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Occupational
Outlook
Handbook
1959 ED IT IO N

Career In form ation
for Use in Guidance

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

in cooperation with

VETERANS ADMINISTRATION



Bulletin No. 1255

/

eachers College Libra

Pointers on Using the Handbook

To find out what is in this b ook and how it is arranged, see Guide to the Handbook, page

3.
To locate an occupation or industry in this b ook, look in:

Table of Contents, page xi.
Alphabetical Index, page 770.
List of Occupations Classified by Broad Fields of Work, page 761. This can
be used to find occupations suitable for a person with certain types o f abilities
or interests.
For a general view o f work and jobs in the United States, read the chapters on Economic

and Occupational Trends, page 10, and Earnings from Work, page 23.
In interpreting the statements on the outlook in
each occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 4.

Forecasts o f the future are precarious!

To find out how you can keep your information
up to date, see the Section on Where To Go for More Information or As­
sistance, page 6.

The job picture is constantly changing.

This book gives facts about each occupation for
the United States as a whole. For suggestions on where to get information
for your own locality, see page 6.

You may need local information too.




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K

HANDBOOK

EMPLOYMENT INFORMATION ON MAJOR OCCUPATIONS
FOR USE IN GUIDANCE

1959 edition

Bulletin No. 1255
(Revision of Bulletin 1215)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.




Price $4.25




This volume was prepared by the U.S. Department of Labor’s
Bureau o f Labor Statistics with the cooperation o f the following
Bureaus o f the Department—
Bureau of Employment Security
Robert C. Goodwin, Director
Women’s Bureau
Alice K. Leopold, Director
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
W. C. Christensen, Director
Bureau of Labor Standards
Arthur W. Motley, Director

and the—
Veterans Administration
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare







Foreword
The Department of Labor is proud to present this fourth edition o f the
Occupational Outlook Handbook. For counselors responsible for providing
vocational guidance to others and young people considering their own career
choices, it has been our aim to include within the pages o f this book the best
possible information regarding this Nation’s present manpower needs and the
employment outlook in the years ahead.
Our growing economy creates an expanding need for skilled manpower
that can be met only by enabling each individual to use his capabilities to
the utmost. The U.S. Department of Labor is actively engaged, in several
ways, in aiding the development of a skilled and versatile work force. We
promote the development of skills through apprenticeship and other training
programs within industry. We aid the State employment services in their
programs o f providing placement and counseling services. Finally, we carry
on research and make information available on manpower needs and employ­
ment opportunities in the various industries and occupations, so that indi­
viduals can make their career choices, and educational authorities and
industry can develop their training plans, on the basis of up-to-date, authori­
tative information.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a major part of this research and
educational program. It is our hope that the present edition, like the earlier
ones, will assist many young people in making a wise career choice and will
thus contribute both to their own life adjustment and to the best use of the
Nation’s manpower resources.




J am es P. M itchell , Secretary o f Labor

Prefatory Note
This fourth edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook supersedes the third
edition, Bulletin 1215, published in 1957.
Designed to provide the occupational information young people need to help them
in career decisions, this book is the product of many years o f research by the Occupa­
tional Outlook Service, which was established in the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau
o f Labor Statistics by the Congress in 1940. The first edition o f the Handbook was
published in 1949. The wide use of this edition and the subsequent ones, issued in
1951 and 1957, attest to the need for occupational outlook information. More than
120,000 copies of these editions have been sold. Counselors in many high schools,
colleges, and community agencies throughout the Nation rely on the Handbook in their
vocational guidance work, as do Federal and State agencies offering counseling serv­
ices— including the Veterans Administration, the U.S. Department of Defense, State
rehabilitation agencies, and offices of State employment services affiliated with the U.S.
Employment Service.
Because o f the rapid changes which characterize the American economy and the
consequent importance of up-to-date occupational information for use in guidance,
the Congress in 1955 provided for the maintenance o f the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book and related publications on an up-to-date basis. This action has made possible
the present edition of the Handbook, plans for subsequent periodic revisions, and the
publication of a periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, which is being issued
to provide a continuous flow of current information between editions of the Handbook.
This fourth edition of the Handbook presents a reappraisal o f the employment
outlook in the occupations and industries discussed in previous editions, together with
the most recent information on earnings, training requirements and other topics which
was available early in 1959 when the book went to press. In addition, chapters have
been added on a number of large and important occupational groups not covered in
the third edition—including sales personnel, technicians, clergymen, school counselors,
protective service workers, programmers, office-machine operators, motor vehicle drivers,
instrument repairmen, stationary engineers, and workers in the missile, paper and pulp,
and baking industries.
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the coopera­
tion of hundreds of business organizations, unions, trade associations, educational insti­
tutions, professional societies, and government agencies whose officials gave freely o f
their time in discussing employment trends in their respective fields, in supplying
information, and in reviewing and commenting upon drafts o f the various chapters.
Special contributions were made by the Women’s Bureau and the Bureau of Employ­
ment Security of the U.S. Department of Labor, the Agricultural Besearch Service
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Office o f Education o f the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare. The Veterans Administration has also made
a major contribution to the Handbook, since much of the basic research underlying this
edition was carried on over the past 14 years with the counsel and financial support o f
that agency.




E w a n C lague , Commissioner of Labor Statistics

Letter From the Veterans Administration
The Occupational Outlook Handbook has long been a key resource in the counseling
and training of veterans. Since the inception of the W ar Orphans’ Educational Assist­
ance program in 1956, it has been o f equal value in the counseling and career planning
o f war orphans. Its increasing use by school and college counselors throughout the
Nation is gratifying, and a further evidence of the basic counseling need met by this
publication.
The Veterans Administration is proud of its long association with the Bureau of
Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department o f Labor in the progressive development of
the Handbook. The foresight of the Congress in authorizing the Administrator of
Veterans Affairs to make current and reliable information on occupations available
to veterans participating in the Vocational Rehabilitation and Education programs
has been realized in a systematic and comprehensive series of cooperative occupational
outlook publications extending back to 1945. The first edition of the Occupational
Outlook Handbook, published in 1949, was a revision of a 1946 publication known as
V A Manual M7-1, Occupational Outlook Information. Subsequent editions o f the
Handbook were published in 1949,1951, and 1957. This new edition reflects a projected
plan for revised editions at frequent intervals. The Veterans Administration is also
continuing its cooperative support o f the supplemental Occupational Outlook Quarterly
and of periodic interim reports on the employment outlook in specially selected fields
o f work.
Advances in the understanding and guidance of the vocational development of
individuals depend in highly significant part on the systematic study and realistic
portrayal of our increasingly complex and changing world o f work. This Handbook
is a major contribution to the achievement of that goal.




S u m n e r G . W h it tier , Administrator

Veterans Administration

Letter From the Bureau of Employment Security
The Bureau of Employment Security considers up-to-date occupational informa­
tion indispensable in carrying out its counseling and placement responsibilities. We
are pleased, therefore, that the fourth edition o f the Occupational Outlook Handbook
as well as succeeding editions will be available on a regularly scheduled basis to employ­
ment counselors in the State employment services. The Handbook has proven to be a
most helpful reference document on important occupational and industrial fields in
our economy.
About 10 million job seekers come to local employment service offices each year.
About 900,000 of them receive employment counseling in these offices. Employment
service counselors use the Occupational Outlook Handbook as an important source o f
national information to supplement the local, State, and national information they
get through regular employment service channels. Employment service counselors
also encourage counselees to read the Handbook for information that will help them in
determining the extent of their interest in specific occupational fields and their possible
qualifications for entering these fields. A copy o f the Handbook is available for
reference in each of the 1,800 local employment service offices.
Occupational choice is so wide, and yet so critical to our manpower outlook, that
the prospective worker must have the most reliable and up-to-date factual information
on which to base his vocational decision. Increasingly, people seek professional help
from a counselor in analyzing their own interests and abilities, and in matching these
characteristics to job demands and employment possibilities. Such counseling help,
along with job placement, testing, and other related services, is available in local employ­
ment service offices* throughout the Nation. A brief description o f what the public
employment offices offer the jobseeker appears on page 7.
On behalf of the Bureau o f Employment Security and the affiliated State employ­
ment security agencies, I extend to all readers o f the Handbook who are making
occupational choices an invitation to go to the nearest local office of the State employ­
ment service if they wish additional information and assistance in formulating their
vocational plans.
R obert C. G oodwin , Director
Bureau of Employment Security




Letter From American Personnel and Guidance Association
With the spotlight shining so brightly on the importance o f guidance to youth,
the unemployed, and adults changing their careers, the counselor today needs every
means at his disposal that will help him give these individuals sound occupational
information. One of the most authoritative, current, and realistic sources of informa­
tion about occupations, employment trends, and the Nation’s fluctuating career patterns
is the Occupational Outlook Handbook. It is constantly at the fingertips o f the
conscientious counselor who realizes that his knowledge of the world o f work must be
accurate and up to date.
It is not always easy for the busy counselor to keep abreast of the complex and
rapidly changing career picture; yet he knows that he must if he is to help individuals
reach vocational decisions. This Handbook lightens his load considerably, for it draws
on the countless available resources and presents this wealth of information in a com­
pact and usable form. The Occupational Outlook Handbook also works for the
counselor by predicting employment trends.
For these reasons, this fourth edition will be eagerly received by the counselor who
has faith in the continuous and systematic research program carried on by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. This countinuous process means that he can look forward not only
to frequent future editions, but also to current outlook information through the periodi­
cal, Occupational Outlook Quarterly, wall charts, bulletins, and special reports. It is
with great pleasure that I express my gratitude and that o f countless of my fellow
workers in guidance for this new and improved Handbook.




W alter F. J o h n so n , J r., President
American Personnel and Guidance Association

Contributors
This Handbook was prepared in the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics, Division o f Manpower and
Employment Statistics under the direction of
Seymour L. Wolfbein, Division Chief, and
Harold Goldstein, Assistant Division Chief for
Analysis.
The general planning o f the Handbook was
done under the direction o f Helen Wood, Chief
o f the Branch o f Occupational Outlook and
Specialized Personnel, who also provided general
supervision over the research program on pro­
fessional, clerical, sales, service, and related oc­
cupations. The research, preparation, and writing
o f the chapters on these fields o f work were
carried on under the direct supervision o f Cora
E. Taylor. Bernard Michael supervised the prep­
aration of the chapters on engineering, scientific,
and other technical personnel.
Sol Swerdloff, Chief o f the Branch o f Skilled
Manpower and Industrial Employment Studies,
provided general supervision over the research
program on trades and industrial occupations and
major industries. The research, preparation, and
writing o f the chapters on these fields o f work
were carried on under the direct supervision o f
Howard Rosen. Long-range economic and em­
ployment projections were prepared under the
direction o f Mannie Kupinsky with the assistance
of James W. Longley. Max Rutzick directed the
preparation of long-range occupational projec­
tions.
Other members of the staff of the Division who
contributed to the Handbook were: Stuart Garfinkle, Jane H. Palmer, Pearl C. Ravner, Murray S.
Weitzman, Joseph S. Zeisel, Gerard R. Cormier,
Morton Levine, William Paschell, Robert J. Ros­
enthal Arthur Schatzow, Ian R. Sutherland, Rose
K. Wiener, Daniel P. Willis, Jr., Bernard Yabroff,
Vincent H. Arkell, Leo E. Gershenson, Verna E.
Griffin, Jennie Kaplan, Evelyn R. Kay, Chester
F. Schimmel, Joseph A. Brackett, Clare S. Frisby,
James J. Kilgallon, Shelton H. Luskin, Arthur
F. Neef, Charles G. Park, Carole F. Rapp,
Howard V. Stambler, William M. Topolsky,
Marian A. Lacklen, and Carol A. Barry. Cath­
erine F. Delano, Madelene D. Gearing, Anna M.
Latimer, and Lena S. Walker provided research
VIII




assistance, checked the manuscripts for factual
accuracy, and assisted in other ways.
James J. Treires assisted in the preliminary
planning o f the Handbook and in coordinating
the work done by agencies outside the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics which contributed sections. J.
Sue White aided in the planning and review o f
the charts and the format o f the book.
The chapter on earnings was written by Lily
Mary David and Harry M. Douty o f the Bureau’s
Division o f Wages and Industrial Relations.
The graphic work in the Handbook was done
under the supervision o f Alice L. Wells, Chief
of the Bureau’s Branch o f Graphic Presentation,
by Joseph O. Harrison, Elizabeth B. Hicks, and
Sylvia B. McMeritt. B. Ray Ramseur prepared
the illustrations for the charts.
Reports on 14 occupations in which women
predominate were prepared in the Women’s
Bureau o f the U.S. Department o f Labor under
the direction o f Stella P. Manor, Mildred S.
Barber, and Shirley B. Grossman. The following
individuals wrote the various reports: Jean A.
Wells, Evelyn S. Spiro, Hazel B. Hansen, Agnes
W. Mitchell, and Jane L. Meredith.
The section on services to job seekers at public
employment offices was prepared by the Depart­
ment o f Labor’s Bureau o f Employment Security.
The chapters on agricultural occupations were
prepared in the Farm Economics Research Divi­
sion of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, under the direction
o f Wylie D. Goodsell, William H. Metzler, H. C.
Fowler, E. J. Smith, and Orlin J. Scoville, with
the assistance o f Pelagia Schultz, Information
Division, Agricultural Research Service; Tom
Gardiner, Soil Conservation Service; John Speidel and Ralph Groening, Federal Extension Serv­
ice. Assistance was given also by E. C. Johnson,
Farm Credit Administration, and R. E. Naugher,
Office o f Education, in the U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.
The section on putting the Handbook to work
was prepared by Frank L. Sievers, Chief, Guid­
ance, Counseling, and Testing Section, Office o f
Education, U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare.

CONTRIBUTORS

The photographs credited to the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor were taken by James B. Lindley of
the Visual Services Section. Some photographs
were supplied by various other Government
agencies as shown by the credit lines accompany­
ing the pictures. The following organizations
either contributed the remaining photographs or
made their facilities available for the Labor De­
partment photographer: Acacia Mutual Life In­
surance Co.; American Bakers Association;
American Bankers Association; American Dental
Association; American Dietetic Association;
American Institute o f Architects; American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association; American Optometric Association; American Paper and Pulp
Association; American Physical Therapy As­
sociation; American Red Cross; American Tele­
phone and Telegraph Co.; Ames Aeronautical
Laboratory; Bakelite C o.; Bausch & Lomb Opti­
cal C o.; Baylor University College o f Dentistry;
Bluebird Cab C o.; Brookhaven National Labora­
tory; Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Co.;
Burroughs Corp.; CBS-Hytron; Capitol Radio
Engineering Institute; Central Armature Works,
Inc.; Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad
C o.; Chicago Police Department; Chrysler Corp.;
Columbia Broadcasting Co.; D.C. Fire Depart­
ment; Davidson Transfer and Storage Co.;
Detroit Edison C o.; Dupont Chemical C o.; East­
ern Greyhound Lines; Educational Council for
the Graphic Arts Industry, Inc.; Erie Railroad;

Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc.; Fleet Owner Mag­
azine; General Electric Co.; General Motors
Corp.; Gilpin Wholesale Druggists; The Hecht
Co.; Higger’s Drugs, Inc.; Hot Shoppes, Inc.;
Illinois Central Railroad; Institute o f L ife In­
surance; International Association o f Bridge,
Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers; Inter­
national Association o f Electrotypers and Stereo­
typers; International Association o f Heat and
Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers; Inter­
national Association o f Machinists; International
Business Machines Corp.; Marchant Calculating
Machine C o.; Milady Publishing Corp.; Milk In­
dustry Foundation; Minneapolis-Honeywell Reg­
ulator C o.; National Association o f Home Build­
ers; National Broadcasting Co.; National Canners Association; National Cash Register Co.;
National Committee for Careers in Medical Tech­
nology, Inc.; National Education Association;
National League for Nursing; New York Em­
ploying Printers Association; North American
Aviation, Inc.; Railway A ge; Ransdell, Inc.;
Reinhold Publishing Corp.; Sheffield Corp.;
Sperry Rand Corp.; Standard Brands, In c.;
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey; Statler-Hilton
H otel; Ted Bernstein Associates; U.S. Steel
Corp.; Union Trust Co.; United A ir Lines;
United Horological Association o f America, In c.;
W T O P -T V ; Washington Post and Times Herald;
Westinghouse Electric C o.; and Willamette Iron
and Steel Co.

Note
A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and other
organizations in industry are in a position to supply valuable information
to counselors or young people seeking information about careers. For the
convenience o f users of this Handbook, the reports on occupations or indus­
tries list organizations or publications which may be able to-provide further
information. While these references were assembled with care, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics has no authority or facilities for investigating organiza­
tions. Also, since the Bureau has no way of knowing in advance what infor­
mation or publications each organization may send in answer to a request,
the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy o f such information. The listing
o f an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement
or recommendation by the Bureau or the Department o f Labor, either o f the
organization and its activities or o f the information it may supply. Such
information as each organization may issue is, of course, sent out on its own
responsibility.




IX




Contents
Page
P U T T IN G

T O W O R K ___________________________________________________

1

H A N D B O O K _________________________________________________________________

3

How the handbook is organized_____________________________________________________________________
Some important facts about the occupational reports_____________________________________________

3

G U ID E

W HERE

THE

TO

TO

HANDBOOK

THE

A S S I S T A N C E ______________

6

Keeping up to date on occupational outlook_______________________________________________________
Services to jobseekers at public employment offices_______________________________________________

6
7

E C O N O M IC

GO

FOR

IN F O R M A T IO N

OR

O C C U P A T I O N A L T R E N D S ___________________________________________

10

Population and labor force__________________________________________________________________________
Industrial and occupational trends_________________________________________________________________

11
13

E A R N IN G S

AND

M ORE

4

FROM

W O R K _____________________________________________

P R O F E S S IO N A L , A D M IN IS T R A T IV E , A N D

RELATED

O C C U P A T IO N S .

23
33

Teaching______________________________________________________________________________________________
40
Kindergarten and elementary schoolteachers_________________________________________________
41
Secondary school teachers______________________________________________________________________
44
College and university teachers________________________________________________________________
47
School counselors________________________________________________________________________________
50
Health service occupations__________________________________________________________________________
53
Registered professional nurses_________________________________________________________________
54
Physicians_______________________________________________________________________________________
58
Pharmacists_____________________________________________________________________________________
61
Dentists__________________________________________________________________________________________
64
Medical X -ra y technicians__________________________________________________________________
67
Medical technologists________________________________________________________________________
70
Chiropractors____________________________________________________________________________________
74
Optometrists_____________________________________________________________________________________
76
V eterinarians____________________________________________________________________________________
78
81
Osteopathic physicians_________________________________________________________________________
Dental hygienists_______________________________________________________________________________
83
Dietitians________________________________________________________________________________________
86
Physical therapists___________________________________________________________________________
89
Medical record librarians____________________________________________________________________
92
Occupational therapists________________________________________________________________________
95
Engineering___________________________________________________________________________________________
98
Aeronautical engineers_________________________________________________________________________
103
Ceramic engineers______________________________________________________________________________
104
Chemical engineers_____________________________________________________________________________
105
Civil engineers__________________________________________________________________________________
106
Electrical engineers_____________________________________________ _____________________________
107
Industrial engineers____________________________________________________________________________
108
Mechanical engineers__________________________________________________________________________
108
Metallurgical engineers________________________________________________________________________
109
Mining engineers_______________________________________________________________________________
HO
Physical and earth sciences_________________________________________________________________________
112
Chemists________________________________________________________________________________________
113
Physicists_______________________________________________________________________________________
117
Geologists_______________________________________________________________________________________
120
Geophysicists___________________________________________________________________________________
123
Meteorologists__________________________________________________________________________________
127
Mathematicians________________________________________________________________________________
130




XI

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XII

PROFESSIONAL, AD M IN ISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS—
Continued
Page
Biological sciences_______________________________________________________________________
Social sciences___________________________________________________________________________
Anthropologists_____________________________________________________________________
Economists_________________________________________________________________________
Historians__________________________________________________________________________
Political scientists___________________________________________________________________
Sociologists_________________________________________________________________________
The clergy______________________________________________________________________________
Protestant clergymen-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Roman Catholic priests_____________________________________________________________
Rabbis______________________________________________________________________________
Technicians___ __________________________________________________________________________
Technicians who work with engineers and physical scientists_________________________
Draftsmen__________________________________________________________________________
Other professional and related occupations_______________________________________________
Accountants------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Architects__________________________________________________________________________
Commercial artists__________________________________________________________________
Foresters___________________________________________________________________________
Home economists___________________________________________________________________
Interior designers and decorators____________________________________________________
Lawyers___________________________________________________________________
Librarians__________________________________________________________________________
Newspaper reporters________________________________________________________________
Personnel workers___________________________________________________________________
Programmers___________________________________________________________
Psychologists_______________________________________________________________________
Social workers______________________________________________________________________
Statisticians________________________________________________________________________

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS _________________________

134
143
146
148
150
152
154
157
158
160
161
164
164
176
179
179
181
184
187
190
194
197
200
203
206
208
213
216
220
224

Clerical occupations_____________________________________________________________________
Bookkeepers________________________________________________________________________
Office machine operators____________________________________________________________
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists_______________________________________________
Sales occupations________________________________________________________________________
Manufacturers’ salesmen____________________________________________________________
Salesmen in wholesale trade_________________________________________________________
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores____________________________________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers____________________________________________________
Protective service occupations___________________________________________________________
FBI agents_________________________________________________________________________
Firemen____________________________________________________________________________
Policemen__________________________________________________________________________
Other service occupations________________________________________________________________
Barbers_____________________________________________________________
Beauty operators_________________________________________________
Practical nurses and auxiliary nursing workers_______________________________________

224
228
230
234
239
240
243
246
249
253
254
255
258
262
263
266
269

SKILLED TRADES AND OTHER IN D U STRIAL OCCUPATIONS _________

273

Skilled workers__________________________________________________________________________
Semiskilled and unskilled workers________________________________________________________
Building trades__________________________________________________________________________
Carpenters________________________________________________^________________________
Painters and paperhangers__________________________________________________________
Plumbers and pipefitters____________________________________________________________
Bricklayers_________________________________________________________________________
Operating engineers (construction machinery operators)________
Electricians (construction)_______________________________________

274
277
280
288
291
294
297
300
302




xin

CONTENTS

SKILLED TRADES AN D OTHER IN D U STRIAL OCCUPATIONS— Con.
Building trades— Continued
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron workers_______________________________
Plasterers___________________________________________________________________________
Roofers_______________________________________________________________________________
Cement finishers (cement or concrete masons)_______________________
Sheet metal workers________________________________________________
Asbestos and insulating workers_______________________________________________
Lathers_________________________________________________________
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers_______________________________
Glaziers_____________________________________________________________________________
Elevator constructors_________________
Stonemasons.. ---------Construction laborers and hod carriers______________________________________________
Printing (graphic arts) occupations____________________________________
Composing room occupations_____________________________________
Photoengravers--------------------------------------------------------------- — ........................— ............
Electro typers and stereo typers____________________
Printing pressmen and assistants_______________
Lithographic occupations________________________________
Bookbinders and related workers___________________________
Mechanics and repairmen-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Automobile mechanics______________________________________________________________
Business machine servicemen______________
Diesel mechanics____________________________________________________________________
Electronic servicemen and technicians_______________________________________________
Industrial machinery repairmen_____________________________________________________
Instrument repairmen______________________________________________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen_____________________________________________________
Maintenance electricians____________________________________________________________
Millwrights----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Refrigeration and air-conditioning mechanics__________________________________________
Watch repairmen___________________________________________________________________
Machining occupations____________________________________________________________________
All-round machinists--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tool and die makers__________________________________________________________________
Instrument makers-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Machine tool operators_______________________________________________________________
Setup men (machine tools). . . ______________________________________________________
Layout men___________________________________________
Foundry occupations______________________________________________________________________
Molders______________________________________________________________________________
Coremakers__________________________________________________________________________
Patternmakers________________________________________________________________________
Forge shop occupations___________________________________________________________________
Driving occupations_______________________________________________________________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers__________________________________________________________
Local truckdrivers____________________________________________________________________
Routemen____________________________________________________________________________
Intercity busdrivers__________________________________________________________________
Local transit busdrivers_______________________________________________________________
Taxi drivers__________________________________________________________________________
Other trades and industrial occupations___________________________________________________
Blacksmiths__________________________________________________________________________
Boilermaking occupations_____________________________________________________________
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory mechanics_________________________________
Electroplaters________________________________________________________________________
Stationary engineers__________________________________________________________________
Welders and oxygen cutters___________________________________________________________




Page
305
308
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313
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319
321
323
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327
328
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338
341
343
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367
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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

XIV

Page

SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIES AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS__________________




Occupations in the aircraft, missile, and spacecraft field__________________________________
Air transportation occupations___________________________________________________________
Pilots and copilots__________________________________________________________________
Flight engineers_____________________________________________________________________
Stewardesses________________________________________________________________________
Airplane mechanics_________________________________________________________________
Traffic agents and clerks____________________________________________________________
Airline dispatchers__________________________________________________________________
Air traffic controllers________________________________________________________________
Ground radio operators and teletypists______________________________________________
Occupations in the atomic energy field___________________________________________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations__________________________________________________
Occupations in the baking industry______________________________________________________
Banking occupations_____________________________________________________________________
Bank clerks and related workers_____________________________________________________
Tellers______________________________________________________________________________
Bank officers________________________________________________________________________
Department store occupations___________________________________________________________
Buyers______________________________________________________________________________
Salespersons________________________________________________________________________
Receiving, delivery, and related occupations_________________________________________
Electric light and power occupations_____________________________________________________
Powerplant occupations_____________________________________________________________
Transmission and distribution occupations___________________________________________
Customer servicing occupations_____________________________________________________
Electronics manufacturing occupations___________________________________________________
Hotel occupations_______________________________________________________________________
Bellmen and bell captains___________________________________________________________
Front office clerks___________________________________________________________________
Housekeepers and assistants________________________________________________________
Managers and assistants____________________________________________________________
Occupations in the industrial chemicals industry_________________________________________
Insurance occupations___________________________________________________________________
Insurance clerks and office machine operators_______________________________________
Life insurance agents_______________________________________________________________
Property and casualty insurance agents and brokers_________________________________
Actuaries___________________________________________________________________________
Occupations in the iron and steel industry_______________________________________________
Occupations in the men’s tailored clothing industry______________________________________
Occupations in the paper and allied products industry___________________________________
Petroleum production and refining occupations___________________________________________
Petroleum production occupations___________________________________________________
Petroleum refining occupations______________________________________________________
Occupations in plastic products manufacturing___________________________________________
Radio and television broadcasting occupations___________________________________________
Radio and television announcers____________________________________________________
Broadcast technicians_______________________________________________________________
Railroad occupations____________________________________________________________________
Locomotive engineers_______________________________________________________________
Locomotive firemen and helpers_____________________________________________________
Conductors_________________________________________________________________ ______ Brakemen__________________________________________
Pullman porters and passenger attendants___________________________________________
Dining car cooks---------------Dining car waiters_________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen......................
Station agents__________________________
Clerks_________
Redcaps______ _______

456
456
467
470
474
475
477
480
481
482
484
486
498
512
519
523
525
526
528
533
535
538
541
546
549
553
555
565
569
570
572
574
576
585
588
591
594
596
600
611
621
632
636
642
647
653
660
661
664
669
671
673
674
676
677
678
679
681
682
683

CONTENTS
SOM E

M AJO R

IN D U S T R IE S

AND

T H E IR

XV
O C C U P A T I O N S — C o n t in u e d

Railroad occupations— Continued

Pasre

Shop trades-------------------------Signal department workers______________
Track workers________________________________________________________________________________
Bridge and building workers--------------------Restaurant occupations----------------------------------------Waiters and waitresses______________________________________________________________
Cooks and chefs______________
Restaurant managers and assistants________________________
Telephone occupations----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Central office craftsmen----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Linemen and cable splicers___________________________________________________
Telephone and P B X installers and repairmen____________________________
Telephone operators_______________________________________________
Central office equipment installers_____________________________
A G R IC U L T U R A L

684
686
687
688
690
692
694
696
699
703
705
707
709
711

O C C U P A T I O N S _________________________________________________________

714

Opportunities on specific types of farms_______________________ ______ ________________________
Specialized agricultural occupations_____________________________________________________________
Agricultural extension service workers____________________________________
Vocational agriculture teachers_____________________________________________________________
Agricultural research workers_______________________________________________________________
Agricultural economists____________________________________________________
Agricultural finance workers________________________________________________________________
Agricultural engineers________________________________________________________________
Soil scientists_____________________________________________________________________
Soil conservationists_________________________________________________________________________
Management positions in farmer cooperatives_____________________________________________
Other professional workers______________________________________________
Farm service job s____________________________________________________________________________

718
725
725
727
728
730
732
733
735
736
738
739
739

O C C U P A T IO N S

IN

G O V E R N M E N T ____________________________________

741

Civilian employment in Federal Government___________________________________________________
State and local governments_____________________________________________________________________
Armed Forces______________________________________________________________________________________
T E C H N IC A L

742
751
755

A P P E N D I X _____________________________________________________________________

759

I N D E X I. O C C U P A T IO N S C L A S S IF IE D B Y B R O A D F IE L D S O F W O R K _ _

761

IN D E X

II.

A L P H A B E T IC A L

IN D E X

TO

O C C U P A T IO N S

AND

IN D U S ­

T R I E S ______________________________________________________________________________________________




770




O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K

HANDBOOK

Putting the Handbook to W o rk
The increased guidance activities and respon­
sibilities which will result from the implementa­
tion o f the National Defense Education Act of
1958 place a greater importance than ever upon
having available current occupational data. This
1959 edition o f the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book is therefore most timely. Counselors, teach­
ers, guidance supervisors, and counselor trainers
will welcome it as an essential tool in carrying
out one very important area o f their work.
Another point about the revision in which coun­
selors will be interested is that the Handbook now
includes, for the first time, an occupational report
on the counselor in public schools. Both o f these
factors are indicative o f the increasing nation­
wide emphasis on guidance, and point up the
necessity for continuous refinement o f the basic
materials utilized in performing guidance func­
tions.
As the name implies, the Handbook deals with
and interprets trends in occupations. Basically,
it is not a text in occupations, nor does it attempt
to delineate methods for use in disseminating the
storehouse o f information which it contains.
Rather, it provider fundamental information
about job situations and future outlook which
users can apply to the advantage o f individuals
as they make career choices.
Professionally trained people who utilize the
Handbook will interpret its content in the light of
industrial developments and shifting economic
conditions within local areas, specific regions, and
throughout the Nation. Constant study o f eco­
nomic developments and the utilization o f in­
formation from all sources, particularly local and
regional employment offices, will provide valuable
supplementary data in aiding individuals to make
occupational decisions.

For these and other reasons, the Handbook fills
a real need in assisting counselors to pinpoint
trends and to make interpretations which will aid
youth materially in structuring consistent and
realistic plans for the future. While the Hand­
book provides data on national trends, counselors
and other professional people will be careful to
use these data in the light o f information upon
specific conditions in local areas.
Use by Teachers of Occupations

A teacher o f occupations will find that the
general plan o f the Handbook makes it possible
to provide an overview of the major occupational
groups and the dominant trends in particular
occupations. In addition, the specifics regarding
trends and outlook are available so that the
Handbook serves the purpose o f aiding the
teacher of occupations in providing students with
both general and specific information related to
an area o f work. The teacher, no doubt, will wish
to secure information about local and regional
trends through such resources as the school coun­
selor and other agencies within the community.
Since the occupations teacher fully realizes the
fluctuant nature of occupational information, he
will impress upon students the necessity o f in­
cluding all local findings in any study o f a par­
ticular area of work.
Use by Counselees

The Handbook makes its leading contribution
to the counselee as he sets up a design o f long­
term plans. A t this stage in his high school
career, the student is forced to project his think­
ing and make some long-term decisions. He must
be able to determine the types o f professional
1

506397 0 — 59------ 2




2

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

preparation required if his occupational aspira­
tions indicate the need for such training. I f his
proposed occupation requires professional prepa­
ration, he should have information on internships
required and their availability. I f his interests
point toward technical training, he should explore
apprenticeship requirements, the value of formal
courses, and the extent to which on-the-job train­
ing supplements, or in some instances supplants,
formalized training. In this kind o f setting, the
national data are most helpful in answering ques­
tions and in assisting the student to determine
whether he will be confronted with the need to
make a change in geographical location to secure
employment in his chosen field. The Handbook
figures will prove valuable in providing clues for
determining the regional location o f greatest
demand for individuals with the skills he aims to
acquire. While most students in high school may
be able to make use o f the Handbook, the teacher
o f occupations and the counselor can aid them in
simplifying and interpreting the facts o f perti­
nence to their long-range planning.
Use by Counselors

The counselor, perhaps, will find the greatest
number o f uses for the Handbook. During this
period o f manpower shortages in certain key
occupations, the information provided will aid
the counselor in assisting the counselee to evaluate
the pressures for recruitment into various occu­
pational groups, and to weigh these in the light
o f actual needs and realistic planning. Decisions
can then be made, in the light o f the opportunities
available, to utilize fully the skills and aptitudes
o f the counselee. While most counselors have had
some nonteaching work experience, it is unfair
to assume that they possess detailed and accurate
information on a large number o f the jobs
described in the Handbook. Therefore, the volume
is a valuable tool in supplementing the occupa­
tional information which the counselor already
has available from his experience, his knowledge
o f the work world, and his more intensive study
o f particular occupational fields.
Use by Counselor Trainers

The tentative nature o f information about occu­
pations, together with the fact that numerous




changes mentioned earlier materially affect job
opportunities and trends, makes the counselor
trainer’s course on occupational information a
most difficult one to teach realistically. By utiliz­
ing the Handbook, the counselor trainer has at
his disposal an arsenal o f facts which will enable
him to increase the proficiency o f the counselorin-training in a field which requires constant reevaluation and reorientation. By concentrating
on how to use the facts available, rather than
amassing information on a few occupations, the
prospective counselor is placed in a position to
organize the information needed for counseling
his students more effectively and more beneficially.
In this connection, it is scarcely necessary to say
that many o f the books furnishing occupational
facts become obsolete almost as soon as they are
printed. By emphasizing the procedure o f study­
ing an occupation by use o f the Handbook and
other relevant information, the counselor trainer
provides the counselor with valuable techniques
which do not become obsolete as economic condi­
tions change.
Use in Gathering Information on Occupations

Many factors in the dynamic economy found in
the United States contribute to a confusing pat­
tern of job possibilities as teachers o f occupations,
counselors, or counselor trainers aid individuals
in gathering pertinent information upon occupa­
tional opportunities. These can best be integrated
if the resources o f the Handbook are utilized to
aid individuals in the analysis and interpretation
of facts available through the Handbook. While
the national scene is more stable than local and
regional situations, users o f the Handbook will
find that local figures become meaningful only
as national facts are applied to any one local
setting. Gathering facts pertaining to occupa­
tions is a challenging process which is essential if
students are to find helpful and significant as­
sistance as they make occupational choices.

F r a n k L. S ievers , Chief

Guidance, Counseling, and Testing Section,
Office o f Education, U. S. Department
o f Health, Education, and Welfare

G uide to the Handbook
This book answers many questions people ask
when they are interested in choosing an occupa­
tion. It gives information on about 600 occupa­
tions—on the employment outlook in each o f these

fields, the nature of the work, training, and other
qualifications needed for entry, lines o f advance­
ment, where jobs are located, and earnings and
working conditions.

How the Handbook Is Organized
Introductory Chapters

The Handbook starts off with four introductory
chapters, designed to help counselors and young
people make effective use o f the book and to give
them a general view o f the world o f work.
The Guide to the Handbook, which forms the
present chapter, describes the contents and organi­
zation o f the book. It tells how the information
was assembled and discusses a number o f points
which need to be borne in mind in interpreting
the statements made. The second introductory
chapter gives suggestions regarding supplemen­
tary sources o f occupational information and tells
how readers can keep up to date on developments
affecting the employment outlook in different
occupations. This chapter also contains a brief
description o f the counseling, placement, and
other services available to job seekers at local
offices o f State employment services affiliated with
the U.S. Employment Service. The other two
introductory chapters describe the main trends
in population and employment and give a general
picture o f the earnings o f workers in the United
States.
Occupational Reports

The reports on different fields o f work follow
the introductory chapters just mentioned and
make up the main body o f the book. They are
arranged in chapters dealing with groups of
related occupations. These chapters are grouped,




in turn, into six major divisions o f the book: pro­
fessional, administrative, and related occupations;
clerical, sales, and service occupations; skilled
trades and other industrial occupations; some
major industries and their occupations; occupa­
tions in agriculture; and occupations in govern­
ment.
Indexes and Appendix

To help readers locate information on the occu­
pations in which they are interested, a list o f the
occupational reports is included in the table o f
contents at the front o f the book. Persons wishing
to find statements on occupations related to a gen­
eral field o f interest—for example, artistic, tech­
nical, managerial, clerical, or manipulative work
—may do so by referring to the Index to Occupa­
tions Classified by Broad Fields o f Work (the
first o f the two indexes at the back o f the book).
The second index lists occupations and industries
alphabetically, for quick reference.
The Technical Appendix (p. 759) contains a
discussion o f the sources and methods used in
analyzing the occupational outlook in different
fields o f work. It is designed for readers wishing
more information on this subject than is included
in the present chapter. The appendix also con­
tains an explanation of the D.O.T. numbers which
are given in the occupational reports to indicate
where each occupation fits into the classification
system o f the Dictionary o f Occupational Titles.
3

4

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Some Important Facts About the Occupational Reports
Occupations Covered

The more than 600 occupations discussed in this
book include those o f greatest interest to young
people. Most o f the large ones requiring long
periods o f education or training are discussed as
are a number o f small but rapidly growing fields
and other occupations o f special interest for
various reasons. Altogether, the occupations
covered account for about 90 percent o f all work­
ers in professional and related occupations; 90
percent o f those in sales occupations; 80 percent
in skilled occupations; 55 percent in clerical oc­
cupations; 55 percent in service occupations (ex­
cept in private households); and smaller propor­
tions in administrative and semiskilled occupa­
tions. The main types o f farming are also
discussed.
General information on many fields o f work not
covered in the occupational reports is contained
in the introductions to several major divisions o f
the book—those on professional, administrative,
and related occupations; clerical, sales, and serv­
ice occupations; and skilled trades and other
industrial occupations. These introductions also
provide background information designed to aid
the reader in interpreting the reports on individ­
ual occupations.
Sources of Information

A great variety of sources were drawn upon for
information on employment trends and outlook
and the many related topics discussed in the oc­
cupational reports. The Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics supplied a large part o f the data on em­
ployment in different industries, productivity and
technological developments, wages and working
conditions, trade union agreements, accident haz­
ards, and a number of other items. Other agencies
o f the Federal Government—among them, the
Department o f Labor’s Bureaus o f Apprentice­
ship and Training and o f Employment Security,
the Bureau o f the Census o f the Department of
Commerce, the Office o f Education o f the Depart­
ment o f Health, Education, and Welfare, the Civil
Service Commission, the Interstate Commerce
Commission, the Civil Aeronautics Administra­




tion, and the Federal Communications Commis­
sion—provided additional data regarding jthe
nature o f the work in various occupations, train­
ing and licensing requirements, wages, and em­
ployment trends. Many other public and private
organizations—including State licensing boards,
educational institutions, business firms, profes­
sional societies, trade associations, and trade
unions— also made available published and un­
published data and supplied much helpful infor­
mation through interviews.
By bringing together and analyzing informa­
tion from these many sources, conclusions were
reached as to prospective employment trends in
the occupations covered by this Handbook. In
addition, estimates were made o f the numbers o f
job openings which will be created by retirements
and deaths. The supply o f new workers likely
to be available in particular fields was also ana­
lyzed, by studying statistics on high school and
college enrollments and graduations and data on
the numbers o f apprentices in skilled trades.
When preliminary drafts o f the occupational
reports had been completed, these were reviewed
by officials of leading companies, trade associa­
tions, trade unions, professional societies, and
other experts. The information and conclusions
presented in each report thus reflect the knowl­
edge and judgment not only o f the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff but also o f leaders in the
field discussed, although the Bureau, o f course,
takes full responsibility for all statements made.
Points To Bear in Mind in Using the Reports

In using the information about employment
prospects in this book, it is important to keep in
mind that all conclusions about the economic
future necessarily rest on certain assumptions.
The statements on employment outlook in the
Handbook assume that: (1) there will not be a
war; (2) the defense program will be continued
at about the same level as in late 1958; and (3)
the general level o f business activity will be high
and unemployment low in the United States—
that any economic recessions will be minor ones
o f short duration.
A catastrophe such as a war or a severe eco-

GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK

nomic depression would, of course, create an em­
ployment situation entirely different from that
likely to develop under the assumed conditions.
Young people cannot build their lifetime plans
in expectation o f such unpredictable catastrophes,
however. For practical purposes in vocational
guidance, the assumptions made are believed to
provide the most useful framework for analysis.
To avoid constant repetition, the assumptions
are seldom mentioned in the reports on the many
fields o f work where the impact o f a general
decline in business or a change in the scale of
mobilization would probably be about the same
in the economy as a whole. On the other hand,
in the statements on occupations where employ­
ment tends either to be unusually stable or to be
especially subject to ups and downs, these facts
are indicated. Even in the latter occupations,
however, long-term trends in employment are
more important than short-run fluctuations in
appraising the outlook in connection with an
individual’s choice o f a lifetime career.
It should be noted also that the picture of
employment opportunities given in this book
applies to the country as a whole unless other­
wise indicated. People who want supplementary
information on job opportunities in their com­
munities should cohsult local sources o f infor­
mation, as suggested in the following chapter
o f the Handbook.
The information presented on earnings and




5

working conditions, as on other subjects, repre­
sents the most recent available when the Hand­
book was prepared for the printer early in 1959.
Much o f the information came from Bureau o f
Labor Statistics surveys, but many other sources
were utilized also. For this reason, the earnings
data presented in the various occupational reports
often refer to different periods o f time, cover
varying geographic areas, and represent differ­
ent kinds o f statistical measures. Comparisons
between the earnings data for different occupa­
tions should, therefore, be made with great cau­
tion. However, the general picture of earnings
in the United States given in the chapter on
Earnings from W ork should provide a useful
frame o f reference in interpreting the earnings
data for a particular field o f work.
Finally, it should be borne in mind that in­
formation on occupations and the employment
opportunities they offer is only part o f that
needed in a career decision, which means match­
ing a person and an occupation. The other
part relates, of course, to the potential worker
himself—his interests and aptitudes. People can
obtain help in assessing their own abilities and
interests and in selecting the occupation for
which they are best suited from vocational coun­
selors in schools and colleges, State employment
service offices, Veterans Administration regional
offices and guidance centers, and many community
agencies.

W h ere To G o for M ore Information or A ssistance
Persons using this Handbook may want more
detailed data on some o f the occupations dis­
cussed in the occupational reports, or informa­
tion on fields o f work which could not be covered
there.
Suggestions as to sources o f additional infor­
mation on the occupations discussed are given in
most o f the occupational reports. In addition,
several publications o f the U.S. Department of
Labor, listed on page 784 o f this Handbook, pro­
vide further information on topics such as earn­
ings and hours o f work. Other sources likely to
be helpful include the following:
Public Libraries

Teachers o f special subjects such as music, print­
ing, and shorthand can often give information
about occupations related to the subjects they
teach.
State Employment Services

Counselors in local public employment offices
are in a particularly good position to supply
information about job opportunities, hiring stand­
ards, and wages in their localities. (These and
other services available through the public em­
ployment service are described in the concluding
section o f this chapter.)
Business Establishments

These libraries usually have on their shelves
many books, pamphlets, and magazine articles
giving information about different occupations.
They may also have several books and current
indexes which list the great numbers o f publi­
cations on occupations and they may be o f as­
sistance in finding the best ones on a particular
field o f work.

Employers and personnel officers can usually
supply information about the nature o f the work
done by employees in their industry or business,
the qualifications needed for various jobs, and
other facts about employment conditions and
opportunities. The names o f local firms in a par­
ticular industry can be found in classified sections
o f telephone directories or can be obtained from
chambers o f commerce.

Schools

School libraries often have the same kinds of
reading materials on occupations. In addition,
school counselors and teachers usually know
about any local occupational information which
has been assembled through special surveys made
by schools or by other community agencies.

Trade Unions, Employers' Associations,
and Professional Societies

Frequently, these organizations have local
branches, with officials who can supply informa­
tion relating to the occupations with which they
are concerned.

Keeping Up To Date on the Occupational Outlook
The present edition o f the Handbook, like all
previous editions, incorporates the most recent oc­
cupational information available when the book
was prepared for publication, early in 1959.
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics also issues a
periodical, the Occupational Outlook Quarterly,
to keep readers up to date between editions of
the Handbook, on developments affecting employ­
ment opportunities and on the results o f new
6




occupational outlook research. In addition, the
Bureau issues at irregular intervals occupational
outlook bulletins which give much more detailed
information on various fields o f work than can
be included either in the Handbook or in the
Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Further infor­
mation about these publications, and directions
for ordering them, will be found on page 784 o f
the Handbook.

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE

The Bureau will be glad to place the name o f
any user o f this Handbook on its mailing list to
receive announcements o f new publications and
releases summarizing the results o f new studies.

7

Anyone wishing to receive such materials should
send the request, with his address, to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department o f Labor,
Washington 25, D.C.

Services to Jobseekers at Public Employment Offices*
Many o f the readers o f this Handbook want as­
sistance in choosing a suitable type o f work and
in finding the right job. The reader who wants
professional assistance from trained counselors
and help in obtaining the right job should know
about the services offered by his local public em­
ployment office.
The U.S. Employment Service and affiliated
State employment services form a nationwide
organization which plays an important part in
our economy. Through 1,800 local offices, con­
veniently located in cities and towns throughout
the United States, this employment service finds
jobs for workers and workers for jobs.
Although the employment service is a FederalState system, each employment office is basically a
local community organization. It is concerned
with facilitating suitable and stable employment
for the community’s working population and with
adequately meeting the manpower needs o f its
employers. And because of this concern, the local
office tries to do more than simply refer a worker
to a job— it tries to match the worker and job so
that the requirements of each are satisfied. To do
this, the public employment office has developed a
number o f services that are available to all job
seekers. Many o f them are particularly impor­
tant to young men and women about to enter the
world o f work.
Counseling Services

Employment service counseling assists both
young people leaving school and experienced
workers who wish or need to change their field
o f work in choosing and adjusting to a suitable
field o f work.
The major purposes o f employment counseling
are to help people to gain insight into their actual
•Prepared by the Bureau of Employment Security, T
J.S. De­
partment of Labor.




or potential abilities, their interests, and their
personal traits; to understand something o f the
nature o f the world of work; and to make the
best use o f their capacities and preferences in the
light o f available job opportunities.
In the employment service, the counselor has
at his fingertips a vast store of resources, includ­
ing testing facilities and labor market and oc­
cupational information.
Testing. Most local offices provide testing serv­
ices, including the General Aptitude Test Bat­
tery, which measures basic abilities for many
and varied broad fields of work and for about
600 specific jobs within these fields. These tests
help the applicant appraise his abilities. They
may reveal aptitudes the job seeker did not know
he had.
Labor Market Information. The State employ­
ment office counselor has information about jobs
in the community. He knows what kinds of
jobs prevail in local industry, which jobs are
more plentiful, what the hiring requirements and
the opportunities for promotion are, and what
the jobs pay. In many labor market areas, the
counselor has information about future occupa­
tional opportunities based on area skill surveys
which usually cover employers’ forecasts o f their
long-range requirements. He may also have de­
tailed occupational guides covering specific jobs in
the community. In addition, since his office is a
part of the nationwide employment service, it
has information regarding employment oppor­
tunities in other areas all over the country.
Occupational Information.
The employment
service office has occupational information which
helps the job applicant decide whether he is suited
to a particular kind o f work. The Dictionary of
Occupational Titles, Job Descriptions, Estimates

8

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

o f Worker Traits for 4,000 Jobs, and other tools
describe the work performed in the various oc­
cupations and the training required, lines o f ad­
vancement, physical demands, and working condi­
tions for most occupations.
Cooperative Arrangements With Other Com­
munity Groups. Local employment office coun­
selors work closely with other public and private
agencies and organizations which provide special
services that the job seeker may need in order to
become better prepared for employment. These
groups include educational, training, vocational
rehabilitation, and health and welfare agencies.
Placement Assistance

The primary objectives of the placement service
in the local employment office are to fill em­
ployers’ job openings with occupationally quali­
fied workers and to locate employment for workers
(including claimants for unemployment insur­
ance) which is suited to their skills, knowledge,
and abilities. The employment office placement
service is designed to eliminate the waste o f “ hitor-miss” job hunting.
Local Openings. State employment office person­
nel maintain regular contacts with local em­
ployers and know their hiring needs and their
jobs. Placement interviewers receive requests
from employers for all kinds o f workers. Through
the local office, therefore, the job applicant has
access to a variety of job vacancies with many
employers, just as the employer has access to
many applicants. When no suitable job exists for
an individual worker, the employment service
may attempt to solicit an opening for him from
likely employers.
Jobs Throughout the Country. The job clearance
system o f the nationwide network of State em­
ployment offices offers the applicant an oppor­
tunity to qualify for jobs outside his area, else­
where in the State and the Nation, and even
in foreign countries. Each State employment
service prepares frequent inventories o f hard-tofill jobs which are distributed to all other State
employment services. This makes it possible
for them to refer local workers to out-of-area




jobs for which they qualify. In addition, a na­
tional network of highly specialized professional
placement offices has been established with the
State employment service in order to speed the
matching o f jobs and applicants in professional
fields.
Placement Aids. As in counseling, the informa­
tion on local job opportunities for industries,
occupations, and areas, and on occupational re­
quirements which is available in the employment
offices contributes greatly to getting the right job
for the worker and the right worker for the job.
Also available to the job seeker are aptitude and
proficiency tests which help determine whether an
applicant is qualified to perform satisfactorily on
specific jobs.
Services to Special Worker Groups

The employment service has developed tech­
niques and procedures for particular applicant
groups who may encounter special problems in
their search for suitable jobs.
Special services to youths include emphasis
on counseling graduating students and school
dropouts, and intensive efforts to promote em­
ployment opportunities for them. In many cities,
employment service offices have cooperative ar­
rangements with high schools to provide counsel­
ing, testing, occupational information, and place­
ment services to students prior to their gradua­
tion as well as to other school leavers. Such
arrangements were in effect in over 8,000 high
schools in the school year 1957-58.
The State employment offices have long main­
tained an active program for helping applicants
with vocational handicaps. The emphasis is on
what these people can do with their abilities
rather than on what they cannot do because o f
a disability.
Special services for veterans are provided by
the employment service. In each local office, there
is a veterans’ representative who is trained to know
veterans’ rights and benefits and who carries on
job promotion for veterans. In order to speed
their readjustment to civilian life, the State em­
ployment services provide information service to
veterans at military separation and transfer
points.

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE

The employment service also has developed
techniques to deal with job problems o f middleaged and older workers. Special attention is
being given to assisting them to make realistic
job choices. Employers have been encouraged
to remove age hiring restrictions and to hire only
according to the qualifications o f the individual.
Similar attention is also being given to job
problems o f members o f minority groups and
others facing special difficulties in obtaining suit­
able employment.




9

How To Locate the Local Employment Office

The addresses and telephone numbers o f local
offices o f State employment services affiliated with
the U.S. Employment Service may be found
in local telephone directories. Jobseekers, em­
ployers, schools, and public and private agencies
aiding clients to find employment are invited to
utilize the services o f the public employment
offices in their communities and to avail them­
selves o f the fund o f job information maintained
in these offices.

Economic and O ccupational Trends
Everyone concerned with the problem of choos­
ing an occupation or advising others in this im­
portant decision should keep uppermost in his
mind the rapidly changing nature o f our eco­
nomic world. New ways o f making things, new
things to make, and new patterns o f living are
continually causing changes in the kinds of jobs
that workers perform. When a boy leaves school
today, he may look for many types o f jobs which
did not exist 50 years ago— for example, elec­
tronic technician or airplane mechanic. On the
other hand, he has probably never heard of the
occupations o f cooper and wheelwright, which
not so long ago were large and well-paid trades.
The rapidity with which the occupational pic­
ture can change may be seen by comparing em­
ployment trends since 1920 in two well-known
occupations— electricians and railroad engineers.
While one occupation declined the other ex­
panded; the number o f railroad engineers has
declined by almost 40 percent and the number o f
electricians has increased by nearly 50 percent.
What caused this to happen? Because of the
introduction o f diesel engines and many other
technological improvements, railroads today are
much more efficient than they were in 1920 and
are capable o f hauling a given amount o f traffic
with fewer engineers. In addition, competing
forms o f transportation, such as private automo­
biles, trucks, airlines, and pipelines, have ex­
panded greatly in the last 30 years. The demand
for electricians, on the other hand, has increased
sharply because o f the growing use o f electrical
devices and electricity. In fact, the vast expan­
sion in the use o f electrical power has been one
o f the outstanding phenomena in the develop­
ment o f our Nation during this century.
In addition to the changing importance of
certain occupations, many other facts about the
nature o f the work force should be considered
in choosing a career. For example, American
10




workers have a strong tendency to move geo­
graphically in the course of their work careers;
about 2 million people in the labor force moved
from one State to another between March 1957
and March 1958. The toal number o f people
who moved, including the families o f these
workers, was of course much greater. Altogether,
11 million people or about 7 percent o f the popu­
lation were living in a different county in March
1958 from the one they had been living in in
March 1957, and about one-half o f these were
living in a different State. Nearly all such shifts
involve a change in jobs and many represent
a shift to another occupation. Added to this is
the vast amount o f job and occupation changing
by people who do not change their place o f resi­
dence.
Knowledge o f these dynamic aspects o f our
economy is particularly important for young
people so that they will expect changes and be
prepared to adjust to them. They should be ready
to move to other parts o f the country and to
change their jobs in order to improve their eco­
nomic status, or to meet a change forced upon
them by the loss o f a job, poor health, or for other
reasons. A ll o f this suggests the great importance
o f maintaining the utmost flexibility by taking
the broadest kind o f training possible when pre­
paring for a particular occupation. Furthermore,
by studying some o f the specific changing indus­
trial and occupational trends that are occurring,
it is possible to anticipate some future develop­
ments and be prepared to meet them.
To emphasize the changing character o f occu­
pational life, as well as to provide background
for understanding the trends and outlook in par­
ticular occupations, the next few pages will re­
view the growth and changing composition o f the
population and labor force, and the major trends
in employment by broad industry and group
occupation.

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

11

Population and Labor Force Trends
Population

The size and age structure o f the population are
important in determining how many and what
kinds o f jobs there will be, as well as the number
o f workers who will be available. In many oc­
cupations, such as teaching, police work, and
health services, the number o f jobs which will be
available is directly related to population growth.
Most occupations are not as directly affected as
those mentioned, but employment opportunities in
every occupation are, to some extent, influenced
]by population growth.
The population o f our country has expanded
enormously since Colonial days (chart 1). The
growth was particularly rapid in the several
decades preceding W orld W ar I when there was
a combination o f a high birth rate, large-scale
immigration from European countries, and a
sharp reduction in death rates. A fter W orld War
I, the rate o f population increase slackened be­
cause immigration was virtually stopped, and

because the birth rate declined. During the de­
pression years o f the 1930’s, there was an espe­
cially sharp decrease in marriages because o f
heavy unemployment, low incomes, and limited
job opportunities.
W orld W ar I I marked the end o f the downturn
in the rate of population growth. The number
of births rose sharply during the early war years
and then, after slackening briefly during 1944 and
1945 when millions o f young men were overseas,
mounted to extremely high levels (chart 2). The
CHART 2

CHART 1




number o f babies born in 1947 was 3.8 million
compared with an average o f only 2.4 million
during the period from 1935 through 1939. Since
1947, the annual number o f births has remained
high, reaching more than 4 million in 1954 and
continuing at more than that number each year.
This spectacular jump in the number o f babies
born has had, and will continue to have, great
effects on the outlook in many occupations. The
first and perhaps the greatest impact was on the
Nation’s school system and the teaching profes­
sion. In 1945, there were only 19y2 million chil­
dren in the ages 5 to 13; by 1960, there will be
about 331^ million children in this age group— a
rise o f 14 million or almost 75 percent in 15 years.
Since nearly all children in these ages attend

12

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

school, enrollment in elementary school has risen
correspondingly. A sharp increase will also occur
among 14- to 17-year-old persons, most o f whom
are in high school. This age group will increase
from about 11 million in 1958 to 14 million in
1965 and to 16 million by 1970. The number of
young persons o f college age— 18 to 21—will in­
crease from 9 million in 1958 to 12 million in
1965 and to 15 million in 1970.
These enormous increases will, o f course, pro­
foundly affect the outlook for teachers at every
level o f education. A detailed discussion of how
many elementary, secondary, and college teachers
will be needed is presented on pages 40-52 in this
book.
The very large numbers o f babies bom in the
10 years following W orld War I I will reach the
ages at which most young people get married,
beginning in the late 1960’s. Between 1958 and
1975, the number o f persons aged 20 to 24 years is
expected to increase from 11 million to 19y2
million. As a result, demands for apartments,
houses, furniture, washing machines, and chil­
dren’s clothing and food will be very high. These
demands, in turn, will affect the employment op­
portunities in a great many occupations.
Another significant change in the age structure
o f the population is the continuing rise in the
number o f elderly persons. The number of per­
sons 65 and over tripled between 1900 and 1940,
while the total population did not even double.
By 1975 there will be about 22 million persons
aged 65 and over—an increase of nearly 55 per­
cent in this age group over 1955.
Increases in the number o f older persons will
affect the outlook in many occupations. Increased
demands are expected for medical services, for
institutions to care for the aged, and generally for
the types o f goods and services which meet the
needs o f older persons.

self-employed businessmen, members o f the
Armed Forces, and persons who are unemployed
and looking for work.
A summary picture o f expected changes in the
labor force between 1960 and 1975 is shown in
chart 3. As is to be expected, because o f a sharp
rise of births after W orld W ar II, the greatest
growth in the labor supply will come from
workers under 35 years o f age. The number of
men workers aged 35-44 will actually decline
owing to the sharp drop in births during the
depression o f the 1930’s. Sizable increases are
expected in the number o f adult women workers
and among men 55 years old and over.
Trends in Labor Force Participation. Between
1960 and 1970, the labor force will expand by
about 13y2 million. Most o f this expansion will
be the product of population growth. Some, how­
ever, is expected to occur as a result o f the chang­
ing proportion o f people in various age groups
who work outside the home. In the following
paragraphs we shall briefly describe the labor
force trends of the important population groups.
First, let us consider the adult men under 65
years of age, who make up the great bulk o f the
labor force. Practically all o f these men work,
except for the very small proportion who are
disabled or in bad health. Looking ahead to 1970,
CHART 3
INCREASE IN LABOR FORCE EXPECTED TO BE GREATEST
IN YOUNGEST AND OLDEST AGE GROUPS, 1960-75
Projected Change in Number of Workers fin M illion s)

AGE

•1
I

0

Labor Force

The preceding discussion shows how the
changes in the structure of the population affect
the demand for goods and services and, therefore,
job opportunities. Another important aspect of
changes in the age structure of the population is
the effect on the supply of available workers, or
the “ labor force.” The labor force includes em­
ployees who work for wages or salaries, farmers,




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1
I

2
I

3
I

4
I

5
I

6
I

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

we can expect very little change in the proportion
o f adult men in the labor force.
For adult women the story is different. Back
in 1910, only about one woman out o f every five
was in the labor force, but by 1959, this propor­
tion had risen to one out of three. Much of this
increase, as already indicated, has taken place
since W orld War II. There are a number o f
reasons why more and more women have taken
jobs. The shift o f population to the cities and the
increased importance of occupations such as cleri­
cal work, selling, and teaching resulted in a great
expansion o f employment opportunities for wom­
en. At the same time, the introduction o f laborsaving household devices made it possible for
growing numbers of women to accept jobs outside
the home. The trend toward increasing partici­
pation in the labor force is particularly strong
among women 35 to 64 years old.
Among young people, on the other hand, the
proportion that are workers has been dropping.
The longer schooling required o f today’s youth
has brought about delays in their entry into work
careers and can be expected to continue to do so
in the future. It is important to note, however,
that although young people stay in school longer,
the availability of job opportunities in recent
years has encouraged many more students to take
part-time jobs. Such part-time workers are
counted in the statistics as “ in the labor force.”
I f they were excluded, the proportion of young
people in the labor force would show an even
greater decline than has occurred.
Men 65 and over comprise another group in
which the working proportion has declined. This
trend is undoubtedly related to the extension and
improvement o f public and private pension sys­
tems over the last 20 years. Because a growing
number o f people are assured of incomes after
they pass 65, more have been able to retire from
their jobs than previously. Nevertheless, the large

13

increase in the number o f older people in the
population has resulted in a significant rise in
the number o f older workers.
Rising Educational Levels o f the Labor Force.
As has been indicated, the rapid growth o f the
work force has been accompanied by an increase
in its training and knowledge which has greatly
affected workers’ capacity to produce. Nowadays,
more young people are going to school and for
longer periods than formerly. For example, in
1957, 38 percent of the people 25 to 34 years o f
age had completed high school, while only 14
percent o f those 55 years of age and over had this
much schooling. In 1958, one out o f every six peo­
ple 22 years of age or over had a bachelor’s degree,
compared with only 1 out o f 50 in 1900. Twothirds o f the population 18 years o f age in 1958
had completed high school, whereas only about
1 out of 15 in 1900 had done so.
Many factors have contributed to this rising
educational level. Most States have raised the
minimum age at which children may legally
leave school. Both Federal and State laws pro­
hibit the employment o f young people under a
minimum age and limit the kinds o f work they
may perform. Moreover, greater concentration of
population in cities and metropolitan areas has
made school more accessible to a much larger
number o f people. Higher family incomes have
also enabled more students to remain in school
longer than was possible when many youngsters
had to go to work to help support their families.
Another factor is the increasing number and
complexity o f skills demanded in modern indus­
try. To meet such requirements, employers have
raised educational qualifications for many jobs,
especially for the more desirable ones. These
higher standards must be met not only by persons
looking for work, but also by persons seeking
promotions.

Industrial and Occupational Trends
The growth o f the Nation’s work force over
the years has been accompanied by sharp changes
in the relative size o f different industries and
occupations, which have greatly affected employ
ment opportunities. New products and new ways
o f manufacturing products have marked the his­




tory o f the country since Colonial days. Some
products and services which were once of out­
standing importance have declined and others
have actually disappeared. For example, the car­
riage industry, the making o f wood barrels, and
passenger traffic on the Mississippi River System

14

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are only historical memories. Other industries
which were unknown at the turn o f the century
are currently among the largest employers of
manpower. Two o f the most dramatic examples
o f new industries are aircraft and chemicals.
Industries which have sprung into being recently
and will be o f growing importance in the future
are those in atomic energy and in the production
and servicing o f electronic equipment of many
kinds. Undoubtedly, there are other industries
and occupations which are now so small that they
have hardly been noticed but which will become
major fields o f employment in the years ahead.
Industrial Trends

Changes in Agricultural Employment. It is gen­
erally recognized that the greatest technological
revolution in this country has taken place on the
farms. In 1870, more than one-half of the people
who worked for a living were employed in agri­
culture. Today, only 1 worker in 10 makes his
CHART 4




living from farming. The implications o f this
fact are enormous. Ninety years ago, the average
farmer could supply food for only about six
people; today one farmer meets the food needs o f
30 people.
By comparing a farm o f 1870 with one of
today we can readily see why this has been pos­
sible. The farmer has machinery which enables
him to put into use several times the productive
acreage that a man could handle in 1870. More­
over, the replacement of horses and mules by
tractors and trucks in both the city and the farm
freed millions of acres for the production o f food
for human beings instead of for livestock. The
use of scientific methods, chemicals, fertilizers,
better seeds, and improved cattle and hogs have
also greatly increased farm productivity. The
results o f this technological revolution—in free­
ing millions of workers for nonfarm employment
— are shown in chart 4. The number o f farmers
and farm workers increased from about 7 million
(53 percent o f the work force) in 1870 to a peak
o f l i y 2 million around 1910, but then declined to
about 71/2 million (12 percent o f the work-force)
in 1950. Farm employment has continued to
decline since 1950.
Changes in Nonagricultural Employment. Nonagricultural workers in the United States are
classified in eight major industry divisions—min­
ing, manufacturing, construction, transportation
and public utilities, trade, finance, service, and
government. The longrun employment trends in
these different industry divisions can be seen by
reviewing their employment up to 1957—before
the general employment picture was significantly
affected by the recent business recession.
The total number o f workers in nonagricultural
industries almost doubled between 1919 and 1957,
but employment rose much faster in some major
industry divisions than in others. The trade and
service industry divisions increased their work
force more rapidly than total nonagricultural
employment. Transportation and public utilities
showed a smaller increase in employment than
most other industry divisions; mining employ­
ment actually declined during this period. In
contract construction, employment fluctuated
sharply with changes in general business condi­
tions—but this has been the fastest growing in­
dustry division in the period since W orld W ar II.

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

Employment in manufacturing, while fluctuating
in response to changing economic conditions and
defense mobilization, showed much slower growth
than total nonagricultural employment over the
1947-57 decade.
A brief look at some important aspects of each
broad industry group will help to show the kinds
of employment opportunities available in each.
It will also make still clearer the need for coun­
selors and students to keep in mind the changing
nature o f the economy.
Manufacturing industries— with almost 17 mil­
lion workers in 1957—employ more people than
any other industry division. They offer jobs to
many different kinds of workers—the unskilled
laborer, the machinist, the engineer, the stenog­
rapher, the production manager, as well as the
operatives or semiskilled workers. Nearly half
o f all employees in manufacturing industries in
1950 were operatives.
Factory employment has not yet risen as high
as it did at the peak in W orld War I I and has
fluctuated widely since the end o f the war. It
appears, however, that underlying these fluctua­
tions has been a slowly rising trend in factory
employment. The likelihood is that this trend
will persist during the next few decades—that
there will be a moderate continued growth in
manufacturing employment, although factory
production will rise even faster because o f further
technological advances and a consequent rise in
productivity. However, as in the past, there will
be varying trends in employment and productiv­
ity in different manufacturing industries.
One o f the major shifts in manufacturing em­
ployment in recent years has been from non-durable goods industries ( for example, food, tobacco,
and textiles) to durable goods industries (e.g.,
electronic equipment and machinery). Employ­
ment in the durable goods industries increased
by 17 percent between 1947 and 1957, whereas
employment in the nondurable goods industries
rose by less than 1 percent. Textiles, apparel, and
food, in the nondurable goods group, employed
about one out of every five factory workers in
1957, as against more than one out of every four
in 1947. In both food and textiles, the number
o f jobs actually declined over the 10-year period.
O f the nondurable goods industries, employment
in only paper, printing, and chemicals grew as




15

fast as did employment in the durable goods
industries as a whole.
Most o f the employment increase in the durable
goods industries occurred in electrical machinery,
transportation equipment (mainly motor vehicles
and aircraft), and scientific instruments. These
industries employed about 20 percent o f all fac­
tory workers in 1957, as compared with 16 percent
in 1947. The major manufacturing industries
and their relative importance as a source of em­
ployment are shown .in chart 5.
CHART 5

In mining—the only major industry division to
show a decrease in number o f workers—employ­
ment declined by 28 percent from 1919 to 1957,
when it averaged about 800,000. This decline,
persistent over the past 35 years, reduced mining
employment from a little more than 4 percent to
less than 2 percent o f all nonagricultural employ­
ment.
The overall decrease in mining employment
does not reveal the divergent trends in employ­
ment among the individual mining industries,
however. Between 1947 and 1957, employment

16

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

declined 64 percent in anthracite mining and 46
percent in bituminous coal mining; but metal
mining increased 8 percent; nonmetallic mining
and quarrying, 16 percent; and petroleum and
natural gas production, 38 percent.
Employment in the construction industry has
fluctuated greatly in past decades. When general
business conditions are good, people buy . new
homes and companies invest in new plants; in bad
times, families and business firms put off spending
that can be postponed. Construction employment
dropped by 46 percent between 1929 and 1933,
rose slowly in the late 1930’s, expanded sharply
in the early years o f W orld W ar I I as defense
plants and army camps were built, then dropped
because o f wartime shortages of materials and
labor. After the war, employment in this indus­
try showed a strong upward trend—rising by 40
percent from 1947 to 1957, when it averaged about
2.8 million.
Retail and wholesale trade employs more people
than any other industry division except manufac­
turing. In 1957, trade employment averaged 11.3
million. Salesmen and saleswomen constitute the
largest group o f employees in trade, but there
are also large numbers o f clerical workers, truck
drivers, delivery men, and building service work­
ers such as elevator operators and porters. Em­
ployment in trade more than doubled between
1919 and 1957. From 1947 to 1957, it increased
by over 20 percent.
Service industries—including automobile and
other repair shops, laundries, cleaning and dye­
ing establishments, hotels, barber shops, theaters,
motion-picture production, advertising, and many
other kinds o f businesses—employed more than
6 million people in 1957. Employment in these
industries tripled between 1919 and 1957— a
more rapid increase than occurred in any other
industry division. It has climbed steadily since
W orld W ar II, rising by over 30 percent from
1947 to 1957.
In State and local governments, the long-range
trend o f employment has been upward. About
5,900,000 people were working for State and local
governments in 1957—roughly three times as
many as in 1920. In the post-World W ar II
period, from 1946 to 1958, employment in govern­
ment agencies increased by two-thirds. This rise
in employment has been due to the increase in




schools, public health and sanitation, welfare
work, and similar activities.
In the past, Federal Government employment
has not shown a steady rise, but rather has been
sharply affected by national emergencies. For
example, W orld W ar I I brought a rise in Federal
employment from about 1 million in 1940 to a
record high of approximately 2.9 million in 1944.
Again, during the Korean crisis, employment rose
from about 1.9 million in 1950 to 2.4 million in
1952. Between 1953 (the end o f the Korean
hostilities) and 1957, employment remained rela­
tively stable, averaging about 2.2 million.
Employment in finance, insurance, and real
estate more than doubled from 1919 to 1957,
reaching about 2.3 million in 1957. From 1947 to
1957, employment in this industry division rose
by 40 percent, reflecting increased activity in the
real estate field, increasing purchases o f insurance
and stocks and bonds, and expanded use o f bank­
ing facilities. Clerical occupations are the pre­
dominant ones in this industry division. These in­
dustries, however, also have a large number o f sales
personnel. A high proportion—nearly half—of
all workers in the finance, insurance, and real
estate field are women, including a great number
in clerical jobs in insurance companies and banks.
Many o f the men in this general field are insur­
ance and real estate agents.
Over 4 million workers were employed in trans­
portation and public utilities in 1957. The largest
industries in this broad group are the railroads,
trucking companies, bus and transit lines, tele­
phone and electric power companies, and mer­
chant marine. Airlines and radio and television
broadcasting companies employ fewer workers,
but offer opportunities in many specialized occu­
pations of considerable interest to young people.
In the industry division as a whole, the great
majority o f the workers are men, who are em­
ployed in a variety of occupations such as those
o f locomotive engineers, truckdrivers, linemen,
engineers, seamen, ticket agents, and Pullman
porters. Most of the women in these industries
are clerical workers.
Although employment in this group o f indus­
tries as a whole has not changed much in recent
years, some industries in the group have declined
while others have shown marked growth. Thus,
employment on interstate railroads, still the big-

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

gest transportation industry, fell 28 percent from
1947 to 1957, and employment in buslines and
local railways dropped 44 percent. On the other
hand, increases occurred in trucking and ware­
housing, where employment rose by 47 percent
and, above all, in air transportation, where the
employment gain was 77 percent.
Geographic Shifts in Employment. The increases
in employment which have taken place in this
country since W orld War I I have extended to all
but two States (Rhode Island and West V ir­
ginia). The rate of growth has, however, been
much faster in some parts of the country than
others.
The most dramatic growth occurred throughout
the Southwest. (See chart 6.) Six States in this
area— California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado,
New Mexico, and Texas—had employment in­

creases at rates more than double that o f the
Nation as a whole. Texas and California had a
combined increase of more than two million jobs.
The Southeastern States also showed growth
rates well above the national level. Leading this
area was Florida, where nonagricultural employ­
ment increased by half a million, or about 80
percent.
New England and the Middle Atlantic States
(New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) are
the parts o f the country where employment has
increased most slowly in recent years. The rate
of growth in employment was substantially below
the national average between 1947 and 1957 in all
States in these regions except New Jersey, where
the rise approximately equaled the national rate.
In the East North Central region (Wisconsin,
Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio) and the
West North Central region (North Dakota, South

CHART 6

EMPLOYMENT IS RISING MOST RAPIDLY
IN WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES

PERCENT CHANGE IN
NONAGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT
1947-57
\///\ Less than 5.0% Decrease
Less than 200% Increase
200% and less than 40.0% Increase
40.0% and Over Increase
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

506397 0 - 5 9 -




-3

17

18

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and
Missouri), only three States, North Dakota, Min­
nesota, and Kansas, had employment gains equal
to or higher than the national average rate for
1947-57. In the Northwestern States (Washing­
ton, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming) the
rate of increase in employment was generally
about the same as the national average.
The rapid expansion of employment in the
Western and Southern parts o f the country began
during the Second W orld War. In 1939, the
Middle Atlantic region accounted for the largest
proportion o f employment in each of the eight
major industry divisions. During the war, the
East North Central States took the lead in manu­
facturing employment and, by 1953, this region
also had the largest proportion of construction
jobs. The center of mining employment by 1953
had shifted from the coal-producing Middle
Atlantic to the petroleum and gas-producing
States of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
In finance, trade, service, and government, em­
ployment increases throughout the South and the
West were again well above the national level.
The most rapid increases in each of these four
industry divisions occurred in the Rocky Moun­
tain region (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colo­
rado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada.)
The expansion o f defense installations in many
o f the Southern and Western States has stimu­
lated trade and real estate activities, while the
increasing popularity o f many resort and tourist
centers in these areas has led to increased em­
ployment in hotels, restaurants, and other service
industries.
Despite these significant shifts in the location
o f industry— generally to the South and West—
it is important to note that the basic geographic
structure o f American industry is still very much
as it was a decade ago. The concentration of
industry and commerce, along with population
and labor supply, remains to a significant extent
in the regions and States where it was at the end
o f W orld War II. One out o f every three manu­
facturing jobs is still located in the nine States
comprising the New England and Middle A t­
lantic regions. In other industries similar concen­
trations remain. The geographic area comprising
the New England, Middle Atlantic, East North
Central and West North Central regions still em­
ploys about 6 out o f every 10 o f the Nation’s




workers in trade, finance, service, and transporta­
tion industries and over half o f those in construc­
tion and government. Only in mining and related
employment has the rest o f the country surpassed
these four regions, employing about 7 out o f every
10 workers in mining, petroleum production, and
other extractive industries.
Effect o f Recessions on Employment and Career
Planning. Since the end of W orld W ar II, the
country has had full or nearly full employment
in most years. However, even during this period
o f general prosperity, conditions have varied from
year to year. The most recent temporary decline
in economic activity began late in 1957 and con­
tinued until the spring of 1958, when employment
began to pick up again. The recovery was rapid
between April and September 1958, but slowed
down in the fall and winter. In early 1959, the
recovery was still proceeding slowly. Recessions,
each lasting about a year, also occurred in 1949-50
and in 1953-54. These recessions do not appear
to have had more than a temporary effect upon
long-term employment trends.
Because a young person choosing a career
should make plans that will serve his best interest
during his entire working life, his emphasis
should be on the long-term outlook— rather than
on the immediate, and possibly temporary, eco­
nomic situations that confront him when he is
planning for the future. Nevertheless, recessions
do have varying effects on employment in differ­
ent industries and occupations and young people
and their counselors should be aware o f them.
One o f the most important conclusions that
may be drawn from studying the employment
effects of recent recessions is that some industries
are likely to be hit hard, while a few appear to
be virtually recession proof. Manufacturing,
mining, transportation and, to a lesser extent, con­
struction tend to have the widest fluctuations in
employment. On the other hand, service, finance,
and, to some extent, trade have shown consider­
able resistance to the effects o f economic down­
turns. Government employment, especially State
and local, has been affected very little by the
recessions.
Within manufacturing industries, the recessions
have been felt most severely by the durable goods
industries. There are several reasons for this.
Often, the contraction in business activity is asso-

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

ciated with cuts in capital goods expenditures
(industry spending for plants and equipment).
These cuts affect mainly producers o f durable
goods, such as steel, machinery, transportation
equipment, and fabricated metal products. Fur­
thermore, when workers become unemployed, or
when their paychecks are reduced by a shorter
workweek, or even when they become apprehensive
about the future, they usually attempt to main­
tain expenditures for food and clothing (non­
durable goods), while often deferring expendi­
tures for new automobiles, washing machines,
television sets, and similar equipment (durable
goods). In addition, purchases o f new homes
often decline during periods o f economic reces­
sions, and construction employment drops. This
cutback in construction further aggravates the
decline in durable goods manufacturing indus­
tries, since fewer new homes mean less demand
for all o f the durable equipment that goes into
a new house— such as refrigerators, stoves, fur­
naces, plumbing equipment, and so forth.
W hy then, should a young person consider a
career in an industry—such as durable goods
manufacturing—periodically subject to wide em­
ployment swings? There are several answers to
this question— some personal, some economic. In
selecting a field of work, a young person should,
o f course, seek one well suited to his particular
aptitudes and interests, and sometimes personal
considerations o f this sort out-weigh economic
factors. From an economic point of view, one
important consideration is the rapid growth o f
the durable goods manufacturing industries in
times o f expanding employment. Young people
tend to enter industries where jobs are most read­
ily available. Since the end o f W orld W ar II,
there has been a rapid expansion in such durable
goods industries as metals, electronics, electrical
machinery, and aircraft. The nondurable goods
industries have, with a few notable exceptions,
been a much less dynamic sector o f the economy
over the last decade or so. For a number of
years, industries such as food products, tobacco,
textiles, rubber, and leather have grown very
slowly, if at all.
Another important reason for choosing a career
in the durable goods industries is the higher than
average pay levels. Average hourly earnings were
approximately 18 percent higher in durable goods




19

than in nondurable goods industries in 1958. O f
course, this general picture does not apply to
every industry. Average hourly earnings in some
durable goods industries (for example, lumber
and furniture) are below the general average for
all manufacturing industries. On the other hand,
workers in some nondurable goods industries
(such as petroleum and coal products, printing,
chemicals, and rubber) have average hourly earn­
ings well above the overall average. In general,
however, earnings tend to be higher in durable
goods than in nondurable goods industries, and
the differential has widened over the past decade.
The conclusion to be drawn from these facts—
that, in manufacturing, the industries where
hourly earnings tend to be above average are also
those with relatively unstable employment during
recessions—holds true also for nonmanufacturing
industries. Relatively larger cutbacks in employ­
ment during recessions occurred in railroads, min­
ing, and contract construction than in finance,
insurance, and real estate; the service industry
group; communications and public utilities, and
government. Furthermore, earnings tend to be
higher in railroads, mining, and contract con­
struction than in most o f more stable industry
groups.
Earnings and stability of employment depend,
o f course, not only on the industry in which the
individual is employed but also on his occupa­
tion, degree o f skill, and many other factors. For
example, as manufacturing employment has
dropped in periods o f recession, production work­
ers have been the group who have, in general,
borne the brunt of the employment decline. In
some industries, the number o f nonproduction
workers employed has continued to rise during
recessions though more slowly than before; at
worst, their employment has remained approxi­
mately stable. These nonproduction workers in­
clude engineers and other professional personnel,
as well as clerical, sales, and administrative
workers.
Occupational Trends

The growth o f the Nation’s working population
and the varying trends o f employment in differ­
ent industries have led to major changes in the
occupational distribution of the labor force. (See
chart 7.)

20

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

CHART 7

OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS, 1910-50
PERCENT OF TOTAL W O R K ER S IN EACH FIELD

Professional, Clerical, and Semiskilled Occupations Grew Rapidly

16.5

15.3

14.4
12.4

12.0

11.7

11.6

10.4

1 .0
1

9.4
' KS '

8.8

7.4

7.0

6.6
4.4

1910

'20

'3 0

'40

F a rm e rs

*50

1910 *20

'3 0

*40

Farm L a b o re rs

*50

1910

'20

'3 0

'4 0

*50

L a b o re rs , E x c e p t Farm

Others Showed No Consistent Trend

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U OF L A B O R




S T A T IS T IC S

Source*. U.S. Bureau of the Census

ECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS

The fastest growing group during the first half
o f this century was made up of clerical and sales
workers. The number of clerical workers (exclud­
ing sales) rose from about 2 million—5 percent
of all workers—in 1910 to over 7 million— 12
percent o f all workers— in 1950. The number of
sales workers also increased during this period
but the growth was much slower than for clerical
workers.
Professional, technical, and kindred occupa­
tions were second only to clerical occupations in
rate o f growth between 1910 and 1950. Within
this broad group, engineering, the sciences, and
other relatively new professions grew faster than
the traditional learned fields—the ministry, the
law, medicine, and teaching. In recent years, the
number o f technicians who assist engineers and
scientists has also increased very rapidly.
Semiskilled workers are the third occupational
group which showed steady growth between 1910
and 1950, an increase from 15 percent to 20 per­
cent o f the work force over the 40-year period.
Typical occupations in this broad group are ma­
chine operators or tenders, assembly workers, and
truckdrivers.
While employment was increasing in some oc­
cupational groups, it was decreasing in others.
For example, farmers and farm workers have
declined dramatically as a proportion o f the work
force—from 30.9 percent in 1910 to 12 percent
in 1950. Another result of our developing tech­
nology has been the decline in the proportion of
the work force in unskilled jobs— from 12 percent
to only 6.6 percent.
In the other three broad occupational cate­
gories—the proprietor-manager, skilled worker,
and service worker groups—trends have varied
from decade to decade. One reason for the vary­
ing trends in the proprietor-manager group is
that, within this broad group, there has been both
a decline in the number o f proprietors o f small
businesses and a rise in the number of salaried
employees in managerial positions. Skilled work­
ers lost ground relative to the labor force as a
whole in some decades and gained in others, but
over the entire 40-year period from 1910 to 1950,
they moved ahead from 11.6 percent to 14.1
percent o f the labor force. Service workers, the
one remaining group, include employees in pri­
vate households, and also such workers as waiters
and cooks in restaurants, elevator operators,




21

guards, and policemen. This group rose slightly
as a proportion of the labor force between 1910
and 1950— from 9.6 to 10.5 percent.
The data on occupational trends presented so
far not only relate to the past but also measure
the changing size of each occupational group in
relative terms as a percentage o f the country’s
work force. In contrast, chart 8 shows the actual
numbers o f workers employed in 1957 in the
various kinds of occupations. This chart also
shows projections o f employment in 1970 for each
major group. In developing these projects, ac­
count was taken o f the past trends outlined in
preceding paragraphs and also o f such factors as
the expected increase in the labor force, its age
and sex distribution, and the expected changes in
the industrial distribution o f employment and in
technology.
Semiskilled workers, numbering more than 12.5
million in 1957, are currently the largest occupa­
tional group. Indications are that employment in
this occupational group will have a slower rate
of growth over the long run than will the labor
force as a whole, since technological advances are
CHART 8

22

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

expected to permit great gains in production
without corresponding increases in the number
of semiskilled workers.
Employment in the clerical worker group— the
second largest occupational group in 1957—is ex­
pected to continue to grow somewhat faster than
the labor force as a whole during the 1960’s.
However, more widespread use o f electronic equip­
ment which can perform numerous clerical opera­
tions with lightning speed will urdoubtedly re­
strict the growth in employment o f office workers
in the long run.
Employment o f skilled workers and foremen
increased at about the same rate as the total labor
force during the 1950’s, reaching a total o f 8.7
million in 1957. W ith the anticipated rise in
construction worker employment and the growing
need for skilled maintenance men and repairmen
who can install and care for increasingly compli­
cated machinery and equipment, skilled workers
are likely to increase at a slightly faster rate than
the entire labor force during the 1960’s.
Among service workers, employment reached a
total o f 7.6 million workers in 1957. It is expected
to increase faster than the entire labor force up
to 1970, with rising income levels and growing
population.




Professional, technical, and related workers
have been, since 1950, the fastest growing o f all
the occupational groups, moving ahead even of
clerical workers. Employment in the professionaltechnical group, which reached 6.5 million in
1957, is expected to continue its spectacular
growth in the 1960 decade. The managerial and
sales groups will also have substantial employ­
ment increases in the 1960’s.
Laborers and farm workers are the only occupa­
tional groups not expected to show growth in the
years ahead. The number o f laborers is not likely
to change much from the 3.7 million employed
in 1957. Employment o f farm workers is expected
to continue its long-term decline.
In summary, the major occupational changes
expected in the 1960 decade are: (1) a continuing
rapid growth in white-collar occupations, espe­
cially in the professions; (2) among blue-collar
workers, a slower growth in skilled and semi­
skilled occupations and little if any change in
employment in unskilled occupations; a fasterthan-average growth among service workers; and
a further decline in employment among farmers
and farm laborers. Later sections o f this Hand­
book will present in detail the outlook in the
principal occupations within each major group.

Earnings from W o rk
Earnings from work account for more than 70
percent o f our national income. They include
the wages o f unskilled laborers, the salaries of
corporation presidents and public school teachers,
the earnings o f movie actors and automobile
salesmen. They include pay for work in fac­
tories— for example, on clothes or electric de­
vices— and for services ranging from haircuts to
legal advice.
The mere mention o f these different kinds of
work reminds us that there are wide variations in
the earnings of people in different kinds o f jobs.
In the choice o f an occupation, one o f the most
important considerations is the earnings an in­
dividual may look forward to receiving from
the various kinds o f work suited to his abilities,
interests, and training. This chapter is designed
to suggest the range o f earnings that young
people entering the labor force can expect to
receive in the immediate future in different oc­
cupations. It also discusses the differences among
occupations with regard to earnings over a long
period o f time, which also have a bearing on
career decisions.
In considering money earnings, it is important
to remember that there are other factors that need
to be taken into account in weighing the rela­
tive advantages of various jobs—including hours
o f work, vacations, physical working conditions,
and the personal satisfactions associated with a
particular type o f work. Sometimes a person
may regard these factors as even more important
than the amount of money income he is likely to
receive. For example, he may decide on a col­
lege teaching career because he places a high
value on the opportunity to work with young
people or to do independent research, although
other jobs open to him may offer greater money
income. Or a person may prefer an office job
in a comfortable air-conditioned building to
working with his hands in a blue-collar job
offering higher earnings. The desire to be one’s
own boss or to work at one’s own place un­
doubtedly induces many people to open a small
business, though many proprietors o f such busi­




nesses could make more money if they were
willing to work for others.
Rates of Pay, Earnings, and Benefits

Rates o f Pay. A person who wants to find out
about the money earnings in an occupation needs,
first, to get information on the basic rate o f pay.
This pay rate may be related either to the length
of time worked or to output—the two general
ways o f determining wages.
Workers who are paid on a time basis typically
have an hourly wage rate if they are in manual
jobs. Office, supervisory, and professional work­
ers usually have weekly, monthly, or yearly sal­
aries. For example, a machinist in a metalwork­
ing plant in Chicago may be paid $2.50 an hour;
an experienced accounting clerk in a Chicago
office may receive a salary o f $90 a week.
Wage rates based on amount of output are
sometimes referred to as “ incentive rates,” since
workers paid on this basis can increase their
earnings by increasing their production. A work­
er in a machine shop, for example, may receive
5 cents for each metal part he machines; a filling
station attendant may be paid $1 for every car
he washes; a television salesman may get a com­
mission based on the value o f the sets he sells.
In comparing the money earnings to be ex­
pected from a particular type o f incentive work
with those from a job paid on a time basis, the
best type o f information to use is the expected
“earned rate.” This rate is computed by dividing
earnings during a specified period (excluding
any premium pay for overtime or holiday work)
by the number o f hours worked during that
period. Thus, if the filling station employee
washes 60 cars for $1 a car during a 40-hour
week, thereby earning $60, his hourly earned
rate will be $1.50. It is also important to know
whether the incentive rates are combined with a
minimum earnings guarantee, as they sometimes
are, especially during new workers’ first few
weeks or months o f employment when they are
learning the job.
23

24

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Annual and Lifetime Earnings. A high wage
rate per hour or week does not necessarily mean
correspondingly high annual earnings. The rela­
tively high hourly or daily rates for some types
o f manual employment, such as building construc­
tion or longshoring, are offset in considerable
measure by the lack of full-time employment.
Some industries, such as clothing manufacture,
offer more work in some months of the year than
in others. Earnings of independent professional
workers, such as doctors and lawyers, clearly are
affected by the size of their practice. The wide
range of earnings among members o f these pro­
fessions reflects not only differences in fees but,
perhaps more important, differences in the num­
bers and types of cases handled.
Some people may prefer an occupation offering
a high rate o f pay with intermittent employment
to one providing a smaller pay check that comes
in regularly every week, but the choice should be
deliberate. On the whole, office, administrative,
and professional employees tend to have greater
job security than those paid on an hourly basis.
However, many plant workers also have a good
deal of job security. This is especially true of
skilled maintenance employees, such as electri­
cians, whose services are likely to be needed even
when output drops. In addition, the seniority
provisions of union agreements, which govern
the order in which employees are laid off and
rehired when reductions in employment are nec­
essary, provide some security to workers who
have had some years of service with a firm.
Aside from immediate earnings prospects, a
new worker will want to consider the longrun
possibility of increased earnings, either by pro­
motion to more highly skilled work or because of
other increases in his earnings capacity, such as
increased speed in turning out work. In consid­
ering earnings prospects, a worker will obviously
want to consider chances for advancement. The
absolute dead-end job is rare; even the most rou­
tine work, if it is well done, can pave the way
to a better job. A machine operator may advance
to a job as a foreman. A salesman should know
his possibilities o f expanding sales as he becomes
more experienced and o f promotion to a position
such as sales manager. In some cases, on-the-job
training, which may lead to higher earnings,
is provided; in others, the employee may have to




exercise initiative to take courses at local schools
or colleges.
In general, fields requiring a good education
tend to offer better earnings prospects. A college
instructor who is reasonably competent can look
forward to obtaining full professor’s rank and
may obtain an administrative post such as that of
dean. The college graduate in business has manj
avenues open to him (in production, marketing,
and finance, for example). Many large business
firms promote from within and thus provide
opportunities for their employees to move up the
job ladder. Many gasoline service stations, tele­
vision repair shops, or small hotels have been
opened by individuals who began as employees,
although to open even a small business the prob­
lem of obtaining capital must be solved.
In some situations it is almost essential to
think in terms o f opportunities for advancement
and lifetime earnings. In some occupations the
wage rate may be comparatively high but the
job may require either more than average physi­
cal stamina or may be one in which outstanding
prowess is lost at a relatively early age. In these
cases, the choice is between high pay rates for a
short period and lower rates which, over a life­
time, may well provide greater earnings. A job
decision might involve a choice between profes­
sional baseball, with the chance (though not the
certainty) o f high earnings for a few years, and
a career in electrical engineering, with reasonable
assurance of steady and growing earnings over
the long pull. Another example is the choice for
a young lawyer between salaried employment
with a government agency and independent prac­
tice with a chance o f attaining the very high
incomes received by the few at the top of the
legal profession.
O f course, millions o f people will remain, for
their entire working life, within the general
white-collar or manual job category in which
they start. Coal miners will tend to remain
miners; business machine operators will tend to
remain in this general field; most factory opera­
tives form a permanent attachment to some par­
ticular type o f work. In these cases, only limited
increases in earnings can be anticipated from
job transfers; higher earnings will result partly
from the fact that many time-rated jobs provide
for a limited number o f periodic increases in

25

EARNINGS FROM WORK

pay above the entrance rate, but primarily from
the general rise in productivity in the economic
system.
Premium Pay and Supplementary Benefits. Up
to now the discussion has dealt with base wage or
salary rates and money earnings. Under certain
conditions, however, premium pay may increase
money income. Premium pay for work beyond
both daily or weekly normal hours is now wide­
spread and union-management agreements typi­
cally call for premiums for weekend or holiday
work as well as for work on late shifts. In
choosing a job, therefore, a worker should real­
ize that jobs vary considerably in chances for
overtime or nightwork and should weigh the
opportunities for extra pay against the offsetting
loss o f leisure time.
Most jobs typically yield a variety o f benefits
that represent sources o f leisure and long-term
income. Since these benefits vary from industry
to industry and very often among firms in the
same industry as well as from one part o f the
country to another, they should be considered in
making job decisions. One important type o f
benefit involves payment for time not worked,
such as for vacations, holidays, and sick leave.
Another important group o f benefits includes
pensions and health and insurance plans, which
have grown rapidly during the past decade. Pri­
vate pension plans supplement retirement benefits
to which most workers are entitled under the
Federal Old-Age, Survivors and Disability In­
surance system. Health and insurance plans fre­
quently include life, accidental death, and dis­
memberment insurance as well as sickness, hos­
pitalization, surgical, and medical care benefits.
Supplementary unemployment benefits financed
from private funds set up by employers have
recently been added to State unemployment com­
pensation benefits in such imyor industries as
automobiles, steel, and rubber. These supple­
mental unemployment benefits can contribute
greatly to stabilizing income where employment
fluctuates from season to season or with the
business cycle.
Current Pay Levels

The preceding section has outlined the various
factors that enter into the worker’s total lifetime




earnings and the choices he must make—e.g.,
between the prospect of higher pay per hour on
the one hand, and more hours o f work on the
other, or between the alternatives o f high pay for
a few years and modest but gradually increasing
pay rates over a longer span of years. The re­
maining pages discuss in somewhat more detail
the extent to which hourly or weekly earnings
vary among jobs, areas, and industries, and try
to give a picture o f pay levels in the American
economy, which may be helpful as background in
judging earnings prospects in a specific occupa­
tion. Obviously, in evaluating a given rate o f
pay, say $1.50 an hour, it is helpful to know
whether most other workers are earning more or
less than this amount.
In 1957, annual wage and salary income o f full­
time workers averaged about $4,200 (table 1).
Average earnings were about $4,700 for men and
approximately $3,000 for women. These income
figures exclude self-employed workers (including
many professional workers such as doctors and
lawyers), but include business executives. A t the
lower end of the distribution (2.5 percent o f the
workers received less than $500 in annual wage
and salary income) are many workers such as
farmers who receive some wages but who depend
T able

1.

P e r c e n ta g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f w o r k e r s

1 by

w a g e or

s a la r y in c o m e , 1 9 5 7

Wage or salary income

Men and
women

$ l- $ 9 9 9 ___________ _________
$ 1 ,0 0 0 -$ 1 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 2 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 3 ,00 0 -$ 3 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 4 ,00 0 -$ 4 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 5 ,00 0 -$ 5 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 6 ,00 0 -$ 6 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 7 ,00 0 -$ 9 ,9 9 9 ________________
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 -$ 1 4 ,9 9 9 ______________
$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 -8 2 4 ,9 9 9 ______________
$25,000 a nd ov er

5.
6.
14.
20.
19.
15.
8.
7.
2.
.
.

4.
3.
9.
16.
21.
19.
10.
10.
3.
.
.

Women

Men

0
6
5
1
6
2
2
8
4
5
2

6
9
3
1
9
1
8
3
2
7
3

6.
14.
28.
31.
12.
4.

5
4
8
0
9
3

1. 1
.8
. 2
. 1

__ ________________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Average 2_____ _____________

$4, 175

$4, 713

$3, 008

Total

1 Wage or salary Income of year-round full-time workers, 14 years of age
and over.
2 Median—I.e., half the workers earned less than this figure and half earned
more.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

26

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

primarily on other sources o f income (for exam­
ple, the sale o f farm products).
Most workers in American industry are em­
ployed in nonsupervisory manual and office posi­
tions. As o f late 1958, the great bulk o f these
nonsupervisory and office workers earned between
$1 and $3 an hour or between $2,100 and $6,250
a year, assuming a workweek of 40 hours and 52
weeks’ pay a year. Probably between 40 and 50
percent of these workers earned $2 or more an
hour.
Workers covered by the Federal Fair Labor
Standards Act must be paid at least $1 an hour.
This minimum covers practically all workers in
manufacturing, mining, wholesale trade, and
transportation, but does not apply to most work­
ers in retail trade and service industries or to
farm labor. In these latter industries, an appre­
ciable number o f workers are paid less than $1
an hour. (As table 2 shows, about one out o f four
retail trade employees received less than $1 an
hour in 1956.)
In other words, in most industries workers can
expect to receive starting wages o f at least $1 an
hour, but there are exceptions in which lower
rates will be paid. O f course, the actual minimum
in many firms, industries, and areas exceeds the
legal requirements—in many cases, by a substan­
tial amount. A t the upper end o f the wage struc­
ture, a comparatively small proportion o f the
nonsupervisory manual and clerical workers earn
T a b l e 2.

