, Des Moines, Iowa 50306.
International Chiropractors Association,
741 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa 52805.

Dental Hygienists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-50.07)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of Work
Dental hygienists, all o f whom work under the
supervision of dentists, clean teeth by removing
stains and calcium deposits, polish teeth, and
massage gums. While performing this work (oral
prophylaxis), they chart conditions of decay and
disease for diagnosis by the dentist. They may
also take and develop X-rays, mix filling com­
pounds, prepare solutions, administer prescribed
medicaments, sterilize instruments, and act as
chairside assistants to the dentist. Hygienists pro­
vide dental health education, including the tech­
niques of mouth care and proper diet.
Dental hygienists working in school systems
promote dental health by examining children’s
teeth, assisting dentists in determining the dental
treatment needed, and reporting their findings to
parents. They also perform oral prophylaxes and
give instruction on correct care and brushing of
teeth. Some help to develop classroom projects or
assembly programs on oral health. Dental hygien­
ists employed by health agencies work on dental

health projects or perform clinical duties. A few
assist in research projects. Those with advanced
training may teach in schools o f dental hygiene.
Where Employed
Approximately 12,000 dental hygienists were
employed in early 1965; almost all were women.
Many work part time. The majority of all dental
hygienists were employed in private dental offices;
about one-fourth worked for public health agen­
cies or school systems; and others worked in in­
dustrial plants, clinics, hospitals, dental hygiene
schools, and as civilian employees of the Armed
F orces.
Although some hygienists are employed in
small towns, the majority work in metropolitan
areas.
Training and Other Qualifications
Dental hygienists must pass an examination to
be licensed by the State in which they wish to

86

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

degree admit students to the dental hygiene pro­
gram only after they have completed 2 years o f
college. The majority o f schools also require that
applicants take aptitude tests conducted by the
American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
The curriculum at a school of dental hygiene
consists o f courses in the basic sciences, dental
sciences, and liberal arts. These schools offer labor­
atory work, clinical experience, and classroom in­
struction in such subjects as anatomy, chemistry,
histology, pathology, pharmacology, and English.
The ability to work well with people, and patience
as well as manual dexterity and attentiveness to
detail are essential for work in this field.
Employment Outlook

Dental hygienist checks patient’s teeth.

practice. In all States except Alabama and
Georgia, eligibility for the licensure examination
is limited to graduates o f accredited dental hy­
giene schools. In 1964, candidates could complete
part of the State licensing requirements by pass­
ing an examination given by the National Board
of Dental Examiners in 40 States. Upon being
licensed, a hygienist becomes a Registered Dental
Hygienist (R.D .H .). In order to practice in a d if­
ferent State, a licensed dental hygienist must take
that State’s examination.
In 1964, 49 schools of dental hygiene in the
United States were accredited or provisionally ac­
credited by the Council of Dental Education of
the American Dental Association. Most of these
schools provide a 2-year dental hygiene certifica­
tion course. A few have 4-year programs leading
to the bachelor’s degree, and some offer both pro­
grams. Most o f the schools admit only women.
For dental hygienists interested in practicing
in a private dental office, completion o f the 2-year
program is usually sufficient. In order to work in
research, teaching, and in public or school health
programs, the completion of a 4-year program is
usually required.
The minimum requirement for admission to a
school of dental hygiene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which offer the bachelor’s

Employment opportunities for dental hygien­
ists are expected to continue to be excellent
through the mid-1970’s. Despite the anticipated
continued rise in the number of graduates from
schools of dental hygiene, the demand is expected
to be greater than the number available for em­
ployment, as in past years.
The demand for hygienists is expected to con­
tinue to grow as a result of the expanding popu­
lation and the growing awareness of the impor­
tance of regular dental care. Increasing interest in
dental care programs for children will lead to
more employment opportunities in school systems.
Increased participation in dental prepayment
plans and more group practice among dentists
may also result in new jobs for dental hygienists.
In addition, a great number of job openings will
be created by young women who leave their jobs
for marriage and family responsibilities.
Mature women who wish to return to the field
and those who desire part-time positions can ex­
pect to find good opportunities for employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings o f dental hygienists are affected by
the type o f employer, education, and experience o f
the individual hygienist, and the part of the coun­
try in which the job is located. Dental hygienists
working in private dental offices are usually sala­
ried employees, though some are paid a commis­
sion for work performed or a combination of sal­
ary and commission. Those employed in research,

H EALTH

87

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

administrative, supervisory, or teaching positions
often earn higher salaries.
Starting salaries of dental hygienists employed
full time in private offices averaged about $6,000
a-year in mid-1964, according to the limited data
available. The annual beginning salary for a den­
tal hygienist employed by the Federal Govern­
ment was either $4,480 or $5,000 in early 1965,
depending on education and experience. Most of
those in the Federal Government earned between
$5,000 and $6,000 per year.
Dental hygienists employed full time in private
offices usually work between 35 and 40 hours a
week. They may work on Saturdays or during
evening hours. Some hygienists work for two den­
tists or more.
Most dental hygienists are employed in clean,
well-lighted offices, but may have to stand for long
periods of time. The hygienist generally provides
her own uniforms. Regular medical checkups and
strict adherence to established procedures for

using X-ray equipment and for disinfection are
important health protections for persons in this
occupation.
A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks is common
among hygienists who work full time in dental
offices. Dental hygienists employed by school sys­
tems, health agencies, and the Federal or State
governments have the same hours, vacation, sick
leave, and retirement benefits as other workers in
these organizations.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about approved schools and the
educational requirements needed to enter this field
may be obtained from :
American Dental Hygienists’ Association,
100 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Information concerning licensing requirements
can be obtained from the State Board of Dental
Examiners in each State.

Dental Laboratory Technicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-50.06)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 712.381)
Nature of Work
Artificial dentures—teeth, crowns, bridges, and
other dental and orthodontal appliances—used to
be made by dentists. Now, dental laboratory tech­
nicians do most of this highly skilled work. These
technicians do not deal directly with patients but
receive prescriptions from dentists.
In making many kinds of artificial dentures, the
first step is to form models in dental stone (hard
plaster) from impressions of patients’ mouths
taken by dentists. Technicians may also make
metal castings for dentures; polish and finish den­
tures; construct metal or porcelain crowns or in­
lays for partially destroyed teeth; make gold and
other metal bridges; and make appliances to cor­
rect such abnormalities as cleft palates. In per­
forming this work, dental laboratory technicians
use small handtools, special electric lathes and
drills, high-heat furnaces, and other kinds of
specialized laboratory equipment.
Some dental laboratory technicians do all types
of dental laboratory work. Others specialize in
such areas as fabricating crowns and bridges, ar­

ranging artificial teeth on dental appliances so
that they function properly, processing plastic
materials, working with dental ceramics (por­
celain) , or making castings of gold or nonprecious

Dental laboratory technician employs small hand tool to refine
artificial teeth.

88
metal alloys used in dentistry. In beginning jobs,
trainees usually perform relatively simple jobs
such as mixing and pouring plaster into casts and
molds. As they gain experience, they are assigned
more difficult laboratory work and may use ex­
pensive metals.
Where Employed
It is estimated that about 25,000 dental labora­
tory technicians were employed in early 1965.
Most of these technicians worked in commercial
laboratories, either as employees or as owners of
the business. Commercial laboratories, which han­
dle orders from any dentist, are usually 1- or 2man shops. However, a few large laboratories may
employ many technicians.
About 3,000 dental laboratory technicians were
employed by individual dentists. Some worked in
hospitals that provided dental services. A few
were employed by the Federal Government,
chiefly in the Veterans Administration and in the
Department of the Army. Women, who account
for about 10 percent of all dental laboratory tech­
nicians, worked mainly in large commercial
laboratories.
Dental laboratory technicians, like the dentists
who use their services, are located mainly in cities
and in the States with large populations. More
than half of all dental laboratory technicians are
in cities of over 50,000 population.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Although no minimum formal educational re­
quirements prevail for entry into this occupation,
graduation from high school is an asset. The most
common method of becoming a dental laboratory
technician is to secure a trainee position and
learn the craft on the job, usually in a commercial
laboratory or a hospital offering dental services.
Typically, on-the-job training lasts 3 or 4 years,
depending on such factors as the trainee’s previ­
ous experience, his ability to master the tech­
niques, and the number of specialized areas to be
learned. Courses in dental laboratory work are
offered in some public vocational high schools and
junior colleges; the course-work may be taken in
conjunction with on-the-job training. Persons may
also qualify by taking 1- to 2-year programs in
dental laboratory technology offered by a few

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

schools. But regardless o f a student’s educational
background, employers consider actual work ex­
perience to be necessary for an applicant to qual­
ify as a full-fledged technician.
The National Association of Dental Labora­
tories and the American Dental Association spon­
sor a certification program for dental laboratory
technicians who can meet certain training and
other requirements. In 1964, five schools were ac­
credited by the American Dental Association to
provide high school graduates (or those with
equivalent education) with the 2 years o f training
required under this program. Some scholarships
are available in the accredited schools.
In the first year of training in accredited
schools, formal classroom instruction is given in
dental law and ethics, chemistry, ceramics, metal­
lurgy, and other related subjects. During the
second year, the student must complete 12 months
of supervised practical experience in the school or
a dental laboratory. He may receive some pay for
work performed during this period. After comple­
tion of the 2-year training program, 3 years of
practical experience in a dental office or a labora­
tory are required before the dental laboratory
technician is eligible to take the examination for
certification in one or more of five areas—general­
ist, full denture fabrication, partial dental fabri­
cation, ceramics, and crown and bridge fabrica­
tion.
Certification may become important for obtain­
ing employment as a dental laboratory technician,
because many employers are likely to regard the
certificate as the best evidence o f the technician’s
competence.
Among the personal qualifications which em­
ployers look for in selecting trainees are a high
degree of manual dexterity, good color percep­
tion, patience, and a liking for detailed work.
Preference may also be given to young people who
have completed high school courses in art, ceram­
ics and pottery, sculpturing, blueprint reading,
plastics, metalworking, and physiology.
Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for both well-qualified, all­
round craftsmen and for specialists are expected
to be very good through the mid-1970’s. Oppor­
tunities for trainees should also be favorable. Be­

H E A LTH

89

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

cause growth in demand is expected to be only
moderate, most openings for dental laboratory
technicians will probably stem largely from the
need to replace technicians who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
Opportunities for salaried employment for both
experienced and trainee dental laboratory tech­
nicians will be best in commercial laboratories and
in the Federal Government. Some experienced
technicians should also be able to establish labor­
atories of their own. A technician whose work has
become known to several dentists in a community
will have the best prospect of building a success­
ful business.
A moderate increase in the demand for dental
laboratory technicians is anticipated over the next
10 years. Among the factors underlying this ex­
pected increase are the growing public awareness
of the importance of preventive dentistry; the
availability of new dental prepayment plans to
help people of moderate income; and the increas­
ing number of older people with an accompanying
increase in the number of persons requiring arti­
ficial dentures. Moreover, the number of dentists
is not expected to keep pace with the demand for
their services; hence, in order to devote more time
to treatment of patients, dentists will send more
and more of their laboratory work to commercial
firms.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Trainee dental laboratory technicians employed
in commercial laboratories in 1964 usually earned
between $50 and $65 a week, according to the Na­
tional Association of Dental Laboratories. Experi­
enced technicians in commercial laboratories gen­
erally earned between $80 and $150 a week,
depending on their skill level and experience.
Technicians who work with ceramics or gold and
other metals received the highest salaries. Fore­

men and managers in large dental laboratories
may earn $200 or more per week. In general, net
earnings of self-employed technicians are higher
than those o f salaried workers.
The starting salary for dental laboratory tech­
nicians employed in the Federal Government was
about $96 a week in early 1965. The majority of
experienced dental laboratory technicians em­
ployed in the Federal Government earned be­
tween $106 and $128 a week.
Salaried technicians usually work the standard
40-hour week, but self-employed technicians fre­
quently work longer hours. Many technicians in
commercial laboratories receive paid holidays and
vacations, and some are also provided paid sick
leave, bonuses, and other fringe benefits. Techni­
cians employed by the Federal Government have
the same benefits as other Federal employees.
The work of dental laboratory technicians is not
strenuous and most jobs can be done by handi­
capped workers provided they have good use of
their hands and fingers.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about the training and lists of ap­
proved schools are available from:
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago, 111.

60611.

Information on career opportunities in commer­
cial laboratories, scholarships, requirements for
certification, and apprenticeship programs may be
obtained from :
National Association of Dental Laboratories, Inc.,
500 Walker Building, Washington, D.C. 20005.

Information about employment in dental labor­
atories in veterans’ hospitals may be obtained
from local veterans’ hospitals and offices through­
out the country.

Dentists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-13.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 072.108)

Nature of Work
Dentists look for and fill cavities in the teeth,
straighten teeth, take X-rays of the mouth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists also extract teeth and

substitute artificial dentures especially designed
for the individual patient. In addition, they clean
teeth and examine the mouth for diseases. They
spend most of their time with patients, but devote

90
some time to laboratory work—making dentures,
inlays, and other dental appliances. Many den­
tists, however— particularly in large cities—send
most of their laboratory work to commercial
firms. Some dentists employ dental hygienists to
clean patients’ teeth. They also employ other as­
sistants who perform office work and assist the
dentist in his “ chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general practitioners who pro­
vide many types o f dental care; only about 5 per­
cent are recognized as specialists. More than
half o f these specialists are orthodontists, who
straighten teeth. The next larger number, oral
surgeons, perform operations in the mouth and
jaws. The remainder specialize in periodontology
(treating the tissues that support the teeth),
prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or den­
tures), pedodontics (dentistry for children), oral
pathology (diseases of the mouth), endodontics
(root canal therapy), and public health dentistry.
About 3 percent of all dentists are employed
primarily in work that does not involve “ chairside” practice, such as teaching and research.
Many dentists in private practice, however, do
this work on a part-time basis.
Where Employed
About 96,000 dentists were at work in the
United States in mid-1964. Nine out o f every ten
were in private practice. O f the remainder, about
6,000 served as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces; about 1,200 had other types of Federal
Government positions—chiefly in the hospitals
and clinics of the Veterans Administration and
the Public Health Service; and about 1,500 held
full-time positions in schools, hospitals, or State
and local health agencies. Women dentists repre­
sented only about 2 percent of the profession.
Dentists tend to be concentrated in large cities
and in populous States. In 1964, about a third of
the dentists were located in the four States of New
York, California, Pennsylvania, and Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A license to practice dentistry is required in all
States and the District of Columbia. To qualify
for a license, a candidate must be a graduate o f an
approved dental school and pass a State Board ex­
amination. In 1964, 40 States and the District of

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Dentist interprets oral X-rays for patient.

Columbia recognized the examination given by
the National Board of Dental Examiners as a sub­
stitute for the written part of the State Board
examinations. One State, Delaware, also requires
new graduates to serve 1 year of hospital intern­
ship. Most State licenses permit dentists to engage
in both general and specialized practice. In 10
States, however, a dentist cannot be licensed as a
“ specialist” unless he has 2 or 3 years o f graduate
education, several years o f specialized experience,
and passes a special State examination. Few
States permit dentists licensed in other States to
practice in their jurisdictions without further ex­
amination.
The minimum education requirements for grad­
uation from an approved dental school is 2 years
of predental college work followed by 4 years of
professional dental school training; 7 o f the 48
dental schools in operation in the United States
in 1965 required 3 years of predental study.
Predental education must include at least a halfyear course in organic chemistry and full-year
courses in English, biology, physics, and inorganic
chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2 years are usually
devoted to classroom instruction and laboratory
work in basic sciences such as anatomy, bacteriol­
ogy, and pharmacology. The last 2 years are spent

H EALTH

91

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

chiefly in the school’s dental clinic, treating pa­
tients. The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery
(D.D.S.) is awarded by most dental colleges. An
equivalent degree, Doctor o f Dental Medicine
(D.M.D.) is conferred by a few schools.
Competition is keen for admittance to dental
schools. In selecting students, schools give consid­
erable weight to college grades and amount of
college education; about half of the students en­
rolling in dental schools have bachelor’s degrees.
In addition, all dental schools participate in a
nationwide aptitude testing program, and scores
earned on these tests are considered along with
information gathered about the applicant through
recommendations and interviews. Many Statesupported dental schools also give preference to
residents of their particular States.
Dentists interested in research or teaching, or
in becoming specialists, often take graduate work.
Graduate training may be obtained at most
schools of dentistry, or by serving an internship
or residency at 1 of the 233 approved hospitals
that offer these programs.
Dental training is very costly because o f the
length of time it takes to earn the dental degree.
However, the Health Professions Educational As­
sistance Act of 1963 provides Federal funds for
loans up to $2,000 a year to help needy students
pursue full-time study leading to the degree.
The profession of dentistry requires both man­
ual skills and a high level of intelligence. Dentists
should have good visual memory, excellent judg­
ment of space and shape, delicacy o f touch, and a
high degree of manual dexterity, as well as scien­
tific ability. A liking for people and a good busi­
ness sense are helpful in achieving success in pri­
vate practice.
The majority o f newly qualified dentists open
their own offices or purchase established practices.
Some start in practice with dentists who are al­
ready established, to gain experience and to save
the money required to equip an office; others may
enter residency or internship training programs
in approved hospitals. Dentists entering the
Armed Forces are commissioned as captains in
the Army and A ir Force and as lieutenants in the
Navy, and may progress to higher ranks. Gradu­
ates of recognized dental schools are eligible for
Federal Civil Service positions and for commis­
sions in the U.S. Public Health Service.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities for dentists are expected to be
very good through the mid-1970’s. It is antici­
pated that the demand for dental services will in­
crease along with an expanding population, the
growing awareness of the importance o f regular
dental care, and the development of new payment
arrangements which make it easier for people of
moderate means to obtain dental service. E x­
panded dental research activities will require
more trained personnel; dental public health pro­
grams will need qualified administrators; and
dental colleges will need additional faculty mem­
bers. A number of dentists will continue to serve
in the Armed Forces.
Improved dental hygiene and fluoridation of
community water supplies may prevent some tooth
and gum disorders, but such measures—by pre­
serving teeth that might otherwise be extracted—
may tend to increase rather than decrease the
demand for dental care. Other new techniques,
equipment, and drugs, as well as the more exten­
sive use of dental hygienists, assistants, and labor­
atory technicians may permit individual dentists
to care for more patients. However, these develop­
ments are not expected to offset the need for more
dentists.
O f all new dental school graduates, the majority
will be needed to replace dentists who retire or
die. The remaining graduates will be barely
enough to maintain the present ratio of dentists
to population. Thus, the outlook for those who
complete dental training is very good. Despite this
favorable outlook, the number of men and women
who will be able to enter this field will be re­
stricted by the present limited capacity o f dental
schools. However, opportunities to obtain dental
training are expected to increase because o f re­
cent Federal legislation which provides Federal
funds to assist in the construction of additional
training facilities for dentists.
Earnings and Working Conditions
During the first year or two of practice, dentists
often earn little more than the minimum needed
to cover expenses, but their earnings usually rise
rapidly as their practice develops. Specialists gen­
erally earn considerably more than general practi­
tioners. Average (median) income above expenses

92

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for all self-employed dentists in 1964 was about
$16,000 a year. In the Federal Government, new
graduates of dental schools in early 1965 could
receive starting yearly salaries ranging from
$8,650 to $11,305, depending on college records
and other qualifications. In State health depart­
ments, in early 1964, the annual salaries of State
dental health directors ranged from an average
minimum of $11,000 to an average maximum of
$13,600, according to the U.S. Public Health Serv­
ice. Dental directors in local health departments,
in early 1964, received yearly salaries ranging
from an average minimum of $9,930 to an average
maximum o f $12,074, according to the limited
information available.
Location is one of the major factors affecting
the income of dentists who open their own offices.
For example, in high-income urban areas, dental
services are in greater demand; however, a prac­
tice can be developed most quickly in small towns
where new dentists can easily become known and
where there may be less competition with estab­
lished practitioners. Although the income from
practice in small towns may rise rapidly at first,
over the long run the level of earnings, like the

cost of living, may be lower than that in larger
communities.
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week and
some dentists have evening hours. Dentists usually
work between 40 and 50 hours a week, although
many spend more than 50 hours a week in the
office. Dentists often work fewer hours as they
grow older, since the hours o f work are usually
determined by the dentist himself. A considerable
number continue in part-time practice well beyond
the usual retirement age.
Where To G o for More Information
People wishing to practice in a given State
should get the requirements for licensure directly
from the board of dental examiners o f that State.
Lists of State boards and o f accredited dental
schools, as well as information on dentistry as a
career, may be obtained from :
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental Schools,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Dietitians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-39.93)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)

Nature of Work
Dietitians plan and supervise the preparation
and serving of appetizing and nutritious meals to
help people maintain or recover good health.
Their work includes planning general menus and
modified diets that meet nutritional requirements
for medical treatment, supervising the personnel
who prepare and serve the meals, managing pur­
chases and accounts, and providing guidance on
good eating habits. Administrative dietitians form
the largest group in this occupation; the others
are therapeutic dietitians, teachers, or research
workers.
Administrative dietitians apply the principles
o f nutrition and sound management to large-scale
meal planning and preparation such as that done
in hospitals, universities, schools, and other insti­
tutions. They supervise the preparation of meals;
select, train, and direct food-service supervisors

and workers; arrange for the buying o f food,
equipment, and supplies; enforce sanitary and
safety regulations; and prepare records and re­
ports. Dietitians who are directors o f a dietary
department also formulate departmental policy,
coordinate dietary service with the activities of
other departments, and are responsible for the
development and management of the dietary de­
partment budget, which in large organizations
may amount to millions of dollars annually.
Therapeutic dietitians plan and direct the prep­
aration of special meals for patients on modified
diets, taking into consideration the nutritional
value of foods. They supervise the serving of
meals, discuss food likes and dislikes with pa­
tients, and note their intake of food. Other duties
o f therapeutic dietitians include conferring with
doctors regarding patients’ diets, instructing pa­
tients and their families on the requirements and

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

93
employed by colleges, universities, and school sys­
tems as teachers or as dietitians in food-service
programs. Most o f the remainder worked for
public health agencies, restaurants or cafeterias,
and large companies that operate food-service
programs for their employees. Some dietitians
were commissioned officers in the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Therapeutic dietitian recommends special meals for a young
patient.

importance o f their diets, and suggesting ways to
help them stay on these diets after leaving the
hospital. In a small institution, one person may
serve as both the administrative and therapeutic
dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly those in hospitals
affiliated with medical centers, teach dietetic,
medical, dental, and nursing students such sub­
jects as dietetics, foods and nutrition, and diet
therapy. A few dietitians act as consultants to
commercial enterprises, including food processors,
equipment manufacturers, and utility companies.
Other members of the profession, called public
health nutritionists, conduct studies or surveys
of food and nutrition. They also take part in
research projects, such as those concerned with
the nutritional needs of the aging, persons with
chronic diseases, or space travelers.
Where Employed
Approximately 28,000 dietitians were employed
in 1964, of whom less than 10 percent were men.
About half of all the dietitians worked in hos­
pitals, including about 1,200 who were employed
by the Veterans Administration and the U.S.
Public Health Service. A sizable number were

The minimum educational requirement for dietitions is a bachelor’s degree with a major in foods
and nutrition or institution management. This ed­
ucation can be obtained in the home economics
departments of about 450 colleges and universities.
Undergraduate work should include courses in
foods and nutrition, institution management,
chemistry, bacteriology, and physiology, and such
related courses as mathematics, psychology, so­
ciology, and economics.
To qualify for professional recognition, The
American Dietetic Association recommends the
completion of a 1-year dietetic internship program
approved by the Association, or 3 years of experi­
ence including 2 years under the supervision of a
dietitian who is a member of the Association.
Many employers prefer to hire dietitians who
have completed an internship. An important
phase of the intern’s education is on-the-job ex­
perience; the remainder of the internship is de­
voted to classroom study of menu planning, bud­
geting, institution management, and other ad­
vanced subjects, and to special projects. In 1964,
64 internship programs were approved by The
American Dietetic Association— 56 for hospitals,
7 for business firms or colleges and universities,
and 1 for a food clinic.
Experienced dietitians may be advanced to as­
sistant director or director of a dietary depart­
ment in a large hospital or other institution.
Graduate education is usually required for ad­
vancement to higher level positions in teaching
and research. Those interested in becoming public
health nutritionists must usually earn a graduate
degree in this field. Graduate study in institu­
tional or business administration is valuable to
those interested in administrative dietetics.
Qualifications needed for work in this field are
an interest in and an aptitude for the sciences,
particularly chemistry and mathematics. Ability

94

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

to organize and manage work programs and to
work well with others is also important.
Employment Outlook
Opportunities for qualified dietitians are ex­
pected to be excellent through the mid-1970’s.
The supply of trained dietitians is expected to be
considerably less than the demand for them. Be­
cause of the anticipated heavy demand, some
hospitals and other establishments may employ
college graduates with suitable undergraduate
education to assist dietitians. Small hospitals and
some other institutions that cannot obtain dieti­
tians for full-time positions may employ them on
a part-time basis.
The major factors expected to contribute to
increasing opportunities for dietitians include the
expansion of hospital and nursing home facilities,
more widespread use o f hospitals and medical
services by an increasing population, and the
growth o f community health programs. An in­
creasing number o f dietitians will also be needed
to direct food services for schools, industrial
plants, and commercial eating places, and to
engage in food and nutrition research programs.
In addition, since many women select this field
because of their interest in food and homemaking
and then leave the profession for marriage and
family responsibilities, replacement needs will
probably continue to be high.
The number o f men employed as dietitians has
been growing slowly but steadily. Men are likely
to find increasing employment opportunities,
especially as administrative dietitians in college
and university food services, hospitals, and com­
mercial eating places.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In early 1965, hospitals offered new graduates
of approved internship programs annual salaries

ranging from $4,700 to $5,500, according to The
American Dietetic Association. Experienced die­
titians in hospitals were paid between $5,500 and
$10,000 a year. Staff dietitians employed by col­
lege and school food services received annual
salaries ranging from $4,700 to $8,000. Teachers
in colleges and universities were paid between
$6,000 and $10,500 a year.
The entrance salary in the Federal Government
for those who had completed internship was
$6,050 a year in early 1965. New college graduates
without internship started at $5,000 per year. Most
experienced dietitians employed by the Federal
Government earned between $6,050 and $10,250
per year; a few earned over $12,000. Dietitians
employed by State and local governments in mid1964 received yearly salaries ranging from about
$6,000 to $7,600, according to a survey made by
the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare.
Most dietitians are employed on a weekly work
schedule o f 40 hours; however, dietitians in hos­
pitals may sometimes work on weekends, and
those in restaurants have somewhat irregular
hours. Some hospitals provide laundry service
and meals in addition to salary. Paid vacations,
holidays, and health and retirement benefits are
usually received.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on approved dietetic internship
programs, scholarships, and employment oppor­
tunities, and a list of colleges providing training
for a professional career in dietetics, may be ob­
tained from :
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.

60611.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton, D.C., 20415, has information on the require­
ments for dietetic interns and dietitians in
Federal Government hospitals.

Hospital Administrators
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-99.84)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 187.118)
Nature of Work
Hospital administrators hold the top-level ex­
ecutive job in a hospital. They have responsibility
for directing all the administrative activities of

the hospital. General guidance for their work
comes from a governing board with whom they
work closely in the development of plans and
policies.

H EALTH

95

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The day-to-day work o f administrators involves
direction of the many and varied activities of the
hospital, usually with the aid o f assistant admin­
istrators and other staff members. They work
closely with the medical and nursing staffs and
make available to them the necessary personnel,
equipment, and auxiliary services. Administrators
are responsible for hiring and training personnel;
preparing and administering the budget; estab­
lishing accounting procedures; planning current
and future space needs; insuring the proper main­
tenance of buildings and equipment; purchasing
supplies and equipment; and providing for laun­
dry, mail, telephone, information, and other serv­
ices for the patients and staff.
In small hospitals, typically located in rural
or suburban areas, the administrator generally
assumes all management functions. In large
hospitals, he is assisted by specialists who have
been trained in hospital administration.
Under the direction of the governing board,
administrators may carry out large projects con­
cerned with expanding or developing the hospi­
tal’s services. For example, they may organize
fund-raising campaigns or plan new building or
research programs.

Administrators meet regularly with their staff
to discuss progress, make plans, and solve prob­
lems concerning the functioning o f the hospital.
In cooperation with the medical staff and depart­
ment heads, they may also develop and maintain
teaching programs for nurses, interns, and other
hospital staff members. They may address com­
munity gatherings, organize community health
campaigns, represent their hospitals at meetings,
or participate in study groups.
Where Employed
An estimated 13,000 hospital administrators
and assistants were employed in hospitals and re­
lated institutions in early 1965. About two-thirds
of them worked in nonprofit or private hospitals,
and the remainder generally worked in Federal,
State, and local government hospitals. O f those
employed by the Federal Government, the largest
numbers were in Veterans Administration hospi­
tals; most of the remainder were employed in
Armed Forces and Public Health Service hos­
pitals. It is estimated that one-fifth o f the total
number of hospital administrators and their as­
sistants are women. Many are members of reli­
gious orders.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health

Hospital administrator plans for expansion of hospital services.
7 7 8 -3 1 6 0 — 6 5-------- 8

The background needed to qualify for this
work depends, to a large extent, on the qualifica­
tions established by individual employers. Most
employers prefer persons with at least a master’s
degree in hospital administration. Others look for
people who have formal training in law or busi­
ness administration and also extensive experience
in the health field. A few require that their ad­
ministrators be physicians or registered profes­
sional nurses. Specialized hospitals (such as
orthopedic or mental hospitals) frequently prefer
physicians for administrators whose medical
specialty is the same as that of the hospital.
Hospitals run by religious groups usually seek
administrators of the same faith.
In 1964, master’s degree programs in hospital
administration were offered in 20 colleges and uni­
versities. These programs usually consist o f a year
of academic study followed by a year of admin­
istrative residency in a selected hospital. For en­
trance into these programs, applicants must have

96
a bachelor’s degree including some courses in the
natural sciences, psychology, and sociology. The
curriculum may include such courses as hospital
organization and management, accounting and
budget control, personnel administration, public
health administration, and the economics of health
care. The residency involves an orientation to all
of the hospital’s activities under the supervision
of the administrator or his assistant. The Ameri­
can College o f Hospital Administrators provides
financial loans and scholarships to a limited num­
ber o f students for graduate work in hospital ad­
ministration. The U.S. Public Health Service
also gives a few awards for graduate work in this
field.
New graduates with a master’s degree in hos­
pital administration usually enter the field as as­
sistant administrators or department heads. As
they gain experience, they may qualify for the
hospital administrator job. A Ph. D. in hospital
administration, which is offered in three higher
institutions, is helpful for advancement.
Some persons without a master’s degree in hos­
pital administration gain experience that may
qualify them for advancement to the administra­
tor’s job by working in one of the specialized
administrative areas such as personnel, records,
budget and finance, or data processing. With this
experience and some graduate work, they may be
promoted to department head, assistant adminis­
trator, and eventually to administrator.
Personal qualifications needed for success in this
field include good health and vitality as well as
an interest in helping the sick. Skills in working
with people, organizing and directing large-scale
activities, and public speaking are important
assets.
Employment Outlook
The position of hospital administrator, espe­
cially in a large hospital, represents a career goal,
and these positions are likely to continue to be
filled by promotion from within or by transfers
from smaller hospitals. Although graduates of
hospital administration programs are usually pre­
ferred for such advancement, some positions as
administrator are likely to continue to be filled by
physicians and nurses.
NewTgraduates with the master’s degree in hos­
pital administration are expected to have excel­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lent opportunities to enter this field as assistant
administrators or as heads of administrative de­
partments such as personnel, records, budget and
finance, or data processing. Applicants without
graduate training will find it difficult to enter this
field except by gaining experience at the lower
level jobs. Some employment expansion is ex­
pected over the next decade, but most of the open­
ings will be to replace employees who retire, stop
working for other reasons, or transfer to other
types of employment.
As more and larger hospitals are built to take
care of the increasing population, and as health
services are expanded, more positions are likely
to be created for assistants and department heads
to handle the increase in management functions.
These positions will provide additional employ­
ment and promotional opportunities, especially
for graduates of schools of hospital administra­
tion. Such graduates will also find increasing
employment opportunities outside o f hospitals in
hospitalization and health insurance programs,
nursing homes and other long-term care institu­
tions, rehabilitation facilities, and public health
centers.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of hospital administrators depend on
factors such as the type of hospital, the size o f its
administrative staff and budget, and the policy
of the governing board. New graduates in hos­
pital administration received about $7,500 a year
in 1964; experienced administrators generally
earned up to $15,000 or more, according to the
limited data available. New graduates employed
in Veterans Administration hospitals started at
about $7,200 a year in early 1965, although a few
V A hospital administrators, most of whom are
physicians, were paid up to $19,000 a year.
Commissioned officers in the Armed Forces and
in the IT.S. Public Health Service working in the
field of hospital administration hold ranks rang­
ing from second lieutenant to colonel. Command­
ing officers of large Armed Forces hospitals are
physicians, and they may hold higher ranks.
Hospital administrators often work long hours.
Since hospitals operate on a round-the-clock basis,
the administrator may be called upon to settle
emergency problems at any time of the day or

H EALTH

97

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

night. Fringe benefits usually include paid vaca­
tions and holidays, sick leave, and pension and
insurance coverage.
Where To G o for More Information
Additional information about hospital adminis­
tration and a list of colleges and universities o f­
fering such training may be obtained from :

American College of Hospital Administrators,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Information on awards available from the U.S.
Public Health Service for graduate training in
hospital administration may be obtained from
that agency’s Division o f Community Services,
Training Resources Branch, Washington, D.C.,
20202.

Licensed Practical Nurses
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.378)
Nature of Work
Licensed practical nurses assist in caring for
medical and surgical patients, convalescents,
handicapped people, and others who are physi­
cally or mentally ill. Under the direction of
physicians and professional nurses, they provide
nursing care which requires technical knowledge
but not the professional training of a registered
nurse. (See statement on Registered Professional
Nurses.) In some parts of the country, licensed
practical nurses are known as licensed vocational
nurses.
In hospitals, licensed practical nurses work with
other medical personnel as members of the nursing
team. They provide much o f the bedside care
needed by patients whose illnesses are not at a
critical stage— for example, taking and recording
temperatures and blood pressures, changing dress­
ings, administering certain prescribed medicines,
and bathing bed patients and helping them in
other ways with personal hygiene tasks. They may
also give hypodermic injections and assist physi­
cians and registered professional nurses in exam­
ining patients and in carrying out complex nurs­
ing procedures. In maternity hospitals, licensed
practical nurses may assist in the delivery, care,
and feeding of infants; and in hospitals caring
for surgical patients, they may help registered
nurses in recovery rooms by watching for and re­
porting on any adverse changes in patients recov­
ering from the effects o f anesthesia. The duties of
some licensed practical nurses include helping in
the supervision of hospital attendants. (See state­
ment on Hospital Attendants.)
Licensed practical nurses employed in private
homes care mainly for patients whose day-to-day

care seldom involves highly technical procedures
or complicated equipment. In addition to provid­
ing the nursing care ordered by their patients’
physicians, they may prepare patients’ meals,
keep their rooms tidy, and perform many other
tasks essential to patients’ comfort and morale.
Teaching family members how to perform sim­
ple nursing tasks is another duty performed by
many practical nurses working in private homes,
as well as by those who are employed in public
health agencies.
In doctors’ offices and in clinics, licensed prac­
tical nurses help physicians by draping and posi­
tioning patients for examinations and treatments
in much the same way as in hospitals. In addition,
they may perform clerical tasks such as making
appointments and recording addresses, ages, and
other information about patients.
Where Employed
The number o f licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in 1965 is estimated at approximately
250,000. The great majority were women. Men em­
ployed as practical nurses provide care mainly
for male patients.
Most practical nurses—men as well as women—
work in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, doctors’
offices, and similar establishments. In hospitals,
the number of part-time workers is relatively high
—about 10 percent of the total number employed,
according to a private survey made in 1964. Pub­
lic health agencies, welfare and religious organi­
zations, and government establishments also em­
ploy a considerable number of licensed practical
nurses. Still others are on private duty, working
in the homes of their patients, or in hospitals.

98

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Courtesy of the U.S. Office of Education

Practical nurse trainees receive instruction in anatomy.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A ll States and the District of Columbia have
laws which regulate the training and licensing of
practical nurses. Usually, licenses are issued only
to those candidates who have completed a course
of instruction in practical nursing which has been
approved by the State board of nursing, and who
have also passed a licensing examination. Physical
examinations are often required and aptitude tests
given.
Young people seeking to enroll in State-ap­
proved training programs must usually be at least
17 (or 18) years old and have completed at least
2 years o f high school or its equivalent. In some
States, candidates may be accepted who have com­
pleted only the eighth or ninth grade, and, in
still others, high school graduation is required.
Many schools that do not require completion of
high school nevertheless give preference to gradu­
ates; and most of the thousands of men and
women who enroll in practical nurse training pro­
grams each year are high school graduates.
About 900 State-approved training programs
provided instruction in practical nursing in 1964.
More than half were public school courses offered
as a part of vocational and adult education pro­
grams. Other courses were available at junior col­
leges, or were sponsored by local hospitals, health

agencies, and private educational institutions. The
courses offered by these institutions were usually
1 year in length. In some schools, tuition was free,
and in others the charge generally ranged between
$50 and $100.
The training offered includes both classroom
study and clinical practice. Classroom instruction
covers basic nursing skills and related subjects
such as body structure and functions, personal hy­
giene, nutrition, first aid, and community health;
and this work is supplemented by laboratory prac­
tice—first with life-size manikins or with students
playing the part o f patients, and later by super­
vised work in hospitals where students apply their
skills to actual nursing situations.
Among the personal qualities essential for prac­
tical nurses are a liking for people and a genuine
desire to help them. Other attributes include com­
mon sense, mental alertness, patience, understand­
ing, emotional stability, and dependability. Good
health is extremely important.
Opportunities for advancement in this occupa­
tion are limited, unless workers undertake addi­
tional training qualifying them for more respon­
sible positions at higher salaries. Thus, through
in-service training, some practical nurses prepare
themselves for work in specialized fields such as
rehabilitation. (Practical nurses cannot advance
to positions as registered professional nurses, how­
ever, unless they undertake the years o f additional
schooling which are required in order for them to
qualify for such work.)
Employment Outlook
Licensed practical nurses are expected to be in
strong demand during the years ahead. In spite of
a rapid increase in employment in this occupation
during recent years, the supply of qualified work­
ers is still insufficient to fill all jobs. Employment
is expected to continue to rise very rapidly during
the 1965-75 decade, and a large number of new
jobs will have to be filled each year as health fa ­
cilities continue to expand. In addition, more than
15,000 workers will be needed annually to replace
practical nurses who retire or stop working for
other reasons. Opportunities will be excellent for
men as well as for women.
The need for more workers in this occupation
has been due in large part to the greater utiliza­

H EALTH

99

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tion of licensed practical nurses for certain kinds
of patient care which do not require the skills of
a registered professional nurse. This use o f prac­
tical nurses as members o f hospital nursing teams
is expected to continue to create many job oppor­
tunities. Other factors which will contribute to an
increase in employment are a greater need for
health services because of growth in the popula­
tion and particularly in the number of elderly
people; an increasing public awareness o f the im­
portance of maintaining good health; rising in­
come levels; and the continuing expansion of vol­
untary health insurance plans.

usually on duty for 8, 10, or 12 hours a day and
go home at night. A few, on 24-hour duty, live at
the homes where they are employed. The earnings
o f those who are on duty only during the daytime
hours are roughly estimated at $1,.25 to $2 an hour.
Salaries o f licensed practical nurses employed
by public health agencies averaged $3,757 a year
in 1963. In the Federal Government, the salaries
of practical nurses employed in Veterans Admin­
istration hospitals early in 1965 ranged from
$4,005 a year for beginners to a maximum o f
$6,485 for experienced workers with several years
of Federal service.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To G o for More Information

The salaries of licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in hospitals surveyed in mid-1963 ranged
from an average o f $54 a week in the Southern
States to $73 in the West. Nationwide, the average
was $64.50. Differences in the salaries paid indi­
viduals by the various hospitals surveyed were
great; a few earned less than $40 a week, and a
few others $100 or more.
In many hospitals, practical nurses receive
periodic pay increases after they have completed
specified periods of satisfactory service. Some hos­
pitals also provide free laundering o f uniforms;
less frequently, meals and uniforms are furnished
without charge. In a few institutions, free lodging
may be provided. The scheduled workweek is gen­
erally 40 hours and, because nursing care must be
provided around the clock, often includes some
work at night and on weekends and holidays. P ro­
visions for paid holidays and vacations, and for
health insurance and pension plans are common
in many hospitals.
In private homes, licensed practical nurses are

Information about approved schools of practi­
cal nursing is available from State practical
nursing associations and from the State board of
nursing at each State capital. A list of Stateapproved training programs and information
about the occupation o f practical nurse may also
be obtained from :
National League for Nursing, Inc., Committee on
Careers,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y. 10019.
National Association for Practical Nurse Educa­
tion and Service, Inc.,
535 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses,
Inc.,
250 W est 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.
American Nurses Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y.

10019.

Information about employment opportunities
in United States Veterans Administration hos­
pitals may be obtained from :
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.

Medical Record Librarians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-23.25)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 100.388)

Nature of Work
Medical record librarians plan, prepare, main­
tain, and analyze records and reports on patients’
illnesses and treatments. They assist medical staff
members in research projects; develop auxiliary
records (such as indexes o f physicians, diseases

treated, and operations perform ed); compile sta­
tistics, especially those pertaining to services
given patients; make summaries or “ abstracts”
of medical records; develop systems for preserv­
ing medical records; and direct the activities of
the medical record department.

