View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

^ O c c u p a tio n a l
Outlook for
1974-75 Edition
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library


Bulletin 1786



Outlook for
1974-75 Edition
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Bulletin 1786

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO Book­
stores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover. Price $2.95. Stock Number 2901-01084
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.


In our rapidly evolving economy, farsighted career planning is becoming increasingly es­
sential to college students desiring a rewarding career. As the economy continues to ex­
pand and change, creating different kinds of jobs, career planning will become more diffi­
cult. The Occupational Outlook for College Graduates is a guide to career opportunities in
a broad range of professional and related occupations for which a college education is, or is
becoming, the usual educational background for employment. It provides occupational in­
formation for students attending or planning to attend college, as well as their counselors,
teachers, and parents. In addition to discussing the outlook, each occupational statement
presents information on the nature of the work, places of employment, education and train­
ing requirements, earnings, and working conditions. Also presented are a brief summary of
the expected changes in the Nation’s economy and an analysis of the overall supply and de­
mand situation for college graduates through the mid-1980’s.



L A*3.
/ 7 tL p




College and university teachers . .
L ib ra ria n s.........................................

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS ....................
Administrative and related occupations.
Accountants .....................................
Advertising workers ......................
Bank officers ...................................
City m anagers...................................
College student personnel workers
Credit officials .................................
Hotel managers and assistants . . .
Industrial traffic managers ...........
Lawyers ............................................
Marketing research w o rk e rs...........
Personnel workers ..........................
Public relations w o rk ers..................
Purchasing a g e n ts............................
Computer and related occupations . . . .
Programmers ...................................
Systems a n a ly sts...............................
Insurance occupations ............................
Actuaries .........................................
Claim adjusters ..............................
Claim exam iners...............................
U nderw riters.....................................
SERVICE O C CU PA TIO N S..................


FBI special agents ..........................
Police officers...................................
State police officers ........................
Health and regulatory inspectors
(government) ...............................


OCCUPATIONS ................................. 106
Conservation occupations ......................
F o resters............................................
Range managers .............................
Soil conservationists........................
Engineers ..................................................
Aerospace ........................................
Agricultural .....................................
Biomedical .......................................
Ceramic ............................................
Chemical ..........................................
Civil ..................................................
Electrical ..........................................
Industrial ..........................................
Mechanical .......................................
Metallurgical ...................................
Mining ..............................................
Environmental scientists .................
G eologists.........................................
Geophysicists ...................................
Meteorologists .................................
Oceanographers ...............................


Kindergarten and elementary school
teach ers..........................................
Secondary school teachers...............



Air traffic co ntrollers...................... 96
Airline dispatchers.......................... 97
Flight engineers ............................... 98
Pilots and c o p ilo ts.......................... 100
Merchant marine officers............... 102


OCCUPATIONS .................................


TION ACTIVITIES ..........................



Insurance agents and brokers . . . .
Manufacturers’ salesworkers .........
Real estate salesworkers and brokers
Securities salesw orkers....................



SALES OCCUPATIONS ......................

How this book is organized.....................
Tomorrow’s jobs for college graduates . 11
Occupations .............................................. 21




Life scientists ............................................
Life scien tists...................................
Soil scientists.....................................
Mathematics occupations........................
Mathematicians ...............................
Statisticians .....................................
Physical scientists ...................................
A stronom ers..............................
C hem ists............................................
Food scientists .................................
Physicists ..........................................
Broadcast technicians......................
D raftsm en.........................................
Engineering and science technicians
Food processing technicians .........
Surveyors ..........................................



E conom ists.......................................
G eographers.......................
Historians ..........................................
Political scientists............. ...............

Counselors ................................................ 229
School counselors............................. 229
Employment counselors.................. 231
Rehabilitation counselors.................. 234
College career planning and place­
ment counselors.......................... 236
Clergymen ................................................ 238
Protestant clergym en........................ 238
R a b b is................................................ 240
Roman Catholic p r ie s ts .................. 241
Other social service occupations........... 244
Cooperative extension service work­
ers .................................................. 244
Home econom ists............................. 245
Psychologists ................................... 248
Recreation workers ........................ 251
Social workers ................................. 253

HEALTH OCCUPATIONS.................... 175
Medical and dental practitioners...........
Chiropractors ...................................
D entists..............................................
O ptom etrists.....................................
Osteopathic physicians....................
P odiatrists.........................................
Veterinarians ...................................
Other health occupations........................
Dental hygenists...............................
Dietitians .........................................
Hospital administrators ..................
Medical laboratory w o rk e rs...........
Medical record administrators . . . .
Occupational therapists ..................
Pharmacists .....................................
Physical therapists............................
Registered n u r s e s ............................
Respiratory therapists......................
Sanitarians .......................................
Speech pathologists and audiologists


Performing arts .......................................
Actors and actresses........................
Dancers ............................................
Musicians ..........................................
Singers ..............................................
Design occupations...................................
Commercial a r tis ts ..........................
Industrial designers ........................
Interior desig n ers.............................
Landscape architects........................
Urban p lan n ers.................................
Communications related occupations . . .
Newspaper reporters ......................
Radio and television announcers . .
Technical writers .............................



.............................. 216



This chapter describes the con­
tents and organization of the Occu­
pational Outlook for College Grad­
uates. It tells how the information
was assembled and discusses a num­
ber of points that need to be kept in
mind while interpreting the occupa­
tional statements that make up the
main body of the book. It also gives
suggestions regarding supplementary
sources of occupational information
and tells how readers can keep up to
date on developments affecting the
employment outlook in different
The second introductory chapter
describes some of the most import­
ant occupational and industrial em­
ployment trends— and their relation­
ship to college graduates—to pro­
vide a background for interpreting
the reports on individual occupa­

The occupational statements that
follow the two introductory chapters
are reprinted from the 1974-75 edi­
tion of the Occupational Outlook
Handbook. These reports are
grouped into 10 “clusters” of occu­
pations: Office occupations; service
occupations; education and related
occupations; sales occupations; oc­
cupations in transportation activi­
ties; scientific and technical occupa­
tions; health occupations; social
science occupations; social service
occupations; and art, design, and
communications related occupations.

These career clusters help relate the
outlook materials to college curriculums and occupational training pro­
grams, career ladders and lattices,
and fields of interest for college or
potential college students engaged in
career exploration and planning.
The clusters are based on a concept
of related activities. Physicians, for
example, are in the same cluster as
hospital administrators and all other
health employees. Within some of
these career clusters, occupations
are further grouped into related sub­
fields. For example, within the office
occupation cluster, there are groups
for administrative and related occu­
pations, computer and related occu­
pations, and insurance occupations.
The occupations discussed in this
volume generally are those of great­
est interest to college students and
graduates, and include those for
which a college education is re­
quired, is becoming increasingly
necessary, or is the usual educational
background for employment. Occu­
pations covered include workers in
professional and related occupa­
tions, sales occupations, managerial
and administrative occupations, and
service occupations. The statements
in this publication account for about
95 percent of all workers in profes­
sional and related occupations, and
for smaller proportions of workers
in other major groups. About threefifths of all college graduates work
in professional and related occupa­
tions; smaller proportions are in
other major occupational groups.
To help readers locate informa­
tion on the occupations in which

they are interested, a detailed list of
the occupational reports by field of
work is provided in the table of con­
tents at the front of the book. The
occupations covered in the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College Grad­
uates also are coded according to
the occupational classification sys­
tem developed by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor and published in the
Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
This Dictionary provides a code
number (D.O.T. number) for each
occupation included in it; the code
number can be used as a filing sys­
tem for occupational information.
The code numbers of the D.O.T. are
listed in parentheses immediately
below the main occupational state­
ment headings.

Sources of Information

I n fo rm a tio n on e m p lo y m e n t
trends and outlook, and on the many
related topics discussed in the occu­
pational reports, was drawn from a
great variety of sources. Interviews
with hundreds of experts in indus­
try, unions, trade associations, and
public agencies provided a great
deal of up-to-date information. The
Bureau’s other research offices were
a further source; they supplied data
on employment in different indus­
tries, productivity and technological
developments, wages and working
conditions, trade union agreements,
industrial hazards, and a number of
other topics. Additional data re­
garding the nature of the work in
various occupations, training and



licensing requirements, earnings,
and employment trends were pro­
vided by other agencies of the Fed­
eral Government— among them, the
Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training and the U.S. Employment
Service, Manpower Administration,
Department of Labor; the Bureau
of the Census, Department of Com­
merce; the Office of Education and
the Vocational Rehabilitation Ad­
ministration, Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare; the Civil
Service Commission; the Interstate
Commerce Commission; the Civil
Aeronautics Board; the Federal
Communications Commission; the
Department of Transportation; and
the National Science Foundation.
Many other public and private
organizations— educational institu­
tions, business firms, professional
societies, trade associations, and
trade unions— also made available
published data and supplied much
helpful information through inter­
After the information from these
many sources was compiled and
analyzed in conjunction with the
Bureau’s overall economic model,
conclusions were reached as to pro­
spective employment trends in the
various occupations. In addition,
estimates were made of the numbers
of job openings that will be created
by retirements and deaths and trans­
fers out of each occupation. The
supply of new workers likely to be
available in a particular field also
was analyzed by studying statistics
on high school and college enroll­
ments and graduations as well as
data on the number of reentries and
transfers into an occupation.
Preliminary drafts of the occupa­
tional reports were reviewed by offi­
cials of leading companies, trade
associations, trade unions, and pro­
fessional societies, and by other ex­
perts. The information and conclu­

sions presented in each report thus
reflect the knowledge and judgment
not only of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics staff but also of leaders in
the field discussed, although the
Bureau, of course, takes full respon­
sibility for all statements made.
Readers wishing more informa­
tion on the sources and methods
used to analyze the occupational
outlook in different fields of work
should consult the technical appen­
dix of the Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 1974-75 Edition, BLS
Bulletin 1785.

Points to Bear in Mind in Using
Occupational Statements

The information contained in the
individual sections of each occupa­
tional statement follows a standard
format under the headings: Nature
of work; places of employment;
training, other qualifications and
advancement; employment outlook;
earnings and working conditions;
and sources of additional informa­
tion. In using the Occupational Out­
look for College Graduates it is im­
portant to keep in mind the purpose
for which the information was de­
signed. Also, because of imperfect
data sources, the limited length of
each occupational statement, and
many other factors, each of the sec­
tions has its own unique limitations.
The following describes the infor­
mation in each of the sections in­
cluding its purpose and its limita­
The Nature of the Work section
of each occupational statement de­
scribes the major job duties per­
formed by a worker in the occupa­
tion. It is intended to show young
people what the worker does and
how he or she does it.

Each statement describes a typi­
cal job. However, job duties may
vary by factors such as employer,
size of the employing organization,
geographic location of the job, and
other variables.
In some occupations, individual
workers specialize in certain tasks.
In others they perform the entire
range of work in the occupation.
Specialization can be illustrated in
the field of medicine; doctors usu­
ally specialize because of the amount
of skill and knowledge required to
function in each area.
Occupational skill requirements
continually change along with
changes in technology, industrial
processes, and products. Analysts
who prepare the occupational state­
ments attempt to include informa­
tion on the latest changes but be­
cause of the rapidity of technological
improvement and innovation in
some fields of work all developments
are not covered.
The Nature of the Work section
of each occupational statement is
most valuable when used with other
information in the statement. The
descriptions of the nature of the
work may lead one to other infor­
mation that is important to job satis­
faction. For example, the descrip­
tions of some jobs indicate that the
work is done outdoors. Information
on other jobs indicates that the
worker sits indoors at a desk most
of the time. Many of these job char­
acteristics are described further in
the section on working conditions.
The Places of Employment sec­
tion provides information on the
number of workers in an occupation
and, when data are available, on
the proportion of women and parttime workers. Industries that are
major employers are discussed and
the geographic concentration of em­
ployment in an occupation is noted.


The Places of Employment sec­
tion is designed to provide readers
with information on the quantita­
tive importance of the occupation in
the economy, as well as to alert
readers to potential incompatibili­
ties between the occupation and
their personal preferences. For ex­
ample, the data in the Places of Em­
ployment section can indicate that
because of the geographic distribu­
tion of employment it may be diffi­
cult to live near family and friends
or in a particular climate and at the
same time have good employment
prospects. However, data in the oc­
cupational outlook statements indi­
cate that employment in most occu­
pations is widespread enough so
that career choices usually need not
be changed because of geographical
This section also highlights other
factors affecting occupational choice
that are generally explained in more
detail in other sections of the state­
ment. For example, when the em­
ployment size of two occupations is
significantly different, the larger oc­
cupation usually will have more
annual job openings because of the
large number of workers who die or
retire each year. The need to fill job
openings that result from persons
leaving the labor force accounts for
about one-half of all openings. In
addition, occupations employing a
high proportion of women generally
have relatively higher numbers of
annual job openings than occupa­
tions employing predominantly men
because many women leave the work
force to have children and raise
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and Advancement section is
designed to inform the reader about
the type of education and training
needed for entering an occupation,
and about the requirements for ad­


vancement to higher levels. It is im­
portant to be aware of the type of
training required because it is often
necessary to start early in one’s col­
lege career to plan courses toward
the goal.
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and Advancement section gen­
erally presents the minimum level
and type of education required for
the various occupations and the pre­
ferred background for entry. In
many cases, alternative ways of at­
taining required training are also
listed. Also provided is information
on college courses or major fields of
study that are of particular help in
preparing for the occupation.
Although people with different
educational backgrounds may be
able to enter an occupation, the
level of entry and speed of advance­
ment are often determined by the
amount of education and training.
For example, a high school grad­
uate with clerical skills can enter the
medical record field as a clerk and
receive about a month of on-the-job
training. A graduate of a 2-year
medical record technician course at
a community college can begin his
or her career at the technician level
as a supervisor of several clerks. The
graduate of a 4-year medical record
librarian course may enter the medi­
cal record profession as the head of
the medical record department in a
hospital. The chance that the per­
son who starts as a clerk will, after
years of experience, be head of the
department is very small, and as
more trained people enter the labor
force, the chance to advance with­
out academic training to the high­
est positions in any occupation be­
comes more remote.
In an effort to protect the public,
there are State certifications or li­
censing requirements for some oc­
cupations to assure that the workers
are qualified. The Occupational

Outlook for College Graduates pro­
vides information to help young
persons become aware of any spe­
cial requirements that exist in a spe­
cific occupation. Physicians and
nurses are examples of profession­
als who must pass State board
exams for licensing. Elementary and
secondary school teachers must suc­
cessfully complete a specified list of
courses among their college sub­
jects, depending on the grade level
and subject matter they plan to
teach. Also, the courses required
for a teacher’s license differ from
State to State. Persons preparing for
an occupation that requires State li­
censing should, therefore, become
familiar with the information on
licensing for the occupation that is
presented in the occupational out­
look statement and then obtain spe­
cific information on the require­
ments in the State or States in which
they plan to work. This information
will help in gearing courses so the
requirements can be met.
When one decides on an occupa­
tion, the “continuing education”
that will be required in order to
reach the desired level in the occu­
pation is as important a considera­
tion as the initial education require­
ment. Persons who see themselves
as college presidents and begin
working as assistants to the registrar
after receiving their bachelor’s de­
gree should be prepared to spend
several years in graduate school.
Once the requirements necessary to
advance to the desired level of the
chosen occupation are determined,
individuals should decide whether
they have the natural talents and
personal qualities needed, and
whether they are willing to put in
the time and effort to meet those re­
quirements. If formal education is
involved, will the employer pay for
it, and if not, can the employee af­


ford the cost? Also, individuals must
decide whether they have the aca­
demic ability to complete the edu­
In addition to the education,
training, and other requirements
necessary both to enter the occupa­
tion and to reach the desired posi­
tion, another essential factor in
career choice is the correlation of
specific personal characteristics with
the characteristics of the job. To
provide this information, the state­
ments present typical job character­
istics for each occupation. This al­
lows individuals to match their
unique qualifications, “likes,” and
“dislikes” to the job. This is not an
easy task, since it is often difficult
for young persons to assess them­
selves. Tests which help individuals
assess their personal characteristics
can be very valuable.
Listed below are some of the job
characteristics described in the oc­
cupational outlook statements and
the relevant personal characteristics.
Responsible decisions required—
individuals should be able to make
important decisions and to exercise
good judgment.
Motivates others — Individuals
should be able to influence the be­
havior of others.
Directs the activity of others—
Individuals should have supervisory
Work is closely supervised— In­
dividuals must feel comfortable in
a situation where work performance
is controlled closely by a supervisor.
Highly competitive— Individuals
should be able to face the pressures
of competing with others on the job
for recognition and achievement.
Works with ideas— Individuals
should have the ability to think in
abstract terms to solve work-related
Works with people— Individuals
should have pleasant personalities


and the ability to get along with
others in face-to-face relationships.
Works with objects— Individuals
should have manual skills and some
physical coordination.
Works independently— Individ­
uals should have initiative, self-dis­
cipline, and organizational ability.
Works as part of a team— Indi­
viduals should have the ability to
interact effectively with fellow em­
ployees in performing duties.
Opportunity for self-expression—
Individuals should have cieative
talents and the ability to utilize their
own ideas in practical ways.
Opportunity to see physical re­
sults of work— Individuals should
derive satisfaction from seeing their
work produce a tangible product.
Works with detail— Individuals
should enjoy working with technical
data, numbers, or written materials
on a continuing basis.
Generally is confined to a work
area— Individuals should feel com­
fortable performing their work at
one setting.
Work is repetitious— Individuals
should be comfortable performing
the same task on a continuing basis.
Exposed to weather conditions—
Individuals should enjoy working
outside, and should not be averse
to exposure to weather and tem­
perature extremes.
Helps people— Individuals should
enjoy assisting people in a helping
The Employment Outlook section
informs students and counselors of
prospective job opportunities and
is, therefore, one of the major aids
that young people can use to eval­
uate the career potential of the oc­
cupations they find interesting.
However, the prospect of relatively
few job openings should not pre­
vent someone from pursuing a par­
ticular career. Those who know

their own interests, and have dis­
cussed their abilities and aptitudes
with their counselor, should not fore­
go a potentially rewarding career
only because the outlook in that
occupation is less favorable than in
other occupations. Even in occupa­
tions with relatively poor prospects,
jobs are available because of the
need to replace workers who leave
the occupation; on the average, job
openings resulting from replacement
of workers who leave the occupa­
tion account for about one-half of
all openings.
Outlook information can be very
useful to someone who has great
interest in a cluster of occupations
requiring similar interests, abilities,
and educational backgrounds. A
student who has become interested
in sales occupations, for example,
can compare the job prospects for
real estate, insurance, and manu­
facturers’ salesmen and select the
one or two offering the best oppor­
Information about the outlook in
an occupation is very difficult to
develop. No one can predict future
labor market conditions with per­
fect accuracy. In every occupation
and industry, the ratio between the
number of jobseekers and the num­
ber of job openings constantly
changes. A rise or fall in the de­
mand for a product or service affects
the number of workers needed to
produce it. New inventions and
technological innovations create
some jobs and eliminate others.
Changes in the size or the age dis­
tribution of the population, work
attitudes, training opportunities, or
retirement programs determine the
number of workers available. As
these forces interact in the labor
market, some occupations experi­
ence a shortage, some a surplus,
some a balance between applicants
and openings. Methods used by


economists to develop information
on future occupational prospects
differ, and judgments which go into
any assessment of the future also
differ. Therefore, it is important for
users of the Occupational Outlook
for College Graduates to under­
stand what underlies each statement
on outlook.
The keys to understanding the
outlook sections are the economic
assumptions used in developing pro­
jections of future needs. Two of the
assumptions that underlie the state­
ments on employment outlook are
that high employment levels will be
maintained and that no cataclysmic
events will occur, such as a war or
a severe and prolonged economic
would, of course, create an entirely
different employment situation from
that likely to develop under the as­
sumed conditions. But young people
would find it impossible to build
their lifetime plans in expectation
of such unpredictable events, al­
though, on the basis of historical
experience, they must be prepared
to weather economic ups and downs
during their working lives. The
basic economic assumptions are dis­
cussed in detail in the next chapter,
Tomorrow’s Jobs for College Grad­
In making employment projec­
tions, all possible factors should be
taken into account. Nevertheless,
not all factors can be quantified or
themselves projected. For this
reason, outlook information is gen­
erally presented as a qualitative
statement about growth in an oc­
cupation. Opportunities will usually
be favorable in occupations in which
employment increases over time
along with the growth of the econ­
omy; those occupations that are ex­
pected to remain constant or decline
generally have less favorable pros­
pects than the average occupation.


The adjectives used to describe
changes in employment require­
ments correspond to the ranges of
percent change, as shown in the occompanying tabulation:
Very rapid
Little or no change

Increase or decline
40.0 percent or more
30.0 percent to 39.9
15.0 percent to 29.9
5.0 percent to 14.9
0 percent to 4.9

For some occupations, it also
is possible to make estimates of the
future supply of workers. These are
usually in professional occupations
where the paths of entry are rather
limited, and which therefore allow
a statistical assessment based on
trends in the number of persons
pursuing specific types of education
or training and entering the occupa­
tion related to the training. When
supply estimates as well as demand
estimates have been made, the occu­
pational outlook statements contain
a qualitative statement of job op­
portunities corresponding to the
prospective demand-supply relation­
ship, as follows:
Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demandsupply relationship
Demand much greater
than supply
Demand greater than
Rough balance between
demand and supply
Likelihood of more
supply than demand
Supply greater than

The Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates discusses the out­
look for the Nation as a whole. Job
prospects in many local areas, how­
ever, may not correspond to those
for the entire Nation. In using the
young people should discuss with
counselors the employment pros­
pects in the particular areas in
which they would like to live. In­
formation on the local outlook is

often available from local offices of
State employment security agencies.
The Earnings section helps
answer many questions persons ask
when choosing a career. Will the in­
come be high enough to maintain a
desired standard of living? Is the
pay high enough to justify the edu­
cation and training costs? How
much will a worker’s earnings in­
crease as he or she gains experience?
In what localities are the best paying
jobs in the occupation?
What are earnings? To most peo­
ple the word “earnings” means
money— a paycheck in the mailbox
or cash in the pocket. Money, how­
ever, is only one kind of financial
reward for work. Paid vacations and
free lunches are also part of the
total earnings package. There are
three kinds of earnings— cash,
fringe benefits, and payments in
Cash. In 1972 more than 90 per­
cent of all American workers re­
ceived cash for their work in the
form of a wage or salary. A wage
or salary is usually a “flat rate”— a
certain amount of money for a spe­
cific period of time at work. A wage
is usually an hourly or daily rate,
and a salary is a weekly, monthly,
or yearly rate. Most craftsmen, fac­
tory workers, and laborers earn
wages, and most professional, tech­
nical, and clerical workers earn sal­
aries. Salary workers usually know
how large their pay checks will be
each week or month, which makes
budgeting easier. Wage workers’
earnings may be different each week,
depending on how many hours they
Both wage and salary workers re­
ceive overtime pay, but this is more
common for wage workers. Over­
time rates and the standard work­



week (the number of hours worked
before overtime is paid) vary from
job to job. Many employees are
covered by the Fair Labor Stand­
ards Act, which requires overtime
pay at 1Vi times the hourly rate for
more than 40 hours’ work a week.
For many workers overtime pay is a
relatively large part of their total
Workers assigned to night shifts
or other irregular hours often receive
extra pay per hour, called a shift
Earnings take a variety of forms
besides the familiar flat rate plus
overtime. Waiters and waitresses
get most of their earnings in tips
from customers. Salesmen may re­
ceive a commission— a percent of
the amount of their sales. Factory
workers are sometimes paid a piece
rate, a certain payment for each
item they produce. Tips, commis­
sions, piece rates, and other kinds
of pay are often combined with flatrate wages and salaries.
Almost 10 percent of all workers
in 1972 were in business for them­
selves and earned self-employment
income instead of wages or salaries.
Self-employment income takes an
almost endless variety of forms.
Farmers, shopkeepers, and other
small businessmen receive money
selling their products. Doctors and
lawyers collect fees from their
clients. Writers sell short stories to
magazines or receive royalties from
publication of their books.
Some occupations offer the
chance to earn income in addition
to regular wages and salaries. For
example, college professors are paid
for publishing independent research.
Fringe benefits. In addition to cash,
most American workers receive a
variety of indirect payments, or
fringe benefits, ranging from paid
holidays to life insurance. The im­

portance of fringe benefits has in­
creased tremendously since World
War II; by 1970 they accounted for
nearly one-fifth of the total earnings
package in private industries other
than farming.
Several fringe benefits received by
a majority of workers are required
by Federal and State law. They in­
clude social security, workmen’s
compensation, and unemployment
insurance. These benefits provide
payments to workers when they are
no longer employed because of old
age, work-related injury or disabil­
ity, or lack of suitable jobs.
Among the most common fringe
benefits are paid time off for vaca­
tions, holidays, and sick leave.
Some workers also receive time off,
usually without pay, for jury duty,
military service, and maternity leave.
Some additional fringe benefits
help protect the worker’s income if
he is injured, sick, unemployed, or
retired. These include life, health,
and accident insurance, retirement
plans, supplemental unemployment
benefits, and severance pay. The
costs of insurance and retirement are
often shared by the worker and
Some employers also offer stock
options and profit-sharing plans,
saving plans, and bonuses.
Payments in kind. In addition to
cash and fringe benefits, some work­
ers receive part of their earnings “in
kind” as goods or services. Earnings
in kind may include room and
board, laundered uniforms, meals,
company housing, business expense
accounts, or free airline tickets.
These items should be considered
earnings because they are worth
money and come with the job.
Which jobs pay the most? Com­
paring the earnings in different occu­
pations is not easy, mainly because

good information is available only
for one category of earnings—wages
and salaries. For some occupations
even this information is not avail­
able. Nevertheless, the Occupational
Outlook for College Graduates pro­
vides some types of comparisons in
many occupational statements. Gen­
erally, these are comparisons with
the average earnings of all nonsupervisory wage and salary work­
ers in private industry other than
farming, which is the broadest aver­
age of earnings data available in
current statistics.
Earnings variations. Within each
occupation there are many levels of
pay. Earnings vary with the work­
er’s experience, location, industry,
and type of work, and this informa­
tion is provided, when possible.
Beginning workers
nearly always earn less than experi­
enced workers. In most occupations,
workers move up a career “ladder”
to higher pay and generally do more
responsible work as they gain ex­
perience. Some ladders have only
one or two steps; in some occupa­
tions, the ladders have many steps,
and some even offer a choice of
several different kinds of work with
different levels of pay.
A typical career ladder is the one
faced by beginning engineers. The
average annual salary for beginning
engineers with a B.S. degree was
$10,800 in 1972. As beginners gain
experience, they do more compli­
cated work with less supervision and
their responsibilities and earnings
increase. Four years after graduating
from college, engineers earned an
average salary in 1972 of $13,200;
those who had graduated 10 vears
earlier earned about $16,000. If the
opportunity comes along they may
move to a higher paying position as
a supervisor.


Location. In many occupations earn­
ings will vary with the location of
the job. For example, public sec­
ondary school teachers in 1972-73
averaged $10,460 a year. However,
11 states (Alaska, New York, Cali­
fornia, Michigan, Illinois, New
Jersey, Maryland, Minnesota, Ari­
zona, Nevada, and Connecticut)
paid average annual salaries of
$11,000 or more, and three (Mis­
sissippi, Arkansas, and Idaho) paid
secondary school teachers less than
$8,000 a year.
The variations in the earnings of
engineers and teachers, however, do
not tell much about such variations
in other occupations. Although there
are some general national patterns
of earnings differentials, each occu­
pation has its own geographical
pattern, and each occupation must
be studied for its own. Young peo­
ple using this publication also should
check with counselors and local em­
ployers to find out about specific
earnings in local areas.
Industry and type of work. Workers
in most occupations can find jobs
in different industries, sometimes
doing different types of work. Be­
cause the job market is not exactly
the same in each situation, thiey
can expect their pay to vary accord­
ing to whom they work for and what
they do on the job.
The earnings of engineers, for ex­
ample, vary considerably by indus­
try. With 5 years of experience,
those in the electronic equipment
industry averaged $15,000 in 1972;
those in construction and consult­
ing, $13,600; those in the Federal
Government, $14,650; and those in
State governments, $12,550.
The salaries of Ph.D. chemists
show how earnings may vary by
type of work. (See table 1.) In
1972 chemists in management jobs
earned $6,700 more than those in


research and development. Chemists
in marketing and production earned
$400 less than research and devel­
opment chemists, but $4,300 more
than teachers.
Table 1. Average annual salaries of chem­
ists with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,


Type of work
Management ............................
Research and development . . .
Marketing and production . . .
O ther...........................................

1 14,900

1 Salary for 9-month academic year.
SOURCE: American Chemical Society.

The Working Conditions section
provides information that can be
most important to an individual’s
job satisfaction because preferences
for working conditions vary consid­
erably among individuals. Some
people, for example, have a prefer­
ence for outdoor work while others
prefer working in an office. Some
people like the variety of shift work;
others want the steadiness of a 9to-5 job. Proper consideration of
working conditions can contribute
greatly to job satisfaction and suc­
The Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates discusses many
aspects of working conditions that
are of concern to individuals who
are looking into their prospective
careers. The following are several
types of working conditions, with
their implications, that are discussed
in the occupational statements when
they apply.
Overtime work required—When
overtime is required, employees
must give up some of their free time
and should therefore be flexible in
their personal lives. Overtime, how­
ever, provides the opportunity to in­
crease earnings.
Shift work— Evening or night work

is part of the regular work schedule
in some jobs. Employees are, there­
fore, usually working while most
other people are off. Shift work
may be preferred by some individ­
uals who want to pursue certain day­
time hobbies such as hunting, fish­
ing, gardening, etc.
Environment—Work settings vary
from clean air-conditioned offices
to places that are dirty, greasy, or
poorly ventilated. With this knowl­
edge, workers can avoid jobs that
may submit them to unpleasant
Outdoor work—Those who work
outdoors may be exposed to weather
extremes. It may be preferred over
indoor work, however, by those who
consider outdoor work more health­
Hazards— In some jobs, employ­
ees are subject to possible burns,
cuts, falls, etc., and must attend to
proper safety precautions.
Physical demands— Some jobs re­
quire standing, stooping, kneeling,
or working in cramped positions.
Physical strength and stamina may
be required, and those without such
attributes should be careful in
selecting such jobs.
Persons planning their careers
should also consider how working
conditions may change in an occu­
pation as they progress up the
career ladder. Workers may find
that promotion depends on adjusting
to working conditions other than
those they had planned on. For ex­
ample, a young person may enter a
particular occupation because out­
door work is appealing, and be dis­
appointed to learn that the next
levels of the career ladder are desk



Sources of additional information.
People using the Occupational Out­
look for College Graduates may
want more detail on the occupation
described in the individual reports,
or information on fields of work
that are not covered. Suggestions as
to sources of additional information
are given in most of the occupational

In addition to this publication,
the Bureau of Labor Statistics issues
the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book, a basic tool in the vocational
guidance of young people seeking
a field of work. The Bureau also
issues a periodical, the Occupational
Outlook Quarterly, to keep readers
up to date between editions of the
Handbook and the Occupational
Outlook for College Graduates.
Quarterly articles discuss develop­
ments affecting employment oppor­
tunities and report the findings of
new occupational outlook research.
In addition the Bureau issues, at
irregular intervals, occupational
outlook bulletins that give much
more detailed information on vari­
ous fields of work than can be in­
cluded in either the Handbook or
the Quarterly.
The Bureau has also developed a
visual aid for counselors consisting
of a set of color slides that show
the changing occupational and in­
dustrial mix, and trends in man­
power development, education, and
training. The slides, which have an
accompanying narrative, are avail­
able directly from Bureau of Labor
Statistics regional offices.
The Bureau will be glad to place
the name of any user of the Occu­
pational Outlook for College Grad­

uates on its mailing list to receive
announcements of new publications
and releases summarizing the re­
sults of new studies. Those wishing
to receive such materials should
send the request, with their address,
to the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20212.
Other Bureau of Labor Statistics
publications that are useful to coun­
selors can be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20402, or from Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics regional
offices listed on the inside back
cover. A list of these publications,
along with descriptions of their con­
tents, follows:
INGS. A monthly periodical fea­
turing timely analyses of current de­
velopments in employment, unem­
ployment, hours, and earnings for
the Nation. Contains statistics on
employment, earnings, hours of
work, and labor turnover by indus­
try for the Nation and by industry
division for each State and for 202
metropolitan areas. Also contains
detailed statistics on the labor force,
including characteristics of the em­
ployed and unemployed such as age,
marital status, color, industry, and
occupational attachment.
The Review contains articles that
can help counselors keep abreast of
the changing social, economic, and
demographic scene. In addition to
providing a statistical section on
labor force and employment, labor
turnover, earnings and hours, con­
sumer and wholesale prices, and
work stoppages, the Monthly Labor
Review publishes special articles by
experts on subjects such as the im­
pact of technological change on em­
ployment, occupational counseling,
and manpower planning.

PORTS. Reports based on special
surveys of the labor force are issued
several times a year. They include
statistics and analyses of selected
characteristics of the labor force,
such as educational attainment, em­
ployment of school dropouts and
recent high school graduates, work
experience during the year, and
marital and family status. Published
in the Monthly Labor Review,
which may be available in school
libraries. Reports are available free
as long as supplies last from the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, Washington, DC
20212, or from its regional offices.
bulletins include figures on average
earnings and employment in selected
occupations and in major industries
and labor market areas. Weekly
working hours for some groups of
workers and customary practices
regarding pensions, vacations, holi­
days, and sick leave are also re­
ported. Areas for which bulletins
are published and prices are listed
in the Directory of Area Wage Sur­
veys, which may be obtained free
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Other sources likely to be help­
ful in providing information and
assistance are public libraries;
schools; business establishments;
trade unions, employers’ associa­
tions, and professional societies;
State employment services; and pri­
vate personnel agencies. A brief
description of each follows.

Public Libraries

Public libraries usually have many


books, pamphlets, and magazine
articles giving information about
different occupations. They also
may have several books and current
indexes that list the great numbers
of publications on occupations; the
librarians may be of assistance in
finding the best ones on a particular
field of work.


College libraries and placement
offices also often have extensive
reading materials on occupations. In
addition, college career planning
and placement counselors usually
know of any local occupational in­
formation that has been assembled
through special surveys made by
schools or other community agen­
cies. Professors of special subjects
such as art, drama, or music can
often give information about occu­
pations related to the subjects they

Business Establishments

Employers and personnel officers
usually can supply information
about the nature of the work per­
formed by employees in their own
industries or businesses, and about
the qualifications needed for vari­
ous jobs, as well as other facts about
employment conditions and oppor­
tunities. The names of local firms in
a particular industry can be found
in the classified sections of telephone
directories or can be obtained from
local chambers of commerce.

Trade Unions, Employers’
Associations, and Professional

Frequently, these organizations
have local branches; their officials


can supply information relating to
the occupations with which they are

State Employment Services

These job listings are updated daily
and provide comprehensive infor­
mation supplied by employers on
specific job openings in the area. In
addition, the JIS includes a library
of general information on occupa­
tional trends, industrial develop­
ments, and State-Federal govern­
ment job opportunities, as well as
association and union promotional
materials. The staff conducts man­
power surveys to determine the
area’s available skills, training needs,
and future occupational opportuni­
ties. Through the employment serv­
ice network of offices, information
is also available on job opportuni­
ties in other areas of the country.

Counselors in local public em­
ployment offices are in a particu­
larly good position to supply infor­
mation about job opportunities,
hiring standards, and wages in their
localities. Local offices of State em­
ployment services specialize in find­
ing jobs for workers and workers
for jobs. State employment services
are affiliated with the U.S. Employ­
ment Service of the U.S. Department
of Labor’s Manpower Administra­
tion and constitute a Federal-State
partnership. Employment services
and related forms of assistance to
jobseekers are available without
charge in every State.
At each of the over 2,400 public
employment service offices across
the Nation, jobseekers are aided in
obtaining employment, and employ­
ers are assisted in finding qualified
Four basic services are provided
to workers by the public employ­
ment service: (1) Job information;
(2) employment counseling; (3)
referral to job training; and (4) job
placement. In addition, a variety of
special services are offered.

Employment counseling. Employ­
ment counseling assists young peo­
ple who are starting their careers as
well as experienced workers who
wish or need to change their occu­
pation. The major purposes of em­
ployment counseling are to help
people understand their actual and
potential abilities, interests, and per­
sonal traits; to know the nature of
occupations; and to make the best
use of their capacities and prefer­
ences in the light of available job
The employment counselor is spe­
cially trained and has access to a
large store of occupational informa­

Job information. The personnel who
staff the public employment service
offices are familiar with their areas
and thus know what kinds of work­
ers are employed in local industry,
what jobs are available, what hiring
requirements and opportunities for
advancement are, and the wages
that are paid. Job Information Serv­
ice (JIS) units in many local offices
permit jobseekers to select their
own jobs from a computerized list­
ing of job opportunities in the area.

Testing. Most local offices have
testing services available which the
counselor may use to assist him in
appraising an individual’s aptitudes,
interests, and clerical and literacy
USES aptitude tests are particu­
larly helpful in relating an appli­
cant’s potential abilities to the apti­
tude requirements of 62 broad
occupational groupings and hun­
dreds of specific occupations. A
Spanish language version of these



tests and a nonreading edition for
individuals with very limited educa­
tion have also been developed.
Referral to training. Many individ­
uals seek work for which they lack
some qualifications. Sometimes the
job requires basic education or a
specific skill. Besides referring a job­
seeker to a job, the public employ­
ment service may suggest training
for an applicant so that he can
qualify for or secure a better job.
Jobs and job requirements
change. In today’s fast-paced world,
important considerations when se­
lecting an occupation are the train­
ing required to perform the work
and ways that training needs can be
Job placement. A primary objective
of the public employment service is
to place workers in jobs. Regular
contact is maintained with local em­
ployers to learn about their job
openings. Requests are received
from employers for many different
kinds of workers. As a result, reg­
istered applicants have access to a
variety of job vacancies with many
employers, just as the employer has
access to many applicants. This dual
function eliminates “hit-or-miss” job
Special services to veterans. Vet­
erans are legally entitled to priority
in all services, with preferential
treatment for disabled veterans over
other veterans. In addition, the Viet­
nam Era Veterans Readjustment
Assistance Act requires that some
specific form of assistance designed

to enhance employment prospects
be given to each veteran who applies
to the employment service. Each
local office has veterans’ employ­
ment representative who is assigned
the responsibility to see that these
priority services are provided by all
local office staff.
Special services for youth. The em­
ployment service maintains a yearround program of services to youth,
including counseling, job develop­
ment, placement, training, and re­
ferral to other agencies. Special
efforts include: (1) The Summer
Employment Program, in which the
employment service enlists the co­
operation of private and public sec­
tors to help develop as many em­
ployment opportunities as possible
for disadvantaged youth, to provide
valuable summer experience and
enable them to return to school in
the fall; (2) The ES-School Coop­
erative Program which provides
placement-related services to gradu­
ating seniors, school dropouts, and
potential dropouts who desire to
enter the labor market.
Other special services. Disadvan­
taged job seekers who have special
problems obtaining employment are
provided employment services to
help overcome barriers. These serv­
ices may include referral for sup­
portive services such as child care
or health examinations to agencies
which provide such services, or re­
ferral to training which will help
develop the jobseeker’s employability.
Individuals with mental or physi­
cal disabilities which constitute vo­

cational handicaps are given special
consideration by the employment
service. Middle-aged and older
workers are assisted in making
realistic job choices and overcoming
problems related to getting and hold­
ing jobs. Employers are encouraged
to hire individuals for their ability
to perform the work. Similar atten­
tion is given to the employment
problems of minority group mem­
bers and all others facing special
difficulties in obtaining suitable em­
Community manpower services.
Jobseekers, employers, schools, civic
groups, and public and private agen­
cies concerned with manpower prob­
lems are invited to utilize the
services of the public employment
service office in their community,
and to avail themselves of the job
information in that office. Local
offices are listed in the phone book
as agencies of the State govern­
Private Personnel Agencies

Private personnel agencies can
provide a great deal of information
and assistance to jobseekers. These
agencies employ counselors to assist
clients with career planning and
placement. Because they are located
in cities and towns throughout the
country, private personnel agencies
are often an excellent source of in­
formation about occupational oppor­
tunities in local areas. The private
personnel agencies can be found in
local telephone directories and gen­
erally charge a fee for their services.

Several questions are of major
importance to students as they select
college courses and subsequently
view the variety of occupational
choices open to them. Among these
questions are: What jobs does my
college education prepare me for?
What fields have especially promis­
ing employment opportunities? How
much competition can I expect from
other workers? Would additional
graduate education greatly enhance
my career prospects in this occupa­
tion? How do earnings in certain
occupations compare with earnings
in other occupations requiring simi­
lar education? What types of em­
ployers provide which kinds of jobs?
What are the typical working condi­
tions associated with particular oc­
Of importance in evaluating in­
formation that answers these and
related questions is knowledge of
the dynamic changes that are con­
tinually occurring in our economy—
the trends in the work force and in
the business, industrial, and occu­
pational development of the Nation.
New ways of making goods, new
products, and changes in living
standards are constantly changing
the types of jobs that become avail­
able. To throw light on the changing
characteristics of occupations and
to provide background for under­
standing the outlook in specific oc­
cupations, this chapter focuses on
overall patterns of change in the
country’s industrial and occupation­
al composition. It also discusses

briefly the implications of these
changes for employment opportuni­
ties for college graduates.
No one can accurately forecast
the future. Nevertheless, by using
the wealth of information available,
extensive economic and statistical
analyses, and the best judgment of
informed experts, the work future
can be described in broad terms. Of
course, some aspects of the future
can be predicted more accurately
than others. For example, the num­
ber of 18-year-olds in 1985 can be
estimated with a very high degree
of accuracy because individuals 5
years old in 1972 are accounted for
in our vital statistics, and the death
rate of children between 5 and 18
is extremely low and stays about the
same from year to year. On the
other hand, forecasting employment
requirements for newspaper report­
ers in 1985 is extremely difficult.
Employment of these workers can
be affected, for example, by the
changing patterns in the use of the
communications media, such as a
shift in preferences for radio or tele­
vision; changes in the way that news­
papers are prepared; and unpre­
dictable economic developments out­
side of the newspaper industry
which may affect the advertising
earnings of newspapers.
To project the demand for all
workers in the economy, specific
assumptions have to be made about
general economic trends and broad
national policy. The picture of the
future employment outlook reflected

in this publication is based on the
following fundamental assumptions:
—High levels of employment and
manpower utilization will prevail
in the mid-1980’s.
—No major event such as a longlasting or widespread energy
shortage will alter substantially
the rate of economic growth. (Al­
though energy shortages were
being experienced in the econ­
omy as this publication went to
press, no conclusive assessments
could be made of the magnitude
or duration of the shortages or
their long-run effect on employ­
ment as factors either stimulating
or restricting employment oppor­
tunities in specific industries or
occupations. Future editions of
this publication will incorporate
the significant findings of special
studies and reports in this area.)
— Economic, social, and educational
trends will continue according to
recent patterns.
— Scientific and technological ad­
vances will continue at about the
same rate as in recent years.
—The United States will not be at
war, but there will be no substan­
tial cutbacks in the defense budget
from its present level.
The following assessment of the
1985 industrial and occupational
outlook assumes a total labor force
of 107.7 million in 1985, an all­
volunteer Armed Forces of 2.0 mil­
lion, and a civilian labor force of
105.7 million.
Knowledge of specific industries



is necessary because employers seek
a wide variety of skills. For exam­
ple, many different industries em­
ploy engineers, salesmen, and secre­
taries,. Employment patterns have
shifted considerably over the years
and are expected to continue to do
so. These changes greatly affect em­
ployment opportunities and occupa­
tional choices.
Industry employment and occu­
pational requirements change as a
result of many factors. A new ma­
chine or a newly automated process
may require different occupational
skills or may even create an entirely
new occupation; a change in prod­
uct demand may affect the number
of workers needed; an invention may
all but eliminate an industry or
create a new one.

Where People W ork
WORKERS, 1972 (in millions) 0


Contract construction
Wholesale and retail trade
Transportation and public
Finance, insurance, and
real estate___________
W a g e a n d s a la r y w ork e rs, e x c e p t agriculture, w hich in clu d e s s e lf-e m p lo y e d a n d u n p a id fa m ily workers.


Bureau of Labor Statistics.

ing and service-producing sectors,
the growth pattern will continue to
vary. (See chart 3.)

Service-Producing Industries



To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition, industries
may be viewed as either goods pro­
ducing or service producing. They
may further be grouped into nine
major divisions according to the
goods or services produced. (See
chart 1.) Most of the Nation’s
workers— and most college gradu­
ates— are in industries that produce
services, in activities such as edu­
cation, health care, trade, repair
and maintenance, government, trans­
portation, banking, and insurance.
The production of goods— raising
food crops, building, extracting min­
erals, and manufacturing—has re­
quired less than half of the coun­
try’s work force since the late
1940’s. (See chart 2.) In general,
job growth through the mid-1980’s
is expected to continue to be faster
in the service-producing industries
than in the goods-producing indus­
tries. However, among industry divi­
sions within both the goods-produc­



In 1972, 49.7 million workers
were on the payrolls of service-pro­
ducing industries— trade; govern­
ment; services and miscellaneous
industries; transportation and other
utilities; and finance, insurance, and
real estate— 15.9 million more than
the number employed in 1960. The
major factors underlying the rapid
growth of the last decade have been
(1) population growth; (2) increas­
ing urbanization with its accompany­
ing need for more city services; and
(3) rising incomes and living stand­
ards, which have created a demand
for improved health and education
services. These factors are expected
to continue to result in rapid growth
of service industries as a group; they
are expected to employ 68.7 million
by 1985, an increase of 38 percent
over the 1972 level.
About 19 percent of all workers
in service-producing industries, or
9.3 million, were college graduates

in 1972. The expected rapid em­
ployment increase in service-produc­
ing industries should include a rapid
rise in the number of college-edu­
cated workers in these industries.
Trade, the largest division within
the service-producing industries, has
expanded sharply since 1960.
Wholesale and retail outlets have
multiplied in large and small cities
to satisfy the needs of an increasing­
ly urban society. Employment in
trade was 15.7 million in 1972, 38
percent above the 1960 level. About
1.1 million, 7.2 percent of all em­
ployed in trade in 1972, were college
Employment in trade is expected
to grow by about 26 percent be­
tween 1972 and 1985. Although an
ever-increasing volume of merchan­
dise will be distributed as a result
of increases in population and con­
sumer expenditures, the rate of in­
crease in total manpower needs will
be slowed by laborsaving technology
such as the greater use of electronic
data processing equipment and
automated warehousing equipment,
growth in the number of self-service
stores, and the growing use of vend­
ing machines. Technological ad-


vances and the upgrading of the
educational requirements for many
jobs should produce rapid growth
in the employment of college-edu­
cated workers in trade.
Government employment has
grown faster than any other industry
division, increasing by almost threefifths from 8.4 million to 13.3 mil­
lion between 1960 and 1972.
Growth has been mostly at the State
and local levels, which, combined,
increased by more than two-thirds.
Employment growth has been great­
est in agencies providing education,
health, sanitation, welfare, and pro­
tective services. Federal Government
employment increased 21 percent
between 1960 and 1972.
Government is a major area of
employment for college-educated
workers. More than 30 percent of
all Government employees, 4.1 mil­
lion in 1972, were college graduates.
Government will continue to be
a major source of new jobs for col­
lege graduates and nongraduates
alike through the mid-1980’s. By
the mid-1980’s, employment in
government may be as much as 42
percent higher than in 1972. Most
of the growth will be in State and


local governments, in which em­
ployment needs may rise by 1985
to 16.0 million, about 50 percent
higher than the 10.6 million em­
ployed in 1972. Federal Government
employment is expected to rise
slowly, by 150,000, to 2.8 million
in 1985— 6 percent above the 1972
level of 2.7 million.
Services and miscellaneous indus­
tries employment has increased
rapidly since 1960 as a result of the
growing need for maintenance and
repair, advertising, domestic, and
health care services. From 1960 to
1972, total employment in this in­
dustry division rose by about twothirds., from 7.4 million to 12.3
million. About 2.9 million, 23.5
percent of those employed in these
industries in 1972, were college
Services and miscellaneous indus­
tries will continue to be among the
fastest growing industries through
the mid-1980’s. More than half
again as many workers are expected
to be employed in this industry divi­
sion in 1985 as in 1972, and the
requirements for college-educated
workers should increase substan­
tially. Manpower requirements in

Industries Providing Services Offer More Jobs
Than Those Providing Goods

i)................. ................... i ................ = 1 : : = : = : ^

M an u factu rin g
Contract construction
M in in g

S ervice p ro d u cin g
Transportation and
public utilities
Finance, insurance,
and real estate
G overnm ent

p ro d u c in g











1 W a g e a n d s a la r y w orkers, e x c e p t agric ulture, w h ich in c lu d e s e lf-e m p lo y e d a n d u n p a id fa m ily w ork ers.


Bureau of Labor Statistics.

health services are expected to grow
rapidly due to population growth
and the increasing ability of persons
to pay for health care. Business
services, including accounting, data
processing, and maintenance, also
are expected to grow very rapidly.
Transportation and public utility
employment of 4.5 million in 1972
was only slightly more than onetenth higher than in 1960. Different
parts of this industry, however, have
experienced different growth trends.
For example, air travel employment
increased rapidly but employment in
the railroad industry declined. In
1972, 7.3 percent or 330,000 of
these workers were college gradu­
The number of jobs in transpor­
tation and public utilities as a whole
is expected to increase moderately
through 1985 but widely differing
employment trends will continue to
be experienced among individual
industries within the division. Rapid
increases in employment are ex­
pected in air transportation; a de­
cline is expected to continue in rail­
road employment; and little or no
change is expected in water trans­
portation and electric, gas, and
sanitary services. Overall employ­
ment in this industry division is ex­
pected to increase to 5.2 million in
1985, 15 percent above the 1972
Finance, insurance, and real
estate, the smallest of the serviceproducing industry divisions, grew
about 47 percent from 1960 to
1972, to 3.9 million. Employment
grew especially rapidly in banks;
credit agencies; and security and
commodity brokers, dealers, ex­
changes, and services. In 1972, col­
lege graduates constituted 20 percent
of the workers in these industries,
or 800,000 workers.
Job growth in finance, insurance,
and real estate will keep in step with



Through the M id-1980's Employment Growth
Will Vary Widely by Industry
PER C EN T C H A N G E , 1 9 7 2 - 8 5 PR O JEC TED
-5 0

-4 0


-3 0


the overall increase in nonfarm em­
ployment through the mid-1980’s.
Finance, insurance, and real estate
employment is expected to expand
to 5.6 million by 1985, 42 percent
above the 1972 level.

Goods-Producing Industries

Employment in the goods-producing industries of agriculture,
mining, construction, and manufac­

turing— 26.5 million in 1972— has
increased slowly in recent years.
Significant gains in productivity re­
sulting from automation and other
technological developments, as well
as the growing skills and educa­
tional attainment of the work force,
have permitted large increases in
output without corresponding in­
creases in employment. In 1972, 7.8
percent of the workers employed in
these industries, 2.1 million persons,
were college graduates. Employment
in goods-producing industries is ex­
pected to increase to about 30 mil­
lion in 1985, 13 percent above the
1972 level. However, widely differ­
ent patterns of employment change
have occurred and will continue to


-2 0


-1 0


occur among the industry divisions
in the goods-producing sector.
Agriculture, which until the late
1800’s employed more than half of
all workers in the economy, em­
ployed only 4 percent, or 3.5 million
workers, in 1972; 3.5 percent of the
agricultural workers, or 120,000,
were college graduates. An increase
in the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved ferti­
lizers, feeds, and pesticides have cre­
ated large increases in output at the
same time that employment has
fallen sharply.
Agriculture is facing a continuing
decline in manpower needs. Factors
which produced past declines will
continue to influence agricultural
employment and the outlook is for
a 1985 farm work force 45 percent
smaller than in 1972. However,
college-educated workers are ex­
pected to constitute an increasing
proportion of agricultural employ­
ment as a result of continuing tech­
nological advances and increasing!)/
sophisticated management tech­
Mining, employing 607,000 work­
ers in 1972, declined by 15 percent
from 1960, primarily because of

laborsaving technological changes.
In 1972, 75,000 college graduates
worked in the mining industry—
12.2 percent of all mining workers.
The current trend is likely to con­
tinue and mining is the only nonagricultural industry division that is
not expected to increase between
1972 and 1985.
Contract construction employ­
ment increased more than one-fifth
from 1960 to 1972. In 1972, 3.5
million persons were employed; 7.7
percent of them— 270,000 workers
—were college graduates. The Na­
tion’s growing need for homes,
offices, highways, bridges, dams, and
other structures caused this employ­
ment increase. Between 1972 and
1985, contract construction employ­
ment is expected to grow by more
than one-fifth to 4.3 million.
Manufacturing, the largest indus­
try within the goods-producing sec­
tor, with 18.9 million workers in
1972, increased by 13 percent be­
tween 1960 and 1972. Of all those
employed in manufacturing in 1972,
1.6 million workers, or 11.8 per­
cent, were college graduates. Devel­
opment of new products for indus­
trial and consumer markets and the
rapid growth of defense-space ex­
penditures spurred manufacturing’s
post-World-War-II growth.
Manufacturing employment is
expected to increase 23 percent
through the mid-1980’s and reach
23.2 million in 1985. The rise in
durable goods manufacturing is
projected to be slightly faster and in
nondurable goods somewhat slower
than the total. However, the rate of
growth will vary among the indi­
vidual manufacturing industries.

As American industries continue
to grow larger, more complex, and
more mechanized, basic changes will



take place in the Nation’s occupa­
tional structure. Occupations will
tend to become more complex and
specialized. Thus, an imposing and
confusing number of occupational
choices is provided to persons who
are planning their careers. An indi­
vidual, in examining the vast num­
ber of choices, should first look at
broad groupings of jobs that have
similar characteristics, such as en­
trance requirements and educational
attainment needed.
Among the most significant
changes in the Nation’s occupational
structure over the last decade has
been the continuing shift toward
white-collar jobs—jobs in which
most college-educated workers are
employed. In 1972 white-collar
workers— professional, managerial,
clerical, and sales— outnumbered
blue-collar workers— craftsmen, op­
eratives, and laborers— by more
than 10 million. (See chart 4.)
Through the mid-1980’s, we can
expect a continuation of the rapid
growth of white-collar occupations,
a slower than average growth of
blue-collar occupations, a faster
than average growth among serv­
ice workers, and a further decline

of farm workers. (See chart 5.)
Total employment is expected to
increase 24 percent between 1972
and 1985. In comparison, an in­
crease of 38 percent is expected for
white-collar jobs, but only 14 per­
cent for blue-collar occupations. By
1985, white-collar jobs will account
for more than one-half of all em­
ployed workers compared with 48
percent in 1972. The rapid growth
expected for white-collar workers
and service workers reflects con­
tinuous expansion of the serviceproducing industries which employ
a relatively large proportion of
these workers. The growing demand
for workers to conduct research and
development, to provide education
and health services, and to perform
the increasingly complex manage­
ment duties in all types of enter­
prises also will be significant factors
in the growth of white-collar jobs.
The slower than average growth of
blue-collar and farm workers reflects
the expanding use of laborsaving
equipment in the Nation’s industries
and the relatively slow growth of
the goods-producing industries that
employ large proportions of bluecollar workers.

Em ploym ent Has Shifted Toward
W hite-C ollar Occupations


WORKERS (in millions)












Bureau of Labor S tatistics





The following section describes in
greater detail the changes that are
expected to occur among the broad
occupational groups through the

White-Collar Workers

White-collar workers, who num­
bered 39.1 million in 1972, included
about 14 out of every 15 employed
college graduates. More than onequarter of all white-collar jobs, or
10.6 million, were filled by college
graduates in 1972. By the mid1980’s, college graduates are ex­
pected to hold about one-third, or
18.1 million, of the 54.1 million
white-collar jobs.
Although the number of college
graduates in white-collar jobs is ex­
pected to grow by about 70 percent,
their employment in some whitecollar occupations will increase
more than in others. The outlook
for the major white-collar occupa­
tional groups of professional and
technical workers, managers and
administrators, salesworkers, and
clerical workers is as follows:
Professional and technical work­
ers were the third largest occupa­
tional group in 1972, but contained
the largest proportion of college
graduates. (See chart 6.) Among
the 11.5 million professional and
technical workers were nearly 7
million college graduates, who made
up over 60 percent of the total. They
included such highly trained person­
nel as teachers, engineers, dentists,
accountants, and clergymen.
Professional and technical occu­
pations will be the fastest growing
from 1972 to 1985. (See chart 7.)
Workers in this group will be in
great demand as the Nation puts
greater efforts into socioeconomic
progress, urban renewal, transpor­
tation, harnessing the resources of



Faster Than Average Employment Grow th is
Expected for College Graduates___________ 5

-2 5




Professional and technical
Managers and administrators
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Nonfarm laborers

Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

the ocean, and enhancing the qual­
ity of the environment. Scientific and
technical knowledge will continue to
grow and raise the demand for work­
ers in scientific and technical spe­
cialties. The late 1970’s and early
1980’s will see a sustained emphasis
on the social sciences and medical
By 1985, 17 million professional,
technical, and kindred workers may
be required, nearly 50 percent more
than were employed in 1972. In
particular, requirements for college
graduates in professional and tech­
nical jobs are expected to increase
by nearly two-thirds, reaching 11.6
Managers and administrators
totaled 8.0 million in 1972; about
one-quarter of them, or 2.0 million,
were college graduates. As in the
past, requirements for salaried man­
agers are likely to continue to in­
crease rapidly because of the grow­
ing dependence of business organi­
zations and government agencies on
management specialists. On the
other hand, the number of self-em­
ployed managers is expected to con­
tinue to decline as the trend toward
larger businesses continues to re­

strict growth of the total number of
firms and as supermarkets continue
to replace small grocery stores.
Managers and administrators as a
group will increase by about 30
percent betwen 1972 and 1985. Re­
quirements for college graduates in
managerial and administrative jobs,
primarily salaried positions, are ex­
pected to nearly double over the
Salesworkers, accounting for 5.4
million workers in 1972, are found
primarily in retail stores, wholesale
firms, insurance companies, and real
estate agencies, and in firms offering
goods door to door. In 1972, college
graduates constituted about 15 per­
cent of all salesworkers, or 780,000
Betwen 1972 and 1985, sales­
workers are expected to increase by
more than one-fifth. Increasing sales
of products resulting from popula­
tion growth, new product develop­
ment, business expansion, and rising
business levels will be the major
Employment of college graduates
in sales jobs is expected to grow by
nearly four-fifths by the mid-1980’s.
Over 21 percent, or 1.4 million of the

6.6 million salesworkers expected
to be employed in 1985, will be
college graduates. The rising num­
ber of college graduates in sales
positions reflects to some extent the
trend for employers to hire persons
with the highest educational qualifi­
cations. An increase in the propor­
tion of salesworkers who are college
graduates, however, also reflects the
changing nature of sales occupa­
tions. Increasingly, sales personnel
are required to have technical knowl­
edge of the product or service being
sold, especially in the manufacturing
and computer fields.
Clerical workers, numbering 14.2
million in 1972, include workers
who operate computers and office
machines, keep records, take dicta­
tion, and type. Clerical workers were
the largest occupational group in
1972, but less than 6 percent of
them, or 810,000 workers, were col­
lege graduates. Many new clerical
positions are expected to open up
as industries employing large num­
bers of clerical workers continue to
expand. The trend in retail stores
toward transferring to clerical work­
ers functions that were performed
by salespersons also will tend to
increase the need for clerical work­
ers. The demand also will be strong
for those qualified to handle jobs
created by electronic data process­
ing operations. The requirements for
clerical workers as a group are ex­
pected to increase by almost twofifths between 1972 and 1985, but
the proportion of college graduates
needed is not expected to grow.

Blue-Collar Workers

Workers employed in skilled
craftsman jobs, semiskilled machine
and vehicle operative jobs, and
laborer jobs totaled 28.6 million in
1972— 35 percent of the employed



Farm Workers

College Graduates W ork Primarily in
Professional and Technical Jobs___________ 6
WORKERS, 1972 (in millions)








H U * / graduates

Professional and technical
Managers and administrators
Sales workers


^ ^ ^ e s s than 4 years of college

Clerical workers




Nonfarm laborers


Farm workers— including farm­
ers, farm managers, laborers, and
foremen— numbered 3.1 million in
1972. Employment requirements for
farm workers are expected to de­
cline to 1.6 million in 1985 in re­
sponse to continued improvements
in farm technology. Nearly 3 per­
cent, or almost 80,000 farm work­
ers, were college graduates in 1972,
and although this proportion is ex­
pected to increase slightly by 1985,
employment of college graduates in
farm jobs is expected to decline to
about 50,000.

Source: Bureau of Lab or S ta tic tic s

laborer force. The 420,000 college
graduates employed in those jobs,
however, constituted less than 2
percent of all blue-collar workers.
Blue-collar employment is ex­
pected to increase slowly through
the mid-1980’s, representing a de­
clining share of the labor force. By
1985, 32 percent of all employed, or
32.7 million workers, will be em­
ployed in blue-collar jobs. Industrial
growth and increasing business ac­
tivity are the major factors expected
to spur the growth of blue-collar
occupations. Technological develop­
ments enabling greater automation
of production, however, will repress
employment of blue-collar workers
while raising their productivity. Al­
though more than 500,000 college
graduates are expected to occupy
blue-collar jobs by the mid-1980’s,
they will still constitute less than 2
percent of all blue-collar workers.

Service Workers

Service workers, including men
and women who provide protective
services, assist professional nurses

in hospitals, give haircuts and beauty
treatments, serve food, and clean
and care for homes, totaled 11.0
million in 1972. This diverse group
will increase 22 percent between
1972 and 1985. Some of the main
factors that are expected to increase
requirements for service workers to
13.3 million by 1985 are the rising
demand for hospital and other medi­
cal care; the greater need for pro­
tective services as urbanization con­
tinues and cities become more
crowded; and the more frequent use
of restaurants, beauty parlors, and
other services as income levels rise
and as an increasing number of
housewives take jobs outside the
In 1972, more than 2 percent of
all service workers, or 240,000,
were college graduates. This pro­
portion is expected to increase
slightly by 1985, when 330,000
college graduates are expected to be
required. Expected rapid growth of
college graduate employment in
service jobs will stem from increas­
ingly sophisticated techniques used
in law enforcement and other serv­

Nearly one-quarter of all job
openings between 1972 and 1985
are expected to require persons who
have completed 4 years or more of
college. College graduates will be
needed for almost one-third of all
white-collar job openings— primar­
ily in the fastest growing groups—
professional and technical workers,
and managers and administrators.
Nearly 3 out of 4 openings in pro­
fessional and technical occupations,
and more than half of the job open­
ings in managerial and administra­
tive occupations, will require work­
ers who have earned their college
degrees. (See chart 7.) The increas­
ing requirement for college gradu­
ates reflects a continuing trend. The
proportion of all employed persons
who were college graduates grew
from 10 percent in 1959 to 14 per­
cent in 1973; the expectation is that
this proportion will keep increasing,
reaching almost 19 percent by the
Job openings for college-educated
workers stem from three sources:



M o s t Job O penings for College Graduates
Through the M id -1 98 0's W ill Be in
W hite-Collar Jobs________________________ 1
OPENINGS, 1972- 85 PROJECTED (in millions)









Professional and technical

College gt


Managers and administrators

Less than 4 years of college

Sales workers
Clerical workers







■ ^Em p loym e n t d e c lin e is m o re t h o n o ffset b y o p e n in g s ere c te d b y d e a th s a n d retirem ents.


Bureau of Labor Statistics

growth in employment in occupa­
tions currently filled by college
graduates; the need to replace grad­
uates who die, retire, or leave the
labor force for other reasons; and
rising job entry requirements or the
trend toward hiring college gradu­
ates for jobs once performed by
those with less education.
Over the period from 1972
through the mid-1980’s, 14.5 mil­
lion college graduates will be needed
to meet requirements from these
three sources. Growth of occupa­
tions currendy filled by college
graduates is expected to account for
4.7 million openings; 7 out of 10
of these openings will be in pro­
fessional and technical occupations.
Another 6.8 million openings will
result from the need to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the labor
force. Finally, 3.0 million openings
will result from upgrading the edu­
cation prerequisites for jobs not
previously requiring a college de­
gree for entry.
“Educational upgrading,” or ris­
ing entry requirements, results from
a number of factors— some related
to the changing nature or content of
existing jobs; some related to the

increasing availability or supply of
college graduates; and some related
to noneconomic factors. College
graduates will be demanded in some
jobs traditionally held by less edu­
cated workers due to the increasing­
ly complex skills required for those
jobs. As computers and other tech­
nical advances continue to spread
through an ever-broadening range
of jobs, college-educated workers
will be required to use these capa­
bilities efficiently. In other cases, an
understanding of complex legal and
regulatory constraints imposed on
business and industry is becoming
increasingly essential for many jobs.
Educational upgrading will occur
in a wide range of jobs, primarily
those in managerial and sales work.
For example, the increasing reliance
of business and government on sal­
aried management specialists and
the historical decline in the number
of self-employed managers help ex­
plain the anticipated growth of col­
lege graduates in managerial occu­
pations. Sales personnel are increas­
ingly required to have technical
knowledge in order to better dem­
onstrate and adequately explain the
product or service they are selling.

Also, employers may have pre­
ferred to hire college graduates for
various jobs but could not compete
for them in the past.
Rising entry requirements may
simply reflect the greater number of
college graduates available for em­
ployment as well as a general ten­
dency to hire the person who has
the highest educational qualifica­
tions, especially for white-collar
jobs. This would happen if substan­
tial numbers of college graduates
were unsuccessful in finding a job
in the career of their choice.
Increased employment of college
graduates outside of the professions
may also reflect a lack of ability or
motivation for professional work on
the part of some graduates. It may
also reflect sexual and racial dis­
crimination as well as a host of
other factors.
Record numbers of college de­
grees will continue to be awarded
each year through the mid-1980’s.
(See chart 8.) Nearly 1.2 million
bachelor’s, master’s, doctor’s, and
first professional degrees were
awarded during the 1971-72 aca­
demic year— more than two and
one-half times the number awarded
during the 1958-59 academic year.
By 1985 more than 1.7 million col­
lege degrees are expected to be
awarded annually. Twice as many
college degrees will be earned from
1972 through 1985 as were earned
from 1958 through 1972. Of the
20.1 million degrees expected to be
earned between 1972 and 1985,
seven out of ten will be bachelor’s
Although these expected college
graduates represent potential new
entrants to the labor force, not all
can be considered part of the effec­
tive new supply of college-educated
workers. For example, most mas­
ter’s and doctor’s degree recipients
are employed before receiving their




A greater oversupply of college
graduates is expected over the
1980-85 period than over the
1972-80 period. The projected
EARNED DEGREES (in thousands)
“gap” is roughly 100,000 for 19722 0 0 0 r -------- --------------1------------------------!---------------1-------- 1..................... .........r
1980, or 12,500 a year on the aver­
age, and 700,000 for 1980-85, or
140,000 a year. The widening of the
gap arises from the expected slow­
down in the rate of growth of the
economy in the later period and not
from an accelerated increase in the
number of degree recipients. In fact,
the rise in the number of degree re­
cipients will slow over 1980-85. The
average number of degrees granted
annually over 1972-80 is expected
Source: O ffic e of Education
to total 1,440,000, almost 70 per­
cent or 585,000 higher than the pre­
vious 10 years’ average of 856,000
advanced degrees and consequently housewives, persons separating from
annually. But over the 1980-85 pe­
are already considered part of the the Armed Forces, persons return­
riod, degrees granted will average
supply of college graduates in the ing to the United States after living
labor force. Many other degree re­ in a foreign country, immigrants, 1,718,000, only 277,000 more or
19 percent higher than over 1972cipients, especially those holding and others.
bachelor’s degrees, delay entry into
Thus, as a result of these trends 1980. However, it is expected that
the civilian labor force to continue in the demand for and supply of job openings over 1980-85 will be
their education, enter the Armed college graduates, the number of rising at an even slower rate. An­
Forces, or become full-time house­ persons with college degrees enter­ nual job openings will increase an
ing the labor force over the 1972— average of only 4 percent, a rise of
The new supply of college grad­ 1985 period is expected to be about barely 50,000 over the average of
uates expected to enter the labor 800,000 above the number of pro­ 1.1 million job openings annually
force from 1972 to 1985 will total jected job openings.
over the 1972-80 period.
15.3 million. (See chart 9.) On the
basis of past patterns of entry into
Over 15 M illion College Graduates are
the labor force by college graduates,
Expected to Enter the Civilian Labor Force
13.2 million of the recipients of col­
lege degrees between 1972 and
1985 are expected to enter the civil­
ian labor force during that period.
Included are 11.2 million bachelor’s
degree recipients, 1.2 million mas­
ter’s degree recipients, nearly 20,000
doctor’s degree recipients, and 750,000 holders of first professional de­
grees such as law or medical degrees.
In addition, 2.1 million college grad­
uates are expected to enter or re­
enter the civilian labor force from
sources other than the Nation’s col­
2l in clu d e s reentrants a n d p e r s o n s s e p a r a t in g from m ilitary services.
leges and universities. They include
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The Number of Degrees Aw arded is
Expected to Continue to Increase
Through the M id-1980's__________________ 8



A statistical “oversupply” of col­
lege graduates does not imply that
college graduates will experience
significant levels of unemployment.
The unemployment rate of college
graduates has always been lower
that that of workers with less edu­
cation. (See chart 10.) Problems
for college graduates will center on
underemployment and job dissatis­
faction, which are likely to result in
increasing movement among occu­
pations rather than unemployment.
Many individuals may have to take
jobs for which a college degree has
not been a requirement in the past—
perhaps jobs in which their training
might not be fully utilized. Sales,

clerical, and service jobs will be
likely to absorb most of the surplus
The availability of more college
graduates will have an adverse effect
on those with less education. In the
future, workers without college de­
grees will probably have fewer op­
portunities to advance to profes­
sional positions in fields such as
engineering and accounting as well
as to higher level managerial, sales,
and service jobs. Thus, while col­
lege graduates may face competition
for jobs, those without a college ed­
ucation will face even greater com­
petition for the better jobs.
On the other hand, in some occu­

Unem ployment Rates are Lowest for
College-Educated W orkers



-------- -------------



Elementary School

High School


Bureau of Labor Statistics



pations, graduates of four-year col­
leges are likely to face unprece­
dented competition from community
and junior college graduates. Com­
munity colleges and other post­
secondary institutions have shown
that they can train students for many
occupations in 2 years or even
less, and the number of students
completing career education pro­
grams in these institutions is increas­
ing rapidly.
The remainder of this publication
discusses the outlook for various oc­
cupations requiring a college degree
for entry. Although an oversupply
of college graduates is generally ex­
pected, the outlook for individual
occupations varies a great deal. For
example, a shortage of graduates
with the education required to be­
come chemists, engineers, and medi­
cal doctors is expected, if past
trends continue, as is a surplus of
graduates in teaching and the bio­
logical sciences. This highlights
the importance of careful career
planning while in high school and
college. By selecting courses of study
in light of what the future world of
work will be like, students can grad­
uate from college with the most
marketable types of education and
training. The Occupational Outlook
for College Graduates and career
guidance counselors can provide
valuable assistance in this regard.


Office workers perform a wide
range of tasks that are needed to
keep business and other organiza­
tions running on a day-to-day basis.
Clerical workers maintain files, type,
and operate office machines. Pro­
fessional and technical employees
give legal advice, prepare and an­
alyze financial reports, design com­
puter systems, and arrange bank
Opportunities in office work exist
for people with widely different edu­
cational backgrounds. Some jobs
can be entered with only a high
school education, but many others
require at least a college degree.
Many clerical employees work
with things and often do detailed,
repetitive tasks. Most professional
office workers, on the other hand,
work with ideas; they apply their
skills to solving problems and de­
vising ways to provide better serv­
ices to those who depend on them.
Besides the technical skills required
to do their jobs, office workers need
judgment and the ability to com­
municate their ideas to others.
This section describes office work
for college graduates in administra­
tive and related occupations, com­
puter and related occupations, and
insurance occupations.

Most administrative workers are
office employees who run, or help

run, businesses and other organiza­
tions. Some are managers, who su­
pervise, plan operations, and make
company policy. Others provide
assistance to management, such as
personnel workers who recruit and
hire staff members and handle em­
ployee problems. Much administra­
tive work is highly specialized and
most workers gain experience and
skill through on-the-job training.
The success or failure of an organi­
zation depends heavily on the way
administrative workers do their jobs.
Nearly all administrative jobs re­
quire a college degree, although em­
ployers vary in the specific area of
study they prefer. Some seek busi­
ness administration or liberal arts
graduates; others want employees
who have a background in a tech­
nical area such as engineering or
Many administrative workers
solve problems and make decisions,
using numbers and technical data.
In addition, these workers must be
tactful and able to get along with
others. They must be able to handle
the uneven flow of work in offices.
This section describes a number
of administrative occupations, in­
cluding city managers, accountants,
credit officials, and personnel work­

(D.O.T. 160.188)
Nature of the Work

Managers must have up-to-date
financial information to make im­
portant decisions. Accountants pre­
pare and analyze financial reports
that furnish this kind of information.
Three major accounting fields are
public, management, and govern­
ment accounting. Public account­
ants are independent practitioners or
employees of accounting firms.
Management accountants, often
called industrial or private account­
ants, handle the financial records of
their firms. Government account­
ants examine the records of govern­
ment agencies and audit private busi­
nesses and individuals whose deal­
ings are subject to government
Accountants often specialize in
areas such as auditing, taxes, or
budgeting and control. Many public
accountants specialize in auditing
(reviewing a client’s financial records
and reports to judge their reliabil­
ity). Others advise clients on tax
matters and other financial and ac­
counting problems. Management ac­
countants provide the financial infor­
mation that executives need to make
intelligent business decisions. They
may specialize in taxes, budgeting,
investments, or internal auditing (ex­
amining and appraising their firms’
financial systems and management
control procedures). Many account­
ants in the Federal Government
work as Internal Revenue agents, in­
vestigators, and bank examiners;
other government accountants have
regular accounting positions.



Accountant discusses client’s financial records.

Places of Employment

More than 700,000 people worked
as accountants in 1972; about 20 per­
cent were Certified Public Account­
ants (CPA’s). About 3 percent of
the CPA’s and 22 percent of all
accountants are women.
More than 60 percent of all ac­
countants do management account­
ing work. An additional 20 percent
are engaged in public accounting as
proprietors, partners, or employees
of independent accounting firms.
Other accountants work for Federal,
State and local government agencies,
and a small number teach in col­
leges and universities.
Accountants are found wherever
business, industrial, or government
organizations are located. Most,
however, work in large urban areas
where many public accounting firms
and central offices of large busi­
nesses are concentrated.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training in accounting is avail­

able at colleges and universities, ac­
counting and business schools, and
correspondence schools. Although
many graduates of business and cor­
respondence schools are successful in
small accounting firms, most large
public accounting and business firms
require applicants to have at least a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or a
closely related field. Many employ­
ers prefer those with the master’s
degree in accounting. For beginning
accounting positions, the Federal
Government requires 4 years of col­
lege training (including 24 semester
hours in accounting or related sub­
jects) or an equivalent combination
of education and experience. For
teaching positions, most colleges and
universities require the m aster’s
degree or the doctorate with the Cer­
tified Public Accountancy Certifi­
Previous work experience in ac­
counting can help an applicant get a
job. Many colleges offer students an
opportunity to gain experience
through internship programs con­
ducted by public accounting or busi­
ness firms.

Anyone working as a “ certified
public accountant’’ must hold a cer­
tificate issued by the State board of
accountancy. All states use the CPA
examination, administered by the
American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, to establish cer­
tification. Although only half the
States require CPA candidates to be
college graduates, most successful
candidates have college degrees.
Nearly all States require applicants
to have at least 2 years of public ac­
counting experience for a CPA cer­
Requirements vary, but more than
half the States restrict the title
“public accountant” to those who
are licensed or registered. Informa­
tion on requirements may be ob­
tained directly from individual State
boards of accountancy or from the
National Society of Public Accoun­
People planning a career in ac­
counting should have an aptitude for
mathematics. Neatness and accu­
racy also are necessary. Employers
seek applicants who handle respon­
sibility and work with little supervi­
Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually
must continue their study of account­
ing even though they already have
college degrees or CPA certificates.
They may take part in seminars
sponsored by various professional
associations or take courses offered
by their employers. An increasing
number of accountants study com­
puter operation and programming to
adapt accounting procedures to new
data processing methods. Although
capable accountants may advance
rapidly, those having inadequate aca­
demic preparation are likely to be as­
signed routine jobs and may find
promotions difficult to obtain.
Junior public accountants usually
start by assisting with auditing work
for several clients. They may ad­


vance to intermediate positions with
more responsibility in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within
another few years. In larger firms,
those who deal successfully with top
industry executives often become
supervisors, managers, or partners,
or transfer to executive positions in
private firms. Some open their own
public accounting offices.
Beginning management account­
ants often start as ledger account­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may advance to jobs
such as chief plant accountant, chief
cost accountant, budget director,
senior internal auditor, or manager
of internal auditing. Some become
controllers, treasurers, financial vicepresidents, or corporation presi­
dents. In the Federal Government,
beginners are hired as trainees and
usually promoted in a year or so. In
college and university teaching, those
having minimum traimng and ex­
perience may receive the rank of in­
structor without tenure; advance­
ment and permanent faculty status
depend upon further education and
teaching experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment of accountants is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as businesses and
government agencies continue to ex­
pand in size and complexity. Thou­
sands of additional openings will oc­
cur as employees die, retire, or leave
their jobs to seek other work.
Greater use of accounting infor­
mation in business management,
changing tax systems, and growth of
large corporations that must pro­
vide financial reports to stock­
holders, all point to excellent oppor­
tunities for accountants. Because of
the growing complexity of business
accounting requirements, account­
ants with college degrees will be in

stronger demand than those who
lack this training. In addition, the
trend toward specialization will
create opportunities for people train­
ed in a specific phase of accounting.
As data processing systems con­
tinue to replace manual preparation
of accounting records and state­
ments, the need for some lower level
accountants may be reduced or
eliminated. On the other hand, many
highly-trained accountants will be re­
quired to prepare, administer, and
analyze the information made avail­
able by these systems.
Earnings and Working

Starting salaries of beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$9,100 a year in 1972, according to a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey in
urban areas. Earnings of experi­
enced accountants ranged between
$11,900 and $17,400, depending on
their level of responsibility and the
complexity of the accounting system.
In general, experienced accountants
earn about twice as much as average
earnings of all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Chief accountants who di­
rect the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $15,300 and
$26,500, depending upon the scope of
their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.
According to the same survey, be­
ginning auditors averaged $9,600 a
year, while experienced auditors’
earnings ranged between $12,900 and
Salaries generally are somewhat
higher for accountants holding a
graduate degree or a CPA certif­
icate. Earnings also are higher for
those who are required to travel a
great deal.
In the Federal Civil Service the en­
trance salary for junior accountants


and auditors was about $7,700 in
early 1973. Candidates who had su­
perior academic records received a
starting salary of about $9,500.
Some auditors began at about $10,300. Experienced accountants in the
Federal Government averaged about
$20,000 a year. Those with admin­
istrative responsibilities earned
Accountants often work very long
hours under heavy pressure during
the tax season and some travel ex­
tensively. The majority, however, re­
main in one office and work between
35 and 40 hours a week, under the
same general conditions as fellow of­
fice workers.
Sources of Additional

Information about CPA’s and ap­
titude tests given in many high
schools, colleges, and public ac­
counting firms may be obtained
American Institute of Certified Public
Accountants, 666 Fifth Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

F urther inform ation on spe­
cialized fields of accounting is avail­
able from:
National Association of Accountants,
919 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.

National Society of Public Account­
ants, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.,
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.



(D.O.T. 050.088, 132.088,
141.081 and .168, 162.158,
and 164.068 through .168)
Nature off the Work

Through advertisements, busi­
nesses try to reach potential cus­
tomers and persuade them to buy
their products or services. Adver­
tising workers are employed in many
industries to plan and prepare ads.
To get advertisements before the
public, copywriters write texts; ar­
tists prepare illu stratio n s; ad ­
ministrative and technical workers
reproduce “ads” ; and salesmen sell
advertising space and time for
publications, radio, and television. In
some small advertising organiza­
tions, one person handles all these
tasks; large organizations, however,
may employ research, copywriting,
and other specialists. The following
specialties commonly are found in
advertising work.
Advertising managers direct a
firm’s advertising program. They
decide policy questions such as the
type of advertising, the advertising
budget, and the agency to employ.
The advertising manager and agency
work together to plan the program
and carry it through. They also may
supervise the preparation of special
sales brochures, display cards, and
other promotional materials. Adver­
tising managers of newspapers, radio
stations, or other advertising media
are responsible for selling advertis­
ing time or space. Their work is
similar to that of sales managers in
other businesses.
Account executives work in adver­
tising agencies to handle relations
between the agency and its clients.
An account executive studies the
client’s sales and advertising prob­
lems, develops a plan to meet the
client’s needs, and seeks his approval

of the proposed program. Account
executives must be able to sell ideas
and maintain good relations with
clients. They must also know how to
write copy and use artwork, even
though copywriters and artists usual­
ly carry out their ideas and sugges­
tions. Some advertising agencies
have account supervisors who over­
see the work of the account execu­
tives. In others, account executives
are responsible directly to agency
Research directors and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze infor­
mation for advertising programs.
They study possible uses of a prod­
uct, its advantages and disadvan­
tages compared to competing prod­
ucts, and ways of reaching potential
buyers. These workers may survey
buying habits and motives of cus­
tomers, or try out sample advertise­
ments to find the best selling theme
or media. (See the statement on
Marketing Research Workers for
m ore inform ation on this oc­
Advertising copywriters create the
headlines, slogans, and text that at­
tract buyers. They collect informa­
tion about products and potential
customers. Copywriters use a knowl­
edge of psychology and writing to
prepare copy especially suited for the
particular readers or listeners sought
as buyers and for the advertising
medium used. They may specialize in
a type of copy that appeals to cer­
tain groups—housewives, business­
men, scientists, engineers—or that
deals with a class of items such as
packaged goods or industrial prod­
ucts. In advertising agencies, copy­
writers work closely with account ex­
ecutives, although they may also be
under the supervision of a copy chief.
Artists and layout workers plan
and create visual effects in adver­
tisements. (See the statements on
Commercial Artists and Photogra­
phers elsewhere in the Handbook for

more information on these oc­
Advertisers and advertising agen­
cies employ media directors (or
space buyers and time buyers) to ne­
gotiate contracts for advertising
space or time. They determine where
and when advertising should be
carried to reach the largest group of
prospective buyers at the least cost.
They must know the advertising
costs in different media and the char­
acteristics of the audience reached in
various parts of the country by
specific publications, broadcasting
stations, and other media.
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the copy
and art work converted into print.
They deal with printing, engraving,
filming, recording, and other firms
involved in the reproduction of
advertisements. The production
manager needs a thorough knowl­
edge of printing, photography, paper
and inks, and related technical mate­
rials and processes.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 150,000 people
worked in jobs that require con­
siderable knowledge of advertising.
More than one-third were employed
in advertising agencies, largely con-


centrated in New York City and
These workers also are employed
by organizations having products or
services to sell, like manufacturing
companies and stores; by advertis­
ing media, such as newspapers and
magazines; and by firms providing
services to advertisers, including
printers, engravers, art studios, and
product and package designers.

Some top-flight copywriters and ac­
count executives establish their own
Employment Outlook

E m ploym ent of a d v e rtisin g
workers is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s,
as the volume of consumer goods and
competition among manufacturers
increase. Although opportunities
should be favorable for highly quali­
Training, Other Qualifications,
fied applicants, those seeking entry
and Advancement
jobs will face stiff competition. Most
Most employers prefer college openings will result from the need to
graduates having liberal arts train­ replace those who retire, die, or leave
ing or majors in advertising, market­ the occupation for other reasons.
ing, journalism , or business ad­
ministration. However, no typical
Earnings and Working
educational background is equated
with success in advertising. Experi­
According to the limited infor­
ence in copywriting, work on school
publications, or summer jobs with mation available, annual starting
marketing research services are help­ salaries for beginning advertising
workers with bachelor’s degrees
Some large advertising organiza­ ranged from $6,500 to $10,000 in
tions recruit outstanding college 1972 and from $11,000 to $13,000
graduates and train them through for those with master’s degrees.
programs that cover all aspects of The higher starting salaries usually
advertising work. Some beginners were paid by very large firms to
start as assistants in research or outstanding college graduates.
production work or as space or time
Salaries of experienced advertis­
buyers. A few begin as junior ing workers employed by advertis­
ing agencies varied by size of firm
Most advertising jobs require a and type of job. For exam ple, ac­
flair for language, both spoken and count executives’ salaries averaged
written. Because every assignment $18,000 to $22,000 a year; media
requires specialized handling, an directors, $10,000 to $16,000, ac­
ability for problem-solving also is cording to limited information.
important. Advertising workers
Advertising workers frequently
should be interested in people and work under great pressure. Working
things; they also need tact to help hours som etim es are irregular
them sell their ideas to superiors, because of deadlines and last minute
advertisers, and the public. They changes. People in creative jobs often
must also be able to accept criticism work evenings and weekends to
finish important assignments.
and work as part of a team.
Advertising may be a satisfying
Copywriters and account execu­
tives may advance to managerial career for those who enjoy variety,
jobs or more responsible work in excitement, creative challenges, and
their own specialties, if they demon­ competition. Advertising workers ex­
strate ability in dealing with clients. perience the satisfaction of having


their work in print, on television, or
on radio, even though they remain
unknown to the public at large.
Sources of Additional

Information on advertising agen­
cies and the careers they offer may
be obtained from:
American Association of Advertising
Agencies, 200 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Association of Industrial Advertisers,
41 East 42nd Street, New York,
N.Y. 10017.

A list of schools providing training
in advertising may be obtained from:
American Advertising Federation,
1225 Connecticut Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 186.1 18, .138, .168, and
.288; 161.118, 189.118 and .168)
Nature of the Work

Practically every bank has a presi­
dent who directs operations; one or
more vice presidents who act as
general m anagers or have charge of
bank departments such as trust, or
credit; and a comptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and
other businesses, is an executive of­
ficer generally responsible for all
bank property. Large banks also
may have treasurers and other senior
officers, as well as junior officers, to
supervise the various sections within
d iffe re n t d e p a rtm e n ts. Banks
employed almost 220,000 officers in
1972; women were about one-sixth
of the total.
A bank officer makes decisions
within a framework of policy set by
the board of directors and existing



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Branch bank manager helps new customers open checking account.

laws and regulations. An officer
must have a broad knowledge of
business activities to relate to the
operations of his department. For ex­
ample, loan officers evaluate the
credit and collateral of individuals
and businesses applying for a loan.
Similarly, trust officers must under­
stand each account before they invest
funds to support families, send young
people to college, or pay retirement
pensions. Besides supervising finan­
cial services, officers advise individ­
uals and businessmen and participate
in community projects.
Because banks offer many ser­
vices, a wide choice of careers is
available to those who specialize.
Loan officers must be familiar
with economics, production, dis­
tribution, merchandising, and com­
mercial law. They also need to know
business operations and be able to
analyze financial statements. Of­
ficers may handle installment, com­
mercial, real estate, or agricultural

T ru st m anagem ent req u ires
knowledge of financial planning and
investment for investment research
and estate and trust administration.
Operations officers plan, coordinate,
and control the work flow; update
systems; and strive for bank efficien­
cy. They also train and supervise a
large number of people. Careers in
bank operations include electronic
data processing and internal and
customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is
responsible for relations with other
banks; branch bank manager, for all
functions of a branch office; and an
international officer, for advising
customers with financial dealings
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign country’s language, geogra­
phy, politics, history, and economic
growth can help those interested in
international banking.
Other career fields for bank of­
ficers are auditing, economics, per­
sonnel administration, public rela­
tions, and operations research.

Bank officer positions are filled
by management trainees or by pro­
moting outstanding bank clerks.
College graduation usually is re­
quired for management trainees.
A business administration major in
finance or a liberal arts curriculum
including accounting, economics,
commercial law, political science,
and statistics serve as excellent
preparation for officer trainee posi­
tions. Valuable experience may be
gained through summer employ­
ment programs.
Many banks have well-organized
officer-training programs usually
ranging from 6 months to 1 year.
Trainees may start as credit or in­
vestment analysts or rotate among
bank departments to get the “ feel”
of banking; bank officials then can
determine the position for which
each employee is best suited.
Although persons planning to
become bank officers should like to
work independently and analyze
detailed information, they need tact
and good judgment in order to
counsel customers.
Advancement to officer may come
slowly in small banks where the
number of positions is limited. In
large banks that have special train­
ing programs, promotions may come
more quickly. For a senior officer
position, however, an employee
usually needs many years of experi­
Although experience, ability, and
leadership are em phasized for
promotion, advancement also may
be accelerated by special study.
Courses in every phase of banking
are offered by the American Institute
of Banking, a long-established,
industry-sponsored school. (See the
statement on the Banking Industry
elsewhere in the Handbook for more
inform ation on the In stitu te ’s



p ro g ra m and o th e r tra in in g
programs sponsored by universities
and local bankers’ associations.)

Employment Outlook

Through the mid-1980’s, employ­
ment of bank officers is expected to
increase rapidly. Computers will be
used to expand banking activities;
additional officers will be required
for sound management and control
and to replace those who retire or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Although college graduates who
meet the standards for executive
trainees should find good oppor­
tunities for entry positions, many
senior officer positions will be filled
by promoting people already experi­
enced in banking. Competition for
these promotions, particularly in
large banks, is likely to be keen.

City manager discusses urban renewal project with staff.


According to a private survey con­
ducted in 1972, large banks, in­
surance companies, and other finan­
cial institutions paid salaries ranging
from $550 to $780 a month to new
executive trainees who were college
The salaries of senior bank officers
may be several times as great as
these starting salaries. For officers,
as well as for other bank employees,
earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities.
See the statement on the Banking
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for Places of Employment and
Sources of Additional Information,
and for general information on bank­
ing occupations.

(D.O.T. 188.118)
Nature of the Work

Population growth and industrial
expansion place increasing pressure
on housing, transportation, and
other facilities of cities. Problems
associated with growing modern
communities, such as air and water
pollution and rising crime rates, also
demand attention. To cope effective­
ly with these problems, sophisti­
cated management techniques are
required. Consequently, many com­
munities hire a specialist who has
these skills—the city manager.
A city manager is responsible to
the community’s elected officials
who appoint him. Although duties
vary by city size, city managers
generally coordinate and administer
activities of operating departments,
such as tax collection and disburse­

ment, law enforcement, and public
works; hire department heads and
their staffs; and prepare the annual
budget to be approved by elected of­
ficials. They also study current
problems, such as unionization of
government employees or urban
renewal, and report their findings
to the elected council.
City managers must plan for
future growth and development of
cities and surrounding areas. To pro­
vide for an expansion of public ser­
vices, they frequently appear at civic
meetings to advocate certain pro­
grams or to inform citizens of
current government operations.
City managers work closely with
planning departments to coordinate
new and existing programs. In
smaller cities that have no per­
manent planning staff, coordination
may be assumed entirely by the
Many cities employ assistant city
m a n a g e rs , d e p a rtm e n t head



assistants, and administrative assist­
ants to aid city managers. Under his
direction, they administer pro­
grams, prepare reports, receive
visitors, answer correspondence, and
generally help to keep the city func­
tioning smoothly. Assistant city
managers organize and coordinate
city p ro g ra m s, supervise city
employees, and act for the city
manager when he is absent. They
also may assume responsibility for
some projects, such as the develop­
ment of a preliminary annual budget.
Department head assistants gener­
ally are responsible for one activity,
such as personnel, finance, or law,
but also may assist in other areas.
Administrative assistants, also called
executive assistants or assistants to
the city manager, usually do ad­
ministrative and staff work in all
departments under the city manager.
For instance, they may compile
operating statistics, or review and
analyze work procedures.

Places of Employment

About 2,500 city managers, nearly
all of them men, were employed in
1972. In addition, several thousand
persons worked as administrative
assistants, department head assist­
ants, and assistant city managers.
About nine out of ten city managers
worked for cities and counties hav­
ing a council-manager form of
government. Most of the remainder
worked in municipalities having
other forms of government, such as
mayor-council government in which
the mayor appoints the city manager
as his “ administrative assistant” or
“chief administrative officer.” A few
city managers also worked for
metropolitan or regional planning
organizations and councils of
Although four-fifths of all city
managers work for small cities with

populations less than 25,000, most
larger cities also employ a city
manager. About half of the cities
with populations between 10,000 and
500,000 have city managers. City
managers work in all States except
Hawaii and Indiana, but one-half are
concentrated in Eastern United

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree, preferably
with a major in political science or
public administration, is the mini­
mum educational background need­
ed to become a city manager. How­
ever, a master’s degree in public or
m u n ic ip a l a d m in is tr a tio n is
In 1972, about 90 colleges and uni­
versities offered graduate degree pro­
grams in public or municipal ad­
ministration. Degree requirements in
some schools include successful com­
pletion of an internship program in a
city manager’s office. During this in­
ternship period, which may last from
6 months to a year, the degree can­
didate observes local government
operations and does research under
the direct supervision of the city
Most new graduates work as ad­
m inistrative assistants to city
managers for several years and gain
experience in solving urban prob­
lems, coordinating public services,
and management techniques. Others
work in an area of government oper­
ations such as finance, public works,
or public planning. They may ac­
quire supervisory skills and addi­
tional experience by working as
assistant city manager or depart­
ment head assistant in operations.
City managers first are employed in
small cities, but during their careers,
they usually work in several cities of
increasing size to gain experience.

Young persons who plan a career
in city management should like to
work with detail and as part of a
team. They must have sound judg­
ment, self-confidence, and be able to
perform well under stress. To handle
emergency situations, city managers
must quickly isolate problems, iden­
tify their causes, and provide alter­
nate solutions. City managers should
be tactful and able to communicate
with and work well with people.
City managers also must be dedi­
cated to public service since they
often put in long hard hours in times
of crises.

Employment Outlook

This small occupation is expected
to grow very rapidly as problems of
our growing cities become complex.
Examples of this complexity are
computerized data collection of
police information, advances in tech­
nology of traffic control, and the
application of systems analysis to ur­
ban problems. The demand for city
managers also will increase as cities
convert to the council-manager form
of government, currently the fastest
growing form of city government.
Furthermore, city managers will be
needed in places having other forms
of government to help elected of­
ficials cope with day-to-day oper­
ations of government.
Persons who seek beginning city
management jobs as administrative
assistants, department head assist­
ants, or assistant city managers may
face competition through the mid1980’s, especially if they do not have
a graduate degree in public ad­
ministration or related management
experience. Competition should be
keen among the growing number of
administrative assistants, depart­
ment head assistants, and assistant
city managers for the relatively few
city manager positions.