P e r c e n ta g e d istr ib u tio n

o f p r o d u c tio n

$3 an hour or more. In 1958, about 1 out o f 16
“ blue-collar” workers in manufacturing earned at
least $3 an hour.
The variations in pay shown in table 2 reflect
differences among occupations, industries, and
areas, and among establishments within the same
area. The pay rates of one job relative to another
depend primarily on the demand for and number
o f workers available with the supply largely de­
pending upon the skill, training, and other re­
quirements of the j obs. In discussing the variation
in pay among jobs, it is helpful to think in terms of
a few broad job groups. In the case o f unskilled
workers, the requirements are comparatively
simple and involve little training, skill, or capac­
ity to make decisions. Next are the very large
numbers of semiskilled jobs that are essentially
routine but that may involve, for example, the
operation o f special types o f machines or other
equipment, the performance o f various record­
keeping functions, or the exercise o f limited
amounts of judgment. The next level of jobs
may involve all-round skill in a particular craft,
responsibility for the operation o f highly com­
plex equipment, and capacity for decisionmaking
within a defined area of responsibility.
These three classes o f workers— skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled—together contain the liter­
ally thousands o f manual and office jobs below
the supervisory level. The three groups are by
no means clear cut—one tends to shade into an-

or n o n su p er v iso ry

w ork ers

in

s e le c te d i n d u s t r i e s b y s t r a i g h t -t i m e a v era g e

h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,l se le c te d d a tes

Average hourly earnings

Under $1.00—
_ -- - - ----------------- _
$1.00 and under $1.20____
—
_
_
-$1.20 and under $1.40____
___
____
$1.40 and under $1.60____
_ -- - _
_
_
_
_
_
$1.60 and under $1.80____
_______ ____ - __________
$1.80 and under $2.00______
___
$2.00 and under $2.20____ - _
_
_
_ __ - .
$2.20 and under $2.40______
_____ __ . _ _ . .
$2.40 and under $2.60........
..... .......- ____ ______
$2.60 and under $2.80______
- -- --$2.80 and under $3.00____ ______
_
_
$3.00 and over____
_
_
__________
-_ Average hourly earnings________
Number of workers (in thousands)______

Manufacturing,
1058

0.
12.
9.
8.
9.
10.
11.
11.
8.
6.
4.

3
9
8
9
8
2
8
7
5
1
2

0.
26.
30.
19.
12.
4.
2.
1.
.
.
.

2
9
3
0
8
6
7
4
9
5
2

5. 7

. 5

$1. 97

$1. 42
831

11, 245

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime, weekend, and holiday work, and for work on late shifts.




Motor vehicles,
1957

Textiles, 1958

Under $2.00,
0 . 1.

13.3
63.1
9.4
5.0
6.6
2.8

Retail trade, 1956

26.
21.
14.
10.
7.
5.
5.
3.
2.
1.
.

4
5
2
4
6
1
3
1
3
3
8

2. 2

$2. 37
491

$1. 41

6, 033

27

EARNINGS FROM WORK

other and earnings overlap. For example, factors
such as incentive pay may raise earnings o f some
semiskilled workers above those o f some skilled
jobs and rates for the same jobs vary from area
to area, industry to industry, and plant to plant.
This overlap is illustrated for one area—Balti­
more— in the chart on page 31. While laborers in
Baltimore averaged $1.05 an hour less than ma­
chinists, the highest paid laborers earned more
than the lowest paid machinists.
There has been a longrun tendency for pay
differences among jobs to decline. During the
past few years, the tendency for pay differentials
between skilled and unskilled workers to narrow
has been arrested but not reversed, and it seems
probable that increasing attention will be given
in the future to the question of pay differences
among jobs. In 1957-58 in a group o f about 20
major labor markets, hourly earnings for a num­
ber o f skilled jobs were about 50 to 70 percent
above the unskilled rate (represented by pay o f
janitors). Today, most skilled blue-collar workers
probably earn $2.50 or more an hour. It is they
T a b le

3.

who, together with some of the men office clerical
workers and some salesmen, comprise the group
of workers whose pay exceeds $3 an hour.
There has also been a significant change in the
pay position of office employees compared with
manual workers. At one time officeworkers, even
in the most routine jobs, received not only higher
pay but more liberal benefits than unskilled plant
workers; these differences have narrowed greatly
in recent years.
The information in table 2 largely excludes
officeworkers. Tables 3 and 4 present data on pay
o f women officeworkers in 17 large communities.
Table 3 presents a picture o f salary rates that
girls just entering the labor market in whitecollar jobs can expect to earn in a group o f
major communities. This table indicates that in
these cities starting rates averaged from $42 to
$57 a week for inexperienced typists in 1957-58.
Comparison o f this table with table 4 gives some
notion of the opportunities for increasing pay
with advancement to more responsible office cleri­
cal jobs; the latter table shows earnings for ex-

W e e k l y e n t r a n c e s a la r ie s f o r w o m e n h i r e d a s t y p i s t s a n d f o r o th e r e n tr a n c e c le r ic a l p o s i t i o n s i n s e le c te d m a j o r
la b o r m a r k e ts , w i n t e r 1 9 5 7 - 5 8

Inexperienced typists

Other inexperienced clerical workers

Area
Average
salary 1

Northeast:
Boston__
Newark.
_
New York__
Philadelphia. _
South:
Atlanta___
Baltimore___
Memphis__
New Orleans___
North Central:
Chicago_ . . . .
_
. . .
. ______ .
Cleveland —
Milwaukee_____
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
St. Louis. . . .
. .
__
West:
Denver___________ _____
_
_
._ . . . .
Los Angeles-Long Beach . . . _
_
..
_
_
Portland_ ____
_
San Francisco-Oakland_
_

M iddle3 range of salaries

Average
salary1

M iddle1 range of salaries

$45.
50.
51.
47.

50
50
50
00

$42.
46.
48.
43.

50-48.
50-56.
50-55.
00-51.

50
00
50
50

$44.
49.
49.
46.

50
50
50
00

$41.
45.
46.
41.

50-47.
00-54.
00-52.
50-50.

00
50
50
50

44.
46.
42.
43.

50
50
00
00

41.
42.
41.
41.

50-49.
50-53.
00-47.
00-47.

00
50
50
50

43.
44.
42.
42.

50
50
00
00

41.
41.
41.
40.

50-48.
50-49.
00-47.
50-47.

50
50
00
50

54.
54.
49.
44.
48.

50
00
50
50
00

51.
50.
45.
42.
44.

00-59.
50-59.
50-52.
00-48.
00-54.

50
50
50
50
50

52.
53.
47.
43.
47.

50
00
00
50
00

49.
47.
43.
41.
42.

50-57.
00-59.
00-52.
50-47.
00-53.

50
00
00
00
00

48.
57.
52.
57.

50
00
00
00

44.
52.
45.
51.

50-52.
00-64.
50-60.
50-63.

00
00
50
00

47.
55.
51.
56.

00
50
50
00

44.
50.
45.
51.

00-52.
50-62.
50-59.
00-62.

00
00
50
00

1Median—i.e., half the establishments studied paid less than this rate and half paid more.
1 A fourth of the establishments studied paid less than the lower rate of the range and a fourth paid more than the higher rate.




28

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
T a b l e 4.

W e e k l y s a la r ie s f o r w o m e n s e c r e ta r ie s a n d s t e n o g r a p h e r s i n se le c te d m a j o r la b o r m a r k e ts , w i n t e r 1 9 5 7 - 5 8

Average salary

Northeast:
Boston
Newark___
New Y ork.
Philadelphia___
South:
Atlanta_____
Baltimore _
Memphis
New Orleans.
North Central:
Chicago.
C le v e la n d ____
Milwaukee____
Minneapolis-St. Paul___
St. Louis ._
. . .
West:
Denver____
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Portland. _
San Francisco-Oakland___

Stenographers, general

Secretaries

Region and Area

Middle range 1of salaries

Average salary

Middle range 1of salaries

$71.
83.
85.
78.

50
00
00
00

$62.
74.
75.
67.

00-80.
50-90.
00-94.
50-86.

00
00
00
50

$61.
67.
69.
64.

50
50
00
50

$54.
60.
62.
56.

50-69.
50-75.
00-76.
00-72.

00
00
50
00

77.
76.
66.
76.

50
00
00
50

65.
66.
56.
66.

50-88.
00-85.
00-75.
00-87.

00
50
50
00

65.
64.
58.
62.

50
00
50
00

56.
54.
49.
54.

50-72.
00-74.
00-65.
00-68.

00
00
00
00

87.
89.
83.
74.
79.

00
50
50
00
00

78.
79.
73.
66.
69.

50-94.
50-98.
50-93.
00-81.
00-89.

00
50
00
00
00

74.
74.
66.
62.
63.

00
00
50
00
50

66.
65.
59.
55.
56.

50-80.
50-82.
00-73.
50-68.
50-69.

50
00
50
00
50

79.
87.
80.
85.

00
00
50
00

70.
80.
71.
76.

50-87.
00-93.
00-88.
00-93.

50
50
00
00

66.
75.
69.
74.

50
00
00
00

61.
68.
62.
66.

00-73.
50-81.
00-77.
50-79.

00
50
00
50

1 A fourth of the workers received less than the lower salary shown and a fourth received more than the higher salary.

perienced general stenographers and secretaries
in the same communities. Average salaries of sec­
retaries are typically about $25 to $35 a week
higher than the average starting rate for inex­
perienced typists in the same communities.
The pay o f professional and executive em­
ployees tends to stand above the rate structure
for workers in nonsupervisory positions, though
there is a considerable overlap between the pay
structures for the two groups. This is particu­
larly true with respect to a number o f professions
in which large numbers of workers are employed
on a salaried basis and in which a large number
o f women are employed. For example, a survey
by the U.S. Office of Education indicates that in
the 1956-57 academic year, the average salary for
beginning public school teachers was $3,600. The
average maximum salary for teaching in a group
o f large cities surveyed by the American Federa­
tion o f Teachers reached over a period o f years
was $6,100 for those with a bachelor’s degree and
$6,400 for those with a master’s degree. Maxi­
mum salaries for those with master’s degrees
ranged to more than $8,500 in some New York
City suburbs. As pointed out earlier, annual pay
for most wage earners who work full time is




probably between $2,100 and $6,300. Librarians,
dietitians, and registered nurses are examples of
other professional groups with average earnings
that overlap those o f the higher paid manual and
office workers. The average rate for senior drafts­
men, a technical occupation, approximates the
average for tool and die makers, a top-skilled
manual job.
Most salaried professional workers probably
fall in a range from about $5,000 to $15,000 de­
pending on their occupation, age, education, abil­
ity, and a variety o f other factors such as geo­
graphic location. Some earn substantially more
than the upper limit o f this range and, o f course,
some earn less than the lower limit. The range
o f earnings among self-employed professional
workers—doctors, dentists, and lawyers, for ex­
ample— is much greater than among salaried em­
ployees in these fields, and the upper end o f the
range is generally higher. Independent practice
of a profession contains an element of risk. There
are relatively few high rewards and there are
failures. The odds against success vary among
fields; for example, there is a greater risk of
failure among professional entertainers than
among physicians and there are corresponding

29

EARNINGS FROM WORK

CHART 9

W AG E OR SALARY INCOME FO R MIDDLE HALF OF W ORKERS
IN M A JO R O CCU PA TIO N A L G RO U PS

Note-. The mark on each bar indicates the median (average) income of the workers in the given
occupational group: Half made more and half less than this amount.
The length of the bar shows the income range of the middle half of the workers in the
occupational group. One-fourth earned less than the amount indicated by the left end of
the bar. and one-fourth earned more than the amount indicated by the right end.
U N ITED S T A T E S D EPA R TM EN T OF LA B O R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Source: U .S . Bureau of the C en su s

30

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

variations in the top incomes. In professions
like medicine, an individual has a very good
chance o f achieving a substantial income if he
has reasonable competence and capacity to work.
In 1951, according to the Bureau o f the Census,
half the self-employed physicians and surgeons
earned more than $10,000.
Frequently, professional and supervisory func­
tions are combined and the higher pay levels for
professional workers on a salaried basis reflect
their supervisory duties.
Kates o f workers in supervisory and executive
jobs vary enormously because o f great differences
in duties and responsibilities. A foreman may be
responsible for the work of half a dozen men and
his pay may be closely related to the wages of
those he supervises—perhaps 10 percent higher.
The president or manager o f a company may
be paid at least 10 or 20 times as much as most
o f his employees.
Variations in average annual wage or salary
income in 1957 for eight broad occupational
groups are summarized in chart 9. As would be
expected, the highest incomes are received by
managers, officials, and proprietors, with profes­
sional and technical workers coming next. Low­
est paid were service workers and laborers. Sales­
men earned slightly less on the average than did
craftsmen and foremen.
More or less closely related to differences in
pay among broad occupational groups are differ­
ences in pay with variations in educational back­
ground. The increase in earnings opportunities
that comes with increased education is indicated
by chart 10. High school and college graduates
earn more than those with only 8 years o f school­
ing in their early working years. Moreover,
as college graduates grow older, earnings increase
much more rapidly than do earnings o f those with
less education. In 1956, men college graduates
aged 45 to 54 earned more than twice as much as
elementary school graduates and 70 percent more
than high school graduates.
Variation in Pay Within Occupations. While the
occupation in which a worker is employed great­
ly affects his earnings, it should be emphasized
that there are wide variations in pay within an
occupation.
Pay differs substantially not only among re­
gions o f the country but among cities within the




CHART 10
EDUCATION IS ONE OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING INCOME
Avorogo A nnual Incoma of Man in 1956,
by Yaar« of School Compiatod and Ago
Thousands of Dollars

Age

UNITEO STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
•URCAU O LAO ft STATISTICS
F
O

Source: U .S . Bureau of the Census

same region. In general, pay tends to be higher
in large than in small communities but it also
varies among large cities. These interarea differ­
ences tend to be proportionately greater for un­
skilled than for skilled and white-collar occupa­
tions. In the main, the highest wage scales are
found on the West Coast and the lowest in the
South, although pay levels for skilled workers
and white-collar workers in New England are
often close to those in the South. An illustration
o f the variation in pay among communities is
provided by the average earnings o f machinists
in 1957-58. Workers in this occupation averaged
$2.44 an hour in Boston, $2.45 in Atlanta, $2.86 in
the San Francisco Bay area, and as high as $2.89
in Chicago. As table 3 indicates, entrance rates
for inexperienced typists varied in 1957-58 from
an average o f less than $45 a week in such com­
munities as Atlanta, Memphis, New Orleans, and
Minneapolis-St. Paul to more than $55 in Los
Angeles and San Francisco. It should be borne
in mind that these intercity differentials in pay
tend to be proportionately greater than differen­
tials in living costs, although these two differen­
tials are not closely related.
It is not surprising that there is typically a
range o f rates for the same job in the same labor

31

EARNINGS FROM WORK
C H A R T 11

HOURLY W AG E RATES'^ OF LABORERS AND MACHINISTS IN BALTIM ORE, MARYLAND
Laborers (M aterial handling)
Percent of Workers Receiving Specified Wage Rate

U N ITED S T A T E S D EPA R T M EN T OF L A B O R
BUREAU OF LABO R STATISTICS

market, rather than a single rate. People doing
the same type of work vary in their productive
capacity; so differences in rates reflect, to some
extent, variations among individuals. Many firms
recognize this fact by establishing a range of
rates for each job, with progression within the
range depending on merit, length o f service, or
both. Rates also vary among firms in the same
area. Thus, table 3 shows substantial differences
in hourly rates for inexperienced officeworkers.
In New York City, one out of four offices hired
inexperienced typists in 1958 for less than $45.50
a week while another one out o f every four hired




Machinists (M aintenance)
Percent of Workers Receiving Specified Wage Rate

1/ E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m

p a y f o r o v e r t im e a n d fo r w o rk

o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d

la te s h i f t s .

them at more than $55.50. In Baltimore, hourly
rates o f laborers varied from less than $1 to $3.30
or more, and maintenance machinists, from $1.80
to more than $3.30 in August 1958 (chart 11).
Sometimes differences in pay among firms reflect
variations in the duties and conditions attached
to the job. For example, rates paid laborers hired
to load and unload materials may vary depending
on the weight o f the materials being handled or
on whether the job is performed indoors or out­
doors. Earnings also tend to be somewhat higher
for incentive workers within an occupation than
they are for time workers.

32

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Variations Among Industries. Part o f the differ­
ence in pay for the same occupation just dis­
cussed is traceable to differences in pay for the
same job among industries. Turning to differ­
ences in average earnings among industries, much
o f this variation reflects differences in the occupa­
tional pattern among these industries. For exam­
ple, a tool and die shop employs a much higher
proportion of highly skilled workers than does a
cigarette factory. These differences in occupa­
tional structure among industries, of course, re­
flect differences in opportunities for promotion




for workers with the requisite training. In gen­
eral, earnings tend to be highest in such manufac­
turing industries as petroleum refining, printing,
and basic steel; and in such nonmanufacturing
industries as electric and gas utilities. Table 2
illustrates differences in earnings among indus­
tries, showing data for one manufacturing indus­
try with relatively high earnings and one with
relatively low average pay. Only 1 out o f 1,000
workers in the automobile industry earned less
than $2 an hour in 1957 contrasted with more
than 900 out o f 1,000 in the textile industries.

Professional, Administrative, and Related Occupations
Professional and administrative occupations
have many attractions for young people consider­
ing the choice of a career. These occupations
offer opportunities for interesting and responsible
work, lead to relatively high earnings, and are at
the top o f the ladder in prestige. However, they
can, as a rule, be entered only after long periods
o f education and training, since a broad knowl­

edge o f one’s field and judgment of a high order
are outstanding requirements for success in these
types o f work.
More than one-fifth o f all workers in 1958 were
in professional, administrative, and related occu­
pations. These occupations—employing nearly
14 million people—accounted for about half of
all white-collar employment.

Professional and Related Occupations
Professional occupations are of two main
types. The largest group of professions—includ­
ing those o f engineer, architect, physician, lawyer,
and teacher—requires formal education in wellorganized fields o f knowledge. The other group—
including occupations such as editor and actor—
does not require as much specialized, theoretical
knowledge, but demands a great deal o f broad
background knowledge or creative talent, and skill
acquired chiefly through experience. Generally,
the professions require either college graduation
— often with an advanced degree—or experience
o f such kind and amount as to provide a com­
parable background. Licenses are required for
practice in many professions—medicine, dentis­
try, and pharmacy, for example—with licensing
authorities determining the minimum qualifica­
tions which members must have. Professional
societies also set up membership standards, which
tend to define their respective fields. In many
areas o f work, however, there is no clear-cut line
between professional and other classes o f workers.
It is not easy to prepare for and enter profes­
sional work. For most professions, one must com­
plete a long period o f training and hard study in
competition with the very brightest students. In
many cases, one must pass difficult examinations
in the colleges and professional schools and be­
fore State licensing boards. Often, applicants are
not accepted for professional training unless their
school grades are high, and employers generally
give preference in hiring to graduates whose
grades in professional school put them high in
their class.

Closely related to the professions—and some­
times overlapping them—is a wide variety of
technical occupations. People in these occupa­
tions work with engineers, scientists, physicians,
and other professional personnel. Their job titles
include, for example, those o f draftsman, engi­
neering aid, and electronic, laboratory, or X-ray
technician. Employment as a technician requires
a combination o f basic scientific knowledge and
manual skill, which can be obtained through
about 2 years of post high school education, such
as is offered in many technical institutes and
junior colleges, or through equivalent on-the-job
training. Many o f the duties of technicians may
be performed also by beginning professional
workers. However, because of their more limited
educational background, technicians generally
find it much more difficult to advance to highlevel positions than do professional workers.
The major professional, technical, and related
occupations are shown in chart 12. Teaching,
engineering, nursing, and accounting were, by far,
the largest professional occupations in 1950.
Among technicians, draftsmen were the largest
group.
Employment Trends

Employment in professional, technical, and
related occupations has risen during each decade
since 1870— from less than half a million workers
to about 5 million in 80 years. Since 1950, the
rise in the number of these workers has been spec­
tacular, reaching 7 million in 1958. (See chart
33

506397 0—59




34

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

C H A R T 12

M A JO R

P R O F E S S IO N A L , T E C H N IC A L , A N D K IN D R ED O C C U P A T IO N S

Thousands of Workers

O
J~"

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

i

l

I

I

l

I

|

Teachers, elementary school
Engineers
Nurses

V7777777777 77 77 77 77
7777777777777777Z7A

Teachers, secondary school
Accountants
Physicians
Lawyers
Clergymen
Musicians
Teachers, college
Draftsmen
Journalists
Pharmacists
Artists
Technicians, medical and dental
Social Workers
Technicians, testing
Chemists
Dentists
Librarians
Personnel Workers
Photographers
Sports Instructors
Religious Workers
Designers
Morticians
Natural Scientists
(except engineers and chemists)
Social Scientists
Technicians (n.e.c.)
Foresters and Conservationists
Surveyors
Architects
Therapists and Healers (n.e.c.)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




800

--------- 1

Source: 1950 Census of Population
U.S. Bureau of the Census and
Bureau of Labor Statistics

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

CHART 13

13.) Even though employment in other occupa­
tions has also risen over the years, the rate of
growth in the professions and closely related oc­
cupations has been much faster than for all work­
ers taken together— for example, the professions
accounted for only 4 percent of all workers in
1900, but for 8 percent in 1950, and 11 percent
in 1958. Recently, the professions have become
the fastest growing o f all major occupational
groups. Between 1953 and 1958, employment of
professional workers rose 28 percent—a rate of
growth twice that for clerical workers, the second
fastest growing occupational group.
A major reason for the increase in the total
number o f workers in professional and related
occupations has been the development o f new pro­
fessional fields. In 1870, nearly 75 out of every
100 professional workers were in medicine, the
ministry, law, and teaching, compared with only




35

about 40 out of 100 today. Although these occupa­
tions have all grown consideTably since that time,
their growth has been slower than that o f many
newer professional fields. For example, in 1950,
the medical profession employed only 3 times as
many people as 80 years before, the ministry and
the legal profession each employed about 4 times
as many, and teaching about 10 times as many. On
the other hand, the number o f people in scientific,
engineering, and closely related professions was
nearly 100 times greater in 1950 than in 1870—a
growth which has both contributed to and re­
sulted from the rapid development o f science and
engineering during the past century. Other ma­
jor professions, not recognized as separate occupa­
tional fields in 1870, have also developed— for
example, social work, accounting, and personnel
work. The basic reasons for the development of
new professions are the extension of scientific
knowledge and the more complex organization of
society and o f work. The trend toward subdivi­
sion of professional fields into more and more
specialties is a continuing one, and many profes­
sions are still in the early stages o f development.
Along with the expansion in scientific and engi­
neering professions, there has been rapid growth
also in technical occupations. In the single dec­
ade 1940 to 1950, for example, employment of in­
dustrial technicians increased by 150 percent.
As scientific and technical work has become more
highly organized, particularly in the laboratories
and engineering departments of large firms and
in government agencies, more technical assistance
has been provided for the professional workers.
Similarly, large numbers of technicians and as­
sistants work in the health fields in order to free
the professional personnel for work requiring
more training.
The growth o f the professions has brought
with it a great increase in the number o f women
as well as o f men professional workers. In early
1959, 37 percent of all professional and related
workers were women, compared with 27 percent
in 1870. Women professional workers are still
concentrated in a few fields—above all, teaching
and nursing. However, in fields such as engi­
neering and the sciences, where there have been
personnel shortages in recent years, women have
been finding increasingly favorable employment
opportunities.

36

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Since the reasons for the growth of the profes­
sions are deeply rooted in our dynamic economy
and technology, there is every reason to look for­
ward to continued expansion in professional em­
ployment in future years. However, there will
naturally continue to be differences in the rate of
growth among professions, as is indicated in the
statements on most o f the major professions in
following chapters.
Educational Trends

The growth o f the professions has been accom­
panied by a great increase in the numbers of
young men and women graduating from college
— who are, o f course, the chief source of profes­
sionally trained workers. The proportion of
young people completing college rose from 21/2
percent in 1920 to 8 percent in 1940 and to 16 per­
cent in 1958, as shown in the inset in chart 14.
(The high level reached in 1950, is artificial, re­
flecting the large number of veterans who went
to college under the veterans’ education program
and who, in many cases, would have completed
college earlier if it had not been for the war.)
CHART 14




The recent rapid increase in the proportion o f
young people graduating from college reflects a
number o f basic social trends. Family incomes
are higher, and more people can afford to put off
going to work and to pay the costs o f education.
More families want a college education for their
children. Scholarships and loans are available
for more students; part-time work opportunities
are also available, particularly in times o f labor
shortages. Finally, a college education is becom­
ing necessary for an increasing proportion of jobs.
In the professions, which are continuing to grow
in size and importance, a college education has
largely supplanted on-the-job training as a way
o f preparing for professional employment. More­
over, employers are giving preference to collegeeducated workers for more and more administra­
tive, sales, and other nonprofessional positions.
Since these factors will probably continue to be
influential in the future, the proportion of
young people who graduate from college is ex­
pected to go on increasing for many years.
The college age population is also growing.
The number of people aged 18 to 21 dropped to a
low point of 8.5 million in 1953, as a result o f low
birth rates during the depression years of the
1930’s. Thereafter, the 18- to 21-year-old popula­
tion began to increase. By 1960, it will be 9.6
million, 13 percent higher than in 1953; by 1965,
12.2 million, 44 percent higher; and by 1970, 14.6
million, or 72 percent higher.
A ll this adds up to a great increase in college
graduations, assuming that the Nation’s colleges
and universities can build the classrooms, labora­
tories, dormitories, and other facilities and hire
the faculty members needed to provide for the
greatly increased numbers o f students. I f past
trends continue, it is likely that the number of
bachelor’s degrees awarded annually will more
than double the current figure by 1970. Projec­
tions prepared by the U.S. Office o f Education in­
dicate an increase from the 365,700 bachelor’s
degrees granted in 1958 to 437,000 in 1960, 567,000
in 1965, and 766,000 in 1970.
The number of students taking graduate train­
ing has also risen very rapidly during past dec­
ades, and will probably continue to mount in the
years ahead. Graduate education means, o f
course, continuing study in a university after one
has received the bachelor’s degree, which is usu-

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ally earned at the end o f 4 years of college. A
master’s degree is usually earned through 1 or 2
years o f study beyond the bachelor’s degree. To
earn the Ph. D. (doctor of philosophy) degree
usually requires 3 or more years beyond the
bachelor’s degree. As a rule, graduate study is
concentrated in the major subject field of the
student’s interest, whereas undergraduate study is
broader in content.
Chart 15 show’s the tremendous increase in
graduate degrees awarded since 1920 in all fields
taken together. The numbers of master’s and docCHART 15
NUMBER OF MASTER'S AND DOCTOR’S
DEGREES GRANTED

Thousands of Degrees

1890

1900

1910

u n it e d s t a t e s d e p a r t m e n t o f l a b o r

° ' L**0" " ‘ T '* ™ *

1920

1930

1940

1950

'5 8 '6 0 '6 5

Source: U.S. Department of Health. Education.
and Welfare. Office of Education.

tor’s degrees granted reached unprecedented
heights in the early 1950’s, following the record
number of bachelor’s degrees granted a few years
before. A fter a slight decline in the mid-1950’s,
master’s degrees rose to about 65,600 in 1958 and
are expected to exceed 100,000 in 1965, if past

37

trends continue. The number of doctorates
awarded in 1958 (8,950) may reach 15,000 by
1965. According to projections made by the
U.S. Office of Education, the number of master’s
degrees conferred may exceed 160,000 and doc­
torates may approximate 20,000 in 1970.
These projections obviously imply a great in­
crease in the supply o f personnel which will be
available for professional employment. Since
the demand for personnel is also expected to show
continued growth, there is promise of expanding
employment opportunities for the increasing
numbers o f college graduates. The anticipated
increases in college-trained personnel raise the
possibility, however, o f increasing competition
during the 1960’s for the better professional posi­
tions in at least some fields o f work, as indicated
in the statements on the various fields in follow­
ing chapters.
Young people interested in entering a profes­
sion should consider the trend toward requiring
more and more educational preparation for
professional positions, which is likely to be rein­
forced as more college-trained workers become
available. The extension o f educational require­
ments for professional work has been due basi­
cally to the growing complexity o f the various
fields o f science and other professions, which has
lengthened the period of education and on-the-job
training required for mastering the field. How­
ever, the increase in college graduations has also
contributed to the trend; as more workers with
graduate degrees become available, such degrees
become increasingly important in competing for
employment in the fields. It is believed that
these trends will continue—that employers will
require college education as a minimum qualifica­
tion for more and more different occupations or,
at least, will give preference to people with such
education; also that an increasing amount of
graduate education will be required by employers
or State boards of licensure in some occupations
for which college training is already a pre­
requisite.

Administrative and Related Occupations
People in administrative and managerial work
run the Nation’s businesses, large and small.
Their positions range from that o f proprietor of




a small business, such as a lunch counter or comer
grocery store, to that o f president o f a giant
corporation.

38

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Altogether, approximately 6.8 million people—
including about 1 million women— were working
as proprietors, managers, and officials (excluding
farmers and farm managers) in 1958. About
half o f all persons in this field were self-employed
—most often in retail stores. Salaried officials of
business firms made up the second largest group.
Several hundred thousand administrative work­
ers were also in Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies and in nonprofit organizations of
many kinds. In addition, at least y2 million
other workers—buyers, purchasing agents, credit
men, and many others—held jobs closely related
to administrative and managerial work.
Administrative and Managerial Occupations

Jobs in business management can be grouped
in several broad classes. A t the top are the gen­
eral administrators of large companies who make
plans, set broad policies, and have overall respon­
sibility for the operation o f the company or a
major segment o f its activities. Included in this
group are such high-ranking officials as presi­
dents, vice presidents, general managers, division
superintendents, and men with similar titles.
Below the top officials are the administrative
personnel—such as plant managers, comptrollers,
sales managers, purchasing agents, credit mana­
gers, and buyers in stores— who direct individual
departments or special phases of a firm’s opera­
tions. In very large corporations, officials in
charge o f these functions have great responsi­
bility and are often considered part of the top
management.
The duties and responsibilities o f the managers
o f small firms are obviously quite different from
those o f officials o f large corporations. In the
smallest businesses, the proprietor acts as his own
general manager, sales manager, buyer, and book­
keeper. He may supervise his workers directly
and deal directly with customers. In some types
of owner-operated businesses—for example,
neighborhood bakeries, shoe repair shops, and
small printing shops—knowledge o f the particu­
lar trade or technical process counts as much
towards success as does managerial ability.
Training for Administrative Occupations

Business administration has been known tra­
ditionally as a field in which men of outstanding




ability and energy could rise without the aid o f
a college education. This is still true to a con­
siderable extent, especially in small business.
Each year, thousands o f persons without college
training find opportunities to establish and man­
age their own business enterprises. Furthermore,
in large firms some outstanding employees who
are not college graduates continue to move up­
ward into executive jobs. However, advance­
ment to administrative positions is becoming
much more difficult for such individuals. To a
steadily increasing extent, companies are hiring
business administration majors or other college
graduates as executive trainees and filling admin­
istrative positions by promotion o f these trainees
or o f professional personnel such as engineers or
accountants. Even for college-trained employees,
promotion to administrative jobs normally re­
quires many years of experience, and only a few
outstanding individuals can hope to achieve top
level positions.
To prepare students for managerial jobs in in­
dustry, colleges and universities have set up spe­
cial courses o f study in business administration.
The number of students graduating from these
C H A R T 16

PROFESSIONAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

courses increased very rapidly following World
War I I (as shown in chart 16). The tremendous
flow o f veterans and other students into business
courses was reflected in the record number of
business and commerce graduates in 1950
(72,000). In 1958, after the W orld W ar I I vet­
erans’ education program had tapered off, there
were 51,000 graduates o f business and commercial
courses, nearly 3 times as many as before the war.
Business education is now second only to teacher
training as a field o f college education; graduates
with majors in business administration outnum­
ber those in such large fields as engineering, law,
and medicine.
In all probability, the number o f business ad­
ministration graduates will continue to rise, as the
total number of college graduates increases. It is
also likely that the emphasis on college training
in selecting personnel for executive positions in in­
dustry will increase further. However, there
will continue to be many opportunities for per­
sons without college training to establish and
manage their own small businesses.
Employment Trends

Administrative and managerial work is a grow­
ing field o f employment in the United States.
The proportion o f workers employed as proprie­
tors, managers, and officials showed a steady rise
in each decade from 1910 to 1950, increasing from
6.6 percent to 8.7 percent of the labor force
during the 40-year period.
The numbers o f proprietors and managers rose
sharply after the end o f W orld W ar II, as many
veterans opened their own businesses and com­
panies filled administrative positions which had
to be left vacant during the war because o f the
manpower shortage. A peak (6.4 million) was
reached in 1949, and in the next few years the
numbers o f proprietors and managers either
declined slightly or remained approximately the




39

same. However, since 1954, employment in this
broad occupational group has risen each year and,
in 1958, reached about 6.8 million—a new peak.
A marked expansion in business activity and
total nonagricultural employment is expected in
the United States over the long run. Some in­
crease in the number o f executive jobs will no
doubt accompany this general increase in employ­
ment. However, the gains in employment o f pro­
prietors and managers as a group will probably
be slow.
In salaried administrative positions, the main
source o f new job opportunities will be the need to
replace executives who retire from business or
die. In general, the top jobs will, o f course, be
filled by promotion o f workers already employed
in intermediate executive positions. However,
these promotions will open opportunities farther
down the ladder and will make room at the bot­
tom for new graduates to enter as trainees. In
view o f the large proportion o f executives in
high-ranking administrative and technical jobs in
industry who are in the upper-age brackets, a sub­
stantial percentage o f these executives will have
to be replaced during the next decade. Because o f
this situation, there are likely to be favorable
opportunities for well-qualified young men to en­
ter administrative work in the 1960 decade.
A number o f managerial jobs are discussed in
separate occupational reports in this Handbook.
Among these jobs are those o f hotel manager, res­
taurant manager, department store buyer, and
bank officer. Accountants and personnel workers
are examples o f occupational groups, important
in the management o f many types o f business en­
terprises, which offer opportunities for advance­
ment to high-level administrative jobs. Many
members of other professions, such as engineers,
chemists, and lawyers, also advance to administra­
tive positions in industry and government. (See
index for page references.)

T E A C H IN G
Teaching is the largest of all the professions.
More than iy 2 million men and women in the
United States are full-time teachers, and thou­
sands of others teach on a part-time basis. Many
scientists, physicians, accountants, and members
o f other professions teach one or more classes in
colleges and universities; similarly, large num­
bers of carpenters, mechanics, and other crafts­
men teach part time in vocational schools. Many
other people also teach on a part- or full-time
basis in adult education programs or in commer­
cial, industrial, or governmental training de­
partments.
No other profession offers so many employ­
ment opportunities to women as teaching; even
the large field o f nursing employs fewer than
half the number o f women engaged in teaching.
Women teachers far outnumber men in kinder­
garten and elementary schools. However, the
numbers o f men and women are about equal in
secondary (that is, junior and senior high)
schools, and men hold about three-fourths o f all
college and university teaching positions.
The number o f teachers needed by the Nation’s
schools depends chiefly, of course, on the number
of pupils enrolled. In the fall of 1958, the U.S.
Office o f Education estimated that 45 million
people—nearly one-fourth of the country’s popu­
lation— were enrolled in the Nation’s schools and
colleges. These enrollments (an all-time high)
were distributed among the schools and colleges
as follow s: 71 percent in the elementary grades;
20 percent in high schools; and 9 percent in uni­
versities, colleges, and other types o f educational
institutions. Some shifts in the relative numbers
o f students at different educational levels occur as
the age distribution of the school-age population
changes. For example, the high birth rates of
the 1940 decade brought unprecedented increases
in elementary school enrollments in the early
1950’s. By the mid-1950’s, the increased numbers
o f children were beginning to enter the high
schools, and toward the end of. the decade the
colleges were feeling the impact o f the high
birth rates.
40




In the future, enrollments above the elementary
school level are expected to increase at a greater
rate than the school- and college-age population,
because o f the persistent increase in the propor­
tion of young people attending high school and
college. For many years, nearly all children
6 through 13 years o f age have been enrolled in
school, but in the last 25 years there has been a
spectacular rise in the proportion of youths of
high school age (14 through 17 years) and col­
lege age (18 through 21 years) attending educa­
tional institutions. In 1930, only about half the
group 14-17 years o f age attended school; by
1958, nearly 90 percent of this group were en­
rolled. Similarly, the proportion o f the collegeage population in educational institutions in­
creased from about 12 percent in 1930 to more
than 35 percent in 1958. It is likely that these
trends will continue, particularly at the college
level.
On the basis o f population trends and a con­
servative allowance for further growth in the
proportion o f high school graduates entering
college, a remarkable rise is anticipated in college
and university enrollment during the 1960 decade,
as shown in chart 17. Sizable increases are ex­
pected also in enrollments in elementary and sec­
ondary schools.
To staff the new classrooms that must be pro­
vided for the rising numbers o f students, tens o f
thousands of additional teachers will be needed
annually. Moreover, still greater numbers will
be required, particularly in elementary and high
schools, to replace those who leave the profession.
(See chart 18.) Although precise information is
not available on the number leaving the field each
year, it is conservatively estimated that at least
8 percent o f the elementary and 5 percent of the
high school teachers leave teaching annually.
Using these replacement rates and assuming 1
teacher for each 30 new pupils in the lower grades
and 1 for each 25 pupils in high schools, an
estimate has been made o f the annual demand for
new teachers for elementary and secondary
grades. The number o f new teachers needed

41

TEACHING
C H A R T 17

COLLEGE ENROLLMENT WILL RISE BY 2 1/2 MILLION
IN THE 1960’S

in colleges and universities— are discussed in
the following statements. A statement on the
specialized field o f school counseling is also in­
cluded in the chapter.

P r o je c t io n * o f R e g u la r S e s s io n E n r o l l m e n t *

Millions of Students
7

C H A R T 18
GREATEST DEMAND FOR NEW TEACHERS
WILL CONTINUE TO BE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

W om en
I

1 M en

Thousands of N w Teachers N d d
e
ee e

msM

*No net increase in te in positions
ach g
e p cte in country a a w
xe d
s
hole.
Source: U.S. D
epartm
ent of H
ealth. Education,
and W
elfare. Office of Education.

Thousands of N w Teachers N e e
e
edd

'Projections a of March 1 5
s
96

through grade 12 is expected to average about
155.000 (100,000 in elementary and more than
50.000 in secondary schools) each year during
the first half of the 1960 decade. Estimates o f the
demand for teachers at each educational level—
in elementary and secondary schools, and also

1955

'56

’57

58

'59

’6 0

'61

62

'63

64

1965

Source:Bureau of Labor Statistics
B se o enrollm projections (a of February
a d n
ent
s
1 5 ) by th U.S. Departm
97
e
ent of H
ealth. Educa­
tion, and W
elfare. Office of Education.

K in d e rg a rten a n d E le m e n ta ry School Teach ers
(D.O.T. 0-30.02 and .11)

Nature of Work

Elementary school teaching is the largest field
of professional employment for women and is
also a growing field for men. In 1958-59, more
than 800,000 classroom teachers (87 percent wom­
en) and several thousand principals and super­
visors were employed in public elementary
schools. In addition, more than 100,000 teachers
were employed in parochial and other private
schools.
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
usually work with one group of pupils during
the entire school day, teaching a wide range of




subjects and supervising various activities such
as lunch and play periods. However, in some
school systems, teachers in the upper elementary
grades may instruct several groups of pupils in
one or two subjects. Many school systems also
employ special teachers o f art, music, physical
education, industrial arts, and homemaking.
Teachers in schools with only a few students,
especially in rural areas, may have to teach all
subjects in more than one grade.
Although the time spent in the classroom is
usually less than the average working day in
many other occupations, the elementary school
teacher must spend additional time each day on

42

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Elementary school teaching is the largest field of professional
employment for women.

such activities as planning work, preparing in­
structional materials, developing tests, checking
papers, making out reports, and keeping records.
Conferences with parents, meetings with school
supervisors, and other professional activities also
frequently occur after classroom hours.
Where Employed

Elementary school teachers are employed in
all cities, towns, villages, and in many rural areas.
About half the teachers in grades 1 through 8
and nearly all the kindergarten teachers are in
towns and cities with more than 2,500 popula­
tion. Although the number of 1-room schools is
decreasing as a result of reorganization of school
districts, about 35,000 teachers are still employed
in these schools, which are located chiefly in the
North Central States—particularly in Iowa,
Nebraska, and Wisconsin.
Training and Other Qualifications

A ll States require every teacher in the public
schools to hold a certificate. The amount of edu­
cation required for certification differs consider­
ably from State to State, but there is a steady
trend toward uniform educational standards. In
1957, 35 States, the District of Columbia, and
Hawaii issued regular teaching certificates only




to persons with at least 4 years of approved col­
lege preparation, and 10 other States and Alaska
required at least 2 years. The other three States
gave regular certificates for teaching in the public
elementary schools to persons with 1 year or less
of preparation on the college level. Some school
systems have educational requirements higher
than those necessary for State certification.
The only States which, as o f 1957, required
teachers in parochial and other private elemen­
tary schools to hold 'certificates were Alabama,
Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska,
New Hampshire, New Mexico, South Dakota, and
Vermont. But since most States refuse to ac­
credit schools unless the teachers are properly
certificated, administrators o f all types o f schools
generally prefer to employ teachers meeting State
certification requirements.
In nearly all States, certificates are issued by
State departments of education on the basis of
transcripts o f credits and recommendations from
approved colleges and universities. Certificates
may be issued to teachers from other States if
the necessary programs have been completed at
accredited colleges. Under certain conditions
most States also issue provisional certificates
which enable a partially prepared teacher to begin
teaching, but which specify the provisions for
annual renewal until regular certification require­
ments have been met.
Every State and many individual school sys­
tems have certain additional requirements for
public school teaching. For example, 21 States
require a health certificate, 28 require United
States citizenship or at least filing of the first
papers, and 26 require an oath o f allegiance.
The prospective teacher should find out about the
exact requirements o f the area in which he plans
to work by writing to the State department of
education or to the superintendents o f local
systems.
Most institutions of higher education offer
teacher preparation. In a 4-year teacher-prepa­
ration curriculum, the prospective elementary
school teacher'spends roughly one-fourth o f the
time in learning about children, the place o f the
school in the community, and materials and
methods of instruction—including practice teach­
ing in an actual school situation; the remainder
o f the time is devoted to studying cultural and

TEACHING

related subjects common in the usual liberal arts
program. Kindergarten and elementary school
teachers seldom have a subject-matter major;
most o f them receive degrees in education.
Inexperienced teachers often start in rural
schools or small town systems. Opportunities
for advancement may come through annual salary
increases in the same school system; transferring
to a system with a higher salary schedule which
recognizes experience gained in another school
system; by appointment to a supervisory, ad­
ministrative or specialized position; or by obtain­
ing additional preparation.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands o f openings for elementary
school teachers will occur each year throughout
the 1960’s. Enrollments in kindergarten and
grades 1 through 8 will continue to rise during
this period but possibly at a slower rate than in
the preceding decade. As a result, the demand
for teachers to staff new kindergarten and ele­
mentary school classrooms is expected to level off
in the 1960’s. Nevertheless, an average of more
than 10,000 new teachers will be needed annually
to take care of the increase in enrollment. In
addition, an even greater number will be required
as replacements. (See chart 18.) Each year, a
large number o f young women enter the teaching
profession and then withdraw because of mar­
riage or for other reasons. In addition, many
teachers will reach retirement age. It is conserv­
atively estimated that more than 85,000 elemen­
tary school teachers will be needed annually to
replace those who will leave in the 1960’s.
Altogether, the need for new elementary and
kindergarten teachers will average about 100,000
each year during the 1960 decade unless replace­
ment rates are reduced considerably. This fig­
ure does not provide for additional teachers
needed to bring about improvements, such as
lower pupil-teacher ratios in overcrowded class­
rooms, replacement of persons not meeting regu­
lar requirements, and extension o f kindergarten
facilities to all areas.
The number o f students preparing for elemen­
tary school positions each year is likely to con­
tinue to fall short o f the demand for new teach­
ers. For example, in 1958, only 52,000 students




43

qualified for such teaching positions whereas
twice that number were needed. Some expansion
in the supply o f qualified teachers is expected,
owing to the increasing college-age population
and the offering o f special incentives such as those
provided by the National Defense Education Act
o f 1958 under which financial aid is given to stu­
dents who desire to enter the teaching profession.
As in the past decade, the deficiency in the supply
o f elementary school teachers will probably con­
tinue to be met by issuing short-term emergency
certificates to teachers not meeting regular re­
quirements, by increasing the size o f classes, by
the reentry o f former teachers into the profession,
and by attracting qualified personnel from other
fields of work. Shortages will tend to be great­
est in areas where teachers’ salaries are lowest or
where there are many better paying employment
opportunities in other fields.
Barriers to the employment o f certain groups,
particularly married women and older men and
women, are being continually reduced, largely
because o f teacher shortages. Members o f these
groups tend to find opportunities especially good
in their own small communities, where lower
salaries or isolated living conditions may not
attract nonresidents.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average (median) salary for beginning
public elementary school teachers was $3,450 in
1956-57, according to a survey made by the U.S.
Office o f Education. The average salary for men
in their first year o f teaching was $200 higher
than for beginning women teachers. Inexperi­
enced teachers in large urban schools earned
$3,700, on the average; in small urban schools,
$3,400; and in rural schools, $2,700.
Teachers usually receive salary increases based
on length o f experience and additional education.
According to the National Education Associa­
tion, the estimated average salary for all class­
room teachers in public elementary schools—in­
cluding teachers with various amounts o f experi­
ence—was $4,575 in 1958-59. Teachers in 3
States (Alaska, New York, and California) had
salaries averaging more than $5,500; in 10 States
(7 in the South and Nebraska, North Dakota and

44

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

South Dakota), salaries averaged less than
$3,500.
Teachers’ salaries are usually lowest in rural
schools and highest in large city systems, where
educational and experience requirements are
likely to be high. According to a survey by the
National Education Association, median salaries
for elementary school teachers and principals in
public urban schools in 1956-57 were as follow s:
Population of city

2 ,5 0 0 -4 ,9 9 9 ____________
5 ,0 0 0 -9 ,9 9 9 ____________
10 ,000 -2 9,9 99_________
3 0 ,000 -9 9,9 99_________
100,000-499,999_______
500,000 and over.

Principals
C la ssro o m ----------------------------teachers
Teaching
Supervising

1 $3,
i 4,
» 4,
4,
4,
5,

946
086
317
454
442
579

$4,
4,
4,
5,
4,
2 8,

395
590
927
174
905
557

$5,
5,
6,
6,
7,
9,

500
851
185
538
007
101

1 Includes kindergarten teachers.
2 Assistant principals only.

Most schools are in session about 9 months a
year. Teachers therefore have a long vacation

period, during which they often work at other
jobs or take summer courses for professional
growth or to help them obtain advancement and
salary increases.
Some form of retirement, often under the Gov­
ernment social security plan, is provided for most
teachers. Nearly all school systems have some
provision for sick leave and an increasing num­
ber grant other types o f leave with pay.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools and requirements in a
particular State is available from the State
department of education at the State capital.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W , Washington 6, D.C.

S e co n d a ry School Teach ers
(D.O.T. 0-31.01 and .10)

Nature of Work

Secondary school teachers—those employed in
junior and senior high schools—usually specialize
in a subject-matter field such as English, history,
mathematics, or science. They teach several
classes every day either in their main field only or
in that field and one or two related subjects.
The most frequent combinations are English and
history or other social science subjects; mathe­
matics and general science; and chemistry and
biology or general science. Teachers in fields
such as home economics, agriculture, commercial
subjects, driver education, music, art, and indus­
trial arts are less likely to have classes in other
subjects.
Besides giving classroom instruction from 20
to 30 hours each week, secondary school teach­
ers also develop and plan teaching materials, de­
velop and correct tests, keep records, make out
reports, consult with parents, and perform other
duties. Many o f them supervise student extra­
class activities—sometimes after regular school
hours. Maintenance of good relations with par­
ents, the community, and fellow teachers is an
important aspect of their jobs.




More than 500,000 teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in the Nation’s public
and private secondary schools in 1958-59 to teach
about 9 million pupils. Nearly half the class­
room teachers in public secondary schools were
men; the proportion of women was somewhat
higher in private schools. Men outnumber
women in supervisory and administrative posi­
tions in both public and private schools.
Where Employed

Secondary school teachers are employed in
4-year high schools (grades 9-12), 3-year junior
high schools (grades 7-9), 3-year senior high
schools (grades 10-12), and 6-year combined
junior-senior high schools (grades 7-12). About
40 percent o f the public secondary schools, en­
rolling about 25 percent o f the pupils, are o f the
4-year type; the majority of these are in towns
with a population o f less than 2,500. Most of
the separately organized junior high schools are
in large cities.
Although nearly half of all secondary school
teachers are employed in cities of 10,000 or more

45

TEACHING

population, about one-third teach in communities
with less than 2,500 population.
Training and Other Qualifications

A certificate is required by each State for public
secondary school teaching. The usual educa­
tional requirement for a State certificate is a
bachelor’s degree, with the equivalent o f at least
one-half year of education courses, including stu­
dent teaching, and specialization in one or more
subjects commonly taught in secondary schools.
The States of Arizona, California, and New York,
and the District o f Columbia grant secondary
certificates only to people with a year of grad­
uate work. Many school systems, especially in
large cities, have requirements beyond those
needed for State certification. Some systems
require additional educational preparation, suc­
cessful teaching experience, or special personal
qualifications.
College students preparing for secondary school
teaching usually devote from one-fourth to onethird of the 4-year course to their major, which
may be a single subject or a group o f related
subjects. About one-fifth o f the time is spent
in education courses—learning about youth, com­
munity life, and materials and methods o f in­
struction. The remaining time is devoted to
general or liberal education. Satisfactory teacherpreparation curriculums are offered by universi­
ties with schools of education, by colleges with
strong education departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by teachers’
colleges.
A l t h o u g h certification requirements vary
among the States, the person who is well pre­
pared for secondary school teaching in one State
usually has little trouble meeting requirements inanother State. A well-qualified teacher can
ordinarily obtain temporary certification in a
State while he prepares to meet any unusual
requirements.
Qualified secondary school teachers may ad­
vance to positions as supervisors, assistant princi­
pals, principals, superintendents, or other admin­
istrative officers. A t least 1 year of professional
education beyond the first college degree and sev­
eral years of successful classroom teaching experi­
ence are usually required for most supervisory and




administrative positions. A few experienced
teachers are assigned to positions as part- or full­
time guidance counselors, visiting teachers who
instruct in the pupils’ homes, or instructors o f
handicapped or other special groups. Additional
preparation is usually required for these assign­
ments.
Employment Outlook

A growing number o f secondary school teachers
will be needed during the 1960’s, when enroll­
ments will expand rapidly as a result of the
high birth rates following W orld W ar II. The
great increase in population reaching high school
age, combined with the trend for a growing
proportion of young people to enter and gradu­
ate from high school, will result in a demand
for more than 20,000 teachers each year, on the
average, to handle new classes during the early
1960’s. The number o f teachers needed in the
last half of the decade may be only slightly
lower. Throughout the 10-year period, vacan­
cies created by turnover will exceed the number
o f new positions. (See chart 18.) Altogether
the number of secondary school teachers that

Teachers of physics are in short supply.

46

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

must be recruited each year is likely to average
more than 50,000 during the 1960’s.
The supply o f persons who will be available to
fill teaching positions each year is difficult to
estimate. Although most of the new teachers are
drawn directly from college graduating classes,
some positions are filled each year by the reentry
o f former teachers (many o f whom dropped out
to care for their young children), by persons not
meeting certification requirements, and by fully
qualified persons who have been in other types
o f employment. Not all qualified new graduates
seek teaching positions. For example, in 1957,
when approximately 65,000 college graduates met
certification requirements for secondary school
teaching, more than a third, by the fall o f that
year, were employed in positions other than
teaching, were engaged in graduate study, were
in the military service, had become homemakers,
or were otherwise lost to the teaching field. Sim­
ilarly, a large proportion o f the 72,000 potential
teachers graduated in 1958 were not available for
teaching positions. Should this situation persist
throughout the 1960 decade, well-qualified candi­
dates seeking to enter secondary school teaching
will find employment opportunities in most geo­
graphic areas and in most subject fields.
Employment opportunities for teachers are ex­
pected to continue to be best in science, mathe­
matics, industrial arts, and other subject fields
where the demand in private industry is also
great, unless there is a considerable decline in
economic activity with resulting unemployment.
Under conditions o f economic decline, teaching
would, as has been demonstrated historically, be­
come a highly competitive field and certification
requirements would probably be raised.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average (median) salary for beginning
public secondary school teachers was $3,600 in
1956-57, according to a survey made by the U.S.
Office of Education. Men teachers earned $3,700
and women earned $3,450, on the average. Inex­
perienced teachers in large urban schools earned
$3,800, on the average; in small urban schools,
$3,700; and in rural schools, $3,400.
The estimated average annual salary for all
classroom teachers in public secondary schools—
including both experienced and beginning teach­




ers—was about $5,110 in 1958-59, according to
the National Education Association. In a few
Southern States, their average salary was less
than $3,500. In Alaska, New York, and Cali­
fornia, it was more than $6,000.
Junior high school teachers frequently receive
somewhat lower salaries than high school teachers
in the same school system; however, the trend is
toward equalizing salaries o f teachers with the
same educational preparation regardless o f grade
taught and regardless o f sex. Teachers o f voca­
tional education, physical education, and other
special subjects often receive higher salaries for
their work than do other teachers in the same
school. Under the salary schedules in effect in
most school systems, teachers in all subject fields
receive regular salary increases as they gain ex­
perience and additional education.
Salaries o f teachers are usually lower in towns
and small cities than in larger cities, but educa­
tional and experience requirements in large city
school systems are likely to be higher. On the
average, salaries o f principals in the largest cities,
where administrative responsibilities are great,
are much higher than in towns and small cities.
According to a survey by the National Education
Association, median salaries for classroom teach­
ers and principals in public urban secondary
schools in 1956-57 were as follow s:
Classroom teachers
P op ula tion o f city

2,500-4,999________
5.000- 9,999______
10.000- 29,999____
30.000- 99,999____
100.000- 499,999__
500,000 and o v e r .._

P rincipals

J u n ior high H igh school J u n ior high H igh school

$3, 875 $4, 297 $4,967
4, 282 4, 496 5,963
4, 540 4, 866 6, 571
4,783 5, 135 7, 198
4,522 5,028
7,481
5,565
6,326
9,439

$5, 752
6, 304
7, 143
7,958
8, 232
10,788

It is not uncommon for teachers to add to their
incomes by teaching in summer school sessions,
working as camp and recreational counselors, or
doing other work. However, many teachers use
their vacation periods to work toward advanced
degrees or to take specialized courses. Some
teachers supplement their incomes during the
regular school year in various ways. F or ex­
ample, they may teach in adult education or
other evening classes, work part time in business
or industry, or write for publication.
Some form o f retirement, often under the Gov­
ernment social security plan, is provided for most
teachers. Nearly all school systems have some

47

TEACHING

provision for sick leave and an increasing number
grant other types o f leave with pay.
Where To Go for More Information

For information on Vocational Agriculture
Teachers see page 727.
Information on schools and requirements in a

particular State is available from the State de­
partment o f education at the State capital.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. N W , Washington 6, D.C.

College and University Teachers
(D.O.T. 0-11.50)

Nature of Work

More than 300,000 faculty members were em­
ployed in the Nation’s 1,900 colleges and universi­
ties in 1958. However, only about 175,000 o f
these staff members were engaged in full-time
teaching. A t least 100,000 were in part-time
teaching positions, especially in such fields as
medicine, law, and business administration. The
remainder o f the faculty members were employed
in administrative work, full-time research, library
work, or other educational activities. Men pre­
dominated in most college teaching fields and
held about 95 percent o f the positions in engi­
neering, the physical sciences, agriculture, law,
and philosophy. Only about one-fourth o f all
college and university teachers were women;
however, they were in the majority in nursing,
home economics, and library science.
College and university teachers instruct stu­
dents in specific subject fields. More than half o f
all faculty members teach courses in social science,
fine arts, English, physical science, education, or
engineering. In many 4-year institutions, the
usual teaching load is from 12 to 15 hours a
week. Associate professors and full professors—
who usually teach the more advanced courses in
a subject field and advise students studying for
graduate degrees—may spend only 6 or 8 hours
a week in actual classroom work. On the other
hand, beginning college teachers (including in­
structors and some assistant professors) may
spend 20 hours or more each week teaching
classes. Those with heavy teaching schedules
usually have two or three sections in the same
subject so that separate preparation is not re­
quired for each class.




Besides teaching classes, college teachers spend
a considerable amount o f time preparing tests and
other materials for classroom use, checking and
grading student work, and keeping up to date
with developments in their specialties. Many
faculty members carry on research projects, write
for publication, take part in college administra­
tion, or lecture to civic and professional groups.
Some professors act as consultants to business,
industrial, scientific, or government organizations.
Where Employed

More than half o f all faculty members are em­
ployed by universities. The next largest group
(about 20 percent) is in liberal arts colleges.
Between 5 and 10 percent are employed by teach­
ers’ colleges, and roughly the same proportion
are on the faculties o f community (junior) col­
leges. The remaining small group (less than 5
percent) is in technological, theological, and other
professional schools.
Some States have many more colleges and uni­
versities than others, owing primarily to differ­
ences in the size o f the population. For example,
some Western States have less than 10 colleges
and only a few hundred faculty members. On
the other hand, a few States with the largest
populations each have more than 100 institutions
and more than 10,000 faculty members. About
half o f all college and university teachers are
employed in the following eight States, in each
o f which college enrollments exceeded 100,000
in 1958: New York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Massachusetts, Texas, Ohio, and Michi­
gan.

48

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training and Other Qualifications

To qualify for most beginning positions in
college teaching, applicants must have at least
the master’s degree; and for many such posi­
tions they must have completed all requirements
for the doctorate except the dissertation. The
doctor’s degree is often, but not always, required
for promotion or appointment to positions above
the rank o f instructor. In general, the doctorate
is most important for teaching positions in psy­
chology, biological sciences, physical sciences,
social sciences, philosophy, and religion; it is
least likely to be a requirement in fields such as
health and physical education, fine arts, engi­
neering, business and commerce, and home eco­
nomics. Teaching in public junior colleges in a
number o f States, including California, Illinois,
Florida, New Jersey, and Michigan, is dependent
upon State certification which usually requires
the master’s degree and completion of certain
types o f courses in education.
To enter college teaching one must be a special­
ist in some subject field. However, undergraduate
courses in the humanities, social sciences, and
natural sciences, and the mastery of at least one
foreign language are an important part o f the
educational background needed for teaching. In­
tensive instruction in the selected field o f speciali­
zation is given in graduate school. During grad­
uate work, outstanding students may be employed
as part-time assistants to aid in teaching under­
graduates. Such work affords valuable experi­
ence for the prospective teacher. Some colleges
offer other means, such as informal seminars or
meetings, by which the graduate students can
develop teaching competence. A good many
beginning college teachers—especially those in
education departments— have had some experi­
ence in high school or other types of teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and universities recognize
four academic ranks: Instructor, assistant pro­
fessor, associate professor, and full professor.
Few institutions grant tenure (full status as a
member o f the staff on a continuing basis) or
give advancement to instructors with less than
3 years of service. Assistant and associate pro­
fessorships are generally attained only after ex­
tensive graduate training or experience. To ad­
vance to the rank o f full professor usually re­
quires from 10 to 15 years o f successful college




teaching experience, as well as the doctor’s de­
gree. Outstanding achievement, generally through
research or publications, often hastens advance­
ment.
Employment Outlook

Openings for new entrants to college teaching
will be numerous in the early 1960’s and will
increase greatly during the latter part o f the
decade. Opportunities will be best for those
with doctoral degrees and those who have com­
pleted all requirements for the doctorate except
the dissertation. Nevertheless, there will be many
employment opportunities for new entrants with
only the master’s degree, particularly in junior
colleges.
A great increase in college enrollment is in
prospect. The number o f young people in the 18to 21-year-age group will rise by 5 million during
the 1960’s. A t the same time, it is likely that the
extension of college education to a higher pro­
portion o f young people will continue—owing to
such factors as rising family income, greater
demand for college-trained personnel, and the
increasing number and proportion o f the popula­
tion who finish high school and are, therefore,
eligible to enroll in college. The anticipated in­
crease in the number o f community colleges and
schools offering evening classes, as well as the
greater availability o f scholarships and other
student financial aids, will also tend to make it
possible for more young people to attend college.
Assuming a moderate increase in the proportion
o f the 18-21 year-olds attending college (less than
1-percent increase each year) and assuming that
training facilities will be available, the number
o f students in 1970 will be double the 1958 enroll­
ment. To handle this increase in enrollments, an
average o f about 15,000 additional full-time teach­
ers will be needed annually in the early 1960’s
and more than 20,000 each year during the late
1960’s.
Besides the new teachers needed to take care
of expanding enrollments, an average o f at least
10,000 is likely to be required annually in the
1960’s to replace persons who will retire, die, or
otherwise leave the profession. Tho number leav­
ing teaching each year to enter other types o f
employment will depend primarily on the level

49

TEACHING

o f business activity and on conditions in the aca­
demic profession itself.
The supply o f new college teachers comes large­
ly from students receiving graduate degrees. The
U.S. Office o f Education estimates that the num­
ber o f doctorates conferred during the 1960 decade
will average about 15,000 a year and that the
number o f master’s degrees will average close to
110.000 annually. It is impossible, however, to
predict the proportion o f graduates who will enter
teaching. In 1957, when the demand was prob­
ably for about 20,000 new teachers, more than
70.000 persons received graduate degrees; never­
theless, shortages o f teaching personnel were re­
ported in several fields, particularly in the physi­
cal sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Some
increase in the supply o f college teachers is antici­
pated because o f Federal legislation enacted in
1958, which will make more fellowships available
to graduate students interested in college teach­
ing as a career. Nevertheless, it is likely that the
number o f well-qualified persons available for
teaching positions will continue to be insuffi­
cient to meet the demand in many subject fields
throughout the 1960’s. (See index for page num­
bers o f separate statements on each profession.)
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average (median) salaries o f full-time college
teachers employed on a 9-month basis during the
academic year 1957-58 were $4,562 for instructors,
$5,595 for assistant professors, $6,568 for asso­
ciate professors, and $8,072 for professors, accord­
ing to a National Education Association survey.
Salaries for most instructors were between $3,600
and $5,600 for 9 months o f full-time teaching;
most assistant professors earned between $4,400
and $6,800; associate professors $5,000 to $8,200;
and professors $5,800 to $11,400.
Salaries o f teachers tend to be lowest in com­
munity colleges, small liberal arts colleges, and
women’s colleges; they are highest in State uni­
versities, technological institutes, and large pri­
vately controlled universities. According to a
survey made by the American Association o f
University Professors, average salaries in 1957-58
for teaching personnel in selected privately con­
trolled institutions in New England and the
Middle Atlantic States were as follow s:
506397 0 — 59-------5




3
6
5
5

women’s colleges_____________________________
small institutions_____________________________
medium-size institutions_____________________
large institutions_____________________________

$6,
7,
7,
8,

650
320
550
120

Faculty members who teach the year round
receive higher salaries than those who are em­
ployed for the academic year only. Moreover,
teachers in professional schools (medicine, den­
tistry, etc.) and graduate schools generally receive
higher salaries than teachers in undergraduate
colleges.
Many faculty members have some professional
income in addition to their regular salaries. The
chief source o f supplementary income is other
teaching (often in summer sessions) not a part
of the teacher’s regular duties. Consulting work
is a major source o f extra income, particularly
for teachers o f engineering and physical sciences.
A few teachers have considerable income from
lecturing and from royalties on publications.
Those who have achieved professional recognition
are the most likely to be offered opportunities to
supplement their regular salaries.
Retirement plans differ considerably by institu­
tion, but an increasing number o f colleges and
universities are participating in the Government
social security program, often as an accompani­
ment to plans o f their own. The greatest number
of institutions have set 65 years as the retirement
age, though nearly as many stipulate 70 years.
In any case, most institutions permit exceptions
to the age limit.
Most colleges and universities provide sabbati­
cal leaves o f absence—typically, 1 year’s leave
with half salary or a half year’s leave at full
salary after several years o f employment; other
types of leave for advanced study; life, sickness,
and accident insurance; reduced tuition charges
for children of faculty members and other
benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on college teaching as a career is
available from :
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office o f Education, Washington 25, D.C.
American Association of University Professors,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

50

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Professional societies in the various subject
fields will generally provide information on teach­
ing requirements and employment opportunities
in their particular fields. Names and addresses of
societies are given in the statements on specific
professions. (See index for page numbers.)
Additional information on employment condi­
tions for college and university teachers and a
discussion o f the preparation needed to enter
teaching are given in the pamphlet, College

Teaching as a Career, available from the Ameri­
can Council on Education, 1785 Massachusetts
Ave. NW., Washington 6, D. C.
Detailed information on salaries o f faculty
members in public and private institutions is con­
tained in Circular No. 549, Higher Education,
Planning and Management Data, 1958-59, U.S.
Office o f Education. Available from the Superin­
tendent o f Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price $1.

School Counselors
(D.O.T. 0-36.40)

Nature of Work

The job o f the school counselor is to help pupils
make realistic plans for school and work and to
assist them in carrying out those plans and solv­
ing their personal problems. Besides counseling
individual pupils, counselors supervise student
group discussions and consult with classroom
teachers, school administrators, parents, and oth­
ers regarding the guidance of pupils. Many work
only part time as counselors; they generally have
teaching or administrative responsibilities as well.
The personal interview is the basic technique
used by counselors to help students understand
their interests and abilities and make appropriate
plans. Counselors frequently use psychological
and other tests which they or a psychometrist (a
specialist who measures speed and precision of
mental processes) may give with the assistance
o f other faculty members. They also collect and
keep on file other information, such as previous
school records and medical reports, to help them
understand each pupil. They may work with psy­
chologists, medical personnel, community agen­
cies, and employers, as well as with school
personnel.
Counselors in junior and senior high schools
help students decide on a field of work, arrange
for courses which fit in with their plans, and
select college or other type of advanced training,
in addition to handling problems related to school
and social adjustments. They may also assist
students in finding part-time work while in school
or full-time employment after leaving school. To
aid pupils in making career plans, counselors may




maintain libraries o f occupational materials, ar­
range for educational movies, plan and conduct
career day programs, and arrange trips to fac­
tories and colleges. Many o f them make followup
studies of recent graduates or dropouts and co­
operate in surveys o f job opportunities in the
community.
In elementary schools, counselors work with
classroom teachers, helping them to understand
and meet the needs o f the individual children in
their classes. These counselors also confer with
parents and spend considerable time working
directly with children referred for counseling
services by teachers, principals, parents, and
agencies. The methods used in counseling young
children are often necessarily different from those
used for older pupils. Special tests and play
activity are among the techniques used in the
lower grades.
Many counselors in both elementary and second­
ary schools teach some regular classes and may
perform a variety o f other duties such as super­
vising school clubs or other extra-class activities
(sometimes after regular school hours). In many
schools, they do their own recordkeeping and
other paper work; however, an increasing num­
ber of schools are providing clerical assistance.
Where Employed

According to a 1956 survey, approximately
44,000 people were engaged in counseling in the
Nation’s public schools. Included were 10,000 who
devoted full time to counseling activities, 8,000
who spent half or more of their time (but less

TEACHING

than full time) in counseling, and 26,000 who
spent less than half time in counseling. Nearly
three out of four o f these counselors were em­
ployed in junior and senior high schools. Almost
half of the counselors in public secondary schools
were men; the proportion o f women was much
higher in elementary schools.
There is great variation among States and
among city school systems within a State in the
emphasis placed on counseling and the employ­
ment o f specially trained counselors. In general,
large schools in urban areas are more likely to
employ specialized counselors than are smaller
schools in rural areas.

51

most important in selecting counselors: (a) per­
sonality factors, such as emotional stability and
maturity, (b) successful teaching experience be­
fore entry into counseling, and (c) graduate
study in guidance.
An experienced counselor may advance to a
position as head of the guidance department of a
large school or director o f guidance with the
county or city board o f education. Related fields
o f employment for persons with guidance train­
ing include student personnel work in colleges,
work in public or private vocational guidance
centers, or industry personnel work.
Employment Outlook

Training and Other Qualifications

A ll school counselors must have State teaching
certificates. In addition, as o f mid-1958, 29 States
and the District o f Columbia required special cer­
tificates for school counseling. Special certifica­
tion was provided for but was optional in seven
other States. Counselor certification requirements
in most States include a master’s degree or its
equivalent in counselor education as well as sev­
eral years o f teaching experience. A t least 1 year
o f work experience other than teaching is a
requirement in about half the States providing
for certification.
College students preparing to be school coun­
selors usually follow the regular curriculum for
teacher education on the undergraduate level; in
addition, courses in psychology and sociology are
desirable. Most employers prefer that counselors
have teaching experience before or while studying
for the advanced degree in guidance. In some
school systems, teachers who have completed half
o f the required courses for a master’s degree may
counsel under supervision while studying addi­
tional subjects. Among the subjects usually re­
quired are those dealing with the counseling proc­
ess, understanding the individual, and educational
and occupational information. Supervised prac­
tice in guidance is included in many training
courses. Some knowledge o f statistics is neces­
sary for interpreting tests.
It is especially important for counselors to be
well adjusted, even tempered, and able to inspire
the confidence o f students. In a recent survey,
school principals given a list o f qualifications
indicated that they considered the following items




Employment o f school counselors, which has
risen rapidly since W orld W ar II, is expected to
increase through the early 1960’s. The shortage
of qualified counseling personnel appeared, in
1958, to be the major factor limiting the expan­
sion o f employment.
In the next few years, the number of openings
for counselors is expected to rise both as a result
of the expansion of existing counseling activities
and the introduction o f counseling services in
schools that do not now offer them. Estimates
made by public school principals in 1956 indicated
that about 75,000 persons might be engaged, full
time or part time, in counseling by 1960-61—
roughly two-thirds more than 5 years earlier.
Guidance programs in elementary schools may
expand at a rate greater than in secondary
schools. Estimates made by principals o f elemen­
tary schools in 1956 suggested an increase o f as
much as 18,000 by 1960 in the number o f staff
members doing some counseling work. Principals
also looked forward to having relatively more
counselors who would devote full time to counsel­
ing activities. Schools will be assisted in strength­
ening their counseling activities by Federal legis­
lation (National Defense Education Act) enacted
in 1958. This provides for financial aid to States
to assist in the training o f counselors and in estab­
lishing guidance programs.
In the long run, the extension o f guidance serv­
ices, the continuing rise in school enrollments, and
the replacement o f counselors who leave the field
should provide an increasing number o f openings
for qualified workers. However, employment op­
portunities in particular areas will depend upon

52

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

such factors as the wealth o f the community and
the opinion o f school administrators and the
general public concerning the need for such serv­
ices. Although school principals appear desirous
o f establishing better guidance programs, the
problem o f financing these services is often a
difficult one. In recent years, however, budget
allocations for counseling activities have been
growing and this trend is expected to continue.
There is a growing awareness o f the value of
guidance services in helping to solve problems
pertaining to juvenile delinquency, school drop­
outs, occupational choice, and job dissatisfaction.
Moreover, the importance of identifying and
counseling talented students, especially in critical
occupational areas such as science and engineer­
ing, is focusing attention on the role o f the school
counselor.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many school counselors have annual earnings
somewhat higher than those o f classroom teachers
with similar educational preparation and experi­
ence. (See statements on elementary and second­
ary school teachers.) Some counselors work 1 or
2 months more each year than classroom teachers.
Furthermore, some school systems pay counselors
an additional amount which is not dependent on
the length of their work year.
In most school systems, counselors receive
regular salary increases as they gain additional
counseling experience and education. Directors




and supervisors o f guidance in urban school dis­
tricts of 10,000 to 30,000 population had median
(average) salaries of about $5,600 in 1956-57;
those in smaller districts made somewhat less and
those in large districts made much more, on the
average. A few counselors supplement their in­
come by writing textbooks or acting as consult­
ants for private or public counseling centers,
government agencies, or private industry.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on specific certification require­
ments for counselors and institutions offering
guidance training is available from the State de­
partment of education at each State capital. In­
formation on certification requirements is also
contained in the following publication: Guidance
Workers Certification Requirements, U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, Bulletin No. 22, 1957. Available
from Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D.C. Price 25 cents.
Information on counselor training, under the
National Defense Education Act, and on other
provisions o f the act pertaining to State and local
guidance programs is available from the U.S. De­
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington 25, D.C.
General information on the occupation of
school counselor may be obtained from :
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington 9, D.C.

H E A L T H SER V IC E O C C U P A T IO N S
Nearly everyone knows something about what
doctors, dentists, and pharmacists do. Many
people also have some first-hand knowledge of
the duties o f nurses, attendants, and other work­
ers who take care of patients in hospitals. Less
well known but likewise of great importance to
the public health are the large number o f people
employed behind the scenes in other health service
occupations such as laboratory or X -ray techni­
cian. Altogether, nearly two million people were
employed in the health field in 1955.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and dentists
make up the largest of the professional health
occupations; in 1955, numbers in these occupa­
tions ranged from about 100,000 dentists to more
than 425,000 nurses. Among the smaller profes­
sions are those o f the dietitian, optometrist, chiro­
practor, veterinarian, and osteopathic physician.
Other health service workers, whose jobs gener­
ally require less training, include technicians of
various types, as well as practical nurses, hospital
attendants, and nursing aids. (See p. 269.)
Workers in the health field are employed in
many kinds o f places including hospitals, clinics,
laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes, indus­
trial plants, private offices, and patients’ homes.
Those employed in health-related occupations are
concentrated in the heavily populated and
wealthy sections o f the Nation and in big cities,
but there are some in every village and town.
The health occupations are a major source of
employment for women. Nursing, the largest of
the major health service occupations, is second
only to teaching as a field o f professional employ­
ment for women. More than 9 out o f 10 registered
nurses are women; this is true also o f practical
nurses and dietitians. Women account for some­




what more than half the employed hospital at­
tendants and medical and dental technicians.
Men predominate in most o f the professional
health occupations and account for at least 90
percent of all dentists, optometists, physicians,
veterinarians, and pharmacists. These professions
provide numerous opportunities for independent
practice.
Health occupations offer employment opportu­
nities for people at all levels of education. For
example, in order to practice as a physician, den­
tist, or pharmacist, it is necessary to complete
several years of preprofessional and professional
college-level education and pass a State licensing
examination. Less formal education—in many
cases, high school plus 1 or 2 years o f technical
training—is needed to become a medical labora­
tory or other technician in the health field. Many
health service occupations, including those o f the
practical nurse and hospital attendant, can usu­
ally be entered with still less training.
Employment in the health fields has been in­
creasing and is expected to continue to grow. The
country’s expanding population and the rising
health consciousness o f the general public will be
reflected in a growing demand for medical, den­
tal, nursing, and other health services. In addi­
tion, such factors as the extension o f hospitaliza­
tion and other medical insurance plans, the rapid
expansion o f expenditures for medical research,
and continued provision o f health care for veter­
ans and members o f the Armed Forces and their
families point toward the need for additional
health personnel. Moreover, many new workers
will be needed each year to replace those who
retire, die, or—particularly in the case o f women
—leave the field for other reasons. Thus, there
will be many opportunities for employment in
the health occupations over the next decade.
53

54

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Registered Professional Nurses*
(D.O.T. 0-33)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Registered professional nurses furnish nursing
services to patients, either by giving direct nurs­
ing care or by supervising allied nursing person­
nel. As the persons with primary responsibility
for carrying out physicians’ instructions and with
independent nursing duties, professional nurses
are important members o f the medical health
team. Generally, their main concerns are: Care
o f the sick and injured, prevention o f illness, and
promotion o f good health. They perform such
tasks as administering medications and treat­
ments prescribed by a physician; observing, eval­
uating, and recording symptoms, reactions, and
progress o f patients; assisting in patient educa­
tion and rehabilitation; improving the physical
and emotional environment o f patients; and in­
structing auxiliary nursing workers or students.
The 460,000 professional nurses employed at the
beginning o f 1958 made up the largest group of
health workers; more than 50,000 o f them were
working part time. Nurses may be located almost
anywhere in the country, since virtually all com­
munities maintain some health facilities and serv­
ices. About 98 percent of all nurses are women,
although an increasing number o f men are enter­
ing the profession.
In the nursing field, there are several distinct
groups o f professional nurses specializing in a
particular type o f patient care and treatment.
The largest group of professional nurses (about
63 percent o f the total) are hospital nurses, who
are concerned mainly with the care and welfare
of patients in hospitals and related institutions.
Most are general duty nurses, who usually per­
form the more skilled bedside services, such as
caring for a patient after an operation, assisting
with blood transfusions and intravenous feeding,
and giving medications. General duty nurses
often assign to auxiliary workers other duties
requiring less extensive training. Some hospital
nurses are engaged primarily in administrative or
supervisory work. Others specialize in a certain
type o f service, such as caring for mothers and
•Prepared by the W om en’ s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




new babies or assisting physicians in the delivery
room or in the operating room.
Private duty nurses (about 15 percent o f all
professional nurses) are employed directly by
patients or their families to give individual nurs­
ing care, usually when constant attention is need­
ed. Private duty nurses work in hospitals and
patients’ homes, frequently in situations which
require a considerable degree o f independent
judgment, since a doctor may not be readily
available.
The third largest group o f professional nurses
are office nurses (approximately 8 percent o f the
total). Employed mainly by physicians in private
practice or in medical clinics and occasionally by
dentists, office nurses assist in the care o f patients;
may perform routine laboratory work; and may
also take care o f a doctor’s appointments, records,
and other officework.
Public health nurses (about 6 percent o f all
professional nurses) are employed by public and
private health agencies, including city and county
health departments, visiting nurse associations,
and schools. They may visit patients in their
homes or work in clinics, schools, or offices. Espe­
cially concerned with promoting good health and
preventing disease and injury, public health
nurses may work with community leaders, teach­
ers, parents, and physicians in planning or operat­
ing a community health education program. Their
diverse duties may include giving first-aid treat­
ment or periodic nursing care as prescribed by a
physician, helping prepare booklets and charts
on home health and sanitation, demonstrating
diet plans to groups o f patients, and providing
information on disease prevention to families o f
migrant workers.
Sometimes called industrial nurses, occupa­
tional health nurses (about 4 percent o f all
nurses) give nursing care principally to company
employees in business and industry. Interested
mainly in keeping employees well and on the job,
they may work alone (with a doctor on call) or
may be part o f a health service department in a
large organization. They give emergency treat­
ment for injuries and minor illnesses occurring

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

at work, arrange for further medical care when
necessary, and offer health counseling. They may
also assist with health examinations, keep health
records o f employees, and help develop programs
to prevent or control occupational diseases or
accidents.
To prepare nursing personnel, nurse educators
(3 percent o f all nurses) are employed by hospital
nursing schools, colleges and universities, public
vocational schools, and schools o f practical nurs­
ing. Their primary duty is to teach students the
principles and skills of nursing, both in the class­
room and at the bedside. They devise teaching
methods, help beginners put nursing theory into
practice, and recommend facilities and materials
needed in training.
Nurses are also engaged in numerous other
specialties as, for example, performing research
and analysis o f nursing services and serving as
executives o f professional organizations or on
State boards o f nursing. Branches o f the military
service employ professional nurses as commis­
sioned officers, and there are some nurses working
overseas for social, religious, and welfare agencies
or for the Federal Government.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Three types o f training programs, namely di­
ploma programs, baccalaureate degree programs,
and associate degree programs, offer the prepara­
tion required for professional nursing. Tradi­
tional diploma programs are conducted by hos­
pital schools and last 3 years. The programs
leading to a baccalaureate degree require 4 years
o f study in a college or university. The newer
associate degree programs being introduced into
an increasing number o f junior and community
colleges last approximately 2 years. In the fall of
1958, there were 1,164 programs o f these three
types in the United States and they had enrolled
113,518 students. Among these, there were 92,419
diploma students (81 percent), 19,195 baccalau­
reate students (IT percent), and 1,904 associate
degree students (2 percent).
Graduation from high school is required for
admission to all schools of nursing. Many schools
accept only graduates in the upper third or half
o f their class. Demonstrated competence in sci­
ence and mathematics may also be required. Some
schools admit only persons between IT and 35




55

years o f age, but in most schools the upper-age
limit has been relaxed.
In both hospital and collegiate schools, nursing
preparation includes classroom work and clinical
experience (actual nursing practice). The timing
and location o f these vary, o f course, in different
schools. Generally, the first few months, known
as the preclinical period, are spent in the class­
room—learning the fundamentals o f such subjects
as anatomy, physiology, microbiology, nutrition,
psychology, and basic nursing care. Thereafter,
nursing students are assigned to various hospital
services and learn how to care for different types
of patients. They work, for example, with medi­
cal and surgical patients, nursing mothers and
children, orthopedic patients, and those with eye,
ear, nose, and throat problems. In many colle­
giate schools, nursing students are assigned also
to public health nursing agencies and learn how
to care for patients in their homes.
In all good schools o f nursing, general educa­
tion is combined with nursing education. Usually,
baccalaureate degree programs require that at
least half the training time be spent on general
academic subjects and the remaining time on
nursing courses and practice. The associate degree
programs, which also emphasize general educa­
tion, include consolidated nursing courses and a
minimum amount of repetitive nursing practice.
Tuition and other educational expenses vary
widely among schools o f nursing, ranging from
no cost to $2,000 a year. In some hospital schools,
services performed for the hospital by the nursing
students compensate for all or part o f the training
costs. Colleges and universities, on the other
hand, charge their regular fees for a full college
curriculum. Tuition at junior and community col­
leges is usually less expensive than in other col­
leges and universities. Scholarships and loans for
nursing education are available from nursing
schools, colleges and universities, various civic
and professional organizations, women’s clubs,
and business groups. One foundation recently
granted scholarship assistance to candidates for
baccalaureate degrees in nursing at 32 colleges
and universities. For graduate work in nursing
administration, supervision, and education, as
well as for public health work, financial assistance
is available through a Federal program adminis­
tered by the United States Public Health Service,
as well as from many private and public agencies.

56

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

A license is needed to practice professional
nursing within each State. To obtain a license, a
nurse must have graduated from a school ap­
proved by the State board o f nursing and must
pass a State board examination. A ll State boards
use a uniform examination prepared by the Na­
tional League for Nursing, but each State estab­
lishes its own passing grade. A nurse may be
registered in more than one State either by
examination or by endorsement o f a license issued
by another State. Examination and endorsement
fees range from $5 to $30, depending on the State.
In addition to the necessary technical knowl­
edge and skills, persons interested in a nursing
career should have a genuine interest in people
and a desire to care for the sick or injured. Also
important are such, personal qualifications as
dependability, patience, cooperativeness, human
understanding, and sympathy. In addition, nurses
need good mental and physical stamina and an
aptitude for chemistry and other natural sciences.
Young people who wish to obtain some first­
hand information about the basic requirements
and opportunities of nursing, are advised to join
one o f the 2,300 Future Nurse Clubs, which have
been organized in about one-tenth o f the high
schools o f the country.
Hospital nursing usually begins with general
duty work, from which nurses may advance to
progressively more responsible supervisory posi­
tions, such as head nurse, supervisor, assistant
director, and director o f nursing services. Op­
portunities for advancement are open to all grad­
uate nurses, but those with baccalaureate degrees
usually progress the most rapidly. A baccalau­
reate degree is usually desired for supervisory
and administrative work, as well as for the fields
o f nursing education and public health nursing.
Because o f the shortage of degree nurses, how­
ever, some public health agencies are hiring staff
nurses who have not received training in public
health nursing, but advancement in these agencies
is usually possible only with a baccalaureate or
advanced degree. In other nursing fields, ad­
vanced education in a functional specialty (ad­
ministration or teaching) or in a clinical specialty
(pediatrics, obstetrics, psychiatry, or surgical
nursing) also increases nurses’ chances for pro­
motion to more specialized and responsible posi­
tions.




Employment Outlook

The demand for professionally trained nurses
continues to be high— as it has been since the
beginning of W orld W ar II. Spokesmen for the
principal nursing organizations estimated that
about 70,000 additional nurses were needed in
1956. This shortage prevailed despite the fact
that employment of nurses was at an all-time high
and the 1940 ratio of 216 nurses per 100,000
population had increased to 268 in 1958. Prin­
cipal factors which have helped to create the
rising demand for nurses are: The improved
economic status of the population, the widespread
participation in hospital and medical insurance
plans, the expansion in medical services resulting
from new medical techniques and drugs, the in­
creased interest in prevention o f illness and re­
habilitation of the handicapped, and the increased
proportions of young and old persons in the
population.
In addition to the need for nurses to fill new
positions, many job vacancies stem from replace­
ment requirements. It has been estimated that
about 5 percent of all professional nurses leave
the field each year, primarily because of marriage
or family responsibilities. A t present, not enough
students are entering the nursing field to satisfy
growth and replacement needs. The 42,014 stu­
dent admissions in 1957-58 filled schools of nurs­
ing to about 90 percent capacity. But o f those
who enter nursing schools, about one-third usually
drop out before graduation. During the school
year 1957-58, a total o f 30,410 nurses were grad­
uated from basic training programs. In addition,
2,072 graduate nurses obtained a bachelor’s degree
and 997 a master’s degree. I f 4 percent o f collegeage girls continue to choose a nursing career, it
has been estimated that by 1965 the number
admitted to nursing schools will approximate
70,000 and the number of graduates, almost 40,000.
The anticipated demand for these nurses is based
on the continuing effect of the factors which have
produced the present shortage and on our rising
population, as well as congressional extension in
1958 of funds for hospital construction.
In the forecast of excellent job opportunities
for professional nurses— prevailing both in the
1960’s and over the long run—emphasis is placed
on the need for well-qualified nurses, particularly
those with graduate preparation in education

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

and administration. A special conference called
in 1958 by the U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare for leaders in the nursing
field reported that 58,850 teachers, administrators,
and supervisors would be needed in 1959. Fac­
tors underlying the rising demand for welltrained nursing specialists are the rapid advances
in medical drugs, techniques, and equipment; the
need for more supervisors and administrators
to utilize the assistance of auxiliary personnel in
providing satisfactory nursing services; and the
establishment of additional faculty positions in
new or expanding programs for training pro­
fessional and practical nurses. The associate
degree programs, which have a high ratio of
teachers to students, further increase the demand
for nurse educators. Net effect of these develop­
ments is that employment opportunities can be
expected to be good for all professional nurses
but advancement possibilities will favor those
with college training.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Minimum starting salaries of general duty
nurses employed by hospitals in 16 metropolitan
areas approximated from $55 to $70 a week in
1956-57, according to the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics. These earnings, received in most instances
for 40 hours o f work per week, may have been
raised since then in some areas. Weekly salaries
o f general duty nurses (including both beginning
and experienced nurses) were generally between
$60 and $80 during the same period. In compari­
son to general duty nurses, head nurses averaged
about 10 to 15 percent more and supervisors of
nurses and nursing instructors, about 20 to 80
percent more. Government hospitals usually paid
higher salaries than private hospitals in the same
area.
Private duty nurses in most States earned from
$14 to $16 for a basic 8-hour day in 1957, ac­
cording to the American Nurses’ Association.
Average salaries of local public health nurses in
1958 were $4,801 in official (public) agencies and
$3,881 in nonofficial (private) agencies. A t the
same time, staff nurses employed by boards of
education averaged $4,854 a year. By region,
salaries were highest in the West, next highest
in the Midwest and North Atlantic States, and
lowest in the South. Office nurses, when surveyed
in June 1958, earned $3,600 a year on the average.




57

Occupational health (industrial) nurses aver­
aged from $76.50 a week in Boston to $93.50 in
Los Angeles-Long Beach in 19 metropolitan areas
surveyed by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics in
late 1957 and early 1958. Earnings of these
nurses had increased about 2 to 7 percent between
1955-56 and 1956-57 and about 3 to 7 percent
more by 1957-58. An American Nurses’ Associa­
tion survey of nursing education programs in­
dicated that nurse educators and administrators
had a median salary of $4,140 in 1956. The
median was $3,960 for teachers in hospital schools
and $4,600 for teachers in collegiate schools.
Starting salaries of professional nurses with a
bachelor’s degree varied with their age and previ­
ous nursing experience, according to a survey of
June 1957 women college graduates conducted by
the U.S. Department of Labor’s Women’s Bureau
in cooperation with the National Vocational
Guidance Association. Annual salaries of bac­
calaureate degree nurses 22 years o f age or under
(presumably on their first nursing job) averaged
$3,543 in the winter o f 1957-58. Nurses 23 years
of age or over (many o f whom had previous
nursing experience) averaged $4,057 a year. By
comparison, the average starting salary was $3,739
for all women graduates surveyed (71 percent of
whom were 22 years of age or under).
In the Federal civil service in 1958, the entrance
rate for professional nurses was $4,040 for grad­
uates o f a 3-year school or for graduates o f a
2-year school with 1 year of experience. Almost
half of all Federal Government nurses earned
from $4,490 to $5,390 a year, and salaries ranged
as high as $12,555 a year for nursing admin­
istrators. For nurses with 1 year o f graduate
training and 1 year o f experience in public health
nursing, the Federal starting salary was $4,980;
the majority o f public health nurses earned sal­
aries ranging from this amount to $6,885 a year.
Beginning salary in 1958 for nurse officers (second
lieutenants and ensigns) in military service and
also in the commissioned corps of the U.S. Public
Health Service was $4,063 (including rental and
subsistence payments).
Virtually all nurses receive extra pay for work
on evening or night shifts and at least 2 weeks of
paid vacation after 1 year of service. Most hos­
pital nurses in metropolitan areas receive from
5 to 11 paid holidays a year and also some form
of health and retirement benefit.

58

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

schools of nursing, Future Nurse Clubs, and
available scholarships may be obtained from :

Where To Go for More Information

Further information about professional nursing
as a career is available in a publication of the
U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau on
The Outlook for Women in Professional Nursing
Occupations. Bulletin No. 203-3, Revised 80 pp.
Washington, D.C., 1953. Price 30 cents.
Information on nursing education, approved

National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers,
10 Columbus Circle, New York 19, N.Y.

Information on salaries, working conditions,
and employment opportunities may be obtained
from :
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York 19, N.Y.

P h y sicia n s
(D.O.T. 0-26.10)

Nature of Work

Physicians diagnose diseases and treat people
who are ill or in poor health. In addition, they
are concerned with the prevention of disease and
the rehabilitation of the injured or ill. They
generally examine and treat patients in their own
offices and in hospitals, but also visit patients at
home when necessary. Some physicians combine
the practice of medicine with research or college
teaching. Others hold full-time research or teach­
ing positions, or perform administrative work in
hospitals, professional associations, and other or­
ganizations. A few are primarily engaged in
writing and editing medical books and magazines.
About half the physicians engaged in private
practice are general practitioners—often referred
to as “ family doctors” ; the others are specialists

Surgeon performing an operation with the aid of other medical
workers.




in one of the 32 fields recognized by the medical
profession. In recent years, there has been a
marked trend toward specialization. Among the
largest specialties are surgery, internal medicine,
pediatrics (medical care of children), pathology
(diagnosing changes in body tissues), obstetrics
(childbirth), gynecology (women’s diseases), psy­
chiatry (diseases and disorders of the mind),
radiology (use of X-ray, radium, and other radio­
active sources), ophthalmology (the eye and its
diseases), and otolaryngology (diseases o f the ear,
nose, and throat).
Where Employed

About 216,000 physicians were professionally
active in the United States in mid-1957. The
great majority— about 157,000— were engaged in
private practice. Approximately 24,000 were in­
terns or residents in hospitals, and another 17,000
held regular positions on hospital staffs. About
10,000 physicians were serving as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces, and more than 6,000
were employed in Federal Government agencies,
chiefly in the hospitals and clinics o f the Veterans
Administration and the Public Health Service.
The remainder were employed in private industry,
State and local health departments, medical
schools, research foundations, and professional
organizations.
In 1958, more than 40 percent of all physicians
were in the five States with the largest popula­
tion: New York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, and Ohio. In general, States in the
northeastern part of the country had the highest
ratio of physicians to population and the Southern
States had the lowest. As a rule, general prac­
titioners are much more widely distributed geo-

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

graphically than specialists, who are chiefly
concentrated in big cities.
Training and Other Requirements

A license to practice medicine is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license, a candidate must graduate
from an approved medical school, pass a licensing
examination, and—in 32 States and the District
of Columbia—serve a 1-year hospital internship.
(Although IT States still permit a physician to
be licensed immediately upon graduation from
medical school, it is universally recognized that
an internship is necessary for acceptance by the
profession, regardless of specific State require­
ments.) Twenty-one States and the District of
Columbia specify that applicants for medical
licenses must first pass an examination in the
basic sciences to become eligible for the medical
licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given by State
boards. The National Board of Medical Exam­
iners also gives an examination which is accepted
as a substitute for State examinations by most
States. Although physicians licensed in one State
can usually obtain a license to practice in another
without further examination, some States limit
this reciprocity.
A t least 8 years o f training beyond high school
is needed to become a physician—3 years of pre­
medical college study, 4 years o f professional
education in a medical school, and 1 year as a
hospital intern. Some medical schools require
applicants to have completed 4 years of college
education. Premedical study must be in an ap­
proved college and must include courses in Eng­
lish, physics, biology, and inorganic and organic
chemistry. In addition, students are encouraged
to acquire a broad general education by taking
courses in the humanities and the social sciences.
In 1958, there were 85 accredited schools in
which students could begin the study of medicine.
Eighty-two of these schools were fully approved
— T8 awarded the degree o f doctor o f medicine
(M.D.) to students completing the 4-year course
o f study; 4 offered 2-year courses in the basic
sciences to students who could then transfer to a
regular medical school for the last 2 years of
study. The three remaining schools (set up as
4-year institutions) had not yet graduated their




59

first class and were, therefore, only provisionally
approved.
The first 2 years o f medical training are devoted
to laboratory and classroom work in basic medical
sciences, such as anatomy, biochemistry, physi­
ology, pharmacology, microanatomy, and pathology. During the last 2 years, the student spends
most of his time working in hospitals and clinics
under the supervision of an experienced physician
and learns to take case histories, perform exam­
inations, and recognize diseases. Following com­
pletion o f the 4-year medical course, all students
serve at least a 1-year internship in a hospital.
To an increasing extent, young physicians are
taking further training beyond the 1-year intern­
ship. Those who plan to enter general practice
often serve an additional year as interns or
residents in a hospital. To become recognized as
a specialist, a physician must pass specialty board
examinations. To qualify for these examinations,
he must have spent from 2 to 4 years— depending
on the specialty— in advanced hospital training
as a resident, followed by 2 or more years of
practice in the specialty. Doctors interested in
teaching and research may take graduate work
leading to the master’s or Ph. D. degree in a
field such as biochemistry or microbiology.
Every year, more young people apply to med­
ical schools than can be admitted. Despite the
expansion of training facilities, almost twice as
many students applied for admission in 1957 as
could be accepted. Nevertheless, medical schools
reported a need for a greater number of highly
qualified candidates. In selecting students, each
medical school establishes its own standards. As
a rule, considerable importance is attached to a
good scholastic record; to the amount o f pre­
medical education (nearly 80 percent o f the stu­
dents entering medical school in 1957 had com­
pleted 4 years of college) ; to the standing o f the
college where this premedical work was taken;
and to the score earned on the Medical College
Admission Test, which is taken by almost all
applicants. Consideration is given also to the
applicant’s character, personality, and leadership
qualities, as evidenced in personal interviews and
by extracurricular activities in college. In addi­
tion, many State-supported medical schools give
preference to residents o f their particular States.
A number of United States citizens— about
2,000 in 1957—study medicine abroad. In order

60

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

to increase their choice o f opportunities for ap­
pointment to internships or residencies in U.S.
hospitals, graduates o f foreign medical schools
(citizens of foreign countries as well as U.S.
citizens) should take the American Medical Qual­
ification Examination given by the Educational
Council for Foreign Medical Graduates. It is
likely that, beginning July 1, 1960, all new grad­
uates of foreign medical schools will have to be
certified by the Educational Council before they
are eligible for appointment as interns or res­
idents.
Personal qualifications needed for success in
this field include a strong desire to become a
doctor, above-average intelligence, and an in­
terest in science. In addition, the prospective
physician should possess good judgment, the abil­
ity to make decisions in emergency situations,
and emotional stability. Although some aspects
of the physician’s practice may appear to be
glamorous or dramatic, it should be borne in
mind that much of his professional experience
also involves dealing with human tragedy.
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices. New graduates entering
the Armed Forces are usually commissioned as
first lieutenants or lieutenants (j.g.) and, if they
make military service a career, can rise to the
higher ranks. Graduates of approved medical
schools are eligible for Federal Civil Service po­
sitions and for commissions in the U.S. Public
Health Service.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for physicians are expected to
continue to be excellent in the early 1960’s de­
spite an anticipated increase in the supply of
new practitioners. Many medical schools have
recently expanded their facilities and a few new
schools are in the early stages of operation. The
annual number of graduates is expected to rise
from about 6,900 in 1958 to more than 7,400 by
1965. Moreover, graduates of foreign medical
schools may continue to add to the supply—in
1957, over 1,500 foreign-trained physicians were
licensed in the United States. However, about
4,500 new doctors will be needed to replace the
physicians who retire or die each year. The rest
will be needed to keep pace with rising demands
for medical services.