100

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ly with books, periodicals, and other publications.
(See statement on Librarians.)
Where Employed
It is estimated that over 9,000 medical record
librarians were employed in 1965. O f these, about
3,500 were Registered Record Librarians, accord­
ing to the American Association of Medical Rec­
ord Librarians. In addition, over 23,000 other
medical record personnel were working in this
field. Most of the librarians were employed in
hospitals; the remainder worked in clinics, medi­
cal research centers, the medical departments of
insurance companies and industrial firms, and in
local and State health departments. O f those who
worked in hospitals, about three-fourths were lo­
cated in general hospitals and the rest in special­
ized hospitals. Although most medical record li­
brarians are women, the number o f men in the
occupation is growing.
Computers are becoming increasingly important in work of
medical record librarians.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The size and type of institution employing med­
ical record librarians will affect the duties and
amount of responsibility assigned to these work­
ers. In large hospitals, chief medical record li­
brarians supervise other medical record librarians,
medical record technicians, and clerical workers.
They usually represent their department at hos­
pital staff meetings, and may be called to testify
in court actions involving medical records. In
small hospitals, they may be the only employee in
the medical record department, and may perform
clerical as well as professional duties.
Medical record librarians prepare the records
that contain medical and surgical information on
each patient, including history of illnesses, physi­
cal examination findings, doctors’ orders and prog­
ress notes, nurses’ notes, and reports on X-rays
and laboratory findings. These records are used
for research, insurance claims, legal actions, eval­
uation of treatment and medications prescribed,
and for instruction in the training of medical,
nursing, and related personnel. The medical in­
formation found in hospital records is also useful
in planning community health centers and pro­
grams.
Medical record librarians should not be con­
fused with the medical librarians who work chief­

Thirty schools approved by the American Medi­
cal Association in 1965 offered training in medi­
cal record library science. These schools are lo­
cated in colleges and universities, and in hospitals.
The specialized academic training program, about
1 year in length, has about the same curriculum
wherever offered, but prerequisites range from
2 to 4 years of college-level work, the latter now
being preferred more and more frequently. A cer­
tificate is granted upon completion of the 1-year
specialized training, except when it has been taken
for credit as part of a 4-year undergraduate pro­
gram leading to a bachelor’s degree in medical
record science.
The specialized curriculum includes both theo­
retical instruction and practical experience. The
required courses include anatomy, physiology,
fundamentals of medical science, medical ter­
minology, medical record science, and ethics.
Practical experience involves hospital admitting
and discharging procedures; standard indexing
and coding practices; compilation o f statistical
reports; analysis of medical data from clinical
records; and knowledge of medical record sys­
tems for the X -ray, pathology, outpatient, and
other hospital departments.
Graduates of approved schools in medical rec­
ord science are eligible for the national registra­

H EALTH

101

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tion examination, given by the American Associ­
ation of Medical Record Librarians. Upon pass­
ing this examination, they receive professional
recognition as Registered Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must be accurate,
meticulous, interested in detail, and willing to
persist in obtaining data. Because the information
is of a confidential nature, they must be especially
discreet in processing and releasing it. They
should be able to maintain accuracy despite pres­
sure, since the work is exacting and yet subject
to frequent interruption. Those in administra­
tive and supervisory positions must be able to
work effectively with other hospital personnel.
Medical record librarians may advance to su­
pervisory or administrative positions. They may
be promoted to chief o f a single department or be­
come the coordinator o f medical record depart­
ments of several hospitals.
Employment Outlook
Opportunities for medical record librarians are
expected to be very good through the mid-1970’s.
For many years, shortages o f registered librarians
have been reported despite the increase in newly
trained persons. The shortage was so great in 1965
that many hospitals were unable to hire registered
personnel, and the American Association of Medi­
cal Record Librarians estimated that 3,009-4,000
more Registered Record Librarians were needed.
Because o f this shortage, many opportunities exist
for high school graduates to become medical rec­
ord technicians who assist the librarians.
The increasing number o f hospitals and the vol­
ume and complexity of hospital records will con­
tribute to a growing demand for medical record
librarians over the longrun. The importance of
medical records will continue to grow rapidly,
owing partly to the increased demand for clinical
data necessary for research on diseases, on the use
of new drugs, and other methods o f treatment.
Special interest in the aged may necessitate

recording data on the conditions of persons in
nursing homes and home care programs. More
consultants and group supervisors will also be
needed to help standardize records in areas where
medical record librarians are not available. Re­
placement needs will probably remain high as
many young women leave the field for marriage
and family responsibilities.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The salaries o f medical record librarians are in­
fluenced by the location, size, and type of employ­
ing agency, as well as by the duties and responsi­
bility o f the position held. Average weekly sala­
ries ranged from $95 to $112, according to a sur­
vey of hospital employees in 15 metropolitan areas
in mid-1963.
The average salary for chief medical record li­
brarians (registered) in 1964 was estimated by the
American Association o f Medical Record Libra­
rians to be $5,600 a year. Those with the bachelor’s
degree in medical record science from an ap­
proved school earned, on the average, about $300
more a year than graduates o f schools that did
not offer such degrees.
Newly graduated medical record librarians em­
ployed by the Federal Government started at
$5,000 a year in early 1965. Annual salaries of
experienced medical record librarians in the Fed­
eral Government generally ranged between $6,000
and $7,500.
Medical record librarians usually work a regu­
lar 40-hour week and receive paid holidays and
vacations.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about approved schools and em­
ployment opportunities may be obtained from :
The American Association of Medical Record
Librarians,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111.

60611.

Medical Technologists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-50.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 078.281 and .381)

Nature of Work

Medical technologists perform these tests under

Laboratory tests play an important part in the
detection, diagnosis, and treatment o f disease.

the direction of a pathologist (a physician who
specializes in diagnosing the causes and nature of

102
disease) or a scientist specializing in a clinical
science.
The tests performed by medical technologists
may include tests for blood count and blood cholestorol level, and skin tests. Other body fluid and
tissue samples may be examined microscopically;
cultured to determine the presence of bacteria,
fungus, or other organisms; and analyzed for
chemical content or reaction. Technologists type
and cross-match blood samples; determine blood
coagulation time and sedimentation rates; meas­
ure basal metabolism; and analyze water, food
products, or other materials for bacteria. Medical
technologists prepare slides from tissue specimens
for study o f cellular structure.
Technologists who work in small laboratories
often perform many types o f tests. Those em­
ployed in large laboratories usually specialize in
making several kinds of related tests in areas
such as bacteriology, parasitology, biochemistry,
microbiology, blood banking, hematology (the
study o f blood cells), histology (tissue prepara­
tion and examination), virology (the study o f vi­
ruses), cytology (analysis of body cells), and nu­
clear medical technology (the use of radioactive
isotopes to help detect diseases).
Most medical technologists conduct tests con­
nected with the examination and treatment o f pa­
tients. Some do research on new drugs or on the
improvement of laboratory techniques; others
teach or perform administrative duties.

M edical technologist searches tissue sample for diseased cells.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The occupation o f the medical technologist
should not be confused with that of the medical
technician or laboratory assistant. This statement
does not include these workers, who usually assist
the medical technologist by performing simple,
routine tests and related work that can be learned
in a relatively short time.
Where Employed
It is estimated that about 35,000 medical tech­
nologists were employed in early 1965, and about
9 out of 10 were women. In recent years, however,
the number of men in the field has been increas­
ing. The great majority o f all medical technolo­
gists work in hospitals; most o f the others are em­
ployed by laboratories, public health agencies, re­
search institutions, and pharmaceutical manu­
facturers.
The Federal Government is the largest single
employer of medical technologists. In 1965, about
1,000 were employed in the hospitals and labora­
tories of the Veterans Administration, U.S. Pub­
lic Health Service, and the Army, Navy, and Air
Force.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The usual minimum educational requirement
for beginning medical technologists is the comple­
tion of a specialized training program in medi­
cal technology. Such training is given in 800 hos­
pitals, o f which over 600 are affiliated with col­
leges and universities. For entrance to programs
approved by the American Medical Association,
the prospective technologist must complete 3
years o f undergraduate work, including courses
in chemistry, biology, and mathematics. A few
schools require a bachelor’s degree for entry into
the program. The training usually requires 12
months of study and includes extensive laboratory
work. A bachelor’s degree is often awarded upon
completion of the college affiliated program.
Eight universities also offer advanced degrees in
medical technology for those who plan to special­
ize in teaching, administration, or research.
Graduates of AM A-approved schools may take
an examination to qualify for certification by the
Registry o f Medical Technologists o f the Ameri­
can Society of Clinical Pathologists (A S C P ).
Technologists registered by the A SC P are pre­
ferred by many employers, especially in large hos­

H EALTH

103

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

pitals and research laboratories. In four States—
Alabama, California, Florida, and Hawaii—med­
ical technologists must also be licensed by the
appropriate State agency.
Promotion may be to supervisory positions in
certain areas of laboratory work or, after several
years’ experience, to the position o f chief medical
technologist in a large hospital. Graduate educa­
tion, in one of the biological sciences or chemistry,
may be required for advancement in research
laboratories.
Personal characteristics important for medical
laboratory work include accuracy, patience, de­
pendability, and the ability to work under pres­
sure. Manual dexterity and good eyesight (with
or without glasses) are essential.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for medical technol­
ogists are expected to remain excellent through
the mid-1970’s. New graduates with a bachelor’s
degree in medical technology will be sought by
employers to fill entry positions in hospitals. A
particularly strong demand is anticipated for
technologists with graduate training in biochem­
istry, bacteriology, immunology, and virology.
Employment opportunities for medical tech­
nologists are expected to expand as physicians
increasingly depend upon laboratory tests in rou­
tine physical checkups as well as in the diagnosis
and treatment of disease. Also, the construction
of additional hospital and medical facilities will
increase demand. Other factors affecting growth
in this field are the increasing complexity of
laboratory work, and the development of new
drugs and techniques. Newly developed auto­
mated equipment is not expected to affect materi­
ally the demand for highly qualified medical tech­
nologists as these machines require well-trained
persons to operate them.
Replacement needs are likely to continue to be
high because many workers in this field are young
women who may leave their jobs for marriage and
family responsibilities. Many opportunities for
part-time employment are also likely to continue
to be available.
Earnings and Working Conditions
The average (median) annual salary for regis­
tered medical technologists was $5,190 in 1963, ac­

cording to a survey conducted by the National
Committee for Careers in Medical Technology;
those with graduate degrees had an average an­
nual salary of $6,300. Salaries varied by employer
and location of employment.
Average weekly salaries of women medical
technologists employed by private and non-Federal Government hospitals in metropolitan areas
in mid-1963 ranged from $87 in the Northeast to
$109.50 in the West. Men usually received slightly
higher salaries. In general, higher salaries were
paid by government hospitals than by private
hospitals in the same areas.
Newly graduated medical technologists em­
ployed by the Federal Government in early 1965
received a salary o f $5,000 a year. Most experi­
enced technologists in Federal Government agen­
cies earned annual salaries of between $6,050 and
$7,900.
The average workweek o f medical technolo­
gists is 40 hours, and they generally are covered
by vacation and sick leave benefits; some are cov­
ered by retirement plans.
The laboratories in which medical technologists
work are usually well-lighted and clean, although
unpleasant odors and specimens of many kinds of
diseased tissue are often present. Few hazards ex­
ist in the laboratories using proper methods of
sterilization and handling o f specimens, materials,
and equipment. I f proper care is exercised, there
is no danger of medical technologists being cut by
laboratory instruments and glassware, or burned
by chemicals.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about employment opportunities,
as well as costs and entrance requirements of
AM A-approved schools of medical technology,
may be obtained from :
American Society of Medical Technologists,
Suite 25, Hermann Professional Bldg.,
Houston, Tex. 77025.
Registry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists,
P.O. Box 44, Muncie, Ind. 47344.

Information about employment opportunities
in Veterans Administration hospitals may be ob­
tained from the individual hospitals or the De­
partment of Medicine and Surgery, Veterans A d ­
ministration, Washington, D.C., 20421.

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Medical X-Ray Technicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-50.04)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of Work
Medical X-rays play a major role in the diag­
nostic and therapeutic field of medicine. Medical
X -ray technicians—also called medical X-ray
technologists— operate X-ray equipment under the
direction o f physicians who are usually radiolo­
gists (specialists in the use of X-rays).
Most technicians perform diagnostic work,
using X -ray equipment to take pictures of inter­
nal parts of the body which the doctor wishes to
examine. They may prepare a prescribed X-ray
“ opaque,” such as barium salts, which the patient
swallows in order to shade various organs to pro­
vide proper visibility in the X-ray picture. To
prepare patients for X-ray, technicians position
them between the X -ray tube and the film and
cover body areas not to be exposed to the rays
with a protective lead plate. When necessary, they
set up or adjust devices to prevent the patient
from moving. After determining the proper volt­
age, current, and desired exposure time, the tech­
nician operates the controls to obtain the pictures
for interpretation by the physician.

Other technicians perform therapeutic X-ray
work. They regulate special X -ray equipment
used for treatment o f diseases (for example, cer­
tain types of cancer).. After placing the patient
in the proper position, these technicians operate
the equipment from an adjoining room. They may
also assist radiologists by preparing radium and
other radioactive materials. Some technicians are
qualified to perform duties involved in both diag­
nostic and therapeutic X -ray work.
Medical X -ray technicians keep equipment in
good working order by cleaning and making
minor repairs. Other duties include processing
film and keeping records of services performed
for patients. Some X-ray technicians operate spe­
cial equipment such as that used in diagnosing
heart disease or brain damage.
Where Employed
More than one-fourth o f the approximately
70,000 X -ray technicians employed in early 1965
worked in hospitals. Most o f the remainder
worked in medical laboratories, physicians’ and
dentists’ offices or clinics, Federal and State
health agencies, and for school systems.
Most technicians work in or near large cities
where medical facilities and services are concen­
trated. However, some are employed in hospitals
and clinics in small towns or rural areas. A few
work as members o f small mobile X -ray teams,
engaged mainly in tuberculosis detection.
About three-fourths of all X -ray technicians
are women, although the number of men in the
field has increased in recent years.
Trainin

M edical X-ray technologist performs a special operating room
procedure.

Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training programs in X -ray technology are
conducted by hospitals or by medical schools
affiliated with hospitals. In 1964, 789 schools of
X-ray technology were approved by the American
Medical Association (A M A ). A program in X ray technology usually takes 24 months to com­
plete. A few schools offer 3- or 4-year programs
and 20 schools award the bachelor’s degree. Also,
some junior colleges coordinate academic train­

H E A LTH

SERVICE

105

OCCUPATIONS

ing with work experience in hospitals in 3-year
X-ray technician programs and offer an Associate
of Arts degree.
In addition to training programs in approved
hospital schools, some courses in X-ray tech­
nology are offered by vocational or technical
schools. Training also may be obtained in the
military service, or through on-the-job experience
under the supervision of a radiologist.
All of the approved schools require that appli­
cants be high school graduates, and a few require
1 or 2 years of college or graduation from a nurs­
ing school. High school courses in mathematics,
physics, chemistry, biology, and typing are de­
sirable. Preference is generally given to appli­
cants between the ages o f 18 and 35.
The program in X-ray technology usually in­
cludes courses in anatomy and physiology, nurs­
ing procedures, physics, radiation protection,
darkroom chemistry, principles of radiographic
exposure, X-ray therapy, radiographic position­
ing, medical ethics, department administration,
and the operation and maintenance of equipment.
Registration with the American Registry of
Radiologic Technologists is an asset in obtaining
highly skilled and specialized positions. Registra­
tion requirements, effective July 1,1966, are to in­
clude graduation from an approved school of
medical X-ray technology and the satisfactory
completion of an examination. After registration,
the title “ Registered Technologist, R.T. (A R R T )” may be used.
Some technicians employed in large X-ray de­
partments may be advanced to the job of chief
X-ray technician as openings occur, and may also
qualify as instructors in X-ray techniques.
Good health and stamina are important qualifi­
cations for this field. Because of the possible ex­
posure to radiation, people with a tendency to­
ward anemia should avoid working with X-ray
equipment, being relatively more susceptible to
adverse effects of X-rays.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for medical X-ray
technicians are expected to remain excellent
through the mid-1970’s. In 1964, for example, the
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
reported that the demand for technicians was
much greater than the number o f persons who had

completed approved courses. This situation is
likely to persist during the next decade.
The increasing use of X -ray equipment in the
diagnosis and treatment o f disease, and the con­
tinuing expansion of this use are the leading fac­
tors in the expected very rapid growth of employ­
ment opportunities. In addition, more workers
will be needed to help administer radiotherapy, as
new knowledge o f the medical benefits of radioac­
tive material becomes more widespread. Routine
X-raying o f large groups o f people will be ex­
tended as part of disease prevention and control
programs. For example, many employers now de­
mand that chest X-rays be taken of all employees,
and most insurance companies include a chest X ray as part of the physical examination required
for an insurance policy.
In addition to the medical X -ray technologists
needed for new jobs, replacement demands will
probably be high because of the large number of
women who leave their jobs each year for mar­
riage or family responsibilities.
Along with the increase in demand, an increase
is also expected in the number of persons gradu­
ating from medical X-ray technology training
programs. Nevertheless, the demand for technolo­
gists is expected to be far greater than the number
of graduates available for employment. Thus, for
graduates and trained women who have left the
field and want to return to work part time, oppor­
tunities should be excellent through the mid1970’s.
Earninss and Working Conditions
Average salaries o f medical X -ray technicians
ranged from $76.50 a week in the South to $91.50
in the West, according to a survey o f all hospitals
in mid-1963. The weekly salaries o f chief X-ray
technicians averaged about $116. A t all levels,
men generally received higher average salaries
than women.
New graduates o f AMA-approved schools of
X-ray technology, or X -ray technicians with 1
year of general and 1 year o f specialized experi­
ence, were employed by the Federal Government
at an annual salary o f $4,480 in early 1965; those
with no experience or specialized training, but
who had passed an aptitude test, received $3,680
per year.

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Full-time technicians generally work 8 hours a
day, 40 hours a week, but may be “ on call” for
some night or emergency duty. Most are covered
by the same vacation and sick leave provisions as
other workers in the same organization.
Care must be taken to protect medical X-ray
technicians from the potential hazards of radia­
tion exposure. Precautionary measures include the

use of safety devices such as individual instru­
ments that measure radiation, lead aprons, rubber
gloves, and other shieldings.
Where To G o for More Information
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists,
537 South Main St., Fond du Lac, W is. 54935.
The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists,
2600 W ayzata Blvd., Minneapolis, Minn. 55405.

Occupational Therapists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-32.04)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.128)

Nature of Work
Occupational therapists, guided by physi­
cians’ instructions, select and direct educational,
vocational, and recreational activities designed to
help mentally and physically disabled patients be­
come self-sufficient. They work as members o f a
medical team which, in addition to physicians,
may include physical therapists, speech therapists,
nurses, social workers, and other specialists.
The rehabilitation goals of the treatment set for
a patient may include regaining physical, mental,
or emotional stability; combating boredom during
a long-term illness; developing maximum selfsufficiency in the routine of daily living (such as
eating, dressing, writing, and using a telephone);
and, in the latter stage o f treatment, performing
jobs in a practical work situation for eventual
return to employment.
As part of the treatment program, occupational
therapists teach manual and creative skills such
as weaving, clay modeling, and leather-working,
as well as business and industrial skills such as
typing, operating some business machines, and
using power tools. Therapists may design and
make special equipment or splints to aid some dis­
abled patients in performing their activities.
Other duties may include supervising student
therapists, occupational therapy assistants, volun­
teer workers, and auxiliary nursing workers.
About half of the total number o f occupational
therapists work with emotionally handicapped
patients, and the rest with persons having physi­
cal disabilities. These patients are of all ages, with
varying diagnoses. The chief occupational thera­
pist in a hospital may teach medical and nursing
students the principles of occupational therapy.

Many occupational therapists have administrative
duties such as directing occupational therapy pro­
grams, coordinating patient activities, or acting
as consultants to local and State health depart­
ments and mental health authorities. Some occu­
pational therapists are faculty members at col­
leges and universities offering programs in occu­
pational therapy.
Where Employed
About 8,000 occupational therapists were em­
ployed in 1965—over 7,000 were registered with
the American Occupational Therapy Association.
Although most occupational therapists are wom­
en, an increasing number of men have been enter­
ing the field in recent years.

Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health

Occupational therapist helps a child through play therapy.

H EALTH

107

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The great majority of all occupational thera­
pists work in hospitals, rehabilitation centers,
homes for the aged, nursing homes, schools, out­
patient clinics, and research centers. Some are
employed in special workshops, sanitariums,
camps for handicapped children, and in State
health departments. Others are employed in
home-visiting programs for patients unable to at­
tend clinics or workshops. A number are members
of the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The usual minimum requirement for entry into
the profession is a degree in occupational therapy
awarded by a college or university. In 1964, 31
colleges and universities in the United States o f­
fered programs in occupational therapy which
were accredited by the American Medical Associ­
ation and the American Occupational Therapy
Association. Nearly all o f these schools offer 4year programs to high school graduates, and the
rest offer 2-year programs to students who have
completed 2 years of college. About half of the
schools also offer shorter programs to students
with a bachelor’s degree in another field—with
courses in the physical, biological, and behavioral
sciences—which lead to a certificate in occupa­
tional therapy.
The academic work in a 4-year program empha­
sizes sciences and the application o f skills. To
qualify for professional registration, 9 to 10
months of supervised clinical experience in hos­
pitals or health agencies is also required. Some
programs give the clinical practice during the
summer or during part o f the senior year. The
Armed Forces offer programs whereby graduates
o f approved schools o f occupational therapy, who
meet the requirements to become commissioned
officers, may receive the clinical part of their
training while in the service.
Upon graduation and the completion of the
clinical practice period, therapists are eligible to
take the examination given by the American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association. Those who pass
this examination may use the initials O.T.R. (O c­
cupational Therapist Registered).
Five universities offer a program leading to a
master’s degree in occupational therapy. A gradu­
ate degree is often required for teaching, research,
or administrative work.

Newly graduated occupational therapists usu­
ally begin as staff therapists. After several years
on the job they may qualify as senior therapists.
Experienced therapists may become directors of
occupational therapy programs in large hospitals
or clinics, or may become teachers. Some highlevel positions are also available as program co­
ordinators and as consultants with large institu­
tions and agencies.
Personal qualifications needed in this profession
include emotional stability, a sincere interest in
helping people, and a sympathetic but objective
approach to illness and disability. Manual dex­
terity, ingenuity, and imagination are also needed.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for occupational
therapists are expected to be excellent through
the mid-1970’s. Despite the anticipated increase
in the number o f graduates o f occupational therapy programs, the demand for therapists is ex­
pected to remain greater than the supply as pub­
lic interest in the rehabilitation o f disabled per­
sons and the success of established occupational
therapy programs increase. Many occupational
therapists will probably be needed to staff the
growing number o f community health centers
that may be built with funds provided by the
Mental Retardation Facilities and Community
Mental Health Centers Construction Act o f 1963.
There will be numerous opportunities for work
with psychiatric patients, children, and aged
persons, as well as with persons suffering from
cerebral palsy, tuberculosis, and heart disease. In
addition, many openings will arise because of
the need to replace the high proportion o f young
women who leave the field for marriage and fam­
ily responsibilities.
Although hospitals and other employers pre­
fer to hire registered occupational therapists,
some opportunities will continue to be available
for therapists who are not registered but have
some of the required training and skills. Oppor­
tunities for experienced women who wish to re­
turn to work part time after rearing their chil­
dren should be excellent.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Average annual salaries of staff occupational
therapists ranged from $5,000 to $10,000 in 1964,

108

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

according to the limited data available. Directors
of services, coordinators, consultants, and others
in top administrative positions earned annual
salaries up to $14,000 in 1964.
In the Federal Government, the beginning an­
nual salary for an occupational therapist without
experience was $5,505 in early 1965. More than
one-third of all occupational therapists in the
Federal Government earned $7,220 or more a
year.

Most occupational therapists work an 8-hour
day, 40-hour week, with some evening work re­
quired in a few organizations. Vacation leave
usually ranges from 2 to 4 weeks a year, and
many positions offer health and retirement
benefits.
Where To G o for More Information
American Occupational Therapy Association.
250 W est 57th St., New York, N .Y. 10019.

Optometrists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-39.92)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of Work
Optometrists help people improve and protect
their vision. They examine eyes, make tests to
determine defects in vision, and, when needed,
prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, corrective eye
exercises, or other treatment that does not require
drugs or surgery. Most optometrists supply their
patients with the eyeglasses prescribed, and some­
times do minor repair work such as straightening
eyeglass frames. Some optometrists specialize in
work such as fitting partially sighted persons with
telescopic spectacles, studying the relationship of
vision to highway safety, and analyzing lighting
and other conditions that affect the efficiency of
workers in industry or business. A few are en­
gaged primarily in teaching, research, or a com­
bination of the two.
Optometrists should not be confused with opthalmologists, sometimes referred to as oculists, or
dispensing opticians. Opthalmologists or oculists
are physicians who specialize in the medical and
surgical care of the eyes and may prescribe drugs
or other treatment, as well 'as lenses. Dispensing
opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses according to
prescriptions written by opthalmologists or op­
tometrists ; they do not examine eyes or prescribe
treatment. (See statement on Dispensing Opti­
cians.)
Where Employed
Approximately 17,000 optometrists were em­
ployed in the United States in 1965. About fourfifths of all optometrists vrre self-employed. O f

the remainder, most worked for established prac­
titioners, health clinics, hospitals, optical instru­
ment manufacturers, or government agencies. A
few taught in colleges of optometry or served as
optometrists in the Armed Forces.
Optometrists are located chiefly in large cities
and industrial areas, where many people are en­
gaged in office work or other occupations that tend
to create or emphasize vision problems. About 40
percent of the total are found in five States—
California, New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
Ohio. Many small towns and rural areas, especi­
ally in the South, have no optometrists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A license is required to practice optometry in
all States and the District of Columbia. A ppli­
cants for licenses must be graduates of an ac­
credited school of optometry and pass a State
board examination. In some States, only gradu­
ates of certain schools of optometry are admitted
to these examinations. A student planning to be­
come an optometrist should, therefore, choose a
school approved by the Board of Optometry in
the State where he expects to practice. There were
10 schools of optometry in the country in 1965.
Applicants with the necessary qualifications have
an excellent chance for admission to these schools.
At least 5 years of college are needed to become
an optometrist. The usual requirement is 2 years
of preoptometry education in an approved col­
lege, followed by 8 years of training in an op­
tometry school. However, completion of a 4-year
course is required by some optometry schools after

H EALTH

109

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

and the necessary funds to establish their own
practice.
Employment Outlook

Optometrist uses ophthalmoscope to detect possible abnormal
eye conditions.

the 2 years of preoptometry study. Preoptometry
courses include mathematics, physics, biology, and
chemistry, as well as English and other liberal
arts courses. Students in schools of optometry
have classroom and laboratory work, as well as an
opportunity to gain professional experience in the
out-patient clinics run by the schools. Most
schools award the degree of Doctor of Optometry
(O .D .), but some confer the degree of Bachelor
of Science in Optometry. Federal legislation ap­
proved in the fall of 1964 provides for loans from
Federal funds to help needy students pursue full­
time study leading to a degree in optometry. Op­
tometrists who wish to specialize often take grad­
uate training. A master’s or Ph. D. degree in
physiological optics, or in a related field, is usu­
ally required for teaching and research work.
A prospective optometrist should have a liking
for mathematical and scientific work, the ability
to use delicate precision instruments, mechanical
aptitude, and good vision. In addition, to become
a successful practitioner, he must be able to deal
with people tactfully.
Many beginning optometrists either set up a
new practice or purchase an established one. Some
start as salaried optometrists to obtain experience

Employment opportunities for new optometry
graduates are expected to remain favorable
through the mid-1970’s. The demand for optometric services is expected to increase, but the
number of new graduates will probably be little
more than the number needed to fill the vacancies
as optometrists retire, die, or stop practicing for
other reasons.
Opportunities to set up a new practice will be
best generally in small towns and in residential
areas of cities, where the new optometrist can
become known easily and where competition is not
as keen as in large business centers. Communities,
especially in the South, that have no optometric
services available will also offer opportunities for
new graduates. A good office location is of major
importance for a successful practice. The optom­
etrist should consider the number of optometrists
and medical eye specialists in the vicinity in rela­
tion to the size, occupations, age, and income
level of the population in the area.
Among the factors underlying the expected in­
crease in demand for eye care services are a grow­
ing population with a larger proportion of older
people and white-collar workers, the groups most
likely to need glasses; the wider recognition of
the importance of good vision for efficiency at
work and in school; and the greater acceptance of
the use of eyeglasses and contact lenses to coun­
teract eye strain and visual defects. Although ex­
panded demand will be met in part by medical
doctors who are eye specialists, optometrists will
continue to supply a substantial proportion of all
eye-care services.
Women optometrists, who constitute about 5
percent of the profession, have many opportuni­
ties to work as salaried assistants in the field of
visual training. Those in private practice have
been particularly successful in work with chil­
dren.
Earnings and Working Conditions
New optometry graduates who go into practice
for themselves generally have a low income dur­

110

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ing the first few years. They usually earn less
than new optometrists who take salaried positions.
After a few years of experience, the situation is
likely to be reversed since the income of inde­
pendent practitioners may exceed the earnings of
salaried optometrists.
In 1965, new optometry graduates in salaried
positions generally earned between $6,000 and
$6,500 a year, according to the limited data avail­
able. Experienced optometrists had annual net
incomes between $8,000 and $20,000, depending on
their location, specializations, and other factors;
the self-employed generally had highest incomes.
W orking hours in this profession are usually
regular. Since the work is not strenuous, optom­

etrists can often continue to practice after the
normal retirement age.
Where To G o for More Information
Additional information on optometry as a
career is available from :
American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo. 63119.

Information on required preoptometry courses
may be obtained by writing to the optometry
school in which the prospective student wishes to
enroll. The Board of Optometry in the capital of
the State in which the student plans to practice
will provide a list of optometry schools approved
by that State, as well as licensing requirements.

Osteopathic Physicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0 -3 9 -9 6 )
(3d ed. D.O.T. 071.108)

Nature of Work
Osteopathic physicians diagnose, prescribe rem­
edies, and treat diseases o f the human body, pay­
ing particular attention to impairments in the
musculo-skeletal system. They emphasize manual
manipulative therapy, but in most States they
also use surgery, drugs, and all other accepted
methods of medical care. Most osteopathic physi­
cians are “ family doctors” who engage in general
practice. These physicians usually see patients in
their offices, make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and some city and county hos­
pitals. A few doctors of osteopathy are engaged
primarily in research, teaching, or writing and
editing scientific books and journals. In recent
years, there has been an increase in specialization.
The specialties include: Internal medicine, neu­
rology and psychiatry, opthalmology and otorhi­
nolaryngology, pediatrics, anesthesiology, physi­
cal medicine and rehabilitation, dermatology, ob­
stetrics and gynecology, pathology, proctology,
radiology, and surgery.
Where Employed
Nearly all of the 12,000 osteopathic physicians
professionally active in the United States in early
1965 were in private practice. Less than 5 per­
cent held full-time salaried positions, mainly in

osteopathic hospitals and colleges. A few were
employed by private industry or government
agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in
those States which have osteopathic hospital fa­
cilities. In 1965, about half of all osteopathic
physicians were in five States: Michigan, Penn­
sylvania, Missouri, Ohio, and Texas. Twenty-two
States and the District of Columbia each had
fewer than 50 osteopathic physicians. More than
half of all general practitioners are located in
towns and cities with under 50,000 population;
specialists, however, practice mainly in large
cities.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license to practice as an osteopathic physi­
cian is required in all States. In early 1965,
licensed osteopathic physicians were qualified to
engage in all types of medical and surgical prac­
tice in 39 States and the District of Columbia.
The remaining States limit in varying degrees
the use of drugs or the type of surgery that can
be performed by osteopathic physicians.
To obtain a license, a candidate must be a
graduate of an approved school of osteopathy
and pass a State board examination. In 21 States
and the District of Columbia, the candidate must

H EALTH

111

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

pass an examination in the basic sciences before
he is eligible to take the professional examina­
tion; 28 States and the District of Columbia
also require a period of internship after gradua­
tion from osteopathic school. All States except
California and Florida grant licenses, without
further examination, to properly qualified osteo­
pathic physicians already licensed by another
State.
Although 3 years of preosteopathic college
work is the minimum requirement for entry to
schools of osteopathy, 4 years is often preferred.
Osteopathic colleges require successful comple­
tion o f 4 years of professional study for the de­
gree o f Doctor of Osteopathy (D .O .). Preosteo­
pathic education must include courses in chem­
istry, physics, biology, and English. During the
first 2 years of professional training, emphasis
is placed on basic sciences such as anatomy, phys­
iology, and pathology, and on the principles of
osteopathy; the last 2 years are devoted largely
to work with patients in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doctors of osteo­
pathy serve a 12-month internship at 1 of the 89
osteopathic hospitals which the American Osteo­
pathic Association has approved for intern train­
ing. Those who wish to become specialists must
have at least 3 years of additional training fol­
lowed by 2 years o f supervised practice in the
specialty.
The osteopathic physician’s training is very
costly because o f the length o f time it takes to
earn the degree o f Doctor o f Osteopathy. How­
ever, the Health Professions Educational Assist­
ance Act of 1963 provides Federal funds for
loans of up to $2,000 a year to help needy stu­
dents pursue full-time study leading to the de­
gree.
Every year, more young people apply for ad­
mission to the five approved schools of osteo­
pathy than can be accepted. In selecting students,
these colleges consider grades received in pre­
professional education, scores on medical aptitude
tests, and the amount of preosteopathic college
work completed (in 1964, nearly three-fourths
of the students entering osteopathic colleges had
bachelor’s degrees). The applicant’s desire to
serve as an osteopathic physician, rather than as
a doctor trained in other schools of medicine, is
a very important qualification. The colleges also
give considerable weight to a favorable recom­
778-316 0

-9

mendation by an osteopathic physician familiar
with the applicant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathy usually
establish their own practice. A few’ work as assist­
ants to experienced physicians or become associ­
ated with osteopathic hospitals. In view o f the
variation in State law’s regulating the practice
of osteopathy, the osteopathic physician should
study carefully the professional and legal re­
quirements of the State in which he plans to
practice. The availability o f osteopathic hospitals
and clinical facilities should also be taken into
account when choosing a location.
Employment Outlook
Opportunities for osteopathic physicians are
expected to remain excellent through the mid1970’s. Greatest demand for their services will
probably continue to be in those localities where
osteopathy is a w
’idely accepted method of treat*
ment, such as Pennsylvania and a number of
Midwestern States. Generally, prospects for be­
ginning a successful practice are likely to be best
in rural areas, small towns, and city suburbs,
where the young doctor of osteopathy may en­
counter less competition and therefore establish
his professional reputation more easily than in
the centers of large cities.
The demand for the services of osteopathic
physicians is expected to grow over the next 10
years because of such factors as the anticipated
population growth with a larger proportion of
old people; the extension of prepayment pro­
grams for hospitalization and medical care in­
cluding the program for the aged provided in the
Social Security Amendments of 1965; and the
trend toward higher standards of health care.
Furthermore, there is a likelihood of greater pub­
lic acceptance o f osteopathy, liberalization of cer­
tain State restrictions on the use o f drugs and
surgery by osteopathic physicians, and the estab­
lishment of additional osteopathic hospitals.
Despite the expected growth in demand, the
employment of osteopathic physicians is expected
to increase only moderately because the number
of new osteopathic physicians being trained is
restricted by the limited capacity of osteopathic
colleges. Approximately half of all graduates ex­
pected each year through the mid-1970's prob­
ably will be needed to replace osteopathic physi-

112

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

cians who retire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons; hence the number of new gradu­
ates will be barely sufficient to maintain the pres­
ent ratio of osteopathic physicians to popula­
tion. Although some expansion in osteopathic
college facilities is anticipated because of recent
Federal legislation, which provides Federal funds
to assist in the construction of new teaching fa­
cilities for osteopathic physicians, no significant
increase in graduates is expected through the
mid-1970’s.
Women osteopathic physicians will find good
opportunities not only in private practice but also
on faculties o f osteopathic colleges and on the
staffs of hospitals and clinics. Approximately 7
percent of all osteopathic physicians are women.
Women students, however, represented only about
2 percent of the total enrollment in osteopathic
colleges in 1964, although men and women are
equally eligible for admission.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In osteopathy, as in many o f the other health
professions, incomes usually rise markedly after

the first years of practice. Earnings of individual
practitioners are determined mainly by such fac­
tors as ability, experience, the income level of
the community served, and geographic location.
The average income above business expenses of
general practitioners, in 1964, ranged from $15,000
to $20,000, according to the limited data available.
Specialists usually had higher incomes than gen­
eral practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians work more than
50 and 60 hours a week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular hours than
specialists.
Where To G o for More Information
Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licen­
sure directly from the board of examiners o f that
State. A list o f State boards, as well as general
information on osteopathy as a career, may be
obtained from :
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Pharmacists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-25.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 074.081)

Nature of Work
Pharmacists dispense drugs and medicines and
provide information on their use to help protect
people’s health. They fill prescriptions ordered by
physicians and other medical practitioners, and
sell many medicines which can be bought without
prescriptions. Pharmacists must understand the
composition and effects of drugs and be able to
test them for purity and strength. Compounding
—the actual mixing of ingredients to form pow­
ders, pills, capsules, ointments, and solutions— is
only a small part of present-day pharmacists’
work, since many drugs are now produced by
manufacturers in the form used by the patient.
Many pharmacists in drugstores or community
pharmacies have sales and managerial as well as
professional duties. Besides dispensing drugs,
these pharmacies may buy and sell other kinds of
merchandise and hire and supervise salesclerks.
Some pharmacists, however, operate prescription

pharmacies which sell only drugs, medical sup­
plies, and health accessories. Pharmacists in hos­
pitals fill prescriptions and advise the medical
staff on the selection and effects of drugs; they
may also make sterile solutions, buy medical sup­
plies, teach in schools o f nursing, and perform
administrative duties. Some pharmacists, em­
ployed as medical sales representatives or “ detail
men” by drug manufacturers and wholesalers, sell
medicines to pharmacies and inform doctors, den­
tists, and nurses about new drugs. Others teach
in colleges, perform research, supervise the manu­
facture o f pharmaceuticals, develop new drugs,
write articles for pharmaceutical journals, or do
administrative work.
Where Employed
O f the 120,000 licensed pharmacists working in
mid-1964, about 100,000 were in retail pharmacies.

H EALTH

SERVICE

OCCUPATIONS

Pharmacist consults physician about patient’s medicine.

O f these retail pharmacists, approximately half
owned their drugstores alone or as members of a
partnership, and the other half were salaried em­
ployees. Most of the remaining pharmacists were
employed by pharmaceutical manufacturers and
wholesalers, or worked for hospitals. Others were
civilian employees of the Federal Government,
working chiefly in hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. Some served as pharmacists in the
Armed Forces, taught in colleges of pharmacy, or
worked for State and local government agencies.
Nearly every town has at least one drugstore
with one or more pharmacists in attendance. Most
pharmacists, however, are employed in or near
cities and in those States which have the greatest
populations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A license to practice pharmacy is required in all
States and the District of Columbia. To obtain a
license, one must be a graduate o f an accredited

113
pharmacy college, pass a State Board examina­
tion and, in most States, also have 1 year of
practical experience under the supervision of a
registered pharmacist. In late 1964, 24 States re­
quired that part or all of this experience be ac­
quired after graduation. A ll States except Cali­
fornia, Florida, Hawaii, and New York grant a
license without an examination to properly quali­
fied pharmacists already licensed by another
State.
In 1965, there were 74 accredited colleges of
pharmacy in the United States. Some of these
were not filled to capacity and qualified applicants
could usually expect to be accepted.
To graduate from a college of pharmacy, one
must have at least 5 years of study beyond high
school; two schools require 6 years. A few colleges
admit students directly from high school and offer
all the education necessary for graduation. Most
provide 3 or 4 years of professional instruction
and require all entrants to have completed their
prepharmacy education in an accredited college
or university. A prepharmacy curriculum usually
emphasizes mathematics and basic sciences, such
as chemistry and biology, but also includes courses
in the humanities and social science.
The bachelor’s degree in pharmacy is the mini­
mum educational qualification for most positions
in the profession. However, the master’s or doc­
tor’s degree in pharmacy or a related field—such
as pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology
(study of the effects of drugs on the body), phar­
macognosy (study of the drugs derived from
plant or animal sources), or pharmacy adminis­
tration—is usually required for research work or
college teaching. Graduate study is desirable also
for pharmacists planning to work in hospitals.
Those interested in becoming hospital pharmacists
can sometimes secure 1- or 2-year internships
which combine graduate study and practical ex­
perience in a hospital pharmacy.
Prospective pharmacy students should have a
good high school background in mathematics and
science. Orderliness and a liking for detail are
desirable qualities. In addition, for those plan­
ning to become community pharmacists, the abili­
ty to deal with people and manage a business is
of special importance.
Pharmacists often begin as employees in com­
munity pharmacies. After obtaining some experi­

114
ence and the necessary funds, they may become
owners of drugstores. A pharmacist who gains
experience in a chain drugstore may advance to
store manager and, later, to a higher executive
position within the company. Hospital pharma­
cists with the necessary training and experience
may be advanced to chief pharmacist, or to other
administrative positions.
Employment Outlook
Most new pharmacy graduates will probably
find employment readily, through the mid-1970’s.
From 3,500 to 4,000 openings will arise each year
as pharmacists retire, die, or transfer out o f the
profession. These openings, together with the an­
ticipated gradual increase in new positions for
pharmacists, are expected to provide enough em­
ployment opportunities to absorb each year’s
graduates.
Some employment growth for pharmacists will
result from the establishment of new pharmacies,
particularly in residential areas or suburban shop­
ping centers; the country’s expanding population
—especially the growing number of older people
and children; and the rising standard of medical
care. Many drugstores may hire additional phar­
macists because of a trend towards shorter work­
ing hours. Continued expansion in the manufac­
ture of pharmaceutical products and in research
are expected to provide more opportunities for
pharmacists, not only in production and research,
but also in distribution and sales positions. Em­
ployment in hospitals will probably rise with the
construction of additional facilities and the more
extensive use of pharmacists for hospital work.
Pharmacists with graduate education will be
needed for college teaching and laboratory re­
search.
Women, who represent about 7 percent of all
pharmacists, will continue to find their best op­
portunities in hospital pharmacies, prescription
pharmacies, and in laboratory work, although
some are employed in all branches of the pro­
fession. Women students are accepted by all col­
leges o f pharmacy, and in 1964 they constituted
about 14 percent of undergraduate enrollments.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning pharmacists employed in drug man­
ufacturing firms could expect to receive salaries

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ranging from $6,000 to $7,000 a year in 1965, ac­
cording to the limited information available. The
entrance salary for newly graduated pharmacists
in the Federal Civil Service was $6,050 in 1965;
however, pharmacists with a year o f experience
could start at $7,220.
The annual salaries o f experienced pharmacists
working for retail pharmacies were generally be­
tween $7,000 and $10,000. Pharmacists who owned
and operated drugstores generally made more
than this; however, their earnings, and also to a
lesser extent those o f salaried pharmacists, arc
greatly affected by the length o f their workweek,
the size and geographic location of the store, and
many other factors.
Retail pharmacists generally work more than
the standard 40-hour workweek. Drugstores are
often open in the evenings and on weekends, and
all States require a registered pharmacist to be in
attendance during store hours. Despite the general
trend toward shorter hours, 48 hours is still the
basic workweek for many salaried retail pharma­
cists, and some work 50 hours or more a week.
Self-employed pharmacists often work more
hours than those in salaried positions. Those who
teach or work for industry, government agencies,
or hospitals have shorter workweeks. Salaried
pharmacists frequently receive paid vacations,
health insurance, and other fringe benefits.
Where To G o for More Information
General information on pharmacy as a career
may be obtained from :
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20037.

Information about chain drug stores may be ob­
tained from :
National Association of Chain Drug Stores,
1625 Eye Street N W ., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about retail pharmacies may be ob­
tained from :
National Association of Retail Druggists,
1 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.

A list of accredited colleges may be obtained
from :
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education,
77 W est Washington St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

115

Current requirements for licensure in a particu­
lar State may be obtained from the Board of
Pharmacy of that State. Information on college

entrance requirements, curriculums, and scholar­
ships is available from the dean of any college of
pharmacy.