Earnings and Working

Salaries of city managers and their
assistants vary according to their
education and experience as well as
job responsibility and size of city.
Generally, city manager’s earnings
are very high relative to the average
earnings for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In 1972, annual salaries of city
managers ranged from about $12,000 in cities of 5,000 to more than
$35,000 in cities of more than 250,000, according to the International
City Management Association. In
cities of 10,000 or more, seven out of
ten city managers were paid at least
$20,000. City managers in cities not
having council-manager govern­
ments received slightly less.
Salaries of assistant city managers
and department head assistants rang­
ed from about $10,000 in small cities
to more than $25,000 in large ones.
They were generally paid about
three-fourths the salaries paid city
managers. Administrative assistant
salaries typically ranged from $8,500
to $10,000, annually.
City managers often work more
than 40 hours a week. Emergency
problems may require evening and
weekend work and meetings with in­
dividuals and citizen’s groups con­
sume additional time.
Fringe benefits usually include
health and life insurance programs,
pension plans, sick leave, vacation
time, and often a car for official busi­
ness. Managers generally are reim­
bursed for expenses incurred while
attending professional meetings and
Sources of Additional
International City Management Asso­
ciation, 1140 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118, 090.168,
129.108 and 166.168)
Nature of the Work

A student’s choice of a particular
institution of higher education for
further study is influenced by many
factors. Availability of a specific
educational program, quality of the
school, and cost, as well as proximity
to home, may all play important
For many students, an equally im­
portant standard is the institution’s
ability to provide for their housing,
social, cultural, and recreational
needs. Development and adminis­
tration of the latter services, and of
similar programs serving students’
well-being in addition to their educa­
tional needs, provide a wide variety
of jobs for college student personnel
workers. The admissions officer,
registrar, the dean of students, and
the career planning and placement

counselor are probably the best
known among these. Some other
types of workers that may make up
this broad occupational field are stu­
dent activities and college union per­
sonnel, student housing officers,
counselors in the college counseling
center, Financial aid officers and
foreign student advisors.
T itles of stu d e n t personnel
workers vary from institution to in­
stitution and from program to pro­
gram within a single school. Titles
also vary with the level of respon­
sibility within a certain student per­
sonnel program. The more common
titles include dean, director, officer,
associate dean, assistant director,
and counselor,
The dean o f students, or the vice
president for student affairs, heads
the student personnel program at a
school. Among his duties, he
evaluates the changing needs of the
students and helps the president of
the college develop institutional
policies. The dean of students
generally coordinates a staff of
associate or assistant deans; these


are in charge of the specific pro­
grams that deal directly with the
At some schools, the admissions
office and the records office are
separate. Admissions Counselors in­
terview and evaluate prospective
students and process their appli­
cations. They may travel extensively
to recruit high school, junior college
and older students and to acquaint
them with opportunities available at
their College. They work closely with
faculty, administrators, financial aid
personnel and public relations staff
to determine policies for recruiting
and admitting students. Personnel in
the office of the registrar maintain
the academic records of students,
and provide current enrollment stat­
istics for communication both within
the college and between the college
and the community.
Student financial aid personnel
assist students in obtaining financial
support to pay for their education.
Workers in this field must keep well
informed about sources of financial
aid, funding, and about manage­
ment of all forms of financial
aid—scholarships, grants, loans, stu­
dent em ploym ent, fellowships,
teaching and research assistantships. They work closely with ad­
m in is tra to rs, the adm issio n s,
counseling, business, and academic
office staffs.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placement officers, assist students in
making long-range career selections
and may also help students get parttime and summer jobs. On many
campuses, they arrange for prospec­
tive employers to visit the school to
discuss their firm’s personnel needs
and to interview applicants. (For
further information on this field, see
statement on College Career Plan­
ning and Placement Counselors).
The student personnel staff in
charge of student activities work


with members of proposed and es­
tablished student organizations, es­
pecially with student government.
They help the student groups to plan,
implement, and evaluate their ac­
tivities. Often, the student activities
staff will assist in the orientation of
new students.
College union staff members work
with students to provide intellectual,
cultural, and recreational programs.
Many college union staff members
are responsible for directing the
operation of the physical facilities
and services of the building, such as
food and recreational services, build­
ing maintenance, fiscal planning,
conference facilities, and employee
S tu d e n t housing officers
sometimes live in the dormitories
and, in general, help the students to
live together in harmony. They may
serve as counselors to individual
students with personal problems.
Housing officers also may be in­
volved in managing the fiscal, food
service, and housekeeping operation
of student residences.
Counselors help students with per­
sonal, educational, and vocational
problems. Students may come to the
counselors on their own or be
referred by a faculty member, a
residence hall counselor, or a friend.
Topics of discussions may include
lack of self-confidence or motivation
on the part of the student, failure in
academic work, desire to leave
college or transfer to another college,
inability to get along with others,
loneliness, drug abuse, or marriage
problems. In addition, there is a
growing trend for counselors to try
to reach more students by establish­
ing group sensitivity sessions and
telephone “hotlines” . Counselors
often administer tests that indicate
aptitudes and interests to students
having trouble understanding them­
selves. Some also teach in the college
or assist with admissions, orienta­

tion and training of residence hall
staff. (For further information on
th is fie ld , see s ta te m e n t on
Foreign student advisers admin­
ister and coordinate many of the ser­
vices which are crucial in insuring a
successful academic and social ex­
perience for students from other
countries. They usually assist with
foreign student admissions, orienta­
tion, financial aid, housing, English
as a foreign language, academic and
personal advising, student-com ­
munity relationships, placement, and
alumni relations. In addition they
may be an adviser for international
associations and nationality groups
and for United States students in­
terested in study, educational travel,
work, or service projects abroad.
Places of Employment

An estimated 35,000 to 40,000
college student personnel workers,
roughly one-third of them women,
were employed in 1972. Every
college and university, whether a
two-year or a four-year school, has a
staff performing student personnel
functions. They are not always or­
ganized as a unified program. Large
colleges and universities generally
have specialized staffs for each per­
sonnel function. However, in many
small colleges the entire student per­
sonnel program may be carried out
by just a few persons.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Because of the diversity in duties,
the education and backgrounds of
college student personnel workers
vary considerably. A bachelor’s
degree is the minimum requirement;
however, for some student personnel
programs it is necessary to have a
master’s degree, and others in the
field have doctoral degrees.



In 1972, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate
programs in student personnel work.
However, many employers prefer in­
stead a graduate degree in a specific
academ ic field added to some
courses in student personnel work. A
m aster’s degree in clinical or
counseling psychology is usually re­
quired for work as a college
counselor. This degree also is help­
ful in other student personnel fields
such as career planning and place­
ment. Business administration also is
helpful, especially for those who wish
to go into the admissions, records,
college union, financial aid, or stu­
dent housing fields. Familiarity with
data processing is an asset especially
for work in admissions, records, or
financial aid. Social science and
recreation degrees also are useful, as
is work experience in business,
government, or educational associa­
tions. The majority, however, have
degrees in education or the social
College student personnel workers
must be interested in, and able to
work with, people of all back­
grounds and ages. They must have
the patience to cope with conflicting
viewpoints of students, faculty, and
parents. People in this field often
deal with the unexpected and the un­
usual, therefore emotional stability
and the ability to function while un­
der pressure are necessities.
Entry-level positions are usually
those of student activities advisors,
admissions counselors, financial aid
counselors, residence hall directors,
and assistants to deans. Persons
without graduate degrees may find
advancement opportunities limited.
A doctorate is usually necessary for
the top student personnel positions.
Employment Outlook

Employment of college student
personnel workers is likely to remain

relatively stable through the mid1970’s. Tightening budgets, in both
public and private colleges and uni­
versities, is the chief factor underly­
ing this expected stability in employ­
ment. Student personnel positions
least likely to be affected if some
red u ctio n in num ber becom es
necessary are those most closely tied
to the academic function of the
school—admissions, financial aid,
records, and counseling. The number
of graduate programs in student per­
sonnel is continuing to grow as is the
number of graduates, a situation
which the National Association of
Student Personnel Administrators
feels could result in competition for
jobs in this field. Over the short run,
until colleges and universities resolve
their financial difficulties, most
openings each year will result from
the need to replace personnel who
transfer to other positions, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
After the mid-1970’s, however,
employment of student personnel
workers is expected to increase as
colleges provide more services for
students, especially the growing
num ber from low-income and
minority families who often require
special counseling and assistance.
The increasing number of college
students, particularly in junior and
community colleges, is a factor
which also could contribute to some
growth in the student personnel oc­
cupations, especially if financial
problems should ease. Two-year
public colleges, for the most part,
have less serious financial problems
because, unlike most four-year
colleges, their enrollments are grow­
ing and their operating costs are
Earnings and Working

Median salaries of chief student
affairs officers ranged from $11,900

in small non-public colleges to $26,000 in large public universities in
1972, according to a N ational
Education Association survey of
public and private colleges and uni­
versities. Median salaries of deans o f
admissions ranged from $11,062 to
$19,400; for registrars, from $8,130
to $17,725. Directors o f student
testing and counseling had median
salaries of $9,900 to $19,800. The
median salaries of the other student
personnel workers were somewhat
College student personnel workers
frequently work more than a 40-hour
week; often irregular hours and over­
time work are necessary. Employ­
ment in these occupations is usually
on a 12-month basis. In many
schools, they are entitled to retire­
ment, group medical and life in­
surance, sabbatical and other
Sources of Additional

A pamphlet, Careers in Higher
Education, is available from:
The American Personnel and Guidance
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.



(D.O.T. 168.168 and 186.288)
Nature of the Work

Many daily activities of businesses
and individuals depend upon re­
ceiving goods and services on credit
or obtaining cash loans. In most
forms of credit granting, a credit of­
ficial makes the decision to accept or
reject the application. These workers
include credit ma na ge rs , who
authorize customer purchases when
payment is promised at a later date,
and loan officers, who approve cash
loans by financial institutions.
In extending credit to a business
(commercial credit), the credit of­
ficial analyzes detailed financial
reports submitted by the applicant,
interviews a company representative
about its management, and reviews
credit agency reports to determine
the firm’s reputation for repaying
debts. He also checks at banks where
the company has deposits or previ­
ously was granted credit. In extend­
ing credit to individuals (consumer
credit), detailed financial reports
usually are not available. The credit
official must rely more on personal
interviews, credit bureaus, and banks
to provide information about the
person applying for credit.
Loan officers in many large banks
make decisions based on their analy­
sis of reports submitted by credit
analysts. Officers may specialize in
handling certain types of credit, such
as installment loans, commercial
loans, real estate mortgages, and
agricultural loans. In smaller finan­
cial institutions, such as branch
banks and consumer finance com­
panies, the loan officer (who some­
times is the manager of the firm)
may do all the work of granting
loans himself. He may interview
applicants, analyze the information
gained in the interview, and make the
final lending decision.

Credit manager reviews previous credit transactions from computer printout.

Credit managers in retail and
wholesale trade usually cooperate
with the sales department in develop­
ing credit policies liberal enough to
allow the company’s sales to increase
and yet strict enough to deny credit
to customers whose ability to pay
their debts is questionable.
A credit manager frequently must
contact a customer who is unable or
refuses to repay his debt. He does
this though writing, telephoning, or
personal contact. If these attempts at
collection fail, the credit manager
may refer the account to a collection
agency or assign an attorney to take
legal action. Some credit managers
supervise workers who gather infor­
mation, analyze facts, and perform
general office duties in a credit
department; they include investi­
gation clerks, application clerks,
credit authorizers, information
clerks, credit collectors, adjustment
clerks, bookkeepers, and secretaries.
Places of Employment

More than 110,000 credit officials

were employed in 1972; most were
men. About 75,000 were credit
managers working in wholesale and
retail stores, in manufacturing firms,
and for services that process a com­
pany’s credit operations. Loan of­
ficers working in banks and other
financial institutions num bered
about 40,000. In addition, some
other bank officers, general manag­
ers, and office managers spend part
of their time supervising the granting
of credit within their companies.
Although goods and services are
sold on credit, and cash loans
granted, throughout the United
States, most credit officials work in
urban areas where many financial
and business establishments are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A college degree is becoming in­
creasingly important for entry level
jobs as credit officials. Employers
usually seek persons who have ma­
jored in business administration,


economics, or accounting, but may
instead hire graduates holding liberal
arts degrees. Some employers pro­
mote high school graduates to credit
official positions if they have experi­
ence in credit collection or proc­
essing credit information.
The new credit official may be
hired as a management trainee and
work under the guidance of more ex­
perienced personnel in the credit
d e p a rtm e n t. H ere he gains a
thorough understanding of the com­
pany’s credit procedures and policies
and learns various sources of credit
information. He may analyze previ­
ous credit transactions to learn how
to recognize which applicants should
prove to be good customers. The
trainee also learns to deal with credit
bureaus, banks, and other businesses
that can provide information on the
past cre d it dealings of th eir
Many formal training programs
are available through the educa­
tional branches of the associations
that serve the credit and finance
field. This training includes home
study, college and university pro­
grams, and special instruction to im­
prove beginners’ skills and keep ex­
perienced credit officials aware of
new developments in their field.
Many banks will pay tuition for loan
officers who take courses in credit
and finance at colleges and univer­
A person interested in a career as a
credit official should be able to
analyze detailed information and
draw valid conclusions based on this
analysis. Because it is necessary to
maintain good customer relation­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effectively
also are characteristics of the
successful credit official.
The work performed by credit of­
ficials allows them to become
familiar with almost every phase of
their respective businesses. Highly

qualified and experienced officials
can advance to top-level executive
positions. However, in small and
medium-sized companies, such op­
portunities are limited.
Employment Outlook

Employment of credit officials
is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as the num­
ber of individual credit transactions
continues to grow. In addition to op­
portunities resulting from growth,
many jobs will open each year from
the need to replace those who leave
the occupation.
Although the increasing use of
computers for storing and retrieving
information will allow individual
credit officials to serve more cus­
tomers, this should not slow the
growth of the occupation. As com­
panies handle greater numbers of
credit transactions, the credit official
will spend more time managing and
supervising the credit handling
process in his firm. Moreover, many
duties of credit officials, such as cus­
tomer counseling and interviewing
applicants, demand the tact and
good judgment only personal con­
tact can provide.
In addition, attractive credit terms
are a major tool for increasing the
sales volume of almost any business.
As firms strive to maximize their
sales, in the face of competition,
there will be a greater demand for
skilled credit officials who can es­
tablish credit policies strict enough
to minimize bad debt losses.
Earnings and Working

In 1972, beginning credit officials
earned annual salaries that ranged
from about $7,500 to just over $10,000, depending on the type of credit
granting performed and the geo­
graphic location of the job. Bank of­


ficers hired as trainees earned annual
starting salaries of about $8,500. The
Nation’s largest banks and major
business firms, however, may offer
slightly higher salaries to entry level
credit officials.
As credit officials gain experience
and reach middle management posi­
tions, their earnings usually range
from $10,000 to $20,000 a year; with
the largest employers, earnings may
be as high as $25,000 or more. Some
individuals in top-level positions
earned salaries well over $40,000 a
According to a Bank Administra­
tion Institute survey conducted in
May of 1971, salaries of loan officers
were generally highest in the North­
east and Middle Atlantic regions and
lower in the South.
Credit officials normally work the
standard workweek of their com­
pany—35-40 hours. Some work
longer hours, particularly in retail
trade where a seasonal increase in
credit sales can produce a greater
work volume.
Sources of Additional

General information about the
field of consumer credit, including
career opportunities, is available
The National Consumer Finance
Association, 1000 16th St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Specific information about train­
ing programs available in consumer
credit may be obtained from:
Society of Certified Consumer Credit
Executives, 7405 University Dr., St.
Louis, Mo. 63130.

For information about training
programs available in commercial
credit write:
Credit Research Foundation, 3000
Marcus Ave., Lake Success, N.Y.



(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and
Nature of the Work

Hotel managers are responsible
for profitably operating their estab­
lishments and providing maximum
comfort for their guests. More than
110,000 managers worked in hotels
and motels in 1972; 40,000 of these
were self-employed. Managers direct
and coordinate the activities of the
front office, kitchen, and dining
rooms; and various hotel depart­
ments including housekeeping,
accounting, personnel, and mainte­
nance. They determine room rates,
establish credit policy, and have
final responsibility for solving the
many problems that arise in op­
erating their hotels. Like other
business managers, they may confer
with business and social groups and
participate in community affairs.
In small hotels, the manager also
may do much of the front office cleri­
cal work. In the smallest hotels and
in many motels, the owners—some­
times a family team—completely run
the business.
The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants
who m anage departm ents and
assume general administrative re­
sponsibilities when he is absent.
Because preparing and serving food
is important in the operation of most
large hotels, a special manager
usually is in charge of this depart­
ment. Managers of large hotels
usually employ a sales manager to
advertise hotel facilities for meet­
ings, banquets, and conventions.
Since large hotel chains often cen­
tralize activities such as purchasing
and planning employee training pro­
grams, managers in these hotels may
have a smaller range of duties than
those in independently owned estab­

Hotel manager makes final arrangements for a convention.

lishments. Hotel chains may assign
managers to organize either a newly
acquired hotel, or to establish hotels
in different cities or in foreign coun­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although experience is generally
the most important consideration in
selecting managers, employers are
increasingly emphasizing college ed­
ucation. Many believe a 4-year
college curriculum in hotel and res­
taurant administration is the best ed­
ucational preparation. Courses in
hotel work, available in a few junior
colleges and through the American
Hotel and Motel Association, also
are helpful.

College level courses in hotel man­
agement include hotel administra­
tion, accounting, economics, food
service management and catering,
and hotel maintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or restaurants during summer
vacations. The experience gained and
the contacts made with employers
may help them to get better hotel
jobs after graduation.
Managers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to or­
ganize work and run a department or
hotel. They must be able to concen­
trate on details and solve problems.
Some large hotels have special onthe-job management trainee pro­
grams in which trainees rotate
among various departments. Out­
standing employees may receive fi­
nancial assistance for college study.



Most hotels promote employees
with proven ability, usually front of­
fice clerks, to assistant manager and
eventually to general manager. Hotel
chains may offer better opportun­
ities for advancement than in­
dependent hotels, since vacancies
may arise anywhere in the chain or
central office.
Employment Outlook

Hotel manager employment is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. New posi­
tions will arise as additional hotels
and motels are built. Many openings
for management personnel also will
occur as workers die, retire, or trans­
fer to other jobs. Applicants having
college degrees in hotel administra­
tion will have an advantage in
seeking entry positions and later
See the Hotel statement else­
where in the Handbook for informa­
tion on Earnings and Working Con­
ditions, Sources of Additional In­
formation, and additional informa­
tion on Employment Outlook.

(D.O.T. 184.168)
Nature of the Work

Industrial firms want to receive
raw m aterials and deliver cus­
tomers’ goods promptly, safely, and
with minimum cost. Arranging the
transportation of materials and fin­
ished products is the job of an indus­
trial traffic manager. Industrial traf­
fic managers analyze various trans­
portation possibilities and choose the
most efficient type for their com­
panies’ needs—rail, air, road, water,

pipeline, or some combination. Then
they select the route and the particu­
lar carrier. To make their decisions,
managers consider factors such as
freight classifications and regula­
tions, time schedules, size of ship­
ments, and loss and damage rates.
(This statement does not cover traf­
fic managers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines, truck­
ing firms, and other freight carriers.)
Activities of industrial traffic
m anagers range from checking
freight bills to deciding whether the
company should buy its own fleet of
trucks rather than contract for serv­
ices. They route and trace ship­
ments, arrange with carriers for
transportation services, prepare bills
of lading and other shipping docu­
ments, and handle claims for lost or
damaged goods. Traffic managers
keep records of shipments, freight
rates, commodity classifications, and
applicable government regulations.
They also must stay informed about
changing transportation technology,
such as containerization (the use of
containers packed with many in­
dividual item s). Som e tra ffic
managers (called physical distribu­
tion managers) are responsible for
packaging shipments and maintain­
ing warehouse facilities and trans­
portation equipment.
Traffic managers often consult
with other company officials about
the firm’s transportation needs. They
may, for example, work with pro­
duction department personnel to
plan shipping schedules, or with
members of the purchasing depart­
ment to determine what quantities of
goods can be transported most
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State,
and local government regulations,
traffic managers must know about
these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’ ship­
ping operations. High level traffic

managers represent their companies
before ratemaking and regulatory
bodies such as the Interstate Com­
merce Commission, State com­
missions, and local traffic bureaus.
Places of Employment

More than 20,000 persons were in­
dustrial traffic managers in 1972. Al­
though most jobs are found in man­
ufacturing firms, some traffic man­
agers work for large stores. A few
are self-employed consultants, or
work for firms that handle transpor­
tation problems for clients. Most
traffic managers are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although high school graduates
with experience in traffic depart­
ments sometimes are hired as traffic
managers, a college education is be­
coming increasingly important in
this field. For some kinds of work,
college training is required. For ex­
ample, in order to argue cases before
the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, a traffic manager must meet
standards that include at least 2
years of college. Although some em­
ployers prefer graduates who have a
degree in traffic management, others
seek liberal arts majors who have
had courses in transportation, man­
agement, economics, statistics, mar­
keting, or commercial law.
Industrial traffic training is avail­
able through colleges and universi­
ties, traffic management schools, and
seminars sponsored by private or­
ganizations. More than 100 colleges,
universities, and junior colleges offer
a degree in traffic management.
Industrial traffic managers should
be able to analyze numerical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve transpor­
tation problems. These jobs also re­
quire the ability to work independ-



visory workers in private industry,
except farming. Industrial traffic
managers working for companies
whose transportation requirements
were small earned about $16,000 a
year. Those in companies whose
transportation needs were large re­
ceived from $25,000 to $30,000 a
year. Some traffic executives earned
$40,000 or more a year.
Although industrial traffic man­
agers usually have a standard work
week, those in particularly respon­
sible jobs may have to spend some
time outside regular working hours
preparing reports, attending meet­
ings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agen­
Sources of Additional

Industrial traffic manager checking freight bills.

ently and to present facts and figures
in a convincing manner.
Newly hired traffic managers
often complete shipping forms and
calculate freight charges. After gain­
ing experience, they do more techni­
cal work such as analyzing transpor­
tation statistics. A competent worker
may advance to a supervisory job
such as supervisor of rates and
routes; a few are promoted to assist­
ant general traffic managers and eventually to general traffic man­
agers. Industrial traffic managers
can sometimes help their chances for
advancement by participating in
company-sponsored training pro­
grams or taking other courses in traf­
fic management.
Employment Outlook

Employment of industrial traffic
managers is expected to increase
slowly through the mid-1980’s as
more businesses centralize their ship­

ping and receiving activities in sepa­
rate departments. A few openings
will become available each year as
new jobs are created, and as traffic
managers die, retire, or leave the
field for other reasons.
Growth in this occupation will
stem from an increasing emphasis on
efficient management of traffic ac­
tivities and from the trends toward
procuring materials over greater dis­
tances and distributing products in
wider markets. There will be a strong
demand for specialists who can ob­
tain the lowest possible freight rates.
Earnings and Working

Industrial traffic managers, sal­
aries started at about $9,000 a year
in 1972, according to the limited in­
formation available. Although the
earnings of experienced traffic man­
agers vary by the company’s trans­
portation costs, they are much higher
than the average for all nonsuper­

Information on education and
technical training is available from:
American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., 547 West
Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118, and 119.168)
Nature of the Work

At some time in our life, each of us
may need a lawyer for advice about
our rights and responsibilities when
buying property, making a will, or
settling an estate. In addition, law­
yers, also called attorneys, negotiate
the settlement of legal problems out
of court or, when necessary, repre­
sent clients in court or before govern­
ment agencies.
Most lawyers are engaged in
general practice, handling all kinds
of legal work for clients. However, a
significant number specialize in one


branch of law, such as corporation,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. Some at­
torneys devote themselves entirely to
trying cases in the courts. Others
never appear in court but instead
draw up wills, trusts, contracts,
mortgages, and other legal docu­
ments; conduct out-of-court negoti­
ations; and do investigative and other
legal work to prepare for trials.
Some may act as trustees by manag­
ing a person’s property and funds or
as executors by seeing that the provi­
sions of their client’s will are carried
out. Still others teach, do research or
writing, or perform administrative
work. Government attorneys play a
large part in developing Federal and
State laws and programs; they
prepare drafts of proposed legisla­
tion, establish law enforcement
procedures, and argue cases.
Many people who have legal train­
ing do not work as lawyers but use
their knowledge of law in other oc­
Legal research demands
cupations. They may, for example, others do legal work part time while
be insurance adjusters, tax col­ in another occupation.
lectors, probation officers, credit in­
vestigators, or claim examiners. A
legal background also is an asset to
those seeking or holding public of­ Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Places of Employment

About 300,000 persons, most of
them men, worked as lawyers in
1972. Most were in private practice,
either self-employed (alone or in
partnerships) or working for other
lawyers or law firms.
In 1972, almost 15,000 lawyers
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment, chiefly in the Justice, Defense,
and Treasury Departments, and the
Veterans Administration; another
15,000 were employed by State and
local governments. Others worked
for private companies or taught in
law schools. Some salaried lawyers
also have independent practices;

In order to practice law in the
courts of any State, a person must be
admitted to its bar. Applicants for
admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a few
States drop this requirement for
graduates of their own law schools.
A lawyer who has been admitted to
the bar in one State usually can be
admitted in another without taking
an examination provided he meets
that State’s standards of good moral
character and has a specified period
of legal experience. Each Federal
court or agency sets its own quali­
fications for those practicing before
To qualify for the bar exami­
nation in most States, an applicant


careful attention to detail.

must have completed 3 years of
college and have graduated from a
law sc h o o l a p p ro v e d by th e
American Bar Association or the
proper State authorities. A few
States accept the study of law wholly
in a law office or in combination with
study in a law school; only California
accepts study of law by correspon­
dence as qualification for taking the
bar exam. Several States require reg­
istration and approval of students by
the State Board of Examiners, either
before they enter law school, or dur­
ing the early years of legal study. In a
few States, candidates must com­
plete clerkships before they are ad­
mitted to the bar.
The required college and law
school work usually takes 7 years of
full-time study after high school—4
years of college followed by 3 years
in law school. Although a number of
law schools accept students after 3
years of college, and a few after 2, an
increasing number require appli­


cants to have a bachelor’s degree. To
meet the needs of students who can
attend only part time, a number of
law schools have night divisions
which usually require 4 years of
study. In 1971, about one-fourth of
all law students in ABA-approved
schools were enrolled in evening
Law schools seldom specify
college subjects that must be includ­
ed in students’ prelegal education.
H o w e v e r, E n g lis h , h i s t o r y ,
economics and other social sciences,
logic, and public speaking are impor­
tant for prospective lawyers. Stu­
dents interested in a particular aspect
of the law may find it helpful to take
related courses; for example, engi­
neering and science courses for the
prospective patent attorney, and ac­
counting for the future tax lawyer.
Acceptance by most law schools
depends on the applicant’s ability to
demonstrate an aptitude for the
study of law, usually through the
“ Law School Admissions Test.’’ In
1972, 149 law schools were approved
by the American Bar Association.
Others—chiefly night schools—were
approved by State authorities only.
The first 2 years of law school
generally are devoted
to funda­
mental courses such as contracts,
property law, and judicial proce­
dure. In the third year, students may
elect specialized courses in fields
such as tax, labor, or corporation
law. Practical experience is often
acquired by participation in schoolsponsored legal aid activities, in the
school’s practice court where stu­
dents conduct trials under the super­
vision of experienced lawyers, and
through writing on legal issues for
the school’s law journal. Graduates
receive the degree of juris doctor
(J.D.) from most schools, although
some confer the bachelor o f laws
(L.L.B.) as the first professional
degree. Advanced study is often
desirable for those planning to


specialize, do research, or teach in
law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Young
people planning careers in law should
like to work with people and ideas,
and be able to win the confidence of
their clients.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice im ­
mediately after passing the bar ex­
amination. Newly hired salaried at­
torneys usually act as research assist­
ants (law clerks) to experienced
lawyers or judges. After several years
of progressively responsible salaried
employment, many lawyers go into
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, become
Employment Outlook

A rapid increase in the number of
law school g ra d u a te s seeking
employment is expected to create
keen competition for the available
jobs. Graduates of well known law
schools and those who rank high in
their classes should find salaried
positions with law firms, on the legal
staffs of corporations and govern­
ment agencies, and as law clerks for
judges. Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower scho­
lastic ratings may experience some
difficulty in finding salaried jobs.
However, many will find opportuni­
ties in fields where legal training is an
asset but not normally a require­
The employment of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the mid-1980’s as increased business
activity and population create a de­
mand for attorneys to deal with a
growing number of legal questions.
Supreme Court decisions extending
the right to counsel for persons ac­
cused of lesser crimes, the growth of
legal action in the areas of consumer

protection, the environment, safety,
and an expected increase in the use of
legal services by middle income
groups through prepaid legal service
program s also should provide
employment opportunities. Other
jobs will be created by the need to
replace lawyers who retire or leave
the occupation for other reasons.
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to be
best in small towns and expanding
suburban areas. In such com ­
munities competition is likely to be
less than in big cities and new law­
yers may find it easier to become
known to potential clients; also, rent
and other business costs are some­
what lower. Salaried positions, on
the other hand, will be limited largely
to urban areas where the chief
employers of legal talent—govern­
ment agencies, law firms, and big
corporations—are concentrated.
Earnings and Working

Lawyers entering practice in 1972
earned starting salaries ranging from
$7,000 to $20,000 a year. Factors
affecting the salaries offered to new
graduates include: their academic
records; and types, sizes, and loca­
tions of their employers; and whether
the new lawyer has any specialized
educational background that the
employer requires. Lawyers with 1
y e a r’s experience w orking for
manufacturing and business firms
earned about $14,000 a year; those
with a few years of experience earned
$18,000 annually. In the Federal
Government, annual starting salaries
for attorneys were $11,614 or $13,996 in early 1973 depending upon
their academic and personal qual­
ifications. Those with a few years of
experience earned $ 19,700 a year. On
the average, lawyers earn over three
times as much as nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except



Beginning lawyers engaged in legal
aid work usually receive the lowest
starting salaries. New lawyers start­
ing their own practices may earn lit­
tle more than expenses during the
first few years and may need to work
part time in other occupations.
Lawyers on salary receive in­
creases as they assume greater
responsibility. In 1972, those in
charge of legal staffs in private in­
dustry averaged more than $33,700 a
year. Incomes of lawyers in private
practice usually grow as their prac­
tices develop. Private practitioners
who are partners in law firms
generally earn more than those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they must keep abreast of the
latest laws and court decisions. How­
ever, since lawyers in private prac­
tice can determine their own hours
and workload, many stay in practice
well past the usual retirement age.
Sources of Additional

(D.O.T. 050.088)
Nature of the Work

Businessmen require a great deal
of information to make sound deci­
sions on how to market their prod­
ucts. Marketing research workers
provide much of this information by
analyzing available data on prod­
ucts and sales, making surveys, and
conducting interviews. They prepare
sales forecasts and make recom­
mendations on product design and
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
sources such as company records,
published materials, and experts on
the subject under investigation. For
exam ple, m ark e tin g rese a rc h
workers making sales forecasts may
begin by studying the growth of sales
volume in several different cities.
This growth may then be traced to
increases in population, size of the
company’s sales force, or amount of
money spent on advertising. Other

marketing research workers may
study changes in the quantity of com­
pany goods on store shelves or make
door-to-door surveys to obtain infor­
mation on company products.
Marketing research workers are
often concerned with custom er’s
opinions and tastes. For example, to
help decide on the design and price of
a new line of television sets, market­
ing research workers may survey
consumers to find out what styles
and price ranges are most popular.
This type of survey usually is super­
vised by marketing researchers who
specialize in consumer goods; that is,
merchandise sold to the general
public. They may be helped by statis­
ticians who select a group (or sam­
ple) to be interviewed and “ motiva­
tional research” specialists who
phrase questions to produce reliable
information. Once the investigation
is underway, the marketing research
worker may supervise the inter­
viewers. He also may direct the of­
fice workers who tabulate and
analyze the information collected.
Marketing surveys on products
used by business and industrial firms

The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained at the State
capital from the clerk of the
Suprem e Court or the secretary of
the Board of Bar Examiners.
Information on law as a career is
available from:
Information Service, The American Bar
Association 1155 East 60th St.,
Chicago, 111. 60637.

Information on specific topics
such as developments in financial aid
and law school accreditation is avail­
able from:
Association of American Law Schools,
Suite 370, 1 Dupont Circle NW,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Marketing research worker reviews results of survey.



may be conducted somewhat differ­
ently from consumer goods surveys.
The marketing researcher often con­
ducts the interviews himself to gather
opinions of the product. He also may
speak to company officials about
new uses for it. He must therefore
have specialized knowledge of both
marketing techniques and the indus­
trial uses of the product.
Places off Employment

About 25,000 full-time marketing
research workers were employed in
1972; most were men. They included
research assistants and others in
junior positions as well as super­
visors and directors of research. In
addition, a limited number of other
professionals (statisticians, econo­
mists, psychologists, and sociolo­
gists) and several thousand clerical
workers were employed full time in
this field. Thousands of additional
workers, many of them women,
worked part time or on a temporary
basis as survey interviewers.
Most jobs for marketing research
workers are found in manufacturing
companies and independent adver­
tising and research organizations.
Large numbers also are employed by
stores, radio and television firms,
and newspapers; others work for un­
iversity research centers and govment agencies. Marketing research
organizations range in size from oneman enterprises to firms having a
hundred employees or more.
The largest number of marketing
research workers is in New York Ci­
ty, where many major advertising
and independent marketing research
organizations are located, and where
many large manufacturers have their
central offices. The second largest
concentration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers are
e m p lo y e d in m a n y o t h e r
cities— wherever there are central
offices of large manufacturing and
sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although a bachelor’s degree is
the usual entry requirement for
marketing research trainees, gradu­
ate training is becoming important
for some specialized positions and
for advancement to higher level posi­
tions. Many graduates qualify for
jobs through previous experience in
other types of research, while
em ployers may hire university
teachers of marketing or statistics to
head new m a rk e tin g rese a rc h
College courses considered to be
valuable preparation for work in
marketing research are statistics,
English composition, speech, psy­
chology, and econom ics. Some
marketing research positions require
skill in specialized areas, such as
engineering, or substantial sales ex­
perience and a thorough knowledge
of the company’s products. Knowl­
edge of data processing is helpful
because of the growing use of com­
puters in sales forecasting, distribu­
tion, and cost analysis.
Trainees usually start as research
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they may do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and coding
questionnaires, and tabulating sur­
vey returns. They also learn to con­
duct interviews and write reports on
survey finding. As they gain experi­
ence, assistants and junior analysts
may assum e responsibility for
specific marketing research projects,
or advance to supervisory positions.
An exceptionally able worker may
become marketing research director
or vice president for marketing and
Either alone or as part of a team,
marketing research workers must be
resourceful as they analyze problems
and apply various techniques to their
solution. As advisers to manage­
ment, they should be able to write

clear reports informing company of­
ficials of their findings.
Employment Outlook

College graduates trained in
marketing research, and statistics
will find favorable job opportunities
in this occupation through the mid1980’s. The growing complexity of
marketing research techniques also
will expand opportunities for psy­
chologists, economists, and other
social scientists. Job opportunities
for those who hold master’s and doc­
tor’s degrees will be excellent.
The dem and for m a rk e tin g
research services is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the next
decade. Existing marketing research
organizations will expand and new
marketing research departments and
independent firms will be set up.
Business managers will find it in­
creasingly important to obtain the
best information possible for ap­
praising marketing situations and
planning marketing policies. Also, as
marketing research techniques im­
prove and more statistical data ac­
cumulate, company officials are like­
ly to turn more often to marketing
research workers for information
and advice.
Earnings and Working

S ta rtin g salaries for m arket
research trainees averaged about $9,000 a year in 1972, according to the
limited data available. Persons hav­
ing masters degrees in business ad­
ministration and related fields usual­
ly started with annual salaries close
to $13,000.
Earnings were greater for experi­
enced marketing research workers
who held management positions of
high responsibility. Vice presidents
of m arketing and d irectors of
marketing research often earned
between $25,000 and $35,000 a year.



M arketing research w orkers
usually work in modern, centrally
located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent
research firms, do a considerable
amount of traveling in connection
with their work. Also, they may fre­
quently work under pressure and for
long hours to meet deadlines.
Sources of Additional

Additional information on careers
in marketing research is available
American Marketing Association, 230
North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268)
Personnel worker administers test to job applicant.

Nature of the Work

Attracting the best employees
available and matching them to jobs
they can do effectively are im­
portant for the successful operation
of business and government. Per­
sonnel workers interview, select, and
recommend applicants who have the
education and experience to fill va­
cancies. In addition to staffing, they
counsel employees, plan training,
develop wage and salary scales, and
investigate methods to improve per­
sonnel operations. Some jobs re­
quire only limited contact with peo­
ple; others involve frequent contact
with employees, union representa­
tives, job applicants, and other peo­
ple outside the organization.
Large organizations employ per­
sonnel workers at varying levels of
responsibility. Department heads
formulate policy, advise company
officials on personnel matters, and
administer the work of their staffs.

Supervisors and specialists in wage including banks, telephone com­
administration, training, safety, and panies, and department stores. Large
job classification direct the work of numbers also worked in Federal,
staff assistants and clerical em­ State, and local government agen­
ployees. Small organizations employ cies. A few were in business for
relatively few personnel workers; themselves, often as management
sometimes one individual performs consultants or employee manage­
personnel duties in addition to other ment relations experts. In addition,
some taught college or university
Personnel workers in government courses in personnel administration,
agencies generally do the same kind industrial relations, and similar sub­
of work as those in large business jects.
Most jobs for personnel workers
firm s. G overnm ent personnel
workers, however, spend consider­ are located in the highly industrial­
ably more time classifying jobs, and ized sections of the country.
devising, administering, and scoring
competitive examinations given to
Training, Other Qualifications,
job applicants.
and Advancement

Places of Employment

In 1 9 7 2 , a b o u t 2 3 5 ,0 0 0
people—three-fourths of them
men—were personnel workers. Well
over half worked in private industry

A college education is becoming
increasingly im portant for per­
sonnel work. Many employers in pri­
vate industry prefer applicants who
have majored in business or per­
sonnel administration; people inter­



ested in working for the government
should major in public administra­
tion, political science, or personnel
administration. However, those with
other majors also are eligible for
government positions.
For some positions, specialized
training may be necessary. Testing
and counseling often require a bache­
lor’s degree with a major or grad­
uate degree in psychology. An en­
gineering degree may be desirable for
work dealing with time studies or
safety standards, and training in in­
dustrial relations may be helpful for
work involving employee manage­
ment relations. An accounting back­
ground is useful for positions con­
cerned with wages, pensions, and
other employee benefits.
Although most employers seek
college graduates to work in per­
sonnel, some prefer workers who al­
ready have firsthand knowledge of
operations, regardless of their edu­
cational preparation. Large numbers
now in personnel work who are not
college graduates entered the field
this way.
New workers usually enter formal
or on-the-job training programs to
learn how to classify jobs, interview
applicants, or perform other per­
sonnel functions. After training, they
are assigned to work in specific
Personnel workers should speak
and write effectively and be able to
work with people of all levels of in­
telligence and experience. They also
must be able to see both the em­
ployee’s and the employer’s points of
view. In addition, personnel workers
should be able to work as part of a
team. They need supervisory abili­
ties and must be able to accept re­
sponsibility. A personnel worker
should like detail, be persuasive, and
have a congenial personality.
After gaining experience, per­
sonnel workers usually can advance
within their own organization or

transfer to other employers. Those in
the middle ranks of a big organiza­
tion often transfer to a top job in a
smaller one. Employees with ex­
ceptional ability usually are pro­
moted to executive positions, such as
personnel director.
Employment Outlook

master’s degree and a high class
standing started at $11,600 a year.
Personnel workers having high levels
of administrative responsibility and
several years of experience earned
more than $16,500; some in charge
of personnel for major departments
in the Federal Government earned
more than $26,800 a year.
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. During a period of intensive
recruitment or emergency, they may
work much longer. As a rule, per­
sonnel workers are paid for holidays
and vacations, and share in the same
retirement plans and other benefits
available to all professional workers
in their organizations.

The number of personnel workers
is expected to expand very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as employ­
ers recognize the need for trained
personnel to maintain good em­
ployee relations. In addition to new
jobs created by growth, many open­
ings will become available each year
to replace workers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other
Sources of Additional
reasons. People trained in psychol­
ogical testing and in handling workrelated problems will find particu­
General information on careers in
larly good job prospects. Advance­ personnel work may be obtained
ment to personnel positions from from:
production, clerical, or subprofes­
American Society for Personnel Ad­
sional jobs will be limited.
ministration, 19 Church St., Berea,
Ohio 44017.

Earnings and Working

Beginning personnel workers in
private industry started at $9,500 a
year in 1972, according to a Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey in urban
areas. Experienced workers earned
$15,000, about twice as much as the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Directors of personnel
earned between $14,300 and $24,700
a year; some top personnel and in­
dustrial relations executives in large
corporations earned considerably
In the Federal Government, inex­
perienced graduates with bachelor’s
degrees earned $7,700 a year in early
1973; those having exceptionally
good academic records or one year
of graduate work began at $9,500.
Inexperienced workers having a

G en eral in fo rm a tio n a b o u t
government careers in personnel is
available from:
International Personnel Management
Association, 1313 East 60th St.,
Chicago, 111. 60637.

(D.O.T. 165.068)
Nature of the Work

How successfully an organization
presents itself may affect its public
acceptance and influence. Public re­
lations workers help an employer
build and maintain a beneficial
public image. To accomplish this,



they must understand changing atti­
tudes and opinions of customers, em­
ployees, and other groups.
Public relations departments are
found in many different organiza­
tions, so that workers must tailor
their programs to an employer’s par­
ticular needs. For example, a public
relations director for a small college
may devote most of his energies to
attracting additional students, while
one in a business Firm may handle
the employer’s relationship with
stockholders, government agencies,
and community groups.
Public relations workers gather
and give out information that keeps
the public aware of their employer’s
projects and accomplishments. They
prepare and assemble information
and contact the people who may be

interested in publicizing their policies with a company vice-presi­
material. Many newspaper items, dent or another executive having the
magazine articles, and pamphlets authority to make Final decisions. In
giving information about a company addition, large public relations de­
start at public relations workers’ partments employ writers, research
workers, and other specialists who
Public relations workers al§o prepare material for the different
arrange and conduct direct public media or write reports sent to
contact programs. Such work in­ stockholders.
Workers who handle publicity for
cludes setting up speaking engage­
ments for officials and writing the an individual or direct public rela­
speeches they deliver. These workers tions for a university or small busi­
often serve as an employer’s repre­ ness may do all aspects of the job.
sentative during community pro­ They make contacts with outsiders,
jects and occasionally show Films at do the necessary planning and re­
school assemblies, plan conventions, search, and prepare material for pub­
lication. These workers may com­
or manage fund-raising campaigns.
Public relations staffs in large bine public relations duties with ad­
firms sometimes number 200 or vertising or managerial work; some
more. The director of public rela­ are top-level officials and others have
tions may develop overall plans and lower level positions. The most skill­
ed public relations work of making
overall plans and maintaining con­
tacts usually is done by the depart­
ment director and highly experi­
enced staff members.
Places of Employment

Public relations worker checks material for press release.

More than 85,000 persons—nearly
one-third women—were public rela­
tions workers in 1972. In recent
years, an increasing number of
women have entered the Field. Man­
ufacturing firms, stores, and trade
and professional associations hire the
majority of public relations workers.
Others work for consulting firms
furnishing public relations services to
clients for a fee.
Public relations workers are con­
centrated in large cities where press
services and other communications
facilities are readily available, and
where many businesses and trade
a sso c ia tio n s have th e ir h e a d ­
quarters. More than half of the
public relations consulting Firms in
the United States are in New York
City, Los Angeles, Chicago, and
Washington, D.C.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

tiveness and the ability to function as
part of a team.
Some companies—particularly
A college education or journalism
those with large public relations
experience generally is the best
preparation for public relations s ta ffs — have fo rm a l tr a in in g
work. Although most workers major programs for new workers. In other
in public relations, journalism, or firms, new employees learn by work­
English, some employers prefer a ing under the guidance of experi­
background in science or some field enced staff members. Beginners
related to the firm’s business. Others, often maintain files of m aterial
especially small firms, want college about company activities, scan news­
graduates with secretarial skills who papers and m agazines for a p ­
can combine clerical duties with propriate articles to clip, and as­
public relations. Still others want semble information for speeches and
college graduates with at least one pamphlets. After gaining experi­
year’s experience working for the ence, they work on progressively
news media. After a few years’ expe­ more difficult assignments such as
rience, these workers may advance to writing press releases, speeches, and
articles for publication.
full-time public relations jobs.
Promotion to supervisory jobs
In 1972, over 80 colleges and more
than 30 graduate schools offered may come as the worker shows he
degree programs or special curricu- can handle more difficult and
lums in public relations. In addition, creative assignments. Some experi­
nearly 200 colleges offered at least enced public relations workers start
their own consulting firms.
one course in this field.
Courses in journalism, business
adm inistration, psychology, and
Employment Outlook
public speaking help in preparing for
Employment of public relations
a public relations career. Extracur­
ricular activities, such as writing for workers is expected to increase mod­
a school publication, give valuable erately through the mid-1980’s. In
experience. Part-time or summer addition to new jobs created as ex­
jobs in selling or public relations pro­ panding organizations require more
vide training that can help overcome public relations specialists, openings
will occur because of the need to re­
competition for entry positions.
Creativity, initiative, and the abili­ place workers who leave the field.
The demand for public relations
ty to express thoughts clearly and
simply are important to the public workers will grow as population in­
relations worker. Fresh ideas are so creases and the general level of busi­
vital in public relations that some ex­ ness activity rises. In recent years,
perts spend all their time developing public relations spending has in­
new ideas with management, leaving creased, and many organizations
the job of carrying out programs to have developed new public relations
departments. This trend should con­
A person choosing public rela­ tinue in the years ahead.
tions work as a career needs an out­
going personality, self-confidence,
Earnings and Working
and an understanding of human psy­
chology. He should have the en­
thusiasm necessary to motivate peo­
Starting salaries for men begin­
ple. Public relations workers need a ning public relations work averaged
highly developed sense of competi­ $9,000 a year in 1972, according to


the limited data available; entry
salaries for newly hired women aver­
aged $6,900 a year. Many experi­
enced public relations workers earn­
ed from $ 15,000 to $25,000 and more
a year.
The sa la rie s of ex p erien ced
workers generally are highest in
large organizations having extensive
public relations programs. Directors
of public relations for medium-sized
firms earned $15,000 to $30,000 a
year; those at large companies had
salaries in the $20,000 to $50,000
range. Salaries for some officials,
such as vice-presidents in charge of
public relations, can range from
$25,000 to $75,000 a year or more.
The median salary for directors of
public relations was $21,000 in 1972.
Many consulting firms employ
large staffs of experienced public re­
lations specialists and often pay
somewhat higher salaries than other
business organizations. In social wel­
fare agencies, nonprofit organiza­
tions and universities, salaries
generally are lower.
Although the workweek for public
relations staffs usually is 35 to 40
hours, overtime may be necessary to
prepare or deliver speeches, attend
meetings and community activities
or travel out of town. Occasionally,
the nature of their regular assign­
ments or special events requires
public relations workers to be on call
around the clock.
Sources of Additional

Further information about the
nature of public relations work is
available from:
Service Department, Public Relations
News, 127 East 80th St., New
York, N.Y. 10021.
Research Department, PR Reporter,
Meriden. N.H. 03770.

For additional career information
and a list of schools offering degrees


and courses in the field write:
Career Information, Public Relations
Society of America, Inc., 845 Third
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.

(D.O.T. 162.158, 180.118,
191.118, and 252.358)
Nature off the Work

If materials, supplies, or equip­
ment are not on hand when needed
an organization’s work may be inter­
rupted or halted. Maintaining an
adequate supply of items a firm
needs to operate is the purchasing
agent’s job.
Purchasing agents and their assist­
ants obtain goods and services of the
required quality at the lowest possi­
ble cost, and see that adequate sup­
plies are kept on hand. Agents who
work for manufacturing firms buy
m achinery, raw m aterials, and
product components; those working
for government agencies may pur­
chase office supplies, furniture, and
business machines. (“ Buyers” who
purchase merchandise for resale in
its original form are not included in
this statement.)
Purchasing agents buy when
stocks on hand reach a prede­
termined reorder point, or when a
department in the organization req­
uisitions items it needs. Because
agents usually can purchase from
many sources, their main job is se­
lecting the seller who offers the best
Purchasing agents use a variety of
means to select among suppliers.
They compare listings in catalogs
and trade journals and telephone
suppliers to get information. They
also meet with salesmen to examine
samples, watch demonstrations of
equipment, and discuss items to be


purchased. Sometimes agents invite
suppliers to bid on large orders; then
they select the lowest bidder among
those who meet requirements for
quality of the goods and delivery
It is important that purchasing
agents develop good business rela­
tions with their suppliers. This can
result in savings on purchases, favor­
able terms of payment, and quick de­
livery on rush orders or material in
short supply. They also work closely
with personnel in various depart­
ments of their own organization. For
example, they may discuss product
s p e c if ic a tio n s w ith c o m p a n y
engineers or shipment problems with
workers in the shipping and receiv­
ing or traffic departments.
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing agent
makes periodic checks to insure that
it will be delivered on time. This is
necessary to prevent work flow inter­
ruptions due to lack of materials.

After an order has been received and
inspected, the purchasing agent
authorizes payment to the shipper.
Because of its importance, pur­
chasing usually is designated as a
separate responsibility within a firm.
In a large firm, the head of the pur­
chasing department directs the work
of a staff which includes assistant
purchasing agents and clerical
workers. Assistants may purchase
certain categories of goods, such as
raw materials or office supplies, or
specialize in buying specific
items—for example, steel, lumber,
cotton, or oil.
Places of Employment

About 180,000 persons—90 per­
cent of them men—were purchasing
agents in 1972. Nearly half worked
in manufacturing industries. Large
numbers also were employed by
government agencies, construction
companies, hospitals, and schools.

Purchasing agents examine sample equipment.


Following the initial training
Most purchasing agents work in
firms that have fewer than 10 em­ period, a trainee often becomes a
ployees in the purchasing depart­ junior buyer of standard catalog
ment. Some large firms, however, items. As he gains experience and
may have a hundred or more spe­ exercises good judgment in the
various aspects of purchasing, he
cialized buyers.
may be promoted to assistant pur­
chasing agent and then to purchas­
ing agent. Some agents advance to
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
positions as vice presidents of pur­
chasing or procurement officers.
M any larg e em p lo y ers seek
The purchasing agent must be able
college graduates for beginning posi­
to analyze numbers and technical
tions as purchasing agents. Al­
data in order to make buying de­
though companies that manufacture
cisions and take responsibility for
complex machinery or chemicals
spending large amounts of company
m ay p refe r a b a c k g ro u n d in
money. The job requires the ability
engineering or science, other firms
to work independently and a good
hire business adm inistration or
memory for details. In addition, a
liberal arts majors for trainee jobs.
purchasing agent must be tactful in
Courses in accounting, economics,
dealing with salesmen and able to
and purchasing are helpful. Many
motivate others.
small firms prefer experience with
the company, and select purchasing
workers from among their own per­
Employment Outlook
sonnel, whether or not they have a
A m oderate increase in the
college education. For advancement
to high-level positions, however, a employment of purchasing agents is
college degree is becoming increas­ expected through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to job openings resulting
ingly important.
Regardless of previous training, from growth, many opportunities are
the beginning purchasing agent must expected annually because of the
spend considerable time learning need to replace personnel who re­
about his company’s operations and tire, transfer, or leave the field for
purchasing procedures. He may be other reasons.
M ajor factors underlying this
assigned to the storekeeper’s section
to learn about purchasing forms, in­ growth include the continued in­
ventory records, or storage facil­ crease in the size of business and
ities. Next he may work with an ex­ manufacturing firms and the de­
perienced buyer to learn about types velopment of new products and
of goods purchased, prices, and sources of supply such as foreign
markets. In particular, the ever-in­


creasing complexity and specializa­
tion of business functions and prod­
ucts will spur demand for purchas­
ing agents with knowledge in spe­
cific areas.

Earnings and Working

College graduates hired as pur­
chasing trainees in large firms earned
from $7,500 to $8,500 a year in 1972,
according to the limited data avail­
able. In the Federal Government, be­
ginning purchasing agents who had
college degrees earned $7,700 or $9,500 in early 1973, depending on
scholastic achievement and per­
formance on the Federal Service En­
trance Examination.
In 1972, experienced agents pur­
chasing standard items averaged
more than $10,500; buyers purchas­
ing complex or technical goods aver­
aged more than $15,000. Some top
purchasing executives earned over
$45,000 a year. Purchasing agents
earn about one and one-half times as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Sources of Additional

Further information on education
and training is available from:
National Association of Purchasing
Management, 11 Park Place, New
York, N.Y. 10007.

Data processing needs have in­
creased very rapidly over the past
decade as population has grown,
business organizations have become
more complex, and scientific and
technical knowledge has expanded.
The computer has enabled .us to
keep pace with the increasing need
for more and better information.
Workers in computer and related
occupations prepare data in the form
necessary for machine processing,
operate computer consoles and
various kinds of peripheral equip­
ment, and analyze and interpret the
output of computers.
Most computer careers require
specialized training that varies wide­
ly in content and length depending
on the occupation. While there are
no universal educational require­
ments for systems analysts and pro­
grammers, a college degree is in­
creasingly important— especially for
work in scientifically and technically
oriented systems.
All computer jobs stress the im­
portance of learning on the job.
While this is the primary source of
training for operating personnel, onthe-job learning is also important
for college graduates in computer
science, who may spend a year or
more working on a system to learn
how it functions.
In addition to technical knowl­
edge and skills, computer personnel
need good powers of concentration
and should enjoy working with de­
tails. To operate equipment, they
must have manual dexterity and
some mechanical aptitude. Although
programmers and systems analysts
seldom run computer equipment,
they need mechanical ability to trace
the source of data processing errors.

This section describes two com­
puter occupations, programmers
and systems analysts.

(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

An electronic com puter can
process masses of information with
great speed and accuracy, but the
machine cannot think for itself. The
programmer’s job is to prepare stepby-step instructions for the com­
puter to follow.
Before a computer can process a
problem, exact and logical steps for
its solution must be worked out. An
experienced programmer or systems
analyst does this preliminary work.
(See the statement on Systems Ana­
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Some programmers, whose work in­
volves a considerable amount of this
preliminary analysis, are known as
When this preliminary job is fin­
ished, the programmer prepares de­

in stru ctio n s




machine how to process the data.
The way a “ program” is written de­
pends on the nature of the problem
and the type of equipment to be used.
The mathematical calculations in­
volved in billing a firm’s customers,
for example, are different from those
required in most scientific work. A
business programmer works on in­
structions that tell the computer how
to bill customers or make up a pay­
roll. First the programmer decides
what company records contain the
information needed to prepare the
documents. Next he makes a flow

chart or diagram showing the com­
puter what order to follow in doing
each step. From the flow chart, the
programmer writes detailed instruc­
tions telling the machine exactly
what to do with each piece of infor­
mation. He also prepares an instruc­
tion sheet for a computer operator to
follow when the program is run. (The
work of computer operators is de­
scribed in the Handbook statement
on Computer Operating Personnel.)
The final step in programming is a
check to be sure that the pro­
grammer’s instructions are correct
and will produce the desired infor­
mation. This check is called “debug­
ging.” The programmer uses a sam­
ple of the data to be processed to re­
view what will happen as the com­
puter follows instructions. He
changes the instructions to take care
of any errors that appear and has the
computer make a trial run.
Because of differences in their
work, many programmers specialize
in either business or scientific appli­
cations. Some, known as systems or
software programmers, write in­
structions that tell the computer how
to schedule jobs and when to switch
from one to another. Although a
simple program can be written in a
few days, one designed to produce
many different kinds of information
may require a year or more. Often
several programmers at different
levels of responsibility work to­
g e th e r under an experienced
programmer’s supervision.

Places of Employment

About 186,000 persons—about
three-fourths of them men—worked
as programmers in 1972. In addi­
tion, some professional workers such
as engineers, economists, and ac­
countants spend part of their time
Most programmers work in large
business organizations and govern47



tude for logical thinking and exact­
ing analysis. The job also calls for
patience, persistence, and the ability
to work with extreme accuracy.
Ingenuity and imagination are par­
ticularly important when program­
mers have to solve problems in new
Beginning programmers usually
attend training classes for a few
weeks. Then they work on simple
assignments while continuing with
further specialized training. A
programmer generally needs a year
or more of experience before he can
handle all aspects of his job without
close supervision. Once he becomes
skilled, his prospects for further ad­
vancem ent are good. In large
organizations, workers may be pro­
moted to lead programmers or sys­
tems analysts with supervisory re­
Programmer explains instructions for processing data.

Employment Outlook

ment agencies. Large numbers also
work for com puter and other
manufacturers and independent serv­
ice organizations that furnish com­
puter services for a fee.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

There are no universal training
requirem ents for program m ers.
Some are college graduates; others
take special courses in computer
work to supplement experience in a
field such as accounting or inven­
tory control.
Organizations that use computers
for science and engineering prefer
college graduates with degrees in the
physical sciences, math, engineer­
ing, or computer science. Graduate
degrees are required for some jobs.
Very few scientific employers are in­
terested in an applicant with no col­
lege training.

Many employers who use com­
puters to process business records
don’t require college degrees, al­
though college courses in data proc­
essing, accounting, and business ad­
ministration are helpful. Some work­
ers with no college training but ex­
perience in machine tabulation or
payroll are promoted to program­
ming jobs. They usually need addi­
tional courses in data processing be­
fore they are fully q u a lifie d
Interested persons can learn some
of the necessary programming skills
at a growing number of technical
schools, colleges, and universities.
Instruction ranges from in tro ­
ductory home study courses to ad­
vanced computer technology at the
graduate level. High schools in many
parts of the country also offer
courses in computer programming.
In hiring programmers, employ­
ers look for people who have an apti­

The employment of programmers
will grow rapidly over the next
decade as the number of computer
installations increases. Thousands of
job openings will become available
each year due to growth and the need
to replace workers who leave the
occupation. Because many program­
mers are young, relatively few job
openings will be due to death or
The number of programmers will
increase as business continues to
automate processes once done by
hand. For example, many stores will
computerize credit information and
their ordering and inventory of
merchandise. Employment growth
also will be sharp in computer serv­
ice bureaus (organizations that fur­
nish computer services for a fee).
Substantial growth will continue in
firms that were among the first to use
computers on a large scale, includ­
ing banks, insurance companies, and



Although employment growth will
be significant, programmers are not
expected to multiply as rapidly as
they have in the past for several
reasons. Improved programming
languages should make it easier for
nonprogrammers to use machines,
and preprogrammed mini-computers
will be used for many applications.
In addition, new techniques will
enable the programmers to handle
a greater volume of work. The best
opportunities will be for experienced
persons qualified in both program­
ming and systems analysis who have
kept up with the latest equipment
and techniques.

Earnings and Working

Beginning business programmers
averaged $8,500 a year in 1972, ac­
cording to a Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey in urban areas. Those in
the North and West earned slightly
more than the average while work­
ers in the South earned a little less.
Also programmers who worked for
manufacturers and public utilities
had higher earnings than those em­
ployed by banks and insurance com­
Experienced business program­
mers averaged $11,000 a year, nearly
twice as much as average earnings
for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Lead programmers averaged $14,400
and managers of programming,
$16,700 a year.
Federal government salaries are
close to those in private industry. In
early 1973, beginners started at $7,700 or $9,500; most experienced
programmers earned from $11,600
to $18,900 a year.
Program m ers work about 40
hours a week, but their hours are not
always from 9 to 5. Once or twice a
week a programmer may report ear­

ly or work late to use the computer
when it is available. Occasionally,
they work on weekends or are tele­
phoned to advise computer oper­
ators working a second or third shift.
Sources off Additional

Additional details about the oc­
cupation of programmer are avail­
able from:
Data Processing Management Associ­
ation, 505 Busse Highway, Park
Ridge, 111. 60068.
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit
Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.

For a list of reading materials on
career opportunities in program­
ming contact:
Association for Computing Machin­
ery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

(D.O.T. 003.187, 012.168,
020.081 and 020.088)
Nature of the Work

Many essential business functions
and scientific procedures rely on the
work of systems analysts. Their job
is to plan the activities needed for
processing data to solve business,
scientific, or engineering problems.
Although a system can be developed
to process data by hand, with office
machines, or by computers, most
analysts develop methods to use
computers. This statement applies
only to analysts who work on sys­
tems that use computers.
Systems analysts begin an assign­

ment by determining the exact
nature of the data processing prob­
lem. Often managers or subject
matter specialists help them to do
this. Then the analyst structures the
problem logically, identifies all the
data needed, and specifies how they
are to be processed. Systems ana­
lysts may use various techniques in
their work such as cost accounting,
sampling, and mathematical model
building. After analyzing the prob­
lem and devising a data processing
system, they prepare charts and dia­
grams that describe how the system
A nalysts usually recom m end
which data processing equipment is
to be used, and prepare instructions
for programmers. (See the state­
ment on Program m ers in this
chapter.) They also translate final re­
sults into terms that managers or
customers can understand. Data
processing problems are so varied
and complex that many systems ana­
lysts specialize in one area. For ex­
ample, analysts who work for scien­
tific or engineering organizations
may develop systems to determine
the flight path of a space vehicle.
Others develop business systems for
functions such as accounting, fore­
casting sales, or marketing research.
Some analysts improve systems
already in use. They may develop
better procedures or adapt the sys­
tem to handle additional or different
types of data. Others do research, de­
scribed as advanced systems design,
to devise new methods of systems
analysis. These analysts usually have
m a th e m a tic a l or e n g in e e rin g

Places of Employment

More than 100,000 persons—
about 90 percent of them men—
worked as systems analysts in 1972.
Most analysts worked in urban



or colleges. In the Federal Govern­
ment, for example, systems analysts
usually begin their careers as
programmers. After gaining some
experience, they may be promoted to
systems analyst trainees, and thus
later qualify as systems analysts.
Systems analysts need an aptitude
for logical thinking and should like
working with ideas. Although they
sometimes work as part of a team,
much of their work is done inde­
pendently. They should be able to
concentrate and pay close attention
to details.
In large data-processing depart­
ments, a person who begins as a
junior systems analyst and gains ex­
perience may be promoted to senior
or lead systems analyst. Systems
analysts who show leadership ability
also can advance to jobs as man­
agers of systems analysis or dataprocessing departments.

Employment Outlook
Systems analyst confers with programmer.

areas for manufacturing concerns,
insurance companies, banks, and
wholesale and retail businesses. A
growing number also are employed
by universities and independent
organizations that furnish computer
services for a fee.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

There is no universally acceptable
way of preparing for work in sys­
tems analysis. Some employers pre­
fer applicants who have a bachelor’s
degree and experience in mathe­
matics, science, engineering, ac­
counting, or business. Others stress a
graduate degree.
Educational preparation and ex­
perience often determine the kind of

job opportunities available. For ex­
ample, employers usually want an
analyst who has a background in
business administration for work in
finance or one having an engineer­
ing background for a scientifically
oriented system. Applicants also
may qualify on the basis of profes­
sional experience in scientific, tech­
nical, or managerial occupations, or
practical experience in data proc­
essing jobs such as programmer or
computer operator. (See the state­
ment on Computer Operators in this
Most employers prefer people who
have had some experience in com­
puter programming. A beginner can
learn to use electronic data-processing equipment on the job, or can
take special courses offered by his
employer, computer manufacturers,

Employment of systems analysts is
expected to grow very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as data
processing systems in business and
Government expand. In addition
to opportunities that result from
growth, some openings will occur
as systems analysts advance to more
responsible positions or leave their
jobs to enter other employment.
Because many of these workers are
young, relatively few positions will
result from retirement or death.
Among the factors expected to
contribute to a growing demand for
systems analysts are the extension of
computer technology to small busi­
nesses and the growth of computer
centers to serve individual clients for
a fee. Employment also will be
stimulated by efforts to develop sys­
tems that will retrieve information
more efficiently, and to monitor in­
dustrial processes.


Earnings and Working

Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a week—the same as
Beginning systems analysts aver­ other professional and office work­
aged $11,800 a year in 1972, accord­ ers. Unlike many computer oper­
ing to a private survey which cov­ ators who work evening or night
ered more than 85,000 workers in shifts, systems analysts generally
business and government data-proc- work only during the day. Occasion­
essing installations in all parts of the ally, evening or weekend work may
country. Earnings of experienced be necessary to complete emergency
systems analysts averaged $15,700 projects.
annually; in some cases they were
Sources of Additional
paid $25,000 or more a year. Sys­
tems analysts earn over twice as
Additional information about the
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­ occupation of systems analyst is
available from:
try, except farming.

American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit
Avenue, Montvale, N.J. 07645.
Data Processing Management Associ­
ation, 505 Busse Highway, Park
Ridge, 111. 60068.

For a list of reading materials on
career opportunities in the data
processing field write:
Association for Computing Machin­
ery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

Insurance protection has become
an integral part of the American
way of life. It frees policyholders
and their beneficiaries from worry
about the financial burdens that may
result from death, illness, or other
losses beyond their control. Busi­
nesses could not operate, nor could
most people buy homes or other
major items, without the assurance
of protection from sudden disaster.
Insurance workers adapt policies to
meet changing needs, decide which
applications can be accepted, estab­
lish premium rates on the policies,
and investigate and settle claims.
A college degree is increasingly
important for professional, techni­
cal, and managerial jobs in insur­
ance, although some positions are
open to high school graduates who
have appropriate experience. Re­
gardless of their previous training,
insurance workers must continually
learn while on the job to develop
their potential. Many professional
associations sponsor courses in all
phases of insurance work; employ­
ees are encouraged to participate
to prepare themselves for more re­
sponsible jobs.
This section describes four insur­
ance occupations: actuaries, claim
adjusters, claim examiners, and un­


(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

Why do young persons pay more
for automobile insurance than older
persons? How much should an insur­
ance policy cost? Answers to these
and similar questions are provided
by actuaries who design insurance
and pension plans that can be main­
tained on a sound financial basis.
They assemble and analyze statistics
to calculate probabilities of death,
sickness, injury, disability, un­
employment, retirement, and proper­
ty loss from accident, theft, fire, and
other potential hazards. Actuaries
use this information to determine the
expected insured loss. For example,
they may calculate how many per­
sons who are 21 years old today will
live to age 65—the possibility that an
insured person might die during this
period is a risk to the company. They
then calculate a price for assuming
this risk that will be profitable to the
company yet be competitive with
other insurance companies. Finally,
they must make sure that the price
charged for the insurance will enable
the company to pay all claims and
expenses as they occur. In the same
manner, the
actuary calculates
premium rates and policy contract
provisions for each type of insur­
ance o ffered. M ost a c tu a rie s
specialize in either life and health in­
surance or in property and liability
(casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effectively,
actuaries must keep informed about
general economic and social trends,
and legislative, health, and other
developments that may affect insur­
ance practices. Because of their
broad knowledge of insurance, ac­
tuaries may work on problems aris­
ing in investment, underwriting,
group insurance, and pension sales

and service departments. Actuaries
in executive positions help deter­
mine general company policy. In
that role, they explain complex tech­
nical matters to a variety of laymen,
company executives, and govern­
ment officials. They also may testify
before public agencies on proposed
legislation affecting the insurance
business, or justify intended changes
in prem ium rates or contract
A ctuaries who work for the
Federal Government usually deal
with a particular insurance or pen­
sion program, such as social security
or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Ac­
tuaries in State government posi­
tions regulate insurance companies,
supervise the operations of State
retirement or pension systems, and
work on problems connected with
unemployment insurance or work­
men’s compensation. Consulting
actuaries set up pension and wel­
fare plans and make periodic evalu­
ations of these plans for private
companies, unions, and government
Places of Employment

A pproxim ately 5,500 persons
worked as actuaries in 1972. About
one-half of all actuaries worked in
the three states that are the major
centers of the insurance industry —
New York, Connecticut, and Illinois.
Over two-thirds of all actuaries
worked for private insurance com­
panies. Most worked for life insur­
ance companies; the rest worked for
property and liability (casualty)
companies. The number of actuaries
employed by an insurance company
depends on the volume of its busi­
ness and the number and types of in­
surance policies it offers. Large com­
panies may employ over 100 ac­
tuaries; small firms may have only a
few actuaries on their staffs or rely



Actuaries receive on-the-job training.

instead on rating bureaus or con­
sulting firms.
C onsulting firm s and rating
bureaus (associations that supply ac­
tuarial data to member companies)
employed about one-fifth of all ac­
tuaries. Other actuaries work for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal and State
government agencies. A few teach in
colleges and universities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum requirement for

beginning jobs in actuarial work is a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
mathematics, statistics, economics,
or business administration and a
thorough foundation in calculus,
probability, and statistics. Other
desirable courses are insurance law,
e c o n o m ic s, and a c c o u n tin g .
Although only 17 colleges and uni­
versities offer training specifically
designed for actuarial careers,
several hundred schools offer some
of the necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years
after beginning an actuarial career to
complete the entire series of ex­
a m in a tio n s re q u ire d for full

professional status. These examina­
tions cover general mathematics,
specialized actuarial mathematics,
and all phases of the insurance busi­
ness. Those considering an actuarial
career should take at least the begin­
ning examination covering general
mathematics while still in college.
Success in passing the first two ex­
am inations helps beginners to
evaluate their potential as actuaries.
Those who pass these examinations
usually have better opportunities for
employment and receive a higher
starting salary. Advanced examina­
tions, usually taken by those in
junior actuarial positions, require ex­
tensive home study and experience in
insurance work.
The Society of Actuaries gives 10
actuarial examinations for the life in­
surance and pension field; and the
Casualty Actuarial Society gives 9
for the property and liability (casual­
ty) field. Since the first parts of the
examination series of either Society
are the same, students may defer the
selection of their insurance specialty
until they become more familiar with
the field. Persons who complete five
examinations in either field are
awarded “associate” membership in
the society. Those who have passed
an entire series receive the title
“ fellow” .
Beginning actuaries often rotate
among different jobs to learn various
actuarial operations and to become
familiar with different phases of in­
surance work. At first, their work
may be rather routine, such as
preparing calculations or tabulation
for actuarial tables or reports. As
they gain experience, they may
supervise actuarial clerks, prepare
correspondence and reports, and
do research.
Advancement to more responsible
work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely on job
performance and the number of ac­
tuarial examinations passed. Many



actuaries, because of their broad
knowledge of insurance and related
fields, are selected for adminis­
trative positions in other company
activities, particularly in under­
writing, accounting, or data proc­
essing departments. Some actuaries
advance to top executive positions.

New State and Federal legisla­
tion, such as no-fault automobile in­
surance, competitive rating, and pen­
sion reform may be passed, and
m ake m ore a c tu a ria l stu d ies

Earnings and Working
Employment Outlook

Employment of actuaries is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to job
openings resulting from this growth,
several hundred actuaries will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Job opportunities
should be favorable for new college
graduates who have passed one or
two of the actuarial examinations
while still in school and have a strong
mathematical and statistical back­
ground. However, because of the
large number of persons expected to
receive degrees in mathematics, and
the increasing number of students
taking actuarial examinations, com­
petition for beginning jobs could in­
A more affluent and insurance­
conscious population and business
community will demand a rising
number and variety of insurance
policies. There will be a need for ac­
tuaries to solve the growing number
of problems arising from continuous­
ly rising, and increasingly complex
insurance and pension coverage. The
growing number of group health and
life insurance plans and of pension
and other benefit plans will require
actuarial services. G overnm ent
regulatory agencies will need addi­
tional actuaries. The wide-spread use
of electronic computers has also
made more actuarial studies possi­
ble, and there will be a need for actu­
aries capable of working with elec­
tronic computers.

In 1972, actuaries had average
salaries over three times as high as
the average for non-supervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Depending on their college
grades and experience, new college
graduates entering the field as
trainees earned from about $8,000 to
$10,000 a year. Most insurance com­
panies paid $300 to $800 a year more
to trainees who had completed their
first actuarial examination, and
another $300 to $800 when they com­
pleted the second examination.
In the Federal government, new
graduates with the bachelor’s degree
could start at $7,694 or $9,520 a year
in early 1973, depending on their
college grades. Those with the
master’s degree could start at $9,520
or $11,614.
Beginning actuaries can look
forward to a marked increase in
earnings as they gain professional ex­
perience and successfully complete
either society’s series of examin­
ations. Insurance companies give
merit increases to those who pass one
or a group of examinations. Fellows
of either the Society of Actuaries or
the Casualty Actuarial Society earn
over $18,000 a year and many actu­
aries earn more than $25,000 a year.
Those in executive positions in large
companies may earn over $35,000.

Sources of Additional

For facts about acuarial opportu­
nities and qualifications contact:

Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East
42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle
St., Chicago, 111. 60604.

(D.O.T. 191.268, 241.168)
C laim a d ju ste rs in v estig a te,
negotiate, and settle claims made
against an insurance company by
policyholders who have suffered loss.
Most adjusters work for companies
that sell property and liability in­
surance, although some handle
claims arising under accident or
health insurance policies. (See the
statement on Claim Examiners for a
discussion of claim settlement in life
When an insurance com pany
receives a claim, the adjuster deter­
mines the amount of the loss and
whether the policy covers it. Ad­
justers use reports, physical evidence,
and testimony of witnesses in inves­
tigating a claim. When their com­
pany is liable, they negotiate with the
claimant and settle the case.
A d ju s te rs m ak e su re t h a t
settlements are in line with the real
extent of the loss. They must protect
their company from false or inflated
claims but, at the same time, settle
valid claims fairly and promptly.
Some adjusters are allowed to issue
checks on company funds; others
submit their Findings to the insurance
company which then pays the clai­
Some adjusters work with all lines
of insurance. Others specialize in
claims from property damage by
fire, marine losses, automobile
damage, workmen’s compensation
losses, or bodily injury. Some States
have no-fault insurance plans that



ularly if they have specialized experi­
ence. For example, a person ex­
perienced in automobile repair work
may qualify as an auto adjuster.
However, an adjuster who lacks
college training probably will be
slower in advancing to senior or
supervisory positions.
No specific field of college study is
recommended; many successful ad­
ju ste rs have liberal arts back­
grounds. An adjuster who has a
business or accounting background
might specialize in loss from business
interruption or damage to merchan­
dise. Those with college training in
engineering or law will find their
education helpful in adjusting bodily
injury claims. Legal training is desir­
able,. although few employers de­
mand that beginning adjusters have a
law degree.
Places of Employment
Nearly three-fourths of the States
and Puerto Rico require adjusters to
About 128,000 persons—most of
Training, Other Qualifications,
be licensed. Despite wide variation
them men—were claim adjusters in
and Advancement
among State licensing requirements,
1972. Adjusters work for insurance
Although a growing number of applicants usually must comply with
com panies, adjustm ent bureaus
(organizations formed by several in­ firms require claim adjusters to have one or more of the following: pass a
surance companies to settle claims), a college degree, many hire those written examination covering the
and independent adjusting firms. without college training, partic­ fundamentals of adjusting; furnish
character references; be 20 or 21
years of age and fulfill State residen­
cy qualifications; offer proof that
they have completed an approved
course in insurance or loss adjusting;
and file a surety bond.
Many insurance companies and
adjustment firms offer on-the-job
training and home study courses for
beginning adjusters. The Insurance
Institute of America offers a sixsemester study program leading to a
diploma in insurance loss and claim
adjusting upon successful com­
pletion of six examinations. Ad­
justers can prepare for these exam­
inations by independent home study,
through company or public classes,
or by college courses in insurance. A
professional Certificate in Insurance
Adjusting also is available from the
College of Insurance in New York
Claim adjuster discusses automobile damage with a policyholder.

relieve the adjuster from deter­
mining responsibility for a loss. Ad­
justers who work in these States,
however, still must decide the true
amount of a loss. For some minor
property damage cases, the insured
oarties submit estimates of repair
costs. For other claims, adjusters
personally inspect the damage and
make a brief investigation.
Adjusters work mostly away from
the office. They may be called to the
site of an accident or to the location
of a fire or burglary. Adjusters make
their own schedules of the activities
needed to dispose of a claim proper­
ly. They also keep written or taped
records of information obtained
from witnesses and other sources,
and prepare reports of their findings.

Some contract their services private­
ly for a fee.
A few public adjusters represent
the insured rather than the insurance
company. These adjusters usually
are retained by banks, financial
organizations, and other business
firms to handle fire and other
losses to property. They negotiate
claims against insurance companies
and deal with adjusters for such com­
Adjusters can look forward to
working in almost any area of the
United States, since claims must be
settled locally in all parts of the
country. Occasionally, the adjuster
may travel to the scene of a disaster,
such as a hurricane or a riot, to work
with local personnel. Some cases
result in travel outside the United


Several factors point to a growing
Because they work closely with
c l a i m a n t s , w i t n e s s e s , a n d volume of insurance and a resulting
policyholders, adjusters must be able need for claim adjusters. Higher per­
to adapt to many different persons sonal incomes should stim ulate
and situations. They should be able property and liability sales as
to gain the respect and cooperation families insure homes, additional
o f p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t automobiles, and other consumer
backgrounds. When an adjuster’s durables. Expanding businesses will
evaluation of a claim differs from need protection for new plants and
that of the person who has suffered equipment and for insurance cover­
the loss, he should be able to explain ing workmen’s compensation and
his conclusions tactfully. Successful product liability. As more people live
adjusters must be observant and pay and work in densely populated areas,
careful attention to details.
the increased risk of automobile
Most adjuster trainees are assign­ accident, fire, or theft should result
ed to field offices or urban training in a greater number of claims.
Growth of this occupation may be
centers operated by some insurance
companies for an orientation course slower than in recent years as no­
in general insurance principles. fault plans enable adjusters to handle
Beginners work on small claims un­ more cases. Independent adjusters
der the supervision of an experi­ who specialize in automobile damage
enced adjuster. As they learn more claims may suffer some loss of
about claim investigation and settle­ business. Prospects are best for ad­
ment, they are assigned claims that justers who specialize in other types
are higher in loss value and more dif­ of claims or those who can move into
other lines of adjusting.
Adjusters may be promoted to
senior or chief adjuster when they
Earnings and Working
demonstrate competence in handling
assignments and progress in avail­
able study courses. The adjuster who
According to an American In­
shows administrative skills may ad­ surance Association/American Mu­
vance to claim supervisor in a field tual Insurance Alliance survey of
office; senior adjusters who are able companies that sell property and
to organize workflow and make liability insurance, all-lines adjusters
decisions may be prom oted to averaged $10,000 a year in 1972.
managerial positions in the field or
Adjusters with supervisory respon­
home office. Adjusters with legal sibilities averaged $13,000; some
backgrounds can advance to trial at­ earned over $20,000 a year. Most
torney or home office legal manager. public adjusters are paid a percen­
tage of the amount of the loss ad­
justment—generally 10 percent. Ad­
Employment Outlook
justers may be furnished company
Employment of claim adjusters is cars or reimbursed for use of their
expected to grow m o d era te ly own vehicles during business hours.
through the m id-1980’s as the Salaries of claim adjusters are above
number of insurance claims con­ the average earnings for nonsupertinues to increase. In addition to jobs visory workers in private industry,
created by growth of the occupa­ except farming.
tion, many others will result from the
Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
need to replace workers who die, re­ It requires that a person be physi­
tire, or transfer to other jobs.
cally fit because much of the day


may be spent in driving from one
place to another, walking about
outdoors, and climbing stairs. Ad­
justers may have to work evenings or
weekends in order to interview
witnesses and claimants when they
are available. Since most companies
provide 24-hour claim service to
their policyholders, some adjusters
always must be on call. (See the
statement on the Insurance Industry
for additional information on work­
ing condi t i ons and e mpl oyee
Sources off Additional

Information about licensing re­
quirements for claim adjusters may
be obtained from the department of
insurance in each State. General in­
formation about a career as a claim
adjuster is available from the home
offices of many property and liability
insurance companies. Information
about career opportunities as a claim
adjuster also may be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y. 10038.

Information about public insur­
ance adjusting is available from:
National Association of public Adjust­
ors, 1613 Munsey Building Baltimore,
MD. 21202.

(D.O.T. 168.288 and 249.268)
Nature of the Work

Although policyholders expect
their insurance claims to be paid
promptly, important questions often
m ust be answered first. These
questions may arise when large
settlements are made by proper­
ty/liability company adjusters, when



ment, claim examiners maintain rec­
ords and prepare reports to be sub­
mitted to their company’s data
processing department.
Examiners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may correspond
with investigating companies, field
m anagers, agents, and policy­
holders. C laim exam iners oc­
casionally travel to obtain infor­
mation by a personal interview, or
contact State insurance depart­
ments and other insurance com­
panies. Experienced examiners serve
on committees, conduct surveys of
claim practices within their com­
pany, and help devise more efficient
ways to process claims. They also
may appear in court to testify on
contested claims.

Places of Employment

a false claim is suspected, or as
regular procedure when a claim ex­
ceeds a specified amount. Claim ex­
aminers, also called claim represen­
tatives or claim reviewers, investi­
gate details of the claim to provide
answers for these questions.
Life insurance claim examiners
may check claim applications for
completeness and accuracy, inter­
view medical specialists, consult
policy files to verify information on a
claim, or calculate benefit payments.
They are authorized to investigate
and approve payment on all claims
up to a certain limit; larger claims
are referred to a senior examiner.
In property/liability companies,
the claim examiner reviews claims to
be sure that the adjusters, who do
most of the investigative work, have
followed proper procedures. (See the
statement on Claim Adjusters else­
where in the H andbook.) Some

property/liability firms employ
workers to examine and settle small
claims only, such as those arising
over minor automobile damage.
These claim workers, called “ inside
adjusters,” contact claimants by
telephone or mail and have the
policyholder send repair costs, medi­
cal bills, and other statements to the
In both life and property/liability
companies, some home office ex­
aminers process only unusual or
questionable claims referred from
regional or field offices.
Claim examiners need a thorough
knowledge of their company’s settle­
ment procedures and basic policy
provisions. Although they can con­
sult company claim manuals, ef­
ficient examiners must be familiar
with procedures so that frequent
checking is unnecessary. Besides
verifying claims and approving pay­

About 29,000 persons—half of
them women—worked as claim ex­
aminers in 1972. Most worked for
life insurance companies in large
cities such as New York, Hartford,
Chicago, San Francisco, and Dallas,
where home or regional offices are
located. Some were employed in field
offices in smaller cities and towns
where their companies sell and serv­
ice insurance policies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although many employers prefer
college graduates for claim examiner
positions, some firms accept appli­
cants with good high school records
if they have experience in clerical
work or some college training. The
employee who has only a high school
education may begin as a claim
processor in a group life or health ins u ra n c e d e p a rtm e n t. C o lleg e
graduates, or those having 2 years or
more of college training, usually
begin work as junior claim ex­


aminers. Although courses in in­ can be promoted to claim examiner
su ran ce, econom ics, or o th er or senior claim representative after
business subjects are helpful, a major one year; workers who lack formal
in almost any college field is ade­ academic training generally advance
more slowly. Examiners who show
quate preparation.
The beginning claim examiner is unusual competence in claim work
given on-the-job training under the sometimes are promoted to claim ap­
direction of an experienced claim prover or another supervisory job
manager. Trainees who are college w ithin the claim d e p a rtm e n t.
graduates also may receive instruc­ Qualified examiners also can ad­
tion in insurance fundamentals or vance to jobs in underwriting, data
personnel management designed to processing, or administration.
prepare them for more responsible
jobs. The Life Office Management
Employment Outlook
Association (LOMA) cooperates
with the In te rn a tio n a l C laim
Employment of claim examiners is
Association in offering a claims not expected to increase through the
education program for life and mid-1980’s. Some job openings will
health insurance claim examiners. occur, however, as examiners die,
The program is part of the LOMA retire, or transfer to other work.
In s titu te In su ra n c e E d u catio n Competition for the few supervisory
Program leading to the professional openings is expected to be keen.
designation of FLMI (Fellow, Life
Although the volume of insurance
M a n a g e m e n t I n s titu te ) upon should continue to expand, com­
successful com pletion of eight puters will enable each examiner to
written examinations. Most in­ process more claims, especially rou­
surance companies encourage study tine ones and those that arise under
by making educational materials group life and health policies. In ad­
available to employees enrolled in dition, as smaller branch offices are
the LOMA Institute Program. Many consolidated, companies will be able
firms offer classroom intruction in to handle the rapidly expanding
preparation for the annual ex­ volume of claims with a relatively
stable work force.
Because they have frequent con­
tact with agents and brokers, field
Earnings and Working
managers, and policyholders, claim
examiners must be able to com­
municate effectively in many dif­
College graduates hired by life in­
ferent situations. In addition, they surance companies as claim ex­
need to be familiar with medical and aminer trainees averaged $8,000 a
legal terms and practices and Federal year in 1972, according to a Life Of­
and S tate insurance laws and fice Management Association sur­
regulations. Because the claim ex­ vey. Supervisors of claims earned
aminer may have to check premium $11,500 to $17,300 a year. In most
payments, policy values, and other cases, examiners in large companies
numerical items in processing a earned higher salaries.
claim, some skill in performing
An A m e r ic a n I n s u r a n c e
m athematical calculations is an Association/American Mutual In­
asset. They also should have a good surance Alliance survey of propermemory and enjoy working with
ty/liability insurance companies
showed that in 1972 “inside ad­
College trained workers usually justers” averaged $7,500. Claim


supervisors averaged $13,000; some
earned over $20,000 a year. Salaries
of claim examiners who are not
supervisors are slightly above the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Claim examiners have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average work
week for examiners is 35 to 40 hours,
they may work longer at times of
peak claim load or when quarterly
and annual statements are prepared.
They also may need to travel oc­
casionally. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional in­
formation on working conditions and
employee benefits.)
Sources of Additional

General information about a
career as a claim examiner is avail­
able from the home office of many
life insurance and property/liability
insurance companies and also from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute 110
William St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 169.188)
Nature of the Work

Insurance companies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year, by
transferring chance of loss from their
policyholders to themselves. Under­
writers appraise and select the risks
their company will insure. (The term
underwriter sometimes is used in
referring to insurance salespeople;
see the statement on Insurance
Agents and Brokers elsewhere in the



Handbook for a discussion of that
An underwriter decides if his com­
pany will select a risk after ana­
lyzing information in insurance
applications, reports of safety engi­
neers, and actuarial studies (reports
that describe the probability of in­
sured loss). Some routine appli­
cations that require very little inde­
pendent judgment are handled by
computers. Generally, however, un­
derwriters use considerable personal
judgment in making decisions. Be­
cause these decisions are seldom re­
viewed at a higher level, the under­
writer has great responsibility. His
company may lose business to com­
petitors if he appraises risks too con­
servatively or have to pay many
future claims if his underwriting ac­
tions are too liberal.
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract, in­
cluding the amount of the premium.
Underwriters frequently correspond
with policyholders, agents, and
management about policy cancel­
lations or information requests. In
addition, they sometimes accom­
pany salespeople on appointments
with prospective customers. Some
underwriters in small companies
issue policies or supervise the sales
Most underwriters specialize in
one of three major categories of in­
surance: life, property and liability,
or health. Life underwriters may fur­
ther specialize in one or more types
of life insurance, such as group or in­
dividual policies. The property and
liability underwriter specializes by
type of risk insured, such as fire,
automobile, marine, or workmen’s
compensation. Some underwriters,
called commercial account under­
writers, handle business insurance
exclusively. They must evaluate a
firm’s entire operation in appraising
its insurance application.

Underwriter discusses information on an insurance application.

A group insurance policy insures
all persons in a specified group
through a single contract. The group
underwriter analyzes the overall
composition of the group to be sure
that total risk is not excessive. The
duties of some group underwriters
are similar to those of insurance
salespeople, and include meeting
with union or employer represen­
tatives to discuss the types of poli­
cies available to their groups.
Places of Employment

About 60,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as insurance un­
derwriters in 1972. Nearly threefourths were property and liability
underwriters working in field or
home offices throughout the United
States; most life insurance under­
writers are in home offices in a few
large cities, such as Hartford, New
York City, Chicago, Dallas, and San
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For beginning underwriting jobs,

most insurance companies seek col­
lege graduates who have degrees in
liberal arts or business adminis­
tration, but a major in almost any
field provides a good general back­
ground. Some high school graduates
who begin as underwriting clerks
may be trained as underwriters after
they demonstrate an aptitude for the
College graduates usually start as
trainees or junior underwriters. They
study claim files to learn the factors
associated with certain types of
losses and carry out their work
assignments under an experienced
risk appraiser. Many supplement onthe-job training with courses and in­
struction at home office schools or
local colleges and universities. Many
firms pay tuition and the cost of
books for those who satisfactorily
com plete underw riting courses.
Some companies offer salary in­
creases as an incentive. Several inde­
pendent study programs are avail­
able through associations such as the
American Institute for Property and
Liability Underwriters, the Amer­
ican College for Life Underwriters,
the Home Office Life Underwriters



Association and the Institute of
Home Office Underwriters, and
the Life Office Management Asso­
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for a young man or woman
who likes working with details and
enjoys relating and evaluating facts.
In addition to analyzing problems,
underwriters must make prompt
decisions and be able to communi­
cate their ideas to others. They also
must be imaginative and aggressive,
especially when they have to get
additional information from outside
Experienced underwriters who
complete study courses may advance
to chief underwriter or underwriting
manager. Some underwriting man­
agers are promoted to senior mana­
gerial jobs after several years.
Employment Outlook

The employment of underwriters
is expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s as insurance
sales continue to expand. Each year
many jobs will become available as
the occupation grows and as those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
work are replaced.
Several factors underlie the ex­
pected growth in the volume of insur­
ance and the resulting need for un­
derwriters. Higher personal incomes
should stimulate purchases of life in­
surance, especially policies which
provide retirem ent incom e and
money for children’s education.
Property and liability insurance sales
should expand as purchases of auto­

1972. Earnings varied by under­
writing specialty; ocean marine un­
derwriters earned the highest and
personal line underwriters the low­
est annual salaries. Experienced un­
derwriters earn nearly twice the aver­
age earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Underwriting supervisors in
property and liability companies
averaged $13,400 a year in 1972;
many earned over $16,000.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average week is
35 to 40 hours, underwriters some­
times work overtime. Most insur­
ance companies have liberal vaca­
tion policies and other employee
Earnings and Working
benefits. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional in­
College graduates hired as under­ formation on working conditions and
writer trainees averaged $8,140 a employee benefits.)
year in 1972, according to a Life Of­
fice M an ag em en t A sso c ia tio n
Sources of Additional
(LOMA) survey of 55 U.S. com­
panies. Senior underwriters (those
General information about a
with 5 years’ experience) earned
$10,000 to $15,000 in 1972; super­ career as an insurance underwriter is
visors of underwriting in life insur­ available from the home offices of
ance companies averaged $13,000 to many life insurance and property and
$20,000. In most cases, underwriters liability insurance companies. Infor­
in larger companies earned higher mation about career opportunities as
salaries. Salary ranges also were an underwriter also may be obtained
higher in the Eastern and Central from:
states, slightly lower in the West, and
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
substantially lower in the South.
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
An American Insurance AssociInsurance Information Institute, 110
ation/American Mutual Insurance
William St., New York, N.Y.
Alliance survey of companies that
sell property and liability insurance
American Mutual Insurance Alliance,
showed that experienced under­
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, III.
writers averaged $10,000 a year in

mobiles, pleasure boats, and other
consumer durables increase. Both
spending for new home construction
and the American public’s growing
security consciousness should con­
tribute to demand for more exten­
sive insurance protection. Expand­
ing businesses will need protection
for new plants and equipment and in­
surance for workmen’s compen­
sation and product liability. Height­
ened competition among insurance
companies and changes in regula­
tions affecting investment profits
also are expected to increase the in­
surance industry’s need for com­
petent underwriters.

Workers in service occupations
police streets, serve food, put out
fires, clean homes and buildings,
and provide services to the Ameri­
can people in many other ways. In
1972 approximately 11 million serv­
ice workers were employed in a wide
range of occupations that included
babysitters, police officers, cooks,
hospital attendants, theater ushers,
barbers, and building custodians.
College graduates are increasingly
being employed in the protective
and related service occupations.
The growth of the Nation’s pop­
ulation and economy demands an
ever-increasing emphasis on protec­
tive services. Each city, suburban
area, and national port of entry re­
quires protective and related service
workers to check crime, minimize
loss of life and property, and en­
force regulations that protect the
health and safety of our citizens.
More than 1 million people, or about
one-tenth of all service workers,
were in protective service occupa­
tions in 1972.

specific job-related skills.
Personal qualifications such as
honesty and an understanding of
human nature are important. People
seeking careers in protective and
related service occupations should
sincerely desire to serve the com­
munity and be able to exercise
proper judgment under a variety of
This section describes several oc­
cupations in protective and related
services: FBI special agents, State
and local police, and health and
regulatory inspectors.

(D.O.T. 375.168)
Nature off the Work

Careers in protective and related
service occupations require varied
combinations of education and ex­
perience. Workers such as FBI spe­
cial agents and some inspectors for
the Federal Government must have
at least a bachelor’s degree. College
graduates are also increasingly be­
ing sought for many police officer
jobs. In most cases, a college de­
gree is an asset for advancement to
higher level positions.

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) Special Agents investigate
violations of Federal laws such as
b an k r o b b e rie s , k id n a p p in g s ,
frauds against the Government,
thefts of Government property, es­
pionage, and sabotage. The FBI,
which is part of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Justice, has jurisdiction over
more than 185 Federal investigative
matters. Special Agents, therefore,
may be assigned to any type of case;
however, those with specialized
training usually work on cases re­
lated to their background. Agents
with an accounting background, for
example, investigate frauds involv­
ing Federal Reserve Bank records.

In addition to fulfilling educa­
tional requirements, most workers
in protective and related services
must undergo formal training pro­
grams and get on-the-job experience
before they are fully qualified. Train­
ing programs last from several days
to a few months and emphasize

Because the FBI is a fact-gather­
ing agency, its Special Agents func­
tion strictly as investigators. (The
FBI does not give personal protec­
tion to individuals or do police
work to insure that the law is obeyed.
Such matters are handled by local
and State law enforcement agencies.)