The country’s expanding population, the ris­
ing health consciousness of the general public,
and the trend toward higher standards o f medi­
cal care point toward a steady increase in the
demand for physicians over the long run. E x­
tension of prepayment plans for medical care
and hospitalization, continued Government pro­
vision o f medical care for veterans and for mem­
bers of the Armed Forces and their families, and
the continuing growth in the fields of public
health, rehabilitation,- industrial medicine, and
mental health will bring about a need for more
doctors. Expanded medical research activities
will require more trained investigators; medical
schools will have openings for additional faculty
members; and the growing number of hospital
training programs will require more interns and
resident physicians.
The rising demand for physicians’ services
will be offset to some extent by advances in
medical science and more efficient use of medical
personnel. The introduction of new drugs and
medical techniques, the more extensive use o f as­
sistants trained in other health occupations, and
the increasing proportion of patients treated in
hospitals rather than at home will probably en­
able individual physicians to care for more pa­
tients. Improved roads and transportation fa­
cilities as well as the movement of people from
farms to urban areas will continue to decrease
the time needed to visit patients. In addition,
the growing tendency of doctors to work together
in groups is expected to result in a more effective
use o f the physician’s time. Nevertheless, popu­
lation expansion and the general rise in use of
medical services are expected to outweigh any
lessening in demand arising from other devel­
opments. For all these reasons, the outlook over
the long run is very bright for young people
who have proper qualifications and are able to
gain admittance to medical school.
Women physicians, who constitute about 6
percent of the profession, will continue to find
good opportunities as general practitioners and
as specialists in pediatrics, psychiatry, obstet­
rics, gynecology, internal medicine, and anesthe­
siology. In 1958, almost 6 percent of all medi­
cal school students were women. Only two
schools had no women in the freshman class;
one school accepted only women students.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as interns in 1957
earned, on the average, $155 a month in hospitals
affiliated with medical schools and $197 a month
in other hospitals. In many cases, interns also
received room, board, and other maintenance.
During the first year or two of independent prac­
tice, physicians may earn little more than the
minimum needed to pay expenses but, as a rule,
their earnings rise rapidly as their practice de­
velops.
According to a survey made by a private or­
ganization in mid-1955, the average (median)
income above business expenses of family physi­
cians was approximately $15,000. About onefifth of the family physicians had net incomes of
less than $10,000; nearly half netted between
$10,000 and $20,000; and one-third netted $20,000
or more.
In general, earnings of individual physicians
depend on such factors as size of community and
region of the country in which the practice is
located, the income level of the people cared for,
and the physician’s skill and personality as well

61

as length o f experience. As a rule, physicians
engaged in private practice earn more than those
in salaried positions, and specialists usually earn
considerably more than general practitioners.
Many physicians work long and irregular
hours. Most specialists work fewer hours each
week than general practitioners. As doctors
grow older, they tend to work shorter hours.
Many, however, continue in practice well beyond
70 years of age.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for li­
censure directly from the board o f medical ex­
aminers of that State. Lists o f approved pre­
medical and medical schools, as well as general
information on medicine as a career, may be
obtained from :
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals, Ameri­
can Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago 10, 111.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
2530 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111.

Pharmacists
(D.O.T. 0-25.10)

Nature of Work

Pharmacists’ duties include filling prescriptions
ordered by physicians and other medical practi­
tioners and storing and distributing medicines
and drugs, including narcotics. They also ad­
vise doctors and others on the uses and avail­
ability of drugs. Pharmacists must understand
the composition, manufacture, action, and effect
of drugs and be able to test them for purity and
strength.
However, compounding—the actual
mixing of ingredients to form powders, pills,
capsules, ointments, and solutions—is only a
small part of present-day pharmacists’ work.
Nowadays, many drugs are produced by manu­
facturers in the form used by the patient.
The amount of time pharmacists spend per­
forming strictly professional duties depends on
their place of employment. The work of many
pharmacists in retail drug stores involves a com­
bination of professional, sales, and managerial




functions. Besides dispensing drugs, these phar­
macists may hire and supervise salesclerks, ar­
range window displays, and purchase and sell
merchandise unrelated to drugs. Some retail
pharmacists, however, operate prescription phar­
macies which handle only drugs and medical
supplies. Pharmacists in hospitals fill prescrip­
tions and advise the medical staff on the selec­
tion and effects of drugs; they may also manu­
facture sterile solutions, purchase medical sup­
plies, teach in schools of nursing, and perform
administrative duties. Some pharmacists em­
ployed as medical-service representatives (detail
men) by drug manufacturers and wholesalers
inform doctors about new drugs and sell medi­
cines to other pharmacists. Others teach in col­
leges, perform research, supervise the manufac­
ture of pharmaceuticals, develop new drugs,
write for pharmaceutical journals, or do admin­
istrative work.

62

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training and Other Qualifications

Pharmacist measuring

ingredients called
prescription.

for by a

doctor's

Where Employed

About 101,000 of the 112,000 registered phar­
macists in the United States in early 1958 worked
in drugstores. H alf of these 101,000 pharmacists
owned their drugstores, alone or as members of
a partnership; the other half were salaried em­
ployees with no financial interest in the phar­
macies in which they worked. O f the remaining
11,000 pharmacists, the greatest number were
employed by drug manufacturers and wholesal­
ers and the next largest number worked for hos­
pitals. Approximately 600 were civilian em­
ployees of the Federal Government, working
chiefly in hospitals and clinics of the Veterans
Administration and the U.S. Public Health Serv­
ice. In addition, some served as pharmacists in
the Armed Forces, taught in colleges of phar­
macy, or worked for other employers such as
State and local government agencies.
Nearly every small town has at least one drug­
store with one or more pharmacists in attendance,
but most members of the profession tend to be
concentrated in or near big cities. About 40 per­
cent of the Nation’s pharmacists are in New
York, Pennsylvania, California, Illinois, and
Ohio.




A license to practice pharmacy is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. An ap­
plicant must be a graduate of an accredited phar­
macy college, pass a State Board examination
and, in most States, must also have 1 year of
practical experience under the supervision of a
registered pharmacist. In 11 States, part or all
of this experience must be acquired after gradu­
ation. A ll States except New York, California,
and Florida will grant a license without an ex­
amination to properly qualified pharmacists al­
ready licensed by another State.
In 1958, there were 75 accredited pharmacy
colleges in the United States. Many of these
were not filled to capacity and qualified appli­
cants could usually expect to be accepted. It
takes at least 4 years of study beyond high
school to graduate from a pharmacy college, and
a longer period of training is required by sev­
eral schools. Pharmacy colleges with a 4- or
5-year course admit students directly from high
school and provide all the education necessary
for graduation. Other pharmacy schools provide
only 3 years of professional instruction and re­
quire all entrants to have completed 1 or 2 years
of prepharmacy training in an accredited col­
lege. Prepharmacy training usually emphasizes
mathematics and basic sciences, such as chemis­
try and biology, but includes courses in the hu­
manities and social sciences. Beginning in April
1965, each accredited pharmacy college will is­
sue degrees only to those with 5 years of college
education, including at least 3 years in an ac­
credited pharmacy school. The first students
affected by this requirement will be those who
start their college training in 1960.
The bachelor’s degree awarded upon gradua­
tion from a pharmacy college is sufficient edu­
cational qualification for most positions in the
profession. However, the master’s or Ph. D. de­
gree in pharmacy or a related field, such as phar­
maceutical chemistry, pharmacology, pharma­
cognosy, or pharmacy administration, is usually
required for research work or college teaching.
Graduate training is also considered desirable for
pharmacists planning to work in hospitals. Those
interested in becoming hospital pharmacists can

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

sometimes secure 1- or 2-year internships which
combine graduate study and practical hospital
pharmacy experience.
Prospective pharmacy students should have a
good high school background in mathematics and
science. In addition, orderliness and a liking for
detail are desirable qualities for young people
entering the profession. For those planning to
become retail pharmacists, the ability to deal with
people and manage a business is of special im­
portance.
Most pharmacists begin as employees in re­
tail drugstores. After obtaining some experi­
ence, those with sufficient funds may open their
own pharmacies or buy established drugstores.
A pharmacist who gains experience in a chain
drugstore may advance to store manager and,
later, to a higher executive position within the
company.
Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates are expected to
find employment readily in the early 1960’s.
From 3,000 to 4,000 openings will arise each
year as pharmacists retire, die, or transfer out
of the profession. These openings, together with
the anticipated gradual increase in new positions
for pharmacists, are expected to provide enough
jobs to absorb each year’s graduates. Although
employers will generally be able to meet their
needs for pharmacists with the bachelor’s de­
gree, not enough people with graduate training
in pharmacy and related fields are likely to be
available for college teaching and laboratory re­
search positions.
In the long run, a moderate but steady in­
crease in employment of pharmacists is ex­
pected. The country’s expanding population—
especially the growing number of old people and
children— and the rising standard of medical
care point to an ever-increasing demand for phar­
macists’ services. The trend toward bigger drug­
stores is expected to continue, and some new
stores will be added, particularly in new resi­
dential areas or suburban shopping centers.
Also, in view of the trend toward shorter work­
ing hours, many drugstores will hire additional
pharmacists. Continued expansion in pharma­




63

ceutical manufacturing and research is expected
to provide more opportunities for pharmacists
not only in production and research but also in
distribution and sales positions. Employment in
hospitals will probably rise significantly with
the construction of additional facilities and the
more extensive use of pharmacists for hospital
work. In both the drug industry and hospitals,
the demand will be greatest for pharmacists with
graduate training.
Thus, many factors point toward continuous
growth in this profession. It should be borne
in mind, however, that employment of pharma­
cists is closely related to the prosperity o f the
retail drug industry which, in turn, depends on
the general level of economic activity.
Women, who represent about T percent of all
pharmacists, will continue to find their best op­
portunities in hospital pharmacies, prescription
pharmacies, and in laboratory work, although
some are employed in all branches of the profes­
sion. Women students are accepted by all col­
leges of pharmacy and, in 1958, constituted 12
percent of undergraduate enrollments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning pharmacists employed in drugstores
earned about $125 a week in 1958, according to
reports from cities in various parts of the coun­
try. Pharmacists who owned and operated drug­
stores generally made more than this; however,
their earnings, and also to a lesser extent those
of salaried pharmacists, are greatly affected by
the length of their workweek, the size and geo­
graphic location of the store, and many other
factors.
Beginning pharmacists employed in
hospitals and drug manufacturing firms gener­
ally earned from $4,500 to $6,000 a year. The
usual entrance salary for pharmacists in the Fed­
eral Civil Service was $4,980 in early 1959.
Retail pharmacists generally work more than
the standard 40-hour week. Drugstores are often
open in the evenings and on weekends and all
States require a registered pharmacist to be in
attendance at all times. Despite the trend to­
ward shorter hours, 45 or 48 hours is still often
the basic week for salaried retail pharmacists
and many work 50 or more hours a week. Self-

64

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employed pharmacists often work more hours
than those in salaried positions. Those who
teach or work for industry, Government agen­
cies, or hospitals have shorter workweeks.
Where To Go for More Information

Current requirements for licensure in a par­
ticular State may be obtained from the Board
of Pharmacy at the State capital.

Information on pharmacy as a career may be
obtained from :
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington 7, D.C.

Information on entrance requirements, curriculums, and scholarships is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy. A list of ac­
credited colleges may be obtained from :
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education,
77 West Washington St., Chicago 2, 111.

Dentists
(D.O.T. 0-13.10)

Nature of Work

Dentists locate and fill cavities in the teeth,
straighten crooked teeth, take X-rays of the
mouth, and treat gum diseases. Dentists also
extract teeth and substitute artificial dentures
especially designed to meet the needs of each
patient. In addition, they clean teeth and ex­
amine the mouth for diseases which may affect
a patient’s general health. Dentists spend most
of their time taking care of patients, but they
also may devote some time to laboratory work
which includes making dentures, inlays, and
other dental appliances. Many dentists, how­
ever— particularly those in large cities—send
most of their laboratory work to commercial
firms. Some dentists also employ dental hy­
gienists who clean the patient’s teeth.
Most dentists provide all types of dental care
and are regarded as general practitioners; only
about 4 percent are recognized as specialists.
Approximately half the specialists are ortho­
dontists, who straighten crooked teeth. The next
largest number, oral surgeons, perform opera­
tions on the mouth and jaws. The remainder
specialize in periodontology (treating the tis­
sues supporting the teeth), prosthodontics (mak­
ing artificial teeth or dentures), pedodontics
(children’s dentistry), oral pathology (diseases
of the mouth), and public health dentistry.
Only 3 out of every 100 dentists are prima­
rily employed in teaching, research, or other work
that does not involve “ chairside” practice. How­
ever, many dentists in private practice teach or
engage in research on a part-time basis.




Where Employed

Ninety percent of the 91,000 dentists profes­
sionally active in mid-1958 were in private prac­
tice. O f the remainder, about 6,000 served as
commissioned officers in the Armed Forces; 1,200
worked for the Federal Government—chiefly in
the hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Admin­
istration and the Public Health Service; and
about 1,800 held full-time positions in schools,
hospitals, or State and local health agencies.
Women dentists constituted only about 2 per­
cent of the profession.
Most dentists are located in big cities. They
are also concentrated in a few States to a greater

Dentist using X-ray pictures to explain dental problems to a
patient.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

extent than the population in general. In 1957,
4 States (New York, California, Pennsylvania,
and Illinois) had almost 40 percent of the den­
tists whereas 21 States had only 10 percent. The
region including Delaware, District of Colum­
bia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Penn­
sylvania, and West Virginia had the highest
ratio o f dentists to population, with 1 dentist
for every 1,434 persons in 1957. New England
had the second highest ratio and the Far West,
the third. At the other extreme was the South­
east with an average of only 1 dentist for every
2,988 residents in 1957.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice dentistry is required in
all States and the District o f Columbia. To
qualify for a license, a candidate must be a
graduate of an approved dental school and pass
a State Board examination. One State, Dela­
ware, also requires new graduates to serve 1 year
of hospital internship. Most State licenses per­
mit dentists to engage in both general and spe­
cialized practice. In nine States, however, a
dentist cannot call himself a “ specialist” unless
he has been licensed as such after passing a spe­
cial State examination.
In planning a career in dentistry, the student
should obtain information on requirements for
licensure in the State in which he hopes to prac­
tice. Educational and other requirements differ
somewhat among the States. Even though a
dentist holds a license in another State, few
States issue a license without further examina­
tion.
Two years of predental college work followed
by 4 years of professional training in a dental
school are the minimum educational qualifica­
tions for dentistry; 7 of the 46 dental schools
in operation in the United States in 1958 re­
quired 3 years of predental study. Predental
education must include at least one half-year
course in organic chemistry and a full-year course
in each of the follow ing: English, biology, phys­
ics, and inorganic chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2 years are usually
devoted to classroom instruction and laboratory
work in such basic sciences as anatomy, bacteriology, and pharmacology. The last 2 years are
spent chiefly in gaining experience with patients
506397 0 — 59-------6




65

in the school’s dental clinic. The degree o f Doc­
tor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) is awarded by
most dental colleges; the degree of Doctor of
Dental Medicine (D.D.M.) is conferred by a few
schools.
Dentists interested in research or teaching
often take graduate work in a basic science. To
become recognized as a certified specialist, a den­
tist must pass specialty board examinations. To
qualify for these examinations, he needs 2 or
3 years of graduate education and several years
of specialized experience. Graduate training
may be obtained at graduate schools of dentis­
try and also by serving an internship or resi­
dency at 1 of the 207 approved hospitals which
offer these programs.
Considerable competition exists for admittance
to dental schools. Despite the recent opening of
several new dental colleges, twice as many stu­
dents applied as could be admitted to the fresh­
man class in 1957. In selecting students, den­
tal schools give considerable weight to college
grades and amount of college education; over 75
percent of the students enrolled in 1957 had at
least 3 years of college education and more than
40 percent had bachelor’s degrees. In addition,
all dental schools participate in a nationwide
dental aptitude testing program, and scores
earned on these tests are taken into consideration
along with other information gathered about the
applicant through recommendations or inter­
views. Many State-supported dental schools also
give preference to residents of their particular
States.
The profession of dentistry requires both man­
ual skills and a high level of intelligence. The
dentist should have a good visual memory, ex­
cellent judgment of space and shape, delicacy of
touch, and a high degree of manual dexterity, as
well as the ability to master scientific subjects.
A liking for people and a good business sense are
helpful in achieving success as a practitioner.
The majority o f newly qualified dentists open
their own offices or purchase established practices.
Some start in practice with dentists who are al­
ready established in order to gain experience and
to save the money required to equip an office;
others may enter residency or internship train­
ing programs in an approved hospital. Den­
tists entering the Armed Forces are commis-

66

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

sioned as first lieutenants or lieutenants (j.g.)
and may progress to higher ranks. Graduates
o f recognized dental schools are eligible for Fed­
eral Civil Service positions and for commissions
in the U.S. Public Health Service.
Employment Outlook

The demand for dental services is likely to
increase faster in the early 1960’s than the sup­
ply of new dentists. Although the number of
dentists graduated each year is expected to in­
crease from about 3,100 in 1958 to an estimated
3,700 by 1965, about two-thirds of these new
graduates will be needed to replace those who
retire or die. To keep pace with anticipated
population expansion, many more graduates will
be needed each year. These additional dentists
cannot be trained unless there is a greater in­
crease in dental school facilities than was con­
templated in 1958.
A steady increase in the demand for dental
services is expected over the long run. Growing
awareness of the importance of obtaining regu­
lar dental care and the trend toward budget
payment and dental prepayment health plans,
as well as the growth in population, will cause a
continuing rise in the demand for practitioners.
Expanded dental research activities will require
more trained personnel; dental public health
programs will need qualified administrators; and
dental colleges will have openings for additional
faculty members. A number of dentists will
continue to serve in the Armed Forces. Although
better dental hygiene and fluoridation of com­
munity water supplies may prevent some tooth
and gum disorders, such measures—by preserving
teeth that might otherwise be extracted—may
tend to increase rather than decrease the demand
for dental care over the long run.
The introduction of new techniques, equipment,
and drugs as well as more extensive and effective
use of dental hygienists, assistants, and labora­
tory technicians will probably enable individual
dentists to care for more patients. Nevertheless,
population growth and the huge backlog of un­
met dental needs, coupled with the increasing
use of dental services, will more than offset de­
velopments which might decrease the need for
dentists.




Location is one o f the major factors in deter­
mining success of dentists who open their own
offices. For example, people who are well edu­
cated and well paid are most likely to visit den­
tists regularly. Also, a practice can be devel­
oped most quickly in small towns where the new
dentist can easily become known and where there
is less competition with established practitioners.
The income from practice in small towns, how­
ever, may eventually be less than that in larger
communities. The dentist planning to open an
office should, therefore, choose his location care­
fully and consider the number o f other dentists
in the area, as well as the size, income, and edu­
cational level of the population.
Earnings and Working Conditions

During the first year or two o f practice, den­
tists often earn little more than the minimum
needed to pay expenses, but their earnings rise
rapidly as their practice develops. In 1955, the
average income above expenses for all self-em­
ployed dentists was about $12,500 a year, com­
pared with $9,300 for all salaried dentists, accord­
ing to an American Dental Association survey.
Approximately 60 percent o f all dentists earned
between $7,000 and $17,000 annually; 20 percent
earned less than $7,000; and 20 percent earned
more than $17,000. Two percent o f all dentists
reported incomes of $30,000 or more. Specialists
generally earned considerably more than general
practitioners, with orthodontists reporting the
highest average incomes.
Dentists in the Far West and South had higher
average incomes than those in other regions of
the country. Dentists’ incomes tended to be
lowest in New England and the Middle Atlantic
States. Practitioners in medium-size cities (50,000 to 500,000 population) earned more, on the
average, than those in either larger or smaller
cities.
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week and
some dentists have evening hours. Although
dentists averaged about 43 hours’ work a week,
almost one-fourth of those surveyed in 1955 re­
ported they spent 50 or more hours a week in
the office. Many dentists work fewer hours as
they grow older, since the hours o f work are
usually determined by the dentist himself. For

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

this reason, a considerable number continue in
part-time practice beyond 65 years o f age.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licen­

67

sure directly from the board o f examiners of that
State. Lists o f State boards and o f accredited
dental schools, as well as information on dentistry
as a career, may be obtained from:
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education,
222 East Superior St., Chicago 11, 111.

M e d ica l X - R a y T e ch n icia n s*
(D.O.T. 0-50.04)

Nature of Work

Medical X -ray technicians operate several types
o f X-ray equipment that make visible on film
internal parts of the body which the physician
wishes to examine. X-ray machines are used
to detect the presence of foreign matter or injury
and to discover malformation or malfunctioning
of various parts of the human body. In addi­
tion, they may be used for the treatment o f cer­
tain diseases, including various cancers and tissue
infections. The detection of disease or injury by
means o f X-ray is called “ diagnostic” X-ray, and
treatment by X-ray is called “ therapeutic” X-ray.
Medical X -ray technicians work under the di­
rection of a radiologist, who is a physician
specializing in the use of X-rays, or under some
other doctor of medicine. To prepare for an
X-ray, technicians position the patient between
the X-ray tube and the film and apply a protec­
tive lead plate to body areas which are not to
be exposed to the rays. Where necessary, they
set up or adjust devices which prevent movement
by the patient. In taking X-rays (radiographs),
technicians determine the proper voltage, cur­
rent, and exposure time and regulate the controls
for obtaining films of high technical quality for
interpretation by the physician. Because they
are partly responsible for the care and safety of
patients undergoing radiation, technicians must
adjust and manipulate the equipment in such
a way as to minimize hazards of burns and
scattered radiation. They are also required to
clean their equipment and make minor repairs.
Technicians may assist a physician in fluor­
oscopy or other special types o f X-ray work by
preparing a prescribed X-ray “ opaque,” such as
barium salts, which the patient swallows in order
♦Prepared by the W omen’ s Bureau, U.'S. Department o f Labor.




to shade various parts of the anatomy to give
proper visibility for X-ray purposes. The actual
fluoroscopic process, however, is conducted by the
physician. In assisting in therapeutic work with
X-rays, radium, or cobalt (treating diseased and
affected areas of the body by exposure to X-ray
or radioactive metals), the technicians work
under the direct supervision of a radiologist.
Chief technicians, also under the direction of a
radiologist, may instruct interns, nurses, and
students in X-ray technique.
Some X-ray technicians working in small hos­
pitals may learn on the job to operate other
kinds of apparatus, in addition to those related
to radiological work. Equipment for diagnosing
heart disease or brain damage and that for de-

C O U R T E S Y O F N A T IO N A L I N S T IT U T E S O F H E A L T H

X-ray technician assistin radiologist d rin a special radiog
u g
graphic procedure.

68

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

termining1 basal metabolism, for example, are
among those most commonly found in combination
with the operation of X-ray apparatus.
Additional duties of technicians working in a
physician’s office or small laboratory may consist
o f processing X-ray film and keeping records of
services performed for each patient, but in larger
institutions such tasks are usually assigned to a
darkroom assistant or clerk.
A few X-ray technicians, called radioisotope
technicians, work in the new and expanding field
o f atomic medicine. Persons with background
other than X-ray, such as laboratory technicians,
have also been entering this field. These tech­
nicians help scientists conduct certain experi­
ments with the specially treated chemical elements
that trace the course of a food or chemical
through the body. The radioactive isotopes
(atoms that give off radiation) are also used to
help physicians diagnose and treat certain dis­
eases.
Although the duties of radioisotope technicians
have not yet been clearly defined, they generally
involve preparing dilutions of radioactive mate­
rial according to a prescribed formula, operating
the several types of equipment used to perform
the different tests and measurements, and making
the necessary calculations. Great care must be
taken to prevent excessive exposure to the radio­
active material. These technicians may also help
design or adapt apparatus and develop techniques.
In 1958, more than 60,000 persons were em­
ployed as medical X-ray technicians, o f whom
more than 21,500 were registered with the Amer­
ican Registry o f X -ray Technicians.
These
registered technicians are permitted to use the
letters R.T. (A R X T ) after their names, indicat­
ing that they have secured the prescribed train­
ing and experience and passed the required
examination. Women comprised about 70 per­
cent of these registered technicians in 1958 and,
probably, were a majority of all medical X-ray
technicians.
Where Employed

About a fourth of all medical X -ray technicians
were employed in hospitals in 1958. The re­
mainder worked in medical and research lab­
oratories, physicians’ offices and clinics, public
health facilities, companies’ employee-health pro­




grams, and military establishments. Most tech­
nicians work in large cities where medical
facilities and services are largely concentrated;
however, some will be found in smaller areas
with only one hospital or other medical facility.
In addition, the widespread use of the X -ray for
routine medical examinations in various health,
welfare, and industrial programs o f preventive
medicine has brought about the establishment of
small mobile X-ray teams.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The most widely known and accepted training
courses for X -ray technicians are those offered
by medical and hospital schools approved by the
Council of Medical Education and Hospitals of
the American Medical Association. O f the 517
approved schools in operation at the end of 1957,
slightly more than half offered a 24-month train­
ing program. Courses in the remaining schools
varied from 1 to 2 years; in four of these re­
maining schools, a 36-month curriculum was
available. A high school education was the. gen­
eral prerequisite for entrance. However, some
schools (22) required more than a high school
education for entrance; a few schools required
that applicants have as much as 2 years of col­
lege credits or that they be registered nurses.
Preference was generally given to applicants
between the ages o f 18 and 35 who were graduate
nurses or had completed some nurse training or
college science courses.
Some knowledge o f physics, chemistry, algebra,
geometry, and biology is considered helpful back­
ground for the technical course included in X-ray
technology. The X-ray technician’s curriculum
generally includes courses in X -ray physics,
anatomy and physiology, X-ray technique and
positioning, and film processing (darkroom pro­
cedure). A number of schools are also including
a course in X -ray therapy. The cost of training
in approved hospital schools, aside from main­
tenance expenses, is relatively low. Almost twothirds of these schools charged no tuition in 1958,
and most of the remainder charged modest tuition
fees ranging up to $150 for the complete pro­
gram. A few were more expensive, and some
charged the regular fees o f the affiliated uni­
versity. A majority of the schools paid their
students some sort of stipend.

H E A LTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Formal training in radioisotope techniques
has thus far been limited to a few institutions
throughout the country. The Oak Ridge Institute
of Nuclear Studies also offers both basic and
advanced specialized courses, and the Armed
Forces provide isotope training programs for
nurses and military personnel. Much of the in­
struction, however, has been made available only
“ on the job” in radioisotope departments of hos­
pitals and research centers.
Besides the approved hospital courses, one can
learn to operate X-ray equipment through train­
ing offered on the job, or through private schools
of medical and X-ray technology. Those who
receive only partial training or a minimum of
clinical practice, however, may have difficulty in
qualifying for X -ray jobs with a wide range of
assignments or responsibility.
To meet minimum requirements for registra­
tion with the American Registry of X -R ay Tech­
nicians, technicians must have had a high school
education or its equivalent and either 2 years of
training and experience under the direction of
a recognized radiologist, or 1 year under a rec­
ognized radiologist plus 2 additional years of
X-ray experience under the direction o f a doctor
o f medicine who uses X-ray equipment though he
does not specialize in radiology. Technicians
must also pass an examination given by the Reg­
istry. After July 1, 1960, only those with 2 years
of training and experience under a radiologist’s
supervision will be eligible for examination and
registration.
Since X-ray work is often performed on sick
or helpless patients, the technician should be a
sympathetic and patient person with a cheerful
disposition and a keen sense o f responsibility.
In addition to exercising considerable independent
judgment and initiative, the successful technician
pays close attention to detail and is deft in ma­
nipulating machinery. Above-average spatial
perceptiveness is also necessary.
Employment Outlook

A shortage of X-ray technicians was evident
.in 1958, especially in communities with small
hospitals. The shortage was due, in large part,
to the rising demand for technicians to staff
rapidly expanding hospital and medical pro­
grams. Also, the expansion of public health




69

programs and services and the growing interest
in preventive medicine have increased the number
o f opportunities in government employment.
During the past 20 years, there has been con­
siderable activity in the health field. Hospital
facilities have been continually expanding; sig­
nificant technological advances have occurred in
the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and in­
juries; and the expanded use of X -ray equipment
has been a part of this advance. Originally
confined to bone diagnosis and locating foreign
bodies, X-ray equipment is now used 'in such
fields as tuberculosis detection, examination of
teeth, and treatment of cancer and certain skin
diseases. While other methods are beginning to
replace X-rays, routine X-raying of large groups
is still being performed as part of a program for
disease prevention and control by health depart­
ments, tuberculosis hospitals, industrial estab­
lishments, and health associations in many parts
of the country. Many insurance companies now
include a chest X-ray as part o f the physical
examination required for an insurance policy.
All of these developments contribute to a growing
need for medical X -ray technicians.
The demand for X-ray technicians is expected
to continue well into the 1960’s. Many thousands
of technicians will be needed to fill new positions.
In addition, annual replacement needs will be
relatively high because of the large number of
women in the field, many o f whom can be ex­
pected to leave for marriage and family reasons.
The supply of well-trained personnel will prob­
ably be insufficient. As a result, many technicians
will be trained on the job in a limited number
of skills, and those with all-round abilities and
experience will have very good employment op­
portunities. In order to supplement their full­
time staff, employers will continue to offer
part-time work. Mature persons with recognized
training or experience also will have good job
prospects.
Authorities in the field believe that, in general,
technicians with a variety of skills and experience
have the best opportunities for promotion. Those
employed in large X-ray departments usually
have the chance to qualify for the job of chief
X-ray technician, or, perhaps, assistant to the
chief. They also may be able to advance in
their positions by qualifying to teach X-ray
techniques to students in training. Since the

70

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

number of such positions is fairly limited, how­
ever, versatility and ability to supervise or in­
struct others are very important skills for the
career-minded.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average salaries (excluding premium pay and
value of meals or other supplements) of X-ray
technicians working full time in hospitals in
1956-57 ranged from $59.00 to $82.50 a week for
men and from $53.50 to $76.00 for women, ac­
cording to a U.S. Department o f Labor survey
o f 16 metropolitan areas. Corresponding earn­
ings of chief technicians in 12 o f these cities
averaged from $83.00 to $106.00 a week for men
and from $64.50 to $95.00 for women. Nine out
o f ten medical X -ray technicians in the Federal
Civil Service in early 1957 were classified in
positions that paid, in 1959, from $3,755 to $5,390
a year.
Full-time technicians generally work 8 hours a
day, or 40 to 44 hours a week and may be “ on
call” for some night or emergency duty for which
they receive equal time off or additional com­
pensation. Most are covered by the vacation and
sick leave provisions o f the organizations which
employ them, and some receive free medical care
and private pension benefits.
Medical X -ray technicians work in sanitary

surroundings, and great care is exercised to pro­
tect them from radiation exposure. Potential
hazards are kept in check partly by frequent
blood counts and attention to diet, fresh air, and
sunshine; nevertheless, persons with a tendency
toward anemia are usually advised to avoid this
occupation. Other precautions that should be
rigidly observed include the use o f safety devices
such as individual instruments that measure radia­
tion (e.g., film badges and dosimeters), lead
aprons, rubber gloves, and other shieldings.
The physically rigorous demands of continuous
standing and lifting o f equipment and nonam­
bulatory patients call for persons o f good health
and stamina who can work speedily and ac­
curately often under conditions of stress.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about medical X-ray
technicians is given in the following publication:
The Outlook for Women as Medical X -ray Tech­
nicians. Women’s Bureau Bulletin 203-8, 1954.
Superintendent o f Documents, Washington 25,
D.C. Price 25 cents.
Information, particularly on registration and
approved hospital schools, may be obtained from :
The American Registry of X-Ray Technicians,
Metropolitan Building, Minneapolis 1, Minn.
The American Society of X-Ray Technicians,
16 14th St., Fond du Lac, Wis.

M e d ic a l T e ch n o lo g ists*
(D.O.T. 0-50.01)

Nature of Work

Medical technologists are all-round laboratory
workers who perform a variety of laboratory tests
that assist physicians in the detection, diagnosis,
and treatment of disease. In general, technol­
ogists make complex clinical examinations with
a minimum o f supervision. They are responsible
to a doctor o f medicine, usually a pathologist (a
physician who specializes in the nature and causes
o f disease). However, they may work under the
supervision of a medical scientist who is a spe­
cialist in a particular branch of clinical science,
such as hematology, serology, biochemistry, or
bacteriology. Other laboratory personnel, work*Prepared by the W om en’ s Bureau, U.'S. Departm ent o f Labor.




ing as technicians, assistants, or aids, perform
routine examinations or a limited number of tests
to assist the medical scientist, technologist, or
physician.
Technologists may take blood counts or type
and cross-match blood, make urinalyses, collect
other clinical samples, prepare vaccines and
serums, give biological skin tests, measure basal
metabolism, and analyze water, food products,
or other materials for bacteria. They also cali­
brate instruments and equipment, standardize so­
lutions, prepare tissue specimens for microscopic
examination, cultivate and identify bacteria and
observe their reactions to various antibiotics, pre­
pare slides of cells for cancer testing, analyze
stomach content and body fluids or other material,

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

71

ber of men have been entering this comparatively
new profession.
About two-thirds of all medical technologists
work in hospital laboratories. The remainder
work in laboratories of private physicians, public
health departments, medical departments of in­
dustrial plants, clinics, or research institutions or
in schools of medical technology, as instructors.
Most technologists work in large metropolitan
areas since this is where the largest medical fa­
cilities are located, but some will be found in less
populated areas wherever a hospital or medical
laboratory exists.
Training
Medical technologist u g m
sin
icroscope to exam slides (o
ine
r
possible cancer cells.

and make many other measurements and analyses.
Technologists must recognize unusual condi­
tions and make accurate findings based on correct
observations. Theoretical knowledge and sci­
entific competence are necessary for the solution
of difficult problems and analyses. In a small
laboratory especially, versatility is needed. In
a large establishment, on the other hand, each
technologist, although qualified to work in vari­
ous fields of medical laboratory science, usually
concentrates on only certain types of procedures.
Most medical technologists conduct tests or studies
in connection with examinations and treatment
of patients; some do research on new drugs or
on the improvement of laboratory techniques;
and some perform administrative duties as tech­
nical head o f a laboratory. Others teach or super­
vise technicians and helpers who either acquire
all their instruction on the job or have only
limited post-high-school training in science and
laboratory techniques.
Where Employed

In 1958, some 26,000 medical technologists were
registered with the Registry of Medical Tech­
nologists of the American Society of Clinical
Pathologists (A S C P ). This group, o f course,
did not account for all the employed technologists
since some are not registered. Women comprised
almost 90 percent of the registered medical tech­
nologists, but in recent years, an increasing num-




The most widely recognized medical technolo­
gists are those designated as Medical Technologists
(American Society of Clinical Pathologists)—
M.T. (A S C P ). This specific title may be used
only by those persons who pass the examination
for registration and certification given by the
Registry o f Medical Technologists of the Amer­
ican Society of Clinical Pathologists.
At present, the minimum training required
for a Medical Technologist (A S C P ) includes 2
years of accredited college work, with at least
one-third of the credits taken in biology and
chemistry, followed by 12 months of technical
training in a school of medical technology rec­
ognized by the Council on Medical Education
and Hospitals of the American Medical Associa­
tion. Effective January 1962, the 2-year college
prerequisite will be increased to 3 years, to in­
clude additional courses for broadening the stu­
dent’s science background and for meeting new
standards for professional status as medical
technologists. Because o f this 4-year total of
combined instruction, it is expected that a much
larger number of medical technology schools will
affiliate with universities in order to offer pro­
grams leading to a bachelor of science degree
in medical technology.
The specialized curriculum for medical tech­
nologists includes the following subjects: bio­
chemistry, hematology (blood analysis), bacteri­
ology, parasitology, histologic technic (tissue
preparation), serology (serum analysis), uri­
nalysis, blood banking, basal metabolism, and
miscellaneous clinical microscopy.
New developments are emerging in certain

72

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

specialized fields of medical laboratory work in
which the duties and training requirements are
not yet clearly defined. For example, the rela­
tively new technique in cancer detection (exam­
ination of castoff cells) will require a few
thousand workers with specialized training in
screening cell slides if current plans to make
this test widely available are to be carried out.
So far, the only formalized requirements are those
established by the ASCP which offers a cer­
tificate in Exfoliative Cytology. By 1960, this
certificate will require 2 years of college work,
including a sufficient number o f hours in biology
and chemistry, plus at least 6 months of study in
cytology and another 6 months of specialized
training in a laboratory approved for such train­
ing.
Another comparatively new branch of
science is atomic medicine, in which the increasing
need for radioisotope technicians is expected to
lead to eventual formulation of standards for
medical technologists who specialize in this field.
Separate certification by the ASCP Board of
Registry is also being given to certain laboratory
persons with specialized training: (a) those with
a bachelor’s degree and a major in either chemistry
or bacteriology, as well as 1 year of laboratory
experience in their respective field, are eligible
for a certificate in chemistry or microbiology;
and (b) a registered M.T. (A S C P ) who has had
3 months of training in a blood bank approved
for such training, plus 9 months o f practical
experience, may apply for a certificate in blood
banking.
By mid-1958, nearly 700 schools offering in­
struction in medical technology had been ap­
proved by the Council on Medical Education and
Hospitals of the American Medical Association.
About four-fifths of the approved schools ac­
cepted applicants with 2 years of college; the
remainder required more education for entrance.
Length of training time ranged from 12 to 24
months, with 12-month courses offered by 9 out of
10 of the schools.
The cost of training, aside from maintenance
expenses, was relatively low. No tuition was
required by about four-fifths of the approved
schools, and $100 for the complete course was
the most common fee in the remainder. A small
number o f schools, which combined hospital train­
ing with a college degree program, charged the
regular tuition of the affiliated university. A l­




most half of all approved schools offered stipends;
and some organizations, such as the American
Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute,
provided additional stipends or paid tuition costs
for students. A few colleges offer a master’s
degree in medical technology, and courses in
education and administration are beginning to be
combined with advanced technical subjects in
order to prepare medical technologists for teach­
ing and administrative positions.
The increasing complexity of medical labora­
tory procedures, the advances in scientific knowl­
edge, and the establishment o f professional
standards for medical technologists have all con­
tributed to the necessity for more theory and
clinical practice than that which is provided by
most commercial schools of medical technology.
Thus, many employers prefer or require that
prospective staff members be registered, or eligible
for registration, with the Registry of Medical
Technologists of the ASCP. Still other hospitals
and clinics are accepting only those with a col­
lege degree background. In the Federal service,
for example, a professional series o f positions
for medical technologists was established in 1958
which requires that applicants for entry posi­
tions have a bachelor’s degree in medical tech­
nology or a combination o f equivalent training
and experience, of which 3 years must include
college instruction. Those with a bachelor of
science degree in either chemistry or biology
must have, in addition, 1 year of experience or
training in medical laboratory work. To be
eligible for advanced positions, additional pro­
fessional experience is required as a medical
technologist or medical specialist, such as bio­
chemist or bacteriologist.
Thus, persons with only 1 or 2 years of training
or experience and insufficient college background
will find it increasingly difficult to obtain posi­
tions as medical technologists. Most of such
persons will be limited to jobs as laboratory
technicians or assistants.
Some States (Alabama, California, and Flor­
ida) require licensing for medical technologists
as well as for other laboratory personnel. L i­
censing laws differ from State to State and may
specify more or less extensive training or experi­
ence than that required in order to qualify as a
M.T. (A S C P ). Licenses are also issued in in­
dividual subjects (biochemistry, bacteriology,

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

s e r o lo g y , a n d p a r a s it o lo g y ) i f te c h n o lo g is ts h a v e
a m a s t e r ’s d e g ree Or d o c to r a te in

on e o f

th ese

sp e c ia ltie s p lu s a y e a r o f p o s tg r a d u a te la b o r a to r y
ex p e rie n c e in th e sp e c ia l field .

Some o f the important personal traits needed
for medical laboratory work are extreme accuracy
and patience, dependability, resourcefulness,
manual dexterity, and the ability to follow di­
rections and to remain calm under pressure and
in the presence of patients. In addition to the
desire to provide service to the sick by aiding
in their diagnosis and recovery, technologists
should have an interest in science since they are
a vital part of the medical team. Good eyesight
is a basic requirement, but many who are other­
wise physically handicapped have proven highly
satisfactory in their duties.
Advancement opportunities depend principally
upon the size of the organization, the level and
extensiveness o f training and experience, and
the professional abilities o f the individual. In
a large organization, a competent technologist
may become a supervisor o f a group of tech­
nicians and assistants, or perhaps chief tech­
nologist or technical head of the laboratory under
the general direction of a pathologist. Increasing
emphasis on research also affords the technologist
possibilities for original investigation. Those
interested in teaching may take advantage of
growing opportunities developing in the train­
ing of new workers and as teaching supervisors.
Thus, for thoroughly trained technologists, ad­
vancement is possible through supervision, ad­
ministration, or specialization. Positions above
these levels, however, are filled by pathologists
or medical scientists with advanced degrees. O f
course, the medical technologist, through special­
ized and additional college training, may become
a medical scientist and advance to higher levels
in one o f these specialties.
Employment Outlook

A substantial shortage of medical laboratory
technologists was evident in 1958 and is expected
to continue into the 1960’s. This need for addi­
tional technologists is due in part to the rapid
expansion of hospital and medical programs and
the growing number o f government medical fa­
cilities and health services with their increased
emphasis on health research. Advances in med­




73

ical knowledge and practice are depending more
and more upon laboratory work, and the increas­
ing complexity of the tests coupled with everdeveloping experimentation with new drugs and
techniques have further pointed up the necessity
for well-qualified personnel with college training.
Although a continuing nationwide campaign to
recruit young people into the profession is meet­
ing with considerable success, the supply of
technologists will undoubtedly be insufficient to
fill stalling requirements owing in part to the
limited possibilities of expanding training fa­
cilities.
Replacement needs account for additional job
openings, since many of the workers in this field
are young women who may be leaving their jobs
for marriage and family responsibilities. Good
employment opportunities will also continue for
mature persons who are adequately trained or
experienced and for persons interested in parttime work. Women returning to this field after
several years’ absence may find a refresher course
necessary. Although some approved schools do
not accept applicants over 30 years of age, others
have no age restrictions on admissions.
Over the long run, the same factors responsible
for the current shortage may be expected to con­
tinue. This expanding demand for laboratory
technologists is based largely on: Anticipated
population gains; increasing proportions of the
very young and old-age groups which often
necessitate special medical services; rising health
standards; extending interest in preventive med­
icine; widening participation in health and hos­
pitalization insurance programs; and the growing
volume and complexity o f laboratory procedures
associated with new developments and discoveries
in the field of medicine.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Weekly salaries of women medical technologists
working full time in government and private
hospitals averaged from $57.00 in Philadelphia
($62.50 for men) to $83.50 (same for men) in
Los Angeles, according to a 1956-57 survey con­
ducted by the Department of Labor’s Bureau of
Labor Statistics in 16 metropolitan areas. These
salaries did not include premium pay or the
value of meals, uniforms, and other supplements.
It was also found that earnings of women tech-

74

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

nologists tended to be about the same as for
general duty nurses. A nationwide survey con­
ducted by the Registry of Medical Technologists
and the National Committee for Careers in Medi­
cal Technology covering about 8,000 employed
M.T. (A S C P ’s) revealed that the median yearly
earnings in 1958 amounted to $4,469. Medical
technologists who meet requirements set by the
Federal Government start at $4,040 a year and
may earn up to $7,030 or more. Salaries in both
public and private institutions vary from lab­
oratory to laboratory, of course, but they are
likely to be determined, to a large degree, by the
level of skill, extent of education and experience,
and responsibility of the positions. Even though
the technologist may specialize in a particular
field, all-round skills and the ability to supervise
or instruct often command higher pay.
Most full-time laboratory technologists work
8 hours a day and 40 to 44 hours a week. They
generally are provided vacation and sick-leave
benefits, and almost all are covered by private
retirement plans or Federal social security.
Where night or emergency work is required,
there are usually provisions for extra pay or
matching time off.

One o f the important techniques learned in the
training course is the extreme care required
in the handling o f specimens, materials, and
equipment. Few hazards exist in laboratory work
when proper methods o f sterilization and of
handling bacteria and tissue are observed. Tech­
nologists must, however, be willing to work in
surroundings where unpleasant odors, diseased
tissue, and blood are often present.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional details about medical technologists,
as well as some related medical laboratory jobs
are given in the following publication: Employ­
ment Opportunities for Women as Medical Tech­
nologists and Laboratory Technicians. Women’s
Bureau Bulletin 203-4, 1956. Superintendent o f
Documents, Washington 25, D.C. Price 25 cents.
Information, particularly on the M.T. (A S C P )
and approved schools o f medical technology, may
be obtained from:
Registry o f Medical Technologists o f the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists,
P.O. Box 44, Muncie, Ind.
American Society o f Medical Technologists,
Suite 25, Hermann Professional Bldg., Houston, Tex.

C hiro p racto rs
(D.O.T. 0-39.90)

Nature of Work

Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the belief that the nerve system largely determines
the state of health of the human body and that
any interference with this system impairs normal
functions and lowers the body’s resistance to dis­
ease. Chiropractors treat their patients primarily
by specific adjustment o f parts of the body, espe­
cially the spinal column. Many also use such sup­
plementary measures as diet, exercise, rest, water,
light, and heat. Because of the emphasis on the
spine and its position, most chiropractors use X ray extensively in their practice to aid in locat­
ing the source o f the patient’s difficulty. Chi­
ropractic as a system of healing does not include
the use of drugs or surgery.
Where Employed

More than 25,000 chiropractors were employed
in the United States in 1957, according to an esti­




mate by The National Chiropractic Association.
The greatest numbers were engaged in independ­
ent private practice. Some were employed by
athletic organizations and industrial firms; others
taught or did research work at chiropractic
schools. A few worked on the staffs o f chiro­
practic clinics or as salaried assistants to estab­
lished practitioners. About 40 percent of all chi­
ropractors were located in California, New York,
Texas, and Ohio.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most States and the District of Columbia regu­
late the practice of chiropractic and grant licenses
to chiropractors who meet certain educational re­
quirements and pass a State board examination.
As o f 1957, four States—Louisiana, Massachu­
setts, Mississippi, and New York—did not regu­
late the practice of chiropractic nor issue licenses
to chiropractors.

HEALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The type o f practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for licensure vary consider­
ably from one State to another. Most States re­
quire 4 years of training in a chiropractic school
following high school graduation. Over onethird also require 1 or 2 years of preparatory col­
lege work before chiropractic training. In a few
States, considerably less than 4 years of chiro­
practic education is sufficient to qualify for a
license. Qualified chiropractors licensed in one
State may generally obtain a license to practice
in another State without further examination.
Approximately two-thirds o f the 16 chiroprac­
tic schools in the United States restrict their
teaching to manipulation and spinal adjustments.
The others offer a broader curriculum including
training in such subjects as chiropractic physio­
therapy and clinical nutrition. In the 7 chiro­
practic schools accredited by the Council on Edu­
cation o f the National Chiropractic Association,
the first 2 years of the 4-year curriculum are de­
voted chiefly to classroom and laboratory work
in subjects such as anatomy, physiology, and bio­
chemistry. The last 2 years are spent in obtain­
ing practical experience in the schools’ clinics.
The degree o f doctor of chiropractic (D.C.) is
awarded by all schools to students completing
chiropractic training.
Most newly licensed chiropractors open their
own offices or purchase an established practice.
Some start as assistants to other chiropractors in
order to acquire experience and funds. A consid­
erable financial investment is usually necessary to
open an office and equip it properly. Among the
personal qualities considered desirable for a prac­
titioner is the ability to deal with people sympa­
thetically. The work does not call for unusual
strength or endurance but does require consider­
able dexterity with the hands.
Employment Outlook

The success of the new practitioner will depend
in large part on proper selection of a location for
practice. Opportunities for beginning chiroprac­
tors will continue to be best in those parts o f the
country where chiropractic is most fully accepted
as a method of treatment. Moreover, small towns




75

or suburban areas, where the young practitioner
can become known more quickly than in a big
city, offer the best prospects for developing a
practice.
The wide variation in community acceptance
and in State laws is reflected in the concentration
of chiropractors in certain areas. The highest
proportion of chiropractors in relation to popu­
lation is in the western States. In 1952, there
were 30 or more chiropractors for each 100,000
persons in California, Oregon, Kansas, and Colo­
rado compared with 15 chiropractors for each
100,000 persons in the country as a whole.
Employment opportunities are expected to be
greatest for new entrants who are able to meet
the highest State licensing requirements, includ­
ing graduation from a 4-year course of 4,000 or
more hours. In view of the trend in many States
toward raising the educational requirements for
practicing chiropractic, thorough training will
become increasingly important.
Women are expected to continue to find good
opportunities in this field as some women and
children prefer to go to women chiropractors for
treatment. About 15 percent of the chiropractors
in practice are women, and all chiropractic
schools accept women as students.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In chiropractic, as in other types of independ­
ent practice, earnings are relatively low at the be­
ginning but rise after the first few years. In­
comes o f individual chiropractors vary greatly
with ability, experience, the income level o f the
community, office location, and other factors.
The National Chiropractic Association estimated
that the average income above expenses was over
$10,000 a year in 1957.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on State licensing requirements
may be obtained by writing to the State board of
licensing in the capital of the State in which the
individual plans to practice. General information
on chiropractic as a career may be obtained fro m :
National Ohiropractic Association,
National Building, Webster City, Iowa

76

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Optometrists
<D.O.T. 0 -39.92)

Nature of Work

Optometrists examine eyes and do other work
concerned with safeguarding and improving vi­
sion. They use special instruments and tests to
find and measure defects in vision and, when
needed, prescribe eyeglasses, eye exercises, or
other treatment that does not require drugs or
surgery. Most optometrists supply their patients
with the eyeglasses prescribed. However, they
usually have the lenses ground at an optical lab­
oratory and then cut them to fit the frames se­
lected by patients. Some optometrists do only

affect the efficiency of workers in industry. A
few optometrists are engaged primarily in teach­
ing or research.
Optometrists should not be confused with
ophthalmologists, oculists, or opticians. Ophthal­
mologists and oculists are licensed physicians
who specialize in the medical and surgical care of
the eyes and may prescribe drugs or other treat­
ment, as well as lenses. Opticians (see index)
grind lenses according to prescriptions for eye­
glasses written by physicians who are medical eye
specialists or by optometrists; they do not exam­
ine eyes or prescribe treatment.
Where Employed

Most o f the 17,000 optometrists professionally
active in early 1958 were in private practice in
their own offices. However, some were salaried
employees working as assistants to established
practitioners or for health clinics, hospitals, op­
tical instrument manufacturers, and government
agencies. A few taught in colleges of optometry
or served as optometrists in the Armed Forces.
Optometrists are located chiefly in large cities
and industrial areas where many people are en­
gaged in office work or other occupations which
place a strain on the eyes. Nearly 40 percent are
in the 4 States with the greatest population— Illi­
nois, California, New York, and Pennsylvania.
Many small towns and rural areas, especially in
the South, have no optometrists.
Training and Other Qualifications

O
ptom
etrist u g special in m n in exam
sin
stru e t
ining patient's eyes.

minor repair work, such as straightening frames
or replacing nose pieces on glasses.
A growing number of optometrists include vis­
ual training, the use of corrective eye exercises,
in their practice. Some do other specialized work
such as fitting persons who are nearly blind with
telescopic spectacles, fitting contact lenses, study­
ing the relationship of vision to highway safety,
and analyzing lighting and other conditions that




A license is required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia for the practice of optometry.
To obtain a license, one must be a graduate of an
accredited school of optometry and pass a State
Board examination. In some States, only gradu­
ates of certain accredited schools of optometry
are admitted to these examinations. A student
planning to become an optometrist should, there­
fore, choose a school approved by the Board of
Optometry in the State where he expects to prac­
tice. Altogether, there were 10 schools of optom­
etry in the country in 1958.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Five years of study beyond high school is the
minimum education needed to become an optome­
trist. Usually this consists of 2 years of pre­
optometry education in an approved college, fo l­
lowed by 3 years of training in an optometry
school. Some schools require a total of 6 years—
2 of preoptometry study and 4 in a school of op­
tometry. Preoptometry courses include mathe­
matics and the basic sciences of physics, biology,
and chemistry, as well as general education
courses. The curriculum in schools of optometry
provides not only for classroom and laboratory
work but also experience in treating patients in
the school’s clinic. Most schools give their grad­
uates the degree of Doctor of Optometry (O.D.)
but some confer the degree of Bachelor of Sci­
ence in Optometry or Master of Optometry. Op­
tometrists who wish to specialize often take ad­
ditional training. The master’s or Ph. D. degree
in physiological optics or a related field is usually
required for teaching and research work.
Qualifications considered important for a pro­
spective optometrist are a liking for mathemati­
cal and scientific work, the ability to use delicate
precision instruments, mechanical aptitude, and
good vision. In addition, successful practice re­
quires the ability to deal with people tactfully.
In 1958, applicants with the necessary qualifica­
tions had an excellent chance of admittance to a
school of optometry.
The majority o f optometrists start either by
setting up a new practice or by purchasing an
established one. Some begin as assistants to es­
tablished practitioners, and young graduates are
frequently advised to do this in order to acquire
experience and the funds necessary to equip an
office. Office location is of major importance for
a successful practice. The optometrist should
consider the number of optometrists and medical
eye specialists in the vicinity compared with the
number, occupation, age, and income level of the
population requiring eye care.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for new graduates
of schools of optometry in the early 1960’s are
expected to arise mainly from the need to replace
optometrists retiring or otherwise leaving the




77

field. During this period, the number o f new
graduates is likely to be considerably less than
the number of experienced optometrists dropping
out of practice. As in the past, opportunities for
beginning practice will generally be best in small
towns and in residential areas o f cities where the
new optometrist can easily become known and
where competition with established optometrists
and medical eye specialists is not as keen as in
large business centers. Communities, especially
in the South, that have no optometric services
available will also offer some opportunities for
new graduates.
The demand for eye-care services will continue
to grow over the long run. The importance of
good vision to efficiency at work and in school is
becoming more widely recognized; eye strain has
been increased by many aspects of modern living;
and the use of eyeglasses has come to be generally
accepted. The volume of eye-care services needed
will also be increased by the anticipated growth
in population, especially by the expected sharp
rise in the number of older people—the group
most likely to need glasses. Although the ‘ ex­
panded demand will be met in part by medical
doctors who are eye specialists, optometrists will
continue to supply a substantial proportion of
all eye-care services.
Women optometrists, who constitute about 5
percent of the profession, have many opportuni­
ties to work as salaried assistants, especially in
the field of visual training. Those in private
practice have been particularly successful in work
with children.
Earnings, and Working Conditions

In optometry, as in some of the other health
fields, a low income must be expected for the first
2 or 3 years of practice. However, as a practice
becomes established, earnings usually rise signifi­
cantly. In 1957, the average income above ex­
penses for self-employed optometrists was $9,750,
according to The American Optometric Associa­
tion.
Optometrists practicing in towns and small
cities have higher net earnings, on the average,
than optometrists in large cities. However, there
are some successful practitioners in big cities who

78

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

have very high incomes. Although optometrists
in salaried positions may at first earn more than
the self-employed, earnings of those in practice
for themselves usually outstrip incomes of sal­
aried optometrists after a few years of experi­
ence.
Working hours in this profession are usually
regular. Many offices are open 6 days and at
least one night each week. However, some prac­
titioners keep only scheduled appointments.
Since the work is not strenuous, optometrists can
often continue to practice after the normal re­
tirement age.

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on optometry as a ca­
reer is available from :
American Optometric Association, Inc.,
4030 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis 10, Mo.

Information on required preoptometry courses
may be obtained by writing to the optometry
school in which the prospective student wishes to
enroll. The Board of Optometry in the capital of
the State in which the student plans to practice
will provide a list of optometry schools approved
by that State.

Veterinarians
(D.O.T. 0-34.10)

Nature of Work

Veterinarians (doctors of veterinary medicine)
treat sick and injured animals. They also give
advice regarding the care and breeding of ani­
mals and help to prevent the outbreak and spread
of diseases among them by physical examinations,
tests, and vaccinations. Since many animal dis­
eases can be transmitted to people, this work is
important to the public health.
Most veterinarians are general practitioners
who take.care of both large and small animals.
O f those who are specialists, the greatest number
are in “ pet practice,” often operating hospitals
with boarding facilities for dogs and cats. A
few veterinarians are poultry specialists, and
some others work only with “ prize” livestock and
thoroughbred horses. Some veterinarians are en­
gaged in inspecting meat, poultry, and other
foods, as a part of the public health programs
of the Federal Government and many State gov­
ernments. A small number teach in colleges or
do public health or other research related to ani­
mal diseases, drugs, and foods.
Since animals cannot describe how they feel,
veterinarians must diagnose diseases and injuries
on the basis of appearance and behavior and by
taking temperatures and making tests. When
needed, veterinarians operate on animals and pre­
scribe and administer drugs, medicines, biologicals, serums, and vaccines. They use X-ray ma­
chines, hypodermic needles, syringes, and other




medical equipment especially adapted for use
with animals. They may treat animals on the
farm—sometimes in open fields—or in veterinary
clinics or hospitals.
Where Employed

Slightly more than 18,000 veterinarians— 5 per­
cent of whom were women— were professionally
active in the United States in 1958. O f these,
nearly two-thirds were in private practice. The

C O U R T E S Y O F U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F A G R IC U L T U R E

Veterinarians must often treat animals out of doors.

H EALTH

SERVICE

second largest number worked for the Federal
Government— chiefly in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, which employed about 1,500 veteri­
narians full time and over 5,000 part time; a
few worked for the U.S. Public Health Service
and international health organizations. Nearly
800 were commissioned officers in the Veterinary
Corps of the Army and the Air Force. In addi­
tion, a substantial number worked for State and
local government agencies. Some were also em­
ployed by schools of veterinary medicine, State
agricultural colleges, animal food companies, and
pharmaceutical companies that manufacture
drugs for animals.
Veterinarians practice in all parts of the coun­
try, although they are located chiefly in States
where a large percentage of the Nation’s live­
stock is raised. In 1958, one-third of the Na­
tion’s veterinarians were in 5 States— California,
with about 1,500; and New York, Illinois, Iowa,
and Ohio, with over 1,000 each. Veterinarians
in rural areas deal chiefly with large animals,
those in small towns usually engage in general
practice, while those in cities frequently limit
their practice to pet animals.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license is required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia for the practice of veterinary
medicine. To obtain a license, applicants must,
as a rule, be graduates of approved veterinary
schools and must pass a State Board examina­
tion. A few States also require some practical
experience under the supervision o f a licensed
veterinarian. A limited number issue licenses
without examination to veterinarians who have
passed an examination in another State.
Two years of preveterinary college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional study in a school
o f veterinary medicine are the minimum require­
ments for the degree of Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine (D .V.M .). However, it may take 8
years to complete the preveterinary curriculum,
which concentrates on chemistry and other sci­
ence courses. The veterinary school training in­
cludes considerable practical experience in treat­
ment of animals, as well as laboratory work in
anatomy, biochemistry, and other scientific and
medical fields. For positions in public health or




OCCUPATIONS

79

other research or college teaching, the master’s
or Ph. D. degree in a field such as pathology,
public health, or bacteriology may be required in
addition to the D.V.M.
There were 18 colleges of veterinary medicine
in the United States in 1959. Each year many
more young people apply for admission than
can be accepted. Some of the qualifications con­
sidered in selecting students are: Good scholastic
records, amount and character of preveterinary
training (in 1958, about one-fourth of the stu­
dents selected had a bachelor’s degree), a farm
background, good health, and a liking for animals.
Opportunities for women students are limited;
most veterinary colleges are reluctant to admit
them. Since veterinary colleges are largely State
supported, residents o f the State in which the
school is located are almost always given prefer­
ence. In the South and West, regional educa­
tional plans have been developed that permit
cooperating States without veterinary schools to
send a few students to designated regional schools.
The regional school is paid a stipulated sum by
the home State o f each student. In other areas,
schools may informally decide to accept a certain
number o f students from other States, often
giving priority to applicants from nearby States
without veterinary schools.
Some veterinarians begin as assistants to, or
partners of, established practitioners. Many es­
tablish their own practice and start with a modest
financial investment in such essentials as drugs,
instruments, and a car. Those operating animal
hospitals or purchasing an established practice
have to make a substantial investment. Newly
qualified veterinarians entering the Army or Air
Force are commissioned as first lieutenants. New
graduates of accredited veterinary schools can
quality for Federal civil-service positions, such as
meat and poultry inspectors, disease-control
workers, and research assistants. In addition,
a program conducted by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture offers junior students of veterinary
medicine opportunities to serve as trainees during
the summer months.
Employment Outlook

Graduates of schools of veterinary medicine
will probably continue to have good employment

80

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

opportunities throughout the 1960’s. Since 1940,
the supply of graduates has not been large enough
to meet the total demand for veterinarians in
private practice, government service, and colleges.
However, 8 additional veterinary schools have
been established since World W ar II. With the
resulting increase in the supply o f new veter­
inarians, the overall shortage in the profession
will tend to lessen. Many o f the opportunities
to enter private practice or salaried employment
will arise from the need to replace veterinarians
lost to the profession through retirement or
death. Because many veterinarians are in the
older age groups, it is anticipated that replace­
ment needs will continue to absorb nearly half
the approximately 900 veterinarians who will
graduate each year from existing schools.
A gradual expansion in employment o f vet­
erinarians can be expected in the long run. More
veterinarians will be needed to care for the in­
creased number of animals required to feed the
country’s expanding population. The trend to­
ward suburban living is expected to bring about
a large growth in the pet population and thus
create a greater demand for pet animal specialists.
Emphasis on scientific methods o f raising and
breeding livestock and poultry will continue to
increase, and public health and disease control
programs are expected to grow. More teachers
will be needed to meet the anticipated rise in
agricultural college enrollment, and veterinary
research will expand further. In addition, de­
veloping programs in international public health
and atomic energy research will offer a few
opportunities.
The need for replacements and the anticipated
growth in demand for veterinary services, when
related to the limited number of veterinarians
that can be trained each year by existing schools,
point toward continued favorable opportunities
for veterinarians in the long run. However, the
demand for veterinary service is closely related
to economic conditions. Since the market value of
a farm animal largely determines how much its
owner can afford to spend on its care, any major
economic recession would greatly affect incomes
and employment opportunities in large-animal
practice.




Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates in veterinary medicine had a
starting salary of $5,430 a year in full-time posi­
tions with the Federal Government in 1958; after
6 months, they could usually qualify for positions
paying $6,135 annually. Summer trainees in the
U.S. Department o f Agriculture were paid at the
rate of $4,040 a year ($78 per week actually em­
ployed). Veterinarians commissioned as first
lieutenants in the Army and A ir Force received
pay and allowances totaling approximately $6,000
per year. In 1956, veterinarians employed by
local public health agencies had an average
(median) salary of about $7,400.
Beginning veterinarians employed in animal
hospitals received monthly salaries ranging from
$350 to more than $600, according to a 1958 sur­
vey made by the American Animal Hospital
Association. Nearly two-thirds o f these inex­
perienced veterinarians earned between $350 and
$450 monthly; about one-fourth were paid be­
tween $450 and $500; and the remainder (about
15 percent) received more than $500. About half
the experienced veterinarians were paid from
$500 to $650 per month. Salaried veterinarians
engaged in pet practice may be furnished with
lodgings in addition to their salaries; moreover,
they sometimes share in the income of the animal
hospital.
Veterinarians beginning their own practice can
generally cover their expenses the first year and
may often add to their earnings by working parttime for government agencies. The average in­
come above expenses in 1955 was about $10,700
for veterinarians in private practice, according
to a survey by the American Veterinary Medical
Association. Income from private practice varies
according to length of time in practice, location,
and type of practice. Very successful practi­
tioners sometimes earn $20,000 or more a year.
Veterinarians are sometimes exposed to danger
of physical injury, disease, and infection. W ork­
ing hours for those in private practice are likely
to be irregular, and those in rural areas may have
to spend much time traveling to and from distant
farms. Veterinarians can continue working well
beyond the normal retirement age because o f the

H EALTH

SERVICE

many opportunities for part-time employment or
practice.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on veterinary medicine
as a career, as well as a list of schools providing
training, may be obtained from:

OCCUPATIONS

81

American Veterinary Medical Association,
600 South Michigan Ave., Chicago 5, 111.

Information on opportunities for veterinarians
in the U.S. Department o f Agriculture is avail­
able from :
Agricultural Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C.

O ste o p a th ic P h y sician s
(D.O.T. 0-39.96)

Nature of Work

Training and Other Qualifications

Osteopathic physicians are members o f a school
of medicine which emphasizes manual manipula­
tion but also uses surgery, drugs, and all other
accepted methods of medical care. Most are
“ family doctors” who engage in general practice.
These physicians usually have office hours, make
house calls, and also treat patients in osteopathic
hospitals. A few doctors of osteopathy are en­
gaged primarily in research, teaching, or writing
and editing scientific books and journals. A
small but growing number specialize in 1 of the
following 12 fields recognized by approved spe­
cialty examining boards: Internal medicine,
neurology and psychiatry, ophthalmology and
otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, anesthesiology,
physical medicine and rehabilitation, dermatology
and syphilology, obstetrics and gynecology, pa­
thology, proctology, radiology, and surgery.

A license to practice as an osteopathic physician
is required in all States. However, the scope of
practice allowed differs among the States. Many
States and the District of Columbia issue licenses
permitting osteopathic physicians to engage in
all types o f medical and surgical practice. Some
States, however, limit osteopathic practice, prin­
cipally regarding the use of drugs or the type
of surgery that may be performed.
To obtain a license, a candidate must be a grad­
uate of an approved school o f osteopathy and pass
a State board examination. In 21 States and the
District o f Columbia, passing an examination in
the basic sciences is necessary before a candidate
is eligible to take the professional examination.
Some States also require a period o f internship
after graduation from osteopathic school. All
States except Florida and Rhode Island will
usually grant licenses without further examina­
tion to properly qualified osteopathic physicians
already licensed by another State.
Three years o f preosteopathic college work
followed by 4 years of professional study in an
osteopathic college are the minimum require­
ments for the degree o f doctor o f osteopathy
(D .O .). Preosteopathic education must include
a specified number of credits in chemistry,
physics, biology, and English. During the first
2 years o f professional training, emphasis is on
basic sciences such an anatomy, physiology, and
pathology and on the principles o f osteopathy;
the last 2 years are largely devoted to work with
patients in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doctors o f oste­
opathy serve a 12-month internship at 1 of the
94 osteopathic hospitals which the American
Osteopathic Association has approved for intern

Where Employed

Nearly all of the 12,800 osteopathic physicians
professionally active in the United States in 1958
were in private practice. Less than 5 percent held
full-time salaried positions, mainly in osteopathic
hospitals and colleges. A few were employed
by private industry or Government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in
those States which place little or no limitation
on practice and also have osteopathic hospital fa­
cilities. In 1958, slightly over half of all osteo­
pathic physicians were in the following 5 States:
California, with more than 2,000; Michigan,
Pennsylvania, and Missouri each with more than
1,000; and Ohio, with almost 800. In each of
26 States, however, there were fewer than 100
osteopathic physicians.
506397 O— 59




7

82

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

training. Those who wish to become specialists
must have at least 3 years of additional training
followed by 2 years of supervised practice in
the specialty.
Every year, more young people apply for ad­
mission to the six approved schools of osteopathy
than can be accepted. In selecting students,
consideration is given to grades in preprofessional
education, desire to serve as an osteopathic physi­
cian rather than as a doctor trained in other
schools o f medicine, scores on medical aptitude
tests, and the amount of preosteopathic college
work completed (in 1958, over 70 percent of the
students accepted had bachelor’s degrees). Con­
siderable weight is also given to a favorable
recommendation by an osteopathic physician
familiar with the applicant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathy usually
establish their own practice. A few work as
assistants to experienced physicians or become
associated with osteopathic hospitals. In view
o f the variation in State laws regulating the
practice o f osteopathy, careful study should be
given to the professional and legal requirements
of the State in which the osteopathic physician
plans to practice. Also, the availability of osteo­
pathic hospital and clinical facilities should be
taken into account when choosing a location.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic physicians will
remain excellent throughout the early part of
the 1960 decade in those parts o f the country
where osteopathy is a commonly accepted form
o f medical care. Greatest demand will probably
be in California, Pennsylvania, and a number
o f midwestern States; growing opportunities are
also anticipated in the Southwest and North­
west. Prospects for beginning a successful prac­
tice are likely to be best in rural areas, small
towns, and city suburbs, where the young doctor
of osteopathy can become known more easily
than in the centers of large cities.
Growth in the profession o f osteopathy will
continue to be slow in the early 1960’s unless
training facilities expand beyond the slight addi­
tions contemplated in late 1958. Although ap­
proximately 460 doctors of osteopathy are
graduated each year, many of these are needed
to replace those lost to the profession through
retirement or death.




In the long run, opportunities for osteopathic
physicians will probably continue to be good
owing to the likelihood o f increased public ac­
ceptance of osteopathy, liberalization o f certain
State licensing laws, and the establishment o f
additional osteopathic hospitals. In addition, the
demand for all kinds of medical care—including
the services of osteopathic physicians—will con­
tinue to grow as a result o f the increase in popu­
lation, Government provisions of medical services
for veterans and members of the Armed Forces,
the development of prepayment plans for med­
ical care and hospitalization, and the underlying
trend toward higher standards of health care.
Women osteopathic physicians will find good
opportunities not only in private practice but
also on faculties o f osteopathic colleges and on
the staffs o f hospitals and clinics. Approxi­
mately 7 percent o f all osteopathic physicians
are women. Although men and women are
equally eligible for admission to osteopathic col­
leges, the proportion of applications from women
has been declining. In 1958, women students
represented about 2 percent o f the total enroll­
ment.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In osteopathy, as in many o f the other health
professions, incomes usually rise markedly after
the first years o f practice. Earnings of individual
doctors of osteopathy vary greatly with ability,
experience, the income level of the community
served, geographic location, and other factors.
Surgeons and other specialists usually earn more
than those in general practice.
Many osteopathic physicians work more than
50 and 60 hours a week. Those in general prac­
tice work longer and more irregular hours than
surgeons and specialists.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a given State
should find out about the requirements for licen­
sure directly from the board of examiners of that
State. A list of State boards, as well as general
information on osteopathy as a career, may be
obtained from:
American Osteopathic Association,
212 E. Ohio St., Chicago 11, 111.

83

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Dental Hygienists*
(D.O.T. 0-50.07)

Nature of Work

The dental hygienist seeks to promote oral
health by preventive treatment and instruction
in proper care of the mouth. Working under
the direction of licensed dentists, dental hy­
gienists perform “ oral prophylaxis,” which in­
cludes scaling of calcium deposits, removal of
stains, polishing of teeth, and massage of gums.
In the course of this cleaning of teeth, they
inspect and chart the mouth to detect defects
for final examination and diagnosis by a dentist,
and at the same time give advice to the patient
on proper diet and personal care of the teeth.
They also may take and develop X-ray pictures
of the patients’ teeth to facilitate diagnosis by
the dentist. In many localities, they also apply
sodium fluoride solution to children’s teeth to
reduce decay.
Dental hygienists who work for private den­
tists may also prepare filling compounds, ster­
ilize instruments, and perform other clinical
work, in addition to assisting the dentist with
patients and in the laboratory. In some dental
offices, dental hygienists handle some of the duties
generally assigned to dental assistants such as
making appointments, receiving patients, answer­
ing telephones, ordering supplies, sending out
monthly statements, and other recordkeeping ac­
tivities.
Dental hygienists who are employed by school
systems usually go from school to school to ex­
amine the children’s teeth periodically, after
which they notify parents of any discovered
defects which require dentists’ services. They
may also give classroom instruction, sometimes
with visual aids, on correct toothbrushing tech­
nique and proper diet, in addition to acquainting
teachers with dental health facts and assisting them
in the preparation of classroom projects or assem­
bly programs on oral health. Dental hygienists may
also conduct group discussions at Parent-Teacher
Associations and other adult organizations and
at meetings with administrative and teaching
staffs of schools. In some school systems, they
make home visits to explain to parents the im­
portance of good dental care; in others, they per•Prepared by the W omen's Bureau, U.'S. Department o f Labor.




form clinical duties for groups of children and
assist in the maintenance of dental clinics for
those who cannot afford private dental care.
Dental hygienists employed in hospitals, in­
stitutions, or public health clinics may also be
called upon to work with the physically handi­
capped and bed patients. A few also assist in
research projects and some give lectures to dental
students and hospital aids on various aspects of
preventive dental health education. Others in
the field of public health serve as consultants,
set up local dental health projects, provide edu­
cational materials, and w^ork with community
groups. Some work in rural area dental trailers,
traveling from one farm to another where dental
facilities are unavailable.

Dental

hygienist giving

instruction
method.

in proper toothbrushing

Where Employed

An estimated 6,000 dental hygienists were em­
ployed in 1958, most of them in the eastern part
of the United States. Although health facilities
are maintained by most communities in the
United States, approximately 40 percent of all
practicing hygienists were located in only three
States (New York, Pennsylvania, and Connecti­
cut ). Virtually all were women, largely due to the

84

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

practice by dental hygiene schools o f limiting
admission to women only.
Most dental hygienists work in private dental
offices. A growing number, however, are being
employed by public school systems and public
health agencies, as well as in hospital clinics and
other health institutions, both public and private
and on staffs o f dental and dental hygiene schools.
A few dental hygienists work in industrial plants
and union-sponsored clinics and in Armed Forces
installations.
Training and Other Qualifications

Dental hygienists must be licensed by a State
board o f dental examiners in the State in which
they wish to practice. All but two States (A la­
bama and Georgia) require graduation from a
dental hygiene school for eligibility for the licen­
sure examination. In the various States, licensure
fees, including cost of examination, range from
$10 to $75, with most fees set at no higher than
$25. Upon passing a licensing examination, the
hygienist becomes a Eegistered Dental Hygienist
(5 .D .H .) in the State in which the examination
was taken. Because each State has its own
statutory requirements, and only a few States
offer reciprocity, a licensed dental hygienist usu­
ally must take another examination in order to
relocate in a different State. Periodic registra­
tion (at fees varying from $1 to $15) is also
required in most States.
Training for work as a dental hygienist may
be secured in 34 schools o f dental hygiene located
in 24 States. The Council on Dental Education
o f the American Dental Association had, by May
1958, fully accredited 31 o f these schools; the
3 others were provisionally approved. O f all
these schools, 26 are associated with the dental
programs o f universities and the remaining 8 are
parts of institutes, colleges, or universities that
do not have dental schools. Eighteen dental
hygiene schools offer only a basic 2-year dental
hygiene certificate course; in 13 schools, training
consists o f either a 2-year course for a diploma
or a 4-year program leading to a degree; 3 schools
offer only a 4-year curriculum leading to the
bachelor’s degree with a major in dental hygiene.
To be admitted to an approved school of dental
hygiene, the student must at least have finished
a college preparatory course or its equivalent




in a secondary school. However, more and more
schools are giving admission preference to stu­
dents with some college training. (Nearly onethird o f the 1,160 freshmen accepted in 1957-58
had 1 or more years of college training.) Most
schools require aptitude tests for applicants.
Competence in mathematics and sciences such as
biology and chemistry may also be required.
Admission to dental hygiene schools is limited
to women. The minimum age requirement for
entrance varies among approved schools— from
17 to 21 years o f age. Maximum age limits also
vary, but most schools do not accept students
over 35 years o f age.
The 2 years’ training in dental hygiene includes
instruction in the required manual skills and
in methods of teaching, as well as courses in an­
atomy and other biological sciences, chemistry,
pharmacology, nutrition, and X-ray. Special
emphasis is placed upon the dental aspects of
these subjects, and the student spends a substan­
tial amount of time in laboratory work gaining
clinical experience. Sufficient additional courses
to meet the requirements for the bachelor’s de­
gree are provided in the 4-year course. In 1958,
the 3 schools offering only the 4-year degree
program required that the first 2 years be spent
in college liberal arts courses and the last 2 years
in dental hygiene studies. For those who plan
to work in the fields o f public health and educa­
tion, the 4-year program is desirable. A t some
schools, short-term “ refresher” courses are avail­
able to graduates.
According to a recent survey, school costs in­
cluding tuition, and other fees, books, supplies,
and equipment but not including living expenses
averaged about $1,100 for the 2-year dental hy­
giene course. Approximately two-thirds o f this
amount was for tuition and fees. The cost of the
4-year degree program would, of course, be pro­
portionately more. A number o f scholarships
and loans are available from schools, government,
and alumnae and other private organizations to
defray the cost o f dental hygiene education. One
such arrangement is the traineeship program pro­
vided by the U.S. Department o f Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare which includes payment o f
tuition and a stipend for living expenses for
graduate or specialized public health training.
Among the desirable personal characteristics
that a dental hygienist should possess, tact and a

H EALTH

SERVICE

pleasant manner as well as manual dexterity are
particularly important. Other helpful qualities
include emotional maturity, patience, orderliness,
a liking for detail, and the ability to master basic
scientific subjects.
For special types of work, such as supervisors
o f dental health programs in public schools and
in health departments and teachers and directors
o f training schools for dental hygienists, a bache­
lor’s or advanced degree in health education or
administration is becoming required more and
more. Advanced education will also be empha­
sized for the filling of new positions that may be
created in public health, such as counseling, con­
sulting, administration, or program planning.
Other fields for which special training will prob­
ably be required include research where a knowl­
edge of sciences and statistical methods is helpful,
or work with the handicapped and other special
groups.
Employment Outlook

Although the number o f graduates (945) in
1957 was almost double the number in 1950, re­
ports indicate that about twice as many could
have been employed and that employment oppor­
tunities for dental hygienists were excellent in
1958. This demand is expected to continue and
expand well into the 1960’s. Many openings are
created each year by relatively high turnover
among young women in the field who leave their
jobs for marriage and family responsibilities.
A number of specialized types of work are ex­
panding for experienced dental hygienists. Those
with additional education beyond the 2-year hy­
gienist course (and some practical training) may
seek teaching, supervisory, or administrative posi­
tions in training schools for dental hygienists.
Hygienists with foreign language ability, emo­
tional maturity, experience in public health and
schools, and an interest in working as consultants
overseas or in establishing foreign training pro­
grams for dental hygienists may look toward
opportunities abroad.
Various studies indicate that only a small pro­
portion of dentists employ hygienists but that
effective use of such personnel leads to improved
dental service. As more dental students become
introduced to the idea of working with hygienists
and as increasing numbers o f established dentists




OCCUPATIONS

85

come to recognize their value, a still greater
demand for hygienists may be expected.
Because o f the relatively high earnings of den­
tal hygienists in private dental offices, the some­
what limited possibilities for advancement may
not be considered as too great a drawback in
choosing this career. While opportunities for
supervisory work in private offices are restricted
because few have more than one hygienist, some
hygienists serve as office managers or supervise
auxiliary aids such as dental assistants, secre­
taries, or receptionists.
Additional openings for dental hygienists will
be created by the increasing emphasis on preven­
tive health measures, including early and regular
dental care and expanding dental programs in
schools and in public health services. A further
need for the services of hygienists will result
from a growing population and higher income and
educational levels. Other factors contributing
to the favorable employment prospects for dental
hygienists include increased use of new techniques
such as fluoride applications and greater par­
ticipation in prepayment group plans and in
industrial and union dental programs.
Since part-time practice is feasible in this
occupation, many hygienists who would other­
wise be obliged to withdraw from the labor
market because o f family responsibilities can par­
ticipate on a limited basis. Thus, over one-fifth
o f a nationwide group of surveyed hygienists re­
ported that they worked only “ part time” or
“ occasionally.” Most part-time workers were
found in the West.
As a result of the expanding demand, mature
persons who wish to return to the profession or
who can secure adequate training can expect to
find good opportunities for employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings for dental hygienists vary depending
upon the location of the job, the type o f employer,
and the education and experience o f the hygienist.
Scattered reports in 1958 indicated that hy­
gienists working for private practitioners earned
up to $100 or more a week, either as straight
salary or commissions while the beginning an­
nual salary in the Federal service in 1958 was
$3,755. Although salary only is the most fre­
quent form of remuneration, commissions only

86

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

or a combination of salary plus commission are
the most prevalent forms of compensation in the
South and West. An example of one type of
commission arrangement is a guaranteed salary
base plus 50 percent o f the cleaning and X-ray
fees. Salaries may be expected to advance in
certain types of positions, as more hygienists
continue toward higher levels of education, as­
sume greater responsibilities, and fill supervisory
positions created by the growth o f the profession.
A 40-hour workweek is fairly usual for full­
time hygienists, and working conditions are gen­
erally pleasant. However, some hygienists divide
their time, working for two or more dentists a
week. Hygienists generally provide their own
uniforms which consist of a white nurse-type
dress, shoes, and cap. Regular health check-ups
as well as proper X-ray and sterilization tech­
niques minimize risks of radiation exposure or
o f contracting infectious diseases from the pa­
tient's mouth. Stools are used as an aid in

alleviating long periods of standing. A paid
vacation o f 2 or 3 weeks is common in most
dental offices. Those working on a day-to-day
basis have no leave provisions. Dental hygienists
employed by public and private agencies, cor­
porations, and school systems have the usual
vacation, sick leave, and retirement benefits of
such organizations.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about approved schools, training
requirements, and job opportunities may be ob­
tained from the following organization:
American Dental Hygienists’ Association,
100 East Ohio St., Chicago 11, 111.

Information concerning licensing requirements
can be obtained from the State Board o f Dental
Examiners in the State in which the dental hy­
gienist wishes to practice.

D ie titia n s*
(D.O.T. 0-39.93)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Dietitians are generally responsible for plan­
ning and supervising the preparation and serving
of attractive and nutritious meals to help people
maintain or recover good health. Their work
usually includes the formulation o f menus or
modified diets, supervision o f the food personnel
who prepare and serve meals, management of
purchases and accounts, and promotion o f good
eating habits.
Probably about 25,000 persons were employed
as dietitians at the beginning of 1959, of whom
approximately 5 percent worked part time. A l­
though substantial numbers are employed in in­
dustrial plants and commercial eating places,
about half o f all dietitians are estimated to be
engaged in hospital work. A 1957 survey made
by the American Hospital Association indicated
that there were almost 13,000 dietitians in 6,569
hospitals throughout the country. About 6,100
o f these hospital dietitians were certified by The
American Dietetic Association (for further infor­
mation on certification, see below). A ll of the
* Prepared by the W omen’s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




four major types of specialists to be found among
professional dietitians are employed by hospitals.
A dm inistrative dietitians , the largest group,
are responsible for administering and directing
food-service programs in either public or private
organizations. In addition to hospitals, where
the majority of them work, their places o f em­
ployment include colleges and universities, in­
dustrial plants, commercial restaurants and cafe­
terias, airlines, school lunch programs, camps,
and homes for the aged. Applying the prin­
ciples of nutrition to large-scale planning and
cooking, they supervise the preparation of meals
which are both well-balanced and appealing.
In performing their job, staff dietitians select,
train, and direct food personnel; manage the
purchase of food, equipment, and supplies; en­
force sanitary regulations; and prepare records
and reports. In addition to administering these
activities, the director and assistant director of
a dietary department formulate departmental
policy, coordinate dietary service with the ac­
tivities of other departments, and are responsible
for the management of the dietary department
budget.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Dietitian instructing a class of student nurses in the fundamentals
of good eating.

Dietary consultants, employed by State health
departments or other public agencies, visit a num­
ber of public hospitals, institutions, and sanatoriums to give technical advice on the mainte­
nance of adequate diets for patients, methods of
food preparation, food-service operation and
management, selection and purchase of food and
equipment, and kitchen layouts.
Therapeutic dietitians, usually employed in hos­
pitals and clinics, plan meals as prescribed by
physicians for individual patients who require
modified diets because of such illnesses as dia­
betes, cardiovascular disease, or tuberculosis. In
addition to translating special food requirements
into attractive menus, they also supervise the
preparation and serving of these meals. Duties
of therapeutic dietitians include educating pa­
tients in the requirements and importance of
their diets and suggesting ways for them to main­
tain their diets after leaving the hospital. Thera­
peutic dietitians who work primarily with out­
patients in hospital clinics are usually called
clinic dietitians. In the clinics, they discuss
dietary needs and problems with individual pa­
tients or with groups o f patients, such as ex­
pectant mothers or overweight persons.
Teaching dietitians are employed by hospitals,
colleges, and universities to instruct classes in




87

such subjects as dietetics, foods and nutrition,
diet therapy, menu planning, budgeting, and
institution management. The students may be
dietetic interns, student nurses, medical or den­
tal students, dietary employees, or others. In
addition to classroom work, teaching dietitians
supervise dietetic interns in the performance of
their practical training. They also conduct less
formalized and continuous inservice training for
food service workers, and may be responsible for
dietary instruction to individuals or groups of
patients.
Research dietitians conduct experiments or sur­
veys in food and nutrition to learn how foods
can aid in the recovery of patients with different
illnesses and in helping persons attain and main­
tain good health. They generally work as mem­
bers of medical teams, along with physicians,
nurses, physiologists, and others.
Sponsored
largely by government agencies, universities, large
hospitals, and commercial organizations, much
dietary research is currently directed at the nu­
tritional needs of the aging and of persons with
chronic diseases.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Educational preparation recommended for a
^professional dietitian is 4 years of appropriate
college work leading to a bachelor’s degree, plus
1 year as a dietetic intern. Undergraduate study
should include courses in foods and nutrition,
institution management, chemistry, bacteriology,
and physiology, as well as such related courses
as psychology, sociology, and economics.
College graduates who meet specific academic
requirements may enroll in 1 of the 65 dietetic
internship programs approved by The American
Dietetic Association. During the school year
1958-59, about 600 dietetic interns were enrolled
in approved courses. As there was room for
about 200 more interns, the existing internship
programs were filled on the average to only
three-fourths of capacity.
Scholarships and
loans are available to dietetic interns in numer­
ous programs;
There are three types of internships: Hos­
pital, food administration, and food clinic. The
interns spend some time in the classroom and on
special projects, but most of their training is
gained by practical on-the-job experience under

88

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

the supervision of a qualified dietitian. They
may be provided room, board, and some laun­
dry service without cost and usually receive a
monetary stipend. In the Veterans Administra­
tion, the largest single employer of dietitians,
dietetic interns are paid for the time they work
at the rate of $4,040 a year for a 40-hour week.
Living quarters and meals are provided at the
hospitals for a nominal charge.
Many employers give hiring preference to di­
etitians who have completed an approved intern­
ship because they consider it evidence of ade­
quate training. However, 3 years of experience
as a dietitian is also considered to be acceptable
if at least 1 year of work has been supervised by
a member of The American Dietetic Association.
Either of these two methods of preparation makes
a dietitian eligible for certification by the Asso­
ciation.
Some junior colleges and vocational schools
offer 2 to 3 years of training in dietetics, but this
preparation is not considered adequate for pro­
fessional work. Graduates of these programs
may secure employment as food service super­
visors, possibly in charge o f food service in a
small institution.
In addition to acceptable training, other es­
sential requirements for work in the field of di­
etetics are a strong interest in and an aptitude
for the sciences, particularly chemistry and math­
ematics. Good physical stamina is also needed,
as well as ability to organize work programs
effectively and to work with others satisfactorily.
Young people who wish to test their interest in
and adaptability to this profession will find it
helpful to secure summer work experience in a
hospital department of dietetics.
Experienced dietitians have good opportuni­
ties for advancement either in their own field
or in related work. After a few years of experi­
ence, a dietitian may be eligible for promotion
to director of dietetics or assistant director.
Those engaged in teaching or research work usu­
ally find it necessary to do graduate study in
order to advance to higher level jobs as super­
visors or specialists in their field. Persons in­
terested in becoming public health nutritionists
usually earn a graduate degree in public health
nutrition in 1 of the 12 colleges and universities
offering this type o f training. For positions as




research nutritionists or nutrition consultants,
graduate study in nutrition and related subjects
is necessary.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for professional dietitians are
excellent. There is a continuing shortage of
qualified dietitians, particularly in hospitals.
New and expanded hospital facilities and more
widespread use of hospital and medical services
by our growing population have resulted in the
need for many more hospital dietitians. In ad­
dition, there is growing understanding of the
importance of nutrition in promoting good health
from infancy through the mature years o f life.
Probably resulting from this awareness is the
new interest on the part of employers in hiring
dietitians for industrial feeding programs and
commercial establishments. Expansion of school
hot-lunch programs has also affected demand.
Added to the number o f dietitians needed to
fill new positions is the fairly heavy job turn­
over in this profession. Many young women
choose this field o f study because o f their in­
terest in food and homemaking and stop work
because of marriage and family responsibilities.
It has been estimated that new positions and
replacements require the yearly addition of about
2,000 new dietitians. However, only about a
third of this number are being graduated from
dietetic internships each year.
Because of the present shortage, some hospi­
tals and other establishments are hiring college
graduates with suitable undergraduate training
to assist a member of The American Dietetic
Association and thereby gain the experience
needed to become qualified dietitians. Small
hospitals and institutions which do not require
the services o f a full-time dietitian are hiring
dietitians on a part-time basis. Some of these
dietitians are married women who have been en­
couraged to return to work. In addition, a num­
ber of dietitians, particularly those living in rural
areas, find it advantageous to work part time for
each of several institutions in their area.
Despite many measures being taken to help
meet current demand, the shortage of profes­
sional dietitians is expected to continue through­
out the next decade.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries offered in 1958 ranged from about
$3,900 to $5,400 for inexperienced graduates of
approved dietetic internships and from $4,080
to $7,728 for qualified dietitians with experience,
according to The American Dietetic Association.
Positions for chief dietitians listed with the
Association specified annual salaries ranging from
$4,500 to $7,500 and for dietitians in charge of
very large departments, from $8,000 to $12,000.
Starting salaries averaging $3,576 a year were
paid in the winter of 1957-58 to the full-time
dietetic workers among the recent women gradu­
ates covered by a joint survey of the National
Vocational Guidance Association and the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Women’s Bureau. As
these women had graduated from college in June
1957, they had not obtained any experience or
further training prior to employment.
In Veterans Administration hospitals, where
the majority of Federal dietitians work, and in
the U.S. Department o f Health, Education, and
Welfare, which employs most of the others, the
starting salary for internship graduates without
experience was $4,980 in 1958. Federal salaries
increase with amount of experience and level of
responsibility, ranging up to $13,970 for admin­
istrators and specialists.
Dietitians’ positions listed by industrial com­

89

panies with The American Dietetic Association
indicated salaries averaging about $4,500 in 1958.
College food services offered salaries ranging
from $3,800 to $6,000 for assistant directors and
from $6,000 to $10,000 for directors. The range
for school lunchroom supervisors was from
$5,000 to $9,000 and for teachers in colleges and
universities, from $4,500 to $10,000.
Most dietitians have a regular 40-hour work­
week. However, hospital dietitians are sometimes
required to work weekends and the dietitians in
restaurants and cafeterias often have somewhat
irregular hours. Room, laundry service, and
meals are occasionally provided in addition to
cash salaries. Paid vacations and holidays are
the general practice, along with sickness and
retirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Further information on approved dietetic in­
ternship programs, available scholarships, and
employment opportunities may be obtained from :
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, 111.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C. has information on the requirements
for dietetic interns and dietitians in Federal
Government hospitals.

P h y sica l T h e ra p ists*
(D.O.T. 0-39.935)

Nature of Work

Physical therapists (sometimes called physio­
therapists) help persons with muscle, nerve,
joint, or bone diseases or injuries try to regain
use of the disabled parts of their bodies. Under
a physician’s direction, they use physical exer­
cises, mechanical apparatus, and applications of
massage, heat, light, water, or electricity to treat
a variety of disorders. These include physical
injuries, deformities, and disabilities resulting
from poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, and arthritis.
Most of the patients are those who have been
injured in work, home, or highway accidents;
crippled children; and disabled veterans.
♦Prepared by the W omen’ s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




In the course of administering treatments,
physical therapists keep records o f each patient’s
progress. They also perform muscle and nerve
tests to obtain information needed in carrying
out a treatment program. Another of their duties
is to help disabled persons accept their physical
handicaps and learn how to live within their
limitations. They may teach patients how to use
and care for braces, crutches, and artificial limbs.
In addition, they usually show patients and their
families how to continue treatments at home.
Some physical therapists are responsible for
the instruction of physical therapy students, stu­
dents of related professions, or nonprofessional
personnel (such as ward aids and orderlies).
Since the therapists’ work must be integrated

90

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Physical therapist helping a polio patient regain his sense of
balance with use of a walker.

with that o f the other members of the rehabili­
tation team responsible for a patient’s total care,
they also attend conferences at which the prog­
ress of patients is considered. A rehabilitation
team is directed by a physician and may include
a teacher, nurse, medical and psychiatric social
worker, occupational therapist, psychologist,
speech therapist, recreational worker, and voca­
tional counselor.
Although qualified therapists may handle all
types of patients, some specialize in working with
children, veterans, amputees, or victims of polio­
myelitis, cerebral palsy, or arthritis.
Where Employed

An estimated 8,000 qualified physical thera­
pists were employed in 1958, of whom about 80
percent were women. They were working prin­
cipally in metropolitan areas throughout the
country. In proportion to population, there were
considerably more physical therapists in the
northeastern and western States than in the
southern or central States.
The majority of qualified physical therapists
are employed by hospitals. About half of these
work in private, nonprofit hospitals; one-fourth




in hospitals operated by State or local govern­
ments; and most of the remainder in Federal
hospitals, which are operated principally by the
Veterans Administration, Armed Forces, or U.S.
Public Health Service. Most hospitals with phys­
ical therapists are large, general hospitals but
some specialize in services for children or for the
chronically ill. In recent years, more rural hos­
pitals are including physical therapists on their
staff.
More than one-fourth of all physical therapists
are employed by rehabilitation or treatment cen­
ters, schools or societies for handicapped children,
and public health agencies. Most of these or­
ganizations provide regular treatment for pa­
tients who are ill over a long period o f time.
The remaining group of physical therapists
work mainly in doctors' offices or clinics, teach
physical therapy, or perform research on treat­
ment procedures or in such basic sciences as
anatomy or physiology. A few serve as directors
or coordinators of departmental programs in
large hospitals and rehabilitation centers or as
consultants in governmental and private agencies.
Training and Other Qualifications

In 1958, there were 38 schools of physical
therapy (including the Army Medical Service
School) which had been approved by the Amer­
ican Medical Association. The majority of ap­
proved schools were part of large universities.
Most of the others were operated by hospitals,
which usually had university affiliations. All
but six of the approved schools offered programs
leading to a college degree. The degree program,
which lasts 4 years, is open to high school grad­
uates and, in some instances, to undergraduate
students who have completed 2 years of general
college work, including a certain number o f re­
quired science courses. All but nine of the ap­
proved schools offered 12- to 16-month courses
leading to a certificate in physical therapy. En­
trance requirements for admission to certificate
courses vary somewhat among schools but gen­
erally include possession of a baccalaureate degree
and prior study of specific biological, physical,
and social sciences.
Annual tuition in physical therapy schools
ranges from a minimum of $75 in a State uni­
versity (for State residents) to a maximum of

H EALTH

SERVICE

$1,100 in a private university. Numerous scholar­
ships are being offered to students in an effort
to attract more persons into the field. The prin­
cipal source o f scholarship funds is The National
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which re­
quires its recipients to work in the United States
under the supervision of a qualified and experi­
enced physical therapist for 1 year following
completion of training.
Graduation from an AMA-approved school of
physical therapy is required for a State license,
for membership in the American Physical Ther­
apy Association, and for registration with the
American Registry of Physical Therapists. Most
employers, particularly large hospitals and or­
ganizations, hire only therapists who have been
graduated from an AMA-approved program. In
30 States and Hawaii, physical therapists must
satisfy certain educational and employment stand­
ards set by a State board of examiners in order
to obtain a license to practice.
With the increase of schools in this field, nu­
merous teaching positions have become available
for physical therapists. These positions are open
to qualified physical therapists who have a college
degree and who have had general clinical experi­
ence, preferably for at least 3 years. Oppor­
tunities for physical therapists to advance to
supervisory and administrative positions exist
mainly in large hospitals and organizations.
Important characteristics needed by physical
therapists are emotional stability, a moderate
amount of manual dexterity, and a strong interest
in humanitarian service. Since physical ther­
apists must help patients and their families
understand the treatments given and must prepare
them emotionally for changes that occur, those
persons wishing to become therapists must have
patience, resourcefulness, and a sympathetic at­
titude toward people. Good verbal expression
in giving instructions; ability to plan and or­
ganize time, material, and work output; as well
as good physical stamina are also needed by
physical therapists.
Employment Outlook

The shortage of physical therapists, which be­
gan during W orld War II, continued to be acute
in 1958, when about 5,000 job vacancies were




OCCUPATIONS

91

reported. This need existed despite the fact that
the number of physical therapy graduates from
approved schools had more than tripled, rising
from 238 in 1941 to 750 in 1957. Increased staff
requirements have stemmed not only from popula­
tion growth but also from greater public interest
in the rehabilitation o f all physically handi­
capped persons, including W orld W ar I I veterans
and the expanding group of older persons in the
population.
The demand for physical therapists is expected
to continue well into the 1960’s, as a result of
the increasing use o f physical therapy in caring
for the injured, diseased, and aged. Vocational
rehabilitation and crippled children programs,
in which States are aided by Federal funds, will
further bolster the demand. More physicians are
also expected to recommend physical therapy for
their patients, as techniques and equipment for
treating many diseases improve. In addition to
new positions, many hundreds of job openings
will result from turnover in the field, since the
vast majority of workers are young women who
may be leaving their jobs for marriage or family
responsibilities.
It has been estimated that through the middle
1960’s a minimum of 3,000 additional physical
therapists will be needed each year for new
positions and replacements. Since the supply
of graduates from approved schools is expected
to be insufficient to meet these needs, the employ­
ment outlook in this field appears to be excellent.
Opportunities will be good not only for staff jobs
but also for teaching positions in physical therapy
schools and for positions in research programs.
In recent years, an increasing number o f men
have entered the field. Over the long run, a
steady rise in the employment o f physical ther­
apists is expected as advances in medical knowl­
edge increase the life span of all the population,
including the physically handicapped.
Earnings

Starting salaries o f new graduates in physical
therapy averaged $3,750 in 1958, according to
the American Physical Therapy Association.
Some salaries were supplemented by maintenance
and/or meals and by the laundering o f uniforms.
Entrance salaries for physical therapists in the

92

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

Federal civil service (effective January 1958)
ranged from $4,040 to $5,985 a year, depending
on the previous experience of the applicant. At
the same time, a starting rate o f $4,063 including
rental and subsistence payments was paid to
therapists with a second lieutenant or ensign
rating in the military services and also to junior
assistants in the commissioned corps of the U.S.
Public Health Service.
Salaries o f supervisors were reported by the
A P T A in 1958 to range from $5,000 to $6,000
a year. For those employed as physical therapy
directors or coordinators, salaries started at about

$7,000 a year and increased with greater experi­
ence, competence, and responsibility.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information concerning women as
physical therapists is available in a U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Women’s Bureau publication,
The Outlook for Women as Physical Therapists.
Bulletin No. 203-1, Revised, 51 pp. Washington,
D.C. 1952. Price 20 cents.
Information may also be obtained from :
American Physical Therapy Association,
1790 Broadway, New York 19, N.Y.