Physical Therapists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-52.80)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.878)

Nature of Work
Physical therapists help persons with muscle,
nerve, joint, and bone diseases or injuries to
overcome their disabilities. Following physicians'
instructions, they treat patients through physical
exercise, the use of mechanical apparatus, mas­
sage, and applications of heat or cold, light,
water, or electricity. Most of their patients are
accident victims, crippled children, and disabled
older persons.
To obtain information needed to develop the
proper programs for treatment, physical thera­
pists perform muscle and nerve tests. They also
keep records of their patients’ progress during
treatments and attend conferences with physi­
cians and other medical personnel to discuss this
progress. In many instances, they help disabled
persons to accept their physical handicaps and
learn how7 to adjust to them. Therapists teach
patients how to perform exercises and to use and
care for braces, crutches, and artifical limbs. They
may also show members of the patients’ families
how to continue treatment at home.
Physical therapists are members of a rehabili­
tation team which is directed by a physician and
may include a nurse, clinical social worker, oc­
cupational therapists, psychologist, vocational
counselor, and other specialists. Although quali­
fied physical therapists may treat many types
of patients, some specialize in caring for chil­
dren, or for patients with amputations, arthritis,
or paralysis. They must instruct physical therapy
students, as well as students of related profes­
sions and other health wmrkers.

The majority of all physical therapists work
in hospitals. About half of this group are em­
ployed in private hospitals, and approximately
one-fourth in State or local government hospitals.
Others work in hospitals operated by the Veter­
ans Administration and the U.S. Public Health
Service. Although most therapists are employed
in general hospitals, some work in hospitals that
specialize in the care of pediatric, orthopedic,
psychiatric, or chronically ill patients.

Where Employed
About 10,000 licensed physical therapists were
employed in 1964. In addition, it is estimated that
approximately 2,000 therapists v7
ere employed in
States not requiring a license. Nearly 80 percent
of all therapists were women.

Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health

Physical therapist assists disabled patient.

116

Approximately one-fourth of all physical ther­
apists are employed by rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, schools or societies for crippled
children, and public health agencies. Most of
these organizations provide treatment for pa­
tients with chronic diseases, and some have home
visiting programs.
Some therapists work in physicians’ offices or
clinics, teach in schools of physical therapy, or
work for research organizations. A few serve as
consultants in government and voluntary agen­
cies.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license is required to practice physical ther­
apy in 43 States and the District of Columbia.
To obtain a license, an applicant must have a
degree or certificate from a school of physical
therapy and pass a State board examination. In
the remaining States, employers generally re­
quire a degree from a school of physical therapy.
In 1964, 41 schools of physical therapy (includ­
ing the Army Medical Service School) were ap­
proved by the American Medical Association and
the American Physical Therapy Association. The
majority o f approved schools are part of large
universities; the others are operated by hospitals,
which usually have university affiliations.
About half o f the approved schools of physical
therapy offer 4-year programs leading to a
bachelor’s degree. Some schools provide 1- to 2year undergraduate programs to students who
have completed required courses in the biological,
physical, and social sciences, and through which
students may earn either a degree or a certificate
in physical therapy. Other schools accept those
who already have a bachelor’s degree, including
the required courses, and give a 12- to 24-month
course leading to the certificate. Many schools
offer both degree and certificate programs.
Among the courses included in a physical ther­
apy program are: Anatomy, physiology, path­
ology, clinical medicine, psychology, electro­
therapy, heat therapy, hydrotherapy, massage,
and exercise. In addition to classroom instruc­
tion, students are assigned to a hospital or treat­
ment center for supervised clinical experience in
the care of patients.
Several universities offer the master's degree
in physical therapy. A graduate degree, com­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

bined with clinical experience, increases the op­
portunities for advancement to positions of re­
sponsibility in teaching, research, and adminis­
tration, as well as in the treatment area of
physical therapy.
Because an important part o f a therapist’s job
is to help patients and their families understand
the treatments and prepare them emotionally for
the changes that occur, therapists must have
patience, resourcefulness, and a sympathetic atti­
tude toward people. Their work also requires
good verbal expression and the ability to plan
their work to insure optimum use o f time. In
addition, physical therapists should have manual
dexterity and physical stamina. For those who
wish to determine whether they have the per­
sonal qualities needed for this occupation, sum­
mer or part-time work as a volunteer in the
physical therapy department of a hospital or
clinic may prove helpful.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for physical ther­
apists are expected to remain excellent through
the mid-1970’s. The demand for qualified physical
therapists is likely to continue to exceed the
supply. Although the outlook for new graduates
has been favorable in recent years, schools of
physical therapy have not been filled to capacity
and opportunities to receive the training needed
to enter the field should be very good.
Many new positions for physical therapists
are expected to be created during the 1965-75
decade, as rehabilitation centers are enlarged and
new ones are built to meet the demands created
by the increasing number of disabled people who
require physical therapy, and by the growing
public interest in rehabilitating handicapped per­
sons. Programs to aid crippled children and vo­
cational rehabilitation activities in States that
are assisted by Federal funds, and possible ex­
pansion of public health services at State and
local levels, may add further to the demand for
physical therapists. Also, more physicians are
expected to recommend physical therapy for pa­
tients as techniques and equipment for treat­
ment are improved. In addition, many openings
will continue to arise each year to replace the
large number o f women who leave the profession
for marriage and family responsibilities.

H EALTH

117

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Part-time positions will continue to be avail­
able in many communities. These positions are
particularly attractive to married women who
wish to return to work on a part-time basis.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Annual salaries of inexperienced physical ther­
apists averaged $6,000 in 1964, and those of
experienced therapists ranged from $7,000 to
$12,000, according to the American Physical
Therapy Association. Salaries of coordinators,
directors, and administrators were generally
higher.
Average weekly salaries for physical therapists
employed in hospitals ranged from $101.50 in
the Northeast to $111 in the North Central
States in mid-1963, according to a survey con­
ducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Salar­

ies were generally higher for men in comparable
jobs.
In early 1965, newly graduated therapists em­
ployed by the Federal Government received an­
nual starting salaries of $5,505; those who were
exceptionally well qualified, however, were o f­
fered $6,050. A t the same time, an entrance
salary of $4,610 including allowances was paid
to physical therapists commissioned in the Armed
Forces as second lieutenants or ensigns, and to
junior assistants in the U.S. Public Health Serv­
ice.
Most physical therapists work 40 hours a week.
Almost all receive 2 or more weeks’ vacation and
the majority receive sick leave and other fringe
benefits.
Where To G o for More Information
American Physical Therapy Association,
1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10019.

Physicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-26.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

Nature of Work
Physicians diagnose diseases and treat people
who are ill or in poor health. In addition, they
are concerned with preventive medicine and with
the rehabilitation of people who are injured or
ill.
Physicians generally examine and treat pa­
tients in their own offices and in hospitals, but
they also visit patients at home when necessary.
Some physicians combine the practice of medi­
cine with research or teaching in medical schools.
Others hold full-time research or teaching posi­
tions or perform administrative work in hos­
pitals, professional associations, and other or­
ganizations. A few are primarily engaged in
writing and editing medical books and mag­
azines.
More than one-third of the physicians engaged
in private practice are general practitioners; the
other two-thirds are specialists in 1 of the 35
fields recognized by the medical profession. In
recent years, there has been a marked trend to­
ward specialization. Among the largest special­
ties are internal medicine (treating diseases of

the internal organs), surgery, obstetrics and
gynecology (childbirth and women’s diseases),
psychiatry (mental disorders), pediatrics (medi­
cal care of children), radiology (use o f X-ray
and other radioactive sources), ophthalmology
(the eye and its diseases), and pathology (diag­
nosing changes in body tissues).
Where Employed
About 265,000 physicians—of whom 7 percent
were ; women— were professionally active in the
United States in mid-1964. The great majority—
over 175,000— were engaged in private practice.
About 35,000 were interns or residents in hospit­
als, and nearly 12,000 held regular positions on
hospital staffs. Approximately 20,000 physicians
were serving as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces or were employed in Federal
Government agencies, chiefly in the hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administration and the
Public Health Service. The remainder were em­
ployed in private industry, State and local health
departments, medical schools, research founda­
tions, and professional organizations.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

118

Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health

Physician examines patient.
\

In 1964, more than 40 percent o f all physi­
cians were in the five most populous States:
New York, California, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
and Ohio. In general, the Northeastern States
have the highest ratio of physicians to popula­
tion and the Southern States, the lowest. General
practitioners are much more widely distributed
geographically than specialists, who tend to be
concentrated in large cities.
Training and Other Qualifications
A license to practice medicine is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To quali­
fy for a license, a candidate must graduate from
an approved medical school, pass a licensing ex­
amination, and— in 32 States and the District of
Columbia— serve a 1-year hospital internship. As
of 1964, 18 States permitted a physician to be
licensed immediately after graduation from
medical school, but even in these States an intern­
ship is always necessary for full acceptance by
the profession. Twenty-three States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia require candidates to pass an
examination in the basic sciences to become eligi­
ble for the medical licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given by State
boards. The National Board of Medical Exam­
iners also gives an examination which is accepted
by 43 States and the District o f Columbia as a

substitute for State examinations. Although
physicians licensed in one State can usually ob­
tain a license to practice in another without
further examination, some States limit this
reciprocity.
In 1964, there were 88 schools in the United
States in which students could begin the study
of medicine. Eighty-four awarded the degree of
Doctor of Medicine (M .D.) to those completing
the 4-year course; 3 offered 2-year programs in
the basic sciences to students who could then
transfer to regular medical schools for the last
2 years of study. The remaining school (set up
as a 2-year institution) had not yet graduated its
first class. Because the number of people apply­
ing to medical schools exceeds the beginning en­
rollment capacity, preference is given to the most
highly qualified applicants.
Most medical schools require applicants to have
completed at least 3 years of college education for
admission to their regular programs, and some
require 4 years. A few medical schools allow se­
lected students with exceptional qualifications to
begin their professional study after completion
of 2 years of college. The great majority of stu­
dents entering medical schools have a bachelor’s
degree.
Premedical study must include undergraduate
courses in English, physics, biology, and inor­
ganic and organic chemistry in an accredited col­
lege. Students should acquire a broad general edu­
cation by taking courses in the humanities, math­
ematics, and the social sciences. Other factors
considered by medical schools in selecting students
include the individual’s college record; the stand­
ing of the college where his premedical work was
taken; and his scores on the Medical College A d ­
mission Test, which is taken by almost all ap­
plicants. Consideration is also given to the appli­
cant’s character, personality, and leadership
qualities, as shown by personal interviews, letters
of recommendation, and extracurricular activities
in college. In addition, many State-supported
medical schools give preference to residents of
their particular States and, sometimes, those of
nearby States.
The first 2 years of medical training are spent
in laboratories and classrooms, learning basic
medical sciences, such as anatomy, biochemistry,
physiology, pharmacology, microbiology, and

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

pathology. During the last 2 years, students spend
most of their time in hospitals and clinics under
the supervision o f experienced physicians. They
learn to take case histories, perform examinations,
and recognize diseases.
New physicians increasingly are taking train­
ing beyond the 1-year hospital internship. Those
who plan to be general practitioners often spend
an additional year or two as interns or residents
in a hospital. To become recognized as specialists,
physicians must pass specialty board examina­
tions. To qualify for these examinations, they
must spend from 2 to 4 years— depending on the
specialty— in advanced hospital training as resi­
dents, followed by 2 years or more of practice in
the specialty. Some doctors interested in teaching
and research take graduate work leading to the
master’s or Ph. D. degree in a field such as bio­
chemistry or microbiology.
Many graduates of foreign medical schools (in
September 1963, 8,275 foreign citizens as well as
1,275 U.S. citizens) serve as interns and residents
in this country. To be appointed to approved in­
ternships or residencies in U.S. hospitals, how­
ever, these graduates (citizens of foreign countries
as well as U.S. citizens) must pass the American
Medical Qualification Examination given by the
Educational Council for Foreign Medical Gradu­
ates.
Medical training is very costly because of the
long time required to earn the medical degree.
However, the Health Professions Educational
Assistance Act of 1963 provides Federal funds
for loans of up to $2,000 a year to help needy
students pursue full-time study leading to the
degree o f doctor of medicine.
Among the personal qualifications needed for
success in this profession are a strong desire to
become a physician, above-average intelligence,
and an interest in science. In addition, prospective
physicians should possess good judgment, be able
to make decisions in emergencies, and be emotion­
ally stable.
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices. Those who have completed
their internships and who enter on active military
duty serve as captains in the Army or A ir Force
or as lieutenants in the Navy. Graduates of ac­
credited medical schools are eligible for Federal
Civil Service medical positions and for commis­

119

sions as senior assistant surgeons in the U.S. Pub­
lic Health Service.
Employment Outlook
Excellent opportunities are anticipated for
physicians through the mid-1970’s. Because the
number of new physicians being trained is re­
stricted by the present limited capacity o f medical
schools, the employment o f physicians is expected
to grow only moderately, despite a steady increase
in the demand for their services. However, some
expansion in medical school facilities is expected
because of recent Federal legislation which pro­
vides Federal funds to assist in the construction
o f new training facilities for physicians. None­
theless, any increase in the supply of physicians
resulting from the implementation o f the Act
may not be significant until the late 1970’s.
The expected increase in demand for physicians’
services will result from factors such as the antici­
pated population growth and change in the age
composition of the population, which will have a
larger proportion of old people; the rising
health consciousness o f the public; and the trend
toward higher standards of medical care. Exten­
sion o f prepayment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, including the program for the
aged provided in the Social Security Amendments
of 1965; continued Federal Government provision
of medical care for members of the Armed Forces,
their families, and veterans; and the continuing
growth in the fields of public health, rehabilita­
tion, industrial medicine, and mental health will
also increase the demand for more doctors. In
addition, more physicians will be needed for medi­
cal research and to teach in medical schools.
In addition to those needed to fill new openings,
many newly trained doctors will be required to re­
place those who retire or die. The number needed
to fill vacancies caused by losses to the profession
is estimated to be about 6,000 each year through
the mid-1970’s.
To some extent, the rise in the demand for
physicians’ services will be offset by developments
that are enabling physicians to care for more pa­
tients. For example, increasing numbers of medi­
cal technicians are assisting physicians; new
drugs and new medical techniques are shortening
illnesses; and growing numbers of physicians are
able to use their time more effectively by engag­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

120
ing in group practice. In addition, fewer house
calls are being made by physicians because of the
growing tendency to treat patients in hospitals
and physicians’ offices. However, these develop­
ments are not expected to offset the overall need
for more physicians.
Earnings and Working Conditions
New graduates serving as interns in 1964 had
an average annual salary of $3,053 in hospitals
affiliated with medical schools and $3,678 in other
hospitals. Residents during 1964 earned average
annual salaries of $3,739 in hospitals affiliated
with medical schools and $4,309 in nonaffiliated
hospitals. Many hospitals also provided full or
partial room, board, and other maintenance al­
lowances to their interns and residents.
Graduates employed by the Federal Govern­
ment early in 1965 could expect to receive an an­
nual starting salary o f $10,420 if they had com­
pleted their internship, and $12,075 if they had
completed 1 year of residency or demonstrated
superior achievement during their internship.
Newly qualified physicians who establish their
own practice must make a sizable financial invest­
ment to open and equip a modern office. It is esti­
mated that during the first year or two of inde­
pendent practice, physicians probably earn little
more than the minimum needed to pay the ex­
penses for maintaining their offices. As a rule,
however, their earnings rise rapidly as their prac­
tice develops.

The net income of physicians in private prac­
tice in 1963 averaged about $19,000, according to
a report of the Internal Revenue Service of the
U.S. Treasury Department. Earnings of physi­
cians depend on factors such 'as the region of the
country in which they practice; the patients’ in­
come level; and the physician’s skill, personality,
and professional reputation as well as his length
of experience. Physicians engaged in private
practice usually earn more than those in salaried
positions, and specialists usually earn consider­
ably more than general practitioners. Many physi­
cians have a long working day and irregular
hours. Most specialists work fewer hours each
week than general practitioners. As doctors grow
older, they may not accept new patients and tend
to work fewer hours. Many, however, continue in
practice well beyond 70 years of age.
Where To G o for More Information
Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licen­
sure directly from the board of medical examiners
of that State. Lists of approved medical schools,
as well as general information on premedical edu­
cation and medicine as a career, may be obtained
from :
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60610.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
2530 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 60201.

Podiatrists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-39.901)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of Work
Podiatrists (sometimes called chiropodists) di­
agnose and treat diseases and deformities of the
feet. They perform foot surgery, use drugs and
physical therapy, prescribe proper shoes, and fit
corrective devices. To help in diagnoses, they take
X-rays of the feet and perform blood and other
tests. Among the conditions podiatrists treat are
corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown toenails, skin
and nail diseases, deformed toes, and arch dis­
abilities. They refer patients to medical doctors

whenever they observe symptoms in the feet and
legs that may be evidence of diseases—such as
arthritis or heart or kidney trouble—which a1so
affect other parts of the body.
As a rule, podiatrists provide most types of foot
care. Some, however, confine their practice to such
specialties as orthopedics (bone, muscle, and joint
disorders), podopediatrics (children’s diseases),
or foot surgery. A few act as consultants to shoe
manufacturers, and a small number do research
or teach in colleges of podiatry.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

121
nois, California, and Massachusetts. In many
small towns and rural areas, especially in the
South and the Northwest, there were no podia­
trists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Podiatrist explains to a mother the condition of her child's foot.

Where Employed
Approximately 8,000 podiatrists were actively
engaged in the profession in 1964; less than 5
percent were women. Nearly all podiatrists were
in private practice. The few who held full-time
salaried positions worked mainly in hospitals or
podiatry colleges, or for other podiatrists; others
who earned salaries were employed by the Vet­
erans Administration or were commissioned offi­
cers in the Armed Forces.
Podiatrists practice mainly in large cities.
More than half were in five of the most heavily
populated States— New York, Pennsylvania, Illi­

All States and the District of Columbia require
a license for the practice of podiatry. To qualify
for a license, an applicant must be a graduate of
a college o f podiatry, and must pass a State
board examination. In addition, four States—
Michigan, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and West
Virginia— require applicants to serve a 1-year
internship in a hospital or clinic after gradua­
tion from a podiatry college; the State of Okla­
homa requires 1 year of practice under the direct
supervision of an experienced podiatrist. More
than half the States grant licenses without fur­
ther examination to podiatrists already licensed
by another State.
The five podiatry colleges in the United States
will admit only students who have already com­
pleted at least 2 years of college. This education
must include courses in English, chemistry,
biology or zoology, and, in some instances, also
physics or mathematics.
The first 2 years of podiatry training are de­
voted chiefly to classroom instruction and lab­
oratory work in such basic sciences as anatomy,
bacteriology, chemistry, pathology, and physi­
ology, though in the second year students obtain
some limited experience in the school clinics.
During the final 2 years, students spend most of
their time obtaining clinical experience. The de­
gree of Doctor of Podiatry (P.D .) or Doctor of
Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M .) is awarded upon
graduation. Additional education and experience
are generally necessary in order to qualify for
work in a specialized area o f podiatry.
Among the personal qualifications considered
desirable for a career in this profession are scien­
tific aptitude, manual dexterity, and a good busi­
ness sense. The ability to get along well with
people is also important.
Most newly licensed podiatrists open their own
practices. Some purchase established practices.
Others begin by taking salaried positions in hos­
pitals, or with podiatrists already in practice,

122

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

to gain experience and to save the money needed
to establish their own practices.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for podiatrists is ex­
pected to be good through the mid-1970’s. The
demand for their services is expected to increase,
and the number o f new graduates o f podiatry
schools will probably be only slightly more than
the number needed to fill openings left by podia­
trists who retire, die, or stop practicing for
other reasons.
Opportunities for new graduates to establish
their own practices should be especially favorable
in those parts o f the country where the services
o f podiatrists are widely used. Opportunities
should be good also for those who wish to enter
salaried positions in schools, factories, and or­
ganizations providing health services.
The demand for podiatrists’ services is expect­
ed to grow with the demand for other health
services. An important factor underlying this
anticipated growth is an expanding population
with a greater proportion of older people—the
age group needing most foot care. Furthermore,
the trend toward providing preventive foot care
for children is increasing.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In podiatry, as in many o f the other profes­
sions, incomes usually rise markedly after the
first years of practice. Earnings of individual
podiatrists are determined mainly by such fac­
tors as ability, experience, the income level of
the community served, and location. In 1963, the
averaged net income of podiatrists was $11,426,
according to a survey by the American Podiatry
Association. Income was generally higher in
large cities.
Podiatrists generally work 40 hours a week.
However, they may set their hours to suit their
practice.
Where To G o for More Information
Applicants for licenses to practice podiatry in
a particular State may obtain information on
the requirements for licensure from the State
board of examiners in the State capital. Infor­
mation on entrance requirements, curriculums,
and scholarships is available from the colleges of
podiatry. Additional information on podiatry as
a career, as well as a list of colleges, may be ob­
tained from :
American Podiatry Association.
3301 16th St. N W .. Washington, D.C.

20010.

Registered Professional Nurses
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0 -33 )
(3d ed. D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)

Nature of Work
Nursing care plays a major role in the treat­
ment o f persons who are ill. Registered profes­
sional nurses administer medications and treat­
ments prescribed by physicians; observe, evalu­
ate, and record symptoms, reactions, and prog­
ress of patients; assist in education and rehabili­
tation o f patients and improve their physical and
emotional environment; instruct auxiliary per­
sonnel or students; and perform other duties
concerned with the care o f the sick and injured,
prevention of illness, and promotion of good
health.
The largest group of professional nurses are
hospital nurses. Most of these are general duty
nurses, who perform skilled bedside nursing
such as caring for a patient after an operation,

assisting with blood transfusions and intravenous
feedings, and giving medications. They also sup­
ervise auxiliary nursing workers. Some hospital
nurses work primarily in the operating room.
Others limit their work to certain types of pa­
tients such as children, the elderly, or the men­
tally ill. Still others are engaged primarily in
administrative work.
Private duty nurses give individual nursing
care to patients who need constant attention. In
hospitals, one private duty nurse may sometimes
take care of a few patients who require special
nursing care but not full-time attention.
Office nurses assist physicians and dental sur­
geons, and occasionally dentists, in the care of
patients in private practice or clinics. Sometimes,
they perform routine laboratory and office work.

H EALTH

123

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

nursing service are discussed elsewhere in the
Handbook.1
Where Employed

Registered professional nurse assists a staff physician in emer­
gency room.

Public health nurses care for patients in clinics
or visit them in their homes. Their duties include
giving first aid treatment or periodic nursing
care as prescribed by a physician, demonstrating
diet plans to groups of patients, and arranging
for immunizations. These nurses may work with
community leaders, teachers, parents, and physi­
cians in community health education programs.
Some public health nurses work in schools.
Nurse educators teach students the principles
and skills of nursing, both in the classroom and
at the bedside. They may also conduct refresher
and in-service courses for registered nurses.
Occupational health or industrial nurses pro­
vide nursing care to employees in industry and
government, and along with physicians are re­
sponsible for promoting employee health. They
may work alone (with a doctor on call), or
they may be part of a health service staff in a
large organization. As prescribed by a doctor,
they treat minor injuries and illnesses occurring
at the place of employment, provide for the
needed nursing care, arrange for further medical
care if necessary, and offer health counseling.
They may also assist with health examinations
and inoculations to help prevent or control
diseases.
Nurses also engage in other activities such as
research and serving on the staffs of nursing or­
ganizations. (Practical nurses who also perform

More than 580,000 registered professional
nurses were employed in the United States in
early 1965. About two-thirds worked in hospitals
and related institutions. More than 65,000 were
private duty nurses who cared for patients in
hospitals and private homes, and about 47,000
were office nurses. Public health nurses in govern­
ment agencies, visiting nurse associations, and
clinics numbered over 37,000; nurse educators in
nursing schools accounted for more than 20,000;
and occupational health nurses in industry nearly
19,000. More than 25,000 professional nurses were
employed by the Federal Government, mainly by
the Veterans Administration, and about 8,500
were serving as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces. Most o f the others were staff
members o f professional nurse organizations or
were employed by research organizations.
More than one-fifth of all nurses employed in
1964 worked on a part-time basis. About 1 per­
cent of all employed professional nurses are men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A license is required to practice professional
nursing in all States and in the District of
Columbia. To obtain a license, a nurse must
have graduated from a school approved by a
State board of nursing and pass a State board
examination. A nurse may be licensed in more

than one State, either by examination or endorse­
ment of a license issued by another State.
Graduation from high school is required for
admission to all schools of professional nursing.
Many schools accept only graduates in the upper
third or half o f their class. Demonstrated compe­
tence in science and mathematics may also be
required.
Three types of educational programs—diplo­
ma, baccalaureate degree and associate degree—
offer the basic education required for careers in
professional nursing. Diploma programs are con­
ducted by hospital and independent schools and
usually require 3 years of training; bachelor’s de­
gree programs usually require 4 years of study
in a college or university, although a few require

124
5 years; associate degree programs in junior and
community colleges require approximately 2
years o f nursing education. In late 1964, over
1,150 programs of these three types were offered
in the United States. Nearly 75 percent were
diploma; over 15 percent, baccalaureate degree;
and the rest, associate degree programs.
A ll professional nursing programs include
classroom instruction and supervised nursing
practice. Students take courses in anatomy,
physiology, microbiology, nutrition, psychology,
and basic nursing care. Under close supervision,
they are given practical experience in the care
of patients who have different types of illnesses,
in hospitals and health facilities. Students in
colleges offering bachelor’s degree programs and
in some of the other schools are assigned to pub­
lic health agencies and learn how to care for pa­
tients in clinics and in the patients’ homes. Gen­
eral education is combined with nursing
education in baccalaureate and associate degree
programs and in some diploma programs.
Young people considering a nursing career
should have an interest in people and a desire to
care for the sick and injured. Other personal
qualifications needed are dependability, good
judgment, patience, and good physical and men­
tal health.
Hospital nursing usually begins with general
duty work, from which experienced nurses may
be advanced to progressively more responsible
supervisory positions, such as those filled by a
head nurse, supervisor, assistant director, and di­
rector o f nursing service. A bachelor’s degree
or master’s degree, however, is customarily re­
quired for supervisory and administrative posi­
tions, as well as for positions in nursing educa­
tion, clinical specialization, and research. Funds
to cover tuition, fees, and a stipend and allow­
ances for trainees seeking advanced training for
such positions are provided in the Nurse Train­
ing A ct of 1964. In public health agencies, ad­
vancement opportunities are usually limited for
nurses who do not have degrees in public health
nursing.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

demand for professional nurses is expected to con­
tinue to be greater than the supply. For nurses
who have had graduate training, the outlook is
especially favorable for obtaining positions as ad­
ministrators, teachers, clinical specialists, public
health nurses, and for work in research.
Among the principal factors underlying the an­
ticipated rise in the demand for nurses is the coun­
try’s growing population, with a greater propor­
tion of very young and elderly people, the age
groups most needing nursing care. Other factors
include improved economic status of the popula­
tion ; extension of prepayment programs for hos­
pitalization and medical care, including the pro­
gram for the aged provided in the Social Security
Amendments of 1965; expansion of medical serv­
ices as a result of new medical techniques and
drugs; and increased interest in preventive medi­
cine and rehabilitation of the handicapped. In ad­
dition to the number of nurses needed for new posi­
tions, several thousand nurses will be needed to re­
place those who leave the field each year because of
marriage and family responsibilities.
The anticipated increase in demand for profes­
sional nurses is expected to be accompanied by
a rapid increase in the number of nurses gradu­
ating during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. This
growth is expected to result from increasing num­
bers of high school graduates who will enter
nursing schools, and from two recently enacted
Federal laws—the Health Facilities Act of 1963
and the Nurse Training Act of 1964— which au­
thorize funds for construction of nursing school
facilities. Moreover, under the Nurse Training
Act, a needy student may obtain a loan, a portion
of which does not have to be repaid if the student
obtains full time employment in nursing after
graduation. In addition to the anticipated increase
in the number of new graduates entering nursing
each year, an increase is also expected in the num­
ber of inactive nurses who will return to work.
Nevertheless, the demand for professional nurses
is expected to be greater than the supply through
the mid-1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for registered pro­
fessional nurses are expected to be excellent
through the mid-1970’s. As in recent years, the

Average weekly salaries for various classifica­
tions of registered professional nurses employed
by hospitals in metropolitan areas ranged from
$86.50 for general duty nurses to $152 for direc­

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

125

tors o f nursing in mid-1963, according to a survey
conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Salaries were generally highest in the West and
lowest in the South. Salaries for industrial nurses
averaged $105.50 a week in early 1964, according
to another survey conducted by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics.
Fees for private duty nurses generally were be­
tween $14 and $27.50 for a basic 8-hour day in
early 1965, according to the American Nursing
Association (A N A ). Office nurses in mid-1964 re­
ported average (median) monthly salaries rang­
ing from $350 for those who had less than 3
years’ experience, to $397 for those who had more
than 15 years of service, as indicated by the ANA.
Average annual salaries for public health
nurses employed by local government agencies
were $5,313 in 1964 as indicated by a National
League for Nursing study. Nurse educators and
administrators earned average (median) salaries
of $6,000 a year in schools of professional nursing
when surveyed by the A N A in late 1963.
In early 1965, the Veterans Administration o f­
fered inexperienced nurses, who had either a
diploma or an associate degree, an annual salary
of $5,505; and baccalaureate graduates were o f­
fered $6,050. In other Federal Government
agencies, the entrance rate for nurses was $5,000
for graduates of 3-year training programs or for
graduates of 2-year nursing schools who had 1

year o f experience or additional nursing educa­
tion. The beginning salary, in early 1965, for
nurse officers (second lieutenants and ensigns) in
military services was $4,610 including allowances.
Those with bachelor’s degrees who were commis­
sioned in the U.S. Public Health Service received
salary and allowances totaling $5,093 a year.
The majority of hospital nurses receive extra
pay for work on evening or night shifts. Nearly
all are provided at least 2 weeks of paid vacation
after 1 year o f service. Most hospital nurses re­
ceive from 5 to 13 paid holidays a year and also
some type o f health and retirement benefits.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on approved schools of nursing,
nursing careers, Future Nurses Clubs, loans, and
scholarships may be obtained from :
National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y. 10019.

Information on salaries, working conditions,
and employment opportunities may be obtained
from :
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y.

10019.

Information about employment opportunities in
the Veterans Administration is available from :
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washington, D.C.

20420.

Sanitarians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-66.41)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.118)

Nature of W ork'
Most people assume that the food they eat, the
liquids they drink, the public swimming pools
they use, and the air they breathe, are clean and
safe. The job of the sanitarian is to insure this.
They find and remove health hazards in order to
make the physical environment safe for everyone.
In carrying out their responsibilities, they per­
form a broad range of job duties, from inspecting
sanitary conditions in restaurants to promoting
health laws and administering health programs.
Sanitarians entering the profession usually
start out in public health departments. They in­
spect hotels, restaurants, dairy plants, canneries,

water supplies, swimming pools, and other places
to prevent conditions harmful to the public health
and well-being, at times taking samples of food,
air, and water, to test for safety. When necessary
they recommend corrective action in the places
visited, and try to obtain compliance with health
laws and regulations. As they progress to more
responsible investigational work they frequently
are required to give advice on more complex indi­
vidual and industrial sanitation problems.
Sanitarians with supervisory duties analyze
reports of inspections and investigations made by
other environmental health specialists, evaluate
their performance and advise them on difficult or

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

126

of disease, plan for civil defense and emergency
disaster aid, make public health surveys, and con­
duct health education programs.
In large local and State health departments,
and in the Federal Government, sanitarians may
specialize in a particular area of work, such as
milk and other dairy products, food sanitation,
refuse and other waste control, air pollution, oc­
cupational health, housing, and insect and rodent
control. In rural areas and small cities, they may
be responsible for a wide range o f environmental
health activities.
Increasing numbers of sanitarians are being
employed outside government agencies. Many
work in industry as food or milk sanitarians
where they attempt to prevent or minimize con­
tamination hazards, and see that clean, healthful,
and safe working conditions exist in plants manu­
facturing and processing food. For example, in a
cannery the sanitarian is concerned with the
proper removal o f refuse; the cleaning of plant
equipment; the control of micro-organisms; and
the proper maintenance of buildings, equipment,
and employee facilities.
Where Employed
Courtesy of the U.S. Public Health Service

Sanitarians examine line thermometer in milk plant.

unusual sanitation problems. They have greater
responsibilities of investigation and health law
promotion, and may be required to give evidence
in court against violators of health regulations.
Also, they engage in health education activities,
sometimes teaching classes in hygiene, and speak­
ing before student assemblies, civic groups, and
other organizations on the prevention of com­
municable diseases. Those in top supervisory posi­
tions are involved with the planning and admin­
istration of environmental health programs and
their coordination with programs of other agen­
cies. Other duties may include advising govern­
ment officials on environmental health matters and
drafting new health laws and regulations.
Public health sanitarians work closely with
other health specialists in the community (such
as the health officer, sanitary engineer, and public
health nurse) to investigate and prevent outbreaks

An estimated 10,000 of the approximately
12,000 sanitarians employed in 1965 worked for
Federal, State, and local governments. Most of the
remainder worked in private industry for manu­
facturers and processors of food products; a small
number were teachers in colleges and universities;
a few were consultants; others worked for trade
associations, in hospitals, or for other organiza­
tions. Probably less than 1 percent of all sani­
tarians are women.
Sanitarians are employed by government health
departments in every State, and by private indus­
try in most States. About half o f them work in
10 States: California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia,
and Wisconsin.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A 4-year college education with a major in
physical, biological, or sanitary science is gen­
erally required for a beginning job as a sanitarian,
and a graduate degree in some aspect of public
health is usually necessary for higher level posi­

H EALTH

127

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

tions. Some health departments may hire begin­
ning sanitarians with only 2 years of college work,
and, in some, high school graduates may be able
to start as sanitary inspectors and work their way
up to sanitarian. However, rising hiring stand­
ards in public health departments are restricting
entrance opportunities for those without degrees.
Science courses recommended by the American
Public Health Association for the first 2 years of
college are mathematics, biology, chemistry, phys­
ics, and elementary bacteriology. In the second 2
years, the recommended program includes ad­
vanced general bacteriology, medical entomology,
and a series of public health courses. The liberal
arts courses are also considered useful.
Beginning sanitarians usually start at the
trainee level where they remain up to a year,
working under the supervision of experienced
sanitarians. They receive on-the-job training in
environmental health activities, and learn to
evaluate facts and recommend corrective action.
After a few years of experience, they may move
to minor supervisory positions with more respon­
sibilities. Greater supervisory responsibilities may
come with more experience; sometimes specializa­
tion begins at this level, especially in large local
health offices. With more experience, further ad­
vancement is possible to top supervisory and ad­
ministrative positions.
To keep up with new developments and to sup­
plement their academic training, many sanitarians
take specialized short-term training courses in
such subjects as occupational health, water sup­
ply and pollution control, air pollution, radiologi­
cal health, milk and food protection, and metro­
politan planning.
In 1964, 26 States had laws providing for reg­
istration o f sanitarians; most o f these States re­
quired registration to practice. Although require­
ments for registration vary considerably among
the States, the minimum educational requirement
for registration is usually a bachelor’s degree,
with emphasis on the biological, physical, and
sanitary sciences. In some States, applicants must
pass a written as well as an oral examination.
Among the personal qualities useful to sani­
tarians is the ability to get along well with people.
For example, it is often necessary to be tactful
in securing correction of unsanitary conditions by
restaurant owners and other businessmen. Sani­
778-316 O— 65-—-— 10

tarians also should be undisturbed by the collec­
tion of specimens for laboratory testing and con­
tact with unpleasant physical surroundings, such
as slum area housing or sewage disposal units.
Employment Outlook
Good employment opportunities for beginning
sanitarians will exist through the mid-1970’s for
young men who have a bachelor of science de­
gree with a major in physical, biological, or sani­
tary science. Although it still may be possible for
young people with less than a college education
to get jobs in the sanitation field, it is becoming
increasingly difficult for them to do so.
The employment of sanitarians is expected to
increase rapidly through the rest of the 1960’s
and on into the 1970’s, as health departments ex­
pand their activities in the field of environmental
health. The areas of radiological health, occupa­
tional health, food protection, water pollution,
and air pollution are expected to require the serv­
ices of more trained personnel as health dangers
associated with them grow under the stimulus of
an expanding, highly technological civilization.
Expansion, however, will be limited by the
amount of funds allocated to environmental
health activities by the various levels of govern­
ment.
Air pollution is an example of a growing
hazard and area of public concern that may in­
crease the demand for sanitarians. It has at­
tracted attention throughout the United States,
especially in large cities where smog has become
a problem. The discomfort and danger of air
pollution from the exhausts of automobiles and
from the fumes o f industrial plants and other
sources have been recognized in new Federal,
State, and local legislation. The possible relation
of lung cancer and other respiratory ailments to
air pollution has also served to focus attention on
this problem.
An expanding population will require the serv­
ices o f more trained sanitarians. I f the present
movement of people from rural to urban areas
continues, along with the growth of industries,
a greater strain will be placed on the food-serv­
ice, housing, water, recreational, and waste-dis­
posal facilities of urban communities. Over the
long run, some increase in demand for sanitarians
is expected in private industry, primarily be-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

128

cause of the growth of the food industry—these
jobs, however, will be largely for experienced
sanitarians.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1962, the average (median) annual salary
o f sanitarians with college degrees was $6,350;
those in the Federal Government averaged $7,890.
Sanitarians without college degrees averaged
$5,350. Salaries of sanitarians engaged in teach­
ing averaged $9,540, compared with $8,590 for
those employed by industry. While little current
data are available, earnings have probably risen
since then. For example, beginning salaries for
sanitarians with college degrees employed in
State health agencies increased about 8 percent

between 1962 and 1964 and averaged about $5,000
in 1964.
Sanitarians spend considerable time away from
their desks. Transportation or gasoline allowances
are frequently given and some health depart­
ments provide an automobile.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about careers as sanitarians is
available from the following associations:
American Public Health Association,
1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10019.
International Association of Milk, Food, and En­
vironmental Sanitarians,
Blue Ridge Rd., P.O. Box 437, Shelbyville, Ind. 46176.
National Association of Sanitarians,
1550 Lincoln St., Denver, Colo. 80203.

Speech Pathologists and Audiologists
(3d ed. D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of Work
The inability to speak or hear clearly is a
severe hardship to persons of all ages. Children
who have difficulty speaking or hearing are
usually unable to play freely with others or to
participate fully in normal classroom activities.
Adults suffering from speech or hearing impair­
ments often face severe problems of job adjust­
ment. Speech pathologists and audiologists help
people suffering from such disorders by diagnos­
ing their problems and by providing treatment.
In addition, they may conduct research in the
speech and hearing field. Some teach courses
in speech pathology and audiology at colleges
and universities.
Speech and hearing are so interrelated that,
although the speech pathologist concerns him­
self primarily with speech disorders and the
audiologist with hearing problems, to be com­
petent in either of these occupations one must
have a familiarity with both. The speech path­
ologist works with children and adults who have
such problems as stuttering, defective articula­
tion, brain injury, foreign dialect, cleft-palate,
mental retardation, or emotional problems which
are reflected in speech and voice disorders. The
audiologist also works with children and adults,
but he concerns himself primarily with the as­

sessment and treatment of hearing problems such
as those caused by certain otological or neurologi­
cal disturbances.
The duties performed by speech pathologists
and audiologists vary with their education, ex­
perience, and employment setting. In a clinical
capacity, they evaluate speech and hearing dis­
orders using various diagnostic procedures. This
is followed by an organized program o f therapy,
with the cooperation of other specialists, such

Audiologist uses auditory training instrument to aid child with
hearing Toss.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

as physicians, psychologists, social workers,
physical therapists, counselors, and teachers.
They perform research work, which may consist
of investigating communicative disorders and
their causes and improving methods for clinical
services.
Some speech pathologists and audiologists
working in colleges or universities provide in­
struction in the principles and bases of commun­
ication and clinical techniques. Many also par­
ticipate in educational programs for physicians,
nurses, teachers, and other professional person­
nel. In addition, they may work in university
clinics and conduct research, usually at univer­
sity centers.
Where Employed
In 1965 over 15,000 people were employed as
speech pathologists and audiologists. Women
represented a large proportion of this employ­
ment. The majority of speech pathologists and
audiologists work in public school systems and
clinical service centers. Colleges and universities
employ the next largest number of these special­
ists, in classrooms and clinics. The remainder are
distributed among hospitals, research centers,
State and Federal government agencies, indus­
try, and private practice. Speech pathologists
and audiologists are employed in all States;
however, they are concentrated where training
and clinical facilities are well equipped, as in
New York, California, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, and Michigan.
Training and Other Qualifications
A bachelor’s degree is the minimum education­
al requirement for a beginning job as a speech
pathologist or audiologist. However, require­
ments are being raised in most States and areas
of employment and a master’s degree is likely
to become the standard entrance requirement in
the future.
Undergraduate training in speech and audiol­
ogy should include course work in anatomy,
biology, physiology, physics, semantics, phon­
etics, and related areas. Some specialized course
work in speech and hearing, as well as in child
psychology and mental hygiene, also is helpful.
This training is usually available at colleges and

129

universities offering a broad liberal arts pro­
gram.
Graduate education in speech and audiology is
offered at over 100 colleges and universities. Pro­
fessional preparation at the graduate level in­
volves extensive training in the fundamental
areas of speech and hearing, including anatomy
and physiology, acoustics, and psychological as­
pects of communication; the nature of speech and
hearing disorders; and the assessment, evalua­
tion, and analysis of speech production, language
abilities, and auditory processes; as well as
familiarity with various research methods used
in studying speech and hearing. Persons who
wish to work in public schools should complete
not only the education and other requirements
necessary for a teacher’s certificate in the State
in which they wish to work, but also may have
to fulfill special requirements, prescribed by some
States, for people who are going to work with
handicapped children.
Many scholarships, fellowships, assistantships
and traineeships are available in colleges and
universities; however, most of these are at the
graduate level. The U.S. Vocational Rehabilita­
tion Administration allocates funds for teaching
and training grants to over 50 colleges and uni­
versities offering graduate study in the field of
speech and hearing. The Veterans Administra­
tion provides funds for a predoctoral program,
during which the students receive monthly pay­
ments. The Children’s Bureau, the U.S. Office
of Education, and the National Institutes of
Health also expend funds for the training of
these specialists.
Since speech pathologists and audiologists are
devoted to helping people with speech and hear­
ing handicaps, they should have an interest and
liking for people and the ability to approach prob­
lems with objectivity. To work effectively with
persons having speech and hearing disorders, one
must be sensitive, patient, and have personal
warmth and emotional stability.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for well-qualified
speech pathologists and audiologists are expected
to be good through the mid-1970’s. Individuals
who have completed graduate study in speech
pathology and audiology will find the best em­

130

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ployment opportunities. Some opportunities will
be available for individuals with only the
bachelor’s degree and some professional experi­
ence, but increasing emphasis is being placed on
the master’s degree as the minimum educational
standard for the profession.
The present supply of qualified speech path­
ologists and audiologists with graduate training
is inadequate. It is estimated that about 8 mil­
lion persons in the Nation have speech and hear­
ing handicaps; and that an average of about 1,400 new speech pathologists and audiologists will
be needed annually through the mid-1970’s to
staff new and expanding programs and to replace
those who leave the profession. This annual de­
mand considerably exceeds the number of gradu­
ate students presently being trained and entering
the field. Over the next few years, the supply
of trained people may be augmented, as people
holding only a bachelor’s degree in speech path­
ology and audiology, as well as some personnel
from related fields take graduate work.
During the remainder of the 1960’s and
through the mid-1970’s, several factors are ex­
pected to influence demand for the services of
speech pathologists and audiologists: Popula­
tion growth, which will result in an increase in
the absolute number o f persons having speech
and hearing problems; a lengthening life span,
which will increase the number of persons with
speech and hearing problems that are common to
later life; a rapid expansion in expenditures for
medical research; and the growing public interest
and awareness of the serious problems connected
with speech and hearing disorders.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Median earnings of speech pathologists and
audiologists in colleges and universities, accord­

ing to a 1963 survey, ranged from $6,700 in
private institutions to $8,400 in State universi­
ties for a 9- to 10-month contract period. Median
salaries may be as much as $2,000 higher for an
11- to 12-month contract* Many experienced
speech pathologists and audiologists in educa­
tional institutions supplement their regular salar­
ies with incomes from consulting, special re­
search projects, and writing books and articles.
In early 1965, the annual starting salary for
speech pathologists and audiologists employed by
the Federal Government was $8,650. Applicants
for positions with the Federal Government must
have completed all requirements for the doctoral
degree.
Most speech pathologists and audiologists
work 40 hours a week; however, some personnel
engaged in research may work longer hours. A l­
most all employment settings provide fringe
benefits such as paid vacations, sick leave, and
retirement programs. Working conditions are
generally pleasant, although in some cases facili­
ties may be inadequate, because the expansion of
facilities may have failed to keep pace with the
demands of a growing population.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on certification requirements for
persons wishing to work in public schools can
be obtained from the State department of educa­
tion at the State capital. General career informa­
tion may be obtained from :
American Speech and Hearing Association,
1001 Connecticut Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C. 20036.