To perform their duties, Special
Agents may interview people, ob­
serve the activities of suspects, and
participate in raids; their duties may
involve extensive travel. Because the
FBI’s work is highly confidential,
Special Agents may not disclose any
of the information gathered in the
course of their official duties to un­
authorized persons, including mem­
bers of their families. Agents may
have to testify in court about cases
which they investigate, but they do
not make recommendations concern­
ing prosecution or express opinions
on the guilt or innocence of suspects.
Although they work alone on most
assignments, agents communicate
with their supervisors by radio or
telephone as the circumstances dic­
tate. In performing potentially
dangerous duties, such as arrests and
raids, two or more agents are as­
signed to work together.
Places of Employment

About 8,600 persons were Special
Agents in 1972. Although the vast
majority were men, in May, 1972,
the FBI began accepting applica­
tions from women. There are now a
small number of women assigned as
Special Agents.
Most agents were assigned to the
F B I’s 59 field offices located
throughout the Nation and in Puerto
Rico. They worked in cities where
field office headquarters are located
or in resident agencies (sub-offices)
established under field office super­
vision to provide prompt and eco­
nomic handling of investigative mat­
ters arising throughout the field of­
fice territory. Some agents are as­
signed to the Bureau headquarters
staff in Washington, D.C., which
supervises all FBI activities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To be eligible for appointment as



assignment to a field office. During
this period, agents receive intensive
training in defensive tactics and fire­
a rm s . In a d d itio n , th e y a re
thoroughly schooled in Federal
criminal law and procedures, FBI
rules and regulations, fingerprint­
ing, and investigative work. After
assignment to a field office, the new
agent usually works closely with an
experienced agent for about 2 weeks
before handling any assignments in­
All administrative and super­
visory jobs are filled from within the
ranks by selecting those FBI Special
Agents who have demonstrated the
ability to assume more responsible
Employment Outlook

an FBI Special Agent, an applicant
usually must have graduated from a
State-accredited resident law school
or a 4-year resident college with a
major in accounting. The law school
training must have been preceded by
at least 2 years of resident under­
graduate college work. Accounting
graduates must have at least 1 year
of experience in accounting, audit­
ing, or a combination of both. In
addition, the position is available to
persons who have a 4-year resident
college degree with a physical science
major or fluency in a foreign lan­
guage for which the FBI has a
current need, or 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex investi­
gative, or other specialized ex­
Applicants for the position of FBI
Special Agent must be citizens of the
United States, at least 23 and not
more than 40 years old, and willing
to serve anywhere in the United
States or Puerto Rico. They must be

at least 5 feet 7 inches tall and capa­
ble of strenuous physical exertion;
they must have excellent hearing and
vision, normal color perception, and
no physical defects which would pre­
vent their using firearms or partici­
pating in dangerous assignments.
Each applicant must pass a rigid
physical examination, as well as writ­
ten and oral examinations testing his
knowledge of law or accounting and
his aptitude for meeting the public
and conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical ex­
aminations are given by the FBI at
its facilities. Exhaustive background
and character investigations are
made of all applicants. Appoint­
ments are made on a probationary
basis and become permanent after 1
year of satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given approximately 14
weeks of training at the FBI
Academy at the U.S. Marine Corps
Base in Quantico, Virginia before

The FBI has experienced a sub­
stantial expansion in its jurisdiction
over the years. Although it is impos­
sible to forecast Special Agent per­
sonnel requirements, employment
may be expected to increase with
growing FBI responsibilities.
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of personnel turnover is
traditionally low. Nevertheless, the
FBI is always interested in appli­
cations from qualified persons who
would like to be considered for the
position of Special Agent.
Earnings and Working

The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents was $12,776 in January
1973. Special Agents are not ap­
pointed under Federal Civil Service
regulations, but, like other Federal
employees, they receive periodic
within-grade salary raises if their
work performance is satisfactory;
they can advance in grade as they
gain experience.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be avail-



able for assignment at all times and
places. They frequently work longer
than the customary 40-hour week
and, under certain specified condi­
tions, receive over-time pay up to
$3,000 a year. They are granted paid
vacations, sick leave, and annuities
on retirement.
Sources of Additional
The Federal Bureau of Investigation,
U.S. Department of Justice,
Washington, D.C. 20535.

(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868
and 377.868)
Nature of the Work

The security of our Nation’s cities
and towns depends greatly on the
work of local policemen whose jobs
range from controlling traffic to pre­
venting and investigating crimes.
Whether on or off duty, these of­
ficers are expected to exercise their
authority whenever necessary.
The policeman who works in a
small community has many duties.
In the course of a day’s work, he may
direct traffic at the scene of a fire, in­
vestigate a housebreaking, and give
first aid to an accident victim. In a
large police department, by con­
trast, officers usually are assigned to
a specific type of duty. Most police­
men are detailed either to patrol or
traffic duty; smaller numbers are as­
signed to special work, such as acci­
dent prevention or operation of com­
munications systems. Others work as
detectives (plain-clothesmen) as­
signed to criminal investigation; still
others, as experts in chemical and
microscopic analysis, firearms iden­
tification, and handwriting and

fingerprint identification. In very
large cities, a few officers may work
with special units such as mounted
and m otorcycle police, harbor
patrols, helicopter patrols, canine
corps, mobile rescue teams and
youth aid services.
Some city police departments have
wom en

on their forces. A lthough

some are assigned to regular patrol
duty, most work with juvenile delin­
quents, or search, question, book,
and fingerprint women prisoners.
They may also work with detective
squads, where they normally handle
crimes involving women.
Most newly recruited policemen
begin on patrol duty. Patrolmen may
be assigned to such varied areas as
congested business districts, out­
lying residential areas, or other sec­
tions of a community. They may
cover their beats alone or with other
patrolmen, and they may ride in a
police vehicle or walk on “ foot”

patrol. In any case, they become
thoroughly familiar with conditions
throughout their area and, while on
patrol, remain alert for anything un­
usual. They note suspicious circum­
stances, such as open windows or
lights in vacant buildings, as well as
hazards to public safety such as
burned-out street lights or fallen
trees. Patrolmen also watch for
stolen automobiles and enforce traf­
fic regulations. At regular intervals,
they report to police headquarters
through call boxes, by radio, or by
walkie-talkie. They must also pre­
pare reports about their activities
and may be called on to testify in
court when cases result in legal ac­
Places of Employment

About 370,000 full-time officers
worked for local police departments
in 1972. Although most were men, an


increasing number of women are
now being employed.
Some cities have very large police
forces. For example, New York has
over 30,000 police officers and
Chicago over 13,000. Hundreds of
small communities employ fewer
than 25 policemen each. Police­
women work mainly in large cities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Local civil service regulations
govern the appointment of police of­
ficers in practically all large cities
and in many small ones. Candidates
must be U.S. citizens, usually at least
21 years of age, and be able to meet
certain height and weight standards.
Eligibility for appointment depends
on performance on competitive ex­
aminations, as well as on education
and experience. The physical ex­
aminations often include tests of
strength and agility.
Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgment, and
a sense of responsibility are espe­
cially important in police work, can­
didates are interviewed by a senior
officer at police headquarters, and
their character traits and back­
ground are investigated. In some
police departments, candidates also
may be interviewed by a psychiatrist
or a psychologist, or given a per­
sonality test. Although police of­
ficers work independently, they must
perform their duties in line with laws
and departmental rules. They should
enjoy working with people, and
should want to serve the public.
In large police departments, where
most jobs are found, applicants usu­
ally must have a high school educa­
tion. A few cities require some col­
lege training and some hire law en­
forcement students as police interns.
A few police departments accept
men who have less than a high school
education as recruits, particularly if
they have worked in a field related to


law enforcement.
More and more police depart­
ments encourage applicants to take
post-high school training in soci­
ology and psychology. As a result,
more than 500 junior colleges, col­
leges, and universities now offer pro­
grams in law enforcement. Other
courses helpful in preparing for a
police career include English,
American history, civics and govern­
ment, business law, and physics.
Physical education and sports are
especially helpful in developing the
stamina and agility needed for police
Young persons who have com­
pleted high school can enter police
work in some large cities as police
cadets, or trainees, while still in their
teens. As paid civilian employees of
the police department, they attend
classes to learn police skills and do
clerical work. They may be ap­
pointed to the regular force at age 21
if th e y p a s s a ll n e c e s s a r y
Before their first assignments,
policemen usually go through a
period of training. In small com­
munities, recruits learn by working
for a short time with experienced of­
ficers. Training provided in large city
police departments is more formal
and may last several weeks or a few
months. This training includes class­
room instruction in constitutional
law and civil rights; in State laws and
local ordinances; and in accident in­
vestigation, patrol, and traffic con­
trol. Recruits learn how to use a gun,
defend themselves from attack, ad­
minister first aid, and deal with
Policemen and policewomen usu­
ally become eligible for promotion
after a specified length of service. In
a large department, promotion may
allow an officer to specialize in one
type of police work such as labora­
tory work, traffic control, com­
munications, or work with juveniles.

Promotions to the rank of sergeant,
lieutenant, and captain usually are
made according to each candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as
determined by his performance on
written examinations and his work as
a police officer.
Many types of training help police
officers improve their performance
on the job and prepare for advance­
ment. Through training given at
police department academies and
colleges, officers keep abreast of
crowd-control techniques, civil de­
fense, legal developments that affect
policemen, and advances in law en­
forcement equipment. Many police
departments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
police officers are expected to be
favorable for qualified applicants
through the mid-1980’s. Police
employment should rise rapidly as
population and economic growth
create a need for more officers to
protect life and property, regulate
traffic, and provide other police serv­
ices. Many openings also will occur
as policemen retire or leave their jobs
for other reasons.
The use of modern police methods
has increased the need for officers
with specialized skills. In an increas­
ing number of departments, for ex­
ample, electronic data processing is
used to compile adm inistrative,
criminal, and identification records,
and to operate emergency communi­
cations systems. Many departments
also need officers with specialized
training to apply engineering tech­
niques to traffic control or social
work techniques to crime preven­
tion. At the same time, the use of
automatic signal lights has some­
what reduced the number of police­
men needed for directing traffic.



weather. The injury rate is higher STATE POLICE O FFICERS
than in many occupations and re­
(D.O.T. 375.118, .138, .168,
flects the risks officers take in pursu­
.228, .268, and .388)
In 1972, starting salaries of police ing speeding motorists, capturing
officers in cities with populations of lawbreakers, and dealing with public
Nature of the Work
100,000 or more averaged $9,500 a disorder.
The laws and regulations that
year. Most officers receive regular
govern the use of our Nation’s road­
salary increases during the first few
ways are designed to insure the safe­
years of employment until they reach
Sources off Additional
ty of all citizens. State policemen
a set maximum. Maximum earnings
(sometimes called State highway
averaged just over $11,000 a year in
Information about entrance re­ patrolmen or troopers) patrol our
1972. In general, police officers are
paid about one and one-half times as quirements may be obtained from highways and enforce these laws.
State police officers issue traffic
much as nonsupervisory workers in local civil service commissions or
police departments.
tickets to motorists who violate the
private industry, except farming.
Additional information describ­ law. At the scene of an accident, they
Although sergeants, lieutenants,
ing careers as policemen or police­ direct traffic, give first aid, call for
and captains receive higher basic
emergency equipment including
salaries than patrolmen, the highest women may be obtained from:
ambulances, and write reports to be
earnings are paid to police chiefs or
International Association of Chiefs of
P o lic e , 11 Fi r s t f i el d Rd. ,
used in determining the cause of the
commissioners. These top law en­
Gaithersburg, Md. 20760.
forcement officials may earn as
In addition, State police officers
much as $40,000 a year in the largest
Fraternal Order of Police, National
provide services to motorists on the
Headquarters, 3094 Bertha St.,
highways. For example, they radio
Police departments usually pro­
Flint, Mich. 48504.
for road service for drivers in
vide officers with special allowances
mechanical trouble, direct tourists to
for uniforms and furnish revolvers,
their destination, or give informanight sticks, handcuffs, and other re­
quired equipment.
The scheduled workweek for
police officers usually is 40 hours.
Because police protection must be
provided around the clock, in all but
the smallest communities some of­
ficers are on duty over weekends, on
holidays, and at night. Policemen are
subject to call any time their serv­
ices are needed and may work over­
time in emergencies. In some depart­
ments, overtime is paid at straight
time or time and a half; in others, of­
ficers may be given an equal amount
of time off on another day of the
Police officers generally are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans, ena­
bling many to retire at half pay by
the time they reach age 55. In addi­
tion, paid vacations, sick leave, and
medical and life insurance plans fre­
quently are provided.
Policemen may have to work out­
State police investigate serious accident.
doors for long periods in all kinds of
Earnings and Working



tion about lodging, restaurants, and
tourist attractions.
State police officers also provide
traffic assistance and control during
road repairs, fires, and other emer­
gencies, as well as for special occur­
rences such as parades and sports
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles, con­
duct driver examinations, and give
information on highway safety to the
State policemen may investigate
crimes, such as thefts, murders, and
narcotics violations, particularly in
areas that do not have a police force.
They sometimes help city or county
police investigate criminals, catch
lawbreakers, and control civil dis­
turbances. State highway patrols,
however, normally are restricted to
responsibilities involving vehicle and
traffic matters.
Some police officers specialize in
fingerprint classification, chemical
or microscopic analysis of criminal
evidence, instructing trainees in
State police schools, and piloting
police aircraft. Others work with
special State police units such as the
mounted police, canine corps, and
marine patrols.
State police officers also write re­
ports and maintain police records.
Some officers, including division or
bureau chiefs responsible for train­
ing or investigation and those who
command police operations in an as­
signed area, have administrative
Places of Employment

About 44,000 State police officers
were employed in 1972. Although
almost all were men, positions for
women are expected to increase in
the future.
The size of State police forces
varies considerably. The largest force
(in California) has over 5,000 of­
ficers; the sm allest (in N orth

Dakota) has fewer than 100. One
state (Hawaii) does not maintain a
police force.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Federal Bureau of Investigation.
High school and college courses in
English, reading, government, psy­
chology, sociology, and physics help
in preparing for a police career.
Physical education and sports are
useful for developing stamina and
agility. Completion of a driver
education course and training re­
ceived in military police schools also
are assets.
Police officer recruits serve a
probationary period ranging from six
months to three years. After a speci­
fied length of time, officers become
eligible for promotion. Most States
have merit promotion systems that
require officers to pass a competi­
tive examination to qualify for the
next highest rank. Although the
organization of police forces varies
by State, the typical avenue of ad­
vancement is from private to corpo­
ral, to sergeant, to first sergeant, to
lieutenant, and then captain. Police
officers who show administrative
ability may be promoted to higher
level jobs such as commissioner or
In some States, high school grad­
uates may enter State police work as
cadets. These paid civilian employ­
ees of the police organization attend
classes to learn various aspects of
police work and are assigned nonen­
forcement duties. Cadets who qual­
ify may be appointed to the State
police force at age 21.

State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State
police officers. All candidates must
be citizens of the United States.
Other entry requirements vary by
State, but most require applicants to
have a high school education or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience and be at least 21
years old.
Officers must pass a competitive
examination and meet physical and
personal qualifications. Physical re­
quirements include standards of
height, weight, and eyesight. Tests of
strength and agility often are re­
quired. Because honesty and a sense
of responsibility are important in
police work, an applicant’s char­
acter and background are in­
Although State police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with depart­
ment rules. They should want to
serve the public and be willing to
work outdoors in all types of
In all States, recruits enter a for­
mal training program for several
months. They receive classroom in­
struction in State laws and jurisdic­
tions, and they study procedures for
Employment Outlook
accident investigation, patrol, and
State police employment is ex­
traffic control. Recruits learn to use
guns, defend themselves from at­ pected to rise very rapidly through
tack, handle an automobile at high the mid-1980’s. Although most jobs
speeds, and give first aid. After gain­ will result from growth in employ­
ing experience, some officers take ment, some openings will be to re­
advanced training in police science, place officers who retire, die, or leave
administration, law enforcement, or the occupation for other reasons.
Although some State police will be
criminology. Classes are held at
junior colleges, colleges and univer­ needed in criminal investigation and
sities, or special police institutions other nonhighway functions, the
such as the National Academy of the greatest demand will be for officers


to work in highway patrol. This is the their purchase.
In many States, the scheduled
result of a growing and more mobile
population. Along with an increas­ workweek for police officers is 40
ing number of motor vehicles, the hours. Although the workweek is
nature of highway systems is rapidly longer in some States, hours over 40
changing. Limited access highways are being reduced. Since police
need heavier police patrol to control protection must be provided around
high speeds, prevent accidents, and the clock, some officers are on duty
help stranded motorists. The newer over weekends, on holidays, and at
dual highways also require more night. Police officers also are sub­
patrolmen, because officers can han­ ject to emergency calls at any time.
State policemen usually are cov­
dle only one side of these roads.
Because law enforcement work is ered by liberal pension plans. Paid
becoming more complex, specialists vacations, sick leave, and medical
will be needed in crime laboratories and life insurance plans frequently
and electronic data processing cen­ are provided.
ters to develop administrative and
The work of State police officers is
criminal information systems.
sometimes dangerous. They always
run the risk of an automobile acci­
dent while pursuing speeding motor­
Earnings and Working
ists or fleeing criminals. Officers also
face the risk of injury while appre­
In 1972, beginning salaries for hending criminals or controlling dis­
State policemen ranged from about orders.
$500 to nearly $800 a month. The
most common entry rates ranged
Sources of Additional
from $600 to $700 a month. Al­
though starting salaries are nor­
Information about specific en­
mally higher in the West and lower in
trance requirements may be ob­
the South, State police officers on
the average earn about one and one- tained from State civil service com­
half times as much as nonsuper- missions or State police head­
visory workers in private industry, quarters, usually located in each
State Capitol.
except farming.
State policemen generally receive
regular increases, based on experi­
ence and performance, until a speci­
fied maximum is reached. The 1972
maximums ranged from $700 to over
$1,200 a month; the most common
maximum rates ranged between $800
and $900 a month. Earnings in­
crease with promotions to higher
ranks. The most common maximum
(D.O.T 168.168, 168.268,
salaries for State police sergeants
and 168.287)
were between $900 and $1,000. Lieu­
tenants earn more, often between
Nature of the Work
$1,100 and $1,200 a month.
Protecting the public from health
State police agencies usually pro­
vide officers with uniforms, fire­ and safety hazards, prohibiting un­
arms, and other necessary equip­ fair trade and employment prac­
ment, or give special allowances for tic e , and raising revenue are includ­


ed in the wide range of responsibil­
ities of government. Health and
regulatory inspectors insure observ­
ance of the laws and regulations that
govern these responsibilities.
The duties, titles, and responsibil­
ities of Federal, State, and local
health and regulatory inspectors vary
widely. Some types of inspectors
work only for the Federal Govern­
ment while others also are employed
by State and local governments.
Health and regulatory inspectors are
two of the principal types of govern­
ment inspectors. For discussion of a
third, see the statement on Construc­
tion Inspectors (Government) else­
where in the Handbook. Many other
workers employed as accountants,
agricultural cooperative extension
service workers, and other agricul­
tural professionals, manufacturing
inspectors, safety professionals, and
sanitarians also have inspection
H ealth inspectors work with
e n g in e e rs , c h e m is ts , m ic r o ­
biologists, and health workers to in­
sure compliance with public health
and safety regulations governing
food, drugs, and various other con­
sumer products. They also ad­
minister regulations that govern the
quarantine of persons and products
entering the United States from
foreign countries. The major types of
health inspectors are: food and drug,
meat and poultry, egg products,
foreign quarantine, and agricultural
quarantine inspectors.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment laws declare that marketed
foods m ust be wholesome and
produced under sanitary conditions;
that drugs, cosmetics, therapeutic
devices, and other products must be
safe and effective for their intended
uses; and that such products must be
honestly packaged and labeled. Food
and drug inspectors make certain
that the Nation’s businesses comply
with these laws.



found to be safe and wholesome are
conspicuously stamped to that effect.
They condemn as unfit for human
consumption any animals, carcasses,
or processed meat and poultry which
they find displaying evidence of dis­
ease, c o n ta m in a tio n , or poor
processing. Meat and poultry inspec­
tors also collect samples for labora­
tory analysis and examine all non­
meat ingredients used in processing.
They check to see that products are
labeled correctly and that proper
sanitation is maintained in slaughter­
ing and processing operations.

Food and drug inspector checks food for leakage or signs of contamination.

Most food and drug inspectors
specialize in one area of inspection
such as food, feeds and pesticides,
weights and measures, or drugs
and cosmetics. Some, especially
those who work for the Federal
government, may be proficient in
several of these areas. Working in­
dividually or in teams under the
direction of a senior or supervisory
inspector they travel throughout a
geographical area to check, periodi­
cally, firms that produce, handle,
store, and market food, drugs, and
cosmetics. They look for evidence of
inaccurate product labeling, decom­
position, chemical or bacteriological
contamination, and other factors
that could result in a product becom­
ing detrimental to consumer health.
They assemble evidence of viola­
tions using portable scales, cameras,
ultraviolet lights, container sampling
devices, therm ometers, chemical
testing kits, and other types of equip­

Product samples collected as part
of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After com­
pleting their inspection, they discuss
their observations with the manage­
ment of the plant and point out any
areas where corrective measures are
needed. They prepare written reports
of their findings, and, when neces­
sary, compile evidence that may be
used in court if legal actions must be
taken to effect compliance with the
Federal and State laws empower
meat and poultry inspectors to in­
spect meat, poultry, and their by­
products to insure that they are
wholesome and safe for public con­
sumption. Working as part of a con­
stant on-site team under the general
supervision of a veterinarian, they in­
spect meat and poultry, slaughter­
ing, processing, and packaging oper­
ations. Those carcasses or parts

Egg products inspectors are en­
trusted by law with the responsibil­
ity of insuring that egg products are
sanitarily processed and packaged
free of contamination or spoilage.
Working at egg processing plants,
they supervise the washing and ex­
amination of shell eggs to insure that
broken eggs are removed and
destroyed or denatured. They super­
vise the processing, cooling, pasteur­
ization, storage, and handling of all
dried, liquid, or frozen egg products.
Periodically, they select samples of
processed egg products for labora­
tory analysis to insure that they have
not spoiled or become contaminated
due to improper storage or handling.
Each day before production begins,
they also inspect the plant and its
equipment to insure that it has been
properly cleaned and that the stand­
ards of sanitation are maintained.
The responsibility of foreign
quarantine inspectors is to prevent
the importation of communicable
d is e a s e s . T h e y in s p e c t th e
passengers, crew, and cargo of air­
craft, and maritime vessels arriving
at airports and seaports, to deter­
mine their medical acceptability for
entrance into the United States.
Working closely with customs, im­
migration, and agricultural quaran­
tin e in sp e c to rs, they exam ine
travelers for symptoms of diseases,


such as smallpox. Any individuals
that they believe to be ill they detain
for examination by a physician.
Foreign quarantine inspectors also
enforce regulations pertaining to the
admission of animals into the United
States since many diseases common
to various species of animals are
communicable to man. In addition,
they prepare and maintain docu­
ments, certificates, and reports on
persons or animals detained under
suspicion of having contracted a
communicable disease.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors
protect American agricultural prodducts from the introduction and
spread of foreign plant pests and
animal diseases. To safeguard the
health of crops, forests, and gardens,
they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad
cars, and motor vehicles seeking to
enter the United States for the
presence of restricted or prohibited
plant or animal materials. They
often work with customs inspectors
to inspect mail and passenger
baggage. They examine fruits and
vegetables, nursery stock, plants,
seeds, and soil passing through ports
of entry for the presence of foreign
insects, mites, snails, or plant dis­
eases. Plants and plant products
restricted, suspected to be pest in­
fested, or with which “hitchhiking”
pests are associated are ordered
destroyed or fum igated. A gri­
cultural quarantine inspectors also
examine meat and animal products
and by-products entering the United
States from foreign countries to
determine that they are properly
processed and do not carry danger­
ous foreign animal diseases. At the
request of American exporters, they
may also inspect and certify domes­
tically grown plants and plant and
animal products for compliance with
the import requirements of foreign
Regulatory inspectors insure com­
pliance with various laws and regula­


tions that protect the public welfare
Important types of regulatory in­
spectors are: immigration, customs,
aviation safety, mine, wage-hour
compliance, and alcohol, tobacco,
and Firearms inspectors.
Immigration inspectors interview
and examine people seeking admis­
sion, readmission, or the privileges of
passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the pass­
ports of aliens and U.S. citizens to
determine whether they are legally
eligible to enter the United States
and to verify their citizenship, status,
and identity. Working closely with
inspectors in foreign quarantine,
a g r ic u ltu r a l q u a r a n tin e , and
customs, they examine the visas of
aliens and inquire as to the reasons
for their visit. If they question an in­
dividual’s admissibility, he can be
detained. Immigration inspectors
also prepare reports, m aintain
records, and process applications
and petitions by aliens for privileges
such as immigrating to or tempo­
rarily living in the United States.
Customs inspectors enforce the
laws governing U.S. imports and ex­
ports. Stationed at airports, sea­
ports, and border crossing points
they count, weigh, gauge, measure,
and sample commercial cargoes
entering and leaving the United
States to determine the amount of
tax that must be paid. They also in­
spect baggage and articles worn or
carried by the passengers and crew of
ships, aircraft, and motor vehicles to
insure that all merchandise being
brought through ports of entry is
declared and the proper taxes paid.
Most often, customs inspectors
participate in a traveler inspection
program at points that have a large
volume of travelers passing through.
They screen travelers and baggage
for violations of immigration laws,
public health quarantine regula­
tions, or transportation of prohib­
ited meats, plants, or other mate­

rials. Customs inspectors who work
at isolated border crossing points
often perform the added duties of
health, immigration and agricul­
tural inspecting. They also partici­
pate in the enforcement of gold, nar­
cotics, and trademark restrictions
and work with Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) agents, treasury
agents, and other law enforcement
officers. When not conducting in­
spections, they write reports and
keep records.
A viation safety officers insure that
Federal Aviation Adm inistration
(FAA) regulations that govern the
quality and safety of aircraft equip­
ment and personnel are maintained.
Aviation safety officers may inspect
aircraft manufacturing, m ainte­
nance, or operations procedures.
They usually specialize in inspecting
either commercial aircarriers or
general aviation (privately owned
and operated aircraft).
Working under the direction of a
principal inspector, teams of from
two to four manufacturing inspec­
tors check the construction of every
aircraft to assure that it conforms to
its approved and certificated design.
They spend about one half of their
time visiting production facilities to
make measurements and check the
materials used during construction.
Their results and observation are
recorded and any changes or devia­
tion they Find from the certificated
production model must receive ap­
proval or be corrected. They issue
A irw o rth in e ss C e rtific a te s to
acknowledge that an aircraft con­
forms to its design type. They also
inspect manufacturers’ production
facilities and evaluate production
methods and quality control sys­
tems in order to improve the quality
and safety of aircraft being manu­
Aviation maintenance inspectors
adm inister Federal regulations
relating to the maintenance of com­


mercial and private aircraft. They
periodically examine and certify me­
chanics, mechanic training pro­
grams, and schools. They also in­
spect and certificate aircraft repair
and maintenance facilities and major
overhauls of aircraft or alterations.
They determine if work was per­
formed in accordance with the manu­
facturer’s latest instructions and
FAA approved m ethods, tech­
niques, and practices.
Aviation operation inspectors in­
spect and certify aircraft pilots and
flight crews, training programs and
schools, pilot examiners, flight in­
structors, and instructional mate­
rials. Most operations inspectors ex­
amine and certify the pilots and
crews of one or two models of planes.
They also observe the semiannual
proficiency flight checks given com­
mercial pilots by their airlines or
supervise the activities of approved
FAA pilot examiners and inspect
and certify general aviation ground
and flight instructors, pilots, and
other airmen. Operations inspectors
spend much of their time in the cock­
pit of aircraft observing the pilot and
crews under actual flight conditions.
Mine inspectors work to enhance
the health and safety of miners and
to promote good mining practices.
Federal mine inspectors are responsi­
ble for inspecting nearly 21,000 min­
ing and quarrying operations.
To insure compliance with safety
laws and regulations, mine inspec­
tors visit mines and related facilities
to obtain information on health and
safety conditions. Before an inspec­
tion, they study the mine’s permits,
au th orizations, and records to
familiarize themselves with its opera­
tions. They note areas where viola­
tions were discovered in previous in­
spections and check on how these
were corrected. At the work site,
they look for evidence of flam­
mable, combustible, or explosive
gasses and dust and check roof sup­


ports, quantity of airflow, storage of
explosives, haulage systems, and
automatic mining equipment. They
also inspect the surface equipment
such as the electrical installations,
elevators, and ventilation systems.
Mine inspectors discuss their find­
ings with the management of the
mine, prepare written reports that
su b stan tiate their findings and
decisions, and issue notices of find­
ings that describe violations and
hazards that must be corrected. They
also investigate and prepare reports
on mine accidents and direct rescue
and firefighting operations when
fires or explosions occur.
Wage-hour compliance officers in­
spect the employer’s time, payroll,
and personnel records to insure com­
pliance with the provisions of vari­
ous Federal laws on m inimum
wages, overtime, pay, employment
of minors, equal employment, and
wage garnishment. They often inter­
view em ployees to verify the
employer’s records and to check for
any com plaints. As recognized
authorities on wage and hour stand­
ards, compliance officers often are
consulted for advice by members of
management and labor union of­
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors insure that the liquor, tobac­
co, and firearms industries comply
with the provisions of revenue laws
and other regulations on operating
procedures, unfair competition, and
trade practices. They spend most of
their time inspecting distilleries,
wineries, brew eries; cigar and
cigarette manufacturing plants;
wholesale liquor dealers and im­
porters; firearms and explosives
manufacturers, dealers, and users;
and other regulated facilities. They
periodically audit these establish­
ments to determine that appropriate
taxes are correctly determined and
paid. Alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arms inspectors also safeguard

against unfair competition and trade
Places of Employment

Nearly 25,000 people, 5 percent of
them women, worked as health and
regulatory inspectors in 1972. Of
these, about 3 out of 5 are health in­
spectors, nearly half of whom are
food and drug inspectors. The largest
single employer of food and drug in­
spectors is the U.S. Food and Drug
Adm inistration but the majority
work for State governments. Meat,
poultry, and egg products inspectors
who work in processing plants are
em ployed m ainly by the U .S.
Department of Agriculture. Foreign
quarantine and agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work either for the
U.S. Public Health Service or the
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Regulatory inspectors work for
various agencies within the Federal
Government, mainly in regional and
district offices distributed through­
out the United States. For example,
aviation safety officers work for the
Federal Aviation Administration;
wage-hour compliance officers, for
the Department of Labor; mine in­
spectors, the Department of the
Interior; and alcohol, tobacco, and
Firearms inspectors, the Treasury
Department. Immigration, customs,
and foreign and agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work at airports, sea­
ports, border crossing points, and at
foreign airports and seaports. They
are employed by the Justice and the
Treasury Departments.
Training, Advancement,
and Other Qualifications

People who want to become health
or regulatory inspectors should be
able to accept responsibility and like
detail work. They should be neat and
personable and able to express them­
selves well orally and in writing.
Curiosity is important since inspec­


tors must keep abreast of techno­
logical advances and other develop­
ments in their fields. Persuasiveness
also is an asset, since they frequently
must convince people to comply with
policies and procedures.
The U.S. Food and Drug Ad­
ministration requires applicants for
food and drug inspector jobs to have
a bachelor of science degree which
includes at least 18 semester hours of
chemistry or biology. They also must
achieve a satisfactory score on the
Federal Service Entrance Exam­
ination (FSEE). Applicants who are
accepted receive on-the-job training
in the coverage of the Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act, the extent of their
authority, standards of sanitation
and purity, inspections and sampling
techniques, and the use of product
testing equipment. They are given
progressively more difficult field
assignments under supervision until
they are able to conduct independent
After 1 to 3 years of experience,
food and drug inspectors may elect
to specialize in bacteriological sani­
tation, food, or drug inspection.
Courses in these specialized areas are
given by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration, usually in conjunc­
tion with colleges and universities.
Inspectors often become experts in
their chosen specialty Fields and may
be promoted to senior inspector and
then supervisory inspector. Inspec­
tors who display a high level of ex­
pertise in a specialty occasionally
transfer to administrative positions
in that area of operation. Food and
drug inspectors who do not choose to
specialize may advance to senior or
resident inspector and, if qualified, to
supervisory inspector.
A high school diploma and experi­
ence in meat or poultry slaughtering
or processing generally are min­
imum requirements for becoming a
meat and poultry inspector. A
college education may be substituted


for experience.
Working under the close super­
vision of experienced inspectors,
trainees are taught plant inspection
procedures that insure sanitary con­
ditions and practices. They are in­
structed how to examine animals,
carcasses, and processed meat and
poultry for evidence of disease, con­
tamination, or other undesirable
conditions. When they are ready to
assume their full inspectional duties,
they usually begin as slaugher inspec­
tors. After gaining experience they
may advance to processing inspec­
tor, inspection supervisor, and
officer-in-charge in a processing es­
A high school education and at
least 3 years of experience in the
quality control of fresh or processed
food generally is the minimum re­
quirement for employment as an egg
products inspector. College educa­
tion may be substituted for experi­
ence at the rate of one year of under­
graduate study for 9 months of ex­
perience. Egg products inspectors
receive classroom instruction in
plant sanitation, facilities, proper
handling of egg products, correct
pasteurization procedures, sampling
techniques, and record keeping. They
get additional training on the job
while working closely with an experi­
enced inspector. Experienced inspec­
tors can advance to supervisory
Applicants for jobs as foreign
quarantine inspectors should have at
least 4 years of experience in com­
municable disease control or en­
vironmental sanitation; sanitary in­
spection at airports, seaports, or
border points; performance of labo­
ratory tests and analyses to deter­
mine the presence of germs or chemi­
cal composition; or recognizing ill­
ness, administering innoculations,
and dispensing medicines. Courses
above the high school level in the bio­
logical or physical sciences, public

health, or sanitary engineering may
be substituted for up to 3 years of ex­
perience. Applicants also must take a
written examination.
Foreign quarantine inspectors
begin as trainees and attend a train­
ing center where they learn regula­
tions and inspection techniques.
They also receive on-the-job train­
ing. Experienced inspectors can ad­
vance to supervisory positions.
The minimum educational re­
quirement for agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors is a bachelor’s degree
with a major in one of the biological
sciences. U ndergraduate work
should include at least 20 semester
hours in the life sciences. They
receive additional on-the-job train­
ing and classroom instruction in
these subjects during their first year
of employment. After one year of
successful service, inspectors are
eligible for promotion and may even­
tually progress to specialists, super­
visory, or administrative positions.
People can enter the immigration
inspection field as an aide or trainee
if they have a minimum of 3 years of
administrative or responsible clerical
work experience that demonstrates
their ability to deal with people,
learn and interpret facts, and obtain
the cooperation of others in follow­
ing procedures and regulations.
College training may be substituted
for up to 3 years of general experi­
ence at the rate of one scholastic year
for 9 months of experience. Appli­
cants must take the FSEE.
Immigration aides and inspector
trainees receive a combination of
formal instruction and on-the-job
training. Trainees may be promoted
after their first year of duty and may
reach the journeyman level after an
additional year. Further advance­
ment to immigration examiner or
positions depends upon individual
The minimum requirement for


beginning customs inspector jobs is 4
years of work experience in govern­
ment, education, business, or the
Armed Forces dealing with people
and enforcing regulations or instruc­
tions. College education may be sub­
stituted for up to three years of ex­
perience at the rate of one year of
college for 9 months of experience.
Completion of all requirements for a
law degree may be substituted for all
experience. Applicants must take the
FSEE, be in good physical condi­
tion, and be free of handicaps which
might hinder them in the per­
formance of their duties.
C ustom s inspectors begin as
trainees and receive over a month of
formal instruction in their duties.
After a year of on-the-job training in
which they work an experienced in­
spector, they receive regular assign­
ments. Advancement is possible to
supervisory inspector or to ad­
ministrative positions.
At least 5 years of aviation related
experience usually is required to get
a job as an aviation safety officer.
Resident study in an appropriate
field at an accredited college or uni­
versity, however, may be substituted
for up to 3 years of experience.
Maintenance inspector applicants
must have aircraft maintenance ex­
p e r ie n c e a n d h o ld an FA A
mechanics certificate. Manufactur­
ing inspector applicants must have
experience in manufacturing of air­
craft and a ircraft com ponents.
Applicants for these positions may
substitute a bachelor’s degree in
engineering or aviation for 3 years of
experience. Operations inspector
applicants must have pilot experi­
ence and a commercial pilot cer­
Aviation safety officers are trained
on-the-job and usually attend a 5week indoctrination course in
Oklahoma City. They periodically
receive additional training to famil­
iarize them with the operation, main­


tenance, or inspection of various mod­
els of aircraft or new aircraft manu­
facturing technology. Qualifed avia­
tion safety officers may advance to
supervisory inspector, principal in­
spector, or district office supervisor.
Applicants for beginning mine in­
spection jobs must be in good
physical condition and possess at
least 3 years of experience in mining
or construction work where under­
ground excavation is the principal
activity. They also must take a
general aptitude test and demon­
strate their ability to drive a car. Per­
sons who have at least 5 years of
responsible experience in the mining
industry are not required to take the
aptitude test and may begin at higher
salaries. A bachelor’s degree may be
substituted for 3 years of experience.
Trainees receive 10 weeks of class­
room training in math, English,
public speaking, inspection proce­
dures, mining technology, surface
structures, ventilation systems, roof
supports, respirable dust, and fire
protection. They also receive on-thejob training by teaming with an ex­
perienced inspector. Their inspec­
tion assignments become progres­
sively more difficult until they are
able to make a solo inspection.
Mine inspectors can advance to in­
spection supervisors, subdistrict and
district managers, and specialists in
dealing with specific types of mine
hazards. Many become mine exam­
iners or mine safety personnel in
private industry.
Wage-hour compliance officers
should have a bachelor’s degree from
an accredited college or university
with at least 24 semester hours credit
in any one or a combination of ac­
counting, business administration,
economics, government, industrial
relations, journalism, law, political
science, sociology, statistics, or
closely related subjects. Three years
of non-clerical work experience that
provides knowledge of the basic prin­
ciples of Finance, economics, ac­

counting, statistics, law, business, or
public administration may be sub­
stituted for a bachelor’s degree.
After a few weeks on the job, compli­
ance officer trainees attend a 4-week
training program to acquaint them
with wage-hour laws and standards.
They accompany experienced com­
pliance officers on field assignments
and help them make inspections until
they are ready to undertake inde­
pendent assignments.
At least 3 years of working ex­
perience are generally the minimum
requirement to become an alcohol
and tobacco tax inspector. Educa­
tion at an accredited college or uni­
versity may be substituted for experi­
ence at the rate of one year of study
for 9 months of experience or a
bachelor’s degree in lieu of experi­
ence. Applicants also must achieve a
satisfactory score on the Federal
Service Entrance E xam ination
People enter the field as trainee in­
spectors and receive a year of train­
ing that includes classroom instruc­
tion in the laws of regulations
governing liquor, tobacco, and fire­
arms industries; orientation in the in­
spection techniques used to deter­
mine compliance; and on-the-job
training under the close supervision
of an experienced inspector. The
complexity of their assignments is
gradually increased until they can
work independently.
Employment Outlook

Employment of health and regula­
tory inspectors as a group is expected
to increase very rapidly through the
mid-1980’s. The growth in employ­
ment of health inspectors is expected
to be very rapid but regulatory in­
spectors are expected to have
moderate growth. In addition to job
o p p o rtu n itie s stem m in g from
growth, many inspectors will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other



Health and regulatory inspection
programs are expected to receive in­
creased emphasis as the importance
of existing programs is recognized
and new mandatory inspection pro­
grams are created in areas where
government involvement is new, par­
ticularly at the State and local level.
Increased food consumption caused
by population growth and growing
public concern over potential health
hazards should create additional jobs
for food and drug, meat, and poul­
try, and egg products inspectors.
Aviation industry growth, in­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. im­
ports and exports should continue to
create new openings for aviation
safety officers, foreign and agricultrual quarantine inspectors, im­
migration inspectors, and customs
inspectors. Continued public con­
cern over mine safety and equal
employment rights should create
additional mine inspector and wagehour compliance officer jobs.
Earnings and Working

With the exception of aviation

safety officers, the Federal Govern­
ment paid health and regulatory in­
spector trainees starting salaries of
$7,694 a year in early 1973; or $9,520
if they had exceptional qualifica­
tions. Aviation safety officers receiv­
ed starting salaries of $11,614.
Salaries of experienced meat and
poultry inspectors, egg products in­
spectors, foreign and agricultural
quarantine inspectors, and customs
and immigration inspectors ranged
from $11,614 to $15,097 a year in
1973. S a la rie s of experienced
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors ranged from $11,614 to
$18,190. Experienced food and drug
inspectors and wage-hour com­
pliance officers received salaries
ranging from $13,996 to $18,190.
Mine inspector and aviation safety
officers earned between $16,682 and
$ 21 , 686 .

Most health and regulatory in­
spectors live an active life, meeting
many people and working in a varie­
ty of environments. They must often
travel a great deal but are usually
furnished with an automobile.
At times inspectors must work un­
der unfavorable working conditions.
For example, meat and poultry, egg
products, and alcohol, tobacco, and

firearms inspectors frequently come
in contact with strong, unpleasant
odors; aviation maintenance inspec­
tors who spend much of their time in
maintenance and repair shops, must
tolerate a lot of noise, and mine in­
spectors spend a great deal of time in
mines where they are exposed to the
same hazards as miners. Many in­
spectors work long and often irregu­
lar hours.

Sources of Additional

For facts about public administra­
tion inspector careers in the Federal
Government, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Ser­
vice Examiners for Washington,
D.C. 1900 E St. NW„ Washington,
D.C. 20415.

Information about career oppor­
tunities as inspectors in State and
local governments is available from
the State Civil Service Commissions,
usually located in each State capital,
or from local government offices.

The industrial and occupational
structure of the Nation has gradual­
ly shifted from goods-producing to
service-producing, white-collar ac­
tivities. Accompanying this shift has
been a continued rise in the educa­
tional attainment of the labor force
—in part reflecting changing job re­
quirements. People also have more
time to spend on education and per­
sonal development.
Today about 3 out of 10 people
of all ages participate in the educa­
tional process as students or teach­
ers. Many more study on their own.
The teaching occupations and li­
brarians play a vital role in the edu­
cational process.
Teaching is the largest of the
professions; about 2.7 million full­
time teachers were employed in
1972-73 in the Nation’s elementary
and secondary schools and colleges
and universities. In addition, thou­
sands taught part time; among them
were scientists, physicians, account­
ants, members of other professions,
and graduate students. Similarly,
large numbers of craftsmen gave
instruction part time in vocational
schools. Many other people taught
in preschool and adult education
and recreation programs. Four-fifths
of all teachers had four or more
years of college education in 1972.
No other profession offers women
as many employment opportunities
as teaching. About 1.7 million or
nearly 2Vi times as many women
are teachers as are registered nurses,
the second largest profession for
The number of teachers required
depends on the number of students
enrolled and the number of persons
who leave the profession. New

teachers also are needed to decrease
the size of classes.
Detailed information on how
these demand factors are expected
to affect the outlook for teachers
through the mid-1980’s is presented
in the following statements.

(D.O.T. 092.228)
Nature of the Work

K indergarten and elem entary
school teachers introduce children to
science, numbers, language, and
social studies, and develop students’

capabilities in these subject areas.
Their primary job is to provide a
good learning environment and to
plan and present programs of in­
s tru c tio n using m a te ria ls and
methods designed to suit the stu­
dents’ needs.
Most elementary school teachers
instruct a single group of 25 to 30
children in several subjects. In some
schools two or more teachers “team
teach” and are jointly responsible for
a group of students or for a particu­
lar subject. A recent survey indi­
cates that about 1 public elementary
school teacher in 6 is team teaching.
An increasing number of elemen­
tary school teachers specialize in one
or two selected subjects and teach
these subjects to several classes; 1
teacher in every 5 teaches on this
departmentalized basis. Some teach
special subjects such as music, art, or
physical education, while others
teach basic subjects such as English,
mathematics, or social studies.
Besides the actual student instruc-



tion, teachers participate in many ac­
tivities outside the classroom. They
generally must attend regularly
scheduled faculty meetings and may
serve on faculty committees. They
must prepare lessons and evaluate
student performance. They also
work with students who require spe­
cial help and confer with parents and
other school staff. To stay up-to-date
on ed u c atio n a l m a te ria ls and
teaching techniques, they partici­
pate in workshops and other inservice activities.
New forms of instructional media
give teachers more opportunities to
work with students. Also, about 4
out of every 10 public elementary
school teachers have aides who
generally do secretarial work and
help supervise lunch and playground
activities. Thus, growing numbers of
teachers are freed from routine
duties and can give more individual
attention to students.

Places off Employment

More than 1.3 million people—85
percent of them women—worked as
elementary school teachers in 1972.
An increasing number of men, con­
centrated heavily in the upper
grades, teach at the elementary level.
Most teachers work in public
elementary schools that have six
grades; however, some teach in mid­
dle schools—schools that cover the
three or four years between the lower
elementary grades and four years of
high school. Only about 11 percent
of elementary school teachers work
in nonpublic schools.
More than one-third of all public
elementary teachers teach in urban
areas; about one-fifth in cities of
250,000 or more; one-eighth in rural
areas; and the remainder in small
towns or suburban areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require public elementary
school teachers to be certified by the
department of education in the State
in which they work. Some States also
require certification of teachers in
private and parochial schools.
To qualify for certification, a
teacher must study 4 years at an ap­
proved teacher education institu­
tion. Besides a bachelor’s degree
which provides the necessary liberal
arts background, States require that
prospective teachers have student­
teaching and education courses.
In 1972, 11 States required teach­
ers to get supplementary post-gradu­
ate education—usually a master’s
d e g re e or a fifth y e a r of
study—within a certain period after
their initial certification. Some States
required U.S. citizenship; some an
oath of allegiance; and several a
health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes
have additional requirements for
employment. Students should write
to the local superintendent of schools
and to the State department of
education for information on spe­
cific requirements in the area in
which they want to teach.
In addition to educational and cer­
tification requirements, a teacher
should be dependable, have good
judgment, and should have the de­
sire and ability to work with chil­
dren. Enthusiasm for teaching and
the competence to handle classroom
situations also are important.
Opportunities for advancement
in elementary teaching come prin­
cipally with experience. Teachers
may advance within a school system
or transfer to another which recog­
nizes experience and has a higher
salary scale. Some teachers may ad­
vance to supervisory, adm inis­
trative, or specialized positions.

Employment Outlook

K indergarten and elem entary
school teachers are expected to face
competition for jobs through the
mid-1980’s. If patterns of entry and
reentry to the profession continue in
line with past trends, the number of
persons qualified to teach in elemen­
tary schools will exceed the number
of openings.
Enrollment is the basic factor un­
derlying the need for teachers. Be­
cause of fewer births in the sixties,
elementary enrollments have been on
the decline since they peaked at near­
ly 32 million in 1967. The U.S. Of­
fice of Education projects that by
1977 the downward enrollment trend
will halt at a level of 29 million, and
enrollments again will advance to
nearly 35 million by 1985.
Besides new positions created by
increasing enrollments, additional
techers will be needed to replace
those who are not now certified; to
meet the expected pressure for an im­
proved pupil-teacher ratio; and to fill
positions vacated by teachers who re­
tire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons. Many persons leave
teaching at least temporarily to take
on full-time homemaking or family
Recent college graduates qual­
ified to teach at the elementary level
and teachers seeking reentry to the
profession make up the basic source
of teacher supply. Through the mid1980’s reentrants to the field will face
increasing competition from new
graduates, and although reentrants
have experience in their favor, begin­
ning teachers may have an advan­
tage because they command lower
salaries and have more recent train­
While the outlook based on past
trends points to a com petitive
employment situation through the
mid-1980’s, several factors could in­
fluence the demand for teachers. In-


creased emphasis on early childhood spent preparing lessons, grading
education, special programs for dis­ papers, making reports, attending
advantaged children, and individual meetings, and supervising extra­
instruction may result in larger curricular activities increased the
enrollments, smaller student-teacher total number of hours to about 46.
The elementary teacher usually
ratios, and consequently an in­
creased need for teachers. However, works 9 months and averages 181
possible budget restraints for educa­ days in the classroom and 4 work­
tional services might limit program days on nonteaching activities. In
addition, many teach summer ses­
A potential decline in the number sions, and others take courses for
of children born over the next decade professional growth or work at other
could produce a decrease in the de­ jobs during the summer months.
Employment in teaching is steady,
mand for teachers. While the trend
has not been clearly established, and business conditions usually do
women since 1970 have continued to not affect the market for teachers. In
have fewer children, and according 1972, 38 States and the District of
to a 1972 survey, they expect to con­ Columbia had tenure laws that in­
tinue having smaller families than sured the jobs of teachers who had
successfully taught for a certain
were common 10 years ago.
number of years.
Collective bargaining agreements
Earnings and Working
cover an increasingly large number
of teachers. In early 1973, 30 States
had enacted laws which required
According to the National Educa­
tion Association (NEA), public collective bargaining in the teacher
elementary teachers in 1972-73 aver­ contract negotiation process. More
aged $9,823 a year. Average earn­ than one-half of the public school
ings in 1972 were about one and one- systems that enroll 1,000 students or
third times as much as the average more bargain with teacher organiza­
earnings for nonsupervisory work­ tions over wages, hours, and the
ers in private industry, except farm­ terms and conditions of employment.
ing. In the five highest-paying States
(Alaska, New York, Michigan, Cali­
Sources of Additional
fornia, and New Jersey), teachers’
salaries averaged more than $11,000;
Information on schools and cer­
in the ten States having the lowest
tification requirements is available
salaries (Mississippi, Arkansas,
Idaho, South Dakota, Kentucky, from local school systems and State
Oklahoma, North Dakota, South departments of education.
Inform ation on the Teacher
C a ro lin a , W est V irg in ia, and
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
Georgia), they averaged less than
ships, and other information on
$ 8, 000 .
Public schools systems enrolling teaching may be obtained from:
6,000 or more pupils paid teachers
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
with a bachelor’s degree average
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.
starting salaries of $7,357 a year in
Other sources of general informa­
1972-73; those with a master’s de­
tion are:
gree earned an average of $8,176.
Public elementary teachers work­
American Federation of Teachers,
ed an average of about 36-1/2 hours
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
a week in 1972. Additional time
D.C. 20005.

National Educational Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.228)
Nature of the Work

Secondary school teachers intro­
duce students to subjects ranging
from world history and elementary
algebra to anthropology and com­
puter mathematics. They help mold
their students for future roles as citi­
zens, homemakers, and jobholders.
Secondary school teachers usu­
ally specialize in a particular field.
English, mathematics, social stud­
ies, and science are the subjects most
commonly taught. Other specialties
include health and physical educa­
tion, business education, home
economics, foreign languages, and
music. Increasingly, teachers are
developing courses which deal with
particular areas within the broad
subjects so students may acquire indepth as well as general knowledge
of a field.
Secondary school teachers usu­
ally conduct classes in their spe­
cialty for 5 or 6 groups of students a
day. The average daily pupil load for
public school te a c h e rs is 134
Teachers design their classroom
presentation to meet the demands of
a balanced curriculum and to suit the
individual student’s needs. Second­
ary school teachers instruct students
at a single grade level or from dif­
ferent grades. They must consider
the subject matter, as well as instruc­
tional methods and materials that
best meet the students’ needs.
Secondary school teachers also
supervise study halls and home-


rooms, prepare lessons, grade
papers, evaluate students, and at­
tend meetings with parents and
school personnel. Often they work
with student groups outside of class.
Teachers also participate in activ­
ities, such as workshops and college
classes, to keep up-to-date on their
subject specialty and on current
trends in education.
Increasingly, in recent years,
teachers have been able to devote
more time towards improved instruc­
tion due to the increased availability
of teacher aides who perform secre­
tarial work, grade papers, and do
other routine tasks. New develop­
ments in educational technology also
have provided teachers with instruc­
tional media and other new mate­
rials and techniques to improve stu­
dent learning.
Places of Employment

More than 1 million teachers
worked in secondary schools in 1972.


cation of secondary teachers in
private and parochial schools.
In every State, the minimum
educational requirement for certifi­
cation is a bachelor’s degree. More­
over, 12 States have specified that a
secondary school teacher must get
additional education, usually a fifthyear of study or a master’s degree,
within a certain period after begin­
ning employment.
In 1972, the District of Columbia
was the only jurisdiction requiring a
master’s degree for initial certifi­
cation as a senior high school
teacher. However, according to a re­
cent national survey, 2 out of every 5
public secondary school teachers had
a master’s or higher degree.
The educational qualifications for
secondary school teachers vary by
State and by school system. Ap­
proved colleges and universities in
every State offer programs which in­
clude the education courses and stu­
O f these, about one-half were dent-teaching that States require.
They also offer the academic courses
According to a recent survey, which qualify teachers in subject
slightly more than one-half of all specialties taught at the secondary
public secondary teachers work in level.
States and local jurisdictions often
senior high schools; about one-third
have general teacher requirements,
teach at the junior high level. About
one-tenth teach in junior-senior high such as the recommendation of the
schools, and a very small number are college, a certificate of health, and
elementary-secondary combination citizenship. Prospective teachers
may get complete information on
such educational and general re­
Of those in public schools, about 1
teacher in 5 works in a city of 250,- quirements from each State depart­
000 or more; 1 in 8 in a city of less ment of education and from the
than 250,000. Over one-half teach in superintendent of schools in each
small town or suburban schools; and community.
Personal qualifications which a se­
about 1 in 7 in a rural location. Only
about 1 teacher in 14 works in a non­ condary teacher must have include a
desire to work with young people,
public school.
an interest in a special subject, and
the ability to motivate students and
Training, Other Qualifications,
to relate knowledge to them.
and Advancement
For secondary teachers, educa­
All 50 States and the District of tion and experience provide the pri­
Columbia require the certification of mary bases for advancement. Ad­
public secondary school teachers. vancement to supervisory and ad­
Many States also require certifi­ ministrative positions usually re­



Although the overall outlook for
quires at least 1 year of professional
education beyond the bachelor’s de­ secondary teachers indicates a highly
gree and several years of successful competitive m arket, employment
classroom teaching. Some experi­ conditions may be favorable in cer­
enced teachers with special prepara­ tain fields. A recent survey found
tion may work as special school serv­ continuing teacher shortages in
ice personnel, such as school psy­ mathematics, industrial arts, special
chologists, educational specialists, or education, and some vocationalguidance counselors. Often these technical subjects.
jobs require special certification as
Earnings and Working
well as special education.

Employment Outlook

The supply of secondary school
teachers through the mid-1980’s will
greatly exceed anticipated require­
ments if past trends of entry into the
profession continue. As a result,
prospective teachers are likely to
face keen competition for jobs.
U.S. Office of Education projec­
tions indicate that enrollments in se­
condary schools will begin to decline
in the mid-1970’s after continuous
growth through the 1960’s and into
the early seventies. Enrollments are
expected to increase slightly in the
1980’s, but by 1985 are expected still
to be below the 1972 level. Thus, over
the 1972-85 period nearly all teach­
ing positions will stem from the need
to replace the tens of thousands of
teachers who die, retire, or leave the
profession for other reasons. Pres­
sures for an improved pupil-teacher
ratio and replacement of noncertified teachers will create additional
At the same time demand is level­
ing off, the number of qualified
graduates—the basic source of sup­
ply—will continue to grow rapidly,
and other teachers will seek reentry
to the profession. As a result, an in­
creasing proportion of prospective
teachers will have to consider alter­
natives to secondary school teach­
ing. Many schools may favor hiring
new graduates who command lower
salaries and whose training is more
recent rather than experienced reen­

According to the National Edu­
cation Association (NEA), public
secondary school teachers in 197273 averaged $10,460. This is one
and one-half times the average
for nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. NEA
estimates indicate that 11 States
(Alaska, New York, California,
Michigan, Illinois, New Jersey,
Maryland, Minnesota, Arizona,
Nevada, and Connecticut) paid aver­
age annual salaries of $11,000 or
more, and 3 (Mississippi, Arkansas,
and Idaho) paid secondary school
teachers less than $8,000 a year.
Beginning teachers with a bache­
lor’s degree in school systems with
enrollments of 6,000 or more earned
average salaries of $7,357 in school
year 1972— New teachers with a
master’s degree started at $8,176 a
year. Beginning teachers could ex­
pect regular salary increases as they
gained experience and additional
A recent survey of public school
teachers indicated that the average
required school week for those in se­
condary schools was 37 hours. How­
ever, when all teaching duties, in­
cluding meetings, lesson prepara­
tion, and other necessary tasks are
taken into consideration, the total
number of hours spent working each
week was slightly more than 48.
In some schools, teachers receive
supplem entary pay for certain
school-related activities such as
coaching students in sports and

working with students in extra­
curricular music, dram atics, or
school publications. About onefourth of the public secondary teach­
ers receive pay for extra duties, and
one-third supplement their incomes
with earnings from additional school
One-sixth of public school teach­
ers also work in their school systems
during the summer. More than onefourth hold summer jobs outside the
school system. In all, about threefifths of public secondary school
teachers have extra earnings from
summer work, additional schoolyear work, or a combination of the
During the school-year, teachers
work an average of 181 days. They
average 26 teaching periods and 5
unassigned periods a week. Laws in
38 States and the District of Colum­
bia ensure the employment of those
who have achieved tenure status.
Laws requiring collective bargaining
of wages, hours, and the terms and
conditions of employment cover in­
creasing numbers of teachers.
Sources off Additional

Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Inform ation on the T eacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general informa­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005,
National Education Association, 1201
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.




cles compared to 25 percent of 2-year full-time junior instructors; the rest
college faculty. Also, in certain generally worked as part-time as­
fields, such as engineering and the sistant instructors, teaching fellows,
physical sciences, the demand for re­ teaching assistants, or laboratory
(D.O.T. 090.168 through .999)
search is strong.
In addition to time spent on
Of full-time faculty, about oneNature of the Work
preparation, instruction, and evalua­
third teach in universities; nearly
About 60 percent of all persons in tion, college and university teachers one-half work in 4-year colleges; and
the United States between 18 and 21 also participate in faculty activities; about one-seventh teach in 2-year
attended college in 1972, compared work with student organizations and colleges. About two-thirds of the fac­
with 40 percent ten years ago. To individual students outside of classes; ulty in universities and 4-year col­
meet the demand of students for work with the college adminis­ leges teach in public institutions;
higher education, colleges and uni­ tration; and in other ways serve the
nearly nine-tenths of the faculty in
versities hire teachers to provide in­ institution and the community. Some
two-year institutions work in public
struction in many fields. The most are department chairmen and have junior and community colleges.
common subjects include the social supervisory duties.
In 1972, about one-fourth of all
sciences, teacher education, the
college and university teachers were
physical sciences, health profes­
Places of Employment
women. Women worked more fre­
sions, fine and applied arts, English,
In 1972, about 620,000 teachers quently in 2-year colleges than in 4the biological sciences, m athe­
matics, foreign languages, and busi­ worked in more than 2,600 colleges year colleges and universities and
and universities. An estim ated were more likely to teach certain
ness and commerce.
Slightly more than one-half of all 395,000—nearly two-thirds—were subjects such as nursing, home
college and university teachers in­ full-time senior staff. Of the remain­ economics, and library science. On
struct undergraduates; another one- der, about 110,000 were part-time the other hand, men were the prin­
third teach both graduates and un­ senior staff, and nearly 20,000 were cipal instructors in agriculture, law,
dergraduates; and about one-tenth
work only with graduate students.
Most teachers lecture and con­
duct classroom discussions to present
subject matter effectively. Many
work with students in laboratories.
Some teachers provide individual in­
struction or supervise independent
study. Nearly one-third of the fac­
ulty in universities have teaching
assistants. Some college and univer­
sity teachers use closed-circuit tele­
vision, and especially in two-year
colleges, instruction is machineaided.
To be effective, college teachers
must keep up with developments in
their field by reading current mate­
rial, participating in professional ac­
tivities, and conducting research.
Some publish books and articles.
The importance of research and
publication varies from one institu­
tional level to another. In univer­
sities, about 70 percent of the fac­
ulty have published professional arti­



ranks. Conversely, in community government and industry, which
and ju n io r colleges, where the have traditionally competed with col­
master’s is the highest degree held by leges and universities for Ph.D.’s and
nearly two-thirds of the faculty, in­ holders of master’s degrees. Also,
Training, Other Qualifications,
structors constitute a relatively large some of those persons holding gradu­
and Advancement
faculty segment.
ate degrees may Find it increasingly
Teachers should be able to moti­ necessary to enter occupations that
Most college and university fac­
ulty are classified in four academic vate students and to adapt their Field have not traditionally required ad­
ranks: instructors, assistant profes­ of study to students’ needs and inter­ vanced levels of study. Secondary
school teaching may provide oppor­
sors, associate professors, and full ests.
tunities for an increasing number of
professors. About one-fifth of all fac­
master’s graduates.
ulty are instructors; another one-fifth
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook also de­
are professors. Slightly more than
Entrants to college and university pends on the institutional level and
one-third are assistant professors;
and o n e -fo u rth are a sso c ia te teaching are expected to face keen on the teacher’s qualifications. Al­
competition through the mid-1980’s. though enrollments in the 1970’s are
To get an initial appointment, in­ Although the demand for teachers expected to stabilize in 4-year col­
structors generally must have a will continue to expand, the supply of leges and universities, many institu­
master’s degree. For advancement to new doctoral and master’s degree tions, including junior and com­
higher ranks, they need further aca­ graduates—the principal source of munity colleges, may hire additional
demic training plus experience. teacher supply—is expected to more Ph.D.’s to upgrade their faculties.
Master’s graduates also will con­
Assistant professors usually need a than meet these needs.
tinue to Find jobs in 2-year colleges.
College enrollment represents the
year of graduate study beyond the
master’s degree and at least a year or basic factor underlying the demand Public institutions are expected to
two of experience as an instructor. for teachers. During the 1960’s and continue to attract an increasing
Appointments as associate profes­ early 1970’s, teacher employment ex­ proportion of total college enroll­
sors frequently demand the doctoral panded due to growth in both the ment. Thus, opportunities in public
degree and an additional 3 or more number of college-age persons and colleges will be greater than in pri­
years of college teaching experience. the proportion of 18- to 21-year olds vate institutions.
For a full professorship, the doc­ enrolled in college. While the propor­
torate and extensive teaching experi­ tion attending college is expected to
continue to rise, the number of col­
ence are essential.
Earnings and Working
In addition to advanced study and lege-age persons will decline after
college-level teaching experience, 1978, and by the early 1980’s, enroll­
In 1972-73, full-time college and
outstanding academic, adminis­ ment will taper off and begin to fall.
university faculty on 9-10 month
trative, and professional contribu­ Over the 1972-85 period, the total
contracts averaged $13,813, or twice
tions influence advancement. Re­ number of college teachers needed is
the average earnings for nonsupersearch, publication, and work experi­ expected to rise only 20 percent. This
visory workers in private industry,
ence in a subject area may hasten ad­ compares with a more than 100 per­
except farming. Salaries varied, how­
cent increase over the previous 13ever, by teacher rank and by institu­
The ranks of college and univer­ year period.
tional level. Average salaries were:
Through the mid-1980’s as de­
sity teachers and their educational
backgrounds differ by institutional mand is slowing, the numbers of both Instructors ...............................
Assistant professors..................
level. In universities, more than 50 master’s and Ph.D. degree recipi­
Associate professors ................
percent of the faculty have doctoral ents are expected to grow rapidly. Professors.................................
degrees compared with less than 10 Consequently, a smaller proportion
percent in 2-year colleges. Corre­ of each year’s degree recipients will
In general, larger institutions paid
spondingly, more than 50 percent of be needed for college teaching. An higher salaries. Salaries of teachers
the faculty in universities are either increasing proportion of prospective in 4-year colleges tended to be higher
professors or associate professors, college teachers, therefore, will have than those in 2-year colleges; univer­
while in 2-year colleges, only 1 to seek nonacademic jobs. Alterna­ sity teachers averaged the highest
teacher in 6 is within these upper tive opportunities will exist in salaries.

the earth sciences, engineering, and
other subjects.


College and university teachers’
salaries also vary by geographic
region. According to a recent survey
of 4-year colleges and universities,
schools in the Mideast and New
England paid the highest full-time
faculty salaries.
Since about 2 out of 3 college
teachers have 9-10 month contracts,
many have additional summer earn­
ings from research, writing for
publication, or other employment.
Royalties and fees for speaking
engagements may provide addi­
tional earnings. Some teachers also
undertake additional teaching or re­
search projects or work as con­
College and university teachers
also may enjoy certain benefits, in­
cluding tuition waivers for depend­
ents, housing allowances, travel
allowances, and leaves of absence.
Colleges typically grant a semes­
ter’s leave after 6 or 7 years of
About 95 percent of all college and
university teachers work in institu­
tions which have tenure systems. Of
the full-time teachers employed in
these institutions, over one-half are
tenured. Under a tenure system, a
teacher usually receives 1-year con­
tracts for a probationary period
ranging from 3 to 7 years; some uni­
versities award 2- or 3-year con­
tracts. After the probationary peri­
od, institutions consider teachers for
tenure and the assurance of contin­
uing employment with freedom from
dimissal without cause.
The working hours and environ­
ment of college teachers generally
are favorable. Classrooms, office
facilities, and laboratories usually
are well-equipped and teachers have
access to library facilities and cleri­
cal assistance.
College teachers usually have
flexible teaching schedules. Accord­
ing to a recent survey, the under­
graduate faculty in 4-year colleges


and universities normally teach 12
hours and usually no more than 14 or
(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)
15 hours a week. Graduate faculty
have a teaching load of about 10
hours a week. In addition to time
Nature of the Work
spent in the classroom, college and
university teachers devote much time
Making information available to
to preparation and other duties. people is the job of librarians. They
Overall, full-time faculty spend select and organize collections of
about 40 hours a week on school-re­ books, pamphlets, manuscripts, pe­
lated activities. For faculty in junior riodicals, clippings, and reports, and
and community colleges, the normal assist readers in their use. In many li­
teaching load is slightly heavier, but braries, they also provide phono­
the total number of hours on the job graph records, maps, slides, pictures,
are fewer.
tapes, films, paintings, braille and
talking books, microfilms, and com­
puter tapes and programs.
Sources of Additional
Through the librarian, informa­
tion in the library becomes available
Information on college teaching as to users. Librarians classify and
a career is available from:
catalogue materials.
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
Two principal kinds of library
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
work are reader and technical serv­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.
ices. L ibrarians in reader ser­
American Association of University
vices—for example, reference and
Professors, 1 Dupont Circle NW.,
children’s librarians—work directly
Washington, D.C. 20036.
with the public. Librarians in tech­
American Council on Education, 1 Du­
nical services—for example, cata­
pont Circle NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
loged and acquisitions librari­
American Federation of Teachers,
ans—deal less frequently with
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
the public; they order, classify,
D.C. 20065.
catalog, and in other ways prepare
Professional societies in the vari­ the materials for use.
The size of the library determines
ous subject fields will generally pro­
vide information on teaching re­ to a large extent the scope of a
quirements and employment oppor­ librarian’s job. In sm all libraries, the
tunities in their particular fields. job may include both technical and
Names and addresses of societies are reader services. The librarian may
given in the statements on specific select and organize m aterials,
professions elsewhere in the Hand­ publicize services, do research, and
give reference help to groups and
individuals. In large libraries, li­
brarians usually specialize in either
technical or reader services. They
may specialize further in certain
areas, such as science, business, the
arts, or medicine. Their work may in­
volve reviewing and abstracting pub­
lished materials and preparing bibli­
ographies in their specialty.
Librarians generally are classified
according to the type of library in



Reference librarian helps student find information.

which they work: public libraries,
school media centers, college and
university libraries, and special
Public librarians serve all kinds of
people—children, students, research
workers, housewives, teachers, and
o th e rs . I n c r e a s in g ly , p u b lic
librarians are providing special
materials and services to culturally
and educationally deprived persons,
and to persons who because of
physical handicaps cannot use con­
ventional print.
The professional staff of a large
public library system may include
the chief librarian, an assistant chief,
and several division heads who plan
and coordinate the work of the entire
library system. The system also may
include librarians who supervise
branch libraries and specialists in
certain areas of library work. The
duties of some of these specialists are
briefly described as follows:
Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other materials and main­
tain a well-balanced library that
meets the needs and interests of the

public. Catalogers classify these
materials by subject and otherwise
describe them to help users find what
they are looking for. Reference
librarians answer specific questions
and suggest sources of information
that may be useful.
Some librarians work with specific
groups of read ers. C h ild ren 's
librarians serve the special needs of
young people by finding books they
will enjoy and showing them how to
use the library. They may plan and
conduct special programs such as
story hours or film programs. Their
work in serving children often in­
cludes working with school and com­
munity organizations. Adult serv­
ices librarians serve adults by sug­
gesting materials suited to their
needs and interests. They may co­
operate in planning and conducting
education programs, such as com­
munity development, public affairs,
creative arts, problems of the aging,
and home and family life. Young
adult services librarians help junior
and senior high school students select
and use books and other materials.

They may organize programs of in­
terest to young adults, such as book
or film discussions or concerts of
recorded popular and classical
music. They also may coordinate the
library’s work with school pro­
grams. Bookmobile librarians offer
library services to people not ade­
quately served by a public library
such as those in inner city neighbor­
hoods, migrant camps, rural com­
munities and institutions including
hospitals and homes for the aged.
School media specialists instruct
students in the use of the school
library and help them choose from
the media center’s collection of print
and non-print materials items that
are related to their interests and to
the subjects that they study in the
classroom. Working with teachers
and supervisors, school media spe­
cialists familiarize students with the
library’s resources. They prepare
lists of materials on certain subjects
and help select materials for school
programs. They also select, order,
and organize the library’s materials.
In some schools, media specialists
may work with teachers to develop
units of study and independent study
programs, or they may participate in
team teaching. Very large high
schools may employ several media
specialists, each responsible for a
particular function of the library pro­
gram or for a special subject area.
College and university librarians
serve students, faculty members, and
research workers in institutions of
higher education. They may provide
general reference service or may
work in a particular subject field,
such as law, medicine, economics, or
music. Those working on university
research projects operate documen­
tation centers that use computers
and other modern devices to record,
store, and retrieve specialized infor­
mation. College and university
librarians may teach classes in the
use of the library.


Special librarians work in libraries
maintained by government agencies
and by commercial and industrial
firms, such as pharmaceutical com­
panies, banks, advertising agencies,
and research laboratories. They pro­
vide materials and services covering
subjects of special interest to the
organization. They build and arrange
the o rg an izatio n ’s inform ation
resources to suit the needs of the
library users. Special librarians assist
users and may conduct literature
searches, compile bibliographies,
and in other ways provide informa­
tion on a particular subject.
Others called information science
specialists, like special librarians,
work in technical libraries or in­
formation centers of commercial and
agencies and research centers. Al­
though they perform many duties
of special librarians, they must
possess a more extensive technical
and scientific background and a
knowledge of new techniques for
handling information. The informa­
tion science specialist abstracts com­
plicated information into short, read­
able form, and interprets and anal­
yzes data for a highly specialized
clientele. Among other duties, they
develop classification systems, pre­
pare coding and programming tech­
niques for computerized information
storage and retrieval systems, design
information networks and develop
microform technology.

about one-fifth. An estimated oneseventh worked in special libraries,
including libraries in government
agencies. Some librarians worked in
correctional institutions, hospitals,
and State institutions, while a small
number served as consultants, State
and Federal Government adminis­
trators, and teachers and administra­
tors in schools of library science. The
Federal Government employed more
than 3,500 professional library ad­
More than 85 percent of all li­
brarians are women. In college and
university libraries, however, men
make up about 35 percent of the
total professional staff. Men also are
relatively numerous in law libraries
and in special libraries concerned
with science and technology.
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to book­
mobile units serve widely scattered
population groups.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A professional librarian ordinarily
must complete a 1-year master’s
degree program in library science. A
Ph.D. degree is an advantage to
those who plan a teaching career in
library schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library or in a
large library system. For those who
are interested in the special libraries
Information on library technical field, a master’s degree or doctorate
assistants is found in a separate in the subject of the library’s special­
ization is highly desirable.
statement in the Handbook.
In 1972, 49 library schools in the
United States were accredited by the
American Library Association and
Places off Employment
offered a master’s degree in library
science (M.L.S.). In addition, many
Of the approximately 125,000 other colleges offer graduate pro­
professional librarians in 1972, grams or courses within 4-year un­
school librarians accounted for near­ dergraduate programs.
ly one-half; public libraries and col­
Most graduate schools of library
leges and universities each employed science require (1) graduation from


an accredited 4-year college or uni­
versity. (2) a good undergraduate
record, and (3) a reading knowledge
of at least one foreign language.
Some schools also require intro­
ductory undergraduate courses in
library science. Most prefer a liberal
arts background with a major in an
area such as the social sciences, the
arts, or literature. Some schools re­
quire entrance examinations.
Special librarians and informa­
tion science specialists must have ex­
tensive knowledge of their subject
matter as well as training in library
science. In libraries devoted to scien­
tific information, librarians should
be proficient in one or more foreign
languages. They also must be well in­
form ed about new equipm ent,
methods, and techniques used in
storing and recalling technical infor­
Most States require that public
school librarians be certified and
trained both as teachers and librari­
ans. The specific education and ex­
perience necessary for certification
vary according to State and the
school district. The local super­
intendent of schools and the State
department of education can pro­
vide information about specific re­
quirements in an area.
In the Federal Government, begin­
ning positions require completion of
a 4-year college course and a
master’s degree in library science, or
demonstration of the equivalent in
experience and education by passing
an examination.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs by combining the
academic program with practical
work experience in a library.
Scholarships for training in library
science are available under certain
State and Federal programs and
from library schools, as well as from
a number of the large libraries and
library associations. Loans, assist-



antships, and financial aids also are
Librarians should be intellectu­
ally curious and able to express
themselves verbally, and should have
the desire and ability to search out
and help others use library materials.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Promotion to
these positions, however, is limited
primarily to those who have com­
pleted graduate training in a library
school, or to those who have special­
ized training.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for
librarians is expected to be favor­
able th ro u g h the m id-1980’s.
Although employment in the field is
expected to grow over the period to
1985, the supply of persons qualified
for librarianship is likely to expand
rapidly as an increasing number of
new graduates and labor force re­
entrants seek jobs as librarians.
The anticipated increase in de­
mand for librarians in the 1970’s and
early 1980’s will not be nearly as
great as it was in the 1960’s. Then,
school enrollments were rising rap­
idly and Federal expenditures sup­
ported a variety of library pro­
Fewer births during the 1960’s will
result in a slight decline in elementa­
ry and secondary school enrollments
through the remainder of the 1970’s;
an upturn in enrollments is expected
thereafter. The effect of birth rates in
the 1960’s will begin to be mani­
fested in colleges and universities in
the early 1980’s, when total
degree-credit enrollment is expected
to level off. In both the schools and
the colleges and universities, as a
result, the demand for librarians will
increase at a slower pace than in the
On the other hand, requirements

for public librarians are expected to
increase through 1985. The growth
of an increasingly well-educated pop­
ulation will necessitate an increased
number of librarians to serve the
public. Also, the educationally dis­
advantaged, handicapped, and
various minority groups will need
qualified librarians to provide special
Employment of special librarians
also will continue to grow. Because
of ever-increasing demands upon
high-level executives in business and
industry, management will rely more
heavily on special librarians and in­
formation specialists to keep abreast
of new developments. Expanding use
of computers to store and retrieve in­
formation will contribute to in­
creased demand for information
specialists and library automation
In addition to openings from
growth, thousands of job openings
for librarians will occur each year to
replace those who retire, die, transfer
to other types of work, or leave the
labor force.
Although overall employment op­
portunities are favorable, some
librarians may have to compete for
jobs of their choice. New graduates
in commanding lower beginning
salaries and in having more recent
training may have an employment
advantage over reentrants to the
Employment opportunities will
vary not only by type of library but
also by the librarian’s educational
qualifications and area of special­
ization. Also, whether the librarian
seeks a job in a large or small city, a
suburb or town, or a rural area, and
the region of the country in which a
person wants to work will affect
work employment prospects.
Earnings and Working

Salaries of librarians vary by type

of library, individual’s qu alifi­
cations, and the size and geographi­
cal location of the library.
Starting salaries of graduates of
American Library Association ac­
credited library school programs
averaged $9,248 a year in 1972, rang­
ing from $8,713 in public libraries to
$9,549, in school libraries. Accord­
ing to a recent survey, the average
annual salary for special librarians
was $13,900 in 1973. For librarians
in college and university libraries,
average salaries in 1972— ranged
from $8,700 a year for librarians
with limited experience working in
private 4-year colleges to over
$13,000 for university librarians
with more extensive experience.
Salaries for library administrators
ranged somewhat higher. Depart­
ment heads in college libraries
generally earned between $10,000
and $14,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for librarians with a
master’s degree in library science
was $11,614 a year in early 1973.
T he ty p ic a l w o rk w eek fo r
librarians is 5 days, ranging from 35
to 40 hours. The work schedule of
public and college librarians may in­
clude some weekend and evening
work. School librarians generally
have the same workday schedule as
classroom teachers. A 40-hour week
during normal business hours is com­
mon for government and other
special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school librar­
ies, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident insur­
ance; and pension plans.
Sources of Additional

A dditional inform ation, p a r­
ticularly on accredited programs,


and scholarships or loans may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50 East
Huron St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Division of Library and Educational
Facilities, Bureau of Libraries and
Learning Resources, Office of Edu­
cation, U.S. Department of Health,
E d u c a t i o n , a n d We l f a r e ,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

For information on requirements
of special librarians write to:

Those interested in a career in
Federal Libraries should write to:

Special Libraries Association, 235
Park Ave., South, New York, N.Y.

Secretariat Federal Library Com­
mittee, Room 310, Library of
Congress, Washington, D.C.

Information on Federal assistance
for library training under the Higher
In fo rm a tio n on in fo rm a tio n
Education Act of 1965 is available science specialists may be obtained

American Society for Information
Science, 1140 Connecticut Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on requirements for certification,
and general information about ca­
reer prospects in their regions. State
boards of education can furnish in­
formation on certification require­
ments and job opportunities for
school librarians.

dents, fire and theft, or other
hazards. Health insurance policies
through years of observation and offer protection against the costs of
hospital and medical care or loss of
study on the job.
Salesworkers must understand income due to illness or injury. Many
agents also offer securities, such as
the needs and viewpoints of their
mutual fund shares.
customers and be poised and at ease
An insurance agent may be either
with strangers. Other important at­
an insurance company salesworker
tributes for selling are energy, selfor an independent business person
confidence, imagination, self-disci­
authorized to represent one or more
pline, and the ability to communi­ insurance companies. Brokers, on
cate. Arithmetic skills are an asset. the other hand, are not under con­
In almost all sales work except retail tract with any company; they place
trade, salesworkers need initiative policies directly with the company
to locate prospective customers and that best meets a client’s needs.
to plan work schedules. Four sales Otherwise, agents and brokers do
occupations in which college gradu­ much the same kind of work.
ates are increasingly employed are
Agents and brokers spend most of
discussed in this section.
their time discussing insurance
policies with prospective and exist­
ing customers. Some time must be
spent in office work to prepare
reports, maintain records, plan in­
surance programs that are tailored to
prospects’ needs, and draw up lists of
prospective customers. Specialists in
(D.O.T. 250.258)
g ro u p p o lic ie s m ay h elp an
employer’s accountants set up a
Nature of the Work
system of payroll deductions for
employees covered by the policy.
Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies that protect individuals and
businesses against future losses and
Places of Employment
financial pressures. They may help
plan financial protection to meet the
About 385,000 agents and bro­
special needs of a customer’s family; kers—90 percent of them men—sold
advise about insurance protection for insurance full time in 1972. Many
an automobile, home, business, or others worked part time. About half
other property; or help a policy­ specialized in life insurance; the rest,
holder obtain settlement of an insur­ in some type of property/liability in­
ance claim.
surance. Almost all also sold health
Agents and brokers usually sell insurance.
one or more of the three basic types
Agents and brokers are employed
of insurance: life, property/liability, in cities and towns throughout the
and health. Life insurance policies country, but most work near large
pay survivors when a policyholder population centers.
dies; they also may provide retire­
ment income, funds for the educa­
tion of children, and other benefits.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Property/liability insurance pro­
tects policyholders from financial
Although some employers prefer
losses as a result of automobile acci­

Sales work offers career oppor­
tunities for people who have com­
pleted high school as well as for
college graduates, for those who
want to travel and for those who do
not, and for salaried workers as well
as for men and women who wish to
run their own businesses.
Workers in these jobs may sell
for manufacturers, service firms,
wholesalers, or retailers. In 1972
about 5.4 million people were in
sales occupations; about 25 percent
worked part time. Forty percent
were women who worked mainly in
retail stores. Most salesworkers out­
side of retail stores were men.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training requirements for sales
work are as varied as the work itself.
Salesworkers who sell standardized
merchandise such as magazines,
candy, cigarettes, and cosmetics usu­
ally are trained on the job by ex­
perienced salesclerks; in some large
stores, they may attend brief train­
ing courses. The salesworker who
sells complex products or services,
such as electronic equipment or lia­
bility insurance, needs more educa­
tion and training than most retail
salesclerks. For some positions,
salesworkers must be college gradu­
ates with majors in a field such as
engineering. Others get the necessary
technical knowledge from university
or manufacturers’ courses. Still oth­
ers learn through years of on-the-job
experience, often supplemented by
home study. Thus, a real estate agent
may take university extension
courses; a department store beauty
counselor may participate in an in­
dustry-sponsored training program;
or a jewelry salesworker may learn



to communicate effectively with
different types of people. Because
agents usually work without super­
vision, they need initiative to locate
new prospects. For this reason, many
employers seek people who have
been successful in other jobs.
Insurance agents who show un­
usual sales ability and leadership
may be promoted to sales manager
in a district office or to a managerial
job in a home office. A few agents
may advance to top positions as
agency superintendents or company
vice-presidents. Many who have built
up a good clientele prefer to remain
in sales work. Some, particularly in
the property/liability field, eventual­
ly establish their own independent
agencies or brokerage firms.
Agent discusses policy with customer.

college graduates for jobs selling in­
surance, most hire high school
graduates with work experience.
College training may help the agent
g ra s p the fu n d a m e n ta ls and
procedures of insurance selling more
quickly. Courses in accounting,
economics, finance, business law,
and insurance subjects are helpful.
All agents and most brokers must
be licensed in the States where they
plan to sell insurance. In most
States, licenses are issued only to
applicants who pass written ex­
aminations covering insurance fun­
damentals and the State insurance
laws. New agents usually receive
training at insurance company home
offices or at the agencies where they
will work. Beginners sometimes at­
tend company-sponsored classes to
prepare for examinations. Others
study on their own and accompany
experienced salesworkers when they
call on prospective clients.
Agents and brokers can broaden
their knowledge of the insurance
business by taking courses at colleges

and universities and attending in­
stitutes, conferences, and seminars
sponsored by insurance organi­
zations. The Life Underwriter Train­
ing Council (LU TC ) aw ards a
diploma in life insurance marketing
to agents who successfully complete
the Council’s 2-year life program.
They also offer other courses in life
and health insurance. As an agent or
broker gains experience and knowl­
edge, he can qu alify for the
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
designation by passing a series of ex­
aminations given by the American
Society of Chartered Life Under­
writers. In much the same way, a
property/liability agent can qualify
for the Chartered Property Casualty
Underwriter (CPCU) designation by
passing an examination given by the
American Institute for Property and
Liability Underwriters, Inc. The
CLU and CPCU designations are
recognized marks of achievement in
their respective fields.
Agents and brokers should be
enthusiastic, self-confident, and able

Employment Outlook

Employment of insurance agents
and brokers is expected to grow
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as the volume of insurance sales con­
tinues to expand. Many additional
jobs will open as agents and brokers
die, retire, or leave their jobs to seek
other work. Due to the competitive
nature of insurance selling, begin­
ners often leave their jobs because
they have been unable to establish a
successful clientele.
As personal incomes rise and life
expectancy increases, more families
will depend on life insurance for
educational funds for their children
and retirement income. Expansion in
industrial plant and equipment and a
growing number of major consumer
purchases, such as homes or auto­
mobiles, will stimulate sales of prop­
erty/liability insurance. Rising medi­
cal costs will increase sales of health
E m ploym ent of agents and
brokers, however, is not expected to
keep pace with growing insurance
sales because more policies will be
sold to groups and by mail. Also,



agents should be able to handle more ment of insurance at any State
business as computers relieve them capital.
Information about a career as a
of time-consuming clerical tasks.
life insurance agent also is available
Earnings and Working

Beginners in this occupation often
are guaranteed moderate salaries or
advances on commissions while they
are learning the business and build­
ing a clientele. Thereafter, most
agents are paid a commission. The
size of the commission depends on
the type and amount of insurance
sold, and whether the transaction is a
new policy or a renewal. After a few
years, an agent’s commissions on
new policies and renewals may range
from $8,000 to $20,000 annually. A
number of established and highly
successful agents and brokers earn
more than $30,000 a year.
Agents and brokers generally pay
their own automobile and traveling
expenses. In addition, those who
own and operate independent busi­
nesses must pay office rent, clerical
salaries, and other operating ex­
penses out of their earnings.
Although insurance agents usually
are free to arrange their own hours of
work, they often schedule appoint­
ments during evenings and week­
ends for the convenience of clients.
Some agents work more than the
customary 40 hours a week. (See the
statement on the Insurance Industry
for more information about work in
life and property/liability com­

Institute of Life Insurance, 227 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Life Insurance Agency Management
Association, 170 Sigourney St.,
Hartford, Conn., 06105.
The National Association of Life
Underwriters, 1922 F St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about sales training
in life and health insurance is avail­
able from:
The Life Underwriter Training Coun­
cil, 1922 F St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Information about property/lia­
bility agents and brokers can be ob­
tained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, Inc., 85 John St., New
York, N.Y. 10038.

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)
Nature of the Work

Sources of Additional

P ra c tic a lly all m a n u fa c tu r­
ers—whether they make computers
General occupational information or can openers—employ salesabout insurance agents and brokers w orkers. M an u factu rers’ salesmay be obtained from the home of­ workers sell mainly to other busi­
fice of many life and property/lia­ nesses—factories, railroads, banks,
bility insurance companies. Informa­ wholesalers, and retailers. They also
tion on State licensing requirements sell to hospitals, schools, and other
may be obtained from the depart­ institutions.

M ost m a n u fa c tu re rs ’ salesworkers sell nontechnical products.
They must be well informed about
their firms’ products and also about
the special requirements of their cus­
tomers. When salesworkers visit
firms in their territory, they use an
approach adapted to the particular
line of merchandise. A salesworker
who handles crackers or cookies, for
example, emphasizes the whole­
someness, attractive packaging, and
variety of these products. Some­
times salesworkers promote their
products by displays in hotels and
conferences with wholesalers and
other customers.
Salesworkers who deal in highly
technical products, such as elec­
tronic equipment, often are called
sales engineers or industrial sales­
workers. In addition to having a
thorough knowledge of their firms’
products, they must be able to help
prospective buyers with technical
problems. For example, they may try
to determine the proper materials
and equipment for a firm’s manufac­
turing process. They then present
this information to company officials
and try to negotiate a sale. Often,
sales engineers work with the research-and-developm ent d e p a rt­
ments of their own companies to
devise ways to adapt products to a
customer’s specialized needs. Sales­
workers who handle technical prod­
ucts sometimes train their customers’
employees in the operation and
maintenance of new equipment, and
make frequent return visits to be
certain that it is giving the desired
Although manufacturers’ sales­
workers spend most of their time
visting prospective customers, they
also do paperwork including re­
ports on sales prospects or cus­
tomers’ credit ratings. In addition,
they must plan their work schedules,
draw up lists of prospects, make ap­
pointments, handle some corre-



salesmen is given elsewhere in the

Beginning salesw orkers take
specialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those that manufacture com­
plex technical products, have formal
training programs that last 2 years or
longer. In some of these programs,
trainees rotate among jobs in sev­
eral departments of the plant and of­
fice to learn all phases of produc­
tion, installation, and distribution of
the product. Other trainees take for­
mal class instruction at the plant, fol­
lowed by on-the-job training in a
branch office under the supervision
of field sales managers.
A p le a sa n t p e rso n a lity and
appearance, and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are im portant. Because
salesworkers may have to walk or
stand for long periods or carry prod­
uct samples, physical stamina is
Manufacturer’s salesworkers learn the advantages of new packaging materials.
necessary. As in most selling jobs,
arithmetic skills are an asset.
Sales representatives who have
spondence, and study literature relat­ sional and scientific instruments.
good sales records and leadership
ing to their products.
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
Training, Other Qualifications,
Places of Employment
managers. Those having managerial
and Advancement
skill eventually may advance to sales
Over 42,000 people— 10 percent
of them women—were manufac­
Although high school graduates manager or other executive posi­
turers’ salesworkers in 1972. About can be successful manufacturers’ tions; many top executive jobs in in­
25,000 were sales engineers. Some salesworkers, college graduates in­ dustry are filled by people who
started as salesworkers.
work out of home offices, often creasingly are preferred as trainees.
Because of frequent contact with
located at manufacturing plants. The
M anufacturers of nontechnical
business people in other firms, sales­
majority, however, work out of products often hire college grad­
branch offices, usually in big cities uates who have a degree in liberal workers often transfer to better jobs.
arts or business adm inistration. Some go into business for them­
near prospective customers.
More salesworkers are employed Some positions, however, require selves as manufacturers’ agents sell­
by companies that produce food specialized training. Drug sales­ ing similar products of several
products than by any other industry. workers usually need training at a manufacturers. Other experienced
Large numbers also work in the college of pharmacy. Manufacturers salesworkers find opportunities in
printing and publishing, chemicals, of electrical equipm ent, heavy advertising and marketing research.
fabricated metal products, and elec­ machinery, and some types of chemi­
Employment Outlook
trical and other machinery industries cals prefer to hire college-trained
The largest employers of sales engi­ engineers or chemists. (Information
The number of manufacturers’
neers produce heavy machinery, on chemists, engineers, and other salesworkers is expected to rise
transportation equipment, fabri­ professionally-trained workers who moderately through the mid-1980’s
cated metal products, and profes­ may be employed as manufacturers’ as a result of general economic



growth and the greater emphasis
manufacturers will place on their
sales activities. In addition to open­
ings from growth, several thousand
jobs will emerge annually as existing
positions become vacant because of
retirements or deaths. Still other
vacancies will occur as salesworkers
leave their jobs to enter other types
of employment.
Among the factors expected to in­
fluence employment growth in the
occupation are the expansion of
markets for technical products and
the resulting demand for trained
salesworkers. In addition, the in­
creased volume of business trans­
acted with some customers—mod­
ern industrial complexes, chain
stores, and large institutions of many
kinds—will heighten competition
among the manufacturers supplying
these organizations and intensify the
need for effective selling. Although
they will fill thousands of sales jobs
each year, manufacturers are ex­
pected to be selective in hiring. They
will look for ambitious young people
who are well trained and tempera­
mentally suited for the job.
Earnings and Working

workers’ efforts and ability, the com­
mission rate, location of their sales
territory, and the type of product sold.
Bonus payments may depend on in­
dividual performance, that of all
salesworkers in the group or district,
or on the company’s sales. Some
firms pay annual bonuses; others
offer bonuses as incentive payments
on a quarterly or monthly basis. In
1972, many experienced sales­
workers earned between $16,000 and
$32,000 annually; some earned more.
In general, the earnings of manufac­
turers’ salesworkers are higher than
the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Som e m a n u fa c tu re rs ’ s a le s ­
workers have large territories and do
considerable traveling. Others usu­
ally work in the neighborhood of
their “ home base.’’ When on busi­
ness trips, salesworkers are reim­
bursed for expenses such as transpor­
tation and hotels. Some companies
provide a car or pay a mileage allow­
ance to salesworkers who use their
own cars.
Manufacturers’ salesworkers call
at the time most convenient to cus­
tomers and may have to travel at
night or on weekends. Frequently,
they spend evenings writing reports.
However, some plan their schedules
for time off when they want it. Most
salesworkers who are not paid a
straight commission receive 2 to 4
weeks’ paid vacation, depending on
their length of service. They usually
share in company benefits, including
life in su ra n c e, pensions, and
hospital, surgical, and m edical

According to limited data, sala­
ries for beginning salesworkers aver­
aged about $9,000 a year in 1972, ex­
clusive of commissions and bonuses.
The highest starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equipment,
construction m aterials, hardware
and tools, and scientific and preci­
sion instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns pay
experienced salesworkers a straight
commission, based on their dollar
amount of sales; others pay a fixed
Sources of Additional
salary. The majority, however, use a
combination plan of salary and com­
For more information on the oc­
mission, salary and bonus, or salarycommission and bonus. Commis­ cupation of manufacturers’ salessions vary according to the sales- worker write:

Sales and Marketing Executives Inter­
national, Student Education Divi­
sion, 630 Third Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 250.358)
Nature of the Work

Real estate salesworkers and
brokers represent property owners in
selling or renting their properties.
They are also called real estate
agents or, if they are members of the
National Association |of Realtors, ®
“ Realtors ®.”
Brokers are independent busi­
nessmen who not only sell real estate,
but also sometimes rent and manage
properties, make appraisals, and
develop new building projects. In
closing sales, brokers usually make
arrangements for loans to finance the
purchases, for title searches, and for
meetings between buyers and sellers,
when details of the transaction are
agreed upon and the new owners take
possession. Brokers must also man­
age their own offices, advertising
properties, and handle other busi­
ness operations. Some combine other
work such as selling insurance or
practicing law with their real estate
Salesworkers or agents work for
brokers. They show and sell real es­
tate, handle rental properties, and
obtain “listings” (owner agreements
to place properties for sale with the
firm). Because obtaining listings is
an important job duty, salesworkers
may spend much time on the tele­
phone exploring leads gathered from
advertisements and personal con­
tacts. They also answer inquiries
about properties over the telephone.
A worker who sells real estate or


handles rental properties often must
leave the office to call on prospects
and drive them to inspect properties
for sale. When a number of houses
are for sale in a new development,
the agent may operate from a model
Most real estate salesworkers and
brokers sell residential property. A
few, usually in large firms, special­
ize in commercial, industrial or other
types of real estate. Each specialty
requires knowledge of the particular
type of property. For example, sell­
ing or leasing business property re­
quires an understanding of leasing
practices, business trends, and loca­
tion needs; those who sell or lease in­
dustrial properties must know about
transportation, utilities and labor
supply. To sell residential properties


the agent must know the location of for small business establishments; a
schools, churches, shopping facil­ few, in urban areas, work for firms
ities, and public transportation. with large staffs. Brokers generally
Familiarity with tax rates and insur­ are self-employed. Real estate is sold
ance is also important. The sales- in all areas but employment is con­
worker who is a broker’s only em­ centrated in large urban areas and in
ployee may need some knowledge of smaller but rapidly growing com­
all types of property.
Places of Employment

About 350,000 persons—60 per­
cent of them men—were full-time
real estate brokers and salesworkers
in 1972. Many others sold real estate
part time. The total number of men
and women licensed to sell was about
1 million in 1972, according to the
National Association of Real Estate
License Law Officials.
Most real estate employees work

Real estate salesworker points out features of condominium project.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Real estate salesworkers and
brokers must be licensed in every
State and in the District of Colum­
bia. All States require prospective
agents to pass written tests. The ex­
amination—more comprehensive for
brokers than for salesworkers—in­
cludes questions on basic real estate
transactions and on laws affecting
the sale of property. In more than 60
percent of the States, candidates for
a broker’s license must have a speci­
fied amount of experience in selling
real estate or the equivalent in re­
lated experience or education (gener­
ally 1 to 3 years). State licenses usu­
ally can be renewed annually with­
out reexamination.
Employers prefer applicants with
at least a high school education.
High school courses in selling, archi­
tectural drawing, business law, eco­
nomics, and public speaking are
helpful for those planning a career in
real estate. Most agents have some
college training and many are col­
lege graduates. College courses in
real estate subjects as well as psy­
chology, economics, finance, and
business administration are an asset.
Young men and women interested
in beginning jobs as real estate sales­
workers often apply in their own
communities, where their knowl­
edge of local neighborhoods is an ad­
vantage. The beginner usually learns
the practical aspects of the job under
the direction of an experienced
Many firms offer formal training
programs for both beginners and ex­



perienced salesworkers. About 360
universities, colleges, and junior col­
leges offer courses in real estate. At
some, a student can earn an associ­
ate’s or bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in real estate; several offer ad­
vanced degrees. Many local real es­
tate boards that are members of the
National Association of Realtors ®
sponsor courses covering the funda­
mentals and legal aspects of the
field. Advanced courses in appraisal,
mortgage financing, and property
development and management also
are available through various N a­
tional Association affiliates.
Characteristics important for suc­
cess in selling real estate include a
pleasant personality, honesty, and a
neat appearance. Maturity, tact, and
enthusiasm for the job are required
in order to motivate prospective cus­
tomers in this highly competitive
field. Agents also should have a good
memory for names and faces and
business details such as prices and
zoning regulations.
Trained and experienced sales­
workers can advance in many large
firms to sales or general managers.
Licensed brokers may open their
own offices. Training and experi­
ence in estimating property value can
lead to work as a real estate ap­
praiser, and people familiar with
operating and maintaining rental
properties may specialize in prop­
erty management. Those who gain
general experience in real estate, and
a thorough knowledge of business
conditions and property values in
their localities, may enter mortgage
financing or real estate counseling.
Employment Outlook

Employment of real estate sales­
workers and brokers is expected to
rise moderately through the mid1980’s as more salesworkers are
needed to serve a growing popula­
tion. In addition to opportunities

that result from growth, several
thousand openings will occur each
year as employees die, retire, or leave
for other reasons. Replacement
needs are relatively high in this oc­
cupation because agents are older, on
the average, than workers in most
other job fields; in addition, many
beginners transfer to other work
after a short time selling real estate.
Mature workers, including those
transferring from other kinds of
saleswork, are likely to find many
job opportunities. The proportion of
part-time real estate salesworkers
may decline, as State licensing re­
quirements change and agents need
more specialized knowledge to han­
dle real estate transactions.
The favorable outlook for employ­
ment in this field will stem partly
from increased demand for new
home purchases or rentals by the
many young people bom following
World War II. Continued migration
to metropolitan areas and urban re­
newal programs are among other
factors which will contribute to a
growing need for agents. Although
this field is likely to remain highly
competitive it should offer many
career opportunities to people with
an aptitude for selling.
Earnings and Working

Commissions on sales are the
main source of earnings—very few
real estate agents work for a salary.
The rate of commission varies ac­
cording to the type of property and
its value; the percentage paid on the
sale of farm and commercial prop­
erties or unimproved land usually is
higher than that paid for selling a
Commissions may be divided
among several employees of a real
estate firm. The person who ob­
tained the listing often receives a part
when the property is sold; the broker
who makes the sale either gets the

rest of the commission, or else shares
it with the agent who handles the
transaction. Although an agent’s
share varies greatly from one firm to
another, often it is about half of the
total amount received by the firm.
Many full-time real estate agents
earn between $12,000 and $20,000 a
year, according to the limited data
available. Beginners usually earn
less. Experienced real estate sales­
workers may earn $30,000 or more a
Income usually increases as an
agent gains experience, but individ­
ual ability, economic conditions, and
the type and location of the property
also affect earnings. Salesworkers
who are active in com m unity
organizations and local real estate
boards can broaden their contacts
and increase their earnings. A begin­
ner’s earnings often are irregular be­
cause a few weeks or even months
may go by without a sale. Although
some brokers allow a salesworker a
drawing account against future earn­
ings, this practice is not usual with
new employees. The beginner, there­
fore, should have enough money to
live on until commissions increase.
Brokers provide office space, but
salesworkers generally furnish their
own autom obiles. A gents and
brokers often work in the evenings
and during weekends to suit the con­
venience of customers. Some firms,
especially the large ones, furnish
group life, health, and accident in­
Sources off Additional

The real estate commission or
board located in each State capital
can supply details on licensing re­
quirements for real estate sales­
workers and brokers in the State.
Most local real estate organizations
also have this information. Many
States can furnish manuals helpful to
applicants who are preparing for the



required written examinations.
More information about opportunites in real estate work, as well as
a list of colleges and universities
offering courses in this field, may be
obtained by writing to:
National Association of Realtors ®
Department of Education, 155
East Superior St., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 251.258)
Nature of the Work

When investors buy or sell stocks,
bonds, or shares in mutual funds,
they call on securities salesworkers
to put the “ market machinery” into
operation. Both the individual who
invests a few hundred dollars and the
large institution with millions to in­
vest need such services. Often these
workers are called registered repre­
sentatives, account executives, or
customers’ brokers.
In initiating buy or sell transac­
tions, securities salesworkers relay
orders through their firms’ offices to
the floor of a securities exchange.
When the trade takes place in the
over-the-counter m arket instead,
they send the order to the firm’s
trading department. In either case,
the salesworker promptly notifies the
customer of the completed trans­
action and the final price.
In addition, they provide many
related services for their customers.
They may explain to new investors
the meaning of stock market terms
and trading practices. For more ex­
perienced investors who may have a
variety of holdings, they may give
suggestions and advice on the pur­
chase or sale of a particular security.
Some individuals may prefer long­

Salesworkers discuss new stock offering.

term investments designed for either
capital growth or income over the
years; others might want to make
short-term investments which seem
likely to rise in price quickly.
Securities salesworkers furnish infor­
mation about the advantages and
disadvantages of each type of invest­
ment based on each person’s objec­
tives. They also supply the latest
stock and bond quotations on any
security in which the investor is inter­
ested, as well as information on the
activities and financial positions of
the corporations these securities
Securities salesworkers may serve
all types of customers or they may
specialize in one type only, such as
institutional investors. They also
may specialize in handling only cer­

tain kinds of securities such as
mutual funds. Some handle the sale
of “ new issues” , such as corporation
securities issued for plant expansion
Beginning securities salesworkers
spend much of their time searching
for customers. Once they have estab­
lished a clientele, however, they put
more effort into servicing existing ac­
counts and less into seeking new
Places of Employment

About 220,000 persons—90 per­
cent of them men—sold securities in
1972. Half worked full time in
securities firms and in selling mutual
funds. The rest include insurance
salespersons offering securities to


their custom ers, and p art-tim e
mutual fund representatives.
S e c u ritie s sale sw o rk e rs are
employed by brokerage firms, invest­
ment bankers, mutual funds, and in­
surance companies in all parts of the
country. Many of these firms are
very small. Most salesworkers, how­
ever, work for a small number of
large firms with main offices in big
cities (especially in New York) or for
the nearly 7,000 branch offices in
other areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Because a securities salesworker
m ust be well in fo rm ed a b o u t
economic conditions and trends, a
college education is increasingly im­
portant, especially in the larger
securities firms. This is not true,
however, for part-time work selling
mutual funds. Although employers
seldom require specialized training,
courses in business administration,
economics, and finance are helpful.
Almost all States require persons
who sell securities to be licensed.
State licensing requirements may in­
clude passing an examination and
furnishing a personal bond. In addi­
tion, salesworkers usually must
register as representatives of their
firms according to regulations of the
securities exchanges where they do
business or the National Associa­
tion of Securities Dealers, Inc.
(N A SD ). Before beginners can
qualify as registered representatives,
they must pass the Securities and Ex­
change C o m m issio n ’s (S E C ’s)
General Securities Examination, or
examinations prepared by the ex­
changes or the NASD. These tests
measure the prospective representa­
tive’s knowledge of the securities
business. Character investigations
also are required.
Most employers provide training
to help salesworkers meet the re­


quirem ents for reg istratio n . In
member firms of all major exchanges
the training period is at least six
months. Trainees in large firms may
receive classroom instruction in
security analysis and effective speak­
ing, take courses offered by schools
of business and other institutions and
associations, and undergo a period of
on-the-job training. In small firms,
and in mutual funds and insurance
companies, training programs may
be brief and informal. Beginners read
assigned materials and watch other
salesworkers transact business.
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as im portant as
academic training. Employers seek
applicants who are well groomed,
able to motivate people, and am­
bitious. Because maturity and the
ability to work independently also
are im portant, many employers
prefer to hire those who have achiev­
ed success in other jobs. Successful
sales or managerial experience is
very helpful to an applicant.
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities salesworkers is an
increase in the number and the size
of the a cco u n ts they han d le.
Although beginners usually service
the accounts of individual investors,
eventually they may handle very
large accounts such as those of cor­
porations. Some experienced sales­
workers advance to positions as
branch office managers, who super­
vise the work of other salesworkers
while executing “buy” and “sell”
orders for their own customers. A
few representatives may become
partners in their firms or do other
administrative work.
Employment Outlook

T he n u m b e r of s e c u r i t i e s
salesworkers is expected to grow
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as securities investments continue to
increase. In addition to jobs result­

ing from grow th, many sales­
workers will be needed to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other jobs. Because of the com­
petitive nature of the occupation,
many leave their jobs, unable to es­
tablish a successful clientele.
E m p l o y m e n t of s e c u r i t i e s
s a l e s w o r k e r s will e x p a n d as
economic growth and rising personal
incomes increase the funds available
for investment. The activities of in­
vestment clubs, which enable small
investors to make minimum monthly
payments toward the purchase of
securities, also will contribute to the
demand for securities salesworkers.
Growt h in the number of in­
stitutional investors will be particu­
larly strong as more people pur­
chase insurance; participate in pen­
sion plans; contribute to the endow­
ment funds of colleges and other
nonprofit institutions; and deposit
their savings in banks. In addition,
more workers will be needed to sell
securities issued by new and expand­
ing corporations and by State and
local governments financing public
Earnings and Working

Trainees usually are paid a salary
until they meet licensing and
registration requirements. After
registration, a few firms continue to
pay a salary until the new repre­
sentative’s commissions increase to a
stated amount. The salaries paid dur­
ing training usually range from $500
to $700 a month; those working for
large securities firms may receive as
much as $850 a month.
After candidates are licensed and
registered, their earnings depend on
commissions from the sale and pur­
chase of securities for customers.
Commission earnings are likely to be
high when there is much buying and
selling, and lower when there is a



slump in market activity. Most firms
provide salesworkers with a steady
income by paying a “draw against
commission”—that is, a minimum
salary based on the commissions
which they can be expected to earn.
A few firms pay salesworkers only
salary and bonuses, that usually are
determined by the volume of com­
pany business.
Earnings of full-time, experienced
securities salesworkers averaged
$21,000 a year in 1972, according to
the limited data available. Some
earned more than $30,000 a year.