M e d ica l Record L ib ra ria n s *
(D.O.T. 0-23.25)

Nature of Work

Medical record librarians are responsible for
the coordination of medical data based on de­
tailed records o f patients’ illnesses and treatments.
They collect and catalog medical and surgical
information on each patient, including reports on
X-rays, operations, laboratory findings, doctors’
orders, and progress notations; check records for
completeness and accuracy; code diseases accord­
ing to established standards; index diseases, op­
erations, and other special study material; prepare
daily census information and other regular
statistical reports; abstract and transcribe case
histories to permanent records; answer inquiries
and prepare reports on individual cases; prepare
reports for the use o f physicians in their research
work; analyze medical record contents to deter­
mine present and potential uses o f data; and
develop or improve procedures, forms, and meth­
ods used in keeping records and record systems.
Since large hospitals are often centers of teaching
and research for medical personnel, medical rec­
ord librarians in such institutions participate in
hospital education and research programs.
Records maintained by medical record li­
brarians are used by physicians in studying
medical histories, diagnosing illness, and prescrib­
ing care. They are also used for insurance claims,
in legal actions, and in training medical and
nursing and other related personnel. Medical
record information is important to administrators
♦Prepared by the W omen’s Bureau, U.'S. Departm ent o f Labor.




in analyzing the health services offered by their
organizations and in determining agency policies
and procedures. The information is important
also for research purposes, such as developing and
evaluating new treatments and medications; and
for community health planning.
In some hospitals, clinics, and other health
organizations, several medical record librarians,
as well as record technicians and clerical workers,
may be employed, but often one qualified medical
record librarian, with the help o f clerical as­
sistants, has responsibility for and supervision
of all activities of the medical record department.
Chief medical record librarians, in addition to
having supervisory and staff training duties,
represent their departments in hospital staff meet­
ings and may have to vouch for the accuracy of
records if they are subpoenaed by the court. As
voting members o f hospital committees, they may
influence major decisions affecting the efficiency
of the hospital.
In addition to the medical record librarians
concerned directly with the maintenance o f rec­
ords in medical care institutions, a few have
unique administrative and research positions, and
a few are employed as consultants.
The occupation of a medical record librarian
should not be confused with that o f a medical
librarian whose work is chiefly with books and
other publications, although in some hospitals
the medical record librarian performs both func­
tions.
Almost all medical record librarians are women.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Ninety-nine percent o f the members o f the Amer­
ican Association of Medical Record Librarians
in 1957 were women.
Where Employed

Most medical record librarians are employed
in hospitals. Some work in clinics, medical re­
search centers, medical departments of insurance
companies and industrial establishments, health
agencies, local and State health departments,
regional hospital councils, and student health
centers.
Since most hospitals are located in or near
metropolitan areas, most medical record librarians
work in the major population centers o f the
country.
In 1957, the American Hospital Association
reported about 2,600 registered medical record
librarians employed in the 6,500 private and gov­
ernment hospitals listed by the Association. A
large majority o f these were employed in general
hospitals and some were employed in special
hospitals such as those for psychiatric and tuber­
cular patients. Approximately 20,000 additional
persons were reported as other medical record
personnel, including clerks, technicians, and nonregistered record librarians.
Training and Other Qualifications

Formal training is virtually essential for those
planning to enter this occupation. Although
many medical record librarians already employed
received training in hospitals on an apprentice­
ship basis, today, the minimum requirement for
registration is 2 years of college, or 3 years of
professional nursing education, in addition to
either a year of specialized medical record library
training or 5 years of pertinent work experience.
The specialized training is available at 30 hos­
pital-based schools approved by the Council on
Medical Education and Hospitals o f the American
Medical Association. To meet the need for semiprofessional workers, 12 additional hospital
schools have been developed and approved by
the Council for training medical record tech­
nicians.
The 30 schools approved for training of med­
ical record librarians are located in 18 States
and Puerto Rico and are under the supervision




93

of a hospital or medical center. Two-thirds of
the schools are college-affiliated.
Enrollment
capacity ranges from 4 to 20 students. H alf of
the schools admit both men and women as stu­
dents; half admit only women.
Curriculums offered at these schools lead to
bachelors’ degrees or certificates o f medical rec­
ord library science. Generally, schools granting
degrees require only high school graduation for
admission to a full 4-year college program. Cer­
tificate-granting schools offer 12-month concen­
trated curriculums and usually require that
applicants have 2 or more years of previous
college training or that they be graduates of
a recognized school o f nursing.
To be approved by the Council on Medical Edu­
cation and Hospitals, both the certificate and
degree hospital schools are required to provide
in their programs at least 50 weeks of theoretical
instruction and practical experience in medical
record library science. Required courses in theory
include anatomy and physiology; fundamentals
of medical science; medical terminology; manage*
ment, including hospital organization, inter­
departmental relations, purchasing, and supervi­
sion; psychology; and medical record library
science, including historical development, legal
aspects, ethics, securing and preserving of data,
statistics, and indexing. Practical training in­
volves hospital admitting and discharging pro­
cedures; standard indexing and coding practices;
and acquaintance with the work of such adjunct
departments as X-ray, pathology, medical library,
outpatient, and social services.
In 27 of the 30 schools, yearly tuition is $350
or less. Tuition fees in the degree-granting
schools are on the average slightly higher than
those offering certificate programs.
Following completion o f a degree or certificate
program, graduates are eligible to take the regis­
tration examination of the American Association
of Medical Record Librarians. Registration is
considered to be a measure of professional attain­
ment in this field, and many hospitals prefer to
have at least one registered medical record li­
brarian on their staff. Specific requirements for
registration are: (1) membership in the associa­
tion; (2) either graduation from an approved
school or the combination o f sufficient education
to qualify for admission to an approved school
plus pertinent work experience during 5 o f the

94

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

6 immediately preceding years; and (3) passing
a written examination.
Training at the technician level was introduced
several years ago to meet critical demands for
personnel who can assume some o f the work re­
quiring less responsibility. For high school grad­
uates unable to spend 3 or 4 additional years in
school, technician training offers an opportunity
to enter the field in less demanding positions.
The duration o f technician courses offered at 12
hospital schools in 10 States is from 9 to 12
months. Four schools begin classes in summer;
the rest in the fall. Student capacity ranges
from two to eight. In 9 of the 12 schools, tuition is
$100 or less. Eight of the schools enroll only
women. Graduates are eligible to take an ac­
creditation examination given by the American
Association of Medical Record Librarians, and,
on passing, may do technical work under the di­
rect supervision o f medical record librarians or
hospital medical record committees.
Certain personal characteristics are required
for successful and satisfying work in this occupa­
tion. Important among these are an interest in
detail, accuracy, and a willingness to be persistent
in obtaining data. Medical record information is
o f a confidential nature, and medical record li­
brarians must be especially discreet in processing
and releasing the information for legitimate use.
Since the work is exacting and yet subject to
frequent interruptions, the medical record li­
brarian should be able to maintain standards of
accuracy despite pressures. For persons aspir­
ing to administrative positions, organizational
and managerial skills and the ability to cooperate
effectively with other departments and with
hospital medical record committees are important.
Assignments to supervisory work, primarily in
large facilities, afford advancement opportunities
for medical record librarians. In a large medical
record department, the head medical record li­
brarian may be responsible for the work of other
medical record librarians and for a staff of
typists, surgical secretaries, file clerks, and cler­
ical workers.
Employment Outlook

There is an acute shortage of medical record
personnel in all sections of the United States
and in both private and government medical care




institutions. Many persons at both librarian and
technician levels are needed in general and spe­
cialized hospitals. There is increasing need for
record personnel in specialized fields of research
and to assume administrative and training re­
sponsibilities.
Many new positions will be created as hospital
and other medical facilities expand and increase
in number and as the work of medical record
departments becomes more extensive and more
complex. The importance of medical records is
being augmented by rapidly growing demands for
clinical data in research on cancer, arthritis, and
heart and other diseases, and on the use of new
drugs and other methods o f treatment. Research
on mental diseases has revealed a need for the
development o f in-patient record systems in
mental hospitals. Special interest in our aging
population will necessitate the recording, and
periodic summaries, of the condition o f patients
with extended illnesses, including chronic and
intervening illnesses. Additional trained workers
will be needed because of the expanding scope of
public health responsibilities and a growing need
for centralized information.
It is anticipated that opportunities for medical
record librarians will be excellent far in the
1960’s. The American Association of Medical
Record Librarians estimated that, as of December
1958, there were actual vacancies for 2,000 to
3,000 additional registered medical record li­
brarians and a need for 8,000 to 10,000 more
technical and clerical workers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries are related to the geographic location,
size, and type of the institution by which medical
record librarians are employed, as well as to the
nature and responsibility of the position in­
volved.
Average weekly straight-time salaries ranging
from $68 to $86.50 for women medical record
librarians were reported by the U.S. Department
o f Labor following a survey of hospital employees
in 16 metropolitan areas in 1956 and early 1957.
The average salary reported was higher in most
cities than that received by women physical ther­
apists, head nurses, general duty nurses, medical
technologists, nonsupervisory dietitians, and
X-ray technicians.

HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

95

In early 1959, possible entrance salaries for
inexperienced medical record librarians who have
completed degree or certificate programs were
estimated, by persons in the profession, to be as
high as $4,800 a year. Annual entrance salaries
for technicians with 1 year of training in medical
record library science were estimated to range
from $3,200 to $3,500.
Yearly salary scales established for those en­
tering Federal employment, including the com­
missioned corps of the Public Health Service,
ranged in 1959 from $4,040 to $8,330, depending
upon the amount and type o f education and ex­
perience required.

least 2 weeks’ duration, were usually granted
after a year of service, and longer vacations were
often granted to persons with longer service.
The number of paid holidays varied from 5 to 11.
Working conditions are generally pleasant, al­
though increasing complexity of the work of
medical record departments and the growing
accumulation of records has resulted in crowded
conditions in some hospitals. The use o f auto­
matic devices, such as electrically operated files,
electric typewriters, photostatic equipment, and
intercommunication systems is increasing.

Medical record librarians work the hours sched­
uled for the majority o f professional and tech­
nical employees at the same places of employment.
In the 16 areas surveyed, a 40-hour workweek
was most common. Vacations with pay, of at

Information about approved schools and em­
ployment opportunities may be obtained from the
following organization:

Where To Go for More Information

American Association of Medical Record Librarians,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago 11, 111.

Occupational Therapists*
(D.O.T. 0-32.04)

Nature of Work

Occupational therapists organize educational,
prevocational, and recreational programs to as­
sist in the physical, psychological, and economic
rehabilitation of injured and disabled persons.
After a physician makes his diagnosis and
outlines treatment objectives for a patient, oc­
cupational therapists select and direct activities
which will best meet the patient’s needs. These
activities may include such traditional manual
and creative arts as weaving, clay modeling, or
leather work. Business and industrial skills,
such as typing, operation of a key punch machine,
typesetting, and use of power tools are also em­
ployed in therapy programs.
Training in activities o f daily living to aid
the handicapped in obtaining maximum selfsufficiency is an important part* o f rehabilitation.
This may involve teaching the disabled patient
how to care for his own personal grooming needs,
and how to perform such common motions as
opening doors, turning on lights, using a tele­
phone, and so forth. The disabled housewife may
be trained to care for her children and perform
normal household tasks. The occupational ther- ~
♦Prepared by the W omen's Bureau, U.S. Department o f Labor.




apist sometimes makes equipment such as splints
for the patient’s use in these activities.
Planning of recreation programs, including
parties, games, and cultural activities, is some­
times part o f the occupational therapist’s duties

O ccupational therapist helping restore strength to arm and finger
muscles of young polio patient.

96

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

in organizations which do not employ recreational
therapists.
Occupational therapists may supervise occupa­
tional therapy assistants who teach a particular
skill, volunteer workers, and student therapists.
Some occupational therapists have administrative
duties as directors and assistant directors of an
occupational therapy program; some specialize
in working with various disabled groups; others
may serve as directors or teachers in approved
schools of occupational therapy.
Where Employed

More than 6,000 occupational therapists were
registered with the American Occupational Ther­
apy Association in November 1958. An addi­
tional 1,000 to 2,000 practicing occupational
therapists were not registered because they had
not applied for registration, had allowed their
registration to lapse, or were college graduates
with majors in related subjects, but not graduates
of schools o f occupational therapy approved by
the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals
o f the American Medical Association.
The great majority o f occupational therapists
are women. However, men are entering the field
because of increasing salaries, interest resulting
from observation of occupational therapy in mili­
tary service, and availability of training under
G I bill benefits.
Most occupational therapists work in hospitals
and other health institutions, such as school clin­
ics, sanitoriums, and some homes for the aged.
Almost all o f the remainder work in special work­
shops or rehabilitation centers to which patients
come for treatment. These centers are sponsored
by hospitals, religious organizations, or such com­
munity agencies as associations for the blind, the
deaf, or the cerebral palsied. A few occupational
therapists are employed in home-visiting pro­
grams for patients unable to go to clinics or
workshops.
The greatest number o f occupational therapists
work in programs for psychiatric patients and
persons with physical disabilities (including
cerebral palsy and tuberculosis). The remainder
work in such fields as pediatrics, general medicine
and surgery, education for occupational therapy,
and geriatrics.




Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Graduation from an approved school of occupa­
tional therapy is a general requirement for entry
into the profession and necessary for entrance
to the national registration examination con­
ducted by the American Occupational Therapy
Association. Persons who successfully complete
the examination may use the initials O.T.R.
(Occupational Therapist Registered) after their
names.
In 1958, 29 approved colleges or universities
offered courses in occupational therapy. In addi­
tion, courses were offered by three new schools
whose accreditation will become final upon grad­
uation o f their first classes and final approval
by the A.M.A. For high school graduates, this
training includes 4 years of college work plus
9 months o f supervised practice in hospitals and
health agencies, leading to a bachelor o f science
degree with a major in occupational therapy.
The majority of these schools also accept college
graduates with training in other fields who may
earn a certificate in occupational therapy follow­
ing 18 months of specialized training.
Tuition ranges from $60 to $1,100 a year, with
half of the schools charging under $300 a year.
A number o f scholarships are available through
individual schools of occupational therapy;
fraternal, service, and civic organizations; and
private and governmental health agencies.
A few colleges and health agencies offer ad­
vanced courses in special disabilities, such as
cerebral palsy and poliomyelitis, for graduates
of approved schools.
Occupational therapists without experience be­
gin as staff therapists and may qualify as senior
therapists after 2 years on the job. Experienced
therapists may become directors of occupational
therapy programs in large hospitals, clinics, or
workshops, or teachers in occupational therapy
schools. There are also some key positions as
coordinators o f physical medicine programs, and
as consultants with large institutions and agencies.
Personal characteristics needed in this occupa­
tion are emotional stability and physical stamina,
a genuine liking for people, a sincere interest in
medical work, and a sympathetic but objective
approach to illness and disability.

H EALTH

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified occupational thera­
pists are expected to be excellent well into the
1960’s.
Since W orld W ar II, the demand for occupa­
tional therapists has been increasing, due to grow­
ing public interest in the rehabilitation o f all
disabled persons and the demonstrated success of
occupational therapy programs in restoring people
to health. Furthermore, increasing use is ex­
pected to be made of occupational therapists in
treating illnesses and disabilities arising from
industrial accidents, as well as in treating victims
o f cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, and heart disease.
Anticipated expanded use o f occupational therapy
in treating persons suffering from mental illnesses
and in rehabilitating the disabled and infirm
among the growing number o f aged persons will
also increase the demand for therapists.
Opportunities for men are especially good in
mental hospitals, veterans’ facilities, and other
types of rehabilitation centers.
In addition to the new positions created by
increasing demand, many job openings will result
from turnover. In 1958, the number o f job op­
portunities was estimated to be more than double
the number of trained workers. The American
Occupational Therapy Association forecasts that
15,000 additional occupational therapists will be
needed by 1961.
In order to meet the expanding demand, more
students are being encouraged to enter training.
Although additional schools are needed in some
areas, particularly the South, not all o f the exist­
ing schools were filled to capacity during the
1957-58 academic year. Only 2,060 students were
T
enrolled in approved schools that year— a decrease
of more than 400 from the 1956-57 enrollment.

500397 0 - 5 9 -




■
8

97

Even if schools were filled, however, the supply
of graduates would be insufficient to meet the
rising demand.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of occupational therapists ranged from
approximately $4,000 to $10,000 in 1958, accord­
ing to the American Occupational Therapy As­
sociation. Staff therapists were paid salaries o f
$4,000 to $4,500 a year, while senior therapists
reported earnings of $4,500 to $5,800. Directors
of occupational therapy programs received from
$5,500 to $7,000 a year, and a few coordinators
or consultants earned between $6,000 and $10,000
a year. The beginning salary in the Federal
Government in 1958 for occupational therapists
without experience was $4,040 a year; and those
with at least 1 year of experience started at $4,980.
Most institutions operate on an 8-hour day,
40-hour week, with some evening work required
in organizations where the occupational therapy
department handles the recreation program. Va­
cation leave for therapists ranges from 2 to 4
weeks annually. Many positions now offer health
and retirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on occupational therapy
is available in a U.S. Department o f Labor’s
Women’s Bureau publication, The Outlook for
Women as Occupational Therapists. Bulletin
203-2, Revised. Washington, D.C. 1952. Price
20 cents.
Detailed information on the field, on colleges
offering approved programs, and on scholarships
can be obtained from:
American Occupational Therapy Association,
250 West 57th St., New York 19, N.Y.

EN G IN EER IN G
Engineering, the second largest professional
occupation, is exceeded in size only by teaching;
for men, it is the largest profession. The ap­
proximately 850,000 engineers in the United
States in 1958 contributed greately to designing,
building, and planning the work o f the machines,
equipment, roads, and buildings used by the Na­
tion’s 174 million people. Engineers provide
technical and, frequently, managerial leadership
in industry. They develop new products and
processes, design many types of structures, devise
the most efficient ways of extracting minerals
from the earth, and contribute in countless other
ways to the technological progress of civilization
and to the national defense.
Nature of Work

Engineers are concerned with transforming
natural resources into forms useful to mankind
and with doing this in the most efficient manner
possible. This emphasis on efficiency, which is
closely related to cost, is one o f the main factors
which distinguishes the work of most engineers
from that o f most scientists. A chemist may
create a new compound or a geologist may dis­
cover an oil field. The engineer must determine
how the compound can be manufactured or the
oil extracted at a cost low enough to be sold on
the market. In constructing a large building, for
example, it might be possible to insure safety by
making the walls of solid masonry 20 feet thick,
but it is much more efficient and less expensive
to have an engineer calculate just how much
weight the walls will have to bear, what other
forces will affect them, and what margin o f safety
must be allowed. The engineer has to decide
which building materials would be the best to
use, taking into consideration their relative
strengths and durability, their cost, the quantities
needed, and the cost of the labor required in
their installation and upkeep. Similar factors
must be considered by engineers developing and
designing such diverse products as electronic
equipment, home appliances, and diesel locomo­
tives.
98




In addition to developing and designing new
and improved products, engineers perform vari­
ous other types of work. Their knowledge and
skill is used in administration and management,
particularly in aircraft, electronics, and other
industries where engineering methods are of great
importance. Many supervise construction ac­
tivities or the operation o f plants and mines.
Others do research, aimed at providing the in­
formation needed for the development o f new
products or methods of manufacture. Some,
particularly trainees or beginning engineers, do
drafting, analysis, or testing, much o f which is
routine work. A sizable number work for con­
sulting firms or as independent consultants, who
advise their clients on engineering matters. Many
companies employ engineers to sell their products,
particularly when the salesman must be able to
discuss the technical aspects of the product and
assist in planning its installation and use. A
relatively small but exceedingly important group
o f engineers teach in colleges, universities, or
other engineering schools.
Most engineers specialize in one of the many
branches of the profession, although there is a
trend away from specialization in the early
phases of training and career development. At
least 20 specialties are recognized in practice and
in engineering school curriculums. Several of
these—aeronautical, ceramic, chemical, civil, elec­
trical, industrial, mechanical, metallurgical, and
mining engineering— are discussed separately
later in this chapter. (Agricultural engineering
is discussed separately under the chapter on
Agricultural Occupations. See index for page
number.) Work in each of these areas involves
specialized knowledge, but there is a considerable
body of basic knowledge and methodology which
is common to most areas of engineering. Thus,
engineers are often able to shift from one branch
to another, particularly in the early stages of
their careers.
Engineers may also become specialists in a par­
ticular technology, such as nuclear engineering,
or in the engineering problems of a particular
industry. In many instances, these specialties

ENG IN EER IN G

cut across the traditional branches. Nuclear
engineers, for example, frequently have consider­
able academic training in physics and mathe­
matics and often graduate training in nuclear
engineering, but their bachelor’s degrees are
usually in chemical, mechanical, or one of the
other traditional branches of engineering.
Where Employed

The majority of engineers—almost three-fourths
o f the total number in 1958—are employed in
private industry. Virtually all manufacturing
industries employ some engineers. Those em­
ploying the largest numbers are the electrical
equipment, aircraft and parts, and machinery
industries. Other industries which employ sizable
numbers o f engineers include motor vehicles,
transportation and other public utilities, con­
struction, chemicals and allied products, petro­
leum, telecommunications, fabricated metal prod­
ucts and ordnance, professional and scientific
instruments, and primary metals.
Another large group of engineers—more than
15 percent of the 1958 total— are employed by
Federal, State, and local government agencies.
Estimates o f the proportions of engineers in still
other types of employment are: Engineering
and architectural services (including self-em­
ployed), about 5 percent; military (active duty),
about 3 percent; and educational institutions,
about 2 percent. The remaining small group is
in a variety of other areas of employment, in­
cluding independent commercial laboratories and
nonprofit organizations.
Engineers are employed in every State, in small
cities as well as large. The profession also offers
opportunities for employment overseas. How­
ever, some branches of engineering are concen­
trated in particular industries or geographic
locations (as indicated in the statements on the
various branches later in this chapter).
Training and Other Qualifications

Four years o f college work leading to a bache­
lor’s degree in engineering is usually the minimum
educational requirement for engineering work.
Some engineers, however, have entered the pro­
fession with training in physics, or one of the
other natural sciences, or mathematics. Others




99

have been able to enter the field without degrees
but only after long experience as semiprofessional
workers—such as draftmen and engineering
technicians— and some college-level training. The
proportion of engineers with advanced degrees
is still small in most branches of the profession,
but graduate training is being emphasized in the
selection o f personnel for an ever-increasing num­
ber of jobs. Furthermore, training in some en­
gineering specialties, such as nuclear engineering,
is available almost exclusively at the graduate
level.
It is important for prospective engineering
students to select an accredited school of engineer­
ing, since persons trained at such schools gen­
erally have the best employment opportunities.
Of the 226 universities and engineering schools
which in 1958 offered training in engineering
leading to a bachelor’s or a higher degree, 153
had curriculums which were accredited by the
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development.
In the typical 4-year engineering curriculum,
the first year and part of the second are devoted
to basic preengineering subjects such as mathe­
matics, chemistry, and physics, and to courses
in the liberal arts—the humanities, social sciences,
and English. The last 2 years are devoted mostly
to engineering and advanced mathematics and sci­
ence subjects, with some differences in courses
depending on the branch of engineering in which
the student is specializing.
Not all engineering courses, however, are com­
pleted in 4 years. Some institutions have 5-year
programs leading to the bachelor’s degree, and
a number of engineering schools have arrange­
ments with liberal arts colleges whereby a student
spends 3 years in the liberal arts college and
2 years in the engineering school and receives
bachelor’s degrees from both. About 35 institu­
tions have cooperative plans under which students
spend alternate periods in attendance at college
and in employment in industry or government.
Under such plans, the normal 4-year curriculum
is spread over 5 and sometimes 6 years, but the
graduate has the advantage of about 2 years of
experience in addition to his engineering degree.
With the rapid developments in science and
engineering, many employers in recent years have
stressed the need for engineers with a particularly
strong background in mathematics and the basic
sciences. Therefore, persons contemplating an

100

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

engineering career should take as many mathe­
matics and science courses as possible in high
school, and should continue to obtain extensive
training in these subjects in college. There is
also a demand for engineering graduates with
broad training in other subjects, including the
social sciences and the humanities. Furthermore,
many employers emphasize the extra-curricular
college record of prospective employees.
Beginning engineers usually enter as trainees
or in the more routine jobs. Some industrial
employers have special training programs for
their beginning engineers; these programs are
designed to supplement college work with train­
ing in specific industrial techniques and to aid
in determining the type o f work for which the
individual is best suited. With experience, en­
gineers frequently move up to positions o f greater
responsibility. Those with ability and interest
can advance to high-level technical, supervisory,
and administrative jobs and even to top executive
positions.
Laws providing for licensing (or registration)
o f professional engineers whose work may affect
life, health, or property are in effect in all States,
Territories, and the District of Columbia. A l­
though the various State laws have different
provisions as to the types o f work for which
registration is required, nearly all States provide
registration for all of the major branches o f en­
gineering. In 1958, about 227,000 engineers were
registered under these laws in the United States
and Territories.
Registration laws are subject to frequent change
and improvement. Generally, requirements for
registration as a professional engineer are: Grad­
uation from an accredited engineering college,
plus 4 years o f experience, and passing o f a
State examination. Examining boards may ac­
cept a longer period of experience as a substitute
for a college degree.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued expansion o f the
engineering profession both in the early 1960’s
and over the long run. Engineering has been one
of the fastest-growing professional occupations
in the United States in the past 50 years. The
demand for engineers increased particularly
rapidly after W orld War I I —especially after the




outbreak of hostilities in Korea in 1950, when
the needs of the expanded defense program were
added to those o f the growing civilian economy.
The profession continued to expand rapidly
throughout the late 1950’s, despite the economic
recession in late 1957 and early 1958 and the
cancellation of Government defense contracts in
some industries.
There is every indication that the demand for
engineers will go on increasing rapidly. Some
o f the major factors expected to raise the demand
for engineering personnel are: Continued high
levels of Government spending for defense;
growth o f population and expansion of industry;
increasing complexity o f industrial technology
as, for example, the trend toward automation of
industrial procedures; and further growth in ex­
penditures for research and development. The
large sums spent for research and development
in recent years by both industry and Government
have broadened existing areas of employment for
engineers and opened up new ones, such as com­
puter technology, rocketry, and nuclear energy.
As scientific frontiers are further extended, addi­
tional areas of work for engineers will be pro­
vided. In addition, the rise in engineering en­
rollments anticipated during the 1960’s in colleges
and universities will result in many openings in
teaching. (See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.
Refer to index for page
number.)
Aside from the engineers needed to fill new
positions, thousands will have to be trained an­
nually to replace those who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations. Losses to the profession
from retirements and deaths alone were estimated
to be more than 10,000 a year in 1958 and were
expected to rise slowly in the future.
Along with the expected growth in demand for
engineers, an increase in the number o f engineer­
ing graduates is anticipated. In 1958, 35,332
bachelor’s degrees in engineering were conferred,
more than were granted in any year since 1950
(53,000). I f the proportion o f college graduates
majoring in engineering remains the same as in
recent years, the number o f bachelor’s degrees
conferred in engineering will continue to rise
slowly in the early 1960’s and more rapidly there­
after. By the late 1960’s or early 1970’s the
number may be more than double the number
conferred in 1958, according to estimates by the

101

E N G IN EER IN G

U.S. Office o f Education. Despite this increase,
it is expected that employment prospects for en­
gineering graduates will continue to be favorable
through the early 1960’s, at least.
This conclusion is based on the assumption that
the Nation’s economy will continue to expand.
It also assumes that Government spending for
defense, including research and development—a
major factor affecting demand for engineers—will
remain high. I f Government spending for these
purposes should drop, the demand for engineers
would decrease. On the other hand, a substantial
increase in defense expenditures or an acceleration
in other Government programs such as public
works would intensify the demand for engineer­
ing personnel.
For the student, the anticipated rapid growth
in engineering enrollments may mean increasing
difficulty in entering the engineering school o f
his choice. Unless facilities and teaching staffs
are greatly expanded, colleges and universities
may not be able to accommodate all students wish­
ing to enter engineering schools, and some institu­
tions may raise entrance standards. In any case,
adequate preparation and a realistic appraisal of
aptitude for engineering work are o f utmost im­
portance to a young person looking forward to
an engineering career. Moreover, in recent years
industry officials have continually stressed the
need for high-quality men as a more pressing
problem than that of inadequate numbers o f grad­
uates. Even under favorable employment condi­
tions the marginal student may not advance far
up the professional ladder. On the other hand,
there is every reason to believe that the demand
for engineering graduates with ability and
thorough training will remain high for many
years to come.
Employment opportunities for women engi­
neers, who represent only a very small proportion
o f the profession, are also expected to be favorable
through the early 1960’s. Furthermore, there
has been a recent trend for employers to elim­
inate salary and other employment differences
between men and women engineers o f comparable
education and experience who are doing similar
work.
The foregoing analysis relates to the outlook
for the engineering profession as a whole. The
differences in employment outlook among the
various branches of engineering are discussed




in the statements on these branches later in this
chapter.
It should be noted that no estimate o f the fu ­
ture supply of personnel in each branch is in­
cluded in these statements. Such estimates are
difficult to make for a number o f reasons. In
the first place, the numbers o f students majoring
in the various branches o f engineering depend
not only on the numbers o f young people of
college age and the degree of interest in the engi­
neering profession but also on many special
factors, such as the availability o f training facili­
ties and the relative employment situation in the
various branches at the time the student decides
which branch to enter. Moreover, graduates with
a degree in one field of engineering often find
employment in another. This mobility o f per­
sonnel is one o f the reasons why differences in
the employment situation between the various
fields of engineering are likely to be moderate,
at least among the younger members o f the
profession.
Earnings

The median yearly salaries of new engineering
graduates with bachelor’s degrees and no ex­
perience are shown in the following tabulation,
based on a survey made by the Engineers Joint
Council in the summer and fall of 1958.
Industry

Median 2 Upper
decile2

Lower
decile2

Advanced w e a p o n r y .______ . ._ $5, 875 $6, 725 $5, 500
Aircraft manufacturing
. . _____ 6, 325 6, 950 5, 625
-----6, 075 6, 600 5, 675
C hem ical_________ __
Electrical machinery and electronic
manufacturing_ ____________
_
6, 200 7, 400 5, 575
Fabricated metal products_______ . 5, 625 6, 350 5, 100
5, 850 6, 425 5, 275
Instrument manufacturing_____ "-.
Machinery manufacturing (except
electrical) _ __________
____ 5, 825 6, 675 5, 325
Petroleum industry...
_______ 5, 875 6, 375 5, 475
Design services and construction----- 5, 925 6, 750 5, 175
Telecommunications (operations)__ 5, 350 6, 175 4, 925
Utilities (electric, electric and gas). . 5, 575 6, 125 4, 950
Miscellaneous services:
5, 700 6, 400 4, 350
Consulting.
_
.
Research and development . _ 6, 000 6, 875 5, 550
Government (other than Federal):
State highway commissions____ 5, 575 6, 250 5, 100
5, 675 6, 500 4, 900
Local governments. .
150 percent earned more; 50 percent earned less than amounts shown.
210 percent earned more than amounts shown.
2 90 percent earned more than amounts sh own.

10 2

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

New engineering graduates with master’s de­
grees and no experience usually received approxi­
mately $600 to $1,200 a year more than those
with only bachelor’s degrees. Salaries for new
graduates with doctor’s degrees typically ranged
from about $7,500 to more than $10,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, the beginning sal­
ary in 1958 for engineers with the bachelor’s
degree and no experience was either $4,490 or
$5,430, depending on their college record. Be­
ginning engineers with one full year of graduate
study could begin at $5,430; those with two full
years, at $6,285. New graduates with the Ph. D.
were eligible to begin at $7,510. In addition, the
salary schedule calls for periodic increases above
these base salaries.
Most engineers can look forward to a rapid
increase in earnings as they gain experience.
Thus, in industry, the median yearly salary of

CHART 19




engineers with 10 years o f experience was about
$9,250 in 1958, and that o f engineers with 20
years o f experience was about $11,200 (chart 19).
Nearly all (90 percent) o f the men with 20 years
o f experience had earnings of at least $8,100 a
year and a few (10 percent) earned $16,100 or
more. A small number in top-level executive
positions had much higher earnings.
In general, earnings o f engineers are higher
in private industry than in other types o f em­
ployment. Though engineers in Government em­
ployment generally earn less than those in private
industry, particularly in top-level jobs, their sal­
aries tend to be higher than those of engineering
educators. On the other hand, engineers in educa­
tional institutions can frequently supplement
their salaries with income from special research
projects, consulting work, publications, or em­
ployment during their vacations.

ENGINEERING

103

29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.

Where To Go for More Information

General information on engineering careers—
including student selection and guidance, pro­
fessional training and ethics, salaries and other
economic aspects o f engineering—may be obtained
from :
Engineers Council for Professional Development,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
Engineers Joint Council,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
National Society o f Professional Engineers,
2029 K St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Information on engineering schools and curriculums and on training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the profession may also
be obtained from the Engineers Council for Pro­
fessional Development; and information on regis­
tration o f engineers, from the National Society
o f Professional Engineers.
Organizations which can furnish information
on the respective branches o f engineering are
listed below:

American Society of Civil Engineers,
33 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, Inc.,
2 East 64th St., New York 21, N.Y.

The above list includes only some o f the many
engineering organizations. Other engineering or­
ganizations are listed in the following publications
available in most libraries:
Engineering Societies Directory, 1956, published by
Engineers Joint Council
Scientific and Technical Societies of the United
States and Canada, published by the National Acad­
emy o f Sciences, National Research Council

Some engineers are members of unions. In­
formation on engineering unions may be obtained
from:
The American Federation of Technical Engineers
(AFL-CIO ),
900 F St. NW., Washington 4, D.C.
Engineers and Scientists of America (Ind.)
Munsey Bldg., Washington 4, D.C.

American Ceramic Society,
4055 North High St., Columbus 14, Ohio
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
25 West 45th St., New York 36, N.Y.
American Institute of Electrical Engineers,
33 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
American Institute o f Industrial Engineers,
145 North High St., Columbus 15, Ohio
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and
Petroleum Engineers,

See also statement on Agricultural Engineers.
(Refer to index for page number.)
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish information on positions
available in Federal Government agencies. For
further information, see chapter on Government
Occupations.

Aeronautical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-19.03)

Nature of Work

Aeronautical engineering is a relatively new
and rapidly growing branch o f the profession.
Engineers in this branch are concerned with all
phases of the research, planning, development,
design, manufacture, and testing of all types of
air- and space-craft and their parts and equip­
ment.
Aeronautical engineers usually specialize in
some particular area o f work, such as structural
design, aerodynamics, armament, electronics, pro­
pulsion systems, or production methods. Fre­
quently, their specialization also extends to




particular types of aircraft, such as commercial
or military planes, rockets, or guided missiles.
Where Employed

Most aeronautical engineers are employed by
the aircraft and related industries. The largest
numbers of these engineers are in the airframe
industry, but many are employed by engine and
parts manufacturers. Some aeronautical engineers
work for Federal Government agencies, prin­
cipally the Department of Defense and the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Small numbers work for commercial airlines, col-

104

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

leges and universities, and other types of em­
ployers.
Employment in this branch o f the engineering
profession is concentrated in the States where
most aircraft plants are' located— chiefly Cali­
fornia, Ohio, New York, Connecticut, Texas,
Washington, Kansas, Maryland, Indiana, and
New Jersey. (F or more information on the air­
frame, and engine and parts industries, refer to
the chapter on the Aircraft, Missile, and Space­
craft Field. See index for page number.)
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid expansion
o f employment in aeronautical engineering, both
in the early 1960’s and over the long run. In
recent years, the demand for these engineers has
grown rapidly, largely as a result o f the growing

emphasis on airpower for national defense since
the Korean emergency and the consequent enor­
mous expansion o f the aircraft and missile in­
dustry. Assuming that Government expenditures
for aircraft, missiles, and related items continue
to increase as expected, the aircraft industry will
probably continue to grow. Moreover, the need
for intensive research and development aimed at
replacing obsolescent aircraft, first with im­
proved typfes o f aircraft and later with missiles,
will require additional aeronautical engineers.
The increasingly complex designs of airplanes
and guided missiles, requiring more and more en­
gineering time to design and build, are expected
to increase further the demand for aeronautical
engineers in future years.
(See introductory
section of this chapter for discussion on earnings
and where to go for more information.)

Ceramic Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.11)

Nature of Work

Ceramic engineers apply scientific and engi­
neering principles to the processing o f clay,
silicates, and other nonmetallic minerals, and to
their manufacture into a wide variety of ceramic
products, ranging from cement and bricks to
spark plugs and dentures. They may also design
and supervise the construction o f the plant and
equipment used in the manufacture of these prod­
ucts. About one-third o f the ceramic engineers
are engaged in research and development work.
Another one-third are employed in administra­
tion and management. Others are employed in
plant operations, selling, or teaching, and a small
number do consulting work.
Ceramic engineers usually specialize in one or
more products— for example, refractories (fireand heat-resistant materials, such as firebrick);
white ware (such as porcelain and china dinnerware or high voltage electrical insulators); struc­
tural materials (such as brick, tile, and terra
cotta); glass; enameled metals; abrasives; and
cements, limes, and plasters.
Where Employed

Most engineers in this branch are employed in
private industry. The largest numbers are in the




stone, clay, and glass industries, but others work
in the iron and steel, electrical machinery, chem­
ical, and other industries which produce or use
ceramic products. Some are employed by educa­
tional institutions and by other organizations.
A small number work for government agencies,
chiefly those of the Federal Government. A
large proportion of all ceramic engineers are em­
ployed in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New
Jersey, Illinois, and California.
Employment Outlook

Ceramic engineering is one of the smaller
branches of the profession, and opportunities for
new entrants in any one year are relatively few.
Nevertheless, in recent years there has been a
strong demand both for new graduates and for
persons with experience in ceramic engineering.
Employment in ceramic engineering is expected
to continue to grow, both in the early 1960’s
and over the long run. Increasing use o f glass,
enameled metals, whitewares, abrasives, and other
ceramic products will require additional ceramic
engineers for research and design work to adapt
these products to various needs. The increasing
use of cement and structural clay products in
construction will also add to the opportunities
for ceramic engineers. Newer areas of work in
nuclear energy, electronics, and jet and rocket

ENGINEERING

propulsion will, likewise, provide additional op­
portunities for these engineers. For example,
the development of ceramic coatings which are
corrosion-resistant and capable o f withstanding
extremely high temperatures has played an im­
portant role in the development of jet engines
and nose cones for long range guided missiles.

105

Problems posed by the development o f aircraft
and rockets capable of still higher speeds and
greater altitudes will increase further the demand
for ceramic engineers as well as for other en­
gineers and scientists. (See introductory section
of this chapter for discussion on earnings and
where to go for more information.)

Chemical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-15.01)

Nature of Work

Chemical engineers translate the discoveries
made in chemical laboratories into large scale
commercial production. They are primarily con­
cerned with the design and operation o f the
plants and equipment and with other engineering
work required in the utilization of chemical
processes on an industrial scale. A chemical
process may consist o f a combination o f “ unit
operations”—mixing, crushing, grinding, crystal­
lization, heat transfer, distillation, and drying—
and chemical operations—oxidation, hydrogena­
tion, chlorination and polymerization.
The
chemical engineer determines the combination of
these operations which will result in the most
effective manufacturing process.
Because of the great complexity o f these manu­
facturing processes, the chemical engineer fre­
quently becomes a specialist in a particular type
o f operation (for example, heat transfer, dis­
tillation, or drying) or in the products of one
industry (for instance, petroleum, plastics, rubber,
food, or industrial chemicals). The. activities
in which chemical engineers are chiefly engaged
are research and development, plant operation,
design, and management.
Where Employed

A great many industries use chemical engineers.
However, most are employed by manufacturing
firms—chiefly in the chemical and petroleum
industries. Some are employed in government
agencies, in consulting firms or as independent




consulting engineers, and in college teaching.
Chemical engineers are employed to some ex­
tent in all States, mainly in or around large
industrial areas. The largest numbers are in
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
California, Illinois, and Texas.
Employment Outlook

Chemical engineering is one of the youngest of
the major fields of engineering, and has grown
rapidly in the past few decades. In recent years,
demand for these engineers has been particularly
heavy, largely as a result o f the rapid expansion
of the industries in which most chemical engineers
are employed (chiefly chemicals and petroleum)
and o f the tremendous growth of research and de­
velopment in these industries.
The outlook is for continued growth in this
branch of engineering, both in the early 1960’s
and over the long run. The major factors which
have contributed to the growth in past years will
in all probability continue to be important in the
future. In particular, the chemical and petroleum
industries are expected to continue to expand
rapidly. In these and other industries employing
chemical engineers, including atomic energy, con­
tinued expansion of research and development
activity (in which about one-third of all chemical
engineers are employed) is expected to contribute
to further growth o f employment in the pro­
fession. ( See introductory section o f this chapter
for discussion on earnings and where to go for
more information.)

10 6

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

C iv il En g in eers
(D.O.T. 0-16.01)

Nature of Work

Where Employed

Civil engineering is the oldest branch o f the
engineering profession as we know it today.
Historically, the profession had only two main
branches, “ military” and “ civil.” However, as
technical knowledge expanded and industry be­
came more complex, other fields of engineering
developed. Today, civil engineers form one of
the two largest of the many branches o f the
profession. They design and supervise the con­
struction o f roads, harbors, airfields, dams, tunnels,
water-supply and sewage systems, transportation
facilities, buildings, and many other types of
structures. The civil engineering field is so broad
that many specialties have developed within it—
the major ones being structural, highway, hy­
draulic, railroad, sanitary, and public health
engineering.
A sizable proportion of all civil engineers are
in supervisory or administrative positions, rang­
ing from that of site supervisor of a construction
gang or head of a drafting department to toplevel executive posts. Many are also employed
in design and related activities.

About half of all civil engineers are employed
by Federal, State, and local government agencies.
The second largest group are in the construction
industry. In addition, many are employed by
consulting engineering firms or work as inde­
pendent consulting engineers. Others work for
public utilities; for railroads; for banking, fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate firms (in such
work as appraisal of properties); and in educa­
tional institutions. Still others are employed in
the iron and steel industries and other branches
of manufacturing.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the country,
in every State and city. The largest numbers
are located in or near the large industrial and
commercial centers. However, since civil engi­
neers are frequently called upon to work at con­
struction sites, they are sometimes stationed in
remote areas of the United States or in foreign
countries. Furthermore, they are often required
to move from one place to another to work on
different projects, although many civil engineer­
ing positions involve little or no travel.
Employment Outlook

C O U R T E S Y O F U . S . B U R E A U O F R E C L A M A T IO N

Civil engineer inspecting reinforcing steel used in the construction
of a river basin project.




Employment in civil engineering is expected
to grow, both in the early 1960’s and over the
long run, although not as rapidly as in electrical
and mechanical engineering, the other large
branches of the profession. Construction activity,
including not only housing and industrial build­
ing but also water and sewage systems, is expected
to have an upward trend for many years as a
result of population growth and the expansion
of the Nation’s economy. The enormous highway
construction program voted by Congress in 1956
will also create some new jobs for civil engineers
during the early 1960’s. In addition, large num­
bers of civil engineers will be needed each year
to replace those leaving the field. Civil engineers
have a higher average age than members of any
other branch of the profession, and consequently
a higher rate of retirements and deaths. The
number of civil engineers needed to replace men
thus lost to the profession was estimated at ap-

ENGINEERING

proximately 2,800 a year in 1958, and will probably rise slowly in the future. (See introductory

107

section of this chapter for discussion on earnings
and where to go for more information.)

Electrical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-17.01 and .02)

Nature of Work

Electrical engineers are concerned with the
generation o f electricity and its transmission and
use. They design, develop, and supervise the
manufacture o f electrical and electronic equip­
ment—including electric motors and generators;
radio, television, radar, computers, missile guid­
ance systems, and other electronic apparatus; and
electrical appliances of all kinds. They also
participate in the design and operation of facili­
ties for generating and distributing electric power.
The major areas of work in this branch of
engineering include electronics, electrical machin­
ery and equipment manufacturing, telephone and
telegraph, power, illumination, and transporta­
tion. Electrical engineers usually specialize in
one o f these broad areas of work or even in a
subdivision o f some one area. Radio engineering,
for example, is an electronics specialty although
it has become recognized as a distinct branch o f
the profession.
A sizable proportion of all electrical engineers
are engaged in design, development, and research.
Another large group are employed in technical
administration. Others are employed in manu­
facturing operations or in technical sales.
Where Employed

Electrical engineers are chiefly employed by
electrical and electronic equipment manufac­
turers, and by electric light and power, telephone
and telegraph, and radio and television broadcast­
ing companies. However, many members of this
profession are employed in other industries, and
some are employed in government agencies, con­
sulting firms or as independent consulting engi­
neers, and in college teaching.
Employment in this branch of the profession
is concentrated to a considerable extent in the
industrial centers where electrical and electronic
equipment is manufactured. However, jobs with
electric light and power companies, telephone
companies, and radio and television stations are




located in every State—in small towns as well
as large cities.
Employment Outlook

In the last few decades, electrical engineering
has been among the most rapidly growing
branches of the profession. Today, it is one of
the three largest branches of engineering. Since
the initiation o f the defense program in mid1950, the enormous military needs for new and
improved types o f electronic and electrical equip­
ment have been a major factor in increasing the
demand for electrical engineers. These defense
needs, added to those of the expanding civilian
economy, have resulted in a marked growth in
the electrical equipment industry. Defense re­
quirements have contributed especially to the tre­
mendous increases in spending for research and
development in this industry and hence to the
demand for electrical engineers in research ac­
tivities. There has also been rapid growth in
the electric utility and the telephone and tele­
graph industries— other large fields of employ­
ment for electrical engineers.
The outlook is for further rapid growth of
employment in this branch of the engineering
profession both during the early 1960’s and over
the long run. The growth of the electrical equip­
ment, electric light and power, and telephone
and telegraph industries is expected to continue
with the greater use o f electrical and electronic
equipment by the Armed Forces, by industry,
and in homes. Moreover, newer areas o f work
such as atomic power generation, aviation elec­
tronics, guided missiles, computers, and automa­
tion will probably continue to require large
numbers of electrical engineers as well as other
engineers and scientists.
Besides those needed to fill new positions, a
sizable number of electrical engineers will be
required to replace personnel lost to the profes­
sion by retirement or death. The number needed
to fill such vacancies was estimated to be approx-

108

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK H AN D BO O K

imately 2,000 a year in 1958, and will probably
rise slowly in the future.
(See introductory

section o f this chapter for discussion on earnings
and where to go for more information.)

Industrial Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-18.01)

Nature of Work

Industrial engineers are concerned primarily
with the efficient use o f machines, materials, and
personnel in manufacturing and other industries.
They often specialize in such types of work as
the planning o f plant layout so that the work will
flow efficiently from one step in the production
process to the next, or the selection and design
o f machines and equipment to be used in manu­
facturing operations. Among their numerous
other specialties are time, motion, and incentive
studies; production methods and standards; cost
control and records; quality control; safety en­
gineering; and industrial relations.
Where Employed

A large proportion of all industrial engineers
are employed in manufacturing industries.
Others work in the construction and extractive
industries, for utilities, and for the Federal Gov­
ernment. A number are employed by banks, mail­
order houses, life insurance companies, and other
large business organizations to improve the effi­
ciency o f clerical and other operations.

Employment in this branch of the profession
is concentrated in the highly industrialized States,
particularly New York, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Michigan, and New Jersey. Opportunities
also exist in the growing industrial centers of
the Southern and West Coast States.
Employment Outlook

Employment o f industrial engineers is ex­
pected to grow both in the early 1960’s and over
the long run. The continued rapid growth of
the Nation’s industries, the expansion o f au­
tomated processes, and the increasing complexity
o f industrial operations are expected to increase
the demand for personnel trained in this branch
of engineering. Growing recognition of the im­
portance o f scientific management and safety en­
gineering, and the role of industrial engineers
in reducing costs and increasing productivity are
expected to further stimulate demand for per­
sonnel in this branch of engineering. (See in­
troductory section of this chapter for discussion
on earnings and where to go for more informa­
tion.)

Mechanical Engineers
(D.O.T. 0-19.01, .05, .81, and .91)

Nature of Work

Mechanical engineering is one o f the two largest
branches o f the profession. I f aeronautical and
industrial engineering, which are offshoots of
this branch, were included with it, mechanical
engineering would represent by far the largest
branch o f the profession.
Mechanical engineers deal primarily with ma­
chines, power, and heat. They develop and de­
sign machines, such as internal combustion engines,
steam turbines, jet engines, and nuclear reactors,
which produce power from fuels and other
sources. They also develop a great variety o f
machines and devices which use power—refrig­




erating and air-conditioning equipment, elevators,
machine tools, printing presses, steel rolling mills,
and many others. Mechanical engineers often
supervise the installation, operation, and mainte­
nance o f industrial machinery. Since virtually
all industries use machines and require power,
the work of the mechanical engineer underlies
all kinds o f industrial operations.
Because the field of mechanical engineering is
so broad, many specialized areas o f work have
developed within it. Among them are motor
vehicles, marine equipment, railroad equipment,
steam power, heating, ventilating and air-condi­
tioning, hydraulics or fluid mechanics, instru­
mentation, ordnance and machines for specialized

ENGINEERING

109

Though mechanical engineers are to be found
in all parts o f the country, the large majority
are in nine States: New York, California, Ohio,
Michigan, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Massachusetts, and Texas.
Employment Outlook

Research engineers using an analogue computor to simulate the
effects of road conditions on a car's springs and other parts,
and thus "proving ou t" the feasibility of new designs before
these parts are manufactured.

industries, such as petroleum, rubber and plastics,
and woodworking.
Where Employed

Mechanical engineers are employed in every
major branch o f manufacturing and in many
nonmanufacturing industries. The largest num­
bers, however, are in the machinery, fabricated
metal products, transportation equipment, iron
and steel, and other metalworking industries. A
number are employed in government agencies,
educational institutions, and consulting engineer­
ing firms or as independent consulting engineers.

Mechanical engineering has been among the
most rapidly growing branches o f engineering in
recent decades, particularly since W orld W ar II.
The tremendous growth of the metalworking in­
dustries, stimulated by the mobilization program
undertaken in mid-1950 and the defense program
o f more recent years, has resulted in a constantly
increasing demand for mechanical engineers. The
rapid expansion of research and development ac­
tivities in these industries has also added to the
demand for mechanical engineers’ services.
The outlook is for further rapid growth in this
branch o f the profession both in the early 1960’s
and over the long run. The metalworking indus­
tries are expected to continue to expand. More­
over, newer areas o f work, such as atomic energy,
weapons development, and automation will prob­
ably provide additional openings for large num­
bers o f mechanical engineers as well as for other
engineers and scientists.
Besides those needed to fill new positions,
sizable numbers o f mechanical engineers are re­
quired each year to replace those who retire or
die. Recent estimates placed this number at ap­
proximately 2,300 in 1958, and it will rise slowly
in the future. (See introductory section o f this
chapter for discussion on earnings and where to
go for more information.)

M e ta llu rg ica l En g in ee rs
(D.O.T. 0-14.10 and .20)

Nature of Work

Metallurgical engineers are concerned with the
processing of metals and their conversion into
commercial products. These engineers usually
work in one of two main branches o f metallurgy.
The first o f these, extractive metallurgy, deals
with the extraction of metals from their ores, and
with refining and related processes. The other




branch, physical metallurgy, deals with the con­
tent and structure of metals and their alloys and
with methods of converting refined metals into
final products having a specified strength and
hardness or other desired properties.
Persons working in the field of metallurgy are
sometimes referred to interchangeably as metal­
lurgists or metallurgical engineers. However,
those known as metallurgists are likely to be en-

110

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

gaged in such activities as research and devel­
opment or analysis and testing; whereas, those
with the title o f metallurgical engineers are en­
gaged mainly in directing the processing o f ores.
Where Employed

Metallurgical engineers are employed chiefly in
metalworking industries—especially in the iron
and steel and nonferrous metals industries. The
metal mining industry also employs substantial
numbers. Small numbers hold positions in other
industries, government agencies, consulting firms,
research organizations, and educational institu­
tions.
Most metallurgical engineers are in the large
metal-fabricating centers o f the country, mainly
in Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Michigan, New
York, and California. Those employed in the
mining industry are naturally located chiefly in
metal mining regions.
Employment Outlook

Metallurgical engineering is one o f the smaller
branches o f the profession and opportunities for

new entrants in any one year are relatively few.
Nevertheless, in recent years there has been a
strong demand both for new graduates and for
persons with experience in metallurgical engi­
neering.
Employment in this small branch o f the pro­
fession is expected to grow rapidly, both in the
early 1960’s and over the long run. The metal­
working industries will continue to expand, and
increasing numbers o f metallurgical engineers
will be needed to work on problems involved in
the adaptation o f metals and alloys to specific
needs. The development o f such items as super­
sonic aircraft, jet engines, and guided missiles,
for example, has created numerous new problems
for the metallurgical engineer. Also, the atomic
energy program has opened the door to a whole
new field in the study o f metals and their uses.
As the supply o f high grade ores is depleted,
problems involved in processing low grade ores
will further increase the need for metallurgical
engineers. (See introductory section o f this chap­
ter for discussion on earnings and where to go
for more information.)

M in in g En g in eers
(D.O.T. 0-20.01 and .11)

Nature of Work

Mining engineers are responsible for the effi­
cient extraction of minerals from the earth. They
plan and supervise the construction o f mine shafts
and tunnels, devise means o f extracting rhe min­
erals, and plan the methods to be used in trans­
porting the minerals to the surface. Mining en­
gineers also design and supervise the installation
o f water supplies, electric light and power facili­
ties, and ventilation equipment in mines. They
direct the operation o f mines and are responsible
for mine safety.
Some mining engineers work with geologists
and other specialists in searching for ore-bearing
rock or for deposits of petroleum, coal, or other
minerals. When a mineral deposit is located, the
mining engineer is often called upon to appraise
its value.
Mining engineers frequently specialize in the
extraction o f a particular type o f mineral—met­
als, coal, nonmetallic minerals, or petroleum and




natural gas. (Petroleum engineering has become
so specialized that it is rapidly becoming recog­
nized as a separate branch o f the profession.)
Specialization o f mining engineers may also ex­
tend to a particular type o f work, such as mine
safety, mine appraisal, or exploration.
Where Employed

Mining engineers are usually employed at the
location o f mineral deposits. They may work near
small communities or in out-of-the-way places—
in mountains or deserts. Those engaged in re­
search, teaching, management, or consulting may,
however, be located in large metropolitan areas.
Large numbers are employed in Texas, Pennsyl­
vania, West Virginia, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Ken­
tucky, and California.
Employment Outlook

Since mining engineering is one o f the smaller
branches o f the profession, opportunities for new
entrants in any one year are relatively few. In

ENGINEERING

recent years, employment prospects for new grad­
uates with a degree in mining engineering have
been less favorable than for those in most other
branches o f engineering. The best opportunities
have been in the exploration field— for graduates
with considerable training in geology, geophysics,
and other aspects o f exploration technology.
Mining engineering is expected to grow over
the long run, although more slowly than most
other branches o f the profession. As needs for
metals increase with the expansion o f industry,
and easily mined deposits are exhausted, mining
engineers will be needed to devise ways o f mining
poorer deposits or those which are more difficult




111

to work at a competitive cost. Additional areas
o f employment for mining engineers will arise
as the development o f new alloys and the discov­
ery o f new uses for metals increase the demand
for the less widely used ores. In the petroleum
industry, which has so far drawn chiefly upon
the richer and more accessible oil fields, explora­
tion crews including mining engineers with train­
ing in exploration technology will be needed to
locate and exploit new oil fields, both in the
United States and in other areas o f the world.
(See introductory section o f this chapter for dis­
cussion on earnings and where to go for more
information.)

P H Y S IC A L A N D EA R T H SCIEN CES
Natural science—the sum o f man’s knowledge
o f the physical world and o f the animals- and
plants in it—had its beginnings many centuries
ago. A t first, scientific knowledge was so limited
that men o f science did not need to specialize.
Aristotle, for example, was familiar with all the
science known in his day and was the author of
books on both physics and animal life. Gradually,
however, the body o f scientific knowledge became
too great for one individual to grasp in its en­
tirety, and scientists became specialists in differ­
ent fields.
Today, the natural sciences are customarily
grouped into several broad categories: physical
sciences—chemistry, physics, astronomy, mathe­
matics; earth sciences—geology, geophysics, geo­
chemistry, meteorology; and life sciences—includ­
ing agricultural, animal, and plant sciences and
microbiology. Furthermore, most scientists now
specialize in subdivisions o f these broad fields.
Physicists, for example, are usually specialists in
such areas as nuclear physics or optics; chemists,
in such branches as organic or inorganic chem­
istry.
The trend toward finer subdivision o f the
sciences has, in recent years, gone hand in hand
with a blurring o f the lines between the different
specialties. Information and techniques devel­
oped by scientists working in one field have often,
with some new discovery, become the basis for
the solution o f problems in a different field. New
specialties, such as geophysics and biochemistry,
have come into being through a combination of
the knowledge o f two or more sciences. Thus, the
total body o f scientific knowledge is interrelated
in many ways. No one branch o f the natural
sciences is entirely independent o f all others. This
chapter is, however, concerned chiefly with the
physical and earth sciences. The biological sci­
ences are discussed in the next chapter, and the
agricultural sciences in the chapter on agricul­
tural occupations.
It would be hard to exaggerate the importance
o f the natural sciences to the country’s economic
welfare and to the national defense. Neverthe­
less, they are relatively small fields o f employ112




ment. The total number o f scientists, including
biological scientists, at all levels o f professional
training was about 300,000 in 1958, or about 1
scientist for every 230 workers in the labor force.
Total employment in 1958 in the largest o f the
sciences—chemistry—was about 120,000.
Employment in the natural sciences has been
increasing steadily. From 1930 to 1958, when the
population as a whole increased more than 40
percent, the number o f scientists increased more
than 500 percent. A substantial part o f this
growth has occurred since the end o f W orld
W ar II.
The rapid growth in the demand for natural
scientists is a reflection o f scientific discoveries
which have led to new and improved products
and processes in a wide variety o f industrial
fields. Developments in recent years in aircraft
and missiles, in television and radar, in atomic
energy and associated technologies, and in a mul­
titude o f chemical products are among the best
known examples, but they are only samples o f
a large number o f uses o f science in the produc­
tion o f necessities and conveniences for modern
life. The sciences which have contributed most
conspicuously to these developments are chem­
istry, physics, and mathematics. A number of
life science specialties have also played important
roles.
Some scientific specialties, such as astronomy
and certain branches o f mathematics, are still
chiefly in the academic realm, with colleges and
universities providing most o f the employment
opportunities. For many o f the natural science
professions, however, large fields o f employment
have opened up in the laboratories o f business
and government during the past four decades.
After W orld W ar I, developments in the science
o f chemistry formed the basis for a rapid growth
o f the chemical industry, and a consequent great
expansion in the chemical profession. Physics be­
came industrially important during the 1920’s and
1930’s and has grown very rapidly since W orld
War II. Mathematics has always been o f funda­
mental importance to industry but its period o f
very rapid growth, the seeds o f which were sown

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

during W orld War II, began in the late 1940’s
and early 1950’s. Although chemistry fathered a
new industry, the impact o f physics and mathe­
matics has not been predominant in any one
industry but rather in a number o f different
manufacturing industries, notably electronics,
professional and scientific instruments, and air­
craft.
Generally speaking, scientific specialties which
do not have large-scale industrial applications are
very small fields of employment— affording op­
portunities chiefly in teaching for persons with
advanced training. In order to offer sizable em­
ployment opportunities for persons with only 4
years of college training, a science must have de­
veloped a field o f application— for example, in
production or testing activities— where profes­
sional work can consist o f applying established
principles or already existing knowledge to the
solution o f practical problems, rather than in
conducting research.
A longrun trend toward higher training re­
quirements is apparent in all the natural sciences.
There is a tendency to require more advanced
degrees for many positions, especially in research,
and there is also a growing need for more training
in related sciences. The trend toward greater
specialization and the blurring o f the lines of
demarcation between the traditional fields, men­
tioned earlier, have made it necessary for a scien­
tist to know not only his own field but also those
parts o f other fields that are related to his work.
Thus, the chemist who studies the effects o f chem­
icals on plant and animal tissues must have a
thorough knowledge o f both biology and chem­
istry.
Future trends of employment in the sciences will
be influenced primarily by two main factors—

113

the demand for college and university teachers,
and the amount of expenditure for research and
product development. College and university
teaching is an important source o f employment
for scientists with graduate training, particularly
those with Ph. D .’s. The expected expansion in
college enrollments during the 1960’s and beyond
will undoubtedly result in an increased demand
for qualified scientists as teachers. (Refer to
index for page number of statement on College
and University Teachers.)
Expenditures for research and development are
an even more important factor influencing the
trend of employment in many fields of science.
Funds for these purposes expended by the Federal
Government, and by private industry and other
sources, have grown greatly since W orld W ar II.
The Federal Government, which has been the
source of about half o f these funds, increased its
research and development spending more than 700
percent between 1941 and 1956, primarily in con­
nection with national defense. Total expenditures
for research and development in 1958 were esti­
mated at more than $10 billion, and have un­
doubtedly risen substantially since then. E x­
penditures for research and development by
industry and government are expected to continue
their expansion over the long run, and so should
continue to support the upward trend in employ­
ment of scientists. However, materially reduced
defense expenditures would slow down or halt,
temporarily, the growth of scientific employment,
as would any major decline in' the general level
of economic activity.
The employment outlook in the major branches
of the physical and earth sciences—chemistry,
geology, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology,
and physics—is discussed in more detail in the
following statements on each of these fields.

C h em ists
(D.O.T. 0-07.02 through .65)

Nature of Work

Most people think o f the chemist as someone
in a white coat working in a laboratory with
a maze o f glass tubing and intricate apparatus.
This picture is reasonably accurate. The ma­
jority of chemists are employed in laboratories,
506397 O— 59-




-9

primarily in research and development or in an­
alysis and testing work. Those engaged in re­
search and development usually work on applied
research projects aimed at creating new products
or improving and finding new uses for existing
ones. Detergents, antibiotics and other wonder
drugs, fabrics made from synthetic fibers, and

114

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Chemists often work with com plex laboratory apparatus.

rocket fuels are only a few examples o f the vast
range of products which research chemists have
helped to create. In addition, some research
chemists work on basic research projects; their
interest is in extending scientific knowledge, not
in solving immediate practical problems. How­
ever, many o f the startling discoveries affecting
our w of life have stemmed from basic research.
ray
For example, new knowledge of the chemical
effects of radiation— what happens when a mole­
cule is struck by gamma rays moving at a tre­
mendous speed—is now being applied to the
development of new methods o f food sterilization
which may radically affect the way in which we
preserve our food.
Chemists engaged in analysis and testing, an­
other major activity, analyze the composition of
substances and test them to determine their qual­
ity, purity, and other characteristics. Tests of
various kinds must be made at almost every stage
in the manufacture of a product, from its initial
development until it is finally sold.
Other activities in which sizable numbers of
chemists are employed include administrative
work and college teaching. Smaller numbers of
chemists are employed by chemical and other
companies to sell their products, particularly




where the salesmen must be able to discuss the
technical aspects of products and provide advice
to the customer on how they can be used. Still
other activities in which some chemists are em­
ployed include supervision of production proc­
esses, patent work, technical writing, purchasing
raw materials, and marketing research. A few
are self-employed as independent consultants.
Because of chemistry’s vast scope, chemists
usually specialize in one of the five main branches
—organic, inorganic, physical, analytical chem­
istry, or biochemistry. They may even specialize
in a subdivision of one of these branches. Or­
ganic chemists, the largest group, usually deal
with carbon compounds—substances chiefly de­
rived from animal and vegetable matter. Inor­
ganic chemists are chiefly concerned with com­
pounds o f other elements, including most of the
minerals and metals. Physical chemists study
the quantitative relationships between chemical
and physical properties of both organic and in­
organic substances— for example, how these sub­
stances are affected by electricity, pressure, heat,
and light. Biochemists are concerned chiefly with
chemical reactions occurring in plants and ani­
mals, such as the effects of food or chemicals on
plant and animal tissues, and with the influence
of chemicals on life processes. Analytical chem­
ists determine the exact chemical composition of
substances and thereby provide controls for all
types of chemical operations.
Some chemists specialize in a particular in­
dustry or product such as petroleum or plastics.
In many instances, such work requires a knowl­
edge of more than one branch of chemistry. The
specialist in plastics, for example, may have to
use physical as well as organic chemistry.
Regardless of their field of employment or spe­
cialization, however, all chemists are concerned
in one way or another with the fundamentals of
chemistry—the composition and properties of
substances and how they can be changed— and
also with the processes required to obtain sub­
stances from nature or produce them synthetically
and the ways in which they can be put to prac­
tical use.
Where Employed

Chemistry is by far the largest field of em­
ployment in the natural sciences. There were

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

approximately 120,000 chemists in the country in
1958, about 10 percent of whom were women.
Most chemists—almost three-fourths in 1958—
are in private industry, primarily in manufac­
turing.
The chemical industry employs the
largest number (about 30,000), but manufacturers
of such diverse products as food, electrical equip­
ment, rubber, and metals, also use thousands of
chemists. Sizable numbers o f chemists are also
employed as teachers in colleges and universities,
and by Federal, State, and local government
agencies. Smaller numbers are employed by re­
search institutes and consulting services, and a
few are in a variety of other fields o f employment.
The greatest numbers o f chemists are con­
centrated in the major metropolitan areas o f New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Cali­
fornia, and Ohio.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry
is usually considered the minimum entrance re­
quirement for beginning chemists. Graduate
training is highly desirable, particularly for
teaching and research jobs.
Chemists with the bachelor’s or master’s degree
are most likely to find employment in manufactur­
ing industries—particularly in industrial chem­
icals. Sizable numbers also find opportunities
as research workers in government agencies.
Many of those with master’s degrees are employed
as graduate assistants or instructors in colleges
and universities while taking further graduate
work.
In private industry, chemists with the bache­
lor’s or master’s degree usually begin as trainees
in laboratory research or development work, in
analysis, testing, quality control, technical service,
production, or sales. With additional experience
they may advance to positions o f greater respon­
sibility including high-level research and man­
agement positions. Many industrial employers
have special training programs for chemistry
graduates. These programs are designed to sup­
plement college training with specific industry
techniques and to aid in determining the type
o f work best suited to the individual.
The doctorate is an extremely valuable asset in
obtaining most types o f employment in the chem­
ical profession. It is considered to be particularly




115

important for obtaining jobs in basic research
and is usually essential for a career in college
teaching. Those receiving the Ph. D. degree are
most likely to enter research and development
work or teaching. In fields such as biochemistry
and physical chemistry, in which teaching and
research positions are predominant, the doctorate
is necessary for a high proportion o f the jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
chemistry graduates are expected to be very good
during the early 1960’s, and the longrun outlook
is for continued expansion o f employment in the
profession. It is anticipated that the industries
employing most chemists will grow’ at a rapid
rate. In particular, the chemical industry, which
employed about one-fourth of all chemists in
1958, is expected to expand its employment con­
siderably faster than industry in general. In
this industry and many others, continued expan­
sion of research and development activities (in
which almost half of all chemists are employed)
r
is expected to accompany and contribute to in­
dustrial growth. Not only is further expansion
anticipated in the research organizations o f large
companies, but more and more small and mediumsize companies are instituting or expanding
research programs which will require the services
of chemists. Furthermore, the enormous rise in
enrollments anticipated in colleges and univer­
sities will result in many openings in teaching.
(See index for page number o f statement on
College and University Teachers.)
In addition to those needed for expansion in
employment, many chemists will have to be
trained each year to replace those who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations. Losses to the
profession from retirements and deaths were esti­
mated to be approximately 1,200 in 1958 and will
rise slowly in the future.
Along with the expected growth in demand for
chemists, a steady increase in the number o f
chemistry graduates is expected. Assuming that
the proportion of college graduates majoring in
chemistry and biochemistry remains the same as
in recent years, the number of bachelor’s degrees
conferred in these fields in the late 1960’s and
early 1970’s may be twice the number conferred
in 1958. The numbers o f master’s and Ph. D.

116

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

degrees conferred each year are likely to rise
correspondingly.
Even after allowance is made for the fact that
many graduates with the bachelor’s and master’s
degree in chemistry continue with graduate work,
go on to studies in such related fields as medicine,
or for other reasons do not seek work in the field
o f chemistry, it appears that a large number of
new graduates at all degree levels will be available
for work in the field during the 1960’s. Thus,
there may be increased competition for the better
paying professional entry positions in chemistry.
However, the rising demand for chemistry grad­
uates with ability and thorough training will
continue to provide favorable opportunities for
employment and advancement for such graduates
for many years to come.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Chemistry graduates with bachelor’s degrees
and no experience had a median starting salary
o f $430 per month, according to a 1958 survey
conducted by the American Chemical Society.
For graduates with the master’s degree but no
experience, the median starting salary was $511
and for those with the Ph. D. degree, $675.
Women graduates had a lower median salary than
men—$374 compared with $440. Some graduates,
o f course, earned more and others less than these
median salaries. Nearly all (90 percent) o f those
with bachelor’s degrees and no experience re­
ceived more than $319 and a few (10 percent)
received more than $485. Starting salaries for
90 percent of the Ph. D .’s were more than $483
per month, and 10 percent o f them received more
than $725. The American Chemical Society sur­
vey also showed the following median monthly
starting salaries for chemists in different fields
o f employment:
B a ch elo r’ s
degree

Academic
_ _
_
_ __
_
_ __
_
Government (Federal, State, and
city)------------------------------------------Research instituteIndustrial____
______
_____
Biological and pharmaceutical-Chemical
Food
_______ _ _
Petroleum
________ ____
Plastics_____
_ _____
_
Other._
__
_
.
1Not available.




D o c to r ’ s
degree

$365

$500

375
358
450
400
450
420
465
450
433

0)
0)

700
0)

700
0)

685
700
700

In the Federal Government service, starting
salaries for chemists with the bachelor’s degree
and no experience were either $4,490 or $5,430 a
year in 1958 depending on the individual’s college
record. Chemists with the master’s degree were
eligible to start at $5,430 or $6,285, and those
with the Ph. D. degree at $7,510. In addition,
the salary schedule calls for periodic increases
above these base salaries.
In general, chemists’ salaries depend on the
type o f employer for whom they work, the kind
o f work they do, the extent and quality of their
education, and the amount of their professional
experience, as well as individual ability. For
example, salaries o f chemists employed in private
industry or by Federal Government agencies are
usually much higher than salaries paid by edu­
cational institutions. On the other hand, chem­
ists in educational institutions can sometimes
supplement their salaries with income from spe­
cial research projects, consulting work, publica­
tions, or employment during their vacations.
Within a particular field o f employment,
chemists with Ph. D. degrees usually earn con­
siderably more than those with bachelor’s or
master’s degrees with the same amount of experi­
ence. Furthermore, earnings levels are higher
in some types of work than in others. For ex­
ample, chemists in administration and industrial
research tend to earn more than those with
comparable experience in analysis and testing.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on schools, scholarships, earnings,
and other subjects may be obtained from :
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW „ Washington 6, D.C.

Additional information on opportunities in the
field o f chemistry may also be obtained from :
Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

For additional sources of information, see also
Chemical Engineers, Industrial Chemicals Indus­
try, Petroleum Production and Refining and
Plastics Products Manufacturing.
(Refer to
index for page numbers.)

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

117

Physicists
(D.O.T. 0-35.73)

Nature of Work

Physics is concerned with energy in all its
forms, with the structure of matter, and with the
relationships between matter and energy. Often
considered the most fundamental o f all the sci­
ences, physics was a small though growing science
prior to W orld War II. During the past 20 years,
however, physicists have made spectacular con­
tributions in the fields of atomic energy, elec­
tronics, cosmic rays, and many other areas, and
the profession has expanded greatly.
Most physicists are engaged in research or
college teaching, and many do both. A sizable
number conduct basic research, designed to in­
crease scientific knowledge without regard to its
practical applications. This latter group includes
both “ experimental” and “ theoretical” physicists.
Experimental physicists make careful, systematic
observations and perform experiments to identify
and measure the elements of matter and energy
and their interactions; for example, they may
try to determine the density o f charged particles
in the upper atmosphere or the lifetime of sub­
atomic particles. In their research, they use
apparatus such as geiger counters, spectrographs,

A physicist preparing a particle accelerator (or an experiment.




X-ray and electron diffraction cameras, and phase
and electron microscopes. When their research
requires new kinds of instruments, they design
and sometimes build them. Theoretical physicists,
on the other hand, seek to work out theories or
systems of equations which describe in mathe­
matical terms the relationship between physical
phenomena. They may use no apparatus at all
but work out their theories on paper. The the­
ories they develop sometimes help to guide ex­
periments.
However, experimental physicists
frequently help to test theories. The difference
between these two groups of research physicists
is largely one o f emphasis.
Physicists often apply the theories and meth­
odology of their science to problems arising out
o f other sciences, including geology, biology,
chemistry, and astronomy. Some people have
become specialists in both physics and related
sciences. Thus, in recent years, a number of new
scientific specialties have developed on the border­
line between physics and other fields—geophysics,
biophysics, physical chemistry, and astrophysics.
Furthermore, the work done by physicists con­
cerned with the practical application o f the
science has increasingly merged with engineering.
A large number of physicists are engaged in
applied research work. They attempt to use the
knowledge gained from basic research to solve
practical problems and to develop new devices
and products for industry or for national defense.
For example, the work of physicists specializing
in solid-state physics led to the development of
transistors, which are being used in place of
vacuum tubes in many types o f electronic equip­
ment, from hearing aids to guidance systems in
aircraft and missiles.
Modern physics covers such a large area of
knowledge that most physicists specialize in one
or more branches of the science—mechanics, heat,
light, sound, electricity and magnetism, elec­
tronics, atomic and molecular phenomena, nuclear
physics, classical theoretical physics, or quantum
mechanics. This list of fields is neither final nor
complete, however, since modem physics is chang­
ing and expanding in too many ways to be neatly
arranged in compartments. Moreover, physics
specialties have a close interrelationship, and
maiiy physicists do work which cuts across a
number o f specialties. Every specialty of the
profession utilizes principles drawn from other

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

branches o f physics, and all rest on the same
fundamental principles.
Where Employed

An estimated 30,000 physicists were employed
in the United States in 1958. The largest number
o f physicists— about half o f the total—are em­
ployed by private industry. Approximately 20
percent work for colleges and universities, and
between 10 and 15 percent for Federal Govern­
ment agencies. The remainder are employed
chiefly by research institutes, foundations and
other nonprofit organizations, and by independent
commercial laboratories.
There are relatively few women physicists—
about 3 percent, according to data from the
National Science Foundation’s National Kegister
o f Scientific and Technical Personnel.
The industries employing the most physicists
are electrical equipment and aircraft manufac­
turing. These two industries employed more
than half o f all physicists in industry in 1957.
Other industries utilizing relatively large num­
bers of physicists are professional and scientific
instruments, chemicals, petroleum, telecommunica­
tions and broadcasting, and machinery. Most
physicists in private industry work chiefly on
research and development projects.
Although teaching is, of course, the main ac­
tivity o f most physicists in college and university
positions, many o f those employed by such insti­
tutions work full time in research, often on
projects conducted for the Federal Government.
Part o f the Atomic Energy Commission’s re­
search, for example, is done in laboratories op­
erated by universities.
The Government agencies employing the most
physicists are the Department of Defense, the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
and the National Bureau o f Standards o f the
Department of Commerce. A few members of
the profession work directly for the Atomic
Energy Commission, the Department o f the In­
terior, and the Department of Agriculture.
Training and Other Qualifications

One of the chief personal qualifications needed
for a career in physics is a highly inquisitive
mind. An aptitude for mathematics is also re­
quired.




A bachelor’s degree with a major in physics
is usually the minimum educational requirement
for employment as a physicist. Graduate train­
ing, preferably a doctor’s degree, is highly de­
sirable. As much mathematics as possible should
be included in the studies o f anyone interested
in becoming a physicist; a serious deficiency in
this subject is difficult to overcome.
Doctor’s degrees are required for some posi­
tions and are definitely preferred for many others.
The Ph. D. degree is usually necessary for full
professional status on the teaching faculty o f a
college or university. In research projects at
such schools, the greatest demand is also for
physicists with the extensive training represented
by the doctor’s degree. Many private companies
also prefer to hire physicists with Ph. D. degrees
because of the complex nature of their research
problems.
Physicists with master’s degrees usually qualify
for applied research activities in private industry,
educational institutions, and the Government, and
for appointment as physics instructors in some
colleges and universities. Frequently, graduate
students working towards a doctor’s degree are
assigned to teach beginning courses in physics,
conduct laboratory sessions, or aid senior faculty
members on research projects.
Most physicists with bachelor’s degrees find
jobs with private industry or the Federal Gov­
ernment, usually in applied research and develop­
ment work. Some physicists with the bachelor’s
degree become graduate research assistants in
colleges and universities while working toward
advanced degrees. An undergraduate major in
physics is seldom sufficient, however, for full pro­
fessional development as a physicist. Many per­
sons with only a bachelor’s degree in the science
do not work as physicists but go into nontechnical
work or, sometimes, into engineering positions.
Approximately 70 schools awarded Ph. D. de­
grees and about 130 gave master’s degrees in
1957. Well over 550 colleges and universities
had a department of physics which offered an
undergraduate major in physics. In addition,
many engineering schools offer a physics major
as part o f the general engineering curriculum.
Many schools have also set up an engineering
physics or industrial physics curriculum leading
to a bachelor’s degree, which provides training in
“ applied physics in an engineering atmosphere.”

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

A few schools are offering graduate as well as
undergraduate training in applied physics. In­
dustrial firms are becoming increasingly inter­
ested in obtaining personnel with this combination
of physics and engineering training.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued growth in employ­
ment of physicists, both in the early 1960’s and
over the long run. As in recent years, there
will probably be a particular demand for physi­
cists with Ph. D. degrees who are qualified to
teach advanced physics courses and do basic
research or advanced applied research and de­
velopment work. Modern physics is becoming so
broad and complex, and is expanding so rapidly,
that the advanced training represented by the
Ph. D. degree is becoming more and more im­
portant. Research organizations, whether those
of government, universities, or industry, have had
considerable difficulty in satisfying their require­
ments for physicists with advanced degrees.
Their needs for such physicists will probably
continue to increase.
Among the major factors which have made
physics one of the most rapidly growing science
fields in the last decade have been the high levels
of Government spending for defense and the
growth of expenditures for research and develop­
ment. Total expenditures for scientific research
and development in the United States increased
from $5.4 billion in 1953 to more than $10 billion
in 1958, and have continued to grow since then.
Much of this increase has been in the aircraft
and parts, electrical equipment, and other sciencebased industries which employ large numbers of
physicists.
In all probability, private industry and the
Federal Government will continue to increase
their expenditures for scientific research and de­
velopment and thus raise the demand for physi­
cists. I f the growth in research expenditures
should slacken, however, the demand for physi­
cists would be reduced accordingly.
Demand for physicists qualified to teach in
colleges and universities is expected to increase
substantially in the next decade, both to take care
o f the much larger enrollments expected in the
1960’s and to meet the growing need for advanced
physics training in other science fields and in




119

engineering. During the late 1950’s, many schools
were unable to recruit sufficient numbers o f well
qualified physics teachers, and this problem may
well become more acute during the 1960’s. (See
index for page number o f statement on College
and University Teachers.)
Along with the anticipated rise in demand for
physicists, an increase is expected in the number
of physics graduates. In 1958, 4,445 degrees
were awarded in physics— 3,186 bachelor’s, 795
master’s, and 464 Ph. D. degrees. I f the propor­
tion o f college graduates majoring in physics
remains the same as in recent years, the number
o f physics graduates will rise—steadily during
the early 1960’s and at an accelerated rate there­
after. Nevertheless, it is anticipated that the
demand for persons trained as physicists, par­
ticularly at the Ph. D. level, will be greater than
the number of new graduates available, and very
good employment opportunities for physics grad­
uates are in prospect through the early 1960’s at
least, and probably for much longer.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for physicists with bachelor’s
degrees ranged from approximately $5,400 to
$6,300 a year in private industry in 1958, accord­
ing to the limited information available. Physi­
cists with master’s degrees received starting sal­
aries about $600 to $1,200 higher than those of
bachelor’s. Annual salaries for new graduates
with the Ph. D. degree ranged roughly from
$7,000 to $10,000.
In Federal Government positions, in early
1959, physicists with bachelor’s degrees and no
experience could begin at either $4,490 or $5,430,
depending on their college record. Inexperienced
physicists with 1 full year o f graduate study
could begin at $5,430; those with 2 full years
of graduate study at $6,285. Physicists with the
Ph. D. degree could start at $7,510. In addition,
the Federal salary schedule calls for periodic
increases above these basic salaries.
Most physicists can look forward to a marked
increase in earnings as they gain experience.
According to the National Science Foundation’s
1956-58 Register o f Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, about 15 percent o f the physicists report­
ing in the survey earned more than $12,000 a

120

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

year, and about 2 percent earned more than
$ 20,000.

In general, physicists in private industry tend
to have higher incomes than those in other types
o f employment. For example, the median an­
nual professional income o f physicists was more
than 15 percent greater in private industry than
in Government employment, and about 30 percent
greater than in colleges and universities, accord­
ing to the 1956-58 Register.
Within a particular field of employment,
Ph. D.’s usually earn considerably more than bach­

elors or masters. In private industry, according
to the same 1956-58 survey, the median income
o f Ph. D. physicists was about 25 percent greater
than that o f physicists with master’s degrees and
about 40 percent greater than that of bachelors.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the physics profes­
sion may be obtained from :
American Institute of Physics,
335 Bast 45th St., New York 17, N.Y.

G eo lo g ists
(D.O.T. 0-35.63)

Nature of Work

Geology is the science of the earth. Geologists
study the structure and history o f the earth as
disclosed by rock formations on and under the
earth’s surface and by fossil remains o f animal
and vegetable life. They search for minerals and
fuels and study the physical processes by which
changes in the earth’s structure and surface fea­
tures take place.
Most geologists spend a large part o f their time
in field work, usually in exploring areas to deter­
mine the underground structure of the earth and
the kinds o f minerals or rocks that may be dis­
covered there. Field work may involve studying
rock cores and cuttings brought up by drills,
examining fossils, collecting geological specimens,
and recording data in notebooks or on working
maps and aerial photographs. Geologists also
spend considerable time in the laboratory, exam­
ining geological specimens and doing research.
A large number perform administrative func­
tions and, to an increasing extent, geologists are
advancing to executive positions, especially in the
petroleum and mining industries. In colleges
and universities, geologists often combine teach­
ing with research and administrative work.
Geologists usually specialize in one particular
branch o f the science. Economic geologists find
and develop mineral resources. Petroleum geol­
ogists,, who locate new deposits of oil and gas,
are also economic geologists but are generally
regarded as a separate category o f specialists,
mainly because they make up the large majority




o f all geologists. Engineering geologists apply
geological knowledge to the solution o f engineer­
ing problems, such as the construction o f tunnels,
airfields, and dams. Ground-water geologists
study the sources, amount, and quality o f water

G eologist studying core samples to determine the presence o f
oil or oil-bearing formations.

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

under the earth’s surface which is available for
use in agriculture, industry, and homes. Paleon­
tologists are concerned with the identification and
classification o f the fossils o f animals and plants
from past geological periods. Stratigraphers
study the arrangement and relationships o f rock
layers forming the earth’s crust. Petrographers
study rocks, their origin, and composition. Min­
eralogists are concerned with the physical and
chemical properties o f minerals and the ways o f
classifying them and of distinguishing them from
each other. Geomorphologists are concerned with
the form o f the earth’s surface and with the
forces—such as erosion, glaciation, and sedimen­
tation— which cause changes in the landscape.
Structural geologists study the structure o f rocks
and the physical processes which have produced
their structure.
Where Employed

There were about 14,000 to 15,000 geologists in
the United States in 1958, representing approxi­
mately half o f all earth scientists in the country.
Most geologists—probably about 3 out o f every
4— work for private industry. The great major­
ity o f these are in the petroleum and natural gas
industry, which utilizes personnel in this profes­
sion chiefly in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and
California, although it also employs some in
nearly all other States and in foreign countries.
In addition, some geologists are employed by
mining and construction companies, railroads,
public utilities, and manufacturing concerns—es­
pecially in the metal, stone, and clay products
industries. A number o f geologists are employed
by consulting firms or work as independent con­
sultants where their services are utilized mainly
by private companies interested in exploration
for, and extraction of, minerals and fuels.
The next largest fields o f employment for
geologists are the Federal Government, and col­
leges and universities. The large majority of
geologists in Federal Government positions work
for the Geological Survey o f the Department of
the Interior. Other Federal agencies employing
geologists include the Atomic Energy Commis­
sion, the Corps o f Engineers o f the Department
of the Army, and the Soil Conservation Service of
the Department o f Agriculture. State govern­
ment agencies also employ a number o f geolo­




121

gists, many o f whom work on State surveys con­
ducted in cooperation with the U.S. Geological
Survey. Most government positions are located
in the United States, though some Federal jobs
are in the possessions and in foreign countries.
Geologists in colleges and universities teach not
only in departments o f geology but also in min­
ing, metallurgical, civil engineering, and other
departments. A few geologists work for museums
and nonprofit research institutions.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people wishing to become geologists
generally need at least a bachelor’s degree with
a major in geology, and graduate training is re­
quired for an ever increasing number o f jobs.
Some scientists, however, have entered the pro­
fession with training in petroleum and geological
engineering or in related sciences.
Training in geology is offered by a sizable
number o f colleges, universities, and institutes of
technology. In 1957, according to the U.S. Office
o f Education, bachelor’s degrees in the science
were awarded by 200 institutions, master’s de­
grees by 80, and doctorate’s, by 37.
In most colleges and universities, students ma­
joring in geology devote about a fourth o f the
total semester hours during the 4 years o f under­
graduate study to geology courses. Usually,
about a third of the work is in related natural
sciences and in mathematics, and the remainder
is in general studies, such as English composi­
tion, economics, and foreign languages. However,
some colleges provide a more intensive program
o f studies leading to a bachelor’s degree in geol­
ogy, which allows as much as half o f the under­
graduate course work to be taken in the major
field. In some schools o f engineering that offer
undergraduate programs in petroleum engineer­
ing and petroleum geology, as much as 90 per­
cent of the work may be taken in the major field
and related subjects.
For entry positions in private industry, the
bachelor’s degree may be adequate preparation,
especially when the applicant’s scientific training
has been thorough and has included extensive
laboratory and summer field work. However, at
least 1 year o f experience in the field is com­
monly necessary before a beginning geologist

122

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

with a bachelor’s degree is placed in a profes­
sional position; many o f the large oil companies
have formal training programs to acquaint the
beginner with their operations.
Although a number o f new graduates with
bachelor’s degrees in geology are employed by
the Federal Government, persons with graduate
training are preferred by some agencies. Certain
Federal agencies also appoint promising under­
graduates to summer jobs; upon graduation, such
students may receive permanent positions with
the agencies.
Postgraduate training is extremely helpful to
geologists in competing for many professional
positions, and may be important for advancement
to the more desirable positions. The Ph. D. de­
gree is usually essential for college teaching ca­
reers and for many research posts.
The student who plans a career in geology
should have an aptitude for science and mathe­
matics. He should like outdoor activities and
have considerable physical stamina, since geo­
logical field work frequently necessitates camping
out, often under primitive conditions. A will­
ingness to travel is important, in view o f the
frequency with which geologists are required to
move from place to place in the course o f their
employment.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for geologists with
master’s and doctor’s degrees are expected to be
good through the early 1960’s. Geologists with
only the bachelor’s degree, however, will prob­
ably encounter heavy competition for professional
positions.
The outlook is for continued growth o f the
profession both in the near future and over the
long run. It is anticipated that the petroleum
industry will expand in this country, and that
a moderate increase will occur in employment o f
geologists for exploration activities in the United
States. It is also expected that major oil com­
panies will further extend their search for new
oilfields in foreign lands, providing increased
employment opportunities abroad for American
geologists. The demand for geologists in ex­
ploration for minerals and water will also in­
crease.
As the world’s petroleum, mineral, and water




resources diminish, it is becoming increasingly
difficult to locate new sources o f supplies. Thus,
additional geologists with advanced training will
be needed by industry to devise new techniques
for exploring deeper within the earth’s crust and
to search underseas areas, as well as to do more
extensive research and analysis o f geological
data. It is also expected that Government agen­
cies will require larger staffs o f geologists. For
example, the Geological Survey, which has geo­
logically mapped only part o f the total area of
the United States, will need more geologists for
the large amount o f work o f this type that re­
mains to be done. Furthermore, the anticipated
rise in college enrollments, including students
interested in geology, should result in many open­
ings for teachers of the science. (See index for
page number of statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.)
Besides geologists required to fill new positions,
some will be needed to replace those who retire
or die. However, losses to the profession from
retirements and deaths will not be numerous in
the near future, since geologists are a relatively
young group.
Along with the expected growth in demand
for geologists, an increase in the number o f geol­
ogy graduates may occur. In 1958, 3,624 de­
grees in geology were conferred—2,788 bachelor’s,
700 master’s, and 136 doctor’s degrees— almost as
many as in the peak year 1950, when most W orld
W ar I I veterans graduated. I f the proportion
of college graduates majoring in geology remains
about the same as in recent years, the number of
degrees in geology would probably increase
rapidly in the 1960’s. Even if such an increase
does not occur, many new graduates with
bachelor’s degrees who have only minimal train­
ing will find it difficult to enter the profession,
especially in view of the increasing amount o f
scientific knowledge required for geological work.
Such persons may be able to obtain only semiprofessional jobs in exploration activities and
may find their opportunities for advancement
severely limited. Nevertheless, prospects for geol­
ogy graduates with ability and thorough training
are expected to remain fairly good through the
early 1960’s.
Few women are currently employed as geolo­
gists. Their opportunities in field activities are
and will continue to be limited, largely because

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

o f the rigorous nature o f the work. However,
some well-qualified women will be able to find
positions as teachers in colleges and universities.
Others trained in certain specialties, such as
paleontology and petrography, will be able to
obtain laboratory positions in industry and Gov­
ernment.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average starting salary in early 1958 for
new geology graduates with bachelor’s degrees
and no experience was about $440 a month in the
petroleum industry, according to the American
Geological Institute. New graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees started at about $507 a month, and
those with doctor’s degrees at about $641. Grad­
uates with work experience and special skills
often received above average entrance salaries.
In the Federal Government service in 1958,
beginning geologists with bachelor’s degrees could
begin at either $4,490 or $5,430, depending on
their college record; those with master’s degrees
at $5,430 or $6,285. New graduates with Ph. D.
degrees were eligible to begin at $7,510. In addi­
tion, salary schedules call for periodic increases
above these base salaries. Some geologists in
supervisory and administrative positions were
earning as much as $11,000 to $12,000 a year,
and a few in high-level posts had even larger
salaries.

123

Earnings of geologists are usually somewhat
higher in private industry than in Government
agencies. Salaries in educational institutions are
usually lower than in either private industry or
government, but university teachers have the ad­
vantage o f long summer vacations during which
they can supplement their salaries by doing re­
search, consulting, or other work. Extra allow­
ances are generally paid geologists for work out­
side the United States.
Many geologists spend a great deal o f time
traveling and may be away from home for ex­
tended periods o f time. Their hours o f work are
uncertain, because their activities in the field are
affected by weather conditions as well as by
travel.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on the profession and the employ­
ment opportunities it offers may be obtained
from:
American Geological Institute,
2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington 25, D.C.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish general information on
positions available in Federal Government agen­
cies. For further information on such positions
and how to apply for them, see chapter on Gov­
ernment Occupations.

Geophysicists
(D.O.T. 0-35.65)

Nature of Work

Geophysics is an overall term covering a num­
ber o f sciences concerned with the composition
and physical aspects o f the earth—its atmosphere
and water-covered areas, as well as its surface
and interior. Geophysicists utilize the basic prin­
ciples o f physics, mathematics, engineering, geol­
ogy, and chemistry in investigating and measur­
ing the earth’s forces—including magnetic, elec­
trical, gravitational, radioactive, seismic (forces
responsible for earthquakes) and geothermal
forces (those resulting from the earth’s interior
heat and from solar radiation). In studying the
earth’s physical characteristics, geophysicists use
highly complex precision instruments such as the




seismograph, which measures the transmission
of vibrations through the earth’s interior; the
magnetometer, which measures the magnetic
properties o f different kinds o f rocks; and the
gravimeter, which measures the pull o f gravity.
Exploration geophysicists are the largest group
of geophysical scientists. These scientists, some­
times known as prospecting geophysicists, search
for oil and mineral deposits. Most o f them lead
or serve as members of field parties, which may
also include geologists, petroleum engineers, and
other workers. Some exploration geophysicists
conduct research to find new or better techniques
and instruments for prospecting.
The second largest group o f geophysical sci­
entists are hydrologists, who study the water sup-

124

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ply o f the land areas of the earth, both at the
surface and underground. Some hydrologists
work on such projects as water supply for par­
ticular cities, irrigation, flood control, and soil
erosion. Others specialize in the control and
removal o f sediment which collects in river beds
and harbors. Still others are concerned with
glaciers, snow surveys, and the use of permanently
frozen land areas.
The other smaller groups of geophysical sci­
entists covered by this statement are oceanogra-

they are not geophysicists. Seismologists study
earthquakes, both natural and man-made, and
the transmission o f vibrations through the earth’s
interior. They often provide information used
in designing bridges and other buildings in earth­
quake regions, and often work as prospecting
geophysicists in the exploration for oil and min­
erals. Geodesists measure the size and shape of
the earth, determine the position and elevation of
points on the earth’s surface (chiefly for map­
ping and charting large areas), and determine
variations in the direction and force o f gravity
over the earth’s surface. Volcanologists are con­
cerned with the origin, location, and activity of
volcanos, hot springs, and similar phenomena.
Geomagneticians study magnetic and electrical
processes in and about the earth, including such
phenomena as sunspots, the aurora, and the trans­
mission o f radio waves. Tectonophysicists study
the structure of mountains and ocean basins, the
properties of the natural materials forming the
earth’s crust, and the physical forces that cause
movements and changes in the earth’s crust.
Meteorology is another specialty which is usu­
ally classified as a geophysical science. However,
this specialty is discussed in a separate statement
(immediately following this one), since it repre­
sents a separate field of training and employment.
Where Employed

CO UR TESY OF

A

field

U .S . G E O L O G I C A L S U R V E Y

party using electromagnetic equipment to
uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau.

locate

phers, seismologists, geodesists, volcanologists,
specialists in terrestrial magnetism and electricity,
and tectonophysicists.
Oceanographers study
the ocean in all its aspects, including the sea bot­
tom, the shores, and the interaction of the sea
and the atmosphere. Those concerned with physi­
cal and geological oceanography study such mat­
ters as oceanic circulation, tides, waves, and the
physical properties of sea water. Marine biol­
ogists, who study the fish and other animal and
vegetable organisms which live in the sea, are
sometimes classified as oceanographers although




The number of geophysicists in the country in
1958 was estimated to be between 8,000 and 10,000.
The title o f geophysicist is used chiefly by persons
engaged in exploration. In geophysical activities
other than exploration, scientists usually have
job titles which describe their specializations (for
example, hydrologist, seismologist, or geodesist)
or their academic training ( for example, physicist
or engineer).
About half of all geophysicists work for private
industry—chiefly for the petroleum industry.
Among the other industrial employers o f geo­
physicists are exploration firms, consulting serv­
ices, and mining companies. Geophysicists in
private industry are employed mainly in the
southwestern and western sections of the United
States, where most o f the country’s large oil
fields are located, although many work in foreign
countries where American firms are carrying
on prospecting activities.