A list of colleges and universities that have re­
ceived grants to provide traineeships at the
graduate level is available from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20201.

Veterinarians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-34.10)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)

Nature of Work
Veterinarians (doctors of veterinary medicine)
treat sick and injured animals. They diagnose dis­
eases and injuries on the basis of the animal's ap­
pearance and behavior, and by taking tempera­

tures and making tests. When necessary, veteri­
narians operate on animals and prescribe and ad­
minister drugs, medicines, biologicals, serums,
and vaccines. Their work helps to prevent the out­
break and spread of diseases among animals. Be­

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

cause many animal diseases can be transmitted to
people, this work is important to the public
health.
Veterinarians use X -ray machines, hypodermic
needles, syringes, and other medical equipment
especially made for animals. They may treat ani­
mals on the farm—sometimes in open fields— or
in veterinary clinics or hospitals. Veterinarians
also give advice on the care and breeding of ani­
mals.
The majority of veterinarians are general prac­
titioners. O f those who are specialists, the
greatest number treat small animals, often operat­
ing hospitals with boarding facilities for dogs and
cats. Some specialists treat specific kinds of ani­
mals, such as prize livestock, poultry, or thor­
oughbred horses. Many veterinarians inspect
meat, poultry, and other foods as a part of the
Federal and State public health programs. Others
teach in colleges or do research related to animal
diseases, drugs, and foods.

131
partment of Agriculture; a few worked for the
U.S. Public Health Service. About 900 veter­
inarians were commissioned officers in the Vet­
erinary Corps of the Army and the A ir Force.
In addition, many worked for State and local
government agencies and a few worked for inter­
national health agencies. Some were also em­
ployed by schools of veterinary medicine, agri­
cultural colleges, research and development
laboratories, large livestock farms, animal food
companies, and pharmaceutical companies that
manufacture drugs for animals.
In 1965, more than one-third o f all veterinari­
ans in the United States were in six States—Cali­
fornia, New York, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and
Texas. Veterinarians in rural areas chiefly treat
large animals; those in small towns usually en­
gage in general practice; those in cities and sub­
urban areas frequently limit their practice to
pets.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Where Employed
About 22,000 veterinarians were working in
early 1965; less than 5 percent were women. More
than two-thirds of all veterinarians were in pri­
vate practice. The Federal Government employed
about 2,200 veterinarians, chiefly in the U.S. De-

Veterinarian advises farm couple on herd health problems.

A license is required for the practice of vet­
erinary medicine in all States and the District of
Columbia. To obtain a license, an applicant must
be a graduate of a veterinary school approved by
the American Veterinary Medical Association,
pass a State Board examination, and, in a few
States, have some practical experience under the
supervision of a licensed veterinarian. A limited
number of States issue licenses without further
examination to veterinarians already licensed by
another State.
For positions in public health and other re­
search or college teaching, the master’s or Ph. D.
degree in a field such as pathology, public health,
or bacteriology may be required, in addition to
the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
(D .V.M .), awarded upon graduation from vet­
erinary school.
The minimum requirements for the D.V.M. is
2 years of preveterinary college work followed by
4 years of professional study in a school of vet­
erinary medicine. It may take 3 or 4 years, how­
ever, to complete the preveterinary curriculum,
which emphasizes chemistry and other science
courses. The veterinary college training includes
considerable practical experience in treatment of
animals, as well as laboratory work in anatomy,

132
biochemistry, and other scientific and medical
fields.
There were 18 colleges of veterinary medicine in
the United States in 1965. Some of the qualifica­
tions considered important by these colleges in se­
lecting students are a good scholastic record,
amount and character of preveterinary training,
good health, and a liking for animals. Since
veterinary colleges are largely State supported,
residents of the State in which the school is lo­
cated are usually given preference. In the South
and West, regional educational plans permit co­
operating States without veterinary schools to
send a few students to designated regional schools.
In other areas, schools may informally decide to
accept a certain number o f students from other
States, often giving priority to applicants from
nearby States which do not have veterinary
schools. Although women students are accepted by
all colleges of veterinary medicine, the number of
women admitted to the schools is relatively small;
only about 6 percent of the undergraduates in
1964 were women.
Some veterinarians begin as assistants to, or
partners of, established practitioners. Many estab­
lish their own practice and start with a modest
financial investment in such essentials as drugs,
instruments, and a car. However, a substantial
financial investment is required to open an animal
hospital or purchase an established practice. New­
ly qualified veterinarians who enter the Army or
Air Force are commissioned as first lieutenants.
New graduates who pass Federal civil service ex­
aminations can qualify for Federal positions as
meat and poultry inspectors, disease-control
workers, and research assistants. In addition, the
U.S. Department of Agriculture offers students
who have completed their junior year in schools
o f veterinary medicine opportunities to serve as
trainees during the summer months.
Employment Outlook
Veterinarians are expected to continue to have
very good employment opportunities through the
mid-1970’s. Although an increase in the demand
for veterinary services is anticipated in the years
ahead, the number of veterinarians will be re­
stricted by the present limited capacity of schools
of veterinary medicine. About 900 veterinarians
are expected to receive degrees annually, most of

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

whom will be needed to replace those lost to the
profession through retirement or death. Hence,
unless there is an expansion in teaching facilities,
the demand for veterinarians will probably ex­
ceed the supply during the 1965-75 decade.
Among the factors underlying the increasing
need for veterinary services are an increase in the
number of livestock and poultry required to feed
an expanding population; a growing pet popula­
tion resulting from a trend toward suburban liv­
ing; and an increase in veterinary research. Em­
phasis on scientific methods of raising and breed­
ing livestock and poultry, and a growth in do­
mestic and international public health and dis­
ease-control programs will probably also add to
the opportunities for veterinarians.
Women will continue to have best opportunities
in small animal practice, teaching, and research.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Veterinarians beginning their own practice can
generally cover their expenses the first year and
may often add to their earnings by working part
time for government agencies. As they gain ex­
perience, their incomes usually increase substan­
tially ; however, the income of the veterinarian in
private practice depends largely on the avail­
ability of other veterinary services in his geo­
graphical area, and the attitude o f potential
clients toward the use of professional care for
animals.
The average annual salary of veterinarians em­
ployed by State governments was $10,200 in 1964,
and the average annual salary of veterinarians
employed by universities was $11,600, according
to a survey of the American Veterinary Medical
Association. The income of veterinarians in pri­
vate practice is generally higher than that of
other veterinarians, according to the limited data
available.
Newly graduated veterinarians had an annual
starting salary of $7,710 in the Federal Govern­
ment in early 1965. Summer trainees in the U.S.
Department of Agriculture were paid $116 for
each week they worked (representing a rate of
$6,050 per year).
Veterinarians are sometimes exposed to danger
of physical injury, disease, and infection. Those
in private practice are likely to have long and ir­
regular working hours. Veterinarians in rural

H EALTH

133

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

areas may have to spend much time traveling to
and from distant farms and may have to work
outdoors in all kinds of weather. Veterinarians
can continue working well beyond the normal re­
tirement age because of the many opportunities
for part-time employment or practice.
Where To G o for More Information
Additional information on the earnings of vet­
erinarians and on veterinary medicine as a career,

as well as a list o f schools providing training, may
be obtained from :
American Veterinary Medical Association,
600 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605.

Information on opportunities for veterinarians
in the U.S. Department o f Agriculture is avail­
able from :
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

M A T H E M A T IC S A N D R E L A T E D F IE LD S
Mathematics is both a profession and a tool es­
sential for many kinds of work. Although mathe­
matics has always been of fundamental impor­
tance in science and engineering, it is only since
electronic computers have become widely used
that its potentialities as a field of employment
have been as fully realized as they are today. The
introduction o f electronic computing equipment
has opened up broad new horizons for the appli­
cation of mathematics—not only in the natural
sciences and engineering, but also in connection
with medicine, social science research, manage­
ment, and administration. As a result, employ­
ment opportunities for persons trained in mathe­
matics have expanded remarkably in the past 15
years.

This chapter includes descriptions of the occu­
pation of mathematician and two closely related
occupations— statistician and actuary. For en­
trance into any of these fields, college training in
mathematics is required. For many types of work,
graduate education is necessary.
In addition to the professions covered in this
chapter, workers in many other jobs use mathe­
matics extensively in performing their work.
These include engineers, chemists, physicists,
astronomers, geophysicists, and oceanographers,
whose work is discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book. Secondary school teachers o f mathematics
are not covered in this chapter but are included in
the statement on Secondary School Teachers.

Mathematicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.76)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 020.088)

Nature of Work
Mathematics is one of the oldest and most basic
sciences. It is also one of the most dynamic and
rapidly growing professions. Mathematicians to­
day are engaged in a wide range of activities
which include studying the behavior of the atom,
calculating orbits of earth satellites, and trans­
lating business and scientific problems into math­
ematical terms for solutions by electronic com­
puters.
Mathematical work may be divided into two
broad classes: pure or theoretical mathematics;
and applied mathematics, which includes mathe­
matical computation. Theoretical mathematicians
are concerned with the development o f mathe­
matical principles and the discovery o f relation­
ships among mathematical forms. They seek to
increase basic mathematical knowledge without
necessarily considering its use. Yet, this pure and
abstract mathematical knowledge has been instru­
134

mental in many scientific and engineering achieve­
ments. For example, a seemingly impractical nonEuclidean geometry invented by Bernhard Riemann in 1854 became an integral part o f the
theory of relativity developed by Albert Einstein
more than a half-century later.
Mathematicians engaged in applied work de­
velop techniques and approaches to solve practi­
cal problems in the physical, biological, and
social sciences. They analyze the various parts of
a problem and describe the existing relationships
in mathematical terms. They work on programs
ranging from the analysis of vibrations and
stability of rockets in outer space to studies of
the effects of new drugs on disease. Applied and
pure mathematics are not always sharply sepa­
rated in practice; many important developments
in theoretical mathematics have arisen directly
from practical problems. For example, Isaac
Newton developed differential calculus to de-

MATHEMATICS AND

135

RELATED FIELDS

basic mathematics or to solve practical problems.
Many teach in colleges and universities, where
they often combine teaching and research. Others
are engaged in the management and administra­
tion o f scientific activities, and a few do con­
sulting work.
Where Employed

Courtesy of the National Bureau of Standards

Mathematician solves theoretical problem by manipulating a
matrix device.

scribe and analyze the velocity and acceleration
of moving objects—something which could not
be done satisfactorily by earlier systems of
mathematics.
An important part o f the work in applied
mathematics involves using mathematical knowl­
edge and modem computing equipment (ranging
from desk calculators to complex electronic com­
puters) to obtain numerical answers to specific
problems. Some work in this area, such as devel­
oping advanced techniques for solving complex
engineering problems, requires a very high level
of mathematical knowledge and skill. However,
much of this work, such as that of programers
for digital computers, does not require the ad­
vanced training and inventiveness of the mathe­
matician. (See statement on Programers. For
other occupations related to the mathematics pro­
fession, see statements on Statisticians and A c­
tuaries in this chapter.)
The largest number of mathematicians are en­
gaged in research to increase the knowledge of

Approximately 50,000 mathematicians were
employed in the United States in mid-1964;
about 10 percent were women. Nearly one-half
of all mathematicians are employed by private
industry. About two-thirds of this group wrnrk in
manufacturing industries—primarily in the aero­
space and electrical equipment industries, and
those manufacturing office machines and com­
puters. Other mathematicians work for consult­
ing firms or are self-employed as consultants.
Colleges and universities employ more than
two-fifths of all mathematicians; many of these
work full time on research projects in the uni­
versity laboratories. Others are employed by the
Federal Government, chiefly by the Department
of Defense. A few work for State and local
governments and nonprofit organizations.
Mathematicians are employed in all States.
However, they are concentrated in those States
with large industrial areas and sizable college and
university enrollments. Nearly half of the total are
employed in six States: California, New York,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and
Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The minimum educational requirement for
most beginning positions in mathematics is the
bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or
with a major in an applied field and a minor in
mathematics. For many entrance positions, par­
ticularly in research and teaching, graduate
training in mathematics is required. Advanced
study is also needed for advancement to most
high-level positions in all types of work.
The bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered
in several hundred colleges and universities lo­
cated throughout the country. A few of the
mathematics courses usually required in an
undergraduate curriculum are analytical geome­

136
try, calculus, differential equations, statistics,
mathematical analyses, and modern algebra.
Advanced degrees in mathematics are awarded
by about 200 colleges and universities. In gradu­
ate school, the student builds upon the basic
knowledge acquired in the undergraduate cur­
riculum. He usually specializes in a specific field
of mathematics such as algebra, statistics, applied
mathematics, or topology by conducting inten­
sive research and taking several advanced
courses in that field.
The bachelor’s degree is adequate preparation
for many positions in private industry and the
Federal Government, particularly those connect­
ed with computer work. Some new graduates
with the bachelor’s degree assist senior mathe­
maticians by working out computations and
solving minor mathematical problems in applied
research. Others work as graduate teaching or
research assistants in colleges and universities
while working toward advanced degrees.
Advanced degrees are required for an ever-in­
creasing number of jobs in industry and Govern­
ment—in research and many areas o f applied
mathematics. The Ph. D. degree is necessary for
most high-level college and university teaching
positions and for the more advanced research
work, such as formulating mathematical theories
to describe an engineering or scientific situation.
For work in applied mathematics, training in
the field to which the mathematics will be applied
is important. In applied mathematics, the main
fields of application are physics and engineering;
other fields include business and industrial man­
agement, economics, statistics, chemistry, and
biology. For work concerned with high-speed
electronic computers, training in numerical anal­
ysis and programing is especially desirable.
Some personal qualifications needed by mathe­
maticians are a keen logical mind, imagination,
intellectual curiosity, and the desire and ability
to analyze and solve new and difficult problems.
Mathematicians must also be able to express
mathematical ideas clearly and concisely for
scientists, engineers, and others who use mathe­
matics but are not mathematicians.
Employment Outlook
The outlook is for continued rapid growth in
employment of mathematicians through the mid-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

1970’s. As in the early and mid-1960’s, there
will be a particular demand for mathematicians
with Ph. D. degrees—women as well as men—
for research, teaching, and many applied mathe­
matics positions.
A major factor which should continue to make
mathematics one of the most rapidly growing
scientific fields is the growth in research and de­
velopment, in which two-fifths of all mathema­
ticians are engaged. Total expenditures for re­
search and development have increased rapidly
in recent years and are expected to continue to
rise through the mid-1970’s, although somewhat
slower than in the past.
The demand for mathematicians in research
and development is closely associated with the
use o f high-speed electronic computers. These
computers have made it possible to solve a wide
variety of complex problems in engineering, and
natural and social science research, and also have
opened broad new fields for mathematics in busi­
ness management. Using these computers, mathe­
maticians can provide information to business
managers and officials to help them solve problems
in such areas as production programing, opera­
tions research, product distribution, sales promo­
tion, advertising, and inventory control.
The demand generated by computers is not
only for mathematicians, but also for people who
can apply mathematics to specific problems. Part
of this demand probably will be satisfied by the
inclusion of more advanced mathematical training
in the education o f engineers, physicists, biolo­
gists, and specialists in other fields. However,
there will be a growing need for mathematicians
who have a high degree of mathematical compe­
tence and a broad knowledge of particular fields
of application. The demand for people to do
mathematical computation work will also expand.
The employment of mathematicians as college
and university teachers should also rise substan­
tially during the late 1960's and early 1970's
when enrollments are expected to grow rapidly.
Not only is the number o f students majoring in
mathematics expected to increase sharply, but the
number o f mathematics courses taken by those
majoring in other fields may also rise. Colleges
and universities will continue to provide most of
the employment opportunities for specialists in
theoretical mathematics.

138
areas such as probability theory, experimental de­
sign, and regression analysis. Unlike applied sta­
tisticians, mathematical statisticians usually do
not specialize in a subject-matter field. However,
the latter frequently work with applied statisti­
cians in making statistical studies.
Most statisticians are engaged in planning sur­
veys, designing experiments, or analyzing data.
Those who plan surveys choose the source from
which the data are to be collected, determine the
type and size of the sample to be studied, and
draw up the questionnaire or reporting form.
They may also prepare instructions for the work­
ers who will collect the data and for the statisti­
cal clerks who will code and tabulate the returns.
Statisticians who design experiments prepare
mathematical models which can be tested to con­
firm or contradict a particular theory. Those who
are engaged in analytical work interpret data al­
ready collected and summarize their findings in
tables, charts, and written reports. Some statis­
ticians perform administrative functions in con­
nection with statistical research programs. Others
teach in colleges and universities—often combin­
ing research with teaching activities.
Because statistics is a tool used in many differ­
ent fields, it is sometimes diflicult to distinguish
people who are primarily statisticians from those
who are chiefly subject-matter specialists making

Statistician plots a graph from computer tabulated data.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

only a limited use of statistics. For example, an
applied statistician who works with data on eco­
nomic conditions may have the title of economist
instead o f statistician, or a mathematical statis­
tician engaged in applying probability theory to
the development o f new statistical methods may
be classified as a mathematician.
Where Employed
Approximately 21,000 professional workers
were employed as statisticians in 1965; nearly onethird were women. The largest number of statis­
ticians were employed by private industry, mostly
in market research, quality control, production
and sales forecasting, and administration of sta­
tistical programs. Some worked for consulting
firms or as independent statistical consultants.
Federal Government agencies also employ a siz­
able number of statisticians, primarily in the De­
partments of Commerce; Defense; Agriculture;
Health, Education, and W elfare; and Labor. Col­
leges and universities employ some applied statis­
ticians and are a major source of employment for
mathematical statisticians. Other statisticians are
employed by State and local governments, and
nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Q u a lifica tio n and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics
or mathematics is the minimum educational re­
quirement for many beginning positions in ap­
plied and mathematical statistics. For some begin­
ning positions in applied statistics, however, a
bachelor’s degree, with a major in economics or
some other applied field and a minor in statistics,
is acceptable preparation. A master’s degree in
statistics or mathematics is required for many en­
trance positions in mathematical statistics and
teaching, and is almost indispensable for promo­
tion to high-level positions in mathematical sta­
tistics. The Ph. D. degree is essential for advance­
ment to top-level teaching positions and is an
asset in obtaining high-ranking administrative
positions and consulting work. For advancement
in analytical and survey work, there is a trend
toward requiring advanced academic training in
the subject-matter field as well as in statistics.
Relatively few colleges and universities offer
training leading to a bachelor’s degree with a ma-

137

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

Along with the anticipated rise in demand for
mathematicians, a significant increase is expected
in the number of graduates with degrees in
mathematics, particularly at the bachelor’s level.
I f graduates in this field continue to increase as
rapidly as they have in recent years, the number
of new graduates seeking employment in the pro­
fession will more than double over the 1965-75
period. Thus, new graduates with only the
bachelor’s degree may face increasing competi­
tion for entry positions in mathematics in the
late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Nevertheless, gradu­
ates with advanced degrees and those with
bachelor’s degrees who rank high in their class
should continue to have excellent employment op­
portunities in the profession. The training re­
quired of mathematics graduates also serves as
an excellent foundation for employment in many
occupations, including high school teaching and
certain jobs in engineering, economics, and sta­
tistics.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Annual starting salaries in private industry
for mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees were
about $7,000 in mid-1964, according to the limit­
ed information available. New graduates with the
master’s degree received starting salaries about
$500 to $1,000 a year higher. Yearly salaries for
new graduates with Ph. D. degrees, most of

whom usually have some experience, ranged from
about $10,000 to $16,000 in 1964.
In the Federal Government in early 1965,
mathematicians with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at either $5,990 or $7,050
a year, depending on their college records. Be­
ginning mathematicians who had completed all
requirements for the master’s degree could start
at $7,050 or $7,710; those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,945 or $10,250.
In colleges and universities, starting salaries
for mathematicians with the Ph.D. degree who
were employed as teachers in 1964 ranged from
about $4,500 to $11,000 for 9 months of teaching.
Mathematicians in educational institutions often
supplement their regular salaries with income
from special research projects, consulting work,
and writing for publications.
The average (median) annual salary for
mathematicians in the National Science Founda­
tion’s National Register of Scientific and Tech­
nical Personnel, was $11,000 in 1964. Only 10
percent earned less than $7,000 a year, and about
10 percent earned $18,500 or more.
Where To G o for More Information
American Mathematical Society,
190 Hope St., Providence, R.I. 02906.
Mathematical Association of America,
University of Buffalo, N .Y. 14214.

Statisticians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.51)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 020.088 and .188)

Nature of Work
Statisticians plan and conduct studies to help
natural and social scientists extend their knowl­
edge and to provide government and business o f­
ficials with statistical information needed in mak­
ing decisions. They use statistical methods to col­
lect, analyze, and interpret numerical data. Their
prime objective is to obtain accurate information
on the subject being studied with a minimum ex­
penditure of time and money.
Statisticians specialize either in the application
of statistical methods to a subject-matter field or
in mathematical statistics. Applied statisticians

use statistical methods to collect and analyze data
in a particular field, such as economics, agricul­
ture, psychology, public health, demography,
physics, or engineering. They may forecast popu­
lation growth or economic conditions, predict and
evaluate the results of a new marketing program,
develop methods of testing the quality of mass
produced products, or help engineers and scien­
tists determine the best design for a jet airplane.
Mathematical statisticians use mathematical
theory to design and improve statistical methods
for obtaining and interpreting numerical infor­
mation. They are primarily theoreticians, con­
cerned with developing new statistical tools in

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

jor in statistics. Most schools, however, offer
either a degree in mathematics or a sufficient num­
ber of courses in statistics to qualify graduates
for beginning positions. Courses essential for
statisticians include college algebra, plane trig­
onometry, analytical geometry, differential and
integral calculus, linear algebra, and at least one
course in statistical methods. Other courses of
importance include sampling, correlation analysis,
design o f experiments, probability theory, and
courses on the use of computers. For many quality
control positions, training in engineering and in
the application of statistical methods to manu­
facturing processes are desirable. For many mar­
ket research, business analysis, and forecasting
positions, courses in business administration or a
related field are helpful.
Graduate instruction in statistics was offered
by approximately 40 colleges and universities in
1964. For entrance into a graduate program in
statistics, schools usually require a bachelor’s de­
gree with a good background in mathematics.
The student interested in applied work should at­
tend a school where he can pursue research proj­
ects in his subject-matter field, as well as take ad­
vanced courses in statistics.
Inexperienced statisticians with only the
bachelor’s degree often spend much o f their time
in clerical work, or its supervision, on their first
jobs. As they gain experience, statisticians usu­
ally move up to positions of greater technical and
often supervisory responsibility. Those with ex­
ceptional ability and interest may advance to
high-level supervisory or administrative posi­
tions.
Among the personal qualifications needed by
statisticians are a logical and inquiring mind, an
interest and facility in mathematics, and the
ability to translate practical problems into sta­
tistical terms. They should be able to express
themselves clearly and concisely in order to work
with scientists, business officials, and others who
must use statistics but are not statisticians.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook is good for statis­
ticians through the mid-1970’s. A growing
emphasis on modern statistical methods in con­
ducting research and an increasing use of elec­
tronic computers are major factors in the

139
growing demand for statisticians in private in­
dustry, government, and colleges and universi­
ties.
The largest expansion in employment is ex­
pected in private industry. Persons who have
broad training in mathematics and statistics, as
well as a knowledge o f engineering or the physi­
cal sciences, will be needed for quality control
work in manufacturing, and for work with
scientists and engineers in research and develop­
ment activities. Business firms are also expected
to rely more and more on statisticians to fore­
cast sales, analyze business conditions, modernize
their accounting procedures, and help solve other
management problems.
The employment of statisticians in Federal
Government agencies will probably increase mod­
erately. Additional personnel will be needed not
only in research and development work, but also
for expanded programs in such fields as social
security, health, and education. Some statis­
ticians will also be needed to fill positions in con­
tinuing programs which involve the collection
and analysis o f many kinds of social and economic
data.
The employment o f statisticians as college and
university teachers is also expected to rise
through the mid-1970’s, primarily as a result of
the overall increase in enrollments. Furthermore,
it is anticipated that many colleges will offer
additional courses in statistics, as the importance
o f statistical methods in government, business,
academic, and industrial research becomes even
more widely recognized.
In addition to the number needed to fill new
positions, several hundred statisticians will be re­
quired each year to replace members of the pro­
fession who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations.
Along with the anticipated rise in the demand
for statisticians, an increase is expected in the
number o f statistics graduates. However, in 1964
the number o f these graduates was barely enough
to meet replacement needs. Thus, employment
opportunities for new college graduates with de­
grees in statistics at all degree levels are expected
to be very good through the mid-1970’s.
Well-qualified women statisticians should find
favorable opportunities in all phases of statistical
work. Opportunities for advancement for women

140

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

statisticians will probably be best in teaching and
in research positions in the social sciences.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for new college graduates em­
ployed as applied statisticians in private industry
generally averaged between $5,500 and $6,000 a
year in 1964, according to the limited informa­
tion available. Starting salaries for mathematical
statisticians with the bachelor’s degree were usu­
ally somewhat higher. Salaries for beginning
statisticians with the master’s degree averaged
between $600 and $1,200 a year more than for
those with only the bachelor’s degree.
In the Federal Government service in early
1965, analytical and survey statisticians with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience could start
at either $5,000 or $6,050 a year, depending on
their scholastic records. Beginning analytical and
survey statisticians who had completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree could start at

$6,050 or $7,220. Those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,650 or $10,250. In the Federal
Government, mathematical statisticians had some­
what higher starting salaries than analytical and
survey statisticians.
Statisticians employed by colleges and univer­
sities generally earn somewhat less than those
employed by private industry and the Federal
Government. Some indication of the salary levels
of statisticians employed as teachers may be ob­
tained from the earnings data for college and
university teachers as a group. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.) In addition to
their regular salaries, statisticians in educational
institutions sometimes obtain income from out­
side research projects, consulting work, and writ­
ing for publications.
Where To G o for More Information
American Statistical Association,
810 18th St. N W „ Washington, D.C.

20006.

Actuaries
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.55)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of Work
Actuaries are responsible for developing and
keeping insurance and pension plans on a sound
financial basis. Using mathematical methods and
techniques, they develop and analyze statistical
tables to evaluate the probability of loss on what­
ever is to be insured. They are concerned with
mortality (death) and morbidity (sickness) rates,
the frequency of injuries, and personal and prop­
erty losses from fire, burglary, explosion, and
other hazards. Taking into consideration the esti­
mates of payments to policyholders, as well as
estimates of their company’s future expenses and
investment income, actuaries determine the pre­
mium rates for each particular type of insurance
policy. They also analyze company earnings and
prepare policy contract provisions.
To perform their duties effectively, actuaries
must keep abreast o f general economic trends and
legislative, health, social, and other developments
that may affect the soundness of insurance prac­
tices. Because of their broad knowledge of the

insurance field, actuaries frequently work on prob­
lems arising in several different departments of
their companies, such as investment, underwrit­
ing, group insurance, and pension sales and serv­
ice departments. Those in executive positions may
help to determine general company policy and
may testify before public agencies on proposed
legislation which would affect the insurance busi­
ness or on the justification for intended changes in
company premium rates or contract provisions.
Actuaries employed by the Federal Government
usually deal with a particular Government insur­
ance or pension program, such as social security
(old-age, survivors, disability, and health insur­
ance) or life insurance for veterans and members
of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in State govern­
ment positions are involved in the supervision and
regulation of insurance companies, in the opera­
tion o f State retirement or pension systems, and
they may work on problems connected with unem­
ployment insurance or workmen’s compensation.
Consulting actuaries perform services, on a fee
basis, for private companies, unions, and govern-

MATHEMATICS AND RELATED FIELDS

ment agencies. They often set up employee pension
and welfare plans and periodically make actuarial
valuations of them.
Where Employed
Approximately 2,500 actuaries were employed
in the United States in 1965. They are concen­
trated in States that are major centers o f the
insurance industry. Nearly half of all actuaries
are employed in four States—New York, Connec­
ticut, Illinois, and Massachusetts.
Private insurance companies employ about twothirds of all actuaries. Nearly nine-tenths of this
group work for life insurance companies and the
remainder work for property and casualty com­
panies. The size o f an insurance company’s actu­
arial staff depends primarily upon the volume of
its insurance work. Large companies may employ
as many as 50 to 100 actuaries, whereas small
companies may have only 1 or 2 actuaries on
their staffs or may rely entirely on consulting
firms or rating bureaus (associations which sup­
ply actuarial data to member companies).
Several hundred actuaries are employed by con­
sulting firms or are in business for themselves.
Significant numbers are also employed by private
firms other than insurance companies to admin­
ister private pension and welfare plans. Others
work for Federal and State Governments. Some
are employed by property and casualty rating
bureaus and a few teach in colleges and univer­
sities.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics is usually required for entry into actuarial
work. Some new graduates with a major in such
fields as economics or business administration and
a minor in mathematics can qualify for beginning
actuarial positions. Although only a few colleges
and universities offer training specifically de­
signed for actuarial careers, several hundred in­
stitutions offer the necessary courses. The mathe­
matics courses that should be taken by the pros­
pective actuary include algebra, analytical geom­
etry, differential and integral calculus, mathemati­
cal statistics, and probability. Other desirable
courses include insurance law, economics, invest­
ments, accounting and other aspects of business

141

administration, and English composition and
speech.
To gain full professional status, actuaries usu­
ally must pass a series o f examinations, which
cover general mathematics, specialized actuarial
mathematics, and all phases o f the insurance
business. It is desirable for the student consider­
ing an actuarial career to take the beginning ex­
aminations covering general mathematics while
he is still in college. Success in passing these ex­
aminations helps the student determine whether
he has the ability to become an actuary. Also,
those who pass have better opportunities for em­
ployment and a higher starting salary. The more
advanced examinations, usually taken by those in
junior actuarial positions, require extensive home
study and experience in insurance work. It usu­
ally takes from 5 to 10 years after entering a
beginning actuarial position to complete an en­
tire series.
The actuarial examinations for the life insur­
ance field are given by the Society of Actuaries,
and those in property and casualty insurance by
the Casualty Actuarial Society. Associate mem­
bership is awarded after completion of part of
the examination series. The designation of “ Fel­
low” is conferred after successful completion of
either all 10 examinations given by the Society
of Actuaries or the 8 examinations of the Casu­
alty Actuarial Society.
Besides mathematical ability, applicants for
beginning actuarial positions are likely to be
evaluated also on personal characteristics, such as
ability to deal with people, leadership qualities,
and interest in business problems. Preference is
given to applicants who have passed at least one
or more o f the actuarial examinations, and to
those with some actuarial experience. This ex­
perience is provided in some insurance companies
which hire and train college undergraduates dur­
ing the summer months.
A beginning actuary in an insurance company
is usually rotated among different jobs in his de­
partment to learn the various actuarial opera­
tions and become familiar with the different
phases o f insurance work. A t first, the trainee
may make calculations or tabulations for actu­
arial tables or for the annual statement. Later,
he may supervise actuarial clerks and prepare
correspondence and reports.

142

Advancement to more responsible work as an
assistant actuary and later as associate or chief
actuary depends largely upon on-the-job per­
formance and the number of actuarial examina­
tions successfully completed. Some actuaries,
because o f their broad knowledge of the insur­
ance and related fields, qualify for administrative
positions in other company activities, particu­
larly in the underwriting, accounting, or dataprocessing departments. A significant number of
actuaries advance to top executive positions.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for actuaries are ex­
pected to be very good through the mid-1970’s.
New graduates who have the necessary mathe­
matical education and who have passed some ex­
aminations o f either professional society will be
in particular demand.
Employment o f actuaries is expected to in­
crease in both the life and casualty insurance
fields, primarily because of anticipated growth
in the number and type of insurance policies and
employee-benefit plans. (See chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Insurance Business.) More actuaries
will be needed to solve the increasing number of
problems arising from continuously changing
and increasingly complex insurance and pension
coverage. The rapidly growing number o f group
life insurance plans and health and pension plans
will require additional actuarial service. In the
property and casualty insurance field, additional
actuaries will be needed to make studies which
are used in determining policy rate changes, and
to justify these changes before State regulatory
agencies. There will be continuing strong de­
mand for actuaries capable of working with the
electronic computers in widespread use by large
insurance companies. Besides actuaries who will
be needed to fill new positions, a few will have

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

to be trained to replace those who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Employment opportunities will probably con­
tinue to be good for the few women who seek
actuarial work. Advancement opportunities will
also be good for women actuaries who complete
the years of continuous training and study re­
quired to pass the actuarial examinations to gain
full profesisonal status.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Annual starting salaries o f new college gradu­
ates entering actuarial work in insurance com­
panies were generally about $6,000 in 1964, ac­
cording to the limited information available.
Those who had passed some of the beginning
actuarial examinations or who had gained some
experience in the summer programs offered by
insurance companies usually received higher
starting salaries.
In the Federal Government service in early
1965, new graduates with the bachelor’s degree
entering actuarial work could start at either
$5,990 or $7,050 a year, depending on their college
records. (See chapter on Occupations in Gov­
ernment.)
Beginning actuaries can look forward to a
marked increase in earnings as they pass the ex­
aminations o f either Society and gain profes­
sional experience. Most Fellows o f either the
Society of Actuaries or the Casualty Actuarial
Society earn over $12,000 a year. Many actuaries
earn more than $18,000 a year and some in execu­
tive positions in large insurance companies earn
over $25,000.
Where To G o for More Information
Society of Actuaries,
208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111.
Casualty Actuarial Society,
200 East 42d St., New York, N.Y.

60604.

10017.

N A T U R A L S C IE N C E S
The natural sciences are concerned with the
physical world and the living things within it.
They may be divided into three broad groups—
the physical sciences, the biological sciences, and
the earth sciences—all of which are discussed in
this chapter. Mathematics, often considered as
part of the natural sciences, is discussed in a
separate chapter elsewhere in the Handbook.
The physical sciences are the largest field of
employment among the natural sciences; over
175.000 physical scientists were employed in mid1964. These scientists are usually classified into
four occupational specialties—chemistry, physics,
metallurgy, and astronomy. Chemistry is by far
the largest of these specialties, w
rith nearly 120,000 chemists employed in mid-1964. Smaller
numbers were in physics (40,000), metallurgy
(15,000), and astronomy (1,000).
A large number of natural scientists— about
130.000 in mid-1964— worked in the biological
sciences. Most o f these scientists specialized in one
of three broad fields—biology, medicine, or agri­
culture. The largest number, nearly 60,000,
worked in biology. More than 40,000 were em­
ployed as agricultural scientists, and about 28,000
worked on problems related to medicine.
The earth sciences are relatively small fields
o f scientific employment. In mid-1964, the number
of earth scientists totaled 28,000. O f these earth
scientists, the largest number, 16,000, worked in
geology. Smaller numbers were employed in geo­
physics, 6,000; meteorology, 3,000; and oceanog­
raphy, 3,000.

A bachelor’s degree is the usual minimum edu­
cational requirement for work in the natural
sciences. Graduate training is needed for many
positions, especially in teaching and research,
and is helpful for advancement in all types of
work. In some specialties, advanced degrees are
needed for most positions.
Employment in the natural sciences has
grown rapidly in recent years and the outlook is
for continued rapid growth through the mid1970’s. In general, the most important factor
underlying the expected increase in employment
is the likely growth of expenditures for research
and development. Such expenditures have in­
creased very rapidly in recent years and are ex­
pected to continue to increase, although somewhat
more slowly than in the past. Other factors con­
tributing to the expected employment growth in
the natural sciences are the expansion of indus­
try, the increasing complexity of industrial prod­
ucts and processes, and the sharp increase in
science enrollments expected in colleges and uni­
versities.
The following chapter presents descriptions of
some of the major occupations within the natural
sciences. In addition to these occupations, work­
ers in many other fields may require a strong back­
ground in the natural sciences. Among these are
engineering, mathematics, and medical occupa­
tions, which are described elsewhere in the
Handbook.

Biological Sciences
The biological sciences are concerned with the
world of living tilings—men and microbes, wild
and domestic animals, plants and insects, birds
and fish. Some scientists in this field conduct research to expand our knowledge about living
organisms; others teach in colleges and universi-

ties. Still others apply biological knowledge to
the solution of practical problems, such as the
development of new drugs and vaccines or new
varieties of plants. (Among professional workers
in the biological sciences are foresters, soil scientists, soil conservationists, biochemists, and range
143

778-316 0 — 65—— 11

144

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

managers whose work is discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.

Nature of Work
Biological scientists, who also may be called
life scientists, study living organisms, their struc­
ture, evolutionary development, and life proc­
esses. They also study the relation between these
organisms and their environment. The number
and variety of plants and animals are so vast
and the life processes so varied and complex that
biologists must, of necessity, become specialists.
Some biologists learn as much as possible about a
particular kind of animal or plant. Others, inter­
ested in how an animal or human body functions,
study such things as the nervous system, how
food is digested, or how organisms are affected
by disease. Some are interested in the evolution
of living organisms, the mechanism of heredity,
or the ways environmental factors, such as light
or heat, affect life processes. In general, biologi­
cal scientists specialize in a subdiscipline o f the
three broad areas of the life sciences—biological,
medical, or agricultural science.
A substantial number of biological scientists
are engaged in research and development. Many
conduct basic research, aimed at adding to our
knowledge of living organisms with only sec­
ondary regard to its application. Nevertheless,
the development of insecticides, disease-resistant
crops, and antibiotics have all stemmed from
basic research in the biological sciences.
Biological research may take many forms. A
botanist exploring the volcanic Alaskan valleys
to see what plants live in this strange environ­
ment and a zoologist searching the jungles of
the Amazon valley for previously unknown kinds
of animals are both doing research, as is an en­
tomologist in a laboratory testing various chem­
ical insecticides for effectiveness and possible
hazards to human and animal life.
Regardless of the type of research in which
they are engaged, biological scientists must be
familiar with fundamental biological research
techniques and with the use of microscopes and
other laboratory equipment. Advanced techniques
and principles drawn from chemistry and phys­
ics are frequently used. Furthermore, because of
the enormous number of variable factors in­
volved in biological experiments, a knowledge of

Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Army

Biological scientists rely heavily on microscopes.

mathematical and statistical procedures, as well
as of the operation of electronic computers, is
often needed.
Teaching in colleges and universities is the
major function of a sizable number o f biological
scientists. Many teachers of biological sciences
combine independent research with their regular
teaching duties, and in some large institutions
spend the major portion of their time on re­
search.
Some biological scientists are engaged in man­
agement and administrative work, primarily the
planning, supervision, and administration of
programs of research or testing o f foods, drugs,
and other products. Others act as liaison between
the Federal Government and the agricultural
experiment stations at State universities, and
aid in the planning, development, and evaluation
of research programs at these stations.
Relatively small numbers of biologists are en­
gaged in a variety of other types of work, such
as consulting, writing, testing, and inspection.
A few are employed in technical sales or field
service work for industrial firms; such work may
include, for example, teaching company salesmen
and prospective purchasers the value and proper

NATURAL SCIENCES

use of new chemicals. Some are engaged in re­
search in natural history museums.
Biological scientists may be classified into
three broad groups characterized by the general
type o f organism with which they work: Botan­
ists, who study plants; zoologists, who are con­
cerned with animals; and microbiologists, who
work with micro-organisms.
Biological scientists may also be classified ac­
cording to their specialties— some of which are
wholly within 1 of the 3 major groupings, and
others which can be found in all 3 groups. For
example, some biological scientists are classified
according to the specific type of organism stud­
ied, as are mycologists, who are botanists con­
cerned with the study of fungi. Others are
classified according to the type of approach used,
as are geneticists, who may be botanists, zoolo­
gists, or microbiologists studying the mecha­
nisms of the heredity of a particular plant, ani­
mal, or micro-organism. Scientists whose work
cuts across more than one o f these major group­
ings, often the case with college teachers, may
simply call themselves biologists. A description
of the work of some biological scientists follows.
Botanists (D.O.T. 041.081) study plant life.
Some, known as plant taxonomists, specialize in
the identification and classification of plants.
Other botanists include plant morphologists, con­
cerned primarily with the structure o f plants
and plant cells; plant physiologists, whose pri­
mary interest is in the life processes of plants;
and plant pathologists who study the causes and
control of plant diseases.
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.081) investigate
bacteria, viruses, molds, and other organisms of
microscopic or submicroscopic size. The terms bac­
teriology and microbiology are sometimes used
interchangeably, but microbiology, the broader
term, is preferable when referring to the study
of all microscopic organisms. Microbiologists
grow’ these organisms and study them under light
and electron microscopes and with a variety of
other specialized equipment. Some microbiologists
study medical problems, such as the relationship
between bacteria and infectious disease, or the
effect o f antibiotics on bacteria. Others specialize
in soil bacteriology (the study of micro-organ­
isms in soils, and the relation of such organisms
to soil fertility), virology (the study of viruses,

145

some of which may cause diseases in animals or
plants), immunology (the study of mechanisms
by which the body fights off infection), or ser­
ology (the study of animal and plant fluids, in­
cluding blood serums). Still others specialize in
the study of the fermentations involved in manu­
facturing such products as beer and wune, or in
the search for new or better antibiotics. Many
specialize in the production and testing of bio­
logical products or in the testing of food prod­
ucts and water supplies.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.081) study animal life—
its origin, classification, behavior, life processes,
diseases, and parasites—and the w
’ays in which an­
T
imals influence and are influenced by their en­
vironment. Zoologists who specialize in the study
o f certain classes o f animals usually use titles
which indicate the kind of animal studied; thus,
ornithologists study birds; herpetologists study
reptiles and amphibians; ichthyologists study
fishes; and mammalogists, mammals.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.081) investigate
methods of growfing, breeding, and improving
crops such as corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton, and
T
sugar. They seek new, hardier varieties of crops
and search for better methods of controlling
disease, pests, and weeds. Agronomists may spe­
cialize in the problems of a geographical region,
a particular crop, or a technical area such as
crop breeding or production methods.
Anatomists (D.O.T. 041.081) study the struc­
ture and biological processes of plants and animals.
Those who specialize in the structure of cells are
knowm as cytologists, while those who specialize
7
in the structure o f tissues and organs are known
as histologists. Anatomists may study structures
visible to the naked eye or of microscopic size,
or those of submicroscopic size, visible only
through the use of the electron microscope. Many
anatomists specialize in human anatomy; others
compare relationships within the animal or plant
kingdoms.
Biophysicists (D.O.T. 041.081), who are
trained in both physics and biology, study the
physical properties and relationships of living
cells and organisms, and the response of living
organisms to physical forces—including heat,
light, radiation, sound, and electricity. They may
use the electron microscope to make tissues visible
down to their smallest units, or they may use

146
nuclear reactors to study the effect o f radiation on
cells and tissues.
Embryologists study the development of an or­
ganism from fertilization of the egg until it be­
comes a complete organism. They study the
physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechan­
isms which control and direct the processes of
development, how and why this control is accom­
plished, and the causes of abnormalities in de­
velopment.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 041.081) study insects;
very often to determine their effect on people,
animals, and plants. Many entomologists do re­
search on methods of controlling harmful insects
which carry disease and spoil food supplies.
Others study ways to utilize beneficial insects
such as honeybees. Some entomologists specialize
in identifying and classifying the enormous num­
ber of different kinds of insects.
Geneticists (D.O.T. 041.081) are concerned
with the nature and transmission of hereditary
characteristics. Geneticists engaged primarily in
improving plant and animal breeds of economic
importance— such as cereal and tobacco crops or
diary cattle and poultry—may be classified as
plant or animal breeders, agronomists, or ani­
mal science specialists. Theoretical geneticists
search for the mechanisms which produce herit­
able traits in plants, animals, or humans.
Horticulturists (D.O.T. 040.081) are concerned
with orchard and garden plants such as fruits,
nuts, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants,
and other nursery stocks. They develop new or
improved plant varieties and try to find better
methods of growing, harvesting, storing, and
transporting horticultural crops. Horticulturists
usually specialize in either a specific plant or a
particular technical problem, such as plant breed­
ing.
Husbandry specialists (animal) (D.O.T. 040.081
and .15) investigate and experiment with the
breeding, feeding, management, and diseases o f
domestic farm animals to improve the health and
yield o f these animals.
Nutritionists (D.O.T. 077.128) study the proc­
esses through which food is utilized; the kinds and
quantities o f food elements such as the minerals,
fats, sugars, vitamins, and proteins that are essen­
tial to build and repair body tissues and maintain
health; and how these food elements are trans­
formed into body substances and energy. Nutri­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tionists also analyze foods to determine their
composition in terms of essential ingredients or
nutrients.
Pathologists (D.O.T. 070.081) study the causes
and processes of disease, degeneration, and abnor­
mal functioning in humans, other animals, or in
plants. Many specialize in the study of the effects
o f diseases, parasites, and insect pests on cells,
tissues, and organs. Others study genetic varia­
tions and other abnormal effects caused by drugs.
The term “ pathologists” is normally reserved for
specialists in human pathology (medical path­
ology). Specialists in animal pathology are usual­
ly veterinarians. (See statement on Veterinar­
ians.) Those who study plant diseases may be
called plant pathologists or phytopathologists;
their work is discussed under the section on
botanists.
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 041.081) are engaged
primarily in determining the effects o f drugs on
life processes and in discovering and developing
new or improved chemical compounds which will
have certain desired effects on organisms. They
conduct tests on animals to determine the physio­
logical effects of drugs, gases, dusts, poisons, and

Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health

Biologist prepares cultures.

