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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JAMES J . DAVIS, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \ BUREAU OF LABOR ST A T IST IC S/ INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS A ND ...........No. 306 HYGIENE SERIES O C C U P A T IO N H A Z A R D S A N D D IA G N O S T IC S IG N S A GUIDE TO IMPAIRMENTS TO BE LO O K ED FO R IN HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS By LOUIS I. DUBLIN, Ph. D. Statistician Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. and PHILIP LEIBOFF APRIL, 1922 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1922 CONTENTS, Page. Preface_______________________________________________________ -— v -v i Introduction_______________________________________________________ 1-3 Section I.—Alphabetical list of hazardous occupations-------^-------------- 4-10 Section II.—List of hazards, symptoms, occupations exposed, and pre vention ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------— 10-28 A. Abnormalities of temperature________________________________ 1 1 ,1 2 1. Extreme dry heat______________ _____________ _____ .___ 12 12 2. Sudden variations of temperature_______________________ B. Compressed air_________________________________________ :------ 12.13 C. Dampness---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13.14 D. D ust________ ,--------------------------------------------------------------------- 14-16 15 1. Inorganic dust________ ________________________________ 2. Organic dust--------------------------------------------------------------- 16 E. Extreme light_________________________________.____ ________ 16.17 F. Infections________________________________________________ — 17.18 1. Anthrax_______________________________________________ 18 2. Hookworm (ankylostomiasis)__________________________ 18 3. Septic infections_______________________________________ 18 G. Poor illumination____________________________________________ 18.19 H. Repeated motion, pressure, shock, etc____ _____________________ 19 J. Poisons-------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------- 19-28 1. Acetaldehyde--------------------------------------------------------------- 20 2. Acridine_______ ___________ ___________________________ 20 3. Acrolein_______________________________________________ 20 4. Ammonia______________________________________________ 21 5. Amyl acetate__________________________________________ 21 6. Amyl alcohol------------------------ -------------------------------------- 21 7. Aniline and other amino compounds of benzol and its homologues------------------ ------------------------ --------,----------- 21 8. Antimony and its compounds___________________________ 21 9. Arsenic and its compounds______________________________ 21 10. Arseniureted hydrogen_________________________________ 21 11. Benzine______________________________________ 1----------22 12. Benzol_________________________________________________ 22 13. Brass (zinc)___________________________________________ 22 14. Carbon dioxide________________________________________ 22 15. Carbon disulphide______________________________________ 22 16. Carbon monoxide______________________________________ 23 17. Chloride of lime_______ _____ ________________________„ 23 18. Chlorine______________ * - T -S--*-•___ - 1 - ________ 23 'v 23 19. Chiorodinitrobenzolr __ —v - /-<*20. C h lo ro n itro b ep zp k.I_J'• i __*______________ _•!*_/. **. 23 21. Chromium JCO^h]J0Vlcls,____________________________ • /S 3 22. Cyanogen im p o u n d s_________________________________ *_ • .V 2 3 23. Dimethyl stilphate______________________________________ •23! 24. D in itro b en zo lj?J!_ * i— ~*. • -23 25. Gasoline-------1— - l - - '‘. ^ 1 — 723 26. Hydrochloric acid__ _— 11 — V __ _ • 23 27. Hydrofluoric acid______________________________________ 24 28. Lead and its compounds------------------------------------------------ 24 29. Mercury and its compounds___ _________________________ 24 30. Methyl alcohol_________________________________________ 25 31. Methyl bromide________________________________________ 25 32. Naphtha_______________________________________________ 25 25 33. Nit rani lin e____________________________________________ 34. Nitrobenzol and other nitro compounds of benzol and its homologues__________________________________________ 25 in IV CONTENTS. II.—List of hazards, symptoms, occupations exposed, and pre vention—Concluded. J. Poisons—Concluded. Page. 35. Nitroglycerin__________________________________________ 25 36. Nitronaphthalene__________ __________________ ,________ 25 37. Nitrous gases and nitric acid____________________________ 25 38. Petroleum_____________________ 26 39. Phenol___________ 26 26 40. Phenyl hydrazine______________________________________ 41. Phosgene___________________________________ 26 42. Phosphorus--------------------- -— _______-------------- -------------- 26 26 43. Phosphuretted hydrogen_____ :____!_____________________ 44. Picric acid____ -----------------27 27 45. Sulphur chloride______________________ 46. Sulphur dioxide---------------------------27 47. Sulphuretted hydrogen_________________________________ 27 48. Sulphuric acid---------27 49. T ar----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 50. Tetrachlorethane (acetylene tetrachloride)--------------------28 51. Trinitrotoluol-----------------------------------28 52. Turpentine_________________________ 28 Section III.