Full-time securities salesworkers
earn about three times as much as
average earnings for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Securities salesworkers usually
work in offices where there is much
activity. In large offices, for exam­
ple, rows of salesworkers sit at desks
in front of “ quote boards” which
continually flash information on the
prices of securities transactions.
Although established salesworkers
usually work the same hours as
others in the business community,

beginners who are seeking cus­
tomers may work longer. Some
salesworkers accommodate cus­
tomers by meeting with them in the
evenings or on weekends.

Sources of Additional

Further information concerning a
career as a securities salesworker
may be obtained from the personnel
departments of individual securities

Transportation offers a wide
range of career opportunities. Jobs
in air, rail, highway, and water trans­
portation require many workers who
have at least a college degree.
Although this field has many
kinds of jobs, most employees drive
trucks and buses, fly airliners, oper­
ate trains and ships, and keep this
equipment in good working condi­
tion. Others, such as air traffic con­
trollers and airline dispatchers, per­
form related jobs that enable the
transportation industry to serve mil­
lions of Americans annually.
As the economy expands and
population grows, demand for
freight and passenger service will
rise, and more transportation work­
ers will be hired. Employment
trends, however, will vary by type
of business. Employment in most
air and highway transportation jobs
will increase, while employment in
the merchant marine and the rail­
roads will decline. Even in declining
occupations, however, new workers
will be hired to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields.
Transportation offers excellent
opportunities for persons with a col­
lege education. Working conditions
are generally good and the pay is
fairly high. Many employees do a
lot of traveling on the job and meet
new and interesting people.

(D.O.T. 193.168)
Nature of the Work

Air traffic controllers are the
guardians of the airways. They co­
ordinate flights to prevent accidents
and minimize delays in takeoffs
and landings. Some regulate air­
port traffic; others regulate flights
between airports.
Airport traffic controllers work
in a tower near the runway to keep
track of planes that are on the
ground and in the air nearby. They
radio pilots to give them permis­
sion to taxi, take off, or land. To
assure safe conditions, they must
consider many factors including
weather, and the number, size, and
speed of the planes in the area.
They also must keep track of posi­
tions of planes both on the ground

and in the air to control several air­
craft simultaneously.
After a plane takes off, airport
controllers notify air route control­
lers to take charge. Route control­
lers communicate with pilots by
radio and use radar and other elec­
tronic equipment to help keep
planes on course. They also warn
pilots about nearby planes and
other possible hazards. Each route
controller is assigned a certain
amount of airspace. One, for ex­
ample, might be responsible for all
planes that are 30 to 100 miles
north of the airport and flying be­
tween 6,000 and 18,000 feet. As the
flight progresses, one air route con­
troller after another takes charge
until the planes have safely ar­
rived at their destinations and air­
port traffic controllers are again
in charge.
Places of Employment

Almost all of the 20,000 air traf­
fic controllers who worked for the
Federal Aviation Administration

Traffic controllers identify airplanes by radar.




(FAA) in 1972 were men. Almost
all worked at major airports and
air route traffic control centers lo­
cated near large cities. A few were
assigned to control towers and cen­
ters outside the United States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Air traffic controller trainees are
selected through the competitive
Federal Civil Service System. Ap­
plicants must be less than 31 years
old and must pass a written test
that measures their ability to learn
and perform controller’s duties. In
addition, applicants must have 3
years of progressively responsible
work experience that demonstrates
potential for learning and perform­
ing air traffic control work, or four
years of college or a combination
of both. Applicants must be in ex­
cellent health, have vision correc­
table to 20/20, and must be able to
speak clearly and precisely.
Successful applicants receive a
combination of on-the-job and for­
mal training to learn the funda­
mentals of the airway system,
Federal aviation regulations, con­
troller equipment, and aircraft
performance characteristics. All
receive intensive training in simu­
lators at the FAA Academy in
Oklahoma City. It usually takes
two to three years to become a
year controllers must pass a phys­
ical and twice a year must pass a
job performance examination.
Controllers can transfer to jobs
at different locations and advance
to the job of chief controller. Some
advance to more responsible man­
agement jobs in air traffic control
and a few to top administrative
jobs in the FAA.
Employment Outlook

Employment of air traffic con­

trollers is expected to increase
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to jobs that result from
growth, many openings will arise
as experienced controllers retire,
die or transfer to other jobs.
As the number of aircraft in­
creases, the skyways will become
more congested. To prevent colli­
sions, the FAA has created spaces,
near certain airports and above cer­
tain altitudes which require all
pilots to receive directions from
air traffic controllers. If, as ex­
pected, the number and size of
these spaces are expanded, more
controllers will be needed despite
the greater use of new, automated
control equipment.
Under the provisions of a new
labor contract, controllers may
now retire with a pension after
working 20 years. Many eligible
employees are expected to retire
over the next few years and create
an unusually large number of open­
ings. However, because the num­
ber of applicants is large, compe­
tition is expected to be severe.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1972, experienced air traffic
controllers earned between $14,000
and $19,700 a year. Depending on
length of service, they receive 13
to 26 days of paid vacation and 13
days of paid sick leave each year,
life insurance, health benefits, and
a more liberal retirement program
than other Federal employees.
Controllers work a basic 40hour week; however, they may
work additional hours, for which
they receive overtime pay or equal
time off. Because control towers
and centers must be operated 24
hours a day, 7 days a week, con­
trollers are assigned to night shifts
on a rotating basis.
Air traffic controllers work
under great stress. They must keep
track of several planes at the same

time and make certain all pilots re­
ceive correct instructions.
Many controllers belong to the
Professional Air Traffic Control­
lers Organization.
Sources of Additional Information

A pamphlet providing general
information about controllers is
available from any U.S. Civil Ser­
vice Commission office. Addresses
of these offices are available at all
post offices.
Inquiries about job opportuni­
ties should be addressed to the per­
sonnel department of the nearest
FAA regional office. Addresses of
regional offices are available from:
Personnel Operations Division, Fed­
eral Aviation Administration, 800
Independence Ave. SW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20591.

(D.O.T. 912.168)
Nature of the Work and
Places of Employment

Dispatchers (sometimes called
flight superintendents) are em­
ployed by the airlines to coordi­
nate airline flight schedules and to
make sure that all regulations of
the Federal Aviation Administra­
tion (FAA) and the airline com­
pany are observed. After checking
on weather conditions, the dis­
a preliminary
decision as to whether a flight can
leave safely and on time. If any
change takes place from the sched­
uled departure time, the dispatcher
must arrange for the passengers
and crew to be notified.
In preparing for the flight, the
dispatcher confers with the captain


about the quantity of fuel the plane
needs, the best route and altitude
for its flight, and the alternate air­
ports that may be used if bad
weather prevents landing at the
scheduled airport. The dispatcher
and the captain must agree on all
details of the flight before the plane
is allowed to leave the airport. In
some instances, the dispatcher also
keeps records of matters involving
the company, such as the avail­
ability of aircraft and equipment,
the weight of cargo, the amount of
time flown by each aircraft, and
the number of hours flown by each
crew member.
In 1972, airlines employed about
800 dispatchers and assistants. Most
of them worked at large airports
near metropolitan areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Dispatchers are selected from
employees having 5 to 10 years
general experience with the com­
pany. They are required to have an
FA A dispatcher certificate. To
qualify, an applicant has to work
at least a year under the super­
vision of a certified dispatcher or
complete an FAA-approved dis­
patcher’s course at a school or an
airline training center. Applicants
who do not have this schooling or
experience may qualify if they have
spent 2 of the previous 3 years in
air traffic control work, or in air­
line jobs such as dispatch clerk,
assistant dispatcher, or radio oper­
ator, or in similar work in military
Applicants for an FAA dis­
patcher certificate must pass a
written examination on subjects
such as Federal aviation regula­
airnavigation facilities, radio pro­
cedures, and airport and airway
traffic procedures. In an oral test,
they also have to demonstrate
ability to interpret weather maps


and information, and familiarity
with airline routes and naviga­
tional facilities. They must know
all operating weight limitations,
landing and cruising speeds, and
Licensed dispatchers are checked
periodically by their employers to
make sure that they maintain the
skills required by Federal regula­
tions and the company. Airlines
give qualified dispatchers addi­
tional training to keep them up to
date on new flight procedures and
the characteristics of new aircraft.
For assistant dispatcher jobs,
which may not require certifica­
tion, airlines seek persons who
have at least 2 years of college or
who have worked an equivalent
amount of time in some phase of
air transportation, such as the dis­
patch clerks in ground operations.
Preference is given to college grad­
uates who have had courses in
mathematics, physics, and related
subjects. Some experience in flying,
meteorology, or business adminis­
tration also is helpful.
Employment Outlook

The number of workers in this
very small occupation is not ex­
pected to change much through the
mid-1980’s. Most openings for new
workers will develop as exper­
ienced dispatchers and their assist­
ants retire, die, or transfer to other
The need for some additional
dispatchers will result from the in­
crease in air traffic, the addition
and extension of routes, and the
extra difficulties in launching jet
aircraft. However, these factors
will be largely offset by improved
communication facilities and re­
lated computer technology which
allow dispatchers at major termi­
nals to dispatch aircraft at other
airports and over large geographic

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning dispatchers earned
between $1,000 to $1,200 a month
in 1972. As a rule, dispatchers and
their immediate families are en­
titled to a limited amount of free
transportation or reduced fares on
their companies’ flights. In addi­
tion, they may fly at greatly re­
duced rates with other airlines. Dis­
patchers usually receive from 2 to 4
weeks of vacation with pay, de­
pending on length of service. They
also receive paid sick leave, life and
health insurance, and retirement
Most dispatchers are represented
by the Transport Workers Union
of America and the International
Association of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about job oppor­
tunities in a particular airline and
the qualifications required may be
obtained by writing to the person­
nel manager of the company. Ad­
dresses of companies are available
Air Transport Association of America,
1000 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 621.281)
Nature of the Work

Flight engineers are members of
flight crews who make sure the
mechanical and electrical devices
aboard airplanes work properly.
After attending a general briefing
with the pilot and copilot to obtain
weather information and other de­


tails about the flight, they check
maintenance records and may check
the tires and other outside parts of
the plane. If any faulty equipment
is located, a mechanic is called to
make repairs.
From their station in the cockpit,
flight engineers assist the pilot and
copilot in making preflight checks
of instruments and equipment. They
make sure each fuel tank has been
Filled, adjust the electrical power,
and check the engine instruments.
After take off, flight engineers
watch instruments and operate con­
trols to regulate the performance
of the engines, air conditioning,
and other equipment. They also
keep records of engine performance
and fuel consumption. They report
any mechanical problems to the
pilot, and if possible, make emer­
gency repairs in flight. At the few
airports where there are no me­
chanics, flight engineers may make
minor repairs, and those employed
by smaller airlines may assist in

Places of Employment

About 7,000 flight engineers were
employed in 1972. The Federal Avi­
ation Administration requires flight
engineers to be on most threeand four-engine aircraft and some
two-engine jet aircraft. As a result,
most engineers work for airlines
and are stationed in major cities
at the airlines’ main bases.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most scheduled airlines now re­
quire applicants for flight engineers
positions to have a commercial pi­
lot’s license. This license requires
skill, training and experience as a
pilot. (See the statement on pilots
and copilots elsewhere in the Hand­

Before applicants can fly as crew
members, they also must have a
flight engineer’s license from the
Federal Aviation Administration.
They can qualify for a flight engi­
neer’s license if they have had 3
years of experience in repairing or
overhauling aircraft and engines or
experience as a pilot or flight
engineer in the Armed Forces. In
addition, applicants must pass a
rigid physical examination and a
written test on flight theory and
engine operation. They also must
pass a flight check of operating pro­
cedures for the type of plane they
will be assigned. Completing a
private course of ground and flight
instruction which is approved by
the Federal Aviation Administra­
tion is the most common method of
qualifying for a license.
Airlines generally prefer appli­
cants who are 21 or 35 years of age,
from 5 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 4
inches tall, and in excellent physi­
cal condition. They must be able to
cope with the pressures and respon­
sibilities that are part of the occu­
pation, and must be able to work as
part of a team. Good eyesight, in­
cluding normal color vision, is
essential. All airlines require a
high school education, and they pre­
fer at least 2 years of college.
Although airlines favor appli­
cants who already have a flight
engineer’s license and a commercial
pilot’s license, they may train those
who have only the pilot’s license.
Advancement opportunities usual­
ly depend on qualifications and
seniority provisions established by
union contracts. The flight engineer
who has pilot qualifications, gen­
erally called the second officer, ad­
vances on the basis of seniority to
copilot, and then follows the regu­
lar line of advancement open to
other copilots. Flight engineers who
do not have pilot qualifications can
select more desirable routes and
schedules as they gain seniority.


Employment Outlook

Employment is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the mid1980’s. In addition, several hun­
dred openings will occur each year
as experienced flight engineers trans­
fer to jobs as copilots, retire, or
die. Assuming no significant con­
tinued fuel shortages, growth in
airline traffic will create a need
for more airplanes and more engi­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Monthly earnings of beginning
flight engineers ranged from $650
to $690 in 1972, according to infor­
mation from several union contracts.
Monthly earnings, of experienced
flight engineers ranged from $2,000
to $3,000. Earnings depend on size,
speed, and type of plane; hours and
miles flown; length of service; and
the type of flight (such as night or
As a rule, flight engineers and
their immediate families are en­
titled to a limited amount of free
or reduced fare transportation on
their company’s flights. In addi­
tion, they may travel on other
airlines at greatly reduced rates.
Engineers may be away from their
home bases about one-third of the
time or more. When they are away
from home, the airlines provide
living accommodations and an al­
lowance for expenses. Airlines
operate flights at all hours of the
day and night, so engineers often
have irregular work schedules.
Flight engineers usually receive
2 to 4 weeks of vacation with pay.
They also receive paid sick leave,
life and health insurance, and retire­
ment benefits.
Flight engineers who are qualified
pilots (Second Officers) are repre­
sented by the Air Line Pilots Asso­
ciation, International. Most others
belong to the Flight Engineers’ Inter-



national Association or to the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America.
Sources of Additional Information

Career information and a list of
schools offering flight engineer train­
ing are available from:
Flight Engineers’ International Associa­
tion, 905 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Information about job opportu­
nities in a particular airline and the
qualifications required may be ob­
tained by writing to the personnel
manager of the company. Addresses
of airline companies and details on
physical and educational qualifica­
tions for flight engineers may be
obtained from:
Air Line Pilots Association, International,
1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 196.168, .228, .268, and .283)
Nature of the Work

Pilots and copilots are skilled,
highly trained professionals who
have been carefully selected for
their ability to fly safely. They
transport passengers and cargo and
perform other tasks such as crop
dusting and inspecting power lines.
The pilot (called captain by the air­
lines) is in charge of the plane, and
supervises all other crew members.
The copilot assists the captain in
air-to-ground communications, mon­
itoring flight and engine instruments,
and in operating the plane’s controls.

Some specially trained airline
Both captain and copilot must do
great deal of planning before taking pilots are evaluators. They fly with
off. They confer with the company each pilot at least twice a year to
weatherman and, in cooperation make sure Federal Aviation Ad­
with the airline dispatcher, choose ministration (FAA) and company
a route, speed, and altitude that regulations are obeyed. Another
will give a safe, smooth flight. The group teaches pilots and copilots
captain then coordinates the route to fly new airplanes.
Although pilots employed by
with air traffic control personnel.
Before takeoff, the captain and businesses usually fly smaller planes
copilot “ preflight” the airplane, than airline pilots, their preflight
checking the engines, controls, in­ and flight duties are much alike.
struments, and other components to These pilots, however, usually are
make sure everything is working not assisted by flight crews, and
properly. During the flight, they may perform minor maintenance
radio to ground control stations and repair work on their planes.
to report their plane’s altitude, air
speed, weather conditions, and other
Places of Employment
flight details. The captain steers the
About 54,000 civilian pilots and
plane to each point on the flight
plan and changes altitude and speed copilots worked full-time in 1972.
as necessary. The captain and the About 50 percent worked for large
copilot watch instruments that indi­ airline companies and most were
cate the amount of fuel and condi­ stationed near large cities where
tion of the engines, and provide major airports are located. Most of
navigation information. If visibility the remainder trained student pilots
is poor during the landing approach, or worked for large corporations
they may rely on instruments such that use their own airplanes to trans­
as the altimeter, and air speed and port company executives. Others
course indicators. After parking performed a variety of services for
the plane, they go to the airline of­ many different employers through­
fice and complete flight records out the country. Some flew air taxis
or crop dusting planes. A small
required by the company.



number inspected pipelines or pro­
vided sightseeing trips. Federal,
State, and local governments also
employed pilots and copilots.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Commercial pilots and copilots
must be licensed by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA). All
must have a commercial airplane
pilot’s license, and airline captains
also must have an airline trans­
port pilot’s license. All pilots and
copilots also must have a rating for
the class of plane they can fly (single­
engine, multi-engine, or seaplane),
and for the specific type of planes,
such as DC-9 or Boeing 747. In
addition, airline pilots and copilots
and others who fly in bad weather
must have an instrument rating.
To qualify for the commercial
pilot’s license, applicants must be
at least 18 years old and have at
least 200 hours of flight experience.
For an instrument rating, appli­
cants must practice instrument fly­
ing for at least 40 hours. Applicants
for an airline transport pilot’s li­
cense must be at least 23 years old
and have a minimum of 1,500 hours
of flight time during the previous
8 years, including night and instru­
ment flying.
Before pilots may receive any li­
cense they must pass a strict physi­
cal examination and a written test
covering subjects such as princi­
ples of safe flight, navigation tech­
niques, and FAA regulations. They
also must submit proof that they
have completed the minimum flight
time requirements and, in a prac­
tical test, demonstrate their ability
to fly a plane. The license remains
in effect as long as the pilot can
pass an annual physical examination
and the periodic tests of flying skills
required by Government regulation.

However, pilots may not fly an air­
liner after age 60.
A young person may learn to fly
in the military or in civilian flying
schools. Either kind of training satis­
fies the flight experience requirements
for licensing. Graduates of private
schools must pass a FAA flight check
in a plane of their choice and a writ­
ten examination on FAA regulations.
Applicants who have appropriate
military training and experience
are required only to pass a written
examination and physical examina­
tion if they apply for a license
within a year after leaving the serv­
ice. Those trained in the armed
services have had the added oppor­
tunity to gain experience on large
aircraft similar to airliners.
As a rule, applicants for a co­
pilot job with the airlines must be
between 20 and 35 years old. They
must be 5 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 4
inches tall and weigh between 140
and 210 pounds. All applicants
must be high school graduates; most
airlines require 2 years of college
and prefer to hire college graduates.
Physical requirements for pilots,
especially in scheduled airlines, are
very high. They must have cor­
rected vision of 20/20, good hear­
ing, and no physical handicaps that
prevent quick reactions. The air­
lines use psychological tests to
determine an applicant’s ability to
make quick decisions and accurate
judgements under pressure.
Applicants hired by the scheduled
airline companies usually start as
flight engineers, although they may
begin as copilots. An applicant for
a job with an airline often must
have more than the FAA minimum
qualifications for a commercial pi­
lot’s license. For example, airlines
generally require 500 to 1,000 hours
of flight experience, whereas only
200 hours are needed for the com­
mercial license.
All newly hired airline copilots

go through company orientation
courses. Trainees receive classroom
instruction on subjects such as
flight theory, and weather as well
as FAA and company regulations.
In addition, some airlines give be­
ginning copilots or flight engineers
from 3 to 10 weeks of flight train­
ing in classrooms and simulators
and on company planes before as­
signing them to a scheduled flight.
Beginning copilots generally have
limited responsibilities, such as
operating the flight controls in
good weather over a route that is
easy to navigate. As they gain ex­
perience and skill, they handle
pregressively more complex assign­
ments. Copilots who have enough
skill and experience and have
passed the test for an airline
transport pilot’s license, can ad­
vance to captain. A minimum of 2
or 3 years’ service is required for
promotion but, in actual practice,
advancement to captain takes 5 to
10 years or longer.
Employment Outlook

A very rapid rise in the em­
ployment of pilots and copilots
is expected through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to jobs that result from
employment growth, several thou­
sand openings will arise as experi­
enced pilots and copilots retire, die,
or change occupations.
Assuming no significant con­
tinued fuel shortage, growth in
airline traffic will create a need
for more airplanes and more pilots
and copilots to fly them. Employ­
ment in business flying also is
expected to increase as the Nation’s
economy expands.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Pilots and copilots are
the highest wage earners
Nation. In 1970, those who
full time averaged $17,206

in the
a year,


more than double the average for
male workers as a whole. Pilots
and copilots for airlines earn more
than those employed by business
and government. In 1972, a union
contract with a major airline in­
dicated that copilots earned from
$17,500 to $40,000 a year, and
pilots from $37,000 to $60,000.
Earnings depend on factors such
as the type, size, and speed of the
planes, and the number of hours
and miles flown. Airline-captains
and copilots who have at least 1
year of service are guaranteed min­
imum monthly earnings which are
about four-fifths as much as the
maximum they could possibly earn.
Extra pay is given for night and
international flights.
As a rule, airline pilots and their
immediate families are entitled to a
limited amount of free or reduced
fare transportation on their com­
panies’ flights. In addition, they
may travel at greatly reduced rates
with other airlines. Airline pilots
may be away from their home bases
about one-third of the time or more.
When they are away from home,
the airlines provide living accom­
modations and an allowance for
Airlines operate flights at all
hours of the day and night so work
schedules are often irregular. Under
the Federal Aviation Act, airline
pilots and copilots cannot fly more
than 85 hours a month. Most actual­
ly fly only about 60 hours a month,
but their total duty hours, including
layovers before return flights, usual­
ly exceed 100 hours a month.
Pilots and copilots employed by
airlines usually receive 2 to 4 weeks
of vacation with pay, depending on
their length of service. They also
receive paid sick leave, life and
health insurance, and retirement
benefits. Those who work for the
Federal Government receive 13 to
26 days of paid vacation and 13

days of paid sick leave a year, as
well as life and health insurance,
and retirement benefits.
Although flying does not involve
much physical effort, the pilot often
is subject to stress and must be con­
stantly alert and prepared to make
decisions quickly.
Most airline pilots are members
of the Air Line Pilots Association,
International. Those employed by
one major airline are members of
the Allied Pilots Association.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about job opportu­
nities in a particular airline and the
qualifications required may be ob­
tained by writing to the personnel
manager of the company. Addresses
of companies and details about
physical and educational require­
ments for pilots may be obtained
Air Line Pilots Association, 1625 Mass­
achusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

Inquiries about jobs with the
Federal Aviation Administration
should be addressed to the person­
nel department at the nearest FAA
regional office. Addresses of the
regional offices are available from:
Personnel Operations Division, Federal
Aviation Administration, 800 Indepen­
dence Ave. SW., Washington, D.C.

Nature of the Work

In command of every ocean going
vessel is the captain (D.O.T. 197.168)

or master who is the shipowner’s
sole representative. He has complete
authority and responsibility for ship
operation, including discipline and
order, and the safety of the crew,
passengers, cargo, and vessel.
While in port, the captain may
serve as the shipowner’s agent in
conferring with custom officials, and
in some cases, act as paymaster for
the ship. Although not technically a
member of a specific department, he
generally is associated with the deck
department, from whose ranks he
has been promoted.
Deck Department. Deck officers
or “ mates” as they are traditionally
called direct the navigation of the
ship and the maintenance of the
deck and hull. They maintain the
authorized speed and course; plot
the vessel’s position at frequent in­
tervals; post lookouts when re­
quired; record information in the
“ log” of the voyage; and immediate­
ly notify the captain of any unusual
occurences. Deck officers must be
familiar with modern navigational
devices, such as sonar and radio
directional finders, to operate ships
safely and efficiently.
The chief mate (D.O.T. 197.133),
also known as the first mate or chief
officer, is the captain’s key assistant
in assigning duties to the deck crew
and maintaining order and discip­
line. He also plans and supervises
the loading and unloading of cargo,
and assists the captain in taking the
ship in and out of port. On some
ships the chief mate also may be in
charge of first aid treatment.
By tradition, the second mate
(D.O.T. 197.133) is the navigation
officer. He sees that the ship is pro­
vided with the necessary navigation
charts and that navigating equip­
ment is maintained properly.
The third mate (D.O.T. 197.133),
the most junior-rated deck officer,
is responsible for the care and the
maintenance of the navigating bridge


Chief mate directs speed and course of cargo ship.

and the chartroom. He acts as the
signal officer and is in charge of all
signaling equipment. He also assists
in the supervision of cargo loading
and unloading. The third mate fre­
quently inspects lifesaving equip­
ment to be sure it is ready for use
in fire, shipwreck, or other emer­
Engine Department. Marine en­
gineers operate and maintain all
engines and machinery aboard ship.
The chief engineer (D.O.T. 197.130)
supervises the engine department,
and is responsible for the efficient
operation of engines and other me­
chanical equipment. He oversees the

operation of the main power plant
and auxiliary equipment while the
vessel is underway and keeps record
of equipment performance and fuel
The first assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises engine
room personnel and directs opera­
tions such as starting, stopping, and
controlling the speed of the main
engines. He oversees and inspects
the lubrication of engines, pumps,
generators, and other machinery,
and with the aid of the chief en­
gineer, directs all types of repairs.
The second assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) has charge of the


boiler and associated equipment
such as the water-feed system and
pumps. He makes sure proper steam
pressure and oil and water tempera­
tures are maintained. He also super­
vises tne cleaning of boilers.
The third assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises the
operation and maintenance of the
lubrication system and a variety of
other engineroom equipment. Some
third assistant engineers are respon­
sible for the electrical and refrigera­
tion systems aboard ships.
Other officers. A ship keeps con­
tact with the shore and other vessels
through its radio officer (D.O.T.
193.282), who also maintains radio
equipment. A passenger ship carries
three to six radio officers; the
average cargo vessel employs one.
The officer sends and receives mes­
sages by voice or Morse code. He
periodically receives and records
time signals, weather reports, posi­
tion reports, and other information.
The radio officer also may maintain
depth recording equipment and elec­
tronic navigation equipment.
Some freighters and all passenger
vessels carry pursers (D.O.T. 197.
168). The purser or staff officer
does the extensive paperwork re­
quired to enter and clear a ship in
each port, prepares payrolls, and
assists passengers as required. In
recent years, the Staff Officers Asso­
ciation has established a program
to train pursers to act also as phar­
macists’ mates. This instruction is
designed to improve the medical
care aboard freighters and tankers
and facilitate Public Health clear­
ance when a ship arrives in port.
All passenger ships must carry li­
censed doctors and nurses.
Places of Employment

Nearly 8,500 officers were em­
ployed aboard U.S. oceangoing ves­
sels in late 1972. Deck officers



and engineering officers accounted
for more than four-fifths of the
total, and radio officers made up
most of the remainder.
About 65 percent of the officers
were aboard freighters and 32 per­
cent were aboard tankers. The re­
maining 3 percent manned passenger
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

People applying for an officer’s
license in the deck and engineering
departments of oceangoing vessels
must meet certain legal require­
ments. Captains, chief and second
mates, and chief and first assistant
engineers must be at least 21 years
old. The minimum age for third
mates, third assistant engineers,
and radio operators is 19. In addi­
tion, applicants must present proof
of U.S. citizenship and obtain a
U.S. Public Health Service certifi­
cate attesting to their vision, color
perception, and general physical
In addition to legal and medical
requirements, candidates must also
have at least 3 years of appropriate
sea experience or be a graduate of
an approved training program. Deck
officer candidates must pass Coast
Guard examinations that require
extensive knowledge of seamanship,
navigation, cargo handling, and
deck department operations. Marine
engineering officer candidates must
demonstrate in-depth knowledge of
propulsion systems, electricity, plumb­
ing and steam fitting, metal shaping
and assembly, and ship structure.
To advance to higher ratings, of­
ficers must pass progressively more
difficult examinations.
For a Coast Guard license as a
radio officer, applicants must have
a first or second-class radiotele­
graph operator’s license issued by
the Federal Communications Com­
mission. For a license to serve as

the sole radio operator aboard a
cargo vessel, the Coast Guard also
requires 6 months of radio experi­
ence at sea.
Unlike most professions, no edu­
cation requirements have been es­
tablished for officers. A seaman
with 3 year’s experience in the deck
or engine department may apply for
either a third mate’s license or for
a third assistant engineer’s license.
However, because of the complex
machinery, navigational, and elec­
tronic equipment on modern ships,
formal training usually is needed
to pass the Coast Guard’s examina­
tion for these licenses.
The fastest and surest way to be­
come a well-trained officer is
through an established training pro­
gram. Such programs are available
at the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad­
emy at Kings Point, N.Y. and at
five State merchant marine acad­
emies: California Maritime Acad­
emy, Vallejo, Calif.; Maine Maritime
Academy, Castine, Maine; Massa­
chusetts Maritime Academy, Hyannis, Mass.; Texas Maritime Academy,
Galveston, Tex.; and New York
Maritime College, Fort Schuyler,
New York, N.Y. About 550 stu­
dents graduate each year from these
schools; about one-half are trained
as deck officers and one-half as
marine engineers. Entrance require­
ments are very high. Admission to
the Federal academy is through
nomination by a member of Con­
gress, whereas entrance to the other
academies is made through written
application directly to the school.
Most of the academies offer 3or 4-year courses in nautical science
or marine engineering, as well as
practical experience at sea. Subjects
include navigation, mathematics,
electronics, seamanship, propulsion
systems, electrical engineering, lan­
guages, history, and shipping manaagement. After Coast Guard
examinations are passed, licenses

are issued for either third mate or
third assistant engineer. In addition,
graduates may receive commissions
as ensigns in the U.S. Naval Reserve.
Because of their thorough ground­
ing in theory and its practical
application, academy graduates are
in the best position to move up to
master and chief engineer ratings.
Their well-rounded education also
helps qualify them for shoreside
jobs such as marine superintendent,
operating manager, or shipping
A number of trade unions in the
maritime industry provide officer
training. These unions include the
International Organization of Mas­
ters, Mates and Pilots; the Seafarers’
International Union; the Brother­
hood of Marine Officers; and the
National Marine Engineers’ Bene­
ficial Association. Most union pro­
grams are designed to upgrade
experienced seamen to officer rat­
ings, although some programs accept
inexperienced young men. For ex­
ample, the National Marine En­
gineers’ Beneficial A ssociation
(MEBA) operates the Calhoon
MEBA Engineering School in Balti­
more, Md., which offers high school
graduates a 3-year apprenticeship
training program in preparation for
a third assistant engineer’s license.
The program consists of both class­
room instruction and sea experience
and provides free room, board,
medical care, and text books in ad­
dition to a monthly grant. Trainees
must agree to serve at least 3 years
in the U.S. Merchant Marine after
the 3-year training period.
The U.S. M erchant Marine
Academy now selects 10 percent
of the approximately 300 men who
enter the academy each year to be
trained as “omnicompetent” of­
ficers. They are taught both naviga­
tional and technical skills so they
can work in either the deck or
engine department.


Advancement for deck and en­
gine officers is along well-defined
lines and depends primarily upon
specified sea experience, passing a
Coast Guard examination, and lead­
ership ability. Deck officers start
as third mates. After 1 year’s
service they are eligible to take a
second mate examination. A second
mate may apply for a chief mate’s
license after 1 year of service, and
a chief mate may apply for a cap­
tain’s license after 1 year of service.
An officer in the engine department
starts as third assistant engineer.
After 1 year of service, he may
apply for a second assistant’s license
and finally a chief engineer’s license.
Employment Outlook

Employment of ship’s officers is
expected to decline moderately
through the mid-1980’s. Some job
openings will arise each year, how­
ever, due to the need to replace
experienced officers who retire, die,
or take shoreside employment.
The number of ships in our mer­
chant fleet is not expected to in­
crease in the years ahead (See
introduction on merchant marine
occupations). Older vessels will be
replaced by larger, mechanized
ships equipped with the latest laborsaving innovations. A central con­
sole in the newest ships, for example,
controls engines, boilers, and related
propulsion equipment, so the need
for officers in charge of such equip­
ment is reduced.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of officers depend upon
their rank and the type of ship.
Wages are highest on large ships.
The accompanying tabulation shows
monthly base wages for officers
aboard an average freighter in 1972.
Additional payments for overtime
and assuming extra responsibilities


generally average about 50 percent
of base pay. For example, a second
mate with a monthly base pay of
$955 may regularly earn about
$1,433 each month.
Base pay 1

First m ate...................
Second m ate...............
Third m a te .................
Radio officer .....................
P urser........................
Chief engineer ...................
First assistant engineer . . . .
Second assistant engineer ..
Third assistant engineer . . .
1East Coast wages in June 1972 aboard a
12,000-17,000 power ton single screw ship.

Officers and their dependents en­
joy substantial pension and welfare
benefits. Vacations range from 90
to 180 days a year. Officers with
20 years of service have the option
of a monthly pension of $325 or
371/2 percent of their monthly rate
of pay. Those who have 25 years
of service are eligible for $425 a
month or 50 percent of their monthly
rate. Officers forced to retire pre­
maturely due to a permanent dis­
ability receive partial pensions.
Comprehensive medical care and
hospitalization are provided for
officers and their families through
union programs.
The workweek aboard ship is
considerably different from the
workweek on shore. At sea, most
officers are required to stand watch.
Watchstanders work 7 days a week.
Generally, they work two 4-hour
watches (shifts) during every 24hour period and have 8 hours off
between each watch. Some officers
are day workers. They work 8 hours
a day, Monday through Friday.
Both watchstanders and day work­
ers are paid overtime for work over
40 hours a week. When the ship is
in port, the basic workweek is 40
hours for all crew members.
The duties aboard ship are haz­

ardous compared to other industries.
At sea, there is always the possibility
of injuries from falls or the danger
of fire, collision, or sinking.
A number of labor organizations
represent merchant marine officers.
The two largest are the Inter­
national Organization of Masters,
Mates and Pilots representing deck
officers and the National Marine
Engineers’ Beneficial Association
representing engineering officers.
The Brotherhood of Marine Of­
ficers represents deck and engine
officers on some ships. The Staff
Officers Association represents pur­
sers aboard certain freighters. Radio
officers are represented by the
American Radio Association and
the Radio Officers Union. In addi­
tion, a number of independent
unions organize officers on tankers.
Officer’s unions may require initia­
tion fees as high as $1,000.
Sources of Additional Information

General information about mer­
chant marine officer’s jobs may be
obtained from:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Maritime
Administration, U.S. Department of
Commerce, Washington, D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings,
qualifications for employment, wage
scales and other particulars can be
obtained from local maritime of­
ficers’ unions. If no maritime union
is listed in the local telephone
directory, information may be ob­
tained from:
International Organization of Masters,
Mates and Pilots, 39 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10006.
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial
Association, 17 Battery Place, New
York, N.Y. 10004.

Foresters also do research, pro­
vide forestry information to forest
owners and to the general public
(called extension work), and teach
at colleges and universities.
Foresters usually specialize in
one area of work, such as timber
aged. The condition of our environ­
management, outdoor recreation,
ment has become a major national
or forest economics. Some of these
concern, and foresters play a great
areas are recognized as distinct
role in protecting that environment
by insuring that our forests are professions.
properly used. They manage, de­
velop, and protect these lands and
Places of Employment
their resources—timber, water,
wildlife, forage, and recreational
About 22,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as foresters in
Foresters estimate the amount 1972. One-third worked in private
and value of forest resources. They industry, mainly for pulp and
plan and supervise the cutting and paper, lumber, logging, and milling
planting of trees; the sale of trees companies. About one-fourth worked
and timber; and the processing, for the Federal Government, pri­
marketing, and use of forest prod­ marily in the Forest Service of the
ucts. Foresters also determine the Department of Agriculture, although
location and type of recreation that some worked for the Departments
can be allowed in the forest. They of Interior and Defense. The re­
protect the forests and their re­ mainder worked for State and local
sources from Fire, harmful animals governments, colleges and univer­
and insects, and diseases. Other sities, consulting firms, or were
duties include wildlife protection, self-employed, either as consultants
erosion control, and the super­ or forest owners.
vision of camps, parks, and grazing

Forests, rangelands, wildlife, soil,
and water are important natural re­
sources. Conservationists protect,
develop, and manage these resources
to assure that future needs will be
A young person interested in a
career in conservation must have
specialized training or experience.
Foresters, range managers, and soil
conservationists generally need bach­
elor’s degrees in those fields. Short­
term or on-the-job training is usu­
ally required for other conservation
In addition to technical knowl­
edge and skills, conservationists
must have a sincere interest in the
environment and the desire to pro­
tect it. They should enjoy dealing
with others and like public service
since they often work with people
in the community. Flexibility also is
important since a conservationist
may work in a remote camping area
one week, speak to a community
group the next, and fight a forest or
brush fire the next.
This section describes three con­
servation occupations— foresters,
range managers, and soil conserva­

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of the Work

Forests are a vital resource. They
can be used repeatedly without
being destroyed—if properly man­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for those de­
siring professional careers in
forestry. An advanced degree is
usually required for teaching and
research positions.
Education in forestry leading to
a bachelor’s or higher degree was
offered in 1972 by 51 colleges and
universities, of which 39 were ac­
credited by the Society of American
Foresters. Curriculums stress the
liberal arts as well as technical
forestry subjects, since communi­
cations skills and the appreciation
of American culture are important


to the forester. Specialized forestry
courses range from forest ecology
(structure of, and interrelationships
in the forest community) to forest
administration. Many colleges re­
quire students to spend one sum­
mer in a field camp operated by
the college and encourage summer
jobs that give firsthand experience
in forest or conservation work.
Forestry graduates often work
under the supervision of experi­
enced foresters before advancing
to more responsible positions in
forest management or research.
Foresters must have enthusiasm
for outdoor work, and be physically
hardy and willing to work in re­
mote areas. Forestry work makes
both intellectual and physical

Employment Outlook


entire forest crop, to develop meth­
ods of growing superior trees in a
shorter period of time, and to do
research in the fields of plant
genetics and fertilization.
Employment opportunities for
foresters in the Federal Govern­
ment probably will not increase
significantly because of the chang­
ing nature of the forester’s duties.
Specialized scientists—hydrologists,
landscape architects, civil engineers,
etc.—will increasingly perform the
more scientific work formerly done
by the forester. Aides and techni­
cians increasingly may perform
some of the routine tasks pre­
viously done by foresters, who will
be more concerned with the overall
administration and coordination of
work done by specialists and aides.
On the other hand, State Gov­
ernment agencies will probably
continue to hire foresters. Forest
fire control, insect and disease
protection, technical assistance to
owners of forest lands and other
Federal-State cooperative programs
are usually channeled through State
forestry organizations. Growing de­
mand for recreation in forest lands
may result in the expansion of
State parks and other recreational
College teaching and research
in areas such as forest genetics
and forest disease also may pro­
vide employment opportunities for
foresters with graduate degrees.

Requirements for foresters are
expected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. However,
the number of new graduates with
degrees in forestry could exceed
job openings if current trends in
forestry education continue, result­
ing in keen job competition.
The demand for foresters is ex­
pected to rise as the country’s
growing population and rising liv­
ing standards increase the demand
for forest products and the use of
forests for recreational purposes.
Employment also may increase as
we become more aware of the need
to conserve and replenish our forest Earnings and Working Conditions
resources, and to improve environ­
Foresters earn high salaries com­
mental quality.
pared to the average for nonsuperPrivate owners of timberland are
expected to employ more foresters visory workers in private industry,
as they recognize the need for and except farming. In the Federal
the higher profitability of improved Government in early 1973, begin­
forestry and logging practices. The ning foresters with a bachelor’s
forest products industries also will degree could start at either $7,694
require additional foresters to ap­ or $9,520 a year, depending on
ply new techniques for using the their academic record. Those hav­

ing 1 or 2 years of graduate work
could begin at $9,520 or $11,614,
persons having the Ph.D. could
start at either $13,996 or $16,682
a year. District rangers employed
by the Federal Government in 1972
generally earned between $11,614
and $16,682 a year. Foresters in
top level positions earned consider­
ably more.
Beginning salaries of foresters
employed by State governments
vary widely, but, with a few excep­
tions, tend to be lower than Federal
salaries. Entrance salaries in pri­
vate industry, according to limited
data, are comparable to Federal
salary levels.
Forestry teachers are paid the
same as other faculty members.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.) Forestry pro­
fessors may add to their regular
salaries with income from parttime consulting and lecturing and
the writing of books and articles.
The forester—especially in be­
ginning jobs—spends considerable
time outdoors in all kinds of
weather. Foresters may also work
extra hours on emergency duty,
such as fire-fighting.

Sources of Additional Information

General information about the
forestry profession, lists of reading
materials and lists of schools of­
fering education in forestry are
available from:
Society of American Foresters, 1010
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information is also avail­
able from:
American Forest Institute, 1619 Massachusettes Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
American Forestry Association, 1319
18th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on forestry careers



in the Forest Service is available
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Washington, D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work

Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres of the United States,
mostly in the Western States and
Alaska. They contain many natural
resources: grass and shrubs for
animal grazing, habitats for live­
stock and wildlife, facilities for
water sports and other kinds of
recreation, and areas for scientific
study of the environment. These
renewable resources can yield their
full potential only if properly
Range managers, sometimes called
range conservationists, range sci­
entists, or range ecologists, manage
improve, and protect range resources.
They decide, for example, the num­
ber and kind of animals to be
grazed and the best season for graz­

ing; and thus how to yield a high
production of livestock while con­
serving soil and vegetation for
other uses such as wildlife grazing,
outdoor recreation, watersheds, and
growing timber. Range managers
also restore or improve rangelands
through techniques such as con­
trolled burning, reseeding, and the
biological, chemical, or mechanical
control of undesirable plants. For
example, rangelands with natural
sagebrush vegetation may be plowed
up and reseeded with a more pro­
ductive grass. They also determine
and carry out range conservation
and development needs such as pro­
viding for animal watering facili­
ties, erosion control, and fire pre­

Range managers study terrain to decide the number and kinds of animals to be grazed.

Because of the multiple use of
rangelands, range managers often
work in such closely related fields
as wildlife and watershed manage­
ment, forest management, and rec­
reation. They also may teach, write
reports, conduct research in range
management and improvement, and
give technical assistance to hold­
ers of privately owned grazing lands
and to foreign countries.
Places of Employment

About 4,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as range man­
agers in 1972. Additional numbers
were employed in range manage­
ment activities but not necessarily

as range managers. The majority
worked for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. In the Fed­
eral Government, most worked in
Forest Service and the Soil Con­
servation Service of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture and the
Bureau of Land Management of
the Department of the Interior.
Range managers in State govern­
ments are employed in game and
agencies, and extension services.
Some range managers work for
privately-owned range livestock
ranches and consulting firms, and
some manage their own land. A few
are self-employed consultants. Others
work for manufacturing, sales, and


service companies, and as rangeland appraisers for banks and real
estate firms.
A few range managers also teach
and do research at colleges and
universities, or work overseas with
United States or United Nations
agencies or for foreign govern­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in range management or range con­
servation is the usual background
for range managers. In the Federal
Government, a degree in a closely
related field, such as agronomy or
forestry, including courses in range
management and range conserva­
tion, also may be accepted. Grad­
uate degrees are generally required
for teaching and research, and may
be helpful for advancement in most
In 1972, 14 colleges and univer­
sities had programs leading to a de­
gree in range management or range
science. Ten schools had programs
in related fields such as forestry,
botany, or agronomy, with an option
in range management. Fourteen
schools offered a masters degree
in range management or range
science, and 12 schools offered a
Ph.D degree in range science or a
related field with a range major.
A degree in range management
requires a basic knowledge of biol­
ogy, chemistry, physics, mathemat­
ics, and communication skills. Ad­
vanced courses combine plant, animal,
and soil sciences with principles of
ecology and resource management.
Desirable electives include econom­
ics, computer science, forestry, wild­
life, and recreation.
Federal Government agencies,
primarily the Forest Service, the
Soil Conservation Service, and the
Bureau, of Land Management, hire


some college juniors and seniors
for summer jobs in range manage­
ment. This experience may help
them qualify for jobs when they
Many jobs require vigorous
physical activity and a willingness
to work in arid and sparsely popu­
lated areas. Besides having a love
for the outdoors, range managers
should be able to write and speak
effectively and work with others.

technical assistants are expected in
developing countries of the Middle
East, Africa, and South America.
In addition to new jobs, some
openings will arise from the need
to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Range managers have high earn­
ings compared with average earn­
ings for a nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Employment Outlook
In the Federal Government, range
Employment opportunities for managers with the bachelor’s de­
range managers are expected to in­ gree start at either $7,694 or
crease slowly through the mid $9,520 a year, depending on their
1980’s. Public concern about the college grades. Those having 1 or
environment, however, could lead 2 years of graduate work begin
to greater opportunities for all at $9,520 or $11,614; persons with
types of conservationists, including Ph.D. degrees start at either $13,996
range managers. Actual hiring or $16,682 a year.
Starting salaries for range man­
needs, though, are heavily depen­
dent on specialized legislation. In agers who work for State govern­
the Federal Government, for ex­ ments are about the same as those
ample, the Wild Horse and Burro paid by the Federal Government.
Act passed in December 1971 cre­ According to limited data, those
ate requirements for range man­ who work on private ranches earn
agers to administer the program somewhat lower salaries than per­
for protection, control, and manage­ sons who work for government
agencies. In colleges and univer­
ment of these animals.
Population growth and increas­ sities, starting salaries are generally
ing consumption of meat and other the same as those paid other faculty
rangeland animal products should members. (See statement on College
contribute to increasing require­ and University Teachers.) Range
ments for range managers. Since managers in educational institu­
the amount of rangeland is general­ tions sometimes add to their regu­
ly fixed, range managers will be lar salaries with income from partneeded to increase the output of time consulting and lecturing and
rangelands while protecting their from writing books and articles.
Range managers may spend con­
ecological balance. Also, the use
of rangelands for other purposes siderable time away from home
besides livestock grazing such as working outdoors in remote parts
wildlife protection and recreation of the range.
could create additional needs for
range managers.
Sources of Additional Information
If private ranch owners decide
Information about a career as a
to live away from their ranches,
these absentee owners may hire pro­ range manager as well as a list of
fessional range managers to operate schools offering training is avail­
their ranches. A few openings for able from:



Society for Range Management, 2120
South Birch St., Denver, Colo. 80222.

For information about career
opportunities in the Federal Govern­
ment, contact:
Bureau of Land Management, Denver
Service Center, Federal Center Building
50, Denver, Col. 80255.

Portland Service Center, 710 N E. Holladay St., Portland, Oreg. 97208.
Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agri­
culture, 1621 North Kent Street Arling­
ton, Va. 20415.
Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of the Work

Soil conservationists supply farm­
ers, ranchers, and others with tech­
nical assistance for conservation of
soil and water. Farmers and other
land managers use this technical
assistance in adjusting land use,
protecting land against future soil
deterioration, rebuilding eroded and
depleted soils, and stabilizing run­
off and sediment-producing areas.
They also help improve cover on
lands devoted to raising crops, and
maintaining forest, pasture, and
range land, and the wildlife they
support. They help plan water hand­
ling, conserving water for farm and
ranch use, reducing damage from
flood water and sediment, and
draining or irrigating farms or
ranches as needed.
The types of technical services
provided by soil conservationists
are many. Maps present inventories
of soil, water, vegetation, and other
details essential in conservation
planning and application. They de­

Soil conservationists provide farmers with technical assistance.

velop information, for proper land
utilization and treatment suitable
to planned use of the land, varying
from field or partial farm or ranch
through groups of farms or ranches
to entire watersheds. Relative cost
and expected returns help to deter­
mine various alternatives of land
use and treatment.
After the landowner or operator
decides upon the conservation pro­
gram to use the conservationist rec­
ords the relevant facts as part of a
plan. This, together with the maps
and other supplemental information,
constitutes a plan of action for con­
servation farming or ranching. The
soil conservationist then gives the
land manager technical guidance in
applying and maintaining these con­
servation practices.

Where Employed

An estimated 12,000 soil con­
servationists were employed in
1972. Most soil conservationists
are employed by Federal Govern­
ment, mainly by the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture’s Soil
Conservation Service and by the
Department of the Interior’s
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some
are employed by colleges and
State and local governments, and
others by banks and public utili­
Training and Advancement

A Bachelor of Science degree
with a major in soil conservation or
one of the closely related natural



science or agricultural fields, with
30 semester hours in these fields
including a 3-semester-hour course
in soils, constitute the minimum
requirement for soil conservationists.
Those who have unusual aptitude
in the various phases of the work
have good chances of advancement
to higher salaried technical admini­
strative jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
well-trained soil conservationists are
good. Opportunities in the profes­
sion will expand because govern­
ment agencies, public utility com­
panies, banks, and other organiza­
tions are becoming interested in

conservation and are adding conser­
vationists to their staffs. Other new
openings will occur in college
teaching, particularly at the under­
graduate level. In addition, some
openings will result because of the
normal turnover in personnel.

Soil conservationists having a
bachelor’s degree and employed by
the Federal Government received
$7,694 a year in early 1973. Advance­
ment to $9,520 could be expected
after 1 year of satisfactory service.
Further advancement depends upon
the individual’s ability to accept
greater responsibility. Earnings of
well-qualified Federal soil conser­

vationists with several years’ experi­
ence range from $13,996 to $23,088
a year.
Sources off Additional Information

Additional information on em­
ployment as a soil conservationist
may be obtained from the U.S.
Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415; Employment
Division, Office of Personnel, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20250; or any office
of the Department’s Soil Conserva­
tion Service.

“ One small step for man, one
giant leap for mankind,” were
man’s first words as he stepped on
the surface of the moon. Exploring
the moon had been an idea or dream
for centuries, and this is one ex­
ample of what engineering is about,
changing ideas into reality. The
emphasis on applying scientific prin­
ciples, rather than on their dis­
covery, is a main factor that dis­
tinguishes engineers from scientists.
With over 1 million members
engineering is the second largest
professional occupation, exceeded
only by teachers. For men it is the
largest profession. Most engineers
specialize in one of the many
branches of the profession. More
than 25 engineering specialties are
recognized by professional societies.
Besides the major branches, engi­
neering has over 85 subdivisions.
Structural, sanitary, hydraulic, and
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineering.
Engineers may also specialize in
the engineering problems of one in­
dustry, or in particular field of
technology such as propulsion or
guidance systems. Since basic
knowledge is required for all areas
of engineering, it is possible for
engineers to shift from one field of
specialization to another, particu­
larly early in their careers. Besides
these common areas of basic knowl­
edge and methods, inter-disciplinary
programs both within engineering
science and other specialities are
increasing in popularity. Therefore,
persons considering engineering as
a career should become familiar
with the general nature of engi­
neering as well as with its various
This section which contains an
overall discussion of engineering,
is followed by separate statements

on 11 branches of the profession—
aerospace, agricultural, biomedical,
ceramic, chemical, civil, electrical,
industrial, mechanical, metallurgi­
cal, and mining engineering.
Nature off the Work

Engineers contribute in count­
less ways to the welfare, techno­
logical progress and defense of the
Nation by developing methods for
making natures raw materials and
power sources into useful products
at a reasonable cost. They develop
electric power, water supply, and
waste disposal systems to meet the
problems of urban living. They de­
sign industrial machinery and equip­
ment needed to manufacture goods;
and heating, air-conditioning, and
ventilation equipment for more
comfortable living. Engineers also
develop scientific equipment to
probe outer space and the ocean
depths, and design, plan, and super­
vise the construction of buildings,
highways and rapid transit systems.
They also, design and develop con­
sumer products such as automobiles,
television sets, and refrigerators,
and systems for control and auto­
mation of manufacturing, business,
and management process.
Engineers must consider many
factors in developing a new prod­
uct. In designing a space capsule,
for example, they calculate the
amount of heat, radiation, and
pressure the capsule must with­
stand for the safety of the occu­
pants and the proper working of its
instruments. Experiments are con­
ducted that relate these factors to
various materials, as well as to
many capsule sizes, shapes, and
weights. Equally important are the
human needs and limitations of the
people who operate the equipment.
Engineers also consider the cost
of the materials and time needed
to complete the product. Similar

factors are applicable to most prod­
ucts ranging from artificial hearts
to electronic computers and indus­
trial machinery.
In addition to design and devel­
opment, engineers work in inspec­
tion, quality control, and many
other activities related to manu­
facturing, mining, and agriculture.
Some are in administrative and
management jobs where an engi­
neering background is necessary.
Many are employed in sales where
they must discuss the technical
aspects of a product and assist in
planning its installation or use. (See
statement on Manufacturers’ Sales­
men elsewhere in the Handbook).
Some conduct research to supply
the technological data needed for
the design and production of new
or improved products. Other engi­
neers with considerable experience
work as consultants. Another group,
especially at the Ph.D. level, teach
in the engineering and technical
schools of colleges and universities.
Engineers within each of the
branches may apply their special­
ized knowledge to many fields. Elec­
trical engineers, for example, may
work in medicine, computers, mis­
sile guidance, or electric power dis­
tribution. Because engineering prob­
lems are usually complex, the work
in some fields cuts across the tradi­
tional branches. Using a team ap­
proach to solve problems, engineers
in one field often work closely with
specialists in other scientific, engi­
neering, and business occupations.
Places of Employment

About 1 million people worked
as engineers in 1972, about 1 per­
cent were women. More than half
work in manufacturing—mostly in
electrical equipment, aircraft and
parts, machinery, chemicals, ord­
nance, instruments, primary metals,
fabricated metal products, and



motor vehicles industries. Over
325,000 were employed in non­
manufacturing industries in 1972,
utilities, engineering and architec­
tural services, and business and
management consulting services.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments employed more than 150,000
engineers. Over half worked for the
Federal Government. Many engi­
neers were employed by the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, Agri­
culture, Transportation, and the
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration. Most engineers
in State and local government
agencies worked in highway and
public works departments.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed almost 45,000 engineers in
research and teaching jobs, and a
small number worked for non­
profit research organizations.
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small and large cities and
in rural areas. However, about
two-thirds of all engineers in pri­
vate industry are employed in 10
States, and of these almost onethird are in California, New York,
and Pennsylvania. Some branches
of engineering are concentrated in
particular industries, as shown in
the statements later in this chapter.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is the generally accepted educa­
tional requirement for beginning
engineering jobs. College graduates
trained in one of the natural sci­
ences or mathematics also may
qualify for some beginning jobs.
Technicians with exceptional abil­
ity, experience, and some engineer­
ing education are sometimes able
to advance to engineering jobs.
Graduate training is being em­
phasized for an increasing number
of jobs; it is essential for most be­

ginning teaching and research posi­
tions, and desirable for advance­
ment. Some specialties, such as
nuclear engineering, generally are
taught only at the graduate level.
About 280 colleges, universities,
and engineering schools offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering.
Although most schools offer the
larger branches of engineering,
some specialties are taught in very
few institutions. Students desiring
specialized training should be
familiar with various curriculums
before selecting a college. Under­
graduate engineering schools re­
quire high school courses in mathe­
matics and the physical sciences
and the quality of the student’s
high school work is important in
gaining admission.
In a typical 4-year curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent on
basic science—mathematics, phys­
ics, and chemistry—and the hu­
manities, social sciences, and Eng­
lish. The last 2 years are devoted to
engineering with emphasis on a
specialty. Some programs offer a
general engineering education and
the student chooses a specialty in
graduate school or acquires one on
the job.
Some engineering curriculums
require more than 4 years to com­
plete. Although, the number of col­
leges and universities having 5year programs that lead to the
bachelor’s degree is decreasing,
several now offer 5 year master’s
degree programs. In addition, sev­
eral engineering schools now have
formal arrangements with liberal
arts colleges whereby a student
spends 3 years in liberal arts and
2 years in engineering and receives
a bachelor’s degree from each.
These programs offer students di­
versification in their studies.
Some schools have 5- or even 6year cooperative plans where the
student alternates between school

and work. Most plans coordinate
classroom study and practical ex­
perience. In addition to gaining ex­
perience students may finance part
of their education.
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require licensing for en­
gineers whose work may affect life,
health, or property, or who offer
their services to the public. In 1972,
about 325,000 engineers were reg­
istered under these laws. Generally,
registration requirements include
graduation from an accredited en­
gineering school plus 4 years of ex­
perience and passing a State exami­
Engineers should be able to work
as part of a team, be creative, have
initiative, an analytical mind, a
capacity for detail, and the ability
to make decisions. They should be
able to express their ideas to spe­
cialists in other areas such as
marketing and production plan­
ning. Because of rapidly changing
technologies, engineers must be
willing to continue their education
throughout their career.
begin work as assistants to experi­
enced engineers. Many companies
have special programs to acquaint
new engineers with special indus­
trial practices and to determine the
specialties for which they are best
suited. Experienced engineers may
advance to positions of greater re­
sponsibility; those with proven
ability often become administra­
tors; increasingly large numbers
are being promoted to top execu­
tive jobs. Some engineers obtain
graduate degrees in business ad­
ministration to improve their ad­
vancement opportunities; others
obtain law degrees and become
patent attorneys.
Employment Outlook






engineers are expected to be favor­
able through the mid-1980’s. En­
gineering has been one of the
fastest-growing occupations over
the past two decades, and oppor­
tunities for engineers are expected
to increase very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s though at a slower
rate than during the past. Demand
probably will be strong for new
graduates with knowledge of recent
techniques, including computer ap­
plications, and for engineers who
can apply engineering principles to
medical, biological, and other
Opportunities for engineers are
related to population growth and
industrial expansion to meet the
demand for more goods and serv­
ices. In addition, more engineering
time is required to develop complex
industrial products and processes
and to increase industrial automa­
tion. Public emphasis on solving
domestic problems such as environ­
mental pollution, urban redevelop­
ment, and new sources of power
should also create additional job
Some of the past increases in en­
from increases in Federal research
and development (R&D) expendi­
tures for space- and defense-related
programs. Through the mid-1980’s
R&D expenditures of Government
and industry are expected to con­
tinue to increase, but at a slower
rate than during the 1960’s. The
slowdown in Federal R&D spend­
ing in the late 1960’s and early
1970’s basically reflects reductions
in the relative importance of the
space and defense components of
R&D expenditures.
Opportunities for engineers are
also affected by defense spending,
since a large number of engineers
work in defense related activities.
The long range outlook for engi­
neers assumes that defense spend­
ing in the mid 1980’s will be some­

what lower than the peak Vietnam
levels. If defense activity should
differ substantially from that level,
the demand for engineers will be
In addition to the level of defense
spending, general business condi­
tions, shifting National priorities,
and non-defense-related Federal
programs and policies also influ­
ence the demand for engineers.
Thus, opportunities for engineers
fluctuate periodically. In the shortrun, the available engineering jobs
can either exceed or fall short of
the number of persons looking for
jobs, but over the long run, engi­
neers can look forward to favor­
able job opportunities.
Besides filling new jobs, thou­
sands of engineers will have to be
trained to replace those who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or
die. (The outlook for various
branches are discussed in the
separate statements later in this

Earnings and Working Conditions

New engineering graduates with
a bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence had average starting salaries
of $10,700 a year in private indus­
try in 1972 according to the College
degree graduates with no experi­
ence averaged almost $12,300 a
year; Ph.D. graduates averaged
about $16,400. Starting salaries
for those with the bachelor’s degree
vary by branch as shown in accom­
panying table.
Starting salaries fo r engineers, by branch,

A verage starting


Aeronautical engineering ..
Chemical engineering ........
Civil engineering ...............
Electrical engineering ........
Industrial engineering..........
Mechanical engineering . . .
Metallurgical engineering ..


In the Federal Government in
early 1973, engineers with a bache­
lor’s degree and no experience could
start at $7,694 or $9,520 a year,
depending on their college records.
Beginning engineers with a bache­
lor’s degree and 1 or 2 years of
graduate work could start at $9,520
or $11,614. Those having a Ph.D.
degree could begin at $13,996 or
In colleges and universities, en­
gineers with a Ph.D. degree started
in 1972 at about $12,500 a year as
assistant professors for a 9-10
month academic year. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers elsewhere in the Hand­
Most engineers can expect an
increase in earnings as they gain
experience. Average salaries of ex­
perienced engineers are about twice
those of nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
According to an Engineering
Manpower Commission Survey, the
average salary for engineers with
21 to 23 years of experience was
$19,600 in 1972. Some in top-level
executive positions had much higher
Engineers generally work under
quiet conditions in modern offices
and research laboratories. Some,
however, may be involved in more
active work—in a mine, at a con­
struction or missile site, or some
other outdoor location.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on engineer­
ing careers—including student se­
lection and guidance, professional
training, salaries, and other eco­
nomic aspects of engineering—is
available from:
Engineers’ Council for Professional De­
velopment, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineering Manpower Commission, En­
gineers Joint Council, 345 East 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.



role in America’s space activities.
They work on all types of aircraft
and spacecraft including missiles,
Information on engineering schools, rockets, and propeller-driven and jetcurriculums, training, and other powered planes. They develop aero­
qualifications needed for entrance space products from the initial plan­
into the profession also may be ning and design to the final assembly
obtained from the Engineers Coun­ and testing.
Aerospace engineers generally spe­
cil for Professional Development.
Information on registration of en­ cialize in an area of work like
structural design, navigational guid­
gineers may be obtained from:
ance and control, instrumentation
National Council of Engineering Ex­
aminers, P.O. Box 752, Clemson,
and communication, or production
S.C. 29613.
methods. They also may specialize in
For information about graduate one type of aerospace products such
as passenger planes, launch vehicles,
study contact:
satellites, manned space capsules, or
The American Society of Engineering
Education, One Dupont Circle, Suite
landing modules.
400, Washington, D.C. 20036.
Engineers working in the aircraft
Engineering societies represent­ field are usually called aeronautical
ing the individual branches of the engineers. Those in the field of mis­
engineering profession are listed siles, rockets, and spacecraft often
later in this chapter. Each can pro­ are referred to as astronautical engi­
vide information about careers in neers. However, engineers with de­
the particular branch. Many other grees in aeronautics and astronautics
engineering organizations are listed are usually called aerospace en­
in the following publications avail­ gineers.
able in most libraries or from the
National Society of Professional En­
gineers, 2029 K St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Engineering Societies Directory, pub­
lished by Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
Scientific and Technical Societies of
the United States and Canada, pub­
lished by the National Academy of
Sciences, National Research Council.

Places of Employment

About 60,000 aerospace engineers—
many with degrees in mechanical,
electrical or industrial engineering—
were employed in 1972, mainly in
the aircraft and parts industry. Some
worked for Federal Government
agencies, primarily the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion and the Department of Defense.
A few worked for commercial air­
lines, consulting firms, and colleges
and universities.


Employment Outlook

(D.O.T. 002.081)

Job opportunities for aerospace
engineers are expected to grow
moderately through the mid-1980’s.
Development of vertical and short
take-off and landing (V/STOL) air­

Nature of the Work

Aerospace engineers play a vital

craft and the quiet short-haul air
transportation system (QSATS), as
well as the space shuttle, should pro­
vide job opportunities. Research
with lasers and advancement in
missiles and space exploration fol­
lowed by unmanned flights to other
planets will require aerospace en­
gineers. As the demand for high
speed ground transportation in­
creases, engineers familiar with aero­
space techniques could be needed
for their development.
With the end of the Vietnam con­
flict and priorities now aimed at
health and environmental control,
and the encouragement of industry
to expand the peaceful uses of
atomic energy, aerospace engineers
with diversified training such as
bioengineering and radiation pro­
tection will be needed. Additional
openings for aerospace engineers
will arise from the need to replace
those who transfer to other Fields
of work, retire, or die.
Aerospace engineers are particu­
larly sensitive to changes in defense
spending. Those who are not well
grounded in engineering funda­
mentals and whose specialization
is very narrow could be affected
adversely by changes in defense
activities and rapidly changing tech­
nology. Therefore employment op­
portunities fluctuate, and the de­
mand can fall short of the supply
in any year. Employment oppor­
tunities however, are expected to
increase over the long run. This
outlook assumes that defense spend­
ing will be somewhat lower than
the peak Vietnam levels. If de­
fense activities should differ sub­
stantially from that level, the
demand for aerospace engineers will
be affected. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion
of training requirements and earn­
ings. See also statement on Aircraft,
Missile, and Spacecraft Manufactur­
ing elsewhere in the Handbook.)



Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc., 1290 Avenue of
the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 013.081)
Nature of the Work

Agricultural engineers develop
machinery, equipment, and methods
to improve the efficiency and econ­
omy of the production, processing,
and distribution of food and other
agricultural products. They design
farm machinery, equipment, and
structures, and develop methods
for utilizing electrical energy on
farms and in food and feed proces­
sing plants. Agricultural engineers
also are concerned with the con­
servation and management of soil
and water resources, and with the
design and operation of processing
equipment to prepare agricultural
products for market. They general­
ly specialize in research and devel­
opment, design, testing, production,
sales, or management.

versities, and a few are employed
by State and local governments.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for agricultural
engineers are expected to grow
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. The
modernization of farm operations,
Places of Employment
increasing emphasis on conservation
of resources, and the use of agri­
There were 3,000 biomedical engi­
cultural products and wastes as neers in 1972; most members of this
industrial raw materials should pro­ branch of engineering teach and do
vide increasing opportunities for research in colleges and universities.
agricultural engineers. The increas­ Some work for the Federal Govern­
ing use of energy and power on ment, primarily in the National
farms also should provide oppor­ Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tunities for additional engineers. tion. Others work in State agencies,
(See introductory part of this sec­ and an increasing number work in
tion for information on training private industry or hospitals, devel­
requirements and earnings. See also oping new devices, techniques, and
statement on Agriculture elsewhere systems for improving health care.
in the Handbook.)
Some work in sales positions.
Sources of Additional Information

Employment Outlook

American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, 2950 Niles Rd., St.
Joseph, Mich. 49085.

Job opportunities for biomedical
engineers are expected to be very
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
Biomedical engineering is a small
field and has few openings in a
year compared with larger branches
of engineering, but the number of
graduates is small.
Those who have master’s and
doctor’s degrees will be in strong
demand to teach and fill jobs result­
ing from increased expenditures
for research and to develop more
artificial devices. Research could
create new positions in instrumenta­
tion and systems for the delivery of
health services. (See introductory
part of this chapter for informa­
tion on training requirements and


Places of Employment

Nature of the Work

Most of the 12,000 agricultural
engineers employed in 1972 worked
for manufacturers of farm and
household equipment, electric serv­
ice companies, and distributors of
farm equipment and supplies. Some
worked for engineering consultants
who supply services to farmers and
farm related industries; others are
independent consultants.
The Federal Government employs
about 600 agricultural engineers in
the Soil Conservation Service and
Agricultural Research Service of the
Department of Agriculture. Some
are employed by colleges and uni­

Biomedical engineers use engi­
neering principles to solve medical
and health related problems. Many
in research, working with life scien­
tists, chemists, and members of the
medical profession study the engi­
neering aspects of the biological
systems of man and animals. Some
design and develop medical instru­
ments and devices including artificial
hearts and kidneys. Biomedical en­
gineers have helped develop lasers
for surgery and cardiac pacemakers
that regulate the heartbeat. Other
biomedical engineers adapt com­
puters to medical science by mon­

itoring patients and processing
electrocardiograph data. Some de­
sign and build systems to modernize
laboratory, hospital and clinical pro­
cedures. A few sell medical instru­
ments and equipment to physicians,
research centers, and hospitals.

Sources of Additional Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine
and Biology, 3900 Wisconsin Ave.
NW., Suite 300, Washington, D.C.



structural materials (such as brick
tile, and terra cotta); electronic
ceramics (ferrites for memory sys­
tems and microwave devices); pro­
tective and refractory coatings for
metals; glass; abrasives; or fuel
elements for atomic energy.
Places of Employment

About 12,000 ceramic engineers
were employed in 1972, mostly in
the stone, clay, and glass industries.
Others work in industries that pro­
duce or use ceramic products such
as iron and steel, electrical equip­
ment, aerospace, and chemicals.
Some are in the educational field,
independent research organizations,
and the Federal Government.
Employment Outlook

Most biomedical engineers do research.

P.O. Box 1600, Evanston, 111. 60204.
Foundation for Medical Technology
Mt. Sinai Medical Center, 100
Street, 5th Ave., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 006.081)
Nature of the Work

Ceramic engineers work with one
of the world’s oldest and yet newest
technologies. They develop methods
for processing clay and other nonmetallic minerals into a wide variety

of ceramic products. These range
from glassware, cement, bricks,
coatings, and heat resisting mate­
rials for missile nose cones to
electronic components and mate­
rials used as body sensors and
monitors. They also design and
supervise the construction of plants
and equipment to manufacture these
products. Many are engaged in re­
search and development. Some work
in administration, production, and
sales; others work as consultants
or teach in colleges and universities.
Ceramic engineers generally spe­
cialize in one or more products—
for example, products of refractories
(fire-and heat-resistant m aterials
such as firebrick); whitewares
(porcelain and china dinnerware or
high voltage electrical insulators);

Job opportunities for ceramic
engineers are expected to be very
good through the mid-1980’s. Al­
though ceramic engineering is a
small field, and has few openings
in a year compared with large
branches of engineering, the number
of graduates is small.
Programs related to nuclear
energy, electronics, space explora­
tion, and medical science will pro­
vide many opportunities for ceramic
engineers. Ceramic materials, which
are corrosion-resistant and able to
withstand radiation and extremely
high temperatures, are becoming
increasingly important in the de­
velopment of nuclear reactors and
space vehicles. The use of more
traditional ceramic products, such
as whitewares and abrasives, for
consumer and industrial use will
require additional ceramic engineers
to improve and adapt these products
to new uses. The use of structural
clay and tile products in construc­
tion also will add to employment
opportunities. The development of
filters and catalytic surfaces to
reduce pollution and the expanding



use of glass in the construction and
container fields should create addi­
tional openings for ceramic engi­
neers. (See introductory part of
this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.)
Sources of Additional Information
American Ceramic Society, 65 Ce­
ramic Dr., Columbus, Ohio 43214.

(D.O.T. 008.081)
Nature of the Work

Chemical engineers design chem­
ical plants and equipment, and de­
termine the most efficient process
to manufacture chemicals and chem­
ical products. This requires a knowl­
edge of chemistry, physics, and
mechanical and electrical engineer­
ing. They often design and operate
pilot plants to test their work.
This branch of engineering is so
diversified and complex that chem­
ical engineers frequently specialize
in a particular operation such as
oxidation or polymerization. Others
specialize in a particular area such
as environmental control or in the
production of a specific product
like plastics or rubber. Chemical
engineers may work in research and
development, production, plant op­
erations, design, sales, management
or teaching.
Places of Employment

versities. A small number worked
for independent research institutes
and engineering consulting firms, or
as independent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for chemical en­
gineers are expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s.
A major factor underlying this
growth is industry expansion—the
chemicals industry in particular.
The growing complexity and
automation of chemical processes
will require additional chemical
engineers to design, build, and
maintain the necessary plants and
equipment. Chemical engineers also
will be needed in many new areas
of work, such as environmental
control, synthetic food processing,
and in the design and development
of nuclear reactors. In addition,
new chemicals used to manufacture
consumer goods, such as plastics
and manmade fibers, probably will
create additional openings. (See in­
troductory part of this section for
information on training require­
ments and earnings. See also the
statement on Chemists and the In­
dustrial Chemical Industry else­
where in the Handbook.)
Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Chemical En­
gineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

Places of Employment

About 180,000 civil engineers
were employed in 1972. Most work
for Federal, State, and local gov­
ernment agencies and in the con­
struction industry. Many work for
consulting engineering and archi­
tectural firms or as independent
consulting engineers. Others work
for public utilities, railroads, edu­
cational institutions, and in the iron
and steel and other major manu­
facturing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts
of the country, usually in or near
major industrial and commercial
centers. They are often called upon
to work at construction sites, and
are sometimes stationed in remote
areas or in foreign countries. In
some jobs, they must often move
from place to place to work on
different projects.


(D.O.T. 005.081)
Most of the 50,000 chemical
engineers working in 1972 were in
manufacturing industries, primarily
Nature of the Work
those producing chemicals, petro­
Civil engineering is one of the
leum, and related products. Some
were employed by government oldest branches of the profession.
agencies and by colleges and uni­ These engineers design and super­

vise the construction of roads, har­
bors, airfields, tunnels, bridges,
water supply and sewage systems,
and buildings. Major specialties
within civil engineering are struc­
tural, hydraulic, environmental,
sanitary, transportation (including
highways and railways), and soil
Many civil engineers are in
supervisory or administrative posi­
tions ranging from site supervisor
of a construction project or city
engineer to top-level executive.
Some are engaged in design, plan­
ning, research, and inspection.
Others teach in colleges and uni­
versities or work as consultants.

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for civil engineers
should increase rapidly through the
mid-1980’s. Job opportunities will
result from the growing needs for
housing, industrial buildings, and
highway transportation systems



as electronics, electrical equipment
manufacturing, communications, or
power. Others specialize in sub­
divisions of these broad areas like
computers or missile guidance and
tracking systems. Many are engaged
in research, development, and de­
sign activities. Some are in ad­
ministrative and management jobs;
others work in various manufactur­
ing operations or in technical sales
or teaching jobs.
Places of Employment

Electrical engineering is the larg­
est branch of the profession. More
than 230,000 electrical engineers
were employed in 1972, mainly by
manufacturers of electrical and elec­
tronic equipment, aircraft and parts,
business machines, and professional
and scientific equipment. Many
work for telephone, telegraph, and
electric light and power companies.
Large numbers are employed by
government agencies and by col­
leges and universities. Others work
for construction firms, for engineer­
ing consultants, or as independent
consulting engineers.
created by an increasing population
and expanding economy. Work re­
lated to problems of urban environ­
ment, such as water and sewage
systems, air and water pollution,
urban redevelopment, and rapid
transit systems may require addi­
tional civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers
also will be needed each year to
replace those who retire or die.
(See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training
requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Civil Engineers
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 003.081,. 151, and. 187)
Nature of the Work

Electrical engineers design, devel­
op, and supervise the manufacture of
electrical and electronic equipment.
These include electric motors and
generators; communications equip­
ment; electronic equipment such as
heart pacemakers, pollution meas­
uring instrumentation, radar, com­
puters, lasers, and missile guidance
systems; and electrical appliances of
all kinds. They also design and
assist in operating facilities for gen­
erating and distributing electrical
Electrical engineers generally spe­
cialize in a major area of work such

Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for electrical
engineers are expected to increase
very rapidly through the mid-1980’s.
Increased demand for electrical
equipment to automatically control
production processes, using such
items as computers and sensing
devices, is expected to be among
the major factors contributing to
this growth. The demand for elec­
trical and electronic consumer goods
along with increased research and
development in nuclear power gen­
eration should create job openings
for electrical engineers. Many elec­
trical engineers also will be needed
to replace personnel who retire or



(D.O.T. 012.081,.168, a n d .188)
Nature of the Work

Electrical engineers work with lasers.

Industrial engineers determine
the most effective methods of using
the basic factors of production—
manpower, machines, and materi­
als. They are more concerned with
people and “things,” in contrast to
engineers in other specialties who
generally are concerned more with
developmental work in their fields,
such as power and mechanics.
They design systems for data
processing and apply operations
research techniques to organiza­
tional, production, and related
problems. Industrial engineers also
develop management control sys­
tems to aid in financial planning
and cost analysis. They design
production planning and control
systems to coordinate activities and
control product quality, and may
design and improve systems for the
physical distribution of goods and
services. Other activities include
plant location surveys, where they
must consider sources of raw ma­
terials, the work force, financing,
taxes, and the development of
wage and salary administration and
job evaluation programs.

Places of Employment

The long range outlook for elec­
trical engineers assumes that defense
spending in the mid-1980’s will be
somewhat lower than the peak
Vietnam levels. If defense activity
should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for electrical
engineers will be affected.
(See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training
requirements and earnings. See also
statement on Electronics Manufac­
turing elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

About 125,000 industrial engi­
neers were employed in 1972; more
than two-thirds worked in manu­
facturing industries. They are more
widely distributed among manu­
facturing industries than are those
in other branches of engineering.
Some work for insurance com­
panies, banks, construction and
mining firms, and public utilities.
Hospitals, retail organizations, and
other large business firms employ
industrial engineers to improve op-



(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181,
and .187; 011.081, and 019.187)
Nature of the Work

Industrial engineer tapes operation to check for problems.

erating efficiency. Still others work
for government agencies and educa­
tional institutions. A few are in­
dependent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for industrial en­
gineers are expected to grow very
rapidly through the mid-1980’s.
The increasing complexity of in­
dustrial operations and the expan­
sion of automated processes, along
with industry growth, are factors
contributing to increased require­
ments for these engineers. Increased
recognition of the importance of
scientific management and safety
engineering in reducing costs and
increasing productivity, and newer
areas of work such as noise, air,
and water pollution control should
create additional opportunities.

Additional numbers of industrial
engineers will be required each
year to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. (See introductory part of this
section for information on training
requirem ents and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Industrial Engi­
neers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/
Atlanta, Norcross, Ga. 30071.

Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They
design and develop machines that
produce power, such as internal
combustion engines, steam and gas
turbines, jet and rocket engines,
and nuclear reactors. They also
design and develop a great variety
of machines that use power—
refrigeration and air-conditioning
equipment, elevators, machine tools,
printing presses, steel rolling mills,
and many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within this field
and, since mechanical engineers
are employed in nearly all indus­
tries, their work varies with the
industry and the function per­
formed. Among these specialties
are motor vehicles, marine equip­
ment, steampower, heating, venti­
lating and air-conditioning, instru­
m entation, and m achines for
specialized industries, such as
petroleum, rubber and plastics, and
Large numbers of mechanical
engineers do research, development,
test, and design work. Many work
in administrative and management
activities. Others work in mainte­
nance, marketing and sales, and
activities related to production and
operations in manufacturing. Some
teach in colleges and universities
or work as consultants.
Places of Employment

About 210,000 mechanical en­
gineers were employed in 1972.
Almost three-fourths were employed
in manufacturing—mainly in the



primary and fabricated metals,
machinery, transportation equip­
ment, and electrical equipment
industries. Others work for govern­
ment agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for mechanical en­
gineers are expected to grow rapid­
ly through the mid-1980’s. The
expansion of industry along with
the demand for industrial ma­
chinery and machine tools and the
increasing complexity of industrial
machinery and processes will be
major factors supporting increased
employment opportunities. Expend­
itures for research and development
also will be a factor in the growth.
Newer areas of work, such as
atomic energy and environmental
control, will provide additional
Large numbers of mechanical Metallurgical engineers use scientific equipment to study the structural make-up of
engineers also will be required
each year to replace those who re­
tire or die. (See introductory part methods to process and convert
creasingly being referred to as
of this section for information on metals into useful products. These
either materials scientists or ma­
training requirements and earnings. engineers generally work in one of
terials engineers.
See also statement on Occupations the three main branches of
the Atomic Energy Field elsewhere metallurgy—extractive or chemi­
Places of Employment
in the Handbook.)
cal, physical, and mechanical. Ex­
The metalworking industries—
tractive metallurgy involves the
Sources of Additional Information extraction of metals from ores and primarily the iron and steel and
refining and alloying them to ob­ nonferrous m etals industries—
The American Society of Mechanical
tain pure metal. Physical metallurgy employed over one-half of the
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
deals with the nature, structure estimated 10,000 metallurgical en­
York, N.Y. 10017.
and physical properties of metals gineers in 1972. Many metallurgical
and their alloys, and with methods engineers work in industries that
of converting refined metals into manufacture machinery, electrical
final products. Mechanical metal­ equipment, and aircraft and parts.
lurgy involves the working and Others work in the mining industry.
shaping of metals by casting, Some work for government agen­
forging, rolling and drawing. Sci­ cies, consulting firms, independent
(D.O.T. 011.081)
entists working in this field are research organizations, and colleges
known as metallurgists but the and universities.
distinction between scientists and
Nature of the Work
Employment Outlook
engineers is small. People working
Metallurgical engineers develop in the field of metallurgy are in­
Employment opportunities for



metallurgical engineers are ex­
pected to grow very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s. An increasing num­
ber of these engineers will be
needed by the metalworking indus­
tries to develop new metals and
alloys as well as to adapt current
ones to new needs. For example,
the development of such products
as supersonic jet aircrafts, missiles,
satellites, spacecrafts, and com­
puters has brought about a need
for lightweight metals of high
purity, able to withstand both ex­
tremely high and low temperatures.
Metallurgical engineers also will
be needed to solve metallurgical
problems associated with the effi­
cient use of nuclear energy. As the
supply of high-grade ores dimin­
ishes, more metallurgical engineers
will be required to find new ways of
recycling solid waste materials in
addition to processing low-grade
ores now regarded as unprofitable
to mine. They also will be needed
to solve problems connected with
air and water pollution control,
noise abatement, urban renewal,
public transportation, and biomedi­
cal devices. (See introductory part
of this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.
Also see statement on the Iron and
Steel Industry elsewhere in the

(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187)
Nature of the Work

Mining engineers find, extract,
and prepare minerals for manu­
facturing industries to use. They
design the layouts of mines, super­
vise the construction of mine shafts
and tunnels in underground opera­
tions, and devise methods for trans­
porting minerals to processing
plants. Mining engineers are re­
sponsible for the efficient operation
of mines and mine safety, including
ventilation, water supply, power,
communications, and equipment
maintenance. Some mining engi­

neers work with geologists and
metallurgical engineers to locate
and appraise new ore deposits.
Others develop new mining equip­
ment and devise improved methods
to process extracted minerals. With
increased emphasis on the environ­
ment, many mining engineers have
been working to solve problems
related to mined-land reclamation
and water and air pollution control.
Mining engineers frequently spe­
cialize in the extraction of specific
metal ores, coal, and other nonmetallic minerals. Engineers who
specialize in the extraction of
petroleum and natural gas are
usually considered members of a
separate branch of the engineering
profession—Petroleum Engineering.

Sources of Additional Information
The Metallurgical Society of the Ameri­
can Institute of Mining, Metal­
lurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
American Society of Metals, Metals
Park, Ohio 44073.

Mining engineers are concerned with mine safety.



Places of Employment

About 5,000 mining engineers
were employed in 1972. Most work
in the mining industry. Some work
in colleges and universities, for
government agencies, or as inde­
pendent consultants. Others work
for firms that produce equipment
for the mining industry.
Mining engineers are usually em­
ployed at the location of mineral
deposits, often near small commun­
ities. However, those in research,
teaching, management, consulting,
or sales are often located in large
metropolitan areas.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for

mining engineers are expected to
be favorable through the mid1980’s. The number of new gradu­
ates in mining engineering is expected
to be fewer than the number needed
to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other fields of work.
Exploration for minerals is in­
creasing, both in the United States
and in other parts of the world.
Easily mined deposits are being
depleted, creating a growing need
for engineers to mine newly dis­
covered mineral deposits and to
devise more efficient methods for
mining low-grade ores. Additional
employment opportunities for min­
ing engineers will arise as new
alloys and new uses for metals
increase the demand for less widely
used ores. Recovery of metals

from the sea and the development
of recently discovered oil shale
deposits could present major chal­
lenges to the mining engineer.
(See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training
requirements and earnings. See also
statement on Mining elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Sources of Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of the
American Institute of Mining, Metal­
lurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

Environmental scientists help us
live within our physical environ­
ment. They play an important role
in solving environmental pollution
problems. These scientists, some­
times known as earth scientists,
are concerned with the history,
composition, and characteristics of
the earth’s surface, interior, and
atmosphere. Some do basic re­
search to increase scientific knowl­
edge. Others solve practical prob­
lems. Geologists, for example, ex­
plore for new sources of oil, other
fuels, and ores. Still others do
applied research and use knowledge
gained from basic research to help
answer important questions. Mete­
orologists, for example, use scientif­
ic knowledge to forecast the weather.
Many environmental scientists teach
in colleges and universities. Others
administer scientific programs and
Many environmental scientists
specialize in one particular branch
of their broad occupational field.
This chapter discusses the special­
ties and the employment outlook
for four environmental science oc­
cupations—geologists, geophysi­
cists, meteorologists, and ocean­

(D.O.T. 024.081)
Nature of the Work

Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust in order to locate
natural resources, give warnings

of natural disasters, and help see
that buildings are put on firm
foundations. By examining rocks
and drilling to recover rock cores,
they determine their distribution,
thickness, and slope beneath the
earth’s surface. They also identify
rocks and minerals, conduct geo­
logical surveys, draw maps, take
measurements, and record data.
Geologists use many tools and
instruments such as hammers, chis­
els, levels, transits (mounted tele­
scopes used to measure angles),
gravity meters, cameras, compasses,
and seismographs (instruments that
record the intensity and duration
of earthquakes and earth tremors).
They also evaluate information
from photographs taken from air­
craft and satellites and use com­
puters to record and analyze data.
Geologists also work in labora­
tories where they examine the
chemical and physical properties of
specimens under controlled tem­
perature and pressure. They may
study fossil remains of animal and
vegetable life or experiment with
the flow of water and oil through
rocks. Laboratory equipment used
by geologists includes complex in­
struments such as the X-ray dif­
fractometer, which determines the
structure of minerals, and the
petrographic microscope for close
study of rock formations.
Geologists do other things be­
sides locating resources and work­
ing in laboratories. They advise
construction companies, and Fed­
eral, State, and local governments
on the suitability of certain loca­
tions for constructing buildings,
dams, or highways. Some geologists
administer and manage research
and exploration programs. Others
teach and work on research projects
in colleges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in
one or a combination of three
general areas—earth materials, earth
processes, and earth history.

Economic geologists locate earth
materials such as minerals and
solid fuels. Petroleum geologists
search for and recover liquid fuels—
oil and natural gas. Some petroleum
geologists work near drilling sites
and others correlate petroleumrelated geologic knowledge for en­
tire regions. Engineering geologists
determine suitable sites for the
construction of roads, airfields, tun­
nels, dams, and other structures.
They decide, for example, whether
underground rocks will bear the
weight of a building or whether a
structure may be in an earthquake
prone area. Mineralogists analyze
and classify minerals and precious
stones according to composition
and structure. Geochemists study
the chemical composition and
changes in minerals and rocks to
understand the distribution and
migration of elements in the earth’s
Geologists concerned with earth
processes study landforms and their
rock masses, sedimentary (matter
deposited by water or wind) de­
posits and eruptive forces such as
volcanoes. Volcanologists study
active and inactive volcanoes, lava
flows, and other eruptive activity.
G eom orphologists examine landforms and forces such as erosion
and glaciation which cause them
to change.
Other geologists are most con­
cerned with earth history. Paleon­
tologists study plant and animal
fossils to trace the evolution and
development of past life. Geochronologists determine the age of
rocks and landforms by the radio­
active decay of its elements. Stratigraphers study the distribution and
arrangement of sedimentary rock
layers by examining their fossil and
mineral content.
Many geologists specialize in
new fields that require knowledge
of another science. Astrogeologists
study geological conditions on



other planets. Geological oceano­
graphers study the sedimentary and
other rock on the ocean floor and
continental shelf. (See statements
on Oceanographers and Mining
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Places of Employment

About 23,000 people worked as
geologists in 1972, over half in
private industry. Most industrial
geologists work for petroleum pro­
ducers, many for American com­
panies exploring in foreign nations.
Geologists also work for mining
and quarrying companies. Some
are employed by construction firms
and others are independent con­
sultants to industry and government.