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

The second largest field o f employment for geo­
physicists is the Federal Government, which em­
ploys about two-fifths of all geophysicists. The
Federal agencies employing most geophysical sci­
entists are the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the
Navy Hydrographic Office, the Geophysical Re­
search Directorate of the A ir Force’s Cambridge
Research Center, and the U.S. Geological Survey.
In addition, a relatively small number o f geo­
physical scientists are employed in colleges and
universities, and still smaller numbers work for
State Governments and for private research in­
stitutions.
Training and Other Qualifications

Degrees in geophysics are awarded by only
a few colleges and universities. Many students
planning to enter the relatively new field o f geo­
physics obtain their training in geology, physics,
mathematics, chemistry, or engineering, as did
many present members of the profession. There
is a gradual trend, however, toward the estab­
lishment o f separate departments and curriculums
in geophysics.
Training leading to a bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics may be obtained in only about 14 in­
stitutions. These undergraduate programs pro­
vide training chiefly in exploration geophysics,
though the curriculums may have other titles—
such as geophysical technology or geophysical
engineering. Some students take undergraduate
training in exploration geophysics at colleges
offering degree programs in engineering geology
and petroleum geology. Other students prepare
for exploration work by combining geology,
mathematics, and physics in an undergraduate
program.
To enter a geophysical specialty other than
exploration geophysics, applicants often need
graduate training, although it is sometimes pos­
sible to qualify through extensive undergraduate
work in science and mathematics plus on-the-job
training. Graduate degrees are becoming in­
creasingly important in competing for the more
desirable positions. The doctor’s degree is usually
essential for teaching careers and is frequently
required for positions involving fundamental
research.
A student interested in obtaining a master’s
or doctor’s degree in geophysics should locate a




125

university or institute o f technology which has
an extensive program in geology, mathematics,
physics, and engineering, and which offers op­
portunities to carry out research projects in the
particular geophysical science in which he is
interested. For admittance into schools with
graduate programs in geophysics, a bachelor’s
degree with a strong background in the above
subjects is usually acceptable; a major in geo­
physics is seldom required. Institutions award­
ing advanced degrees in geophysics are limited in
number; in 1956 and 1957, according to the
Office of Education, only about 17 institutions
awarded the master’s degree and 14 institutions
granted the doctor’s degree.
New graduates with bachelor’s degrees who are
hired for geophysical work in industry or Gov­
ernment are usually given on-the-job training in
the application of geophysical principles to the
projects o f the particular employing agency. I f
a new employee’s college work did not include
courses in geophysics, he is taught geophysical
methods and techniques as part of his on-the-job
training.
Some promising undergraduates have an op­
portunity for summer employment with Federal
agencies. On these summer jobs, they receive
practical training. Upon graduation from col­
lege, they may obtain permanent positions with
the agencies. Similar opportunities are also pro­
vided by some exploration companies.
The prospective geophysicist needs an aptitude
and interest in mathematics and the physical
sciences. He should have considerable physical
stamina and be willing to travel, since geophysi­
cists often work outdoors, and explore remote
areas o f the earth.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued growth o f the
profession, both in the early 1960’s and over the
long run. As natural resources located at or
close to the surface o f the earth become de­
pleted, more exploration geophysicists will be
needed to find new sites of fuel and minerals at
greater depths underground and underwater, or
under covering materials, such as heavy forest
or sand and gravel deposits. Geophysicists with
advanced training will be needed to develop new
geophysical techniques and instruments. The

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

growing recognition o f the importance o f basic
research in the geophysical sciences will also add
to the demand for geophysicists with advanced
training. In addition, the findings o f scientists
who participated in the International Geophysical
Year (1957-58)— a project sponsored by more
than 60 nations, including the United States, to
study many aspects of man’s physical environ­
ment— are expected to create increasing and
lasting interest in geophysics and geophysical
research.
The oil industry will probably continue to offer
a large number o f employment opportunities for
geophysical scientists. An increasing number o f
these scientists will most likely be assigned to
exploration work in foreign countries, particu­
larly in the Middle East, South America, North
Africa, and Canada. In addition, mining com­
panies are expected to employ growing numbers
o f geophysicists to find new mineral deposits. In
Federal Government agencies, mounting civil and
military demands will necessitate larger staffs of
geophysicists to do such work as the mapping of
land and water areas, investigation o f water re­
sources and flood control, research in radioactivity
and cosmic and solar radiation, and exploration
o f the outer atmosphere by rockets, guided mis­
siles, and satellites. The anticipated rise in col­
lege enrollments, including students majoring in
geophysics, will result in increased openings for
teachers o f the geophysical sciences. (See index
for page number o f statement on College and
University Teachers.) Furthermore, some geo­
physicist positions will become vacant as a result
o f retirements and deaths, although such openings
will not be numerous in the near future, since
geophysicists are a relatively young group.
Along with the anticipated growth in demand
for geophysicists, a rise in the number o f geo­
physics graduates is likely to occur. In 1957,
only 92 degrees in geophysics were granted—26
bachelor’s, 44 master’s, and 22 doctor’s degrees,
according to the U.S. Office of Education. It is
expected that the number of degrees in geophysi­
cal sciences will increase rapidly in the 1960’s.
However, the number o f geophysics degrees
awarded is a wholly inadequate measure o f the
supply o f new scientists who enter the profession,
since in the past, the great majority o f persons
entering geophysics earned their degrees in other
sciences. It is anticipated that the total supply




of new scientists who become available for the
profession will continue to be much greater than
the number who earn degrees in geophysics.
Nevertheless, employment prospects for new
graduates with degrees in geophysics are expected
to be good through the early 1960’s, at least,
particularly for those with advanced degrees.
Favorable employment opportunities are antici­
pated also for well-trained personnel who qualify
through degrees in allied sciences.
Few women are employed at present as geo­
physicists. Their employment opportunities in
field exploration are and will be limited because
of the strenuous nature o f the work. However,
well-qualified women will be able to find positions
in offices and laboratories, or as teachers in col­
leges and universities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Detailed information on earnings o f geophysi­
cists is available only for Federal Government
employees. In 1958, beginning geophysicists with
bachelor’s degrees could start in the Federal Gov­
ernment at either $4,490 or $5,430 a year, de­
pending on their college record; those with
master’s degrees at $5,430 or $6,285. Those with
Ph. D .’s were eligible to start at $7,510 a year.
In addition, the salary schedule calls for periodic
increases above these base salaries. Some experi­
enced geophysicists in supervisory and admin­
istrative positions were earning as much as $10,000
to $11,000 a year, and a few in high-level posts
had even larger salaries.
Geophysicists working for private industry gen­
erally have somewhat higher earnings than do
those employed by Government agencies. Sal­
aries in educational institutions are usually lower
than in private industry or Government, but
teachers in universities have the advantage o f
long summer vacations in which to supplement
basic salaries by doing consulting, writing, and
research work. Geophysical scientists working
outside the United States usually receive extra
bonuses and allowances.
The duties of geophysicists, particularly in be­
ginning jobs, often require prolonged absences
from home. Work schedules are usually irregular
and hours are frequently determined by travel,
weather conditions, and the requirements o f field
activities.

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on careers in geophysics
may be obtained from:
American Geophysical Union,
1515 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington 5, D.C.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
Box 1536, Tulsa 1, Okla.

127

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish information on Federal
Government positions in the geophysical sciences.
For further information on such positions and
how to apply for them, see chapter on Govern­
ment Occupations.

M eteorologists
(D.O.T. 0-35.68)

Nature of Work

Meteorology is the science of the atmosphere.
Its aim is complete understanding of the physical
processes which produce the “ weather.” Weather
forecasting is the best-known application o f the
science and the type of work in which most
meteorologists are engaged. However, members
o f the profession are concerned also with many
other types of problems, ranging from the study
of photochemical processes in the outer atmos­
phere to the effect o f day-to-day changes in
temperature on sales by retail stores.
Weather forecasters are technically known as
They interpret current
weather data— air pressure, temperature, hu­
midity, wind direction—reported by observers in
local as well as worldwide networks and make
short- and long-range forecasts for given lo­
calities and regions. Other meteorologists are in
several smaller branches of the profession.
Climatologists , for example, analyze records on
rainfall, sunlight, temperature, wind and other
weather data, and utilize this information for
many purposes, including improvement o f fore­
casting, and the planning o f military and busi­
ness operations. D ynam ic meteorologists study
the physical laws of air movement. Physical
meteorologists study the atmosphere’s chemical
composition and electrical properties; solar radia­
tion; the transmission through the atmosphere
of light, sound, and radio waves; and all the fac­
tors affecting clouds and rainfall. Scientists
specializing in applied meteorology (sometimes
called industrial meteorology) are concerned with
the relationship between weather and specific
human activities, biological processes, and indus­
trial operations. For example, they make special
forecasts for individual companies, conduct cli­
synoptic meteorologists.




matological studies for large commercial farming
enterprises, attempt to induce rain or snow in a
given area through cloud seeding, and work on
such problems as smoke control or air pollution.
Growing numbers of meteorologists in both
Government and private employment are engaged
in research, ranging from practical industrial
problems to basic theory. The increasing use of
the atmosphere as a medium of transportation
and communication has focused attention on the
meteorological aspects of rockets, guided missiles,
earth satellites, radio propagation, and cosmic
rays. In addition, research is being conducted
on such subjects as long-range forecasting, radio­
active “ fallout,” severe weather phenomena,
weather control, aircraft icing, and solar heating.
Meteorologists who teach in universities or
colleges may also do research or act as consultants.

C O U R T E S Y O F U .S . W E A T H E R B U R E A U

Meteorologist analyzing weather chart in the preparation of
weather forecast.

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

In colleges without separate departments of
meteorology, they may teach subjects such as
geography, mathematics, physics, and geology as
well as meteorology.
Where Employed

More than 6,000 meteorologists were employed
in the United States in 1958. O f these, approxi­
mately 2,600 were on active duty in the A ir
Force, and some were in the Army and Navy. In
addition, the A ir Force employed approximately
175 civilian meteorologists, and the Army and
Navy together employed about 100. Meteor­
ologists on active duty are usually engaged in
weather forecasting for military operations;
whereas, most civilian meteorologists in the
Armed Forces conduct research.
Approximately 2,300 meteorologists were work­
ing for the United States Weather Bureau, at
about 300 stations located in all parts o f the
United States, the polar regions, Puerto Rico,
Guam, and other sites in the Pacific area. Other
Government agencies, such as the Forest Service
of the Department o f Agriculture and the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration,
also employed a few meteorologists.
Aside from Government, the main fields of
employment for meteorologists are airlines, edu­
cational institutions, and weather consulting serv­
ices. Approximately 275 meteorologists were
working for commercial airlines in 1958— fore­
casting the weather along their companies’ flight
routes and briefing pilots on the weather condi­
tions they might encounter. Colleges and. uni­
versities with departments o f meteorology em­
ployed 150 meteorologists, and other colleges
without separate departments probably employed
about an equal number. In 1958, private weather
services employed about 150 meteorologists to deal
with their clients’ special weather problems. In
addition, companies that design and manufacture
meteorological instruments and balloons employ
meteorologists on a full-time basis, as do a num­
ber o f large companies in the aircraft, insurance,
utilities, and other industries. Other meteorolo­
gists present weather programs for radio and
television stations. A few are employed as editors
and librarians.
There are relatively few women meteorologists.




Most of them are employed by colleges and uni­
versities, primarily in research rather than in
teaching positions. A very small number work
as forecasters for the Weather Bureau. Some
women are on active military duty as meteorolo­
gists in the A ir Force.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young persons wishing to become meteorolo­
gists usually need a bachelor of science degree
with a major in meteorology or in a related sci­
ence field. Their training should include physics
and mathematics as well as meteorology. New
graduates with only the bachelor’s degree qualify
mainly for employment in weather forecasting.
Advanced training, including not only graduate
work in meteorology, physics, and mathematics,
but also courses in chemistry, is desirable for work
in the other, more specialized branches of the
profession, and for teaching and research.
Degree in meteorology are offered by relatively
few colleges and universities. In 1957, bachelor’s
and graduate degrees in the subject were awarded
by only 15 institutions. However, many other
institutions offer courses in meteorology which,
if combined with sufficient training in physics
and mathematics, may serve as adequate prepara­
tion for most professional entry positions. For
example, for beginning positions with the
Weather Bureau, the minimum requirement is a
bachelor’s degree with at least 20 hours’ training
in meteorology in addition to selected courses in
mathematics and physics.
Meteorological training is also offered by the
Armed Forces. Each year, the U.S. A ir Force
selects over 100 college graduates who have re­
ceived a commission through the A ir Force Re­
serve Officers Training Corps (A F R O T C ) and
sends them to selected civilian universities for
1 year so that they may qualify as meteorologists.
Graduates of this program are then assigned to
meteorological work. Other branches o f the
Armed Forces also have programs for training
meteorologists. Ex-servicemen with training and
experience of this type are given preference for
civilian positions with the Armed Forces and can
also qualify for positions with other employers
o f weather personnel.
The Weather Bureau has an in-service training
program for its employees. Each year, scholar-

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

ships are granted to Weather Bureau meteorolo­
gists to enable them to take more advanced and
specialized training. A student-trainee program
is also conducted by the Weather Bureau. Eligi­
ble high school graduates and college students
preparing for a career in meteorology may obtain
summer jobs with the agency until they receive
degrees. They may then be employed as meteor­
ologists.
Promotions in the Weather Bureau, as in other
Federal Government agencies, are given according
to Civil Service regulations. (See chapter on
Government Occupations.) With the airlines, the
chances for advancement are limited. However,
some meteorologists in the largest companies may
attain positions as supervisory meteorologists.
Airline meteorologists are also able to qualify as
dispatchers, after considerable work experience.
Some well-trained meteorologists, with a back­
ground in science, engineering, and business ad­
ministration, may find their best opportunities
for advancement in the profession through the
establishment of their own weather consulting
services.
Among the personal characteristics needed by
meteorologists are mathematical aptitude and an
interest in physical science. Since most of the
work is performed in an office, unusual physical
stamina is not generally required. For some jobs,
the ability to draw quickly and neatly is impor­
tant.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued growth of the
meteorological profession both in the early 1960’s
and over the long run. The demand for meteor­
ologists should grow primarily as a result of
continued expansion of meteorological research
programs and increased awareness, in both the
Federal Government and private industry, of the
value of accurate weather information. In addi­
tion, America’s entry into the “ space age”—the
age of supersonic aircraft, rockets, and space
travel—is expected to broaden considerably the
horizons of meteorology, thereby creating new
applications of the science.
Employment o f meteorologists in the Weather
Bureau, by far the largest civilian employer of
these scientists, is expected to increase during the
next decade. In recent years, many new posi506397 0—59------10




129

tions have been provided by the expansion of
weather forecasting services, and by new or ex­
panding programs o f hurricane research, air
pollution research, storm warning, and flood fore­
casting, which were authorized by Congress in
1955. The Bureau looks forward to continued
growth o f its research programs—into such fields
as atmospheric radiation, weather modification,
and upper air movements. Further increase in
the Bureau’s forecasting staff is also anticipated,
since the continued expansion in civilian aviation
will probably result in the building o f new air­
ports and weather stations. In early 1958, the
Bureau estimated that it would need between 75
and 100 meteorologists yearly during the early
1960’s to fill new positions in research and fore­
casting and to replace workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other employers. However, the
exact size o f the Bureau’s staff, like that o f all
other Federal agencies, depends on the appropria­
tions voted by Congress each year.
Employment opportunities for meteorologists in
weather consulting services and on the staffs of
private companies are also expected to increase
somewhat. More and more businessmen are util­
izing weather and climatic data in planning
their operations, and are turning to industrial
meteorologists for assistance in solving their
weather problems. As the value of this type of
service receives further recognition, the demand
for industrial meteorologists will continue to
grow.
Opportunities for meteorologists with the air­
lines will be limited during the 1960’s. However,
increased research work on problems relating to
the high speed, high altitude jet aircraft will
require a few exceptionally qualified meteorolo­
gists with advanced scientific knowledge. In
other airline positions connected with flight op­
erations, occasional opportunities are expected as
workers retire, die, or transfer to other positions.
Although air traffic will no doubt continue to in­
crease rapidly, the airline meteorologists who
forecast weather conditions in given areas will
generally be able to service the additional flights.
In colleges and universities, opportunities for
meteorologists are expected to rise over the next
decade, with the anticipated increase in college
enrollment. The Armed Forces will also have
some openings for civilian meteorologists.
Although the outlook is for continued growth

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

o f the profession over the long run, meteorology
is a small profession and the number o f job open­
ings arising in any 1 year will not be large. On
the other hand, the number o f new graduates with
degrees in meteorology has always been small.
In 1957, only 79 bachelor’s degrees in meteorology
were granted—slightly more than half the alltime record number (143) awarded in 1950, when
many veterans graduated. Furthermore, gradu­
ates with majors in other fields, such as physics
and mathematics, and some training in meteor­
ology have been difficult to attract into weather
forecasting or research, because of the many op­
portunities open to them in other fields. Officers
who worked as meteorologists upon leaving the
armed services have also gone, in most instances,
into other fields o f work, instead of seeking
civilian positions in meteorology. Thus, assuming
that these conditions remain the same, as appears
likely, new meteorology graduates should have
favorable employment opportunities through the
early 1960’s, at least.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In Federal Government agencies in 1958, be­
ginning meteorologists with the bachelor’s degree
could begin at either $4,490 or $5,430 a year,
depending on their college record. Inexperienced
meteorologists with 1 full year o f graduate
study could start at $5,430; those with 2 full
years, at $6,135. Beginning meteorologists with
doctor’s degrees were eligible to begin at $7,270.
In addition, the salary schedule calls for periodic
increases above these base salaries. Some meteor­
ologists in supervisory and administrative posi­

tions were earning as much as $10,000 to $12,000
a year, and a few in top-level posts received still
higher salaries. Workers stationed outside the
United States are paid an additional cost-ofliving allowance or post differential. The pro­
visions for salary increase, paid vacations, sick
leave, pensions, life insurance, and other benefits
are the same for meteorologists as for all other
Federal Civil Service employees. (See chapter on
Government Occupations.)
Recent earnings data for meteorologists in
private industry are available only for the air­
lines. In late 1958, meteorologists with the air­
lines had a starting monthly salary o f about $415
and a top salary of $715—reached after 9
automatic yearly increases. A few meteorologists
in top supervisory positions with airlines earned
between $10,000 and $12,000 a year in 1958.
Jobs in weather stations—which are operated
on a 24-hour, 7-day week basis—often involve
nightwork and rotating shifts. Most stations are
located at airports or other places in or near
cities. However, some are in isolated and remote
areas.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on the profession may be
obtained from :
American Meteorological Society,
3 Joy St., Boston 8, Mass.

The U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington 25,
D.C., will answer inquiries on employment op­
portunities with that agency, and will provide
information on its student-trainee program.

M a th e m a ticia n s
(D.O.T. 0-35.76)

Nature of Work

Mathematics is one of the oldest and most
basic fields o f science. It is also one o f the
most dynamic and rapidly growing professions.
Mathematicians are currently engaged in a wide
range of activities, including research on the
behavior of the atom, calculating orbits o f earth
satellites, and translating business and scientific




problems into mathematical terms for solution
by electronic computers.
There are three broad classes of mathematical
work—pure or theoretical mathematics, applied
mathematics, and mathematical computation.
Theoretical mathematicians are concerned with
the logical development o f mathematical systems
and the study of the relations among various
mathematical forms. In a sense, pure mathe-

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

matics is an art and pure mathematicians are
simply attempting to perfect the art. They seek
to increase basic mathematical knowledge with­
out necessarily considering the use to which this
knowledge may be put. However, many scientific
and engineering achievements have resulted from
the application o f this pure and abstract mathe­
matical knowledge. For example, an abstract and
seemingly impractical non-Euclidean geometry
invented in 1854 by Bernhard Riemann was to
be the foundation for Albert Einstein’s theory of
relativity more than a half century later.
Mathematicians engaged in applied work de­
velop mathematical techniques and approaches to
be used in solving problems in engineering,
physics, economics, and many other fields. They
analyze each problem, and attempt to describe it
in terms o f a mathematical system. Mathemati­
cians doing this kind o f work need not only
competence and imagination in mathematics, but
also knowledge of the field in which they are
working. Pure and applied mathematics are not
always sharply separated in practice. Many im­
portant developments in theoretical mathematics
have arisen directly from practical problems.
For example, the differential calculus was devel­
oped by Isaac Newton to deal with physical
problems involving the velocity and acceleration
o f moving objects—phenomena which could not
be described satisfactorily by earlier systems of
mathematics.
The third broad type o f mathematical work
consists o f utilizing mathematical knowledge and
modern equipment, ranging from desk calculators
to complex electronic computers, to obtain nu­
merical answers to specific problems. Although
such work often requires a very high level of
mathematical knowledge and skill, many openings
in this field— such as for programmers and coders
for digital computers—do not require the ad­
vanced training and inventiveness needed by the
first two types of mathematicians. Much of the
mathematical work done in the field o f scientific
research and development, as well as in statistics
and business, is of this type. (Actuaries and
Statisticians are discussed in separate statements.
See index for page numbers.)
Where Employed

The total number of mathematicians in 1958
was about 28,000, of whom more than 3,000 held




131

Ph. D. degrees. Relatively few mathematicians
are women— about 9 percent, according to data
from the National Science Foundation’s National
Register o f Scientific and Technical Personnel.
The largest number o f mathematicians—about
one-half o f the total in 1958—are employed by
industry. Colleges and universities also employ
a sizable number—about one-fourth o f the total
in 1958. Most o f the remainder are employed by
government agencies, chiefly the U.S. Department
o f Defense and the U.S. Department o f Com­
merce; by foundations and other nonprofit or­
ganizations; and by commercial laboratories.
Principal industrial employers o f mathemati­
cians are the electrical equipment and the aircraft
industries. The machinery and petroleum indus­
tries also utilize significant numbers o f mathema­
ticians. These four industries accounted for more
than half o f all mathematicians employed in in­
dustry in 1958.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics is normally the minimum entrance require­
ment for persons seeking careers as mathemati­
cians. However, a degree in another subject, with
a strong minor in mathematics, may be adequate
for some beginning positions involving relatively
routine work.
Graduate training is required for many mathe­
matical positions, particularly in research and
teaching. In industry, advanced degrees are re­
quired for an ever-increasing number of jobs, not
only in research but also in many areas of ap­
plied mathematics. The Ph. D. degree is espe­
cially important for most college and university
teaching positions and for the more advanced
research work.
For teaching and research in applied mathe­
matics, training in the field to which mathematics
is to be applied is important. For many applied
mathematicians, the fields of application are
physics and engineering. Other fields o f applica­
tion are business and industrial management,
economics, statistics, chemistry, and biology. For
teaching and research in pure mathematics, how­
ever, training in a specific field o f application is
not generally necessary.
The development in recent years o f high-speed
electronic computers has brought a growing need

132

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for mathematicians particularly qualified to work
with these machines. Knowledge o f numerical
analysis is especially important for this work.
Setting up the detailed instructions or program
used to guide the computer also calls for special
training. (F or further information, see state­
ment on Programmers. Refer to index for page
number.)
Among the personal qualifications needed by
mathematicians are a keen logical mind, imagi­
nation, intellectual curiosity, and a desire to
analyze and solve new and difficult problems.
Mathematicians must also be able to express them­
selves simply and comprehensibly in order to
present mathematical ideas to scientists, engineers
and others who use mathematics but are not
mathematicians.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid growth of
employment in mathematics, both in the early
1960’s and over the long run. As in recent years,
there will be particular need for mathematicians
with Ph. D. degrees for research, teaching, and
some applied mathematics positions.
One o f the major factors which will tend to
increase employment o f mathematicians is the
growing demand for their services in scientific
research and development. This demand is closely
associated with the development o f high-speed
electronic computing machines which make pos­
sible the rapid solution o f a steadily widening
variety o f complex physics and engineering prob­
lems in such fields as operations analysis, logis­
tics, inventory control and scientific management.
The demand is chiefly for applied mathemati­
cians to evaluate these problems and prepare them
for solution by electronic computers.
In all probability, private industry and the
Federal Government will continue to increase
their expenditures for physics and engineering
research and development, and thus raise the de­
mand for mathematicians. I f the growth in re­
search expenditures should slacken, however, or
increase more rapidly than now anticipated, the
demand for mathematicians would change ac­
cordingly.
High-speed electronic computers have also
opened up whole new fields o f application for




mathematics in business management. Large
computers not only provide accounting and other
data very rapidly, but also make possible analyses
o f business operations—sometimes called opera­
tions research—which often were not practicable
with less advanced equipment.
The demand generated by these computers—in
scientific research and development, in business
management, as well as in other areas—is a de­
mand for employees who can apply mathematics
to specific problems, not simply for mathemati­
cians as such. Undoubtedly, a part o f this de­
mand will be satisfied by including more ad­
vanced mathematical training in the education o f
engineers, biologists, and specialists in other fields
to which mathematics is applied. Nevertheless,
there will be a growing demand for applied
mathematicians who combine a high degree of
mathematical competence with a broad knowl­
edge o f the field o f application. There will also
be an expanding demand for people to do mathe­
matical computation work.
Employment o f mathematicians as teachers in
colleges and universities is also expected to in­
crease substantially, both to take care o f the
much larger enrollments expected in the 1960’s
and to meet the growing need for more advanced
mathematical training in many fields o f study.
The increased demand for college mathematics
teachers will largely be a demand for mathema­
ticians with Ph. D. degrees, but there will con­
tinue to be many positions for holders o f master’s
degrees. Colleges and universities will also con­
tinue to provide most o f the employment oppor­
tunities for specialists in theoretical mathematics.
Along with the anticipated rise in the demand
for mathematicians, an increase is expected in the
number o f mathematics graduates. In 1958, 8,142
degrees were awarded in mathematics—6,835
bachelor’s, 1,097 master’s, and 210 doctor’s. I f
the proportion o f college graduates majoring in
mathematics remains the same as in recent years,
the number o f degrees awarded in mathematics
will rise rapidly during the next decade. By the
late 1960’s or early 1970’s, the number may be
double the number conferred in 1958. Neverthe­
less, employment opportunities for mathemati­
cians are expected to remain very good through
the early 1960’s, at least, and probably longer.

PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for mathematicians with bach­
elor’s degrees ranged from about $5,400 to $6,300
a year in private industry in 1958, according to
the limited information available. Mathemati­
cians with master’s degrees received starting sal­
aries o f about $600 to $1,200 per year highepthan
those with bachelor’s degrees. Annual salaries
for new graduates with Ph. D. degrees ranged
from approximately $7,000 to $10,000.
In Federal Government positions in 1958,
mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees and no
experience could begin at either $4,490 or $5,430
a year, depending on their college record. Inex­
perienced mathematicians with one full year of
graduate study could begin at $5,430; those with
two full years o f graduate study at $6,285. Be­
ginning mathematicians with Ph. D. degrees
could start at $7,510. In addition, the Federal
salary schedule calls for periodic increases above
these basic salaries.
Most mathematicians can look forward to a
marked increase in earnings as they gain experi­
ence. According to the National Science Foun­
dation’s 1956-58 National Register o f Scientific
and Technical Personnel, 15 percent o f the mathe­




133

maticians reporting in the survey earned more
than $12,000 a year, and about 3 percent earned
more than $20,000.
In general, mathematicians in private industry
tend to have higher incomes than those in other
types o f employment. For example, the median
annual professional income o f mathematicians
was about 15 percent greater in private industry
than in Government employment, and about 47
percent greater than in colleges and universities,
according to the 1956-58 Register.
Within a particular field o f employment, hold­
ers o f Ph. D. degrees usually earn considerably
more than those with bachelor’s or master’s de­
grees. In private industry, according to the same
1956-58 survey, the median income o f Ph. D.
mathematicians was 23 percent greater than that
o f mathematicians with master’s degrees and
nearly 30 percent greater than the median in­
come of mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees.
Where To Go for More Information
American Mathematical Society,
190 Hope St., Providence 6, R.I.
Mathematical Association of America,
University of Buffalo, Buffalo 14, N.Y.

B IO L O G IC A L SCIEN CES
The biological sciences are concerned with the
world o f living things—men and microbes, wild
and domestic animals, plants and insects, birds
and fish. This chapter covers botany, microbiol­
ogy, and zoology, in addition to other biological
sciences in which activities are centered on the
search for knowledge about the fundamental
laws o f biology and the collection of basic infor­
mation about plants and animals. Most scientists
in these fields are employed in college teaching
or in basic research aimed at adding to our knowl­
edge about living organisms regardless o f whether
such knowledge is o f immediate practical use.
For example, the biologists who developed a
method for growing polio virus in living tissue,
an essential step in the evolution o f the Salk
polio vaccine, knew that their work might even­
tually have some practical value but their imme­
diate purpose was to learn more about the way
viruses act on living cells. Physicians, foresters,
and many others in health service and agricul­
tural occupations who use biological knowledge
primarily to solve practical problems are not

Biologist studying the effect of radioactivity on living tissue.
134




usually considered biological scientists and their
work is discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.
(F or statements on health service occupations,
foresters, and specialized agricultural occupations,
see index.)
Nature of Work

Biological scientists study the structure o f liv­
ing organisms, their life processes, and the rela­
tion between living organisms and their environ­
ment. The number and variety o f plants and
animals are so immense and the life processes so
varied and complex that biologists must, o f ne­
cessity, become specialists. Some biologists spend
a lifetime trying to learn as much as possible
about a particular kind o f animal or plant.
Others are interested in how the body functions
and study such things as the circulatory system,
how food is digested, or the ways in which organ­
isms are affected by disease. Some are interested
in the evolution o f living organisms, in the mech­
anism o f heredity and in the ways in which
environmental factors, such as major changes in
climate or radiation, have affected the develop­
ment o f different species or might do so in the
future.
The majority o f biological scientists are en­
gaged chiefly in research. This research is o f
many kinds. It may be conducted inside a labo­
ratory or outdoors, at the far corners o f the
world or hear a quiet university town. A botanist
exploring the volcanic Alaskan valleys to see
what plants live in this strange environment and
a zoologist searching the jungles o f the Amazon
valley for unknown specimens o f animals and
fish are both doing field research. The agrono­
mist does experimental research with crop plants,
growing seeds under controlled conditions to see
how various strains compare in their resistance
to pests, changes in climate or soil, or other fac­
tors. Some o f them work at State agricultural
experiment stations. Many entomologists do field
research in the open at one o f the many field
stations maintained by the U.S. Department o f
Agriculture in this country and abroad. They in­
vestigate the quantity and distribution o f insects,

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

the causes which promote their growth, and the
methods o f controlling them. Others work in
laboratories, sometimes as part o f a team o f spe­
cialists in several biological sciences testing the
effectiveness o f various chemical insecticides and
their possible hazards to human and animal life.
Some o f the most exciting research in biology
is being done in microbiology (including bacteriology), physiology, genetics, biophysics, and
pharmacology.
These specialties are often
grouped with biochemistry as in the field of ex­
perimental biology. (For additional information
on Biochemistry, see index.) The microbiologist
works in a laboratory where light, temperature,
humidity, and other environmental factors can
be controlled in conducting experiments. He
works largely with test tubes, cultures, micro­
scopes, and a variety of other specialized labora­
tory equipment. The microbiologist who cultures
viruses within tissues living in test tubes so that
he can observe virus action more closely and dis­
cover how they multiply, is doing work which
will give us a better understanding o f the border­
line between life and nonlife. This work may
eventually lead to the discovery o f new vaccines
to control some o f our most stubborn infectious
diseases, such as tuberculosis, rheumatic fever,
and influenza. The soil bacteriologist analyzes
samples o f different soils to find bacteria, molds,
algae, protozoa, and other micro-organisms and
observe their relationship to soil fertility; to
plant diseases; and to the growth, processing,
and storage of crops. The physiologist may use
the methods o f chemistry and biophysics to find
out how cells utilize the energy o f food for such
processes as muscular coordination, how harden­
ing o f the arteries develops, or how muscles re­
spond to impulses of the nervous system. The
biophysicist uses the electron microscope to vis­
ualize tissues down to their smallest units, the
molecules; he may use nuclear reactors, X-ray
machines, microscopes, and photomicrographic
apparatus to study the effect o f high energy radi­
ations on cell division in, say, immature insects.
The geneticist in his search for more information
about the mechanisms of heredity conducts ex­
periments with fruit flies, guinea pigs, or other
animals or plants that reproduce rapidly. Phar­
macologists conduct experiments with rats, guinea
pigs, monkeys, and other animals to discover the




135

effects o f drugs, gases, dusts, poisons, and chemi­
cals on the tissues of living creatures.
In all o f these different types o f research, the
biologist must have at his command the funda­
mental techniques o f biological and chemical re­
search, such as skill in the use o f microscopes and
other laboratory equipment in making and stain­
ing sections, and in classifying and identifying
specimens. In the experimental field, advanced
techniques and tools taken from the field of
chemistry or physics are frequently used and, to
an increasing degree, a knowledge o f mathemati­
cal and statistical procedures is needed to organ­
ize and analyze the data gathered, owing to the
enormous number of variable factors involved.
Teaching in colleges and universities is the
major function of about one-third o f the biologi­
cal scientists. However, most college teachers of
biological sciences combine independent research
with their regular teaching duties and in some
large institutions spend the major portion o f
their time on research. The college teacher is
likely to have some classes to which he lectures
several times a week, and possibly a group o f
graduate students who may attend seminars and
conduct research projects under the teacher’s
guidance as part o f their training. College pro­
fessors frequently help their graduate students
find jobs, counsel incoming students, attend uni­
versity committee meetings, and handle a variety
o f other administrative duties in connection with
their teaching work.
More than 1 in 10 biological scientists do man­
agement and administrative work. This may in­
volve supervising and administering industrial,
nonprofit, or governmental laboratories engaged
in research or in testing foods, drugs, insecti­
cides, and other products. Biological specialists
act as liaison between the Federal Government
and the experiment stations at the State univer­
sities, and aid in the planning, development, and
evaluation o f research programs at these stations.
The so-called “ action” programs which bring the
findings o f biological or agricultural research
workers to the attention o f farmers, industrial­
ists, and public health officials who use these find­
ings require some highly trained specialists.
However, extension workers, who themselves need
only a very general background in the biological
or agricultural sciences, conduct most o f the work
in the action programs.

136

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Relatively small numbers o f biologists are en­
gaged in a variety o f other types o f work, such
as consulting, writing, routine testing, and tech­
nical sales or field service work for industrial
firms. Such work includes teaching company
salesmen and prospective purchasers the value
and proper use o f new chemicals when used as
food preservatives or insecticides or for other
purposes. Biologists in this group, other than
consultants and writers, are sometimes described
as “ biological technicians.”
A ll biological scientists can be grouped into
three broad and general subdivisions, character­
ized on the basis o f the variety o f organism with
which they work: Botanists (plant scientists),
microbiologists, who work with microorganisms,
and zoologists (animal scientists). Those whose
work cuts across several o f these major subdivi­
sions, as is frequently the case with college teach­
ers, may simply call themselves biologists. W ith­
in each o f the three major subdivisions are many
subspecialties, which may relate to the specific
type o f organism studied, as in the cases of
mycologists (botanists who study fu n g i); or may
indicate the sort o f approach used in studying
organisms, as in the case o f geneticists, who may
be botanists, zoologists, or microbiologists study­
ing the mechanisms o f the heredity o f sweet peas,
fruit flies, or viruses. Some o f the biological
scientists work in what may be considered the
broad subdivisions o f the field and others work
in what might be considered subspecialties. A
description o f the work o f some biological scien­
tists follows:
Botanists (D.O.T. 0-35.23) are concerned with
the study o f the fundamental principles govern­
ing the life processes o f plants. Botanists include
specialists in identifying and classifying plants,
such as plant taxonomists (scientists primarily
concerned with the structure o f plants and plant
ce lls); plant morphologists (those whose primary
interest is in the life processes o f plants and the
ways in which they grow, develop, and repro­
duce) ; and plant physiologists (specialists in
other phases o f plant life).
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 0-35.33) specialize in
the study o f bacteria, viruses, molds, and other
organisms o f microscopic or submicroscopic size.
The terms microbiology and bacteriology are
sometimes used interchangeably, but microbiology
is the broader term and is preferable when refer­




ring to the study o f all microscopic organisms.
It includes the study o f medical problems through
experiments with cells or other microscopic com­
ponents o f the body. Some microbiologists spe­
cialize in soil bacteriology (the study of bacteria,
molds, algae, and protozoa and other micro­
organisms in soils, and the relation o f such or­
ganisms to soil fertility, and other agricultural
problems). Others specialize in virology (the
study of viruses which cause diseases in animals
or plants), immunology (the study o f mecha­
nisms by which the body fights off infection), or
serology (the study of animal fluids including
blood serums). Others specialize in the study of
molds in the processing o f food products, or in
the search for new or better antibiotics. Many
specialize in the testing and production o f bio­
logical products or in testing water supplies,
milk, or other foods in the control and preven­
tion o f contagious diseases. Microbiology is an
expanding field with a growing number o f spe­
cialties and the listing above is merely illustrative.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 0-35.28) study all phases
o f animal life—the origin, classification, life his­
tory, behavior, life processes, animal parasites,
and diseases caused by them, and the ways in
which animals influence and are influenced by
their environment. Some zoologists make field
trips to study animals in their natural environ­
ment and to collect specimens. Others work
mainly in laboratories, dissecting and studying
dead animals or conducting experimental studies
with live ones. Zoologists who specialize in the
study o f certain classes o f animals usually iden­
tify themselves with their specialties, which in­
clude, for example, ornithology (the study of
birds), herpetology (the study o f snakes), ichthyology (the study o f fish), and mammalogy (the
study o f mammals). Teachers and others whose
work cuts across several o f the animal science
fields generally use the title o f zoologist.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 0-35.01) do research per­
taining to growing, breeding, and improvement
o f plants which are generally grown in large
acreages such as corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton, and
sugar. They develop new varieties o f crops more
resistant to the hazards o f weather, disease, and
insects and search for better methods o f grow­
ing crops and controlling weeds and pests.
Agronomists may specialize in problems o f a
specific geographical area, a particular crop, or

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

a technical specialty such as crop breeding or
production methods.
Anatomists (D.O.T. 0-35.36) study the form
and structure o f organisms and the structure and
organization o f their specialized organs. They
may study structures visible to the naked eye,
those of microscopic size, or those o f submicroscopic size visible only through the use o f the
electron microscope. Many anatomists specialize
in human anatomy. Others are comparative anat­
omists who study animal and plant species.
Biophysicists (D.O.T. 0-35.49) are trained in
both physics and biology and study the physical
properties and relationships o f living cells and
organisms—including mechanics, heat, light, radi­
ation, sound, electricity, and energetics. Radiobiology is a rapidly growing field o f biophysics.
It includes many aspects ranging from the study
and use o f radiation and nuclear particles in the
treatment o f cancer to observing physical factors
involved in the entrance o f chemical substances
into cells.
Embryologists study the development o f an
organism from the time o f fertilization o f a
single cell until it becomes a complete organism,
animal or plant. They study the physiological
and biochemical mechanisms which control and
direct the developmental processes and the ways
in which this control is accomplished.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 0-35.30) are concerned
with the study o f insects—how they function and
the ways in which they affect human beings, ani­
mals, and plants. Some entomologists specialize
in identifying and classifying insects—an enor­
mously difficult undertaking, since there are more
than 75,000 species o f insects in the United States
and Canada alone. This is an important field
because proper identification o f insects is basic
to their control and thus to preserving food sup­
plies and controlling disease. Many entomolo­
gists do research on methods o f insect control
through the use o f chemicals, predatory birds,
other insects, biological methods such as insect
diseases, or mechanical means. Others study
ways o f utilizing beneficial insects such as honey­
bees, which not only produce valuable quantities
o f honey and wax but are also essential in pol­
linating crops so that they will mature and yield
good harvests.
Geneticists (D.O.T. 0-35.35) specialize in the
study o f factors o f heredity— the way in which




137

various biological characteristics are transmitted
from one generation to another. Geneticists in­
terested primarily in the improvement o f plant
and animal breeds o f economic importance—such
as cereal or tobacco crops, dairy cattle, or poultry
—may be classified as plant or animal breeders or
agronomists or animal science specialists. Theo­
retical geneticists search for the fundamental
laws o f heredity and the mechanisms which pro­
duce heritable traits in plants or animals. They
conduct experiments with fruit flies, guinea pigs,
or other animals or plants that reproduce with
sufficient rapidity to meet experimental require­
ments.
Horticulturists (D.O.T. 0-35.05) deal with
orchard and garden plants such as fruits, nuts,
vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants, and
nursery stock. They develop new plant varieties
and improved methods o f growing, harvesting,
and storing horticultural crops. Horticulturists
usually specialize in some specific vegetable,
flower, or fruit or in technical problems such as
plant breeding or cultural practices.
Husbandry specialists ( animal) (D.O.T. 0-35.
13, .14, and .15) carry out investigations and
experiments on breeding, feeding, and manage­
ment o f cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, and other
domestic animals, and in animal and poultry dis­
eases. They may specialize in problems of feed­
ing and nutrition, o f breeding and genetics, or
of animal physiology.
Nutritionists study the processes through which
human beings and animals utilize fo o d ; the kinds
and quantities o f food elements, such as minerals,
vitamins, fats, sugars, and proteins, which are
essential to maintain the best state o f health; how
these food elements are transformed into bodily
substances; and what role they play in bodily
processes and functions. Nutritionists also ana­
lyze foods to determine their composition in
terms o f the food elements essential to nutrition.
Pathologists study the causes and processes of
disease, degeneration, and abnormal functioning
in human or animal organisms. They may spe­
cialize in the study o f the effects o f diseases,
parasites, and insect pests on organs and tissues;
in histology, which is the microscopic study o f
animal and plant tissues; or in the structure or
anatomy o f diseased organs. They also study
the chemistry and physiology o f tissues to see
whether they are abnormal and if so, in what

138

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

way. The term “ pathologist” is normally re­
served for students o f human pathology (medical
pathology); specialists in animal pathology are
usually veterinarians. Those who study plant
diseases may be called plant pathologists or
phytopathologists. Their work is discussed un­
der the heading “ phytopathologists.”
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 0-35.34) are con­
cerned primarily with the study o f how drugs,
useful in the prevention or treatment o f disease
or in other phases o f medicine, affect life proc­
esses, and with the discovery and development o f
new chemical compounds which will have certain
desired effects on organisms. They conduct ex­
periments with rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, and
other animals to determine the physiological ef­
fects o f drugs, gases, dusts, poisons, and chemi­
cals on the tissues and organs o f living creatures,
and correlate their studies with clinical medical
data on the effects o f such substances on human
beings.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 0-35.13) study the func­
tioning o f organisms during life and how life
processes operate. They may specialize in the
study o f the heart, circulatory system, glands,
nerves, cellular activities, or digestive, excretory,
reproductive, or other systems. They conduct
experiments to determine the effects o f environ­
mental factors on life processes. The knowledge
gained in such studies provides the basis for the
work o f many other specialists, such as patholo­
gists, pharmacologists, or nutritionists.
Phytopathologists (D.O.T. 0-35.26) or plant
pathologists specialize in the causes and control
o f plant diseases* produced by parasitic organ­
isms, viruses, chemicals, and other agents. Some
specialize in the pathology o f a specific plant or
group o f plants, such as forest trees, vegetable
crops, ornamental plants, and field crops. Others
work only with certain organisms or groups of
organisms affecting plants, such as fungi, viruses,
or bacteria.
Where Employed

About 50,000 scientists were employed in the
basic biological sciences in 1958. Perhaps 10 per­
cent were women, and about one-third o f the
women scientists specialized in microbiology and
bacteriology.




More than half the biological scientists were
employed in colleges and universities, according
to a National Science Foundation 1954-55 survey
o f biological scientists with a graduate degree or
a minimum of 4 years o f experience in addition
to a bachelor’s degree. Approximately 25 per­
cent were employed by government organizations
—Federal, State, local, and international; about
10 percent by private industry; and a small num­
ber, perhaps 2 percent, were self-employed.
About 5 percent were in nonprofit organizations,
mainly hospitals, clinics, and privately financed
research organizations or foundations. The re­
mainder were employed in educational institu­
tions other than colleges and universities.
The biologist’s specialty largely determines the
type o f organization he will work for. More
than two-thirds o f those specializing in anatomy,
physiology, zoology, botany, and genetics and a
majority o f biologists in most other specialties
are employed in colleges and universities. Gov­
ernment agencies— Federal, State, and local—are
the principal employers o f agronomists, entomol­
ogists, and fish and wildlife biologists. Biologi­
cal scientists specializing in agronomy, horticul­
ture, animal husbandry, entomology, or other
subjects related to agriculture are employed
chiefly in State agricultural colleges and univer­
sities and in agricultural experiment stations
operated by these universities in cooperation with
the Federal and State Governments. Many re­
search opportunities for teachers and students as
well as full time positions are provided in ex­
periment stations. Teachers specializing in other
biological sciences, particularly those important
to medicine, are most often employed in liberal
arts institutions and in medical schools.
A large majority o f the biologists in govern­
ment agencies are employed in the Federal Gov­
ernment—principally in the Department o f A gri­
culture, the Federal agency employing most
entomologists, botanists, plant physiologists, plant
pathologists, horticulturists, geneticists, animal
husbandry specialists, and parasitologists. The
Interior Department employs all the fish and
wildlife biologists in the Federal Government.
The Defense Department—mostly the Army—
and the U.S. Public Health Service employ a
good many pharmacologists, parasitologists, phys­
iologists, entomologists, and specialists in other

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

branches o f biology; these two agencies, together
with the Veterans Administration also account
for 85 percent o f the microbiologists in the Fed­
eral Service.
State Governments employ about half o f all
the fish and wildlife specialists, and a few horti­
culturists, agronomists, entomologists, husbandry
specialists, and phytopathologists. City and
county health departments employ a good many
microbiologists to detect, control, and prevent
disease.
Private industry is the second largest employer
o f pharmacologists and microbiologists and is a
growing source o f employment for agronomists,
entomologists, and phytopathologists as well as
other biological scientists. Most of the micro­
biologists and nearly all the pharmacologists in
this field o f employment work for pharmaceutical
firms manufacturing biological products such as
toxins, toxoids, antiserums, antibiotics, and simi­
lar products. Microbiologists and bacteriologists
are also employed in the food industry and in
firms manufacturing tobacco, leather, organic
acids, and other industrial products. Entomolo­
gists are employed mainly in the food industry
to develop methods of protecting stored foods
from insect pests, and in the chemical industry
to do research in developing and testing insecti­
cides. Phytopathologists are most often employed
by firms manufacturing agricultural chemicals to
combat plant diseases.
Although the number o f biological scientists
employed in nonprofit organizations is small,
these agencies account for roughly 30 percent of
the specialists in pathology and biophysics and
20 percent o f the microbiologists. They also pro­
vide some employment opportunities for special­
ists in other branches o f biology.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training is necessary for employment
in most professional positions in the biological
sciences. The doctorate is generally required to
achieve full professional recognition and is prac­
tically a prerequisite for higher level administra­
tive and college teaching positions and for basic
research in the field of experimental biology. The
Ph. D. is increasingly a requirement for other
positions involving independent research.




139

Biologists holding the master’s degree are qual­
ified for most entry positions in their specialty;
they are also qualified for college teaching and
basic research. Most biologists with this level o f
education work in colleges arid universities or in
government agencies. They are also frequently
employed in related fields such as agricultural
extension work and high school teaching.
Many o f the biological sciences, particularly
those in the area o f medical biology, offer oppor­
tunities for persons with bachelor’s degrees to
work as senior technicians. In some specialties,
persons holding the bachelor’s degree can become
junior research workers or obtain other profes­
sional entry positions. However, promotional
opportunities for those without graduate train­
ing are, except in unusual cases, restricted to in­
termediate level positions.
In general, those with a bachelor’s degree are
qualified for positions in their specialty involving
inspection and testing, production and operations
work, technical sales and service, routine research,
and administrative duties in connection with the
enforcement o f government regulations. They
may also be employed as high school teachers.
A teaching certificate is required for positions in
the public schools, however.
Biologists with a B.A. degree who have ma­
jored in entomology, fish and wildlife biology,
microbiology, and the agricultural sciences have
the widest range o f entrance opportunities. En­
tomologists and those with substantial training
in the plant sciences can qualify for positions
with the Federal and State Governments in con­
nection with plant disease and insect control
programs as well as for insect control programs
in private industry.
Microbiologists with a
bachelor’s degree are frequently employed both
in government agencies and in private industry
where they are in demand as junior professional
assistants and as technicians in work involving
laboratory control over manufacturing processes.
Students planning a professional career in the
biological sciences are advised to obtain, during
the first 4 years o f college, the broadest possible
training in all branches o f biology and in related
sciences. The professional biologist must not
only have an intensive knowledge o f his own spe­
cialty but also a broad background in the funda­
mentals o f biology and related sciences so he can

140

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

do research and correctly interpret results o f his
studies and experiments. A ll students in the bio­
logical sciences need training in organic and in­
organic chemistry, physics, and mathematics.
They should also take courses which provide
laboratory experience and at least one field course,
in order to relate their observations in the class­
room and laboratory to the functioning of living
plants and animals in their natural habitat. E x­
tensive training and practice in laboratory tech­
niques and the use of laboratory equipment is
especially important. Most research and teach­
ing in the biological sciences require skill in
laboratory work which can be developed only
through practice. Such training may be a pre­
requisite for employment in many entry positions
in the field o f medical biology research. Students
interested in experimental biological research
need advanced training in chemistry, mathemat­
ics, statistics, and, in some cases, physics. Those
specializing in agricultural and soil bacteriology
need courses in botany and plant pathology as
well.
Most colleges and universities offer an under­
graduate major in biology or in one o f the other
biological or agricultural sciences. However,
course offerings vary widely and students are
urged to examine courses listed in college an­
nouncements very carefully in order to choose
the college best suited to their needs. In general,
the liberal arts colleges emphasize training in
the basic biological sciences and in the medical
aspects o f biological science. The agricultural
colleges, mostly State universities and land-grant
colleges, emphasize training in agriculture and
the agricultural sciences. The State universities
and land-grant colleges offer special advantages
to those interested in agricultural sciences and in
entomology since their agricultural experiment
stations provide many opportunities for practical
training and research work.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for biological scien­
tists with graduate degrees are expected to be
very good through the early 1960’s. Employment
opportunities for persons with a bachelor’s de­
gree in some areas o f biology are also likely to
be very good.
Although the increased demand for biological




scientists in the 1960’s is expected to apply to
most specialties, the greatest rise in demand will
be in experimental biology. Research into prob­
lems important to medicine is expected to in­
crease very substantially and existing shortages
o f scientists with doctorates in microbiology,
physiology, and pharmacology will probably be
greatly accentuated. This research will also re­
quire many more biologists with lesser degrees
qualified to act as junior professional assistants
and as technicians. Bacteriologists and physiolo­
gists, already in short supply in 1958, are likely
to find employment opportunities in experimental
biology exceptionally good. The demand for bio­
logical scientists in other specialties will rise
more moderately but will continue because o f the
increased need in college teaching and private
industry. Shortages of personnel with a bache­
lor’s degree in entomology or in plant sciences,
qualified to aid in regulatory and control pro­
grams were reported in 1958; these shortages
may continue unless there is an increase in the
number o f students who specialize in these sub­
jects and who are willing to do the necessary
traveling or moving.
In the long run, growth in research expendi­
tures is likely to be the major factor tending to
increase the demand for biological scientists. For
these, as well as other scientists, expenditures for
research and development have been rising since
the end of W orld W ar II. In recent years, the
Federal Government has given greatly increased
support to research in the biological sciences,
notably through the National Institutes of
Health, the National Science Foundation, and
the Department o f Defense. The National Sci­
ence Foundation increased its expenditures in
support of basic research in the biological sci­
ences from $1 million in 1952 to an expected $20
millions in the year 1958-59. Voluntary health
agencies, such as the cancer, tuberculosis, and
heart societies, are also giving increased support
to basic biological research. Expenditures for
medical research programs rose sixfold between
1940 and 1955— from $40 million to $240 million
— and are expected to rise to more than $900
million by 1970.
In the agricultural sciences, the major rise in
research expenditures occurred during W orld
W ar I I and shortly thereafter, and has continued
slowly since that time. In some areas, such as

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

animal husbandry and horticulture, a consider­
able expansion in basic research occurred during
the mid-1950’s; in other areas, particularly plant
disease and insect control, increased research is
likely to occur from time to time as new prob­
lems arise. Agencies and organizations engaged
in medical or agricultural research usually have
a particular objective which they seek to advance.
However, the many different aspects o f biological
research lead to the support o f a wide variety of
projects and call for many types o f biological
scientists.
The number of biological scientists employed
in private industry has been rising slowly but
steadily during the past decade and more sharply
during the mid-1950’s. The potentialities o f mi­
crobiological and bacteriological research for both
industrial and medical applications are especially
great and the trend toward increased expenditures
for research and development activities in micro­
biology are likely to persist, creating new em­
ployment opportunities at all levels of training,
but most especially for Ph. D.’s capable o f under­
taking independent research and directing the
research activities o f others. It also appears
probable that the demand for biological scientists,
particularly microbiologists, plant scientists, and
entomologists will rise.
In addition to increased expenditures for re­
search and development another important factor
tending to increase demand for biological sci­
entists will be the substantially larger college and
university enrollments expected in the 1960’s and
thereafter. The resulting increase in demand for
teachers will be to a large extent for Ph. D .’s,
for whom college teaching is a major field o f
employment. However, there will also be an
increase in college openings for qualified holders
o f master’s degrees. (F or the statement on Col­
lege Teaching Opportunities, see index.)
The long-range outlook for employment oppor­
tunities in the biological sciences is one of sub­
stantial continued growth, although the rate of
growth in various specialties will differ.
Earnings and Working Conditions

College graduates with bachelor’s degrees ma­
joring in the various biological sciences had
average starting salaries ranging from approxi­
mately $350 to $390 a month early in 1958. The




141

groups with the lowest average starting salaries
were those with degrees in microbiology, nematology, or parasitology; those with the highest
average starting salaries had degrees in entomology, wildlife biology or wildlife management,
ecology, genetics, zoology, and general biology.
Graduates with master’s degrees had average
starting salaries ranging from about $370 to $440
a month, depending on their specialty. The low­
est salaries were in fishery biology and related
subjects and the highest in plant science. These
data include earnings of many graduates who
were employed in business administration, selling
or other types o f jobs which could not be con­
sidered as being in the field o f professional
biology, but exclude the earnings o f those who
entered the Federal Government. Despite these
limitations, the data provide a good indication
of the salary levels prevailing for biologists en­
tering the employment field in 1957.
In the Federal Government, early in 1959, in­
experienced biological scientists with a bachelor’s
degree were eligible for starting salaries o f $4,040
or $4,980, depending on their college record; in­
experienced scientists with 1 year o f graduate
training were eligible to start at $4,980 and those
with 2 years of graduate work, at $5,985. Bio­
logical scientists with the Ph. D. degree but no
experience were eligible to start at $7,030, Phar­
macologists who were in a special category, re­
ceived higher starting salaries; those with 1 year
of graduate training, $5,430; those with 2 years
of graduate training, $6,285; and Ph. D.’s, $7,510.
Experienced biologists with a doctoral degree
or a medical degree who were working in the
field of experimental biology in 1957 had median
earnings of $8,400, according to a survey by the
Federation of American Societies for Experi­
mental Biology. The survey covered more than
9,200 biologists with advanced degrees who spe­
cialized in physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, nutrition, and microbiology. It
indicated further that biologists in universities
had the lowest median salary, about $7,700, and
those in private industry the highest, about
$10,500. Substantially higher salaries were paid
for administrative than for research work.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Biological Sciences,
2000 P St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

142

Federation o f Am erican Societies for
Experim ental Biology,
9650 W isconsin A ve. N W ., W ashington 14, D .C.
U .S. Departm ent o f Agriculture,
W ashington 25, D .C.
U .S. Departm ent o f H ealth, Education, and W elfare,
N ational Institutes o f H ealth, Bethesda 14, Md.




The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish information on positions
available in Federal Government agencies. (For
further information on such positions and how to
apply for them, see chapter on Government Oc­
cupations.)

S O C IA L SCIEN CES
The social sciences are concerned with the whole
range of human history and activities, from the
origin o f man to the latest election returns. Social
scientists, however, generally specialize in one of
several major branches of social science, each of
which is a study o f human behavior from a differ­
ent viewpoint. Those specializing in anthropology
study primitive tribes, reconstruct lost cities and
civilizations, and are concerned with the cultures
and languages o f all nations. Economists study
the ways in which men make a living and analyze
the factors which help or hinder them in satisfy­
ing their material needs. Historians describe and
interpret the events of the past. Political scien­
tists are concerned with the problems o f govern­
ment. Sociologists deal with the behavior and
relationships of groups, including the family, the
community, minorities, and others.
Besides these basic social science fields, there
are a number o f closely related fields, some of
which are covered in separate statements in this
Handbook.
(See statements on Statisticians,
Psychologists, and Social Workers.)
Based on information from a variety o f sources,
it is broadly estimated that about 40,000 people
were professionally employed in the basic social
sciences in 1956; fewer than 10 percent of the
total were women. Because of overlapping—not
only among the closely related basic social science
fields but also with such fields as business admin­
istration, foreign service work, and high school
teaching—it is extremely difficult to determine
exactly the size o f each social science profession.
Economists are, however, the largest group o f
social scientists, followed by political scientists,
historians, sociologists, and anthropologists.
The majority of all social scientists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities. (See chart
20.) The Federal Government is the second
largest employer, especially o f political scientists
and economists. Except for economists, private
industry employs comparatively few persons in
professional social science positions, but there is
a trend toward hiring increasing numbers o f col­
lege graduates who have majored in the social
sciences as trainees for administrative and execu­




tive positions in a variety of industries. Besearch
councils and other nonprofit organizations provide
an important source o f employment for anthro­
pologists and sociologists.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training is required for most profes­
sional work in the social sciences. Completion of
all requirements for the Ph. D. degree, except the
doctoral dissertation, is commonly required for
appointment to the position of college instructor
in large colleges and universities, and the doctor­
ate is a prerequisite for appointment to the rank
o f professor in many colleges and universities.
Undergraduate training is sufficient for appoint­
ment to many beginning positions in the Federal
Government, but persons with graduate degrees
CHART 20
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ARE CHIEF SOURCE
OF EMPLOYMENT FOR SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

Hoiai
is,rn

Percent Distribution by Type of Employer, 1952

0

20

40

60

80

100

n1
r! '

SocioV>ght%

m
Economists

M

:1

> 'i <

1

Scientists

Colleges and
Universities
Government

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR

Private Induatry

Y777X O ther

Source: Personnel Resources in the Social
Sciences and Humanities.
B LS Bulletin 1189. 1954

143

144

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

may enter at a higher grade. Even in private in­
dustry, where a high proportion o f currently
employed social scientists have only bachelor’s
degrees, there is growing emphasis on the im­
portance o f graduate training for professional
positions.
The great majority o f all social scientists have
graduate degrees. However, the proportion hold­
ing a Ph. D. degree varies considerably by field of
specialization. For example, nearly 70 percent of
the historians included in a recent survey had the
Ph. D. degree, but only about 40 percent of the
political scientists had attained the doctorate.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the social sciences is expected
to increase substantially during the 1960’s, largely
because of the anticipated rise in the number of
teachers in colleges and universities. (See state­
ment on College and University Teachers, page
47.) Some increase in employment is also ex­
pected in both government and industry, as a
result o f the growing reliance on the use of social
science methods in solving the economic and social
problems o f industry and the Nation. In addition
to personnel required for new positions, about
1,500 social scientists will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or leave for other
employment.
The supply o f professional personnel in the
social sciences comes largely from students obtain­
ing graduate degrees. In the 10-year period
ending June 1957, more than 40,000 master’s
degrees and 9,000 Ph. D. degrees were awarded
in the social science fields. During the 10 years
ending in 1967, it is estimated that more than
70,000 master’s degrees and nearly 16,000 doctor’s
degrees will be granted. These estimates assume
that the proportion o f social science degrees
granted will remain the same as during recent
years and that college enrollments and gradua­
tions will continue to rise as rapidly as current
forecasts suggest.
Employment opportunities for new Ph. D.’s
will probably continue to be very good in most
social science fields during the 1960’s, despite the
anticipated rise in the number o f degrees granted
in the social sciences. Economists with the Ph. D.
degree and those with all the Ph. D. requirements
except the doctoral dissertation are expected to




find exceptionally good employment opportunities.
It is likely that those with only a master’s degree
will also have very good opportunities, provided
they are well trained in a particular specialty
and in statistical research methods. In the other
social science fields, those with only master’s
degrees may meet considerable competition for
professional positions.
College graduates with only a bachelor’s degree
in the social sciences are likely to find opportuni­
ties for professional employment increasingly
limited. Many o f these graduates will probably
find work in related fields of business or public
administration, social work, and high school
teaching; a considerable number will enter fields
o f work unrelated to their field of study. H ow ­
ever, education in the social sciences has a basic
value other than vocational training—that of
helping individuals to meet their personal and
social responsibilities in everyday living.
Earnings

Starting salaries for social scientists employed
as instructors ranged from $4,000 to $5,000 in
large colleges and universities in 1958, according
to data from scattered sources. Generally, posi­
tions with the higher salaries required the Ph. D.
degree, or completion of all requirements for this
degree except the doctoral dissertation, and some
experience— often obtained as a graduate teach­
ing assistant. In a majority o f colleges and uni­
versities, salaries of professors were 60 to 70
percent higher than instructors’ salaries; in some
very large universities, salaries were much
higher. ( See statement on College and University
Teachers.)
Early in 1959, beginning salaries for social
scientists entering the Federal Government in
professional or administrative positions were
$4,040 or $4,980 a year, depending on the college
records of the applicants. Those with 1 year of
graduate training were eligible for positions at
an annual salary of $4,980; those with 2 years of
graduate work were eligible to start at $5,985,
and those with a Ph. D., at $7,030. A ll new
candidates for^entrance level positions were ex­
pected to meet the requirements of the Federal
Service entrance examination. (See section on
Government Occupations.)
The average (median) entrance saiary o f men

SOCIAL SCIENCES

graduates with a bachelor’s degree who were em­
ployed as junior economists or statisticians in
private industry was $354 a month in 1958, ac­
cording to a survey by the Board o f Examiners
o f the U.S. Bureau of the Census. However,
most graduates with a major in economics entered
selling, administrative, or accounting and fiscal
work where median salaries ranged from $343
for accounting-type jobs to $386 for sales jobs.
The highest earnings were received by a small
group employed by large industrial corporations
as production trainees; their median salary was
$392. The lowest salaries were earned by those
who went into elementary or high school teaching
where the median salary was $300. Those in
other types of professional work, including social
work, averaged $331 a month. The median en­
trance salary of men graduates with a master’s
degree in economics was $440 a month in all types
o f employment. Salaries of other social scientists
were believed to be comparable to those o f eco­
nomics majors for similar types o f positions.
The latest comprehensive information on the
earnings o f social scientists is that obtained by
the Bureau o f Labor Statistics in a 1952 survey.
Although earnings of social scientists are believed
to have increased by 20 percent or more between
1952 and early 1959, the relative incomes o f those
in different types o f work remained approxi­
mately the same.
Social scientists in fields which have a relatively
high proportion o f workers employed by the gov­
ernment and private industry earn more, on the
average, than those in specialties largely confined
to college and university employment. In 1952,
median annual salaries o f economists and politi­
cal scientists were $6,500 and $5,900, respectively,
and those o f historians, sociologists, and an­
thropologists were $5,300 or less.
In all fields, social scientists with the Ph. D. de­
gree earned substantially more, on the average,
than did those with the master’s degree, as shown
in the following tabulation o f median annual
salaries received in 1952.
O ccu p a tio n

A n th ro p o lo g ists_______________ _
E co n o m is ts_________
H istoria n s_________ ______
_
P o litica l scien tists____ __
__
S o c io l o g is t s _____ __
_

M a ster’ s
degree

$4,500
5,400
4,200
5,300
4,100

Ph. D.
degree

$5,
7,
5,
6,
5,

800
200
500
100
800

Women social scientists, performing the same
506397 0 — 59-------11




145

type o f work as men, generally earn substantially
less than men of comparable age, experience, and
level of education. The 1952 survey indicated
that women Ph. D .’s earned on the average about
$1,000 less than men, even though they were an
older, and presumably more experienced, group.
Many social scientists earn income in addition
to their regular salaries. Summer teaching is the
principal source o f such income in all fields, but
consulting work is an important source o f supple­
mentary income for economists, political scien­
tists, and sociologists. Income from royalties is
a more common source o f supplementary earnings
for historians. Social scientists regularly em­
ployed by colleges and universities are the group
most likely to have additional earnings. Com­
paratively few Federal Government employees
have supplementary income.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employment oppor­
tunities in the social sciences and related fields
is given in the following publications:
Employment Outlook in the Social Sciences, Bureau
of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1167, 1954. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25. D.C. Price
30 cents.
Anthropology As a Career, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents.
Career Opportunities in the U.S. Foreign Service,
U.S. Department of State Publication 6566, 1958.
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C.
Price 15 cents.
America’s Helping Hand, International Cooperation
Administration, Washington 25, D.C. Free.

The results o f a survey o f the characteristics
and earnings o f social scientists are published in
the following report:
Personnel Resources in the Social Sciences and
Humanities, Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin
1169, 1954. Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington 25, D.C. Price 70 cents.

Information on the respective branches o f so­
cial science and on public administration may be
obtained from the following professional or­
ganizations :
American Anthropological Association,
Logan Museum, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis.
American Economic Association,
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.

146

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington 3, D.C.

American Sociological Society, New York University,
Washington Square, New York 3, N.Y.

American Political Science Association,
1726 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

American Society for Public Administration,
6042 Kimbark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

Anthropologists
(D.O.T. 0-36.01)

Nature of Work

Anthropology, the smallest of the social sci­
ences, covers the widest range of subject matter.
Anthropologists study primitive and civilized
man, including his origin, physical characteristics,
customs, traditions, material possessions, and so­
cial and religious organizations. It is estimated
that only slightly more than a thousand persons,
including archeologists, were professionally em­
ployed in this field in 1958. About a fifth were
women— a higher proportion than in any other
social science field.
Most anthropologists specialize in cultural an­
thropology—usually in either archeology or
ethnology. Archeologists excavate the places
where earlier civilizations are buried and recon­
struct the history o f the people who once lived
there, by studying the remains o f homes, clothing,
tools, ornaments, and other evidence o f human life
and activity. For example, archeologists digging
in the Near East are finding the earliest evidences
o f men turning to farming as a way o f life. Other
archeologists working in the Missouri Basin are
salvaging remnants of Indian villages and sites
o f early military forts and trading posts before
that area is flooded as a result of dams now
under construction. The reconstruction of W il­
liamsburg, Va., illustrates the work of arche­
ologists in reconstructing the life of colonial
America. Ethnologists may spend long periods
living among primitive tribes or in other com­
munities under difficult conditions, so they can
learn their ways of life at first hand. The eth­
nologist takes accurate, detailed, and complete
notes describing the social customs, beliefs, and
material possessions of the people, usually learn­
ing their language in the process. He also collects
examples of their pottery, tools, weapons, and
other articles.
Few persons specialize as 'physical anthropolo­
gists.
These anthropologists apply intensive




training in human anatomy and biology to the
study of human evolution, and to the scientific
measurement of the physical differences among
the races of mankind. Because of their knowl­
edge of body structure, physical anthropologists
are occasionally employed as consultants on such
projects as the improvement of clothing sizes or
the design of more comfortable furniture.
College teaching is the principal function of
most anthropologists. However, research is the
major work of nearly one-third of all anthropolo­
gists, including many in government agencies
and nonprofit organizations, as well as a sub­
stantial proportion of those employed in colleges
and universities. A good many are employed in
museum work or administration. A few are
engaged primarily in consulting, writing, or other
activities.
Where Employed

The majority o f anthropologists are employed
in colleges and universities. Most teachers of

Anthropologists recording language in Bechuanaland.

SOCIAL SCIENCES

anthropology are on the faculties of the small
group of institutions (22 in 1957) which confer
graduate degrees in anthropology. Some are in
institutions that have combined departments of
sociology and anthropology, and they may teach
both subjects.
The second largest number of anthropologists
are in the Federal Government, where they are
employed mainly in museums and in Government
supervised areas, such as parks, monuments, and
trusteeship territories. During the past decade,
there has been a considerable increase in the num­
ber o f anthropologists employed in the Govern­
ment, particularly in the National Park Service
and Smithsonian Institution, as a result o f the
interagency archeological salvage program. This
program, which covers every valley in the United
States where water-control projects are, or will
be, endangering archeological remains, is operated
in cooperation with State and local organizations,
particularly with State universities. A few an­
thropologists are employed— mainly as consult­
ants—in other Federal agencies, including the
Defense Department and the National Institutes
o f Health. Some are employed by State and
local government agencies.
Nonprofit foundations and research organiza­
tions, which finance much of the field exploration
done in foreign lands and in the United States,
are an important source of employment for
anthropologists.
Training and Other Qualifications

Persons with bachelor’s degrees in anthropology
may occasionally qualify for teaching assistantships or for positions as field or research assist­
ants, particularly in connection with archeological
studies. However, it is increasingly difficult for
those without graduate training to obtain any
but temporary positions in this field. The usual
minimum entrance requirement for professional
work in anthropology is a master’s degree and
some experience in field work. New graduates
with master’s degrees in anthropology may qual­
ify for positions as instructors in colleges and
universities and for entrance positions in research
and administration or museum work. It is gen­
erally necessary to obtain the Ph. D. degree for
better opportunities in all fields of employment.
Some training in physical anthropology and in




147

archeology is necessary for all anthropologists.
Courses in linguistics (the scientific study of lan­
guage) are also valuable. Trained anthropolo­
gists are expected to obtain experience by doing
basic research in the field. Undergraduate stu­
dents may begin their field training as arche­
ologists by accompanying expeditions as laborers.
They may gradually advance to supervisory posi­
tions in charge of the digging or collection of
material and may finally take charge o f a portion
of the work of the expedition. Beginning eth­
nologists usually do their field work alone, with­
out direct supervision. Most anthropologists
prepare doctoral dissertations based on data col­
lected in the course of independent field research;
they are, therefore, experienced fieldworkers by
the time they obtain the Ph. D. degree.
The choice o f a graduate school is very im­
portant, since the beginning anthropologist usu­
ally gets his first job through the anthropology
department o f the university from which he
receives his advanced degree. Students interested
in museum work should select a school which can
provide experience in an associated museum hav­
ing anthropological collections. Similarly, those
interested in archeology should choose a university
which offers opportunities for summer experience
in archeological field work.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for highly trained
anthropologists are expected to be good through­
out the 1960 decade. The number of anthropolo­
gists in colleges and universities will rise sub­
stantially. (See statement on College Teachers,
p. 47.) Employment in fields of work other than
teaching is expected to rise also, but more slowly.
Anthropologists who have specialized in arche­
ology and obtained some training in museum
work will be in greatest demand for jobs outside
the teaching field. Museums will need a some­
what larger number o f curators than at present
to care for growing collections of anthropological
objects. The archeological salvage program will
provide some new career positions, as well as a
good many temporary jobs for university teachers
and students. This salvage program will prob­
ably continue beyond the 1960’s, as long-range
plans for the construction o f major highways and
dams, canals, and other water-control projects

148

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are developed. Anthropologists will also find a
few new opportunities in the field of mental and
public health and in community survey work.
In all other fields, new hiring is likely to be
limited largely to the replacement of personnel
retiring or leaving the field for other reasons.
Anthropologists holding the doctorate will
probably have very favorable employment oppor­
tunities during the 1960’s since the number of
new Ph. D.’s is expected to remain below the
demand for additional anthropologists during this

period. Graduates with only the master’s degree,
however, are likely to face persistent competition
for professional positions. Those who meet cer­
tification requirements may qualify for teaching
positions. Others may find jobs in public ad­
ministration and in nonprofit organizations and
civic groups, which prefer personnel with social
science training as a general background. (In for­
mation on Earnings and Where To Go for More
Information is given at the beginning of this
chapter.)

Economists
(D.O.T. 0-36.11)

Nature of Work

Economics is the largest of the basic social
science fields, with about 17,000 persons employed
primarily as economists in 1958. In addition,
many other people not classified as economists
were employed in work which required some
training in economics.
Economists study the ways in which men make
their living and the factors which determine their
success or failure in satisfying their material
needs. A ll economists must have a broad back­
ground in economic theory, economic history, and
a knowledge o f methods o f economic analysis;

Photograph by U.S. depar tm en t of labor

A n economist using statistical charts to explain employment
trends.




most specialize in one or more fields in which
economic principles are applied. Some economists
are concerned with such problems as the control
of inflation, the prevention of depression, and the
development of farm, wage, tax, and tariff poli­
cies. Some develop comprehensive theories to ex­
plain the causes of employment and unemploy­
ment or the ways in which international trade
influences world economic conditions. Others are
concerned with the collection and interpretation
of data on a wide variety of economic problems.
Economists are employed principally as teach­
ers in colleges and universities, as professional
workers on economic research projects in govern­
ment agencies, and, to a lesser extent, in private
industry and nonprofit research organizations.
(See chart 20.)
Those employed as college
teachers not only guide students in learning the
basic principles and methods of economics but
frequently engage in writing, lecturing, or con­
sulting activities. They do much o f the basic
research on fundamental problems in economic
theory and formulate many of the new theories
and ideas which directly or indirectly influence
economic thought in industry and government.
Most government economists do research and
administrative work. They may plan and carry
out studies involving the collection of basic eco­
nomic data and may use these data to analyze
problems in such areas as the consequences of
changes in technology, industrial organization,
government policy, or the demand for and supply
o f goods or manpower. They write reports on
their findings and may be called upon to present
reports before policymaking bodies. The largest

SOCIAL SCIENCES

numbers o f economists in the Federal Government
are specialists in agricultural, business, interna­
tional trade and development, labor, and monetary
and fiscal economics. In addition, many econ­
omists in the Federal Government are employed
as statisticians, foreign affairs specialists, intel­
ligence specialists, or as professional workers in
other positions which require substantial training
in economics.
Economists employed by large business firms,
including banks and other financial institutions,
perform mainly administrative and research
duties. They may concentrate on problems re­
lating to domestic business conditions, markets
and prices of company products, government pol­
icies affecting business, or international trade.
Their main purpose is to provide management
with information to be used in making decisions
on problems such as the timing of new financing
or the advisability of expanding the company’s
business by adding new lines of merchandise or
by opening branch plants in new areas. Some
economists are self-employed and act as con­
sultants, mainly to business firms.
Where Employed

About half the professional economists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities; approximately
a third work for government agencies—primarily
Federal; a small but growing number are em­
ployed by private industry; and a few serve in
research agencies and community organizations.
Economists are found in nearly all university
towns and cities. The largest number of econ­
omists are in the Washington, D.C. area, where
more than three-fourths o f the economists in
the Federal Government are located. A good
many economists are employed in foreign coun­
tries, mainly by the International Cooperation
Administration. Economists in private industry
are usually employed in cities where the home
offices o f large corporations are located. The
New York City and Chicago metropolitan areas
have the largest concentration o f economists in
private industry, as well as in nonprofit research
organizations.
Training and Other Qualifications

A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics
is sufficient for many beginning research jobs in




149

government and private industry, although per­
sons employed in such jobs are not always re­
garded as professional economists. A ll economic
research work requires a good background in the
core subjects—economic theory, economic history,
and statistics. Since beginners are usually con­
cerned mainly with the collection and compila­
tion of data, a thorough knowledge o f statistical
procedures is especially important. In addition,
industrial and business firms often hire young
people with bachelor’s degrees in econojnics as
management trainees, rotate them through vari­
ous departments to acquaint them with company
activities, and then assign them to positions where
they are most needed or best fitted. Whether or
not the employee is finally assigned a job which
makes specific use of his training in economics
depends largely on the needs of the company.
The master’s degree is generally the minimum
prerequisite for appointment to the position o f
college instructor, though graduate assistantships
may be awarded to outstanding students working
toward their master’s degree. Completion o f all
the requirements for the Ph. D. degree, except
the dissertation, is necessary for appointment to
the position o f instructor in many large colleges
and universities. In government or private in­
dustry, economists with the master’s degree can
usually qualify for research-related positions of
a somewhat higher level than those open to
holders of only the bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is necessary for attaining
a professorship in a high-rankirig college or uni­
versity and is an asset in obtaining many types
of jobs, such as administrator or director o f re­
search projects in the government, a research
council, foundation, or business organization.
Economists interested in overseas assignments
will find broad training in other social sciences,
as well as advanced training in economics, very
helpful. For most positions with the Interna­
tional Cooperation Administration, considerable
experience is also required.
The choice o f a graduate school is very im­
portant for people planning to become economists.
Students interested in research should select
schools which emphasize training in research
methods and statistics and provide good research
facilities, including opportunities for practical
experience. Those who wish to work in the field
of agricultural economics will find exceptional

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

opportunities for part-time research work at State
universities having agricultural experiment sta­
tions. Professors and chairmen of economics
departments do most of the placement o f be­
ginning economists in teaching positions and in
positions in industry and nonprofit research or­
ganizations.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-qualified
economists are expected to continue to increase
during the 1960 decade. Although inexperienced
college graduates with only a bachelor’s degree
in economics will have few opportunities for
employment as professional economists, they will
probably continue to be in demand as market
research assistants and as administrative and
management trainees in industry and government.
Employment of economists will increase sub­
stantially in the college teaching field during the
1960’s (see statement on College Teachers) and
to a moderate extent in other fields. Colleges
and universities may need 600 to T O new instruc­
O
tors annually to handle rapidly increasing college
enrollments and to replace faculty members who
retire, die, or leave for other fields of work.
Several hundred economists are also likely to be
required annually to meet expansion and replace­
ment needs in industry, government, and non­
profit organizations. Private industry is expected
to employ a growing number of economists, as

businessmen become more accustomed to relying
on scientific methods o f analyzing business trends,
forecasting sales, and planning purchasing and
production operations. Employment of econo­
mists in State and Federal Government is likely
to increase somewhat to meet the needs of gov
ernment and industry for more extensive data
collection and analysis as a guide to policy plan­
ning. The demand for agricultural economists
in the State agricultural experiment stations will
continue.
Economists with the doctorate are expected to
have the best opportunities for employment. The
number o f new Ph. D.’s is likely to be consid­
erably less than the number of new college in­
structors needed during the 1960’s. As a result,
employment opportunities for economists who
have fulfilled all requirements for the doctorate
except the dissertation will also be very good.
Although there may be considerable competition
for professional positions among other economists
with lesser qualifications— in view o f the antici­
pated increase in their numbers—it is likely that
most of those with graduate training will be
able to find professional employment, especially
if they have adequate training in statistics and
mathematics. Those with only a bachelor’s de­
gree are likely to continue to find relatively lim­
ited opportunities for professional employment
as economists. (Information on Earnings and
Where To Go for More Information is given at
the beginning of this chapter.)

H istorians
(D.O.T. 0-36.91)

Nature of Work

Historians study the records of the past and
write books and articles describing and analyzing
past events, institutions, and ideas. They may
specialize in the history of a specific country or
region or in a particular period o f time— ancient,
medieval, or modern. Sometimes they study cer­
tain phases o f history, such as the economic and
social life of a country or period; international,
diplomatic, military, church, political or cultural
history, or other specialized areas. Most his­
torians specialize in United States history or in
modern European history. Some historians, usu­




ally called archivists, specialize in selecting, pre­
servings and making available documentary ma­
terials o f historical value.
Most historians are employed as teachers in
colleges and universities.
(See chart 20.)
Others are engaged in research and in archival,
library, and museum work for government agen­
cies, historical societies, special libraries, and pri­
vate industry. Most college teachers also do
historical research, writing, and lecturing, and
are occasionally employed as consultants.
Government historians do mainly research, or
administrative work and writing in connection
with research projects. They examine, analyze,

SOCIAL SCIENCES

and evaluate original source materials—letters,
memoranda, circulars, official records and reports,
books, pamphlets, and articles—and prepare re­
ports and special studies. Historians in the
Defense Department may prepare confidential
studies based on classified materials or may pre­
pare pamphlets and books for publication.
Others employed in the Defense Department, as
well as in the State Department, are engaged in
intelligence research or international relations
work which requires training in historical re­
search methods. Historians employed in the De­
partment of the Interior do original research,
prepare exhibits and talks, answer queries, and
write pamphlets and historical handbooks de­
scribing events connected with the historic sites
maintained by the National Park Service. Many
historians in Federal and State agencies are
archivists.
Historians employed in museums or special li­
braries may edit historical materials, prepare ex­
hibits, and do related work. Some are experts
in such areas as the development of various types
o f transportation (trains, cars, a ircraft); others
are specialists in colonial furniture, art, architec­
ture, costumes, or other objects of historical in­
terest.
Where Employed

An estimated 7,000 to 8,000 persons were em­
ployed as historians in 1958. This estimate does
not include high school history teachers, who are
usually classified as teachers rather than his­
torians although some have had considerable
training in history.
Approximately 80 percent of the historians
were employed in colleges and universities. About
10 percent were employed in Federal Government
agencies, principally the National Archives and
the Defense Department. Small but growing
numbers were employed by other government or­
ganizations (State, local, and international), by
nonprofit foundations, research councils, special
libraries, State historical societies, museums, and
by large corporations.
Since history is taught in all institutions of
higher education, historians are found in all col­
lege communities. About half the historians and
three-fourths of those working as archivists in
the Federal Government are employed in Wash­




151

ington, D.C. Historians in other types of em­
ployment usually work in localities which have
museums or libraries with collections adequate
for historical research.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate education is usually necessary to
qualify as a historian. A survey by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics of historians employed in
1952 indicated that more than two-thirds had
doctorates and nearly all others had master’s de­
grees. While a bachelor’s degree with a major
in history is sufficient training for many beginning
jobs in archival work and may sometimes be ac­
cepted for other beginning positions in Federal,
State, and local governments, persons in such
jobs may not be regarded as professional his­
torians. A major in history in college under­
graduate work is often recommended by employ­
ing agencies for jobs in international relations
and journalism.
Since beginning jobs open to college graduates
with only a bachelor’s degree in history are likely
to be concerned with the collection and preserva­
tion o f historical data, a knowledge o f archival
work is helpful. Graduate training or its equiva­
lent in experience is required for advancement
to higher level positions.
The master’s degree in history is the minimum
requirement for appointment to the position of
college instructor, but the Ph. D. degree is neces­
sary for appointment in many colleges and uni­
versities. The doctorate is indispensable for at­
taining high-level college teaching, research, and
administrative positions in the field o f history.
Most historians in the Federal Government and
in nonprofit organizations have a Ph. D. degree
or the equivalent in training and experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment of historians is expected to in­
crease moderately during the 1960’s. Most of the
new employment opportunities will be in college
teaching. (See statement on College Teaching.)
An average o f 500 new instructors will probably
be needed annually to teach new classes made
necessary by expanding enrollments, and to re­
place those teachers who retire, die, or leave for
other types of work. The number o f positions

152

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for historians in archival work is also expected
to rise, though more slowly than the number in
college teaching. Only a slight rise is foreseen
in the number of historians in other types of
work.
Historians with doctorates are expected to have
very good employment opportunities throughout
the 1960 decade. Those with only the master’s
degree in history will probably encounter keen
competition for professional positions, and those
with only the bachelor’s degree will find it in-

creasingly difficult to advance to professional em­
ployment. On the other hand, history majors
who meet certification requirements will find a
good many openings in high school teaching.
Some will also be able to qualify as trainees in
administrative and management positions in gov­
ernment agencies, nonprofit foundations, civic
organizations and, more rarely, in private indus­
try. (Information on Earnings and Where To Go
for More Information is given at the beginning
of this chapter.)

Political Scientists
(D.O.T. 0-36.96)

Nature of Work

Political science is the study of government—
what it is, what it does, and how and why.
Political scientists are interested in government
at every level—local, county, State, regional, na­
tional, and international. Many political scien­
tists specialize in public administration, in Amer­
ican Government, or in international relations.
Smaller numbers specialize in such fields as,
public law, history of political ideas, political
parties, public opinion, and area studies.
College teaching is the principal function of
political scientists. However, substantial num­
bers do administrative or operational work, most
frequently in the areas of personnel work, budget
analysis, municipal administration, or interna­
tional relations. A good many political scientists
are engaged mainly in research, which may in­
clude, for example, surveys o f the methods used
by government agencies in carrying out legisla­
tion, studies o f political developments in this
country or abroad, or the analysis o f the consti­
tutionality o f proposed legislation. Some po­
litical scientists act as consultants to college or
municipal research bureaus, civic and taxpayers’
associations, government agencies, and private
research organizations. Others serve as legisla­
tive aids to congressmen or as staff members of
congressional committees.
There were probably about 10,000 political
scientists in 1958. However, it is exceedingly
difficult to estimate the number of persons in this
profession, since only those teaching political sci­
ence in colleges and universities can be clearly




identified. The field o f applied public adminis­
tration, in which many political scientists spe­
cialize, is very broad and political scientists
frequently do work similar to that done by per­
sons with training in many other fields, including
the other social sciences, business administration,
accounting, and law.
Where Employed

Approximately the same number o f professional
political scientists are employed by government
agencies as are employed by institutions of higher
learning. Fewer than 10 percent o f political
scientists are employed by all other types o f em­
ployers, including nonprofit organizations and
private industry.
Political science teachers are found in nearly
every college community in the United States,
since courses in political science and government
are widely taught. Since most other political
scientists are employed by government agencies,
they are likely to be located in Washington,
D.C., other large cities, or in State capitals. A
good many are employed in overseas jobs mainly
by the U.S. Department of State, International
Cooperation Administration, and the U.S. In­
formation Agency.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training is generally required for
professional employment in political science. Col­
lege graduates with a master’s degree in public
administration can qualify for various adminis­
trative and research positions in government, and

SOCIAL SCIENCES

in nonprofit research and civic organizations.
More than 100 colleges and universities offer grad­
uate training in a wide range o f topics in the
field o f public administration— city planning,
municipal administration, criminal investigation,
social security administration, and many more.
A majority of these schools provide field training
and many offer internships which enable the
student to obtain experience in government work
for a limited period. A good many universities
award graduate degrees in international rela­
tions, foreign service, and area studies, as well as
in the broad field o f political science. A master’s
degree in any of these fields is very helpful in
obtaining a position in a Federal Government
agency concerned with foreign affairs. However,
for some jobs, such as those with the International
Cooperation Administration, only persons with
substantial experience (preferably in public ad­
ministration) are hired.
Completion o f all requirements for the Ph. D.
degree, except the doctoral dissertation, is the
usual prerequisite for appointment as a college
instructor. The Ph. D. degree is generally re­
quired for advancement to the position o f pro­
fessor.
Some young people with only a bachelor’s
degree in political science qualify as trainees for
administrative jobs, such as budget analyst, per­
sonnel assistant, or investigator in government
and industry. However, they must compete for
these jobs with college graduates majoring in
many other fields, particularly those with majors
in business administration, accounting, economics,
and other social science specialties A great
many students with the bachelor’s degree in po­
litical science go on to study law; many others
obtain graduate training in public administration,
international relations, or other specialized
branches o f political science.
Employment Outlook

Rising employment o f political scientists is
expected throughout the 1960 decade. The largest
increase in employment will be in colleges and
universities. (See statement on College Teachers,
p. 47.) However, the number of political scien­
tists in administrative jobs in government agen­




153

cies will also increase as a result of the widespread
recognition of the value o f specialized training in
public administration. Government agencies con­
cerned with foreign affairs will continue to use
a good many political scientists, but changes in
the employment of this group will depend on
congressional appropriations. A slow growth is
anticipated also in employment o f political scien­
tists in private industry, which uses some mem­
bers of the profession as consultants on adminis­
tration or on international problems affecting
business. No substantial change is foreseen in
the number of political scientists in other types
o f work.
Colleges and universities may need as many as
300 new political scientists annually during the
1960’s, to teach additional classes and replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to other fields
o f work. Several hundred more political scien­
tists will be needed to meet expansion and re­
placement needs in government agencies. Political
scientists with the doctorate will find very good
employment opportunities in college teaching
during this period. Persons who have completed
all requirements for the doctorate except ihe
dissertation should also find good opportunities
in college teaching, if the proportion o f students
majoring in political science remains about the
same as in the past decade.
Graduates with a master’s degree in public ad­
ministration will find many openings in a wide
variety o f administrative jobs in Federal, State,
and municipal government agencies and nonprofit
organizations. Political scientists with master’s
degrees in other specialties will also find some
research and administrative jobs with government
agencies, nonprofit research bureaus, political
groups, and civic and welfare organizations.
New graduates with only the bachelor’s degree
will probably continue to find professional em­
ployment opportunities in the political science
field limited. However, this background will be
most helpful to those planning to continue their
studies in law, foreign affairs, journalism, and
other related fields, ^ome political scientists who
meet State certification requirements will enter
high school teaching. (Information on Earnings
and Where To Go for More Information is given
at the beginning of this chapter.)

154

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Sociologists
(D.O.T. 0-36.31)

Nature of Work

Sociologists study the many groups which men
form— families, tribes, communities, nations, and
a great variety o f social, religious, professional,
business, and other organizations. They study
the behavior o f these groups, trace their origin
and growth, and analyze their activities and the
influence they have on their members. Some so­
ciologists are primarily concerned with the char­
acteristics o f particular kinds of social groups
and institutions; others are more interested in
the ways in which individuals are affected by
groups to which they belong. Many sociologists
specialize in the study of social organization,
social psychology, or rural sociology. Others
specialize in intergroup relations, family prob­
lems, social effects of urban living, population
studies, or analyses o f public opinion. Some
sociologists concentrate on research methodology
or the conduct o f surveys. Growing numbers are
concerned with the application of sociological
knowledge and methods in the areas of penology
and correction, mental health, education, human
relations in industry, and regional and community
planning. The topics in which sociologists spe­
cialize are too many and varied to be fully
listed here.
Most sociologists are college teachers. A large
proportion o f teachers also do research work,
frequently for university-connected research bu­
reaus. A growing number o f sociologists are
employed as research workers in government,
business, nonprofit, and civic welfare organiza­
tions. Many are employed in administrative,
management or operational activities, and small
but expanding numbers are engaged in con­
sulting work.
Sociological research involves the collection of
data (often through personal interviews), the
preparation of case studies, administration of
tests, carrying out of statistical surveys, and
laboratory experiments. Sociologists may make
studies o f individuals, families, or communities
in an attempt to discover the causes of social
problems— such as crime, juvenile delinquency,
alcoholism, poverty, and dependency— the sources
of family conflict, the normal pattern of family




relations, or the different patterns of living in
communities of varying types and sizes. They
may collect and compile data from official gov­
ernment sources and make statistical analyses to
show the trends in population growth and the
extent o f population movement in different parts
of the country. Some sociologists are specialists
in survey procedures, in such fields as public
opinion research, market research, and methods
o f mass communication and advertising—includ­
ing radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and
circulars.
Sociologists in administrative work may super­
vise research projects or the operation o f welfare
agencies, or marriage and family clinics. Those
in operational work may be employed as coun­
selors, recreation workers, case workers, or pro­
bation and parole officers. Sociologists engaged
in consulting work may give advice on such
diverse problems as probation and parole pro­
cedures to be used in the treatment of delinquents,
city planning, or the most effective methods of
advertising to promote public interest in par­
ticular products.
An estimated 6,000 persons were professionally
employed as sociologists in 1958. In addition,
many persons were employed in positions requir­
ing some training in this field, including many
in social, recreation, and public health work. It
is exceedingly difficult to estimate exactly the
numbers o f professional sociologists. Many so­
ciologists outside the teaching field are classified
under some other job title. In the Federal
Government, for example, sociologists may be
designated as social science analysts, public-wel­
fare research workers, analytical and survey
statisticians, and intelligence research specialists.
Where Employed

About three-fourths of the sociologists were
employed in colleges and universities in 1958;
approximately one-tenth were in Federal, State,
local or international government agencies; about
5 percent were working in private industry or
were self-employed; and the remainder were in
nonprofit research or civic-welfare organizations.
Since sociology is taught in most institutions

SOCIAL SCIENCES

o f higher learning, sociologists may be found in
nearly all college communities. However, they
are most heavily concentrated in large colleges
and universities which offer graduate training
in sociology and opportunities for sociological re­
search at university-connected research bureaus.
Rural sociologists most frequently work at State
universities, because they are likely tp have ex­
ceptional opportunities for research in this field
at the State agricultural experiment stations at­
tached to these universities. A small group o f
specialists in rural sociology and community de­
velopment are employed in various parts of the
world by the International Cooperation Admin­
istration.
Training and Other Qualifications

The master’s degree with a major in sociology
is the minimum preparation usually required for
employment as a sociologist. The Ph. D. degree
is frequently required for employment in the
better positions. Young people with only a bache­
lor’s degree in sociology are not considered qual­
ified for professional employment, although they
may be able to secure routine jobs in this field
or in related fields where a knowledge o f sociology
is helpful. They may get jobs as interviewers
or as research assistants working under close
supervision. A good many are employed as
case workers, counselors, recreation workers, or
administrative assistants in public and private
welfare agencies. However, as a rule, welfare
agencies prefer persons with specific training in
social work. Sociology majors with sufficient
training in statistics may obtain positions as be­
ginning statisticians. Those who meet local cer­
tification requirements may enter high school
teaching.
Sociologists with a master’s degree may qualify
for many administrative and research positions,
provided they are trained in research methods
and statistics. Such people perform work in­
volving responsibility for specific portions of a
survey or the preparation o f analyses and reports
under general supervision. They may advance
on the basis of experience to supervisory levels
in both public and private agencies. Sociologists
with the master’s degree may also qualify for
some college instructorships. However, most col­
leges require training beyond the master’s level—




155

frequently the completion of all requirements
for the Ph. D. degree except the doctoral dis­
sertation. Outstanding graduate students often
get teaching or research assistantships while com­
pleting their training for a higher degree.
The Ph. D. degree is essential for attaining a
professorship in most colleges or universities and
is commonly required for sociologists who direct
major research projects, hold important admin­
istrative positions, or act as consultants in govern­
ment organizations, philanthropic or other wel­
fare agencies, research foundations, marriage and
family clinics, and business firms.
The choice o f a graduate school is very im­
portant for people planning to become sociologists.
Students interested in research should select
schools which emphasize training in research
methods and statistics and provide opportunities
to gain practical experience in research work.
Professors and chairmen of sociology departments
frequently aid in the placement of graduates.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for sociologists are
expected to increase substantially during the
1960’s. Most of the new positions will be in col­
lege teaching where rising numbers will be needed
to handle expanding college enrollments. (See
statement on College Teaching.)
Perhaps as
many as 300 new sociology teachers will be
needed each year, on the average, to fill new
positions and to replace college faculty members
who leave the profession. A moderate rise in
the number of sociologists in nonteaching fields
is also anticipated.
Sociologists well trained in research methods
and advanced statistics will have the widest choice
of jobs. Employment opportunities are expected
to be better than average for research workers
specializing in the areas of social psychology,
rural sociology, community development, and
population and market research. Perhaps the
greatest expansion in job openings will be in the
field of correction, including prison administra­
tion. Employment opportunities will also in­
crease markedly in other applied fields, such as
the study of juvenile delinquency, mental health,
and educational and industrial sociology.
The number o f sociologists with the Ph. D.
degree will rise more slowly than the demand

156

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

during the 1960’s, (assuming graduations in this
field follow the expected trend in college gradu­
ations as a whole). As a result, employment
opportunities for both Ph. D.’s and those who
have completed all requirements for the doctorate
except the dissertation are expected to be very
good during this period. New graduates with




only the master’s degree—with the exception of
those specifically trained in research methods—
will probably continue to face considerable com­
petition for positions as professional sociologists.
(Information on Earnings and Where To Go for
More Information is given at the beginning of
this chapter.)