NATURAL SCIENCES

chemicals on tissues and organs, and correlate their
findings with medical data on humans.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.081) study the func­
tioning of cells, tissues, and organs and the ef­
fects o f environmental factors on life processes.
They may specialize in cellular activities; or in
one of the organ systems, such as the digestive,
nervous, circulatory, and reproductive systems.
The knowledge gained in such studies often pro­
vides the basis for the work o f many other spe­
cialists, such as biochemists, pathologists, pharma­
cologists, or nutritionists.
Where Employed
About 130,000 persons were employed in mid1964 in the biological sciences and in the closely
related fields of medical and agricultural scien­
ces; an estimated 10 percent were women. The
largest number of biological scientists— about
half o f the total— are employed by colleges and
universities. Medical schools and their associated
hospitals employ particularly large numbers of
biological scientists in the medical field, while
State agricultural colleges and universities and
agricultural experiment stations operated by uni­
versities in cooperation with Federal and State
Governments employ sizable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, animal husbandry special­
ists, entomologists, and other agriculture-related
specialists.
The Federal Government in mid-1964 em­
ployed about 30,000 biological scientists. The De­
partment o f Agriculture employs about twothirds of all these scientists. The Interior De­
partment employs nearly all the fish and wildlife
biologists in the Federal Government. Other
large numbers o f biological scientists are em­
ployed by the Department of the Army and the
National Institutes o f Health. State and local
governments also employ sizable numbers of
biologists— mostly fish and wildlife specialists,
microbiologists, and entomologists—for work in
conservation, detection and control o f disease,
and plant breeding.
More than 25,000 biological scientists worked
for private industry in mid-1964. Among the
major industrial employers are manufacturers of
pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and food
products. Some biological scientists work for
nonprofit organizations—mainly hospitals, clin­

147

ics, and privately financed research organizations
or foundations. A few are self-employed.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Young people seeking professional careers in
the biological sciences should plan to obtain an
advanced degree—preferably a Ph. D.—in their
field of interest. The bachelor’s degree with a
major in one of the biological sciences is ade­
quate preparation for many beginning jobs, but
promotional opportunities for those without
graduate training may be limited to intermediate
level positions.
The Ph. D. degree is generally required for
higher level college teaching positions and for
independent research. It is also necessary for an
increasing number o f other positions involving
the administration of research programs.
Biologists with master’s degrees can qualify for
most entry positions in applied research and for
some types of positions in college teaching and
basic research.
New graduates with bachelor’s degrees can
qualify for positions involving testing, produc­
tion and operation work, technical sales and serv­
ice, and duties connected with the enforcement of
government regulations. They may also obtain
positions as advanced technicians, particularly in
the area of medical biology. Those who graduate
near the top of their class can qualify for some
research positions, but these positions are mostly
o f a routine nature or are performed under close
supervision. Some graduates with bachelor’s de­
grees take courses in education and choose a
career as a high school teacher o f biology rather
than one as a biological scientist. (See statement
on Secondary School Teachers.)
Training leading to a bachelor’s degree with
a major in biology or in one o f the biological or
agricultural specialties is offered by most colleges
and universities. Courses differ greatly from one
college to another and it is important that a
student find out which college program best fits
his interests and needs. In general, liberal arts
colleges and universities emphasize training in
the basic biological sciences and in the medical
aspects of biological science. State universities
and land-grant colleges offer special advantages
to those interested in agricultural sciences, be­
cause their agricultural experiment stations pro­

148

vide many opportunities for practical training
and research work.
Prospective biological scientists should obtain
the broadest undergraduate training possible in
all branches of biology and in related sciences,
particularly organic and inorganic chemistry,
physics, and mathematics. Courses in statistics,
calculus, and biometrics are becoming increasing­
ly essential. Important also are training and
practice in laboratory techniques, in the use of
laboratory equipment, and in fieldwork.
Advanced degrees in the biological sciences
are also conferred by a large number of colleges
and universities. Requirements for advanced de­
grees usually include fieldwork and laboratory
research, as well as classroom studies and prep­
aration of a thesis.
Qualities needed by young persons planning a
career in the biological sciences include consider­
able interest in and curiosity about living things,
keen powers of observation, logical thought pro­
cesses, and patience. The biological scientist must
also be able to communicate his findings simply
and clearly, both in writing and speaking.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

moting studies of heart disease, cancer, and birth
defects. Research in such relatively new areas as
space biology (study of problems concerned with
physical, chemical, and biological stresses of
space flight and survival of men in space and on
other planets) and radiation biology (research
on the effects of radiation on the plant and ani­
mal kingdoms) will also probably increase.
Industry also is expected to increase its spend­
ing for research and development in the biologi­
cal sciences. Furthermore, the more stringent
health standards recently established by the Fed­
eral regulatory agencies may result in a need by
industry for additional biological scientists to
perform research and testing before new drugs,
chemicals, and processing methods can be made
available to the public.
Another factor which should increase employ­
ment of biological scientists is the substantially
larger college and university enrollments expect­
ed during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. A l­
though the resulting rise in demand for teachers
will be to a large extent for Ph. D.’s, there will
be many openings for qualified people holding
master’s degrees.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for biological scien­
tists with graduate degrees are expected to be
very good through the mid-1970’s. Demand will
be strong for biological scientists with doctorates
to do research on problems important to medicine
and health. Employment opportunities are also
likely to be favorable for persons with bachelor’s
degrees who graduate near the top of their class.
New graduates holding the bachelor’s degree will
also find many opportunities to work as research
assistants or in technician jobs while continuing
their graduate education.
Employment in the biological sciences is ex­
pected to grow rapidly during the next 10 years.
Although most employment opportunities will
result from growth, over 4,000 biological scien­
tists will be needed each year to replace those
who transfer to other fields, retire, or die.
One of the major factors which will tend to in­
crease employment o f biological scientists is the
anticipated continued growth in research and de­
velopment, particularly in medical research pro­
grams sponsored by the Federal Government and
voluntary health agencies, including those pro­

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government, in early 1965,
biological scientists with the bachelor’s degree
could begin at $5,000 or $6,050 a year, depend­
ing on their college record. Beginning biological
scientists with the bachelor’s degree and some
graduate study could start at $6,050, $7,220, or
$8,650; those with the Ph. D. degree could be­
gin at $8,650 or $10,250. Pharmacologists had
somewhat higher starting salaries than other
biological scientists.
Biological scientists with the Ph. D. degree
employed as college and university teachers typi­
cally received starting salaries between $6,000
and $7,500 a year in 1964, according to the lim­
ited information available. (F or further infor­
mation, see statement on College and University
Teachers.) Biologists in educational institutions
sometimes supplement their regular salaries
with income from writing, consulting, and spe­
cial research projects.
The average (median) annual salary for bio­
logical scientists was $10,700 in 1964, according
to the National Science Foundation’s National

NATURAL SCIENCES

149

Register o f Scientific and Technical Personnel;
only 10 percent earned less than $6,500 a year,
and about 10 percent earned $19,000 or more. In
general, biological scientists in private industry
tend to have higher salaries than those in either
colleges and universities or Government employ­
ment. According to the Register, agricultural
scientists generally earn somewhat lower salaries
than other biological scientists except in educa­
tional institutions.

Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Biological Sciences,
3900 Wisconsin Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C. 20016.
Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology,
9650 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, Md.

20014.

Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.
Employment Officer, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare,
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Earth Sciences
The earth sciences are concerned with the his­
tory, composition, and characteristics of the
earth— its lands, oceans, and atmosphere. The
largest portion of the scientists in this field are
engaged in exploration for new sources o f oil
and minerals. Some do basic research designed to
increase scientific knowledge. Others are con­
cerned mainly with applied research, using the
knowledge gained from basic research to solve
practical problems. Meteorologists, for example,
apply their scientific knowledge of the atmos­
phere to forecast weather for specific localities.

Earth scientists also teach in colleges and univer­
sities and they may also administer scientific pro­
grams and operations.
Many earth scientists specialize in one particu­
lar branch of their broad occupational field.
Geophysicists, for example, may be specialists
in hydrology or seismology; oceanographers, in
physical or biological oceanography. This chap­
ter discusses the specialties and the employment
outlook for the four major earth science occupa­
tions—geologist, geophysicist, meteorologist, and
oceanographer.

Geologists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.63)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of Work
Geology is the science of the earth. Geologists
study the earth’s history, structure, and com­
position as revealed by rock formations and by
animal and vegetable fossils. They search for
fuels, minerals, and water supplies and study
the physical and chemical processes which bring
about changes in the earth’s structure and sur­
face.
Many geologists spend a large amount o f their
time in field exploration. They study rock cores
and cuttings from deep holes drilled into the
earth and collect and examine rocks, minerals,
and fossils found at or near the surface of the
earth. Geologists also spend considerable time
in laboratories, where they study geological
specimens, analyze geological materials under

controlled temperature and pressure, and do
other research on geological processes. To present
the results of their field and laboratory investi­
gations, geologists prepare reports, articles, and
maps of surface and subsurface geological
phenomena. In their work, geologists use a vari­
ety of complex instruments, such as the X-ray
diffractometer, which determines the structure
of minerals, and the petrographic microscope,
which permits close study o f how rocks have
been formed and modified by earth processes.
Some geologists administer research and ex­
ploration programs. Others teach in colleges and
universities, where they may also work on re­
search projects.
Geologists usually specialize in one branch of
the science. Economic geologists find and super­
vise the development of mineral and fuel re­

150

sources. Petroleum geologists, who make up a
majority of all geologists, are economic geologists
specializing in the discovery and recovery o f oil
and natural gas. Engineering geologists apply
geological knowledge to engineering problems in
the construction of roads, airfields, tunnels, dams,
harbors, and other structures. Stratigrap hers
study the distribution and relative arrangement
of sedimentary rock layers in the earth’s crust.
Sedimentologists determine the processes and
products involved in the formation of sedimen­
tary rocks, and paleontologists identify, classify,
and determine the significance of fossils found
within the sediments. Petrologists and petrographers study the arrangement of minerals
within rocks, to classify the rocks and determine
their origins. Mineralogists examine, analyze, and
classify minerals and precious stones according to
their composition and structure. Geomorpholo­
gists analyze the form of the earth’s surface and
the processes— such as erosion and glaciation—
which change it.
Increasing numbers of geologists specialize in
new and rapidly growing fields that require a
detailed knowledge of both geology and one or
more other sciences. Among these specialists are
geochemists, who study the chemical composition
o f and the changes in minerals and rocks, and
astro geologists, who use knowledge of the earth’s
geology to interpret data on surface conditions
on the moon and the planets.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the Soil Conservation Service, and the Bureau of
Reclamation. State agencies also employ geolo­
gists, some of whom work on surveys conducted
in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey.
Although some positions are in foreign countries,
the majority o f Federal jobs are in the United
States.
Some geologists are employed in colleges and
universities. A few work for nonprofit research
institutions and museums.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Young people seeking professional careers in
geology should obtain an advanced degree. The
master’s degree is required for beginning re­
search and teaching positions and for many posi­
tions in exploration. For advancement in college
teaching as well as for high-level research and
administrative posts, the Ph. D. degree is re­
quired. The bachelor’s degree is considered ade­
quate training for only a few entry jobs, pri­
marily in exploration work.
Many colleges and universities offer bachelor
and advanced degrees in geology. In the typical
undergraduate curriculum, students devote about
a fourth of their time to geology courses, such
as physical geology, historical geology, mineral-

Where Employed
Nearly 16,000 geologists were employed in the
United States in mid-1964. The majority of all
geologists work for private industry. The petro­
leum and natural gas industry employs most of
these scientists, chiefly in Texas, California, Loui­
siana, Oklahoma, and Colorado; some of those
employed by American companies in this indus­
try, are assigned to work in foreign countries for
varying periods of time. Some geologists are em­
ployed by mining and construction companies,
and by public utilities. Others work for consult­
ing firms or as independent consultants, providing
services on a fee or contract basis.
A number of geologists are employed by the
Federal Government, mostly by the U.S. Geolog­
ical Survey. Other Federal agencies employing
geologists include the Army Corps of Engineers,

Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Geologist prepares field map from aerial photograph.

NATURAL

SCIENCES

ogy, and invertebrate paleontology. About a
third of the work is in related natural sciences
and in mathematics, and the remainder in sub­
jects such as English composition, economics,
and foreign languages.. The academic work of the
student seeking an advanced degree in geology
consists primarily of advanced courses in geology, with major emphasis on the student’s field of
specialization.
The student planning a career in geology
should have an aptitude not only for geology,
but for physics, chemistry, and mathematics as
well. He should be energetic, like outdoor activi­
ties, and have the physical stamina to participate
in geological fieldwork, which sometimes necessi­
tates camping out.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for geologists with
the Ph. D. or the master’s degree are expected to
be favorable through the mid-1970’s. Among
those with the bachelor’s degree, including those
who rank high in their class, there may be some
competition for the few available entry positions.
A number of new graduates with the bachelor's
degree may find it necessary to enter semiprofes­
sional positions, take training in teaching meth­
ods to qualify as science teachers in secondary
schools, or seek other work outside the field of
geology. However, should the number of graduates
receiving advanced degrees in geology fail to in­
crease along with the expected growth in demand,
beginning geologists with the bachelor’s degree
would have improved employment opportunities.
Private industry is expected to increase its em­
ployment of geologists moderately during the
next few years. Domestic exploration for oil and
most minerals has declined in recent years and
these activities are unlikely to expand signifi­
cantly during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.
Geologists will, how’ever, have increasing oppor­
tunities to help in solving engineering problems;
to work on programs related to water supplies in
many parts o f the country; and to do research
to develop new equipment and improved methods
of locating and processing fuels and minerals.
In Federal agencies, demand for geologists is
also expected to grow moderately, primarily in
the U.S. Geological Survey. Employment of
geologists in colleges and universities will prob­

151

ably rise slightly; the need will be primarily for
those with Ph. D. degrees who are capable of
doing high-level research.
Replacement needs are expected to be the chief
source o f openings over the next few years. Sev­
eral hundred new’ geologists will be needed each
year to replace those who are promoted to man­
agerial positions or who transfer to other fields,
retire, or die.
The longrun employment outlook in the pro­
fession is more favorable. As the world’s popula­
tion expands and nations become increasingly in­
dustrialized, the demand for petroleum, minerals,
and water supplies will increase, thereby increas­
ing the demand for geologists to locate these re­
sources. Geologists with advanced training will
be needed to devise new’ techniques for exploring
deeper within the earth’s crust and undersea
areas and to work with petroleum engineers to
develop more efficient methods of finding and
recovering crude oil. It is likely that increasing
space-age activities will require some geologists
to study data concerning the surface conditions
of planets.
Only a small number of women are profession­
al geologists, primarily because fieldwork posi­
tions usually are considered unsuitable for them.
Some w
’ell-qualified women w
’ith advanced de­
grees in geology will be able to find positions as
teachers in colleges and universities, or to obtain
laboratory or office positions in industry and
government.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Annual starting salaries for new geology grad­
uates with bachelor’s degrees w
’ere typically be­
tween $6,500 and $7,000 in private industry in
1965, according to the limited information avail­
able. Newr graduates with master’s degrees usual­
ly started at between $500 and $1,000 more a
year than those wfith the bachelor’s degree.
Starting salaries for those with doctor’s degrees
ranged from $7,500 to $11,000, depending upon
individual qualifications.
In the Federal Government, new graduates
w ith bachelor’s degrees could begin at either
’
$5,495 or $6,650 a year in early 1965, depending
on their college records. Those with master’s
degrees could start at $6,650 or $7,220 and those
with the Ph. D. degree, at $8,650 or $10,250.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

152

In general, salaries of geologists are usually
somewhat higher in industry and in government
than in educational institutions. However, teach­
ers often supplement their regular salaries with
income from research, consulting, or writing
books or articles. Extra allowances are generally
paid geologists for work outside the United
States.
The work o f geologists is often active and
sometimes strenuous. Because much o f their work

is outdoors, geologists may be exposed to all
kinds of weather. Many geologists travel a great
deal and may do fieldwork away from home for
long periods. Their hours of work are often un­
certain because their field activities are affected
by weather and travel.
Where To G o for More Information
American Geological Institute,
1444 N St. N W „ Washington, D.C.

20005.

Geophysicists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.65)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of Work
Geophysics is an overall term covering a num­
ber o f sciences concerned with the composition
and physical aspects of the earth— its interior
and atmosphere, as well as the land and bodies
of water on its surface and underground. Geo­
physicists study the earth’s physical characteris­
tics, such as its electric, magnetic, and gravita­
tional fields; the earth’s interior heat flow and
vibrations; and solar radiation. To conduct their
investigations, geophysicists apply the prin­
ciples and techniques of physics, geology, mathe­
matics, chemistry, and engineering. They use
many instruments, including highly complex
precision ones such as the seismograph, which
measures and records the transmission time and
magnitude of vibrations through the earth; the
magnetometer, which measures variations in the
earth’s magnetic field; and the gravimeter, which
measures minute variations in gravitational at­
traction.
Exploration geophysicists are the largest
group of geophysical scientists. Most of these
scientists search for oil and mineral deposits.
Others conduct research, usually to develop new
or improved techniques and instruments for
prospecting. Hydrologists study the occurrence,
circulation, distribution, and chemical and physi­
cal properties of surface and underground waters
in the land areas of the earth. Some hydrologists
are concerned with water supplies, irrigation,
flood control, and soil erosion. Others specialize
in studies of glaciers and sedimentation and in
forecasting the flow of rivers. Seismologists

study the structure of the earth’s interior and
the vibrations o f the earth caused by earthquakes
or manmade explosions. They may explore for oil
and minerals, provide information for use in
designing bridges, dams, and buildings in earth­
quake regions, or study the problems involved
in detecting underground nuclear explosions.
Geodesists measure the size and shape of the
earth, determine the positions and elevations of
points on or near the earth’s surface, and measure
the intensity and direction of the force of grav­
ity. They also help track satellites orbiting in
outer space. Geomagneticians are concerned with
the variations in the earth’s magnetic field, and
with many aspects of space science. Tectonophysicists study the structure o f mountains and ocean
basins, the properties of materials forming the

Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Geophysicist operates a seismograph to study earth vibrations.

NATURAL SCIENCES

earth’s crust, and the physical forces that cause
movements and changes in it.
Oceanographers and meteorologists, often clas­
sified as geophysical scientists, are discussed
separately in this chapter, as is the closely re­
lated occupation of geologist.
Where Employed
Over 6,000 geophysicists were employed in the
United States in mid-1964. Private industry em­
ploys a majority of all geophysicists, chiefly in
the petroleum and natural gas industry. Other
geophysicists are employed by mining companies,
exploration and consulting firms, and research in­
stitutions. A few are in business for themselves
as consultants and provide services on a fee or
contract basis to companies and individuals en­
gaged in prospecting or other activities utilizing
geophysical techniques.
Geophysicists in private industry are employed
mainly in the southwestern and western sections
of the United States, where most of the country's
large oil and natural gas fields and mineral de­
posits are located. Some geophysicists, employed
by American firms, are assigned to work in for­
eign countries for varying periods of time.
Federal Government agencies also employ sig­
nificant numbers of geophysicists—mainly the
Coast and Geodetic Survey, the U.S. Geological
Survey, the Army Map Service, and the Naval
Oceanographic Office. Colleges and universities,
State governments, and nonprofit research insti­
tutions employ small numbers o f geophysicists.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in geophysics
or in one of the geophysical specialities qualifies
young persons for many beginning jobs in geo­
physics. A bachelor’s degree in a related science
or in engineering, with courses in geophysics,
physics, geology, mathematics, chemistry, and en­
gineering, is also adequate preparation for many
beginning jobs, especially in geophysical explor­
ation. For example, in the Federal Government
the minimum educational requirement for begin­
ning positions in geophysical exploration is a
bachelor's degree with at least 30 semester hours
consisting of 12 hours in geology, 12 hours in
physics, and the remaining 6 hours in additional

153

courses in geology or physics, or in courses in
geophysics.
For geophysical specialties other than explora­
tion, and for the more desirable positions in ex­
ploration work, graduate education in geophysics
or in a related physical science is usually re­
quired. A doctor’s degree with a major in geo­
physics, or in a related science with advanced
courses in geophysics, is generally required for
teaching careers. The Ph. D. degree is also fre­
quently required for positions involving funda­
mental research and for advancement in most
types of geophysical work.
The bachelor’s degree in geophysics was o f­
fered in only about 20 colleges and universities
in 1964. These undergraduate programs provide
training chiefly in exploration geophysics. Other
curriculums that offer the required training for
beginning jobs as geophysicists include geophys­
ical technology, geophysical engineering, engi­
neering geology, petroleum geology, and geodesy.
The master’s and Ph. D. degrees in geophysics
also were granted by only a few colleges and uni­
versities in 1964. For admission to a graduate
program, a bachelor’s degree with a good back­
ground in geology, mathematics, physics, or
engineering, or a combination o f these subjects is
the usual requirement. In general, the graduate
student should attend a school in which he can
take advanced courses and carry out research
projects in the aspect o f geophysical science in
which he has a special interest.
Beginning geophysicists with only the bache­
lor’s degree are usually given on-the-job training
in the application of geophysical principles to
their employers’ projects. I f a new employee has
not taken the courses in geophysics needed for
his job, he is taught geophysical methods and
techniques on the job.
Federal Government agencies also have train­
ing programs in which a few geophysicists are
sent each year to universities for graduate train­
ing. Some Federal Government agencies provide
a few summer jobs for promising undergraduates
and make permanent positions available to them
after graduation.
The prospective geophysicist should have an
aptitude and interest in mathematics and the
physical sciences. He should be energetic and in
excellent health, since geophysicists often have to

154

work outdoors under somewhat rugged condi­
tions. A willingness to travel is also important,
since geophysicists may be required to move from
place to place in the course of their employment.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for the few new
graduates with degrees in geophysics are ex­
pected to be favorable through the mid-1970’s.
Opportunities will be best for those with the
master’s or doctor’s degree. There should also be
good opportunities in geophysical work for wellqualified people with degrees in other sciences if
they have had some formal training in geophysics.
The demand for geophysicists is expected to
grow moderately during the late 1960’s and early
1970’s. Federal Government agencies will most
likely need additional geophysicists for new or
expanded geophysical programs. The petroleum
and mining industries may also need additional
geophysicists for exploration work. However, ex­
ploration for oil and mineral deposits is not ex­
pected to rise significantly in the next few years.
In colleges and universities, employment o f
teachers o f the geophysical sciences will probably
show an increase because of the anticipated rise
in the number o f students majoring in the geo­
physical sciences. Some geophysicists will also be
needed each year to replace those who leave the
profession, retire, or die.
While the number of job openings for geo­
physicists is not expected to be large in any one
year, the number o f new graduates with degrees in
the science is also expected to be small compared
with graduates in other academic fields. In 1964,
only 88 degrees in geophysics were granted—
26 bachelor’s, 36 master’s, and 26 doctor’s de­
grees— according to the U.S. Office of Education.
As in past years, the number of geophysics grad­
uates who are seeking work as geophysicists will
probably be insufficient to meet employers’ needs,
and well-trained persons with degrees in related
sciences and in engineering will probably con­
tinue to be hired for geophysical positions.
Over the long run, further growth in the pro­
fession is expected. There will be an increasing
use of petroleum and mineral products by a
growing population. As natural resources in the
more easily accessible locations become depleted,
additional exploration geophysicists will be

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

needed by petroleum and mining companies to
find the more concealed sites o f fuels and min­
erals. In addition, the growing importance of
basic research in the geophysical sciences, as well
as the continuing need to develop new geophysi­
cal techniques and instruments, will create a de­
mand for personnel with advanced training in
hydrology, seismology, geodesy, and other geo­
physical specialties. In Federal Government
agencies, additional geophysicists will probably
be needed to study the problems o f the Nation’s
water supplies and mineral resources; work
on flood control; do research in radioactivity
and cosmic and solar radiation; and explore the
outer atmosphere and space, using such vehicles
as sounding rockets and artificial satellites.
Opportunities for women have been and will
continue to be limited, mainly because o f the
strenuous nature of much of the work. However,
a small number o f well-qualified women will be
able to find positions in offices and laboratories or
as teachers in colleges and universities.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In private industry in 1965, new graduates
with bachelor’s degrees typically received start­
ing salaries between $6,500 and $7,000 a year, ac­
cording to the limited information available. New
graduates with master’s degrees received between
$500 and $1,000 more than those with the bache­
lor’s degree. Those with doctor’s degrees received
salaries o f between $8,000 and $12,000, depending
upon individual qualifications. In industry, geo­
physical scientists working outside the United
States usually receive bonuses and allowances.
In the Federal Government in early 1965,
graduates with bachelor’s degrees could enter
most types of geophysical work at either $5,990
or $7,050 a year, depending upon their college
records. Those who had completed all require­
ments for the master’s degree could start at $7,050
or $7,710; those with the Ph. D. degree could
start at $8,945 or $10,250. Exploration geophysi­
cists had somewhat lower starting salaries. In
the Federal Government as in industry, geo­
physicists stationed outside the United States are
paid an additional amount. The provisions for
salary increases, vacations, sick leave, pensions,
life and health insurance, and other benefits are
the same for geophysicists as for other civil serv­

NATURAL SCIENCES

155

ice employees. (See chapter on Occupations in
Government.)
In educational institutions, starting salaries
are generally lower than in private industry or in
the Federal Government. University teachers,
however, may supplement their income by doing
consulting work, writing for scientific publica­
tions, or conducting research.
The work of geophysicists is often active and
sometimes strenuous. Exploration geophysicists

are subject to reassignment in various locations
as exploration activities shift. Their working
hours may be irregular and are frequently deter­
mined by the requirements o f field activities.
Where To G o for More Information
American Geophysical Union,
114519th St. N W , Washington, D.C.

20036.

Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
Shell Building, Tulsa, Okla. 74119.

Meteorologists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.68)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 025.088)

Nature of Work
Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.
Its aim is understanding the atmosphere—not
only its physical characteristics and movements,
but also its effects upon the earth and upon
people.
Meteorologists usually specialize in one branch
of the science. Weather forecasters, known pro­
fessionally as synoptic meteorologists, are the
largest group of specialists. They interpret cur­
rent weather information (such as air pressure,
temperature, humidity, wind velocity) reported
by observers in many parts o f the world and by
weather satellites to make short- and long-range
forecasts for specific regions. Climatologists an­
alyze past records on wind, rainfall, sunshine,
temperature, and other weather data for a spe­
cific area to determine the general pattern of
weather which makes up the area’s climate.
Dynamic meteorologists investigate the physical
laws governing atmospheric motions. Physical
meteorologists study the physical nature o f the
atmosphere, including its chemical composition
and electrical, acoustical, and optical properties,
the effect o f the atmosphere on the transmission
of light, sound, and radio waves, and the factors
affecting the formation of clouds, precipitation,
and other weather phenomena. Specialists in
applied meterology, sometimes called industrial
meterologists, study the relationship between
weather and specific human activities, biological
processes, and agricultural and industrial opera­
tions. For example, they make specialized
weather forecasts for individual companies, at­

tempt to induce rain or snow in a given area,
and work on such problems as smoke control and
air pollution abatement.
Research is the major activity of a growing
number of meteorologists. These workers investi­
gate subjects such as atmospheric electricity (for
example, lightning), cloud and precipitation
mechanisms, hurricane dynamics, and the best
and quickest means o f using the vast amount of
weather data collected from weather satellites.
They may also conduct research on severe
weather phenomena (such as tornadoes), ways to
modify weather, weather conditions affecting the
behavior of forest fires, and other problems. In
both weather forecasting and research, meteor­
ologists use high-speed electronic computing ma­
chines to process large amounts of data.
Some meteorologists teach or do research in
universities or colleges. In colleges without sepa­
rate departments of meteorology, they may teach
subjects such as geography, mathematics, phys­
ics, chemistry, and geology, as well as meteor­
ology.
Where Employed
More than 3,000 civilian meteorologists were
employed in the United States in 1965. The U.S.
Weather Bureau, by far the largest employer of
civilian meteorologists, employed more than 1,900
of these scientists at 300 stations maintained by
the Bureau in all parts o f the United States,
the polar regions, Puerto Rico, Wake Island, and
other sites in the Pacific area. Some meteorolo­
gists work for the Forest Service of the U.S. De-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

156

gists in the Armed Forces usually make weather
forecasts that are needed to plan military opera­
tions; some also do research.
Only a small number of women are meteorolo­
gists. These women are employed by the Weather
Bureau (as forecasters), the Armed Forces, col­
leges and universities (primarily in research
positions), and the airlines.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Courtesy of the U.S. Weather Bureau

Meteorologist

uses

electronic computer-plotter to
weather data.

process

partment of Agriculture, and for a few other
Federal Government agencies. The Armed Forces
also employ some civilian meteorologists, par­
ticularly for research and development work.
Other employers of meteorologists are airlines,
educational institutions, and weather consulting
services. In 1965, the airlines employed about 300
meteorologists to forecast the weather along the
companies’ flight routes and to brief pilots on
weather conditions. Colleges and universities em­
ployed about 300 meteorologists for teaching and
research. Private weather consulting firms, which
provide special weather information for a fee,
employed more than 150 of these scientists. In
addition, some meteorologists were working for
companies that design and manufacture meteor­
ological instruments, as well as for a number of
large firms in the aerospace, insurance, utilities,
and other industries. Still others worked for
State and local governments and for nonprofit
organizations; presented radio and television
weather programs; or worked as editors and
librarians.
In addition to the meteorologists in civilian
employment, more than 3,000 members of the
Armed Forces were engaged in meteorological
work in 1965. O f these, approximately 2,800
were on active duty in the Air Force. Meteorolo­

A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteor­
ology is the usual minimum educational require­
ment for beginning meteorologists in weather
forecasting. However, a bachelor’s degree in a
related science or in engineering is acceptable for
many positions, provided the applicant has credit
for courses in meteorology. For example, the
Weather Bureau’s minimum requirement for
beginning positions is a bachelor’s degree with
at least 20 semester hours o f study in meteor­
ology and with training in physics and mathe­
matics.
For research and teaching positions and for
many top-level positions in other meteorological
activities, an advanced degree in meteorology is
highly desirable, although persons with graduate
degrees in other sciences may also qualify if they
have taken advanced courses in meteorology,
physics, mathematics, and chemistry. The Ph. D.
degree is usually essential for high-level teaching
and research positions.
Degrees in meteorology were awarded by 20
colleges and universities in 1964. However, many
other institutions offered courses in meteorology.
Meteorological training is also given by the
Armed Forces. For example, each year the U.S.
Air Force selects over 200 new college graduates
who have received Air Force commissions and
sends them to civilian universities for special 9to 12-month programs in meteorology. Graduates
of these programs are then assigned to meteor­
ological work for the A ir Force. The Armed
Forces also send a number of military meteor­
ologists to universities or to military training
centers for advanced training leading to the
master’s or doctor's degree. Ex-servicemen with
military training and experience as meteorolo­
gists are given preference for civilian positions
with the Armed Forces; they can also qualify for

NATURAL SCIENCES

positions with other employers of weather per­
sonnel.
The Weather Bureau has an in-service train­
ing program under which scholarships are grant­
ed to some of its meteorologists, enabling them
to take advanced and specialized training. Also,
college students preparing for careers in meteor­
ology may obtain summer jobs with the Weather
Bureau, where they may get permanent positions
after they receive their bachelor’s degrees.
Promotions in the Weather Bureau, as in other
Federal Government agencies, are given accord­
ing to Civil Service regulations. (See section on
Occupations in Government.) With the airlines,
the chances for advancement are somewhat
limited. However, after considerable work ex­
perience, some airline meteorologists may ad­
vance to the position of flight dispatcher, or to
various supervisory or administrative positions.
A few well-trained meteorologists with a back­
ground in science, engineering, and business ad­
ministration may be able to establish their own
weather consulting services.
Among the personal characteristics needed by
meteorologists are mathematical aptitude and an
interest in the physical sciences. For some jobs,
the ability to draw quickly and neatly is impor­
tant. Since most o f the work is done in an office,
the physical requirements are not heavy and can
be met by any reasonably healthy person.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for meteorologists
are expected to be good through the mid-1970’s.
Meteorologists with advanced degrees will be in
special demand to conduct research, teach in col­
leges and universities, and engage in management
and consulting work. The advent of missiles,
supersonic aircraft, manned spacecraft, and
weather satellites has greatly expanded the
boundaries of meteorology and opened new fields
of activity. Opportunities to study weather on a
global scale will be particularly good for meteor­
ologists who can perform research on informa­
tion obtained by spacecraft and weather satel­
lites, and who can process, analyze, and interpret
the information quickly and accurately. Growth
will also stem from the demand for meteorolo­
gists to develop and improve instruments such
as radar and radio probes, high-altitude balloons,

157

research rockets, satellites, and electronic com­
puters used for collecting and processing
weather data. In addition, there will be a con­
tinuing demand for meteorologists to work on
improving weather forecasts. Replacement of
meteorologists who retire or otherwise leave the
profession will also provide many opportunities.
New graduates with a bachelor’s, master’s, or
Ph. D. degree and experienced men and women
will be needed by the Weather Bureau to fill
vacancies in existing programs such as weather
measurements and forecasts, severe storm re­
search, storm and flood forecasts, turbulence re­
search, and air pollution research. It is estimated
that during each of the next few years, the
Weather Bureau will hire approximately 100
meteorologists with a bachelor’s degree.
An increase is also expected in the number of
meteorologists to be employed by the airlines.
As more jet planes are placed in service and
the number of aircraft flights increase, more
meteorologists will be needed to assist in deter­
mining the safest and smoothest flight routes.
Employment opportunities for meteorologists
with other private companies and research or­
ganizations and in weather consulting services are
also expected to increase somewhat, as the value
of weather information receives further recogni­
tion. The number of teaching and research posi­
tions for meteorologists in colleges and univer­
sities should also rise in the years ahead,
primarily because o f increases in total college
enrollments and increases in departments award­
ing degrees in meteorology. Opportunities for
civilian meteorologists in the Armed Forces are
not expected to increase significantly through the
mid-1970’s. However, there will probably be a
growing need for military meteorologists
throughout the later 1960’s, mostly to replace
those reaching retirement age.
Since meteorology is a relatively small pro­
fession, job openings will not be numerous in any
year. On the other hand, qualified applicants for
jobs as meteorologists probably will continue to
be small. For example, in 1964, only 207 persons
were awarded the bachelor's degree in meteor­
ology, 96 the master’s degree, and 27 the Ph. D.
degree, and not all of these graduates took jobs
as meteorologists. Furthermore, only a few
graduates with majors in other fields and with

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

158

some training in meteorology enter the profes­
sion because of opportunities in other scientific
fields. In addition, most military meteorologists
who leave the Armed Forces do not take posi­
tions as civilian meteorologists.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Meteorologists with the bachelor’s degree and
no experience could start in Federal Government
service at $5,990 or $7,050 a year depending on their
college records, in early 1965. Meteorologists who
had completed all requirements for the master’s
degree could start at $7,050 or $7,710; those with
the Ph. D. degree could begin at $8,945 or $10,250.
Workers stationed outside the United States
are paid an additional amount. The provisions
for salary increases, vacations, sick leave, pen­
sions, life and health insurance, and other bene­
fits are the same for meteorologists as for other
civil service employees. (See section on Occupa­
tions in Government.)
Airline meteorologists, in 1965, received a start­
ing salary of approximately $6,000 a year, accord­
ing to the Air Transport Association. Meteorol­
ogists generally receive the same benefits as other
airline employees. (See chapter on Occupations
in Civil Aviation.)

According to the National Science Founda­
tion’s National Register of Scientific and Tech­
nical Personnel, the average (median) annual
salary of meteorologists in 1964 was $10,600.
Only 10 percent of the meteorologists earned less
than $7,800 and about 10 percent earned more
than $15,500.
Jobs in weather stations, which are operated
on a 24-hour, 7-day week basis, often involve
nightwork and rotating shifts. Most stations are
at airports or at places in or near cities; some
are in isolated and remote areas.
Where To G o for More Information
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108.

The U.S. Weather Bureau, Environmental Sci­
ence Services Administration, Department o f Com­
merce, Washington Science Center, Building 5,
Rockville, Md., 20852, will provide information on
employment opportunities with that agency and
on it s student-assistant program.
Information on the A ir Force meteorological
training programs may be obtained from the
nearest U S A F recruiting office or by writing to
Commander, U SA F Recruiting Service, WrightPatterson A F B , Ohio, 45899.

Oceanographers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.65)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of Work
The ocean covers more than two-thirds of the
earth’s surface. It supplies food and minerals, in­
fluences the weather, provides a medium o f trans­
portation, and offers means of recreation. Ocean­
ographers are the scientists who study the
ocean— its characteristics, movements, physical
elements, and animals and plants. The results
of their studies not only extend basic scientific
knowledge, but contribute to the development of
practical methods for use in such operations as
charting and forecasting weather phenomena;
improving fisheries; mining the ocean’s re­
sources; and providing defense against enemy
attack.
Oceanographers plan extensive tests and ob­
servational programs and conduct detailed sur­

veys and experiments to obtain information
about the ocean. They collect and study data on
subjects such as the ocean’s chemical and physi­
cal composition, including its tides, currents,
waves, temperature, density, and acoustical prop­
erties; its bottom contours and composition; ice
floes; and sea plants and animals. They analyze
the samples, specimens, and data collected, often
making use of electronic computers. To present
the results of their studies, they prepare charts,
tabulations, reports, and manuals.
In developing and carrying out tests and ob­
servational programs, oceanographers use the
principles and techniques of physics, chemistry,
mathematics, geology, biology, meteorology, and
related sciences. They use a variety of special
instruments and devices such as the magnetom­

NATURAL SCIENCES

eter, which measures the earth’s magnetic field;
the sound velocimeter, which measures the speed
of sound traveling underwater; the echo sounder,
which measures distances to the sea bottom by
means of sound impulses; the heat flow probe,
which penetrates the ocean bottom and measures
flow o f heat from the earth’s interior; the mid­
water trawl, which samples organisms from mid­
ocean; and special thermometers and water bot­
tles which measure water temperature and collect
samples for analyzing the water’s chemical com­
position at and below the surface. Oceanogra­
phers use specially developed cameras with strong
lights to photograph marine organisms and the
ocean bottom. When their work requires new
oceanographic instruments or analytical tech­
niques, they usually develop them.
Oceanographers are usually specialists in one
of the branches of the profession. Biological
oceanographers (marine biologists) study the
ocean’s plant and animal life, which ranges from
microscopic plankton to the largest living crea­
ture—the blue whale. Physical oceanographers
study the physical properties of the ocean, such
as its density, temperature, and ability to trans­
mit light and sound; the movements of the sea,
such as waves, tides and currents; and the rela­
tionship between the sea and the atmosphere.
Geological oceanographers (marine geologists)
study the ocean floor— its topographic features,
and the rocks and sediments found on and below
it. Chemical oceanographers investigate the
chemical composition of ocean waters, which in­
clude traces of more than half of the total num­
ber o f knowm physical elements. In addition to
these four groups of specialists, oceanographic
engineers specialize in the design and building
of the systems, devices, and instruments used in
oceanographic research and operation.
About 3 out of every 4 oceanographers are
engaged primarily in performing or administer­
ing research and development activities. A small
but growing number of oceanographers teach in
colleges and universities; a few are engaged in
technical writing, consulting, and in the adminis­
tration of activities other than research.
Most oceanographers spend at least part of
their time aboard oceanographic ships at sea;
such voyages may last from a few days to several
months. A fewT oceanographers in survey posi778-316 0 — 65-------12

159

tions spend nearly all their time aboard ship.
On the other hand, a few oceanographers never
go to sea, but analyze data collected by other
scientists or pursue mathematical studies ashore.
Where Employed
Oceanography is one of the smallest o f the
science fields; the total number of oceanogra­
phers and closely related scientists in the United
States was estimated to be approximately 3,000
in 1965. About three-fourths of these were em­
ployed either by colleges and universities and
university-operated research laboratories, or by
the Federal Government. Those Federal agencies
employing substantial numbers of oceanogra­
phers are the Navy Oceanographic Office of the
Department o f the Navy, the Bureau of Com­
mercial Fisheries of the Department of the In­
terior, and the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the
Environmental Science Services Administration in

Oceanographer obtains samples from the ocean floor with
"orange peel grab".