The Federal Government em­
ploys over 1,600 geologists. Twothirds work for the Department of
the Interior in the U.S. Geological
Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and
the Bureau of Reclamation. State
agencies also employ geologists,
some working on surveys in co­
operation with the U.S. Geological
Colleges and universities employ
almost 7,500 geologists. Some work
for nonprofit research institutions
and museums.

Training, Qualifications,
and Advancement

Students seeking professional
careers as geologists should earn
an advanced degree. The master’s

degree is required for beginning
research and teaching and most
exploration jobs. Advancement in
college teaching and high-level re­
search and administrative posts
usually require the Ph.D. The
bachelor’s degree is adequate train­
ing for some entry jobs in explora­
tion work.
About 300 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
geology. Undergraduate students
devote about one-fourth of their
time to geology courses, including
historical geology, structural geol­
ogy, mineralogy, petrology, and
invertebrate paleontology. Students
spend about a third of their time
taking mathematics, related sci­
ences—such as physics and chemistry
—and engineering; the remainder
is general academic subjects. Statis­
tics and computer courses are
especially recommended.
More than 160 universities award
advanced degrees in geology.
Graduate students take advanced
courses in geology and specialize
in one branch of the science.
Students planning careers in ex­
ploration geology should like the
outdoors, and have physical stam­
ina. They should be able to adapt
to changes brought about by travel
to distant countries. Geologists
often travel to remote sites by
helicopter and jeep and cover large
areas by foot. Generally, they
work in teams. Geologists need
curious and analytical minds to
solve complex geological problems.
Geologists with advanced degrees
usually begin their careers in field
exploration or as research assistants
in laboratories. After suitable ex­
perience, they may be promoted
to project leaders, program mana­
gers, or other management and re­
search positions.
Employment Outlook

Geologists should like outdoor work.

Employment opportunities for



geologists with advanced degrees
are expected to be favorable through
the mid-1980’s. Hundreds of op­
portunities should open up each
year because of the expected growth
in the field and to replace geo­
logists who are promoted to man­
agerial positions, transfer to other
fields, die, or retire. Those with
bachelor’s degrees may face com­
petition for entry jobs and some
may have to work as technicians
or surveyors. For those with only
bachelor’s degrees, opportunities will
be more favorable with some train­
ing in geophysical exploration tech­
Demand for geologists will con­
tinue in Federal agencies, particu­
larly the U.S. Geological Survey.
College and university employment
probably will rise, mainly for those
having Ph.D. degrees.
Geologists may want to consider
related employment activities out­
side the field. For instance, geo­
logists may take training to qualify
as science teachers in secondary
Consumer and industrial demand
for petroleum and minerals will
continue to rise, and geologists
with advanced degrees will be re­
quired to locate and recover new
deposits to fill increased demand
and replenish old supplies. How­
ever, indications are that employ­
ment of geologists with advanced
degrees in petroleum and mineral
extraction will be more limited in
the near future than in the past.
Additional geologists will be needed
to discover new resources and their
potential uses. For example, geo­
logists will help determine the
feasibility of using geothermal
energy (steam from the earth’s
interior) to generate electricity.
Geologists also are needed to de­
vise techniques for exploring deeper
within the earth’s crust and to
develop more efficient methods of

mining resources. Geologists also Sources of Additional Information
are needed to develop adequate
General information on career
water supplies, waste disposal
opportunities, training, and earn­
methods, and building materials
and site evaluation for construction ings for geologists is available from:
American Geological Institute, 2201 M
activities. Increased emphasis on
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20037.
the environment by urban societies
For information on Federal Gov­
also should affect requirements for
ernment careers contact:
geologists. For example, pollution
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service
control, better land use and recla­
Examiners for Washington, D.C.
mation programs, and highway con­
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
struction activities require the
talents of geologists.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Geologists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings over
twice those received by nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Starting salaries for new gradu­
ates averaged $9,000 a year in
1972 for those having a bachelor’s
degree, $11,000 for those having a
master’s degree, and $13,000 for
those having a doctorate, accord­
ing to the American Geological
Institute’s annual survey.
In the Federal Government in
early 1973, geologists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$7,694 or $9,520 a year, depending
on their college records. Beginning
geologists having the master’s de­
gree could start at $9,520 or
$11,614, depending on their aca­
demic records or previous work
experience. Those having the Ph.D.
degree could begin at $13,996 or
Geologists often work outdoors
in many different climates and
geographical areas. Field work re­
quires hard physical labor and long
hours with limited companionship.
Geologists in mining may be re­
quired to work underground. When
not working outdoors, they are in
comfortable, well-lighted, wellventillated offices and laboratories.

(D.O.T. 024.081)
Nature of the Work

Geophysicists study the composi­
tion and physical aspects of the
earth and other planets—their in­
teriors, surfaces, and atmospheres.
They investigate the earth’s phy­
sical characteristics, such as its
electric, magnetic, and gravitational
fields. Geophysicists use highly com­
plex instruments such as the mag­
netometer which measures variations
in the earth’s magnetic field, and
the gravimeter which measures
minute variations in gravitational
attraction. They m ay use satellites

to conduct tests in outer space and
use computers to collect and analyze
Geophysicists usually specialize
in one of three general phases of the
science—solid earth, fluid earth,
and upper atmosphere.
Solid earth geophysicists search
for oil and mineral deposits, map
the earth’s surface, and are con­
cerned with earthquakes. Explora­
tion geophysicists use seismic
prospecting techniques to locate
oil and mineral deposits. They send
sound waves into the earth and



•record the echoes bouncing off the
rock layers below to determine if
they are favorable for the accumula­
tion of oil.
Seismologists study the earth’s
interior and earth vibrations caused
by earthquakes and manmade ex­
plosions. They explore for oil and
minerals, study underground detec­
tion of nuclear explosions, and
provide information for use in con­
structing bridges, dams, and build­
ings. For example, in constructing
a dam, seismologists determine
where bedrock (solid rock beneath
the soil) is closest to the surface so
the best darh site can be selected.
They use explosives to create sound
waves which reflect off bedrock;
the time it takes for the shock
wave to return to the surface indi­
cates the depth of bedrock.
Geodesists study the size, shape,

and gravitational field of the earth
and other planets. Their principal
task is mapping the earth’s surface.
With the aid of satellites, geodesists
determine the positions, elevations,
and distances between points on the
earth, and measure the intensity and
direction of gravitational attraction.
, Hydrologists are concerned with
the fluid earth. They study the
distribution, circulation, and phy­
sical properties of underground and
surface waters, including glaciers,
snow, and permafrost. They also
study rainfall and its rate of infiltra­
tion into soil. Some are concerned
with water supplies, irrigation, flood
control, and soil erosion. (See state­
ment on Oceanographers, sometimes
classified as geophysical scientists,
elsewhere in the Handbook.1
Geophysicists involved in the at­
mosphere investigate the earth’s

Geophysicists measure solar radiation.

magnetic and electric fields and
compare its outer atmosphere with
those of other planets. Geomagneticians study the earth’s magnetic
field. Paleomagneticians learn about
past magnetic fields from rocks or
lava flows. Planetologists study the
composition and atmosphere of the
moon, planets, and other bodies in
the solar system. They gather data
from geophysical instruments placed
on inter-planetary space probes or
equipment used by astronauts during
the Apollo missions. Meteorologists
are sometimes classified as geo­
physical scientists. (See statements
on Meteorologists and Mining else­
where in the Handbook.)

Places of Employment

More than 8,000 people worked
as geophysicists in 1972. Most work
in private industry, chiefly for petro­
leum and natural gas companies.
Qther geophysicists are in mining
companies, exploration and consult­
ing firms, and research institutes.
A few are independent consultants
and some do geophysical pros­
pecting on a fee or contract basis.
Geophysicists are employed in
many southwestern and western
States, including the Gulf Coast,
where large oil and natural gas fields
are located. Some geophysicists are
employed by American firms over­
seas for varying periods of time.
Over 2,000 geophysicists, geod­
esists, and hydrologists worked for
Federal Government agencies in
1972, mainly the U.S. Geological
Survey; the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA); the Army Map Service;
and the Naval Oceanographic Of­
fice. Other geophysicists work for
colleges and universities, State gov­
ernments, and nonprofit research


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A person with a bachelor’s de­
gree in geophysics or a geophysical
specialty qualifies for most begin­
ning jobs in exploration geophysics.
A bachelor’s degree in a related field
of science or engineering also is
adequate preparation, provided the
person has courses in geophysics,
physics, geology, mathematics, chem­
istry, and engineering. A geophy­
sicist with a background in electronic
data processing can increase his
employment opportunities in indus­
try and government.
Geophysicists doing research or
supervising exploration activities
should have graduate training in
geophysics or a related science.
Those planning to teach in colleges
or do basic research should acquire
a Ph.D. degree in geophysics or a re­
lated science with advanced courses
in geophysics.
About 50 colleges and universities
award the bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics. Other programs offering
training for beginning geophysicists
include geophysical technology, geo­
physical engineering, engineering
geology, petroleum geology, and
More than 60 universities grant
the master’s and Ph.D. degree in
geophysics. People who have a
bachelor’s degree and courses in
geology, mathematics, physics, en­
gineering or a combination of these
subjects can be admitted to these
graduate schools.
Geophysicists should be in good
health since they often have to work
outdoors, and must be willing to
travel, sometimes for extended peri­
ods of time. Geophysicists generally
work as part of a team. They should
have curious and analytical minds
for solving complex geophysical
problems and be able to express
themselves both orally and in writ­


Most new geophysicists begin their
careers doing field mapping or
other exploration activities. Some
assist senior geophysicists in re­
search laboratories. With suitable
experience, geophysicists advance to
project leader, program manager, or
other management and administra­
tive jobs.

Employment Outlook

New graduates in geophysics
should have good employment op­
portunities through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to opportunities resulting
from the very rapid growth ex­
pected in this field, a few hundred
geophysicists will be needed each
year to replace those who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
die. Although the number of job
openings for geophysicists is not
expected to be large in any one year,
the number of new geophysics grad­
uates is not expected to meet
Federal Government agencies
may need geophysicists for new or
expanding programs. Jobs for geo­
physicists in the Federal Govern­
ment are heavily dependent on funds
for research and development in
the earth sciences, which are ex­
pected to increase through the mid
1980’s but at a slower rate than
during the 1960’s. The Government
is expected to support additional
research to develop “ natural disaster
technology’’ to improve capabilities
to control, predict, or reduce de­
struction from fires, earthquakes,
floods, hurricanes, and severe storms.
The Government also may support
research to locate more natural re­
sources, prevent environmental deg­
radation through better land use,
and improve municipal services such
as water and sewage disposal.
Petroleum and mining companies
will need geophysicists for explora­
tion activities, which are expected

to expand through the mid-1980’s.
As the need for more fuel and
minerals grows and costs of explora­
tion increase, more geophysicists
will be needed to operate sophis­
ticated electronic equipment to find
the more concealed fuel and mineral
In addition, geophysicists with
advanced training will be needed
to do research into radioactivity
and cosmic and solar radiation, in­
vestigate the use of geothermal
power (steam from the earth’s in­
terior) as a source of energy to
generate electricity, and contribute
to exploration of outer space. Geo­
physicists also will be needed to
develop better geophysical instru­
ments, and to establish information
storage and retrieval systems for
geophysical libraries.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Geophysicists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings more
than twice those received by nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Starting salaries in 1972 for geo­
physics graduates averaged $9,000 a
year for those having a bachelor’s
degree, $11,000 for those having a
master’s degree and $13,000 for
those having a doctorate, according
to the American Geological Insti­
tute’s annual survey.
In the Federal Government in
early 1973, geophysicists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$7,694 or $9,520 a year, depending
on their college records. Beginning
geophysicists having a master’s de­
gree could start at $9,520 or $11,614
depending on their academic record
or previous work experience. Those
having a Ph.D. degree could begin
at $13,996 or $16,682.
Geophysicists work outdoors for
extended periods of time with lim­
ited companionship. Some of them



work in remote areas, involving
much traveling and living under
primitive conditions. Geophysicists
also work in modern, well-equipped,
well-lighted laboratories and offices.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities, training, and earn­
ings for geophysicists is available
American Geophysical Union, 1707 L
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
P.O. Box 3098, Tulsa, Okla. 74101.

For information on Federal Gov­
ernment careers contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E St., NW., Washington, D.C.


short- and long-range predictions.
Their data come from weather satel­
lites and observers in many parts
of the world. Although some fore­
casters still prepare and analyze
weather maps, most data now »are
plotted by computers.
Some meteorologists are engaged
in basic and applied scientific re­
search. For example, physical
meteorologists study the chemical
and electrical properties of the at­
mosphere. They do research on the
effect of the atmosphere on trans­
mission of light, sound, and radio
waves, as well as factors affecting
formation of clouds, rain, snow,
and other weather conditions. Other
meteorologists, known as clima­
tologists, study historical climate
conditions and analyze past records
on wind, rainfall, sunshine, and
temperature to determine the gen­
eral pattern of weather that makes
up an area’s climate. These studies
are useful in planning heating and

cooling systems, designing buildings,
and aiding in effective land util­
Meteorological instrumentation
specialists develop the devices that
measure, record, and evaluate data
on atmospheric processes. For ex­
ample, some of these instruments
are used to measure the size and
number of droplets in a cloud,
structure of winds, and pressure,
humidity, and temperature miles
above the earth.
Specialists in applied method­
ology, sometimes called industrial
meteorologists, study the relation­
ship between weather and specific
human activities, biological proc­
esses, and agricultural and industrial
operations. For example, they make
weather forecasts for individual
companies, attempt to induce rain
or snow in a given area, and work on
problems such as smoke control
and air pollution abatement.
About one-third of all civilian

(D.O.T. 025.088)
Nature of the Work

Meteorology is the study of
the atmospheres—the gases that sur­
round the earth and other celestial
bodies. Meteorologists describe and
try to understand the atmospheres’
physical composition, motions, and
processes, and determine the way
these elements affect the rest of our
physical environment. This study
helps solve many practical problems
in agriculture, transportation, com­
munications, health, defense, and
Meteorologists usually specialize
in one branch of the science.
Weather forecasters, known pro­
fessionally as synoptic meteorolo­
gists, are the largest group of
specialists. They study current
weather information, such as air
pressure, temperature, humidity, and
wind velocity in order to make

Meteorologist checks the position of a major storm from weather satellite photographs.


meteorologists work primarily in
weather forecasting, and another
one-fourth manage or administer
forecasting and research programs.
Almost one-fourth work in research
and development. For example, they
devise mathematical models of at­
mospheric motion to understand
and predict changing weather con­
ditions, or carry out experiments
in changing the amount of rain in
an area.
Some meteorologists teach or
do research—frequently combining
both activities—in colleges and uni­
versities. In colleges without sepa­
rate departments of meteorology,
they may teach geography, math­
ematics, physics, chemistry, or geol­
ogy, as well as meteorology.

Places of Employment

About 5,000 persons— 10 percent
of them women—worked as meteor­
ologists in 1972. In addition to
these civilian meteorologists, more
than 2,000 officers and 7,000 en­
listed members of the Armed Forces
did forecasting and other meteor­
ological work.
The largest employer of civilians
was the National Oceanic and At­
mospheric Administration (NOAA),
where nearly 2,000 meteorologists
worked at 300 stations in all parts
of the United States, and in a
small number of foreign areas. The
Department of Defense employed
over 300 civilian meteorologists.
More than 1,000 meteorologists
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed several
hundred to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots
on atmospheric conditions. Others
worked for private weather consult­
ing Firms, for companies that design
and manufacture meteorological in­
struments, for radio and television
stations, and for large firms in
aerospace, insurance, utilities, and


other industries.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed almost 1,000 meteorologists
in research and teaching. A few
worked for State and local govern­
ments and for nonprofit organ­
Although meteorologists work in
all States, nearly two-fifths live
in just two States—California and
Maryland. More than one-tenth of
all meteorologists worked in the
Washington, D.C. area.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in meteorology is the ,usual mini­
mum requirement for beginning jobs
in weather forecasting. However, a
bachelor’s degree in a related science
or engineering, along with some
courses in meteorology, is acceptable
for some jobs. For example, the
Federal Government’s minimum re­
quirement for beginning jobs is a
bachelor’s degree with- at least 20
semester hours of study in mete­
orology and additional training in
physics and mathematics, including
For research and college teach­
ing and for many top-level positions
in other meteorological activities,
an advanced degree is essential,
preferably in meteorology. However,
people with graduate degrees in
other sciences also may qualify if
they have advanced courses in mete­
orology, physics, mathematics, and
In 1972, 42 colleges and uni­
versities offered a bachelor’s degree
in meteorology; 53 schools offered
advanced degrees in atmospheric
science. Many other institutions of­
fered some courses in meteorology.
The Armed Services give and sup­
port meteorological training, both
of enlisted personnel for under­
graduate education and of officers
for advanced study.

NOAA has a program under
which some of its meteorologists
may attend college for advanced or
specialized training. College students
can obtain summer jobs with this
agency or enroll in its 'cooperative
education program in which they
work at NOAA part of the year and
attend school part of the year. In
addition to helping students finance
their education this program gives
them valuable experience for find­
ing a job when they graduate.
Meteorologists in the federal
Government usually start in 2-year
training positions at weather sta­
tions. They observe weather condi­
tions, receive training in forecasting,
and release weather information to
the public, agriculture industry, air­
lines, and other specialized users.
Advancement is to assistant fore­
caster and forecaster.
Airline meteorologists have some­
what limited opportunities for
advancement. However, after con­
siderable work experience, they may
advance to flight dispatcher or to
various supervisory or administra­
tive jobs. A few very well qualified
meteorologists with a background in
science, engineering, and business
administration may establish their
own weather consulting services.

Employment Outlook

Employment of meteorologists is
expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from growth,
some meteorologists will be needed
each year to replace those who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields.
Employment opportunities should be
favorable during this period, es­
pecially for those with advanced
degrees who will find jobs in re­
search, teaching in colleges and
universities, as well as in manage­
ment and consulting work.
The use of weather satellites,


manned spacecraft, world-circling
weather balloons, and electronic
computers has expanded the work
of meteorologists. These advances
have made possible the study of
weather and climate on a global
scale. Meteorologists tdso will find
jobs developing and improving in­
struments for collecting and proc­
essing weather data.
Job opportunities for mete­
orologists with commercial airlines,
weather consulting services, and
other private companies are expected
to increase as the value of weather
information to all segments of our
economy receives further recogni­
tion. For example, the atmosphere
is an important part of our environ­
ment, and increasing public concern
about ecology could create job open­
ings with private research organ­
izations, in colleges and universities,
and in State and local governments.
The need will continue for mete­
orologists to work in existing
programs, such as weather meas­
urements and forecasts and do re­
search on problems of severe storms,
turbulance, and air pollution.

Earnings and Working Conditions


year, according to the Air Traffic
Conference. They generally receive
the same benefits as other airline
employees. (See Statement on Occu­
pations in Civil Aviation elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Those teaching
in colleges and universities earned
salaries equivalent to those received
by other faculty members. (See
Statement on College and University
Jobs in weather stations, which
are operated on a 24-hour, 7-day
week basis, often involve nightwork
and rotating shifts. Most stations
are at airports or at places in or
near cities; some are in isolated
and remote areas. Meteorologists
generally work alone in smaller
weather stations, and as part of a
team in larger ones.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities ana schools offering
education in meteorology is avail­
able from:
American Meteorology Society, 45
Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108.
American Geophysical Union, 2100
Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20037.

For facts about job opportunities
Meteorologists have relatively
high earnings, salaries were about with the NOAA National Weather
twice the average received by non- Service and on its student coop­
supervisory workers in private in­ erative education program, contact:
Personnel Division AD 41, National
dustry, except farming.
Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis­
In early 1973, meteorologists in
tration, 6010 Executive Blvd., Rock­
the Federal Government with a
ville, Md. 20852.
bachelor’s degree and no experience
Details about Air Force mete­
received starting salaries of $7,619
orological training programs are
or $9,520 a year, depending on
available from any Air Force recruit­
their college grades. Those with
ing office or from:
a master’s degree could start at
Air Weather Service/D.O.T., Stop 400
$11,614 or $13,996, and those with
Scott Air Force Base, 111. 62225.
the Ph.D. degree at $13,996 or
$16,682. Salaries were higher for
those who worked outside the United
Airline meteorologists had aver­
age starting salaries of $12,000 a

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)
Nature of the Work

Oceans cover more than twothirds of the earth’s surface and
provide people with valuable foods,
fossil fuels, and minerals. They
also influence the weather, serve as
a “ highway” for transportation,
and offer many kinds of recreation.
Oceanographers use the principles
and techniques of natural science,
mathematics, and engineering to
study oceans—their movements,
physical properties, and plant and
animal life. Their research not only
extends basic scientific knowledge,
but also helps develop practical
methods for forecasting weather,
developing fisheries, mining ocean
resources, and improving National
Some oceanographers make tests
and observations, and conduct ex­
periments from ships or stationary
platforms in the sea. They may
study and collect data on ocean
tides, currents, and other phenom­
ena. Some study undersea moun­
tain ranges and valleys, oceanic
interaction with the atmosphere,
and layers of sediment on and
beneath the ocean floor.
Oceanographers also work in
laboratories on land where, for
example, they measure, dissect, and
photograph fish. They also study
exotic sea specimens and plankton
(floating microscopic plants and
animals). Much of their work en­
tails identifying, cataloguing, and
analyzing different kinds of sea
life and minerals. At other labora­
tories, oceanographers plot maps
or feed data to computers to test
theories about the ocean. For ex­
ample, they may study and test
the theory of continental drift,
which states that the continents
were once joined together, have


drifted apart, and continue to
drift apart causing the sea floor to
spread. To present the results of
their studies, oceanographers pre­
pare charts, tabulations, reports
and manuals, and write papers for
scientific journals.
Oceanographers explore and study
the ocean with low-flying aircraft
as well as surface ships. They use
specialized instruments to measure
and record the findings of their
explorations and studies. Special
cameras equipped with strong lights
photograph marine life and the
ocean floor. Sounding devices are


vital to the oceanographer for
communicating with teammates
above the water and for measuring,
mapping, and locating ocean ma­
Most oceanographers specialize
in one branch of the science. Bio­
logical oceanographers (marine bio­
logists) study plant and animal
life in the ocean. They search for
ways to extract drugs from sea­
weeds or sponges, investigate life
processes of marine animals, and
determine the effects of radio­
activity and pollution on the growth
of fish. Physical oceanographers

(physicists and geophysicists) study
the physical properties of the ocean.
Their research on the relationships
between the sea and the atmosphere
may lead to control over the
weather. Geological oceanographers
(m arine geologists) study the
ocean’s mountain ranges, rocks,
and sediments. Locating deposits
of minerals, oil, and gas on the
ocean floor is an application of
their work. Chemical oceanogra­
phers investigate the chemical com­
position of ocean water and
sediments as well as chemical re­
actions in the sea. One practical
area of their study is the removal
of salt from sea water. Oceano­
graphic engineers and electronic
specialists design and build instru­
ments for oceanographic research
and operations. They also lay
cables, supervise underwater con­
struction, and locate sunken ships
to recover their cargos.
Almost two of every three ocean­
ographers perform or administer
research and development activities.
Many teach in colleges and univer­
sities. A few are engaged in techni­
cal writing, in consulting, and in
administering activities other than

Places of Employment

Oceanographers get ready to lower test instrument.

About 4,500 people—about 5
percent of them women—worked
as oceanographers in 1972. About
one-third worked in colleges and
universities, one-third in private
industry, and one-fourth for the
Federal Government. Federal agen­
cies employing substantial numbers
of oceanographers include the
Naval Oceanographic Office, and
the National Oceanic and Atmos­
pheric Administration (NOAA).
Some oceanographers work for
Firms designing and developing
instruments and vehicles for ocean­
ographic research. A few work for


fishery laboratories of State and
local governments.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum requirement for
beginning professional jobs in
oceanography is a bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in oceanography,
biology, earth or physical sciences,
mathematics, or engineering. Pro­
fessional jobs in research, teaching,
and high-level positions in most
other types of work require graduate
training in oceanography or a basic
Only 46 colleges and universities
offered undergraduate degrees in
oceanography or marine sciences
in 1972. However, since ocean­
ography is an interdisciplinary sci­
ence, training in a basic science and
a strong interest in oceanography
may be adequate preparation for
some beginning jobs or for entry
to graduate school.
Important college courses for
oceanographers include mathema­
tics, physics, chemistry, geophysics,
geology, meteorology and biology.
In general, students should special­
ize in the particular science that is
closest to their area of ocean­
ographic interest. For example, stu­
dents interested in chemical ocean­
ography could obtain a degree in
In 1972 about 85 colleges offered
advanced degrees in oceanography
and marine sciences. In graduate
schools, students take advanced
courses in oceanography and in a
basic science.
Graduate students usually work
part of the time aboard ship, doing
oceanographic research and becom­
ing familiar with the sea and with
techniques used to obtain ocean­
ographic information. Universities
at the various stations along our
coasts offer summer courses for
both graduates and undergraduate


students, which are especially bene­
ficial for students from inland
universities. Oceanographers should
have the curiosity needed to do new
research and the patience to collect
data and conduct experiments.
Beginning oceanographers with
the bachelor’s degree usually start
as research or laboratory assistants,
or in jobs involving routine data
collection, analysis, or computa­
tions. Most beginning oceanogra­
phers receive on-the-job training
related to the specific work at
hand. The extent of the training
varies with the background and
needs of the individual.
Experienced oceanographers may
direct surveys and research pro­
grams or advance to administrative
or supervisory jobs in research

Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for oceanogra­
phers with a Ph.D. are expected
to be favorable through the mid1980’s, especially for those who
specialize in ocean engineering.
People with less education may
face competition for beginning jobs
and find other opportunities lim­
ited to doing routine analytical
work as research assistants.
In addition to openings from
the rapid growth expected in this
field, some oceanographers will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to
other fields.
Growing recognition of the im­
portance of the oceans to the
Nation’s welfare and security has
heightened interest in oceanography
and has opened new fields for spe­
cialists. More oceanographers will
be needed to improve methods of
taking foods and drugs from the
oceans, manage fisheries, and de­
velop economical means to harness
the ocean for energy and provide

fresh water from the sea. Some will
be needed to develop new technol­
ogies for discovering and mining
the fuel and mineral resources of
the ocean’s floor and to protect
water from pollution and shoreline
from damage by waves and tides.
Still others will be needed for
weather and iceberg forecasting
and to study air-sea interaction for
long-range weather forecasts. The
Federal Government finances most
oceanographic research and devel­
opment; employment opportunities
could be affected by changes in
Federal spending priorities.
In the years ahead, improving
the Nation’s defenses against sub­
marines and surface vessels will re­
quire oceanographic research into
underwater sound, surface and
subsurface currents, and the shape
of the ocean floor. New super
tankers will require the building
of new large ports and will create
jobs for oceanographers who spe­
cialize in ocean engineering.
Teaching opportunities in col­
leges and universities may expand
as interest in oceanography grows.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Oceanographers have relatively
high earnings; average salaries were
about twice the average received
by nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.
In early 1973, oceanographers
in the Federal Government with
the bachelor’s degree received start­
ing salaries of $7,619 or $9,520 a
year, depending on their college
grades. Those with the master’s
degree could start at $11,614 or
$13,996; and those with the Ph.D.
degree at $13,996 or $16,682.
In private industry in 1972,
new graduates with the bachelor’s
degree received average starting
salaries of $9,000 a year, accord­
ing to the American Geological
Institute. Those with the master’s



degree could start at $11,000; and
those with the Ph.D. at $13,000.
Beginning oceanographers in edu­
cational institutions generally re­
ceive the same salaries as other
faculty members. (See statement on
College and University Teachers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) In
addition to regular salaries, many
experienced oceanographers earn
extra income from consulting, lec­
turing, and writing.
Oceanographers engaged in re­
search that requires sea voyages
are frequently away from home
for weeks or months at a time.
Sometimes they live and work in
cramped quarters. People who like
the sea, however, may find these
voyages satisfying.
Sources of Additional Information

For information about careers

in oceanography and about colleges
and universities that offer training
in marine science, contact:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, 6001 Executive Boule­
vard, Rockville. Maryland 20852.
Attention: AD 411

Federal Government career in­
formation is available from any
regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service
Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E. Street, NW., Washington,
D.C. 20390.

The booklet,
Training and
Careers in Marine Science, is avail­
able for 50 cents from:
International Oceanographic Founda­
tion, 10 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Virginia Key, Miami, Fla. 33149.

A booklet, Oceanography In­
formation Sources ’73, lists the
names and addresses of industrial

organizations involved in oceanog­
raphy and publishers of oceano­
journals, and periodicals. Copies
may be purchased for $2.50 from:
Printing and Publishing Office, Na­
tional Academy of Sciences, 2101
Constitution Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20418.

Some information on Oceano­
graphic specialities is available from
professional societies listed else­
where in the Handbook. (See state­
ments on Geologists, Geophysi­
cists, Life Scientists, Meteorolo­
gists, and Chemists elsewhere in
the Handbook.)


composition of organisms and the
changes caused by genetic and envi­
ronmental factors. They analyze
the chemical processes related to
Life scientists study living organ­
biological functions, such as muscu­
isms and their life processes. They
lar contraction, reproduction, and
are concerned with the origin and
metabolism. Biochemists also in­
preservation of life, from the largest
vestigate the effects on organisms
animal to the smallest living cell.
of substances such as foods, hor­
The number and variety of plants
mones, and drugs.
and animals are so vast, and their
The methods and techniques of
processes so varied and complex,
biochemistry are applied to areas
that life scientists usually work in
such as medicine or agriculture.
one of the three broad areas—agri­
For instance, biochemists may
culture, biology, or medicine.
develop diagnostic procedures or
Life scientists perform research
find cures for diseases or identify
to expand knowledge, teach, or
the nutrients necessary to maintain
apply scientific theories to the solu­
good health. To improve agricultural
tion of practical problems. New
harvests they may develop pestdrugs, special varieties of plants,
control agents or fertilizers.
and a cleaner environment can re­
More than 3 out of 4 biochemists
sult from the work of life scientists.
work in basic and applied research
This chapter discusses life scien­
activities. The distinction between
tists as a group, since they receive
basic and applied research is often
comparable basic training and have
one of degree and biochemists may
roughly similar employment and
do both types. Most, however, are
earning prospects. Brief descrip­
in basic research. The few doing
tions are provided about the nature
strictly applied research use the
of the work of a number of life
scientists—including botanists, zool­
ogists, and microbiologists. This
section also contains separate state­
ments on biochemists and soil sci­

(D.O.T. 041.081)
Nature of the Work

Biochemists play an important
role in the search for the basis of
life and what sustains it. Their pro­
fessional interests range from de­
termining the effects of heredity on
life processes to learning how living
things react to space travel.
Biochemists study the chemical

Biochemists determine how living
things react to space travel.

results of basic research for prac­
tical uses. For example, the knowl­
edge of how an organism forms a
hormone is used to develop a proc­
ess for synthesizing the hormone
and producing it on a mass scale.
L aboratory research involves
weighing, filtering, distilling, dry­
ing, and culturing (growing micro­
organisms) ingredients. Some experi­
ments also require sophisticated tasks
such as designing and constructing
chemical apparatus or performing
tests using radioactive tracers. Bio­
chemists use a variety of instruments
including electron microscopes, and
may devise new instruments and tech­
niques as needed. They usually report
the results of their research in sci­
entific journals or before scientific
Some biochemists combine research
with teaching in colleges and univer­
sities. A few work in industrial pro­
duction and testing activities.

Places of Employment

About 12,500 biochemists were
employed in the United States in
1972. Although the exact number of
women working in the profession
is not known, nearly one-fourth of
those receiving advanced degrees
in biochemistry in recent years
have been women.
More than half of all biochemists
are employed in colleges and uni­
versities, and most do basic and
applied research and development
in university-operated laboratories
and hospitals. Nonprofit research
institutes and foundations employ
some biochemists. Many biochemists
work in private industry, primarily
in companies manufacturing drugs,
insecticides, and cosmetics. Bio­
chemists also work in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. Most do research for Federal
agencies concerned with health and
agricultural problems. A few are


self-employed consultants to indus­
try and government.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for many beginning jobs
as a professional biochem ist,
especially in research or teaching,
is an advanced degree. Graduate
training is necessary for advance­
ment to many management or
administrative jobs. A bachelor’s
degree with a major in biochemistry
or chemistry, or with a major in
biology and a minor in chemistry,
may qualify some persons for entry
jobs as research assistants or tech­
More than 40 schools award the
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
and nearly all colleges and univer­
sities offer a major in biology or
chemistry. Regardless of their col­
lege major, future biochemists
should take undergraduate courses
in chemistry, biology, biochemistry,
mathematics, and physics.
About 200 colleges and univer­
sities offer graduate degrees in bio­
chemistry. Graduate students gen­
erally are required to have a
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
biology, or chemistry. These stu­
dents take advanced courses in bio­
chemistry or a specialty of the
field. For example, a university
affiliated with a medical school
or hospital may have facilities to
study the biochemistry of diseases.
Therefore, students wishing to spe­
cialize should select their schools
carefully. Graduate training requires
actual research in addition to ad­
vanced science courses. For the doc­
toral degree, the student specializes
in one Field of biochemistry by doing
intensive research and writing a thesis.
Young people planning careers as
biochemists should be able to work
independently or as part of a team.
Precision, keen powers of observation,


and mechanical aptitude also are
important. Biochemists should have
analytical abilities and curious
minds, as well as the patience
and perseverance needed to com­
plete the hundreds of experiments
that may be necessary to solve one
Graduates with advanced degrees
may begin their careers as teachers
or researchers in colleges or univer­
sities. In private industry, most
begin in research jobs and with
experience may advance to admini­
strative positions.
New graduates with a bachelor’s
degree usually start work as re­
search assistants or technicians.
These jobs in private industry often
involve testing and analysis. In the
drug industry, for example, research
assistants analyze the ingredients
of a product to verify and maintain
its purity or quality.

Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for biochemists
with advanced degrees should be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to opportunities result­
ing from the rapid growth expected
in this field, hundreds of openings
will become available each year to
replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Increased research and develop­
ment expenditures in the life
sciences, primarily by the Federal
Government, are major factors con­
tributing to the anticipated growth
in this field. For example, the great
urgency to find cures for cancer,
heart disease, muscular dystrophy,
and other illnesses should stimulate
requirements for biochemists. Addi­
tional biochemists will find jobs in
hospitals and health centers using
automated biochemical tests for
diagnoses. An increasing number
also will be needed to implement
stricter drug standards established

by Federal regulatory agencies. Bio­
chemistry also is important in other
areas of public concern such as
environmental protection.
Growing college enrollments in
chemistry and the life sciences will
add to the demand for biochemists
to teach in colleges and univer­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Biochemists have relatively high
salaries; average earnings were about
twice the average received by all
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming. Accord­
ing to a 1972 survey of the Ameri­
can Chemical Society, salaries for
biochemists with 2 to 4 years of
experienced averaged $8,800 for
those with a bachelor’s degree;
$10,800 for those with a master’s
degree; and $12,500 for those with
a Ph.D. Biochemists also can look
forward to higher salaries as they
gain experience. Those who had
10 to 14 years of experience aver­
aged $13,500 with a bachelor’s de­
gree, $15,000 with a m aster’s
degree, and $19,200 with a Ph.D.
Starting salaries paid to bio­
chemists employed by colleges and
universities are comparable to those
for other professional faculty mem­
bers. Biochemists in educational
institutions often supplement their
incomes by engaging in outside re­
search or consulting work.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
in biochemistry may be obtained
American Society of Biological Chem­
ists, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.



(D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 041.168,
041.181, 041.281)

Nature of the Work

Life scientists study all aspects
of living organisms, emphasizing
the relationship between animals,
plants, and microorganisms, and
their environments.
Almost two-fifths of all life sci­
entists are in research and develop­
ment. Many work in laboratories
conducting basic research aimed
at adding to our knowledge of
living organisms. Knowledge gained
from this research frequently is
applied to—and has resulted in the
development of—insecticides, diseaseresistant crops, and medicines. When

working in laboratories, life sci­
entists must be familiar with re­
search techniques and complex
laboratory equipment such as elec­
tron microscopes. Knowledge of
computers also is useful in con­
ducting some experiments. Not all
research, however, is performed in
laboratories. For example, a bot­
anist who explores the volcanic
Alaskan valleys, to see what plants
grow there, also is doing research.
Teaching in a college or univer­
sity is the major area of work for
more than one-fourth of all life
scientists, many of whom also do
independent research. Another fourth
are in some type of management
and administrative work that ranges
from planning and administering
programs for testing foods and
drugs to directing activities at zoos

Life scientists must be familiar with fundamental research techniques.

or botanical gardens. Some life
scientists work as consultants to
business firms or government in
their specialty areas. Others write
for technical publications or test
and inspect foods, drugs, and other
products. Some work in technical
sales and services jobs for industrial
companies where, for example, they
demonstrate the proper use of new
chemicals or technical products.
Scientists working in many areas
of the life sciences often call them­
selves biologists. However, the ma­
jority are classified by the type of
organism they study or by the
specific activity performed.
Life scientists dealing primarily
with plants are botanists. Some
study all aspects of plant life,
while others work in defined areas
such as identifying and classifying
plants or studying the structure of
plants and plant cells. Some bota­
nists concentrate on the cause and
cure of plant diseases.
Some life scientists are con­
cerned with the mass development
of plants. For example, agronomists
improve the quality and yield of
crops by developing new growth
methods or by controlling disease,
pests, and weeds. They also analyze
soils to determine ways of increas­
ing acreage yields and decreasing
soil erosion. Horticulturists work
with orchard and garden plants
such as fruits, nuts, vegetables, and
flowers. They develop new or im­
proved plant varieties, and better
methods of growing, harvesting,
and transporting crops.
Zoologists concentrate on animal
life—its origin, behavior, and life
processes. Some conduct experi­
mental studies with live animals
and others examine dissected ani­
mals in laboratories. Zoologists
are usually identified by the animal
group studied—ornithologists (birds),
herpetologists (reptiles and amphi­
bians), and mammalogists (mam­



Animal husbandry specialists do
research on the breeding, feeding,
and diseases of domestic farm ani­
mals. Veterinarians study diseases
and abnormal functioning in ani­
mals. (See statement on Veterinar­
ians elsewhere in the Handbook.)




the growth and characteristics of
microscopic organisms such as bac­
teria, viruses, and molds are called
microbiologists. They isolate or­
ganisms and make cultures for close
examination under a microscope.
Medical microbiologists are con­
cerned with problems such as the
relationship between bacteria and
disease or the effect of antibiotics
on bacteria. Others specialize in
soil bacteriology (effect of micro­
organisms on soil fertility), virology
(viruses), or immunology (mech­
anisms that fight infections).
Anatomists study the composi­

tion of organisms, from cell struc­
ture to the formation of tissues and
organs. Many specialize in human
anatomy. Examination may entail
dissections or involve the use of
electron microscopes for organisms
of submicroscopic size.
Some life scientists apply their
specialized knowledge across dif­
ferent areas, and may be classified
by the functions performed. Ecol­
ogists, for example, study the
mutual relationship among organ­
isms and their environments. They
are interested in the effects of
environmental influences such as
rainfall, temperature, and altitude
on organisms. For example, ecol­
ogists extract samples of phy­
toplankton (microscopic plants that
produce oxygen) from bodies of
water to determine the effects of
pollution, and measure the radio­
active content of fish by tracing

tagged elements as they pass through
their systems.
Embryologists study the develop­
ment of an organism from a
fertilized egg through the hatching
process or gestation period. They
investigate the cause of healthy and
abnormal development in organisms.
Nutritionists examine the bodily
processes through which food is
utilized and transformed into en­
ergy. They learn how vitamins,
minerals, proteins, and other nu­
trients build and repair tissues.
Pharmacologists conduct tests on
animals such as rats, guinea pigs,
and monkeys to determine the
effects of drugs, gases, poisons,
dusts, and other substances on the
functioning of tissues and organs.
They may develop new or improved
chemical compounds for use in
drugs and medicines.
Pathologists specialize in the ef­
fects of diseases, parasites, and
insects on human cells, tissues, and
organs. Others may investigate
genetic variations caused by drugs.
Biochemists and Biological Ocean­
ographers, which are also life
scientists, are included in separate
statements elsewhere in the Hand­
Places of Employment

More than 180,000 persons worked
as life scientists in 1972. Almost
55,000 worked as agricultural sci­
entists, about 75,000 as biological
scientists, and more than 55,000
worked on problems related to
medical science. Over one-third of
all biologists and about eight per­
cent of all agricultural scientists
are women.
Colleges and universities employ
nearly three-fifths of all life sci­
entists in both teaching and re­
search jobs. Medical schools and
hospitals also employ large num­
bers of medical investigators.
Sizable numbers of agronomists,



horticulturists, animal husbandry
specialists, entomologists, and other
agriculture-related specialists work
for State agricultural colleges and
agricultural experiment stations.
More than half of the 26,000
life scientists working for the
Federal Government in 1972 were
in the Department of Agriculture.
The Department of the Interior
employs most of the fish and wild­
life biologists working for the
Federal Government. Other large
numbers of life scientists work for
the Department of the Army and
the National Institutes of Health.
State and local governments com­
bined employ 9,000 biologists—
mostly fish and wildlife specialists,
microbiologists, and entomologists—
to detect and control diseases and
to work in conservation.
Approximately 25,000 life sci­
entists work in private industry,
mostly in pharmaceuticals, indus­
trial chemicals, and food processing
industries. A few are self-employed
and more than 4,000 work for
nonprofit research organizations
and foundations.
More than one-third of all life
scientists live in six States—
C alifornia,

N ew

Y ork,


Pennsylvania, Florida, and Mary­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people seeking a career
in the life sciences should plan to
obtain an advanced degree, prefer­
ably a Ph.D., in their field of
interest. The Ph.D. degree gen­
erally is required for college teach­
ing and for independent research.
It is also necessary for many jobs
administering research programs.
New graduates who have master’s
degrees may qualify for some
beginning jobs in applied research
and college teaching.
The bachelor’s degree may be

adequate preparation for some be­
ginning jobs, but promotions often
are limited to intermediate level
positions. New graduates with a
bachelor’s degree can start their
careers in testing and inspecting
jobs, or become technical sales and
service representatives. They also
may become advanced technicians,
particularly in medical research or,
with courses in education, a high
school biology teacher. (See state­
ment on Secondary School Teachers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most colleges and universities
offer life science curriculums. How­
ever, courses differ from one col­
lege to another. For example,
liberal arts colleges and universi­
ties emphasize the biological sci­
ences and medical research. The
agricultural sciences are stressed
at State universities and landgrant colleges because of the op­
portunities for training and re­
search provided by agricultural
experiment stations.
Young people seeking careers in
the life sciences should obtain the
broadest possible undergraduate
background in biology and other
sciences. Courses taken should in­
clude biochemistry, organic and
inorganic chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. Statistics, calculus,
biometrics, and computer program­
ming courses also are useful.
Large numbers of colleges and
universities confer advanced de­
grees in the life sciences. Require­
ments for advanced degrees usually
include field work and laboratory
research, as well as classroom
studies and preparation of a thesis.
Young people planning careers
as life scientists should be able
to work independently, or as part
of a team. Physical stamina and
an inquiring mind are necessary
for those interested in research in
remote places. Life scientists must
be able to express ideas both orally
and in writing.

Life scientists who have ad­
vanced degrees usually begin in
research or teaching jobs. With
experience, they may advance to
jobs such as supervising research
programs, or become full profes­
sors in colleges and universities.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the life sciences
is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. Thousands
of jobs for life scientists will open
because of this growth and the need
to replace those who transfer to
other fields of work, die, or retire.
Nevertheless, new graduates may
face competition since the number
of life science graduates may grow
more rapidly than employment
opportunities. Under these condi­
tions, those holding advanced de­
grees, especially the Ph.D., should
face less competition for jobs than
those who have bachelor’s degrees.
Opportunities for those with only
an undergraduate degree may be
limited to research assistant or
technician jobs.
Continued growth in research
and development, particularly med­
ical research programs sponsored
by the Federal Government and
voluntary health agencies, is a
major reason for the expected in­
crease in the employment of life
scientists. For example, the Feder­
al Government is expected to allo­
cate substantial expenditures for
cancer research during the next
few years. Other areas of con­
centrated medical study include
heart disease and birth defects.
Research in such relatively new
areas as space biology, radiation
biology, environmental health, and
genetic regulation will probably
increase also. In addition, industry
is expected to increase its research



Life scientists conduct experimental studies with animals.

and development spending in the
biological sciences.
Stringent Federal health regula­
tions are likely to require additional
life scientists in industry to test
new drugs, chemicals, or foods, and
to change processing methods.
The large college and university
enrollments expected in the life
sciences through the mid-1980’s
should increase the demand for
Ph.D.’s as teachers. It also should
result in openings for qualified
persons with master’s degrees, es­
pecially in community colleges.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Agricultural and biological sci­
entists both command relatively
high salaries. Their average earn­

ings are more than twice those
received by nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government in
early 1973, life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$7,694 or $9,520 a year, depending
on their college records. Begin­
ning life scientists having the
master’s degree could start at
$9,520 or $11,614, depending on
their academic records or previous
work experience. Those having the
Ph.D. degree could begin at $13,996
or $16,682.
Salaries for 9 months of teach­
ing in 4-year colleges averaged
about $9,300 for instructors, and
$11,500 for assistant professors.
More experienced personnel earned
between $14,000 (associate profes­

sors) and $18,000 (professors) a
year. (See statement on College
and University Teachers.) Life sci­
entists in educational institutions
sometimes supplement their regular
salaries with income from writing,
consulting, and special research
Beginning salary offers in 1972
for agricultural scientists averaged
approximately $8,300 a year for
those having bachelor’s degrees,
and $10,600 for those having a
graduate degree. According to the
College Placement Council, agri­
cultural scientists averaged $8,700
a year to start in the chemical
industry, the largest employer of
life scientists in private industry.
Another large employer of life
scientists, the food industry, paid
agricultural scientists beginning
salaries of $8,500 in 1972.
During 1972, life scientists in
research and development in all
sectors earned average monthly
salaries of $1,023 at the bachelor’s
degree level, $1,215 at the master’s
level, and $1,533 at the Ph.D.
level, according to. one national
Most life scientists work in welllighted, well-ventilated, and clean
laboratories. Some jobs require
working outdoors under extreme
weather conditions and doing stren­
uous physical work for long periods
of time. Some jobs require living
in remote areas without modern

Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
in the life sciences is available
American Institute of Biological Sci­
ences, 3900 Wisconsin Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20016.
American Society of Horticultural Sci­
ence, 914 Main St., P.O. Box 109,
St. Joseph, Mich. 49085.



countries as research leaders, con­
sultants, and agricultural managers.

American Physiological Society, Depart­
ment of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.
Ecological Society of America, Depart­
ment of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.

Training and Advancement

Special information on Federal
Government careers is available
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service
Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E St., NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 040.081)

Soil scientists test soils in the laboratory.

Nature of the Work

Soils science offers opportunities
for those who wish to specialize in
soil classification and mapping,
soil geography, soil chemistry, soil
physics, soil microbiology, and soil
management. Training and experi­
ence in soil science also will pre­
pare persons for positions as farm
managers, land appraisers, and
many other professional positions.

Soil scientists study the physical,
chemical, and biological character­
istics and behavior of soils. They in­
vestigate the soils both in the field
and in the laboratory and grade
them according to a national sys­
tem of soil classification. From
classify soil in order to respond to
management questions concerning
its capability to produce crops,
grasses, and trees, and concerning
the soil’s engineering utility in re­
lation to foundations for buildings
and other structures. Soil scientists
prepare maps, usually based on
aerial photographs, on which they
plot the individual kinds of soil and
other landscape features significant
to soil use and management in rela­
tion to land ownership lines, field
boundaries, roads, and other con­
spicuous features.
Soil scientists also conduct re­
search to determine the physical
and chemical properties of soils in
order to understand their behavior
and origin. They predict the yields
of cultivated crops, grasses, and
trees, under alternative combina­
tions of management practices.

Places of Employment

An estimated 5,000 soil scientists
were employed in 1972. Most soil
scientists are employed by agencies
of the Federal Government, State
equipment stations, and colleges of
agriculture. However, many are
employed in a wide range of other
public and private institutions, in­
cluding fertilizer companies, pri­
vate research laboratories, insur­
ance companies, banks and other
lending agencies, real estate firms,
land appraisal boards, State high­
way departments, State conservation
departments, and farm management
agencies. A few are independent
consultants, and others work for
consulting firms. An increasing
number are employed in foreign

Training in a college or uni­
versity of recognized standing is
important in obtaining employ­
ment as a soil scientist. For Fed­
eral employment, the minimum
qualification for entrance is a
B.S. degree with a major in Soil
Science or in a closely related field
of study, and with 30 semester
hours of course work in the bio­
logical, physical, and earth sciences,
including a minimum of 15 semester
hours in soils. Those having gradu­
ate training—especially those with
the doctorate—can be expected to
advance rapidly into a responsible
and Jiigh-paying position. This is
particularly true in soil research,
including the more responsible
positions in soil classification and
in teaching. Soil scientists who are
qualified for work with both field
and laboratory data have a special
Many colleges and universities
offer fellowships and assistantships for graduate training, or em­
ploy graduate students for parttime teaching or research.

Employment Outlook

The demand is increasing for
soil scientists to help complete the
scientific classification and evalua­
tion of the soil resources in the
United States. One of the major
program objectives of the Soil
Conservation Service of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture is to
complete the soil survey of all rural
lands in the United States.
This program includes research,
soil classification, interpretation of
results for use by agriculturists
and engineers, and training of other
workers to use these results. Also,



demand is increasing for both basic
and applied research to increase
the efficiency of soil use.

The incomes of soil scientists de­
pend upon their education, profes­
sional experience, and individual
abilities. The entrance salary in the
Federal service for graduates
having a B.S. degree was $7,694 in
early 1973. They may expect ad­

vancement to $9,520 after 1 year
of satisfactory performance. Fur­
ther promotion depends upon the
individual’s ability to do highquality work and to accept respon­
sibility. Earnings of well-qualified
Federal soil scientists with several
$13,996 to $23,088 a year.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information may be

obtained from the U.S. Civil Service
Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415; Office of Personnel, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20250; or any office
of the Department’s Soil Conserva­
tion Service.
See also statements on Chemists
and Life Scientists.

Mathematics is both a science
and a tool essential for many kinds
of work. As a tool, mathematics is
necessary to understanding and ex­
pressing ideas in science, engi­
neering, and, increasingly, in human
a f f a i r s . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of
mathematical techniques in these
fields has increased greatly because
of the widespread use of computers,
which enable mathematicians to do
complex problems rapidly and ef­
ficiently. As a result, employment
opportunities for persons trained in
mathematics have expanded rapidly
in recent years.
Young people considering careers
in mathematics should be able to
concentrate for long periods of time.
They should enjoy working in­
dependently with ideas and solving
problems, and must be able to pre­
sent their findings in written reports.
This section describes two oc­
cupations—m athem atician and
statistician. A statement on actu­
aries, a closely related mathematical
occupation, is discussed in the sec­
tion on Insurance Occupations. En­
trance into any of these fields req u i r e s c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g in
mathematics. For many types of
wo r k , g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n is

Mathematicians use modern computing equipment.

(D.O.T. 020.088)

Nature of the Work

Mathematics, one of the oldest
and most basic sciences, is also one
of the most rapidly growing profes­
Many other workers in the natural sions. Mathematicians today are
and social sciences and in data proc­ engaged in a wide variety of activi­
essing use mathematics extensively, ties, ranging from the creation of
although they are not primarily new theories to the translation of
mathematicians. These occupations scientific and managerial problems
are discussed elsewhere n the Hand­ into mathematical terms.
There are two broad classes of
book, as are jobs for high school
mathematics teachers, covered in mathematical work: pure or theo­
the statement on Secondary School retical mathematics; and applied
mathematics, which includes solv­
ing numerical problem s. T heo­
retical mathematicians further
mathematical science by discover­
ing new principles and new rela­

tionships between existing princi­
ples of mathematics. They seek to
increase basic knowledge without
necessarily considering its practical
use. Yet, this pure and abstract
knowledge has been instrumental
in many scientific and engineer­
ing achievements. For example,
in 1854 Bernard Riemann in­
vented a seemingly impractical nonEuclidian geometry that became
part of the theory of relativity
developed by Albert Einstein more
than a half-century later.
Mathematicians in applied work
develop theories, techniques, and
approaches to solve problems in
natural science, social science, man­
agement, and engineering. They
analyze how problems can be ex­
pressed in mathematical terms, and
use mathematics to help solve these
problems. Their work ranges from


the analysis of vibrations and the
stability of rockets to studies of
the effects of new drugs on disease.
Some applied mathematicians, in the
field of operations research for ex­
ample, study problems ranging from
finding the way to make the largest
profit with the least risk in managing
a business, to the timing of traffic
lights for optimum use in our high­
way systems.
Some mathematicians (or mathe­
matical statisticians—as they are
often called) use mathematical theory
to design and improve statistical
methods for collecting and analyzing
numerical information, and esti­
mating unknown quantities. They
develop statistical tools and fre­
quently work with statisticians to
plan and design surveys in fields such
as agriculture, biology, economics,
psychology, sociology, and industrial
quality control.
In applied mathematics, mathe­
matical knowledge and modern com­
puting equipment are used to get
numerical answers to specific prob­
lems. Some work in this area re­
quires a very high level of mathemati­
cal knowledge, skill, and ingenuity.
However, much of this work may re­
quire training somewhat different
from that of the mathematician. (See
statements on Programers and Sys­
tems Analysts elsewhere in the Hand­
Almost one-fourth of all mathe­
maticians work in research and
development, extending basic knowl­
edge and finding new uses for
existing knowledge. Nearly onethird are primarily college teachers,
many of whom do some research.
A little less than one-third are
in management and administration—
about two-fifths of whom manage
and administer research and devel­
opment programs. Most of the re­
mainder are concerned chiefly with
operations research or production
and inspection (quality control) of


manufactured products.
Places of Employment

About 76,000 persons worked as
mathematicians in 1972; almost 15
percent were women. More than
one-half worked in private in­
dustry, primarily in independent
research and development firms,
and in the ordnance, aircraft,
machinery, and electrical equip­
ment industries. Other mathema­
ticians were employed as consult­
More than one-third of all
mathematicians worked for col­
leges and universities. Some of
these persons are teachers, others
work mainly in research and devel­
opment and have few or no teach­
ing duties. Others worked for the
Federal Government, primarily in
the Department of Defense. A few
worked for nonprofit organizations
and State and local governments.
Mathematicians work in all
States, but are concentrated in
those with large industrial areas
and large college and university
enrollments. Nearly half of the
total were in seven States—Cali­
fornia, New York, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland,
and New Jersey. One-fifth live in
three metropolitan areas—New
York; Washington, D.C.; and Los
Angeles-Long Beach.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for a beginning job in
mathematics outside of college
teaching is the bachelor’s degree
with a major in mathematics, or
with a major in an applied field—
such as physics or engineering—
and a minor in mathematics. For
many beginning jobs, particularly
in research or college teaching, an

Graduate study is also valuable for
advancement to more responsible
positions in all types of work.
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by most colleges
and universities throughout the
usually required for a degree are
analytical geometry, calculus, dif­
ferential equations, probability and
statistics, mathematical analysis,
and modern algebra. A person plan­
ning to study this field in college
should take as many mathematics
courses as possible while still in
high school.
More than 350 colleges and uni­
versities have programs leading to
the master’s degree in mathe­
matics; about 150 also offer the
Ph.D. In graduate school, students
build upon the basic knowledge ac­
quired in earlier studies. They
usually concentrate on a specific
field of mathematics, such as
algebra, mathematical analysis, or
statistics, by conducting intensive
The bachelor’s degree is ade­
quate preparation for many posi­
tions in private industry and the
Federal Government, particularly
those connected with computer
work. Some new graduates having
the bachelor’s degree assist senior
computations and solving less ad­
vanced mathematical problems in
applied research. Others work as
graduate research or teaching as­
sistants in colleges and universi­
ties while working toward an ad­
vanced degree.
Advanced degrees are required
for an increasing number of jobs
in industry and government—in
research and in many areas of
applied mathematics. The Ph.D.
degree is necessary for full faculty
status at most colleges and univer­



sities, as well as for advanced re­
search positions.
For work in applied mathe­
matics, training in the field in
which the mathematics will be used
is very important. Fields in which
applied mathematics is used exten­
sively include physics, engineering,
and operations research; other
fields are business and industrial
management, economics, statistics,
chemistry and life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences. Training in nu­
merical analysis and programming
is especially desirable for mathe­
maticians working with computers.
Mathematicians need good rea­
soning ability, persistence, and the
ability to apply basic principles to
new types of problems. They must
be able to communicate well with
others since they often must listen
to a non-mathematician describe a
problem in general terms, and
check and recheck to make sure
they understand the mathematical
solution that is needed.
Employment Outlook

Persons seeking beginning jobs
as mathematicians are likely to
face competition through
mid-1980’s. Employment of math­
ematicians is expected to increase
rapidly in this period, and several
thousand mathematicians will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
occupations. However, the number
of persons trained in mathematics
and looking for jobs in the field is
likely to increase even more
Those with the Ph.D. degree may
have less difficulty finding jobs
than persons with less education,
but they may face competition for
entry level jobs, especially in col­
lege and university teaching. Many
graduates with the Ph.D. look for
jobs with colleges and universities

where there will be increasing
numbers of students taking mathe­
matics courses. However, some
may have to accept jobs that do not
fully utilize their training, espe­
cially those who have specialized
in pure or theoretical mathematics.
There is a need for more mathe­
maticians to solve an increasingly
wide variety of complex research
and development problems. In
engineering, for example, applica­
tions of mathematical techniques
and principles will be needed in
the design of equipment, from
simple devices to airplanes, ships,
and missiles, in order to get the
most reliable performance for the
least cost. In addition, mathemati­
cians will be increasingly needed in
research in the natural and social
sciences, military sciences, opera­
tions research, and business man­
agement. This work requires both a
high degree of mathematical com­
petence and a knowledge of the
field of specialization. Expendi­
tures to support these research
and development activities in­
creased steadily through most of
the 1960’s, and then fell slightly
in the early 1970’s; they are ex­
pected to rise again through the
mid-1980’s, although more slowly
than in the past.
College graduates with degrees
in mathematics will be able to find
jobs in many other fields, because
the education necessary for a
degree in mathematics is also an
excellent background for other jobs
that rely heavily on the application
of mathematical theories and
methods. Thus, many mathematics
majors may find jobs in high school
teaching, statistics, actuarial work,
computer programming, systems
analysis, economics, engineering,
physical science, and life science.
Employment opportunities in these
related fields will probably be best
for those who combine a major in

mathematics with a minor in one of
these subjects.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1972, mathematicians earned
average salaries over twice as high
as the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Starting salaries for
mathematicians and mathematical
statisticians averaged $9,500 a year
according to the limited data avail­
able. Those with a master’s degree
could start at about $11,000 an­
nually. Yearly salaries for new
graduates having the Ph.D., most
of whom had some experience,
averaged over $16,000.
In the Federal Government in
early 1973, mathematicians having
the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either $7,694
or $9,520 a year, depending on
their college records. Those with
the master’s degree could start at
$11,614 or $13,996; and persons
having the Ph.D. degree could
begin at either $13,996 or $16,682.
Salaries paid to college and uni­
versity teachers vary greatly de­
pending both on the quality and
location of the school and the
ability and experience of the in­
dividual. According to the Ameri­
can Mathematical Society, college
and university teachers earned from
as low as $8,000 a year (instructors)
to $25,000 a year (professors).
Some were paid over $30,000
Mathematicians in colleges and
universities often supplement their
regular salaries with income from
summer teaching, special research
projects, consulting, and writing.
Sources of Additional Information

There are several brochures that
give facts about the field of mathe­
matics, including career opportuni­
ties, professional training, and col­



leges and universities with degree
Professional Training in Mathe­
matics is available for 25^ from:


American Mathematical Society, P.O.
Box 6248, Providence, R.I. 02904.

Nature of the Work

Opportunities in
Mathematics (35^) and Guide Book
to Departments in the Mathemat­
ical Sciences ($1.35) are provided

Statistics are numbers that help
describe the characteristics of the
world and its inhabitants. Statis­
ticians collect, analyze, and inter­
pret numerical data based on their
knowledge of statistical methods
and of a particular subject, such
as economics, human behavior, or
engineering. They may use statisti­
cal techniques to predict popula­
tion growth or economic condi­
tions, develop quality control tests
for manufactured products, or help
business managers and government
officials make decisions and evalu­
ate the results of new programs.
Many statisticians plan surveys,
design experiments, or analyze
data. For most surveys, the statis­

Mathematical Association of America
1225 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

For specific information
careers in applied mathematics and
electronic computer work, contact:
Association for Computing Machinery
1133 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10036.
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 S. 17th St., Phila­
delphia, Pa. 19103.


on careers in mathe­
statistics are available

(D.O.T. 020.188)

tician must select a sample; for
example, television rating services
ask only a few thousand families,
rather than all viewers, what pro­
grams they watch. Statisticians
decide where to get the data, deter­
mine the type and size of the
sample group, and develop the sur­
vey questionnaire or reporting
form. They also prepare the in­
structions for workers who will tab­
ulate the returns. Statisticians who
design experiments prepare mathe­
matical models to test a particular
theory. Those in analytical work
interpret collected data and sum­
marize their findings in tables,
charts, and written reports.
Some statisticians direct statis­
tical programs. A few combine re­
search with teaching. The rest work
in quality control, operations re­
search, production and sales fore­
casting, and market research.
Because statistics has such a

Institute of Mathematical Statistics
Department of Statistics, California
State College at Hayward, Hayward,
Cal. 94542.

For Federal Government career
information, contact any regional
office of the U.S. Civil Service
Commission, or:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners, 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Other sections of the Handbook
discuss related occupations, such
as statisticians, actuaries, program­
mers, and systems analysts.

Statisticians use statistical techniques to predict economic conditions.



wide use, it is sometimes difficult vey work usually requires graduate bine training in statistics with knowl­
edge of a field of application are
to distinguish statisticians from training.
Fewer than 80 colleges and uni­ expected to be favorable through
specialists in other fields who use
statistics. For example, a statis­ versities offered a bachelor’s degree the mid-1980’s. In addition to job
tician working with data on econ­ in statistics in 1972. However, most openings resulting from the rapid
omic conditions may have the title schools offer either a degree in growth expected in the profession,
of economist. Statisticians some­ mathematics or a sufficient num­ hundreds of statisticians will be
times work closely with mathe­ ber of courses in statistics to qualify needed each year to replace those
maticians and mathematical statis­ graduates for beginning positions. who retire, die, or transfer to other
ticians. (See statement on mathe­ Required subjects include mathe­ occupations.
Private industry will require in­
maticians elsewhere in this section.) matics through differential and in­
tegral calculus, statistical methods, creasing numbers of statisticians for
and probability theory. Courses in quality control in manufacturing.
Places of Employment
computer uses and techniques are Statisticians with a knowledge of
useful for many jobs. For quality engineering and the physical sciences
Approximately 23,000 persons—
control positions, training in engi­ will find jobs working with scien­
over one-third of them women—
neering or a physical or biological tists and engineers in research and
worked as statisticians in 1972.
science and in the application of development. Business firms will
About 2 out of 3 statisticians are in
statistical methods to manufacturing rely more heavily on statisticians
private industry, primarily in manu­
processes is desirable. For many to forecast sales, analyze business
facturing, public utility, finance,
market research, business analysis, conditions, modernize accounting
and insurance companies. More
and forecasting jobs, courses in procedures, and help solve man­
than one-fifth worked for the Fed­
economics, business administration, agement problems.
eral Government, primarily in the
or a related field are helpful.
Government agencies will need
Departments of Commerce; Agri­
About 100 colleges and univer­ statisticians for existing and new
culture; Defense; and Health, Edu­
sities offered graduate degrees in programs in fields such as social
cation, and Welfare. Others worked
statistics in 1972, and many other security, health, education, and eco­
in State and local government or
schools offered one or two gradu­ nomics. Colleges and universities
colleges and universities.
ate level statistics courses. The will employ others to teach a grow­
Although statisticians work in
usual requirement for entering a ing number of students, as the
all States, most are in metropolitan
graduate program is a bachelor’s broader use of statistical methods
areas, and about one-fourth lived
degree with a good background in makes such courses increasingly
in three areas—New York; Wash­
mathematics. Students should at­ important to persons majoring in
ington, D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long
tend schools where they can do fields other than mathematics and
research in a subject-matter field, statistics.
as well as take advanced courses in
Training, Other Qualifications,
Beginning statisticians who have Earnings and Working Conditions
and Advancement
only the bachelor’s degree often
In 1972, statisticians earned aver­
A bachelor’s degree with a major spend much of their time performing
age salaries almost three times as
in statistics or mathematics is the
routine statistical work. Through ex­
high as the average for nonsuperminimum educational requirement
perience, they may advance to
for many beginning jobs in statistics. positions of greater technical and visory workers in private industry,
except farming. New college gradu­
For other beginning statistical jobs,
supervisory responsibility. Those
ates averaged about $9,300 a year,
however, a bachelor’s degree with a
who have exceptional ability and
according to the limited informa­
major in economics or another ap­
interest may rise to top manage­
tion available. Those with the
plied field and a minor in statistics ment positions.
master’s degree could start at about
is preferable. A graduate degree in
$11,000 a year.
mathematics or statistics is essential
In the Federal Government in
for college and university teaching
Employment Outlook
early 1973, statisticians who had
and helpful for promotion to top
Employment opportunities for the bachelor’s degree and no experi­
administrative and consulting jobs.
Advancement in analytical and sur­ well-qualified persons who can com­ ence could start at either $7,649



or $9,520 a year, depending on their
college grades. Beginning statisti­
cians with the master’s degree could
start at $11,614 or $13,996. Those
with the Ph.D. could begin at
$13,996 or $16,682.
Statisticians employed by colleges
and universities generally receive
salaries comparable to those paid
other faculty members. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) In addition to their regu­

lar salaries, statisticians in educa­
tional institutions sometimes earn
extra income from outside research
projects, consulting, and writing.
Sources of Additional Information

Facts on Federal Government
jobs are available from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E St., NW„ Washington, D.C.

For information about career
opportunities in statistics, contact:

For a list of reading materials
on career opportunities in data
processing, contact:

American Statistical Association, 806
15th St., NW„ Washington, D.C.

Association for Computing Machinery,
1133 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10036.

Physical scientists deal with the
basic laws of the physical world.
Many, especially physicists and asstronomers, do basic research to
increase man’s knowledge of the
properties of matter and energy.
Others, particularly chemists and
food scientists, do basic and applied
research, and develop new products
and processes. For example, chem­
ists in applied research use their
knowledge of the interactions of
various chemicals to improve the
quality of products. Besides re­
search and development, many
chemists, food scientists, and some
physicists work in production and
sales-related activities in industry.
This section describes four phy­
sical science occupations—those of
chemists, physicists, astronomers,
and food scientists. Engineers, life
scientists, and environmental scien­
tists also require a background in
the physical sciences; these occupa­
tions are described in separate sec­
tions elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 021.088)
Nature of the Work

How was our solar system cre­
ated? Why do the stars shine? What
do cosmic rays tell us about the ori­
gin of our universe? Astronomers—
sometimes called astrophysicists—
consider questions like these and,
using the principles of physics and
mathematics, study the structure
and evolution of the universe. They
collect and analyze data on the sun,
moon, planets, and stars to deter­

mine the size, shape, temperature,
chemical composition, and motion
of these bodies. They also study
the gases and dusts in space. One
use of this data is to determine
the age and size of the stars and
how they were formed.
Astronomers compute the posi­
tions of the planets; calculate the
orbits of comets, asteroids, and
artificial satellites; and study the
origin and nature of cosmic radia­
tion. They also study the size and
shape of the earth and the prop­
erties of its atmosphere.
To make observations of outer
space, astronomers use complex
photographic techniques, light­
measuring instruments, and other
optical devices. They use, for ex­
ample, the spectroscope, a telescope
with a prism attached, to separate
light into its component colors and
identify chemical elements in the
universe. Yet astronomers actually
spend a limited amount of time at
the telescope. They also use other
specialized devices for making ob­
servations of radio waves, X-rays,
gamma rays, and cosmic rays. These
instruments often are carried by
balloons, rockets, and satellites.
Electronic computers are useful for
processing astronomical data to cal­
culate orbits of asteroids or comets,
guide spacecraft, and work out
tables for navigational handbooks.
Astronomers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the
science. Some areas of specializa­
tion are instruments and techniques,
the sun, the solar system, and the
evolution and interiors of stars.
Astronomers who work on ob­
servational programs begin their
studies by deciding what stars or
other objects to observe and what
methods and instruments to use.
They may need to design optical
measuring devices to attach to the
telescope to make the required meas­
urements. These devices may be

made in the observatory shop. After
these astronomers complete their
observations, they analyze the re­
sults, present them in precise nu­
merical form, and try to explain
them on the basis of some theory.
Other astronomers concentrate on
theoretical problems. They may
formulate theories or mathematical
models to explain observations made
earlier by another astronomer. These
astronomers develop mathematical
equations from the laws of physics
to compute, for example, theoret­
ical models of how stars change as
their nuclear energy sources become
More than 85 percent of all
astronomers teach or do research;
some do both in colleges and uni­
versities. In some schools that do
not have separate departments of
astronomy or only small enroll­
ments in the subject, astronomers
may teach courses in mathematics
or physics as well as astronomy.
Other astronomers administer re­
search programs, develop and de­
sign astronomical instruments, and
do consulting work.

Places of Employment

Astronomy is one of the small­
est of the physical sciences; about
2,000 persons worked as astron­
omers in 1972. Most astronomers
work in colleges and universities.
Some of these work in universityoperated observatories, where they
usually devote most of their time
to research. Other astronomers work
for observatories financed by non­
profit organizations.
The Federal Government em­
ployed over 100 astronomers in
1972. Most worked for the Depart­
ment of Defense, mainly at the U.S.
Naval Observatory and the U.S.
Naval Research Laboratory. Others
worked for the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration or the



on detail and work independently
also are important.
New graduates with a bachelor’s
or master’s degree in astronomy
usually begin as assistants in ob­
servatories, planetariums, large de­
partments of astronomy in colleges
and universities, Government agencies,
or industry. Some work as research
assistants while studying toward
advanced degrees; others, particu­
larly in the Federal Government,
receive on-the-job training in the
application of astronomical prin­
ciples. New graduates with the
doctorate can qualify for teaching
and research jobs in colleges and
universities and for research jobs
in Government and industry.

Employment Outlook

National Science Foundation. A few
astronomers worked for Firms in
the aerospace Field, or in museums
and planetariums.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The usual requirement for a job
in astronomy is a Ph.D. degree.
Although persons with less educa­
tion may qualify for some beginning
jobs, high-level positions in teaching
and research and advancement in
most areas are open only to those
with the doctorate.
In 1972, only 52 colleges and
universities had programs leading
to the bachelor’s degree in as­
tronomy. However, students with a
bachelor’s degree in physics or
mathematics with a physics minor
can usually qualify for graduate
programs in astronomy. Students
planning to become astronomers

usually study subjects that include
physics, mathematics, and chem­
istry. Courses in statistics, computer
science, and electronics also are
useful. In schools with astronomy
departments, students also take in­
troductory courses in astronomy
and astrophysics, and in astronom­
ical techniques and instruments.
About 55 colleges and universities
in various sections of the country
offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy.
The graduate student takes advanced
courses primarily in astronomy,
physics, and mathematics. Some
schools require that graduate stu­
dents spend several months working
at an observatory. In most institu­
tions the work program leading to
the doctorate is flexible and allows
students to take courses in their own
particular area of interest.
Young people planning on careers
in astronomy should have inquisitive
minds and imagination. Persever­
ance and the ability to concentrate

Future opportunities for astron­
omers are heavily dependent on the
amount of funds spent by the Federal
Government for basic research in
astronomy. These funds are expected
to continue to increase through the
mid-1980’s, but at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. Although
relatively few college students are
expected to receive the Ph.D. in
astronomy in any one year, the num­
ber of job openings in any year
may be even lower. Thus, competi­
tion may develop for beginning jobs.
People without the Ph.D. are not
usually considered professional as­
tronomers, but may find jobs as
research and technical assistants.
Requirements for astronomers are
affected to some extent by the needs
of the space program—rockets, mis­
siles, manmade earth satellites, and
space exploration. Astronomers an­
alyze the data collected by rockets
and spacecraft, and give direction
to the astronomical observations
that can only be carried out by
means of equipment placed in space


Earnings and Working Conditions

Astronomers have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings al­
most three times as high as the
average for non-supervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government in
early 1973, astronomers holding the
Ph.D. degree could begin at $13,996
or $16,682, depending on their col­
lege record. Those having the bach­
elor’s degree could start at $7,619
or $9,520; with the master’s degree
at $11,614 or $13,996.
In private industry, starting sal­
aries averaged $8,700 a year for
those having the bachelor’s degree,
$11,000 for those having the master’s
degree, and $12,000 for those having
the Ph.D. degree, according to the
limited data available. Astronomers
teaching in colleges and universities
received salaries equivalent to those
of other faculty members. (See
statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers elsewhere in the
Although most modern astron­
omers do not make direct ob­
servations but analyze data from
satellites and radio telescopes, some
still do nightwork. These people
make visual photographic or photo­
electric observations involving ex­
posure to the outside air through
the open dome of the observatory,
sometimes on cold winter nights.
Sources of Additional Information

For information on careers in
astronomy and on schools offering
training in the field, contact:
American Astronomical Society, 211
FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton, N.J.

Facts on Federal Government
careers are available from any
regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of Civil Service

Examiners for Washington, D.C.
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)

Nature of the Work

The clothes we wear, the foods
we eat, the houses in which we live—
in fact most things that help make
our lives better, from medical care
to a cleaner environment—result,
in part, from the work done by
Chemists investigate the proper­
ties and composition of matter and
the laws that govern the combina­
tion of elements. They search for
and try to put into practical use
new knowledge about substances.
They apply scientific principles and
techniques and use many specialized
instruments to measure, identify,
and evaluate changes in matter.
Chemists maintain accurate records
of their work and prepare reports
showing results of tests or experi­
Chemists may develop new sub­
stances, such as rocket fuel, or in­
spect and test final products to
make sure they meet industry and
government standards. The mate­
rials with which chemists work vary
by industry. For example, in the
health field, chemists may develop
vaccines, but in the food industry,
they may develop food additives.
(See statements on Biochemists and
Food Scientists elsewhere in the
Nearly two-fifths of all chemists
work in research and development.
In basic research, chemists try to
extend scientific knowledge rather
than solve practical problems. Basic

research results, however, have prac­
tical uses. For example, research
on how and why small molecules
unite to form larger ones (poly­
merization) has been used to make
synthetic rubber and plastics. Chem­
ists in research and development
often create new products. Top
management, for example, may give
the chemists a description of a
needed item. If similar products
exist, chemists test samples to de­
termine their ingredients. If similar
products are not available, chem­
ists experiment with various sub­
stances to obtain a product with
the required specifications.
Over one-fourth of all chemists
administer and manage programs,
especially those related to research
and development. Nearly one-fifth
of all chemists work in production
and inspection activities. In produc­
tion operations, chemists prepare
instructions (batch sheets) for plant
workers and specify the kind and
amount of ingredients to use and
the exact mixing time for each stage
in the process. At each step, chem­
ists test samples for quality control
to insure that they meet industry and
government standards. Chemists in
these areas also are concerned with
improving products and processes.
Others work as marketing or sales
representatives when the job re­
quires a technical knowledge of the
various products. More than onetenth of all chemists teach in col­
leges and universities where they
may do some research. Some chem­
ists are consultants to private indus­
try firms and government agencies.

Places of Employment

Nearly 134,000 persons worked
as chemists in 1972; about 10 percent
were women. More than two-thirds
of all chemists work in private in­
dustry; half are in the chemicals


manufacturing industry. Most of
the remainder work for companies
manufacturing food, scientific in­
struments, petroleum, paper, and
electrical equipment.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 25,000 chemists.
A smaller number worked for non­
profit research organizations. A
number of chemists are employed
by Federal Government agencies,
chiefly the Departments of Defense;
Health, Education, and Welfare;
Agriculture; and Interior. Small
numbers work for State and local
governments, primarily in agencies
concerned with health or agriculture.
Chemists are employed in all
States, but usually are concentrated
in large industrial areas. Nearly
one-fifth of all chemists were located
in four metropolitan areas—New
York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and
Newark. About half of the total
worked in six States—New York,
New Jersey, California, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, and Illinois.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in chemistry is usually the minimum
requirement for starting a career as
a chemist. Graduate training is es­
sential for many positions, par­
ticularly in research and college
Over 1,000 colleges and univer­
sities offer a bachelor’s degree in
chemistry. In addition to the re­
quired chemistry courses (analytical,
inorganic, organic, and physical
chemistry), undergraduates take
courses in mathematics (especially
geometry and calculus) and physics.
Over 300 colleges and universities
award advanced degrees in chem­
istry. In graduate school, students
usually specialize in a particular
field of chemistry. Requirements
for the master’s or doctor’s degree


vary, but usually include a thesis
based on independent research.
Students planning careers as
chemists should enjoy studying
science and mathematics, and ought
to like working with their hands to
build scientific apparatus and to
perform experiments. Perseverance
and the ability to concentrate on
detail and work independently are
essential. Other desirable assets in­
clude an inquisitive mind, a good
memory, and imagination. Chem­
ists also should have good eyesight
and good eye-hand coordination.
New graduates with the bachelor’s
degree generally begin their careers
in government or industry by an­
alyzing or testing products, working
in technical sales or service, or
assisting senior chemists in research
and development laboratories. Many
employers have special training and
orientation programs for new gradu­
ates. These programs are concerned
with special techniques and help
new graduates determine the types
of work best suited to their interest
and talents. Candidates for an ad­
vanced degree often teach or do
research in colleges and universities
while working toward advanced de­
grees. They also may qualify as
secondary school teachers.
Beginning chemists with the mas­
ter’s degree can usually go into
applied research positions in gov­
ernment or private industry. They
also may qualify for some teaching
positions in colleges and univer­
sities and many positions in 2-year
The Ph.D. generally is required
for basic research, for teaching in
colleges and universities, and for
advancement to most administrative

Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent opportunities for
new chemistry graduates are ex­

pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. In addition to oppor­
tunities resulting from the very
rapid growth expected for this pro­
fession, thousands of new chemists
will be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
The favorable outlook for chem­
ists assumes that additional chemists
will be needed for research and
development work. Research and
development expenditures of govern­
ment and industry are expected to
increase through the mid-1980’s,
although at a slower rate than during
the 1960’s. The expected slowdown
in Federal R&D spending basically
reflects anticipated shifts in the
relative importance of space and
defense. However, if actual R&D
expenditures levels and patterns
differ significantly from those as­
sumed, the outlook for chemists
would be altered.
Growth in demand for industrial
products, including plastics, man­
made fibers, drugs, and fertilizers
will increase employment opportu­
nities for chemists. For example,
chemists will be needed both by
industrial companies and govern­
ment agencies to help solve pollution
control problems, establish better
health care programs, and do healthrelated research in hospitals. New
and better solid and liquid fuels
to stem fuel shortages could re­
quire more chemists. Some also will
be needed to work in Federal,
State, and local crime laboratories.
Larger enrollments through the
mid-1980’s will require more chem­
ists, especially Ph.D.’s, to teach in
colleges and universities. Additional
opportunities will become available
in 2-year colleges. (See statements
on colleges and universities else­
where in the Handbook.)
New graduates also will find
openings in high school teaching
after completing professional educa­
tion courses and other requirements



Chemist records results of experiments.

for a State teaching certificate. How­
ever, they usually are regarded as
teachers rather than as chem­
ists. (See statement on Secondary
School Teachers elsewhere in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

Chemists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings about
twice those received by nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. According to the
American Chemical Society, annual
salaries for experienced chemists
having a bachelor’s degree averaged
$15,600 in 1972; for those with a
master’s degree, $16,300; and for
those with a Ph.D, $19,200.
Private industry paid inexperi­
enced chemists with the bachelor’s
degree starting salaries of $9,000 a
year; those with the master’s degree
$10,300; and those with the Ph.D.
$15,600. In colleges and universi­
ties, those with the master’s degree
earned $8,100 and those with the
Ph.D. averaged $10,920 to start.

Many experienced chemists in edu­
cational institutions supplement
their regular salaries with income
from consulting, lecturing, and
Depending on college records, the
annual starting salary in the Fed­
eral Government in early 1973 for
an inexperienced chemist with a
bachelor’s degree was either $7,694
or $9,520. Beginning chemists who
had 1 year of graduate study could
start at $9,520 and those who
had 2 years of graduate study, at
$11,614. Chemists having the Ph.D.
degree could start at $13,996 or
Chemists work mostly in modern,
well-equipped, well-lighted labora­
tories, offices, or classrooms.
Hazards involve handling poten­
tially explosive or highly caustic
chemicals. However, when safety
regulations are followed health haz­
ards are negligible.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities and earnings for chem­
ists may be obtained from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association,
Inc., 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E St., NW., Washington, D.C.

For additional sources of informa­
tion, see statements on Biochemists,
Chemical Engineers, and Industrial
Chemical Industry. Information on
chemical technicians may be found
in the statement on Technician

(D.O.T. 022.891,040.081,041.081)
Nature of the Work

Someone has estimated that the
average family of four consumes
over 5,000 pounds of food a year. In
the past, housewives processed most
food in the home, but today, indus­
try processes almost all foods.
People in many occupations are
involved with food processing. A key
worker is the food scientist or
food technologist.
Food scientists investigate the
chemical, physical, and biological
nature of food and apply this knowl­
edge to processing, preserving, pack­
aging, distributing, and storing an
adequate, nutritious, wholesome,
and economical food supply. About
three-fifths of all scientists in food
processing work in research and
development. Others work in qual­
ity assurance laboratories or in
production or processing areas of
food plants. Some teach or do basic
research in colleges and universities.
Food scientists in basic research
study the structure and composi­
tion of food and the changes it
undergoes in storage and processing.
For example, they may develop
new sources of proteins, study the
effects of processing on micro­
organisms, or search for factors
that affect the flavor, texture, or
appearance of foods. Food scien­
tists who work in applied research
and development create new foods
and develop new processing methods.
They also seek to improve existing
foods by making them more nu­
tritious and enhancing their flavor,
color, and texture.
Food scientists insure that each
new product will retain its char­
acteristics and nutritive value during
storage. They also may conduct
chemical and microbiological tests
to see that products meet industry



and reports that show results of
tests or experiments.
In addition, some food scientists
work in market research, advertis­
ing, and technical sales. Others
teach in colleges and universities.
Places of Employment

Food scientists test food for color and flavor.

and government standards. Others
test additives for purity, investi­
gate changes that take place during
processing, or develop mass-feeding
methods for food service institutions.
In quality control laboratories,
food scientists check raw ingredients
for freshness, maturity, or suitability
for processing. They may use ma­
chines that test for tenderness by
finding the amount of force neces­
sary to puncture the item. Period­
ically, they inspect processing line
operations to insure conformance
with government and industry stand­
ards. For example, scientists test
canned goods for sugar, starch, pro­
tein, fat, vitamin, and mineral
content. In frozen food plants, they
make sure that, after processing,
various enzymes are inactive so that

the food won’t spoil during storage.
Others are concerned with packag­
ing materials that maintain shelf
life and product stability. They
often supervise technicians who
assist in product testing. (See state­
ment on Food Processing Tech­
nicians elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Food scientists in production
schedule processing operations, pre­
pare production specifications, main­
tain proper tem perature and
humidity in storage areas, and
supervise sanitation operations, in­
cluding the efficient and economical
disposal of wastes. To increase
efficiency, they advise management
on the purchase of equipment and
recommend new sources of mate­
Food scientists maintain records

About 7,500 persons, almost 15
percent women, worked as food
scientists in 1972. Food scientists
work in all sectors of the food in­
dustry and in every state. The types
of product on which they work may
depend on where in the country
they work: for example, in Maine
and Ohio they work with potatoes;
in New York and Pennsylvania, with
flavor ingredients; in the Mid-west,
with cereal products or meat pack­
ing; and in Florida and California,
with orange juice. The greatest num­
ber work in California, Illinois, New
York, Pennsylvania, Texas, Ohio,
New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,
and Iowa.
Some food scientists do research
for Federal agencies such as the
Food and Drug Administration and
the Departments of Agriculture and
Defense; others work in State regu­
latory agencies. A few work for
private consulting firms and inter­
national organizations such as the
United Nations. Some teach or do
research in colleges and universities.
(See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers elsewhere in the
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in food science, or in one of the
physical or life sciences such as
chemistry and biology, is the usual
minimum requirement for beginning
jobs in food science. An advanced
degree is necessary for many jobs,
particularly research and college
teaching, and for some management



level jobs in industry.
Nearly 60 colleges and univer­
sities offered programs leading to
the bachelor’s degree in food science
in 1972; the Institute of Food Tech­
nologists approved 30 of these.
Undergraduate students usually take
courses in physics, chemistry, math­
ematics, biology, the social sciences
and humanities, and business ad­
ministration, as well as specialized
food science courses.
Most of the colleges and univer­
sities that provide undergraduate
food programs also offer advanced
degrees. Graduate students usually
specialize in a particular area of
food science. Requirements for the
master’s or doctor’s degree vary by
institution, but usually include lab­
oratory work and a thesis.
Young people planning careers as
food scientists should have analytical
minds and like details and technical
work. Food scientists must express
their ideas to others and understand
other people’s ideas. Flexibility,
imagination, and creativity are im­
portant in meeting food needs for
an expanding population.
A food scientist with a bachelor’s
degree might start work as a quality
assurance chemist or as an assistant
production manager. After gaining
experience the food scientist can
advance to more responsible man­
agement jobs. The scientist also
might begin as a junior food chemist
in a research and development lab­
oratory of a food company, and be
promoted to section head or another
research management position.
People who have master’s degrees
may begin as senior food chemists
in a research and development.
Those who have the Ph.D. probably
would begin their careers doing basic
research or teaching.
Employment Outlook

Employment of food scientists

is expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from this
growth, some jobs will open each
year because of the need to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer
to other Fields.
Employment is expected to grow
as the food industry responds to
the need for a wholesome and
economical food supply for an in­
creasing population. In addition,
both private households and food
service institutions that supply out­
lets such as airlines and restaurants
will demand a greater quantity of
quality convenience foods.
An increasing number of food
scientists are expected to find jobs
in research and product develop­
ment. In recent years, expenditures
for research and development in
the food industry have increased
moderately and probably will con­
tinue to rise. Research could pro­
duce new foods from modifications
of wheat, corn, rice, and soybeans.
For example, food scientists may
create “ meat” products from these
vegetable proteins that resemble
beef, pork, and chicken. There will
be an increased need for food scien­
tists in quality control and produc­
tion because of the complexity of
products and processes and the
application of higher processing
standards and new government regu­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Food scientists had relatively high
earnings in 1972, over twice as
much as the average for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Those with a bach­
elor’s degree and no experience had
starting salaries of about $9,000 a
year, according to the limited data
available. Those with a master’s
degree started at about $10,200,
and those with the Ph.D. at about

In the' Federal Government in
early 1973, Food Scientists with a
bachelor’s degree could start at
$7,694 or $9,520 a year, depending
on their college grades. Those with
a master’s degree could start at
$9,520 or $11,614, and those with
the Ph.D. degree could begin at
$13,996 or $16,682. Food scientists
in colleges and universities earned
the same salaries as other faculty
Sources of Additional Information

For information on careers in
food science and a list of schools
offering programs in food science
The Institute of Food Technologists,
Suite 2120, 221 North LaSalle St.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.

(D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)
Nature of the Work

The flight of astronauts through
space, the probing of ocean depths,
or even the safety of the family
car depend on research by phy­
sicists. Through systematic observa­
tion and experimentation, physicists
describe in mathematical terms the
structure and interactions between
matter and energy. Physicists de­
velop theories and discover the fun­
damental laws that describe forces
within the universe. Determining
basic laws governing phenomena
such as gravity, electromagnetism,
and heat flow leads to discoveries
and innovations. For instance, the
development of irradiation therapy
equipment which destroys harmful
growths in humans without damag­
ing other tissues resulted from what
physicists know about radioactivity.



Physicists have contributed to scien­
tific progress in recent years in
areas such as nuclear energy, elec­
tronics, communications, and aero­
Over half of all physicists work
in research and development. Some
do basic research to increase scien­
tific knowledge. For example, they
determine the relationships between
the fundamentals of nuclear struc­
ture and the fundamental forces be­
tween nucleons (nuclear dynamics).
The equipment that physicists de­
velop for their basic research can
often be applied to other areas.
For example, lasers (a device which
amplifies light and emits electro­
magnetic waves in a narrow, intense
light beam) are utilized in surgery;

microwave devices are used for
ovens; and measurement techniques
and instruments developed by phy­
sicists can detect and measure the
kind and number of cells in blood.
Some engineering oriented phy­
sicists do applied research and help
develop new products. For in­
stance, their knowledge of solidstate physics led to the development
of transistors and micro-circuits
used in electronic equipment that
ranges from hearing aids to missile
guidance systems.
About one-fifth of all physicists
teach in colleges and universities.
Almost another fifth work in man­
agement and administration, espe­
cially research and development
programs. A small number work in

inspection, quality control, and other
production related jobs in industry.
Some do consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one
or more branches of the science—
elementary-particle physics; nuclear
physics; atomic, electron, and mo­
lecular physics; physics of condensed
matter; optics, acoustics, and plasma
physics; and the physics of fluids.
Some specialize in a subdivision
of one of these branches. For ex­
ample, within solid-state physics
concentration may include ceramics,
crystallography, or semiconductors.
However, since all physics specialties
rest on the same fundamental prin­
ciples, a physicist’s work often
overlaps many specialties.
Growing numbers of physicists
are specializing in Fields combining
physics and a related science—such
as astrophysics, biophysics, chemical
physics, and geophysics. Further­
more, the practical applications of
physicists’ work have increasingly
merged with engineering.
Places of Employment

Physicists work with complex equipment such as atomic accelerators.

About 49,000 people worked as
physicists in 1972; nearly 4 percent
were women. Private industry em­
ployed over 19,000; almost twofifths of these were in companies
manufacturing chemicals, electrical
equipment, and ordnance products.
Commercial laboratories and inde­
pendent research organizations em­
ploy more than one-fourth of the
physicists in private industry.
More than 22,000 physicists either
taught or did research in colleges
and universities; some did both.
Over 6,000 physicists were in the
Federal Government in 1972, most­
ly the Department of Defense. The
Department of Commerce also em­
ploys large numbers of physicists.
About 1,300 physicists worked in
nonprofit organizations.
Although physicists are employed


in all States, their employment is
greatest in areas that have heavy
industrial concentrations and large
college and university enrollments.
Nearly one-fourth of all physicists
work in four metropolitan areas—
Washington, D.C.; Boston; New
York; and Los Angeles-Long Beach,
and more than one-third are con­
centrated in three states—California,
New York, and Massachusetts.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in physics
is the minimum requirement for
young people beginning work as
physicists. However, graduate train­
ing is increasingly the hallmark of
full professional status and is es­
sential for many entry jobs and for
advancement in all types of work.
The doctorate is usually required
for full faculty status at colleges
and universities and for jobs admin­
istering research and development
Physicists who have master’s de­
grees qualify for many research jobs.
Some instruct and conduct labora­
tory sessions in colleges and univer­
sities while working for their Ph.D.
Physicists who have bachelor’s
degrees qualify for many applied
research and development jobs in
private industry or the Federal Gov­
ernment. Some become research as­
sistants in colleges and universities
while working toward advanced de­
grees. Many with a bachelor’s degree
in physics enter nontechnical work,
other science fields, or become en­
Almost 900 colleges and univer­
sities offer a bachelor’s degree in
physics. In addition, many engineer­
ing schools offer a physics major
as part of the general curriculum.
The undergraduate program in phy­
sics provides a broad background
in the science and serves as a base
for later specialization either in


graduate school or on the job. Some
typical physics courses are mechan­
ics, electricity, and magnetism, op­
tics, thermodynamics, and atomic
and molecular physics. Students
also take courses in chemistry and
More than 300 colleges and uni­
versities offer advanced degrees in
physics. In graduate school, the
student, with faculty guidance, usu­
ally works in a specific field. The
graduate student, especially the can­
didate for the Ph.D. degree, spends
a large portion of his time in re­
Students planning a career in
physics should have an inquisitive
mind, good memory, and imagina­
tion. They must distrust convention­
al assumptions about the universe

and be eager to try a new approach
to discovering truths. Physicists do­
ing basic research generally re­
ceive less supervision than those in
mission-oriented applied research
and development.
Employment Outlook

Physicists with advanced degrees
should have favorable employment
opportunities through the mid1980’s, primarily in applied research
and development. In addition to
opportunities resulting from the
moderate growth expected in this
field, physicists will be needed each
year to replace those who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
Some of the past increases in em-

Physicists develop equipment used in cancer research.


ployment of physicists resulted from as teachers rather than as phy­
increases in Federal research and sicists. (See statement on Secondary
development (R&D) expenditures, School Teachers elsewhere in the
especially for space and defense Handbook.)
related programs. Physicists will
continue to be required to do com­ Earnings and Working Conditions
plex R&D in both defense and non­
Physicists have relatively high
defense related areas. Through the
mid-1980’s, R&D expenditures of salaries, with average earnings more
Government are expected to in­ than twice those received by noncrease, although at a slower rate supervisory workers in private in­
than during the 1960’s. The anti­ dustry, except farming. Starting
cipated slowdown in the rate of salaries for physicists who have the
growth basically reflects the declin­ bachelor’s degree averaged about
ing priority given to space and de­ $9,900 a year in manufacturing in­
fense R&D programs. However, if dustries in 1972, those having mas­
actual R&D expenditure levels and ter’s degrees $11,800, and those
patterns were to differ significantly having the Ph.D. $16,000.
Depending on their college rec­
from those assumed, the outlook
ords, physicists who have a bach­
for physicists would be altered.
Some physicists with advanced elor’s degree and no experience
degrees will be needed to teach in could start work in the Federal
colleges and universities, primarily Government in early 1973 at either
because of the growing need for $7,694 or $9,520. Beginning phy­
physics training in all science and sicists completing all requirements
for the master’s degree could start
engineering programs.
New graduates also will find op­ at $9,520 or $11,614. Physicists hav­
portunities in other occupations ing the Ph.D. degree could begin
that utilize their training. For ex­ at $13,996 or $16,682.
Starting salaries on college and
ample, they may become high school
teachers after completing the re­ university faculties for physicists
quired educational courses and ob­ with a master’s degree averaged
taining a State teaching certificate. $10,200 in 1972, and salaries for
However, they are usually regarded those having the Ph.D. averaged


$11,800. (See statement on College
and University Teachers elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Many faculty
physicists supplement their regular
incomes by working as consultants
and taking on special research
Young physicists may begin their
careers doing routine laboratory
tasks. After some experience, they
are assigned more complex tasks
and may advance to project leaders
or research directors. Some work in
top management jobs. Physicists
who develop new products some­
times form their own companies or
join new firms to exploit their
Sources of Additional Information

General information on career
opportunities in physics is available
American Institute of Physics, 335
East 45th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

For information on Federal Gov­
ernment careers contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Examiners for Washington, D.C.,
1900 E St., NW., Washington, D.C.