TH E C L E R G Y
The choice o f the ministry, priesthood, or rab­
binate as one’s lifework involves considerations
which do not enter into the selection of a career
in most other occupations. When a young person
decides to become a clergyman, he does so pri­
marily because o f his religious faith and his
desire to help other people. Nevertheless, it is
important for young people interested in becom­
ing clergymen to have as much information as
possible about the profession and how to prepare
for it, the kind o f life it offers, and its needs
for personnel.
The number o f clergymen needed is broadly
related to the size and geographic distribution of
the Nation’s population and their participation
in organized religious groups. These factors de­
termine the number o f churches and synagogues
that are constructed and, thus, the number of
pulpits to be filled. Since W orld W ar II, there
has been a sharp rise in church and synagogue
membership. According to the Yearbook of
American Churches, slightly less than half the
population in 1940 were members of religious
groups; in 195T, more than 60 percent o f the
population were members. Altogether, more than
100 million people in the United States are re­
ported to be members of organized religious
groups. In addition to the clergymen who serve
congregations, many are needed to teach in col­
leges and other educational institutions, to serve
as missionaries, and to carry on a variety of
functions in connection with religious activities.
A young person considering a career as a clergy­
man should seek the counsel o f a religious leader
o f his faith to aid him in evaluating his qualifica­
tions for the profession. In addition to a basic
desire to serve the spiritual needs of others and
to lead them in religious activities, he will need
a broad background o f knowledge and the ability
to speak and write clearly. Emotional stability is
necessary, since a clergyman must be able to help
others in times o f stress. Furthermore, a young
person should know that clergymen are expected




to serve as examples o f high moral character,
and that the social and other activities in which
they may participate are often influenced by the
customs and attitudes o f their community.
The amount o f income a clergyman may receive
varies greatly according to religious affiliation,
location, and many other factors. In general,
income depends largely upon the size and wealth
of the congregation and is usually highest in
large cities or in prosperous suburban areas.
Earnings of clergymen, as of most other pro­
fessional groups, usually rise with increased ex­
perience and responsibility. Most Protestant
churches and some Jewish congregations provide
their spiritual leaders with houses.
Roman
Catholic priests ordinarily live in the rectory of
a parish church or are provided with lodgings
by the religious community to which they belong.
Many clergymen receive allowances for trans­
portation and other expenses necessary in carry­
ing on their work. Clergymen often receive gifts
for officiating at special ceremonies such as wed­
dings and funerals. In some cases, these gifts
are an important source o f additional income;
however, they are frequently donated to charity
by the clergyman.
More detailed information on the occupation of
clergymen in the three largest faiths in the
United States— Protestant, Roman Catholic, and
Jewish—is given in the following statements
which were prepared in cooperation with leaders
of these faiths. Information on the clergy in
other faiths may be obtained directly from leaders
of the respective groups. Young people should
also know that, in addition to the occupation o f
clergyman (as here described), there are numer­
ous other church-related occupations—missionary,
recreation leader, teacher, director of youth or­
ganizations, editor of religious publications, music
director, and many others—which offer interesting
and satisfying careers. The clergyman or educa­
tional director o f a local church or synagogue
can provide information on these occupations.
157

158

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Protestant C le rg y m e n
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Protestant clergymen lead their congregations
in worship services and may administer the rites
o f baptism, confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons and give other
talks; instruct people who are to be received into
membership of the church; perform marriages;
and conduct funerals. They counsel individuals
who seek guidance, visit the sick and shut-in,
comfort those who are bereaved, and serve their
church members in countless other ways. Prot­
estant ministers may also write articles for pub­
lication and engage in interfaith, community,
and recreational activities sponsored by or related
to the interests of the church. A few clergymen
teach in seminaries, colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services which ministers
conduct differ among Protestant denominations
and also among congregations within a denomina­
tion. In some denominations, the minister fol­
lows a traditional order o f worship, whereas in
others the minister arranges the services to fit
different occasions. Most o f these services in­
clude Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and
a sermon. Bible reading by a member of the
congregation and individual testimonials may con­
stitute a large part o f the service in some de­
nominations.
Ministers serve congregations of varying sizes.
In a small congregation, the minister will have
greater opportunity to know his parishioners well.
The minister of a big congregation usually has
greater administrative responsibility in working
with committees, church officers, and staff, in ad­
dition to his other duties as a pastor. He may
have an associate or assistant who shares specific
aspects of his ministry.
Where Employed

In 1958, more than 200,000 persons were serving
as ministers o f churches, representing over 225
Protestant denominations or other groups. In
addition, several thousand ordained clergymen
were in other occupations—many closely related
to the ministry. The greatest numbers o f clergy­
men are affiliated with the 4 largest groups of




churches—Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, and
Presbyterian—to which 7 out o f every 10 of the
60 million Protestant church members belong.
Most ministers serve individual congregations;
some are engaged in missionary activities in the
United States and in foreign countries; others
serve as chaplains in the Armed Forces, in hos­
pitals, and in other institutions; still others teach
in educational institutions, engage in other re­
ligious educational work, or are employed in so­
cial welfare and related agencies. Less than 5
percent of all ministers are women; however,
many denominations ordain women. In addition,
in some denominations an increasing number of
women who have not been ordained are serving
as pastors’ assistants.
A ll cities and most towns have one or more
Protestant churches with a full-time minister.
The majority o f ministers are located in cities and
towns. Many others live in less densely populated
areas where each may serve the religious needs
of two or more congregations in different com­
munities. A larger proportion o f Protestants
than members o f other faiths live in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications

The educational preparation required for entry
into the ministry has a wider range than for
most professions. Some religious groups have
no formal educational requirements, and others or­
dain persons who have received varying amounts
of training in liberal arts colleges, Bible colleges,
or Bible institutes. However, an increasingly
large number o f denominations require a 3-year
course of professional study in theology follow­
ing college graduation. After completion of such
a course in a theological school, the degree of
bachelor o f divinity or sacred theology is awarded.
Seventy of the many theological institutions in
the Nation were, in mid-1958, accredited by the
American Association of Theological Schools.
Accredited institutions admit only students who
have received the bachelor’s degree, or its equiva­
lent, from an approved college. In addition,
certain character and personality qualifications
must be met, and endorsement by the religious
group to which the applicant belongs is required.

THE CLERGY

The American Association of Theological Schools
recommends that preseminary studies be con­
centrated in the liberal arts. Although courses
in English, philosophy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student
should take courses also in the natural and social
sciences, religion, and foreign languages. The
standard curriculum recommended for accredited
theological schools divides the course o f studies
into four major fields: Biblical, historical, theo­
logical, and practical. Recent developments in­
dicate that more courses in psychology, sociology,
religious education, administration, and other
studies o f a practical nature are being included
in the curriculum. Many accredited schools re­
quire that students gain experience in church
work under the supervision of a faculty member
or experienced minister. Some institutions offer
the master o f theology and the doctor o f theology
degrees to students completing 1 or more years
o f additional study.
In general, each denomination has its own
schools of theology which reflect its particular
interests and needs. However, there is a trend
away from educating along strictly denomina­
tional lines; this has resulted in the opening of
many Protestant theological schools to students
from various denominations. Several nondenominational schools associated with universities give
graduate training involving a wide range of
theological points o f view.
Among the personal qualifications which most
denominations seek in a candidate for the min­
istry are a deep religious conviction, a sense of
dedication to Christian service, a genuine concern
for and love of people, a wholesome personality
and Christian character, and a vigorous and
creative mind. Because of the demands of the
ministry, good health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have met denominational qualifica­
tions for the ministry are usually ordained fol­
lowing graduation from a seminary. In denom­
inations which do not require seminary training,
clergymen are ordained at various appointed
times. Clergymen often start out as pastors of
small congregations or as assistant pastors in
large churches. Protestant clergymen in many of
the larger denominations— especially those groups
having a well-defined church organization—often
are requested to serve in positions of great ad­
ministrative and denominational responsibility.




159

Outlook

Shortages of Protestant ministers have persisted
in the postwar period and are likely to continue
through the early 1960’s. However, not all Prot­
estant denominations will have equal difficulty in
filling vacant pulpits. Some denominations will
probably have a sufficient number o f people who
are qualified to serve as ministers. Generally,
those denominations which require many years of
formal training to qualify for the ministry are
having the greatest difficulty in filling the needs
of all their churches, and this situation is likely
to persist. Although total enrollment in Protes­
tant theological schools has increased substantially
in the past few years, the number o f students
graduated annually probably will not be sufficient
to replace the thousands o f ministers who retire
or die each year, to meet the needs of newly
established congregations, and to supply assistant
pastors where needed.
Many churches—mainly those in rural areas—
did not have a full-time ordained minister in
1958. A number of congregations had to rely
on the services of theological students or shared
the services of a pastor with another congregation.
Some large churches were unable to fill openings
for assistant pastors. In addition, ordained min­
isters were being sought to serve in foreign
missions, in religious educational activities, and
as chaplains in the Armed Forces and in hospitals,
penitentiaries, and other institutions.
Over the long run, the total number o f min­
isters needed by Protestant churches will become
larger as a result of the expected growth in
population and in the number o f congregations.
The greatest expansion is anticipated in the
suburbs of large cities. The increasing oppor­
tunities for ministers in fields such as television
and radio, youth and family relations work, the
campus ministry, and religious activities in insti­
tutions and industry, also point toward a need for
additional clergymen. Replacement of those re­
moved from the ranks by death, retirement, or
other causes will also require an ever-increasing
number of newly trained ministers.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people who wish to enter the Protestant
ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or

160

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

church guidance worker. Additional information
is also available from many denominational offices.

Information on admission requirements may be
obtained directly from each theological school.

R om an C ath o lic Priests
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

Roman Catholic priests attend the spiritual,
moral, and educational needs of the members of
the Church. Their duties include offering the
Sacrifice o f the Mass; administering the Sacra­
ments; visiting and comforting the sick, par­
ticularly those at the point of death; conducting
funeral services and consoling survivors; coun­
seling those in need o f guidance; and assisting
the poor. Priests give religious instruction at
Mass in the form o f a sermon. They have numer­
ous other responsibilities to assure that all laws
o f the Church are fulfilled.
Priests spend long hours performing services
to the church and the community. Their day
usually begins with morning Mass and may end
with an evening visit to the local hospital or the
hearing o f confessions. In addition, each day
priests spend several hours in prayer and reading
their breviaries. Many o f them serve on com­
mittees or in civic organizations or otherwise
assist in community projects. Various societies
which carry on charitable and social programs
also depend upon priests for direction.
Although all priests have the same powers
acquired through ordination by a bishop, they are
classified in two main categories—diocesan and
religious—by reason of their way of life and the
type of work to which they are assigned. D io­
cesan priests (sometimes called secular priests)
generally work as individuals in the parishes to
which they are assigned by the bishop o f their
diocese. Religious priests are members of re­
ligious orders— for example Jesuits, Dominicans,
or Franciscans—and generally work as members
o f a community in specialized activities, such as
teaching or missionary work, assigned to them
by the superiors of the orders to which they
belong.
Both religious and secular priests teach in and
administer the various seminaries throughout the
country, many o f the Catholic universities and
colleges, and some high schools. Priests attached




to religious orders staff a larger proportion of
the institutions of higher education and many
high schools, whereas secular priests are primarily
concerned with the parochial schools attached
to the parish church and diocesan high schools.
The members o f religious orders do most o f the
missionary work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and the foreign field.
Where Employed

About 50,000 priests served the more than 35
million Catholics in the United States in 1958.
There are priests in nearly every city and town
and in many rural communities; however, the
majority are in heavily populated metropolitan
areas, where most of the Catholic population is
located. Catholics are concentrated in the North­
east and the Great Lakes region, with smaller
concentrations in California, Texas, and Louisi­
ana. A large number of priests are located in
communities near Catholic educational and other
institutions. Many are stationed throughout the
world as missionaries. Others travel constantly
while giving missions to local parishes throughout
the country. Some priests serve as chaplains with
the Armed Forces or in hospitals or other insti­
tutions.
Training and Other Qualifications

The course o f study for the priesthood takes
at least 8 years after graduation from high
school. Most students take this training in the­
ological seminaries—first, in a minor seminary
(usually for 2 years), then in a major seminary
which offers 6 years of advanced training. As
of January 1958, almost 37,000 students, known
as seminarians, were enrolled in about 500 sem­
inaries in the United States. High school gradu­
ates with the desired scholastic background— an
academic course, including Latin— can complete
the minor seminary in 2 years and then advance
to the major seminary. Elementary school grad­
uates can enter the minor seminary and complete

THE CLERGY

high school as well as the 2 years of college work.
Courses include Christian doctrine, Latin and
Greek, English and at least one other modern
language, rhetoric and elocution, history and ge­
ography, bookkeeping, mathematics and natural
sciences, and Gregorian chant.
A t the major seminary, the first 2 years are
devoted to the study of philosophy, scripture,
church history, and the natural sciences as re­
lated to religion. During the remaining 4 years,
the course o f study includes sacred scripture;
apologetics; dogmatic, moral, and pastoral the­
ology; homiletics; church history; liturgy; and
canon law. Diocesan and religious priests at­
tend different seminaries, where slight variations
in the training reflect the differences in the type
o f work expected of them as priests. During the
later years of his seminary course, the candidate
receives from his bishop a succession of orders
culminating in his ordination to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theology is taken
either at Catholic University of America (Wash­
ington, D.C.) or at the ecclesiastical universities
in Rome. Many priests also do graduate work
at other universities in fields unrelated to the­
ology. Priests are commanded by the law of the
Catholic Church to continue their studies, at least
informally, after ordination.
Young men are never denied entry into sem­
inaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries
for secular priests, the bishop may make arrange­
ments for loans to the students. Those in reli­
gious seminaries are often financed by contribu­
tions of benefactors.
Among the qualities considered most desirable
in candidates for the Catholic priesthood are a
love o f and concern for people, a deep religious
conviction, a desire to spread the Gospel of
Christ, at least average intellectual ability, capac­
ity to speak and write correctly and fluently, and
more than average skill in working with people.
Candidates for the priesthood must understand

161

that priests are not permitted to marry and are
dedicated to a life of chastity.
The first assignment of a newly ordained secu­
lar priest is usually that of assistant pastor or
curate. Newly ordained priests of religious or­
ders are assigned to the specialized duties for
which they are trained.
Outlook

A growing number of priests will be needed in
the years ahead to provide for the spiritual and
educational needs of the rising number of Cath­
olics in the Nation. Although the number o f
seminarians has increased steadily since W orld
War II, the number of ordained priests has not
been sufficient to fill the needs of newly estab­
lished parishes and expanding colleges and other
Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who
die. Priests usually continue at their posts longer
than persons in other professions, but the varied
demands and long hours create a need for young
priests to assist the older ones. Also, an increas­
ing number o f priests have been serving in many
diverse areas—for example, religious radio and
television work and labor-management mediation.
Continued expansion o f such activities, in addi­
tion to the expected further growth in Catholic
population, will require a steady increase in the
number of priests, both in the next few years
and over the long run.
Where To Go for More Information

Young men interested in entering the priest­
hood should seek the guidance and counsel of
their parish priest. Additional information re­
garding different religious orders and the secular
priesthood, as well as a list of the various semi­
naries which prepare students for the priesthood,
may be obtained from Diocesan Directors of
Vocations.

R a b b is
(D.O.T. 0-08.)

Nature of Work

The rabbi is the spiritual leader of his congregation and a teacher and interpreter of Jew506397 0 — 59-------12




ish law and tradition. It is customary for the
rabbi to conduct services daily and hold special
services on the Sabbath and on the High Holy
Days. In general, rabbis are available at all

162

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

times to members of their congregations, other
followers of Judaism, and the community at
large. Many o f the rabbi’s functions—preparing
and delivering sermons, performing wedding cer­
emonies, visiting the sick, conducting funeral
services, comforting mourners, helping the poor,
supervising religious education programs, engag­
ing in interfaith activities, assuming community
responsibilities, counseling individuals who seek
guidance, and others—are similar to those per­
formed by clergymen of other faiths. Rabbis
may also contribute to religious and lay publica­
tions, and teach in theological seminaries, col­
leges, and universities.
Rabbis serve congregations affiliated with one of
the three branches o f American Judaism— Ortho­
dox (traditional), Conservative, or Reform (lib­
eral). Regardless o f their particular point o f
view, all Hebrew congregations preserve the sub­
stance o f Jewish religious worship. The congre­
gations differ in the extent to which they adhere to
the traditional form of worship— for example, in
the wearing of head coverings or in the use of
Hebrew as the language o f prayer and music. Be­
cause o f these differences, the format o f the wor­
ship service and therefore the ritual of the rabbi
may vary considerably—even among those con­
gregations which belong to the same branch of
Judaism.
Where Employed

Approximately 3,600 rabbis served the more
than 5 million followers of the Jewish faith in
this country in 1958. A substantial majority are
Orthodox rabbis; the remainder are divided al­
most equally between the Conservative and Re­
form branches o f Judaism. Most rabbis act as
the spiritual leaders o f individual congregations;
some serve as chaplains in the Armed Forces and
in hospitals; others teach either full or part time
in private educational institutions; and others
are employed in social welfare agencies and in
religious education work for such organizations
as Hillel Foundation.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated, of
course, in those States which have sizable Jewish
populations. In 1957, six States (New York,
California, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Illinois,
and Massachusetts) had about four-fifths of the




estimated total Jewish population in the United
States.
Training and Other Qualifications,

To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi,
the student must complete the prescribed course
o f study at a Jewish theological seminary.
Entrance and training requirements differ
among the seminaries, depending chiefly on the
branch of Judaism with which the particular
seminary is associated. The Hebrew Union Col­
lege-Jewish Institute of Religion (Reform) and
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America
(Conservative) are the only seminaries which
train rabbis for their respective groups. Both
these schools require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior preparation in
Jewish studies, for admission to the rabbinic pro­
gram which leads to ordination. Although 5
years are normally required to complete the rab­
binic course at the Reform seminary, it is pos­
sible for exceptionally well prepared students to
shorten this period of study to a minimum of 3
years. The course at the Conservative seminary
may be completed in 4 years if the student has a
good background in Jewish studies; otherwise,
the course may take as long as 6 years.
Several institutions train Orthodox rabbis.
These schools have programs of various lengths,
all leading to ordination. At one of the larger
Orthodox seminaries, well-qualified students who
are college graduates may complete the rabbinic
program in 3 years; however, students who are
not college graduates may spend a longer period
at the seminary and complete the requirements
for the bachelor’s degree at the same time they
are pursuing the rabbinic course.
In general, the curriculums o f Jewish theologi­
cal seminaries provide the student with a com­
prehensive grasp o f all aspects o f Jewish knowl­
edge, including the Bible and Talmud (Jewish
civil and canonical law). Other courses include
Jewish history, theology, pastoral psychology,
and public speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of Talmud and
has a broad course of study which includes such
subjects as human relations and Jewish religious
education. Some seminaries grant advanced aca­
demic degrees in such fields as Talmudic and
Biblical research. A ll Jewish theological semi-

THE CLERGY

naries make scholarships and loans available to
students.
Newly ordained rabbis usually start out as the
leaders of small congregations or as assistants to
experienced rabbis. As a rule, the pulpits of
large and well established synagogues and tem­
ples are filled by experienced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi should, of
course, be made on the basis of a desire to serve the
religious needs of others. In addition to possess­
ing such personal qualifications as high moral and
ethical values, the prospective rabbi should be able
to write and speak clearly, correctly, and logically.
Outlook

A sufficient supply o f rabbis to fill the needs
o f all the congregations desiring their services is
not likely to be available during the 1960 decade.
Although the number o f students graduating an­
nually from the Jewish theological seminaries is
expected to increase somewhat, the numbers will
probably not be adequate to replace the rabbis
who retire or die, and to fill the openings which
will be created by the formation o f new congre­
gations. Immigration, once an important source
o f supply for rabbis, is no longer significant. In
fact, graduates o f American seminaries are now
in demand for Jewish congregations in other
countries.




163

As o f 1958, many congregations—especially
those located in States where there are relatively
few persons of the Jewish faith—could not se­
cure the spiritual leadership of a full-time or­
dained rabbi and had to rely on the services o f
senior theological students and lay readers.
Rabbis were also being sought to lead the many
new congregations which had been organized in
and around New York, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Philadelphia, and Boston—where the majority o f
the Jewish population is concentrated.
The striking increases since W orld W ar I I in
Jewish religious affiliation and in the number o f
synagogues and temples seem likely to continue
over the long run. Factors indicating further
growth in the need for rabbis include the antici­
pated increase in population and the establish­
ment o f many new households, particularly in
the suburbs o f large cities where most o f the new
congregations will be formed.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people who are interested in entering
the profession should seek the guidance and coun­
sel o f a rabbi. Additional information on how
to prepare for service in the rabbinate o f a par­
ticular branch o f Judaism, including admission
requirements, may be obtained from each theo­
logical school.

TEC H N IC IA N S
Technicians who work with engineers and phys­
ical scientists are among the fastest growing oc­
cupational groups in the United States. In recent
years, the needs of the Nation’s defense program,
added to those o f the expanding civilian economy,
have greatly intensified the demand not only for
engineers and scientists but also for technical
workers with less training—the technicians with
whom this chapter is concerned. These techni­
cians, whose jobs generally require a combination
o f basic scientific and mathematical knowledge
and manual skill, participate in research and
development work, and in designing, producing,
and maintaining the machines and materials of
our increasingly complex technology.
This chapter covers those technicians who work
with engineers and physical scientists, and in­
cludes a general discussion o f the work o f tech­
nicians and information on some o f the special­
ized areas in which technicians are trained and
employed. A t the end o f the chapter there is a
separate report on draftsmen, who make up the
largest and one o f the oldest groups o f the tech­
nician occupations.
The nature o f the work performed by techni­
cians varies tremendously among industries and
among plants in the same industry. Even within
a single plant, some technicians may perform
relatively simple routine tasks, while others do
work o f a highly technical nature, which some­

times overlaps the functions o f the engineer. Be­
cause of the great variety o f jobs included in the
technician category, it is difficult to give an over­
all description of their work. Some technician
jobs require the ability to analyze and solve prob­
lems. Some require considerable aptitude in
mathematics and the ability to visualize objects
from drawings. Design jobs often require cre­
ative ability. Other technician jobs require knowl­
edge o f one or more o f the skilled trades, al­
though not necessarily the ability to perform as
a craftsman. Still other jobs demand extensive
knowledge of industrial equipment and processes.
Sometimes jobs held by technicians are o f a super­
visory nature and require both technical knowl­
edge and the ability to handle people.
There is little agreement among employers on
either job titles or duties o f technicians. Trained
technicians doing similar work may be given
general titles, such as engineering aid, junior
engineer, physical science aid, or laboratory as­
sistant, or such specific titles as time-study ana­
lyst or tool designer. Many groups concerned
with the training o f these personnel advocate use
o f the term “ engineering technician” or “ scientific
technician” to refer to persons in jobs requiring
post-high-school technical training, such as that
provided by a technical institute, or its equiva­
lent in experience.

T e ch n icia n s W h o W o rk W ith En g in e e rs a n d P h y sica l Scientists
Nature of Work

The term “ technician” is used to describe a
large and loosely defined group o f occupations
at many levels o f skill and with a wide variety
o f training requirements. In general, technician
jobs fall between those of the skilled craftsman
and the professional engineer or scientist. The
work is technical in nature but narrower in scope
than that o f the engineer or scientist and has a
practical rather than a theoretical orientation.
Frequently technician jobs require use o f complex
electronic and mechanical instruments, experi164




mental laboratory apparatus, drafting instru­
ments, tools, and machinery. Almost all techni­
cians must be able to use engineering handbooks
and computing devices, such as the slide rule or
calculating machines.
Technicians are utilized in virtually every ac­
tivity where technical know-how is required.
One o f their largest and best known areas o f em­
ployment is research, development, and design
work. Technicians in this type o f activity who
have titles such as laboratory technician, physical
science aid, or engineering aid generally serve as
direct supporting personnel to engineers or scien-

TECHNICIANS

tists. They conduct laboratory experiments or
tests; set up, calibrate, and operate instruments;
and make calculations. They may work on the
fabrication and assembly o f experimental equip­
ment and developmental models, do drafting, and,
in some instances, do design work.
Technicians in jobs related to production usu­
ally follow a course laid out by the engineer or
scientist, but they often work without close super­
vision. They may aid in the various phases of
the production planning, such as working out
specifications regarding needed materials and
methods o f manufacture. Sometimes technicians
serve as production supervisors or inspectors, de­
vise tests to insure quality control o f products,
or make motion and time studies designed to im­
prove the efficiency o f operations. They may also
perform liaison work between departments such
as research or engineering and production.
In the installation, operation, and maintenance
o f complex machinery and equipment, techni­
cians often handle or supervise work that might
otherwise have to be done by engineers. They
frequently are responsible for “ troubleshooting”
and repair work requiring considerable theoreti­
cal as well as practical knowledge.
Technicians may also be employed as super­
visors o f construction projects, as technical rep­
resentatives o f manufacturers seeking to aid the
customer in achieving maximum utilization of
technical equipment, as salesmen o f technical
products, or as technical writers of specifications
and manuals. Also, in many o f these activities
they perform duties which might otherwise have
to be handled by an engineer or scientist.
The following sections describe a number of
technician occupations in addition to that of
draftsmen, which is described separately at the
end o f the chapter.
Aeronautical Technicians. Aeronautical techni­
cians work with engineers and scientists in all
phases o f aircraft design, production, and sale.
They work not only on conventional aircraft but
also on helicopters, rockets, guided missiles, and
spacecraft, and on propulsion systems and con­
trols as well as aircraft structures.
Many aeronautical technicians serve as aids to
engineers in design work and on other projects.
Often they assist in preparing layouts o f aircraft
structures or equipment installations by collecting




165

information, making calculations, and perform­
ing many other tasks. They work on projects
involving stress analysis, aerodynamics, structural
design, flight test evaluation, weight control, or
propulsion problems. For example, under the
direction o f an engineer, a technician might be
assigned the problem o f estimating weight fac­
tors, centers o f gravity, and other items affecting
an airplane’s load capacity. Other technicians
working on engineering projects prepare or su­
pervise the preparation o f drawing o f parts and
assemblies, or check engineering drawings for
technical accuracy, practicability, and economy.
In addition to engineering project work, tech­
nicians work on various aspects o f the fabrica­
tion and assembly of aircraft and equipment.
They may serve as production supervisors; esti­
mate costs o f material and labor needed to manu­
facture airplanes, parts, and equipment; or do
inspection work. Technicians may also be re­
sponsible for liaison between the engineers who
do the planning and developing and the workers
who convert the engineers’ ideas into finished
products. As an airplane is built, the liaison
technician checks it for conformance with speci­
fications, keeps the engineer informed as to prog­
ress, and investigates any production problems
that arise. He may recommend minor changes
in the design, the materials used, or the method
o f fabrication, which would expedite production
o f parts or assemblies.
Some o f the many other areas o f work in
which aeronautical technicians are employed in­
clude maintenance, field service, technical sales,
and technical writing. Maintenance technicians
inspect aircraft and engines and usually direct
their servicing and repair. Those employed as
manufacturers’ field service representatives main­
tain liaison with the military services, commer­
cial airlines, and other customers. Technicians
with a flair for writing often prepare instruction
manuals, bulletins, catalogs, and other technical
materials. (Information on Airplane Mechanics
appears elsewhere in the Handbook. See index
for page number.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
Technicians. Heating, cooling, and refrigerating
equipment is essential to health and comfort in
our daily lives and to the operation o f many
factories, stores, and other businesses. Techni-

166

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

cians in this field are concerned with the manu­
facture, installation, and servicing o f this equip­
ment. They often become specialists in one area
o f work, such as refrigeration, and sometimes in
a particular activity, such as research and de­
velopment, or design o f layouts for heating, cool­
ing, or refrigeration systems.
In the manufacture of air-conditioning, heat­
ing, and refrigeration equipment, technicians
work in research and engineering departments,
usually as aids to engineers and scientists. They
also are frequently assigned such jobs as testing
and inspecting equipment or analyzing produc­
tion methods.
Technical sales work for manufacturers of
equipment and for independent contractors who
design and install systems is still another area
o f work for technicians. In such work they must
be able to supply customers with information on
such technical subjects as installation, mainte­
nance, and operating costs and expected perform­
ance o f equipment.
An air-conditioning, heating, or refrigeration
system requires not only equipment for changing
temperature but also duct-work or piping for
distributing hot or cold air, hot water or steam,
or refrigerating fluid. The design and installa­
tion o f such systems is a large area o f work for
technicians. In designing the layout for an airconditioning or heating system, the technician

Autom
otive technicians assistin engineers in design and devel­
g
opm w by building experim
ent ork
ental equipm and testin
ent
g
it fo perform
r
ance, durability, and efficiency.




must determine the heating or cooling require­
ments, select the proper equipment to do the job,
and estimate costs. In this work, he has to con­
sider such problems as filtering air and control­
ling moisture, as well as heating or cooling.
When a system is being installed, the technican
may assist and supervise mechanics in installing
motors, condensers, humidifiers, and other equip­
ment, and in assembling and connecting piping
and equipment. After the installation is com­
pleted and the control devices connected, he tests
the units for proper performance. Technicians
may also operate the equipment and supervise
or perform maintenance and repair work, par­
ticularly where complex systems are involved.
(Information on Refrigeration and Air-Condi­
tioning Mechanics appears elsewhere in the Hand­
book. See index for page number.)
Automotive and Diesel Technicians. Automotive
and diesel technicians perform many of the tech­
nical jobs necessary to produce and operate en­
gines and related equipment for motor vehicles,
locomotives, ships, commercial establishments, and
industrial plants. The products on which they
work include gasoline, diesel, and other types of
internal combustion engines and related equip­
ment, such as transmission systems, brakes, and
clutches.
Technicians assisting engineers in design and
development work may build and install experi­
mental equipment and test it in the laboratory
or on the road for performance, durability, and
efficiency. As part o f their job, they may record
data, make computations, analyze results, and
write reports. Their work often requires the
understanding and interpretation o f drawings,
specifications, and instruments and gages, such
as dynamometers, as well as the use o f basic
handtools. Some jobs require considerable knowl­
edge o f drafting techniques.
In manufacturing operations, some automotive
and diesel technicians work as supervisors of
production and assembly o f engines and equip­
ment; others test new engines as they come off
the assembly line, do the more complicated in­
spection work, or serve as technical salesmen.
Automotive and diesel technicians may also be
employed to operate complex engines and equip­
ment and to supervise or perform maintenance
and repair work. Although many operating and

TECHNICIANS

maintenance jobs can be handled by skilled work­
ers, others require considerable technical back­
ground as well as manual skill and must be per­
formed by trained technicians. (Information on
Automobile Mechanics and Diesel Mechanics ap­
pears elsewhere in the Handbook. See index for
page numbers.)
Chemical Technicians.
Chemical technicians
work with chemists and chemical engineers in
the development, production, sale, and utilization
o f chemical products and equipment. They ap­
ply their knowledge of chemical and other physi­
cal science theory and o f apparatus and equip­
ment to such tasks as control o f complicated
chemical processes or laboratory research. The
field o f chemistry is so broad that technicians
often become specialists in the problems o f a par­
ticular industry and in an activity such as re­
search or production.
Most chemical technicians are employed in
research and development, testing, and other
laboratory work. In research and development
activities, technicians may assist chemists and
chemical engineers in developing new products
or improving existing ones. During the course
o f an experiment, the chemical technician may
be called upon to do the computation work and
to tabulate and analyze results. In testing work,
technicians make chemical tests to determine
compliance o f a product with specifications.
They analyze various materials to determine if
particular substances are present and, i f so, in
what quantity. They may, for example, analyze
steel for carbon phosphorous and sulfur content,
or water for the amount o f silica, iron, and cal­
cium present. They also perform experiments to
determine the characteristics o f substances as, for
example, viscosity and flash point of oil. The
work o f technicians employed in research or test­
ing laboratories often requires the assembly and
use o f such apparatus and instruments as dilatometers, inferometers, analytical balances, and cen­
trifuges.
In addition to those working in laboratories,
many chemical technicians are employed to su­
pervise various operations in the production o f
chemical products and sometimes as technical
salesmen o f chemicals and chemical equipment.




167

Civil and Construction Technicians. Civil and
construction technicians perform many o f the
planning and supervisory tasks necessary in the
construction o f highways, railroads, bridges, via­
ducts, dams, houses, factories, and other struc­
tures. In the planning stages o f construction,
technicians may be engaged in estimating costs,
purchasing materials, preparing specifications,
surveying, drafting, or designing. Once the ac­
tual construction work has begun, technicians
perform primarily supervisory functions, direct­
ing the crews engaged on the project. They may
be responsible for seeing that construction ac­
tivities are carried forward in proper order, and
for inspecting the work as it progresses for con­
formance with blueprints and specifications.
Although civil and construction technicians are
trained to perform many different tasks, they
generally specialize in certain activities. For ex­
ample, technicians working primarily as survey­
ors use the transit, the level, and other surveying
instruments to determine the locations and meas­
urements o f land areas and buildings for con­
struction and other purposes. As assistants to
construction engineers, technicians help to make
estimates o f the costs, materials, and time neces­
sary in the construction or repair o f various
structures. As highway foremen, they usually
supervise the clearing o f rights-of-way and the
preparation o f roads for surfacing. Many civil
and construction technicians become specialists in
some field o f drafting, such as drawing plans
for large buildings or preparing maps o f cities
and other areas.
Electric Power Technicians. Electric power is
essential to the functioning o f our technological
society. Without it, there would be no electric
lights, telephones, radios, television sets, or any
o f the numerous electrical appliances which enter
into the daily lives o f almost every American.
Its absence would also halt virtually all indus­
trial operations.
Technicians trained in the electric power field
usually work in one o f two major areas—the gen­
eration and distribution o f electric power or the
manufacture of electrical machinery and equip­
ment. They may also work in the field o f indus­
trial electronics; for example, in connection with

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

induction or dielectric heating, use o f X-rays, dia­
thermy, and ultrasonics. These jobs may some­
times overlap those o f electronic technicians (de­
scribed in the following section) who are chiefly
concerned with equipment utilizing vacuum tube
and semiconductor circuits. Other jobs in which
electric power technicians are employed include
supervising the installation o f lighting systems
in streets, factories, stores, and other large build­
ings and inspecting electric wiring for conform­
ance with specifications and codes.
In companies which manufacture electrical
equipment, these technicians may assist engineers
in designing electric motors, generators, appli­
ances, and other products. They may also per­
form experimental laboratory work or aid in
solving problems connected with the manufacture
o f newly developed products. Others test the
more complex products for conformity with de­
signs and specifications while they are being
manufactured or inspect finished products. Tech­
nicians working in equipment manufacturing
companies may also prepare cost estimates for
electrical installations; draft wiring diagrams of
electrical machinery and control devices; do tech­
nical sales and field service w ork; and write tech­
nical manuals, reports, catalogs, or specifications.
In electric light and power companies, techni­
cians may control the operation o f power stations,
substations, and transmission lines, or assist in
doing this. They may be assigned such tasks as
operating, inspecting, testing, overhauling, and
changing generators, motors, transformers, auto­
matic control systems, or other equipment.
Electronic Technicians. The electronic techni­
cians considered in this chapter have a back­
ground o f electronics theory, physical science,
and mathematics which enables them to handle
more complex and technical work than is in­
volved in routine operating and repair jobs. The
total number o f electronic technicians employed
at this level was estimated to be between 50,000
and 60,000 in 1958. (F or additional information
on jobs in the electronics field, see statement
on Electronic Servicemen and Technicians. Re­
fer to index for page number.)
The broad field o f electronics in which these
technicians work includes radio, television, teleph­
ony, and other forms of communication; indus­
trial measuring, recording, indicating, and con­




I

E
lectron technicians often w w in
ic
ork ith tricate equipm su
ent ch
as th h h pow oscillator.
is ig
er

trolling devices; navigational equipment; guided
missile controls; electronic computers; and many
other types of equipment using vacuum tubes
and semiconductor circuits. Because the field is
so broad, technicians often become specialists in
one area— for example, communications— and
often in a subdivision such as radio or telephony.
In general, electronic technicians apply their
theoretical knowledge and their manual skills to
such tasks as the preparation or interpretation
o f layouts and other diagrams, the design of
electronic circuits, or the assembly, wiring, and
installation o f intricate electronic units. They
may also diagnose the trouble in a piece o f com­
plex equipment, conduct tests to verify the diag­
nosis, and make necessary repairs. Their work
often calls for use o f engineering handbooks;
oscilloscopes, signal generators, ohmmeters, mul­
titesters, Q-meters, and other instruments; com­
puting devices, such as slide rules; and basic
handtools.
Electronic technicians employed in research ac­
tivities usually assist scientists or engineers in
building, testing, and sometimes, even designing
experimental electronic apparatus. They may be
called upon to devise practical solutions to prob­
lems o f design, select suitable materials, deter­
mine the best method o f building a piece of equip­
ment, and evaluate the operating characteristics
of the equipment after it is built.

TECHNICIANS

In manufacturing operations, electronic tech­
nicians often supervise the production and as­
sembly o f electronic equipment. They may oper­
ate complex equipment, perform troubleshooting
functions, or do the more complicated types of
testing and inspection work. They also assist en­
gineers in designing and setting up different types
o f testing equipment for use in manufacturing
operations. (See also chapters on Occupations
in the Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft Field;
and Electronics Manufacturing Occupations.)
Electronic technicians are often employed in
maintenance and repair jobs where knowledge
above the routine repair level is needed. Elec­
tronic maintenance technicians employed by the
new Federal Aviation Agency, for example, are
responsible for keeping radar and other electronic
equipment used to handle air traffic in perfect
working order. Electronic technicians employed
by the Department of Defense service radar,
sonar, loran, and other warning and detection
devices. Manufacturers and purchasers o f elec­
tronic computers frequently employ electronic
technicians to service and repair these complex
machines.
Electronic technicians are employed in the en­
gineering departments of radio and television
broadcasting stations to operate and repair the
electronic equipment in the studio and at the
transmitter. Many are employed in supervisory
jobs and, in some instances, may be responsible
for the entire technical operation o f the station.
Technicians who operate transmitters must meet
Federal Communications Commission licensing
requirements. (F or additional information on
broadcast technicians, see chapter on Radio and
Television Broadcasting Occupations. See index
for page number.)
Industrial Technicians. Industrial technicians
work with industrial engineers on problems in­
volving the efficient use o f men, materials, and
machines in mass production processes. Their
work includes such tasks as preparing layout of
machinery and equipment, planning the flow of
work, and making statistical studies and analyses
o f production costs to eliminate unnecessary ex­
pense. They may study different production
methods and their costs in order to find out the
best way o f manufacturing a particular item.
The industrial technician may also assist the




169

engineer in conducting time and motion studies.
These studies involve timing and analyzing the
movements workers make as they do their jobs.
On the basis o f information obtained, changes in
tools and equipment used and a reorganization o f
operations to improve the arrangement of mate­
rials and the efficiency of body movements may
be recommended.
Industrial technicians are sometimes employed
as supervisors or foremen in manufacturing oper­
ations. In such jobs, they interpret blueprints,
sketches, and written orders; determine work
procedures; assign duties; inspect work; and
maintain harmony among the personnel.
In the course o f their duties, many industrial
technicians acquire experience which enables them
to qualify for other jobs. For example, those
expert in machinery and production methods may
move into the field o f industrial safety. Others
who specialize in job analyses may become in­
volved in the setting o f job standards and in the
interviewing, testing, hiring, and training o f per­
sonnel.
Tool Designers. The tool designer designs tools
and devices for the mass production o f manu­
factured articles. He originates and prepares
sketches o f the designs for cutting tools, jigs,
special fixtures, and other attachments used in
machine operations. He may also make or super­
vise others in the making o f detailed drawings
o f these tools and fixtures. In addition to de­
veloping new tools, the designer frequently re­
designs tools currently in use, in order to im­
prove their efficiency. During the process o f
trying to develop the best tool for a particular
purpose, the designer must often do some or all
o f the machine work involved in constructing
working models.
In order to perform his highly technical job,
the tool designer must have a practical and de­
tailed knowledge o f machine shop practice and
drafting, and a good background in practical
shop mathematics. He must also be familiar with
the characteristics o f the materials o f which tools
and fixtures are made. In addition, he needs a
knowledge o f manufacturing procedures and the
merits o f various methods o f production, so that
he can design tools which will serve to produce
the article desired with minimum cost.

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Other Technician Occupations. Many fields of
work besides those described above offer oppor­
tunities for technicians with appropriate train­
ing. Those trained as metallurgical technicians,
for example, work with metallurgists and metal­
lurgical engineers in processing metals and in
converting them into needed products. Some do
testing or work in research laboratories; others
serve as coordinators between departments o f a
plant or as inspectors. Mathematics aids, an­
other technician group, assist mathematicians,
engineers, and scientists by doing computations
involving the use o f algebra, logarithms, trigo­
nometric functions, and higher mathematics. Still
other fields o f work for technicians are: cartog­
raphy (mapmaking), gas turbine technology, op­
tical technology, petroleum technology, photog­
raphy, steam technology, textile technology, and
welding technology.
As industry becomes increasingly mechanized,
new technical occupations are constantly emerg­
ing. For example, instrumentation technology,
a new and growing area o f employment, has
evolved from the introduction o f more and more
automatic controls and precision measuring de­
vices in manufacturing operations. In industrial
plants and laboratories, instruments are used to
record data, to control and regulate the operation
o f machinery, and to measure time, weight, tem­
perature, speeds o f moving parts, electric cur­
rent, strain, and pressure. Technicians—who
may either have specific training in instrumenta­
tion or training chiefly in electronics, mechanics,
or hydraulics—work with engineers and scien­
tists in building, installing, and maintaining these
highly complex devices and experimenting with
them. The jobs o f those employed in plants
which manufacture instruments may involve the
planning and estimating o f time and material
requirements and coordination work between the
engineering department and the machine shop.
(See also statement on Instrument Makers. Re­
fer to index for page number.) Another new
area o f work for technicians, which has resulted
from recognition o f the need for a more scientific
approach toward the reduction o f industrial haz­
ards, is safety technology. In the rapidly grow­
ing atomic energy field, technicians work with
scientists on problems o f radiation safety, inspec­
tion, and decontamination. (F or a more detailed
description of technicians employed in the atomic




energy field, see chapter on Occupations in the
Atomic Energy Field. See index for page
number.)
Where Employed

In January 1957, nearly 575,000 tecnmcians
were employed in manufacturing and nonmanu­
facturing industries. The largest number, about
83.000, were employed in plants manufacturing
machinery. The next largest number, about
74.000, worked for plants producing electrical
equipment, and more than 50,000 were employed
in aircraft and aircraft parts plants. Large num­
bers o f technicians were also employed in the
following industries: fabricated metal products
and ordnance, chemicals and allied products, and
telecommunications and broadcasting.
Research and development work is one o f the
major areas o f employment for technicians. O f
the nearly 575,000 technicians, approximately
160.000 were employed in this work in 1957.
More than half of these technicians were in the
aircraft and parts, electrical equipment, and ma­
chinery industries.
The Federal Government employs sizable num­
bers of technicians in times of peace as well as
during emergency periods. Most Government
technicians of the types covered in this chapter
are in the following seven occupational cate­
gories: engineering aid, engineering draftsman,
cartographic aid, cartographic draftsman, physi­
cal science aid, electronics technician, and mathe­
matics aid. In addition, persons with training
and experience as technicians may qualify for
various mechanic and other blue-collar jobs in
the Government service.
As of February 28, 1957, the Federal Govern­
ment had 31,099 employees in the selected tech­
nician occupations mentioned above.
About
19.000 or 60 percent of these technicians were
working in the Department of Defense— in the
Army, Navy, and A ir Force. The Departments
of Interior, Commerce, and Agriculture employed
10,700 technicians, or about 34 percent, and the
remaining few were scattered throughout a num­
ber of other Government agencies.
Workers in each of the various technician spe­
cialties employed by the Federal Government
were also largely concentrated in a relatively few
agencies. For example, in 1957, about 94 per-

TECHNICIANS

cent o f the 5,858 electronics technicians were em­
ployed by the Department o f Defense in the
Army, Navy, and A ir Force, and by the Civil
Aeronautics Administration of the Department
of Commerce. Almost 40 percent of the 3,493
persons working as cartographic aids were em­
ployed by the Department o f the Arm y; other
agencies which employed large numbers o f these
technicians included the Departments of the In­
terior, Commerce, and A ir Force. The Army
and Interior Departments employed about 70 per­
cent o f the cartographic draftsmen. The Navy
and National Advisory Committee for Aeronau­
tics employed about 75 percent of the 571 mathe­
matics aids.
Training and Other Qualifications

Young men and women who wish to prepare
for careers as technicians can obtain formal edu­
cation for this work from a number o f sources
including technical institutes, junior and com­
munity colleges, extension divisions of universi­
ties, and colleges offering 2-year technical pro­
grams. Training for technician jobs can also be
obtained through programs operated by com­
panies for their employees, and from corre­
spondence schools, vocational schools, and a few
advanced technical high schools. Not all persons
who work as technicians have had specific train­
ing for their occupations. Engineering or liberal
arts students who have not completed all require­
ments for a degree, some graduates of liberal
arts colleges, and.other persons with some posthigh-school education in mathematics and sci­
ence are often employed in technical positions.
Many workers become technicians through onthe-job training and experience only.
The formal education given prospective tech­
nicians is designed to enable them to become pro­
ductive as soon as they begin to work. It is
expected that only a minimum of on-the-job
training will be necessary to make them useful
to employers. Schools preparing students for
technician jobs give courses in applied science,
applied mathematics, and applied engineering,
with subject matter related to the practical prob­
lems students will face in the job. Students are
also taught basic skills in the use of instruments,
machinery, and tools. This training, however, is
designed to familiarize the student with equip­




171

ment rather than to develop manual skill. In
contrast with the skilled craftsman whose job
depends primarily upon his manipulative ability,
a technician often uses instruments and machin­
ery merely as an aid in applying his scientific
knowledge to a particular problem.
Entrance requirements of schools specializing
in education for technician jobs are usually less
rigid and standardized than those of 4-year col­
leges. A ll institutions offering post-high-school
technical training organize their courses for high
school graduates. However, some admit students
without a high school diploma if they have com­
pleted the equivalent of a full high school course,
or if they satisfy age requirements, can pass spe­
cial examinations or otherwise demonstrate their
ability to perform work above the high school
level, and can show that they are “ adult, ma­
ture individuals” able to profit from the training
offered.
The flexible entrance requirements o f many of
the schools offering education to prospective tech­
nicians make possible a career in the technical
field for many persons who cannot meet the more
rigid requirements for admission to regular
4-year colleges. However, young people should
realize that the technical and scientific courses
in most of these schools are of college level, and
many institutions admit only high school gradu­
ates who have had mathematics and science
courses. On the other hand, some schools have
arrangements enabling students to make up defi­
ciencies in these subjects. For all the occupa­
tions considered in this chapter, basic training
in mathematics and science is essential, and stu­
dents who expect to prepare for the technician
field should, therefore, obtain a good background
in these subjects in high school.
Because of the variety of educational institu­
tions from which training may be obtained and
differences in the kind and level of training o f­
fered, a person seeking a technical education
should use more than ordinary care in selecting
a school. I f possible, information should be se­
cured about State accreditation, professional rec­
ognition, the length of time the school has been
in operation, instructional facilities, faculty qual­
ifications, transferability of credits, and the suc­
cess of the school’s graduates. Students should
also look into the costs of technical education
and available scholarships and other financial

172

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

aids. Above all, a student should realize that
there is no quick and easy method of acquiring
the background in mathematics, chemistry, and
other physical sciences which will enable him to
qualify as a technician.
A brief discussion o f some of the types of edu­
cational institutions and other sources where
young people can obtain training as technicians
follow s:
Technical Institutes. Technical institutes o f­
fer 1, 2, or 3 years of training above the high
school level. Two years is the most usual train­
ing period.
The programs o f technical institutes are usu­
ally designed to give the prospective technician
an engineering and science background which
prepares him for some specific job or cluster of
related jobs. The scope of these programs is
more limited than that required to prepare a
person for a career as a professional engineer.
Much emphasis is placed on laboratory and draft­
ing work in order to familiarize students with
instruments, equipment, and techniques used in
industry. However, manual skills are not stressed
as much as in vocational schools which prepare
students for skilled jobs. In general, the stu­
dent receives intensive technical training but less
theoretical and general education than is pro­
vided by 4-year engineering and liberal arts
colleges.
Some schools offer cooperative programs under
which a student spends part of his time in school
and part in employment related to the occupation
for which he is preparing himself. It may take
more than 2 years to complete the curriculum at
a technical institute with a cooperative plan but
this type of program gives students valuable ex­
perience in industrial situations, which often out­
weighs the disadvantages of a longer training
period. In addition, students participating in
cooperative programs frequently earn enough to
pay for at least a part o f their educational
expenses.
Most technical institutes conduct both day and
evening sessions. Evening classes are of particu­
lar importance to students who must have full­
time jobs. By attending such classes, employed
workers can often upgrade themselves to higher
level technician jobs or obtain sufficient training
to shift to a technician’s job from another field




of work. More than half o f the students at­
tending technical institutes in 1956 were enrolled
part time in evening and special classes.
Some technical institutes give associate de­
grees which signify that the student has com­
pleted at least 2 years of college-level work.
However, if the prospective student desires even­
tually to obtain a bachelor’s degree from a 4-year
college, he should investigate in advance whether
his technical institute credits are transferable to
the college o f his choice. Although some col­
leges will give full credit for work taken at
technical institutes, others will give either par­
tial or no credit.
The amount of general education offered at
technical institutes varies greatly. Some schools
offer intensive training for technical occupations
but almost no general education; whereas, other
schools require their students to devote as much
as 25 percent of their time to such courses as
English and history, and 75 percent to specific
courses in their vocational field.
Some technical institutes offering programs of
the type described are operated as regular or
extension divisions o f colleges and universities.
Others include separate institutions operated by
States or municipalities, privately endowed insti­
tutions, proprietary schools, and Y M C A schools.
Altogether, there were about 71 technical insti­
tutes with a total of more than 67,000 full- and
part-time students in 1955-56.
Junior or Community Colleges. Some of the
approximately 625 junior or “ community” col­
leges in the country also prepare students for
technician occupations in industry and govern­
ment. These schools usually offer 2 years of
post-high-school education. It is common prac­
tice to award the degree o f associate in arts
upon completion o f the 2-year program.
Not all junior colleges are equipped to give
technical training of the type described in this
report, nor do most o f them consider this their
primary purpose. Many of them do not have
the shop and laboratory facilities nor the faculty
required for thorough technical training. Fur­
thermore, in contrast with most technical insti­
tutes which concentrate upon terminal education
(after which the student is not ordinarily ex­
pected to take advanced work elsewhere), junior
colleges also offer courses equivalent to those

TECHNICIANS

given in the freshman and sophomore years of
4-year colleges so that students completing this
type of curriculum can, if they are properly
prepared, begin with the junior year in a 4-year
college. According to a United States Office of
Education survey, there were, in the fall of 1956,
140 2-year colleges offering programs for train­
ing scientific and engineering technicians. These
140 colleges had more than 23,000 students en­
rolled in full-time study in technical programs
and over 12,000 students studying on a part-time
basis.
Junior college courses in technical fields are
usually planned around the employment needs of
the industries in the community where the col­
lege is located. The training programs for pro­
spective technicians therefore vary and may be
highly specialized. In some cases, the courses
are designed to meet the specifications of one or
two industries or even of a single plant. For ex­
ample, in California, where the junior college
movement has made great progress, several of
the colleges in the southern part o f the State
offer technical training for jobs in the aircraft
industry.
Many junior colleges are important adult edu­
cation centers and offer extensive part-time
courses at night. Through appropriate courses
at junior colleges, as at technical institutes, work­
ers may prepare themselves for higher grade
jobs. Adults and special students accounted for
more than half the total enrollment in junior
colleges in 1955-56.
Training in Industry. Some large corporations
conduct training programs for technicians. This
type of training is primarily technical and rarely
includes any general studies. Instruction is given
both through formal classes and through train­
ing on the job. Workers who receive their train­
ing entirely on the job generally receive less the­
oretical training than those who receive formal
instruction.
Other employers who do not have training
programs, but are aware of the need for tech­
nically trained workers, often encourage their
employees to attend classes in local schools or to
enroll in correspondence courses. Employers
sometimes ask the schools to arrange special edu­
cational programs which will expand the tech­
nical background o f their employees. Some large




173

corporations reimburse their employees for tui­
tion after they have completed the course satis­
factorily. The workers are usually expected to
take courses directly related to their work as­
signment, and are sometimes allowed to attend
classes on the employer’s time.
Training for some occupations in the techni­
cian category may be obtained through a formal
apprenticeship lasting 2 years or more. Occu­
pations o f which this is true include those of
tool and die designer and draftsman. Supple­
mentary education in mathematics and science
is almost always necessary. Persons interested in
apprentice training may obtain further informa­
tion from the local office of their State employ­
ment service, directly from employers, or from
the local labor union concerned with the occu­
pation they wish to learn. High school gradu­
ates are usually given preference for openings.
The age o f apprentices at the start of training
is generally from 18 to 22 years. However, the
favorable experience that program sponsors had
after W orld W ar I I with somewhat older ap­
prentices has caused many employers to relax
age requirements.
Other Training. Although most of the jobs
considered in this report require post-high-school
education or the equivalent in experience, a few
advanced technical high schools offer programs
which qualify their graduates for entry jobs as
technicians. These high schools have high ad­
mission requirements and offer more thorough
and advanced courses in mathematics, science,
drafting, and laboratory work than either an
academic high school or a vocational school.
Some schools have evening courses which may
be organized as formal technical programs to
prepare technicians or which may cover only a
few subjects related to a particular area of work.
These programs, like other evening courses, ap­
peal especially to employed persons who wish to
improve their job status by increasing their tech­
nical knowledge. Other technical high schools
offer an additional year o f schooling above the
regular fourth year.
Correspondence schools and home study courses
constitute additional sources of preparation for
technicians. Persons who wish to learn more
about their jobs or who wish to advance to a
better job in the same field are the ones who

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OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

derive the most benefit from such courses. Suc­
cess in such courses depends greatly on the ability
o f the student to study by himself.
In addition to the sources o f training already
discussed, many thousands of technicians are
trained each year by the Armed Forces. Each
Military Establishment—Army, Navy, A ir Force,
Marine Corps—trains its own specialists. The
Coast Guard also trains its own specialists. Some
trainees are given intensive short courses; others
receive extensive training of a year or more.
Much of the training is transferable from mili­
tary to civilian jobs, and indications are that a
large proportion of the technicians trained by
the military establishments utilize their training
in civilian employment after they leave the
Armed Forces.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued expansion in em­
ployment of technicians in the years ahead. Tech­
nicians have been in recent decades one of the
fastest growing occupational groups, and there
is every indication o f continued rapid growth in
these occupations. Some of the major factors
expected to raise the demand for technicians are
continued growth of population and expansion
o f industry, and the increasing complexity of
modern technology. The trend toward automa­
tion o f industrial processes, the Nation’s vast
highway building program, and the growth of
new areas of work, such as the atomic energy
field and the earth satellite and other space pro­
grams, are expected to add to the demand for
technical personnel. Increased emphasis on de­
fense, particularly in the fields of aircraft, mis­
siles, and electronics, will result in the growing
need for technicians in these areas of work.
Also of great importance to the long-run
growth in the employment o f technicians is the
prospect of a continued high level o f expendi­
tures for research and development in future
years. More and more companies are establish­
ing new research programs and strengthening
existing programs to meet the strong competi­
tion in developing new products and processes.
Furthermore, expenditures for defense-related
research, which have loomed so important in re­
cent years, are expected to continue at a high
level. It is anticipated that technicians will be




needed in large numbers in research, develop­
ment, design, and other work which must pre­
cede the manufacturing process. As products
and the methods by which they are manufac­
tured become more complex, increasing numbers
o f technicians are also expected to be required in
production, maintenance, technical sales, instal­
lation, and servicing jobs.
The number of job openings available to tech­
nicians in any one year will, however, reflect the
general economic situation and changes that may
occur in the Nation’s defense program. A sub­
stantial increase in research and development,
missile production or other aspects of the de­
fense program, or an acceleration in other gov­
ernment programs such as public works would
intensify the demand for technical personnel.
On the other hand, if the defense program should
be cut substantially, or the level of business ac­
tivity should fall sharply, the demand for tech­
nicians would be reduced, and many would face
competition for jobs from persons with other
backgrounds, particularly professional workers.
Employment opportunities for well-trained
women technicians have been good in recent years.
In the past, women technicians have been em­
ployed chiefly in drafting jobs, in chemical and
other laboratory work, and in computation and
other work requiring application o f mathematics.
Over the long run, it is likely that more women
will be trained and find employment in these and
other technician occupations.
Earnings

In general, a technician’s earnings depend upon
his education, his technical specialty, and his
work experience. Other important factors which
influence his earnings are the type o f employer
for whom he works, the kind o f work he does,
and the geographic location o f his job.
Information on the earnings of some types of
technicians in private employment is available
from a number of surveys in different industries
and localities, though no nationwide studies have
been made of technicians’ pay. It should be
noted that some of this information is based on
surveys conducted in 1957; by the end of 1958,
indications were that earnings in many techni­
cian occupations were slightly higher.
The salary ranges and the minimum education

175

TECHNICIANS

and experience needed for a young man to qual­
ify for various positions in the aircraft manu­
facturing industry are shown in a 1957 study by

Occupation

the Institute o f the Aeronautical Sciences. Data
on several technician positions in this industry
are given in the following table:

Education requirements (above high
school)

Monthly range of
Minimum ex­ salaries (not includ­
perience (years) ing overtime or
other adjustments)

Draftsman................................................................................................................... 2 years’ engineering or comparable
training.
Drawing checker (checks engineering drawings for accuracy and conformity to 2 years’ engineering or comparable
standards and specifications).
training.
Mathematician (sets up and solves math problems and analyzes technical data; 2 years’ mathematics or comparable
training.
develops formulas).
Production engineering liaison man (determines deviation between the specifica­ 2 years’ engineering or comparable
training.
tions and the manufactured item and suggests revisions; interprets blueprints;
etc.).
Technical writer (prepares technical instruction manuals, catalogs, etc.)............. 2 years’ engineering or comparable
training.
Standards analyst (investigates practicability of materials and parts; recom- 2 years’ college or comparable training.
mends standards; etc.).
Tool designer (designs tools, fixtures, and special machines, working from blue­ 2 years’ engineering or comparable
training.
prints and sketches).
Weight analyst (calculates and estimates weight, balance, etc., for parts and 2 years’ engineering or comparable
training.
assemblies).

According to limited information from varied
sources, earnings o f electronic technicians work­
ing in aircraft manufacturing plants on the
West Coast ranged from $2 to $3 an hour in 1958.
These workers were among the better paid groups
o f electronic technicians employed in manufac­
turing industries.
The earnings o f electronic technicians working
in radio and television broadcasting stations vary
greatly with the size of the station and of the
community. Beginning salaries for these tech­
nicians ranged from about $50 to $75 a week in
the small stations in 1958. Earnings o f experi­
enced men ranged from $80 a week in small
towns to more than $150 in the large cities.
Many technicians at the networks and large sta­
tions earned more than $185 a week. Supervisory
technicians at the networks and large stations
often earned in excess of $200 a week.
Further information on technicians’ pay is
available from studies of the 1957 earnings rec­
ords of graduates of several technical institutes.
For example, the Business and Technology divi­
sion of Long Beach City College, Long Beach,
Calif., reported starting salaries of $325 to $500
a month for its technician graduates. The Acad­
emy of Aeronautics, La Guardia Airport, N.Y.,
reported that its graduates were entering the
aviation industry at salaries ranging from $400
to $500 a month. The Franklin Technical Insti­




0-3

$280-$485

0-5

370- 750

0-3

300- 700

3-5

350- 750

0-4

325- 625

0-3

325- 550

2-8

375- 700

0-4

325- 450

tute and Wentworth Institute, both in Boston,
Mass., report that their graduates in the various
technical occupations were starting at $85 to $95
per week. The latter two schools reported that
starting salaries offered their graduates in 1958
were about the same as in 1957.
The Federal Government classifies technician
jobs, as it does other positions, in grades based
on the difficulty and responsibility of the work.
In general, technicians with 2 years o f appropri­
ate post-high-school training or experience can
begin in jobs classified in grades 3 or 4 and may
progress through grade 9. Some attain even
higher grades.
The annual salary rates for grades 3 through
9, in effect since January 1958, follow :
G ra de

G S -3________________
G S -4________________
G S -5________________
G S -6________________
G S -7________________
G S -8________________
G S -9________________

S a la ry ra n g e

S3, 495-$4, 065
3, 755- 4, 325
4, 040- 4, 940
4, 490- 5, 390
4, 980- 5, 880
5, 470- 6, 370
5, 985r 6, 885

An employee generally starts at the minimum
salary for his grade, although in areas where
there are acute shortages of personnel for cer­
tain positions, the Civil Service Commission may
allow payment of entrance salaries above the
minimum rate for the grade. After performing

176

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

his job satisfactorily for 1 year, he may be pro­
moted to the next grade: I f he is not, he re­
ceives an ingrade salary increase, amounting to
$95 in grades 3 and 4 and $150 in grades 5
through 9. A fter each additional year of satis­
factory performance in the same grade, he re­
ceives another ingrade increase until the maxi­
mum for the grade is reached—after which he
may receive further “ longevity” increases at
longer intervals.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on technician careers may
be obtained from :
Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
29 West 39th St., New York 18, N.Y.
Technical Institute Division, American Society for
Engineering Education,
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
The President’s Committee on Scientists and Engi­
neers,
Washington 25, D.C.
National Council of Technical Schools,
1507 M St. NW., Washington 5, D.C.

Information on training opportunities may also
be obtained from the Engineers Council for Pro­
fessional Development, the nationally recognized
accrediting agency for technical institute pro­
grams; the National Council of Technical
Schools; and the sources listed above:

U.S. Department o f Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Division o f Higher Education,
and/or Division o f Vocational Education,
Washington 25, D.C.

Requests for information on training for tech­
nical occupations may be directed to either or
both o f these divisions o f the Office o f Education.
State departments o f education at each State
capital also have information about approved
technical institutes, junior colleges, and other
educational institutions offering post-high-school
training for specific technical occupations. Other
sources include:
The American Association o f Junior Colleges,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.
National Home Study Council,
1420 New York Ave., Washington 5, D.C.

T o obtain information regarding apprentice­
ship opportunities in technician occupations, in­
quiries should be addressed to the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department
of Labor, Washington 25, D.C., or to one o f the
regional offices o f the Bureau or to the State
apprenticeship agencies.
Information on medical laboratory technicians,
medical X -ray technicians, and dental hygienists
is presented elsewhere in the Handbook. (Refer
to index for page number.)
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish information on positions
available in Federal Government agencies.

Draftsmen
Nature of Work

In making an airplane, a house, a ship, or
almost any other product, manufacturing and
construction companies need detailed plans giving
dimensions and specifications for the entire prod­
uct and each o f its parts. The workers who
draw these plans are draftsmen. They translate
the ideas and calculations o f engineers into com­
plete and accurate working plans and detailed
drawings which are used by the skilled craftsman
in making the desired object.
Draftsmen in high-grade positions, such as that
o f design draftsman or senior draftsman, gen­
erally work from rough sketches, specifications,
or field notes furnished by an engineer, architect,




or designer. Their job is to transform ideas into
actual drawings generally called layouts. They
must have enough background in engineering and
science so that the crude sketches of the design
desired by the engineer will be truly represented
in their drawings. They may be required to make
calculations concerning the strength, quality, and
cost of materials; to use engineering handbooks
and tables for computations; and to have still
other skills, including, o f course, facility with
drafting instruments and devices. In addition,
draftsmen in high-level jobs must have enough
shop experience so that they can, through their
drawings and specifications, describe in detail
materials and procedures for skilled craftsmen
to use on a particular job. Some draftsmen in

TECHNICIANS

top positions do independent designing, act as
supervisors, and may even assume the initiative
and responsibility for starting and completing
projects.
From the layouts prepared by design drafts­
men, working drawings of details or parts o f the
machine or article to be manufactured or struc­
ture to be built, have to be made. Draftsmen
who do this work are usually known as detailers. Their job also requires considerable ex­
perience and training. Other experienced drafts­
men designated as checkers carefully examine each

177

mechanical, electrical, aeronautical, structural, ar­
chitectural, naval architectural, and topographical
drafting.
Where Employed

About 125,000 draftsmen were employed in
1950, o f whom 7 percent were women. Although
no current statistics are available, there is evi­
dence that the number of draftsmen employed is
substantially greater today than in 1950.
The manufacturing industries which employ
the most draftsmen include electrical equipment,
machinery, aircraft and parts, fabricated metal
products and ordnance, chemicals and allied prod­
ucts, petroleum products and extraction, profes­
sional and scientific instruments, and primary
metals. Substantial numbers are also employed in
the telecommunications and broadcasting, trans­
portation and other public utilities, and construc­
tion industries. Many draftsmen work for engi­
neering and architectural consulting firms, and
sizable numbers are employed by Federal, State,
and local governments. O f those employed by the
Federal Government by far the largest number
work for the Departments of the Army, Navy,
and A ir Force.
Training and Other Qualifications

Draftsmen translate the ideas and calculations of engineers into
exact drawings.

drawing for errors. Tracers may also be em­
ployed to make corrections and to prepare draw­
ings for blueprinting by copying them in ink on
transparent cloth sheets, although, in recent years,
photoreproduction of final pencil drawings has
been rapidly eliminating the need for tracing in
ink. Tracing is usually considered a beginning job
for persons with little or no training or experi­
ence.
Practically all draftsmen specialize in some par­
ticular field o f work. The largest fields are
506397 O— 59------ 13




A person can acquire the specialized training
needed to become a draftsman from a number of
sources, including technical institutes, junior col­
leges, extension divisions of universities, colleges
offering special 2-year programs, technical high
schools, correspondence schools, and trade schools.
It is also possible to become a draftsman by serv­
ing a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship or by some
other type of on-the-job training combined with
part-time schooling. In any case, the training
should include mathematics and physical sciences,
as well as mechanical drawing.
Since many of the higher level drafting jobs
require a knowledge of methods of manufacturing
or construction, instruction in shop practices and
even the actual acquisition o f some shop skill are
advantageous to the person interested in a draft­
ing career. Many o f the types o f technical schools
listed above offer training in various areas o f

178

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

technology which includes shop practice, and
courses in engineering and science as well as in­
struction in drafting.
Draftsmen should have aptitude for detail and
for visualizing objects o f two or three dimensions.
Artistic ability is not generally required but may
be very helpful in some specialized fields. Good
eyesight is important, since drafting involves
close work.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
draftsmen are expected to be favorable during
the early 1960’s, and continued expansion o f em­
ployment is anticipated over the long run. As
the engineering and scientific occupations grow,
more draftsmen will be required as supporting
personnel. Moreover, the industries employing
most draftsmen are expected to expand further.
With the increasing complexity of industrial
operations, design problems will become more and
more involved, adding to the need for well-trained
draftsmen. In addition to draftsmen needed to
fill new positions, many will be required each year
to replace those who retire, die, or move into
other fields. Losses to the occupation from re­
tirement and deaths were estimated to be about
1,600 during 1958 and will rise slowly in the
future.
This analysis, like that for most technician
jobs, assumes a continued high level o f employ­
ment and business activity in the country as a
whole. It also assumes that Government spending
for defense— a major factor affecting demand for
draftsmen—will remain high. A substantial cut
in defense spending or a sharp drop in business
activity in the metalworking or construction in­
dustries would reduce the demand for draftsmen.
On the other hand, a substantial increase in de­
fense expenditures or an acceleration in highway
or other public works programs would intensify
the demand for draftsmen.
Earnings

Average straight-time weekly earnings of
draftsmen surveyed by the Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics between August 1957 and June 1958 were
as follows:




Draftsmen
Area

Tracer

Northeast:
Boston______ _____ __ $59.
New Y o r k _ ______ 78.
_
Newark-Jersey City__
Philadelphia________ 59.
South:
Atlanta.
_
_
Baltimore . . .
69.
Dallas . . ______
61.
Memphis
_ _ _
New O rlean s_______
North Central:
Chicago_____ _______ 70.
84.
C lev ela n d .____
M ilw aukee______ __ 66.
Minneapolis-St. Paul 61.
St. Louis____
____ 69.
West:
D e n v e r ._
_
L o s A n g e le s-L o n g
Beach _
_
_____
Portland____ ____
S a n Francisco-Oakland_____
_
_
Seattle _
_
_

Junior

Senior

00 $79. 50 $107.
50 84. 00 126.
80. 00 107.
50 82. 00 105.

00
00
50
00

Chief or
leader

$142.
159.
126.
148.

00
00
50
50

78. 00
00 74. 50
50 74. 00
66. 50
75. 50

105.
107.
92.
107.
109.

50 154. 00
00 135. 00
00 114. 50
50
50

00
50
50
00
00

121.
117.
110.
101.
112.

50
50
00
50
50

87.
91.
86.
80.
84.

00
50
00
50
00

140. 00
141. 00
138. 50
142. 00

81. 00 122. 00 150. 00
85. 00 111. 50 141. 00
88. 00 105. 00
85. 50 108. 50 124. 00
73. 50 96. 50 112. 50

N ote: Tabulation includes male draftsmen only. Dashes indicate insuT
flcient data to warrant presentation.

In the Federal Civil Service, the annual en­
trance salary for trainee draftsmen who were high
school graduates without experience was $3,255
in 1958. For those with post-high-school educa­
tion and training in drafting, entrance salaries
were higher. The majority of experienced drafts­
men working for the Federal Government earned
between $4,000 and $5,900 in 1958, and some
earned still higher salaries.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on drafting careers may
be obtained from :
American Federation of Technical Engineers,
900 F St. NW., Washington 4, D.C.
The American Institute o f Architects,
1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

See also section on Where To Go for More
Information in the introductory section o f this
chapter.

O T H ER P R O FE S S IO N A L A N D R ELA T ED O C C U P A T IO N S
A cco u n tan ts
(D.O.T. 0-01.)

Nature of Work

Accounting is the second largest field o f profes­
sional employment for men. In 1958, nearly
400.000 accountants and auditors were engaged in
professional accounting work, including about
60.000 certified public accountants (C P A ’s) who
had passed rigorous examinations and met educa­
tional and experience requirements prescribed by
law in their State. Fewer than 10 percent o f all
accountants, and 2 percent o f the C P A ’s, were
women.
Accountants compile and analyze business rec­
ords and prepare financial reports, such as profit
and loss statements, balance sheets, cost studies,
and tax reports. The major fields o f employment
are public, private, and government accounting.
Public accountants provide their services on a fee
basis to various business enterprises and the gen­
eral public. Private accountants, often referred
to as industrial or management accountants, han­
dle the financial records o f a single business firm
and work on a salary basis. Government account­
ants work on the financial records o f government
agencies or o f private business organizations and
individuals whose dealings are subject to govern­
ment regulation.
Accountants in any field o f employment may
specialize in such areas as auditing, tax work,
cost accounting, budgeting and control, or systems
and procedures. Public accountants, however, are
most likely to specialize in auditing or tax ac­
counting; private accountants, in management or
cost accounting. Many accountants in the Fed­
eral Government are employed as Internal Reve­
nue agents, investigators, and bank examiners, as
well as in regular accounting positions.
Where Employed

The majority o f accountants are employed by
private industry, with the greatest number in
manufacturing establishments. Perhaps a third
o f all accountants, including a substantial major­




ity o f the C P A ’s, are in public accounting. Fed­
eral, State and local governments employ about
one-tenth o f the total.
Private accountants are found wherever large
business or industrial establishments are located.
Public accountants are mainly concentrated in
major metropolitan centers, but the proportion in
smaller communities is rising because growing
numbers are going into business for themselves,
and major national firms are continuing to open
additional branch offices.
Training and Other Qualifications

Training in accounting is offered in a wide vari­
ety o f institutions, including 4-year colleges and
universities, junior colleges, accounting and pri­
vate business schools, and correspondence schools.
However, a bachelor’s degree with a major in ac­
counting or a closely related field is usually re­
quired for the better positions, particularly in
public accounting. Four years o f college educa­
tion with 24 semester hours in accounting, or an
equivalent combination of education and experi­
ence, is required for junior professional positions
in the Federal Government. Practical experience
is o f great value in qualifying for professional
accounting work. In 1958, more than 30 colleges
offered internship programs in cooperation with
public accounting firms, and occasionally with
large corporations, which enabled students to ob­
tain several months of experience, thus improving
their job opportunities.
In all States, only those persons with CPA
certificates issued by the State boards may call
themselves “ certified public accountants.” In over
half the States, the title “ public accountant” is
restricted to those who are licensed or registered.
Information on registration and certification
should be obtained directly from the State board
of accountancy in the State where the student
plans to practice. Nearly all States require at
least 2 years o f public accounting experience or
the equivalent before the C P A certificate is issued.
179

180

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Although most States have no specific educational
requirement, the trend is toward requiring a
4-year college degree with a major in accounting.
New York, New Jersey, Florida, and Connecticut
require C P A candidates to be college graduates
and similar requirements are pending in several
other States. A ll States use the CPA examina­
tion provided by the American Institute of Cer­
tified Public Accountants. In recent years, a
large majority of the successful C PA candidates
have been college graduates.
Inexperienced accountants usually begin with
fairly routine work. Junior public accountants
may be assigned to counting cash, verifying addi­
tions, or performing other detailed work. They
usually advance to semisenior positions in 2 or 3
years and to senior positions within another 2 or 3
years. Those able to deal with top executives in
industry may eventually become supervisors, man­
agers, or partners in larger firms. Many become
independent practitioners. Beginners in private
accounting may start as ledger or cost clerks, time­
keepers, junior internal auditors, or, occasionally,
as trainees for technical and executive positions.
They may rise to chief plant accountant, chief cost
accountant, senior internal auditor, or manager of
internal auditing, depending on their specialty,
and some become controllers, treasurers, and even
corporation presidents. In the Federal Govern­
ment, new accountants are hired as trainees and
are usually promoted in a year or less. Although
advancement may be rapid for able accountants,
particularly in public accounting, those with in­
adequate training are likely to be assigned to rou­
tine jobs with little opportunity for promotion.

ates. I f the proportion o f college graduates
majoring in accounting remains the same as in
recent years, the numbers receiving degrees in this
subject field will rise gradually—from about
10,000 in 1957 to more than 15,000 by the mid­
sixties. These graduates are likely to have very
good employment opportunities, at least through
the early 1960’s, and graduates of private busi­
ness and accounting schools should also have good
job prospects during this period. The greatest
number of jobs will continue to be in major in­
dustrial centers, but there will be many openings
in small industrial communities.
Over the long run, accounting employment is
expected to expand because of several factors:
The greater use of accounting information in
business management; complex tax systems; the
growth in size and number of publicly held
business corporations that must provide financial
reports to stockholders; and the increasing use
of accounting services by small business organi­
zations. Highly trained accountants will be in
even greater demand as consultants on manage­
ment problems, such as planning o f new record­
keeping systems and procedures for use with elec­
tronic data-processing equipment.
Increasing numbers of women will be engaged
in professional accounting, though most public
accounting firms still hesitate to employ them—
because of tradition, objections from clients, or
because women are considered unsuited for travel
or factory assignments. However, those women
who rank high among graduates with account­
ing majors and who secure the C P A certificate
will, in time, undoubtedly break down many of
these barriers.

Employment Outlook
Earnings and Working Conditions

The demand for accountants is expected to con­
tinue to be strong during the early 1960’s. As
many as 10,000 accountants may be needed an­
nually during this period to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other occupations, and
more than half that number will be needed each
year to fill new positions, unless there should be
a major drop in the general level of business ac­
tivity. Demand for college-trained accountants
will rise faster than for less broadly trained per­
sonnel, because o f the increasing complexity of
the accounting profession and because more States
are requiring CPA candidates to be college gradu­




Starting salaries for inexperienced professional
personnel in public accounting firms in the New
York metropolitan area averaged about $60 a
week in small firms and $70 to $80 in mediumsize firms late in 1958, according to local place­
ment officials. In general, salaries were higher
in large than in small firms throughout the coun­
try. Major CPA firms serving large business
corporations were offering from $375 to $450 a
month to college graduates with superior academic
records and attractive personalities. Salaries of
senior personnel with 5 years’ experience were

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

approximately 50 percent higher than the starting
rate.
Private business firms usually pay somewhat
higher starting salaries than public accounting
firms o f comparable size. A survey of 116 large
business organizations recruiting college seniors
mainly for industrial accounting positions in­
dicated an average monthly starting salary of
$416 in 1958.
The Federal Civil Service entrance salary in
1958 was $4,040 a year for junior accountants and
auditors. Those with a superior academic record
could qualify for a starting salary o f $4,980.
Higher level jobs are usually filled by promotion
from within.
Since most public accounting work is done in
the oflices o f the firm’s clients, physical working
conditions may vary from a modern office to an
inconvenient, noisy factory. Public accounting
work is seasonal and accountants usually work
under great pressure during the busy season, from
late November to March, and may put in a sub­
stantial amount o f overtime. Working conditions
for private and government accountants are gen­
erally the same as for most other officeworkers,
including the standard workweek o f 35 to 40

18 1

hours. Auditors in private industry and govern­
ment and staff members o f large public account­
ing firms may be required to do considerable
traveling.
Where To Go for More Information

Information, particularly on C P A ’s and on the
aptitude and achievement tests now given in many
high schools and colleges and by many public
accounting firms, may be obtained from :
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
270 Madison Ave., New York 16, N.Y.

Further information on specialized fields of
accounting may be obtained from:
National Association of Accountants,
505 Park Ave., New York 22, N.Y.
Controllers Institute o f America,
2 Park Ave., New York 16, N.Y.
The Institute o f Internal Auditors,
120 Wall St., New York 5, N.Y.

A leaflet describing accounting as a career may
be obtained free from:
The American Accounting Association,
P.O. Box 3068, University Station, Columbus 10, Ohio

A rchitects
(D.O.T. 0-03.10)

Nature of Work

Architects plan buildings and other structures
and supervise their construction. Their goal is to
design structures which are safe, useful, and pleas­
ing in appearance.
When an architect receives a commission for a
building, he confers with the client to determine
the requirements and cost limitations o f the struc­
ture as well as the client’s preferences as to style
and plan. For example, if a school is to be built,
the architect must determine, among other things,
the need for a place to park school buses; the
entrances and exits needed in case o f fire; the
amount of corridor and staircase space required
to enable students to move quickly from one class
to another; and the location, size, and equipment
o f the lunchroom, classrooms, laboratories, etc.
After studying all the requirements of a build­
ing, the architect draws up preliminary plans,




which are submitted to the client for his ap­
proval. Any alterations the client may suggest
are incorporated in the final design, which in­
cludes the ground and floor plans as well as
drawings of the exterior of the building. The
final design is then translated into working draw­
ings, which show the exact dimensions of every
part of the structure and where plumbing, heat­
ing, air-conditioning, and other equipment are to
be placed. In preparing these working drawings,
the architect must take into account local and
State building laws and other regulations. When
the working drawings are completed, consulting
structural, mechanical, and heating engineers are
called in (except on small jobs where engineers
employed by the plumbing and heating con­
tractors may provide the engineering services
needed). The engineers’ mechanical drawings
are then coordinated with the architect’s working
drawings, and specifications are prepared listing

182

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

In large architectural firms and when working
on large-scale projects, architects frequently spe­
cialize in one phase of architectural work, usu­
ally design, administration, specification writing,
or construction supervision. Most employees in
large architectural firms, however, prepare work­
ing drawings of the various projects, the scope of
their activity and the degree of their responsi­
bility depending on their ability and experience.
Where Employed

Architect submitting plans of new building for client’s approval.

the materials to be used in construction, the
equipment, and, in some cases, the furnishings
to be installed.
The building is now “ off the board,” but the
architect’s responsibility is by no means over. He
prepares a list of the building contractors to be
invited to bid and receives their sealed bids. He
assists the client in deciding which bid to accept
and in drawing up the contract between client
and contractor. The architect also acts as the
client’s advisor and represents him in dealings
with the contractor. As construction proceeds,
the architect makes periodic inspections of the
project to make certain that the design is not
altered and that the materials specified in the
contract are used in the construction. I f prob­
lems arise, he may act as arbitrator between client
and contractor. Not until the project is finished,
all the required tests made, and guarantees re­
ceived from the many contractors, is the archi­
tect’s work completed.
Most architects plan and design a wide variety
of structures, ranging from schools and churches
to hospitals and bus terminals. However, some
architects confine their practice to the design of
one particular class of structure, such as resi­
dential, industrial, or educational buildings.




There were about 24,000 registered (licensed)
architects in the United States in 1957. In addi­
tion, about 5,000 people who had not received a
license were working as architects. Although
there are some outstanding women architects, only
about 1 percent of the registered architects are
women.
Approximately half o f all architects are selfemployed, either as individual architects or mem­
bers of a firm of architects. Most of the others
are employees of architectural firms. Some archi­
tects work for engineers, builders, real estate
firms, and other businesses with large construction
programs. A small number are employed by
various government agencies. Another small
group are full-time teachers in schools of archi­
tecture. A few architects are employed in fields
related to architecture, such as contracting, sales
engineering, and city planning.
Members of the profession are located in all
parts of the country, mainly in metropolitan
areas. In 1957, more than half of the registered
architects were in the following seven States:
New York, California, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
Texas, Ohio, and New Jersey.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license for the practice of architecture is
required by law in all States and Territories. In
general, the purpose of these laws is to ensure
that architectural work, which may affect life,
health, or property is done by licensed architects.
Requirements for admission to the licensing ex­
amination vary among States, but generally in­
clude graduation from a recognized professional
school followed by 3 years of practical experience
in an architect’s office. As a substitute for archi­
tectural school training, however, most States

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

accept longer periods of experience, usually 10
to 12 years.
Professional training in architecture was o f­
fered in 1958 by 65 colleges and universities in
the United States and Canada, 50 of which were
accredited by the National Architectural Accred­
iting Board. The great majority of these col­
legiate schools of architecture offer a 5-year
curriculum leading to the bachelor o f archi­
tecture degree.
Entrance requirements vary from one architec­
tural school to another, generally conforming to
the standards set for the liberal arts college with
which the school or department of architecture
is associated. Most schools of architecture admit
qualified high school graduates, but some require
2 to 4 years of preprofessional education in a
college or university. Practically all architec­
tural schools, however, emphasize a knowledge
o f high school mathematics as a condition for
entrance. Training or facility in both freehand
drawing and drafting are important tools for an
architect, though not a requirement for entering
a course in architecture.
A typical curriculum in architecture includes
general subjects—usually English, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, sociology, and economics— as
well as architectural subjects. Some examples
o f technical and professional courses included in
an architectural curriculum are: Structural
theory, mechanics and strength of materials,
graphic presentation, history of architecture,
architectural design, specification writing, work­
ing drawings, and professional practice and
ethics.
Success in the profession requires an unusual
combination of abilities—not only the capacity to
master technical problems but also a gift for
artistic creation and a flair for business and for
human relations. It is often recommended that,
to gage his interests and potentialities, a young
person should, if possible, spend some time in an
architect’s office before entering architectural
school. Architectural students are also encour­
aged to work in architects’ offices or for building
contractors during summer vacations. Summer
work in an architect’s office gives the student some
knowledge o f practical problems and an advan­
tage over the inexperienced graduate when he
looks for his first regular job.
After completing his academic training, the




183

new graduate usually begins as a junior drafts­
man, assigned mainly to display drawings or to
the drafting of details in the working drawings.
As his proficiency increases, he is given added
responsibility and is entrusted with more complex
work. After about 3 years, he usually graduates
to chief or senior draftsman, with responsi­
bility for all the major details o f a set o f working
drawings. I f he continues to work for an archi­
tectural firm, he will probably progress to a job
captaincy, with responsibility for a full set of
working drawings and for the supervision o f other
draftsmen. A job captain may also draw up the
preliminary plans for a structure. Some men
who remain employees in architectural firms be­
come designers rather than job captains or con­
struction supervision; whereas, others branch off
into specification writing. An employee who is
particularly valued by his firm may be desig­
nated an associate, and may receive a share of the
profits as well as his salary. However, the archi­
tect’s usual goal is to set up his own practice.
About half achieve this goal.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for architects are
expected to be favorable during the early 1960’s;
and the long run outlook is for continued growth
of the profession.
Since most architects work on nonresidential
projects— office buildings, stores, schools, hospitals,
government buildings—the demand for architects’
services depends primarily on the volume o f such
construction. Nonresidential construction, which
reached record levels in the mid-1950’s, is expected
to increase considerably in the future. By 1965,
the volume of nonresidential construction may be
about 30 percent greater than in 1957, and by
1975, nearly 70 percent greater. Residential con­
struction, which also utilizes some architects, is
expected to more than double by 1975. More­
over, the increasing size and complexity of mod­
ern buildings, which usually require skilled
architectural planning, and homeowners’ new
awareness of the value o f architects’ services are
expected to bring about their greater utilization
in construction. Thus, the demand for architec­
tural services should expand substantially during
the next decade. In addition to positions created
by the expected increase in demand for architec-

184

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tural services, more; than 600 openings are likely
to arise each year owing to retirements and
deaths.
Along with the anticipated growth of employ­
ment in the profession, a rise in the number of
architectural graduates is likely to occur. As­
suming that graduations in this field follow the
trend expected in college graduations as a whole,
the number o f architectural degrees awarded each
year during the 1960’s should be considerably
greater than the 1,500 degrees awarded in 1957.
Nevertheless, if the construction industry expands
as anticipated, new architectural graduates should
have favorable employment opportunities through
the early 1960’s, at least. On the other hand, a
long period o f reduced construction activity—
such as that which occurred during the 1930’s
—would undoubtedly affect adversely the employ­
ment opportunities for architects.
The outlook for women architects is much more
uncertain than for men. In recent years, a
woman who was a good draftsman could readily
obtain employment, and this situation is expected
to continue. However, chances o f advancement
are limited for most women architects, and few
women achieve an associateship or establish them­
selves in private practice.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for architectural school grad­
uates with some experience ranged from $80 to
$100 a week in 1958, according to available in­
formation. Draftsmen with 3 or more years’
experience had salaries ranging up to $150 a
week; job captains, specification writers, and
other senior employees earned up to $200 a week.
Architects in private practice generally earn
considerably more than high-paid salaried em­
ployees of architectural firms. However, the
range of incomes is very wide. For example,
some architects with many years o f experience
and good reputations earn well in excess of
$25,000 a year, while many architects not long in
private practice have very low incomes. Young
architects who start their own offices often go
through a period when their expenses are greater
than their income. The need for a financial re­
serve in the initial period of practice and the
wide range of earnings are characteristics of all
self-employed professional groups.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Architects,
1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

C o m m e rcia l A rtists
(D.O.T. 0-44.)

Nature of Work

Many o f the eye-catching illustrations in adver­
tisements, books, magazines, posters, displays, and
television commercials are designed and drawn
by commercial artists. These artists may also
retouch photographic prints, prepare charts and
maps, draw movie cartoons, do freehand and
mechanical lettering, design labels for containers,
and sketch and color designs for greeting cards.
In contrast with painters and others engaged in
the fine arts who have a free choice o f subject
matter and technique, the commercial artist does
work to fit the requirements o f a specific client
or employer. O f the approximately 80,000 artists
and art teachers employed in 1950, it is estimated
that the majority were commercial artists.
Commercial art work requires skills ranging
from highly creative planning, designing, and




drawing to relatively routine mechanical opera­
tions. Many artists specialize in a particular
technique or type o f commercial art. Among
the most important specialists are layout men
who choose and arrange the positions o f pictures
and lettering so as to attract the eye; illustrators
who are primarily concerned with making the
sketches and drawings; and letterers who design
and execute the appropriate lettering, either
freehand or with the use o f mechanical aids.
Where Employed

The largest employers o f commercial artists
are advertising agencies, commercial art studios,
printing and publishing companies, television and
motion picture studios, and department stores.
A number work for Federal Government agen­
cies, principally the Departments o f the Army,

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Navy, and A ir Force. Others are in sign shops,
mail-order houses, calendar and greeting card
companies, and a variety o f other business estab­
lishments. A few commercial artists teach in art
schools. Many are free-lance artists who do work
on a fee basis for various clients. Some commer­
cial artists who hold salaried positions also do
free-lance work.
Most commercial artists are employed in big
cities, such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Los Angeles, and Detroit where the largest users
o f commercial art are located.

185

and artistic judgment concerning the harmony of
color and line are basic requirements for a suc­
cessful career in commercial art. The various
specialties, however, differ in some of the specific
abilities required. For example, letterers and re­
touchers must be able to do precise and detailed
work requiring excellent coordination, whereas
the qualifications most needed by illustrators are
that they be highly imaginative and able to draw
well. For commercial artists engaged in free­
lance work, the ability to sell both ideas and fin­
ished work to employers or clients is very im­
portant.

Training and Other Qualifications

Artistic ability is the most important qualifi­
cation needed to become a commercial artist. In
addition, a considerable amount of training in the
techniques o f commercial art is required. This
may be obtained in art schools, in commercial art
courses offered by public vocational high schools,
and through practical experience on the job.
Training exclusively in the fine arts—painting,
sculpture, or architecture—is not generally con­
sidered appropriate preparation for employment
as a commercial artist.
The most widely accepted training for commer­
cial artists is that given in art schools or insti­
tutes which specialize in teaching commercial and
applied art. To enter art school, a high school
education is usually, but not always, required.
Some schools admit only those applicants who
demonstrate talent by submitting acceptable work
samples. The course of study generally takes 2"
or 3 years and a certificate is awarded on gradua­
tion. A growing number o f art schools, particu­
larly those connected with universities, require
4 years of study and confer a bachelor’s degree—
commonly the bachelor o f fine arts (B.F.A.) de­
gree. In these schools, commercial art instruc­
tion is supplemented by cultural subjects such as
English and history.
The first year in art school may be devoted to
the study o f such fundamentals as perspective,
design, color harmony, composition, and use of
crayon, pencil, pen and ink, and other artistic
mediums. Subsequent study generally includes
drawing from life, advertising layout, lettering,
typography, illustration, and highly specialized
courses in the student’s particular field of interest.
Good drawing technique, creative imagination,




Commercial artist preparing cop y for newspaper advertisement.

Beginning commercial artists usually need
some on-the-job training before they can qualify
for other than strictly routine jobs. Beginners
are generally assigned to work such as erasing
smudges from art work, filling in colors on ex­
perienced artists’ drawings, and doing pasteup
work (using scissors and a pot of paste to assem­
ble the components of an advertisement or other
art work). Advancement is based largely on the
individual’s artistic talent and creative ability
as demonstrated on the job. Those with the
necessary qualities can become layout men, let­
terers, illustrators, or other specialists. After a
few years o f experience, some commercial artists
leave salaried employment for free-lance work.

186

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Employment Outlook

Employment and advancement opportunities
for talented and well-trained commercial artists
are expected to be good in the early 1960’s. How­
ever, persons with only average ability will have
difficulty entering the field and, if hired, will find
limited chances for advancement. As in past
years, the demand will be greater for commercial
artists with specialized skills— for example, in
lettering, layout, pasteup and typography—than
for those with only general training. However,
beginners seeking work as illustrators may find
limited employment opportunities, if employers
continue to show a strong preference for the
services o f experienced free-lance artists.
A gradual increase in employment of commer­
cial artists is expected over the long run. The
upward trend in business expenditures for all
kinds o f visual advertising will be reflected in a
growing demand for commercial artists; the tele­
vision industry and packaging design are ex­
pected to offer expanding areas o f employment;
and other forms o f art such as poster and win­
dow displays, greeting cards, calendars, and
movie cartoons will also probably employ an in­
creasing number o f artists. In addition, the
growing field o f industrial design is expected to
need more artists who are qualified to work with
engineering concepts. Although the greater use
o f photography may continue to displace illus­
trators in a few types o f work, a growing demand
for their services is expected in television and
other fields. Generally, the effect o f a serious
economic downturn would be a reduction in ad­
vertising budgets and a decrease in employment
o f commercial artists; however, during minor
business recessions the policy o f many companies
is to push their products more vigorously through
the use o f advertising art.
Women with exceptional artistic talent will
continue to find employment in all aspects of
commercial art work. Work as fashion illus­
trators in department stores is the major source
o f employment open to women artists. However,
some do free-lance work, and others hold posi­
tions with printing and publishing houses, greet­




ing card companies, advertising agencies, com­
mercial art studios, and government agencies.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced commercial artists earned, on the
average, between $50 and $70 a week in 1958,
although some started at higher salaries. The
amount earned varies with the beginner’s talent
as revealed by his portfolio of samples, his train­
ing, the particular job, the type o f firm, and geo­
graphic location. A fter a few years o f experi­
ence, qualified artists may expect to earn $100
or more .a week. Art directors, designers, execu­
tives, well-known free-lance illustrators, and
others in top positions generally have much
higher earnings.
A 1955 survey (made by Art Direction maga­
zine) o f 2,500 art directors and other commercial
artists in top positions showed that about 75 per­
cent earned between $5,000 and $15,000 annually.
More than 20 percent made $15,000 or more an­
nually, and fewer than 5 percent earned less than
$5,000 a year. Earnings were higher in New
York City than in any o f the other 20 cities in­
cluded in the survey; the median (average) sal­
ary was between $15,000 and $20,000 yearly in
New York. In Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los
Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, and Philadelphia,
the median salaries were between $10,000 and
$15,000 annually. Nearly one out o f every three
salaried persons surveyed also did free-lance
work.
Salaried commercial artists generally work 35
to 40 hours a week, but sometimes must work long
hours under a considerable amount o f pressure in
order to meet deadlines. Free-lance artists usu­
ally have irregular working hours.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on art training and employment
trends is available from :
National Society o f Art Directors,
115 East 40th St., New York 16, N.Y.

A list o f schools offering highly specialized
education in art and design is available from :
National Association o f Schools o f Design,
50 Astor Place, New York 3, N.Y.

187

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Foresters
(D.O.T. 0-35.07)

Nature of Work

Forests are one of America’s greatest natural
resources, covering more than on$-fourth o f the
land area o f the country. Foresters protect,
manage, and develop these valuable properties.
Safeguarding forests from fire, destructive in­
sects, and diseases is one part o f their work.
Other important duties include reforestation, esti­
mating the amount o f timber in a forest area
and appraising its value, selling or buying tim­
ber, and planning and supervising the cutting of
timber so that mature trees are removed and
younger ones left for future logging operations.
In addition, the forest-land manager is often re­
sponsible for all other resources and activities
in his area, including camps and parks, wildlife,
and grazing land.
Because the work o f the forester covers such
a wide range o f activities, numerous specialties
have developed. Included among these are wild­
life management, range management, forest eco­
nomics, and recreation work. Foresters may also
specialize in such activities as research, writing
and editing, and extension work (providing in­
formation concerning scientific forestry practice
to farmers, logging companies, and the public),
and teaching at the university level. Some of the
specialties are rapidly becoming recognized as
distinct professions. For example, wood tech­
nologists study the physical and chemical proper­
ties o f wood, develop new uses for wood, and
bring about better utilization o f wood and its
byproducts.

Nearly as many foresters were in government
as in private employment. In 1958, about 5,000
worked for the Federal Government, mainly in
the Forest Service o f the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. In addition, about 1,800 worked for
State Governments and about 250 for county and
municipal governments.
College teaching and other educational activi­
ties, including extension work and university re­
search, provided employment for approximately
750 foresters. The remaining 1,800 held a variety
o f jobs. This group included specialists in such
closely allied fields as wildlife, range manage­
ment, tree culture, forest engineering, and water­
shed management.
Training and Other Qualifications

Four years of college work leading to a bach­
elor’s degree in forestry is usually the minimum
educational requirement for entrance into the pro­
fession. Most schools require that students spend
one summer in summer camps operated by their
college. Forestry students are also encouraged
to work other summers in order to gain first­
hand experience in forest or conservation work.

Where Employed

Approximately 17,000 professional foresters
were employed in forestry and closely allied
fields in 1958, according to estimates made by
the Society o f American Foresters. About 7,500
o f these were in private industry, working mainly
for lumber, pulp and paper, and veneer and ply­
wood companies, though some were in business
for themselves as consultants or managers of
their own land. Although there are only a few
hundred forest consultants, this field represents
a growing source o f employment for professional
foresters.




CO UR TESY O F

U .S . F O R E S T S E R V IC E

Forester checking the growth of a red pine with an increment
borer.

188

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training in forestry leading to a bachelor’s or
higher degree was offered in 1958 by 40 schools,
27 o f which were accredited by the Society of
American Foresters. In addition to courses in
science, engineering, economics, and the humani­
ties, the curriculums in most o f these schools
include specialized forestry courses in five essen­
tial areas: (1) silviculture (methods of growing
and improving forest crops) ; (2) forest protec­
tion (from fire, insects, and disease); (3) forest
management (the application o f business methods
and technical forestry principles to the operation
o f a forest property); (4)- forest economics
(study o f the factors affecting the supply o f and
the demand for forest products) ; and (5) forest
utilization (the harvesting and marketing o f tim­
ber and other forest resources).
Most schools offer an additional year o f train­
ing leading to the master’s degree and some offer
doctoral training. Although graduate training
is not essential for entrance into the profession,
the master’s degree is generally required for
teaching or research positions and the doctorate
is highly desirable for such posts.
Some foresters have entered the profession with
training primarily in a related field such as
horticulture, botany, agronomy, or other biologi­
cal sciences. Also, specialists in forest engineer­
ing have entered with engineering degrees, and
forest product technologists and specialists in the
utilization o f wood and wood products have en­
tered the field with degrees in chemistry, physics,
or engineering. However, the attainment o f pro­
fessional status without a degree in forestry is
becoming more and more difficult.
In addition to adequate training, qualifications
for success in forestry include the ability to
meet and deal effectively with people. Many jobs
also require the ability to endure vigorous physi­
cal activity, and a willingness to work occasion­
ally in isolated areas.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for forestry grad­
uates are expected to be favorable during the
early 1960’s. As in recent years, there will prob­
ably be particular need for well qualified person­
nel with advanced degrees for research and
teaching positions.
The demand for foresters has risen rapidly




since the end o f W orld War II, principally as
a result o f large-scale application o f scientific
management to forest lands owned by private
industry. Employment of foresters in State and
Federal Governments has also increased steadily
during the past decade. Moreover, the growth
o f fields closely allied to forestry—such as wild­
life management, wood utilization, watershed
management, forest recreation, and range man­
agement—has provided many new positions, in
both government and private industry.
The long-run outlook is for continued expan­
sion o f employment in forestry. The country’s
growing population and rising living standards
will tend to increase the demand for lumber,
paper, and other major forest products, although
the demand for these products will also be influ­
enced by any changes in the general level of
business activity affecting construction and other
major wood using industries. Recent trends em­
phasizing scientific forestry practice are also
expected to continue. If, during the next two
decades the demand for timber should rise much
more than anticipated, scientific forestry practice
would undoubtedly be extended and intensified,
thereby increasing the demand for foresters.
Private and industrial owners of timberland
are expected to continue to offer numerous em­
ployment opportunities for foresters during the
next decade, primarily because of the expected
increase in the demand for wood and wood prod­
ucts. The industry is becoming increasingly
aware of the profitability of improved forestry
and logging practices and is making use of new
technical developments for utilizing the entire
forest crop. Technical developments are also
expected to make it possible to cut timber in
forests now regarded as unprofitable for timber
operations. Furthermore, competition from metal,
plastics, and other products is expected to stimu­
late research and development in wood utiliza­
tion and technology to reduce costs and develop
new and improved products.
Employment of foresters in the Federal Gov­
ernment is also expected to grow in the next
decade. In early 1958, the Forest Service of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture anticipated that
its employment of foresters would grow at an
even more rapid rate in the future than in the
past. Among the major factors which are ex­
pected to bring about this growth are the in-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

creasing volume of timber cut on Federal lands,
and the trend toward more scientific management
of these lands. O f course, funds necessary for
the intensification of scientific management of
Federal lands are subject to congressional ap­
proval.
State Government agencies also will probably
continue to expand their employment of foresters.
Forest fire control and other Federal-State coop­
erative programs, such as providing technical ad­
vice to owners o f private forest lands, are being
channeled more and more through State organi­
zations. Growing demands for recreation facili­
ties in forest lands are likely to result in expan­
sion of State parks and other recreation areas.
In addition to openings created by the growing
need for professional foresters, some vacancies
will occur as a result of retirements and deaths.
However, such openings will not be numerous
during the 1960’s, since foresters are a relatively
young group.
Along with the anticipated growth of employ­
ment in the profession, a rise in the number of
forestry graduates is likely to occur. I f young
men with degrees in forestry continue to repre­
sent the same proportion of all college graduates
as in recent years, the number of bachelor’s de­
grees granted each year in forestry will, by the
late 1960’s, be almost twice the 1957 figure and,
by 1970, will be about as high as in the peak year
1950. Graduating classes of this size may en­
counter competition for the better paying pro­
fessional entry jobs in forestry, unless scientific
management of forests expands faster than is in­
dicated by present trends.
Opportunities for women in the profession of
forestry are and probably will continue to be
limited, largely because of the necessary field
work, much of which is rigorous and in isolated
places. The few women presently employed in
forestry are engaged chiefly in research, and fu­
ture opportunities for women are also likely to
be primarily in this field.
Earnings, and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new forestry graduates
with bachelor’s degrees were usually between
$3,880 and $4,500 in private industry in 1958,
according to the Society of American Foresters.