160

the Department of Commerce. There are also a few
positions in oceanography in other parts of the
Department of the Navy, in the Weather Bureau,
and in other Government agencies.
A small but growing number of oceanogra­
phers work in private industry for consulting or
other firms which design and develop instru­
ments for oceanographic research. Some oceanog­
raphers work for nonprofit laboratories other
than those operated by colleges and universities.
A few work for fishery laboratories of State and
local governments.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The minimum educational requirement for be­
ginning professional positions in oceanography
is the bachelor’s degree with a major in oceanog­
raphy or in physics, chemistry, biology, or one
o f the geo-sciences. For professional positions in
research and teaching, and for advancement to
high-level positions in most types of work, grad­
uate training in oceanography or a related field
is usually required.
Undergraduate training in oceanography was
offered by relatively few colleges and universities
in 1964, and only two institutions offered the
bachelor’s degree with a major in the subject. A
prospective oceanographer is usually not handi­
capped, however, if he is unable to obtain under­
graduate training in oceanography, provided
that while in college he obtains a broad knowl­
edge and understanding of the related sciences.
Such training, when coupled with a strong inter­
est in oceanography, is adequate preparation for
most beginning positions in the field, or for
entry into graduate school.
Important undergraduate courses for the pros­
pective oceanographer are mathematics, physics,
chemistry, geology, meteorology, biology, and
zoology. In general, the student should specialize
in the particular science field which is closest to
his area of interest in oceanography. For exam­
ple, those students interested in physical ocean­
ography should major in physics or mathematics,
whereas those interested in chemical ocean­
ography should obtain a bachelor’s degree in
chemistry.
Advanced degrees in oceanography were o f­
fered by at least 16 colleges and universities in

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

1964, and about 20 institutions offered advanced
courses in the marine sciences. The academic
work of the graduate student in oceanography
consists primarily of extensive training in
oceanography combined with further training in
his selected area of marine specialization— usually
chemistry, geology, biology, or physics. A few
of the oceanography courses typically offered in
graduate school concern underwater acoustics,
waves and tides, marine vertebrates and inverte­
brates, marine ecology (study of variables affect­
ing the distribution and abundance of marine
organisms), marine sediments, ocean currents and
marine hydrodynamics (mathematical treatment
of motion in the seas). Institutions generally re­
quire the graduate student to spend part of his
time aboard ship—doing oceanographic research,
acquiring familiarity with the sea and the tech­
niques used to obtain oceanographic information,
and learning the basic elements of seamanship.
Beginning oceanographers with the bachelor’s
degree usually start as research or laboratory
assistants, or in routine positions involving data
collection, analysis, or computation. Most new
graduates are given on-the-job training in the
application of oceanographic principles to the
problems at hand. I f a beginner has had no basic
courses in oceanography, he is often given these
courses as part of his on-the-job training.
Beginning oceanographers with advanced de­
grees can usually qualify for research and teach­
ing positions. Experienced oceanographers, par­
ticularly those with the Ph. D. degree, may ad­
vance to administrative positions, in which they
may supervise a research laboratory or direct
specific survey or research projects.
Among the qualities desirable in the prospec­
tive oceanographer are an aptitude and interest
in mathematics and the sciences, a creative imagi­
nation, and a disciplined and highly inquisitive
mind. Since the oceanographer deals with scien­
tists in many other fields, he must be able to work
effectively with people and to express himself
well. A liking for the sea and for life aboard
ship is also important.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for oceanographers
are expected to be very good through the mid-

NATURAL SCIENCES

1970’s, particularly for those with advanced de­
grees. For well-trained persons with bachelor’s
degrees in related sciences, the opportunities will
be primarily to work as research assistants and in
routine analytical positions.
The outlook is for rapid growth o f this small
profession, both during the rest of the 1960 dec­
ade and through the mid-1970’s. In recent years,
the growing recognition of the importance o f the
oceans to the Nation’s welfare and security has
heightened interest in oceanography and has
opened new fields for specialists in the science.
In the years ahead, oceanographers will, be
needed for research in such areas as underwater
acoustics, surface and subsurface ocean currents,
and ocean floor topography, all of which are of
great importance in improving the Nation’s de­
fense against submarines and surface vessels.
There will also be a demand for oceanographers to
supply improved navigational charts, sailing di­
rections, and weather and iceberg forecasts; to
study the air-sea interaction in order to improve
weather forecasts; to solve problems related to
the mining of the sea and sea bottom, to predict
or control damage caused by waves generated by
storms or earthquakes, and to prevent beach
erosion. Additional oceanographers will be need­
ed to make studies of marine plants and animals
for use in improving methods for deriving food
supplies from the oceans, in developing and
managing fisheries, and in classifying marine
animals and plants.
The demand for oceanographers qualified to
teach in colleges and universities is also expected
to expand. Increased student interest in ocean­
ography will likely result in a rise in the number
o f courses in oceanography, and this will create
openings for more teachers o f the science.
Replacement for oceanographers who transfer
to other fields, retire, or die will also provide
some opportunities.
Since oceanography is a relatively small pro­
fession, job opening will not be numerous in any
one year. On the other hand, the number of new
graduates with degrees in this science is extreme­
ly small and is expected to remain so. Thus,
oceanography graduates should continue to have
excellent opportunities.
Opportunities for women are somewhat limited
because much of the work is carried on at sea,

161

and oceanographic ships are not always equipped
with living quarters for women. However, wellqualified women will be able to find employment
in shore laboratories and in teaching.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government service in early
1965, oceanographers with the bachelor’s degree
and no experience could begin at $5,990 or $7,050
a year, depending on their college records. Be­
ginning oceanographers who had completed all
requirements for the master’s degree could start
at $7,050 or $7,710; those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,945 or $10,250. Scientists in
biological and geological oceanographic special­
ties had somewhat lower starting salaries. The
provisions for salary increases, vacations, sick
leave, pensions, life and health insurance, and
other benefits are the same as for other Civil
Service employees. (See chapter on Occupations
in Government.)
Beginning oceanographers in educational insti­
tutions have roughly the same salary as other
beginning faculty members. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.) In addition
to their regular salaries, many experienced
oceanographers in educational institutions obtain
income from consulting, lecturing, and writing
books and articles.
Oceanographers engaged in research requir­
ing seagoing voyages are frequently away from
home for weeks or months at a time, sometimes
living and working in cramped quarters. Young
people who like the sea, however, may find this
aspect of oceanographic work very satisfying.
Where To G o for More Information
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography,
Department of Oceanography,
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. 97331.
Interagency Committee on Oceanography,
Bldg. 159 E., Navy Yard Annex, Washington, D.C.
20390.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,
Woods Hole, Mass. 02543.
Naval District Washington, D. C.,
Board of U.S. Civil Service Examiners For Scientific
and Technical Personnel,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.
20390.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

162

Physical Sciences
The physical sciences deal with the basic laws
of the physical world. Many scientists in this
broad field conduct basic research designed to in­
crease man’s knowledge of the properties o f mat­
ter and energy. Others conduct applied research,
using the knowledge gained from basic research
to develop new products and processes. For ex­
ample, chemists in applied research use their
knowledge of the interactions of various chemicals
to develop new fuels for rockets and missiles.

Physicial scientists also teach in colleges and uni­
versities and supervise research and development
programs.
This chapter includes descriptions of three
major physical science occupations—chemist,
physicist, and astronomer— and o f biochemists,
one o f the major groups of chemists. Engineer and
earth scientists also require a background in the
physical sciences; these occupations are described
in separate chapters elsewdiere in the Handbook.

Chemists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-07.02 through .85)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)

Nature of Work
The work done by chemists helps to provide
many new and improved products which make
our lives healthier, more productive, and more
comfortable. They develop vaccines and medicines,
new methods o f preserving food, and new materials
and rocket fuels for use in the exploration of space.
As a result of their discoveries, entirely new indus­
tries have been created, including the plastics, fro­
zen foods, and synthetic textile fibers industries.
Chemists investigate the chemical composition
and properties o f matter and changes in its com­
position. They search for new knowledge of the
chemistry o f substances and for ways o f using
this knowledge. In conducting studies, they apply
scientific principles and techniques. They also use
a variety of instruments such as balances, spectro­
photometers, refractrometers, and polarimeters.
Chemists maintain accurate records of their work
and prepare clear and concise reports showing the
results of the tests or experiments. They often pre­
sent their findings in scientific publications or in
lectures before scientific groups.
Most chemists specialize in one o f the five major
branches o f chemistry, or in a subdivision of one
of these branches. Organic chemists, the largest
group, deal primarily with carbon compounds,
most of which are substances originally derived
from animal and vegetable matter. Inorganic
chemists are chiefly concerned with compounds of
elements relatively free of carbon, including most

of the minerals and metals. Physical chemists
study the quantitative relationships between
chemical and physical properties o f both organic
and inorganic substances— for example, how
these substances are affected by electricty, pres­
sure, heat, and radiation. Analytical chemists
determine the exact chemical composition of sub­
stances and test them to determine their quality,
purity, and other characteristics. Biochemists
are concerned with the chemistry of living things.
(See separate statement on Biochemists else­
where in this chapter.)
Some chemists specialize in the product or
process of a particular industry, such as agricul­
ture, food, petroleum, plastics, or rubber. Such
work may require a knowledge of more than one
branch o f chemistry. The specialist in plastics,
for example, may need a knowledge of physical
and analytical as well as o f organic chemistry.
All chemists, however, must know the funda­
mentals of chemistry—the composition and prop­
erties of substances and how they can be changed.
Nearly one-half of all chemists are engaged in
research and development. Most research chem­
ists work on applied research projects aimed at
creating new products or improving or finding
new uses for existing ones. Chemists in applied
research have helped to develop a vast range of
new products, including antibiotics, plastics, syn­
thetic rubbers, detergents, insecticides, and syn­
thetic fibers. Many chemists work on basic re­
search projects designed to extend scientific knowl-

NATURAL SCIENCES

163

Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Navy

Chemist utilizes intricate laboratory apparatus.

edge rather than to solve immediate practical
problems. However, many important practical
applications have resulted from basic research.
For example, basic research on polymerization—
how and why certain small molecules unite to
form giant molecules—resulted in the develop­
ment of synthetic rubber, nylon, and plastics.
Sizable numbers of chemists are employed in
management and administration—especially of
research and development activities. Analysis
and testing is another major activity of chem­
ists because various kinds of tests must be made
at practically every stage in the manufacture of
a product, from its initial development to final
production. Many chemists teach in colleges and
universities, often combining research with teach­
ing. Smaller numbers are employed as sales rep­
resentatives of chemical companies and other
manufacturers in positions where the employee
must be able to discuss the technical aspects of
a product. A few chemists work as consultants.
Where Employed
Chemistry is by far the largest field of employ­
ment in the sciences. There were approximately
120,000 chemists in the United States in mid1964; more than 5 percent were women.

Approximately three-fourths of all chemists
were employed by private industry in mid-1964.
The major industrial employer o f chemists is the
chemicals manufacturing industry. This industry
employed more than two-fifths o f all chemists
in private industry. Other manufacturing in­
dustries utilizing relatively large numbers of chem­
ists are food, petroleum, electrical equipment,
paper, and primary metals. Significant numbers of
chemists are also employed by the wholesale trade
industry; by distributors of chemical, food, and
petroleum products; and by independent labora­
tories and research institutes providing consulting
services.
Many chemists are employed in colleges and
universities. Although most of these chemists
teach, some work full or part time in research
and development, often on projects for the Fed­
eral Government. Sizable numbers of chemists
are also employed directly by Federal Govern­
ment agencies, chiefly by the U.S. Departments
of Defense; Health, Education, and Welfare;
Agriculture; and the Interior. Smaller numbers
work in State and local governments, primarily
in agencies concerned with health, agriculture,
and highways. A few work for foundations and
other nonprofit organizations.
Chemists are employed in all States, and in
small as well as large cities. However, they are
concentrated in large industrial areas. Six States
employ about half of the total— New York, New
Jersey, California, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry
is usually the minimum educational requirement
for starting a career as a chemist. Graduate
training is essential for many positions, particu­
larly in research and college teaching, and is
helpful for advancement in all types of work.
Training leading to the bachelor’s degree in
chemistry is offered in several hundred colleges
and universities throughout the country. A few
of the required chemistry courses in an under­
graduate curriculum are quantitative and quali­
tative analysis, and inorganic, organic, and phys­
ical chemistry. Courses in mathematics (especial­
ly analytical geometry and calculus), physics,

164
English, and one foreign language (usually
German), are also required.
Advanced degrees in chemistry are awarded
by over 200 colleges and universities, many of
which offer financial assistance to above average
students interested in graduate study. In grad­
uate school, the student usually specializes by
taking several courses in a particular field of
chemistry. Requirements for the master’s or
doctor’s degree usually include classroom studies,
laboratory research, and preparation of a thesis.
New graduates with the bachelor’s degree usual­
ly qualify for beginning positions in analysis
and testing, quality control, technical service and
sales, or as assistants to senior chemists in re­
search and development work. Most chemists
with the bachelor’s degree start their careers in
industry or government. In industry, employers
often have special training programs for new
chemistry graduates whom they employ. These
programs are designed to supplement college
training with specific industry techniques and to
aid in determining the type of work for which
the new employee is best suited. Some chemists
with the bachelor’s degree and above average
grades are able to obtain positions in colleges
and universities as research or teaching assistants
while working toward advanced degrees.
Chemists with the master’s degree can often
qualify for applied research positions in govern­
ment or private industry. They can also qualify
for some teaching positions in colleges and uni­
versities.
The Ph. D. degree is generally required for
positions in basic research and for higher level
teaching positions in a college or university. It
is also important for advancement to top-level
positions in administration and in other activi­
ties.
Personal qualifications needed for a career in
chemistry include an orderly mind, above-aver­
age intelligence, and an interest and facility in
mathematics. Since chemists usually work in
teams, an ability to communicate and work with
others is important.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for chemists is ex­
pected to be very good through the mid-1970's.
As in recent years, there will be a particular need

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for chemists with advanced degrees for research
and teaching positions. For women chemists
qualified to do research and teaching, employ­
ment opportunities are also expected to be good.
One of the major factors behind the expected
increase in employment opportunities is the an­
ticipated continued growth in expenditures for
research and development. Such expenditures not
only create jobs for chemists engaged in research
and development—the activity o f nearly half of
all chemists—but the production o f new products
resulting from the research also creates new
positions for chemists in other types of work.
Another important factor involved in increasing
the opportunities for chemists is the growing
demand for products of industries that are major
employers of chemists, especially for such prod­
ucts as plastics, synthetic fibers, drugs, fertilizers,
and high energy fuels for missiles and rockets.
The demand for chemists to fill college and
university teaching positions will also rise sub­
stantially, because of the large increases in col­
lege enrollments expected during the late 1960’s
and early 1970's. The greatest demand will be for
those with Ph. D. degrees, but there will be many
positions for chemists with the master’s degree.
(See statement on College and University Teach­
ers.)
In addition to those needed to fill new posi­
tions, many chemists will also be needed each
year to replace those who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations. These losses to the profes­
sion, estimated for 1964 at approximately 2,500,
are expected to rise slowly in the future.
Along with the expected growth in demand
for chemists, a steady increase is expected in the
number of chemistry graduates. I f their number
continues to represent the same proportion o f all
college graduates as in recent years, the number
seeking employment in the profession will rise
rapidly throughout the mid-1970’s. Nevertheless,
the demand for chemists is expected to be greater
than the number o f new7 graduates w ho will be
T
available for employment. Thus, although there
may be some competition for the better paying
entry positions, new chemistry graduates should
continue to have favorable employment oppor­
tunities in the profession. New graduates will
also find openings in high school teaching, pro­
vided they have completed the professional edu­

NATURAL SCIENCES

165

cation courses and other requirements for a State
teaching certificate. However, they are usually
regarded as teachers rather than as chemists.
(See statement on Secondary School Teachers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Earnings and Working Conditions
Inexperienced chemistry graduates with a
bachelor’s degree had an average (median)
starting salary of about $6,800 a year in private
industry in mid-1964, according to a survey con­
ducted by the American Chemical Society. Inex­
perienced graduates with the master’s degree
averaged about $7,900 a year and those with
the Ph. D. degree, about $11,200.
In academic institutions, the average (median)
annual starting salary for the few entrants with
the bachelor’s degree and no experience was
about $4,300, according to the American Chemical
Society. The average salary for inexperienced
graduates with the master’s degree was about
$5,400, and for those with the Ph. D. degree,
$7,500. Many experienced chemists in educational
institutions supplement their regular salaries
with income from consulting, lecturing, and writ­
ing books.
In Federal Government positions in early 1965,
the annual starting salary for inexperienced
chemists with the bachelor’s degree was either

$5,990 or $7,050, depending on the individual’s
college record. Beginning chemists with 1 full
year of graduate study could start at $7,050,
and those with 2 full years o f graduate study at
$7,710. Chemists with the Ph. D. degree could
start at $8,945 or $10,250.
The average (median) annual salary for all
chemists was $11,000 in 1964, according to the
National Science Foundation’s National Register
o f Scientific and Technical Personnel. Only 10
percent of all chemists earned less than $7,200 a
year, and about 10 percent earned $17,500 or
more.
Chemists spend most of their time working in
modern, well-equipped, well-lighted laboratories,
offices, or classrooms. Chemists w
rork with chemi­
cals that can be dangerous if handled carelessly.
However, if safety regulations are followed,
health hazards are negligible.
Where To G o for More Information
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20036.

Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.
1825 Connecticut Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.

20009.

For additional sources o f information, see also
statements on Biochemists, Chemical Engineers,
and Industrial Chemical Industry.

Biochemists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-07.02)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 041.081)

Nature of Work
The biochemist plays an important role in
modern science’s search for knowledge o f the
chemical basis o f life and the factors that sustain
life. His work bears on subjects ranging from
heredity and disease to weightlessness in space
and the existence of life on other planets.
Biochemists conduct tests to identify, classify,
and analyze the chemical reactions involved in
biological processes such as muscular contraction,
reproduction, and metabolism. They investigate
the manner in which chemical substances enter
into, or are formed in, living things. Their
studies are often concerned with changes in the

chemical composition of living tissue and organs
that are caused by environmental factors such
as disease and radiation. Biochemists often pre­
sent the results of their work in scientific jour­
nals or lectures before scientific groups.
To conduct their investigations, biochemists
apply the principles and procedures o f chemical
and physical analysis. They use a variety of
scientific instruments and devices such as electron
microscopes and radioactive isotope counters.
When the need arises, they may devise new in­
struments and analytical techniques.
Biochemists usually specialize in 1 of 3 fields:
The biochemistry of medicine, nutrition, or ag­
riculture. Those in the medical field may investi-

166

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

applied research, using the discoveries o f basic
research to solve practical problems or develop
a useful product. For example, through basic
research, biochemists have discovered how a liv­
ing organism forms a hormone. This knowledge
is put to use by synthesizing the hormone in the
laboratory and then producing it on a mass scale
to enrich hormone-deficient organisms. The dis­
tinction between basic and applied research,
however, is often one of degree, and it is there­
fore not unusual for biochemists to be proficient
in both types of work.
Many biochemists teach in colleges and uni­
versities, often combining research with teaching.
Others are engaged in production or testing ac­
tivities; still others work as consultants.
Where Employed

Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Navy

Biochemist analyzes samples under an electron microscope.

gate the causes and cures o f disease, or develop
diagnostic procedures. Sometimes they study the
relation of a particular body function to different
chemical substances under varying conditions.
For example, they may analyze the effects of pro­
teins, enzymes, or hormones on metabolism under
conditions of high radiation or disease. Biochem­
ists in the field of nutrition identify the nutrients
needed by plants and animals to maintain good
health; or they may determine the nutrient con­
tent of foods. Those who work in the field of
agriculture investigate soils, fertilizers, and
plants. Their job is to discover more efficient
methods of cultivating, storing, and utilizing
crops as well as to find additional uses for by­
products of agricultural crops.
The greatest number of biochemists— 3 out of
every 4— are engaged in research. Although the
emphasis is on basic research designed to increase
scientific knowledge, some biochemists conduct

Approximately 9,000 biochemists were em­
ployed in the United States in mid-1964; about
15 percent were women. Biochemists are em­
ployed in both large and small cities, and in all
States.
Nearly 4,000 biochemists were employed in
colleges and universities in mid-1964. Many of
these scientists worked in university-operated
laboratories and hospitals where they spent all
of their time on research. Private industry em­
ployed approximately 3,000 biochemists. About
half of these worked in manufacturing industries
—primarily the chemicals and food industries.
Within the chemicals industry, many biochemists
were employed by manufacturers of drugs, in­
secticides, and cosmetics. Significant numbers of
biochemists worked for private consulting firms
or were self-employed as consultants.
Nearly 2,000 biochemists worked for Federal,
State, and local government agencies. Most of
these scientists were employed by the Federal
Government, chiefly by the National Institutes of
Health and the Food and Drug Administration
of the U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare; the Agricultural Research Service
and regional research laboratories o f the U.S.
Department of Agriculture; and the Veterans
Administration.
Several hundred biochemists worked for non­
profit organizations, including research institutes
and hospitals.

NATURAL SCIENCES

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The minimum educational requirement for be­
ginning positions in biochemistry is the bache­
lor’s degree with a major in biochemistry or
chemistry, or with a major in biology and a minor
in chemistry. For most entrance positions in re­
search and teaching, graduate training in bio­
chemistry is required. Graduate work is also
needed for advancement to most high-level posi­
tions in all types o f work.
Although relatively few schools award the
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry, training in
chemistry is offered in several hundred colleges
and universities throughout the country. Import­
ant undergraduate courses for the prospective bi­
ochemist are physical, analytical, organic and
inorganic chemistry; general biology; mathema­
tics; physics; English; and a foreign language.
Graduate degrees in biochemistry are offered
by over 50 colleges and universities. For entrance
into a graduate program in biochemistry, schools
usually require the student to have a bachelor’s
degree in biochemistry, chemistry, or biology.
However, students with the bachelor’s degree in
one of the other sciences are usually admitted if
they have had several undergraduate courses in
chemistry.
In graduate school, the student builds upon the
basic knowledge obtained in the undergraduate
curriculum. He takes advanced courses and con­
ducts research in many areas of biochemistry. He
may become a specialist in a particular field of
biochemistry by preparing a thesis or doing other
intensive research.
Some graduate schools with extensive research
facilities or a staff highly reputed in a special
field have gained a reputation for training stu­
dents in a particular field o f biochemistry. For
example, the colleges affiliated with a medical
school or hospital often have the facilities and
equipment available for studying the biochemis­
try of disease. A few schools may even train
students to become specialists in one type of dis­
ease. A student who desires to specialize in a
particular field of biochemistry should, there­
fore, investigate the specialties of the various
schools and choose his college carefully.
New graduates with the bachelor’s degree
usually begin work in industry or government
as research assistants in positions involving test­

167

ing and analysis. In the drug manufacturing in­
dustry, for example, research assistants may
analyze the ingredients of a product to verify
and maintain its purity or quality. Some grad­
uate students with above-average college grades
are able to become research or teaching assistants
in colleges and universities.
Beginning biochemists with advanced degrees
can usually qualify for teaching and research
positions. W ith experience, some biochemists
with the Ph. D. degree advance to high-level ad­
ministrative positions and supervise research pro­
grams. Other highly qualified biochemists, who
prefer to devote their whole time to research,
often become leaders in a particular field of bio­
chemistry.
The young person who thinks he might like
to enter the field of biochemistry would do well
first to take inventory of his personal character­
istics and aptitudes. Among the personal quali­
ties needed are a curiosity about living things,
a logical mind, an aptitude for science and
mathematics, and the patience and perseverance
needed to conduct detailed, complex experiments.
Also, the ability to communicate clearly both in
writing and speaking is a valuable asset for a
successful career in biochemistry.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook is very good for bio­
chemists through the mid-1970’s. Biochemists
with the Ph. D. degree will be in special demand.
Their services will be required to conduct inde­
pendent research and to teach in colleges and
universities.
Employment opportunities will stem mainly
from the rapid growth expected in this field. A
few positions, however, will have to be filled each
year to replace workers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. The major factor
back of the anticipated growth is the anticipated
continued increase in expenditures for research
and development in the life sciences. Such ex­
penditures by the Federal Government, which
nearly doubled in the 5-year period ending 1964,
are expected to continue to rise rapidly.
The greatest growth in employment o f bio­
chemists is expected in hospitals, medical clinics,
and other places where medical research is con­
ducted. Growth in this area will result chiefly

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

168

from the expansion o f research on such diseases
as cancer, heart disease, muscular dystrophy, and
mental illness.
Private industry and the Federal Govern­
ment are also expected to absorb a growing num­
ber of workers in the field of biochemistry. Stim­
ulating this employment growth will be the more
stringent standards that have been established
by the Congress and Federal regulatory agencies
for research on, and testing of, new drugs, chem­
icals, and processing methods before their use in
medicine and agriculture.
Growing college enrollments will strengthen
the demand for biochemists qualified to teach
in colleges and universities. In addition to grow­
ing needs for teachers of prospective biochemists
and students in related fields, an increasing in­
terest in biochemistry among students in such
curriculums as nursing and home economics wfill
also add to the demand for teachers in the field.
Although biochemistry is a relatively small
profession and job openings will not be numerous
in any one year, the number of graduates with
degrees in this science is also fairly small and is
expected to remain so. Thus, for biochemistry
graduates— women as well as men—the employ­
ment outlook should continue to be favorable.
For women, the field of nutrition offers the best
opportunities.
Earnings
In colleges and universities starting salaries
averaged about $5,400 for biochemists with the
master’s degree, and $7,500 a year for those with
the Ph. D. degree in mid-1964. Biochemists in

educational institutions often supplement their
income by engaging in outside research or con­
sulting work.
In private industry, the average annual start­
ing salary of biochemists with the bachelor’s
degree was about $6,500 in mid-1964, according
to the limited amount of information available.
Starting salaries for biochemists with the mas­
ter’s degree averaged $500 to $1,000 more a year
than for those with the bachelor’s degree. Annual
starting salaries of biochemists with the Ph. D.
degree ranged from $7,000 to $12,000, depending
on their specialty and research experience in
graduate school.
In the Federal Government in early 1965,
beginning biochemists with the bachelor’s degree
had a starting salary of $5,990, or $7,050 a year,
depending on their college record. Biochemists
with the master’s degree started at $7,050 or
$7,710 and those with the Ph. D. degree, at $8,945
or $10,250.
Most biochemists can look forward to a sub­
stantial increase in earnings as they gain experi­
ence. For example, average beginning salaries
approximately double after 20 years o f experi­
ence. Average salaries of biochemists with the
master’s or Ph. D. degree tend to increase faster
after 10 years of experience than the salaries of
those with only the bachelor’s degree, primarily
because biochemists with advanced degrees are
able to qualify for those high-level administra­
tive and research jobs where salaries are higher.
Where To G o for More Information
American Society of Biological Chemists,
9650 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Physicists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.73)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)

Nature of Work
Physics is concerned with all forms of energy,
the structure of matter, and the relationship be­
tween matter and energy. Physicists investigate
and attempt to understand the laws governing
the behavior of the physical world and how
these laws may be formulated for the general
knowledge and use of man. Their discoveries

have made valuable contributions to the scientific
progress of recent years in such areas as space
exploration, nuclear energy, and electronics.
About 1 out of every 2 physicists is engaged
in research and development. Many conduct basic
research, designed to increase scientific knowl­
edge with only secondary regard to its practical
applications. Some of these, called theoretical

NATURAL SCIENCES

physicists, attempt to describe the interactions
between matter and energy in mathematical
terms. Others, called experimental physicists,
make careful systematic observations and per­
form experiments to identify and measure these
interactions. For example, they try to identify
and measure the lifetime of tiny particles and
antiparticles of matter which may exist within
the core o f the atom. Experimental physicists use
apparatus such as particle accelerators, X-ray
spectrometers, electron diffraction cameras, microwave devices, shock tubes, and phase and elec­
tron microscopes. When their research requires
new kinds of instruments, they may design them.
The difference between theoretical and experi­
mental physicists is often merely one of em­
phasis. Some members of the profession are
skilled in both types of work.
A large number of physicists conduct applied
research. They use the knowledge gained from
basic research to solve practical problems or to
create new or improved products. For example,
the work of physicists specializing in solid-state
physics led to the development of transistors,
now used in place of vacuum tubes in many types
o f electronic equipment ranging from hearing
aids to guidance systems for missiles.
Many physicists teach in colleges and univer­
sities, often combining research with teaching.
Some are engaged in management and adminis­
tration, especially of research and development
activities. Others work in activities related to the
production of industrial products such as inspec­
tion and quality control. A few physicists do con­
sulting work.

Physicists test an experimental helical gas convection lens in a
laser beam project.

169

Most physicists specialize in one or more
branches of the science—mechanics, heat, optics,
acoustics, electromagnetism, electronics, atomic
and molecular physics, nuclear physics, physics
o f fluids, solid-state physics, or classical theoreti­
cal physics. They may concentrate in a subdivi­
sion of one of these branches. For example, within
solid-state physics they may specialize in ce­
ramics, crystallography, or semiconductors, among
others. In addition, new fields are continually
emerging such as lasers and masers. However,
since all physics specialties rest on the same fun­
damental principles, nearly all are closely related
and the physicist’s work may overlap a number
of specialties.
Physicists often apply the theories and meth­
odology of their science to problems originating
in other sciences, including astronomy, biology,
chemistry, and geology. Some people have be­
come specialists in fields that combine the knowl­
edge of physics and a related science. Thus, a
number of specialties have developed on the
borderline between physics and other fields—as­
trophysics, biophysics, physical chemistry, and
geophysics. (Information on these occupations is
contained elsewhere in the Handbook.') Further­
more, the practical applications of physicists’
work has increasingly merged with engineering.
Where Employed
Approximately 40,000 physicists were em­
ployed in the United States in mid-1964. About
17.000 were employed by private industry. Near­
ly one-third o f this group were employed in the
electrical equipment industry. Other industries
using relatively large numbers of physicists in­
clude the aerospace, chemicals, and instruments
industries, independent commercial laboratories,
and research institutes. Significant numbers are
also employed by the ordnance, machinery, and
engineering and architectural service industries.
Colleges and universities employed nearly
17.000 physicists in mid-1964. Although teaching
is the main activity o f most physicists in col­
leges and universities, a sizable number em­
ployed by such institutions work full time in re­
search, often on projects conducted for Federal
Government agencies such as the Atomic Energy
Commission and the Department of Defense.

170

Federal Government agencies also employ
large numbers of physicists—approximately 5,500 in mid-1964. The agencies employing the
most physicists are the Department o f Defense
and the National Bureau of Standards.
Physicists are employed in all States. How­
ever, they are concentrated in those States with
large industrial area and sizable college and
university enrollments. Five States employ near­
ly one-half o f the total— California, New York,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
Relatively few physicists are women—only
about 3 percent, according to the National
Science Foundation’s National Register o f Scien­
tific and Technical Personnel.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in physics is
the minimum entrance requirement for young
people seeking careers as physicists. Graduate
training is required for many entry positions and
is helpful for advancement in all areas of work.
A doctor’s degree is required for high-level
college and university teaching positions. It is
usually needed for employment in positions in­
volving independent research and development.
Physicists with master’s degrees are able to
qualify for many research jobs in private indus­
try, educational institutions, and government.
Some also obtain positions as instructors in col­
leges and universities. Usually, graduate students
working toward a doctor's degree are assigned to
teach elementary college courses, conduct labor­
atory sessions, or aid senior faculty members on
research projects.
Physicists with bachelor’s degrees can qualify
for a variety of jobs in applied research and
development work in private industry or the
Federal Government. Some become research as­
sistants in colleges and universities while work­
ing toward advanced degrees. Many persons with
only a bachelor’s degree in the science do not
work as physicists but go into nontechnical work,
one of the other sciences, or into engineering.
Training leading to the bachelor’s degree in
physics was offered by approximately 750 col­
leges and universities in 1964. In addition, many
engineering schools offered a physics major as
part of the general curriculum. The undergrad­
uate program in physics provides a broad back­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ground in the science which serves as a base for
later specialization either in graduate school or on
the job. A few of the physics courses typically
offered in an undergraduate *program are me­
chanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, thermo­
dynamics, and light and atomic physics. In ad­
dition, courses in chemistry and mathematics are
required.
Master’s degrees in physics were offered by ap­
proximately 250 colleges and universites in 1964,
and the Ph. D. degree was offered by approxi­
mately 125. In graduate school, the student places
emphasis on his particular field of interest. In
1963, among the largest fields o f study in graduate
school were solid-state physics, high energy phys­
ics, and nuclear structure. The graduate student
spends a large portion o f his time in research,
especially the candidate for the Ph. D. degree.
The chief personal qualifications needed for
a career in physics are a creative imagination
and a highly inquisitive mind. Strong interest
and facility in mathematics are also essential.
Employment Outlook
The outlook is for continued very rapid growth
in the employment o f physicists through the mid1970’s. As in recent years, there will probably
be a particular demand for physicists with Ph.
D. degrees to teach in colleges and universities
and do high-level research and development
work. Research organizations, whether those o f
government, universities, or industry, have con­
siderable difficulty in filling their requirements
for physicists with advanced degrees, and their
needs for such physicists will probably continue
to increase.
Employment opportunities will stem mainly
from the very rapid growth expected in this field.
A few positions will also have to be filled each
year to replace workers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Among the major
factors back o f the anticipated growth in the
number of jobs is the expected growth in expen­
ditures for research and development by both
industry and government. Such expenditures,
which have increased very rapidly in recent years,
will probably continue to rise, although somewhat
slower than in the past.
The great increase in enrollments of physics
students expected in the late 1960’s and early

NATURAL SCIENCES

171

1970’s, and the growing need for advanced phys­
ics training in other science fields and in engi­
neering will also increase the need for physicists
to teach in colleges and universities. During the
early 1960’s, many colleges were unable to recruit
sufficient numbers of well qualified physics teach­
ers, and this problem may well become more
acute during the next decade. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.)
Along with the anticipated rise in demand for
physicists, an increase is expected in the number
of physics graduates, especially at the bachelor’s
degree level. I f physics graduates continue to
represent the same proportion of all college grad­
uates as in recent years, the number seeking em­
ployment in the profession will rise rapidly
during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Never­
theless, the demand for physicists is expected to
be greater than the number o f new graduates
available for employment. Thus, graduates with
advanced degrees and well qualified graduates
with the bachelor’s degree should have very good
employment opportunities in the profession
through mid-1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for physicists with bachelor’s
degrees were usually between $6,200 and $7,000
a year in private industry in 1964, according to
the limited information available. Physicists
with master’s degrees received starting salaries

about $500 to $1,000 higher than those with
bachelor’s degrees. Annual salaries for new
graduates with Ph. D. degrees ranged roughly
from $7,500 to as high as $15,000, depending on
their specialty and experience.
In the Federal Government service in early 1965,
physicists with the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either $5,990 or $7,050 a
year, depending on their college records. Begin­
ning physicists who had completed all require­
ments for the master’s degree could start at
$7,050 or $7,710. Physicists with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $8,945 or $10,250.
Starting salaries for physicists with the Ph. D.
degree employed as college and university teach­
ers ranged from about $7,000 to $8,000 a year in
mid-1964. (F or further information, see state­
ment on College and University Teachers.) In
addition to their regular salaries, many physi­
cists in educational institutions obtain income
from other sources, such as consulting work and
special research projects.
The average (median) annual salary for physi­
cists was $12,000 in 1964, according to the Na­
tional Science Foundation’s National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel. Only 10 per­
cent earned less than $7,400 a year, and about
10 percent earned $18,700 or more.
Where To G o for More Information
American Institute of Physics,
335 East 45th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Astronomers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.61)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 021.088)

Nature of Work
Astronomy, often considered the most theoreti­
cal o f all sciences, has many practical applica­
tions. Astronomical observations o f the sun,
moon, planets, and stars are the basis for sea
and air navigation, the calendar, and the accurate
measurement of time. Astronomy provides both a
proving ground for theories of time and space
and a laboratory where matter may be observed
under the most extreme conditions of tempera­
ture and density. Astronomy also helps fill in
gaps in the understanding of the physical world.

For example, astronomers who have studied the
behavior o f atoms under stellar temperatures
have made valuable contributions to thermonu­
clear research and to knowledge of the atom.
Astronomers study all the celestial bodies in
the universe. They collect and analyze data on
the sun, moon, planets, and stars and attempt to
determine sizes, shapes, surface temperatures,
chemical composition, and motions of these
bodies. They compute the positions o f the
planets; calculate the orbits of comets, asteroids,
and artificial satellites; and make statistical

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

172

studies of stars and galaxies. Astronomers also
study the size and shape of the earth and the
properties of its upper atmosphere.
In making their detailed observations o f the
heavens, astronomers use complex photographic
techniques, light-measuring instruments, and
other optical devices. The telescope is the major
instrument used for observation. Devices for
making specialized observations are often at­
tached to the telescope, among these are the spec­
trograph, which produces a spectrum and en­
ables the wave lengths o f radiant energy to be
measured; the photometer, which measures the
intensity of light; and various other photoelec­
tric, photographic, and electronic instruments
and devices. Although most observations are
made by means of telescopes permanently mount­
ed in observatories, astronomers are gathering in­
formation increasingly by means o f spacecraft
and earth satellites containing various measur­
ing devices. In processing and analyzing the vast
amounts o f data derived from their observations,
astronomers often use electronic computers.
Astronomers usually specialize in one of the
many branches of the science. In astrophysics,
they apply physical laws to stellar atmospheres
and interiors. Some astronomers work in the field
of celestial mechanics, one of the oldest fields of
astronomy and one that has recently acquired

new importance because o f the space program.
Celestial mechanics deals, in part, with the mo­
tions of objects in the solar system, and hence
has a particular application in the calculation of
the orbits of spacecraft and artificial earth satel­
lites and the paths of ballistic missiles. Radio as­
tronomy is the study, by means of radio tele­
scopes of extraordinary sensitivity, of the source
and nature of celestial radio waves. Among the
other specialties are astrometry (measurement
of positions and movements of celestial bodies) ;
photoelectric and photographic photometry
(measurement of the intensity of light) ; spectro­
scopy of astronomical sources (wave length anal­
yses o f radiation from celestial bodies) ; and
statistical astronomy (statistical study of large
numbers of celestial objects, such as stars, to de­
termine their average properties).
More than 3 out of 4 astronomers are engaged
in teaching, research, or a combination of the
two functions. In colleges and universities not
having separate departments of astronomy or
having only small enrollments in the subject, as­
tronomers may teach courses in mathematics or
physics as well as astronomy. Other members of
the profession are engaged in a variety of activi­
ties, including development and design of astro­
nomical instruments, administration, technical
writing, and consulting.
Where Employed

Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Navy

Astronomer uses special equipment to photograph the solar
system.

Astronomy is one of the smallest of the science
fields; in 1965, the total number of astronomers
in the United States was estimated to be about
1,000. Approximately half o f all astronomers are
employed by colleges and universities. Many of
these work in university-operated observatories,
where they usually devote most of their time to
research, working alone or in cooperation with
other astronomers.
The Federal Government employs about 150
astronomers. Among the major Government agen­
cies employing astronomers are the National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration, which is re­
sponsible for directing and implementing the Na­
tion’s research efforts in aeronautics and the
exploration of space; the U.S. Naval Observatory,
which determines the Nation’s official time, pro­
vides data for air and sea navigation, and conducts
research in astrometry and astrophysics; the Naval

173

NATURAL SCIENCES

Research Laboratory, which does research in radio
astronomy and space astronomy; and the Army
Map Service, which utilizes astronomers in making
exact measurements of distances on the earth and
moon.
A relatively small but growing number of as­
tronomers are employed in private industry,
mostly by firms in the aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft field. A few astronomers work for
museums, planetariums, and other nonprofit or­
ganizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Young people seeking professional careers in
astronomy should obtain an advanced degree—
preferably the Ph. D. The doctorate is usually
required for high-level positions in teaching and
research and is important for other types of
work in this field. Although the bachelor’s de­
gree is adequate preparation for some entry
jobs, astronomers without graduate work usually
find opportunities for promotion limited.
Undergraduate curriculums leading to the
bachelor’s degree in astronomy are offered by
relatively few schools. In 1964, only about 45 col­
leges and universities offered such a degree. The
undergraduate work of the prospective astronom­
er is weighted heavily with courses in physics
and mathematics (in addition to astronomy). A
reading knowledge o f at least one foreign lang­
uage (German, French, or Russian) is required
in the undergraduate program, and courses in
chemistry, statistics, and electronics are useful. A
few of the courses often taken by undergraduates
in the field of astronomy are optics, spectroscopy,
atomic physics, calculus, differential equations,
solar and stellar systems, introductory astrophys­
ics, and astronomical techniques and instruments.
The prospective astronomer is not necessarily
handicapped if the college he has selected for his
undergraduate study does not offer a major in
astronomy. Well-qualified students with bache­
lor’s degrees in physics or mathematics with a
physics minor are usually able to enter graduate
programs in astronomy.
Programs leading to the doctorate in astron­
omy are available at about 30 institutions located
in various sections of the country. The academic
work of the graduate student consists primarily
o f advanced courses in astronomy, physics, and

mathematics. A few of the astronomy courses
typically offered in graduate schools are celestial
mechanics, galactic structure, radio astronomy,
stellar atmospheres and interiors, theoretical as­
trophysics, and binary and variable stars. A
reading knowledge o f two foreign languages
(German, French, or Russian) is required. Some
schools require that graduate students spend sev­
eral months in residence at an observatory. In
most institutions, however, the program of work
leading to the doctorate is flexible and allows the
student to take the courses which will be of most
value to him in his astronomical specialty or
particular area o f interest.
New graduates with bachelor’s or master’s de­
grees in astronomy usually begin as assistants
in observatories, plantariums, large departments
of astronomy in colleges and universities, Gov­
ernment agencies, or industry. Some persons,
with only the bachelor’s degree, work as research
assistants while studying toward advanced de­
grees; others, particularly those in Government
employment, receive on-the-job training in the
application of astronomical principles. New
graduates with the doctorate can usually qualify
for college teaching positions and for research
positions in educational institutions, Govern­
ment, and industry.
Among the personal qualifications needed by
prospective astronomers are a deep curiosity
about the nature o f the physical world, precise
and logical thought processes, a strong interest
and facility in mathematics and physics, and a
fertile imagination. Astronomers should also be
able to express themselves clearly and simply,
both in writing and speaking, so as to communi­
cate effectively with other astronomers and scien­
tists and the public.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for astronomers
with the Ph. D. degree are expected to be ex­
cellent through the mid-1970’s. Well-qualified
persons with only bachelor’s or master’s degrees
in astronomy will also have good employment
prospects, primarily as research and technical
assistants. As in the past, however, the higher
level professional positions in astronomy will be
filled mainly by persons with the doctorate.