Before World War II scientists
and engineers worked directly with
craftsmen and other skilled workers.
For example, an engineer might de­
sign and develop a product or proc­
ess, while skilled workers would
carry out the more routine parts
of the plan. Because of rapid tech­
nological advances, however, it be­
came more difficult for skilled
workers, who usually had a limited
knowledge of science and mathe­
matics, to work directly with scien­
tists and engineers. A need
developed for workers, called tech­
nicians, specifically trained to assist
engineers and scientists, or in some
cases to do work that otherwise
would have to be done by engineers
or scientists.
Although technician occupations
have grown rapidly, the term “ tech­
nician” has no generally accepted
definition. Employers use it to refer
to workers in a variety of jobs
requiring a wide range of education
and training. The term is used to
describe employees doing relatively
routine work, persons performing
work requiring technical but lim ited

skills, and those doing highly tech­
nical work, including persons work­
ing closely with engineers and
In this chapter, “technicians”
refers to workers who use engineer­
ing, scientific, and mathematical
theory; who have specialized educa­
tion and/or training in some aspect
of technology or science; and who
generally work directly with engi­
neers and scientists. This chapter
contains statements on engineering
and science technicians, food proc­
essing technicians, draftsmen, sur­
veyors, and broadcast technicians.
Information on technical occupa­
tions in the health field—including

dental laboratory technicians, radio­
logical technologists, and dental
hygienists—is presented elsewhere
in the Handbook..)

(D.O.T. 194.281, .282, and .782;
957.282; and 963.168 through .887)
Nature of the Work

Broadcast technicians operate and
maintain the electronic equipment
used to record or transmit radio
and television programs. They work
with microphones, sound recorders,
light and sound effects, television
cameras, video tape recorders, and
other equipment.
In the control room, broadcast
technicians operate equipment that
regulates the quality of sounds and
pictures being recorded or broad­
cast. They also operate controls that
switch broadcasts from one camera
or studio to another, from film to
live programming, or from network
to local programs. By means of hand
signals and, in television, by use of
telephone headsets, they give tech­
nical directions to personnel in the
When events outside the studios
are to be broadcast, technicians may
go to the site and set up, test, and
operate the necessary equipment.
After the broadcast, they dismantle
the equipment and return to the
As a rule, broadcast technicians
in small stations perform a variety
of duties. In large stations and in
networks, on the other hand, tech­
nicians are more specialized, al­
though specific job assignments may
change from day to day. Transmitter
technicians monitor and log out­
going signals and are responsible

for transmitter operation. Mainte­
nance technicians set up, maintain,
and repair electronic broadcasting
equipment. Audio control techni­
cians regulate sound pickup, trans­
m ission, and switching. Videc
control technicians regulate the qual­
ity, brightness, and contrast of
television pictures. Lighting tech­
nicians direct lighting of television
programs. Field technicians set up
and operate broadcasting equipment
for programs originating outside
the studio. Recording technicians
operate and maintain sound record­
ing equipment. Video recording tech­
nicians operate and maintain video
tape recording equipment. Some­
times the term “ engineer” is sub­
stituted for “ technician” in the
above titles.
Places of Employment

About 22,000 broadcast techni­
cians were employed in radio and
television stations in 1972. Most
radio stations employ fewer than
four technicians, although a few
large ones have more than 10.
Nearly all television stations em­
ploy at least five broadcast tech­
nicians, and those in large
metropolitan areas average about
30. In addition to the technicians,
several thousand supervisory per­
sonnel, with job titles such as chief
engineer and director of engineering,
work in technical departments.
Broadcast technicians are em­
ployed in every State, particularly
in the larger cities. The highest
paying and most specialized jobs
are concentrated in New York, Los
Angeles, and Washington, D.C.—
the originating centers for most of
the network programs.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A young person interested in
becoming a broadcast technician
should plan to get a Radiotelephone



enced technicians concerning the
work procedures of the station. In
small stations, they may start by
operating the transmitter and han­
dling other technical duties, after
a brief instruction period. As they
acquire more experience and skill
they are assigned to more respon­
sible jobs. Those who demonstrate
above-average ability may move
into top-level technical positions,
such as supervisory technician and
chief engineer. A college degree in
engineering is becoming increasing­
ly important for advancement to
supervisory and executive positions.
Employment Outlook

Broadcast technician plays back tape.

First Class Operator License from
the Federal Communications Com­
mission (FCC). Federal law requires
that anyone who operates or adjusts
broadcast transmitters in television
and radio stations must hold such
a license. Some stations require all
their broadcast technicians including
those who do not operate transmit­
ters to have this license. Applicants
for the license must pass a series of
written examinations. These cover
construction and operation of trans­
mission and receiving equipment;
characteristics of electromagnetic
waves; and regulations and prac­
tices, both Federal government and
international, governing broadcast­
ing. Information about these exam­
inations and guides to study for
them may be obtained from the
Federal Communications Commis­
sion, Washington, D.C. 20036.
Among high school courses, alge­
bra, trigonometry, and physics and
other sciences provide valuable

background for young persons anti­
cipating careers in this occupation.
In terms of practice, building and
operating an amateur radio station
also is good training. Taking an
electronics course in a technical
school is still another good way to
acquire the knowledge for becoming
a broadcast technician. Some young
persons gain work experience as
temporary employees filling in for
regular broadcast technicians while
they are on vacation.
Many schools give courses espe­
cially designed to prepare the stu­
dent for the FCC’s First-class license
test. Having training at the level
of technical school or college is an
advantage for those who hope to
advance to supervisory positions or
to the more specialized jobs in
large stations and in the networks.
Young persons with FCC firstclass licenses who get entry jobs
are instructed and advised by the
chief engineer or by other experi­

The number of broadcast tech­
nicians is expected to increase slow­
ly through the mid-1980’s. Most
job openings will result from the
need to replace experienced tech­
nicians who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations.
Some new job opportunities for
technicians will be provided as new
radio and television stations open.
However, labor-saving technical ad­
vances, such as automatic program­
ming, automatic operation logging,
and remote control of transmitters
will limit the demand for tech­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of beginning technicians
in commercial radio and television
ranged from about $100 to $170 a
week in 1972 and those of experi­
enced technicians from about $130
to $320, according to the limited
information available. As a rule,
technicians’ wages are highest in
large cities and in large stations.
Technicians employed by television
stations usually are paid more than
those who work for radio stations
because television work is generally
more complex. Technicians em­
ployed by educational broadcasting


stations generally earn less than
those who work for commercial
Most technicians in large stations
work a 40-hour week with over­
time pay for work beyond 40 hours.
Many broadcast technicians in the
larger cities work a 37-hour week.
In small stations, many technicians
work 2 to 8 hours of overtime each
week. Evening, night, and weekend
work frequently is necessary since
many stations are on the air as many
as 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Network technicians may occasion­
ally have to work continuously for
many hours and under great pres­
sure in order to meet broadcast
deadlines. Most technicians receive
paid vacations. Typically, vacations
range from 1 to 4 weeks, depending
on length of service.
Technicians generally work in­
doors in pleasant surroundings. The
work is interesting, and the duties
are varied. When remote pickups
are made, however, technicians may
work out of doors at some distance
from the studios, under less favor­
able conditions.


(D.O.T. 001.281, 002.281, 003.281,
005.281, 007.281, 010.281,
014.281, and 017.)
Nature of the Work

When making a space capsule,
television set, building, or bridge,
workers follow drawings that show
the exact dimensions and specifica­
tions of the entire object and each
of its parts. Workers who draw
these plans are draftsmen.
Draftsmen prepare detailed draw­
ings based on rough sketches,
specifications, and calculations of
engineers, architects, and designers.
They also calculate the strength,
quality, quantity, and cost of ma­
terials. Final drawings contain a

detailed view of the object as well
as specifications for materials to
be used, procedures followed, and
other information to carry out the
In preparing drawings, draftsmen
use compasses, dividers, protractors,
triangles, and machines that com­
bine the functions of several devices.
They also use engineering hand­
books, tables, and slide rules to help
solve technical problems.
Draftsmen are classified accord­
ing to the work they do or their
level of responsibility. Senior drafts­
men translate an engineer’s or
architect’s preliminary plans into
design “ layouts” (scale drawings of
the object to be built). Detailers
draw each part shown on the layout,
and give dimensions, materials, and
other information to make the de-

Sources of Additional Information

General information careers for
broadcast technicians may be ob­
tained from:
National Association of Broadcasters,
1771 N St., NW„ Washington, D.C.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
888 16th St., NW., Washington, D.C.

Draftsmen prepare design layouts.



4-year apprenticeship programs.
Training for a career in drafting,
whether in a high school or posthigh school program, should include
courses in mathematics, physical
sciences, mechanical drawing, and
drafting. Shop practices and shop
skills also are helpful since many
higher level drafting jobs require
knowledge of manufacturing or con­
struction methods. Many technical
schools offer courses in structural
design, strength of materials, and
metal technology.
Those planning careers in draft­
ing should: be able to do detailed
Places of Employment
work requiring a high degree of
About 327,000 people worked as accuracy; have good eyesight and
draftsmen in 1972; almost 8 percent eye-hand coordination because most
were women. About 9 out of 10 of their work is done at the draw­
draftsmen work in private industry. ing board; be able to function as
Many work in industries making part of a team since they work
machinery, electrical equipment, and directly with engineers, architects,
fabricated metal products. In the and skilled workers; and be able to
non-manufacturing sector, most do free-hand drawings of three
draftsmen work for engineering and dimensional objects. Although the
architectural consulting firms, con­ occupation generally does not re­
struction companies, and public util­ quire such artistic ability, it may
be helpful in some specialized fields.
Almost 20,000 draftsmen worked
High school graduates usually
for Federal, State, and local gov­ start out as tracers. Those having
ernments in 1972. Those in the post-high school technical training
Federal Government worked mostly often can qualify as junior drafts­
for the Defense Department. Drafts­ men. After gaining experience, they
men in State and local governments may advance to checkers, detailers,
were mainly in highway and public senior draftsmen, or supervisors.
works departments. Another several Some may become independent de­
thousand draftsmen worked for col­ signers. Courses in engineering and
leges and universities and non-profit mathematics sometimes enable
draftsmen to transfer to engineer­
ing positions.

tailed drawing clear and complete.
Checkers carefully examine draw­
ings for errors in computing or
recording dimensions and specifica­
tions. Under the supervision of
draftsmen, tracers make minor cor­
rections and trace drawings for
reproduction on transparent cloth,,
paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen may specialize in a
particular field of work, such as
mechanical, electrical, electronic,
aeronautical, structural, or archi­
tectural drafting.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

Persons interested in becoming
draftsmen can acquire the necessary
training in technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, extension
divisions of universities, and voca­
tional and technical high schools.
Others may qualify through on-thejob training programs combined
with part-time schooling or 3- to

Job opportunities are expected
to be favorable through the mid1980’s because of the very rapid
growth expected in the occupation
and the need to replace those who
retire, die, or move into other fields
of work. Prospects will be best for
those having post-high school draft­
ing training. Well-qualified high

school graduates who have studied
drafting, however, will find oppor­
tunities in some types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result
of the increasingly complex design
problems of modern products and
processes. In addition, as engineer­
ing and scientific occupations con­
tinue to grow, more draftsmen will
be needed as supporting personnel.
On the other hand, photoreproduc­
tion of drawings and expanding use
of electronic drafting equipment
and computers are eliminating many
routine tasks. This development
probably will reduce the need for
less skilled draftsmen.

In private industry, beginning
draftsmen earned about $525 a
month in 1972 according to a Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey. As
they gain experience, draftsmen may
move to higher level positions with a
substantial increase in earnings. For
example, in 1972 senior draftsmen
averaged $960 a month, about one
and one-half times as much as the
average earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Most draftsmen earned
about $800 per month.
In early 1973, the Federal Gov­
ernment paid high school graduates
in trainee jobs about $450 a month.
For those having post-high school
education or some experience in
drafting, starting salaries were high­
er. The majority of experienced
draftsmen working for the Federal
Government earned between $640
and $800 a month.
Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
for draftsmen may be obtained from:
American Institute for Design and
Drafting, 3119 Price Rd., Bartles­
ville, Okla. 74003.



American Federation of Technical En­
gineers, 1126 16th St., NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

See Sources of Additional In­
formation in the statement on Engi­
neering and Science Technicians
elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 002. through 029.)
Nature of the Work

Technicians’ knowledge of sci­
ence, mathematics, industrial ma­
chinery, and processes enables them
to work in all phases of production,
from research and design to manu­
facturing, sales, and customer
service. Although their jobs are
more limited and practically ori­
ented than those of engineers or
scientists, technicians often do
highly technical work that engi­
neers or scientists might otherwise
have to do. Technicians frequently
use complex electronic and me­
chanical instruments, experimental
laboratory equipment, and draft­
ing instruments. Almost all techni­
cians described in this statement
must be able to use engineering
handbooks and computing devices
such as slide rules and calculating
In research and development
(R&D), one of the largest areas of
employment, technicians set up,
calibrate, and operate complex
instruments; analyze computations;
and conduct tests. They also assist
engineers and scientists in devel­
oping experimental equipment and
models by making drawings and
sketches; and under an engineer’s
direction they frequently do routine
design work.
In production, technicians usu­

Technician adjusts experimental
antenna equipment.

ally follow the plans and general
directions of engineers and sci­
entists, but often without close
supervision. They may prepare
specifications for materials, devise
tests to insure product quality, or
study ways to improve the efficiency
of an operation. They often super­
vise production workers to make
sure they follow prescribed plans
and procedures. As a product is
built, technicians check to see that
specifications are followed, keep
engineers and scientists informed
as to progress, and investigate
production problems.
As salesmen or field representa­

tives for manufacturers, technicians
give advice on installation and
maintenance problems of complex
machinery, and may write specifi­
cations and technical manuals. (See
statement on Technical Writers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Job titles of engineering and
science technicians may describe
the level (biological aid or bio­
logical technician), duties (quality
control technician or time study
analyst), or area of work (mechani­
cal, electrical, or chemical).
Aeronautical Technology. Techni­
cians in this area work with engi­


neers and scientists to design and
produce aircraft, helicopters, rock­
ets, guided missiles, and spacecraft.
Many aid engineers in preparing
design layouts and models of struc­
tures, control systems, or equip­
ment installations by collecting
information, making computations,
and performing laboratory tests.
For example, under the direction
of an engineer, a technician might
estimate weight factors, centers of
gravity, and other items affecting
load capacity of an airplane or
missile. Other technicians prepare
or check drawings for technical
accuracy, practicability, and econ­
Aeronautical technicians fre­
quently work as manufacturer’s
field service representatives, serving
as the link between their company
and the military, commercial air­
lines, and other customers. Techni­
cians also prepare technical in­
formation for instruction manuals,
bulletins, catalogs, and other litera­
ture. (See statements on Aerospace
Engineers, Airplane Mechanics,
and Occupations in Aircraft, Mis­
sile and Spacecraft Manufacturing
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Technology. Air con­
ditioning, heating, and refrigera­
tion technicians design, manufacture,
sell, and service equipment to
regulate interior temperatures. Tech­
nicians in this Field often specialize
in one area, such as refrigeration,
and sometimes in a particular type
of activity, such as research and
When working for firms that
manufacture temperature control­
ling equipment, technicians generally
work in research and engineering
departments, where they assist en­
gineers and scientists in the design
and testing of new equipment or
production methods. For example,
a technician may construct an


experimental model to test its
durability and operational charac­
teristics. Technicians also work as
field salesmen for equipment manu­
facturers or dealers, and must be
able to supply engineering firms
and other contractors that design
and install systems with informa­
tion on installation, maintenance,
operating costs, and the perform­
ance specifications of the equip­
ment. Other technicians work for
contractors, where they help design
and prepare installation instruc­
tions for air-conditioning, heating,
or refrigeration systems. Still
others work in customer service,
and are responsible for supervising
the installation and maintenance
of equipment. (See statement on
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Mechanics elsewhere in the Hand­
Chemical Technicians. These tech­
nicians work with chemists and
chemical engineers to develop, sell,
and utilize chemical and related
products and equipment.
Most chemical technicians do
research and development, testing,
or other laboratory work. They
often set up and conduct tests on
processes and products being devel­
oped or improved. For example,
a technician may examine steel
for carbon, phosphorous, and sulfur
content or test a lubricating oil by
subjecting it to changing tempera­
tures. The technician measures re­
actions, analyzes the results of
experiments, and records data
which will be the basis for decisions
and future research.
Chemical technicians in produc­
tion generally put into commercial
operation those products or processes
developed in research laboratories.
They assist in making the final
design, installing equipment, and
training and supervising operators
on the production line. Technicians
in quality control test materials,

production processes, and final
products to insure that they meet
the manufacturer’s specifications
and quality standards. Many also
work as technical salesmen of
chemicals or chemical products.
Many chemical technicians use
computers and instruments, such
as a dilatometer, to measure the
expansion of a substance. Because
the field of chemistry is so broad,
chemical technicians frequently
specialize in a particular industry
such as food processing or phar­
maceuticals. (See statements on
Chemists, Chemical Engineers, Food
Processing Technicians, and Occu­
pations in the Industrial Chemical
Industry elsewhere in the Hand­
Civil Engineering Technology. Tech­
nicians in this area assist civil
engineers in planning, designing,
and constructing highways, bridges,
dams, and other structures. During
the planning stage, they may help
estimate costs, prepare specifica­
tions for materials, or participate
in surveying, drafting, or designing.
Once construction begins, they may
assist the contractor or super­
intendent in scheduling construc­
tion activities or inspecting the
work to assure conformance to
blueprints and specifications. (See
statements on Civil Engineers,
Draftsmen, and Surveyors else­
where in the Handbook.)
Electronics Technology. Technicians
in this field develop, manufacture,
and service a wide range of elec­
tronic equipment and systems. They
may work with radio, radar, sonar,
television, and other communica­
tion equipment; industrial and medi­
cal measuring or control devices;
navigational equipment; electronic
computers, and many other types
of electronic equipment. Because
the field is so broad, technicians
often specialize in one area such


as automatic control devices or
electronic amplifiers. Furthermore,
technological advancement is con­
stantly opening up new areas of
work. For example, the develop­
ment of printed circuits stimulated
the growth of micro-miniaturized
electronic systems.
When working in design, pro­
duction, or customer service, elec­
tronic technicians use sophisticated
measuring and diagnostic devices
to analyze and test equipment. In
many cases, they must understand
the requirements of the field in
which the electronic device is being
used. In designing equipment for
space exploration, for example,
they must consider the need for
minimum weight and volume and
maximum resistance to shock, ex­
treme temperature, and pressure.
Electronics technicians also do
technical writing and work in
technical sales. (See statements on
Broadcast Technicians and Occu­
pations in Radio and Television
Broadcasting elsewhere in the
Industrial Production Technology.
Technicians in this area, sometimes
called industrial
or production
technicians, assist industrial engi­
neers on problems involving the
efficient use of personnel, ma­
terials, and machines to produce
goods and services. They prepare
layouts of machinery and equip­
ment, plan the flow of work, make
statistical studies, and analyze pro­
duction costs. Industrial techni­
cians also conduct time and motion
studies (analyze the time and move­
ments a worker needs to accom­
plish a job task) to improve the
efficiency of an operation.
While working, many industrial
technicians acquire experience which
enables them to qualify for other
jobs. For example, those specializ­
ing in machinery and production
methods may move into industrial


safety. Others, in job analysis,
may set job standards and inter­
view, test, hire, and train person­
nel. Still others may move into
production supervision. (See state­
ments on Personnel Workers and
Industrial Engineers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Mechanical Technology. Mechani­
cal technology is a broad term
which covers a large number of
specialized fields including auto­
motive technology, diesel tech­
nology, tool design, machine de­
sign, and production technology.
Technicians assist engineers in
design and development work by
making freehand sketches and
rough layouts of proposed ma­
chinery and other equipment and
parts. This work requires knowl­
edge of mechanical principles in­
volving tolerance, stress, strain,
friction, and vibration factors.
Technicians also analyze the costs
and practical value of designs.
In planning and testing experi­
mental machines and equipment
for performance, durability, and
efficiency, technicians record data,
make computations, plot graphs,
analyze results, and write reports.
They sometimes recommend design
changes to improve performance.
Their job often requires skill in
the use of instruments, test equip­
ment and gauges, as well as prepara­
tion and interpretation of drawings.
When a product is ready for pro­
duction, technicians help prepare
layouts and drawings of the assem­
bly process and parts to be manu­
factured. They frequently help esti­
mate labor costs, equipment life,
and plant space. Some mechanical
machines and equipment in manu­
facturing departments or work
with engineers to eliminate pro­
duction problems. Others are tech­
nical salesmen.
Tool designers are among the

better known specialists in mech­
Tool designers design tools and
devices for mass production, and
frequently redesign existing tools
to improve their efficiency. They
prepare sketches of the designs for
cutting tools, jigs, dies, special fix­
tures, and other attachments used
in machine operations. They also
may make or supervise others in
making detailed drawings of tools
and fixtures.
Machine drafting, with some de­
signing, is another major area often
grouped under mechanical tech­
nology and is described in the
statement on draftsmen. (See state­
ments on Mechanical Engineers,
Automobile Mechanics, Manufac­
Mechanics elsewhere in the Hand­
Instrumentation Technology. Auto­
mated manufacturing and indus­
trial processes, oceanographic and
space exploration, weather fore­
casting, satellite communication
systems, environmental control,
and medical research have helped
to make instrumentation tech­
nology a fast-growing field for
technicians. They help develop and
design complex measuring and
control devices such as those in a
spacecraft that sense and measure
changes in heat or pressure, auto­
matically record data, and make
necessary adjustments. These tech­
nicians have extensive knowledge
of physical sciences as well as
electrical-electronic and mechani­
cal engineering. (See statement on
Instrument Workers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Technicians also specialize in
other fields such as metallurgical
(metal), electrical, and optical tech­
nology. In the atomic energy field,
technicians work with scientists
and engineers on problems of radia-



technicians (map making), meteor­
ological technicians and physical
science technicians. The largest
number worked for the Department
of Defense; most of the others
worked for the Departments of
Transportation, Agriculture, Inte­
rior, and Commerce.
State Government agencies em­
ployed over 50,000 engineering and
science technicians, and local
governments about 11,000. The re­
mainder worked for colleges and
universities and nonprofit organi­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Technician uses optical tracking instrument to record data.

tion safety, inspection, and decon­
tamination. (See statement on
Occupations in the Atomic Energy
Field elsewhere in the Handbook.)
New areas of work include the en­
vironmental control field, where
technicians study the problems of
air and water pollution and indus­
trial safety.
Places of Employment

Over 700,000 persons worked as
engineering and science technicians
in 1972— 12 percent were women.

More than 475,000 (about 7 out of
10) worked in private industry. The
manufacturing industries employ
the largest numbers in the electrical
equipment, chemicals, machinery,
and aerospace industries. In non­
worked in wholesale and retail
trade, communications, and in en­
gineering and architectural firms.
In 1972, the Federal Government
employed over 100,000 technicians
chiefly as engineering aids and
technicians, equipment specialists,
biological technicians, cartographic

Men and women can qualify for
technician jobs through many com­
binations of work experience and
education because employers tradi­
tionally have been quite flexible in
their hiring standards. However,
most employers prefer applicants
who have had some specialized
training is available at technical
institutes, junior and community
colleges, area vocational-technical
schools, extension divisions of
colleges and universities, and
technical-vocational high schools.
Besides academic training, per­
sons can qualify for technician jobs
by less formal methods. Workers
may learn through on-the-job
training programs or courses in
post-secondary or correspondence
schools. Some qualify from ex­
perience in technical jobs in the
Armed Forces. Many engineering
and science students who have not
completed the bachelor’s degree and
others who have degrees in science
and mathematics are able to qual­
ify after additional technical train­
ing and experience. Post-secondary
training is increasingly necessary
for the more responsible jobs and
for advancement.


Some of the types of post­
secondary and other schools which
provide technical training are dis­
cussed in the following paragraphs:
Technical Institutes. Technical in­
stitutes offer training to qualify
students for a job immediately after
graduation with only a minimum of
on-the-job training. In general, stu­
dents receive intensive technical
training but less theory and general
education than in engineering
schools or liberal arts colleges. A
few technical institutes and com­
munity colleges offer cooperative
programs; students spend part of
the time in school and part in paid
Some technical institutes operate
as regular or extension divisions
of colleges and universities. Other
institutions are operated by States
and municipalities, or privately.
Junior Colleges and Community
Colleges. Curriculums in junior and
community colleges which prepare
students for technician occupations
are similar to those in the freshman
and sophomore years of 4-year col­
leges. After completing the 2-year
program graduates can transfer to
4-year colleges or qualify for some
technician jobs. Most large com­
munity colleges offer 2-year tech­
nical programs, and many em­
ployers prefer graduates having
more specialized training. Junior
college courses in technical fields
often are planned around the em­
ployment needs of the local area.
Area Vocational-Technical Schools.
These post-secondary public insti­
tutions serve students from sur­
rounding areas and train them for
jobs in the local area. Most of these
schools require a high school de­
gree or its equivalent for admission.
Other Training. Some large cor­
porations conduct training pro­


grams and operate private schools the direct supervision of an experi­
to meet their needs for technically enced technician, scientist, or en­
trained personnel in specific jobs; gineer. As they gain experience,
such training rarely includes gen­ they receive more responsibility
eral studies. Training for some and carry out a particular assign­
technician occupations, for in­ ment under only general super­
stance tool designers and elec­ vision. Technicians may eventually
tronic technicians, is available move into supervisory positions.
through formal 2-to-4 year appren­ Those who have the ability and ob­
ticeship programs. The apprentice tain additional education are some­
gets on-the-job training under the times promoted to science or en­
close supervision of an experienced gineering positions.
technician and related technical
knowledge in classes, usually after
Employment Outlook
working hours.
Employment opportunities for
The Armed Forces have trained engineering and science technicians
many technicians, especially in are expected to be favorable
electronics. However, military job through the mid-1980’s. Opportuni­
requirements are generally differ­ ties will be best for graduates of
ent from those in the civilian post-secondary school technician
economy. Thus, military technician training programs. Besides the very
training may not be adequate for rapid growth expected in this Field,
civilian technician work, and addi­ additional technicians will be
tional training may be necessary needed to replace those who die, re­
for employment.
tire, or leave the occupation.
Technician training also is avail­
Industrial expansion and increas­
able from many private technical ing complexity of modern tech­
schools that specialize in a single nology underlie the anticipated in­
field such as electronics. Some of crease in demand for technicians.
these schools are owned and opera­ Many will be needed to work with
ted by large corporations that have a growing number of engineers and
the resources to provide very up- scientists in developing, producing,
to-date training in a technical Field. and distributing new and tech­
Correspondence schools provide nically advanced products. Auto­
technical training for those who mation of industrial processes and
wish to learn more about their job. growth of new work areas such as
Those interested in a career as a atomic energy, environmental con­
technician should have an aptitude trol, and urban development will
for mathematics and science, and add to the demand for technical
enjoy technical work. An ability personnel.
The anticipated growth of re­
to do detailed work with a high
search and development (R&D)
degree of accuracy is necessary; for
design work, creative talent also expenditures
government should increase demand
is desirable. Since technicians are
part of a scientific team, they some­ for technicians. However, this
times must work under the close growth is expected to be slower
supervision of engineers and scien­ than in the past because of the anti­
tists as well as with other tech­ cipated slowdown of the space and
defense components of Federal R&D
nicians and skilled workers.
Engineering and science tech­ expenditures.
Because space and defense pro­
nicians usually begin work as
trainees in routine positions under grams are major factors in the em­


ployment of technical personnel,
expenditures in these areas affect
the demand for technicians. The
outlook for technicians is based
on the assumption that defense
spending will be slightly lower
than the levels of the late 1960’s. If
defense spending should differ sub­
stantially from this level, the de­
mand for technicians would be af­
fected accordingly.


In general, technicians’ earn­
ings depend on their education, and
technical specialty, as well as their
ability and work experience. Other
important factors influencing earn­
ings are the type of firm, specific
duties, and geographic location.
In early 1973, Federal Govern­
ment agencies paid beginning en­
gineering and science technicians
with an associate degree $6,882;
those with a bachelor’s degree had
starting salaries of $7,694, or
$9,520 depending on the type of job
vacancy and the applicant’s educa­
tion and other qualifications. Some
Federal Government agencies hire
and train high school graduates for
technician jobs. Beginning salaries
for these jobs were $5,432 a year.
Starting salaries in private in­
dustry in 1972 for technicians hold­
ing associate degrees averaged
about $7,700 per year; those with
a bachelor’s degree averaged al­
most $10,000 a year.
Most technicians can look for­
ward to an increase in earnings
as they move to higher positions.
According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, in 1972 annual
salaries of workers in responsible
technician positions in private in­
dustry averaged about $12,000—
almost twice as much as the aver­
age earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except


Sources of Additional Information

General information on careers
for engineering and science tech­
nicians is available from:
American Society for Engineering Edu­
cation, Suite 400, 1 Dupont Circle,
Washington, D.C. 20036
Engineers Council for Professional Devel­
opment, 345 East 47th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
National Council of Technical Schools,
1835 K St. NW„ Room 907, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

Information on schools offering
technical programs is available
from the Engineers Council for Pro­
fessional Development, a nationally
recognized accrediting agency for
engineering technology programs; the
National Council of Technical
Schools; and the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington,
D.C. 20202.
State departments of education
at each State capital also have in­
formation about approved tech­
nical institutes, junior colleges, and
other educational institutions with­
in the State offering post-high
school training for specific tech­
nical occupations. Other sources
American Association of Junior Col­
leges, Suite 410, 1 Dupont Circle,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council, 1601
18th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Association of Trade and
Technical Schools, 2021 L St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 022.281,029.381)
Nature off the Work

Unlike man’s experience of the
past, when food was processed and
prepared in the home, much of the
food we eat today is processed and
prepared by industrial firms and
sold at local supermarkets. A rela­
tively small but important number
of technicians work for these indus­
trial firms in all areas of food
technology, from the development
of new products and processing
techniques to production, food
quality inspection, and marketing.
Titles of technicians in the food
processing industry vary from plant
to plant, as do technicians’ respon­
sibilities. Food processing tech­
nicians are known as Laboratory
or Quality Assurance Technicians,
Physical Science Aides, Plant
Facilities Technicians, Biological
Aides, Laboratory Analysts, and
Research and Development Tech­
In research and development,
food processing technicians assist
food scientists in improving exist­
ing food products, creating new food
items, and developing and improv­
ing processes related to production.
Duties may include separating and
weighing the ingredients of a pro­
duct and conducting microbio­
logical and chemical analyses of
these substances. Technicians also
set up samples to test flavor, color,
and textural characteristics of
foods to insure that they will ap­
peal to consumers. Their work
often involves operating and main­
taining laboratory equipment such
as balances, microscopes, test
tubes, and cryoscopes (instruments
that determine the freezing point
of liquids). Technicians frequently



incoming raw materials to insure
suitability for processing and
storage under proper conditions.
Technicians, working closely with
plant managers, recommend meas­
ures to improve production
methods, equipment performance,
and product quality. They also
methods and use of equipment to
Some technicians supervise cook­
ing or packaging operations; others
are concerned primarily with sani­
tation in all areas of a food proces­
sing plant. They help identify bac­
terial problems on the line or in the
plant, recommend cleaning and san­
itizing solutions, and direct clean­
ing crews.
Technicians in the food proces­
sing industry frequently work as
manufacturers’ technical salesmen
providing nutritional and cost in­
formation to prospective customers.
Many others work as food buyers
for supermarket chains where their
knowledge of food technology is
used to select the best packaged
and fresh foods for their com­
Places of Employment
Food processing technicians help create new food items.

write reports on experiments, tests,
and other projects.
In quality assurance laborato­
ries, technicians insure conformity
with established industry and
government standards by testing
both raw ingredients and finished
products bacteriologically, chem­
ically, and physically. They may
test food samples taken from the
production line for bacteria and
other possible forms of contamina­
tion. Technicians may also ex­
amine samples for protein and
vitamin content, as well as for
color, flavor, and texture, to pro­

tect the quality of a product. This
work involves the use of equipment
such as incubators, color compari­
son charts, and pH meters (to deter­
mine the degree of acidity). Tech­
nicians record their findings and
sometimes recommend changes in
processing techniques.
In production, food processing
technicians help supervise proces­
sing of food products. They often
work closely with fieldmen (com­
pany technicians who help farmers
produce the best types of food) to
insure a steady flow of products
from farm to plant. They inspect

About 4,500 food processing
technicians worked in the food pro­
cessing industry in 1972. These
technicians work for all major food
processing firms. Food processing
technicians are found in most
States; however, the largest num­
bers are in those States having the
heaviest concentration of food
processing plants: California, Illi­
nois, Pennsylvania, Texas, Ohio,
New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,
Iowa, and New York.
Food technicians, in addition to
being employed by food processors,
may work for State and Federal
food inspection agencies, food
brokers, and supermarket chains.


(See statement on Health and Reg­
ulatory Inspectors elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Others work in re­
lated fields where their special­
ized training can be utilized—in­
cluding food packaging companies,
food warehousing and transporting
companies, and manufacturers of
food processing equipment.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Men and women who wish to
prepare for careers as food pro­
cessing technicians can obtain the
necessary training from a variety
of educational institutions, or can
qualify for their work on the job.
Most employers, however, prefer to
hire those who have had some form
of specialized training. Formal
training programs are offered in
post-secondary schools, such as
technical institutes, junior and
community colleges, and technical
divisions of four-year universities.
secondary technician training re­
quire a high school diploma for
admittance. Some post-secondary
schools admit students on the basis
of successful work experience in the
food industry and the recom­
mendation of their employer.
Students preparing for careers as
food processing technicians should
take a year each of biology and
chemistry, and two years of math­
ematics (algebra and geometry)
while in high school. Statistics,
English, and social science courses
also are helpful.
Schools specializing in post-high
school technical training offer one,
two, and in very few cases, three
majority are two-year programs
leading to an associate of applied
science degree. Programs usually
include courses
in chemistry,
microbiology, mathematics, and


specialized study of food proces­
sing, quality control, packaging,
plant and environmental sanitation,
Schools also generally offer elec­
tive courses such as accounting,
economics, and English.
Curriculums may vary consider­
ably among the schools offering
programs in food science tech­
nology. Some schools for example,
have programs in food processing
technology geared towards an
individual food processing indus­
try, such as the dairy industry.
Many two-year schools require
work experience in some phase of
the industry between the first
and second year, and others suggest
that their students obtain this kind
school’s placement bureau often
assists students in finding this
type of employment. Besides pro­
viding practical experience, this
aids students in paying their tuition
expenses and frequently leads to
full-time jobs after graduation.
Technicians also can qualify for
jobs by completing on-the-job
training programs, or through work
experience and formal courses
taken on a part-time basis. Also,
many students from various science
disciplines who have not completed
bachelor’s degree are able to
qualify for technician jobs after
obtaining some additional technical
training and experience. Although
there are many ways to qualify
for food processing technician jobs,
post-secondary training is increas­
ingly becoming a prerequisite for
In the dairy industry, laboratory
technicians must meet licensing re­
quirements in most States. These
requirements vary, but generally
include a written test.
Food processing technicians gen­
erally work as part of a team.

Because the quality of processed
food affects many people, the food
technician must work to exact­
ing standards and be dependable.
to make oral or written reports
on the results of their work.
Food processing technicians usu­
ally begin work as trainees under
the direct supervision of an ex­
perienced food scientist, and are
systematically assigned to jobs
throughout the plant. Technicians
may begin their careers at a lower
level supervisory capacity and,
depending on training, ability, and
experience, may work up to the
mid-management level. Food tech­
nicians working in laboratories
receive more demanding assign­
ments as they gain experience, and
may advance to other positions
such as salesmen, purchasing
agents or fieldmen.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
food processing technicians are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. Many technicians will
be needed because of the moderate
growth expected in the field and
because of the need to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
occupations. The demand will be
strongest for graduates of post­
secondary technical training pro­
The public’s desire for more con­
venience foods in the home, and the
need for these products by food
service institutions are factors
underlying the expected increase in
demand for food processing tech­
nicians. Also, the complexity of
processes involved in developing
and marketing new food products
will create a need for more tech­
nicians. This need will be especially
critical in quality assurance areas,
as higher quality and safety stand­



ards are set and as more technical
supervision in processing become
necessary. Many smaller processing
firms, which currently operate with­
out the aid of technicians, are ex­
pected to require them in the

In general, technicians’ earn­
ings depend on their education,
ability, and work experience. Other
important factors are the type of
firms for which they work, their
specific duties, and the geographic
location of their jobs. Beginning
food processing technicians had
average starting salaries of $7,300
a year in 1972, according to limited
data. Most technicians can look
forward to an increase in earn­
ings as they gain experience and
advance to higher level positions.
Sources of Additional Information

formation about boundaries, land
features, and other physical char­
acteristics of the construction site.
Surveyors measure construction
sites, help establish official land
boundaries, assist in setting land
valuations, and collect information
for maps and charts.
Surveyors (sometimes called par­
ty chiefs) are in charge of a field
party that determines the precise
measurements and locations of ele­
vations, points, lines, and contours
on the earth’s surface, and distances
between points. Surveyors are di­
rectly responsible for the field
party’s activity and the accuracy
of their work. They plan the field
work, select survey reference points,
and determine the precise location
of natural and man-made features
of the survey region. They record
the information disclosed by the
survey, verify the accuracy of the
survey data, and prepare sketches,
maps, and reports.

A typical field party is made up
of the surveyor and three to six
other workers. Instrumentmen ad­
just and operate surveying instru­
ments such as the theodolite (used
to measure horizontal and vertical
angles), and the altimeter (used to
measure altitude). Chainmen use
a steel tape or surveyor’s chain to
measure distances between survey­
ing points. Generally chainmen
work in pairs, one holding the head
end of the tape to establish the
most advanced measuring point
and the other holding the rear end
of the tape at the last established
point. Chainmen also may mark
measured points with painted stakes.
Rodmen use a level rod, range
(D.O.T. 018.188)
pole, or other equipment to assist
instrumentmen in determining ele­
vations, distances, and directions.
Nature of the Work
They hold and move the range pole
Before engineers can plan a high­ according to hand or verbal signals
way or other building projects, they of an instrumentman to help estab­
need complete and accurate in­ lish the exact point of measurement.
For further information regard­
ing careers as food processing tech­
nicians, students should contact
their school counselors for help in
locating technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, and uni­
versities offering programs in food
processing technology. (See Sources
of Additional Information in the
statement on Engineering and
Science Technicians elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Rodmen also may clear brush from
the survey line.
Surveyors often specialize in a
particular type of survey. Besides
doing highway surveys, many per­
form land surveys and locate bound­
aries of a particular tract of land.
They then prepare maps and legal
descriptions for deeds, leases, and
other documents. Surveyors doing
topographic surveys determine ele­
vations, depressions, and contours
of an area, and indicate the location
of distinguishing surface features
such as farms, buildings, forests,
roads, and rivers.
Several closely related occupa­
tions are geodesy and photogrammetry. Geodesists measure im­
mense areas of land, sea, or space
by taking into account the earth’s
curvature and its geophysical char­
acteristics. (See statement on Geo­
physicists elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) Photogrammetrists measure
and interpret natural or man-made
features of an area and make topo­
graphic maps by applying analytical
processes and mathematical tech­
niques to photographs obtained
from aerial or ground surveys.

Places of Employment

About 58,000 people worked as
surveyors in 1972; less than 5 per­
cent were women.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies employ almost onethird of all surveyors. Among the
Federal Government agencies em­
ploying these workers are the U.S.
Geological Survey, the Bureau of
Land Management, the Army
Corps of Engineers, and the Forest
Service. Surveyors in State and
local government agencies work
mainly for highway departments
and urban planning and redevelop­
ment agencies.
A large number of surveyors
work for construction companies


and for engineering and architec­
tural consulting firms. A sizable
number either work for or own
firms that conduct surveys for a
fee. Significant numbers of sur­
veyors also work for crude-petroleum
and natural gas companies, and for
public utilities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A combination of post-secondary
school courses in surveying and
extensive on-the-job training is the
most common method of entering
surveying work. Junior colleges,
technical institutes, and vocational
schools offer 1, 2, and 3-year pro­
grams in surveying. Most surveying
programs admit only high school
graduates, preferably those who
studied algebra, geometry, trigo­
nometry, calculus, drafting, and
mechanical drawing. With some
post-secondary school courses in
surveying, beginners generally start
as instrumentmen. After gaining
experience, they usually advance
to party chief or surveyor. In many
instances, promotions to higher
level positions are based on written
examinations as well as experience.
High school graduates with no
formal training in surveying usually
start as rodmen. After several years
of on-the-job experience and some
formal training in surveying, it is
possible to advance to chainman,
instrumentman, and finally to sur­
For those interested in a profes­
sional career in photogrammetry,
a bachelor’s degree in engineering
or the physical sciences is usually
All 50 States require licensing
or registration of land surveyors
responsible for locating and de­
scribing land boundaries. In some
of these States, applicants for li­
censes need to know other types


of surveying in addition to land
surveying. Requirements vary among
the States but in general include a
combination of 4 to 8 years’ experi­
ence in surveying and passing an
examination. Most States reduce
the length of experience needed to
take the licensing examination if
the applicant has taken post­
secondary courses in surveying.
In 1972, about 19,500 land sur­
veyors were registered. In addition,
about 16,000 engineers were regis­
tered to do land surveying, primari­
ly as part of their civil engineering
duties; however, these workers are
considered engineers rather than
surveyors. (See statement on Civil
Engineers elsewhere in the Hand­
Qualifications for success as a
surveyor include an ability to
visualize objects, distances, sizes,

and other abstract forms and to
make mathematical calculations
quickly and accurately. Leadership
qualities also are important as
surveyors must supervise the work
of others.
Members of a survey party must
be strong and healthy to work out­
doors and carry equipment over
difficult terrain. They also need
good eyesight, coordination, and
hearing to communicate over great
distances by hand signals or voice
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
surveyors are expected to be good
through the mid-1980’s, especially
for those with post-secondary school
training. In addition to the open­
ings resulting from the very rapid

Surveyors work in all types of terrain.


growth expected for the field,
others will be needed to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer
to other fields of work.
The rapid development of urban
areas and increased land values
should create jobs for surveyors to
locate boundaries for property
records. Others will be needed to
lay out streets, shopping centers,
schools, and recreation areas. Con­
struction and improvement of the
Nation’s roads and highways also
will require many new surveyors.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
early 1973, high school graduates
with little or no training or experi­
ence started as rodmen or chainmen with an annual salary of
$5,432, and $6,128 for those with
one-year of related post-secondary
training. Those with an associate
degree and courses in surveying
generally started as instrumentmen
with an annual salary of $6,882.


Starting salaries for people who
had enough experience and train­
ing to qualify as a party chief or
surveyor ranged from $8,572 to
$9,520 per year. The majority of
party chiefs in the Federal Govern­
ment earned between $8,000 and
$11,000 per year and some sur­
veyors in high level positions earned
more than $14,000 per year.
Although salaries vary by geo­
graphic area, limited data indicate
that salaries in private industry are
generally comparable to those in
Federal service and above the
average earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Surveyors in private prac­
tice averaged $12,000 a year in
small limited practices and much
greater amounts in large diversified
Surveyors usually work an 8hour, 5-day week. However, they
sometimes work longer hours dur­
ing the summer months when
weather conditions are most suit­
able for surveying. The work of

surveyors is active and sometimes
strenuous. They may stand for long
periods and walk long distances or
climb mountains with heavy packs
of instruments and equipment. Be­
cause most work is out-of-doors,
surveyors may be exposed to all
types of weather. Some duties, such
as planning surveys, preparing re­
ports and computations, and draw­
ing maps usually are done in an
Sources of Additional Information

Information about training and
career opportunities in surveying
is available from:
American Congress on Surveying and
Mapping, Woodward Building, 733
15th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

General information on careers
in photogrammetry is available
American Society of Photogrammetry
150 North Virginia Ave., Falls Church,
Va. 22046.

When people are sick or injured,
the availability of health services be­
comes very important to them.
These services depend not only on
the number of people employed in
health occupations, but also on their
geographic distribution. Numbers
employed have grown very rapidly
in recent years. How to improve
their distribution remains a problem
which is being attacked on the na­
tional, State, and local levels.
About 3.8 million people worked
in health-related occupations in
1972. Besides doctors, nurses, den­
tists, and therapists, these include
the behind-the-scenes technologists,
technicians, administrators, and as­
Registered nurses, physicians,
pharmacists, and dentists constitute
the largest professional health occu­
pations; of these, the largest group
in 1972 was registered nurses
(750,000) and the smallest was
dentists (105,000). Professional
health occupations also include
other medical practitioners (osteo­
pathic physicians, chiropractors, op­
tometrists, podiatrists, and veteri­
narians). Therapists (physical ther­
apists) and administrators (hospital
administrators and medical record
administrators) also are profes­
sional health workers, as are dieti­
tians and sanitarians.
Other health service workers in­
clude technicians of various types,
such as dental hygienists, medical
laboratory workers, and respiratory
Hospitals employ about half of
all workers in the health field. Oth­
ers work in clinics, laboratories,
pharmacies, nursing homes, public
health agencies, mental health cen­
ters, private offices, and patients’
homes. Health workers are em­

ployed mainly in the more heavily
populated and prosperous areas of
the Nation.
Large numbers of women work
in health occupations. Almost all
nurses are women, as are most work­
ers in the technician and therapist
occupations. While more than nine
of every ten medical practitioners
are men, an increasing number of
women have entered these occupa­
tions in recent years.


The educational and other re­
quirements for work in the health
field are as diverse as the health
occupations themselves. For exam­
ple, professional health workers—
physicians, dentists, pharmacists,
and others— must complete a num­
ber of years of preprofessional and
professional college education and
pass a State licensing examination.
On the other hand, some health
service occupations can be entered
with little specialized training. Many
community and junior colleges have
introduced courses recently to pre­
pare students for various health oc­
cupations. In most of the occupa­
tions for which on-the-job-training
has been the usual means of prep­
aration, employers now prefer to
hire persons who have completed
one of these formal programs.


People in health occupations that
require graduation from college earn
from one-and-a-half times to twice
the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry
other than farming. Health workers

include the highest paid occupation
— physicians— and 8 of the top 15
occupations for which average
yearly earnings are reported in this
volume. Earnings for the health oc­
cupations that can be entered with
up to 2 years of formal training are
about the same as average earnings
for nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry other than farming.

Total employment in the health
field is expected to grow very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s, although
the rates of growth will differ con­
siderably among individual health
occupations. Among the factors that
are expected to contribute to an in­
crease in the demand for health care
are population growth, increasing
health consciousness, and rising
standards of living. Expansion of
coverage under payment programs
that make it easier for persons to
pay for hospitalization and medical
care also will cause growth in the
health service occupations. Other
openings will be created each year
by the increasing expenditures by
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments for health care and services.
In addition to jobs created by em­
ployment growth, many new workers
will be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or— particu­
larly for women—leave the field for
other reasons.
Recent expansion of training pro­
grams in most of the occupations
will add to the supply of trained
health service personnel. The em­
ployment outlook in the various oc­
cupations ranges from excellent to
competitive, depending on the bal­
ance between supply of workers and
expected openings. See the individ­
ual statements for an outlook de­
scription for each occupation.



Medical and dental practitioners
work to prevent, cure, and alleviate
disease. This group includes almost
four times as many physicians as all
other practitioners combined.
Physicians, osteopaths, and chiro­
practors treat diseases that affect the
whole body; chiropractors and oste­
opaths emphasize manipulation of
muscles and bones, especially the
spine. Optometrists care for the
eyes, and podiatrists treat foot dis­
eases and deformities. Dentists
examine and treat patients for oral
diseases and abnormalities, such as
decayed and impacted teeth. Veteri­
narians care for animals.
All of these occupations are
closely regulated. States require that
medical practitioners be licensed and
pass a State board exam. Only physi­
cians, osteopaths, podiatrists, den­
tists, and veterinarians can use sur­
gery and drugs in their treatment.
Among the seven medical practi­
tioner occupations, educational re­
quirements for a license vary from
6 to 9 years after high school. Most
schools of chiropractic require that
students complete 2 years of college
preceding their 4-year program.
Optometrists, podiatrists, and veteri­
narians all must complete a mini­
mum of 2 years of college before
beginning the 4-year program. After
graduation from college, osteopaths
must complete a 4-year program
and physicians and dentists generally
must study an additional 3 or 4
years. Most States require a 1-year
internship (supervised medical prac­
tice) for both physicians and osteo­
paths. Physicians who specialize
must spend more years in residency
at a hospital or health care institu­
tion and pass a specialty board ex­
The percentage of women medical

practitioners varies. Women make
up less than 10 percent of these
occupations, but this proportion rep­
resents a growth over the past few
years. Student enrollments indicate
that the proportion of women will
continue to grow.
All medical practitioners must
have the ability and perseverance to
complete the years of study required.
Medical practitioners should be
emotionally stable, be able to make
decisions in emergencies, and have
a strong desire to help the sick and
injured. Sincerity, understanding,
and the ability to inspire confidence
also are important qualities for
medical practitioners.

strict the type of supplementary
treatment permitted in chiropractic.
Chiropractic as a system for healing
does not include the use of drugs
or surgery.
Places of Employment

About 16,000 persons, 6 percent
of them women, practiced chiro­
practic in 1972. Most chiropractors
are in private practice. Some are
salaried assistants of established
practitioners or work for chiro­
practic clinics and industrial firms.
Others teach or conduct research
at chiropractic colleges. More than
two-fifths of all chiropractors are
located in California, New York,
Texas, Missouri, and Ohio.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of the Work

Chiropractic is a system of treat­
ment based on the principle that a
person’s health is determined largely
by the nervous system, and that
interference with this system im­
pairs normal functions and lowers
resistance to disease. Chiropractors
treat patients primarily by manual
manipulation of parts of the body,
especially the spinal column.
Because of the emphasis of the
importance of the spine and its posi­
tion, most chiropractors use X-rays
extensively to aid in locating the
source of patients’ difficulties.
Many also use such supplementary
measures as water, light, and heat
therapy, and prescribe diet, exer­
cise, and rest. Most State laws re­

Forty-eight States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia regulate the prac­
tice of chiropractic and grant licenses
to chiropractors who meet certain
educational requirements and pass
a State board examination. The
type of practice permitted and the
educational requirements for a li­
cense vary considerably from one
State to another. In 1972, Louisiana
and Mississippi did not regulate the
practice of chiropractic or issue
Most States require successful
completion of a 4-year chiropractic
course following high school grad­
uation. About three-quarters of the
States also require 2 years of col­
lege work in addition to chiro­
practic training. Nearly two-fifths
of the States also require that
chiropractors pass a basic science
examination. Chiropractors licensed
in one State may obtain a license
in another State by reciprocity.
In 1972, there were 10 chiropractic
colleges. Most require 2 years of
college before entrance, and some



chiropractors are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
Most of the openings will be to re­
place those who die and retire.
Underlying the expected moderate
growth in the occupation are an
increase in the population and the
trend to include chiropractic serv­
ices in health insurance coverage,
including Medicare and Medicaid.
Since most States require some
college training and others are like­
ly to require it in the next few years,
the outlook is best for those who
have completed 2 years of college
in addition to the 4 years of chiro­
practic college.
Opportunities for new graduates
to begin their own practice are like­
ly to be best in those parts of the
country where chiropractic is gen­
erally accepted as a method of
health care. Opportunities also
should be good for those who wish
to enter salaried positions in chiro­
practic clinics, chiropractic colleges,
and other organizations that employ
Earnings and Working Conditions

require that specific courses be
taken during these 2 years. Some
chiropractic colleges emphasize
courses in manipulation and spinal
adjustments. Others offer a broader
curriculum, including subjects such
as physiotheraphy and nutrition. In
most chiropractic colleges, the first
2 years of the curriculum are de­
voted chiefly to classroom and
laboratory work in subjects such
as anatomy, physiology, and bio­
chemistry. During the last 2 years,
students obtain practical experience
in college clinics. The degree of
Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.) is
awarded to students completing 4
years of chiropractic training.
Chiropractic requires consider­
able hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Persons de­

siring to become chiropractors
should be able to work indepen­
dently and handle responsibility.
The ability to work with detail is
important. Sympathy and under­
standing are among personal quali­
ties considered desirable in dealing
effectively with patients.
Most newly licensed chiropractors
either set up a new practice or
purchase an established one. Some
start as salaried chiropractors to
acquire experience and funds needed
to establish their own practice. A
moderate financial investment is
usually necessary to open and equip
an office.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for

In chiropractic, as in other types
of independent practice, earnings
are relatively low in the begin­
ning, but rise after the first few
years. Incomes of chiropractors vary
widely. Earnings for beginning
chiropractors average about $10,000
a year. Experienced chiropractors
usually earn from $14,000 to $28,000
annually, with an average of about
$24,000, according to limited data
Sources of Additional Information

The State board of licensing in
the capital of each State can supply
information on State licensing re­
General information on chiro­
practic as a career and a list of



schools of chiropractic are available
American Chiropractic Association, 2200
Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Association
741 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa 52808.

For information on requirements
for admission to a specific chiro­
practic college, contact the admis­
sions office of that school.

(D.O.T. 072.108)
Dentists examine teeth and other
tissues of the mouth to diagnose
diseases or abnormalities. They take
X-rays, fill cavities, straighten teeth,
and treat gum diseases. Dentists ex­
tract teeth and substitute artificial
dentures designed for the individual
patient. They also perform correc­
tive surgery of the gums and sup­
porting bones. In addition, they
may clean teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time
with patients, but may devote some
time to laboratory work such as
making dentures and inlays. Many
dentists, however—particularly in
large cities—send most of their
laboratory work to commercial
firms. Some dentists also employ
dental hygienists to clean patients’
teeth and for other duties. (See
statement on Dental Hygienists.)
They also may employ other assist­
ants who perform office work and
assist in “chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general prac­
titioners who provide many types
of dental care; about 10 percent
are specialists. The largest group
of specialists are orthodontists, who
straighten teeth. The next largest
group, oral surgeons, operate in

the mouth and jaws. The remainder
specialize in pedodontics (dentistry
for children); periodontics (treating
the gums); prosthodontics (making
artificial teeth or dentures); endo­
dontics (root canal therapy); public
health dentistry; and oral pathology
(diseases of the mouth).
About 3 percent of all dentists
teach in dental schools, do research,
or administer dental health pro­
grams on a full-time basis. Many
dentists in private practice do this
work on a part-time basis.

Places of Employment

About 105,000 dentists were at
work in the United States in 1972—
9 of every 10 were in private prac­
tice. About 5,800 served as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces,
and about 1,400 had other types of
Federal Government positions—
chiefly in the hospitals and clinics
of the Veterans Administration and
the Public Health Service. Women
dentists represent only about 2 per­
cent of the profession.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license to practice dentistry
is required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must be a grad­
uate of an approved dental school
and pass a State board examination.
In 1972, 49 States and the District
of Columbia recognized the exami­
nation given by the National Board
of Dental Examiners as a substi­
tute for the written part of the
State board examinations. Delaware
also requires new graduates to serve
1 year of hospital internship, in
addition to passing the written ex­
amination. Most State licenses per­
mit dentists to engage in both
general and specialized practice.
In 13 States, however, a dentist
cannot be licensed as a “ specialist”
unless he has had 2 or 3 years of
graduate education and passes a
special State examination. Few
States permit dentists licensed in
other States to practice in their
jurisdictions without further ex­
Dental colleges require from 2
to 3 years of predental education.
However, of those students enter­
ing dental school in 1971, 70 per­
cent had a baccalaureate or mas­
ter’s degree. Predental education
must include courses in the sciences
and humanities.
Competition is keen for admit­
tance to dental schools. In selecting
students, schools give considerable
weight to college grades and amount
of college education. In addition, all
dental schools participate in a nation­
wide admission testing program, and
scores earned on these tests are
considered along with information
gathered about the applicant through
recommendations and interviews.
Many S tate-supported dental
schools also give preference to
residents of their particular States.
Dental school training generally

lasts 4 academic years although
some institutions condense this into
3 calendar years. Studies begin with
an emphasis on classroom instruc­
tion and laboratory work in basic
sciences such as anatomy, micro­
biology, and physiology. The last
2 years are spent chiefly in a dental
clinic, treating patients.
The degree of Doctor of Dental
Surgery (D.D.S.) is awarded by
most dental colleges. An equivalent
degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine
(D.M.D.) is conferred by 13 schools.
Dentists who want to do research,
teach, or become specialists must
spend an additional 2 to 4 years
in advanced dental training in pro­
grams operated by dental schools,
hospitals, and other institutions of
higher education.
Dental education is very costly
because of the length of time re­
quired to earn the dental degree.
However, the Comprehensive Health
Manpower Training Act of 1971
provides Federal funds for loans
and scholarships of up to $3,500 a
year to help needy students pursue
full-time study leading to the de­
The profession of dentistry re­
quires both manual skills and a
high level of intelligence. Dentists
should have good visual memory,
excellent judgment of space and
shape, delicacy of touch, and a
high degree of manual dexterity, as
well as scientific ability. The ability
to instill confidence, self-discipline,
and a good business sense are help­
ful for success in private practice.
Most dental graduates open their
own offices or purchase established
practices. Some start in practice
with established dentists, to gain
experience and to save the money
required to equip an office; others
may enter residency or internship
training programs in approved hos­
pitals. Dentists who enter the Armed
Forces are commissioned as cap­

tains in the Army and Air Force
and as lieutenants in the Navy.
Graduates of recognized dental
schools are eligible for Federal
Civil Service positions and for com­
missions (equivalent to lieutenants
in the Navy) in the U.S. Public
Health Service.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunites for den­
tists are expected to be very good
through the mid-1980’s. Dental
school enrollments have grown in
recent years because of Federallyassisted construction of additional
training facilities. However, unless
schools expand beyond present
levels, the number of new entrants
to the field is expected to fall short
of the number needed to fill open­
ings created by growth of the occu­
pation and by those who die and
retire from the profession.
Employment of dentists is ex­
pected to grow rapidly due to
population growth, increased aware­
ness that regular dental care helps
prevent and control dental diseases,
and the expansion of prepayment
arrangements which make it easier
for people to afford dental services.
In addition, dental public health
programs will need qualified admin­
istrators and dental colleges will
need additional faculty members.
Many dentists will continue to serve
in the Armed Forces.
Improved dental hygiene and
fluoridation of community water
supplies may prevent some tooth
and gum disorders, and preserve
teeth that might otherwise be ex­
tracted. However, since the pre­
served teeth will need care in the
future, these measures may increase
rather than decrease the demand
for dental care. New techniques,
equipment, and drugs, as well as the
expanded use of dental hygienists,
assistants, and laboratory techni­



cians should enable individual den­
tists to care for more patients.
However, these developments are
not expected to offset the need for
more dentists.

given State should get the require­
ments for licensure from the board
of dental examiners of that State.
Lists of State boards and of ac­
credited dental schools, as well as
information on dentistry as a
career, is available from:

Earnings and Working Conditions

American Dental Association, Council
on Dental Education, 211 East Chicago
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental Schools
1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
more than the minimum needed to
cover expenses, but their earnings
usually rise rapidly as their prac­
tice develops. Specialists generally
earn considerably more than general
practitioners. The average income
of dentists in 1972 was about $34,000
a year, according to limited infor­
mation available. In the Federal
Government, new graduates of den­
tal schools could expect to start at
$13,996 a year, in early 1973.
Location is one of the major fac­
tors affecting the income of dentists
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas,
dental services are in great demand;
however, a practice can be devel­
oped most quickly in small towns,
where new dentists easily become
known and they may face less competiton with established practition­
ers. Although the income from
practice in small towns may rise
rapidly at first, over the long run
the level of earnings, like the cost
of living, may be lower than it is
in larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists have
evening hours. Dentists usually work
between 40 and 45 hours a week,
although many spend more than 50
hours a week in the office. Dentists
often work fewer hours as they grow
older, and a considerable number
continue in part-time practice well
beyond the usual retirement age.
Sources of Additional Information

Persons who wish to practice in a

Students should contact the Di­
rector of Student Financial Aid at
the school they attend to get infor­
mation about Federal loans and

(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of the Work

About 2 out of every 5 persons
in the United States need eye care.
Optometrists provide most of this
care. They examine people’s eyes
for vision problems, disease, and
other abnormal conditions, and test
for proper depth and color percep­
tion and the ability to focus and co­
ordinate the eyes. When necessary,
they prescribe lenses and treat­
ment. Most optometrists supply the
prescribed eyeglasses and fit and
adjust contact lenses. Optometrists
also prescribe corrective eye exer-



cises or other treatment not re­
quiring drugs or surgery.
Although most optometrists are
in general practice, some specialize
in work with the aged or with chil­
dren. Others work only with per­
sons having partial sight who can
be helped with microscopic or tele­
scopic lenses. Still others are con­
cerned with the visual safety of in­
dustrial workers. A few optome­
trists teach or do research.
Optometrists should not be con­
fused with either ophthalmologists,
sometimes referred to as oculists,
or with dispensing opticians.
Ophthalmologists are physicians who
specialize in eye diseases and in­
juries, perform eye surgery, and
prescribe drugs or other eye treat­
ment, as well as lenses. Dispensing
opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses
according to prescriptions written
by ophthalmologists or optometrists;
they do not examine eyes or pre­
scribe treatment. (See statement on
Dispensing Opticians.)
Places of Employment

In 1972, there were about 18,700
practicing optometrists; about 3 per­
cent were women.
Most optometrists are in single
practice. Others are in partnerships
or group practice with other optome­
trists or doctors as part of a profes­
sional health care team.
Some optometrists work in special­
ized hospitals and eye clinics and
teach in schools of optometry. Others
work for the Veterans Administra­
tion, public and private health
agencies, and industrial health in­
surance companies. About 600 op­
tometrists serve as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces. Op­
tometrists also may act as consult­
ants to engineers specializing in safe­
ty or lighting, educators in remedial
reading, or serve as members of
health advisory committees to Fed­

eral, State and local governments.
According to a recent survey,
about 3 optometrists out of 5
practice in towns of under 50,000

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All States and the District of
Columbia require that optometrists
be licensed. Applicants for a license
must have a Doctor of Optometry
degree from an accredited optometric school and pass a State
board examination. In some States,
applicants are permitted to sub­
stitute the National Board of Op­
tometry examination, given in the
third and fourth year of optometric school, for the written State
examination. Several States allow
applicants to be licensed without
lengthy examination if they have a
license in another State.
The Doctor of Optometry degree
requires a minimum of 6 years of
college consisting of a 4 year pro­
fessional degree program preceded
by at least 2 years of preoptometric study at an accredited uni­
versity, college, or junior college.
In 1972, there were 12 optometric
schools approved by the Council on
Optometric Education of the Ameri­
can Optometric Association. Re­
quirements for admission to these
schools usually include courses in
English, m athem atics, physics,
chemistry, and biology, or zoology.
Some schools also require courses
in psychology, social studies, litera­
ture, philosophy, and foreign lan­
Since most optometrists are selfemployed, business ability, selfdiscipline, and the ability to deal
with patients tactfully are neces­
sary for success.
Most beginning optometrists en­
ter into associate practice with an

optometrist or other health profes­
sional. Others either purchase an
established practice or set up a new
practice. Some take salaried posi­
tions to obtain experience and the
necessary funds to enter their own
Optometrists wishing to advance
in a specialized field may study for
a Master’s or Doctor of Philosophy
degree in physiological optics,
neurophysiology, public health ad­
ministration, health information
and communication, and health
education. Optometrists who enter
the Armed Forces as career officers
have the opportunity to work
toward advanced degrees and to do
vision research.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
optometrists are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
New graduates from schools of op­
tometry are expected to be
adequate to fill the positions made
available by the moderate employ­
ment growth in the occupation and
the need to replace optometrists
who die and retire.
An increase in the total popula­
tion, especially in the groups most
likely to need glasses—older people
and white-collar workers—is the
main factor contributing to the
moderate growth expected in the
occupation. Greater recognition of
the importance of good vision for
efficiency at school and work, and
the possibility that more persons
will have health insurance to cover
optometric services, also should in­
crease the demand for optometric

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1972, net earnings of new op­
tometry graduates averaged about
$13,000; experienced optometrists



averaged from $26,000 to $28,000
annually. Incomes vary greatly, de­
pending upon location, specializa­
tion, and other factors. Optome­
begin at approximately the same
income level as those entering
associateship or group practice.
However, after several years, the
optometrist in associateship or part­
nership practice will earn substan­
tially more than his solo practition­
er counterpart.
Independent practitioners can
set their own work schedule. Some
work over 40 hours a week, in­
cluding Saturday. Since the work
is not physically strenuous, op­
tometrists often can continue to
practice after the normal retire­
ment age.
Sources of Additional Information

Information on optometry as a
career and a list of scholarships and
loan funds offered by various state
associations, societies, and institu­
tions are available from:


7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo.

(D.O.T. 071.108)

Scholarships and Loans are avail­
able for up to $3,500 per year for
optometric students. For informa­
tion on this financial aid and on
schools. The Board of Optometry
in the capital of each State can
supply a list of optometry schools
approved by that State, as well as
licensing requirements.

Nature of the Work

Osteopathic physicians diagnose,
prescribe remedies,
and treat
diseases of the human body. They
are particularly concerned about
problems centered in the muscles
or bones. The basic treatment or
therapy used by osteopathic phy­
sicians centers on manipulating
these systems with the hands.
Osteopathic physicians also use
surgery, drugs, and all other ac­
cepted methods of medical care.
Most osteopathic physicians are
“ family doctors” who engage in
general practice. These physicians
usually see patients in their offices,
make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and some city and
county hospitals. A few doctors of

osteopathy teach, do research, or
write and edit scientific books and
In recent years, specialization
has increased. In 1972, about 10
percent were practicing specialties
including internal medicine, neurol­
ogy and psychiatry, ophthalmology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physical
medicine and rehabilitation, derma­
tology, obstetrics and gynecology,
pathology, proctology, radiology,
and surgery.
Places of Employment

About 13,800 osteopathic phy­
sicians were practicing in the United
States in 1972; nearly 9 percent
were women. Nearly all osteopathic
physicians were in private practice.
Less than 5 percent had full-time
salaried positions in osteopathic
hospitals and colleges, private indus­
try, or government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are lo­


cated chiefly in those States that
have osteopathic hospital facilities.
In 1972, almost half of all osteo­
pathic physicians were in Michigan,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Missouri.
Twenty-three States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia each had fewer
than 50 osteopathic physicians.
More than half of all general prac­
titioners are located in towns and
cities having fewer than 50,000
people; specialists, however, prac­
tice mainly in large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications

A license to practice as an osteo­
pathic physician is required in all
States. To obtain a license, a can­
didate must be a graduate of an
approved school of osteopathy and
pass a State board examination. In
17 States and the District of Co­
lumbia, candidates must pass an ex­
amination in the basic sciences
before they are eligible to take
the professional examination; 36
States and the District of Columbia
also require a period of intern­
ship in an approved hospital after
graduation from an osteopathic
school. The National Board of
Osteopathic Examiners also gives an
examination which is accepted by
some states as a substitute for state
examination. All States except
Alaska and California grant licenses
without further examination to
properly qualified osteopathic phy­
sicians already licensed by another
Although 3 years of preosteopathic college work is the mini­
mum entrance requirement for
schools of osteopathy, almost all
osteopathic students have a bache­
lors degree. Preosteopathic educa­
tion must include courses in
chemistry, physics, biology, and
English. Osteopathic colleges require
successful completion of 4 years of
professional study for the degree

of Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.).
During the first 2 years of profes­
sional training, emphasis is placed
on basic sciences such as anatomy,
physiology, pathology and on the
principles of osteopathy; the last
2 years are devoted largely to
work with patients in hospitals
and clinics.
After graduation, nearly all doc­
tors of osteopathy serve a 12month internship at 1 of the 73
osteopathic hospitals that the
American Osteopathic Association
has approved for intern training.
Those who wish to become special­
ists must have 2 to 5 years of addi­
tional training, followed by 2 years
of supervised practice in the
training is very costly because of
the length of time it takes to earn
the D.O. degree. However, Federal
funds for loans and scholarships of
up to $3,500 a year are available
to help needy students pursue full­
time study leading to the degree.
The seven schools of osteopathy
admit students on the basis of
grades received in college, scores
on the required Medical College
Admissions Test, and the amount
of preosteopathic college work
completed. The applicant’s desire


State laws, persons who wish to be­
come osteopathic physicians should
study carefully the professional and
legal requirements of the State in
which they plan to practice. The
availability of osteopathic hospitals
and clinical facilities also should
be considered.
Persons who wish to become
osteopathic physicians must have a
strong desire to practice osteo­
pathic principles of healing. They
should have a keen sense of touch,
selfconfidence. A pleasant personality,
friendliness, patience, and the
ability to deal with people also are

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic
physicians are expected to be very
good through 1980. With the
planned expansion of schools of
osteopathy, by 1985 the number of
osteopathic physicians available is
expected to be in rough balance
with the openings created by growth
in the occupation and by those who
die or retire from the profession.
Greatest demand for their services
probably will continue to be in
States where osteopathy is a widely
accepted method of treatment, such
as Pennsylvania and a number of
to serve as an osteopathic phy­
sician rather than as a doctor Midwestern States. Generally, pros­
trained in other fields of medicine pects for beginning a successful
is a very important qualification. practice are likely to be best in
The colleges also give considerable rural areas, small towns, and city
weight to a favorable recom­ suburbs, where the young doctor of
mendation by an osteopathic phy­ osteopathy may establish his pro­
sician familiar with the applicant’s fessional reputation more easily
than in the centers of large cities.
Newly qualified doctors of
The osteopathic profession is ex­
osteopathy usually establish their pected to grow very rapidly because
own practice, although a growing of population growth; the extension
number are entering group practice. of prepayment programs for hospi­
A few work as assistants to ex­ talization and medical care in­
perienced physicians or become cluding Medicare and Medicaid;
associated with osteopathic hospi­ and the establishment of additional
tals. In view of the variation in osteopathic hospital facilities.



Earnings and Working Conditions


In osteopathy, as in many of the
other health professions, incomes
usually rise markedly after the first
few years of practice. Earnings of
individual practitioners are deter­
mined mainly by ability, experi­
ence, geographic location, and the
income level of the community
served. In 1972, the average income
of general practitioners after busi­
ness expenses ranged from $25,000
to $35,000, according to limited
data available. This income is very
high in comparison with other pro­
fessions. Specialists usually had
higher incomes than general prac­
osteopathic physicians
work more than 50 or 60 hours a
week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular
hours than specialists.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

Sources of Additional Information

People who wish to practice in
a given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of examiners
of that State. Information on
Federal scholarships and loans is
available from the Director of
Student Financial Aid at the indi­
vidual schools of osteopathy. For a
list of State boards, as well as
general information on osteopathy
as a career, contact:
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Nature of the Work

People in the United States
visit a physician on the average
of about 5 times a year either for
treatment of an illness or injury or
else for routine checkups. Physicians
diagnose diseases and treat people
who are suffering from injury or
disease. They also try to prevent
illness by advising patients on selfcare related to diet and exercise.
Physicians generally examine and
treat patients in their own offices
and in hospitals, but they may also
visit patients at home.
About one-fifth of the physicians
who provide patient care are
general practitioners; the others
specialize in 1 of the 33 fields
recognized by the medical profes­
sion. The largest specialties are
internal medicine, general surgery,
obstetrics and gynecology, psy­
anesthesiology, opthalmology, path­
ology, and orthopedic surgery.
Some physicians combine the
practice of medicine with research
or teaching in medical schools.
Others hold full-time research or
teaching positions or perform ad­
ministrative work in hospitals, pro­
fessional associations, and other
organizations. A few are primarily
engaged in writing and editing
medical books and magazines.
Places of Employment

About 316,500 physicians were
professionally active in the U.S.
in 1972; more than 7 percent
were women. About 9 out of 10 pro­
vided patient care services. Nearly
196,000 of these physicians had
office practices; more than 86,000
others worked as interns, residents,
or full-time staff in hospitals. Over

36,000 taught or performed admin­
istrative or research duties.
In 1972, 17,500 graduates of
foreign medical schools served as
hospital interns and residents in
this country. To be appointed to
approved internships or residencies
in U.S. hospitals, these graduates
(citizens of foreign countries as
well as U.S. citizens) must pass
the American Medical Qualification
Examination given by the Educa­
tional Council for Foreign Medical
The Northeastern States have the
highest ratio of physicians to popu­
lation and the Southern States, the
lowest. General practitioners are
much more widely spread geo­
graphically than specialists, who
tend to be concentrated in large
Training and Other Qualifications

All States and the District of Co­
lumbia require a license to practice
medicine. To qualify for a license, a
candidate must be a graduate of an
approved medical school, pass a
licensing examination, and in 34
States and the District of Columbia
serve a 1-year hospital internship.
Eighteen States and the District of
Columbia require candidates to pass
a special examination in the basic
sciences to become eligible for the
licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given
by State boards. The National
Board of Medical Examiners also
gives an examination which is ac­
cepted by 48 States and the District
of Columbia as a substitute for
State examinations. Although phy­
sicians licensed in one State usually
can get a license to practice in
another without further examina­
tion, some States limit this
In 1972, there were 110 approved
schools in the United States in


which students could begin the
study of medicine. One hundred
seven award the degree of Doctor
of Medicine (M.D.) to those who
complete the course; 3 offer 2-year
programs in the basic medical sci­
ences to students who could then
transfer to regular medical schools
for the last semesters of study.
Three new schools enrolled medical
students for the first time during
Most medical schools require
applicants to have completed at
least 3 years of college education;
some require 4 years. A few medi­
cal schools allow selected students
who have exceptional qualifications
to begin their professional study
after 2 years of college. Most stu­
dents who enter medical schools
have a bachelor’s degree.
Eleven States require various
courses in premedical study such
as undergraduate courses in English,
physics, biology, and inorganic and

organic chemistry in an accredited
college. Students should take
courses in the humanities, mathe­
matics, and the social sciences to
acquire a broad general education.
Other factors considered by medi­
cal schools in admitting students
include the individual’s college
record and his scores on the Medi­
cal College Admission Test, which
is taken by almost all applicants.
Consideration also is given to the
applicant’s character, personality,
and leadership qualities, as shown
by personal interviews, letters of
recommendation, and extracur­
ricular activities in college. Many
State-supported medical schools
give preference to residents of their
particular States and sometimes,
those of nearby States.
The traditional curriculum lead­
ing to the M.D. degree is a 4-year
course of study. However, more
than 30 medical schools have
shortened the curriculum or plan


to do so. Most of these are 3-year
curriculums, but a few schools
offer the M.D. degree within 6 years
of high school graduation.
The first semesters of medical
school training are spent primarily
in laboratories and classrooms,
learning basic medical sciences
such as anatomy, biochemistry,
physiology, pharamacology, micro­
biology, and pathology. During the
last semesters, students spend most
of their time in hospitals and
clinics under the supervision of ex­
perienced physicians. They learn to
take case histories, perform exam­
inations, and recognize diseases.
Many new physicians acquire
training beyond the 1-year hospital
internship. Those who plan to be
general or family practitioners often
spend an additional year or two as
interns or residents in a hospital.
To become certified specialists,
physicians must pass specialty
board examinations. To qualify for
these examinations, they must
spend from 2 to 4 years—depending
on the specialty—in advanced hos­
pital training as residents, followed
by 2 years or more of practice in
the specialty. Some doctors who
want to teach or do research take
graduate work leading to the
master’s or Ph.D. degree in a field
such as biochemistry or micro­
Medical training is very costly
because of the long time required to
earn the medical degree. However,
many private scholarships and loans
are available for medical education.
In addition, Federal funds provide
scholarships and loans for up to
$3,500 per year for students in the
health professions who need finan­
cial aid.
Persons who wish to become phy­
sicians must have a strong desire
to serve the sick and injured. They
must be willing to study a great deal
to keep up with the latest advances
in medical science. Besides being


one of the most exacting sciences, few years, the competition for first
medicine demands that practition­ year places in medical school is be­
ers strictly adhere to high moral coming even greater. In 1973, there
standards subscribed to by the pro­ were about 40,000 applicants for
fession, law and tradition. Sincerity 14,000 positions.
Growth in population will create
and a pleasant personality are
much of the need for more physi­
assets that help physicians gain the
confidence of patients. Prospective cians. Also, a larger percentage of
physicians should be emotionally the population will be in the age
stable and able to make decisions in group over 65, which uses increased
physicians’ services. Also, the effec­
The majority of newly qualified tive demand for physicians’ care
physicians open their own offices will increase because of greater
or join associate or group practices. ability to pay, resulting from exten­
Those who have completed their sion of prepayment programs for
internships and enter active military hospitalization and medical care,
duty initially serve as captains in including Medicare and Medicaid,
the Army or Air Force or as lieu­ and continued Federal Government
tenants in the Navy. Graduates of provision of medical care for mem­
medical schools are eligible for bers of the Armed Forces, their
commissions as senior assistant sur­ families, and veterans. More physi­
geons (equivalent to lieutenants in cians will be needed, in addition,
the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health for medical research and adminis­
Service, as well as for Federal tration, and for teaching in medical
Civil Service professional medical schools, as well as the continuing
growth in the fields of public health,
rehabilitation, industrial medicine,
and mental health.
Employment Outlook
Recent concern over the distribu­
The employment outlook for
tion of physicians between special­
physicians is expected to be very
good through 1985. Anticipated in­ ties and general practice has re­
creases in graduates from existing sulted in creation of Federal funds
and developing U.S. medical schools for promotion of programs in family
combined with foreign medical grad­ medicine. The new specialty of
uate entrants point to a greatly family practice has grown very
improved supply situation. This may rapidly since 1971, in keeping with
result in an increasing movement the need for more M.D.’s who treat
of physicians into rural and other a variety of the more common ill­
areas which have experienced nesses.
To some extent, the rise in the
shortage conditions in the past.
Foreign medical graduates are demand for physicians’ services will
a large part of the new supply of be offset by developments that will
physicians each year. In 1972, 1 enable physicians to care for more
new physician out of 3 was a foreign patients. For example, increasing
medical graduate. Even with the numbers of medical technicians are
expansion of U.S. schools, by 1985 assisting physicians; new drugs and
1 new physician out of 4 will still new medical techniques are shorten­
be a foreign medical graduate if ing illnesses; and growing numbers
their entry continues in line with of physicians are able to use their
past trends.
time more effectively by engaging
Even though the number of medi­ in group practice. In addition, fewer
cal schools has increased in the last house calls are being made by phy­


sicians because of the growing ten­
dency to treat patients in hospitals
and in physicians’ offices.
The extent to which the devel­
oping health occupations, such as
those of physicians’ assistants and
nurse practitioners, will enable each
physician to treat more patients is
as yet unknown. It is possible that
these new health personnel will de­
crease the physicians’ work signifi­
cantly. In addition, legislation was
passed in 1972 authorizing the Vet­
erans Administration to assist States
in the establishment of up to 8 new
medical schools. As of mid-1973,
no funds had been requested for the
implementation of this legislation.
However, if these schools were
established, the increased number
of physicians could create an over­
supply in some geographic or spe­
cialty areas. Either a large increase
in the number of physicians or the
ability of each physician to treat
more patients would force more
physicians to establish their prac­
tice in sections of the country which
have few doctors and to choose gen­
eral practice or family medicine
instead of one of the other spe­

Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as in­
terns in 1972 had an average
annual salary of $8,838 in hospitals
affiliated with medical schools and
$10,076 in other hospitals. In 1972,
residents earned average annual
salaries of $7,572 in hospitals affili­
ated with medical schools and $9,418
in nonaffiliated hospitals, according
to the American Medical Associa­
tion. Many hospitals also provided
full or partial room, board, and
other maintenance allowances to
their interns and residents.
Graduates employed by the Fed­
eral Government in 1973 received



an annual starting salary of about
$14,000 if they had completed their
internship, and about $16,700 if
they had completed a 1-year
Newly qualified physicians who
establish their own practice must
make a sizable financial investment
to equip a modern office. During
the first year or two of independent
practice, physicians probably earn
little more than the minimum needed
to pay expenses. As a rule, however,
their earnings rise rapidly as their
practice develops.
Physicians have the highest aver­
age annual earnings of any occu­
pational group. The net income of
physicians who provided patient
care services averaged about $44,000
in 1972, according to limited in­
formation available. Earnings of
physicians depend on factors such
as the region of the country in
which they practice; the patients’
income levels; and the physician’s
skill, personality, and professional
reputation, as well as the length of
his experience. Self-employed phy­
sicians usually earn more than those
in salaried positions, and special­
ists usually earn considerably more
than general practitioners. Many
physicians have long working days
and irregular hours. Most special­
ists work fewer hours each week
than general practitioners. As doc­
tors grow older, they may accept
fewer new patients and tend to work
fewer hours. However, many con­
tinue in practice well beyond 70
years of age.
Sources of Additional Information

Persons who wish to practice in
a given State should find out
about the requirements for licensure
directly from the board of medical
examiners of that State. Informa­
tion on Federal scholarships and
loans is available from the Director

of Student Financial Aid at the
individual medical schools. For a
list of approved medical schools,
as well as general information on
premedical education, financial aid,
and medicine as a career, contact:
Council on Medical Education, Amer­
ican Medical Association, 535 North
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60610.
Association of American Medical Col­
leges, One Dupont Circle, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

women. Most podiatrists practice
in large cities. The few who had full­
time salaried positions worked
mainly in hospitals, podiatric col­
leges, or for other podiatrists. The
Veterans Administration and city
health departments employ podia­
trists on either a full- or part-time
basis. Others serve as commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of the Work

Podiatrists diagnose and treat
foot diseases and deformities. They
perform surgery, fit corrective de­
vices, and prescribe drugs, physical
therapy, and proper shoes. To help
in diagnoses, they take X-rays and
perform or prescribe blood and other
pathological tests. Among the con­
ditions podiatrists treat are corns,
bunions, calluses, ingrown toenails,
skin and nail diseases, deformed
toes, and arch disabilities. They
refer patients to medical doctors
whenever the feet show symptoms
of medical disorders affecting other
parts of the body—such as arthritis,
diabetes, or heart disease.
Some podiatrists specialize in foot
surgery, orthopedics (bone, muscle,
and joint disorders), podopediatrics
(children’s foot ailments), or podogeriatrics (foot problems of the
elderly). However, most provide
all types of foot care.
Places of Employment

About 7,300 persons practiced
podiatry in 1972, 6 percent of them

All States and the District of
Columbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. To qualify for
a license, an applicant must gradu­
ate from an accredited 4-year pro­
gram in a college of podiatric
medicine and pass a State
board examination. Three States—
Michigan, New Jersey, and Rhode
Island—also require applicants to
serve a 1-year internship in a
hospital or clinic after graduation.
Three-fourths of the States grant
licenses without further examination
to podiatrists licensed by another
The five colleges of podiatric
medicine admit only students who
have completed at least 2 years of
college, including courses in Eng­
lish, chemistry, biology or zoology,
physics, and mathematics.
The first 2 years in podiatry
school include classroom instruc­
tion and laboratory work in basic
sciences such as anatomy, bacteri­
ology, chemistry, pathology, phy­
siology, and pharmacology. During
the final 2 years, students obtain
clinical experience. The degree of
D octor of Podiatric M edicine
(D.P.M.) is awarded upon gradu­
ation. Additional education and ex­
perience are generally necessary to
practice in a specialty. Needy stu­
dents may obtain loans and scholar­
ships up to $3,500 a year from
Federal funds provided by the Com­



prehensive Health Manpower Train­
ing Act of 1971.
Young people planning a career
in podiatry should have a scientific
aptitude, manual dexterity, and like
detailed work. A good business
sense, congeniality, and a sense of
responsibility are additional assets
in the profession.
Most newly licensed podiatrists
set up their own practices. Some
purchase established practices, or
obtain salaried positions to gain
the experience and money needed
to begin their own practices.

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for graduates to
establish new practices, as well as
to enter salaried positions, should
be favorable through the 1970’s.
Competition may increase in the
1980’s, however, if the number of
podiatry graduates increases as ex­
Through the mid-1980’s, practice
of podiatry is expected to grow
moderately as a result of greater
demand for health services by an
expanding population, particularly
the growing number of older people.
This age group, the one needing
the most foot care, is entitled to
certain podiatrists’ services under
Medicare. Furthermore, the trend
toward providing preventive foot
care for children is increasing.
More podiatrists will be needed to
furnish services in hospitals, ex­
tended care facilities, and public
health programs.

1972, according to the limited avail­
able information. In podiatry, as
in many other professions, incomes
usually rise markedly after the first
years of practice. Net income of
podiatrists with five or less years
of practice averaged about $21,000;
with from 5/10 years’ experience,
The work week is generally 40
hours, and they may set their
hours to suit their practice.

Information on license require­
ments in a particular State may be
obtained from the State board of
examiners in the State capital.
A list of colleges of podiatric
medicine, entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships are
available from:

diseases, many of which can be
transmitted to human beings.
Veterinarians treat animals in
hospitals and clinics or on the
farm and ranch. They perform sur­
gery on sick and injured animals
and prescribe and administer drugs,
medicines, and vaccines.
About two-fifths of all veteri­
narians treat small animals or pets.
A large number specialize in the
health and breeding of cattle, poul­
try, sheep, swine, or horses. Many
veterinarians inspect meat, poul­
try, and other foods as part of
Federal and State public health
programs. Others teach in veteri­
nary colleges. Some do research
related to animal diseases, foods
and drugs, or work as part of a
medical research team to seek
knowledge about prevention and
treatment of human disease.

American Association of Colleges of
Podiatric Medicine, 20 Chevy Chase
Circle, NW., Washington, D.C. 20015.

Places of Employment

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information on podi­
atry as a career may be obtained
American Podiatry Association, 20
Chevy Chase Circle, NW., Washington,
D.C. 20015.

(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)
Nature of the Work

Earnings and Working Conditions

Experience and the income level
and location of the community
served have a great affect on earn­
ings of individual podiatrists. Start­
ing salaries of beginning podiatrists
ranged from $12,000 to $16,000 in

Veterinarians (doctors of veteri­
nary medicine) diagnose, treat, and
control diseases and injuries among
animals. Their work is important
for the Nation’s food production.
It is also important for public
health, because it helps to prevent
the outbreak and spread of animal

About 26,000 veterinarians—3
percent of them women—were prac­
ticing in 1972. About three-fifths
of all veterinarians were in private
practice. The Federal Government
employed more than 2,500 veteri­
narians, chiefly in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture and the U.S.
Public Health Service. About 900
more were commissioned officers
in the veterinary corps of the Army
and Air Force. Other employers
of veterinarians are State and local
government agencies, international
health agencies, colleges of vet­
erinary medicine, medical schools,
research and development labora­
tories, large livestock farms, animal
food companies, and pharmaceutical
companies that manufacture drugs
for animals.
Although veterinarians are located
in all parts of the country, the
type of practice generally varies
according to geographic setting.
Veterinarians in rural areas chiefly



treat farm animals; those in small
towns usually engage in general
practice; those in cities and subur­
ban areas often limit their prac­
tice to pets.
Training, Other Qualificatons,
and Advancement

Veterinarians must be licensed
to practice in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To obtain a li­
cense, applicants must have a Doctor
of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or
V.M.D.) degree and pass a State
board examination. A few States
also require that applicants have
some practical experience under the
supervision of a licensed veteri­
narian. Some States issue licenses
without further examination to vet­
erinarians already licensed by

another State.
For positions in research and
teaching, an additional master’s or
Ph.D. degree usually is required in a
field such as pathology, physiology,
or bacteriology.
Minimum requirements for the
D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree are 2
years of preveterinary college work
that emphasizes the physical and
biological sciences, followed by 4
years of study in a college of veteri­
nary medicine. However, two pro­
fessional schools require 3 years of
preveterinary study. Most veterinary
school applicants have completed 3
to 4 years of college before entering
the professional program. Veteri­
nary college training includes con­
siderable practical experience diag­
nosing and treating animal diseases
and performing surgery, and labora­

tory work in anatomy, biochemistry,
and other scientific and medical
There were 18 colleges of veterinary
medicine in the United States in
1972. When selecting students for
admission, these colleges considered
primarily the applicants’ scholastic
records and the amount and charac­
ter of their preveterinary training.
Residents of the State in which the
college is located usually are given
preference since veterinary colleges
are largely State supported. In the
South and West, regional educa­
tional plans permit cooperating
States without veterinary schools
to send a few students to designated
regional schools. In other areas,
colleges which accept a certain
number of students from other
States usually give priority to ap­
plicants from nearby States that
do not have veterinary schools.
Needy students may obtain loans
and scholarships of up to $3,500
a year to pursue full-time study
leading to the degree of Doctor of
Veterinary Medicine under provi­
sions of the Comprehensive Health
Manpower Training Act of 1971.
Most veterinarians begin as em­
ployees or partners in established
practices. A few start their own
practice with a modest financial
investment in drugs, instruments,
and an automobile. With a more
substantial investment, one may
open an animal hospital or pur­
chase an established practice. New­
ly qualified veterinarians may enter
the Army and Air Force as commis­
sioned officers, or qualify for Fed­
eral positions as meat and poultry
inspectors, disease-control workers,
epidemiologists, or research assist­
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
veterinarians are expected to be


favorable through the mid-1980’s. ment started at $11,782 a year in
The occupation is expected to grow early 1973. Salaries of experienced
very rapidly through the mid- veterinarians employed by the De­
1980’s, primarily because of growth partment of Agriculture ranged be­
in the pet population, an increase tween $15,000 and $29,000 a year.
in the numbers of livestock and The income of veterinarians in pri­
poultry needed to feed an expand­ vate practice usually is higher than
ing population, and an increase in that of other veterinarians, accord­
veterinary research. Emphasis on ing to the limited data available.
Veterinarians sometimes may be
scientific methods of raising and
breeding livestock and poultry and exposed to danger of physical in­
growth in public health and disease jury, disease and infection. Those
control programs also will contrib­ in private practice often have long
ute to the demand for veterinarians. and irregular working hours. Vet­
erinarians in rural areas may have
to spend much time traveling to and
Earnings and Working Conditions
from farms and may have to work
The incomes of veterinarians in outdoors in all kinds of weather.
private practice vary considerably, Veterinarians often can continue
depending on such factors as loca­ working well beyond normal retire­
tion, type of practice, and years of ment age because of many oppor­
experience. In 1972, the overall tunities for part-time work.
average income for veterinarians in
private practice was $25,000.
Sources of Additional Information
Newly graduated veterinarians
employed by the Federal Govern­
A pamphlet entitled Today’s Vet­


erinarian, presents additional in­
formation on veterinary medicine as
a career, as well as a list of colleges
of veterinary medicine. A free copy
may be obtained by submitting a re­
quest, together with a self-addressed
stamped business size envelope, to:
American Veterinary Medical Associa­
tion, 600 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60605.

Information on opportunities for
veterinarians in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture is available
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture, Hyattsville,
Md. 20782.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service, Personnel Division, 12th and
Independence Ave. SW., Washington,
D.C. 20250.
Agricultural Marketing Service, Person­
nel Division, 12th and Independence
Ave. SW., Washington, D.C. 20250.

Many other highly skilled work­
ers provide important health serv­
ices in addition to medical practi­
tioners. For many of these occupa­
tions at least a bachelor’s degree is
required, and for others college edu­
cation is becoming increasingly
essential. Some provide specialized
types of health care, but others per­
form a broad range of services.
The following occupations are dis­
cussed in this section: Dental hy­
gienists, dietitians, medical labora­
tory workers, medical record admin­
istrators, occupational therapists,
pharmacists, physical therapists,
registered nurses, respiratory thera­
pists, sanitarians, and speech patho­
logists and audiologists.

(D.O.T. 078.368)
Nature of the Work

Dental hygienists remove deposits
and stains from patients’ teeth and
apply prescribed medications to con­
trol dental decay. They take medical
and dental histories; prepare diag­
nostic tests for interpretation by
the dentist; and chart conditions of
decay and disease for the dentists’
use. They expose and develop dental
X-ray films, sterilize instruments,
and maintain patient records. They
may mix filling compounds and act
as chairside assistants to dentists.
Hygienists also teach the techniques
of mouth care and proper diet.
Dental hygienists who work in
school systems examine children’s
teeth, assist dentists in determining

the dental treatment needed, and
report their findings to parents. They
also clean teeth and give instruction
on correct mouth care. Some help
to develop classroom or assembly
programs on oral health. Dental
hygienists employed by health agen­
cies work in dental clinics. A few
assist in research projects. Those
having advanced training may teach
in schools of dental hygiene.
Places of Employment

Nearly 17,000 persons, most of
them women, worked as dental hy­
gienists in 1972. Many work part
time. Most work in private dental

offices. Public health agencies,
school systems, industrial plants,
clinics, hospitals, dental hygiene
schools and the Federal Government
also employ dental hygienists. Some
who are graduates of bachelor’s de­
gree programs are commissioned
officers in the U.S. Army.
Training and Other Qualifications

Dental hygienists must be li­
censed. To get a license, a candidate
must be a graduate of an accredited
dental hygiene school, except in
Alabama, and pass both a written
and clinical examination. In 1972,
candidates in 48 States and the


District of Columbia could complete
part of the State licensing require­
ments by passing a written exam­
ination given by the National Board
of Dental Examiners.
In order to practice in a different
State, a licensed dental hygienist
must pass the State’s examination.
However, about 15 States grant li­
censes without further examination
to dental hygienists already licensed
in certain other States.
In 1972, about 150 schools of
dental hygiene in the United States
were accredited by the Council on
Dental Education of the American
Dental Association. Most of these
schools provide a 2-year certificate
or associate degree program. Some
have 4-year programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in dental hygiene
and others offer both programs.
Five schools offer master’s degree
Completion of the 2-year program
is sufficient for dental hygienists
who want to practice in a private
dental office. In order to do re­
search, teach, and work in public
or school health programs, the com­
pletion of a 4-year program usually
is required.
The minimum requirement for ad­
mission to a school of dental hygiene
is graduation from high school.
Several schools which offer the
bachelor’s degree admit students to
the dental hygiene program only
after they have completed 2 years
of college. Many schools also re­
quire that applicants take an apti­
tude test given by the American
Dental Hygienist’s Association.
The curriculum at a school of
dental hygiene consists of courses
in the basic sciences, dental sciences,
and liberal arts. These schools offer
laboratory work, clinical experience,
and classroom instruction in sub­
jects such as anatomy, chemistry,
histology, pathology, pharmacology,
and nutrition.