189

In more responsible jobs, such as managing a
company forest, salaries were typically $7,500 to
$9,000. Foresters holding executive positions in
land management or wood procurement were re­
ported to earn from $10,000 to $15,000, and those
who were officers of corporations usually received
from $15,000 upward. In addition to their sal­
aries, foresters in private industry may be fur­
nished nonmonetary benefits such as rent-free
houses, fuel, and the use of company transporta­
tion.
In the Federal Government in 1958, the begin­
ning salary of foresters with only the bachelor’s
degree was either $4,340 or $4,980 a year, de­
pending on their college record. Those with 1
full year of graduate study could begin at $4,980;
those with 2 full years at $5,985. New gradu­
ates with a doctor’s degree were eligible to start
at $7,030 if employed in research work. In ad­
dition, the salary schedule provides for periodic
increases above these base salaries. Some indi­
viduals in administrative and supervisory posi­
tions received higher salaries. For example, in
the U.S. Forest Service, forest rangers in charge
of a district earned from $5,985 to $8,230, an­
nually. Supervisors of national forests received
from $8,330 to $11,090, and regional foresters,
who administer a number of national forests as
well as engage in cooperative activities with
States and private landowners, received from
$12,770 to $13,970 a year. When living quarters
are furnished, a salary deduction is made. The
amount varies with the value and kind of accom­
modations but was usually from $200 to $600 per
year in 1958.
Salaries for foresters employed by the States
have been generally somewhat lower than those
paid by the Federal Government. In recent
years, however, salaries paid by many State gov­
ernments, particularly those paid beginning fo r­
esters, have increased so that they are now close
to salaries in the Federal Government.
Salaries in teaching and research in a college
or university depend upon the institution and
the position held. In the 27 schools of forestry
accredited by the Society of American Foresters,
1958 salaries averaged about $4,000 for beginning
instructors and ranged from $6,000 to $12,000 for
professors. Heads of departments or schools
earned between $7,500 and $15,000 a year.

190

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

As part of his regular duties, the forester must
spend considerable time out o f doors under all
kinds of weather conditions. Many foresters put
in extra hours in travel and in emergency duty
such as firefighting. Travel often involves ab­
sence from home for extended periods of time,
particularly in beginning jobs. The young for­
ester is also likely to have his headquarters
shifted frequently. With advancement to more
responsible positions, he can expect a more per­
manent assignment.
The hazardous nature o f many forestry jobs is
indicated by the fact that insurance companies
often require extra premiums for forest rangers
and others whose duties involve working alone
in remote areas. Foresters working in logging
and sawmilling may also face accident hazards.
Although injury rates in these industries have
been reduced, they are still far above the aver­
age for manufacturing industries.

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the profession of
forestry may be obtained from :
Society o f American Foresters,
825 Mills Bldg., 17th and Pennsylvania Ave. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.
Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington 25, D.C.
American Forest Products Industries, Inc.,
1816 N St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Additional information on schools providing
instruction in forestry may be obtained from the
first two organizations mentioned above.
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washing­
ton 25, D.C., will furnish information on posi­
tions available in Federal Government agencies.
(For further information on such positions and
how to apply for them, see chapter on Govern­
ment Occupations.)

H om e Eco nom ists*
(D.O.T. 0-12.10 through .36)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Persons trained in home economics are em­
ployed in a variety o f occupations. They may
teach home economics, become dietitians or ex­
tension service workers, or serve as home econ­
omists in business or in research. In addition
to their similar basic training, these occupational
groups have a common interest in improving
home products, services, and activities. Many
specialize in either foods, clothing and textiles,
home equipment, or household management.
Those who do not specialize include some teach­
ers, demonstrators, or counselors—whose work
often requires a broad knowledge of many home­
making activities. In performing their work,
home economists draw upon pertinent knowledge
and skills for many other fields as, for example,
education, chemistry, physics, art, economics,
psychology, and journalism.
Approximately 80,000 persons who have re­
ceived home economics training were employed
in home economist occupations in 1958. The
largest group, about 44,000, were home economics
teachers. O f these, approximately 27,000 were
♦Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. Department o f Labor.




employed in public secondary schools, about 500
in private and parochial schools, about 3,000 in
colleges and universities, and about 13,000 in
adult education programs. (F or information on
teaching, see statements on Secondary School
Teachers and on College and University Teach­
ers in this Handbook. See index for page num­
bers.) About 250 home economists specializing
in child development or family relations were
employed as teachers in nursery schools, kinder­
gartens, recreation centers, or children’s institu­
tions.
Others who have been trained in home eco­
nomics and were employed in 1958 included about
25,000 dietitians (see statement on dietitians), a
small number of nutritionists (engaged prima­
rily in the study and promotion of good nutri­
tion practices), and about 5,000 extension service
workers. (See statement on Agricultural Exten­
sion Service Workers.)
Home Economists in Business. O f the remain­
ing number in home economist occupations, prob­
ably between 5,000 and 6,000 were specialists em­
ployed by private business firms and associations
to help promote the development, use, and care

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

H om e economist conducting a food-tasting panel to test new
recipes.

of specific home products. Home economists in
this group work not only for commercial estab­
lishments which manufacture or distribute prod­
ucts or provide services in the home but also for
magazines, newspapers, radio, and television.
The largest group of home economists in busi­
ness, possibly over 2,000 in 1958, were employed
by food manufacturers to study consumer needs,
to help manufacturers translate these needs into
desirable products, and to provide miscellaneous
consumer services. An important part of their
work is done in test kitchens—developing1new
recipes, improving present products, or helping
to create new products. They usually write di­
rections for food packages; prepare booklets,
leaflets, or cookbooks; and answer customers’ in­
quiries. Sometimes, they also give food demon­
strations or lectures and prepare materials for
television programs or film strips.
(
Another large group, perhaps almost 2,000,
were home-service workers employed by gas or
electric utility companies. They visit customers’
homes on request or to demonstrate the operation
of newly installed equipment, such as that used
in cooking, heating, refrigeration, or clothes dry­
ing. In private visits or in talks before club­
women, youth groups, or retailers, these home
economists often give advice on kitchen planning
and laundry problems, in addition to describing
the operation and benefits of their company’s
products. To promote further public understand­




191

ing, they may also answer inquiries, write news­
paper articles or pamphlets, broadcast companysponsored programs on radio or television, or
conduct classes for salesmen and servicemen.
About 400 home economists, known as equip­
ment workers, worked for manufacturers of such
household equipment as ranges, refrigerators,
kitchen utensils, and laundry equipment. One of
their major duties is to prepare or supervise the
preparation of instructional material relating to
the use and care of the manufacturer’s products.
They work with engineers on product develop­
ment and also devise plans for product uses.
Equipment workers spend a good deal o f time
training others—especially home-service workers,
salesmen, and servicemen—concerning the char­
acteristics o f products. To do this, they some­
times travel out of town to confer with dealers
and distributors. Their work may also include
preparing press releases and radio and T V pro­
grams.
About 400 more home economists worked ex­
clusively in journalism, radio, and television.
Gathering information from a variety of sources,
they interpret trends and prepare useful, timely,
and interesting stories on food, clothing, or other
topics of interest to homemakers. They may test
products themselves or evaluate the tests of oth­
ers. Some regularly write food, diet, or home­
making columns and others edit the home eco­
nomics section of a newspaper or magazine.
Those employed by radio and television sta­
tions may personally conduct their own programs
or act as consultants for others. Home econo­
mists who specialize in foods may also conduct
cooking courses.
Possibly 250 other specialists were engaged in
advertising and public relations work, serving on
the staff of agencies in these fields or with com­
panies producing or distributing all types of
homefurnishings, household supplies, and serv­
ices. They may secure background material for
advertising campaigns, test consumer products in
research laboratories or test kitchens, prepare
newspaper articles and photographic displays,
give homemaking courses, or make speeches.
In the field of textiles and clothing, about 100
home economists held a variety of positions with
dress-pattern companies, textile and clothing
manufacturers, laundry and dry-cleaning estab-

192

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lishments, and a few chain clothing stores. They
may conduct consumer surveys or laboratory tests
and report on the functional and economical char­
acteristics of fabrics and fibers used in clothing
and household furnishings. They may work as
fashion coordinators, personal shoppers, or fash­
ion designers. Those specializing in interior dec­
oration arrange displays for business establish­
ments or give advice on home decoration. Some
enter the retail clothing field and work up to
positions as buyers or other executives. (See
section on Department Store Occupations.)
Home Economists in Research. A small num­
ber of home economists perform research work
in laboratories and offices of the Federal Gov­
ernment, State agricultural experiment stations,
colleges, universities, and private organizations.
The largest single group in home economics re­
search, about 100, work for the Institute of
Home Economics of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Engaged in research on food and
nutrition, textiles and clothing, housing, house­
hold equipment, or household economics, these
home economists utilize skills of a variety of
fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, sta­
tistics, economics, and psychology. For exam­
ple, some make farm family surveys to deter­
mine the amounts that farm families spend for
such items as food, clothing, housefurnishings,
and medical care. From these findings, they de­
velop budget guides needed by home economists
in teaching, family counseling, social welfare, and
extension work. Other home economists per­
form laboratory tests to determine the effect of
different household methods of cooking on flavor,
tenderness, or yield o f a food.
Other Related Fields o f Work. About 300
home economists were employed on social wel­
fare programs by State, county, city, and private
welfare agencies. They act chiefly as advisers
and consultants in the development of budget
standards for needy families, helping to deter­
mine the amount of financial assistance needed
to provide minimum healthful living standards.
Training in home economics is useful in a
number o f other fields. Some home econo­
mists specialize in housing, advising archi­
tectural firms on home planning, equipment ar­
rangements, and the selection of household ap­




pliances. A few are employed in such industries
as finance, giving customers advice on spending
and saving; moving, studying household moving
problems; and food chains, providing food and
household information to consumers. A fairly
new field for home economists is rehabilitation,
in which they work as homemaking counselors
and consultants, helping handicapped homemak­
ers and their families adjust to the homemaker’s
handicap by changing physical arrangements in
the home and revising methods o f work. Some
experienced home economists are also employed
abroad by the Federal Government, foundations,
international organizations, and American busi­
nesses with foreign subsidiaries—primarily to
work as teachers or consultants on programs
aimed at promoting good practices in homemak­
ing and contributing to higher living and educa­
tional standards.
Although home economics is generally con­
sidered a woman’s field, a growing number of men
are entering various home economics positions.
Some men are engaged in teaching, merchandis­
ing, interior designing, and family counseling,
but most of them specialize in foods and insti­
tution management.
Training and Other Qualifications

Four years of college study leading to a bach­
elor’s degree in home economics is the minimum
requirement for professional work in home eco­
nomics. Some types of work, such as that of the
nutritionist, o f the college teacher, and certain
kinds o f research and supervision, require a mas­
ter’s or a doctor’s degree.
About 500 colleges and universities in the coun­
try offer home economics training and grant de­
grees with majors in home economics. In addi­
tion to such liberal arts courses as English, psy­
chology, economics, physiology, and chemistry,
the basic courses for home economics undergradu­
ates generally contain an introduction to all
phases o f home economics. The curriculum usu­
ally includes courses on foods and nutrition,
clothing and textiles, home management, and
household equipment as well as courses on art
and design, family relations, and child develop­
ment. Undergraduates are advised to elect ad­
ditional courses in the field of their special in­
terest. For those wishing to specialize in foods,

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

advanced courses in chemistry and nutrition are
valuable, as are science and statistics courses for
research, work and journalism courses for adver­
tising and public relations work. In order to
teach home economics, it is necessary to take the
education courses required for a teacher’s certifi­
cate.
During the school year 1957-58, 7,883 bach­
elor’s degrees, 805 master’s degrees, and 37 doc­
torates were earned in home economics or home
economics education. More than 6 percent of all
the baccalaureate degrees granted to women that
year were in these two subjects.
Financial assistance available to home econom­
ics undergraduates is much the same as that for
all undergraduate students in the country, al­
though some scholarships are open only to stu­
dents of home economics. Significant numbers
o f scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships,
however, are specified for home economics stu­
dents engaged in graduate work. An American
Home Economics Association (A H E A ) study of
financial grants available for home economics
graduates during the school years 1958-59 and
1959-60 listed 531 assistantships, 47 fellowships,
and 27 scholarships. The typical assistantship
approximated $1,500 to $1,800 and required 20
hours of service a week during the school year.
The typical fellowship ranged between $1,000
and $1,600 a year. These grants are provided
mainly by colleges and universities but also by
government agencies, research foundations, indus­
try, and the A H E A itself.
Besides adequate training, personal qualifica­
tions needed by home economists include a strong
interest in the welfare of people and in home­
making activities. Home economists must be
able to work with people of various standards
and backgrounds and should have a capacity for
leadership with ability to inspire cooperation.
Good grooming, poise, and a pleasant manner
are needed, particularly by those dealing with
the public, since they reflect the standards of the
profession.
Opportunities for home economists to advance
exist not only in supervisory and administrative
work but also in research and other special fields.
Positions also vary with the size of the employ­
ing establishment. In organizations with numer­
ous home economists, «ach employee is usually
506397 O— 59------14




193

assigned a specific type of work under a depart­
ment head or director. In many organizations,
however, there is usually just one home econo­
mist with broad responsibility for a variety of
assignments.
Employment Outlook

The demand for home economists in educa­
tion, research, and business remains high and is
expected to continue well into the 1960’s. Job
turnover caused by marriage and family respon­
sibilities is particularly heavy among these work­
ers, many of whom studied home economics as
preparation for homemaking. In addition to re­
placement needs, there is a growing demand for
home economics services in many areas o f em­
ployment—both old and new.
In the field of education, the shortage of home
economics teachers is especially critical in pub­
lic secondary schools. More teachers are needed
because of the rising enrollments in secondary
schools throughout the country, the addition of
home economics study in district schools consoli­
dated from local schools previously without a
home economics department, and the expansion of
these departments in other schools. Moreover, it
has been estimated that as many as 5,000 home
economics teachers must be recruited annually as
replacements. Home economists with graduate
degrees are in considerable demand as college
teachers and as administrators, not only in edu­
cation but in other fields as well.
The need for more home economists in research
is expected to increase with the continued inter­
est in using scientific methods for improving
various home products and services. Similarly,
in many business establishments, employers are
becoming increasingly aware of the contributions
of professionally trained home economists and are
hiring an expanding number of home economics
majors.
Shortages of home economists are most acute
at two levels: In administrative positions (where
advanced education and experience are essential)
and in entrance positions. Not enough home eco­
nomics graduates are entering and remaining in
home economist occupations to satisfy current
demand. For example, a 1955 study by the U.S.
Office of Education indicated that about one-

194

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

third of the home economics graduates who were
prepared to teach did not, in fact, become class­
room teachers.
Thus, the continuing population growth, the
increasing demand for the services of home econ­
omists in many fields, and the insufficient num­
bers of graduates in home economics— all point
to good employment opportunities for persons
trained as home economists.
Earnings, and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of women who were gradu­
ated from college in June 1957 and secured jobs
as home economists averaged $4,040 in the win­
ter of 1957-58. Their average earnings were
exceeded only by the chemists ($4,847) and the
mathematicians and statisticians ($4,675) among
the recent women graduates covered by a joint
survey of the National Vocational Guidance As­
sociation and the U.S. Department of Labor’s
Women’s Bureau.
In urban areas with 30,000 and over popula­
tion, the average (median) salary of beginning
teachers with a bachelor’s degree was $4,000 for
the school year 1958-59, according to a National
Education Association survey. Home economics
teachers generally receive the same salaries as
other teachers, as most school districts have a
single-salary schedule based on education and ex­
perience for all teachers in their area. The NEA
also reported that the average (mean) salary of
all secondary school teachers (including both be­

ginning and experienced teachers) was $5,110 in
1958-59.
Home economists in business usually received
between $3,500 and $4,200 for beginning jobs in
1958. Chances for advancement and for higher
earnings are good as experience and competency
increase.
In the Federal Government, the entrance sal­
ary for inexperienced workers with baccalaureate
degrees in home economics was $4,040 in 1958.
For those with additional education and experi­
ence, salaries ranged from $4,980 to $11,090 a
year, depending upon the type o f position and
level of responsibility involved.
Hours of work are irregular for some home
economists as, for example, those engaged in pro­
motional and advertising work who are expected
to be available for evening demonstrations or
other night work. On the other hand, research
workers and others employed in business and
manufacturing establishments usually work a
regular 40-hour week or less. Most home econo­
mists are granted a paid vacation, sick leave,
retirement pay, and insurance benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about home economists,
including names o f schools offering home eco­
nomics training and available scholarships, may
be obtained from:
American Home Economics Association,
1600 20th St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Interior D esig n ers a n d D ecorators
(D.O.T. 0-43.40)

Nature of Work

Although artists have for centuries been em­
ployed to beautify palaces and public buildings,
the occupation o f the interior designer and dec­
orator is only about 50 years old. The chief
work o f interior designers and decorators is to
plan and supervise the furnishing o f private
homes and other structures, including offices, ho­
tels, restaurants, stores, and ships. They also
work on theater, motion picture, and television
set decorations.
On most decorating jobs, the structure is deter­




mined before the decorator arrives on the scene—
that is, the walls, doors, windows, heating equip­
ment, and the like are in place. The decorator
then selects and arranges the furniture, draper­
ies, wall and floor coverings, lighting fixtures,
lamps, and other decorative accessories, and may
himself design certain items. On some jobs, he
may also work with the architect in planning the
interior o f a new building or in remodeling an
old one. This work is known as interior design.
The first step in a decorating job is usually to
devise a color scheme and prepare a plan show­
ing the placement o f the furniture, accessories,

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Interior decorator helping a customer select material for furniture
covering.

and floor and wall coverings. The decorator may
also— and for larger assignments usually does—
make drawings or water colors of the finished
interior, to illustrate his scheme. As a rule, he
must furnish complete cost estimates for the
client’s approval. The second step is to assem­
ble the furnishings. A good deal of the decora­
tor’s time goes into selecting the furniture, tex­
tiles, rugs, and decorative accessories and into
supervising the painters, upholsterers, and other
craftsmen who work on the interior and the
furnishings. His job is not finished until every­
thing is in place and ready for use.
Where Employed

More than 10,000 interior decorators, many of
whom were women, were estimated to be employed
in 1958. In addition, there were undoubtedly
many other people, some o f them part-time work­
ers, who considered themselves interior decorators
but who had little training in the field.
Many decorators have their own establish­
ments. Some are “ consulting decorators,” who
have no stock of furniture or fabrics to sell.
More often, however, decorating establishments
have furniture, decorative accessories, and fabrics
for sale, since they find these attract clients for
their services. Many of these establishments are
operated by a single decorator with 1 assistant;




195

others have a staff as large as 15 or more—some
of whom are salespeople.
In recent years, large retail stores have become
increasingly important as a source of employment
for decorators. Many of the larger department
and furniture stores have decorating departments.
One o f the main functions o f such departments
is to help in the store’s sale o f merchandise,
though the decorators are rarely restricted to the
store’s stock in their plans for interiors. De­
partment store decorators may also act as “ homefurnishings coordinators,” who advise the mer­
chandising division and buyers concerning style
and color trends in homefurnishings; this func­
tion is expected to become increasingly impor­
tant. In addition, small numbers of interior
designers and decorators are employed by archi­
tects, antique dealers, industrial designers, pe­
riodicals which feature articles on homefurnishings, and manufacturers in this field.
Since the business requires being near centers of
population, the majority of decorators are located
in large cities and their suburbs.
Training and Other Qualifications

Some of the successful interior decorators have
“ grown up” with this comparatively new field of
work, and it is still possible to become a decorator
with little or no formal training. An untrained
person or one with very little training is at a dis­
tinct disadvantage in trying to enter the field,
however, since most reputable decorating firms
or department stores will accept only well-trained
people in beginning jobs. For many jobs, the
minimum formal education required is comple­
tion of a 3-year course at a recognized art school,
or a 4-year college course leading to a Bachelor
of Fine Arts degree, with a major in interior
design and decoration.
The success of an interior decorator will de­
pend, in good measure, on his ability to sell. The
decorator who has his own establishment needs
business ability, as well as good salesmanship and
a pleasing personality. In addition, the high
school student who plans to become an interior
decorator should also have some aptitude for
drawing and an interest in design.
The course of study in interior decorating usu­
ally includes the principles and history of art,

196

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

free hand and mechanical drawing, painting, and
study of the various materials, such as woods and
fabrics, with which the decorator works. In ad­
dition, business courses such as salesmanship and
business arithmetic are of great value.
The inexperienced art school or other gradu­
ate is not accepted as a qualified decorator, but
is expected to serve an informal apprenticeship
in the field, either with a decorating firm or in
a department store. The apprentice may act as
a receptionist, as a shopper with the task of
matching materials or finding accessories, as a
stockroom assistant, or as an assistant draftsman.
Not all new graduates obtain these informal
apprenticeships, since there are usually fewer
openings than graduates. Those who fail to ob­
tain these jobs are advised to work as salespeople
in fabric, lamp, or other homefurnishings estab­
lishments or departments, to gain experience in
dealing with customers. Such experience will
make it easier to obtain an apprenticeship with a
decorating firm or department. It may also ulti­
mately lead to a career in merchandising or a
career as a buyer.
The length of the on-the-job training period
varies, depending on the individual’s performance
and the establishment’s requirements. In many
cases, the apprentice progresses from simple to
more complex assignments without a change of
title. In other cases, the young worker may be
promoted to “ assistant decorator” and given full
responsibility for a small assignment, such as a
single room. In any case, it is likely to take at
least from 1 to 3 years before one advances to the
position of decorator. Further advancement to
supervisory positions or to head of a decorating
department in a store usually depends on indi­
vidual ability. The experienced decorator may
also open his own decorating establishment, or
may develop into a stylist or homefurnishings
coordinator.
Employment Outlook

The demand for the services of interior de­
signers and decorators is expected to continue to
increase during the 1960’s. The trend toward
greater use of decorating services is rising, owing
to the increasing availability of these services to
customers at a moderate cost, and to a growing
awareness of the decorator’s role in contributing




to the comfort and beauty of a home or other
interior. Although growth in employment is
expected, new entrants will still find it difficult
to gain a foothold in this highly competitive field.
One reason for this is the ease of admission
to decorating work due to the lack of established
and accepted standards. Anyone who wishes to
call himself a decorator can do so; and many
women, having furnished their homes to their
own and their friends’ satisfaction, start a small
decorating business. Consumers often find it d if­
ficult to evaluate the services offered by deco­
rators, and will sometimes choose the amateur
whose services may appear less expensive.
In recent years, department and furniture
stores have played an increasingly important role
in interior decoration for the home. At the same
time, the growing volume of decorating work in
commercial establishments and public buildings
has most often been placed with the larger deco­
rating establishments. It is expected that the
larger establishments, both stores and decorating
firms, will gain an increasing share of the ex­
panding decorating business. This development
will make for greater orderliness in the trade
and provide increased opportunities for regular
employment. On the other hand, the use of in­
terior designing and decorating services has fluc­
tuated in the past depending on general economic
conditions, and income and employment in the
occupation would undoubtedly again reflect any
sharp decline in the general level of business
activity.
Earnings

Beginning salaries for graduates of schools
giving diplomas in interior design and decora­
tion, or of colleges offering majors in this field,
were typically between $50 and $65 a week in
1958, according to limited data available for
some eastern cities. Assistant and full-fledged
decorators may be paid either a straight salary,
a salary plus commission or bonus, or a straight
commission. The earnings of most department
store decorators are usually figured directly as a
percentage of their sales. Decorating establish­
ments may also offer their employees a propor­
tion of the profits, particularly when an em­
ployee has made the original contact with a
customer.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Many decorating firms and department stores,
do not charge a fee for their services, but derive
their income from profit made on furnishings
sold to customers. Some decorators charge a fee
for advice on a prospective job if they are not
given the final contract.
The fact that earnings are so closely geared to
sales means that, for both employees and inde­

197

pendent decorators, the income range is very
wide. Some interior designers and decorators
earn only a moderate income, whereas others
make $20,000 or more a year.
Where To Go for More Information
American Institute of Decorators,
673 Fifth Ave., New York 22, N.Y.

L a w y e rs
(D.O.T. 0-22.)

Nature of Work

Most businesses require the services of a law­
yer to take care of many different kinds o f legal
problems—for example, in resolving tax matters,
arranging for new issues of stock or other secu­
rities, buying and selling property, and handling
claims made against the companies. Many indi­
viduals also need the advice o f a lawyer from
time to time, in buying a house, drawing up a
will, or in other circumstances.
Lawyers (attorneys) advise clients on their
legal rights and obligations and, when necessary,
represent them in courts of law. In addition,
they negotiate settlements out of court and rep­
resent clients before quasi-judicial or adminis­
trative agencies o f the government. They may
also act as trustees, guardians, or executors. Gov­
ernment attorneys play a large part in adminis­
tering Federal and State laws and programs;
they prepare drafts of proposed legislation, es­
tablish procedures for law enforcement, and ar­
gue cases in the courts. Some lawyers serve as
judges in Federal, State, and local courts. Others
are primarily engaged in teaching, research, writ­
ing, or administrative activities.
The great majority of lawyers are in general
practice, handling all kinds of legal work for
clients. However, an increasing number are spe­
cializing in some branch o f the law such as ad­
ministrative, admiralty, corporation, criminal,
estates and wills, international, labor, patent, real
estate, trust, and tax law. Some attorneys devote
themselves entirely to trying cases in the courts.
Others never appear in court and limit their
work to such activities as drawing up legal docu­
ments, conducting out-of-court negotiations, or




doing the legal work necessary to prepare for
trials.
Many persons with legal training are not em­
ployed as lawyers but are in other occupations
which require some knowledge of law. They
may, for example, be F B I agents, insurance ad­
justers, tax collectors, probation officers, credit
investigators, or claim examiners.
Where Employed

Nearly 80 percent o f the 226,000 lawyers listed
by the American Bar Association as profession­
ally active in 1958 were in private practice.
Approximately two-thirds o f the private prac­
titioners were in practice by themselves; more
than one-fourth were in a partnership; and the
remainder—only about 6 percent—worked for
other lawyers or law firms.
The greatest number o f salaried attorneys are
employed by government agencies. In 1958, the
Federal Government employed approximately
12.000 attorneys, chiefly in the Department of
Justice, the Department o f Defense, and the
Veterans Administration. About 8,000 attorneys
held positions with municipal governments, and
4.000 were employed by State governments.
Nearly 8,000 held judicial positions. More than
a thousand were military personnel serving as
attorneys in the Armed Forces.
The second largest number o f salaried lawyers
work for private companies, including large
manufacturing firms, banks, insurance companies,
real estate firms, and public utilities. Most of
the remainder teach in law schools. Some law­
yers in salaried legal positions also have some
independent practice; others do legal work on

198

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

a part-time basis while primarily employed in
another occupation.
Although lawyers practice in all parts o f the
country, most o f them are in cities and in the
States with the greatest population. In 1958,
about 30 percent o f all lawyers were in New
York City, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Los A n­
geles, Boston, Detroit, Philadelphia, and Cleve­
land. Almost half were located in the following
States: New York, California, Illinois, Ohio,
Texas, and Pennsylvania.
Training and Other Qualifications

Before a lawyer can practice in the courts of
any State he must be admitted to the bar of
that State. In most cases, applicants must pass
a written examination. In a few States, how­
ever, graduates o f certain in-State law schools
are admitted to the bar without examination.
I f a lawyer has been admitted to the bar in one
State, he can usually be admitted to practice in
another State without taking an examination,
provided he is o f good moral character and has
a specified amount o f legal experience. The right
to practice before Federal courts and agencies is
controlled by special rules o f each court or agency.
To qualify for the bar examinations in most
States, an applicant must have completed 2 or 3
years o f college work and, in addition, must be
a graduate o f a law school approved by the
American Bar Association or the proper State
authorities. A few States permit graduates of
correspondence law schools to take the bar exami­
nation, and some will accept study in a law office
instead of, or in combination with, study in a
law school—though this method o f training is
now rarely used. A number o f States require
registration and approval by the State board
before students enter law school. In a few States,
candidates must complete a period o f clerkship
in a law office after graduation from law school,
before they are admitted to the bar examination.
As a rule, it takes 6 years o f full-time study
after high school to complete the required col­
lege and law school work. The most usual prep­
aration for becoming a lawyer is 3 years o f col­
lege study followed by 3 years in law school.
However, law schools which have a 4-year, full­
time curriculum may accept students after 2 years
o f college work. On the other hand, some schools




require applicants to have a college degree. Spe­
cific college subjects are not generally required
for entrance into law school. However, such
courses as English and public speaking are im­
portant for prospective lawyers. Students inter­
ested in a particular aspect o f the law may find
it helpful to take related courses; for example,
engineering and science courses would be useful
to the prospective patent attorney, and account­
ing would be useful to the future tax lawyer.
O f the 158 law schools in operation in 1958,
129 were approved by the American Bar Associ­
ation and the others— chiefly night schools— were
approved by State authorities only. A substan­
tial number o f full-time law schools also have
night divisions designed to meet the needs o f
part-time students; some law schools have only
night classes. Four years o f part-time study is
usually required to complete the night-school
curriculum. In 1958, more than one-third o f all
law students were enrolled in evening classes.
Although qualified young people interested in
a legal career can usually obtain admission to a
law school, they may not always be able to enroll
in the school o f their choice. Some o f the better
known schools have more applicants than they
can accept. In selecting students, law schools
consider college grades, amount o f college educa­
tion, the particular college attended, and recom­
mendations made by college professors. A num­
ber o f law schools require applicants to take the
standard law school admission test, and several
give their own aptitude tests.
The first 2 years o f law school are generally
devoted to fundamental courses such as contracts,
criminal law, property, torts, and equity. The
third year is composed largely o f elective courses
in specialized fields such as tax, labor, or corpora­
tion law. Practical experience is often obtained
by participating in legal aid activities sponsored
by the school, as well as in the school’s practice
court where the students conduct trials under the
supervision o f experienced lawyers. Upon grad­
uation, the degree o f bachelor o f laws (LL.B.)
is awarded by most schools, although a few confer
the degree of juris doctor (J.D .) to graduates
with high scholastic standing. Advanced study
is often desirable for those planning to specialize
in one branch o f the law or to engage in research
and law school teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried posi-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

tions although some go into independent practice
immediately after passing the bar examination.
Young salaried attorneys usually act as assistants
(law clerks) to experienced lawyers. As a rule,
their work is limited to research such as checking
points of law; they rarely see a client or argue
a case in court. After several years of salaried
employment, during which time they can obtain
experience and funds and become well known,
many lawyers go into practice for themselves.
Employment Outlook

Graduates from widely recognized law schools
and those in the top 10 percent of their classes
will have favorable employment prospects during
the early 1960’s. They are expected to have good
opportunities for obtaining salaried positions with
well-known law firms, on legal staffs of corpora­
tions and government agencies, and as law clerks
to judges. Graduates of the less well-known
schools and those with lower academic ratings
are likely to experience some difficulty in finding
salaried positions as lawyers. However, numerous
opportunities will be available for law school
graduates to enter a variety of salaried positions
requiring a knowledge of law. Law graduates
will also be in demand for legal positions in the
Armed Forces. Young attorneys who open their
own law offices after being admitted to the bar
will, as in most other independent professions,
generally face a period of low earnings while they
build up their practices.
Prospects for establishing a new practice will
probably continue to be best in small towns and
expanding suburban areas since, in big cities,
competition with other lawyers tends to be keener,
overhead costs are higher, and the difficulties of
becoming known to potential clients are greater.
On the other hand, opportunities for salaried
employment will be limited largely to big cities
where the chief employers of legal talent—gov­
ernment agencies, law firms, and big corporations
—are concentrated. For able and well-qualified
lawyers, good opportunities to advance will be
available in both salaried employment and private
practice. Legal training will continue to be a
valuable asset to people seeking public office.
Although the majority of employment oppor­
tunities for new lawyers will continue to arise
from the need to replace those who retire, die,




199

or otherwise leave the field, a gradual increase
in the legal profession is expected over the long
run. Most of the growth will result from the
continuing expansion o f business activity and
population. The trend toward more complex
legislation at Federal, State, and local levels
points toward the need for more salaried lawyers
as well as for more independent practitioners.
In addition, the increased use of legal services by
low- and middle-income groups—stimulated in
part by lawyer reference plans and legal aid
societies— will add to the long-term growth in
demand for lawyers. The growing complexity
of business and government activities is expected
to create a steadily expanding demand for lawyers
who are specialists in such fields as corporation,
patent, administrative, labor, and international
law.
Opportunities for women lawyers, who com­
prised less than 3 percent o f the profession in
1958, will probably continue to be limited for
some time to come. Although more than half of
all women lawyers are employed in salaried posi­
tions, a substantial number are in practice for
themselves. Many women lawyers hold positions,
not as attorneys, but in occupations requiring a
knowledge of law.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries for young lawyers are gen­
erally highest in large law firms and Federal
agencies. In the Federal Government, the annual
starting salary for attorneys who had passed the
bar was either $4,980 or $5,985 in early 1959,
depending on the applicant’s qualifications. In ­
experienced lawyers employed by medium-size
law firms, corporations, and banks generally earn
somewhat less, and those working for small law
offices or engaged in legal-aid work usually receive
the lowest salaries. The beginning lawyer in
practice for himself may make little more than
his expenses during the first few years and may
add to his total income by engaging in other
part-time employment.
In law, as in most other professions, earnings
usually rise with experience. According to the
most recent nationwide survey of lawyers’ income
(made by the U.S. Department of Commerce),
annual earnings, above expenses, for lawyers in
practice less than 5 years averaged about $5,000

200

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

in 1954. Lawyers in practice 15 to 19 years
earned, on the average, about $11,700 a year, and
those in practice 25 to 29 years earned nearly
$13,200. Average annual income above expenses
for all lawyers regardless of length of experience
was $10,200. Earnings of lawyers practicing as
partners were greater, on the average, than law­
yers practicing alone. For example, average net
income of sole practitioners was $7,315 in 1954;
partners in 2-man firms each averaged $11,169;
in 3-man firms, $14,830; and in firms of 9 or
more members, $36,102.
Lawyers often work long hours and under con­
siderable pressure when a case is being tried.
In addition, they must keep abreast of the latest

laws and court decisions. However, since lawyers
in private practice are able to determine their
own hours and workload, many stay in practice
until well past 70 years of age.
Where To Go for More Information

The specific requirements for admission to the
bar in a particular State may be obtained from
the clerk of the Supreme Court or the secretary
of the Board of Examiners at the State capital.
Information on law schools and on law as a
career is available from :
The American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago 37, 111.

L ib ra ria n s *
(D.O.T. 0-23.20)

Nature of Work

Librarians are concerned with making knowl­
edge and information available to the public
through such printed or recorded materials as
books, periodicals, pamphlets, and reports. Since
a growing number of libraries loan phonograph
records, films, maps, and pictures, as well as
books, librarians may also be concerned with
these audiovisual mediums. Librarians select and
purchase books and such other materials as the
library loans or uses; classify, catalog, and cir­
culate books and other loan items; publicize li­
brary services; investigate the reading interests
of people served by the library in order to meet
these needs; do research to secure facts or in­
formation requested; and provide reference serv­
ice to guide readers of all ages to books and
information suited to their individual interests.
Librarians may also collect, review, and ab­
stract published and unpublished materials in
order to prepare bibliographies and book reviews,
which make information about books and other
publications more readily available to the public.
Some librarians serve as advisers to schools or
business organizations on bibliographies and ref­
erences for research, while others work with
community groups, providing information and
resource materials for use in their projects.
*Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




In a small library, the librarian may perform
all o f these duties. In a large organization,
however, different librarians may handle each
function, or may specialize in a particular sub­
ject-matter area, such as science, business, the
arts, or children’s books.
A number of libraries, both public and private,
are devoted entirely to special subject-matter col­
lections. These special libraries serve the interests
o f the employing organization rather than the
wide range of public interest. For example, the
library of a scientific research organization deals
exclusively with materials suited to specified areas
of research, an insurance company library con­
centrates on materials related to the insurance
business, and the library of a government agency
handles materials pertaining to the functions of
that agency. These libraries employ persons
called special librarians who, in addition to their
regular duties, are often expected to take the in­
itiative in furnishing information of particular
interest or providing research services to the
firm’s or agency’s administrative, management, or
public relations offices.
A growing group of librarians called extensionservice librarians work toward setting up and
improving public libraries in areas where such
services are inadequate or nonexistent. These
librarians are employed by State agencies to
travel about the State publicizing the need for
improved library service, giving advice and as-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

201

ernment employed more than 3,000 librarians in
1957.
Although most librarians are located in cities
and towns, the bookmobile has been developed
to serve large geographical areas. More than
1,000 bookmobiles were in use in 1957, servicing
people who would otherwise have had to travel
long distances to reach a library. Similarly,
bookmobiles are used in some large cities where
they have sometimes proven more effective and
economical than regular branch libraries. They
are particularly useful in rapidly growing* sub­
urban areas when establishment o f branches would
be premature.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Photograph by u .S. d epar tm en t of Labor

The reference librarian guides readers to information suited to
their particular interests.

sistance in organizing new libraries, and solving
problems in existing libraries.
Where Employed

Librarians are employed in public libraries and
in libraries maintained by public and private
schools, colleges and universities, government
agencies (including State libraries), research as­
sociations, medical institutions, and business and
industrial firms. Some librarians work as teach­
ers and administrators in schools of library sci­
ence. By far the majority of librarians are
women, and most of them are employed in public
libraries or in the libraries of public schools.
In recent years, more men have been entering
this field partly because of the increased salaries
being offered, the growing emphasis on library
service in many fields, and improved opportunities
for advancement to administrative positions due
to the growing size of individual library systems.
The exact number of librarians is not known;
however, according to a 1956 U.S. Office o f Edu­
cation survey, 17,500 professional librarians were
employed in the 6,250 public library systems re­
porting. Earlier reports show that there were
roughly 16,000 professionally trained librarians in
the public schools in 1954. An estimated 8,700
librarians were wmrking in college and university
libraries in 1955. Agencies of the Federal Gov-




Completion o f a 4-year undergraduate course
in library science at a college or university qual­
ifies graduates for positions as professional li­
brarians in small libraries or for positions as
assistants in large libraries. More than 550
colleges and universities offered some courses in
library science in 1958. Some positions for spe­
cial librarians are open to persons with specialized
education and experience in a particular field,
such as law, medicine, engineering, or business,
even though they have had no library training.
In recent years, however, the trend has been
toward requiring the completion of a 1-year
course in a library school, after graduation from
a 4-year college, in order to qualify as a “ pro­
fessional librarian.” These graduate programs
generally concentrate on the principles of librarianship rather than specific technical skills,
and aim at qualifying students for responsible
administrative positions.
Entrance requirements for professional (grad­
uate) library schools commonly include: (1)
graduation from an approved 4-year college or
university; (2) a good undergraduate academic
record; and (3) a reading knowledge of at least
one foreign language. Most schools emphasize
the importance of a general liberal arts program
on the undergraduate level, and do not require
previous training in library science. Skill in
typing is regarded as a useful tool for library
science students in connection with their work
in areas such as cataloging. The length of time
needed to complete work for the master’s degree
ranges from two to three semesters, with most

202

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

schools requiring either two full semesters plus
one summer session or three full semesters. In
1958, there were 81 graduate schools in the
United States and Canada which were accredited
by the American Library Association Committee
on Accreditation.
Some scholarships for training in library sci­
ence are available through State library agencies
from funds appropriated under the Library Serv­
ices Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1956.
Schools of library science offer scholarships, and
students o f library science are usually eligible
to compete for general scholarships offered by
many colleges and universities.
Some students attend library schools under co­
operative work-study programs, combining their
academic program with practical work experience
in a library. This arrangement aids the students
in financing their education, and at the same time
is helpful in preparation for professional library
service.
Those interested in public school librarianship
must fulfill individual State certification require­
ments for school library posts. Most o f these
librarians will need to take some education
courses, since nearly all States require teacher
certification as a basis for the certification of
school librarians.
Certain positions for special librarians require
completion o f courses dealing with the subject
matter with which the librarian will work. The
librarian who intends to specialize in a scientific
field would need to take courses in mathematics
and chemistry, physics, or engineering, depending
upon the particular specialty; while, the business
librarian would study economics, business man­
agement, accounting, and finance.
Some librarians advance to the doctorate level
in education for library science. Those persons
who work in college and university libraries or
teach in library schools find this type o f training
most helpful.
Duties o f entrance positions vary according to
type and size o f the employing library. The
library school graduate employed in a large
public or university library may work under the
direction o f the chief of a specific library de­
partment, such as reference or cataloging. The
beginning librarian in a small school or special
library, however, may have duties that encompass
all aspects o f library operation. In all types




o f libraries, the more routine tasks are performed
by beginning librarians.
Advancement for the librarian may come
through transfer to a larger library or by pro­
motion to a higher grade position in the same
library. The careers of many librarians reveal
considerable mobility among various institutions
and types o f specialization. Promotions to ad­
ministrative positions or to specialized work are
also possible after additional education or ex­
perience.
It should be noted, however, that advancement
to higher level or specialized positions may be
limited to “ professional librarians” who have
completed graduate training in an accredited
library school or those who have special training
and experience.
Certification is required for public librarians
in 22 States. The requirements, based on differ­
ent combinations of education and experience,
may be established by local, county, or State
agencies.
These requirements should be in­
vestigated by the students through their high
school or college counselors or the American
Library Association.
Employment Outlook

Library schools, associations, and the U.S. Office
of Education reported a nationwide shortage of
trained librarians in 1958.
The number o f degrees granted in library sci­
ence has remained relatively constant, at less
than 2,000 per year, over a long period o f years,
despite the rising numbers o f job openings. Au­
thorities in the field estimated that there were
at least six vacancies for each library school
graduate in 1957, so that the demand for trained
librarians far exceeded the supply that year.
This demand is expected to continue and to
increase well into the 1960’s under the impetus
o f the Library Services Act o f 1956, which pro­
vided Federal funds with State participation for
the extension and improvement o f rural public
library service. The expanding school and college
population and improved standards for these li­
braries will also necessitate the employment of
a growing number of fully-trained librarians.
Many additional openings will be created by turn­
over among young women in the field who leave
their jobs for marriage and other reasons. Spe-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

cial librarians, particularly in science and tech­
nology, will be greatly in demand as a result of
increasing emphasis on industrial research. Posi­
tions will continue to be available for persons
interested in part-time work.
Over the long run, employment for librarians,
particularly the specialists, is expected to expand,
as more and more new information becomes avail­
able and the complexity of our sources of knowl­
edge increases.

203

tions offered salaries up to $10,000 with a few
salaries reported over $11,000.
The typical workweek for librarians is 40 hours
and often includes evening work in those libraries
that remain open evenings. The 5-day week is
becoming common, and the usual paid vacation
after a year’s service is 4 weeks. However, vaca­
tions may be longer in school libraries and
somewhat shorter in those operated by business
and industry.
Where To Go for Further Information

Earnings and Working Conditions

Geographical location, size o f city, size and
type of library, and degree of responsibility and
technical skill required are important factors in­
fluencing librarians’ salaries. In 1957, the aver­
age salary for beginning library school graduates
was approximately $4,250 a year. Graduates with
substantial previous experience in library work
received an average of $550 more a year. Special
librarians reported beginning salaries ranging
from $4,200 to $4,500; higher amounts, up to
$5,000 a year, were reported by technical librar­
ians. Salaries for top-level positions in libraries
generally range from $8,000 to $12,000, and ap­
proach $20,000 in some instances.
Entrance salaries in the Federal Government
in 1958 were $4,040 and $4,980 a year, depending
upon the extent of the individual librarian’s
education and experience. Many top-level posi-

Additional information, particularly on ac­
credited schools, requirements for librarianship,
and scholarships or loans may be obtained from :
American Library Association,
50 East Huron St., Chicago 11, 111.

Information on requirements and placement of
special librarians may be secured from:
Special Libraries Association,
31 East 10th St., New York 3, N.Y.

Information about library services may be se­
cured from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Library Services Branch,
Washington 25, D.C.

Individual State library boards can furnish
information on scholarships available through
their offices, and requirements for positions in
their State library systems.

N e w sp a p e r Reporters
(D.O.T. 0-06.71)

Nature of Work

Reporters gather information and write news
stories for publication in daily or weekly news­
papers. They interview people, consult police and
public records, observe events as they happen,
and do research in libraries. As a rule, reporters
take brief notes while collecting facts and write
their stories upon return to the office. Some­
times, to meet deadlines, they telephone the in­
formation to other reporters, known as “ rewrite
men,” who write the stories for them.
Big city dailies frequently assign some re­
porters to special “ beats,” such as police stations
or courts, to cover news originating in these




places, while local news which develops elsewhere
is handled by general assignment reporters. News
on certain subjects, such as sports, politics, and
religion, is often dealt with by specialists in these
fields. Reporters on small newspapers not only
cover all aspects of local news but may also take
photographs, write headlines, lay out inside pages,
and even write editorials. On the smallest week­
lies, they may also solicit advertisements, sell
subscriptions, and perform general office work.
Newspaper reporting is only one o f several oc­
cupations open to young people trained in jour­
nalism. Persons with this background may also
work for general circulation magazines, trade,
business, labor, and other specialized periodicals;

204

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Newspaper reporter phoning in a story to the city desk.

for radio and television stations, advertising
agencies, and public relations firms; and for
government agencies. These related activities are
not dealt with in this statement.
O f approximately 60,000 editors and reporters
employed in the printing and publishing indus­
tries in 1950, it is estimated that about half were
newspaper reporters. Although women composed
almost one-third of the combined group, the pro­
portion of newspaper reporters who were women
was much smaller.
Where Employed

The majority of reporters are employed by daily
newspapers and most of the others work for
weekly papers. In addition, some reporters are
employed by press services and newspaper syn­
dicates.
Reporters work in cities and towns of all sizes
throughout the country. O f the approximately
1,800 daily and 9,000 weekly newspapers pub­
lished in 1958, the great majority were in small
towns. Sizable numbers of reporters, however,
are located in cities since each large city daily
employs many reporters whereas a small-town
paper generally has only a few.




Although talented writers with little or no
academic training beyond high school can become
reporters, an increasing number of newspapers
require applicants to have a college education.
Some editors prefer college graduates with a de­
gree in journalism while others consider a degree
in liberal arts equally desirable.
Professional training leading to a degree in
journalism can be obtained in more than 150
colleges; about 100 of these have separate depart­
ments or schools of journalism. The typical 2year journalism curriculum is given during the
junior and senior years of college and is about
equally divided between cultural and professional
subjects. Students preparing to become news­
paper reporters take professional subjects such as
reporting, copyreading, editing, feature writing,
and the history of journalism. Graduate training
is a relatively recent development and, although
a number of schools award master’s degrees, only
a few offer programs leading to the doctor’s de­
gree in journalism. In 1958, most schools and
departments of journalism were not overcrowded
and qualified applicants had an excellent chance
of admittance.
Young people who wish to prepare for news­
paper work by obtaining a liberal arts background
in college should take English and specialized
courses in writing as well as such subjects as so­
ciology, political science, economics, history, and
psychology. Those without college training usu­
ally qualify by gaining experience on rural,
small-town, or suburban papers. The ability to
write well and to report the news accurately are
important for success in this field, as are such per­
sonal qualities as a “ nose for news,” persistence,
initiative, resourcefulness, and an accurate
memory. A knowledge of typewriting is also
necessary since reporters must usually type their
own news stories.
Most beginners become “ cub” reporters on
weekly or small daily newspapers. However,
some college graduates start as copy boys on
large city papers and obtain promotions to re­
porting jobs. Other graduates are hired directly
for reporting positions by some large newspapers
that prefer to train them on the job. In com­
peting for regular positions, it is helpful to have
had experience as a “ stringer”—one who covers

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

the news in a particular area for a newspaper
and is paid on the basis of the stories printed.
“ Cub” reporters are assigned to such work as
summarizing speeches, covering relatively unim­
portant meetings or interviews, writing obituaries,
and handling minor news events. As they gain
experience, they may advance to covering more
important developments or are assigned to a
“ beat” or special subject. For experienced re­
porters, advancement is possible to positions such
as columnist, or correspondent, or editor. News­
papermen also progress by moving to reporting
jobs with larger papers or with press services and
newspaper syndicates. Some reporters eventually
advance to top executive positions or become pub­
lishers. Others transfer to related fields such as
advertising, radio, television, or public relations.
Employment Outlook

Weekly or daily newspapers located in small
towns and suburban areas will offer beginners the
most opportunities to enter newspaper reporting
during the 1960’s. Openings continually arise
on these papers as young people gain experience
and transfer to reporting jobs on larger news­
papers or to other types of work. Preference in
employment on small papers is likely to be given
to beginning reporters who are able to help with
photography and other aspects of newspaper
work and who are acquainted with the com­
munity.
Large city dailies will also provide some open­
ings for inexperienced people with a good educa­
tional background to enter as reporter trainees,
and a number of opportunities will continue to
be available for young people to enter as copy
boys and advance to reporting jobs. Newspapers
are always looking for persons with exceptional
talent; however, persons with only average qual­
ifications generally encounter stiff competition in
seeking advancement to the better reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper reporting, new
college graduates with journalism training will
find numerous openings in related fields, such as
advertising, public relations, trade and technical
publishing, radio, and television. The broad field
o f mass communication, which has grown rapidly
in recent years, will continue to expand in the
1960 decade. Factors pointing toward continuing
expansion include rising levels of education and




205

income; increasing expenditures for newspaper,
radio, and television advertising; and a growing
number of trade and technical journals and vari­
ous types of company publications. Newspapers
will share in this growth. Employment o f re­
porters is expected to increase although not as
fast as employment in some related areas. The
greatest source of jobs for newspaper reporters
will continue to result from the need to replace
those receiving promotions to editorial or other
higher level positions, transferring to other fields
of work, or lost to the profession through retire­
ment or death.
Special opportunities for women will continue
to be found in reporting on such subjects as so­
ciety news, food, fashions, clubs, and beauty cul­
ture for the women’s section of newspapers.
However, on many newspapers, women reporters
are used on the same types of jobs as men.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many daily newspapers have negotiated con­
tracts with the American Newspaper Guild
which set minimum wages based on experience
and provide for annual salary increases. In early
1959, the minimum starting salaries on most daily
newspapers with Guild contracts ranged from
$55 to $75 a week for reporters without any previ­
ous experience. On a few small dailies, the
minimum starting salaries were less than $50 a
week; on the other hand, about the same number
of large dailies paid beginning reporters $83 or
more a week. Young people starting as copy
boys earn less than new reporters.
Minimum rates for reporters with some ex­
perience (usually 4 to 6 years) ranged from
$106 to $140 a week in early 1959, on most dailies
organized by the Guild. Contract minimums for
experienced reporters on a few small dailies were
less than $100 a week; on a few large dailies
they were more than $150 a week.
Especially promising beginners and qualified,
experienced reporters are often paid salaries
higher than the minimum rates called for in
Guild contracts. Particularly successful, experi­
enced reporters on city dailies may earn more
than $200 a week.
Newspaper reporters on city papers generally
work 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, although
their hours are often irregular. Many of those

206

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

employed by morning papers start work in the
afternoon and finish around midnight. City pa­
pers pay overtime rates for more than 40 hours
of work a week and often provide various em­
ployee benefits, such as paid vacations, group
insurance, and pensions.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about opportunities with daily
newspapers may be obtained from :

American Newspaper Publishers Association,
750 Third Ave., New York 17, N.Y.

Information on union wage rates is available
from:
American Newspaper Guild, Research Department,
1126 16th St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Names and locations of all daily newspapers
and a list o f departments and schools o f journal­
ism are published in Editor & Publisher Inter­
national Yearbook, available in most large news­
paper offices and public libraries.

Personnel W o rkers
(D.O.T. 0—
39.81 through .83, .85 through .88, and 0—
68.70 through .78)

Nature of Work

Personnel workers are responsible for helping
their employers hire and make the most effective
use o f workers. One part of their job is to de­
velop recruiting and hiring procedures and to
interview and evaluate applicants. Another is to
keep personnel records and to prepare reports
based on these records. In addition, personnel
workers may counsel employees, handle discipli­
nary problems, classify jobs, plan wage and salary
structures, develop safety programs, and conduct
research in personnel methods. Employee train­
ing, the administration of retirement and other
benefit plans, and labor relations—including nego­
tiation of agreements with unions— are also im­
portant aspects of their work.
(Personnel
workers in schools and colleges who counsel stu­
dents or are otherwise concerned with student
problems are not dealt with in this report. See
statement on School Counselors, p. 50.)
Many personnel jobs require only limited con­
tact with people. Others involve frequent contact
with employees, company officials, and people out­
side the company— for example, prospective em­
ployees, union officials, school personnel, and
officials o f community and other organizations.
Personnel work also involves many levels of
responsibility, ranging from policy making to
routine administrative activities, and includes a
number o f specialized functions. Industrial rela­
tions directors, personnel managers, training di­
rectors, and others in executive positions generally
formulate policy, advise other company officials
on personnel matters, and administer the depart­




ments they head. The greatest number and
variety of personnel positions are to be found
in big companies whose personnel programs in­
clude labor relations, wage administration, train­
ing, safety, job classification, and other specialized
aspects o f employee relations. In these organiza­
tions, the personnel department may have several
hundred employees with highly specialized duties.
Some business organizations limit their personnel
activities largely to recruitment, handling of dis­
ciplinary problems, and maintenance of personnel
records; these companies employ fewer personnel
workers. In a small business, one person may
handle all the personnel work and in some cases,
also have other duties.
Where Employed

Personnel workers are found in nearly all types
of business enterprises as well as government
agencies. O f the more than 50,000 personnel and
labor relations workers employed in 1958, well
over half worked for private industry. Indus­
tries employing large numbers o f personnel
workers include steel, automobile, and machinery
manufacturing, telephone and other utilities, de­
partment stores, petroleum refining, and chem­
icals. About one-third of all personnel and labor
relations workers are employed by Federal, State,
and local government agencies, chiefly by the
Federal Government. In addition, a number are
college teachers of personnel administration, in­
dustrial relations, and similar subjects. Some
work independently, generally as management
consultants or labor relations experts. Most per-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Personnel director explaining training program to department
heads.

sonnel workers are located in big cities and in
the highly industrialized sections of the country.
Training and Other Qualifications

A college education is becoming increasingly
important for personnel work. However, many
personnel executives are not college graduates but
entered the field by advancing from production,
sales, or clerical jobs, and this method of entry
is still open for some personnel jobs in private
industry. For professional positions with the
Federal Government, a bachelor’s degree is gen­
erally needed. Some specialized positions in both
private industry and government service require
advanced training beyond the bachelor’s degree.
College courses in personnel management, busi­
ness administration, public administration, ap­
plied psychology, statistics, economics, political
science, sociology, English, and public speaking
are regarded as desirable preparation for per­
sonnel work. Although some employers in pri­
vate industry prefer college graduates who have
majored in personnel administration, many con­
sider such training too specialized and prefer
those with a general business administration back­
ground. Other employers consider a well-rounded
liberal arts education the most desirable prep­
aration for personnel work. Young people in­
terested in government positions are often advised
to major in public administration, political sci­
ence, or personnel administration; however, those




207

with other academic backgrounds are also eligible
for government employment.
For some positions, more specialized training
may be necessary. Jobs involving testing and
counseling often require a bachelor’s degree with
a major in psychology or even a graduate degree
in this field. An engineering degree may be
needed for work dealing with time study or
safety standards, and a degree with a major in
industrial relations may be helpful for work in­
volving labor relations. A background in ac­
counting and law is also very useful for positions
dealing with wages, pension and other employee
benefit plans.
Many employers prefer personnel workers who
have had firsthand experience with the operations
of the company and with the type o f work
performed by the employees. For this reason,
firms often recruit new personnel staff members
from their own employees—in which case, other
qualifications often outweigh educational back­
ground. On the other hand, some companies and
government agencies hire only college graduates
and put them through in-service training pro­
grams that teach both the operations of the
organization and specific personnel procedures.
College graduates may also be employed directly
for beginning jobs in personnel work as junior
interviewer, personnel clerk, assistant job an­
alyst, or labor relations assistant.
Qualities regarded as important for success in
personnel work include the ability to speak and
write effectively, and more than average skill in
working with people o f all levels of intelligence
and experience. In addition, the prospective
personnel worker should have a liking for detail,
a high degree of persuasiveness, and a pleasing
personality.
Employment Outlook

A number of opportunities for professional
employment in personnel work will be offered in
the early 1960’s, through in-service training pro­
grams for junior personnel workers conducted by
large companies and Federal Government agen­
cies. However, many new graduates seeking to
enter professional personnel positions are likely
to continue to face keen competition in various
parts of the country. In general, employment
prospects will be best for college graduates with

208

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

specialized training in such areas of personnel
work as industrial relations, psychological test­
ing, and safety engineering. Some opportunities
to advance to personnel work will be available
for qualified young people willing to start in
production, clerical, or subprofessional positions.
A gradual increase in the demand for person­
nel workers is expected over the long run. The
anticipated expansion in the country’s labor force
and the trend toward larger companies will cre­
ate a need for more personnel workers to carry
on recruiting, recordkeeping, and related activi­
ties. In addition, a marked growth is expected
in some specialized areas of personnel work. In­
creased recognition of the importance of the
“ human factor” in industry will bring about a
demand for more executives trained in employee
relations; wider use of psychological testing by
employers will result in a need for additional
staff; and growth of in-service training programs
and their application to new problems will in­
crease the size of training staffs. The demand
for more labor relations experts is also expected
to continue. Extension of employee services,
growing emphasis on safety, retraining of em­
ployees owing to technological changes, develop­
ment of pension and other benefit plans, and in­
tensified research activities also point toward a
future demand for more trained personnel work­
ers. Moreover, additional workers will be needed
to replace those lost to the field through retire­
ment or death and for other reasons.
Opportunities for women, who constitute ap­
proximately one-fourth of all personnel workers,
are expected to continue to expand. Prospects
will remain best in organizations which have
many women employees such as department
stores, telephone companies, and government
agencies. Although advancement opportunities
will probably continue to be limited, a growing
number of women are expected to attain top
positions.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries for men college graduates
in professional personnel positions in large com­
panies averaged about $4,800 in 1958, according
to reports from college placement directors. In
the Federal Government, beginners with bache­
lor’s degrees started at $4,040 a year and those
with master’s degrees at $4,980, in late 1958.
Prospective personnel workers who held clerical,
production, or subprofessional positions gener­
ally earned lower salaries.
The average annual salary paid directors of
personnel, industrial relations directors, and oth­
ers in top positions was approximately $12,000
in 1958, according to a survey made by a large
university.
However, their annual salaries
ranged from less than $5,000 in some small com­
panies to more than $60,000 for vice presidents
in charge of personnel or industrial relations in
some giant corporations.
Employees in most personnel offices generally
work 40 hours a week. However, during periods
of intensive recruitment, strikes, or other unusual
situations, considerable overtime work may be
required. As a rule, personnel workers are paid
for holidays and vacations.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on personnel work as a
career may be obtained from :
The American Society for Personnel Administration,
Kellogg Center, East Lansing, Mich.

General information about public service ca­
reers, including personnel work, may be obtained
from :
Public Personnel Association,
1313 East 60th St., Chicago 37, 111.
American Society for Public Administration,
6042 Kimbark Ave., Chicago 37, 111.

P ro g ram m ers
(D.O.T. 0-69.981)

Nature of Work

The occupation of programmer is one of the
newest in the country. People in this occupa-




tion prepare instructions or “ programs” for the
great new electronic computers, specifying exactly what steps these machines should take to
get the desired results. Electronic computers are

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

C O U R T E S Y O F U .S . V E T E R A N S A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

Senior programmer pointing out steps in a flow diagram to other
members of a programming team.

often called “ giant brains’’ ; however, it is the
programmer who does the thinking that makes
the machines work. The instructions which pro­
grammers prepare are put on cards or paper
tapes punched with holes, or magnetic tapes with
special markings. The electronic computer can
then carry through millions of computations—
adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing—
at lightning speed. The machines ( “ peripheral”
equipment) used with the computers, and run by
office machine operators, include converters which
transfer information from punched cards to mag­
netic tape (or the reverse operation); readers
that make the instructions on the tape or cards
usable by the computer; and printers that record
the final results in a form that can be read.
Programmers usually specialize in one of twro
main types of work on wdiich computers are used
—processing the great masses of data which have
to be handled in large business and government
offices, or solving scientific and engineering prob­
lems. In business and government offices, pro­
grammers work out plans which make it possible
for electronic computers to take over a vast
amount of clerical work formerly done by hand
or slower machine methods— for example, pre­
paring payrolls, making out customers’ bills, and
doing inventory control work. Programmers in
government offices may also be concerned wfith
projects involving masses of statistical data— for
example, compiling information collected by the
Bureau of the Census or analyzing income-tax
returns—or with special research projects. The
other major group of programmers plan how to
506397 0 — 59------ 15




209

use computers to solve complex mathematical
problems dealing with the control of machine
tools used in manufacturing processes, and in
connection with scientific and engineering proj­
ects, such as launching and tracking earth satel­
lites and forecasting weather.
There are four main steps in programming—
analyzing the problem, preparing a flow diagram,
writing detailed instructions, and making sure
the program w orks on the computer. The pro­
7
grammer uses his knowledge of what the com­
puter can do and his familiarity with the sub­
ject matter of a problem to plan the most effi­
cient way of using the computer. For example,
in planning to use an electronic computer to do
the vast amount of clerical work involved in
making up a payroll—computing gross and net
pay, typing and sorting pay checks, and keeping
records—the programmer analyzes how payroll
records are prepared. To understand the kinds
of reports needed and their timing, he may have
discussions with company personnel at all levels.
When all the information is assembled, the pro­
grammer prepares a flow chart showing the logi­
cal order in which various operations must be
performed by the machines. He then writes the
many hundreds—sometimes thousands—of pro­
gram instructions. The final instructions are
coded—either by the programmers or by clerks—
into special machine language which is converted
into holes on punchcards and paper tapes, or
marks on magnetic tapes. (See statement on
Office Machine Operators, p. 230.) Finally, the
programmer must have several trial runs of the
cards or tapes made on the computer in order to
“ debug” his program (check its accuracy) before
turning the machine over to the computer opera­
tor. To complete the entire programming proc­
ess may take a few months or a year or longer,
and the instructions prepared may fill several
bulky volumes.
Programmers engaged in solving scientific or
engineering problems also perform analytical
work, prepare flow charts, write instructions,
and test their programs. In this work, however,
the programmer deals chiefly with scientists and
mathematicians who give him the problem in
complicated mathematical formulas which he has
to simplify into arithmetic forms the computers
can handle. This “ numerical analysis” can be
applied to many types of research problems; for

210

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

example, in connection with missile designing,
the computer can be used to give answers to a
variety of simulated flight problems. The basic
idea is to imitate mathematically a physical situ­
ation and, by solving the equations, anticipate
the results without actually seeing or doing an
experiment. In one of the newest applications,
a few programmers prepare instructions for the
electronic devices that control machine tools in
factories; these devices make it possible to pro­
duce aircraft parts and other products with
greater precision and speed than when machines
are controlled by human beings. In this type of
work, sometimes called “ numerical control” of
machine tools, programmers often work closely
with engineers and skilled machinists.
In big offices with large computing systems,
several programmers at different levels of re­
sponsibility may work as a team on one problem.
A senior programmer may have overall respon­
sibility for the entire program and may direct
other programmers. Beginning or junior pro­
grammers are usually assigned to write specific
parts of broad programs. Methods, systems, or
procedure analysts are sometimes employed to do
most of the analytical work required for pro­
gramming and to make recommendations as to
whether a particular operation can be handled
efficiently by a computer.
Where Employed

Several thousand programmers were employed
in 1958, chiefly in the large metropolitan areas
where the main offices of big corporations and
government agencies are located.
Insurance
companies, public utilities, and government agen­
cies are among the leading employers. Program­
mers are also employed in many manufacturing
industries—electrical equipment, petroleum prod­
ucts, chemicals, aircraft, automobiles, and others
— in scientific and engineering laboratories, and
in newly established computer centers.
The number of programmers employed by a
company depends not only on the size and the
number of electronic computers in use, but also
on the number and complexity of the operations
being programmed. A company with one large
computer may employ from 10 to 30 or more
programmers; one with a medium-size computer
may have only 2 or 3 programmers. A number




of large companies have several giant computers,
although usually only one is installed at any
single office or plant. At each location, one or
more medium-size or small computers may also
be used.
Training and Other Qualifications

Companies have been filling most positions in
this new occupation by selecting employees fa­
miliar with the subject matter to be programmed
and giving them training in programming work.
Since many of the office operations which are
being taken over by electronic computers involve
accounting work, employees with experience in
accounting departments have often been selected
for programmer training. However, new col­
lege graduates are sometimes hired as trainees,
particularly for programming scientific work.
Men are preferred as programmer trainees in
most areas of work. Although many employers
recognize the ability of women to do program­
ming, they are reluctant to pay for their training
in view of the large proportion of women who
stop working when they marry or when they
have children. Opportunities for women to be
selected as trainees are likely to be better in
government agencies than in private industry.
To find out which individuals have an aptitude
for programming and should therefore be se­
lected for training, most companies give general
intelligence tests and special tests which measure
the ability to think logically and do abstract
reasoning, and then interview the people with
the highest test scores. Personal characteristics
considered important for this occupation include
patience; a logical and systematic approach to
the solution of problems; and the ability to work
with extreme accuracy, paying close attention to
detail. Imagination is also an asset, since pro­
grammers often have to devise new ways of at­
tacking a problem.
Training in programming is usually given at
company expense—often in special schools es­
tablished by the manufacturers of electronic
computing equipment, although large companies
which have used computers for several years are
beginning to develop their own training programs.
Trainees usually spend a few weeks in lecture
courses, combined with practical demonstrations
of the electronic computing system used by their

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

company. After completing the basic program,
trainees practice writing and coding instructions
and testing them on the computers. Those who
complete this basic program satisfactorily are
finally selected as programmers and are usually
given several weeks of additional preparation at
the company before starting on their first regu­
lar assignments. Further training is generally
necessary when a company introduces a new type
o f computer.
Educational requirements have been changing
rapidly in this new occupation and may continue
to do so. A college degree or equivalent experi­
ence is required for all entry programming po­
sitions in the Federal Government. In private
employment, college graduation is less likely to
be required for programmers o f office data, al­
though courses in business administration includ­
ing accounting and statistics are very helpful.
Many employers no longer stress a strong back­
ground in mathematics for programming of busi­
ness or other mass data if candidates can demon­
strate an aptitude for the work. However,
programmers of scientific and engineering prob­
lems are usually college graduates with a major
in one of the sciences or in engineering and some
courses in mathematics.
A growing number of courses in electronic
data processing are becoming available in col­
leges and universities. Such courses help young
people to decide whether they like this type of
work and may also help experienced program­
mers to advance to higher level jobs. About 15
colleges and universities have computing centers
and offer programs of computer training includ­
ing basic courses, such as the mechanics of com­
puters; the general logic of programming, and
coding for computers; and also advanced courses
for managerial personnel. Many other colleges
offer one or more courses relating to the use of
electronic computers.
Chances for advancement are good in this ex­
panding occupation. In large companies, the
junior programmer may become a full-fledged
programmer after a year or two of experience
and later may be promoted to senior programmer
in charge of a team of programmers, or perhaps
to methods, systems, or procedures analyst. P ro­
motion is also possible to higher positions, such
as manager in charge of program analysis, man-




211

ager o f the computing center, and vice president
in charge of methods research.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for programmers
are expected to remain very favorable through
the early 1960’s. Additional programmers will
be needed both by employers already using elec­
tronic computers and by those planning to in­
stall such equipment. Fewer openings are an­
ticipated in the scientific and engineering field
than in programming of office and other mass
data. However, the number of qualified candi­
dates for programmer jobs may also be smaller
in the technical field, since college graduates with
a background in mathematics, science, and engi­
neering—who are preferred for these program­
ming jobs—will be in strong demand for many
other types of work.
Continued expansion in employment o f pro­
grammers is expected over the long run, owing
to the same general factors which have led to
the increased use of electronic computing sys­
tems in the recent past. In offices where the vol­
ume of recordkeeping is great, there will con­
tinue to be need to reduce the cost of processing
tremendous amounts of data and to produce bet­
ter, more timely reports on which management
decisions can be based. Expenditures for scien­
tific and engineering research and development
are expected to remain high, and electronic com­
puters will be used as an aid in solving, with
extraordinary speed, more and more scientific
and engineering problems. Computers will also
be used increasingly to work out problems con­
nected with automation of factory processes.
Thus, employment of programmers will grow,
as additional business establishments and govern­
ment agencies install their first computers and
others expand their computing systems. The
Federal Government, which had approximately
100 automatic data-processing installations oper­
ating in connection with office-type work in June
1957, planned to install about 35 more shortly
thereafter. An increasing number of small com­
panies are expected to acquire computers and
employ programmers, owing to the development
of smaller, less expensive equipment designed for
use where the volume of work is not large enough

212

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

to warrant the purchase of elaborate equipment.
Furthermore, replacement needs resulting from
retirement and death of programmers will pro­
vide an increasing number of job openings in
the years ahead, since many persons trained in
the 1950’s were mature employees with several
years of working experience.
New technological and other developments may
affect the amount and quality of the work of the
programmer. For example, the use o f program­
ming libraries (files of tested programs) and
automatic programming has already eliminated
some of the routine work necessary in program­
ming. Extensive use of such aids may reduce the
need for some types of programmers and raise
the qualifications required for others. Another
development which may affect employment op­
portunities in this occupation is the establish­
ment of additional computing centers which
would perform services for clients on a fee basis.
Pooling of work in these centers may lead to
some reductions in the number of programmers
needed by individual companies. Any decreases
of this kind, however, are likely to be more than
offset by expansion in the programming staffs of
the centers, which look forward to a great amount
of business from small companies.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Information on programmers’ salaries in com­
panies which use large electronic computing sys­
tems mainly for office-type operations indicates a
wide range in salary levels. This results partly
from differences in the complexity of program­
ming operations and the fact that salary levels
have not yet become well established in this new
occupation. Junior or beginning programmers
had starting salaries ranging from $3,600 to
$5,400 a year in 1957. Salaries are generally
increased annually for a few years—up to maximums o f $4,500 to $7,100 for junior program­
mers. Minimum salaries of experienced program­
mers promoted to the semisenior level generally
ranged from $4,500 to $6,500, and their maximum
salaries were from approximately $6,000 to more
than $8,500. At the senior programmer level,
the range of minimum salaries was from $5,200




to nearly $8,000 annually, and maximum earnings
were from about $7,000 to approximately $12,000.
Higher salaries are earned by top-level admin­
istrators responsible for programming work.
The Federal Government paid most beginning
programmers $4,040 a year in mid-1958. Some
with higher qualifications received a starting sal­
ary of $4,980.
The standard workweek for programmers is
usually 35 to 40 hours, depending on the indus­
try in which they are employed. Although the
operators of computing systems (those at the
computer’s control panel, or operators o f the
machines that convert and print information)
may be on a two or three shift basis, program­
mers only occasionally work evenings or week­
ends—for example, when they have difficulty
“ debugging” a program. Like most other officeworkers, programmers usually receive liberal va­
cations, paid holidays, and sick leave, and are
also covered by life insurance, pension, hospital,
medical, and other employee benefit plans.
Programmers usually work in well-lighted, airconditioned modern offices. Employers make spe­
cial efforts to provide better than average sur­
roundings for programmers, so that they may
concentrate to achieve the extreme accuracy nec­
essary for programming.
Where To Go for More Information

Persons interested in programming jobs can
apply directly to large companies that have or
are planning to install electronic computing sys­
tems.
Information on companies that had electronic
data-processing equipment early in 1957 is avail­
able in:
A Second Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital
Computing Systems, U.S. Department of Commerce,
Office of Technical Services, 1957. Price $7. Avail­
able from the Department o f Commerce, Washing­
ton 25, D. C.

Information about programmer jobs in govern­
ment agencies can be obtained from the U.S.
Civil Service Commission and from the appro­
priate local civil service agencies.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

213

Psychologists
(0 .0 .T. 0-36.21 through .26)

Nature of Work

Psychologists seek to explain how our minds
work and why we act as we do. They study the
behavior of people, develop tests which measure
aptitudes and personality, and use test results
and other techniques to assist them in under­
standing individuals. The work of psychologists
includes such varied activities as teaching in col­
leges and universities, diagnosing and treating
mental disorders, counseling individuals, assist­
ing in selecting workers for jobs, and conducting
research. Altogether, an estimated 24,000 psy­
chologists were professionally employed in early
1959. Approximately one-fourth were women.
Psychologists may be divided into two major
groups: Specialists in the applied fields who gen­
erally work directly with people, and specialists
in the basic science fields who are mainly em­
ployed in research or in college and university
teaching. More than three-fourths of all psychol­
ogists are in the applied specialties—engaged
chiefly in applying psychological principals and
methods to help individuals adjust successfully
to home, social, school, and working situations.
Clinical psychology is the largest applied spe­
cialty; about one-third of all psychologists are
in this field. Clinical psychologists generally
work in mental hospitals or clinics and are con­
cerned primarily with problems of maladjusted
or disturbed people. They interview, give di­
agnostic tests, and provide individual or group
psychotherapy. Specialists in counseling and
guidance, the second largest field, help students,
the physically handicapped, and other individuals
achieve educational, vocational, and social ad­
justment. School psychologists administer in­
telligence and other diagnostic tests to children,
interpret the results, and suggest remedial action
when necessary. Psychologists specializing in
the other applied fields (industrial and personnel,
human engineering, and educational psychology)
may act as management consultants, select and
train personnel, assist in designing equipment
for the most efficient utilization, or develop im­
proved teaching methods.
Specialists in the basic science fields conduct
research not only in colleges and universities but




also in a variety of other organizations such as
mental hospitals or in Government agencies. A
few examples of research problems in the basic
science fields of developmental, experimental,
comparative, and social psychology are: How
age is related to learning ability; how the brain
functions under conditions of extreme fatigue;
how different living conditions affect the behavior
of animals; and how attitudes change as a result
of group living.

C O U R T E S Y O F N A T IO N A L I N S T IT U T E S O F H E A L T H

Psychologists use tests to learn about children’s abilities.

Where Employed

The places where psychologists work range
from college classrooms to hospital wards and
from research laboratories to business offices.
Although most psychologists are employed in
large cities and in university towns, a sizable
number are on the staffs of institutions located
in rural areas.
Colleges and universities employ the largest
number of psychologists—more than one-third
of the total.
Government agencies—Federal,
State, and local—employ the second largest
group. Within the Federal Government, the

214

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

agencies which have the most psychologists are
the Veterans Administration, the Department of
Defense, and the Public Health Service o f the
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Sizable groups also work for elementary and
secondary schools, private industry, and for non­
profit foundations, hospitals, and clinics. A small
number are in independent practice, and a few
serve as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces and the Public Health Service. In addi­
tion to positions with the title “ psychologist,”
there are many personnel and administrative jobs
filled by persons trained in psychology.
Training and Other Qualifications

The master’s degree with a major in psychology
is usually the minimum requirement for profes­
sional employment as a psychologist. The Ph. D.
is needed for some beginning jobs and is becom­
ing increasingly important for advancement. A l­
though the bachelor’s degree is not considered
sufficient education for professional employment,
some young people with this degree secure rou­
tine jobs in work related to psychology or other
fields where training in psychology is helpful.
A minimum of 1 year o f full-time graduate
study is needed to earn the master’s degree in
most psychological specialties, and many students
take longer. In clinical and counseling psy­
chology, the minimum time needed to earn the
master’s degree is 2 years in many schools which
include practical training in their master’s degree
programs. The Ph. D. degree requires a total of
at least 3 or 4 years of graduate work. In clin­
ical or counseling psychology, a Ph. D. usually
requires 4 or 5 years o f advanced study, including
1 year of internship or supervised experience.
Advanced training is most commonly obtained
in graduate departments of psychology. In some
universities, however, other departments—gener­
ally schools of education— also grant degrees
which qualify students as psychologists. An un­
dergraduate major in psychology is required for
enrollment in some schools; others prefer students
with a more general educational preparation.
Basic psychology courses supplemented by the
biological and physical sciences, statistics, and
mathematics are among the most frequent re­
quirements. Most universities have more ap­
plicants for graduate study in psychology, par­




ticularly for the Ph. D., than can be accepted.
Students are selected primarily on the basis of
college grades and performance on aptitude tests.
Emotional stability, interest in people, and social
maturity are considered especially important for
those preparing to enter the applied fields.
Many graduate students receive financial help
from universities and other sources, either in the
form of part-time employment as assistants or
outright grants (fellowships). Several Federal
agencies provide funds to graduate students, gen­
erally through the educational institution giving
the training. The Veterans Administration offers
a large number of 4-year doctoral traineeships,
chiefly in clinical and counseling psychology,
during which time the students are paid for parttime employment with that agency. The Public
Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare supports doctoral fel­
lowships in psychology. The Office of Vocational
Rehabilitation of the same Department offers
2-year traineeships in vocational rehabilitation
counseling, primarily for those working toward
the master’s degree.
Beginning psychologists with the master’s de­
gree qualify for jobs assisting in the administra­
tion and interpretation of psychological tests,
analyzing and collecting statistical data, helping
in research experiments, performing routine ad­
ministrative duties, and acting as vocational re­
habilitation counselors. In addition, they may
teach in colleges, assist in counseling college stu­
dents, or—if they have had previous teaching
experience— act as school psychologists or coun­
selors (see statement on school counselors, p. 50).
Those with doctorates are eligible for more re­
sponsible research, clinical, and counseling posi­
tions as well as for better paid positions in
colleges and universities.
To obtain government employment, psychol­
ogists must usually qualify through a Civil Serv­
ice system. Many entrance positions in the
Federal Government require the doctorate or the
equivalent in education and experience. Those
desiring to enter independent practice must meet
certification or licensing requirements in an in­
creasing number of States. Fourteen States—A r­
kansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, New
Hampshire, New York, Tennessee, Virginia, and
Washington—had such requirements in mid-1958.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Employment Outlook

Employment of psychologists is expected to
grow substantially during the 1960’s. A strong
demand for psychologists with Ph. D. degrees
will exist in every field o f specialization and in
virtually all parts of the country. Those with
master’s degrees will also be in considerable de­
mand, but their opportunities for full professional
employment may become more limited owing to
increasing emphasis on the doctorate as a require­
ment for independent practice and for the more
responsible salaried positions.
Many factors point toward continued rapid
expansion o f this profession, which tripled in
size between 1945 and 1955 and has since grown
by almost 1,500 annually. Although population
growth alone accounts for some o f the in­
creased need, the following long-term trends are
more directly responsible: Increasing recognition
by schools, government agencies, private industry,
and the public of the contributions that can be
made by this relatively new science; growing con­
cern about mental health needs, resulting in a
tremendous increase in State funds available for
the treatment of the mentally ill; and the emer­
gence o f the Federal Government as a major
sponsor of psychological research not only within
the Government but also in universities and
private industry.
A large growth is anticipated in the number
of psychologists employed by State agencies. Cur­
rently understaffed mental hospitals and mental
hygiene clinics will need many clinical psycholo­
gists. Prisons, training schools, and other State
institutions are expected to use psychologists
more extensively. Employment o f vocational re­
habilitation counselors in State programs is ex­
pected to increase from 2,600 in 1958 to more than
5,000 in the mid-1960’s, and will draw upon
psychologists and others with the master’s degree
who have specialized in rehabilitation work.
Increasing awareness of the need for testing
and counseling children, coupled with the avail­
ability o f Federal funds for this purpose, is
expected to increase the employment of school
psychologists and counselors in both elementary
and secondary schools. In colleges and univer­
sities, more psychologists will be needed in stu­
dent personnel work, as well as in teaching, to
meet growing enrollments during the 1960’s (see




215

statement on college and university teachers, p.
47). The trend toward greater use o f psycho­
logical techniques by private industry is likely
to continue, thereby creating new openings for
experimental, industrial, personnel, and human
engineering specialists.
The Federal Government will remain an im­
portant source of employment. Many openings
for psychologists with Ph. D. degrees are ex­
pected at the Veterans Administration, chiefly in
clinical and vocational counseling positions in
hospitals for veterans. The Department of De­
fense will probably continue to have some open­
ings for research psychologists who are specialists
in experimental, human engineering, physio­
logical, and personnel psychology. It should be
kept in mind, however, that the number o f Gov­
ernment positions is dependent on funds appro­
priated annually by Congress.
In addition to newly created jobs, some va­
cancies will occur each year owing to retirements
and deaths. However, such openings will be
relatively few during the early 1960’s because
psychologists are a young group. The transfer
of psychologists to work of a purely administra­
tive nature may also create some job vacancies.
Most employment opportunities for women
psychologists will probably continue to be in
clinical psychology, where about half the women
psychologists are currently employed. However,
the expected expansion of school counseling and
guidance programs may offer women psycholo­
gists, especially those with previous teaching
experience, a growing number of employment
opportunities during the 1960’s. Women may
continue to find opportunities limited in psycho­
logical consulting firms, in some kinds o f military
research, or in industrial psychology.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries in late 1958 were estimated
to be, according to the limited data available,
between $4,500 and $5,500 a year for psychologists
with master’s degrees and between $6,000 and
$7,000 for Ph. D.’s. However, in the Federal
Government, psychologists with the doctorate and
limited experience could start at about $7,000.
Salaries offered experienced psychologists with
master’s degrees were typically between $5,500
and $7,500 in 1958. For Ph. D.’s, the range was

216

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

generally between $7,000 and $10,000. In some
fields, salaries for psychologists in top positions
were well over $10,000 a year.
Private industry and psychological consulting
firms generally pay the highest salaries to psy­
chologists, and the Federal Government the next
highest. Colleges, universities, and school sys­
tems usually offer less. Average salaries among
psychologists employed by State and local gov­
ernments or private nonprofit organizations tend
to be somewhat lower still. Women psychologists
earn, on the average, less than men with equal
education.
Total earnings of psychologists are frequently
higher than the salaries given above, since a
large number do part-time work in addition to
their regular salaried jobs. Many small mental
hospitals or clinics employ psychologists only on
a part-time basis. Psychologists whose regular
employment is outside the academic field often
teach part time in colleges and universities. In
turn, college teachers frequently act as parttime consultants or have a private practice.

Where To Go for More Information

General information on the profession, place­
ment opportunities, certification or licensing re­
quirements, and also a list o f universities with
approved doctoral programs in clinical and
counseling psychology may be secured from:
American Psychological Association,
1333 16th St. N W , Washington 6, D.C.

Information on traineeships and fellowships
may be secured from colleges and universities
with graduate psychology departments and from
the following Government agencies:
Chief, Vocational Counseling, Department of Medi­
cine and Surgery, Veterans Administration, Wash­
ington 25, D.C., or Chief, Clinical Psychology Divi­
sion, Veterans Administration, Washington 25, D.C.
Chief, Division of Training, Office of Vocational
Rehabilitation, U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Washington 25, D.C.
Training and Standards Branch, National Institute
of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md.

S o cial W o rk e rs*
(D.O.T. 0-27.06 through .50)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Social workers help people who have individual
or family difficulties which interfere with health­
ful and useful living. They arrange for coun­
seling services, job guidance, monetary grants,
medical care, or other types o f aid. To help
people improve their social relationships, as well
as aid in the normal process o f growing up, some
social workers conduct leisure time programs and
informal educational activities. Others are en­
gaged by communities to help plan and develop
health, welfare, and recreation services on a
broad scale for a neighborhood or larger area.
O f the nearly 100,000 social workers in the
country, about two-thirds are government em­
ployees, working mainly on public assistance
or other welfare programs administered by State,
county, or city governments. The remainder are
employed by private agencies, which are sup­
ported by contributions, endowments, or fees paid
by those served. More social workers are em•Prepared by the W om en’s Bureau, U.S. Department o f Labor.




ployed in urban than in rural areas. A t present,
men comprise about one-third o f the social
workers and their representation is slowly in­
creasing.
Social Caseworkers. Most social workers are
caseworkers, who deal directly with individuals
and families having difficulties relating to lack
of income, poor household management, ill health,
or poor relationships between husband and wife
or parent and child. The efforts of social case­
workers often keep together a family on the
verge o f breaking up. They may arrange for
medical care or the distribution o f food and
clothing and may assist those able to work to
find a job. Through relationships with social
workers, the attitudes and behavior of clients
may be modified so that they are able to care
for themselves and their families more effectively.
The largest single group of social workers,
possibly as many as 40,000, are family caseworkers
engaged in public assistance or other government
welfare programs which provide financial aid for

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

needy persons, including the disabled, blind,
aged, or unemployed and for children lacking
one parent or both. These caseworkers must
establish the financial eligibility and needs of
their clients, explain pertinent laws and require­
ments, and assist in obtaining any other social
services needed.
An additional 6,000 family caseworkers are
employed by private agencies, such as those af­
filiated with the Family Service Association,
Catholic Charities, Jewish Family Service, vari­
ous Protestant churches, the Salvation Army,
and the National Travelers’ Aid. Caseworkers
in private organizations generally provide more
intensive counseling services than public agencies,
concentrating on the strengthening of family life
and the establishment of satisfactory relation­
ships between the family and the community.
As private agencies generally have access only
to emergency funds, they refer financially needy
persons to public assistance agencies.
Government and private agencies together em­
ploy an estimated 15,000 child welfare workers
who help children with difficult family relation­
ships, behavior problems, and mental or physical
handicaps. The duties o f these caseworkers in­
clude finding foster homes for neglected or abused
children, arranging when necessary for adoption
or placement in specialized institutions, counsel­
ing a youthful offender who has been brought
before the juvenile court, and providing crutches
or braces for a crippled child.
More than 1,000 school social workers, often
called visiting teachers, are employed on a full­
time basis by school systems—usually for work
in elementary schools in large cities. They con­
sult with teachers, principals, parents, physicians,
and any others who can assist in understanding
and aiding a maladjusted or disturbed child. In
cases of poor school attendance and other un­
satisfactory behavior, school social workers usu­
ally visit the home to learn more about the child’s
family and community life. They also give
guidance to very aggressive or excessively shy
children and seek to learn why an intelligent
child is doing poorly in school work. Children
may be referred by school social workers for
help to other community services, such as clubs
or clinics.
Probably more than 6,000 medical social work­
ers serve as members o f medical teams aiding




217

patients whose recovery is delayed by emotional
problems. Employed mainly by public health de­
partments, hospitals, and health centers, they
work with all types o f patients, including those
receiving medical care for poliomyelitis, tuber­
culosis, cancer, and heart disease. Medical so­
cial workers may, for instance, aid a child am­
putee develop a more healthful attitude toward
his handicap, work with an uncooperative patient
shying away from surgery, or instruct a dis­
charged patient’s family on his diet and care.
They keep complete records of each patient’s
progress and help interpret the physician’s rec­
ommendations to both the patient and his family.
About 2,500 psychiatric social workers are em­
ployed in mental hospitals and clinics as part
of a psychiatric team along with doctors, nurses,
arid psychiatrists. They participate in planning
for a patient’s recovery, interpreting his problems
and progress to his family, and assisting him
both during his stay in the hospital and after
he returns home.
The largest employer of medical and psy­
chiatric social workers (or “ clinical workers” )
is the Veterans Administration, which had about
1,320 o f these workers in 1958.
Although the majority o f medical and psy­
chiatric social workers are caseworkers, a grow­
ing number of these social workers are being
engaged by hospitals and clinics to work with
groups of patients.
Caseworkers in rehabilitation work assist emo­
tionally ill or disabled persons in adjusting to
the needs of everyday living. Part of a re­
habilitation team, which usually includes physical
or occupational therapists, these social workers
serve as a link between the patient and the
community while he is in the hospital and con­
tinue to help him adjust to home and community
life.
Social Croup Workers. These workers are in­
terested primarily in using group experience to
further the development of the individual. They
work with organized groups of all ages. In
their efforts to encourage socially desirable be­
havior, they organize such leisure-time activities
as handicrafts, games, hikes, and dancing. Much
of their work is with healthy boys and girls.
Frequently they work also with elderly people,
emotionally disturbed people, delinquents, and

218

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

adult offenders. For example, under the guidance
of a fully qualified social worker—generally
called a youth-board worker— a special program
may be organized to help channel the interests
of delinquent youths from street gangs to sports
or other constructive activities. Social group
workers may also train and direct volunteer work­
ers as group leaders or assistants.
Many o f the approximately 10,000 social work­
ers in this field are employed by settlement or
community houses, churches, and such youth­
serving agencies as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts,
and Camp Fire Girls. About 2,000 work for the
American Red Cross and others for public recrea­
tion departments and camps. A small but grad­
ually increasing number are on the staffs of
medical psychiatric social service units in hos­
pitals and clinics. Occasionally, housing projects
employ social group workers to organize and
direct activities among the residents.
Community Organization Workers. Community
chests, community welfare councils, and other
community agencies which have broad responsi­
bilities for health, welfare, and recreation serv­
ices also employ social workers. It has been
estimated that these agencies have as many as
5,000 social workers on their staff. Some com­
munity organization workers set up and conduct
fundraising campaigns and supervise the dis­
bursement o f funds as directed by the community
council. They may recruit and train volunteer
workers, work with community leaders, and plan
necessary publicity. They may also determine
whether additional social organizations are
needed, and they may recommend changes in
existing ones to avoid duplication o f effort.
Other Social Workers. Social workers are em­
ployed in a number o f other specialties. Prob­
ably more than 3,000 are engaged in correctional
work with persons on probation or parole. Some
800 teach in graduate schools o f social work;
almost half o f the teachers work part time. An
estimated 500 specialists are engaged in social
work research in large cities and in research
centers, studying the aims and purposes o f social
work, measuring the effectiveness of current serv­
ices, and seeking methods o f improving services.
Some experienced social workers from the
United States serve in other parts o f the world.




They may work as consultants in the rehabilita­
tion o f the disabled, as teachers in schools or
seminars, or as administrators in setting up agen­
cies and schools. They may be employees of
the Federal Government, the United Nations or
one of its affiliated groups, national professional
associations, or private agencies such as the Amer­
ican Red Cross, the Unitarian Service Committee,
the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the
Catholic Relief Service, and the Church World
Service.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Professional training is basically the same for
all types o f social work. Leaders in the field
consider 2 years of graduate education desirable
for all social workers and encourage employers
and educators to adhere to this standard. How­
ever, because o f the shortage o f social workers
in the face of continuing high demand for their
services and the nature o f the work, graduate
training is not required for employment in a
number o f social welfare agencies.
In 1958, there were 55 schools of social work
in the United States accredited by the Council
on Social Work Education. In these schools, all
o f which are graduate schools, the student learns
to perform social work functions through class­
room courses, field work, and research. Time
is divided about equally between classroom work
covering all phases of social work and super­
vised field work in an agency selected by the
school to meet the student’s educational needs
and vocational interests.
For admission to an accredited school o f social
work, an applicant must hold a bachelor’s degree.
Undergraduate courses suggested for the student
planning to become a social worker include eco­
nomics, political science, history, psychology,
sociology, statistical methods, and the biological
sciences. English composition, journalism, and
public speaking courses help in preparing rec­
ords, interviewing, working with the press, and
participating in meetings and conferences. Pre­
professional courses with social welfare content
are offered by about 200 colleges and universities.
About half of them are members o f the Under­
graduate Division of the Council on Social Work
Education and have arranged at least 10 semester
hours o f these courses. Although such courses
are not now required for entrance to graduate

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

schools of social work, they provide an excellent
introduction to this area of study and work.
Nearly 9,500 students were enrolled full or
part time in graduate schools o f social work in
1956-57; about 1,600 of them earned a master’s
degree that year.
More financial aid is available for graduate
study in social work than in many other pro­
fessions. In 1957, the total amount spent for
social work scholarships and assistantships was
estimated to approximate $4 million, with the
average grant about $1,755 per student. Finan­
cial aid is given by graduate schools, private
agencies, foundations, civic groups, and State
Governments. As a result of the great need for
qualified people, some agencies are willing to hire
young people with a bachelor’s degree immedi­
ately after graduation, have them work for
awhile, and then grant educational leave and
scholarships to those who have done satisfactory
work. In other instances, agencies have set up
work study plans in which students are offered
scholarship aid in return for current services
or agreement on future employment.
In addition to a bachelor’s degree, students
considering a career in social work should have
an interest in people and in social problems,
the initiative and perseverance needed for per­
forming or obtaining social services, and an
ability to organize work activities effectively. To
enable them to promote good working relation­
ships and encourage social adjustment in others,
they should have a pleasant, easy manner in
working with people, willingness to see other
points of view objectively, and ability to use
good judgment when dealing with problem situa­
tions. To help them find out whether they have
the necessary personal qualifications, high school
and college students are advised to serve as volun­
teer or part-time workers for the scouts or in
settlement houses, hospitals, or camps. High
school students old enough to qualify under labor
laws in their State are sometimes hired as sum­
mertime helpers and assistants by some social
agencies in several of the larger cities.
Opportunities for professional advancement are
strongly influenced by the amount o f education
a social worker has obtained. For those with
only a bachelor’s degree who have been hired
because of the shortage of professionally trained
persons, promotional possibilities are limited




219

without further training. In contrast, for those
with graduate degrees who gain experience and
demonstrate ability, there is a wide variety of
opportunities in such higher level positions as
senior staff member, supervisor, executive, teacher,
and research worker. Moreover, while the de­
mand for social workers exceeds the supply, ad­
vancement possibilities will continue to be very
good for the well qualified.
Employment Outlook

In 1958, an estimated 12,000 vacancies existed
in the social work field. O f these vacancies,
about 4,000 were reported by settlement and
community houses, Young Women’s and Young
Men’s Christian Associations. About 3,000 va­
cancies were in public assistance and child wel­
fare agencies, and more than 2,500 in medical and
psychiatric social work. The Veterans Admin­
istration reported about 100 vacancies and the
American Red Cross had 65 in its national office
and others in local chapters. Teachers, super­
visors, and administrators were also in short
supply.
Not enough professionally qualified persons
are entering the field to fill current vacancies, to
replace persons who are retiring, to enlarge ex­
isting services, and to man new services. In
view of the widespread gap between the number
of graduates from schools of social work and
the number needed, the shortage o f social work­
ers is expected to continue for 10 years or longer,
regardless o f the level o f economic activity. The
rising population and the growing interest in
mental health, rehabilitation of the handicapped,
prevention of juvenile delinquency, aid to older
persons, and international assistance to peoples
o f other nations are all expected to create ad­
ditional demand for social workers. It is also
usually true that during periods of economic
difficulties the demand for social workers is in­
tensified.
As almost two-fifths o f those graduating from
schools o f social work during 1956-57 were men,
the number of men in the field is increasing
gradually. Men hold significant proportions of
the positions in the field o f probation and parole,
in group work, and in community organizations.
Demand for their services is also good in admin­
istrative positions in all agencies, as clinical

220

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

workers in the Veterans Administration and mili­
tary hospitals, and in rehabilitation work.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries o f those entering or returning to social
work after receiving a master’s degree from a
school of social work averaged $4,715 for men
and $4,565 for women in the fall o f 1957, ac­
cording to a survey o f the Council on Social
Work Education. The highest salaries were re­
ported by graduates engaged in public assistance
and community organization work and the lowest
salaries by those in family service work. These
differences may be partly due to the fact that
public welfare agencies frequently pay more than
private agencies in the same area. Besides type
of job and agency, other factors which affect
wage variations include regional location, city
size, and amount o f education and previous ex­
perience an applicant has had.
In the Federal Civil Service in 1958, the en­
trance rate for persons with a master’s degree
from an accredited school o f social work was
$4,980 for those without work experience, and
$5,985 for those with 2 years’ experience. There
was no Federal hiring in 1958 o f college grad­
uates who had undergraduate training in intro­
ductory social work courses but no subsequent
social work training.
Considerable variation existed in the salary
ranges established by each o f the States for their
health and welfare employees, according to a
survey made by the U.S. Department o f Health,
Education, and Welfare in January 1958. The
median minimum salary set for public assistance
caseworkers with only a bachelor’s degree was
$3,360 and the median maximum salary was
$4,320. For those with graduate education in
social work, the comparable medians were $3,960
and $4,980 for public assistance workers; $4,008
and $5,124 for child welfare workers; and $4,560
and $5,700 for psychiatric social workers. Case­

work supervisors, usually required to have a
master’s degree in social work as well as case­
work experience, received comparable median
salaries o f $4,140 and $5,574 as public assistance
supervisors and $4,560 and $5,760 as child welfare
supervisors.
Community organizations generally pay start­
ing salaries ranging from $5,500 to $6,000 a year
to those with a graduate degree in social work
and preferably with concentrated study and field
work experience in community organization.
After some years o f experience in community
organization work, salaries may range from $8,000
to $12,000 a year. For both public and private
organizations, administrators with long experi­
ence and heavy responsibilities are paid higher
salaries, some reported up to $35,000 a year.
The scheduled workweek for social workers is
usually from 35 to 40 hours. Those working with
community groups frequently have some nightwork. Social work positions generally provide
such benefits as retirement pensions, paid sick
leave, and vacations.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on accredited graduate schools of
social work and available scholarships may be
obtained from :
Council on Social Work Education,
345 East 46th St., New York 17, N.Y.