174

The outlook is for very rapid growth of this
small profession, during the late 1960’s and early
1970’s. However, because astronomy is a small
profession, the number of job openings in any
one year will not be large. On the other hand,
because few college students are expected to re­
ceive advanced degrees in astronomy each year,
the young men or women who do obtain these
should have excellent employment opportunities.
Among the factors underlying the expected in­
crease in demand for astronomers is the progress
of the space age— the age of rockets, missiles,
manmade earth satellites, and space exploration.
Astronomers will be needed to help solve many
of the practical problems connected with the
flights of missiles and spacecraft. They will also
be needed to study regions of space that can be
observed by means of equipment placed in space
vehicles.
Increased research activities in astronomy by
educational institutions, government, and indus­
try are expected to add to the demand for astron­
omers. In recent years, the growth o f Federal
Government-sponsored research, in the form of
grants to educational institutions and observa­
tories (for astronomical research and for new
buildings, observatories, and equipment), has
opened many new positions for astronomers.
Furthermore, enrollments in undergraduate
astronomy courses in colleges and universities are
likely to increase, not only as a result of
heightened public interest in astronomy, but also
because o f the growing awareness of the value
of astronomical training to many other scientific
and engineering specialties. These factors,
coupled with the anticipated increases in college
enrollments in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s,
are expected to create many new openings for
teachers of the science.
The most favorable opportunities for women
astronomers—particularly those with the Ph. I).—
will be in research positions in Government agen­
cies and in the larger observatories. Women’s
colleges and other educational institutions are ex­
pected to offer some employment opportunities for
women astronomers. In addition, some openings
for research assistants in observatories or univer­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

sities will probably arise for women with bache­
lor’s or master's degrees in astronomy.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government service, in early
1965, beginning astronomers with the Ph. D. de­
gree were eligible to enter at $8,945 or $10,250
a year, depending on their college record. A s­
tronomers with the bachelor’s degree could start
at $5,990 or $7,050 a year; those with a bachelor’s
degree and some graduate study could begin at
$7,050 or $7,710. The provisions for salary in­
creases, vacations, sick leave, and other benefits
are the same as for other civil service employees.
(See chapter on Occupations in Government.)
Average starting salaries for instructors of
astronomy in colleges and universities ranged
from about $5,500 to $7,500 in 1964, according to
the limited data available. As the astronomer ad­
vances to higher level teaching positions, his
earnings increase significantly. Some full pro­
fessors earn over $20,000 a year. Astronomers in
educational institutions sometimes earn extra in­
come through writing books and articles, lectur­
ing, or consulting.
Some astronomers spend much time in nightwork, making visual photographic or photoelec­
tric observations. Others make observations only
4 or 5 nights each month and devote the re­
mainder of the time to studying and analyzing
photographic plates, photoelectric tracings, and
other material during usual daytime working
hours. Observational work at a telescope involves
exposure to the outside air through the open
dome of the observatory, sometimes on cold win­
ter nights. In general, however, the physical re­
quirements o f astronomical work are not heavy
and can be met by a reasonably healthy person.
Where To G o for More Information
The American Astronomical Society,
211 FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton, N.J.

08540.

Naval District Washington, D.C.,
Board of U.S. Civil Service Examiners For Scientific
and Technical Personnel,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.
20390.

T H E P E R F O R M IN G A R T S
The performing arts include music, acting,
and the dance. In these fields, the number of
first-rate artists seeking employment is generally
much larger than the number o f full-time em­
ployment opportunities available. As a result,
many performers supplement their incomes by
teaching, and others work much of the time in
different types o f occupations.
The difficulty of earning a living as a per­
former is one of the facts young people should
bear in mind in considering an artistic career.
They should, therefore, consider the possible ad­

vantages o f making their art a hobby rather than
a field of work. Aspiring young artists must
usually spend many years in intensive training
and practice before they are ready for public per­
formances. A person needs not only great natural
talent but also determination, a willingness to
work long and hard, and an overwhelming inter­
est in his chosen field.
The statements which follow this introduction
give detailed information on the musician, singer,
actor, and dancer as performing artists and in
related work.

Actors and Actresses
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-21.11, .15, and .41)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 150.028 and .048)

Nature of Work
Making a character come to life before an
audience is a job which has great glamour and
fascination. It is also hard and demanding work,
requiring special talent and involving many
difficulties and uncertainties.
Only a few of the approximately 15,000 actors
and actresses in the United States in 1965 have
achieved recognition as stars—on the stage, in
motion pictures, or on television or radio. A
somewhat larger number are well-known, ex­
perienced performers, who are frequently cast
in supporting roles. The great majority, however,
are struggling for a toehold in the profession,
glad to pick up small parts whenever and whereever they can.
New actors generally start in “ bit” parts, where
they have only a few lines to speak. I f successful,
they may progress to larger supporting roles,
o f which there are several in most stage and
screen productions. The actors who have minor
parts in stage productions may also serve as
understudies for the principals. I f a leading
player misses a performance, the understudy has
a chance to demonstrate, and attract attention to,
his acting ability.
778-316

-13

Actors who prepare for roles either on the
stage or in the movies spend many hours in
rehearsal. They also must memorize their lines
and know the cues—the last words or action by
another actor which are the signal to come on
stage, make an exit, or begin speaking. Radio
actors typically read their parts. They have to
be especially skilled in expressing character and
emotion through the voice, since this is their
sole means o f creating an impersonation for
their audience.
Besides the actors with speaking parts, “ ex­
tras” who have no lines to deliver are used in
almost every motion picture and many television
shows. In spectacular productions, a large num­
ber of extras take part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find jobs as dramatic coaches or
become directors of stage, television, radio, or
motion picture productions. A few are engaged
in teaching in schools of acting or in the drama
departments of colleges and universities.
Where Employed
Stage plays and motion pictures, including
films made especially for television, are probably
the largest fields of employment for actors, al175

176

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

works— in New York, Los Angeles, and, to a
lesser extent, Chicago. A few local television and
radio stations occasionally employ actors.
Training and Other Qualifications

though “ live” television and radio also employ
actors.
In the winter, most employment opportunities
on the stage are in New York. In the summer
months, stock companies in suburban and resort
areas throughout the Nation are a large field of
employment. In addition, many cities now have
community or “ little” theaters, which provide
opportunities for local talent as well as for pro­
fessional actors and actresses from New York
and other centers. Plays that go “ on the road,”
moving from city to city, are normally produced
in New' York with casts selected there.
Although employment opportunities in motion
pictures and film television are centered in H olly­
wood, a few7 studios are in Long Island, N.Y.,
and other parts of the country. In addition,
many films are shot on location, providing em­
ployment for “ extras” who live in the area. In
live television and radio, most opportunities for
actors are at the headquarters of the main net­

Since an actor learns largely through practice,
young people aspiring to acting careers should
get as much acting experience as possible by
taking part in high school and college plays, or
working with little theaters and other acting
groups in their home towms.
Formal training in acting may also be helpful.
Such training can be obtained at special schools
of the dramatic arts, located chiefly in New
York. The dramatic arts are also taught in about
500 colleges and universities. A college degree
is becoming increasingly necessary for an acting
career. Because college drama curriculums usu­
ally include courses in liberal arts, speech, pan­
tomime, play production, and the history o f the
drama, as well as practical courses in acting,
the actor develops an appreciation of the great
plays, old and new, and a greater understanding
of the roles he may be called on to play. Gradu­
ate degrees in the fine arts or in drama are
necessary for college teaching positions.
Outstanding talent for acting and great inter­
est and determination are essential for success in
the theater. Ability to memorize, a good speaking
voice, good health, and the physical stamina to
work long hours are necessary. Ability to sing
and dance is also an asset for those who seek
7
an acting career.
In all media, whether the stage, motion pic­
tures, radio, or television, the best way to start
is to make use of local opportunities and to build
on the basis of such experience. Many actors
who are successful in local dramatic productions
eventually try to appear on the New York stage.
Inexperienced actors usually find it extremely
difficult to obtain employment in New York or
Hollywood. The motion picture field is an espe­
cially difficult one to enter, and employment is
often a result of previous experience on the
Broadway stage.
To become a movie extra, one must usually be
listed by Central Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild and supplies
all extras to the major movie studios in H olly­
wood. Applicants are accepted only when the

THE

PERFORMING ARTS

number o f people o f a particular type on the
list— for example, athletic young men, old ladies,
or small children— is below the foreseeable need.
In recent years, only a very small proportion of
the total number of applicants have succeeded in
being listed. Extras have very little, if any, op­
portunity to advance to speaking roles in the
movies.
The length of an actor’s working life depends
largely on his skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can go on almost indefinitely. On
the other hand, for many members of the pro­
fession, employment opportunities become in­
creasingly limited during and past middle age.
This is especially true o f those who become typed
in romantic, youthful roles.
Employment Outlook
The overcrowding which has existed in the
acting field for many years is expected to persist.
In the legitimate theater and also in motion pic­
tures and radio and television, job applicants
outnumber by many time the jobs available.
Moreover, many actors are employed in their
profession for only a small part o f the year.
With the development first of motion pictures,
then of radio, then of TV, employment opportun­
ities for actors in the theater have been more and
more reduced. The recent growth o f summer
stock companies has somewhat increased the em­
ployment of actors in the summer months, but
the numbers o f New York stage productions, of
motion pictures, and o f radio shows requiring
actors have been declining.
Although a motion picture production may use
a very large number of actors, they are employed
only while the picture is being filmed, and the
films are widely distributed and may be used for
years. Radio uses few actors. The number of
filmed T V dramas and commercials using actors
is increasing, but not enough to offset the decline
in the other media. Moreover, television stations
often broadcast “ taped” dramas rather than live
productions, and, like motion picture films, these
tapes may be widely distributed and used for
a long time. Taped T V pla}7 give employment
s
to actors for only one performance, whereas
live dramas may give employment for several
performances.

177

One possibility for future growth in the legiti­
mate theater lies in the establishment of yearround professional acting companies in more
cities. The number of communities with such act­
ing groups is growing. Further increases are
likely also in the employment of actors on tele­
vision. In the acting field as a whole, however,
employment opportunities are expected to change
little through the mid-1970’s. The number of new
entrants to the profession is expected to out­
number employment opportunities that become
available. Even highly talented young people
are likely to face stiff competition and economic
difficulties in the profession.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Actors and actresses employed in the legitimate
theater belong to the Actors’ Equity Association.
I f employed in motion pictures, including televi­
sion films, they belong to the Screen Actors
Guild, Inc., or to the Screen Extras Guild, Inc.
I f employed in television or radio, they belong to
the American Federation of Television and Radio
Artists. These unions and the show producers
sign basic collective bargaining agreements which
set minimum salaries, hours o f work, and other
conditions of employment. In addition, each
actor enters into a separate contract which may
provide for higher salaries than those specified
in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for actors in
large New York theaters was $125 in 1964. Those
appearing in small “ off-Broadway” theaters had
considerably lower earnings. For shows on the
road, the minimum rate was $160 a week. For
rehearsal time, it was $107.50 a week in Broad­
way shows and much lower in small “ off-Broad­
way” theaters. All minimum salaries are adjusted
upward according to increases in the cost of
living as reflected in the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics Consumer Price Index.
Motion picture actors and actresses had a mini­
mum daily rate of about $100 in mid-1964. For
extras, the minimum rate was about $25 a day.
Actors on network television received a minimum
program fee of $155 for a single half-hour pro­
gram, and 10 hours of rehearsal time; actors on
radio received $49.60 for a half-hour perform­
ance, 1 rehearsal hour included. To encourage
more stable employment in the field, minimum

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

178

guarantees for those actors with contracts for a
series of programs are sometimes discounted be­
low the single program guaranteed fee.
In all fields, many well-known actors and ac­
tresses have salary rates above the minimums.
The salaries o f the few top stars are many times
the figures cited. On the other hand, because of
the frequent periods of unemployment charac­
teristic o f this profession, annual earnings may
be low for many o f the lesser known performers.
Eight performances amount to a week’s work
on the legitimate stage and any additional per­
formances are paid for as overtime. The basic
workweek after the opening of a show is 36
hours, including limited time for rehearsals.
Prior to the opening, however, the workweek is

usually longer to allow enough time for rehear­
sals. Evening work is, of course, a regular part
of a stage actor’s life. Rehearsals may be held
late at night and over weekends and holidays.
Traveling over the weekend is often necessary
when plays are on the road.
Most actors are covered by a pension fund and
a growing number have hospitalization insurance
to which their employers contribute, but very few
have paid vacations or sick leave. Most stage
actors get little if any unemployment compen­
sation, since they seldom have enough employ­
ment in any State to meet the eligibility require­
ments. Consequently, when a show closes, they
often have to take any casual work obtainable
while they are waiting for another role.

Dancers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0 -4 5 ,1 1 through .51)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 151.028 and .048)

Nature of Work
Dancing is an ancient and worldwide art, hav­
ing many different forms. Professional dancers
may perform in classical ballet or modern dance,
in dance adaptations for musical shows, in folk
dances, or in tap and other popular kinds of
dancing. In the classical ballet, movements are
based on certain conventional or styled “ posi­
tions,” and women dance “ en pointe” (on the
tips o f their toes). In modem dance, movements
are much more varied but are nonetheless care­
fully planned and executed to follow a pattern.
In dance productions the performers most
often work together as a chorus. However, a
group o f selected dancers may do special num­
bers, and a very few top artists do solo work.
Many dancers combine teaching with their
stage work or teach full time in schools of the
dance or in colleges and universities. The few
dancers who have become choreographers create
new ballets or dance routines. Others are dance
directors who train dancers in new productions.
This statement does not include instructors of
ballroom and other social dancing.
Where Employed
In 1965, there were more than 23,000 dancers
and dancing teachers in the United States. It is

estimated that more than half of this number
were teachers employed at schools o f the dance
and in schools and colleges. Most o f the other
dancers were performers on the stage, screen, and
television. A few trained in dance therapy were
employed by hospitals to work in this new field
used in the treatment of mental disorders. About
80 percent of all dancers are women, but in some
types of dance, particularly ballet and modem,
women performers comprise only about 50 per­
cent.
Although dancing teachers are located chiefly
in large cities, many smaller cities and towns
have schools o f the dance. New York City is the
hub for the majority o f performing dancers,
others are situated in Los Angeles and Chicago.
Training and Other Qualifications
The traditional way of preparing for a danc­
ing career is to begin serious training by age 12
or earlier. Girls wishing to become ballet dancers
should begin taking lessons at the age o f 8. In
either case, 2 or 3 years o f prior preparation is
needed before the young girl should start danc­
ing “ en pointe.” Professional training typically
takes from 10 to 12 lessons per-week for 11 or
12 months in the year, and many additional hours
of practice. The length of the training period

THE

179

PERFORMING ARTS

depends on the student’s ability and physical de­
velopment, but most dancers have their profes­
sional audition by age 17 or 18.
The selection of a professional dancing school
is important for two reasons. First, the school
must use expert judgment in setting the pace of
training since too early and too severe exercise
can permanently damage the legs and feet.
Second, the school’s connections with producers
may help the students in obtaining employment
on the stage, screen, or television.
Because of the strenuous training program in
the professional schools, the general education
received by students in these schools may not
exceed the legal minimum. However, a dancer’s
education should also include such subjects as
music, literature, and history to aid him in his
interpretation of dramatic episodes and of music.
Nearly 150 colleges and universities confer bache­
lor’s degrees on students wdio have either majored
in physical education and concentrated on the
dance, majored in a dance program designed to
prepare student to teach dance, or majored in a
dance program designed to prepare students as
professional dance artists. Some of these schools
also give graduate degrees. Labanotation, which
is the method of writing dance routines and is
comparable to waiting an orchestral score, is one
of the advanced courses taught. Knowledge of
this is especially important to choreographers.
A college education is an advantage in obtain­
ing employment as a teacher o f professional
dancing or choreography. However, the girls who
postpone their first audition until graduation
compete at a disadvantage with younger girls
for openings in classical ballet. On the other
hand, they can compete successfully for openings
in modern dance performances which do not re­
quire a proficiency in toe dancing.
For teaching in the professional schools, exper­
ience as a performer is usually necessary; in col­
leges and conservatories, graduate degrees are
generally required, but often experience as a per­
former may be substituted. Maturity and a broad
educational background are also important for
teaching positions.
Excellent health and unusual physical vitality
are necessary for a dancing career. Height and
body build should not vary much from the aver­
age. Good feet with normal arches are required.

Classical ballet requires intensive training and continuing
practice.

These physical qualifications must be accom­
panied by an aptitude for dancing.
For women dancers, employment in ballet com­
panies is very difficult to obtain after the age of
30, except for outstanding stars. Women past 25
are rarely hired for Broadway showT unless they
s
have already had experience in such productions.
Men who are ballet dancers, and men and women
who perform in modern dance productions, can
usually continue somewhat longer. After the em­
ployable age as performers has passed, some
dancers teach in colleges, or conservatories, or
establish their own schools. The few who become
T
choreographers or dance directors can continue
working as long as people in most other occupa­
tions do.
Employment Outlook
Opportunities for beginners in this field will
be limited both by the small number of full-time
jobs available, and the large supply of experi­
enced applicants seeking full-time work. The
supply of trained dancers has exceeded the de­
mand for many years. The irregular employment
experienced in this profession for many years
may persist despite a few recent union-manage­

180

ment contracts aimed at guaranteeing some
dancers full or near-full employment each year.
Among the factors affecting demand are the de­
cline in the total number o f stage productions
because o f competition from motion pictures and
television. Also very few stage shows have a run of
26 weeks or more, and many “ fold” after the
first week. On the other hand, the number of
musical shows are increasing, and there is a grow­
ing trend toward using professional dancers at
industrial exhibitions, such as auto shows. Also,
a few new professional dance companies are
being developed around the country, and television
will offer some additional employment opportuni­
ties. Civic and community dance groups are in­
creasing in number, and opportunities for dancers
will expand as these develop into professional
groups. Nevertheless, employment opportunities
for dance performers will remain limited, and
most o f the openings for dancers in the years
ahead will stem from the need to replace those who
leave the field.
The employment outlook for dancers who have
the personal and educational qualifications for
teaching will be much better than for those
trained only as performers. The growing interest
in the dance as one of the fine arts is contribut­
ing to the demand for teachers of dancing. The
increase in college enrollments will be another
factor which will tend to enlarge teaching op­
portunities. (See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.)
Men dancers face less competition for employ­
ment than do women dancers, since fewer men
than women seek dancing as a career and nearly
equal numbers are needed.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Dancers who perform professionally are mem­
bers of one of the unions affiliated with the Asso­
ciated Actors and Artistes of America (A F L C IO ). The American Guild of Musical Artists,
Inc., is the union to which dancers belong who
perform in opera ballets, classical ballet, and
modern dance. Dancers who perform on televi­
sion belong to the American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists, and those who appear
in musical comedies join Actors Equity Associa­
tion. Dancers may also belong to other unions

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

depending upon the field in which they per­
form. (See statement on Singers and Singing
Teachers.) Minimum salary rates, hours o f work,
and other conditions o f employment are specified
in basic agreements signed by the unions and
the producers. In addition, the separate contract
signed by each dancer with the producer o f the
show has to be at least as favorable in the mat­
ter o f salary, hours of work, and working con­
ditions as the basic, agreement.
The minimum salary for dancers in ballet and
other stage productions was $110 a week, as of
late 1964. The minimum rate for rehearsal time
was $80 a week, except in small ballet compan­
ies which provide $60 for a rehearsal week. When
a show goes on tour, salaries are increased, since
dancers pay their own hotel bills. The employer
pays the cost of first-class transportation. I f a
dancer signs a contract for a brief appearance—
for instance, for a performance on television or
a few days’ work in a movie—the minimum rate
is higher, relative to time worked. However, this
difference is offset by the brevity o f the engage­
ment and the long period likely to be spent
waiting for the next one. A few performers, of
course, have much higher salaries. For principals,
choreographers, and stars, salaries in stage pro­
ductions ranged from $200 to over $2,000 per
week in 1964.
Some dancers qualified to teach in the technical
schools of the ballet are able to combine this work
with engagements as performers. A much greater
number of dancers have to supplement their in­
comes by other types of work.
Salaries of teachers in the technical schools of
the ballet vary with the location and prestige of
the school. Dancers employed as teachers in col­
leges and universities are paid on the same basis
as other faculty members. (See statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.)
The normal workweek is 30 hours spent in re­
hearsals, and matinee and evening performances.
Extra compensation is paid for hours worked out­
side the normal workweek. Most stage perform­
ances are, of course, in the evening, and rehearsals
may require very long hours, often on weekends
and holidays. When shows are on the road, travel­
ing over the weekend is often required.
Dancers are entitled to some paid sick leave and

TH E

PERFORMING ARTS

181

various health and welfare benefits provided by
their unions, to which the employers contribute.
Where To G o for More Information
Information on colleges and universities and
conservatories of music which provide for a ma­
jor in the dance, or some courses in the dance,

and details on the types of courses, and other
pertinent information may be obtained from the
Dance Directory, 1963 edition, compiled by the
American Association for Health, Physical Edu­
cation and Recreation, a division of the National
Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C., 20036.

Musicians and Music Teachers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-24.12 and 0-24.31)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 152.048 and .028 090.168 ; 091.168; and 092.168)

Nature of Work
Professional musicians—whether they play in a
symphony orchestra, dance band, or “ j azz combo”
—have behind them many years of study and in­
tensive practice. As a rule, musicians specialize in
either popular or classical music; only a few play
both types professionally.
Musicians who specialize in popular music usu­
ally play the trumpet, trombone, clarinet, saxo­
phone, or one of the “ rhythm” instruments—the
piano, string bass, drums, or guitar. Dance bands
using these instruments play in nightclubs, restau­
rants, and at special parties. The best known
bands, jazz groups, and solo performers sometimes
give concerts and perform on television.
Musicians trained in classical music play in
opera and theater orchestras, symphony orches­
tras, and for other kinds of performances needing
orchestral accompaniments. Some form small
groups— usually a string quartet or a trio—to
give concerts of chamber music.
In a symphony orchestra, 85 to 300 musicians or
more play together under the direction of a con­
ductor. About half the musicians in the orchestra
play the strings, smaller numbers play the brass
and woodwinds, and a few play the drums, cym­
bals, and other percussion instruments. Usually
the orchestra has among its members a pianist
and one or two harpists.
Many pianists accompany vocal or instrumental
soloists or choral groups or provide background
music in restaurants or other places. Most organ­
ists play in churches, often directing the choir as
well as playing the organ. A very few exception­
ally brilliant and well known musicians—chiefly
pianists and violinists—become concert artists,
giving their own concerts and appearing as solo-

Musicians perform at a private party.

ists with symphony orchestras. Both classical and
popular musicians often make recordings, either
individually or as members o f a group.
Many musicians, in addition to their work as
performers, give private lessons in their own stu­
dios or in pupils’ homes. Almost two-thirds of
the people primarily employed in the field of
music (estimated at more than 160,000 in 1965)
teach in the Nation’s schools and colleges and
are seldom, if ever, paid for performing. These
teachers may be members of the faculty of music
schools or conservatories or of colleges which offer
instruction in instrumental music. Some are music
teachers in elementary or secondary schools where
they direct vocal and instrumental music pro­
grams, teach general classroom music apprecia­
tion, and may also give group instruction on an
instrument.

182

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Most professional musicians work in large
cities, principally in New York, Chicago, and Los
Angeles, where the Nation’s entertainment activ­
ities are concentrated. Music teachers in elemen­
tary and secondary schools, as well as in colleges
and universities, are employed all over the coun­
try. Moreover, just about every town and city has
at least one private music teacher. Dance bands
and civic orchestras are also located in many com­
munities, although in the smaller towns, their
members are usually only part-time musicians
with other regular jobs.
A few musicians work in the field of music
therapy in hospitals, and for music libraries.

Students who complete these programs can qual­
ify for the State certificate required for elemen­
tary and secondary school positions. Conservato­
ries and collegiate music schools also frequently
award the degree of bachelor of music to students
who major in instrumental or vocal music. The
4-year program leading to either of these degrees
provides not only training as a performer but also
a broad background in musical history and theory,
together with some liberal arts courses. Advanced
degrees are usually required for college teaching
positions, but exceptions may be made for es­
pecially well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and other popular
music must have an understanding o f and feeling
for that style of music, but skill and training in
classical styles may expand their employment op­
portunities. As a rule, when young, they take
lessons with private teachers and then seize all
opportunities, beginning while they are still in
high school, to play in amateur or professional
performances. Some groups of young people form
their own small dance bands. As they gain experi­
ence and become known, the players may have
opportunities to audition for other local bands
and, still later, for the better known bands and
orchestras.

Training and Other Qualifications

Employment Outlook

Most people who become professional musicians
begin studying an instrument at an early age. To
achieve a career as a performer or as a music
teacher, young people need intensive training—
either through private study with an accom­
plished musician, in a college or university with a
strong music program, or in a conservatory of
music. They need to acquire not only great tech­
nical skill but also a thorough knowledge of
music, and they must learn how to interpret mu­
sic. Before a young person can qualify for ad­
vanced study in a music conservatory or in a
department or school of music of a college or
university, it is frequently necessary to have an
audition. Many of the teachers in these schools are
accomplished artists who will train only promis­
ing young musicians.
Many conservatories of music and college and
university schools of music offer 4-year programs
leading to a bachelor’s degree in music education.

As a field of employment, music performance
has been overcrowded for many years, and it is
expected to remain so through the mid-1970’s.
Opportunities for concerts and recitals are not
numerous enough to provide adequate employ­
ment for all the pianists, violinists, and other in­
strumentalists qualified as concert artists. Compe­
tition is usually keen for positions which afford
some stability of employment—for example, jobs
with major orchestras and teaching positions in
conservatories and colleges and universities.
Because of the ease with which a musician can
enter private music teaching, the number of music
teachers has been and will probably continue to be
more than sufficient to give instruction to all the
young people seeking lessons. Though many
opportunities for single and short-term engage­
ments playing popular music in night clubs,
theaters, and other places can be expected, the
supply of qualified musicians seeking such jobs is

In addition to the people primarily employed
as musicians or music teachers, thousands of quali­
fied instrumentalists have other full-time jobs and
only occasionally work as musicians. Most of these
part-time musicians belong to dance bands which
are hired to play at private parties or for special
occasions. Others, with a background in classical
music, play occasionally in an orchestra, become
conductors or composers, or do some part-time
teaching.
Where Employed

THE

183

PERFORMING ARTS

likely to remain greater than the demand. On the
other hand, a shortage of highly qualified church
organists may persist in many communities dur­
ing the next few years; first-class, experienced
accompanists and well trained, outstanding
players of stringed instruments are likely to re­
main relatively scarce; and public school systems
will probably continue to need more, fully quali­
fied music teachers and supervisors.
Employment opportunities for performers are
expected to increase slightly over the long run.
Although the number of civic orchestras in small­
er communities has been growing steadily, many
of these orchestras provide only part-time employ­
ment for musicians who work chiefly as teachers
or in other occupations. Moreover, the openings
created by the establishment of these orchestras
have been more than offset by the decline in
opportunities in the theater, radio, motion pic­
tures, and other places, which has resulted, in
part, from the greatly increased use of recorded
music.
The employment outlook in music education,
for people who are well-qualified as both musi­
cians and as teachers, is considerably brighter
than for performers. A great increase iij the num­
bers of young people of high school and college
age will take place throughout the remainder of
the 1960’s and well into the 1970’s. Moreover, the
number of schools with music programs is grow­
ing steadily, and interest in music as an avocation
is also rising, as evidenced by the increasing sales
of musical instruments. Thus over the long run,
an increase can be expected in the employment of
elementary and secondary school music teachers
and also in the teaching staffs of college and uni­
versity music schools and conservatories of music.

for the season, which averaged about 29 weeks in
1964, although the New York and Boston sym­
phonies had 52- and 50-week seasons, respectively.
Instrumentalists who were members o f small en­
sembles reportedly received as much as $200 per
concert. Those who played in dance bands were
paid from $60 to $300 per week in 1964, accord­
ing to the limited information available.
The salaries o f public school music teachers
are determined by the salary schedule adopted for
all teachers. (See statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers.) However, they
frequently supplement their earnings by giving
private music lessons and taking church positions.
Earnings from private teaching are very uncer­
tain and vary according to the musician’s repu­
tation, the number of teachers in the locality, the
number of students desiring lessons, the economic
status of the community, and other factors.
Musicians who are performers customarily work
at night and on weekends. They must also spend
considerable time in regular daily practice and in
rehearsing new scores.
Performers may have relatively long periods of
unemployment between jobs and, thus, the overall
level of their earnings is generally lower than that
in many other occupations. Moreover, they do not
usually work steadily for one employer. Conse­
quently, some performers cannot qualify for un­
employment compensation, and few have either
sick leave or vacations with pay.
Most musicians who play professionally belong
to the American Federation of Musicians (A F L C IO ). Concert soloists also belong to the Ameri­
can Guild of Musical Artists, Inc. (A F L -C IO ).
Where To G o for More Information

Earnings and Working Conditions
The amount received for a performance by
either classical or popular musicians depends to
a large extent on their professional reputations.
Musicians who were members of one of the 25 ma­
jor symphony orchestras in the United States in
1964 had a very wide range of earnings, from a
low of $1,650 to as high as $9,840 for the season.
According to the American Symphony Orchestras
League, Inc., the average of the salaries paid to
all musicians by these orchestras was about $4,900

Information about wages, hours o f work, and
working conditions for professional musicians is
available from:
American Federation of Musicians ( A F L -C IO ),
425 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.

Information about employment opportunities
for church musicians, as well as the requirements
for certification of organists and choir masters,
may be secured from:
American Guild of Organists,
630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.

10020.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

184

A list of accredited schools of music is avail­
able from :

Music Educators National Conference, The National
Education Association of the United States,
1 2 0 1 16th St. N W ., Washington, D.C.

National Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111. 61401.

Further information about music teaching in
elementary and secondary schools is available
fro m :

20036.

Information about employment opportunities
with symphony orchestras may be obtained from :
The American Symphony Orchestra League, Inc.,
Symphony Hill, P.O. Box 66, Vienna, Va.

22180.

Singers and Singing Teachers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-24.00 through 0-24.05)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 152.048 and .028, 090.168 ; 091.168; and 092.168)

Nature of Work
Professional singing is an art which usually
requires not only a fine voice, but also a highly
developed technique and, generally, a broad
knowledge of music. The tiny group of famous
artists who have become singing stars go on tours
in the United States and abroad and often make
recordings. Somewhat larger numbers of singers
obtain leading or supporting roles in operas and
popular music shows, or secure engagements as
soloists in oratorios and other types of perform­
ances. A much larger group— probably the ma­
jority of all professional singers of classical music
— are soloists in churches or synagogues. Some
singers also become members of opera and musical
comedy choruses or other professional choral
groups.
Singers who specialize in popular music have
various styles of singing that are so different
from that of singers of classical music, that the
two groups have little in common technically.
Popular music singers perform in musical shows
of all kinds— in the movies, on the stage, on radio
and television, and in nightclubs and other enter­
tainment places. The best known popular music
singers make and sell many recordings.
Since most singers of both classical and popular
music have only part-time or irregular employ­
ment as singers, they often have full-time jobs of
other types and sing only in the evenings or on
weekends. Some give private voice lessons. A siz­
able number of singers are employed in elemen­
tary and secondary schools, where they are
qualified to teach general music courses and lead
choruses. Others give voice training or direct
choral groups in churches, music conservatories,

or in colleges and universities with schools or
departments of music.
Where Employed
In 1965, almost 60,000 people were employed as
professional singers or singing teachers. Oppor­
tunities for singing engagements are mainly in
New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago— the
Nation’s chief entertainment centers. Nashville,
Tenn., also is a major place of employment for
singers in both “ live” performances and record­
ings and for those who specialize in folk and
country music. Persons trained as singers who
teach music in elementary and secondary schools
and in colleges, universities, and conservatories of
music are employed throughout the country. O p­
portunities for part-time employment, chiefly as
church singers and choir masters, are to be found
in small towns as well as in big cities.
r
Training and Other Qualifications
Young people who want to perform profession­
ally as singers should acquire a broad background
in music, including its theory and history. The
ability to dance is also helpful since singers are
sometimes required to dance as well as to sing. In
addition, boys and girls interested in a singing
career should start piano lessons at an early age.
As a rule, voice training should not begin until
after the individual has matured physically, al­
though young boys who sing in church choirs re­
ceive some training before their voices change.
Moreover, because of the work and expense in­
volved in voice training—which often continues
for years after the singer’s professional career has

THE

PERFORMING ARTS

185

ing a 4-year course of study, a graduate may be
awarded either the degree o f bachelor of music,
bachelor of science or arts (in music), or bachelor
of fine arts.
Young singers who plan to teach music in pub­
lic elementary or secondary schools need at least
a bachelor’s degree with a major in music educa­
tion, and must meet the State certification
requirements for teachers. Such training is avail­
able in over 500 colleges and universities through­
out the country. College teachers are usually
required to have a master’s degree and sometimes
a doctor’s degree, but exceptions may be made for
especially well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an asset for singers
of popular music, many with untrained voices
have had successful careers. The typical popular
song does not demand that the voice be developed
to cover as wide a range on the musical scale as
does classical music, and the lack of voice projec­
tion may be overcome by using a microphone.
Young singers of popular songs may become
known by participating in amateur and paid per­
formances in their communities. These engage­
ments may lead to employment with local dance
bands, and possibly later with better known ones.
In addition to musical ability, it often takes
perseverance, an outstanding personality, an at­
tractive appearance, good contacts, and luck to
achieve a singing career. Furthermore, a singing
career is sometimes relatively short, since it de­
pends on a good voice and public acceptance of
the artist, both of which may be affected by age.

Popular music singers reach a wider audience through recordings.

started— it is important that a prospective singer
show great determination and audition before a
competent voice teacher to decide whether pro­
fessional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for careers as singers
of classical music by enrolling in a music con­
servatory, a school or department of music con­
nected with a college or university, or by taking
private voice lessons. The schools provide not
only voice training but other training necessary
for understanding and interpreting music, includ­
ing music-related training in foreign languages,
and sometimes dramatic training. After complet­

Employment Outlook
The employment situation for singers will
probably remain highly competitive through the
mid-1970’s. Competition among popular singers
will continue to be especially keen. A great num­
ber of short-term jobs are likely to occur in the
entertainment field—the opera and concert stage,
the movies, the theater, nightclubs, radio and
television, dance bands, and other places—but not
enough to provide steady employment for all
qualified singers. The demand for church singers
is expected to expand because of the continued
growth in number of religious congregations, but
most of these openings will probably be filled
either by part-time singers who have steady em­
ployment in other fields or by volunteers.

186

Little growth in overall employment opportuni­
ties for singers is likely over the long run. The
use of recorded music has practically replaced the
“ live” singer on radio; also, the number of tele­
vision performances given by singers is limited,
although it may increase in future years. How­
ever, there is a growing demand for singers to
record commercials for both radio and television
advertising. The outlook for singers who can
meet State certification requirements for positions
as music teachers, or who can qualify for college
teaching, will be considerably brighter than for
performers. As school enrollments increase, the
demand for music teachers in the Nation’s ele­
mentary and secondary schools is expected to
grow and some increased employment of music
teachers can be expected in colleges and universi­
ties also, since enrollments in schools and depart­
ments o f music in these institutions are likely to
rise along with the increase expected in college en­
rollments generally. In addition, music teachers
will be needed to replace those who will transfer
to other fields o f work, retire, or die.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

teachers charge fees which vary greatly, depend­
ing on the teacher’s reputation, the economic
status o f the families in the community, and other
factors.
Singers generally work at night and on week­
ends. School teachers have regular working hours,
and private voice teachers can usually give les­
sons at their own convenience. W ork in the enter­
tainment field is seasonal, and few performers
have steady jobs.
Singers who perform professionally on the con­
cert stage or in opera belong to the American
Guild of Musical Artists, In c.; those who sing on
radio or television or who make phonograph re­
cordings are members o f the American Federa­
tion of Television and Eadio Artiste; singers in
the variety and night club field belong to the
American Guild of Variety Artists; those who
sing in musical comedy and operettas belong to
the Actors’ Equity Association; and those who
sing in the movies belong to the Screen Actors
Guild, Inc. All of these unions are branches of
the Associated Actors and Artistes o f America
(A F L -C IO ).

Earnings and Working Conditions
Some singers employed by dance bands and in
motion pictures earn as much as $200 per week,
and a few well-known concert soloists, opera stars,
or top recording artists of popular music may
command more than $1,000 for a performance.
However, the majority of professional singers ex­
perience difficulty in obtaining regular employ­
ment, and have to supplement their singing in­
comes by doing other types of work.
The salaries of public school music teachers are
determined by the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers in their school system. Private music

Where To G o for More Information
Information about accredited schools and de­
partments of music may be obtained from :
N &tional Association of Schools of Music,
Knox College, Galesburg, 111. 61401.

Further information about music teaching in
elementary and secondary schools is available
from :
Music Educators National Conference, The National
Education Association of the United States,
1 2 0 1 16th St. N W „ Washington, D.C. 20036.

O T H E R A R T R E L A T E D O C C U P A T IO N S
Commercial Artists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0—
i4)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 141.081, 141.031; 149.051; 149.281; 970.081 through .884)

Nature of Work
The artwork necessary in the preparation of ad­
vertisements appearing in newspapers and maga­
zines is often created by a team of commercial
artists. The art director supervises a group of ar­
tists of varying levels of skill and diverse
specializations. He may develop the art aspects of
an advertising plan which he turns over to a lay­
out man for further refinement. The layout artist
works up the construction or arrangement of the
elements of the advertisement, planning the selec­
tion and arrangement of illustrations, photo­
graphs, and typography and determining color
and other elements of design. Then, he prepares
a “ rough visual” or sketch of the idea. He may,
after consulting with the director, make changes
in the visual and complete a more comprehensive
layout for the customer’s consideration.

Commercial artist makes caricatures For editorial features.

Working with the layout man in turning out the
finished product are a variety of specialists such
as renderers, who make rough pastel or wash
drawings; letterers, who execute appropriate let­
tering either freehand or with mechanical aids;
illustrators, who make sketches and drawings in
more finished form ; and paste-up and mechani­
cal men, who cut and paste together the basic
parts of the advertisement or other artwork,
using a ruling pen or other drafting tool, as re­
quired. Some workers, called general boardmen,
spend nearly all of their time at the drawing
board performing many of these specializations.
Often supporting the general boardmen or other
specialists are apprentices who engage primarily
in mechanical, routine, and noncreative functions
such as separating colors, ruling pen work, wash­
ing paintbrushes, cutting mats, running errands,
and so forth.
In a small office, the art director may perform
all the layout and boardwork himself, with the
aid of apprentices. In a large office he may be
responsible mainly for developing ideas with the
layout man; setting standards; dealing with
clients; and purchasing needed photographs, il­
lustrations, lettering, and other art work from
freelancers or art services.
Much of the advertising artist’s work is in cre­
ating the concept and artwork for a wide variety
of promotional items or “ collateral material”
(including direct mail advertising, booklets,
folders, brochures, catalogs, counter displays,
etc.) used to supplement newspaper and magazine
ads or television commercials. They may also pre­
pare slides, film strips, and other visual aids.
Commercial artists also create the formats of
magazines and other publications, designing or
laying out the editorial pages and features and
187

188

producing or purchasing the necessary illustra­
tions or artwork. Some commercial artists
specialize in fashion illustrations, greeting cards,
book illustrations, technical drawings for indus­
try, etc.
Where Employed
An estimated 50,000 commercial artists were
employed in early 1965; about one-fourth were
women. Most commercial artists are employed in
big cities, such as New York, Chicago, Philadel­
phia, Los Angeles, and Detroit, where the largest
users of commercial art are to be found. Some,
however, are employed in nearly every city.
Most commercial artists are employed as staff
artists on a regular salaried basis by advertising
agencies, commercial art studios, advertising de­
partments of large companies, printing and pub­
lishing firms, textile companies, television and
motion picture studios, department stores, sign
shops, mail-order houses, greeting card compa­
nies, and a variety o f other business organizations.
Many work as freelance artists, selling their art­
work to any available customers—chiefly to the
same kinds of organizations that employ salaried
artists. Some salaried commercial artists also do
freelance work in their spare time. A number of
commercial artists work for Federal Government
agencies, principally in the Defense Department.
A few teach in art schools on a regular or partfime basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Artistic ability and good taste are the most im­
portant qualifications for success in the field of
commercial art, but it is essential that these quali­
ties be supplemented by specialized training in
the techniques of commercial and applied art. In
addition, extensive educational training in the
fine arts—painting, sculpture, or architecture—
and in academic studies provides a good founda­
tion for obtaining employment as a commercial
artist and is essential when seeking promotion to
higher level jobs.
The most widely accepted training for commer­
cial art is the instruction given in art schools or
institutes that specialize in commercial and ap­
plied art. To enter art school, a high school edu­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

cation is usually, but not always, required. Some
schools admit only those applicants who demon­
strate talent by submitting acceptable work sam­
ples. The course of study, which may include some
academic work, generally takes 2 or 3 years, and
a certificate is awarded on graduation. A growing
number of art schools, particularly those in or
connected with universities, require 4 or more
years of study and confer a bachelor’s degree—
commonly the bachelor of fine arts (B.F.A.) de­
gree. In these schools, commercial art instruction
is supplemented by liberal arts courses such as
English and history. Some limited training in
commercial art may also be obtained through
courses offered by public vocational high schools,
or through private home-study schools, and
through practical experience on the job, but sup­
plemental training is usually needed for advance­
ment.
The first year in art school may be devoted
primarily to the study of fundamentals—perspec­
tive, design, color harmony, composition— and to
the use of pencil, crayon, pen and ink, and other
art media. Subsequent study, generally more spe­
cialized, includes drawing from life, advertising
design, graphic design, lettering, typography, il­
lustrations, and other courses in the student’s
particular field o f interest.
Accomplished draftsmanship, imagination, and
artistic judgment concerning the harmony of color
and line are basic requirements for a successful
career in commercial art. The various specialties,
however, differ in some of the specific abilities
required. For example, letterers and retouchers
must be able to do precise and detailed work re­
quiring excellent coordination, whereas illustra­
tors and designers need imagination, a distinctive
art style, and, in most cases, the ability to draw
well. Some experience with photography is useful
to those interested in art direction or design. For
commercial artists engaged in freelance work, the
ability to sell both ideas and finished work to
employers or clients is very important. Also, a
business sense and responsibility in meeting dead­
lines are assets. Art directors need a strong edu­
cational background not only in art and business
practices, but also in the liberal arts. The adver­
tising art directors need a special kind of cre­
ativity—the ability to conceive ideas that will

OTHER ART RELATED OCCUPATIONS

189

stimulate the sale of the clients’ products or
services.
Beginning commercial artists usually need some
on-the-job training before they can qualify for
other than strictly routine work. Advancement is
based largely on the individual’s artistic talent,
creative ability, and education. After considerable
experience, many commercial artists leave salaried
employment for freelance work.
Most commercial artists assemble their best
artwork into a folder, or “ portfolio,” to use in
displaying their work to others. A good up-to-date
portfolio is essential in obtaining initial employ­
ment and freelance assignments as well as in
changing jobs.

to need more artists who are qualified to perform
three dimensional work with engineering con­
cepts. (See statement on Industrial Designers.)
Generally, the effect of a serious economic
downturn would be a reduction in advertising
budgets and a decrease in employment o f com­
mercial artists. During minor business recessions,
however, the policy of many companies is to ad­
vertise their products more vigorously, thus in­
creasing the use of advertising art.
Women with exceptional artistic talent will con­
tinue to find employment in all aspects of com­
mercial art work, but particularly in the textile
industry and as fashion illustrators in department
stores.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment and advancement opportunities
for talented and well-trained commercial artists
in most kinds of work are expected to be good
throughout the rest of the 1960’s. Young people
with only average ability and little specialized
training, however, will encounter competition for
beginning jobs and will have limited opportunity
for advancement.
The demand for commercial artists will con­
tinue to vary with the kind of specialization: For
example, opportunities for illustrators, except
those who are well known and have a unique
style, are expected to continue to decline, largely
because of increasing use o f photography in ad­
vertising and editorial features. Demand for
paste-up and mechanical artists is expected to
continue to be steady, but jobs for designers, art
directors, and layout men are few, much sought
after, and open only to experienced, highly
talented, and creative artists.
A moderate increase in employment of com­
mercial artists is expected over the long run. The
upward trend in business expenditures for all
kinds of visual advertising will be reflected in a
growing demand for commercial artists. Televi­
sion graphics and packaging design are expected
to continue to be sources of expanding employ­
ment opportunities. Demand for other forms of
art, such as poster and window displays, and
greeting cards, will probably create employment
for an increasing number of artists. In addition,
the growing field of industrial design is expected

In early 1965, beginning commercial artists
with no training beyond vocational high school
typically earned $50 a week; graduates of 2-year
professional schools generally received $65 a week
and graduates of 4-year post-high school pro­
grams typically received $85 a week, according
to the limited data available. Talented artists with
strong educational backgrounds and a good port­
folio, however, sometimes started at higher sala­
ries. After a few years of experience, qualified
artists may expect to earn $100-$150 or more a
week. Art directors, designers, executives, wellknown freelance illustrators, and others in top
positions generally have much higher earnings,
many beyond $15,000 a year.
The earnings o f freelance artists have an espe­
cially wide range, since they are affected by such
factors as the amount of artwork sold, the price
that the individual artist receives for his work,
and the nature of the work he performs. For ex­
ample, a private survey in 1964 indicated that a
freelancer received from $25 for a single black
and white fashion sketch to $750 for a figure
in full color with a background; from $1,000 to
$2,000 for a color cover for a national magazine;
or from $75 to $250 for a book jacket. Sometimes
freelance artists are paid for their services by the
hour; letterers may be paid $5 to $8 or more a
word.
Salaried commercial artists generally work 35
to 40 hours a week, but sometimes they must work
additional hours and under a considerable amount

190

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of pressure in order to meet deadlines. Freelance
artists usually have irregular working hours.