People who want to become dental
hygienists should enjoy working with
others. The ability to put patients
at ease in an uncomfortable situation
is helpful. Personal neatness and
cleanliness, manual dexterity, and
good health also are important
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
dental hygienists are expected to be
very good through the mid-1980’s.
Despite an anticipated rise in the
number of graduates from schools
of dental hygiene, the demand is ex­
pected to be greater than the number
available for employment if current
trends in enrollments continue.
Employment of dental hygienists
is expected to rise very rapidly
due to an expanding population and
the growing awareness of the im­
portance of regular dental care.
Increased participation in dental
prepayment plans and more group
practice among dentists will result
in new jobs for dental hygienists.
Dental care programs for children
also may lead to more employment
opportunities in this field. In addi­
tion, a great number of job openings
will be created by young women
leaving their jobs for marriage and
family responsibilities.
Mature women who wish to re­
turn to the field and those who
desire part-time positions can ex­
pect to find very good opportunities
for employment.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of dental hygienists are
affected by the type of employer,
education, and experience of the
individual hygienists and the geo­
graphic location. Dental hygienists
who work in private dental offices
usually are salaried employees, al­

though some are paid a commission
for work performed or a combina­
tion of salary and commission.
Salaries of dental hygienists who
work in dentists’ offices averaged
about $8,900 a year in 1972, accord­
ing to the limited data available.
This salary was about the same
as the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. The beginning salary for a
dental hygienist in the Federal
Government ranged from $6,882 to
$8,722 a year in early 1973, depend­
ing on education and geographic
Dental hygienists employed full
time in private offices usually work
between 35 and 40 hours a week.
They may work on Saturdays or
during evening hours. Some hy­
gienists work for two or more
Dental hygienists work in clean,
well-lighted offices. Im portant
health protections for persons in
this occupation are regular medical
checkups and strict adherence to
established procedures for using Xray equipment and for disinfection.
Dental hygienists who work for
school systems, health agencies,
and the Federal or State govern­
ments have the same hours, vaca­
tion, sick leave, retirement, and
health insurance benefits as other
workers in these organizations.

Sources of Additional Information

For information about approved
schools and the educational require­
ments needed to enter this occupa­
tion, contact:
Division of Educational Services, Amer­
ican Dental Hygienists Association,
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.

Other material on opportunities
for dental hygienists is available

Division of Dental Health, Public Health
Service, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Washington,
D.C. 20201.


with the activities of other depart­ the administrative and clinical
ments; and are responsible for the dietitian.
development and management of
Research dietitians evaluate and
the dietetic department budget, interpret research findings to im­
The State Board of Dental Exam­
which in large organizations may prove the nutrition of people in
iners in each State, or the National
amount to millions of dollars health and in disease. This research
Board of Dental Examiners, 211
may be in nutrition science and
East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
Clinical dietitians, sometimes education, food management, food
60611, can supply information on
called therapeutic dietitians, plan service systems and equipment.
licensing requirements.
diets and supervise the service of They conduct studies and make
meals to meet the nutritional needs surveys of food intake, food accep­
of patients in hospitals, nursing tance, and food utilization in the
homes, or clinics. Among their body for individuals and groups of
duties, clinical dietitians confer people. Research projects may re­
with doctors and other members late to subjects such as nutritional
of the health care team about the needs of the aging, persons with a
patients’ nutritional care, instruct chronic disease, or space travelers.
patients and their families on the
Dietetic educators teach normal
requirements and importance of nutrition and nutrition in disease
(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)
their diets, and suggest ways to help to dietetic, medical, dental, and
them stay on these diets after leaving nursing students and to interns,
Nature of the Work
the hospital or clinic. In a small residents, and other members of
Dietitians plan nutritious and institution, one person may be both the health care team. This may be
appetizing meals to help people
maintain or recover good health.
They also supervise the food service
workers who prepare and serve the
meals, manage purchases and keep
the accounts, and give advice on
good eating habits. Administrative
dietitians form the largest group in
this occupation; the others are clin­
ical, teaching, and research dieti­
tians. Nutritionists also are included
in this field.
Administrative dietitians apply
the principles of nutrition and
sound management to large-scale
meal planning and preparation,
such as that done in hospitals, uni­
versities, schools, and other institu­
tions. They supervise the planning,
preparation, and service of meals;
select, train, and direct food-service
supervisors and workers; budget
for and purchase food, equipment,
and supplies; enforce sanitary and
safety regulations; and prepare
records and reports. Dietitians who
are directors of a dietetic depart­
ment also decide on departmental
policy; coordinate dietetic service
A therapeutic dietitian instructing a patient about his diet.



in hospitals, clinics, and schools.
Nutritionists counsel people of
all ages, as individuals or in groups
on sound nutrition practices, to
maintain and improve health. This
includes food budgeting and pur­
chasing, and meal planning and
preparation. Nutritionists in the
public health field are responsible
for planning, developing, adminis­
tering, and coordinating nutrition
programs and services as part of
public health programs.
An increasing number of dieti­
tians work as consultants to hospi­
tals and to health-related facilities.
Others act as consultants to com­
mercial enterprises, including food
processors, equipment manufacturers,
and utility companies.
Places of Employment

About 33,000 persons, most of
them women, worked as dietitians
in 1972. More than two-fifths work
in hospitals and clinics, including
about 1,000 in the Veterans Ad­
ministration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. Colleges, univer­
sities, and school systems employ
a large number of dietitians as
teachers or as dietitians in food
service systems. Most of the rest
work for public health agencies,
restaurants, or cafeterias and large
companies that provide food serv­
ice for their employees. Some dieti­
tians are commissioned officers in
the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree, preferably
with a major in foods and nutrition
or institution management, is the
basic educational requirement for
dietitians. This degree can be
earned in more than 250 colleges
and universities, usually in depart­
ments of home economics. College

courses usually required are in food
and nutrition, institution manage­
ment, chemistry, bacteriology, phys­
iology, and related courses such as
mathematics, data processing, psy­
chology, sociology, and economics.
For a dietitian to qualify for
professional recognition, the Ameri­
can Dietetic Association recom­
mends the completion after gradua­
tion of an approved dietetic
internship or 2 years experience.
In 1972, 75 internship programs
were approved by the American
Dietetic Association. A growing
number of coordinated under­
graduate programs, located in
schools of medicine and in allied
health and home economics depart­
ments of both colleges and univer­
sities, enable students to complete
both the requirements for a bache­
lor’s degree and the clinical experi­
ence requirement in four years.
Experienced dietitians may ad­
vance to assistant director or direc­
tor of a dietetic department in a
large hospital or other institution.
Advancement to higher level posi­
tions in teaching and research
usually requires graduate education;
public health nutritionists must earn
a graduate degree in this field.
Graduate study in institutional or
business administration is valuable
to those interested in administrative
Persons who plan to become
dietitians should have organiza­
tional and administrative ability,
as well as high scientific aptitude,
and should be able to work well
with a variety of people.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
qualified dietitians on both a full­
time and part-time basis are ex­
pected to be good through the mid1980’s. In recent years, dietetic
assistants trained in vocational and

employers to help meet demands
for dietetic services. Since this
situation is likely to persist, em­
ployment opportunities also should
continue to be favorable for gradu­
ates of these programs.
Employment of dietitians is ex­
pected to grow rapidly to meet the
nutrition and food management
needs of hospitals and extended
care facilities, schools, industrial
plants, and restaurants. Dietitians
also will be needed to staff com­
munity health programs and to
conduct research in food and nutri­
tion. In addition to new dietitians
needed because of occupational
growth, many others will be re­
quired each year to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the profes­
sion for m arriage and family
The number of men dietitians
is growing. Men are likely to find
increasing employment opportuni­
ties, especially as administrative
dietitians in college and university
food services, hospitals, and com­
mercial eating places.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries of hospital dieti­
tians averaged $8,800 a year in
1972, according to a national sur­
vey conducted by the University
of Texas Medical Branch. Experi­
enced dietitians received annual
salaries ranging from $8,400 to
$14,700. Colleges and universities
paid dietitians with bachelor’s de­
grees average salaries of $10,700
a year in 1972, according to the
American Dietetic Association.
Dietitians who worked in com­
mercial or industrial establishments
averaged about $12,300; those in
public and voluntary health agen­
cies, $10,800. Self-employed dieti­
tians with a bachelor’s degree earned
over $14,000 a year, in 1972; some,
with Ph.D.’s, averaged as much as


technical schools and dietetic tech­
nicians trained in junior colleges
have increasingly been utilized by
(D.O.T. 187.118)
$21,000 yearly.
The entrance salary in the Federal
Nature of the Work
Government for those completing
Hospital administrators hold the
an approved internship was $9,500
in early 1973. Beginning dietitians highest executive positions in hos­
with a master’s degree who had pitals and manage all administra­
completed an internship earned tive activities. They usually receive
$11,600. Nutrition consultants work­ general guidance from a hospital
ing in State and local governments governing board in developing plans
averaged salaries of $9,900 to and policies.
Administrators direct and co­
$12,800 in 1972.
Most dietitians work 40 hours a ordinate the varied activities of
week; however, dietitians in hospi­ the hospital, and are responsible
tals may sometimes work on week­ for the personnel, equipment, fi­
ends, and those in commercial food nances, building, and services
service have somewhat irregular provided by the hospital. Admin­
hours. Some hospitals provide istrators work closely with the
laundry service and meals in addi­
tion to salary. Dietitians usually
receive paid vacations, holidays,
and health insurance and retire­
ment benefits.
Sources of Additional Information

For information on approved
dietetic internship programs, schol­
arships, and employment oppor­
tunities, and a list of colleges
providing training for a professional
career in dietetics, contact:
The American Dietetic Association, 620
North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.

The U.S. Civil Service Com­
mission, Washington, D.C. 20415,
will send information on the re­
quirements for dietetic interns and
dietitians in Federal Government


medical and nursing staffs to deter­
mine the needs for additional per­
sonnel and equipment. They also
plan, with the help of their business
staff, for current and future space
needs, purchase of supplies and
equipment, and provision of pa­
tients’ services such as mail and
laundry. The preparation and ad­
ministration of the budget are
important responsibilities of the
administrator. With the help of a
hospital engineer, the administrator
is responsible for insuring that the
buildings and equipment are prop­
erly maintained.
In small hospitals, administrators
assume all management duties. In
large hospitals they are assisted by
specialists trained either in hospital



administration or in specialized
managerial skills such as purchas­
ing, public relations, or labor
Under the direction of the gov­
erning board, administrators may
carry out large projects to expand
or develop the hospital’s services,
such as organizing fund-raising
campaigns or planning new medi­
cal care, research, or educational
Adm inistrators meet regularly
with their staff to discuss progress,
make plans, and solve problems
concerning the operations of the
hospitals. Working with the medi­
cal staff and department heads,
they may develop and maintain
teaching programs for nurses, in­
terns, and other hospital staff
members as well as cooperative
educational programs in allied
health with colleges and universi­
ties. Adm inistrators also may
address community gatherings, or­
ganize community health campaigns,
and participate in planning com­
munity health care programs.

Places of Employment

About 17,000 persons worked
as hospital administrators and assist­
ants in 1972. About two-thirds
worked in nonprofit or private hos­
pitals. The remainder worked in
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment hospitals. Of those employed
by the Federal Government, most
worked in Veterans Administra­
tion, Armed Forces, and Public
Health Service hospitals.
About 15 percent of all admin­
istrators and their assistants are
women; many are members of re­
ligious orders.
Hospital administrators are lo­
cated in cities and towns throughout
the country, but most are in large
population centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Educational requirements for
hospital administrators vary. Most
hospitals prefer applicants having
at least a master’s degree in health
and hospital administration from
an accredited graduate program.
Some prefer formal training in
social or behavioral sciences, in­
dustrial engineering, or business
administration, along with exten­
sive experience in the health Field.
A few require their administrators
to be physicians or registered
professional nurses. Specialized hos­
pitals (such as mental or orthopedic
hospitals) may prefer physicians
whose medical specialty is the same
as that of the hospital. Hospitals
run by religious groups may seek
administrators of the same faith.
In 1972, 38 colleges and uni­
versities offered master’s degree
programs in health and hospital
administration. The programs gen­
erally last 2 years, but vary in time
allocated to academic study and to
supervised administrative experience
in hospitals or health agencies. The
minimum amount of required aca­
demic study is about a year; super­
vised administrative experience re­
quirements range up to a year.
The curriculum may include
courses such as hospital organiza­
tion and management, medical care,
accounting and budget control,
personnel administration, public
health administration, and the eco­
nomics of health care. The chief
administrator of the affiliated hos­
pital or his assistant supervise stu­
dents as they gain experience in all
phases of hospital administration. A
Ph.D. in health administration, of­
fered in several universities, is
especially helpful for those who want
to teach and do research.
The American College of Hos­
pital Administrators provides fi­

nancial loans ana scholarships to a
limited number of students for
graduate work in health and hos­
pital administration. Some Federal
Government awards for graduate
training in health and hospital
administration also are available.
A growing number of colleges
and universities offer bachelor’s
degree programs in health admin­
istration. These prepare students
for middle management positions
in hospitals or other health care
institutions such as nursing homes
or community health centers. Some
community colleges offer an asso­
ciate degree in health administra­
tion which prepares students for
assistant administrative positions
in smaller health care institutions.
New graduates having a master’s
degree in health and hospital ad­
ministration usually enter the field
as assistant administrators or de­
partment heads and occasionally
as administrators in small hospitals.
Some persons who do not have a
master’s degree in health and
hospital administration enter the
field by working in one of the
specialized administrative areas such
as personnel, records, budget and
Finance, or data processing. With
this experience and some graduate
work, they may be promoted to
department head, to assistant ad­
ministrator, and eventually some
become a chief administrator.
Personal qualifications needed for
success as a hospital administrator
include initiative and interest in
community service. Administrators
should be able to work with and
inspire people, organize and direct
large-scale activities. They also
must be good public speakers.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
new graduates having the master’s


degree in hospital administration
are expected to be favorable through
the mid-1980’s. Applicants who do
not have graduate education will
find it increasingly difficult to
enter this field in upper manage­
ment positions in hospitals and
other health programs. A few posi­
tions for administrators are likely
to continue to be filled by physicians,
persons in other professional medi­
cal occupations, or persons experi­
enced in a specialized administrative
The number of positions in hos­
pital administration is expected to
grow very rapidly through the mid1980’s, as health facilities are
expanded to provide additional
health services to an increasing
population. A trend towards more
complex organization in hospitals
also is expected to create new
openings for administrative assist­
ants. However, the number of
master’s programs in health and
hospital administration also has
grown very rapidly since the mid1960’s. If these trends continue
through the 1970’s, the number of
graduates can be expected to be
adequate to meet the growth in the
The position of hospital admin­
istrator, especially in a large hospi­
tal, is a career goal which is attained
by only a few of the graduates of a
master’s degree program in hospi­
tal administration, and is generally
filled by promotion from within the
hospital. However, there are a
growing number of administrative
positions available to these gradu­
ates in other health care institu­
tions such as large nursing or
personal care homes and in public
health departments. Still other
positions will be open to them in
voluntary health organizations which
are State or nationwide in scope.


Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of hospital administra­
tors depend on factors such as size,
type, and location of the hospital,
and size of its administrative staff
and budget. Administrative assist­
ants in hospitals earned an average
starting salary of $9,780 in 1972,
according to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical School at Galveston. Ex­
perienced administrative assistants
in very large hospitals earned up
to $18,000 or more.

Source of Additional Information

Information about hospital ad­
ministration and a list of col­
leges and universities offering this
training are available from:
American College of Hospital Admin­
istrators, 840 North Lake Shore Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs in
Health Administration, One Dupont
Circle NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information on Federal Gov­
ernment awards for graduate train­
ing in hospital administration,
contact the financial aid office of
the individual universities, or:

Average salaries of chief hospi­
tal administrators ranged between
$21,000 and $25,000 in 1972, ac­
cording to a survey conducted for
the American College of Hospital
Administrators. Many earned over

Bureau of Health Manpower Educa­
tion, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Salaries of experienced VA hos­
pital administrators, many of them
physicians, ranged from $31,203 to
$36,000 in early 1973.


Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces who work as hospi­
tal administrators hold ranks rang­
ing from second lieutenant to
colonel or from ensign to captain.
Commanding officers of large
Armed Forces hospitals are usually
physicians who may hold higher
ranks. Hospital administrators in
the U.S. Public Health Service are
commissioned officers, holding ranks
ranging from lieutenant (junior
grade) to captain in the Navy.
Hospital administrators often
work long hours. Since hospitals
operate on a round-the-clock basis,
the administrator may be called on
to settle emergency problems at
any time of the day or night. He
also may be called on to attend
meetings held at various locations
outside the hospital.

(D.O.T. 078.128, .168, .281, and .381)
Nature of the Work

Laboratory tests play an impor­
tant part in the detection, diagnosis,
and treatment of many diseases.
Medical laboratory workers, often
called clinical laboratory workers,
include three levels: medical tech­
nologists, technicians, and assist­
ants. They perform tests under the
direction of pathologists (physicians
who diagnose the causes and nature
of disease), and other physicians,
or scientists who specialize in clini­
cal chemistry, microbiology, or the
other biological sciences. Medical
laboratory workers analyze the
blood, tissues, and fluids in the
human body by using precision
instruments, such as microscopes
and automatic analyzers.
Medical technologists, who re­
quire 4 years of post-secondary



training, perform com plicated
chemical, microscopic, and bacteri­
ological tests. These tests may
include chemical tests to deter­
mine, for example, blood cholestrol
level, or microscopic examination
of the blood to detect the presence
of diseases such as leukemia. They
microscopically examine other body
fluids; make cultures of body fluid
or tissue samples to determine the
presence of bacteria, parasites, or
other micro-organisms; and analyze
them for chemical content or reac­
tion. Technologists also may type
and cross-match blood samples.
Technologists in small labora­
tories often perform many types of
tests. Those in large laboratories
usually specialize in areas such as
microbiology, parasitology, bio­
chemistry, blood banking, hema­
tology (the study of blood cells),
and nuclear medical technology (the
use of radioactive isotopes to help
detect diseases).
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests related to the examina­
tion and treatment of patients.
However, some do research on new
drugs or on the improvement of
laboratory techniques. Others teach
or perform administrative duties.
Medical laboratory technicians,
who generally require 2 years of
post-secondary training, perform a
wide range of tests and laboratory
procedures that require a high level
of skill but not the technical knowl­
edge of the highly-trained tech­
nologists. Like technologists, they
may work in several areas or
specialize in one field.
Medical laboratory assistants,
who generally have a year or less
of formal training, assist medical
technologists in routine tests and
related work that can be learned in
a relatively short time. In large
laboratories, they may concentrate
in one of several areas. For ex­
ample, they may identify slides with
abnormal blood cells. In addition

to performing routine tests, assist­
ants may store and label plasma;
clean and sterilize laboratory equip­
ment, glassware, and instruments;
prepare solutions following stand­
ard laboratory formulas and proce­
dures; keep records of tests; and
identify specimens.
Places of Employment

About 165,000 people worked
as medical laboratory workers in
1972. About 80 percent of all medi­
cal laboratory workers were women;
however, the number of men in the
field has been increasing in recent
Most medical laboratory person­
nel work in hospitals. Others work
in independent laboratories, physi­
cians’ offices, clinics, public health
agencies, pharmaceutical firms, and
research institutions. These places
are concentrated in larger cities and
populous States.
In 1972, Veterans Administration
hospitals and laboratories employed

Medical laboratory assistant prepares
to scan blood smear to identify red
and white blood cells.

about 1,600 medical technologists
and about 1,900 medical laboratory
technicians and assistants. Others
worked for the Armed Forces and
the U.S. Public Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum educational re­
quirement for a beginning job as a
medical technologist usually is 4
years of college training including
completion of a specialized training
program in medical technology.
U ndergraduate work includes
courses in chemistry, biological
science, and mathematics. These
studies give the technologist a
broad understanding of the scien­
tific principles underlying labora­
tory work. Specialized training
usually requires 12 months of study
and includes extensive laboratory
work. In 1972, about 750 hospitals
and schools offered programs ap­
proved by the American Medical
Association. These programs were
affiliated with colleges and uni­
versities and a bachelor’s degree
is usually awarded upon completion.
A few schools require a bachelor’s
degree for entry into the program.
Many universities also offer ad­
vanced degrees in medical tech­
nology and related subjects for
technologists who plan to specialize
in laboratory work or in teaching,
administration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians
employed in 1972 got their training
in a variety of educational settings.
Many attended junior or 4-year
colleges and universities for one
or more years. Others were trained
in the Armed Forces. Some techni­
cians received training in private
and nonprofit vocational and techni­
cal schools.
Most medical laboratory assist­
ants employed in 1972 were trained
on the job. In recent years, how­
ever, an increasing number have
studied in one-year training pro­
grams conducted by hospitals,
junior colleges in cooperation with
hospitals, or vocational schools.
Hospitals offer the greatest number
of training programs. Applicants
to these programs should be high


school graduates with courses in
science and mathematics. The pro­
grams include classroom instruc­
tion and practical training in the
laboratory. They often begin with
a general orientation to the clini­
cal laboratory followed by courses
in bacteriology, serology, parasitol­
ogy, hematology, clinical chemis­
try, blood banking, and urinalysis.
Certification or registration is
considered important in this field
because it indicates that the per­
sons certified have met educational
standards recognized by the certi­
fying body. After the successful
completion of the appropriate ex­
aminations, medical technologists
may be certified as Medical Tech­
nologists, MT (ASCP), by the
board of Registry of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists;
Medical Technologists, MT, by the
American Medical Technologists; or
Registered Medical Technologists,
RMT, by the International Society
of Clinical Laboratory Technol­
ogists. These organizations also
certify technician-level workers.
Laboratory assistants are certified
by the American Society of Clinical
Medical technologists and/or
technicians must be licensed in
Alabama, California, Florida, Geor­
gia, Hawaii, Illinois, Nevada, Penn­
sylvania, Tennessee, New York City,
and Puerto Rico. Requirements
for licensure include a written ex­
amination in some States.
Accuracy, dependability, and the
ability to work under pressure are
important personal characteristics
for a medical laboratory worker.
Manual dexterity and accurate color
vision are highly desirable.
Young people interested in medi­
cal laboratory careers should use
considerable care in selecting a
training program. They should get
information about the kinds of jobs
obtained by graduates, educational


costs, the accreditation of the
school, the length of time the
training program has been in opera­
tion, instructional facilities, and
faculty qualifications.
Technologists may advance to
supervisory positions in certain
areas of laboratory work, or, after
several years’ experience, to chief
medical technologist in a large
hospital. Graduate education in one
of the biological sciences or chemis­
try usually speeds advancement.
Technicians can advance to tech­
nologists by getting necessary addi­
tional education and experience.

Employment Outlook

Employment of medical labora­
tory workers is expected to expand
moderately through the mid-1980’s,
as physicians make wider use of
laboratory tests in routine physi­
cal checkups and in the diagnosis
and treatment of disease. Indirectly
influencing growth in the field are
population growth, rising standards
of living, greater health conscious­
ness, and expansion of prepayment
programs for medical care that
make it easier for people to pay
for services.
While employment of laboratory
personnel in general is expected
to expand moderately, the use of
automated laboratory test equip­
ment may lead to a greater growth of
medical laboratory technicians and
assistants relative to technologists.
Through technological advances,
technicians and assistants can oper­
ate equipment to perform tests
which previously required the skill
of a technologist.
Technologists will be needed to
fill supervisory positions in all
laboratories. Also, some will be
needed in laboratories where they
are required by State licensing re­
quirements or third party health

insurance regulations, and in labo­
ratories not using the new auto­
mated equipment.
In addition to medical laboratory
workers who will be needed to fill
openings resulting from expansion
in the field, thousands of workers
will be needed annually to replace
those who die, retire, or leave
their jobs for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of medical laboratory
workers vary by employer and geo­
graphic location. In general, medical
laboratory workers employed on
the West Coast and in large cities
received the highest salaries.
Starting salaries for medical tech­
nologists in hospitals and medical
schools averaged about $8,300 in
1972, according to a survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Beginning salaries
for laboratory assistants averaged
about $6,200. Technicians earn
salaries that range between those
paid technologists and assistants.
The Federal Government paid
newly graduated medical techno­
logists with bachelor’s degrees
starting salaries of $7,694 a year
in early 1973. Those having experi­
ence, superior academic achieve­
ment, or a year of graduate study
entered at $9,520. The Federal
Government paid medical labora­
tory assistants and technicians
starting salaries ranging from
$4,798 to $6,128 a year in early
1973, depending on the amount and
type of education and experience.
Medical laboratory personnel gen­
erally work a 40-hour week. In
hospitals, they can expect some
night or weekend duty. Hospitals
normally provide vacation and sick
leave benefits; some have retire­
ment plans.
Laboratories generally are well-

lighted and clean. Although un­
pleasant odors and specimens of
many kinds of diseased tissue often
are present, few hazards exist if
proper methods of sterilization and
handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment are used.
Sources of Additional Information

Information about education and
training for medical technologists,
technicians, and laboratory assist­
ants meeting standards recognized
by the medical profession and/or
the U.S. Office of Education, as
well as career information on these
fields of work is available from:
Board of Registry of the American Soci­
ety of Clinical Pathologists, Box 4872,
Chicago, 111. 60680.
American Society for Medical Technol­
ogists, 555 West Loop South, Hous­
ton, Tex. 77401.
The Accrediting Bureau of Medical Lab­
oratory Schools of the American Medi­
cal Technologists, 710 Higgins Rd.,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

For information about other
technician training programs, con­
International Society of Clinical Labora­
tory Technologists, 805 Ambassador
Building, 411 North Seventh St., St.
Louis, Mo. 63101.

Information about employment
opportunities in government clinical
and research hospitals is available
from the Department of Medicine
and Surgery, Veterans Administra­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20421, and
the Clinical Center, National Insti­
tutes of Health, Bethesda, Mary­
land 20014.


(D.O.T. 100.388)
Nature of the Work

All health care institutions keep
records that contain medical in­
formation on each patient, includ­
ing case histories of illnesses or
injuries, reports on physical exam­
inations, X-rays and laboratory
tests, doctors’ orders and notes,
and nurses’ notes. These records
are necessary for correct and prompt
diagnosis and treatment of illnesses
and injuries. They also are used for
research, insurance claims, legal
actions, evaluation of treatment
and medications prescribed, and in
the training of medical personnel.
Medical information in hospital
records also is used to evaluate the
effectiveness of a hospital’s care,
and to plan programs at community
health centers.
Medical record administrators,
also known as medical record li­
brarians, direct the activities of the
medical record department and de­
velop systems for documenting,
storing, and retrieving medical in­
formation. They supervise the work
of the medical record staff in the
preparation and analysis of records
and reports on patients’ illnesses
and treatment. Among their main
duties are training members of the
medical record staff for specialized
jobs, compiling medical statistics
required by State or national health
agencies, and assisting medical staff
members in evaluation of patient
care and in scientific studies. Medi­
cal record administrators represent
their departments at hospital staff
meetings, and may be called to
testify in court about information
contained in a medical record.
The size and type of institution
employing medical record admin­

istrators affects the duties and
amount of responsibility assigned
to these workers. In large hospitals,
chief medical record administrators
supervise other medical record ad­
ministrators, technicians, and clerks.
Smaller hospitals may employ only
two or three persons in the medical
record departments and in nursing
homes usually one person keeps
the medical records. In these cases,
the medical record administrator
performs technical and clerical as
well as professional duties.

Places of Employment

Most of the 11,600 medical
record administrators employed in
1972 worked in hospitals. The
remainder worked in clinics, nurs­
ing homes, State and local public
health departments, and medical
research centers. Some health in­
surance companies also employ
medical record administrators to
help determine liability for pay­
ment of their clients’ medical fees.

Medical record administrator obtains in­
formation from a patient’s record with
the help of a technician on her staff.


Some medical record administra­
tors work for firms that manu­
facture equipment for recording
and processing medical data and
develop and print health insurance
and medical forms. Many small
health care facilities hire medical
record administrators as consultants.
Although most medical record ad­
ministrators are women, the num­
ber of men in the occupation is

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Preparation for a career as a
medical record administrator is
offered in specialized programs in
colleges, universities, and hospitals.
Most programs last 4 years and
lead to a bachelor’s degree in
medical record administration. How­
ever, concentration in medical record
administration begins in the third
or fourth year of study, making
transfer from a junior college pos­
sible. One-year certificate programs
also are available for those who
already have a bachelor’s degree
and required courses in the liberal
arts and biological sciences. In
1972, there were 31 programs in
medical record administration ap­
proved by the Council on Medical
Education of the American Medi­
cal Association and the Ameri­
can Medical Record Association
Training for medical record ad­
ministrators includes both class­
room instruction and experience in
hospital medical record depart­
ments. Anatomy, physiology, fun­
damentals of medical science,
medical terminology, and medical
record science are among the re­
quired scientific courses. In addi­
tion, management courses such as
hospital organization and admin­
istration, health law, statistics, and


data processing are part of the the mid-1980’s. Employment is ex­
curriculum. Experience in the medi­ pected to grow very rapidly, with
cal record departments of hospitals the increasing use of hospitals and
provides students with a practical other health facilities as more and
background in applying standard­ more people are covered by health
ized medical record practices, com­ insurance. The detailed informa­
piling statistical reports, analyzing tion required by third-party payers
data from the medical records, and such as insurance companies and
organizing medical record systems. Medicare also will cause some
Graduates of approved schools growth in the occupation. More
in medical record administration consultants will be needed to stand­
are eligible for the national regis­ ardize health records in nursing
tratio n exam ination given by homes and home care programs.
AMRA. Passing this examination The importance of medical records
gives professional recognition as a in research, and the growing use
Registered Record Administrator of computers to store and retrieve
(RRA). There were about 4,750 medical information also should
employed RRA’s in 1972, accord­ increase the demand for qualified
ing to AMRA.
medical record administrators to
Medical record administrators develop new medical information
must be accurate and interested systems. Part-tim e employment
in detail. They also must be able opportunities also should be avail­
to communicate clearly in speech able in teaching, in research, and
and writing. Because medical records as consultants to health care
are confidential, medical record facilities.
administrators must be discreet in
processing and releasing informa­
tion. Supervisors must be able to
Earnings and Working Conditions
organize and analyze work pro­
cedures and to work effectively
The salaries of medical record
with other hospital personnel.
administrators are influenced by
Medical record administrators the location, size, and type of
with some experience in smaller employing institution, as well as
health facilities may advance to by the duties and responsibilities
positions as department heads in of the position. The average start­
large hospitals or to higher level ing salary for medical record ad­
positions in hospital administra­ ministrators in 1972 was $8,760 a
tion. Some coordinate the medical year, according to a national sur­
record departments of several small vey conducted by the University
hospitals. Others move on to medi­ of Texas Medical Branch at Gal­
cal record positions in health veston. Top salaries averaged
agencies. Many teach in the expand­ $10,500 a year, with some earnings
ing programs for medical record as much as $16,000.
personnel in 2- and 4-year colleges
Newly graduated medical record
and universities.
administrators employed by the
Federal Government generally started
at $7,700 a year in early 1973;
Employment Outlook
those having bachelor’s degrees
Employment opportunities for and good academic records were
graduates of approved medical eligible to begin at $9,500. Some
record administrator programs are experienced medical record admin­
expected to be excellent through istrators employed by the Federal

Government earned as much as
$16,700 annually.
Medical record administrators
usually work a regular 40-hour
week and receive paid holidays and

eventually, to prepare for employ­
Occupational therapists teach
manual and creative skills such as
weaving and leather working, and
business and industrial skills such
as typing and the use of power
tools. They also plan and direct
Sources of Additional Information
activities especially for children.
Inform ation about approved Therapists may design and make
schools and employment oppor­ special equipment or splints to help
disabled patients.
tunities is available from:
Besides working with patients,
The American Medical Record Associa­
tion, 875 North Michigan Ave., Suite
occupational therapists supervise
1850, John Hancock Center, Chicago,
student therapists, occupational
111. 60611.
therapy assistants, volunteers, and
auxiliary nursing workers. The chief
occupational therapists in hospitals
may teach medical and nursing stu­
dents the principles of occupational
therapy. Many therapists adminis­
ter occupational therapy programs,
coordinate patient activities, or are
(D.O.T. 079.128)
consultants to local and State health
departments and mental health
Nature of the Work
agencies. Some teach in colleges and
Occupational therapists plan and universities.
direct educational, vocational, and
recreational activities designed to
help mentally and physically dis­
selfsufficient. They evaluate the capaci­
ties and skills of patients and plan
a therapy program with other
members of a medical team which
may include physicians, physical
therapists, vocational counselors,
nurses, social workers, and other
About 1 therapist out of 3
works with emotionally handi­
capped patients, and the rest work
with physically disabled persons.
These patients represent all age
groups and degrees of illness.
Patients participate in occupa­
tional therapy to determine the ex­
tent of abilities and limitations;
to regain physical, mental, or emo­
Places of Employment
tional stability; to relearn daily
About 7,500 people, more than
routines such as eating, dressing,
writing, and using a telephone; and 9 out of 10 of them women, worked


as occupational therapists in 1972.
More than three-fourths of all oc­
cupational therapists work in hos­
nursing homes, schools, outpatient
clinics, community mental health
centers, and research centers employ
most of the others. Some work in
special sanitariums or camps for
handicapped children, others in
State health departments. Still
others work in home-care programs
for patients unable to attend
clinics or workshops. Some are
members of the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A degree or certificate in occu­
pational therapy is required to enter
the profession. In 1972, 40 colleges
and universities offered programs in
occupational therapy which were
accredited by the American Medical
Association and the American
Occupational Therapy Association.
All but one of these schools offer
bachelor’s degree programs. Some
schools have 2 year programs and
accept students who have completed
2 years of college. Some also offer
shorter programs, leading to a cer­
tificate or a master’s degree in oc­
cupational therapy for students who
have a bachelor’s degree in another
field. One school offers the master’s
degree only. A graduate degree
often is required for teaching, re­
search, or administrative work.
Course work in occupational
therapy programs includes physi­
cal, biological, and behavioral
sciences and the application of oc­
cupational therapy skills. Students
also work in hospitals or health
agencies to gain clinical experience.
After students complete the 6 to 9
month clinical practice period and
graduate from their programs, they
are eligible for the American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association ex­
amination to become registered oc­


Occupational therapy assistants who
are certified by the association and
have 2 years of approved work ex­
perience also are eligible to take
the examination to become regis­
tered occupational therapists.
Personal qualifications needed in
this profession include emotional
stability and a sympathetic but
objective approach to illness and
disability. Occupational therapists
also need ingenuity, imagination, and
the ability to teach.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on
the job, they may qualify as senior
therapists or specialized practi­
tioners. Some advance to super­
visory or administrative jobs in
occupational therapy programs; a few
teach or do research.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
occupational therapists are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. The increasing number
of graduates is expected to be
roughly in balance with new open­
ings that are expected to result
from growth of the occupation and
replacement for those who will die,
retire, or leave the occupation for
other reasons.
Public interest in the rehabilita­
tion of disabled persons and the
success of established occupational
therapy programs are expected to
create very rapid growth in the
employment of occupational thera­
pists. Many therapists will be needed
to staff community health centers
and extended care facilities and to
work with psychiatric patients,
children with cerebral palsy, and
elderly persons with heart disease.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning salaries for new gradu­


ates of occupational therapy pro­
grams averaged about $8,500 a year
in 1972, according to a national sur­
vey conducted by the University of
Texas Medical School at Galveston.
Experienced occupational therapists
earned an average salary of about
$10,200 a year; some earned as
much as $13,000.
In early 1973, beginning thera­
pists employed by the Veterans
salaries of $8,572 a year. Most
experienced, nonsupervisory occu­
pational therapists earned about
$11,600 annually.
Many part-time positions are
available for occupational therapists.
Some organizations require evening
Sources of Additional Information

For more information on occupa­
tional therapy as a career write to:
American Occupational Therapy Associ­
ation, 6000 Executive Blvd., Rockville,
Md. 20852.

(D.O.T. 074.181)
Nature of the Work

Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines prescribed by medical
practitioners and supply and advise
people on the use of many medicines
that can be obtained with and with­
out prescriptions. Pharmacists must
understand the use, composition,
and effect of drugs and be able
to test them for purity and strength.
They also advise physicians on
the proper selection and use of
medicines. Compounding—the ac­

tual mixing of ingredients to form
powders, tablets, capsules, oint­
ments, and solutions—is now only
a small part of pharmacists’ prac­
tice, since most medicines are pro­
duced by manufacturers in the form
used by the patient.
Many pharmacists employed in
community pharmacies also have
other duties. Besides dispensing
medicines, some pharmacists buy
and sell nonpharmaceutical mer­
chandise, hire and supervise per­
sonnel, and oversee the general
operation of the pharmacy. Other
pharmacists, however, operate pre­
scription pharmacies that dispense
only medicines, medical supplies,
and health accessories.
Pharmacists in hospitals and clin­
ics dispense prescriptions and advise
the medical staff on the selection
and effects of drugs; they also
make sterile solutions, buy medical
supplies, teach in schools of nursing
and allied health professions, and
perform administrative duties. An
increasing number of hospital phar­
macists work in patient care areas
as consultants to the medical team.
Some pharmacists, employed as
medical sales representatives by
drug manufacturers and wholesalers,
sell medicines to retail pharmacies
and to hospitals, and inform health
personnel about new drugs. Others
teach in pharmacy colleges, super­
vise the manufacture of pharma­
ceuticals, or develop new medi­
cines. Some pharmacists also edit
or write articles for pharmaceutical
journals, or do administrative work.
Places of Employment

Nearly 131,000 persons worked
as licensed pharmacists in 1972;
nearly 10 percent were women.
About 107,000 pharmacists worked
in community pharmacies. Of these
community pharmacists, more than
two-fifths owned their own phar-



pharmacists already licensed by an­ macy. Several scholarships are
other State.
awarded annually by drug manu­
At least 5 years of study beyond facturers, chain drug stores, corpora­
high school are required to graduate tions, State and national pharmacy
from one of the 73 accredited col­ associations, and the colleges of
leges of pharmacy and receive a pharmacy.
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or a
Since many pharmacists are selfBachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) employed, prospective pharmacists
degree. A few colleges that require should have some business ability,
6 years award a Doctor of Pharmacy as well as an interest in medical
(Pharm. D.) degree at the comple­ science and the ability to instill
tion of the program. A few colleges confidence in patients. Honesty,
admit students directly from high integrity, and orderliness are im­
Pharmacist at poison control center
school and offer all the education portant attributes for the profession.
giving emergency instructions for
necessary for graduation. Most col­ In addition, accuracy is needed to
macies; the others were salaried leges provide 3 or 4 years of pro­ compound and dispense medicines,
employees. Most of the remaining fessional instruction and require as well as keep records required by
salaried pharmacists worked for all entrants to have completed their
prepharmacy education in an ac­
Pharmacists often begin as em­
hospitals, pharmaceutical manu­
credited junior college, college, or ployees in community pharmacies.
facturers, and wholesalers. Some
After they gain experience and ob­
were civilian employees of the university.
tain the necessary funds, they may
Federal Government, working chief­
A prepharmacy curriculum usu­
ly in hospitals and clinics of the ally emphasizes mathematics and become owners or part-owners of
Veterans Administration and the basic sciences, such as chemistry pharmacies. A pharmacist who gains
U.S. Public Health Service. Others and biology, but also includes experience in a chain drugstore
served as pharmacists in the Armed courses in the humanities and social may advance to managerial posi­
Forces, taught in colleges of phar­ sciences. Because entry requirements tions, and later to a higher executive
macy, or worked for State and local vary among colleges of pharmacy, position within the company. Hos­
government agencies.
prepharmacy students should in­ pital pharmacists who have the
Most towns have at least one quire about and follow the curricu­ necessary training and experience
pharmacy with one or more phar­ lum required by colleges they plan may advance to director of phar­
macy service or to other adminis­
macists in attendance. Most phar­ to attend.
trative positions.
macists, however, practice in or
The bachelor’s degree in phar­
near cities, and in those States macy is the minimum educational
which have the largest populations. qualification for most positions in
Employment Outlook
the profession. However, a master’s
The employment outlook for phar­
Training, Other Qualifications,
or doctor’s degree in pharmacy or macists is expected to be very
and Advancement
a related field usually is required good through the mid-1980’s. Since
A license to practice pharmacy for research work or college teach­ growth of the occupation is ex­
is required in all States and the ing. Areas of special study pected to be moderate, most of the
District of Columbia. To obtain a include pharmaceutics, pharmaceu­ openings will result from the death
license, one must be a graduate tical chemistry, pharmacology (study and retirement of persons already
of an accredited pharmacy college, of the effects of drugs on the body), in the profession. Overall, job open­
pass a State board examination pharmacognosy (study of the drugs ings are expected to exceed in
and—in nearly all States—have a derived from plant or animal number the graduates of pharmacy
specified amount of practical ex­ sources), clinical pharmacy, and schools.
perience or internship under the pharmacy administration.
Employment in the occupation
supervision of a registered phar­
macist. All States except California,
Florida, and Hawaii grant a license
without examination to qualified

Needy students may obtain Fed­
eral loans or scholarships up to
$3,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in phar­

will grow as new pharmacies are
established, particularly in residen­
tial areas or suburban shopping
centers. Many community phar­


macies, also, are expected to hire
additional pharmacists, because of
a trend towards shorter working
hours. Population growth, the rising
standard of medical care, and the
growth of Medicaid and other
insurance programs that provide
payment for prescription drugs also
will generate demand for phar­
Employment in hospitals prob­
ably will rise with the more extensive
use of pharmacists for hospital and
clinic work. Continued expansion in
the manufacture of pharmaceutical
products and in research are ex­
pected to provide more opportunities
for pharmacists in production, re­
search, distribution, and sales. Phar­
macists with advanced training will
be needed for college teaching and
laboratory research.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of pharmacists employed
in chain drug stores averaged about
$14,700 in 1972, according to a
survey conducted by the National
Association of Chain Drug Stores.
Pharmacists who are owners or
managers of pharmacies often earn
more. The entrance salary in the
Federal Civil Service for new grad­
uates was about $11,600 a year, in
early 1973. With a master’s degree
or 2 years of graduate studies, the
beginning salary was about $14,000.
Annual starting salaries for hospi­
tal pharmacists were about $11,100
in 1972, according to a survey
conducted by the University of
Texas Medical School at Galveston.
Top salaries for experienced hospital
pharmacists averaged $13,500, and
some were as high as $17,500.
Community pharmacists general­
ly work more than the standard 40hour workweek. Pharmacies often
are open in the evenings and on
weekends, and all States require
a registered pharmacist to be in


attendance during store hours. De­
spite the general trend toward short­
er hours, 44 hours is still the basic
workweek for many salaried phar­
macists, and some work 50 hours
or more. Self-employed pharmacists
often work more hours than those
in salaried positions. Those who
teach or work for industry, govern­
ment agencies, or hospitals have
shorter workweeks.
Sources of Additional Information

A free packet giving information
on pharmacy as a career, prepro­
fessional requirements, and student
financial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of
Pharmacy, Office of Student Affairs,
8121 Georgia Ave., Suite 800, Silver
Spring, Md. 20910.

General information on pharmacy
is available from:
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20037.

Information about chain drug
stores is available from:
National Association of Chain Drug
Stores, 1911 Jefferson Highway, Ar­
lington, Va. 22202.

For information about retail phar­
macies, contact:
National Association of Retail Drug­
gists, One East Wacker Dr., Chicago,
111. 60601.

A list of accredited colleges is
available from:
American Council on Pharmaceutical
Education, 77 West Washington St.,
Chicago, 111. 60602.

Information on requirements for
licensure in a particular State is
available from the Board of Phar­
macy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of
Pharmacy, 77 West Washington St.,
Chicago, 111. 60602.

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and fi­
nancial aid is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work

Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone
diseases or injuries to overcome
their resulting disabilities. Their
patients include accident victims,
crippled children, and disabled older
persons. Physical therapists perform
and interpret tests and measure­
ments for muscle strength, motor
development, functional capacity,
and respiratory and circulatory ef­
ficiency to develop programs for
treatment. They evaluate the ef­
fectiveness of the treatment and
discuss the patients’ progress with
physicians, psychologists, occupa­
tional therapists, and other spe­
cialists. When advisable, physical
therapists revise the therapeutic pro­
cedures and treatments. They help
disabled persons to accept their
physical handicaps and adjust to
them. They show members of the
patients’ families how to continue
treatments at home.
Therapeutic procedures include
exercises for increasing strength,
endurance, coordination, and range
of motion; stimuli to make motor
activity and learning easier; in­
struction in carrying out everyday
activities and in the use of helping
devices; and the application of
massage, heat and cold, light,water,
or electricity to relieve pain or im­
prove the condition of muscles.
Most physical therapists provide
direct care to patients as staff
members, supervisors, or selfemployed practitioners. These
therapists either may treat many
categories or patients or else may
specialize in pediatrics, geriatrics,
amputations, arthritis, or paralysis.
Others administer physical therapy
programs, teach, or are consultants.


Association and the American Phys­
ical Therapy Association.
Most of the approved schools of
physical therapy offer bachelor’s
degree programs. Some schools pro­
vide 1- to 2-year programs for
students who have completed some
college courses. Other schools accept
those who already have a bachelor’s
degree and give a 12- to 16-month
course leading to a certificate in
physical therapy. Many schools
offer both degree and certificate
The physical therapy curriculum
includes science courses such as
anatomy, physiology, neuroanat­
omy, and neurophysiology, also
specialized courses such as bio­
mechanics of motion, human growth
Places of Employment
and development, and manifesta­
tions of disease and trauma. Besides
About 18,000 persons—3 out of 4
of them women—worked as licensed receiving classroom instruction, stu­
physical therapists in 1972. About dents get supervised practical ex­
three-fourths of all physical thera­ perience adm inistering physical
pists work in hospitals or nursing therapy to patients in a hospital
homes; others, in rehabilitation or treatment center.
Several universities offer the mas­
centers or schools for crippled chil­
ter’s degree in physical therapy.
dren. Some who work for public
health agencies treat chronically A graduate degree, combined with
sick patients in their own homes. clinical experience, increases the
Still others work in physicians’ opportunities for advancement, es­
offices or clinics, teach in schools pecially to teaching, research, and
of physical therapy, or work for administrative positions.
Therapists must have patience,
research organizations. A few serve
tact, resourcefulness, and emotional
as consultants in government and
voluntary agencies or are members stability in order to help patients
and their families understand the
of the Armed Forces.
treatments and adjust to their handi­
caps. Physical therapists also should
have manual dexterity and physical
Training, Other Qualifications,
stamina. Many persons who want
and Advancement
to determine whether they have the
All States and the District of personal qualities needed for this
Columbia require a license to prac­ occupation volunteer for summer or
tice physical therapy. Applicants for part-time work in the physical
a license must have a degree or therapy department of a hospital
certificate from a school of physical or clinic.
therapy and to qualify must pass a
Employment Outlook
State board examination. In 1972,
59 schools of physical therapy were
Em ploym ent opportunities for
approved by the American Medical physical therapists are expected to


be favorable through the mid-1980’s.
The rapidly growing number of
new graduates is expected to be in
rough balance with the average
number of openings that will result
each year from growth in the
occupation and from replacement of
those who will die or retire.
Employment in the occupation
is expected to grow very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s because of
increased public recognition of the
importance of rehabilitation. As
programs to aid crippled children
and other rehabilitation activities
expand, and as growth takes place
in nursing homes and other facilities
for the elderly, many new positions
for physical therapists are likely
to be created. Many part-time posi­
tions should continue to be available.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new physical
therapy graduates averaged about
$8,700 a year in 1972, according
to a national survey conducted by
the University of Texas Medical
School at Galveston. Earnings of
experienced physical therapists aver­
aged $10,400; some earned as much
as $17,000.
Beginning therapists employed by
the Veterans Administration (VA)
earned starting salaries of $8,572
a year in early 1973. Most experi­
enced nonsupervisory physical ther­
apists in the VA earned about
$11,600 annually, those who are
supervisors, about $16,700.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information is avail­
able from:
American Physical Therapy Association,
1156 15th St. NW., Washington, D.C.



(D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)
Nature of the Work

Nursing care plays a major role
in providing health care. As im­
portant members of the medical
care team, registered nurses perform
a wide variety of duties. They
administer medications; observe,
evaluate, and record symptoms, re­
actions, and progress of patients;
assist in the rehabilitation of patients;
and help maintain a physical and
emotional environment that pro­
motes patient recovery.
Some registered nurses provide
hospital care. Other’s perform re­
search activities or instruct students.
The type of employment setting
usually determines the scope of the
nurse’s duties.
Hospital nurses constitute the
largest group. Most are staff nurses
who provide skilled bedside nursing
care and carry out medical treat­
ment plans prescribed by physicians. and other community settings. They
They may also supervise practical instruct patients and families in
nurses, aides, and orderlies. Hospi­ proper care, and give periodic care
tal nurses usually work with groups as prescribed by a physician. They
of patients that require similar may also instruct groups of patients
nursing care. For instance, some in proper diet and arrange for im­
nurses work with post-surgery pa­ munizations. These nurses work with
tients; others care for children, community leaders, teachers, parents,
the elderly, or the mentally ill. and physicians in community health
Some are administrators of nursing education. Some public health nurses,
work in schools.
Private duty nurses give individual
Nurse educators teach students
care to patients who need constant
the principles and skills of nursing,
attention. The private duty nurse
may sometimes care for several both in the classroom and in direct
hospital patients who require spe­ patient care. They also conduct
cial care, but not full-time attention. continuing education courses for
Office nurses assist physicians, registered nurses, practical nurses
dental surgeons, and occasionally and nursing assistants.
Occupational health or industrial
dentists in private practice or
clinics. Sometimes they perform rou­ nurses provide nursing care to em­
tine laboratory and office work in ployees in industry and government,
and along with physicians promote
addition to their nursing duties.
Public health nurses care for employee health. As prescribed by
patients in clinics, homes, schools a doctor, they treat minor injuries

and illnesses occurring at the place
of employment, provide for the
needed nursing care, arrange for
further medical care if necessary,
and offer health counseling. They
also may assist with health exam­
inations and inoculations.
(Licensed practical nurses who al­
so perform nursing service are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook).

Places of Employment

Nearly 750,000 persons—all but 1
percent women—worked as regis­
tered nurses in 1972. About onethird of them worked on a part-time
More than two-thirds of all
registered nurses worked in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, and related
institutions. About 60,000 were
office nurses and about 50,000 were
private duty nurses who cared for


patients in hospitals and private themselves to registered nurses while
homes. Public health nurses in they continue to work part-time.
government agencies, schools, visit­ These programs generally offer an
ing nurse associations, and clinics associate of arts degree. In early
numbered about 54,000; nurse edu­ 1972, more than 1,360 programs
cators in nursing schools accounted (associate, diploma, and baccalau­
for about 35,000; and occupational reate) were offered in the United
health nurses in industry, about States. In addition, about 80 col­
20,000. Most of the others were leges and universities offered mas­
staff members of professional nurse ter’s and doctoral degree programs
and other organizations, State in nursing.
boards of nursing, or working for
Programs of nursing include class­
research organizations.
room instruction and supervised
nursing practice in hospitals and
health facilities. Students take
Training, Other Qualifications,
courses in anatomy, physiology,
and Advancement
microbiology, nutrition, psychology,
A license is required to practice and basic nursing care. They also
professional nursing in all States get supervised clinical experience
and in the District of Columbia. in the care of patients who have
To obtain a license, a nurse must different types of health problems.
be a graduate of a school approved Students in bachelor’s degree pro­
by the State board of nursing and grams as well as in some of the
pass the State board examination. other programs are assigned to
Nurses may be licensed in more than public health agencies to learn how
one State, either by examination or to care for patients in clinics and
endorsement of a license issued by in the patients’ homes. General
education is combined with nursing
another State.
Three types of educational pro­ education in baccalaureate and as­
grams—diploma, baccalaureate, and sociate degree programs and in
associate degree—offer the educa­ some diploma programs.
Qualified students who need fi­
tion required for basic careers in
registered nursing. Education at the nancial aid can get a nursing
master’s level and above is required scholarship or a low-interest loan
for positions in research, consulta­ under the provisions of the Nurse
tion, teaching, and clinical spe­ Training Act of 1971.
Depending on length of service,
cialization. Graduation from high
school is required for admission up to 85 percent of the loan can
be cancelled over a 5-year period
to all schools of nursing.
Diploma programs are conducted for full-time employment as a pro­
by hospital and independent schools fessional nurse in any public or
and usually require 3 years of nonprofit institution or agency.
training. Bachelor’s degree programs Full-time employment in an area
usually require 4 years of study identified as a shortage area can
in a college or university, although make one eligible for cancellation
a few require 5 years. Associate of 85 percent of the loan over a
degree programs in junior and com­ three-year period.
Young persons who want to
munity colleges require approxi­
pursue a nursing career should have
mately 2 years of nursing education.
In addition, several programs pro­ a sincere desire to serve humanity
vide licensed practical nurses with and be sympathetic to the needs of
the training necessary to upgrade others. Nurses must be able to


follow orders precisely and to use
good judgment in emergencies; they
also should be able to accept re­
sponsibility and direct or supervise
the activity of others. Good mental
health is helpful in order to cope
with human suffering and frequent
emergency situations. Staff nurses
may need physical stamina because
of the amount of time spent walking
and standing.
From staff positions in hospitals,
experienced nurses may advance to
head nurse, assistant director, and
director of nursing services. A
master’s degree, however, often is
required for supervisory and admin­
istrative positions, as well as for
positions in nursing education, clin­
ical specialization, and research.
In public health agencies, advance­
ment is usually difficult for nurses
who do not have degrees in public
health nursing.
A growing movement in nursing,
generally being referred to as the
“ nurse practitioner program’’ is
opening up new career possibilities.
Nurses who wish to take the extra
training are preparing for highly
independent roles in the clinical
care and teaching of patients. They
are practicing in primary roles
which include nurse-midwifery, ma­
ternal care, pediatrics, family health,
and the care of medical patients.
Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent opportunities for
registered nurses are expected to
be favorable through the mid1980’s. However, if trends in the
number of persons enrolling in
schools of nursing continue, some
competition for more desirable,
higher paying jobs may develop by
the mid-1980’s. Opportunities for
full- or part-time work in present
shortage areas such as some South­
ern States and many inner-city areas
are expected to be very favorable


through 1985. For nurses who have
had graduate education, the outlook
is excellent for obtaining positions
as administrators, teachers, clinical
specialists, public health nurses,
and for work in research.
A very rapid increase in em­
ployment of registered nurses is
expected because of rising popula­
tion, improved economic status of
the population, extension of prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, expansion of
medical services as a result of new
medical techniques and drugs, and
increased interest in preventive med­
icine and rehabilitation of the handi­
capped. In addition to the need
to Fill new positions, large numbers
of nurses will be required to replace
those who leave the Field each year
because of marriage and family
Earnings and Working Conditions

Registered nurses who worked
in hospitals in 1972 received average
starting salaries of $8,100 a year,
according to a national survey
conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. This was
slightly above average for nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. Registered
nurses in nursing homes can expect
to earn slightly less than those
in hospitals. Salaries of industrial
nurses averaged $158 a week in
early 1971, according to a survey
conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS).
In early 1973, the Veterans Ad­
m inistration paid inexperienced
nurses who had a diploma or an
associate degree starting salaries of
$8,572 a year; those with baccalau­
reate degrees, $10,012. Graduates
of associate degree programs entered
at $8,256, and those who had a
baccalaureate degree or diploma
began at $8,722 in other Federal


Government agencies.
Most hospital nurses receive extra
pay for work on evening or night
shifts. Nearly all receive at least
2 weeks of paid vacation after 1
year of service. Most hospital
nurses receive from 5 to 13 paid
holidays a year and also some type
of health and retirement beneFits.
Sources of Additional Information

For information on approved
schools of nursing, nursing careers,
loans, scholarships, salaries, work­
ing conditions, and employment
opportunities, contact:
ANA Committee on Nursing Careers,
American Nurses’ Association, 2420
Pershing Rd., Kansas City, Mo. 64108.

Information about employment
opportunities in the Veterans Ad­
ministration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washing­
ton, D C. 20420.

(D.O.T. 079.368)
Nature of the Work

Respiratory therapists and tech­
nicians, sometimes called inhalation
therapists, treat patients with res­
piratory problems. This treatment
may range from giving temporary re­
lief to patients with chronic asthma
or emphysema to giving emergency
care in cases of heart failure, stroke,
drowning, and shock. Respiratory
therapists also are among the
First medical specialists called for
emergency treatment of acute res­

piratory conditions arising from
head injury or drug poisoning. The
short span of time for which a
patient can safely cease to breathe
emphasizes the highly responsible
role of the respiratory therapist.
If breathing has stopped for longer
than 3 to 5 minutes, there is little
chance that the patient can recover
without brain damage, and if oxygen
is cut for more than 9 minutes, he
will die.
Respiratory therapists follow doc­
tors’ orders and use special equip­
ment such as respirators and
positive-pressure breathing ma­
chines to administer gas therapy,
aerosol therapy, and other treat­
ments involving respiration. They
also show patients and their families
how to use the equipment at home.
Other duties include keeping records
of the cost of materials and charges
to patients, and maintaining and
making minor repairs to equipment.
Respiratory therapists and res­
piratory therapy technicians per­
form essentially the same duties.
However, the therapist is expected
to have a higher level of expertise



and may be expected to assume some
teaching and supervisory duties.
Places of Employment

About 17,000 people worked as
respiratory therapists or technicians
in 1972—about one-half were
women. Most work in respiratory
therapy, anesthesiology, or pul­
monary medicine departments of
hospitals. Others work for oxygen
equipment rental companies, ambu­
lance services, nursing homes, and
creasingly entering
this field,
which has been mostly staffed by
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Respiratory apparatus has become
increasingly complex in recent years
and, although a few therapists are
trained on the job, formalized train­
ing is now stressed as the requisite
for entry to the field.
In 1972, more than 100 institu­
tions offered educational programs
in respiratory therapy approved
by the Council on Medical Educa­
tion of the American Medical As­
sociation. High school graduation
is required for entry. Courses vary
in length between 18 months and 4
years and include both theory and
clinical work. A bachelor’s degree
is awarded for completion of a
4-year program and lesser degrees
are awarded for shorter courses.
Areas of study include human
anatomy and physiology, chemistry,
physics, microbiology, and mathe­
matics. Technical courses offered
deal with procedures, equipment,
and clinical tests.
Respiratory therapists with an
associate degree from an AMAapproved program and 1 year of
experience are eligible to be regis­
tered by the American Registry of

Inhalation Therapists (ARIT). Ap­ to fill teaching and supervisory
plicants must pass written and oral positions.
examinations. In 1972, nearly 1,800
A rapid growth in employment of
therapists had been registered. A respiratory therapists is expected,
registered inhalation therapist often owing to new uses for respiratory
can advance faster and obtain a therapy, increased acceptance of its
higher position than one who is not use, and the growth in health
registered. An increasing number of services in general. Many specialists
employers recognize registration as in respiratory therapy will be hired
an acknowledgement of a therapist’s to release nurses and other personnel
now performing respiratory therapy
Those who do not qualify or fail work to return to their primary
to pass the registry examination may duties. Many other openings will
elect to take the examination to be­ arise from the need to replace those
come Certified Respiratory Therapy who retire, die, or leave the occupa­
Technicians. This CRTT examina­ tion for other reasons.
tion is less comprehensive than the
registry examination. To be eligible
for it, applicants must have com­ Earnings and Working Conditions
pleted either an associate degree
The starting salary of res­
respiratory therapy program or a 1- piratory therapy personnel employed
year respiratory therapy technician in hospitals and medical centers
program, either of which must be averaged about $604 a month in
approved by the Council on Medical 1972, according to a survey con­
Education of the American Medical ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Top salaries of
Respiratory therapists can ad­ respiratory therapists in hospitals
vance to positions as assistant ranged as high as $960 a month.
chief, chief therapist, or, with
The Federal Government paid
graduate education, instructor of respiratory
respiratory therapy at the college salaries of $6,128 a year in 1973
if they had 1 year of post­
People who want to enter the secondary training, and $6,882 for
respiratory therapy field should be those with 2 years of training. Some
able to work with patients and therapists employed by the Federal
understand their physical and psy­ Government in early 1973 earned
chological needs. Respiratory ther­ as much as $12,373 a year.
apists must be able to pay attention
Respiratory therapists who work
to detail, follow instructions, and in hospitals receive the same bene­
work as part of a team. Operating fits as other hospital personnel,
the complicated respiratory therapy including
equipment also requires some me­ vacations, and sick leave. Some
chanical ability.
institutions provide tuition assist­
ance or free courses, pension pro­
grams, uniforms, and parking.
Employment Outlook
Therapists generally work a 40Employment opportunities for hour week. After-hours and week­
respiratory therapists and tech­ end duty is generally required since
nicians are expected to be very good most
through the mid-1980’s. Those with coverage throughout the week.
advanced training in respiratory Adherence to safety precautions
therapy programs will be in demand and testing proper operation of



equipment minimizes the potential
hazard of fire to therapists and
Sources of Additional Information

Information concerning educa­
tion programs is available from:
American Association for Respiratory
Therapy, 7411 Hines Place, Dallas,
Tex. 75235.

On-the-job training information
can be obtained at local hospitals.

(D.O.T. 079.118)
Nature of the Work

Sanitarians, frequently called en­
vironmentalists, are specialists in
environmental health. They perform
a broad range of duties to protect
the cleanliness and safety of the
food people eat, the liquids they
drink, and the air they breathe.
Sanitarians check the cleanliness
and safety of food and beverages
produced in dairies and processing
plants, or served in restaurants,
hospitals, and other institutions.
They often examine the handling,
processing, and serving of food
for compliance with sanitation rules
and regulations. Sanitarians also
may develop and manage programs
to prevent contamination, control
insects and rodents, properly dis­
pose of refuse, and insure adequate
sanitary water supplies.
Sanitarians concerned with waste
control oversee the treatment and
disposal of sewage, refuse, and
garbage. They examine places where
pollution is a danger, perform tests
to detect pollutants, and collect air
or water samples for analysis. San­

Sanitarian uses air samples to check bacteria carried on a hospital worker.

itarians determine the nature and
cause of the pollution, then initiate
action to stop it.
Public health sanitarians work
closely with doctors, nurses, and
public health officers to prevent and
investigate outbreaks of disease.
They may conduct surveys to deter­
mine the adequacy of health regula­
tions or perform sanitary inspections
of schools, houses, swimming pools,
and recreation facilities. They also
plan for civil defense and emer­
gency disaster aid. Sometimes
sanitarians teach health education
classes and lecture to student assem­
blies, civic groups, and other organ­
Professional sanitarians work
closely with a variety of other
workers such as life and environ­
mental scientists, waste water

treatment plant operators, and en­
vironmental health technicians. En­
vironmental health technicians may
help them perform routine duties
such as compliance inspections,
collection of air and water samples,
and testing for pollutants.
Sanitarians who have supervisory
duties analyze reports of inspection
and investigations, and occasionally
give evidence in court cases involving
violations of sanitation and health
regulations. Sanitarians in top ad­
ministrative positions plan and direct
environmental health programs and
coordinate them with the programs
of other agencies. Other duties may
include advising on difficult or
unusual environmental health prob­
lems, and drafting health laws or
In large local and State health



or agriculture departments, san­
itarians may specialize in areas of
work such as milk and dairy prod­
ucts, food sanitation, waste control,
air pollution, institutional sanitation,
and occupational health. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be
responsible for a wide range of
environmental health activities.
Increasing numbers of sanitarians
work in private industry to min­
imize contamination and pollution
hazards and make sure that work­
ing conditions are healthy, safe, and
clean. They frequently work closely
with government sanitarians who en­
force health, safety, and pollution
laws and regulations.
Places of Employment

About 17,000 persons, mostly
men, worked as sanitarians in 1972.
Three out of every four worked for
State and local governments. Most
of the remainder worked for pro­
ducers and processors of food and
dairy products. A small number were
teachers in colleges and universities.
A few were consultants. Others
worked in hospitals and for trade
associations and other organizations.
Most sanitarians work in populous
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Laws in 35 States provided for the
registration of sanitarians in 1972;
in some States, registration is man­
datory. Although requirements for
vary considerably
among States, the minimum educa­
tional requirement usually is a
bachelor’s degree. A bachelor’s de­
gree in environmental health is
preferred for beginning sanitarian
jobs, although a major in any en­
vironmental, life, or physical science
generally is acceptable. Administra­
tive, teaching, and research jobs

usually require a graduate degree concerning the correction of un­
sanitary conditions.
in some aspect of public health.
In 1972, 58 colleges and univer­
sities offered undergraduate or grad­
Employment Outlook
uate programs in environmental
Em ploym ent opportunities for
health. A typical curriculum leading
to a bachelor of science degree in sanitarians who have a bachelor’s
environmental health includes back­ degree in environmental health are
ground courses in the humanities, expected to be very good through
social sciences, mathematics, chem­ the mid-1980’s, particularly in pri­
istry, physics, and biology. Core vate industry. The outlook for those
courses include m icrobiology having degrees in life, physical, or
(bacteriology); biostatistics, epidem­ environmental sciences is expected
iology, environmental sciences, ad­ to be favorable.
Employment of sanitarians is ex­
ministration, and field work.
Sanitarians usually begin at a pected to increase very rapidly
trainee level and work under the through the mid-1980’s in response
supervision of experienced sani­ to anticipated expansion of public
tarians for up to a year. They and private programs dealing with
receive on-the-job training in en­ food sanitation, water and air pol­
vironmental health practice, learn lution, and occupational health.
to evaluate health and sanitation Underlying the demand for san­
hazards and recommend corrective itarians in the private sector will
action. After a few years of ex­ be industrial growth and an increas­
perience, they may be promoted to ing recognition by industry of its
minor supervisory positions with responsibility for safe and sanitary
more responsibilities. Specializa­ products and healthful environment.
tion may begin after several years Demand for sanitarians in the public
of experience, especially in large sector will be generated by an ex­
local health offices. Further ad­ pansion of the environmental health
vancement is possible to top super­ activities of State and local govern­
visory and administrative positions. ments. Increasing public concern
To keep abreast of new develop­ with health hazards, waste manage­
ments and to supplement their ment, radiation danger, and pollu­
academic training, many sanitarians tion is expected to require the
take specialized short-term train­ services of more sanitarians. Popu­
ing courses in subjects such as lation growth, continued migration
occupational health, water supply of people from rural to urban
and pollution control, air pollution, areas, and industrial growth will
protection from dangers of radia­ place a greater strain on food serv­
tion, milk and food inspection, ices, housing, and sewage disposal
metropolitan planning, and hospital facilities of urban communities.
Young people interested in becom­ Earnings and Working Conditions
ing sanitarians should like working
Starting salaries of sanitarians
with detail and possess a mechan­
ical aptitude, since sanitarians may employed by State governments
operate various testing devices. An averaged $7,800 annually, in early
ability to communicate effectively, 1972, according to a survey of State
both orally and in writing is nec­ and selected local governments con­
essary for writing detailed reports ducted by the Public Personnel
and tactfully dealing with persons Association. Maximum salaries of


journeymen sanitarians in State SPEECH PATHOLOGISTS
governments averaged $10,000 an­
nually; annual salaries were about
$1,000 higher for sanitarians work­
(D.O.T. 079.108)
ing for local governments. Salaries
of supervisory sanitarians and san­
Nature of the Work
itarians having extensive experience
ranged to more than $20,000.
About 1 out of 10 Americans
Sanitarians employed by the Fed­ is unable to speak or hear clearly.
eral Government started at $7,319 Children who have trouble speak­
or $9,053 in 1972, depending on ing or hearing cannot participate
their academic records. Experienced fully with other children in play
sanitarians in the Federal service or in normal classroom activities.
earned from $11,046 to $20,627.
Adults having speech or hearing
Sanitarians spend considerable impairments often have problems in
time away from their desks. Some job adjustment. Speech pathologists
come in contact with unpleasant and audiologists provide direct serv­
physical surroundings, such as sew­ ices to these people by evaluating
age disposal facilities and slum their speech or hearing disorders
housing. Transportation or gasoline and then providing treatment.
allowance frequently are given, and
The speech pathologist works with
some health departments provide children and adults who have speech,
an automobile.
language, and voice disorders re­
sulting from causes such as total
Sources of Additional Information or partial hearing loss, brain in­
jury, cleft palate, mental retarda­
Information about careers as san­ tion, emotional problems, or foreign
itarians is available from the follow­ dialect. The audiologist primarily
ing associations:
assesses and treats hearing prob­
American Public Health Association,
lems. Speech and hearing, however,
1015 18th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
are so interrelated that to be com­
petent in one of these fields, one
International Association of Milk, Food,
must be familiar with both.
and Environmental Sanitarians, Blue
The duties of speech pathologists
Ridge Rd., P.O. Box 437, Shelbyville,
and audiologists vary with educa­
Ind. 46176.
tion, experience, and place of
National Environmental Health Associa­
tion, 1600 Pennsylvania St., Denver,
employment. In clinics, either in
Colorado 80203.
schools or other locations, they use
Information on stipends for grad­ diagnostic procedures to identify
uate study is available from:
and evaluate speech and hearing
Division of Allied Health Manpower,
disorders. Then, in cooperation with
Bureau of Health Professions Educa­
physicians, psychologists, physical
tion and Manpower Training, National
therapists, and counselors, they de­
Institute of Health, 9000 Rockville
velop and implement an organized
Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.
program of therapy. Some speech
pathologists and audiologists con­
duct research such as investigating
the causes of communicative dis­
orders and improving methods for
clinical services. Others supervise
clinical activities or do other ad­
ministrative work.


Speech pathologists and audi­
ologists in colleges and universities
instruct in the principles and bases
of communication, communication
disorders, and clinical techniques;
participate in educational programs
with physicians, nurses, and teachers;
and work in university clinics and
research centers.
Places of Employment

About 27,000 persons, threefourths of them women, worked
as speech pathologists and audi­
ologists in 1972. About two-thirds
worked in public schools. Colleges
and universities employed many in
classrooms, clinics, and research
centers. The rest were distributed
among hospitals, speech and hearing
centers, government agencies, in­
dustry, and private practice.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although only a few States pres­
ently require a master’s degree for
work in schools, the master’s degree
or its equivalent increasingly is
needed. A teacher’s certificate often
is required. In addition, some States
require workers dealing with handi­
capped children to have special
training. Speech pathologists and
audiologists who supervise many
Federal programs, such as Medi­
care and Medicaid, need a master’s
Undergraduate courses in speech
pathology and audiology include
anatomy, biology, physiology, phy­
sics, linguistics, semantics and
phonetics. Courses in speech and
hearing as well as in child psy­
chology and psychology of the ex­
ceptional child are also helpful.
This training is usually available
at colleges that offer a broad liberal
arts program.
In 1972, more than 200 colleges



an opportunity for self-expression
and receive satisfaction from seeing
the results of their work.
Employment Outlook

and universities offered graduate
education in speech pathology and
audiology. Courses at the graduate
level include advanced anatomy and
physiology of the areas involved
in hearing and speech, acoustics,
and psychological aspects of com­
munication. Training also is given
in the analysis of speech produc­
tion, language abilities, and auditory
processes. Graduate students gain
a familiarity with research methods
used to study speech and hearing.
Scholarships, fellowships, assistantships and traineeships are avail­
able in this field. Teaching and
training grants to colleges and
universities that have programs in
speech and hearing are given by the
U.S. Rehabilitation Services Admin­
istration, the Maternal and Child
Health Service, the U.S. Office of
Education, and the National Insti­
tutes of Health. In addition, some
Federal agencies distribute money
to colleges to aid graduate students
in speech and hearing programs.
Opportunity for advancement, as
in most health service occupations,
is generally not an important con­

sideration for speech pathologists
and audiologists. However, meeting
the American Speech and Hearing
Association’s (ASHA) requirements
for a Certificate of Clinical Com­
petence usually is necessary in
order to advance professionally and
to earn a higher salary. ASHA
members work in all areas of
speech pathology and audiology.
Most speech pathologists and audi­
ologists have some administrative
responsibilities. However, directors
of speech and hearing clinics, and
coordinators of speech and hearing
in schools, health departments or
government agencies, may be totally
involved in administration.
Speech pathologists and audiol­
ogists should like people; have the
ability to approach problems ob­
jectively; and should be sensitive,
patient, and emotionally stable. A
person who desires a career in
speech pathology and audiology
should be able to accept responsi­
bility, work independently, and di­
rect others. The ability to work
with detail is important. Speech
pathologists and audiologists have

The employment of speech path­
ologists and audiologists is expected
to increase moderately through the
mid-1980’s. For those who have
completed graduate study, oppor­
tunities are expected to be very
good. Although some jobs will be
available for those having only a
bachelor’s degree, the increasing
emphasis being placed on the mas­
ter’s degree by State governments
and Federal agencies will limit
opportunities at the bachelor’s level.
Population growth which will in­
crease the number of persons having
speech and hearing problems is one
of the principal factors underlying
the expected moderate increase in
employment of speech pathologists
and audiologists through the mid1980’s. In addition, the trend is
growing toward earlier recognition
and treatment of hearing and lan­
guage problems in children. Many
school-age children, thought to have
learning disabilities, actually have
language disorders which speech
pathologists can treat.
Other factors expected to in­
crease demand for speech path­
ologists and audiologists are the
rapid expansion in expenditures for
medical research and the growing
public interest connected with speech
and hearing disorders. These are
illustrated by the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act, as
amended, which provides for the
education of handicapped children,
and expanded Federal programs
such as Medicare hnd Medicaid.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Median salaries of speech path­
ologists and audiologists teaching


in colleges and universities range
from $9,900 to $18,500 for a 9-10
month contract in 1972, according
to limited data available. Median
salaries might be as much as
$2,000 higher for an 11 to 12 month
contract. Many experienced speech
pathologists and audiologists in col­
leges and universities supplement
their regular salaries by doing con­
sulting work, special research proj­
ects, and writing books and articles.
In 1972, speech pathologists and
audiologists in schools averaged
$11,500 for a 9-10 month contract
according to limited information


available. Their average salaries
were over $1,000 higher than those
of all classroom teachers for the
same period.
In early 1973, the annual starting
salary in the Federal Government
for speech pathologists and audi­
ologists with a master’s degree was
$11,614. Those having a doctoral
degree were eligible to start at
Many speech pathologists and
audiologists work over 40 hours a
week. Almost all receive fringe
benefits such as paid vacations,
sick leave, and retirement programs.

Sources of Additional Information

State departments of education
can supply information on certifi­
cation requirements for those who
wish to work in public schools.
A list of college and university
programs and a booklet on student
financial aid as well as general
career information are available
American Speech and Hearing Associa­
tion, 9030 Old Georgetown Rd., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20014.

The social sciences are concerned
with all aspects of human society
from the origins of man to the latest
election returns. Social scientists,
however, generally specialize in one
major field of human relationships.
Anthropologists study primitive
tribes, reconstruct civilizations of the
past, and analyze the cultures and
languages of all peoples, past and
present. Economists study the alloca­
tion of land, labor, and capital.
Geographers study the distribution
of people, throughout the world,
types of land and water masses, and
natural resources. Historians de­
scribe and interpret the people and
events of the past and present. Polit­
ical scientists study the theories, ob­
jectives, and organizations of all
types of government. Sociologists
analyze the behavior and relation­
ships of groups—such as the family,
the community, and minorities—to
the individual or to society as a
whole. Besides these basic social
science occupations, a number of
closely related fields are covered in
separate statements elsewhere in this
H andbook. (See statem ents on
Statisticians, Psychologists, and
Social Workers.)
The basic social science occupa­
tions provided employment for about
95,000 persons in 1972; about 10 per­
cent of them were women. Over­
lapping among the basic social
science fields and the sometimes
hazy distinction between these and
related fields such as business ad­
ministration, foreign service work,
and high school teaching, make it
difficult to determine the exact size
of each profession. Economists, how­
ever, are the largest social science
group, and anthropologists the
Most social scientists work in col­

leges and universities. A large
num ber work for the Federal
Government and private industry.
The trend in some industries is to
hire increasing numbers of social
science majors as trainees for ad­
ministrative and executive positions.
Research councils and other non­
profit organizations provide an im­
portant source of employment for
economists, political scientists, and
Overall employment in the social
sciences is expected to grow moder­
ately through the mid-1980’s. Teach­
ing in colleges and universities will
remain the major area of employ­
ment. Employment of social scien­
tists in government, private indus­
try, and nonprofit organizations is
expected to rise also. Despite this an­
ticipated growth, the number of per­
sons seeking to enter the social
science field is likely to exceed avail­
able job openings. The following
statements present more detailed in­
formation about the prospective out­
look in the individual occupations.

(D.O.T. 055.088)
Nature of the Work

Anthropologists study man—his
origins, physical characteristics, and
culture. These areas include a study
of the people’s traditions, beliefs,
customs, languages, material posses­
sions, social relationships, and value
systems. Although anthropologists
generally specialize in one of these
areas, they are expected to have a
general knowledge of all of them.

Most anthropologists specialize in
cultural anthropology, sometimes
called ethnology. Ethnologists may
spend long periods living with tribal
groups or in other communities to
learn about their ways of life. The
ethnologist takes detailed and com­
prehensive notes that describe the
social customs, beliefs, and material
possessions of the people. He usu­
ally learns the native language in the
process. He also makes comparative
studies of the cultures and societies
of various groups. In recent years,
such investigations have included
complex urban societies.
Archeologists excavate places
where people of past civilizations liv­
ed. They study the remains of homes,
tools, clothing, ornaments, and other
evidences of human life and activity
to reconstruct the inhabitants’ his­
tory and customs. For example,
archeologists are digging in the
Pacific Coast area between northern
Mexico and Ecuador to find evi­
dences of trade and migration in the
pre-Christian Era. Some archeolo­
gists are excavating ancient Mayan
cities in Mexico and restoring
temples. Others are working in the
Missouri River valley to salvage
remnants of Indian villages and sites
of early military forts and trading
Some anthropologists specialize in
linguistics, the scientific study of the
sounds and structures of languages
and of the historical relationships
among languages. They study the
relationship between the language
and the behavior of people. Their
work assists in reconstructing the
prehistory of mankind.
Physical anthropologists study
human evolution. They do compara­
tive studies of the physical character­
istics of different races or groups of
people as influenced by heredity and
environment. In order to perform
these tasks, physical anthropologists
need extensive training in human
anatomy and biology. Because of



Most anthropologists teach in col­
leges and universities. They often
combine teaching with research.
Some anthropologists specialize in
museum work, which generally com­
bines managerial and administra­
tive duties with field work and re­
search on anthropological collec­
tions. A few work as consultants or
engage in nontechnical writing, or
other activities.
Places of Employment

About 3,700 persons—about onefifth of them women—worked as
anthropologists in 1972. About fourfifths of all anthropologists work in
colleges and universities. Several
hundred work in private industry and
nonprofit organizations. The Fed­
eral Government employs a small
num ber, chiefly in m useum s,
national parks, in the Bureau of In­
dian Affairs, and in technical aid
programs. State and local govern­
ment agencies also employ some
anthropologists, usually for museum
work or health research.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

their knowledge of body structure,
physical anthropologists occa­
sionally are employed as consultants
on projects such as the design of
driver seats, space suits, cockpits for
airplanes and spaceships, and the siz­
ing of clothing. They consult on proj­
ects to improve environmental con­
ditions and on criminal cases. They
are increasingly employed in medi­
cal schools.
Closely related to the four basic
subfields is applied anthropology, an

emerging specialty which attempts to
use the findings in the other anthro­
pological areas in a practical
manner. Applied anthropologists
may, for example, provide technical
guidelines to ease the transition of
nonindustrial societies to a more
complex level of socioeconomic
organization. Another related spe­
cialty area is urban anthropology,
which is the study of urban life, ur­
banization, rural-urban migration,
and the influence of city life.

Students who want to become
anthropologists should get the Ph.D.
degree. College graduates with
bachelor’s degrees often get tempo­
rary positions and assistantships in
the graduate departments where they
are working for advanced degrees. A
master’s degree, plus field experi­
ence, is sufficient for many begin­
ning professional positions, but
promotion to top positions is gener­
ally reserved for individuals who
have a Ph.D. degree. A n th ro ­
pologists in many colleges and most
universities need a Ph.D. degree to
g et p e rm a n e n t te a c h in g a p ­
Some training in archeology, lin­
guistics, and physical and cultural



anthropology is necessary for all
anthropologists. M athematics is
helpful, since statistical and com­
puter methods are becoming more
widely used for research in this field.
Undergraduate students may begin
their field training in archeology by
arranging, through their university
departments, to accompany expedi­
tions as laborers or to attend field
schools established for training.
They may later advance to super­
visor in charge of the digging or
collection of material and finally
may direct a portion of the work of
the expedition. Ethnologists and lin­
guists usually work independently in
doing their field work. Most anthro­
pologists base their doctoral disserta­
tions on data collected through field
research; they are, therefore, experi­
enced fieldworkers by the time they
earn the Ph.D. degree.
About 200 colleges and univer­
sities have bachelor degree pro­
grams in anthropology; nearly 130
offer master’s degree programs and
about 80, doctorate programs. Most
universities that have graduate pro­
grams also offer undergraduate
training in anthropology. The choice
of a graduate school is very impor­
tant. Students interested in museum
work should select a school that can
provide experience in an associated
museum that has anthropological
collections. Similarly, those inter­
ested in archeology should either
choose a university that offers oppor­
tunities for summer experience in
archeological fieldwork, or else
should plan to attend an arche­
ological field school elsewhere dur­
ing their summer vacations.
Anthropologists should be per­
sons who have an above average in­
terest in natural history or social
studies and enjoy reading, research,
and writing. A desire to travel and
the ability to cope with the disadvan­
tages of remote work areas are some­
times necessary for success.

Anthropologists work with ideas
and have the opportunity for selfexpression. They should have the
ability to work with detail and work
Employment Outlook

Employment in this rather small
occupation is expected to increase
very rapidly through the mid-1980’s.
The largest area of employment will
continue to be in college and univer­
sity teaching. However, an increas­
ing number of jobs will be available
for anthropologists in museums, and
in programs of archeological re­
search, mental and public health, and
poverty and community action, as
well as in private industry.
The number of graduates with ad­
vanced degrees in anthropology also
is expected to grow very rapidly, and
it is very likely that the number seek­
ing to enter the field will exceed job
openings generated by growth as well
as replacement needs. As a result,
anthropologists holding the doctor­
ate may face keen competition for
positions of their choice through the
mid-1980’s. Graduates with only the
master’s degree are expected to face
very persistent competition for
professional positions in anthro­
pology and may have to enter re­
lated fields of work such as mental
health or poverty programs. Some
who meet certification requirements
may secure high school teaching
positions. Others may find jobs in
governm ent, and in nonprofit
organizations and civic groups that
hire personnel with social science
training as a general background.
Earnings and Working

S tartin g salaries for a n th ro ­
pologists with a Ph.D. degree were
generally about $12,000 a year in
1972. Experienced anthropologists

earned median salaries of $16,000 a
year, according to limited data
available. They may, however, earn
more than $20,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, start­
ing salaries for anthropologists hav­
ing a master’s degree were $11,614 a
year in early 1973, and for those hav­
ing a Ph.D., $13,996. Experienced
anthropologists earned from $16,700
to more than $23,000 a year.
Many anthropologists who work
in colleges and universities supple­
ment their regular salaries with earn­
ings from other sources such as sum­
mer teaching and research grants.
A nthropologists doing arche­
ological fieldwork sometimes are re­
quired to work in adverse weather
conditions and perform manual
labor. They also must adapt them­
selves to cultural environments
which are materially and socially
Sources of Additional

For information about employ­
ment opportunities and schools that
offer graduate training in anthro­
pology, contact:
The Am erican A nthropological
Association, 1703 New Hampshire
Ave. NW„ Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 050.088)
Nature of the Work

Economics is concerned with how
to utilize scarce resources to provide
goods and services for society.
Economists study the problems that
arise in the use of such resources as



policies on business or international
trade; or the advisability of adding
new lines or merchandise, opening
new branch operations, or otherwise
expanding the company’s business.

Places of Employment

Economics is the largest social
science field. More than 36,000 per­
sons, about 6 percent of them
women, worked as economists in
1972. Private industry and business
employ one-half; colleges and univer­
sities about one-third; and govern­
m en t a g e n c ie s — m ain ly F e d ­
eral—roughly one-sixth. A few are
self-employed or work for private re­
search organizations.
Economists work in all large cities
and university towns. The largest
number are in the New York City
and the Washington, D.C. metro­
politan areas. Some work overseas,
mainly for the U.S. Department of
State and the Agency for Interna­
tional Development.
Economist analyzes results of computer printout.

land, raw materials, and manpower.
Economists analyze the relationship
between the supply of goods and
services and demand for them, on the
one hand, and on the other, how
goods and services are produced, dis­
tributed, and consum ed. Some
economists are concerned with such
practical matters as the control of in­
flation, business cycles, and unem­
ployment, as well as farm, wage, tax,
and tariff policies. Others develop
theories to explain the causes of
employment and unemployment or
the ways in which international trade
influences world economic condi­
tions. Still others collect, analyze,
and interpret data on a wide variety
of economics problems.
Economists who work in colleges

and universities teach the theories,
principles, and methods of econom­
ics and conduct or direct research.
They frequently write, and act as
Economists in government plan
and carry out studies used to assess
economic conditions and the need for
changes in government policy. To ac­
complish this work they collect data,
analyze it, and prepare reports. Most
government economists are in the
fields of agriculture, business,
finance, labor, or international trade
and development.
Economists who work for busi­
ness firms provide management with
information to make decisions on
marketing and pricing of company
products; the effect of government

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Economists must have a thorough
understanding of economic theory
and methods of economic analysis.
An increasing number of univer­
sities emphasize the value of mathe­
matical methods of economic anal­
ysis. Since many beginning jobs for
economists in government and busi­
ness involve the collection and com­
pilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge of basic statistical procedures
usually is required.
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in economics is sufficient for many
beginning research jobs in govern­
ment and private industry, although
persons employed in these entry jobs
are not usually regarded as profes­
sional economists. In the Federal
Government, candidates for en­
trance positions must have a mini­


mum of 21 sem ester hours of
economics and 3 hours of statistics,
accounting, or calculus.
Graduate training is very impor­
tant for persons who want to be­
come economists. Students inter­
ested in research should select
schools that emphasize training in re­
search methods and statistics and
provide good research facilities.
Those who wish to work in agri­
cultural economics will find oppor­
tunities to gain experience in parttime research work at State univer­
sities that have agricultural experi­
ment stations.
A master’s degree generally is re­
quired to get a job as a college in­
structor, although in large schools
graduate assistantships sometimes
are awarded to superior students
working toward their master’s de­
grees. In many large colleges and uni­
versities, completion of all the re­
quirements for a Ph.D. degree, ex­
cept the dissertation, is necessary for
appointm ent as instru cto r. In
government or private industry,
economists who have a master’s
degree usually can qualify for more
responsible research positions.
The Ph.D. degree is required for a
professorship in a high-ranking col­
lege or university and is an asset
when competing for other respon­
sible positions in government, busi­
ness, or private research organiza­
About 800 colleges and univer­
sities offer bachelor degree pro­
grams in economics, 200 master’s,
and 100 doctorate.
Persons who consider careers as
economists should be able to work
accurately and in detail—since much
time is spent on research. Fre­
quently, the ability to work as part of
a team is required. Economists must
be objective in their work and be able
to express themselves effectively
orally or in writing, since they do
many reports and presentations.


Employment Outlook

The number of persons who will
graduate with degrees in economics
through the mid-1980’s is likely to
exceed available positions that will
arise from the expected moderate
growth of the occupation and the
need to replace economists who will
die and retire during this period. As a
result well-trained economists hav­
ing a doctorate or master’s degree
are expected to face keen competi­
tion for choice academic positions.
Persons who have bachelor’s de­
grees in economics may find some
employment in government, indus­
try and business as trainees or
management interns, but competi­
tion may be keen.
Private industry and business will
continue to provide the largest num­
ber of employment opportunities for
economists because of increased
reliance on scientific methods of
analyzing business trends, forecast­
ing sales and planning purchases and
production operations. The next
largest area of employment oppor­
tunities for economists will be in col­
leges and universities where a pro­
jected moderate increase in enroll­
ments will lead to a similar increase
in faculty size. Employment of
econom ists in S tate and local
government agencies is expected to
increase rapidly because of the in­
creasingly analytical nature of pro­
grams in areas such as housing and
poverty. Employment of economists
in the Federal Government is ex­
pected to rise slowly—in line with the
rate of growth projected for the Fed­
eral work force as a whole.

Starting salaries for economists
with a Ph.D. were nearly $12,000 a
year in 1972, according to limited in­
formation. Salaries of economists
employed by colleges and univer­
sities in 1972 averaged about $20,-

000, and for those in business, indus­
try, and nonprofit organizations it
was about $22,000. Economists who
have a Ph.D. are paid higher sala­
ries than those who have lesser de­
grees and similar experience. A sub­
stantial number of economists sup­
plement their basic salaries by con­
sulting, teaching, and other research
activities. Economists earn about
twice as much as the average earn­
ings for non-supervisory workers in
private industry or private nonfarm
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for beginning econo­
mists having a bachelor’s degree was
$7,694 a year in 1973; however, those
with superior academic records could
begin at $9,520. Those having 2 full
years of graduate training or experi­
ence could qualify for positions at an
annual salary of $11,614. Most ex­
perienced economists in the Federal
Government earned from $17,000 to
$23,000 a year; some having greater
administrative responsibilities earn­
ed considerably more.
Sources off Additional
A d d ition al

in form ation



career as an economist is available
American Economic Association, 1313
21st Avenue South, Nashville,
Tenn. 37212.

(D.O.T. 029.088 and 059.088)
Nature of the Work

Geographers study the spatial
characteristics of the earth’s terrain,
minerals, soils, water, vegetation,
and climate. They relate these char­


acteristics to changing patterns of
human settlem ent—where people
live, why they are located there, and
how they earn a living.
The majority of geographers are
college or university teachers; some
combine teaching and research.
Their research includes the study and
analysis of the distribution of land
forms, climate, soils, vegetation, and
mineral and water resources. They
also analyze the distribution and
structure of political organizations,
transportation systems, marketing
systems, and urban systems. Many
geographers spend considerable time
in field study, and in analysing maps,,
aerial photographs, and observa­
tional data collected in the field.
Sometimes they utilize surveying and
meteorological instruments. Photo­
graphs and other data from remote
sensors on satellites are used in­
creasingly. Other geographers con­
struct maps, graphs, and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in
one branch or more of geography.
Economic geographers deal with the
geographic distribution of economic
activities—including m anufactur­
ing, mining, farming, trade, and
communications. Political geogra­
phers study how political processes
affect geographic boundaries on sub­
national, national, and international
scales and the relationship of spatial
processes (geographic conditions) to
political processes. Urban geogra­
phers study cities and their prob­
lems in depth, and are concerned
with city and community planning.
(See statement on Urban Planners
elsewhere in the Handbook.) Physi­
cal geographers study the physical
characteristics of the earth and
moon. Regional geographers study
the physical, economic, political, and
cultural characteristics of a particu­
lar region or area, which may range
in size from a river basin or an
island, to a State, a country, or even
a continent. Cartographers compile

data and design and construct maps. Survey, Bureau of the Census, Of­
Many geographers have job titles fice of Regional Commissions, Na­
such as cartographer, map catalog­ tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad­
ed or regional analyst, that describe ministration and National Weather
their specialization. Others have Service. Geographers employed by
titles that relate to the subject matter the Interior Department work in
of their study such as photo-intelli­ such agencies as Bureau of Indian
gence specialist or climatological Affairs, Bureau of Outdoor Recre­
analyst. Still others have titles such ation, Bureau of Land Management
as community or environmental and Geological Survey. Other gov­
planner, or market or business ana­ ernment agencies that employ ge­
lyst. Most of those who teach in col­ ographers include the Central Intel­
leges and universities are called geog­ ligence Agency (CIA), Office of
Emergency Planning, N ational
Aeronautical and Space Adminis­
tration (NASA), and the Library of
Places of Employment
About 7,500 persons worked as ge­
ographers in 1972; about 15 percent
Training, Other Qualifications,
were women.
and Advancement
Colleges and universities employ
more than two-thirds of all geogra­
The educational requirement for
phers. The Federal Government em­ beginning positions in geography is
ploys a large number. Among Fed­ usually a bachelor’s degree with a
eral agencies, the Department of De­ major in the field. For research and
fense employs the largest number in teaching jobs, and for advancement,
such agencies as the Defense Map­ graduate training is usually re­
ping Agency, the Aeronautical Chart quired. A Ph.D. is preferred.
and Information Center, Naval In­
In the Federal Government, candi­
telligence. The Commerce Depart­ dates for entrance positions must
ment employs geographers in such have a minimum of 15 semester
agencies as the Coast and Geodetic hours in geography and 9 hours in
related fields such as statistics or
economics. For an applicant to start
at a higher level, he needs 30 hours in
geography and related fields and a
year of graduate study or work ex­
perience as a geographer.
About 380 colleges and universi­
ties offered degree training in ge­
ography in 1972. Undergraduate
study provides a general introduc­
tion to geographic knowledge and re­
search methods and often includes
some field studies. Typical courses
offered are physical and cultural ge­
ography, weather and climate, eco­
nomic geography, political geogra­
phy, urban geography, weather and
climate, quantitative methods in ge­
ography, and comparative courses
such as the geography of North



ographers with the Ph.D. is ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s for positions in research
and teaching in college and universi­
ties and for research jobs in industry
and government. Those with the
master’s degree are likely to face
som e co m p e titio n for choice
academic positions; however, ex­
panding geography programs in
junior colleges should provide some
jobs. Colleges and universities will
continue to provide the largest num­
ber of employment opportunities for
geographers because of the expected
increase in college enrollm ent
through the mid-1980’s. Some other
jobs should be available in research
for government or private industry.
Graduates who have only the
bachelor’s degree in geography
usually are not qualified for jobs as
professional geographers. However,
they may find positions connected
with making, interpreting, or analyz­
ing maps; or in research, either
working for the government or in­
dustry. Others enter beginning posi­
tions in the planning field. Some may
obtain employment as research or
teaching assistants in educational in­
stitutions while studying for ad­
vance degrees. Some bachelor’s de­
gree holders do teach at the high
school level. Some earn library
science degrees and become map
Employment of geographers in
government is expected to increase.
The Federal Government will need
additional personnel to work in pro­
grams such as regional develop­
ment, environmental quality, and in­
telligence. Em ploym ent of ge­
ographers in State and local govern­
ments also is expected to expand,
particularly in areas such as con­
servation, environmental quality
control, highway planning, and city,
community, and regional planning
Employment Outlook
and development. Private industry
The employment outlook for ge­ also is expected to employ increas­

America and the USSR. Courses in
cartography and in the interpreta­
tion of maps and aerial and satellite
photographs also are offered.
State and local governments also
employ small numbers of geogra­
phers, mostly on city and State plan­
ning and development commissions.
A small but growing number of ge­
ographers work in private industry.
Most work for marketing research
organizations, textbook and map
publishers, travel agencies, manu­
facturing firms or chain stores. A few
work for scientific foundations and
research institutes.
In 1972, 115 institutions offered
master’s degree programs; 50 of­
fered Ph.D. programs. Admittance
to a graduate program usually re­
quires a bachelor’s degree with a
major in geography. However, many
universities admit students with
bachelor’s degrees in any of the
social or physical sciences with some
background in geography. Require­
ments for advanced degrees include
field and laboratory work as well as
advanced classroom studies in ge­
ography and thesis preparation.
Many graduate schools also require
course work in advanced mathemat­
ics and computer science because of
the increasing emphasis on these
areas in the field. A language is re­
quired for those students who plan to
enter the field of foreign regional
Persons who want to become ge­
ographers should enjoy reading,
studying, and research because they
must keep abreast of developments
in the field. Geographers must work
with abstract ideas and theories as
well as do practical studies. They
also must be able to work independ­
ently and communicate their ideas
orally and in writing.

ing numbers of geographers for mar­
ket research and location analysis.