Information on employment practices may be
obtained from :
National Association of Social Workers,
95 Madison Ave., New York 16, N.Y.

More detailed information on educational prep­
aration and employment conditions is included
in a series of eight bulletins on The Outlook
for Women in Social Work (Bull. 235, series 1
to 8), which was published by the Women’s
Bureau in 1950-51 and is available in many li­
braries.

Statistician s
(O.O.T. 0-36.51)

Nature of Work

Many of the charts and graphs displayed in
magazines and newspapers and on the walls o f




business offices illustrate the findings o f studies
planned by statisticians. These studies provide
government and business officials with statistical
information needed in making decisions. Statisti-

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

cians use scientific methods to collect, analyze,
and interpret numerical data for many purposes—
for example, to forecast population growth, esti­
mate the size of the corn crop, help determine the
best design for a jet airplane, or measure the
effectiveness of polio vaccine.
Some statisticians have the job of analyzing
data already collected and preparing reports on
their findings. Others must plan the collection
of information through surveys or experiments.
Statisticians engaged in survey work may choose
the sources from which data can most readily
be obtained, design a sample, draw up question­
naires or report forms, and prepare instructions
for collecting the data. Statisticians who design
experiments may prepare mathematical models
which can be tested so that a particular theory
may be confirmed or contradicted. In designing
a survey or experiment, the statistician’s prin­
cipal task is to obtain sufficiently precise in­
formation on the subject being studied with the
least possible expenditure o f time and money.
Regardless o f the method used in obtaining the
data, the statistician is expected to present his
findings in summary tables, charts, and written
reports.
Statisticians specialize, as a rule, either in
mathematical statistics or in an applied field.
Mathematical statisticians use mathematical tech­
niques to design and improve statistical methods
for handling data in any subject field. Applied
statisticians use statistical methods to collect and
analyze data about a particular subject field— for
example, economics, psychology, public health,
finance, or engineering. Mathematical and ap­
plied statisticians frequently work together in
making statistical studies.
Many statisticians are engaged in research or
perform administrative or supervisory functions
in connection with research programs. Some are
employed as college teachers—often combining
teaching with research or administrative activi­
ties. Others act as consultants.
Because statistics is a tool which is used by
specialists in a variety of fields, it is sometimes
impossible to distinguish people who are pri­
marily statisticians from those who are chiefly
subject-matter specialists with a limited knowl­
edge of statistics. For example, an applied
statistician who provides quantitative information




221

on economic conditions may have the title either
of statistician or o f economist. Similarly, some
mathematical statisticians engaged in developing
new statistical methods are classified as mathe­
maticians. (See statement on Mathematicians,
p. 130.) Furthermore, clerical workers who per­
form mathematical computations or prepare
charts or tables are sometimes incorrectly called
statisticians. This overlapping o f fields makes
it difficult to determine the number o f statisti­
cians. However, it is broadly estimated that, in
1958, there were between 15,000 and 20,000 pro­
fessional workers whose major interest was in
statistical methods and their application to prob­
lems in particular fields. A small but growing
proportion of these workers are mathematical
statisticians.
Where Employed

The largest employer o f statisticians is the
Federal Government.
Every major Federal
agency employs some members of this profession,
although more than two-thirds o f all statisticians
on Federal payrolls are in the Departments of
Defense, Commerce, and Agriculture. Private
industry employs a large and growing number of
statisticians, particularly in market research and
quality control work. Colleges and universities
are a major source of employment for mathe­
matical statisticians. Other statisticians are em­
ployed by State and local governments, nonprofit
foundations, and research organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathe­
matics or economics and a minor in statistics is
the most usual educational requirement for an
entry job leading to a professional position as
a statistician. Only a limited number o f col­
leges and universities offer a degree in statistics
although the number is increasing. Essential
courses in mathematics include college algebra,
plane trigonometry, analytical geometry, and d if­
ferential and integral calculus. In addition, at
least one course in statistical methods is neces­
sary. Advanced courses in mathematics and
statistical theory are considered desirable for
many jobs and essential for some. Furthermore,
all statisticians not qualified as mathematical

222

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

statisticians need thorough training in some sub­
ject-matter field.
Minimum requirements for an entrance position
as a mathematical statistician in the Federal
Government were, in early 1959, a bachelor’s de­
gree with 24 semester hours in mathematics and
statistics, including at least 12 hours in mathe­
matics and 6 hours in statistics. For entrance
positions in other types o f statistical work, the
requirements were a bachelor’s degree with 15
semester hours in statistics (or a combination of
mathematics and statistics, including at least 6
hours in statistics) and 9 semester hours in the
given subject-matter field; for example, in agri­
culture, health and medicine, engineering, or
operations and administration including logistics,
education, or physical science.
Many private firms have similar minimum
prerequisites for entrance positions. In addi­
tion, for many quality control positions, statisti­
cians need engineering training and courses in
the application o f statistical methods to manu­
facturing processes. For market research and
forecasting work, a major in business administra­
tion or a related field is also helpful.
First jobs for inexperienced college graduates
with only bachelor’s degrees are likely to involve
much clerical work. Since this work often re­
quires the use of adding and calculating machines,
ability to operate such machines is extremely
helpful. In most types o f employment, the stat­
istician must also have considerable knowledge o f
tabulating equipment. Although persons with
only bachelor’s degrees may be able to advance
to more responsible positions on the basis of
experience, there is a trend toward requiring
further academic training, especially in the sub­
ject-matter field, for advancement in analytical
and survey work.
The master’s degree in statistics or mathe­
matics is required for many entry positions in
mathematical statistics and is almost indispensa­
ble for promotion to high-level positions in this
field. In many colleges and universities, this
degree also qualifies the statistician for teaching
in the department o f mathematics. However, a
doctor’s degree is required for appointment as
instructor in some high-ranking institutions and
is essential for advancement to a professorship
in many colleges. The doctorate is also an asset
in obtaining high-ranking administrative posi­




tions and consulting work outside the college
teaching field.
Employment Outlook

The demand for qualified statisticians is ex­
pected to increase substantially during the 1960
decade. The largest expansion in employment of
statisticians is expected to occur in private in­
dustry, but moderate increases are likely in other
types of employment as well. In addition, several
hundred statisticians will be required yearly to
replace those who resign, retire or die. Mathe­
matical statisticians will have the best employ­
ment opportunities. Because of the growing
emphasis on modern statistical methods in the
conduct o f research, the proportion o f statisticians
who are mathematically trained is likely to rise
even in organizations which do not greatly in­
crease their research staffs.
In private industry, persons with broad train­
ing in mathematics and statistics and a knowledge
of engineering or physical sciences will be in
demand to aid engineers in designing experiments
and testing new equipment, and in production
quality control work.
Companies are also expected to rely more and
more on statisticians in analyzing and forecast­
ing sales and business conditions, modernizing
their accounting procedures, and solving other
management problems. With the growing use
o f electronic computing machines, there will be
an increasing demand for statisticians who are
able to plan work so as to make the most efficient
use of such equipment.
The number of teachers of statistics is also
expected to rise, owing to increasing college en­
rollments (see statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers, p. 47) and because many colleges
are likely to offer more courses in statistics as
the importance o f statistical training in other
fields o f study becomes more widely recognized.
Employment o f statisticians in government
agencies is also likely to rise moderately. A ddi­
tional personnel are expected to be needed to
analyze data on the operations of expanded pro­
grams in such fields as social security, health,
and education. Also, a large number of stat­
isticians will continue to be employed in long­
term programs involving collection and analysis
of economic data of many kinds.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average (median) salary o f new graduates
with the bachelor’s degree who were employed in
private industry as statisticians or junior econ­
omists was $354 a month in 1958 (according to
a survey of graduates with a major in economics
made by the Board of Examiners of the U.S.
Bureau o f the Census). New graduates with a
master’s degree earned, on the average, nearly
$100 more a month.
Early in 1959, the beginning salary for mathe­
matical statisticians in the" Federal Government
was $4,490 or $5,430 a year, depending on the
individual’s college record. Inexperienced mathe­
matical statisticians with 1 year o f graduate
training were eligible to start at $5,430, and those
with 2 years of graduate training at $6,285.
Mathematical statisticians with a Ph. D. degree
but no experience were eligible to start at $7,510.
Beginning salaries of other types o f statisticians
were $4,040 to $4,980, depending on their college
records. Those with 1 year of graduate training
but no experience were eligible to start at $4,980;




223

those with 2 years o f graduate training at $5,985;
and those with the Ph. D. degree at $7,030.
Statisticians earn more, on the average, than
persons working in the closely related social
science fields. A survey by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics of the earnings of social scientists in
1952 indicated that the average (median) annual
salary o f statisticians was $6,800, somewhat
higher than the average for economists ($6,500)
and much higher than the comparable figures
for other social science fields. Salaries o f stat­
isticians, like those o f other professional workers,
have risen substantially since 1952.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employment trends
and on educational requirements for statisticians
specializing in social science fields is given in the
following publication:
Employment Outlook in the Social Sciences. Bureau
of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1167, 1954. Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C. Price
30 cents.

Clerical, Sales, and Service Occupations
C L E R IC A L O C C U P A T IO N S
Clerical workers have recently become the sec­
ond largest of all the major occupational groups
in the United States. (See p. 21 in introduction.)
About one out of every seven persons at work
in 1958 was in a clerical or closely related job.
Altogether, slightly more than 9 million men
and women were employed to take care o f the
vast amount of correspondence, recordkeeping,
and other office duties necessary to the operation
of modern businesses and government agencies.
Nature and Location of Clerical Work

The major clerical occupations are shown in
chart 21. Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
are by far the largest specialized group o f cler­
ical workers. Bookkeepers are the second largest
group. Other large clerical occupations include
those of telephone operator, shipping and re­
ceiving clerk, cashier, mail carrier, and office
machine operator.
Many officeworkers are designated simply as
“ clerks.” There are also large numbers with
specific titles which indicate the type of work
done— for example, file clerk, billing clerk, credit
clerk, time clerk, payroll clerk, or postal clerk.
These clerks and many others who were not
classified separately by the Census made up
more than one-third of all clerical employees
in 1950.
Clerical work is the largest of all areas o f em­
ployment for women. In 1958, about 3 out of
every 10 employed women were officeworkers.
The number and proportion of women in clerical
occupations have been rising steadily over the
years. Women outnumbered men in these occu­
pations for the first time in 1940, and by 1958,
more than two-thirds of all clerical workers were
women. More than 90 percent of the telephone
operators; the stenographers, typists, and secre­
taries; and the attendants in physicians’ and den­
tists’ offices are women. Women also fill more
than three-fourths of the jobs as bookkeepers,
cashiers, and office machine operators. Only in
224




one large occupation—office machine operator—
w there a rise from 1940 to 1950 in the propor­
^as
tion of men employed. Nevertheless, about 3 mil­
lion men were employed in clerical and related
work in 1958. More men than women were
working as shipping and receiving clerks, mail
carriers, bank tellers, ticket agents, messengers,
and telegraph operators, as well as in many
smaller occupational groups such as vehicle dis­
patchers, bill collectors, railway mail clerks, and
baggagemen.
Clerical workers are employed in all industries,
since some officework is essential in nearly every

C
lerical w rk isth latest of all areas of em
o
e
ploym fo w en.
ent r om

business. However, an increasing proportion of
clerical workers are employed in finance, service,
and related industries—principally in banks, in
insurance and real estate companies, and in pro­
fessional and business services. More than onefourth of all officeworkers were employed in this
group of industries in 1956, whereas only a little
more than one-fifth of such workers were em­
ployed in manufacturing. Wholesale and retail
trade, government, and transportation, communi­
cation, and other public utilities also employed
large numbers of clerical workers.

225

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

CHART 21
STENOGRAPHERS AND TYPISTS ARE BY FAR THE LARGEST GROUP OF CLERICAL WORKERS
Thousands of Workers

Stenographer*,
Typists, and
Sacratarias

Baokkaapars

Talaphona
O perators
Shipping and
Racaiving Clarks

C ash iars

M ail Carrii

Office Machine
O p erato rs

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BURfAU Or LABOR STATISTICS

Clerical jobs are to be found in the smallest of
towns—everywhere that business is carried on.
However, the great concentration o f employment
is in the largest cities where the central offices of
insurance companies, banks, and corporations are
located or where large government offices are
established.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduation from high school is the usual mini­
mum educational requirement for entering cleri­
cal jobs. Additional business courses or some
college work may be required for jobs requiring
specialized skill. The most widely sought office
skills—stenography and typewriting—may be ob­
tained either through high school or business
school courses. Ability to do some typewriting
is an asset in qualifying for most types of cleri­
cal work. The operation o f many kinds o f office
506397 O
—59----- 16




Source.- 1950 Census of Population,
U.S. Bureau of the Census

machines, such as adding machines, special book­
keeping machines, and billing machines, is often
taught on the job. A good many large firms offer
training courses in the use o f equipment such as
telephone switchboards, dictating machines, or
electric typewriters, and a few firms finance busi­
ness school training for employees on company
time if they agree to stay on for a stated period
o f employment. Many companies participate in
work-study programs with local high schools;
pupils who have been in such programs usually
are given preference when seeking employment.
Some employers give aptitude and other tests to
applicants for office jobs. Reading comprehen­
sion, numerical skill, and good knowledge o f spell­
ing and grammar are important in obtaining a
job and essential to advancement. Ability to
get along with others is also rated high among
the qualifications necessary for success in officework.

226

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

College graduates often enter clerical occupa­
tions to gain experience in a particular industry
or business and later work up to professional or
administrative positions. Young people who enter
with little education may never advance far and
may leave for other types of jobs. However, com­
panies often prefer to hire people with only mini­
mum qualifications for routine clerical positions,
since they are more likely to be satisfied with and
remain on these jobs than are persons with
more advanced training.
Promotion from a beginning clerical job may
be first to a minor supervisory position and then
to that of section head. Many preferred jobs—
secretary, information clerk, customer relations
clerk, and others requiring a general knowledge
of company policies and procedures— are fre­
quently filled by promotion from within. A l­
though seniority is an important consideration
in selecting clerks for promotion and transfer,
emphasis is also placed on the individual’s ability
and personal qualifications for the new job.
Employment Outlook

Large numbers of openings will occur each year
in clerical occupations during the 1960’s. Most
o f the employment opportunities will result from
employee turnover, which is exceptionally high in
this field. In several hundred firms with office
staffs ranging from few’er than 50 to more than
1,000 workers, the average annual turnover rate
was more than 25 percent, according to a survey
made by a private organization in 1958. This
high turnover results mainly from young women
leaving their jobs to marry or care for their
children.
In addition to the many jobs expected to be­
come available because of continuing high re­
placement rates, a number o f new opportunities
will result from employment growth. However,
the rate of growth is likely to be slower than
in the past few decades.
A rapid rise in the number of clerical workers
and in the proportion these workers represent of
the total working force has been a marked fea­
ture in the growth of American industry over the
years. (See chart 7, p. 20.) In 1910, only 1 in
20 American workers was engaged in clerical
work. By 1940, the proportion of clerical work­
ers had risen to 1 in 10 and, by 1950, to 1 in 8




employed workers. In 1958, it was still higher—
about one in seven employed workers.
Underlying the growth in clerical occupations
has been the tremendous increase in the size and
complexity of business organizations, which has
added greatly to the volume of recordkeeping
and communciation required. Centralized man­
agement services have been established to aid in
the control and coordination o f these enlarged
organizations, and this has brought about ex­
pansion in such areas as advertising, research,
accounting, marketing, personnel administration,
insurance and other employee benefits. These
activities have added vastly to the amount of
paperwork involved in business management. At
the same time, the greater volume o f tax and
other reports to government agencies further in­
creased the amount o f officework required of
industry, and has also greatly increased clerical
work in government offices.
The remarkable overall increase in clerical
employment has taken place despite the use of
laborsaving equipment and more efficient man­
agement methods. However, the introduction of
new office machines has had varying effects on
employment in different types o f clerical jobs.
For example, the introduction of electric type­
writers, duplicating equipment, machines to take
dictation, and other improvements in methods
o f writing and copying letters and reports has
failed to halt the rise in employment o f secre­
taries, stenographers, and typists. On the other
hand, the widespread use o f teletype machines
and the expansion of telephone services undoubt­
edly has played a major role in reducing the
number o f telegraph operators and telegraph
messengers. Moreover, the growing use o f book­
keeping machines has changed bookkeeping from
a hand job to a largely machine operation.
In the future, clerical employment is likely to
continue to rise owing to the same factors that
have brought about previous increases. How­
ever, industry is making a determined attack on
the problem of clerical costs and is introducing
new’ equipment and methods designed to handle
a rising volume of work without a corresponding
increase in the number of workers required. The
installation, by 1958, of more than 1,000 high­
speed electronic computers in various industries
and in government agencies had already reduced
the need for certain types of clerical personnel.

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The overall effect of the use of electronic dataprocessing systems is to displace many clerks in
routine and repetitive jobs—such as sorting, fil­
ing, and operating small machines— and to create
a few new higher skill and usually better paid
jobs. Workers in jobs requiring the use of con­
siderable judgment or contact with other people
—secretaries, receptionists, claim clerks, com­
plaint clerks, and bill collectors, to name a few—
will be least affected by office mechanization and
automation. Since the electronic systems are ex­
pensive and complicated, a company usually goes
through a long period of investigation before
making the decision to purchase the machines.
Furthermore, considerable time usually elapses
between the installation of the new machines and
the final transfer of affected clerical operations.
It is therefore uncertain when office automation
will have the greatest impact on clerical employ­
ment, but the effects are not likely to be extensive
for several years. Probably a more important
factor affecting employment of clerical personnel
in the 1960 decade will be the more widespread
use of less expensive office equipment such as im­
proved bookkeeping machines, calculators, adding
machines, and photographic and other duplicating
equipment.
Taking into account the basic growth factors in
the clerical field and the efforts of business to
reduce clerical costs by the use of more automatic
equipment and other means, it appears likely
that employment in clerical occupations will con­
tinue to increase but at a slower pace than during
the past several decades. There is already some
evidence o f a slowing down. I f the number of
clerical workers had continued to rise as rapidly
after 1950 as it did in the previous decade, the
total number of clerical workers in 1958 would
have been nearly a million greater than the
actual total of somewhat more than 9 million.
Part o f the increase in clerical employment in
the 1960’s will be in part-time jobs, as it has been
during the past decade. Many of these jobs
have been filled by older workers, high school
age youth, housewives, handicapped workers, and
others. Assuming that the general level of em­
ployment remains high, employers are likely to
continue to recruit many clerical workers—both
full- and part-time— from these groups.
Employment opportunities in the clerical field
may be greatly affected by changes in the level




227

of business activity. There are usually plenty of
people in the labor force wuth the qualifications
needed for most office jobs. However, the com­
paratively low salaries offered limit the number
o f applicants when other jobs are available. On
the other hand, when business activity declines
keen competition is likely to develop, since the
supply o f workers available for clerical employ­
ment is increased by displaced workers from
many other occupations.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Women clerical workers in beginning jobs such
as file clerk and office girl had average weekly
salaries of about $45 to $55 in late 1957 and
early 1958, in most of the 19 labor market areas
surveyed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. (See
table.) The highest paid clerical workers were
men accounting clerks (not shown in table)
whose average weekly salaries ranged from $83.50
in Boston, Mass., to $102 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Among women clerical workers, secretaries were
generally the highest paid with average salaries
ranging from $66 a week in Memphis, Tenn., to
$89.50 in Cleveland, Ohio. (Additional informa­
tion on the salaries of secretaries, stenographers,
and typists and of bookkeepers and office machine
operators is included in the separate statements
in this chapter and in the chapter on Government
Occupations. Salaries o f telephone operators are
discussed on p. 711 and salaries of railway clerks
onp. 683.)
Average weekly salaries for clerical workers
in Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles-Long Beach,
and San Francisco-Oakland—the highest paying
areas— were 5 to 6 percent above pay levels in
the New York City area. Clerical workers’ sal­
aries in Milwaukee, Newark-Jersey City, Port­
land, and Seattle were very close to those in
the New York area. Average salaries in New
Orleans and Memphis were generally lower.
Pay levels for officeworkers tend to be higher
in manufacturing than in most nonmanufacturing
industries. However, salaries in public utilities
frequently exceed those in manufacturing estab­
lishments.
Most officeworkers in the cities surveyed had
a 5-day 40-hour week. In New York City,

228

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
A v e r a g e W e e k l y S a l a r i e s f o r W o m e n i n 1 4 O ffice O c c u p a t io n s , 1 9 A r e a s , W i n t e r 1 9 5 7 - 5 8

Area

Billing
Ac­
Ac­
count­ count­
ma­
ing
ing
chine
clerks clerks oper­
class A class B ators

Northeast:
Boston.______________________ $68.50
Newark-Jersey City___________
76.50
New York City_______________
81.00
Philadelphia_______ ___________ 72.50
South:
Atlanta_______________________ 74.50
Baltimore_____________________ 70.50
Dallas_______________ ____ ____
70.00
67.50
New Orleans.____ ____________
74.00
North Central:
84.00
Chicago____ __________________
Cleveland____ _____ ___________ 81.50
Milwaukee...................... ............. 81.00
Minneapolis-St. Paul__________
73.00
St. Louis_____________________
77.00
West:
Denver____________ _______ ___
72.00
Los Angeles-Long Beach_______
84.00
Portland________ ____ _____ ___
79.00
San Francisco-Oakland....... ........ 79.50
Seattle_________ ____ ________
74.00

Book- Bookkeep­ keep­ Comp­ Dupli­
ing
ing
tome­ cating
File
File
ma­
ma­
ter
ma­
clerks clerks
chine
chine
oper­
chine class A class B
oper­
oper­
ators
oper­
ators
ators
ators
class A class B

Key
punch
oper­
ators

Office
girls

Order
clerks

Pay­
roll
clerks

Tabu­
lating
ma­
chine
oper­
ators

$56.50
62.50
64.50
57.50

$61.50
62.50
66.00
61.00

$63.00
73.00
74.50
67.00

$55.50
58.00
63.50
56.50

$57.50
68.00
68.50
62.00

$53.50
61.50
59.00
55.00

$58.50
63.50
67.50
61.50

$47.00
50.50
54.00
47.50

$57.50
63.50
63. 50
60.00

$47. 50
53.50
51.00
46.50

$58. 50
64.50
66.00
53.50

$63.00
71.50
75.50
65.00

$62.50
69.00
72.50
65.50

57.00
58.00
59.50
54.50
56.00

58.00
58.00
60.50
55.00
53.00

63.00
65.50
66.50
68.00
62.00

59.00
51.50
55.00
52.50
52.50

62.50
63.50
61.50
54.50
58.00

53.00
56.50
61.00

60.00
57.50
58.00
56.00
59.00

47.50
46.00
47.00
46.50
45.50

60.00
58.50
59.00
58.50
58.50

48.00
46.00
46.50
45.50
40. 50

56.00
53.50
58.50
55. 50
56.50

64.50
66.00
64. 50
59. 50
59.00

63.00
65.00
68.03
68. 50
71.00

68.00
69.00
62.50
57.50
58.50

68.50
66.50
56.00
55.50
61.50

80.50
79.00
73.50
69.00
64.50

68.00
64.50
60.00
56.50
56.00

72.00
71.50
61.00
62.50
63. 50

63.50
67.50
61.00
53.50
57.50

68.00
69.00
64.50
59. 50
61.00

55. 50
57.00
56.00
48. 50
50.50

69.50
71.50
63.00
56.00
62. 50

56.50
57.50
50.00
46. 50
50. 50

68.00
68.00
63. 50
59.00
59.00

76.50
76.00
67.00
65. 50
65.00

77.00
77.00
72.50
67.50
74.50

60.00
70.00
67.00
68.50
62.50

61.00
67.00
63.00
74. 50
60.50

71.00
81.50
76.00
81.00
72.50

56.00
62.00
59.50
60.50
58.00

60.50
76.00
67.00
72.00
66.00

56.50
66.50
61.00
66.00
54.50

61.50
67.50
63.50
71.50
67.50

52.50
55.00
49.50
55.00
54.50

59.50
74.00
67.00
68.00
65.50

47.50
57.50
49.00
57.50
55. 50

56.00
75. 50
63.50
76.00
65.50

67.00
78.50
70.50
80.50
71.00

70.50
85.50
82.00
80.50
73.50

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

however, 9 out o f 10 officeworkers had a work­
week o f less than 40 hours—most typically 35
hours.
Officeworkers usually receive at least 6 paid
holidays a year and 2 weeks paid vacation after
a year’s employment. Related benefits usually
include life insurance, hospitalization and sur­
gical insurance, pay continuation in case o f ac­
cident or illness, and some type of retirement
pension plan.

the chapter on Government Occupations. (See
index.)
A discussion o f the effect of electronic com­
puters on employment of clerical workers is con­
tained in the following publication:
Automation and Employment Opportunities for Officeworkers, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1241,
1958. Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D.C. Price 15 cents.

Information on training is available from :
United Business Education Association (A depart­
ment of the National Education Association),
1201 16th St. N W , Washington 6, D.C.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on clerical workers in different
fields o f employment is given in the chapters on
various industries—especially those on the bank­
ing, insurance, and telephone industries— and in

Information on private business schools may
be obtained from :
National Association and Council of Business Schools,
2400 16th St. NW., Washington 9, D.C.

Bookkeepers
(D.O.T. 1-01.00 through .49 and 1-02)

Nature of Work

Bookkeepers used to be pictured sitting on
high stools making entries in huge ledgers. They




were recording all the details of their employers’
business transactions, in order to prepare bal­
ance sheets, profit and loss statements and other
reports. Bookkeepers still perform these record-

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

229

typing, filing, answering the telephone, and mail­
ing statements to customers.
Where Employed

About 900,000 workers were employed as book­
keepers in 1958; more than three-fourths o f them
were women. Well over one-third o f all book­
keepers are employed by retail stores or wholesale
houses, one-fifth by manufacturing firms, and
about one-sixth by finance, insurance, and real
estate firms. (F or information on bookkeepers
in banks see chapter on Banking Occupations,
p. 523.) Substantial numbers are employed also
by public utility companies, business and pro­
fessional services, and construction companies.

Bookkeeping machine operator making entries in a ledger.

keeping functions. Nowadays, however, many
of them are employed as bookkeeping machine
operators rather than as hand bookkeepers.
In large offices, bookkeeping jobs range from
entry positions as clerk or machine operator to
the highly responsible post of head bookkeeper.
Bookkeepers or accounting clerks in entry type
jobs perform routine tasks such as posting items
by hand in accounts payable ledgers, entering
vouchers in special registers, or recording other
data on accounting forms. They may also check
or add up accounts (take trial balances) on an
adding machine. Bookkeeping machine operators
may use relatively simple bookkeeping machines
to record only one type of data or may operate
complicated machines that record a great variety
of items. Bookkeepers in jobs with greater re­
sponsibility may also post and balance accounts
and, in addition, do more difficult work such as
preparing summary reports. In establishments
with a large volume of business, a bookkeeper or
machine operator may work on only one section
of the records, for example, accounts receivable
or raw material purchases. The head bookkeeper
has responsibility for all aspects o f his depart­
ment’s work.
General bookkeepers, who are employed chiefly
in small establishments, keep complete and sys­
tematic records—making entries in journals and
on special forms, posting ledgers, balancing books
and compiling reports. In small offices, book­
keepers may also have other duties including




Training and Other Qualifications

Most employers hire only applicants who are
graduates of high schools, business or vocational
schools or, in some instances, of junior colleges.
A business course which includes training in typ­
ing, shorthand, and the use o f office machines,
as well as in business arithmetic and bookkeeping
procedures, is often especially helpful in ob­
taining a bookkeeping job. An increasing num­
ber of large companies offer some on-the-job
training or participate in cooperative school-andwork programs, under which students obtain
school credit for part-time work. Experience
of this kind is very helpful in obtaining full­
time employment after graduation. For advance­
ment to a position as head bookkeeper it is usu­
ally necessary to have education in accounting
or extensive bookkeeping experience.
General bookkeepers should have above aver­
age aptitude for numbers and the ability to
concentrate on details. Bookkeeping machine
operators need finger dexterity and good co­
ordination of eye and hand movements.
Employment Outlook

Many employment opportunities for bookkeep­
ers are expected during the early 1960’s. In this
large occupation, with its high proportion of
women, the rate of employee turnover is very
great. There is constant demand for new em­
ployees to replace young women who leave after
a few years of employment to marry or to take

230

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

care o f their families. In addition, a moderate
number of new jobs will become available as the
field continues to expand. However, the trend
toward breaking down bookkeeping functions
into bookkeeping machine operator and other
routine clerical jobs is likely to continue, and
the vast majority o f openings will be in such
jobs. Employment opportunities for bookkeepers
who are qualified to assume responsibility for a
complete set of books will probably continue to
be good, although such jobs will be relatively few
in number and will generally be filled by promo­
tion from within or by persons with accounting
training or experience. The great majority of
openings for hand bookkeepers will be in small
offices.
Over the long run, the growth in the number
o f bookkeepers is likely to be slowed down
markedly by the increasing use o f office machines.
The more extensive use of bookkeeping machines
and related equipment in small firms and the
further introduction of electronic computers in
large offices wfill make possible a great increase
in the amount of work performed, without a cor­
responding increase in the number of bookkeepers.
Nevertheless, some new jobs for bookkeepers will
arise each year because of such factors as the
growing emphasis on scientific management in
industry, increasingly complex tax systems, and
the general growth of the economy. (See also
the statement on Accountants, page 179.)

ranging from about $52 to $68. Women account­
ing clerks who did work usually requiring experi­
ence (class A ) received the highest weekly pay
among the women’s bookkeeping jobs surveyed—
averaging from about $68 in Memphis to $84 in
Chicago and the Los Angeles-Long Beach area.
Women bookkeeping machine operators (class A )
averaged from $62 to $82 a week depending on
geographic location.
Men earned substantially more than women in
each of the cities included in the survey. Average
weekly salaries of men in the highest rated
accounting clerk jobs (class A ) ranged from
about $84 in Boston to $102 in Cleveland; aver­
age weekly salaries of men accounting clerks in
class B jobs ranged from $62 in Boston to $85
in Seattle.
Bookkeepers generally work about 35 to 40
hours a week, depending on the industry. Most
of them receive at least 6 paid holidays a year
and 2 weeks’ paid vacation after a year’s employ­
ment. Like most other officeworkers, they gen­
erally continue to receive pay during short
periods of illness and they are usually covered
by life insurance, pension, hospital, surgical and
other employee benefit plans. Most bookkeeping
jobs do not require strenuous physical exertion
and can be performed by people with certain
types of physical handicaps.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on training for bookkeeping jobs
is available from:

’ Earnings and Working Conditions

Average weekly salaries of women bookkeepers
or accounting clerks in beginning type (class B)
jobs ranged from about $55 to $70 in 19 cities
surveyed in 1957-58 by the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics. (See table
on p. 228.) Bookkeeping machine operators (class
B) had somewhat lower average weekly salaries,

United Business Education Association (A Depart­
ment of the National Education Association),
1201 16th St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Information about private business schools may
be obtained from:
National Association and Council of Business Schools,
2400 16th St. NW., Washington 9, D.C.

Office M a ch in e O p era to rs
(D.O.T. 1-25.)

Nature of Work

Modern businesses use a wide variety of office
machines to help speed up the handling o f rec­
ords, reports, and other paperwork. The clerks




who operate these machines usually have job
titles which identify them with the types of
machines they operate— for example, adding ma­
chine operator, calculating machine operator,
billing machine operator, or keypunch operator.

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

The machines used in large offices may range
from simple mechanical letter openers to com­
plex electronic computers, and the nature of the
operators’ work depends on the type of equipment
used. In the operation of some machines—bill­
ing, adding, and calculating machines—workers
repeatedly press the numbered or lettered keys
on the keyboard. Other machines—duplicating,
mailing, and tabulating machines—run auto­
matically for long periods once they are set in
motion by operators who push the control buttons
or switches. However, regardless of the equip­
ment used, most office machine operator jobs are
of a routine nature. Operators are usually as­
signed a specific repetitive job to do on one type
of machine. For example, an addressing machine
operator may spend most or all of his time run­
ning the machine that prints on envelopes the
names and addresses of his employer’s customers.
However, an operator is sometimes given more
varied assignments as in the case of a calculating
machine operator who may compute percentages
or averages or make other statistical compu­
tations.
Billing machine operators (D.O.T. 1-25.00
through .09) make up one of the largest groups
of operators of mechanical office equipment.
These workers prepare customers’ bills, state­
ments, and invoices. By striking lettered and
numbered keys, the operators transcribe informa­
tion such as the customer’s name, address, and
the items purchased or services given. They
then press keys to record amounts of money
involved and the machine prints totals, net
amounts, discounts, or other items. A company
may have its billing operation broken down so
that each machine operator handles certain types
o f accounts—for example, those of customers
whose accounts are current.
A dd ing machine operators (D.O.T. 1-25.12)
use electric or, in a few offices, lever-operated
machines to add and subtract and sometimes mul­
tiply groups of numbers. Calculating machine
or Com ptom eter operators (D.O.T. 1-25.13) use
machines more complex than adding machines
to make various computations in connection with
financial accounts, payrolls, invoices, and numer­
ous other business or statistical operations.
Mailing machine operators (D.O.T. 1-25.40
through .49) run automatic mailing machines




231

which address, fold, seal, and even stamp mail.
The plates which are often used to address en­
velopes, newspapers, and other items run through
the mailing machines are prepared by graphotype
machine operators. These workers customarily
use a machine similar to a typewriter which makes
raised letters and numbers on address plates.
Duplicating machine operators (D.O.T. 1-25.20
through .29) reproduce many copies of type­
written or other material such as reports, ad­
vertising circulars, price lists, or speeches. The
operator’s main job is to set and adjust the
machine, insert and remove papers, stencils, or
other materials, and see that the machine works
properly. For example, the operator o f a Mimeo­
graph machine (duplicating) inserts a stencil
prepared by a typist, sets the cylinder speed,
starts the machine, watches to see that the copy
is clear and that the stencil does not tear, and
removes batches of printed work. He may stop
the machine and replace the ink pad, adjust the
ink flow, or make other minor adjustments.
Operators of tabulating machines and related
equipment (D.O.T. 1-25.60 through .69) handle
large quantities of punchcards in connection with
the automatic processing of accounting and statis­
tical information. To prepare the information
so that it can be used in tabulating or electronic
computing machine systems, keypunch operators
use machines similar to the typewriter to punch

Console operator is a new occupation related to the use of
electronic computers.

232

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

a series o f holes in cards. The cards are ar­
ranged in the proper sequence with automatic
machines run by sorting machine operators. Tab­
ulating machine operators insert the cards in
machines which automatically analyze and trans­
late the information punched in groups o f cards,
and finally print summary results on accounting
records and other forms.
A small but fast growing group o f office ma­
chine operators tend the new machines which
are a part o f complex high-speed electronic com­
puting systems. The job o f the console operator
(D.O.T. 1-25.17) is to follow instruction sheets
and push control buttons on a central computer
in order to process punchcards or magnetic tapes.
He must watch his control panel for flashing
lights which indicate that trouble has developed
and decide what steps must be taken to make
the machines work properly. Card-tape con­
verter operators (D.O.T. 1-25.60) tend machines
which transfer data from punchcards to tapes
or vice-versa, and high-speed printer operators
(D.O.T. 1-25.98) run the machines that print the
final results.
Many clerks occasionally operate office machines
in connection with other types o f jobs, but these
workers are not covered by this statement, nor
are typists, stenographers, or bookkeeping ma­
chine operators.
(See separate statements in
this chapter.)
Where Employed

It was estimated that well over 200,000 office
machine operators—approximately 80 percent of
them women— were employed in 1958. Most of
them worked in the large cities where central or
regional headquarters of big businesses and large
government offices are located.
Some office machine operators are employed in
nearly every industry. Almost a third o f them
work for manufacturing companies, and about
a fifth for wholesale and retail firms. Large
numbers are also employed in banks, insurance
companies, and in government agencies. (See
chapters on Banking and Insurance Occupations.)
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduation from high school or business school
is required for many office machine operator
jobs. Courses in the operation o f office machines




are helpful, and business arithmetic is valuable
for the many jobs involving work with figures.
A particularly helpful type o f preparation is
given in combined work and study programs o f­
fered in many local school systems; taking this
type o f program helps young people decide if
they like the kind o f work involved and gives
them valuable part-time experience. Job ap­
plicants with some college education are fre­
quently given preference for positions as console
operators o f electronic computers.
As a rule, employers give their new employees
on-the-job training for office machine operator
jobs. The length o f training varies from a week
or so to several months, depending on the type
of office machine. Only a few days are usually
required to train operators o f Mimeograph or
mail-handling machines, for example. It may
take a few weeks to give keypunch and calculat­
ing machine operators basic training, after which
they practice on the job in order to increase
their speed. Generally, it takes several weeks
to train operators o f tabulating machines; in­
struction is given on how to set and adjust these
machines; in addition, some operators learn how
to do simple wiring o f plugboards. Since the
new electronic computing equipment is even
more complex than tabulating equipment, a some­
what longer training period is often required
for operators o f card-to-tape converters, high­
speed printers, and other related machines. More­
over, console operators o f electronic computers
need some basic training in programming work
(preparing instructions for the machine to fol­
low ), since this knowledge helps in getting the
machine to operate properly when trouble de­
velops. (See statement on Programmers, p. 208.)
Operators o f tabulating and electronic computing
equipment are often trained at company expense
in special schools established by equipment manu­
facturers.
Finger dexterity and good coordination o f eye
and hand movements are important for most
office machine operator jobs. The ability to detect
obvious errors in arithmetic computations is help­
ful to billing and calculating machine operators.
Some mechanical ability is advantageous, espe­
cially to duplicating and tabulating machine
operators.
Most employers follow a promotion-fromwithin policy, taking into consideration seniority

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

and on-the-job performance based on the super­
visor’s ratings and recommendations. Promotion
may be from a beginning routine job to that of a
fullfledged machine operator who can handle
varied assignments and who may help train be­
ginners and check their work for accuracy; ad­
vancement may then be to a minor supervisory
position and later to section head. Sometimes,
employees are advanced by transferring them to
the operation of a more complex machine— for
example, from a tabulating machine to an elec­
tronic computing machine.
Employment Outlook

Many job openings for office machine opera­
tors are expected during the early 1960’s. Em­
ployers in private industry and government will
continue to hire a growing number o f office ma­
chine operators, as businesses grow bigger and
more complex and the volume o f recordkeeping,
computing, duplicating, mailing, and other work
that can be done by machines continues to mount.
The introduction o f new and improved ma­
chines o f the same general types, now used in
large numbers to speed up the processing of
paperwork, will also tend to expand employment
o f office machine operators. Although some em­
ployers will install the newer and larger types
o f electronic machines, there is little evidence
that the use o f such equipment will cause much
displacement of operators o f smaller machines in
the near future. The large machines used in
office automation are expensive, and even big
companies spend several months carefully weigh­
ing their advantages. After the equipment is
ordered, a great deal of time usually passes
before actual installation. Furthermore, most
companies spend several months—sometimes a
year or more—in so-called “ parallel” operations;
that is, during the period of transition the reg­
ular staff of office machine operators performs
the same or a part of the operation that is also
being run on the computer. The number of
service centers which use machines (including
electronic computers) to do officework—such as
sorting, mailing, and preparing payrolls—on a
fee basis is expected to increase. This develop­
ment will probably add to the number employed
in office machine operator jobs, since these service
centers will be used by many small businesses




233

which normally would not employ full-time op­
erators.
Over the long run, it is expected that an in­
creasing amount o f clerical work will be taken
over by large computers and other machines in
electronic data processing systems. Furthermore,
smaller and less expensive types o f electronic
computers are expected to be used in a growing
number of establishments that cannot afford the
large computers. Other new office machines will
probably become available and be used along with
computers to speed up recording, copying, and
other aspects of officework.
The net effect of these developments will be
a slower growth in employment o f office ma­
chine operators over the long run. A t the
same time, the character of many jobs will
change. For example, billing machine operators
in big companies may be largely replaced by
programmers and operators o f electronic com­
puting machines. The demand for workers in
jobs related to office automation systems will con­
tinue to grow. Many o f the new office machine
operator jobs will be better paid and will require
persons with higher levels of skill and training
than the jobs they replace. Furthermore, many
job opportunities for office machine operators will
continue to arise from turnover, owing to the
large numbers o f young women in this field who
stop working to marry or to take care of children.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average weekly salaries ranged from about
$53 to $85 for women in 5 office machine operator
occupations, according to a 1957-58 survey by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 19 large metro­
politan areas. (See table on page 228.) Key­
punch, billing machine and calculating machine
(Comptometer) operators received weekly sal­
aries averaging from about $58 to $68 in most of
the areas. Among the occupations surveyed,
duplicating (Mimeograph or Ditto) machine op­
erators generally received the lowest weekly sal­
aries—from about $53 to $63— and tabulating
machine operators had the highest earnings—
between approximately $65 and $85. Operators
of the new electronic computers and auxiliary
(peripheral) equipment generally receive salaries
above those of tabulating machine operators.
Earnings of operators of most types o f ma-

234

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

chines may differ greatly by geographical loca­
tion; for example, women keypunch operators
averaged about $57 a week in Boston and $74 in
the Los Angeles-Long Beach area in late 1957
or early 1958. Men tabulating machine operators
received weekly salaries averaging about $71 a
week in Boston and $97 a week in Cleveland.
The standard workweek for office machine op­
erators is usually 35 to 40 hours, depending on
the industry. Some office machine operators
work late shifts; for example, operators of elec­
tronic computing systems—those at the computer
console or operators of the machines that con­
vert and print information—may work a 4 p.m.
to midnight shift or a midnight to 8 a.m. shift.
Operators of most office machines must be able
to adapt themselves to routine and repetitive
work and to the noise made by their machines.
Operators o f machines such as keypunch, cal­
culating, and billing machines are seated at desks
most of the day, while operators o f duplicating
and tabulating machines and those operating
electronic equipment may have to stand for long
periods.
Office machine operators usually receive at least
6 paid holidays a year and 2 weeks’ paid vacation
after a year’s employment. They are usually

covered by life insurance, pension, hospital, sur­
gical and other employee benefit plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on office machine operators is also
given in the chapters on banking, insurance,
and other industries. (See index.)
Information on training is available from :
United Business Education Association (A Depart­
ment of the National Education Association).
120116th St. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

Information about private business schools may
be obtained from :
National Association and Council of Business Schools,
2400 16th St. NW., Washington 9, D.C.

The following publications by the U.S. De­
partment o f Labor give information on operators
of electronic data-processing equipment:
Automation and Employment Opportunities for Officeworkers. Bureau o f Labor Statistics Bulletin 1241,
1958, Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25,
D.C., Price 15 cents.
Occupations in Electronic Data-Processing Systems.
Bureau of Employment Security, 1959, Superintend­
ent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., Price 25
cents.

Secretaries, Sten o g rap h ers, a n d T y p ists*
Nature of Work

Occupations requiring typing or stenographic
skills and in which employees are usually desig­
nated as typist, stenographer, or secretary em­
ployed approximately 2*4 million persons in 1958,
more than 95 percent o f whom were women.
Duties as well as job titles o f people in occupa­
tions requiring these skills vary according to the
requirements and specialties of individual busi­
nesses and offices, but for all employed on these
jobs, typing is a common work factor.
Typists (D.O.T. 1-37.32) spend a major por­
tion o f their time in typing copies o f printed or
written materials. Junior, or class B, typists
usually type fairly simple copy, such as routine
forms from relatively clear handwritten or typed
drafts. They may set up simple standard tables
or copy more complex tables already properly
♦Prepared by the Women's Bureau, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.




spaced. Senior, or class A, typists copy material
in final form from “ rough” or involved drafts
requiring ability to understand technical terms,
abbreviations, and printer’s symbols and to re­
arrange or combine materials from various
sources. They may have to plan and type com­
plicated statistical tables.
Either manual or electric typewriters may be
used. An increasing number o f offices furnish
electric typewriters for their employees. Some
have installed electric typewriters equipped with
special keyboards for transcribing coded program
instructions for electronic data-processing op­
erations.
Many typists also perform such other clerical
duties as filing, answering telephones, checking
and proofreading copy, recording information in
longhand, sorting mail, and operating calculators,
tabulators, and duplicating or other office ma­
chines.

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

Stenographers (D.O.T. 1-37.12), besides typ­
ing, take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar
machine (stenographers operating these machines
are usually called stenotype operators (D.O.T.
1-37.14), and transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. An increasing number of stenographers,
as well as secretaries and typists, do some tran­
scription of dictation from sound-producing
records. Where this is a primary duty, transcribing-machine operators are usually employed.
Many stenographers also compile and type
reports, answer telephones, and operate switch­
boards; many operate various office machines and
perform other clerical duties. Stenographers may
be classified as junior or senior stenographers,
depending upon their experience and the amount
o f supervision they receive. They may be classi­
fied as technical stenographers if the subject
matter usually dictated involves science, med­
icine, law, or other specialized fields. A few
stenographers become specialists in foreign lan­
guages, police work, or public or court stenog­
raphy.
Court reporters (D.O.T. 1-37.18) who make
verbatim reports of proceedings in a court of
law, and conference reporters or other specialized
shorthand reporters must be able to record ac­
curately difficult technical language at high rates
o f speed, sometimes from many speakers, and
for several hours at a time. Some of this type
of reporting is done by means of microphone
equipment attached to a recording or dictating
machine. The reporter identifies the speakers
and reports what is heard (edited and punctu­
ated) into a soundproof, mask-shaped micro­
phone, and the words are picked up by an
attached recording or dictating machine.
Secretaries (D.O.T. 1-33) also have steno­
graphic duties, but, in addition, they usually
handle many business details for their employers
on their own initiative, such as acknowledging
correspondence, scheduling appointments and
meetings, and obtaining a variety of information.
Many serve as representatives o f their employers,
relieving them of numerous routine duties and
o f clerical supervision. They attend to corre­
spondence and records of a private or confidential
nature and may also handle some details o f the
employer’s personal and social life.




235

The amount o f responsibility involved in a
specific job depends to a large extent upon the
position of the executive for whom the secretary
w orks. Private secretaries usually work for key
T
executives or for professional persons and have
more varied work assignments than secretarystenographers and junior secretaries who usually
work for lesser executives. Secretaries who ad­
vance to the rank of executive secretaries act as
administrative assistants to top executives and
often are given authority for making certain
decisions, for planning office routine, and for
public relations work. They often answer corre­
spondence and supervise the typist-clerical staff.
Some secretaries specialize in legal, medical,
engineering, or other types of secretarial work.
Legal secretaries take dictation o f more than
ordinary difficulty and prepare various legal
papers such as summonses, complaints, motions,
and subpoenas. Medical secretaries take dicta­
tion of letters and reports and other material
involving medical terminology and sometimes
combine secretarial duties with routine laboratory
and other semitechnical medical duties; they may
type case histories and work with insurance
claims. Engineering secretaries take dictation re­
lated to such fields as civil, electrical, chemical,
mechanical, and aeronautical engineering and
sometimes are expected to read blueprints.
Where Employed

Typists, stenographers, and secretaries are em­
ployed by practically every kind o f business and
industry as well as by Federal, State, and local
governments and religious, civic, and social or­
ganizations. A majority of persons in these oc­
cupations work for private employers, but a
considerable number are employed by government.
Relatively few are self-employed.
These workers are found in small and large
establishments, wherever there are offices. Legal
stenographers and secretaries, for instance, work
for practicing lawT
yers in small offices or large law
firms, in government agencies, banks, insurance
companies, large business corporations, unions,
trade associations, building and loan associa­
tions, real estate offices, and many other types
of offices. Medical secretaries work in small
private offices of physicians, surgeons, or dentists,

236

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

as well as in large establishments, including
hospitals and clinics, medical schools, manufac­
turers o f medical supplies, public health agencies,
organizations dealing with prepaid medical care
and hospitalization insurance, and by some drug
and medicine manufacturers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Adequate performance in all three occupations
depends upon typing skills and knowledge o f
spelling, vocabulary, punctuation, grammar, and
correspondence procedures. Ability to use office
equipment such as voice recorders, calculators,
or tabulators is helpful for many jobs. Persons
interested in becoming stenographers and secre­
taries must also be able to take and transcribe
dictation. Stenographic and typing skill re­
quirements vary somewhat according to employ­
ment demands o f a community and according to
particular employers, but the average working
speeds shown in the following table are generally
acceptable:
Words per minute
Class of worker
Dictation

Tran­
scription

General typist____________
Technical typist__________
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e
typist_____ _ ________
Junior stenographer
8 0-100..
25-35
Senior stenographer_____ 100-140_____ 35-40
Court reporter___________ 150 or more__ 55-65

Typing

40-55
50-65
45-65
40-50
50-60
70-80

Graduation from high school is practically
essential. Completion of a high school business
course often satisfies basic skill requirements for
typists and beginning stenographer positions;
however, on-the-job experience or additional edu­
cation in business subjects such as business law
and office procedures is necessary for many
stenographic and secretarial positions. Many
positions require a knowledge o f the terminology
o f a particular field, such as medicine, law, or
engineering, or the ability to use a foreign lan­
guage. A broad general background o f education
is o f considerable value for initial placement in
many positions as well as for promotion.
There are many possibilities for post high
school training. For the high school graduate




who accepts employment and wants to acquire
additional skills or further general education,
night school courses are available. A few em­
ployers and manufacturers also provide training
in office skills. Many private business schools,
colleges, and universities offer training in both
daytime and evening classes. Bachelor degrees
were offered in the field o f secretarial studies by
the schools o f business and commerce in 217 col­
leges and universities in 1956-57. One university
offered a master’s degree. Many other colleges
and universities offer 1- to 3-year curriculums
preparing students for general, legal, technical,
and medical-dental secretarial work. Some 1,400
private business schools offer business courses o f
varying length and cost, and many include courses
in special terminology and office practice as well
as in psychology, personality development, and
human relations. A growing number of schools
provide training in new aspects o f office auto­
mation.
Personal qualifications necessary for these jobs
include manual and finger dexterity, good vision,
promptness, neatness, and a friendly manner.
Where meeting the public is involved, an attrac­
tive personal appearance is often specified by
employers. For more responsible positions, dis­
cretion, good judgment, and initiative are also
important.
Typists, stenographers, and secretaries with
ability have good possibilities for advancement
to higher level positions. The typist may become
an expert operator o f one or more office machines
that require special skill or, with training in
shorthand, may advance to a stenographic posi­
tion. Stenographers may advance to positions as
secretaries, operators o f one or more special ma­
chines, administrative assistants, or office super­
visors. A secretary can become an executive
secretary or an administrative assistant or fill
other highly responsible positions requiring spe­
cialized knowledge o f the particular industry or
business in which she is employed. Advance­
ment also may come in the form of greater re­
sponsibilities and higher salary without any
change in job title.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of openings for typists, stenog­
raphers, and secretaries will be available each

237

CLERICAL, SALES, AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

year. Many of the young women now employed
in these occupations are expected to leave the
labor market to assume family responsibilities,
and new opportunities will be created by ex­
panded business and government activities and
the anticipated increasing number of jobs in
finance, trade, and service industries.
A shortage o f employees in these occupations
has existed in many areas since W orld W ar I I
because o f the relatively steady rise in the Na­
tion’s economic activity, the increased amount of
recordkeeping and correspondence required, and
the creation o f additional jobs at a time when the
number o f persons available for such work had
declined.
Some easing of the shortage was experienced
in 1958, along with the general slowdown in
business activity. However, competition for em­
ployees in these occupations continued keen in
some areas, particularly for well qualified persons
and for those with multiple office skills.
It is anticipated that through the 1960’s em­
ployment will rise as the economy expands
further and office activities increase in complexity.
Technological developments are not expected to
lessen materially the demand for persons in these
occupations. W ork requirements, however, may
change to some extent with the introduction of
new office machinery and procedures. Turnover
rates will probably remain high, with rates for
typists and general stenographers higher than for
stenographers in special fields, secretaries, and
court reporters. Stenographers and secretaries
are expected to continue to have a wider choice
o f jobs than persons with typing skills only.
Positions requiring stenographic and typing
skills generally offer steady employment, unless
there is a major decline in economic activity.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries paid typists, stenographers, and secre­
taries are greatly influenced by the location of
the job, the size and type o f the business, the
responsibility or skill level required, the length
o f the workweek, and the qualifications of the
individual employee.
Average weekly salaries o f women typists,
stenographers, and secretaries in private industry,
according to a 1957-58 survey by the Bureau of




Labor Statistics of officeworkers in 19 metro­
politan areas, are shown below.

Metropolitan area

Secretary

Stenographer1
General

Tech­
nical

Atlanta, G a. _ __
$77. 50 $65. 50
Baltimore, Md_ __ _ 76. 00 64. 00
Boston, Mass___ _
71. 50 61. 50 $64.
Chicago, 111_____ __ 87. 00 64. 00 83.
Cleveland, O hio.. _ 89. 50 74. 00 82.
Dallas, Tex_
_____ 77. 00 66. 50 83.
Denver, C olo______
79. 00 66. 50 77.
Los Angeles-Long
Beach, Calif______ 87. 00 75. 00 84.
Memphis, Tenn_____ 66. 00 58. 50
Milwaukee, Wis____ 83. 50 66. 50
Minneapolis-St.
Paul, Minn_______ 74. 00 62. 00 64.
Newark-Jersey City,
N .J______________ 83. 00 67. 50 72.
New Orleans, La____ 76. 50 62. 00
New York, N .Y ____ 85. 00 69. 00 82.
Philadelphia, Pa____ 78. 00 64. 50 72.
Portland, Oreg__ _ _ 80. 50 69. 00
St. Louis, M o_______ 79. 00 63. 50 69.
San Francisco-Oakland, Calif._______ 85. 00 74. 00 72.
Seattle, W a s h ._____ 82. 00 69. 50 71.

Typist *
Class A Class B

$59.
64.
00 58.
50 71.
50 73.
00 59.
00 59.

50
00
50
00
00
00
50

$50.
51.
51.
61.
62.
51.
53.

00
50
00
00
50
00
00

50 70. 50 60. 50
58. 00 46. 50
77. 00 56. 50
00 59. 00 52. 00
50 65.
56.
00 66.
50 62.
64.
50 62.

00
00
00
50
50
50

55.
50.
58.
52.
56.
53.

50
00
50
50
50
50

50 70. 50 59. 50
50 65. 00 54. 50

' Dictation received by Stenographer, General, involves a normal routine
vocabulary-and that received by Stenographer, Technical, involves a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien­
tific research.
J Class B involves typing from relatively clear or typed drafts and setting
up simple standard tabulations, or copying more complex ones, and Class A,
typing of very rough or complicated material and setting up and typing
complicated statistical tables.

Average salaries paid transcribing-machine op­
erators, whose primary duty is transcribing dic­
tation involving normal routine vocabulary from
sound-producing records, were in most cities
between those o f Class A and Class B typists.
In the Federal civil service, practically all
typists are classified in positions for which the
annual salaries range from $3,255 to $4,065.
Almost as large a proportion o f stenographers,
including clerk-stenographers, are in positions for
which the range is $3,495 to $4,325. Approxi­
mately 90 percent o f the secretaries are in posi­
tions paying from $3,755 to $5,390, and 85 percent
of the specialized shorthand reporters receive
from $4,490 to $5,880.
Hours o f work are regular, and a 5-day work­
week is common. A workweek o f less than

238

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

40 hours is customary in many offices in private
industry. However, private and executive secre­
taries are somtimes required to work longer than
the normal workday. In 18 of the 19 metro­
politan areas covered by the 1957-58 Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey, typists, stenographers,
and secretaries worked an average of 88 to 40
hours a week; in one area, the average was 36
hours.
Two weeks’ paid vacation each year after the
first year of service is usual in private industry.
Almost three-fourths o f the workers in most of
the areas surveyed were provided 3 weeks of
paid vacation after 15 years o f service.
Officeworkers also receive a number of holidays
with pay. National holidays are usually granted,
and some workers are given State and local holi­
days as well.
Group insurance is available in many private
firms and industries. In some firms, the pre­
mium cost is paid by employers; in some, by em­
ployees ; and in others, the cost is shared. Insur­
ance coverage may include sickness and accident,
hospitalization, life, or a combination of these.




Private retirement or pension plans, supple­
menting the Federal Government social security
program, are also becoming more common in in­
dustry. In the 1957-58 survey, from 57 percent
to 87 percent o f all workers in 17 of the 19 ma­
jor metropolitan areas surveyed were employed
in firms with retirement or pension plans at least
partially paid for by employers. (For earnings
and working conditions of secretaries, stenogra­
phers, and typists in Government, see chapter on
Government Occupations.)
Where To Go for More Information

The following publication provides additional
information about these and other clerical occu­
pations, including references to other sources:
Employment Opportunities for Women as Secretaries,
Stenographers, Typists, and as Office Machine Oper­
ators and Cashiers. Women’s Bureau Bulletin 263,
1957. Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D.C. Price 20 cents.

See also introductory statement to Clerical Oc­
cupations for other sources o f information.

S A L E S O C C U P A T IO N S
Sales workers are the link between producers
o f goods or services and the people who use these
products. The things that sales workers sell in­
clude all items produced by American business—
houses, automobiles, sheet steel, industrial ma­
chinery, clothing, food, insurance, stocks and
bonds, and newspapers, to cite a few illustrations
from a virtually endless list. Their customers
include not only housewives and other individual
consumers but also government agencies and busi­
ness enterprises of all kinds.
Altogether, about 4 million workers were em­
ployed in sales occupations in 1958. Salespeople
in retail trade are by far the largest group of
sales workers, representing about 60 percent of
the total number of such workers. (See chart
22.) Nearly all products used by consumers are
sold one at a time or in small quantities by retail
salespeople whose chief job is to display and sell
merchandise to customers who come to them in
the thousands o f stores located in rural towns
and communities, and cities of all sizes. Retail
selling is an important source of employment for
women. Men are employed almost exclusively
in most other types o f selling jobs. Salesmen
employed by wholesale houses and those working
for manufacturers each account for slightly more
than 10 percent of all sales personnel. Whole­
sale salesmen travel within an assigned territory
to retail dealers’ stores mainly and take orders
for the many brands of similar-type products
which their wholesaler has brought together
from various manufacturing plants. Salesmen
employed by manufacturers also travel to their
customers—usually wholesalers and other manu­
facturers—to demonstrate one or a few related
items produced by their company. Insurance
agents, who represent about 8 percent o f the total
sales group, seek out individual customers or
company executives and sell policies that provide
protection for life and property. (See chapter
on Insurance Occupations for Casualty and Life
Insurance Salesmen.) Real estate salesmen (a
group somewhat smaller than insurance sales­
men) deal with property and spend most of their
time showing homes to prospective customers.




Each o f these large sales groups is described in
the separate statements which follow.
Although the number o f workers in each of
the remaining sales occupations is small compared
with total sales employment, several of the fields
do afford employment for many people. For ex­
ample, approximately 100,000 newsboys, 35,000
advertising salesmen, 23,000 hucksters and ped­
dlers, 14,000 demonstrators, and 11,000 stock and
bond salesmen were employed in 1950.
A rise in employment of sales personnel is an­
ticipated over the long run, but the rate of
growth is likely to be somewhat slower than in
past decades. Employment in sales occupations
rose by more than a fourth between 1940 and
1950 (a slightly greater increase than for the
labor force as a w hole); however, the rate of
growth has slowed down considerably since 1950.
C H A R T 22

239

240

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Much o f the increase in employment since W orld
W ar I I has been the result o f hiring more women
part-time workers—most o f them for jobs in re­
tail trade— and o f a shortening o f the standard
workweek.
In mid-1958, saleswomen worked
only about 34 hours a week, on the average, com­
pared with an average o f 42 hours for salesmen.
The trend toward a shorter workweek for sales
personnel is expected to continue. A t the same
time, the trend toward keeping stores open for
a greater number o f hours a week is likely to
spread. These and other factors closely related

to the need to distribute more and more goods
to a rapidly increasing population point to a
rising demand for sales workers. On the other
hand, changes in distribution techniques— chiefly
those involving self-service—will make it possible
to bring goods to more customers without a cor­
responding increase in the number o f salespeople.
On balance, sales workers are expected to increase
somewhat faster than the labor force as a whole
during the 1960’s, but much o f the increase will
be accounted for by part-time workers in retail
stores.

M a n u fa ctu re rs’ S a le sm e n
(D.O.T. 1-85. and 1-86.)

Nature of Work

Practically all manufacturers— whether they
make airplanes or dolls, women’s dresses, or nuts
and bolts—employ salesmen to sell their prod­
ucts. Manufacturers’ sales representatives sell
mainly to other business concerns—sometimes to
factories, railroads, banks, or other companies
which use the products in their businesses; some­
times to wholesalers or, less often, to big retail
stores. They go to see officials o f these companies
in their offices to acquaint them with the manu­
facturer’s products and to convince them that
these products are better than similar items made
by other manufacturers.
Salesmen o f highly technical products, such as
factory machinery, metals, chemicals, or other
materials for use in manufacturing, are often
called sales engineers or industrial salesmen.
Since purchases o f these products are likely to
involve large investments of money, the people
who must be “ sold” on buying them are usually
heads o f departments or other factory executives.
Sales engineers should have a thorough knowl­
edge o f their firm’s products and a great deal of
imagination and sales “ know-how” in order to
convince officials that buying new machinery or
particular types o f raw materials will make their
operations more efficient and profitable. To do
this, sales engineers may spend days or even
weeks in their prospect’s plants analyzing manu­
facturing problems and discussing technical de­
tails with the company’s engineers. Often, they
work with the research and development depart­




ments o f their own companies, devising ways in
which their products can be adapted to a cus­
tomer’s particular needs. After a sale is made
and the equipment installed, sales engineers some­
times train employees to operate and maintain
the equipment properly. They make frequent
return visits to see that the equipment is giving
the desired service. Because sales engineers may
work several months with a prospect before com­
pleting a sale, they are not likely to make as
many sales as other salesmen, but a single order
may amount to hundreds o f thousands o f dollars.
Manufacturers’ salesmen selling nontechnical
products— for example, clothing, food products,
or stationery and other office supplies— also need
a thorough knowledge o f the items made by their
companies and a sales approach adapted to the
particular kind o f goods they handle. Thus, a
salesman o f crackers or cookies may emphasize
the popularity o f his manufacturer’s products,
the attractive way in which they are packaged,
and the many different kinds available. In sell­
ing clothing, a salesman needs a knowledge o f
style, design, fabrics, and the details o f clothing
manufacture.
Many salesmen handling nontechnical products
sell chiefly to wholesalers. Their job is to call
on wholesale houses in their territory to introduce
new products and see that orders for established
items keep coming in. In addition, they often
set up displays in hotels and hold conferences
with the wholesale salesmen in the area to en­
courage them to push the sale o f their particular
manufacturer’s products. For the same reason,

SALES OCCUPATIONS

Manufacturer’s salesman points out special features of a small
motor to a prospective buyer.

manufacturers’ representatives may give whole­
salers free advice on such problems as credit and
pricing.
Besides selling to wholesalers and large retail­
ers, salesmen o f some types o f products try to
interest other groups in their products. For ex­
ample, salesmen employed by drug manufacturers
may call on members o f the medical profession
to distribute literature and samples o f a new
drug that has just become available.
Though manufacturers’ salesmen spend most
o f their time in visiting prospective customers,
they also do some paperwork when they are not
busy selling. They must plan their work sched­
ules, make appointments, compile lists of pros­
pects, conduct some o f their own sales corre­
spondence, make out expense accounts, study
literature relating to their products, and write
reports not only on the sales made but sometimes
also may include information on sales prospects
in an area, their competitors’ products, and the
credit ratings o f customers.
Where Employed

About 400,000 manufacturers’ salesmen were
employed in 1958. Some o f these salesmen work
out o f their company’s “ home office,” generally
located at a manufacturing plant. However,
most o f them work out o f branch offices, which
506397 0 — 59------ 17




241

are usually located in big cities where they can
get the most customers. Over a third o f the
more than 23,000 home and branch sales offices
maintained by manufacturers in 1954 were in the
10 largest metropolitan areas.
More salesmen work for companies which pro­
duce canned, frozen, and other packaged foods
and meat, dairy, and bakery products than for
companies in any other industry. Large numbers
of technical salesmen are employed by manufac­
turers o f machinery, such as office and store ma­
chines, tractors and other farm equipment, and
industrial machinery. Companies manufacturing
chemical products, particularly drugs, also em­
ploy large numbers o f salesmen with specialized
training. In addition, many salesmen work for
manufacturers o f apparel, fabricated metal prod­
ucts, textiles, paper and related products, and
also in the rapidly growing field o f electrical and
electronic equipment.
Though manufacturers’ salesmen often have
large territories to cover and may do considerable
traveling, those selling certain types of products
have relatively small territories. For example,
a salesman o f heavy industrial equipment may be
assigned a territory including several States. As
a result, he may often be away from home for
days or weeks at a time. On the other hand, a
salesman working for a manufacturer o f food
products may work in such a small area that he
can return home each evening.
Training and Other Qualifications

Manufacturing companies generally prefer to
hire college graduates for training as salesmen.
Most employers believe a college background is
necessary since salesmen usually have to deal
with high-level executives o f other companies.
As a rule, the job o f selling complicated indus­
trial equipment requires technical education; for
example, manufacturers o f electrical equipment,
heavy machinery, and some types o f chemicals,
prefer to hire engineering or chemistry gradu­
ates for their sales staffs. (More detailed infor­
mation on chemists, engineers, and others who
work as industrial salesmen is given in the state­
ments on each profession. See index for page
numbers.) Some training in medicine or phar­
macy is usually required for jobs as drug sales­
men. (See statement on Pharmacists, p. 61.)

242

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Persons with degrees in liberal arts or business
administration are often preferred by manufac­
turers o f nontechnical products. However, it is
still possible for persons with little or no college
education to become manufacturers’ salesmen if
they have exceptional selling ability.
Although prospective salesmen can often get
jobs by applying directly to sales offices o f manu­
facturing concerns, many manufacturers send re­
cruiters to colleges and universities to interview
students who are about to graduate. Recruiters
look for students who have not only the required
academic qualifications but also records o f par­
ticipation in extracurricular activities. Since
salesmen must be able to meet and get along well
with many kinds o f people, recruiters pay close
attention to the personality traits and appearance
o f students. Preference is likely to be given to
those with pleasant but forceful personalities
who make a good impression in manner, speech,
and dress. A recruiter may hire directly or rec­
ommend applicants to his company. In some
cases, several executives o f a company interview
applicants before making a final selection.
A beginning salesman is usually given some
training before being sent out to sell. Some com­
panies, especially those manufacturing complex
technical products, have training programs which
may last two or more years. During this time,
the prospective salesman may be rotated among
jobs in several different departments in the plant
and office to learn all phases o f production, in­
stallation, and distribution of the product. Other
companies arrange to have trainees take univer­
sity courses in subjects related to their products.
Still others give short courses at the plant fol­
lowed by intensive training in a branch office,
under the supervision of field sales managers.
Sales representatives with good sales records
and leadership ability may advance to higher
level positions, such as sales supervisor, branch
manager, or district manager. Those with un­
usual ability and managerial skill may move up
to sales manager or other executive positions; a
sizable proportion of the top executive jobs in
industry are filled by men who were once sales­
men. Because salesmen come in contact with
people from other companies, they often find
opportunities to transfer to better jobs in those
companies. Some salesmen go into business for
themselves as manufacturers’ agents selling simi­




lar products o f several manufacturers. Experi­
enced salesmen can often find opportunities in
related occupational fields, including training o f
sales representatives, advertising, and market re­
search.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified men are expected to be in strong
demand as manufacturers’ salesmen through the
early 1960’s. Competition in promoting the sale
o f products will continue to be keen as manufac­
turers push the sale o f established items and, at
the same time, introduce new products. How­
ever, the continued high demand for manufac­
turers’ salesmen is likely to be accompanied by
more selective hiring policies. It was evident in
1958 that companies were raising their hiring
standards. They were looking for the “ go-get­
ter”—the salesman with topnotch ability to go
out and make sales. This careful selection o f
new recruits will undoubtedly continue. It is
also likely that more and more employers will
look for technically trained men who can sell the
increasingly complex equipment now being used
in many industries.
The continued expansion o f the Nation’s econ­
omy expected over the long run will tend to in­
crease the employment o f manufacturers’ sales­
men. The growth in population and number o f
families will create a demand for more products.
Rising standards o f living will also create a
wider market for goods already being produced
as well as for products not yet on the market.
As manufacturers compete with each other to
get new and improved goods on the market, more
salesmen will be required to acquaint wholesalers
and other customers with the rapidly changing
products. Better methods o f introducing and
distributing products—which manufacturers’
salesmen help to work out—will be necessary to
keep pace with the Nation’s rapidly increasing
productive capacity. Salesmen will also continue
to be in demand to demonstrate to industrial
buyers the importance o f using improved meth­
ods o f production and to sell them new factory
equipment and raw materials.
Although expansion o f sales departments will
create many openings for new workers over the
long run, replacement needs will be the major
source o f job opportunities for manufacturers’

SALES OCCUPATIONS

salesmen. Retirements and deaths alone will
probably account for at least 8,000 job openings
each year.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Monthly salaries averaging about $410 were
offered in 1958 to male college graduates hired
for sales work by large companies. The average
starting salary for those with the master’s degree
was approximately $445. Inexperienced people
without college degrees generally start out in
other types o f jobs at lower salaries but may
be given training at company expense to prepare
them for higher earnings as salesmen later.
Some manufacturing concerns pay their sales­
men a straight commission based on the dollar
amount o f sales made; others pay a fixed salary
without regard to the amount of sales. However,
most companies (about 70 percent in 1955) use
a combination of these two plans. Although this
method provides a fixed salary with an oppor­
tunity to earn a substantial additional amount
through commissions, an upper limit on total
earnings is set by some firms. Since the amount
earned through commissions varies according to
the salesman’s ability, geographical location, na­
ture o f products sold, types o f customers, the
percent o f commission allowed, and other factors,
it is difficult to express the earnings o f experi­
enced salesmen in terms of averages. However,
technical salesmen are usually the best paid. A
survey o f the earnings of all types o f salesmen
in more than 500 companies was made in 1955
by a private organization. When the highest
paid salesmen in each o f these companies were
grouped together, their median (average) earn­
ings were found to be $12,400; for most o f these
top paid salesmen, earnings fell between $9,500
and $19,000. When the lowest paid salesmen in

243

the companies were grouped together, their me­
dian earnings were found to be $6,900, and most
o f them made between $5,000 and $8,000. The
highest salaries are usually paid to top sales
executives—sales managers or vice presidents in
charge of sales. Their median base salaries, ex­
cluding bonuses, were $15,000 in small companies
and $22,000 in large companies, according to a
1957 report. Bonuses o f these executives gener­
ally averaged from 10 to 20 percent o f base pay.
Salesmen are usually reimbursed for their ex­
penses when away from home on business trips.
Some o f the items which may be included in
expense accounts are transportation costs, hotel
bills, meals, tips, customer entertainment, tele­
phone calls, and stenographic services. Some
companies either provide a car or pay an allow­
ance to salesmen who use their own cars.
Salesmen have no standard working hours
since they make calls at the times most conven­
ient to their customers. Also, they often have
to travel at night or on weekends. Frequently,
they spend evening hours writing reports, plan­
ning itineraries, and scheduling appointments.
However, in most cases, salesmen are free to plan
their own work and can often arrange their
schedules to have time off when they want it.
Most salesmen have paid vacations o f from 2* to
4 weeks, depending on their length o f service.
They usually share in company benefit programs,
including life insurance, pensions, and hospital,
surgical, and medical benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on manufacturers’ sales­
men can be obtained from:
National Sales Executives, Inc.,
630 Third Ave., New York 17, N.Y.

Sa le sm e n in W h o le sa le Trad e
(D.O.T. 1-85. and 1-86.)

Nature of Work

Wholesale salesmen play an important part in
the movement o f products to retail stores where
housewives and others can buy them. The whole­
salers for whom these salesmen work assemble




products o f a similar nature from several manu­
facturers. For example, the wholesaler o f auto­
motive supplies fills his warehouses with the
thousands o f parts needed for automobile repair
and maintenance, so that owners of garages, serv­
ice stations, and retail stores can get their sup-

244

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

a retailer gets to know and rely on a salesman, he
may allow the salesman to check the store’s stock
and make up his own order for what he thinks
can be sold before his next regular visit.
Wholesale salesmen often help retailers by
making window and counter displays o f special
or sale items and by suggesting ways to advertise
new products. They may give advice to retailers
on such matters as how much to charge for vari­
ous items or how best to arrange goods in their
stores. Some salesmen also collect the money
owed their wholesale companies. Salesmen spend
part o f their time doing paperwork. They must
write up orders and send them to the wholesale
house, plan the next day’s work schedule, make
appointments, compile lists o f prospects, make
out expense accounts, study literature relating to
their products, and write reports.
Where Employed

W holesale drug salesmen often check the stock in retail stores
and make up orders for needed drugs.

plies from one place instead o f ordering each
part from the factory where it is produced.
The job o f the wholesale salesman is to call
at regular intervals on retailers and purchasing
agents in an assigned territory. He shows them
samples, pictures, or catalogs o f the items his
wholesaler stocks, and tries to convince them that
they will profit by buying these products. The
salesman does very little “ pressure” selling of
any one article, since he may have a very large
number o f items to sell— as many as 50,000 if he
works for a wholesaler o f hardware or drugs.
His chief interest is to persuade the retailer or
purchasing agent o f a hospital or other institu­
tion to become a regular customer o f his whole­
sale house rather than to sell him any one item.
Success in wholesale selling depends on estab­
lishing a good personal relationship with cus­
tomers. To do this, the salesman must give good
service and prove that he is trustworthy. One
o f his major responsibilities is to see that re­
tailers’ shelves are well stocked at all times. When




Nearly a half million salespeople were working
for wholesalers in 1958. Less than 4 percent o f
these were saleswomen.
Although wholesale
houses are located mainly in cities, their sales­
men go into all parts o f the country. Whole­
salers assign their salesmen to specific territories.
A salesman’s territory may cover only a small
section o f a city with many retail stores or, in
sparsely populated regions, may cover more than
half a State.
The leading employers o f wholesale salesmen
are companies that sell food products, including
canned goods, fresh fruits and vegetables, meat,
dairy products, fish, and candy. Large numbers
o f salesmen also work for wholesalers o f electri­
cal and electronic equipment, automotive equip­
ment, dry goods, drugs, lumber, and other build­
ing materials.
Training and Other Qualifications

In hiring trainees for sales work, most whole­
salers look for men with pleasant, outgoing per­
sonalities, a great deal o f persistence, and the
ability to get along with people. High school
graduation is the usual educational requirement.
However, in selecting salesmen o f specialized
products— for example, air-conditioning systems,
medical supplies, and electronic equipment— em-

SALES OCCUPATIONS

ployers are showing increasing preference for
men with education beyond high school.
A young man who has the qualifications needed
for selling may start in any type of job in a
wholesale company and later apply for a sales
job, or he may be hired directly as a sales trainee.
In any case, the beginner must usually work in
a number o f inside jobs before being assigned
as a salesman. He may start out in the stockroom or shipping department where he becomes
familiar with the thousands o f items the whole­
saler carries. Later, he may be transferred to
the pricing desk to learn prices o f articles and
discount rates for goods sold in quantities. The
next job is likely to be order clerk, where he writes
up orders that come in from customers by tele­
phone. In this job, he gets to know many o f the
customers by name. The amount o f time spent
in these initial jobs varies from company to com­
pany; but, as a rule, it takes at least 2 years
before the wholesaler feels that the trainee is
prepared to go out and meet customers. Most
wholesalers team a trainee with an experienced
salesman who helps him with the problems o f
person-to-person selling. After a time, the junior
or beginning salesman is given a small territory
o f his own.
Salesmen with the necessary leadership quali­
ties and sales ability may advance to higher level
jobs in the sales field—to sales supervisor, sales
manager, and vice president in charge o f sales.
Other executive positions in wholesale houses are
also frequently filled by men with sales experi­
ence. However, many men prefer to continue
selling, because they enjoy this type o f work or,
in the case o f very successful salesmen, because
they can earn more money than in many other
occupations.

245

competition for retailers’ business. Furthermore,
as many as 10,000 job openings may occur each
year owing to retirement and death o f experi­
enced salesmen. Openings will also arise as some
workers transfer to other jobs. A considerable
amount o f turnover occurs among new entrants
who fail to make good.
Over the long run, employment of wholesale
salesmen is expected to rise with the expansion
of the Nation’s economy. The growth in popu­
lation and number o f families coupled with an
ever-rising standard o f living will continue to
create a demand for more goods, which will be
distributed largely through wholesalers. A l­
though employment is expected to rise, the in­
crease will not be as great as might be indicated
by the expansion in the volume o f goods distrib­
uted. Many retail stores will continue to increase
in size and will order a much larger quantity o f
goods through the same wholesaler. Further­
more, some very large stores will buy certain
lines o f goods direct from manufacturers. On
the other hand, there is a trend, especially in drug
and grocery stores, toward handling more and
more unrelated kinds o f goods, and this will tend
to increase the employment o f wholesale sales­
men.
Wholesale selling is usually a steady yearround occupation. Employment and earnings
are affected somewhat by general economic con­
ditions, by the supply o f goods available, and by
seasonal differences in the demand for certain
products, such as air-conditioners and furnaces.
However, good salesmen are nearly always in de­
mand. When business conditions decline, com­
panies are likely to expand their efforts to in­
crease sales.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

Opportunities to work up to wholesale selling
jobs are expected to be good, in the early 1960’s,
for energetic high school graduates with pleasing
personalities. The continuing growth of the
population, the resulting expansion in the dis­
tribution of food and other essential products,
and the introduction o f new types o f products
will provide a considerable number o f new sales
jobs. Employers were planning, in 1958, to ex­
pand their sales staffs in order to meet the strong




Earnings o f most junior or beginning salesmen
in wholesale houses were between $300 and $450
a month in 1957, according to a survey made by
a private organization. For trainees who were
obtaining experience in inside jobs before assign­
ment to sales work, salaries were from about $60
to $80 a week. Earnings o f experienced whole­
sale salesmen typically were within a range o f
from about $4,000 to approximately $12,000 in
1957, the amount depending, in part, on the type
of employing firm. For example, average 1957

246

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

earnings o f salesmen with wholesale grocery
firms were estimated to be $5,500; with hardware
firms, $6,900; and with drug firms, $7,200. In
addition, in each type of wholesale business,
earnings vary from one part o f the country to
another. For example, earnings o f hardware
salesmen in 1957 averaged $4,000 in Kansas and
Nebraska and about double that amount in Michi­
gan, Ohio, and Indiana.
Wholesale salesmen are most often paid on a
commission basis—that is, they receive a per­
centage o f their dollar sales. The amount of
commission may range from 1y2 to 10 percent,
depending on the nature o f the product, geo­
graphical area, and other factors. Some whole­
sale houses pay their salesmen a low fixed salary
plus commission. Most companies either provide
each salesman with a car or pay an allowance if
he uses his own car. Only a few wholesale houses
pay their salesmen an allowance for other ex­
penses on the road.
Wholesale salesmen travel from store to store
in their assigned territory. I f they cover a small
area, they may be able to return home every

night; whereas, those with large territories may
be home only on weekends. As a rule, they cover
smaller areas than do manufacturers’ salesmen.
They generally must carry heavy catalogs and
sample cases and spend a great deal o f time on
their feet. They may have long working days
since they must make calls at the times most
convenient for their customers. They sometimes
work evenings or weekends.
Most salesmen have paid vacations ranging
from 2 to 4 weeks depending on length o f serv­
ice in a company. They are usually covered by
company benefit programs including life insur­
ance and pensions, and hospital, surgical, and
other medical care.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on wholesale selling may be ob­
tained directly from local wholesale houses or
from associations of wholesalers in many o f the
larger cities. I f no local association is available,
write to:
National Association of Wholesalers,
1001 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.

S a le sm e n a n d S a le sw o m e n in R etail Stores
(D.O.T. 1-70.; 1-75.; 1-80.)

Nature of Work

The job o f the salesman who sells automobiles
or pianos on a sales floor differs in many respects
from that o f the saleswoman who sells gloves or
toothpaste from behind a store counter. How­
ever, regardless o f the type o f goods sold, all
retail salespeople deal directly with the public
and must give courteous and efficient service,
since satisfied customers build the store’s repu­
tation.
In selling large, expensive items, such as furni­
ture, electrical appliances, or some types o f wear­
ing apparel, the primary job o f the salesman or
saleswoman is to give the customer as much assist­
ance as possible in order to create an interest in,
and a desire to purchase, the store’s merchandise.
The salesperson may spend a large part of his
time showing various styles or colors, demon­
strating the article, pointing out its desirable
features, answering questions about the construc­
tion or use o f the product, and helping the cus­




tomer make a selection. Special skills are re­
quired to sell certain items. For example, a
salesman o f automobiles must be able to drive
and explain the advantages of power brakes and
steering or other features o f a new model car, or
a salesperson in a music store may be required
to play an instrument.
Salesclerks o f groceries or o f inexpensive,
standardized items, such as many o f those sold
in drug stores, may have to do little more than
assemble the goods ordered by the customer. In
stores with goods arranged so that they can be
easily taken off shelves or counters by customers
—as in many 5 and 10 cent stores and newsstands
—the salesclerks’ chief duties are to tell the cus­
tomer where to find merchandise, suggest addi­
tional items for sale, and wrap or bag the cus­
tomer’s purchases.
In addition to their selling duties, most sales­
people must make out sales or charge slips. In
many stores, they receive cash payments and give
change and receipts. Salespersons are usually re-

SALES OCCUPATIONS

sponsible also for keeping the sales counter,
shelves, or floor neat and presentable at all times.
In small retail stores, they may assist in order­
ing merchandise, stocking shelves or racks, mark­
ing price tags, taking inventories, preparing at­
tractive merchandise displays, and promoting
regular and special sales. (For information on
salespersons in department stores see page 535,
and on route salesmen who sell directly to cus­
tomers on a regular route— for example, bread
salesmen—see statement on Routemen, p. 425.)

247

retail store or to the personnel office in larger
retail establishments. Applicants are usually
given personal interviews and, in some large
stores, are required to take personality or apti­
tude tests. Employers prefer to hire people
with pleasing personalities, an interest in sales
work, a neat appearance, and the ability to ex­
press themselves w^ell. Prospective salespersons
should also be able to be on their feet for long
periods. Part-time selling experience is helpful
in obtaining a full-time job.

Where Employed

Approximately two and one-half million sales­
persons—more than half of them women—were
employed in 1958 in about 70 different kinds of
retail businesses throughout the country. These
stores range in size from the small drug or gro­
cery store which employs only one part-time
salesclerk to the giant department store employ­
ing hundreds of salespersons. About 45 percent
o f all retail salesclerks work in food, department,
and general merchandise stores. Men predom­
inate in stores selling furniture, household ap­
pliances, hardware, shoes, and lumber, and in
automobile sales agencies. Women greatly out­
number men in department and general mer­
chandise, 5 and 10 cent, apparel and accessories,
and drug stores. (See chart 22.)
Although sales jobs are found in nearly every
community, the vast majority of salespersons
work in large cities and in the shopping centers
o f nearby suburban areas.
Training and Other Qualifications

Employers generally prefer to hire high school
graduates for most sales jobs. Subjects such as
salesmanship, commercial arithmetic, and home
economics help to give the student a good back­
ground for selling positions. Many high schools
have distributive education programs, which in­
clude courses in merchandising, principles of re­
tailing, and retail selling, and also provide for
part-time work (usually from 15 to 18 hours a
week) in a local store. Employers cooperating
in these programs usually offer full-time em­
ployment to students completing the courses.
Young people interested in obtaining sales
jobs may apply directly to the owner of a small




Saleswomen in dress shops must be ab le to discuss price, quality,
style, and other features of the merchandise.

Nearly all retail stores give new sales personnel
some type of on-the-job training. In a small
store this may consist only of a short talk about
the job, given by an experienced salesperson who
may also be the proprietor; in a large store, train­
ing may last several days. Beginning salespeople
are usually given instructions on how to make
out sales slips and use the cash register; they are
also informed about selling procedures and credit
and other store policies.
Although some of the larger retail stores pre­
fer to hire college graduates as salesmen, with
a view to promoting them to executive trainee

248

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

positions, retail selling is one o f the few remain­
ing fields where persons without college degrees,
but with initiative and ability, have good op­
portunities to advance to executive positions. As
a rule, employers promote salespersons who have
good records o f sales and service to customers,
regardless of their educational background. Some
salespersons advance to positions as buyers, de­
partment managers, or store managers, whereas
others, particularly in large stores, may be trans­
ferred to administrative positions in personnel,
public relations, or other fields o f work. Oppor­
tunities for advancement are more limited in
small stores where one person, usually the owner,
frequently performs many different managerial
functions. Sales experience in retail stores is
often a valuable asset in qualifying for other
types o f sales jobs.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of job openings for sales­
persons will occur each year throughout the early
1960’s. Most o f the new sales jobs are expected
to arise in branches o f large stores, which will be
established in rapidly growing areas in and
around big cities. The greatest number of em­
ployment opportunities will result, however, from
the need to replace employees who resign or
transfer to jobs in other retail stores or take
jobs in other fields. Turnover is high in retail
stores because o f the many saleswomen who leave
to marry or to take care o f families and the large
number o f young people who change employment
after gaining some sales experience. In addi­
tion to full-time sales jobs, there will be an in­
creasing number o f part-time jobs. These will
provide many opportunities for regular parttime employment each week, as well as occasional
work during peak selling periods, such as before
holidays and during special sales.
Over the long run, employment o f sales workers
is expected to continue to rise, as retail stores
sell an increasing amount o f goods owing to
growth in the Nation’s population and income.
However, the number of sales workers employed
will probably not increase as fast as sales, for
several reasons. More and more stores will be
arranged so that customers can select goods from
shelves or tables without the help o f sales clerks.
A growing number o f large supermarkets, which




typically operate on a self-service basis, is an­
ticipated. These stores and other retail outlets
such as drug stores are likely to handle more
and more different types o f merchandise in the
future, and most of the additional items will
probably also be sold by self-service methods.
Furthermore, the trend toward larger retail
stores o f all types is likely to continue, and such
stores employ fewer salespeople relative to the
volume of sales than do smaller stores. On the
other hand, the rising standard o f living will
tend to increase purchases o f items such as elec­
trical appliances, furniture, and apparel; per­
sonal assistance from salesmen and saleswomen
in buying such items is not only considered
desirable but is often necessary. In addition,
more sales personnel will be needed if the work­
week in retail trade is shortened, as seems prob­
able. Considering the various factors affecting
the employment o f retail salespersons, it appears
that the numbers employed will continue to rise,
but at a slower rate than in the past.
Sales workers have more stable employment
than workers in many other occupations. When
retail trade is affected by downturns in the econ­
omy, employers—particularly in large stores—
can cut employment by not filling vacancies
that result from turnover, or they can eliminate
some part-time jobs. Competition for sales jobs
tends to increase when other jobs are hard to
find, since many workers in other occupations
can qualify as retail salesmen and saleswomen.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries o f beginning salespersons may range
from about $25 to more than $50 a week depend­
ing on geographic location, type and size o f store,
and other factors. According to salary data based
on a small number o f union contracts with stores
in cities and suburban areas, inexperienced sales­
persons working a 40-hour week generally earned
from about $40 to slightly more than $60 in
variety, hardware, bakery, drug, jewelry, and
apparel stores in mid-1958. Experienced sales­
persons usually receive from $10 to $25 more than
beginners in the same store. The highest earn­
ings, often averaging $100 or more a week, are
received by people who sell automobiles, major
appliances, and furniture. These salespeople fre­
quently are paid a straight commission or a

SALES OCCUPATIONS

salary plus a commission on sales—that is, a
certain percentage o f the amount o f sales they
make. Earnings o f retail salespersons are usu­
ally highest in large metropolitan areas and
lowest in rural communities. In retail stores,
where the customer can easily make his own
selection o f goods— for example in 5 and 10 cent
stores—salaries are, as a rule, lower than in
apparel and other stores where salesmanship is
an important factor.
Salespersons in many retail stores are allowed
a discount, often from 10 to 20 percent, on mer­
chandise purchased in the store. These discount
privileges are sometimes extended to other mem­
bers of the family. Some retail stores, especially
the large ones, pay all or part of the cost of
employee benefits such as life insurance, retire­
ment, hospitalization, and surgical and medical
insurance.
Many retail salespersons work a 5-day week of
40 hours or less. Since Saturday is a busy day
in retailing, employees usually work that day and
have a day off during the week. A longer than
normal workweek is more common in some types
o f retail stores than others; for example, about
half of all employees (in sales and other jobs)
in furniture, home furnishings, and appliance
stores worked more than 40 hours a week, ac­
cording to a recent Bureau o f Labor Statistics
survey.
Longer than normal hours in retail stores may
be scheduled for salespersons before Christmas

249

and in other peak periods; employees who work
overtime receive either additional pay or extra
time off during slack periods. Some retail sales­
persons regularly work one or more evenings a
week, especially in stores located in suburban
shopping centers.
Retail salespeople usually work in stores that
are clean and well lighted. Large stores are
often air conditioned. Sometimes selling duties
take the salesperson out o f retail stores, as in
the case o f the automobile salesman who may
visit his customers at their homes and take them
on demonstration rides.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on retailing courses given in high
schools may be obtained from the Superintendent
ef Schools, the Coordinator o f Distributive Edu­
cation in each community, or from the State
Supervisor o f Distributive Education in the De­
partment of Education in the State capital.
Information on careers in retailing may be
obtained from local retailers’ or merchants’ asso­
ciations or from :
Committee on Careers in Retailing, National Retail
Merchants Association,
100 West 31st St., New York 1, N.Y.

A list o f colleges offering specialized courses
in retailing is available from:
American Collegiate Retailing Association,
24 Waverly Place, New York 3, N.Y.

R eal Estate S a le sm e n a n d Brokers
Nature of Work

The chief business o f real estate salesmen and
brokers is to act as agents between owners and
buyers o f homes and other properties. Salesmen
(D.O.T. 1-63.10) are employed by brokers mainly
to show and sell real estate. Brokers (D.O.T.
1-63.20) are independent businessmen who not
only sell real estate but may also rent and man­
age properties, appraise their value, make or
arrange for the loans necessary to finance sales,
and develop new building projects. They may
also have such responsibilities as managing an
office, hiring employees, advertising property,




and maintaining the contacts necessary in the
business.
The majority o f real estate salesmen and
brokers sell houses. Some specialize in selling
either low-price or expensive homes. A few,
usually those in large real estate firms, handle
mainly costly commercial properties, such as
multimillion dollar hotels and giant office build­
ings. Others deal chiefly with farms and other
land.
Since real estate usually costs a lot of money,
most people buy it only after much careful in­
vestigation. For this reason, a salesman may
have to meet several times with a prospective

250

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

buyer to show him properties and answer ques­
tions about them. While doing this, the salesman
emphasizes major selling points. For example,
to a housewife looking at a house, he may point
out the convenient floor plan and the fact that
schools and shopping centers are close by; to her
husband, he may emphasize the soundness of the
construction and the attractive financing arrange­
ments available.
In selling commercial property, especially, the
real estate salesman or broker must be able to
discuss such matters as howT the property can be
used, zoning restrictions, tax rates, and insurance
needs. The agent sizes up the buyer’s needs and
preferences and tries to meet them within his
ability to pay; this is important since a great

for sale or rent and phoning prospective clients.
They may also answer telephone inquiries about
properties, arrange appointments to show real
estate, make out reports of activities, and keep
records on properties sold. Real estate salesmen
or brokers generally have a great deal of inde­
pendence and personal responsibility for planning
their work. It is often necessary to wrnrk during
evenings and weekends.
Where Employed

More than half a million people were licensed
as real estate salesmen and brokers in 1958;
perhaps as many as a fifth of the licenses were
held by women. Many of these licensed salesmen
and brokers work only part time or occasionally
in the real estate business. A large number of
brokers combine real estate with insurance work.
Real estate brokers and salesmen work in every
section of the country, mostly in small businesses.
The relatively few big real estate firms are lo­
cated chiefly in large metropolitan areas; sales­
men employed by these firms are often assigned
to w ork in a specific section of a city. Although
y
agents are concentrated in large cities, oppor­
tunities are increasing in smaller, newly devel­
oped areas with rapidly growing industries and
population.
Training and Other Qualifications

Real estate salesman showing new home to prospective buyers.

deal o f time may be lost with buyers who cannot
qualify for the loans required to finance the
purchase. Where some bargaining on price may
be necessary, the salesman or broker must care­
fully follow’ the seller’s instructions and be skill­
ful in making counteroffers, in order to get the
best possible price and still make the sale. In
the closing stages of the sale, the real estate
salesman or broker often arranges for a loan,
a title search, and the meeting at wdiich the
owner finally takes possession of the property.
Real estate salesmen or brokers also do some
office work, such as checking listings of properties




A license is required for work as a real estate
salesman or broker in the District of Columbia
and in every State except Rhode Island and New
Hampshire.
Most States require prospective
agents to pass written examinations which gen­
erally include questions on the State license law
and fundamentals of real estate transactions. The
examination is more comprehensive for brokers
than for salesmen. In addition, in more than
one-fourth of the States, candidates for the
broker’s license must have had a specified amount
of experience as a real estate salesman (generally
6 months to 3 years, depending on the State law) ;
in some States, credits in real estate education
may be substituted for experience. State licenses
can usually be renewed annually without reex­
amination. Real estate agents who move to
another State must generally qualify under the
licensing law of that State.

SALES OCCUPATIONS

Although a specified amount of education is
seldom required for real estate salesmen, em­
ployers prefer to hire those who have at least a
high school education. Aptitude for selling and
skill in dealing with people are essential. Ma­
turity is rated as an important attribute by
employers, since agents who show a broad under­
standing o f a homebuyer’s problems and who are
able to inspire his confidence have a better chance
of making a sale.
Young men and women interested in beginning
jobs as real estate salesmen often apply to brokers
in their own communities where they can use
their knowledge of local neighborhoods to ad­
vantage. The beginner usually works under the
direction of an experienced salesman or broker
while he learns the practical aspects o f real estate
selling. After a few years o f experience, the
salesman who becomes a licensed broker may
open his own office.
Opportunities exist to obtain educational prepa­
ration for real estate work, which is helpful to
experienced agents as well as to beginners. Many
o f the local real estate boards, members of the
National Association of Real Estate Boards
(N A R E B ), sponsor courses in such subjects as
real estate fundamentals; principles and prac­
tices; real estate law; and real estate financing.
Agents who handle the more complex work of
selling commercial properties or those who wish
to enter other phases of real estate work— ap­
praisal, mortgage financing, and property de­
velopment and management—will find advanced
courses helpful. Many local real estate boards
offer such courses and various affiliates of
N AREB— for example, the American Institute of
Real Estate Appraisers—offer course work in
their specialized areas. A number of colleges
offer one or more courses in real estate and some
offer the bachelor’s degree with a major in real
estate; a few offer advanced degrees.
A member o f the N AREB may use the term
“ realtor” if he meets certain requirements. This
designation has prestige value in the real estate
field. Qualified people may become members of
the American Institute o f Real Estate Appraisers,
the Institute of Real Estate Management, and the
National Institute of Farm Brokers (all affiliated
with the N A R E B ). Such membership indicates
recognition in specialized fields.




251

Employment Outlook

Many opportunities to enter the real estate
field are expected, continuing through the early
1960’s, but competition for sales will remain keen.
Increasing population, the growing size of fam­
ilies, and frequent changes of residence are major
factors which are expected to help in maintaining
a high level o f real estate activity. However,
people seeking to make a career in this field will
have to compete with many thousands who work
only part time selling real estate. Although parttime work enables many people to supplement
their