National Society of Art Directors, Art Education
Chairman,
115 East 40th St., New York, N.Y. 10016.

A list of schools offering highly specialized
education in art and design is available from :

Where To G o for More Information
Information on art training and employment
trends is available from :

National Association of Schools of Art,
50 Astor PL, New York, N.Y. 10003.

Industrial Designers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-46.88)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 142.081)

Nature of Work
Industrial designers combine technical knowl­
edge o f materials, machines, and methods of pro­
duction with artistic talent to improve the appear­
ance and functional design of machine-made
products. Since the public has a wide choice of
styles in products, particularly radios, television
sets, automobiles, refrigerators, and furniture, a
primary objective of the industrial designer is to
design his employer’s product to compete favor­
ably with similar goods.
As a first step, the industrial designer spends
time doing historical research on the product or

Automobile styling is a creative challenge for the most skilled
and versatile designers.

related products. He studies competition in the
market and the ways in which the product may
be used. Then, he sketches a variety of possible
designs, which are examined from many points of
view. For example, the designer consults engi­
neers, production supervisors, and the sales and
market research staff for their opinions on the
practicability of producing a newly designed
product, or changing the design of an old prod­
uct, and the sales potential of the proposed de­
signs. After the most suitable design is selected
by company officials, a model may be made by
the designer. The first model of a new design is
often made of clay so that it can be altered easily
to reflect modifications. The final or working
model is usually made of the material to be used
in the finished product. I f the model is approved
in this form, it is put into production.
Industrial designers also may be called upon
to do related types of work. For example, they
may design containers and packages, prepare
small exhibits for display purposes, or design the
entire layout for industrial fairs. Some also de­
sign the interior layout of special purpose com­
mercial buildings, such as gasoline stations and
supermarkets.
Industrial designers employed by a manufac­
turing company usually find their work limited
to the one or few products made by their em­
ployer; many senior designers, however, are now
given a free hand to engage in long-range plan­
ning for new or diversified products. Designers
who work as consultants to more than one indus­
trial firm, either as freelance designers or as mem­
bers of consulting firms, may plan and design a
great variety of products.

OTHER ART RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Where Employed
About 10,000 industrial designers were em­
ployed in 1965. The great majority worked for
large manufacturing companies and in design
consulting firms; of the remainder, the greatest
number did freelance work or combined salaried
employment w ith it. Some also worked for archi­
T
tects, and a few were on the staffs of firms of
interior designers.
Industrial designers employed by consulting
firms are located mainly in large cities. Those
employed by industrial firms are found most often
in the manufacturing plants of their companies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
The completion of a course of study in indus­
trial design—in an art school, an art department
of a university, or a technical college—is the usual
requirement for entering this field of work. Peo­
ple from other areas, however, notably engineer­
ing and architecture, often qualified as industrial
designers if they have appropriate experience and
artistic talent.
Formal education in industrial design at the
college or university level usually takes at least
4 years to complete, and a few schools require 5
years of study. These schools award the bachelor’s
degree in industrial design or fine arts; some of
these schools also award the master’s degree for
advanced study in the field. Some schools, usually
private art schools or those associated with large
art museums, offer a 3-year course of study in in­
dustrial design which leads to a diploma.
Entrance to the course of study in industrial
design is limited, with rare exceptions, to qualified
high school graduates; in addition, art schools
and colleges may require students to present
sketches and other examples of their artistic abil­
ity. Some schools require students to complete
their freshman year or sophomore year before
they select an industrial design major.
Industrial design curriculums differ consider­
ably among schools. Some schools stress the engi­
neering and technical aspects of the field, whereas
others give students a strong cultural background
in art. Nevertheless, all industrial design curriculums include at least one course in two-dimen­
sional design (color theory, spatial organization,
etc.) and one in general three-dimensional design
778-316 0 — 65-------14

191

(abstract sculpture and art structures), including
a substantial amount of studio practice in the
actual design of three-dimensional products. In
the studio course, students learn to make working
drawings and models with clay, wood, plaster,
and other easily worked materials. In schools that
have the necessary machinery, students gain ex­
perience in making models of their designs while
learning to use metalworking and woodworking
machinery. Some schools, principally those with
a technical emphasis, require the completion of
courses in basic engineering and in the composi­
tion of materials. A ll schools which offer 4- or
5-year courses leading to a bachelor’s degree also
include academic subjects, such as English, his­
tory, and science, in their curriculums.
Creative ability, skill in drawing, and the abil­
ity to predict consumer needs are the most im­
portant personal qualifications needed by young
people aspiring to work in this field. A mechanical
interest is also important. Applicants for jobs will
find it helpful to have previously assembled a
“ portfolio” which demonstrates their skill in de­
signing and their creative talent. Since industrial
designers are frequently required to work coopera­
tively with engineers and other staff members,
ability to work and communicate well with others
is important. Young people who plan to do indus­
trial design on a consulting basis should, in addi­
tion, have a knowledge of business practices, and
possess sales ability.
New graduates of industrial design courses fre­
quently start as assistants to other designers. They
are usually given relatively simple assignments
which do not involve making structural changes
in the product. As they gain experience, designers
may be assigned to supervisory positions with ma­
jor responsibility for the design of a product or a
group of products. Those who have the necessary
funds, as well as established reputations in the
field, may open their own consulting firms.
Employment Outlook
•Employment in this relatively small occupation
is expected to expand moderately through the
mid-1970’s. Employers will be actively seeking
applicants with a college degree and outstanding
talent. Some employment opportunities will also
arise each year from the need to replace designers
who retire or leave the field for other reasons.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

192

Although these vacated positions are likely to be
filled by promoting designers’ assistants, such
promotions result in openings at the entry level.
A number of factors will affect employment of
industrial designers'. Rapid obsolescence of com­
mercial equipment and the rising population will
increase the demand for newly designed products.
As in the past, manufacturers will strive to hold
or increase their share of this market through
creating new products, by improving the design
of existing ones, and by changing package designs
and otherwise modernizing the appearance and
use of their products. Small companies probably
will make increasing use of services offered by in­
dustrial design consulting firms in order to com­
pete more effectively with larger firms. A ll of
these factors, combined with rising per capita in­
come, will contribute to long-term growth in the
employment of industrial designers. However, as
in the past, new’ entrants trained specifically in
industrial designing are likely to encounter keen
competition for beginning jobs from persons with
engineering, architectural, and related educational
backgrounds who have artistic and creative talent
as w ell. Also, since personnel needs in this pro­
T
fession are very closely related to general busi­
ness conditions, any downturn in the economy
would tend to affect adversely the employment
outlook.

Earnings
Starting salaries of inexperienced industrial de­
signers employed by manufacturing firms ranged
from $100 to $125 a week in 1964, according to
the limited information available. Beginning
salaries of those employed by consulting firms
were usually lower. Salaries o f experienced in­
dustrial designers vary greatly, depending on in­
dividual ability, size and type of firm in which
employed, and other factors. According to scat­
tered reports, those with several years of experi­
ence earned salaries ranging from $6,000 to
$12,000 annually. Some large manufacturing firms
paid $25,000 or more to experienced and talented
designers.
Earnings of industrial designers who own their
consulting firms, alone or as members of a part­
nership, may fluctuate markedly from year to
year. In recent years, earnings of most consultants
ranged between $12,000 and $20,000 with a few
outstanding industrial designers making as much
as $200,000.
Where To G o for More Information
Industrial Designers Society of America,
60 W est 55th St., New York, N .Y. 10019.
Industrial Designers’ Institute,
441 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.

10022.

National Association of Schools of Art,
50 Astor PL, New York, N .Y. 10003.

Interior Designers and Decorators
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-43.40)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of Work
The creative vT
ork of interior designers and
decorators enhances the attractiveness of our
homes and other buildings. Designers and decora­
tors plan the functional arrangement of interior
space and coordinate the selection (including
colors) of furniture, draperies and other fabrics,
floor coverings, and interior accessories. They
may work on the interiors of residential or com­
mercial structures, including ships and aircraft.
Some design stage sets used for motion pictures
and television. Interior designers are more con­
cerned than decorators with space planning and
other interior design; they often work for clients

on large design projects such as the interior of an
entire office building. Generally, their design
plans include the complete layout of the rooms
within the space allowed by the exterior walls
and other framework. Sometimes they redesign
the interiors of old structures. When their plans
have been completed, the architect checks them
against his blueprints to assure compliance with
building requirements and to solve structural
problems. Some interior designers also design
the furniture and accessories to be used in in­
teriors and then arrange for their manufacture.
Many professionals in this field have their own
establishments, either alone or as a member of a

193

OTHER ART RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ings ; for the supervision of the work of painters,
floor finishers, cabinetmakers, carpetlayers, and
other craftsmen; and for the installation and
arrangement of furnishings.
Where Employed

Interior designer confers with a client.

firm with other designers and decorators; they
may sell some or all of the merchandise with
which they work. Some work independently, or
with one assistant; others have large staffs, some­
times including salespeople.
Many of the larger department and furniture
stores have separate departments of interior deco­
rating or interior design, or both, to advise cus­
tomers on decorating and design plans. The main
function of these departments is to help sell the
store’s merchandise, although materials from out­
side sources may be used when they are essential
to the plans developed for the customer. Depart­
ment store decorators and designers frequently
advise the stores’ buyers and executives concern­
ing style and color trends in interior furnishings.
Interior designers and decorators usually work
directly with clients to determine their prefer­
ences and needs in furnishings. They may do
“ boardwork,” particularly on large assignments,
which means working out floor plans and eleva­
tions and creating sketches, or other perspective
drawings in watercolor, pastels, tempera, or other
mediums so clients can visualize their plans. They
also provide cost estimates. After the client ap­
proves both the plans and cost estimates, arrange­
ments are made for the purchase of the furnish­

About 15,000 people were engaged full time in
interior design and decoration in 1965. About half
of them were women. Men, however, predominate
in interior design. Many in design and decorating
work on a part-time basis.
The majority of all workers in this field are lo­
cated in large cities. In recent years, large de­
partment and furniture stores have become in­
creasingly important sources of employment for
professional interior designers and decorators.
Some designers and decorators have permanent
jobs with hotel and restaurant chains. Others are
employed by architects, antique dealers, office
furniture stores, industrial designers, furniture
and textile manufacturers, or other manufacturers
in the interior furnishing field, or by periodicals
that feature articles on homefurnishings. Some
large industrial corporations employ interior de­
signers on a permanent basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Formal training in interior design and decora­
tion is becoming increasingly important for en­
trance into this field of work, although many
present members of the profession achieved suc­
cess without such training. Most department
stores, well-established design and decorating
firms, and other major employers will accept only
professionally trained people for beginning jobs.
Usually, the minimum educational requirement is
completion of either a 2- or 3-year course at a
recognized art school or institute specializing in
interior decorating and design, or a 4-year college
course leading to a bachelor of fine arts degree
with a major in interior design and decoration.
The course of study in interior design and decora­
tion usually includes the principles of design, his­
tory of art, freehand and mechanical drawing,
painting, the study of the essentials of architec­
ture as they relate to interiors, design of furniture
and exhibitions, and study of various materials,
such as woods and fabrics. A knowledge of furn­
ishings, art pieces, and antiques is important. In

194

addition, courses in salesmanship, business arith­
metic, and other business subjects are of great
value.
Membership in either the American Institute of
Interior Designers (A ID ) or the National Society
of Interior Designers (N S ID ), both professional
societies, is a recognized mark of achievement in
this profession. Such membership usually requires
the completion of 4 years or more o f post-high
school education, the major emphasis having been
on training in design, and several years of prac­
tical experience in the field, including responsibil­
ity for supervision of all aspects o f decorating
contracts.
New graduates with art training in interior de­
sign and decorating usually serve a training peri­
od, either with decorating firms, in department
stores, or in the firm of an established designer.
They may act as a receptionist, as a shopper with
the task of matching materials or finding acces­
sories, or as a stockroom assistant, assistant deco­
rator, or junior designer. In most instances, from
1 to 3 years o f on-the-job training is required
before a trainee is considered eligible for advance­
ment to the job of decorator. Beginners who do
not obtain trainee jobs often work as salespeople
for fabric, lamp, or other interior ' furnishings
concerns, to gain experience both in dealing with
customers and to become familiar with the mer­
chandise. This experience often makes it easier
to obtain trainee jobs with a decorating firm or
department; it may also lead to a career in
merchandising.
After considerable experience, decorators and
designers with ability may be advanced to head
o f decorating or design departments, interior
furnishings coordinator, or to other supervisory
positions in department stores, or in large deco­
rating or design firms; if they have the necessary
funds, they may open their own establishments.
Talented workers usually are able to advance
rapidly.
Artistic talent, imagination, good business
judgment, and the ability to deal with people
are important assets for success in this field.
Employment Outlook
Talented art school or college graduates who
majored in interior design and decoration will
find good opportunities for employment during

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the remainder o f the 1960 decade and on into the
1970’s. Applicants who can plan and design space
are in strong demand. Young people without for­
mal training will find it increasingly difficult to
gain a foothold in the field.
A slow but steady increase in employment of
interior designers and decorators is anticipated.
Population growth, larger expenditures for home
and office furnishings, the increasing availability
of well-designed furnishings at moderate prices,
a growing recognition among middle-income
families o f the value of decorators’ services, and
increasing use of design services for commercial
establishments should contribute to a greater de­
mand for these workers. In addition to newly
created jobs, some openings will arise each year
from the need to fill vacancies.
Department and furniture stores are expected
to employ an increasing number of trained deco­
rators and designers. These stores are also ex­
pected to share in the growing volume of design
and decorating work for commercial establish­
ments and public buildings, formerly handled al­
most entirely by independent decorators. This
development will result in an increase in oppor­
tunities for salaried employment. Interior design
firms are also expected to continue to expand. As
formerly, however, a sharp downturn in general
economic conditions would adversely affect em­
ployment opportunities in this field.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning salaries ranged generally from $65
to $85 a week in 1964 for art school or college
graduates with formal training in interior design
and decoration; some graduates of 4-year design
schools received salaries as high as $100 a week,
according to limited data available.
Many interior decorators with only average
skill in this field earn only moderate incomes—
from $5,000 to $7,500 a year, even after some years
of experience. Other decorators who are well
known in their localities may earn up to $12,000
or more. Designers and decorators whose talents
are nationally recognized may earn well beyond
$25,000 yearly.
Decorators in business for themselves have an
especially wide range of earnings; their profits
are related to factors such as the volume of busi­
ness, their prestige as a decorator, economic level

OTHER ART RELATED OCCUPATIONS

of their clients, their own business competence,
and the percentage of wholesale prices they re­
ceive from sale o f furnishings. Decorators in the
employment of others also have variable earnings,
some are paid straight salaries; some receive
salaries plus commissions which usually range
from 5 to 10 percent of the value of their sales;
others receive commissions only, which may be as
much as one-third o f the value of their sales.
Hours of work for decorators are sometimes
long and irregular. They usually adjust their
workday to suit the needs of their clients, meeting

195

with them during the evenings or on weekends,
when necessary. Designers’ schedules follow a
more regular workday pattern.
Where To G o for More Information
Information about employment and scholarship
opportunities may be obtained from :
American Institute of Interior Designers,
673 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Interior Designers, Inc.
Suite 700,157 W est 57th St., New York, N.Y.

10019.

S O C I A L S C IE N C E S
The social sciences are concerned with all as­
pects of human society from the origins of man
to the latest election returns. Social scientists,
however, generally specialize in one major field of
human relationships. Anthropologists study prim­
itive tribes, reconstruct civilizations of the past,
and analyze the cultures and languages of all
peoples past and present. Economists study how
man allocates resources of land, labor, and capital.
Geographers study the distribution throughout
the world of people, types o f land and water
masses, and natural resources. Historians de­
scribe and interpret the people and events of the
past and present. Political scientists study the
theories, objectives, and organizations of all types
of government. Sociologists analyze the behavior
and relationships of groups—such as the family,
the community, and minorities—to the individual
or to society.
Besides these basic social science fields, there
are a number of closely related fields, some of
which are covered in separate statements else­
where in this Handbook. (See statements on Sta­
tisticians, Psychologists, and Social Workers.)
About 50,000 people were employed profession­
ally in the basic social sciences in 1965. About 1
o f every 10 was a woman. Overlapping among
the basic social science fields and the sometimes
hazy distinction between these and such related
fields as business administration, foreign service
work, and high school teaching, make it difficult
to determine the exact size of each profession.
Economists, however, are the largest social science
group, and anthropologists the smallest.
The majority of social scientists are employed
by colleges and universities. The Federal Govern­
ment is the second largest employer. Except for
economists, private industry employs compara­
tively few persons in social science professions;
196

however, there is a trend in some industries to­
ward hiring increasing numbers of college grad­
uates who have majored in the social sciences as
trainees for administrative and executive posi­
tions. Research councils and other nonprofit or­
ganizations provide an important source of em­
ployment for economists, political scientists, and
sociologists.
Employment in the social sciences has been in­
creasing and is expected to grow rapidly through
the mid-1970’s, mainly because of the anticipated
rise in college teaching positions. The reasons for
this expected increase are discussed in the state­
ment on College and University Teachers. A mod­
erate rise in employment in government also is
expected. Employment in government agencies is
often greatly affected by changes in public policy.
For example, more social scientists will be needed
to handle research and administrative functions
resulting from the new programs established by
Congress to relieve unemployment and remove
poverty. The Vocational Education Act of 1963
and the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, and
the Appalachian Regional Development Act of
1965 are recent programs that will increase the
demand for social science personnel. A moderate
rise in employment in private industry and non­
profit organizations also is expected. In addition,
hundreds of social scientists will be needed each
year to replace those who leave the field because
of retirement, death, or other reasons.
Social scientists with doctor’s degrees will find
excellent employment opportunities through the
mid-1970’s, in both teaching and nonteaching po­
sitions. For those with less training, the employ­
ment situation will differ considerably among the
several social science fields. These differences are
discussed in the occupational statements that
follow.

197

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Anthropologists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 055.088)

Nature of Work
Anthropologists study primitive and civilized
man—his origins, physical characteristics, cus­
toms, languages, traditions, material possessions,
and social and religious beliefs and practices. Most
anthropologists specialize in cultural anthropol­
ogy—usually archeology or ethnology. Archeolo­
gists excavate the places where earlier civiliza­
tions are buried in order to reconstruct the history
and customs of the people who once lived there,
by studying the remains of homes, tools, clothing,
ornaments, and other evidences of human life and
activity. For example, archeologists are digging
in the Pacific Coast area between northern Mex­
ico and Ecuador to find evidences of trade and
migration in the pre-Christian Era. Some arche­
ologists are excavating ancient Mayan cities in
Mexico and restoring temples. Others are working
in the Missouri river valley to salvage remnants
of Indian villages and sites of early military forts
and trading posts. Ethnologists may spend long
periods living among primitive tribes or in other
communities, to learn their ways of life at first
hand. The ethnologist takes detailed and com­
prehensive notes describing the social customs,
beliefs, and material possessions of the people,
usually learning their language in the process.
He may also make comparative studies of the cul­
tures and societies of various groups. Some cul­
tural anthropologists specialize in linguistics, the
scientific study of the sounds and structures of
languages and of the historical relationships
among languages.
A few hundred people specialize as 'physical an­
thropologists. These anthropologists apply inten­
sive training in human anatomy and biology to
the study of human evolution, and to the scientific
measurement of the physical differences among
the races and goups of mankind. Because of their
knowledge of body structure, physical anthro­
pologists are occasionally employed as consultants
on such projects as the design of more comfort­
able space suits and cockpits for astronauts.
Most anthropologists teach in colleges and uni­
versities, and in some schools teach related sub-

Philippine Hanunoo tribesman shows an anthropologist how
folklore is inscribed in bamboo.

jects, such as sociology and geography. Research
and report writing are major aspects of their job.
Some anthropologists specialize in museum work,
which generally combines management and ad­
ministrative duties with fieldwork and research
on anthropological collections. Others are engaged
primarily in consulting, nontechnical writing, or
other activities.
Where Employed
About 1,500 people were employed as anthropol­
ogists in early 1965. About a fifth of them were
women—a higher proportion than in any other
social science field. The great majority were em­
ployed in colleges and universities. The Federal
Government employed a considerable number,
chiefly in museums, in Government-supervised
areas such as parks, and in technical aid pro­
grams. The Government agencies which em­
ployed the largest number of anthropologists were
the Smithsonian Institution and the National
Park Service. Many other Government agencies,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

198

including the Departments of Defense and of
Health, Education, and Welfare, employed some
members of the profession, mainly as consultants.
State and local government agencies also em­
ployed some anthropologists, usually for museum
work or health research. A few were employed in
private industry and nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
Young people who are interested in careers in
anthropology should obtain Ph. D. degrees. Col­
lege graduates with bachelor’s degrees can obtain
temporary positions and assistantships in the
graduate departments where they are working for
advanced degrees. A master’s degree, plus field
experience, is sufficient for many beginning pro­
fessional positions, but promotion to top positions
is generally reserved for individuals with the Ph.
D. degree. In many colleges, and most universities,
only anthropologists holding the Ph. D. degree
can obtain a permanent teaching appointment.
Some training in physical anthropology, arche­
ology, and ethnology is necessary for all anthro­
pologists. Courses in linguistics are also valuable
and are required for certain areas of work. A
knowledge of mathematics is increasingly impor­
tant since statistical methods and high speed
computer technology are becoming more widely
used in this field. Undergraduate students may
begin their field training in archeology by ar­
ranging, through their university department, to
accompany expeditions as laborers. They may ad­
vance to supervisory positions in charge of the
digging or collection of material and may finally
take charge of a portion of the work of the ex­
pedition. Ethnologists and linguists usually do
their fieldwork alone, without direct supervision.
Most anthropologists base their doctoral disserta­
tions on data collected through field research;
they are, therefore, experienced fieldworkers by
the time they obtain the Ph. D. degree.
The choice of a graduate school is very impor­
tant. Students interested in museum work should
select a school that can provide experience in an
associated museum having anthropological col­
lections. Similarly, those interested in archeology
should choose a university which offers oppor­
tunities for summer experience in archeological
field work or should plan to attend an archeologi­

cal field school elsewhere during their summer
vacations.
Employment Outlook
The number of anthropologists is expected to
increase very rapidly through the mid-1970’s. The
largest increase in employment will be in the
college teaching field. Some additional oppor­
tunities will be found in museums, archeological
research programs, mental and public health pro­
grams, and in community survey work. Oppor­
tunities in other fields are likely to be limited
largely to the replacement of personnel who re­
tire, die, or leave their positions for other reasons.
Anthropologists holding the doctorate will have
excellent employment opportunities through the
mid-1970’s. Employment opportunities will also
be favorable for those who have fulfilled all re­
quirements for the Ph. D. degree except the dis­
sertation. Graduates with only the master’s de­
gree, however, are likely to face persistent com­
petition for professional positions in anthropol­
ogy and may enter related fields of work. A few
who meet certification requirements may secure
high school teaching positions. Others may find
jobs in public administration and in nonprofit
organizations and civic groups, which prefer per­
sonnel with social science training as a general
background.
Earnings
Salaries of social scientists (anthropologists
among them) who are employed by 4-year col­
leges and universities, averaged $7,800 in 196263; instructors averaged $6,000; assistant profes­
sors, $7,200; associate professors, $8,500; and pro­
fessors, $10,800.
In the Federal Government, the starting salary
for anthropologists completing all the require­
ments for the Ph. D. degree was $8,650 in early
1965.
In general, anthropologists with the Ph. D. de­
gree earn substantially higher salaries than those
with the master’s degree. Many anthropologists
supplement their regular salaries with earnings
from other sources. Summer teaching and re­
search grants are the principal sources of income.
Anthropologists employed in colleges and uni­

SOCIAL SCIENCES

199

versities are the most likely to have additional
earnings.

ing in anthropology may be obtained from the
following sources:
Anthropology As A Career, Smithsonian Institution,

Where To G o for More Information
Additional information concerning employment
opportunities and schools offering graduate train­

Washington, D.C.

20560.

Price 20 cents.

The American Anthropological Association,
1530 P St. N W , Washington, D.C.

20005.

Economists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.11)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of Work
Economists study man’s activities devoted to
satisfying human wants. They are concerned with
the problems which arise in utilizing limited re­
sources of land, raw materials, manpower, and
manufactured products so as to meet, as well as
possible, people’s many unsatisfied wants. In this
connection, they may analyze the relation be­
tween the supply of and demand for goods and
services, and the ways in which goods are ex­
changed, produced, distributed, and consumed.
Some economists are concerned with such practi­
cal problems as the control of inflation, the pre­
vention of depression, and the development of
farm, wage, tax, and tariff policies. Others de­
velop theories to explain the causes of employment
and unemployment or the ways in which inter­
national trade influences world economic condi­
tions. Still others are engaged in the collection
and interpretation of data on a wide variety of
economic problems.
Economists are employed as teachers in colleges
and universities, and as researchers in government
agencies, private industry, and nonprofit research
organizations. As teachers, they guide students in
learning the principles and methods of economics,
and frequently engage in writing, lecturing, or
consulting activities. They also do research in eco­
nomic theory and formulate many of the new
ideas that directly or indirectly influence gov­
ernment and industry planning.
Most economists in the Federal Government are
in the fields of agriculture, business, or labor eco­
nomics, or in international trade and development.
They may plan and carry out studies involving
the collection of basic data in these fields, use
these and other data to analyze the need for
changes in government policy, assess the economic

Economists use charts to show economic trends.

condition of the Nation, write reports on their
findings, and present these reports before policy­
making bodies.
Economists employed by business firms provide
management with information to be used in mak­
ing decisions on such matters as the markets for
and prices of company products, recommendations
regarding government policies affecting business
or international trade, the advisability of adding
new lines of merchandise, opening new branch
operations, or otherwise expanding the company’s
business.
Where Employed
Economics is the largest of the basic social
science fields. About 20,000 people were employed
as economists in 1965. Roughly one-third were

2 0 0

employed by colleges and universities and an­
other third worked for government agencies—
chiefly Federal. Most of the remainder were em­
ployed by private industry or worked for private
research agencies and community organizations.
A few were self-employed, acting as consultants.
Economists are found in all large cities and in
university towns. The largest group are in the
Washington, D.C., area, where most of those in
the Federal Government are located. A substantial
number of economists are employed in foreign
countries, mainly by the U.S. Department of
State, including the Agency for International De­
velopment.
Most economists in private industry are em­
ployed in the home office of large corporations,
particularly in New York City and Chicago.
Training and Other Qualifications
All economists must have a thorough grounding
in economic theory, economic history, and meth­
ods of economic analysis, including statistics. An
increasing number of universities also emphasize
the value of mathematical methods of economic
analysis.
A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics
is sufficient for many beginning research jobs in
government and private industry, although per­
sons employed in such entry jobs are not always
regarded as professional economists. In the Fed­
eral Government, candidates must have a mini­
mum of 21 semester hours of economics and 3
hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus for
entrance positions.
Since beginning jobs usually involve the collec­
tion and compilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge o f basic statistical procedures is usually re­
quired. Industrial and business firms often hire
young people with the bachelor’s degree in eco­
nomics as management trainees and rotate them
through various departments to acquaint them
with company activities.
Graduate training is very important for young
people planning to become economists. Students
interested in research should select schools that
emphasize training in research methods and sta­
tistics and provide good research facilities. Those
who wish to work in the field of agricultural
economics will find good opportunities for part­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

time work at State universities with agricultural
experiment stations.
The master’s degree is generally required for
appointment as a college instructor, though in
large schools graduate assistantships often are
awarded to superior students working toward
their master’s degree. In many large colleges and
universities, completion of all the requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the dissertation, is
necessary for appointment as instructor. In gov­
ernment or private industry, economists with the
master’s degree can usually qualify for more re­
sponsible research positions than are open to those
with only the bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for a professor­
ship in a high-ranking college or university and
is an asset in competing for other responsible po­
sitions in government, business, or private re­
search organizations.
Economists interested in overseas assignments
will find training in other social sciences, as well
as advanced training in economics, very helpful.
For some positions with the U.S. Department of
State, considerable experience is also required.
Employment Outlook
Employment of economists will increase very
rapidly through the mid-1970’s, especially in the
college teaching field. Colleges and universities
will need hundreds of new instructors annually to
handle rapidly increasing enrollments and to re­
place economists who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work. In other fields, opportunities
may be fewer in number, even though growth will
be rapid. Private industry is expected to employ
many more economists, as businessmen become
more accustomed to relying on scientific methods
o f analyzing business trends, forecasting sales,
and planning purchasing and production opera­
tions. Employment of economists at the Federal,
State, and local levels also will increase rapidly
in order to meet the need for more extensive data
collection and analysis, and to provide the staff
for programs aimed at reducing unemployment
and poverty.
Economists with the doctorate are expected
to have excellent opportunities for employment.
The demand for these economists is expected to
be considerably greater than the supply over the

SOCIAL SCIENCES

2 0 1

next 10 years. As a result, employment opportuni­
ties for economists with a master’s degree will be
favorable, especially for those with good training
in statistics and mathematics. Persons with a
bachelor’s degree will continue to find employ­
ment opportunities in government agencies.

records could begin at $6,050 in early 1965. Those
with 2 full years of graduate training or experi­
ence can qualify for positions at an annual salary
of $7,220. The majority o f experienced economists
in the Federal Government earned from $8,650 to
$16,460 a year; some with greater administrative
responsibilities earned considerably more.

Earnings
According to the National Science Foundation’s
National Register of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (median) salary of economists
employed by colleges and universities was $10,100
in 1964. Economists employed by business and by
nonprofit organizations averaged $14,400 and
$15,000, respectively. Salaries of economists en­
gaged in the management or administration of re­
search programs averaged $16,200 annually.
In the Federal Government, the entrance salary
for beginning economists with a bachelor’s degree
was $5,000; however, those with superior academic

Where To G o for More Information
American Economic Association,
629 Noyes St.
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.

60201.

Additional information on employment oppor­
tunities in economics and related fields is given
in the following publications:
The Foreign Service Officer, U.S. Department of
State, Publication 7533, Washington, D.C.
20520. Free.
Overseas Assignments, Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.O. 20523. Free.

Geographers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.93)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 059.088)

Nature of Work
Geographers study the physical characteristics
of the earth, such as its terrain, minerals, soils,
water, vegetation, and climate. They relate these
characteristics to the patterns of human settle­
ments on the earth—where people live, why they
are located there, and how they earn a living.
The majority of geographers are engaged in
college and university teaching and/or research.
Their research may include the study and analysis
of the distribution of land forms, climate, soils,
vegetation, and mineral and water resources,
sometimes utilizing surveying and meteorological
instruments. They also analyze the distribution
of political organizations, transportation systems,
and marketing systems. Many geographers spend
considerable time in field study, and in analyzing
maps, aerial photographs, and observational data
collected in the field. Other geographers construct
maps, graphs, and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in one or more of
the main branches of geography. Those working
in economic geography deal with the geographic

distribution of economic activities—including
manufacturing, mining, farming, trade, and com­
munications. Political geography is the study of
how political processes affect geographic bounda­
ries on subnational, national, and international
scales. Urban geography, a growing field for ge­
ographers, is concerned with the study of cities,
and with community planning. (See statement on
Urban Planners.) Specialists in physical geog­
raphy study the earth’s physical characteristics.
Regional geography pertains to all the physical,
economic, political, and cultural characteristics
of a particular region or area, which may range
in size from a river basin or an island, to a State,
a country, or even a continent. Geographers in the
field of cartography design and construct maps,
as well as compile data for them.
Many professional workers in the field have job
titles which describe their specialization, such as
cartographer, map cataloger, or regional analyst,
rather than the title geographer. Others have
titles relating to the subject matter of their study,
such as photointelligence specialist or climatologi­
cal analyst. Still others have titles such as com-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

2 0 2

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Geographer transfers regional information to map.

munity planner, market or business analyst, or
intelligence specialist. Most of those who teach in
colleges and universities are called geographers.
Where Employed
Geography is a relatively small field of employ­
ment. Only about 3,000 geographers were em­
ployed in the United States in early 1965; about
10 percent were women.
About two-tliirds of all geographers are em­
ployed by colleges and universities. Those teach­
ing in institutions which do not have separate
departments of geography usually are associated
with departments of geology, economics, or other
physical or social sciences.
The Federal Government also employs a signi­
ficant number of geographers. Among the major
agencies employing these workers are the Army
Map Service; the Central Intelligence Agency;
the Defense Intelligence Agency; and the Office of
Geography of the Department of the Interior.
State and local governments also employ a num­
ber of geographers, mostly on city and State plan­
ning and development commissions.
Most of the small but growing number of geog­
raphers employed by private industry work for
marketing research organizations, map companies,
textbook publishers, travel agencies, manufactur­
ing firms, or chain stores. A few geographers
work for scientific foundations and other non­
profit organizations and research institutes.

The minimum educational requirement for be­
ginning positions in geography usually is a bach­
elors degree with a major in the field. For most
positions in research and teaching, and for ad­
vancement in many other types of work, graduate
training is required.
Training leading to the bachelor’s degree in
geography was offered by about 180 colleges and
universities in 1964. Undergraduate study usual­
ly provides a general introduction to geographic
knowledge and research methods and often in­
cludes some field studies. Typical courses offered
are physiography, weather and climate, economic
geography, political geography, urban geography,
and regional courses, such as geography of North
America, Western Europe, the U.S.S.R., and Asia.
Courses in cartography and in the interpretation
of maps and aerial photographs are also offered.
Advanced degrees in geography are offered by
a relatively small number of schools. In 1964, mas­
ter’s degrees were awarded by about 70 institu­
tions and Ph D. degrees by about 25, according to
the IT.S. Office of Education. For admittance to
a graduate program in geography, a bachelor’s
degree with a major in geography is the usual
requirement. However, most universities admit
students with bachelor’s degrees in such fields as
economics, geology, or history, if they have a good
background in geography. Requirements for ad­
vanced degrees include field and laboratory work,
as well as classroom studies and thesis prepara­
tion.
New graduates with only the bachelor’s degree
in geography find employment mainly in posi­
tions connected with making, interpreting, or
analyzing maps, either in government or private
industry. Others enter beginning positions in
the planning field. Some obtain positions as
research or teaching assistants in educational
institutions while studying for advanced degrees.
New graduates with the master’s degree can
qualify for some teaching and research positions
in colleges and universities and for many research
positions in government and private industry.
The Ph. D. degree is usually required for highlevel posts in college teaching and research and
may be necessary for advancement to top-level
positions in other activities.

203

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for geographers is
favorable through the mid-1970’s. The demand
will be especially strong for geographers with
graduate degrees to fill research and teaching po­
sitions in colleges and universities and research
jobs in industry and government. Geographers
with advanced training in such fields as economics
or business administration will also be in strong
demand.
Colleges and universities are expected to offer
the greatest number of employment opportunities
as college enrollments increase sharply in the next
few years. Expanding interest about foreign
countries, and growing awareness of the value of
geography training in several other fields o f work
such as the foreign service, should also result in
increased enrollments in geography and in a need
for additional teachers at the college level. A
growing demand for geography teachers in sec­
ondary schools is also anticipated.
Employment of geographers in government is
also likely to increase. The Federal Government
will need additional personnel in positions related
to area development and regional and urban plan­
ning; resource management ; planning, construc­
tion, and interpretation of maps; and in intelli­
gence work. State and local government employ­
ment of geographers will probably expand also,
particularly in such areas as conservation, high­
way planning, and city, community, and regional
planning and development.
The number of geographers employed in priv­
ate industry is also expected to rise. Market re­
search and location analysis should continue to
grow rapidly. Opportunities should also increase
in private area planning and development work.
Since geography is a relatively small field, job
openings, resulting from growth in the profession
and the need to replace workers who retire or

otherwise leave the profession, are not expected
to be numerous in any one year. However, unless
the number of persons receiving degrees in the
field should grow far beyond current expectations,
qualified geographers, particularly those with ad­
vanced degrees, should find employment readily
through the mid-1970’s.
Employment prospects for women geographers
will be best in teaching, especially in junior col­
leges, women’s colleges, and in the larger coedu­
cational institutions. Government agencies should
also offer good opportunities for women in map­
ping and planning work.
Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government in early 1965,
geographers with the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at $5,000 or $6,050 a year,
depending on their college record. Inexperienced
geographers with 1 or 2 years of graduate training
could start at $6,050 or $7,220; and those with the
Ph. D. degree, at $8,650.
In colleges and universities, salaries of geog­
raphers depend on their teaching rank. (For
further information, see statement on College and
University Teachers.) Geographers in educa­
tional institutions usually have an opportunity to
earn income from other sources, such as consult­
ing work, special research projects, and publica­
tion of books and articles.
Working conditions of most geographers are
similar to those of other teachers and office work­
ers. Geographic research frequently requires ex­
tensive travel, in foreign countries as well as in
the United States.
Where To

(j o

for More Information

Association of American Geographers,
1146 16th St. N W „ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Historians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-36.91)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 052.088)

Nature of Work
Historians study the records of the past and
write books and articles describing and analyzing
past events, institutions, ideas, and people. They

may use their knowledge of the past to explain
current events. They may specialize in the history
of a specific country or region, or in a particular
period o f time—ancient, medieval, or modern— or

204

in economic, cultural, military, or other phases of
history. More historians specialize in either
United States or modern European history than
in any other field; however, a growing number
are now specializing in African and Latin Ameri­
can history. Some are experts in such fields as
the history of the labor movement; others in art,
architecture, or other fields of historical interest.
The number of specialties is constantly growing.
The history of business and the relation between
technological changes and other aspects of his­
torical development are among the newest fields.
Most historians are college teachers who also
do some research, writing, and lecturing. Some,
usually called archivists, specialize in identifying,
preserving, and making available documentary
materials of historical value. Others edit histori­
cal materials, prepare exhibits, write pamphlets
and handbooks, and give talks for museums, spe­
cial libraries, and historical societies. A few serve
as consultants to editors and publishers and pro­
ducers o f materials for radio, television, and mo­
tion pictures. Historians employed in government
mainly do research and administrative work in
connection with research projects; they also pre­
pare studies, articles, and books.
Where Employed
An estimated 8,000 to 9,000 persons were em­
ployed as historians in 1965. Approximately 85
percent of the historians were employed in col­
leges and universities. About 10 percent were em­
ployed in Federal Government agencies, princi­
pally the National Archives and the Department
of Defense, Interior, and State. Small but grow­
ing numbers were employed by other government
organizations (State, local, and international),
nonprofit foundations, research councils, special
libraries, State historical societies, museums, and
by large corporations.
Since history is taught in all institutions of
higher education, historians are found in all col­
lege communities. About half the historians in
the Federal Government, including three-fourths
of those working as archivists, are employed in
Washington, D.C. Historians in other types of
employment usually work in localities which have
museums or libraries with collections adequate for
historical research.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training and Other Qualifications
Graduate education is usually necessary for
qualification as a historian. The master’s degree
in history is the minimum requirement for ap­
pointment to the position of college instructor,
but in many colleges and universities, the Ph. D.
degree is necessary for appointment. The latter
is essential for attaining high-level college teach­
ing, research, and administrative positions in the
field of history. Most historians in the Federal
Government and in nonprofit organizations have
a Ph. D. degree or the equivalent in training and
experience.
Although a bachelor’s degree with a major in
history is sufficient training for some beginning
jobs in Federal, State, and local governments,
persons in such jobs may not be regarded as pro­
fessional historians. These beginning jobs are
likely to be concerned with the collection of and
preservation of historical data, so that a knowl­
edge of archival work is helpful. An undergradu­
ate major in history is considered helpful for jobs
in international relations and journalism.
Employment Outlook
Employment of historians is expected to con­
tinue to increase moderately through the mid1970’s. Hundreds of new history teachers will
probably be needed annually to teach new classes
made necessary by expanding college enrollments,
and to replace those faculty members who retire,
die, or leave for other types of work. The number
of positions for historians in archival work is also
expected to rise, though more slowly than the
number in college teaching. Only a slight rise is
foreseen in the number of historians in other types
of work.
Historians with doctorates are expected to have
very good employment opportunities through the
mid-1970’s. Historians who have completed all
requirements for the Ph. D. except the disserta­
tion are also expected to have favorable oppor­
tunities. However, those wdth no work beyond
the master’s degree will probably encounter con­
siderable competition for professional positions.
College graduates with only the bachelor’s degree
will find it difficult to obtain employment as pro­
fessional historians. On the other hand, history
majors who meet certification requirements will


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102