Salaries of geographers in col­
leges and universities depend on their
teaching rank and experience. Assist­
ant professors entering the field with
a Ph.D. and no experience started at
between $10,500 and $11,000 in
1972, according to limited informa­
tion. Nearly three-fourths of all ge­
ographers earned between $10,000
and $20,000 a year, according to a
recent survey conducted by the Asso­
ciation of American Geographers.
About one-fourth earned between
$20,000 and $25,000, and a few more
than $25,000, in an academic year
(9 months). (See statement on
College and University Teachers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) Ge­
ographers in educational institu­
tions usually have an opportunity to
earn income from other sources,
such as consulting work, special re­
search, and publication of books and
Geographers in the Federal Gov­
ernment with the bachelor’s degree
and no experience started at $7,694
or $9,520 a year in early 1973, de­
pending on their college records.
Those with 1 or 2 years of graduate
work started at $9,520 or $11,614 a
year, and those with the Ph.D. at
Geographers earn about twice as
much as the average earnings for
non-supervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
Sources of Additional

Additional information on a ca­
reer as a geographer is available
Association of American Geographers,
1710 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20009.



(D.O.T. 052.088)
Nature of the Work

History is the record of past
events, institutions, ideas, and peo­
ple. Historians'describe and analyze
the past through writing, teaching,
and research. They relate their
knowledge of the past to current
events in an effort to explain the pre­
Historians may specialize in the
history of a specific country or area,
or in a particular period of time—an­
cient, medieval, or modern. They
may specialize, also in the history of
a field, such as economics, culture,
military affairs, the labor move­
ment, art, or architecture. The num­
ber of specialties in history is con­
stantly growing. Newer specialties
are concerned with business archives,
quantitative analysis, and the rela­
tionship between technological and
other aspects of historical develop­
ment. In this country, most his­
torians still specialize in the political
history of either the United States or
modern Europe; however, a growing
number now specialize in African,
Latin American, Asian, or Near
Eastern history. Some historians
specialize in phases of a larger his­
torical field. They may for example,
study part of American history such
as the Civil War.
M ost h isto ria n s are college
teachers who not only lecture, but
write and take part in research.
Some are specialists called archi­
vists, who identify or prepare ex­
hibits, or who are spokesmen for mu­
seums, special libraries, and his­
torical societies. A few serve as con­
sultants to editors, publishers, and
producers of materials for radio,
television, and motion pictures.
Some historians are researchers or
administrators in government. They

Historian searches for information at National Archives.

prepare studies, articles, and books
on their research findings.
Places of Employment

About 24,000 people worked as
professional historians in 1972. More
than 10 percent were women. Col­
leges and universities employ about
three-fifths of all historians. His­
torians also work in archives, librar­
ies, museums, junior colleges, sec­
ondary schools, research and edit­
ing organizations, and government.
Historians employed in the Federal
government work principally in the
National Archives, and the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, and
State. A small growing number work
for State and local governments.
Since history is taught in all U.S.
institutions of higher education,
historians are found in college com­
munities. Many of the historians in

th e F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t are
employed in Washington, D.C. His­
torians in other types of employ­
ment usually work in localities that
have museums or libraries with col­
lections adequate for historical
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Graduate education usually is
necessary for employment as an his­
torian. A master’s degree in history
is the minimum requirement for the
position of college instructor. In
many colleges and universities, how­
ever, a Ph D. degree is essential for
high-level teaching, research, and ad­
ministrative positions. Most histori­
ans in the Federal Government and
in nonprofit organizations have
Ph.D. degrees, or their equivalent, in
training and experience.



Although a bachelor’s degree and
a major in history is sufficient train­
ing for some beginning jobs in gov­
ernment—either Federal, State, or
local—people in such jobs may not
be regarded as professional his­
torians. A knowledge of archival
work is helpful, since beginning jobs
are likely to be concerned with col­
lection and preservation of his­
torical data. For some jobs in inter­
national relations and journalism
an undergraduate major in history
is considered helpful.
Training for historians is avail­
able in many colleges and uni­
versities. Over 1,300 schools offer
programs for the bachelor’s degree,
about 550 offered the master’s and
115 offered doctorates.
History curriculums in the na­
tion’s colleges and universities are
varied; however, each basically pro­
vides, in addition to history topics,
training in research methods, writ­
ing, and speaking. These are the
basic skills essential for historians in
all positions in this Field. Quantita­
tive methods of analysis are becom­
ing more important for historians
and many college programs include
Historians spend a great deal of
time studying, doing research, writ­
ing papers and reports, and giving
lectures and presentations. In order
to do these things well, they must be
capable of communicating their
ideas effectively, orally and in writ­
ing. The ability to work as part of a
group, as well as independently is
Employment Outlook

Employment of historians is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the mid-1980’s. Historians will be
needed to fill positions in colleges
and universities, junior colleges, li­
braries, archives, museums, second­
ary schools, research and editorial

organizations, and government. De­
mand also will exist for people with
training in historical specialties such
as business history, as well as those
who use quantitative methods in
their research. In addition to jobs
created by growth of the Field, an
even larger number of openings for
historians each year over the pro­
jected period is expected to result
from the need to replace those who
retire, die, or leave the profession.
In contrast with the projected
moderate growth of the occupation is
a probable continuing rapid increase
in the number of persons graduating
with master’s and doctoral degrees in
history. Not all who receive ad­
vanced degrees in history, of course,
represent new entrants to the profes­
sion. Although information is limited
on patterns of entry to the Field, if
present trends in the number of per­
sons studying for advanced degrees
in history continue, the number of
persons seeking to enter the Field will
likely exceed available positions. As
a result, historians who have a Ph.D.
are expected to face keen competi­
tion for the more desirable positions
through the mid-1980’s, especially
for jobs in the academic community.
Historians having only the master’s

degree will encounter very keen com­
petition for jobs, but some teaching
positions may be available in junior
colleges or some high schools if they
meet state certification require­
m ents. People having only a
bachelor’s degree in history may be
able to qualify as administrative and
management trainees in government
agencies, foundations, civic organi­
zations, and private industry.

of nearly $10,000 a year. Salaries of
historians in educational institutions
averaged $16,500 in 1972; in State
and local governments, $13,000; in
nonprofit organizations, about $16,000; and in private industry, nearly
$18,000 a year. The annual median
salary for historians was more than
$14,000 in 1972. Historians earn
about twice as much as the average
earnings for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry or private non­
farm payrolls.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for people having a
bachelor’s degree in history was $7,694 in early 1973. Those who had a
superior academic record or a year
of graduate training were eligible to
start at $9,520. Experienced his­
torians employed by the Federal
Government in early 1973 earned be­
tween $13,996 and $26,898.
Some historians, particularly
those in college teaching, supple­
ment their income by summer teach­
ing or writing books or articles. A
few earn additional income from lec­
Sources off Additional

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities for histori­
ans is available from:
American Historical Association, 400
A St. SE., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 051.088)


Starting salaries for historians
having a doctorate averaged nearly
$12,000 a year in 1972, according to
limited information; master’s degree
holders have average starting salaries

Nature of the Work

Political scientists study govern­
ments—what they are, what they do,
and how and why. Many of them
specialize in a general area of politi­
cal science including political theory,



cent were women. About four-fifths
work in colleges and universities.
Most of the remainder work in gov­
ernment, research bureaus, civic and
tax payers associations, and large
business firms.
Political scientists can be found in
nearly every college or university
town since courses in government
and political science are taught in al­
most all higher education curriculums. Some work overseas prima­
rily for agencies of the U.S. Depart­
ment of State, such as the Foreign
Service, and the U.S. Agency for
International Development. They
also work for the U.S. Information
Political scientist discussing Govern­
ment operations with colleague.

U.S. political institutions and proc­
esses, comparative political institu­
tions and processes, or international
relations and organizations. Some
specialize in a particular type of po­
litical institution or in the politics of
a specific era.
M ost political scientists are
college and university teachers. They
combine research, consultation, or
administrative duties with teaching.
Some are primarily researchers who
survey public opinion on political
questions for private research or­
ganizations, or study proposed legis­
lation for Federal, State, and mu­
nicipal governments, legislative ref­
erence bureaus or congressional
committees. Others analyze the op­
erations of government agencies or
specialize in foreign affairs, re­
search, either for government or non­
government organizations. Some ad­
minister government programs.
Places of Employment

About 10,000 people worked as
political scientists in 1972; ten per­

Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training generally is re­
quired for employment as a political
scientist. Completion of the require­
ments for the Ph.D. degree, except
the doctoral dissertation, is the usual
prerequisite for appointment as a
college instructor. A Ph.D. degree is
required for advancement to the
position of assistant professor. The
Ph.D. also is helpful for advance­
ment in nonacademic areas.
C ollege g ra d u a te s having a
m aster’s degree can qualify for
various administrative and research
positions in government and in non­
profit research or civic organiza­
tions. A master’s degree in interna­
tional relations, foreign service, and
area study (for exam ple, New
England, government) is helpful in
obtaining positions in Federal Gov­
ernment agencies concerned with
foreign affairs.
People with only a bachelor’s
degree in political science may
qualify as trainees in public rela­
tions, research, budget analysis, per­
sonnel, or investigation fields. Many
students with bachelor’s degrees in
political science go on to study law or
some specialized or related branch of

political science, such as public ad­
m inistration and international
In 1972, more than 1,300 colleges
and universities offered a bachelor’s
degree in political science, 268 had
master’s programs, and 115 had doc­
toral programs. Many colleges and
universities offer field training and
internships to gain experience in gov­
ernment work.
Undergraduate programs in polit­
ical science vary throughout the Na­
tion. A typical undergraduate cur­
riculum in political science includes
introductory politics, state and urban
politics, comparative studies, politi­
cal theory, foreign policy and public
a d m in is tra tio n . An in creasin g
number include courses in quanti­
tative and statistical methods be­
cause of increased research empha­
sis in the field.
People planning careers as politi­
cal scientists should like to work with
details. They must be objective and
able to work independently or as part
of a team. Ability to express them­
selves clearly, orally and in writing,
is important to political scientists, as
they must communicate the results
of their Findings.
Employment Outlook

The number of persons who will
graduate with advanced degrees in
political science is likely to exceed
available job openings. Those hav­
ing a Ph.D. may face stiff competi­
tion finding choice academic posi­
tions. Master’s degree holders are
not likely to find positions as college
and university instructors, but those
having specialized training in areas
such as policy analysis or public ad­
ministration should have some op­
portunities in Federal, State and
local government, research bureaus,
political organizations and welfare
agencies. New graduates having only
the bachelor’s degree are expected to



find very limited opportunities.
However, for those planning to con­
tinue their studies in law, foreign af­
fairs, journalism, and other related
fields, a political science back­
ground is very helpful. Some who
meet State certification require­
ments will be able to enter high
school teaching.
Employment of political scientists
is expected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. The largest
area of employment will continue to
be in college and university teach­
ing. In addition to those required to
staff new positions, political sci­
entists will be needed to fill positions
vacated due to retirements, death or

Beginning political scientists with
a master’s degree earned about $9,000 a year in 1972 according to
limited information; with doctoral
degrees, about $10,500.
According to limited information,
the median salary of those who work
in educational institutions was $13,000 for an academic year, and $16,800 for a calender year. Political sci­

larly those in college teaching, sup­
plement their income by teaching
summer courses or consulting.
Sources of Additional

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in political
science and public administration is
available from:
American Political Science Associa­
tion, 1527 New Hampshire Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 054.088)
Nature of the Work

Sociologists study the groups that
man forms in his association with
others. These groups include fami­
lies, tribes, communities, and gov­
ernments, along with a variety of
social, religious, political, business,
entists in the Federal government av­ and other organizations. They study
eraged $20,000 a year, and those in the behavior and interaction of these
state and local government about groups; trace their origin and
$17,000. Those employed in non­ growth; and analyze the influence of
profit organizations and private in­ group activities on individual
dustry and business had a median members.
salary of more than $19,000.
Some sociologists concern them­
Political scientists earn about twice selves primarily with the character­
as much as the average earnings istics of social groups and institu­
for non-supervisory workers in pri­ tions. Others are more interested in
vate industry or private nonfarm the ways individuals are affected by
groups to which they belong.
Many sociologists specialize in
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for political scientists social organization, social psychol­
having a bachelor’s degree was about ogy, or rural sociology. Others spe­
$7,694 a year in early 1973. Those cialize in intergroup relations, family
having a superior academic record or problems, social effects of urban liv­
a year of graduate training were eli­ ing, population studies, or analyses
of public opinion. Some conduct sur­
gible to start at $9,520.
Some political scientists, particu­ veys or concentrate on research

methods. Growing numbers apply
sociological knowledge and methods
in penology and correction, educa­
tion, public relations in industry, and
regional and community planning. A
few specialize in medical sociol­
ogy—the study of social factors that
affect mental and public health.
Most sociologists are college and
university teachers whose duties in­
clude both teaching and research.
Sociological research involves the
collection of information, prepara­
tion of case studies, testing, and the
conduct of statistical surveys and
laboratory experiments.
Sociologists also supervise re­
search projects or the operation of
social agencies such as family and
marriage clinics. Others, acting as
consultants, advise on diverse prob­
lems such as the management of hos­
pitals for the mentally ill, the reha­
bilitation of juvenile delinquents, or
the development of effective adver­
tising programs to promote public
interest in particular products such
as television sets or cars.
Places off Employment

About 15,000 persons worked as

Sociologist working on manuscript for


sociologists in 1972, more than oneseventh were women. Others work in
positions that require training in this
field but are not classified as profes­
sional sociologists. These fields in­
clude social, recreation, and public
health work.
Colleges and universities employ
about four-fifths of all sociologists.
The remainder work for Federal,
State, local, or international govern­
ment agencies, in private industry, or
in welfare or other nonprofit organi­
zations, or else are self-employed.
Since sociology is taught in most
institutions of higher learning, soci­
ologists may be found in nearly all
college communities. They are most
heavily concentrated, however, in
large colleges and universities which
offer graduate training in sociology
and opportunities for research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A master’s degree and a major in
sociology usually is the minimum re­
quirement for employment as soci­
ologist. The Ph.D. degree is an essen­
tial for attaining a professorship in
most colleges or universities. It also
is commonly required for directors
of major research projects, impor­
tant administrative positions, or con­
Sociologists having master’s de­
grees, who are trained in research
and s ta tis tic a l and co m p u ter
methods can qualify for many ad­
ministrative and research positions.
Advancement to supervisory posi­
tions in both public and private
agencies is gained through experi­
ence. Sociologists having a master’s
degree qualify for some college instructorships. Most colleges, how­
ever, appoint as instructors only peo­
ple who have training beyond the
master’s level—frequently the com­
pletion of all requirements for the
Ph.D. degree except the doctoral dis­


sertation. Outstanding graduate stu­
dents often get teaching or research
assistantships which provide both fi­
nancial aid and valuable experience.
Bachelor’s degree holders in soci­
ology usually are not recognized by
the profession as sociologists. How­
ever, they may, get jobs as inter­
viewers or as research assistants.
Many work as caseworkers, counse­
lors, recreation workers, or admin­
istrative assistants in public and pri­
vate welfare agencies. Sociology
majors who have sufficient training
in statistics may get positions as be­
ginning statisticians. Those who
meet State certification require­
ments can teach high school. About
900 colleges and universities offer
bachelor degree programs; more
than 200 offer master’s degrees, and
nearly 120 have doctorate programs.
The choice of a graduate school is
important for people who want to
become sociologists. Students inter­
ested in research should select
schools that emphasize training in re­
search, statistical, and computer
methods. Opportunities to gain prac­
tical experience in research work
may be available also. Professors
and chairmen of sociology depart­
ments frequently aid in the place­
ment of graduates.
Sociologists spend a great deal of
their time in study and research.
They must be able to communicate
effectively, both orally and in writ­
ing, their ideas and findings. The
ability to work as part of a group or
independently is important.
Employment Outlook

Overall employment opportunities
for sociologists who have a Ph.D. are
expected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. However, those seeking
choice academic positions may face
some competition. Those having
only a master’s degree will probably
continue to face considerable com­
petition for academic positions, but

some jobs will be available in gov­
ernment and private industry. Soci­
ologists well trained in research
methods, advanced statistics and use
of computer, will have the widest
choice of jobs. Demand is expected
to be strong for research personnel to
work in the areas of rural sociology,
community development, popula­
tion analysis, public opinion re­
search, medical sociology, and ju­
venile delinquency and education.
Employment of sociologists is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. Most new
positions will continue to be in
college teaching. Some of these
openings will result from the grow­
ing trend to include sociology
courses in the curriculums of other
professions, such as medicine, law,
and education. Demand in the non­
teaching area will center around
public and private programs dealing
with the development of human re­
sources, particularly those designed
to cope with social and welfare
problems. In addition to growth
needs, several hundred openings will
occur each year to replace sociolo­
gists who die, retire, or leave the field
for other reasons.

In 1972, according to limited in­
formation, the average salary for so­
ciologists was more than $14,000 a
year. Sociologists working in edu­
cational institutions on a calendar
year basis averaged about $16,500.
Salaries ranged from $11,500 for an
assistant professor to $36,000 for
some heads of departments. Sociol­
ogists working in nonprofit organi­
zations and private industry had
average annua! salaries of $16,000
and $18,000 respectively. Sociolo­
gists earn about twice as much as the
average earnings for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry or on
private nonfarm payrolls.


Ph.D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those having
m aster’s degrees. Many sociolo­
gists, particularly those employed by
colleges and universities for the aca­
demic year (September to June), are
likely to supplement their regular
salaries with earnings from other
sources, such as summer teaching
In general, sociologists having the and consulting work.

In the Federal Government, the
beginning salary for sociologists hav­
ing a master’s degree and a superior
academic record was $11,614 a year
in early 1973. Salaries of experi­
enced sociologists in the Federal
G ov ern m en t gen erally ranged
between $13,996 and $26,898 a year.


Sources of Additional

Additional information on sociol­
ogists is available from:
The American Sociological Associat i o n , 1722 N S t . , N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20036.


(D.O.T. 045.108)
Nature of the Work

Workers in social service occupa­
tions help people adjust to problems
in their daily lives. Depending on
their specific occupation, they may
advise consumers on how to get the
most for their money; help handi­
capped people to achieve satisfac­
tory lifestyles; counsel people with
problems in their job, home, school,
or social relationships; or treat peo­
ple with moderate and severe psy­
chological problems.
A genuine concern for all kinds of
people is necessary for anyone con­
sidering a career in a social service
occupation. Patience, tact, sensitiv­
ity, and a sense of humor along with
compassion for others balanced with
objectivity, are helpful personal

Professional counselors help peo­
ple to understand themselves and
their opportunities so that they can
make and carry out decisions and
plans for a satisfying and productive
life. Whatever the area of counsel­
ing—personal, educational, or voca­
tional—counselors must combine
objectivity with genuine concern for
each client. They must believe in the
uniqueness and worth of each indi­
vidual, in his right to make and
accept responsibility for his own de­
cisions, and in his potential for
This chapter covers four generally
recognized specialties in the field:
school counseling; rehabilitation
counseling; employment counseling;

and college career planning and
placement counseling.
School Counselors are the largest
counseling group. Their main con­
cern is the personal and social de­
velopment of students and helping
them plan and achieve their educa­
tional and vocational goals.
Rehabilitation Counselors work
with persons who are physically,
mentally, or socially handicapped.
Their counseling is generally joboriented, but also involves personal
E m ploym ent Counselors are
mainly concerned with career plan­
ning and adjustment of young, old,
able-bodied, and disabled persons.
College Career Planning and
Placement Counselors help college
students examine their own inter­
ests, abilities, and goals; explore
career alternatives; and make and
follow through with a career choice.
Persons who want to enter the
counseling field must be interested in
helping people and have an ability to
understand their behavior. A pleas­
ant but strong personality that in­
stills confidence in clients is desir­
able in counselors. They also must be
patient, sensitive to the needs of
others, and able to communicate
orally as well as in writing.
M any p sy ch o lo g ists, social
workers, and college student person­
nel workers also do counseling. The
occupation most closely related to
counselor is that of the counseling
psychologist. Other professional
workers who do some counseling but
primarily work in teaching, health,
law, religion, personnel, or other
fields, are described elsewhere in the

School counselors are concerned
about the educational, career, and
social development of students. They
work with students, both individ­
ually and in groups, as well as with
teachers, other school personnel,
parents, and community agencies.
Counselors use the results of in­
terest, achievement, and intelligence
tests as well as school and other rec­
ords to help students evaluate them­
selves. Then, with each student and
sometimes with the parents, they
help develop an educational plan that
fits the student’s abilities, interests,
and career aspirations.
Many high school counselors help
students individually with personal
and social problems. They also may
lead group counseling sessions and
discussion groups on topics related to
student interests and problems.
School counselors often maintain
a small library containing occupa­
tional literature so that students may
find descriptions of work that they
have heard about or in which they
have shown an interest. Information
on training requirements, earnings
and employment outlook often are
included with these job descriptions.
Computers that students can operate
are being experimented with in this
Counselors sometimes arrange
trips to factories and business firms,
and show vocational films to pro­
vide a view of real work settings. To
bring the workplace into the school,
the counselor may conduct “career
day” programs.
School counselors must keep upto-date on opportunities for educa­
tional and vocational training be­
yond high school to counsel students
who want this information. They



ementary schools.
Most counselors work in large
schools. An increasing number of
school districts, however, provide
guidance services to their small
schools by assigning more than one
school to a counselor.
For the most part, counselors who
work in junior high schools and es­
pecially in elementary schools are
women; in high schools the majority
of the counselors are men. However
positions at both levels are equally
available to men and women.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

must keep informed about training
programs in 2- and 4-year colleges;
in trade, technical and business
schools; apprenticeship programs;
and available federally supported
programs. Counselors also advise
students about educational require­
ments for entry-level jobs, job
changes caused by automation and
other technological advances, college
entrance requirements and places of
Counselors in high schools often
help students find part-time jobs,
either to enable them to stay in
school, or to help them prepare for
their vocation. They may assist stu­
dents leaving school before or after
graduating to find jobs or may direct
them to community employment
services. They also may participate
in follow-up studies of graduates and
dropouts, conduct surveys of local
job opportunities, or determine the
effectiveness of the educational and
guidance programs.
Elementary school counselors help
children to make the best use of their
abilities by identifying these and

other basic aspects of the child’s
makeup at an early age, and by eval­
uating any learning problem s.
Methods used in counseling grade
school children differ in many ways
from those used with older students.
Observations of classroom and play
activity furnish clues about children
in the lower grades. To better under­
stand children, elementary school
counselors spend much time con­
sulting with teachers and parents.
They also work closely with other
staff members of the school, includ­
ing psychologists and social workers.
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in secondary schools, teach
classes in occupational information,
social studies, or other subjects. They
also may supervise school clubs or
other extracurricular activities, often
after regular school hours.
Places of Employment

About 43,000 people worked full­
time as public school counselors dur­
ing the 1971-72 school year. More
than 10 percent of them worked in el­

Most States require school coun­
selors to have counseling and teach­
ing certificates. (See statements on
Elementary and Secondary School
Teachers for certificate require­
ments.) Depending on the State,
graduate work and from 1 to 5 years
of teaching experience usually are re­
quired for a counseling certificate.
People who plan to become counsel­
ors should learn the requirements of
the State in which they plan to work,
since requirements vary among
States and change rapidly.
College students interested in be­
coming school counselors usually
take the regular program of teacher
education, with additional courses in
psychology and sociology. In States
where teaching experience is not a re­
quirement, it is possible to major in a
liberal arts program. A few States
substitute counseling internship for
teaching experience. In some States,
teachers who have completed part of
the courses required for the master’s
degree are eligible for provisional
certification and may work as coun­
selors under supervision while they
take additional courses.
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
more than 370 colleges and univer­
sities, most frequently in the depart­
ments of education or psychology.


One to two years of graduate study
are necessary for a master’s degree.
Most programs provide supervised
field experience.
Subject areas of required graduatelevel courses usually include ap­
praisal of the individual student,
individual counseling procedures,
group guidance, information ser­
vices for career development, pro­
fessional relations and ethics, and
statistics and research.
The ability to help others accept
personal responsibility for their own
lives is important for school coun­
selors since they work with the de­
velopment of young people. They
must be able to coordinate the ac­
tivity of others and work as part of
the team which forms the educa­
tional system.
School counselors traditionally
began as teachers and advanced to
principal. However, in recent years,
the trend is either to remain a coun­
selor, possibly moving to a larger
school; to advance to become direc­
tor or supervisor of counseling or
guidance; or, with further graduate
education, to advance to become a
college counselor, educational psy­
chologist, or school psychologist.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
well-trained school counselors are
expected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. Over the long run, de­
mand for school counselors will be
due in large part to the impact of the
Federal Government’s Career Edu­
cation program. This program is de­
signed to inform children about the
world of work early in their educa­
tion, so that by the time they leave
the formal education system they are
prepared for a suitable and available
career. In addition to the expected
expansion of the occupation, many
counselors will be required each year


to replace those who leave the profes­
Employment of school counselors
is likely to grow only moderately
through most of the remainder of the
1970’s as the decline in school en­
rollments continues. An expected up­
swing in enrollments beginning in the
late 1970’s should stimulate a more
rapid growth in counselor employ­
ment through the mid-1980’s. In
1972, the average ratio of counsel­
ors to students as a whole was still
well below generally accepted stand­
ards despite Federal aid to the States
for support and expansion of coun­
seling programs. Some school
systems were forced to eliminate
some counselor positions due to local
financial problems. The extent of
future growth in counselor employ­
ment will depend largely on the
amount of funds which the Federal
Government provides to the States
for this purpose.

with private or public counseling
centers, government agencies, or pri­
vate industry.
Sources of Additional

State Departments of Education
can supply information on colleges
and universities that offer training in
guidance and counseling as well as
on the S tate certification re­
Additional information on this
field of work is available from:
American School Counselor Associa­
tion, 1607 New Hampshire Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20009.

(D.O.T. 045.108)
Nature of the Work

Earnings and Working

School counselors holding bache­
lor’s degrees earned average annual
salaries ranging from $7,900 to $ 11 ,400 during the 1971-72 school year,
according to the National Educa­
tion Association. For those having
master’s degrees, average yearly sal­
aries were from $9,000 to $13,400.
School counselors with doctorate’s
had an average maximum salary of
almost $16,000 per year. School
counselors generally earn more than
teachers at the same school. (See
statements on Kindergarten and El­
ementary School Teachers and Sec­
ondary School Teachers.)
In most school systems, counsel­
ors receive regular salary incre­
ments as they obtain additional edu­
cation and expeience. Some coun­
selors supplement their income by
part-time consulting or other work

Employment counselors (some­
times called vocational counselors)
help jobseekers evaluate their abili­
ties and interests so that they can
choose, prepare for, and adjust to a
satisfactory field of work. The ex­
tent of counseling services given by
employment counselors varies, de­
pending on the jobseeker and the
type of agency. Jobseekers may in­
clude veterans, youth with little or no
work experience, the handicapped,
older workers, and individuals dis­
placed by automation and industry
shifts, or unhappy with their present
occupational Fields. Sometimes job­
seekers are skilled in specific occu­
pations and ready for immediate job
placement, while those who have lit­
tle education and lack marketable
skills need intensive training to pre­
pare them for jobs. In State employ­
ment services, the counselor is also
concerned with helping those who
are least employable, such as wel-



creased their contacts with these per­
sons during training and on the job.
Also, it has led to group counseling
and the stationing of counselors in
n e ig h b o rh o o d and co m m u n ity

Places off Employment

fare recipients, prison releasees, and
the educationally and culturally de­
Counselors interview jobseekers to
learn em ploym ent-related facts
about their interests, training, work
experience, work attitudes, physical
capacities, and personal traits. If
necessary, they may get additional
data by arranging for aptitude and
achievement tests, and interest in­
ventories, so that more objective help
may be given. They may get addi­
tional information from sources such
as former employers and schools.
When the jo b seek er’s back­
ground—his limitations and abili­
ties—have been thoroughly re­
viewed, the employment counselor
discusses occupational requirements
and job opportunities in different
fields within the potential of the job­
seeker. Then, the counselor and his
client develop a vocational plan. This
plan may specify a series of steps in­
volving remedial education, job
training, work experience, or other
services needed to enhance the per­
son’s employability. Often, in de­

veloping this plan, the employment
counselor works with a team of
In many cases, employment coun­
selors refer jobseekers to other agen­
cies for physical rehabilitation or
psychological or other services be­
fore or during counseling. The coun­
selor must be familiar with the avail­
able community services so that he
can select those most likely to benefit
a particular jobseeker.
Counselors may help jobseekers
by suggesting employment sources
and appropriate ways of applying for
work. In many cases when further
support and assistance are needed,
counselors may contact employers to
develop jobs for counseled appli­
cants, although jobseekers usually
are sent to placement interviewers
after counseling. After job place­
ment or entrance into training, coun­
selors may follow up to determine if
additional assistance is needed.
The expanding responsibility of
public employment service counsel­
ors for improving the employability
of disadvantaged persons has in­

In 1972, about 6,000 persons, half
of them women, worked as employ­
ment counselors in State employ­
ment service offices, located in every
large city and many smaller towns.
In addition, about 2,500 employ­
ment counselors worked for various
private or community agencies, pri­
marily in the larger cities. Some
worked in institutions such as
prisons, training schools for delin­
quent youths, and mental hospitals.
Also, the Federal Government em­
ployed a limited number of employ­
ment counselors, chiefly in the Vet­
erans Administration and in the
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some
counselors teach in graduate train­
ing programs or conduct research.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The national qualification stand­
ard for first level employment coun­
selors in State employment service
offices calls for 30 graduate semes­
ter hours of counseling courses be­
yond a bachelor’s degree. However,
1 year of counseling-related experi­
ence may be substituted for 15 grad­
uate semester hours.
All States require counselors in
their public employment offices to
meet State civil service or merit
system requirements that include
minimum educational and experi­
ence standards.
Applicants with advanced degrees
and additional qualifying experience
may enter at higher levels on the
counselor career ladder. M any
States also make provision for indi­



viduals with extensive experience in
the Employment Service, whether or
not they have college degrees, to
enter the counselor career ladder and
move upward by acquiring the pre­
scribed university coursework and
qualifying experience for each level.
Although minimum entrance re­
quirements are not standardized
among private and community agen­
cies, most prefer, and some require, a
master’s degree in vocational coun­
seling or in a related field such as
psychology, personnel administra­
tion, counseling, guidance educa­
tion, or public administration. Many
private agencies prefer to have at
least one staff member who has a
doctorate in counseling psychology
or a related field. For those lacking
an advanced degree, employers usu­
ally emphasize experience in closely
related work such as rehabilitation
counseling, employment interview­
ing, school or college counseling,
teaching, social work or psychology.
In each State, the public employ­
ment service offices provide some inservice training programs for their
new counselors or trainees. In addi­
tion, both their new and experienced
counselors are often given part-time
training at colleges and universities
during the regular academic year or
at institutes or summer sessions. Pri­
vate and community agencies also
often provide inservice training op­
College students who wish to be­
come employment counselors should
enroll especially in courses in psy­
chology and basic sociology. At the
graduate level, requirements for this
field usually include courses in tech­
niques of counseling, psychological
principles and psychology of careers,
assessment and appraisal, cultures
and environment, and occupational
information. Counselor education
programs at the graduate level are
available in about 370 colleges and
universities, mainly in departments

of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, students must
complete 1 to 2 years of graduate
Young people aspiring to be em­
ployment counselors should have a
strong interest in helping others
make vocational plans and carry
them out. They should be able to
work independently and keep de­
tailed records.
Well-qualified counselors with ex­
perience may advance to super­
visory or administrative positions in
their own or other organizations.
Some may become directors of agen­
cies or of other counseling services,
or area supervisors of guidance pro­
grams; some may become consult­
ants; and others may become pro­
fessors in the counseling field.
Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent counselors with
master’s degrees, and others with ex­
perience in related fields are ex­
pected to have favorable employ­
ment opportunities in both public
and community employment agen­
cies through the mid-1980’s. Some of
these openings will be due to deaths,
retirements and transfers to other oc­
Demand for employment counsel­
ors should increase as their role be­
comes more important in programs
dealing with the training and re­
training of unemployed workers,
particularly those who are unskilled
or whose jobs have been displaced by
technology or industry shifts. Stim­
ulating this demand is growing pub­
lic recognition that more effort and
services are needed if people with
limited skills are to be able to find
satisfactory jobs. Expansion of these
programs and consequently the ex­
tent of growth in employment of
counselors will depend in large part
on the level of funding by the Federal
Government, as well as on the distri­

bution of revenue sharing monies al­
located to these types of programs by
the individual States.
Earnings and Working

Salaries of employment counsel­
ors in State employment services
vary considerably by State. In 1972,
minimum salaries ranged from about
$6,900 to $13,000 a year with an
average of $8,300. Maximum sal­
aries ranged from $8,900 to $15,800
with an average of $10,700. More
than one-half of the States listed
maximum salaries of $10,000 or
over. Trainees for counseling posi­
tions in some voluntary agencies in
large cities were being hired at about
$7,500 a year. Salaries of some em­
ployment counselors in private and
community agencies were as high as
$20,000, although the average was
about $10,000 annually. In general,
salaries of employment counselors
are about one and one-half times as
high as average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various bene­
fits, including vacations, sick leave,
pension plans, and insurance cover­
age. Counselors employed in com­
munity agencies may work overtime.

Sources of Additional

For general information on em­
ployment or vocational counseling,
National Employment Counselors As­
sociation, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave, NW., Washington, D.C.
National Vocational Guidance As­
sociation, Inc., 1607 New Hamp­
shire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.


U.S. Department of Labor, Man­
power Administration, USES,
Division of Counseling and Test­
ing, Washington, D.C. 20210.

The administrative office for each
State’s employment security agency,
bureau, division, or commission can
supply specific information about
local job opportunities, salaries, and
entrance requirements for positions
in public employment service offices.

(D.O.T. 045.108)
Nature of the Work

Rehabilitation counselors help
people with physical, mental, or
social disabilities to adjust their vo­
cational plans and personal lives. In
the initial contact with a client, the
counselor learns about his interests
and abilities, as well as his limita­
tions. The counselor then uses this
information, along with available
medical and psychological data, to
help the disabled person to evaluate
himself—his physical and mental ca­
pacity and interests—in relation to
suitable work.
Together, the counselor and client
develop a plan of rehabilitation with
the aid of other specialists responsi­
ble for the medical care and occupa­
tional training of the handicapped
person. As the plan is put into ef­
fect, the counselor meets regularly
with the disabled person to discuss
his progress in the rehabilitation
program and help resolve any prob­
lems that have been encountered.
When the client is ready to begin
work, the counselor helps him find a
suitable job, and usually makes
followup checks to insure that the
placement has been successful.
Rehabilitation counselors must
maintain close contact with the fam­

Rehabilitation counselor leads group counseling session with alcoholics.

ilies of their handicapped clients,
other professionals who work with
handicapped people, agencies and
civic groups, and private employers
who hire the disabled. Counselors in
this field often perform related ac­
tivities, such as informing em­
ployers of the abilities of the handi­
capped and arranging for publicity of
the rehabilitation program in the
An increasing number of counsel­
ors specialize in a particular area of
rehabilitation; some may work al­
most exclusively with blind people,
alcoholics or drug addicts, the men­
tally ill, or retarded persons. Others
may work almost entirely with per­
sons living in poverty areas.
The amount of time spent in coun­
seling each client varies with the se­
verity of the disabled person’s prob­
lems as well as with the size of the
counselor’s caseload. Some rehabili­
tation counselors are responsible for

many persons in various stages of re­
habilitation; on the other hand, less
experienced counselors or those
working with the severly disabled
may work with relatively few cases at
a time.
Places of Employment

About 16,000 persons, one-third of
them women, worked as rehabilita­
tion counselors in 1972. About threefourths worked in State and local re­
habilitation agencies financed co­
operatively with Federal and State
funds. About 800 rehabilitation
counselors and counseling psycholo­
gists worked for the Veterans Ad­
ministration. Rehabilitation centers,
sheltered workshops, hospitals, labor
unions, insurance companies, spe­
cial schools, and other public and
private agencies with rehabilitation
programs and job placement serv­
ices for the disabled employ the rest.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

individual interview and evaluation
by a board of examiners.
Since rehabilitation counselors
deal with the welfare of individuals
A bachelor’s degree with courses
in counseling, psychology, and re­ who may otherwise be unemployed,
lated fields is the minimum educa­ the ability to accept responsibility is
tional requirement for rehabilitation important. It also is essential that
counselors. However, employers are they be able to work independently
placing increasing emphasis on the and be able to motivate and guide the
master’s degree in vocational coun­ activity of others.
Counselors who have limited ex­
seling or rehabilitation counseling, or
in related subjects such as psychol­ perience usually are assigned the less
ogy, education, and social work. difficult cases. As they gain experi­
Work experience in fields such as vo­ ence, their caseloads are increased
cational counseling and placement, and they are assigned clients with
psychology, education, and social more complex rehabilitation prob­
work is an asset for securing em­ lems. After obtaining considerable
ployment as a rehabilitation coun­ experience and more graduate edu­
selor. Most agencies have work- cation, rehabilitation counselors may
study programs whereby employed be advanced to supervisory posi­
counselors can earn graduate de­ tions or top administrative jobs.
grees in the field.
Usually, 2 years of study are re­
quired for the master’s degree in the
Employment Outlook
fields preferred for rehabilitation
Employment opportunities for re­
counseling. In addition to a basic
foundation in psychology, courses habilitation counselors are expected
generally included in master’s degree to be favorable through the midprograms are counseling theory and 1980’s. Persons who have graduate
techniques, occupational and educa­ work in rehabilitation counseling or
tional information, and community in related fields are expected to have
resources. Other requirements may the best employment prospects.
Contributing to the long run de­
include courses in placement and
followup, tests and measurements, mand for rehabilitation counselors
cultural and psychological effects of will be population growth with re­
disability, and medical and legisla­ lated increases in the number of peo­
tive aspects of therapy and rehabili­ ple who need to be served. Stimulat­
ing this demand will be the exten­
To earn the doctorate in rehabili­ sion of service to a greater number of
tation counseling or in counseling the severely disabled, together with
psychology may require a total of 4 increased public awareness that the
to 6 years of graduate study. Inten­ vocational rehabilitation approach
sive training in psychology and other helps the disabled to become selfsocial sciences, as well as research supporting. The extent of growth in
employment of counselors, how­
methods is required.
Many States require that rehabil­ ever, will depend largely on levels of
itation counselors be hired in ac­ government funding for vocational
cordance with State civil service rehabilitation. In addition to growth
and merit system rules. In most needs, many counselors will be re­
cases, these regulations require ap­ quired annually to replace those who
plicants to pass a competitive written die, retire, or leave the field for other
test, sometimes supplemented by an reasons.


Earnings and Working

Salaries of beginning rehabilita­
tion counselors in State agencies
averaged $8,700 a year in 1972. Ex­
perienced counselors earned average
salaries of $11,500 a year; the range
was $9,700 to $15,700 among the
The Veterans Administration paid
counseling psychologists with a twoyear master’s degree and one year of
subsequent experience—and those
with a Ph.D.—starting salaries of
$14,000 in early 1973. Those with a
Ph.D. and a year of experience, and
those with a 2-year master’s degree
and much experience, started at $16,700. Some rehabilitation counselors
with a bachelor’s degree were hired
at starting salaries of $9,500 and
$11,600. In general, salaries of em­
ployment counselors are above the
average earnings for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Counselors may spend only part of
their time in their offices counseling
and performing necessary paper­
work. The remainder of their time is
spent in the field, working with pro­
spective employers, training agen­
cies, and the disabled person’s fami­
ly. The ability to drive a car often is
necessary for field work.
Rehabilitation counselors gener­
ally work a 40-hour week or less,
with some overtime work required,
since, they often must attend com­
munity and civic meetings in the eve­
nings. They usually are covered by
sick and annual leave benefits, and
pension and health plans.

Sources of Additional

For information about rehabilita­
tion counseling as a career, contact:



American Psychological Association,
Inc., 1200 17th St. NW„ Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1522 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 166.268)
Nature of the Work

Choosing a career and deciding
whether or not to go to graduate
school are among the difficult deci­
sions faced by many college stu­
dents. Career planning and place­
ment counselors are employed by
colleges to offer encouragement and
assist in these decisions.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placement officers, provide a variety
of services to college students and
alumni. They assist students in mak­
ing career selections by encouraging
them to examine their interests, abil­
ities, and goals, and then aiding them
in exploring possible career alterna­
tives and choosing an occupational
area that is best suited to their in­
dividual needs. They advise students
considering dropping out of the op­
portunities open to them. They also
help students to get part-time and
summer jobs.
Career planning and placement
counselors arrange for job recruiters
to visit the campus to discuss their
firm’s personnel needs and to inter­
view applicants. They provide
employers with information about

students and help in appraising stu­
dents’ qualifications. They must keep
abreast of information concerning
job market developments in order to
contact prospective employers, help
students prepare for promising
fields, and encourage the faculty and
school administration to provide per­
tinent courses. Many counselors also
assemble and maintain a library of
career guidance information and
recruitment literature.
Placement counselors may special­
ize in areas such as law, education, or
part-time and summer work. How­
ever, the extent of specialization usu­
ally depends upon the size and type
of college as well as the size of the
placement staff.
Places of Employment

Nearly all 4-year colleges and un­
iversities and many of the increasing
number of junior colleges provide
career planning and placement serv­
ices to their students and alumni.
Large colleges may employ several
counselors working under a director
of career planning and placement ac­
tivities; in many institutions, how­
ever, a combination of placement
functions is performed by one direc­
tor and his clerical staff. In some col-

College career planning and placement
counselor discusses career alter­
natives with college student.

leges, especially the smaller ones, the
functions of career counselors may
be performed on a part-time basis by
members of the faculty or adminis­
trative staff. Universities frequently
have placement officers for each
major branch or campus.
About 3,800 persons, one-third of
them women, worked as career plan­
ning and placement counselors in
1972. Most of those in four-year
schools were employed on a full-time
basis. Of the 1,000 in junior col­
leges, about two-thirds worked parttime.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although no specific educational
program exists to prepare persons
for career planning and placement
work, a bachelor’s degree, prefer­
ably in a behavioral science such as
psychology or sociology, is custom­
ary for entry into the field and a
master’s degree is increasingly being
In 1972, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate
programs in college student person­
nel work. Graduate courses that are
helpful for career planning and
placement counseling include coun­
seling theory and techniques, voca­
tional testing, theory of group
dynamics, and occupational re­
search and employment trends.
Some people enter the career plan­
ning and placement field after gain­
ing a broad background of experi­
ence in business, industry, govern­
ment, or educational organizations.
An internship in a career planning
and placement office also is helpful.
College career planning and place­
ment counselors must have an inter­
est in people. They must be able to
communicate with and gain the con­
fidence of students, faculty, and
employers in order to develop in­
sight into the employment problems


of both employers and students. Peo­
ple in this field should be energetic
and able to work under pressure,
since they must organize and admin­
ister a wide variety of activities.
Advancement for career planning
and placement professionals usually
is through promotion to an assistant
or associate position, director of
career planning and placement,
director of student personnel serv­
ices, or some other higher level ad­
ministrative position. However, the
extent of such opportunity usually
depends upon the type of college or
university and the size of the staff.
Employment Outlook

The overall employment outlook
for well-qualified college career plan­
ning and placement counselors is ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. College enrollments are
expected to continue increasing
through the early 1980’s, a factor
which is likely to contribute to a
moderate growth of employment in
this field. Demand will be greatest in
junior and community colleges,
where enrollment increases are pro­
jected to be very rapid and where, in
many cases, there are no career


counseling and placement programs
at present. Also contributing to the
demand will be expected continued
expansion in services to students
from m inority and low-incom e
groups, who require special counsel­
ing in choosing careers, and assist­
ance in finding part-time jobs to help
pay for their education.
However, many institutions of
higher education faced financial
problems in 1972. If this situation
persists into the mid-1970’s, colleges
and universities may be forced to
limit expansion of counseling and
placement services, resulting in com­
petition for available positions in this
field during this period.
Earnings and Working

The median salary of college
career planning and placement coun­
selors was more than $13,000 a year
in 1972, according to a National
Education Association survey of
public and private colleges and uni­
versities. Median salaries in large
public universities ranged from
about $15,000 to $19,000; in small
private colleges, from $7,000 to $10,000. In general, salaries of college

career planning and placement coun­
selors are about twice as high as
average earnings for non-supervisory workers in private industry ex­
cept farming.
Career planning and placement
counselors frequently work more
than a 40-hour week; irregular hours
and overtime often are necessary,
particularly during the “recruiting
season.” Most counselors are em­
ployed on a 12-month basis. They
are paid for holidays and vacations
and usually receive the same benefits
as other professional personnel em­
ployed by colleges and universities.
Sources of Additional

A list of schools that offer courses
in career counseling and placement
and a booklet on the college student
personnel professions, as well as
other information on career coun­
seling and placement, are available
The College Placement Council, Inc.,
P.O. Box 2263, Bethlehem, Pa.



Deciding to become a clergyman
involves considerations different
from those involved in another
career choice. When young persons
choose to enter the ministry, priest­
hood, or rabbinate, they do so pri­
marily because they posses a strong
religious faith and a desire to help
Nevertheless, it is important for
the young to know as much as pos­
sible about the profession and how to
prepare for it, the kind of life it
offers, and its needs for personnel.
The number of clergymen needed
is related to the size and the geo­
graphic distribution of the Nation’s
population and its participation in
organized religious groups. These
factors affect the num bers of
churches and synagogues estab­
lished and of pulpits to be filled. In
addition to the clergy who serve con­
gregations, many others teach or act
as administrators in seminaries and
in other educational institutions; still
others serve as chaplains in the Arm­
ed Forces, industry, correctional in­
stitutions, hospitals or on college
campuses; or render service as mis­
sionaries, or in social welfare agen­
A young person considering a
career as a clergyman should seek
the counsel of a religious leader of
his faith to aid in evaluating his
qualifications. The desire to serve the
spiritual needs of others and a deep
religious belief are the most impor­
tant qualifications. To deal effec­
tively with all types of people, clergy­
men need to be well-rounded both
educationally and socially, and able
to speak and write effectively. They
should have emotional stability, as
well as a sensitivity to other people’s
problems, and should also be able to
motivate people. Some supervisory
ability is important since they must

direct the activities and business of
church or synagogue. Clergymen
should have initiative, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to organize.
They also should enjoy studying, be­
cause the ministry is an occupation
that requires continuous learning.
Clergymen are expected to be models
of high moral and ethical standards
for the whole community. Also,
young persons considering this field
should realize that the civic, social,
and recreational activities of clergy­
men often are influenced and re­
stricted by the customs and attitudes
of the community.
To a large extent, the size and
financial status of the congregation
determines income. Usually, pay is
highest in large cities or in pros­
perous suburban areas. Earnings
usually rise with increased experi­
ence and responsibility.
Various additions to income have
been traditional, as well. Most
Protestant churches and a number of
Jewish congregations provide hous­
ing. Roman Catholic priests ordi­
narily live in the parish rectory or in
housing their religious order pro­
vides. M any clergym en receive
transportation allowances or pay­
ment of other expenses. Gifts or fees
for officiating at special ceremonies,
such as weddings, may be an impor­
tant source of additional income;
however, clergymen frequently
donate such earnings to charity.
Some churches establish a uniform
fee for special services which goes
directly into the church treasury.
More detailed information on the
clergy in the three largest faiths in
the U nited S ta te s— P ro testan t,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
given in the following statements,
prepared in cooperation with lead­
ers of these faiths. Information on
the clergy in other faiths may be ob­
tained directly from leaders of the
respective groups.

(D.O.T. 120.108)
Protestant ministers lead their
congregations in worship services
and administer the rites of baptism,
confirm ation, and Holy C om ­
munion. They prepare and deliver
sermons, and give religious instruc­
tions to persons who are to become
new members of the church. They
also perform marriages; conduct
funerals; counsel individuals who
seek guidance; visit the sick, aged,
and handicapped at home and in the
hospital; comfort the bereaved; and
serve church members in other help­
ful ways. Many Protestant ministers
write articles for publication, give
speeches, and engage in interfaith,
community, civic, educational, and
recreational activities sponsored by
or related to the interests of the
church. Some ministers teach in
seminaries, colleges, and universities.
The services that ministers con­
duct differ among Protestant de­
nominations and also among con­
gregations within a denomination. In
many denominations, ministers fol­
low a traditional order of worship; in


greatly. Some denominations have
no form al educational require­
ments, and others ordain persons
having varying amounts and types of
training in Bible colleges, Bible insti­
tutes, or liberal arts colleges. A large
number of denominations require a
3-year course of professional study in
a theological school or seminary
following college graduation. A de­
gree of bachelor or master of divin­
ity is awarded upon completion.
In 1972, there were 128 theo­
logical institutes accredited by the
American Association of Theo­
logical schools. These institutions
admit only students who have re­
ceived a bachelor’s degree or its
equivalent from an accredited
R ecom m ended p re-se m in ary
courses include English, history,
philosophy, the natural sciences,
social sciences, the fine arts, music,
religion, and foreign languages.
However, the student considering
Places of Employment
theological study should contact, at
In 1972, about 325,000 minis­ the earliest possible date, the school
te rs—about 5 percent of them or schools to which he intends to
women—served 72 million Protes­ apply, in order to learn what will best
tants. In addition, thousands of prepare him for the program he ex­
ministers were in closely related oc­ pects to enter.
The standard curriculum recom­
cupations. Most ministers, however,
mended for accredited theological
serve individual congregations. The
greatest number of clergymen are af­ schools consists of courses in four
filiated with the five largest groups of major fields: Biblical, historical,
churches—Baptist, United Meth­ theological, and practical. In recent
odist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and years, greater emphasis has been
placed on courses of a practical
All cities and most towns in the nature such as psychology, religious
United States have at least one education, and adm inistration.
Protestant church with a full-time Many accredited schools require that
minister. Although the majority of students gain experience in church
ministers are located in urban areas, work under the supervision of a fac­
many live in less densely populated ulty member or experienced minis­
areas where they may serve two or ter. Some institutions offer master of
theology and doctor of theology de­
more congregations.
grees to students completing one
year or more of additional study.
Training and Qualifications
Scholarships and loans are available
Educational requirements for en­ for students of theological institutes.
In general, each large denomina­
try into the Protestant ministry vary

others they adapt the services to the
needs of youth and other groups
within the congregation. Most serv­
ices include Bible reading, hymn
singing, prayers, and a sermon. In
some demoninations, Bible reading
by a member of the congregation and
individual testimonials may con­
stitute a large part of the service.
Ministers serving small congre­
gations generally work on a per­
sonal basis with their parishioners.
Those serving large congregations
have greater administrative respon­
sibilities, and spend considerable
time working with committees,
church officers, and staff, besides
performing their other duties. They
may have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific aspects
of the ministry, such as a Minister of
Education who assists in educa­
tional programs for different age
groups, or a Minister of Music.


tion has its own school or schools of
theology that reflect its particular
doctrine, interests, and needs; how­
ever, many of these schools are open
to students from other denomina­
tions. Several interdenominational
schools associated with universities
give both undergraduate and gradu­
ate training covering a wide range of
theological points of view.
Persons who have denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
usually are ordained following
graduation from a seminary. In
denominations that do not require
seminary training, clergymen are or­
dained at various appointed times.
Clergymen often begin their careers
as pastors of small congregations or
as assistant pastors in large churches.

The shortage of Protestant minis­
ters has abated significantly in recent
years, with a marked reduction in de­
mand for Protestant ministers who
serve individual congregations.
Causes have been the trend toward
merger and unity among denomina­
tions, combined with the closing of
smaller parishes, and the downturn
in financial support. If this trend
continues, new graduates of theo­
logical schools may face increasing
competition in finding positions. The
supply-demand situation will vary
among denominations and depend,
in part, on the length of the candi­
date’s formal preparation. Most of
the openings for clergymen that are
expected through the mid-1980’s will
therefore result from the need to re­
place those in existing positions who
retire, die, or leave the ministry.
Although fewer opportunities may
arise for Protestant ministers to
serve individual congregations, new­
ly ordained ministers may find work
in youth, family relations, and wel­
fare organizations; religious educa­
tion; on the campus; and as chap­



lains in the Armed Forces, hospi­
tals, universities, and correctional in­
Sources of Additional

Persons who are interested in the
Protestant ministry should seek the
counsel of a minister or church guid­
ance workers. Additional informa­
tion on the ministry is available from
many denominational offices. Each
theological school can supply infor­
mation on admission requirements.

(D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work

gations. Regardless of their particu­
lar point of view, all Hebrew congre­
gations preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The con­
gregations differ in the extent to
which they follow the traditional
form of worship—for example, in the
wearing of head coverings, the use of
Hebrew as the language of prayer, or
the use of music or a choir. The for­
mat of the worship service and,
therefore, the ritual that the rabbis
use may vary even among congre­
gations belonging to the same branch
of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for reli­
gious and lay publications, and teach
in theological seminaries, colleges,
and universities.
Places of Employment

More than 5,800 rabbis served
nearly 5.9 million followers of the
Jewish faith in this country in 1972.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest
are about equally divided between
Conservative and Reform congre­
gations. The majority of rabbis are
the spiritual leaders of individual
congregations. The others are en­
gaged in other activities mentioned
in the introduction to this section, ex­
cept for missionary work, which
never has been a trad itio n of
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Nation,
they are concentrated in those States
that have large Jewish populations,
particularly New York, California,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Illinois,
Massachusetts, Florida, Maryland,
and the Washington, D.C. metro­
politan area.

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers and
interpreters of Jewish law and tradi­
tion. They conduct daily services and
deliver sermons at services on the
Sabbath and on Jewish holidays.
Rabbis customarily are available at
all times to counsel members of their
congregation, other followers of
Judaism, and the community at
large. Like other clergymen, rabbis
conduct weddings and funeral serv­
ices, visit the sick, help the poor,
comfort the bereaved, supervise reli­
gious education programs, engage in
interfaith activities, and involve
themselves in community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congre­
gations may spend considerable time
in administrative duties, working
with their staffs and committees.
Large congregations frequently have
Training, and Other
an associate or assistant rabbi. Many
assistant rabbis serve as Educational
To become eligible for ordination
Rabbis serve either Orthodox, as a rabbi, a student must complete
Conservative, or Reform congre­ the prescribed course of study. En­

trance requirements and the cur­
riculum depend upon the branch of
Judaism with which the seminary is
Nearly 30 seminaries train Ortho­
dox rabbis in programs of varying
lengths. Two of the larger semi­
naries require the completion of a 4year college course for ordination.
However, students who are not col­
lege graduates may spend a longer
period at these seminaries and com­
plete the requirements for the bache­
lor’s degree while pursuing the rab­
binic course. The other Orthodox
seminaries do not require a college'
degree to qualify for ordination, al­
though students who qualify usually
have completed 4 years of college.
lege—Jewish Institute of Reli­
gion is the official seminary that
trains rabbis for the Reform branch
of Judaism. The Jewish Theological
Seminary of America is the official
seminary that trains rabbis for the
Conservative branch of Judaism.
Both seminaries require the comple­
tion of a 4-year college course, as
well as earlier preparation in Jewish
studies, for admission to the rab­
binic program leading to ordination.
Normally five years of study are re-



quired to complete the rabbinic
course at the Reform seminary, in­
cluding one year of preparatory
study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally
well-prepared students can shorten
this 5-year period to a minimum of
three years. A student having a
strong background in Jewish studies
can complete the course at the
Conservative seminary in four years;
for other enrollees, the course may
take as long as six.
In general, the curriculums of
Jewish theological seminaries pro­
vide students with a comprehensive
knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,
pastoral psychology, and public
speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature; it
offers, instead, a broad course of
study that includes subjects such as
human relations and community
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually
begin as leaders of small congre­
gations, assistants to experienced
rabbis, directors of Hillel Founda­
tions, teachers in seminaries and
other educational institutions, or
chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a
rule, the pulpits of large and wellestablished Jewish congregations are
filled by experienced rabbis.

graduating from the Jewish theo­
logical seminaries.
One cause underlying the demand
for rabbis is a continued growth in
Jewish religious affiliation in the
number of synagogues and temples,
particularly in the suburbs of cities
having large Jewish communities.
Another is the demand of large con­
gregations for assistant rabbis. How­
ever, there is a trend toward merger
of several congregations in some
communities, and this could effect
somewhat the need for rabbis. De­
mand for rabbis to work with social
welfare and other organizations con­
nected with the Jewish faith also is
expected to increase. Immigration,
once an important source of rabbis,
is no longer significant. In fact,
graduates of American seminaries
now are in demand for Jewish con­
gregations in other countries. Over
450 American rabbis now serve in
other countries.
Sources off Additional

Young people who are interested
in entering the rabbinate should seek
the guidance of a rabbi. Information
on the work of a rabbi and occupa­
tions allied to it is available also
from many of the local Boards of
Rabbis in large communities. Each
Jewish theological seminary can sup­
ply information on its admission re­



In 1972, the number of rabbis in
this country was inadequate to meet
the expanding needs of Jewish con­
(D.O.T. 120.108)
gregations and other organizations
desiring their services. This situa­
Nature of the Work
tion is likely to persist through the
Roman Catholic priests attend to
mid-1980’s, despite an anticipated
increase in the number of students the spiritual, moral, and educational

needs of the members of their
church. Their duties include offering
the Sacrifice of the Mass; offering re­
ligious enlightenment in the form of
a sermon; hearing confessions; ad­
ministering the Sacraments, (includ­
ing the sacrament of marriage); and
conducting funeral services. They
also comfort the sick, console rela­
tives and friends of the dead, counsel
those in need of guidance, and assist
the poor.
Priests spend long hours working
for the church and the community.
Their day usually begins with morn­
ing meditation and Mass, and may
end with the hearing of confessions
or an evening visit to a hospital or a
home. Many priests direct and serve
in church committees, and in civic
and charitable organizations; they
may assist in community projects, as
There are two main classifica­
tions of priests—diocesan (secular)
and religious. Both types have the
same powers acquired through or­
dination by a bishop. The differ­
ences lie in their way of life, the type
of work to which they are assigned,
and the church authority to whom
they are immediately subject. Di­



ocesan priests generally work on an
individual basis in parishes, assigned
to them by the bishop of their di­
ocese. Religious priests generally
work as part of a religious commu­
nity comprised of members of the
same religious order, such as the
Jesuits, Dominicans, or Francis­
cans. They engage in specialized ac­
tivities such as teaching or mission­
ary work assigned to them by the
superiors of their order.
Both religious and diocesan priests
hold teaching and administrative
posts in Catholic seminaries, col­
leges and universities, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious
orders staff a large proportion of the
institutions of higher education and
many high schools, whereas di­
ocesan priests are concerned with the
parochial schools attached to parish
churches and with diocesan high
schools. The members of religious
orders do most of the missionary
work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and abroad.

Places of Employment

More than 58,000 priests served
nearly 49 million Catholics in the
United States in 1972. There are
priests in nearly every city and town
and in many rural communities;
however, the majority are in metro­
politan areas, where most Catholics
reside. Catholics are concentrated in
the Northeast and the Great Lakes
regions, with smaller concentrations
in California, Texas, and Louisiana.
A large number of priests are lo­
cated in communities near Catholic
educational and other institutions.

Training and Other Qualifications

Preparation for the priesthood re­

quires 8 years more of study beyond
high school. There are 450 seminar­
ies offering such education. Study in
preparation may begin in the first
year of high school, at the college
level, or in theological seminaries
after college graduation.
High school seminaries provide a
college preparatory program that
em phasizes English g ra m m a r,
speech, literature, and social studies.
Two years of Latin are required and
the study of modern language is en­
couraged. The seminary college of­
fers a liberal arts program, stressing
philosophy and religion; the study of
man through the behavioral sciences
and history; and the natural sciences
and mathematics. In many college
seminaries, a student may con­
centrate in any of these fields.
The remaining 4 years of prepara­
tion includes sacred scripture; apolo­
getics (the branch of theology con­
cerning the defense and proofs of
Christianity); dogmatic, moral, and
pastoral theology; homiletics (art of
preaching); church history; liturgy
(Mass); and canon law. Diocesan
and religious priests attend different
major seminaries, where slight varia­
tions in the training reflect the dif­
ferences in the type of work ex­
pected of them as priests. During the
later years of their seminary courses,
candidates receive from their bishop
a succession of orders (positions) cul­
minating in their ordination to the
priesthood. Priests are not per­
mitted to both marry and remain
Most postgraduate work in theolo­
gy is given either at Catholic Uni­
versity of America, Washington,
D.C., or at the ecclesiastical uni­
versities in Rome. Also, many priests
do graduate work at other uni­
versities in Fields unrelated to the­
ology. Priests are commanded by the
law of the Catholic Church to con­
tinue their studies, at least informal­
ly, after ordination.

Young men are never denied entry
into seminaries because of lack of
funds. In seminaries for secular
priests, the bishop may make ar­
rangements for student loans. Those
in religious seminaries often are Fi­
nanced by contributions of benefac­
The first assignment of a newly or­
dained secular priest is usually that
of assistant pastor or curate. Newly
ordained priests of religious orders
are assigned to the specialized duties
for which they are trained. Many op­
portunities for greater responsibility
exist within the hierarchy of the
church. Diocesan priests, for ex­
ample, may rise to positions such as
monsignor or bishop. Much of their
time at this level is given to ad­
ministrative duties. In the religious
orders that specialize in teaching,
priests may become heads of depart­
ments or assume other positions that
include administrative duties.


A growing number of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to pro­
vide for the spiritual, educational,
and social needs of the growing num­
ber of Catholics in the Nation. The
number of ordained priests has been
insufficient to Fill the needs of newly
established parishes and other
Catholic institutions, and to replace
priests who retire or die. This situa­
tion is likely to persist. However,
many of the minor duties of priests
are being assigned to lay deacons
(nonordained professionals). Al­
though priests usually continue to
work longer than persons in other
professions, the varied demands and
long hours create a need for young
priests to assist the older ones. Also,
an increasing number of priests have
been acting in many diverse areas of


service—in social work; religious
Sources of Additional
radio, newspaper, and television
work; labor-management media­
Young men interested in entering
tion. They have also been serving in
foreign posts, as missionaries, par­ the priesthood should seek the
ticularly in countries that have a guidance and counsel of their parish
priest. For information regarding the
shortage of priests.


different religious orders and the
secular priesthood, as well as a list of
the seminaries which prepare stu­
dents for the priesthood, contact the
Diocesan Directors of Vocations of
the dioscesan chancery office.


Extension workers help farm fam­
ilies analyze and solve their farm and
home problems and aid in com­
munity improvement. Much of this
educational work is carried on in
groups, through meetings, tours,
demonstrations, and use of local
volunteer leaders. On problems that
cannot be solved satisfactorily by
such group methods, individual
assistance is given. Extension
workers rely heavily on use of mass
(D.O.T. 096.128)
communication media such as news­
paper, radio, and television.
Nature of the Work
County extension workers help
farmers produce, more efficiently,
Extension service workers are en­
gaged with the farm area population higher quality crops and livestock.
in educational work in topics like They also help them develop new
agriculture, home economics, youth market outlets and plan production
activities, and community resource to meet market demands, including
development. They are employed those for quality standards and vari­
jointly by State land grant uni­ eties. They also help community
versities and the U.S. Department of leaders to improve the community,
Agriculture. Extension workers must and to plan and provide for eco­
be proficient in both subject matter nomic development, recreation, and
more adequate public facilities such
and teaching methods.

as schools, water supply and sewer
systems, and libraries. They help
homemakers to provide more family
enjoyment from existing resources, a
higher level of nutrition, and a more
pleasant home environment. Some
extension workers help youths to be­
come more useful citizens and to
gain more personal satisfaction
through programs in career selec­
tion, recreation, health, and leader­
ship. The essence of extension work
is to help people help themselves to
achieve the goals they think are im­
County extension workers are sup­
ported by State Extension Special­
ists. The latter’s job is to keep
abreast of the latest research in their
particular fields of interest, interpret
this for use in extension programs,
and help county extension workers
develop educational programs, ac­
tivities, and events to demonstrate
use of this new knowledge.
Cooperative Extension Services
employ persons with a wide range of
skills. Staffs include workers skilled
in all phases of crop and livestock
production, conservation, environ­
mental improvement, farm manage­
ment and marketing, family living,
human development, nutrition, home
management, child development,
sociology, psychology, veterinary
medicine, engineering, textiles and
clothing, resource economics, and
business and public administration.

Places of Employment

Cooperative extension workers advise farmers about crop yields.


Extension workers are located in
county offices, area offices serving
multi-county units, and State of­
fices, the latter usually on the cam­
pus of the land-grant college or uni­
Agents are located in nearly every
county in the 50 States, Puerto Rico,
and the District of Columbia. The
county staffs range in size from one



agent (serving a wide variety of clien­ ance, particularly in helping the dis­
tele interests) to staffs of a dozen or advantaged.
more specialized agents in counties
Counterparts of the Cooperative
with high-density population and Extension Service are being estab­
great diversity of interests. Staffs are lished in many countries, and Exten­
located in counties ranging from the sion Service personnel often are
most rural to the most urban.
recruited to help initiate and organ­
ize these programs.
Training and Other Qualifications

Cooperative Extension agents
assigned to counties are required to
be proficient in disciplines related to
the needs and programs of the clien­
tele with whom they work. Each
must have a B.S. degree in his sub­
ject-matter field; and some training
in educational techniques is desir­
able, as well.
Often, they receive training in ex­
tension techniques in a pre-induction
training program, and are upgraded
through regular in-service training
programs in both educational tech­
niques and the subject-matter for
which they are responsible. In addi­
tion to subject-matter proficiency
and extension techniques, successful
extension workers must like to work
with people and to help them.
In most States, specialists and
agents assigned to multicounty and
State staff jobs are required to have
at least one advanced degree and
many must have the Ph.D.
Employment Outlook

Extension services employ more
than 15,600 professional people. The
demand for additional workers is ex­
pected to continue, especially in de­
pressed rural areas. As agricultural
technology becomes more compli­
cated, and as farm people become
more aware of the need for organ­
ized activity, more help will be
sought from trained Extension Serv­
ice personnel. The Extension Serv­
ice also is being extended to new seg­
ments of the population, as residents
recognize the value of their assist­

Earnings and Working

The salaries of extension workers
vary from State to State and county
to county. In the main, however, they
are fully competitive with similar
jobs in industry and government.
G enerally speaking, the career
ladder for extension workers pro­
ceeds from assistant county agent to
more responsible jobs within that
county, or in another county in the
State, to assignments on the State
extension staff.

Sources of Additional

Additional information may be
obtained from county extension of­
fices, the State Director of the Co­
operative Extension Service located
at each land-grant university; or the
Extension Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 096.128)
Nature of the Work

Home economists work to im­
prove products, services, and prac­
tices that affect the comfort and well­
being of the family. They may
specialize in food and nutrition,

clothing and textiles, child develop­
ment and family relations, housing,
home furnishings and equipment,
home management, or consumer
economics, or they may have a broad
knowledge of the whole professional
Most home economists work as
teachers. They teach high school stu­
dents about foods and nutrition;
clothing, selection, construction and
care; child development; consumer
education; housing and home fur­
nishings; and family relations, and
other subjects related to family living
and homemaking. They also per­
form the regular duties of other high
school teachers that are described in
the statement on secondary school
teachers elsewhere in the Hand­
Teachers in adult education pro­
grams help men and women to in­
crease their understanding of family
relations and to improve their home­
making skills. They also conduct
training programs on secondary,
post secondary, and adult levels for
jobs related to home economics.
Special emphasis is given to teach­
ing those who are disadvantaged and
handicapped. College teachers may
combine teaching and research, and
often specialize in a particular area
of home economics.
.Home economists employed by
private business firms and trade
associations promote the develop­
ment, use, and care of specific home
products. They may do research, test
products, and prepare advertise­
ments and instructional materials.
Other duties may include preparing
and presenting programs for radio
and television, serving as con­
sultants; giving lectures and demon­
strations before the public, and con­
ducting classes for salesmen and
appliance servicemen. Some home
economists study consumer needs
and help manufacturers translate
these needs into useful products.



Home economists who work for
the Cooperative Extension Service
conduct adult education programs
for men and women, and 4-H Club
and other youth programs for girls
and boys, in areas such as home
management, consumer education,
family relations and nutrition. Ex­
tension home economists also train
and supervise volunteer leaders and
paid aides who teach adults and
youth. (See statement on Coopera­
tive Extension Service Workers else­
where in the Handbook.)

Home economists do research on metabolism.

Food manufacturers employ home
economists to work in test kitchens
or laboratories to improve products
and help create new ones. They also
may publicize the nutritional values
of their company’s foods. Utility
companies hire home economists to
demonstrate appliances and services
and to give advice on household
p ro b le m s . H om e e c o n o m is ts
employed by kitchen and laundry
equipment manufacturers may assist
engineers on product development.
Home economists in the field of
communications work for maga­
zines, newspapers, radio and tele­
vision stations, advertising and pub­
lic relations agencies, and trade asso­
ciations. They prepare articles, ad­
vertisements, and speeches about
home economics products and serv­
ices. They may also test and analyze

products and study consumer buying
Home economists are employed
by dress-pattern companies, depart­
ment stores, interior design studios,
and other business firms to help
design, manufacture, and sell prod­
ucts for the home. Financial institu­
tions som etim es employ home
economists to give customers advice
on spending, saving, and budgeting.
Some home economists conduct
research for the Federal Govern­
ment, State agricultural experiment
stations, colleges, universities, and
private organizations. The U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture employs the
largest group of researchers to do
work such as study the buying and
spending habits of families in all
socio-economic groups and develop
budget guides.

Federal, state, and local govern­
ments and private agencies employ
home economists in social welfare
programs to advise and counsel cli­
ents on the practical knowledge and
skills needed for effective everyday
family living. They may also help
handicapped homemakers and their
families adjust to the physical as well
as social and emotional limitations
by changing the arrangements in the
home; finding efficient ways to man­
age household chores; aiding in the
design, selection and arrangement of
equipment; and creating other meth­
ods and devices to enable disabled
people to function at their highest
possible level. Other home econo­
mists in welfare agencies supervise; or
train workers who provide tempo­
rary or part-time help to households
disrupted by illness.
Home economists in health serv­
ices provide special help and
guidance in home management, con­
sumer education and family eco­
nomics as it relates to family health
and well-being. Activities of home
economists working in health pro­
grams are home visits, conducting
clinic demonstrations and classes in
h o m em ak in g sk ills, fin a n c ia l
counseling, assisting the mentally re­
tarded mother, working with agen­
cies and community resources, and
supervising nutrition and home
management aides.


Places of Employment

About 120,000 people worked in
home economics professions in 1972.
This figure includes 33,000 dieti­
tians and 5,300 Cooperative Exten­
sion workers who are discussed in
separate statements elsewhere in the
Handbook. About 70,000 home
economists are teachers, of whom
about 50,000 teach in secondary
schools. More than 15,000 are adult
education instructors, some of whom
teach part-time in secondary schools;
about 5,000 home economists teach
in colleges and universities. Others
teach in co m m u n ity colleges,
elementary schools, kindergartens,
nursery schools and recreation
More than 5,000 home econ­
omists work in private business firms
and associations. Several thousand
are in research and social welfare
programs. A few are self-employed.
A lth o u g h hom e e c o n o m ic s
generally has been considered a
women’s field, a growing number of
men are employed in home eco­
nomics positions. Most men special­
ize in foods and institutional
management, although some are in
the fam ily relations and child
development field, applied arts, con­
sumer education, and other areas.


larly social sciences—as well as
specialized home economics courses.
They may concentrate in a particu­
lar area of home economics or in
what is called general home eco­
nom ics. A dvanced courses in
chemistry and nutrition are impor­
tant for work in foods and nutrition;
science and statistics for research
work; and journalism for advertis­
ing, public relations work, and all
other work in the communications
field. To teach home economics in
high school, students must complete
the courses required for a teacher’s
Scholarships, fellowships, and
assistantships are available for un­
dergraduate and graduate study.
Although colleges and universities
offer most of these financial grants,
government agencies, research foun­
dations, businesses, and the Ameri­
can Home Economics Association
Foundation provide additional
Home economists must be able to
work with people of various incomes
and cultural backgrounds and should
have a capacity for leadership. Good
grooming, poise, and an interest in
people also are essential for those
who deal with the public. The ability
to write and speak well is important.
Home economists frequently gain

ence competitive job market condi­
tions as those unable to find teach­
ing jobs look for other home
economists positions. However, for
those willing to continue their edu­
cation toward an advanced degree,
employment prospects in college and
university teaching are expected to
be good.
Although employment of home
economists is expected to grow slow­
ly, many jobs will become available
each year to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the field for other
reasons. Growth will result from in­
creasing awareness of the contribu­
tions that can be made by profes­
sionally trained home economists in
quality child care, nutrition, housing
and furnishings design, consumer
education information, and manenvironment relations. They also will
be needed to promote home prod­
ucts, to act as consultants to con­
sumers and to do research for im­
provement of home products and
services. The Vocational Education
Amendments of 1968, which pro­
vide funds for consumer and home­
making education at the secondary,
post-secondary, and adult levels, and
focus on the needs of low income
families, should further stimulate the
need for home economists.

experience as teachers and advance

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

About 370 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in home
economics, which qualifies gradu­
ates for most entry positions in the
field. A master’s or doctor’s degree is
required for college teaching, for cer­
tain research and supervisory posi­
tions, for work as an extension
specialist, for some supervisory jobs,
and for some jobs in the nutrition
Home economics majors study
sciences and liberal arts—particu­

to responsible positions in business,
extension service work, supervision,
and teacher education. Those who
leave the profession, but later wish to
return, may find jobs as part-time or
full-time adult education teachers in
programs such as the Cooperative
Extension Service.
Employment Outlook

Home economists, especially those
wishing to teach in high schools, may
face some competition for jobs
through the mid-1980’s. Other areas
of home economics also may experi­

Earnings and Working

Hom e econom ics teachers in
public schools generally receive the
same salaries as other teachers. In
1972, the average starting salary of
public school teachers with a bache­
lor’s degree was $7,400, according to
a National Education Association
survey. Experienced teachers averag­
ed $10,500. Median salaries of
women teaching in colleges and uni­
versities in 1972 ranged from $8,900
for instructors to $16,400 for profes­
The Federal Government paid



home economists with bachelor’s
degrees starting salaries of $7,700
and $9,500 in early 1973, depending
on their scholastic record. Those
with additional education and experi­
ence generally earned from $11,600
to $19,700 or more, depending on the
type of position and level of re­
Cooperative extension workers on
the county level averaged $10,300
while those on the State level aver­
aged $14,200 in 1972. In general,
home economists earn about one and
one-half times as much as non-supervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Home economists usually work a
40-hour week. Those in teaching and
extension positions, however, fre­
quently work longer hours because
they are expected to be available for
evening lectures, demonstrations,
and other work. Most home econ­
omists receive fringe benefits, such as
paid vacation, sick leave, retirement
pay, and insurance benefits.

(D.O.T. 045.088 and .108)
Nature of the Work

Psychologists study the normal
and abnormal behavior of individ­
uals and groups in order to under­
stand and explain their actions. In
the course of their work, they may be
concerned with the problems of emo­
tional stress and abnormal behavior,
the causes of low morale, or the
effective performance of an astro­
naut. Some teach in colleges and un­
iversities; others provide counseling
services, plan and conduct training
programs for workers, conduct re­
search, advise on psychological
methods and theories, or administer

psychology programs in hospitals,
clinics, or research laboratories.
Many psychologists combine sev­
eral of these activities.
Psychologists gather information
about the capacities, interests, and
behavior of people in various ways.
They interview individuals, develop
and administer tests and rating
scales, study personal histories and
conduct controlled experiments.
Psychologists also often design and
conduct surveys.
Areas of specialization in psychol­
ogy include experimental psychol­
ogy—in which behavior processes
are studied in the laboratory;
developm ental p sych o lo g y—the
study of the causes of behavioral
changes as people progress through

Sources of Additional

A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics and additional
information about home economics
careers, the types of home eco­
nomics majors offered in each school
granting degrees in home eco­
nomics, and graduate scholarships
are available from:
American Home Economics Associa­
tion, 2010 Massachusetts Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036

Psychologist experiments with monkey for insight into human behavior.


life; personality—the study of the
processes by which a person be­
comes a unique individual; social
psychology—in which people’s inter­
actions with others and with the
social environment are examined;
educational and school psychol­
ogy—which are concerned with the
psychological factors in the process
of education; comparative psychol­
ogy—in which the behavior of differ­
ent animals, including man, is com­
pared; p h y s io lo g ic a l p s y c h o l­
ogy—the study of the relationship of
behavior to the biological functions
of the body; and p sy ch o m e t­
rics—the development and appli­
cation of procedures for measuring
psychological variables.
Psychologists often combine sev­
eral areas of psychology in their spe­
cialty. Clinical psychologists are the
largest group of specialists. They
generally work in mental hospitals or
clinics, and are involved mainly with
problems of mentally or emotion­
ally disturbed people. They inter­
view patients, give diagnostic tests,
and provide individual, family, and
group psychotherapy, and design and
carry through behavior modifica­
tion programs. Counseling psycholo­
gists help people with important
problems of everyday living. In their
work, they may use developmental
psychology, psychopathology, per­
sonality, educational psychology,
and psychometrics. Other combina­
tion fields are in d u stria l and
organizational psychology where
problems of motivation and morale
in work situations are studied;
engineering psychology, the develop­
ment and improvement of manmachine systems; consumer psychol­
ogy, the study of the psychological
factors that determine an individ­
ual’s behavior as a consumer of
goods and services; and environ­
mental psychology, the relation­
ships between individual qualities
and the environment.


Places of Employment

About 57,000 people, one-fourth
of them women, worked as psycholo­
gists in 1972. More than 40 percent
of the total worked in colleges and
universities, either as teachers,
researchers, or counselors. The sec­
ond largest number of psycholo­
gists work for Federal, State, and
local government agencies. Federal
agencies that employ the most psy­
chologists are the Veterans Adminis­
tration, the Department of Defense,
and the Public Health Service.
Many psychologists work in public
schools, clinics, hospitals, medical
schools, and for business or indus­
try. Some are in independent prac­
tice, and others serve as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces
and the Public Health Service.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Generally, a master’s degree in
psychology is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for professional
employment in the field. People who
have this degree can qualify for posi­
tions where they administer and in­
terpret psychological tests, collect
and analyze statistical data, conduct
research experiments, and perform
administrative duties. They also may
teach in colleges, counsel students or
handicapped persons, or—if they
have had previous teaching experi­
ence—work as school psychologists
or counselors. (See statements on
School Counselors and Rehabilita­
tion Counselors.)
A Ph.D. degree—the mark of the
full professional—is needed for
many entrance positions and is
becoming increasingly important for
advancement. People who have doc­
torates in psychology qualify for the
more responsible research, clinical,
and counseling positions, as well as
for the higher level positions in col­
leges and universities and in Federal
and State programs.

At least 1 year of full-time gradu­
ate study is needed to earn a master’s
degree in psychology. An additional
3 to 5 years of graduate work usu­
ally are required in order to get a
Ph.D. In clinical or counseling psy­
chology, the requirements for the
Ph.D. degree generally include an
additional year of internship or
supervised experience.
Some universities require appli­
cants for graduate work in psychol­
ogy to have had an undergraduate
major in that field. Others prefer
broader educational backgrounds
that include not only some basic psy­
chology but also courses in the bio­
logical, physical, and social sciences,
statistics, and mathematics.
Many graduate students receive
financial help in the form of fellow­
ships, scholarships, or part-tim e
employment from universities and
other sources. Several Federal agen­
cies provide funds to graduate stu­
dents, generally through the college
or university that provides the train­
ing. The Veterans Administration
offers a number of pre-doctoral
traineeships, during which time the
students receive payments and gain
supervised experience in VA hos­
pitals and clinics. The National
Science Foundation, the U.S. Office
of Education, the Public Health
Service, the Rehabilitation Services
Administration, and the National
Institute of Mental Health also pro­
vide fellowships, grants, and loans
for advanced training in psychology.
However at present the trend at the
federal level is toward low-interest
loans and away from fellowships and
The American Board of Profes­
sional Psychology awards diplomas
in clinical, counseling, industrial, and
school psychology to those who have
outstanding educational records and
experience and who pass the re­
quired examinations.
Psychologists who want to enter



independent practice must meet cer­
tification or licensing requirements
in an increasing number of States. In
1972, 46 S tates had these re ­
People pursuing a career in psy­
chology must be emotionally stable,
mature, and able to deal effectively
with people. Sensitivity, patience,
and a genuine interest in others are
particularly important for work in
clinical and counseling psychology.
Research psychologists should be
able to do detailed and independent
work; verbal and writing skills are
necessary to communicate research

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
psychologists are expected to be
good through the mid-1980’s. Op­
portunities should be very good for
Ph.D.’s and for some master’s de­
gree holders specializing in clinical
or counseling psychology.
Employment of clinical, counsel­
ing, and social psychologists in men­
tal hospitals, correctional institu­
tions, mental hygiene clinics, and
community health centers is ex­
pected to expand rapidly. Many
openings for psychologists also are
anticipated in the Federal Govern­
ment, primarily in the Veterans Ad­
ministration and the Department of
Psychologists may find some com­
petition for job openings in large col­
leges and universities which are pre­
ferred locations for many specialties
in psychology. However, those
wishing to work in the relatively
smaller and newer publicly-sup­
ported institutions should have good
employment prospects. The rapid
growth of two-year colleges also will
create many openings for psy­

Other openings will exist for clini­
cal, educational, and industrial psy­
chologists. Growing awareness of the
need for testing and counseling chil­
dren is expected to increase the need
for psychologists in schools. In­
creased public concern for the
development of human resources as
evidenced by Medicare and Medi­
caid will further increase the de­
mand for psychologists. Other open­
ings may occur as psychologists
move into new employment fields
where their services are beginning to
be recognized as useful. Govern­
ment agencies are finding that psy­
chologists can conduct surveys and
offer services, such as recom ­
mending methods for improving
public opinion and anticipating reac­
tions to government programs.
Many vacancies also will occur
each year as a result of retirements
and deaths. The transfer of psycholo­
gists to purely administrative work
also will create some job vacancies.

of experience, Ph.D.’s earned about
$16,700. The average salary for
Ph.D. psychologists in the Veterans
Administration was about $21,500 a
year. In general, psychologists earn
over twice as much as the average
nonsupervisory worker in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Working conditions for psycholo­
gists who teach in colleges and uni­
versities are the same as for other
faculty members. Most colleges pro­
vide for sabbatical leaves of absence,
life and health insurance, and retire­
ment plans. Working hours are
generally flexible, but often entail
some evening work with individual
students or organized groups. Clini­
cal and counseling psychologists
often work in the evenings since their
patients sometimes are unable to
leave their jobs or school during the

Sources of Additional
Earnings and Working

In 1972, starting salaries for psy­
chologists holding a master’s degree
averaged about $11,000 a year, ac­
cording to the American Psycho­
logical Association. Beginning sala­
ries for those holding a doctorate
averaged $13,000.
Median salaries of psychologists
teaching in graduate departments
ranged from $12,800 for assistant
professors to $20,900 for full profes­
sors during the academic year 197273 (9-10 months), according to a sur­
vey conducted for the Conference of
Chairmen of Graduate Departments
of Psychology.
In the Federal Government, psy­
chologists having a Ph.D. degree and
1 year of internship started at $14,000 a year in early 1973. With 1 year

For general information on career
opportunities, certification or licen­
sure requirements, and educational
facilities and financial assistance for
graduate students in psychology,
American Psychological Association,
1200 17th Street, NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Information on traineeships and
fellowships is available from col­
leges and universities that have
graduate psychology departments.


(D.O.T. 079.128, 159.228, 187.118,
195.168, 195.228)
Nature of the Work

Directors of city recreation depart­
ments, camps, or private nonprofit
organizations coordinate and evalu­
ate the many types of recreation pro­
grams and often prepare program
Recreation workers employed by
local government and voluntary
agencies direct activities at neighbor­
hood playgrounds and indoor recrea­
tion centers. They provide instruc­
tion in the arts and crafts and in
sports. They lfiay supervise recrea­
tional activities at correctional in­
stitutions and work closely with
social workers to organize programs
for the young and the aged. School
recreation workers organize the
leisure-time activities of school-age
children during schooldays, week­
ends, and vacations.
Recreation workers in industry
and in the Armed Forces direct bowl­
ing leagues, softball teams, and simi­
lar activities for servicemen and
company employees. They also often
plan social functions and fund drives.
Under the supervision of a camp
director, recreation w orkers in
camps lead and instruct campers in
nature-oriented forms of recreation
such as swimming, hiking, and
horseback riding. In resident camps,
recreation workers must also safe­
guard the health and well-being of
Therapeutic recreation workers
plan recreation programs for the ill
and the handicapped in hospitals,
convalescent homes, and other in­
stitutions. Working under medical
direction, they organize and direct
sports, dramatics, arts, and crafts for
persons suffering from mental prob­
lems and physical disabilities.

Participation in sports, hobbies,
and other recreation activities has
become an integral part of the in­
creasing leisure time enjoyed by
many Americans. Recreation work­
ers direct individual and group
recreation activities to help people
better enjoy nonworking hours and
to promote physical fitness, fair play,
and good sportsmanship.
Recreation workers organize and
lead social, cultural, and physical
education programs at camps, com­
munity centers, hospitals, work
places, and playgrounds for people of
various ages and interests. They also
manage recreation facilities and
study the recreation needs of groups
and communities. There are three
basic types of recreation workers:
recreation leaders and camp coun­
selors, activity specialists, and
recreation directors.
Recreation leaders and camp
counselors lead indoor and outdoor
recreation activities. They instruct
people in the proper use of facilities
and the correct rules and techniques
used in sports, games, and other ac­
Activity specialists lead and in­
struct people in specific activities
such as archery, swimming, or ten­
nis. They often conduct classes and
coach teams in the activity in which
they specialize.
Recreation supervisors or direc­
tors administer recreation programs,
departments, and camps. They
manage facilities and supervise
recreation workers, maintenance
Places of Employment
personnel, and attendants. They
M ore than 55,000 recreation
develop new programs and organize
sports leagues and teams, tourna­ workers were employed year-round
ments, and contests that bring people in 1972; nearly one-half of them were
with similar interests together. women. Governm ent recreation


departments employed about onehalf, primarily in local recreation
departments. Many others worked
for schools, commercial recreation
establishments like camps or resort
hotels, and nonprofit voluntary
organizations such as athletic or
scouting organizations, churches,
and community organizations.
Although part-tim e recreation
workers and volunteers assist full­
time workers throughout the year, an
additional 120,000 recreation work­
ers were employed for the summer
months only, during 1972. Seasonal
workers are mostly college students
and teachers who work primarily as
re c re a tio n lead ers and cam p
Recreation workers are employed
mostly in urban areas where many
people must use the same play­
grounds and recreation centers.
Camp recreation workers, however,
work generally in rural, less popu­
lated areas of the country. Camp
recreation workers are employed at
resident, day, family, and travel
camps. Except for the directors of
very large camps and workers at the
few camps which remain open yearround, all camp recreation workers
are employed for two or three
months only during the summer.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school education is gener­
ally the minimum requirement for
recreation leader and camp coun­
selor jobs. However, an associate
degree in recreation or a related sub­
ject, from a community or junior col­
lege usually is preferred for yearround employment.
Activity specialists should have an
associate or bachelor’s degree in
recreation or in one of the arts, to
hold year-round jobs. Part-time or
seasonal work experience as a
recreation leader or camp counselor



the recreation field as activity
specialists or recreation directors.
Beginning recreation director jobs
include recreation facility director,
community center director, and
supervisor of recreation leaders and
attendants. A small number of col­
lege graduates begin in jobs that lead
directly to administrative recreation
positions. A few large cities and
organizations offer recreation direc­
tor trainee programs that generally
last 1 year.
After a few years’ experience, ac­
tivity specialists, and often recrea­
tion leaders, may become recreation
directors. Opportunities for advance­
ment to administrative positions
often are limited for persons without
graduate training. However, ad­
vancement is sometimes possible
through a combination of education
and experience.
Recreation worker teaches camping skills.

Employment Outlook

often is required. Many activity
specialists who concentrate in sub­
jects such as drama, art, or dance
have graduate degrees.
Generally recreation directors
must have a bachelor’s degree with a
major in recreation, social science, or
physical education as well as parttime or seasonal experience. Ad­
vanced courses in recreation or
public administration leading to a
master’s degree are desirable for per­
sons interested in higher level ad­
ministrative positions.
The typical program of recreation
study includes courses in communi­
cations, natural sciences, the human­
ities, philosophy, sociology, drama,
and music. Specific courses in
recreation include group leadership,
program planning and organization,
health and safety procedures, out­
door and indoor sports, dance, arts
and crafts, and field work in which
the student obtains actual recreation
leadership experience. Students in­

terested in industrial recreation may
find it desirable to take courses in
business administration; those inter­
ested in therapeutic recreation
should take courses in psychology,
health education, and sociology.
Young people planning careers as
recreation workers must have the
ability to motivate people and be sen­
sitive to their needs. Good health and
physical stamina are required to par­
ticipate in sports. Activity planning
often calls for creativeness and
resourcefulness. Recreation workers
should be able to accept respon­
sibility and exercise judgment since
they usually work alone. To increase
their leadership skills and under­
standing of people, students should
obtain related work experience in
high school and college. They may
do volunteer, part-time, or summer
work in recreation departm ents,
camps, youth-serving organizations,
institutions, and community centers.
Most college graduates then enter

Employment opportunities for
persons having a bachelor’s degree in
recreation are expected to be excel­
lent. As the number of college gradu­
ates with a major in recreation falls
short of the demand, employment
opportunities in this field will con­
tinue to be favorable for persons that
have college training in social
science, physical education, and
health education. Opportunities for
part-time and volunteer work should
be plentiful, particularly in local
government recreation departments.
Employment of recreation work­
ers is expected to increase very rapid­
ly through the mid-1980’s. Popula­
tion growth, increased leisure time
and rising incomes underlie the ex­
pected growth in employment of
recreation workers. As incomes rise,
more people will participate in a
variety of organized competitive and
noncompetitive sports and larger
numbers will travel to parks, camps,
and resorts for camping, hiking, fish­


ing, and other recreation pursuits.
Public pressure for recreation
areas may result in the creation of
many new parks, playgrounds, and
national forests, and increased atten­
tion to physical fitness by govern­
ment, educators, and others may
produce a rise in public and indus­
trial recreation programs. Longer
life and earlier retirements also will
increase the demand for recreation
programs for retired persons. All of
these factors will increase the need
for recreation workers.


some work more than 50 hours.
Many camp recreation workers live
at the camps where they work, and
their room and board is included in
their salaries. Most public and pri­
vate recreation agencies provide
from 2 to 4 weeks vacation and other
fringe benefits such as sick leave and
hospital insurance.
A person entering the recreation
field should expect some night work
and irregular hours since they often
work while others are enjoying
leisure time. Recreation workers
usually spend most of their time out­
doors when the weather permits.

Earnings and Working
Sources of Additional

Annual salaries for recreation
leaders in State and local govern­
Information about recreation as a
ments ranged between $7,000 and
career, employment opportunities in
$9,000 in 1972, according to a sur­
vey by the Public Personnel Associ­ the field, and colleges and univer­
ation. In general, earnings are higher sities offering recreation curricuthan the average for nonsupervisory lums is available from:
workers in private industry, except in
National Industrial Recreation Associ­
ation, 20 North Wacker Dr.,
Persons with bachelor’s degrees in
Chicago, 11 . 60606.
recreation generally received start­
National Recreation and Parks Associ­
ing salaries ranging between $7,200
ation, 1601 North Kent St.,
and $9,000, ac co rd in g to the
Arlington, Va. 22209.
N ational R ecreation and Park
For information on careers in
Association. Recreation directors’
camping and job referrals, contact:
salaries ranged from $11,000 to more
than $20,000 depending on their
American Camping Association, Brad­
ford Woods, Martinsville, Indiana
In early 1973, starting salaries for
recreation workers in the Federal
Government were $7,694 for appli­
cants having a bachelor’s degree or 3
years of recreation work experience.
Persons with a good academic
record, specialized training, or 4
years of experience could qualify for
a starting salary of $9,520; those
with a master’s degree or an addi­
(D.O.T. 195.108, .1 18,
tional year of experience, $11,614.
.168, and .208, .228)
Recreation worker salaries tend to
be higher in the West than in other
Nature of the Work
areas of the country.
The average workweek for recrea­
The ability of people to live in har­
tion workers is 40 hours, although mony with their neighbors often is

hampered by social problems that
range from an individual’s personal
problems to social unrest within a
group or community. These prob­
lems aggravated by the growing
complexity of society, have greatly
increased the need for social serv­
ices. Social workers assist individ­
uals, families, and groups in using
these services to solve th e ir
Many social service programs are
designed to meet the needs of indi­
viduals or families, some emphasize
large groups, and still others are di­
rected mainly to the community’s so­
cial welfare. The three basic ap­
proaches to social work are case­
work, group work, and community
organization. The approach used in
tackling a social problem is usually
determined by the nature of the
problem and the time and resources
available. Social workers sometimes
combine two or all three approaches.
In casework, social workers iden­
tify the problems of individuals and
families through interviews. They aid
in understanding and solving prob­
lems and help secure needed serv­
ices, education, and job training.
Through group activities, social
workers help people to understand
themselves and others better, to
overcome racial and cultural preju­
dices, and to work with others in
achieving a common goal. They plan
and conduct activities for children,
adolescents, adults, and older per­
sons in a variety of settings such as
settlement houses, hospitals, homes
for the aged, and correctional insti­
tutions. In community organization,
social workers organize political,
civic, religious, business, and union
groups to combat social problems
through community programs. They
help plan and develop health, hous­
ing, welfare, and recreation services
for a neighborhood or larger area.
They often coordinate existing so­
cial services and organize fund rais-



identify and solve problems that
hinder satisfactory adjustment.
Social workers in medical and psy­
chiatric settings such as hospitals,
clinics, health and mental health
agencies, rehabilitation centers, and
public welfare agencies aid patients,
their families and communities with
social problems accompanying ill­
ness, recovery, and rehabilitation. As
members of medical teams, they help
patients respond to treatment and
guide them in their readjustment to
their homes, jobs, and communities.
(The related occupation of rehabili­
tation counselor is discussed in a sep­
arate statement.)
Probation and parole officers and
other social workers engaged in cor­
rectional programs help offenders
and persons on probation and parole
readjust to society. They counsel on
social problems encountered in rela­
tion to their return to family and
community life. Probation and
parole officers also may help secure
ing for community social welfare ac­
Social workers in child welfare necessary education, training, em­
positions in government and volun­ ployment, or community services.
The majority of social workers tary agencies work to improve the
provide social services directly to in­ physical and emotional well-being of
dividuals, families, or groups. How­ deprived and troubled children and
Places off Employment
ever, a substantial number are exec­ youth. They advise parents on child
About 185,000 social workers
utives, adm inistrators, or super­ care and child rearing, counsel chil­
visors. Others are college teachers, dren and youth with social adjust­ were employed in 1972; nearly tworesearch workers, consultants, or pri­ ment difficulties, arrange home­ thirds of them were women. Federal,
vate practitioners.
maker services during a mother’s ill­ State, county and city government
Public and voluntary agencies ness, institute legal action for the agencies employ about two-thirds of
have a variety of social work protection of neglected or mis­ all social workers. Most of the re­
programs to meet specific needs, as treated children, provide services to mainder work for voluntary or pri­
suggested by the following descrip­ unmarried parents, and counsel vate agencies, schools, hospitals, and
tions of the principal areas of social couples who wish to adopt children other medical establishments. Al­
after m aking ap p ro p riate case though employment is concentrated
Social workers in family service evaluations and home studies, they in urban areas, many work with dis­
positions in State and local welfare may place children in suitabl