—Skin irritants--------------------------------------------------------------- 29-31 S e c t io n PREFACE. The first edition of this guide to the hazards of occupations and to the symptoms of the diseases they cause1 was intended primarily to aid the 6,000 medical examiners of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in the discovery of impairments among applicants for insurance. The pamphlet soon attracted the attention of others not immediately interested in insurance medical examinations. Large numbers of industrial physicians, directors of compensation boards, factory in spectors, safety engineers, industrial rehabilitation agents, medical colleges, and, most important of all, general practitioners of medicine have made a call for this work and have expressed their approval of it. The favorable response has encouraged us to proceed with the preparation of this second and much enlarged edition. While the form of the first pamphlet has been in general maintained, we have increased the number of hazardous occupations from about 450 to 700, and have increased the groups of hazards from 4 to 9. These now include abnormalities of temperature; compressed air; damp ness; dust; extreme light; infections; poor illumination; repeated motion, pressure, shock, etc.; and the poisons. Under each of these the list of particular hazards has been extended. Besides this extension of the old material, other important additions have been made. Each main hazard is now preceded by a descriptive paragraph, which, in a general way, discusses its pathological action and touches on the preventive measures which have proved most effi cacious in reducing its effects. Other important facts regarding par ticular hazards, as, for example, the unsettled points regarding the effects of different types of dust, are discussed in these paragraphs. Obviously, in a bulletin of this size these large subjects can be only barely outlined. Those who wish to make an intensive study will find invaluable the works of the men whose names are listed below. But for others who have not the time for thorough study, yet feel the need of a general knowledge of the subject, these notes should prove instructive. A separate section of this bulletin has been given over to a discussion of skin irritants. In preparing this revision the whole literature of industrial hy giene has been carefully examined, and we believe that the larger number of the more important occupations and hazards are now in cluded. As a convenience to handling, we have reversed the order of the two lists and now present the alphabetical list of occupations first, following with the list of hazards and the diagnostic signs of disease. We hope that those physicians and others who use this work will be good enough to inform us of any errors which have crept into it and will let us have their suggestions for any occupations and hazards which we have omitted. 1 See Monthly Labor Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March, 1921, pp. 159-167. V VI PREFACE In presenting this, the second edition of the pamphlet, we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness to the members of the medical pro fession of the United States and Canada who have so courteously re ceived the first effort and who have so enthusiastically cooperated in extending its scope. Special mention should be made of the work and personal assistance of Drs. It. P. Albaugh, W. I. Clark, jr., Henry S. Forbes, Alice Hamilton, Emery It. Hayhurst, Yandell Henderson, Clarence H. Kilker, H. it. M. Landis, A. J. Lanza, Carey P. McCord, D. C. Parmeiiter, Francis D. Patterson. Marvin D. Shie, H. F. Smyth, E. B. Starr, W. Gilman Thompson, K. Prosser White, and Messrs. Leonard Greenberg and Frederick G. Lange. The detailed Work of this compilation was carried out bv Messrs. Eobert J. Vane, jr., and Paul W. Cohen, of the Statistical Bureau of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. Louis I . D u b l in . BULLETIN OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. no. 306 WASHINGTON a p r i l , 1922 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS: A GUIDE TO IMPAIR MENTS TO BE LOOKED FOR IN HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS. INTRODUCTION. Many occupations have injurious effects on the physical condition of those engaged in them. The health of those who work with the poisons, such as lead, arsenic, mercury, picric acid, etc., or those who are exposed for long periods to dust, heat, humidity, or to the infectious materials, etc., may be impaired seriously as the result of their work. The occupation is now recognized as of the very first importance as a factor in the causation of disability and even of death. Dr. Edsall has shown that in his clinic at the Massachusetts General Hospital many of the conditions for which treatment is sought by men of working ages are the effects of occupation.2 Other industrial clinics are reporting similar results. With their attention directed to occupation as a possible factor, industrial physicians are able to diagnose a great many obscure cases which previously had puzzled even the most competent clinicians. In this way they dis cover a great many more cases of disease of occupational origin than had before been thought possible. Thus, in 1917 about 150 cases of lead poisoning were discovered at the Massachusetts General Hos pital, which are more than were recorded by this clinic during the five-year period prior to the adoption of the more intensive methods of study. It is generally recognized that patients come to physicians with pains and complaints of an indefinite character, and it is only when consideration is given to the occupation and its possible effects that many of these cases are cleared up. The medical examiner should, therefore, be very careful to see if any of the usual diagnostic signs of poisoning, dust, heat, or other hazards which are known to be inherent in occupations are in evi dence among their patients where no other explanation of the case is readily available. In the case of those exposed to lead, such as employees of storage-battery plants, white-lead workers, paint mix ers, painters, etc., the blue line on the gum, the pale, sallow ap pearance, and the trembling fingers are significant as indications of chronic lead poisoning, and the physician should look for these signs. Physical symptoms and conditions which ordinarily might be passed by, in this way become very important if they point to the possible effect of the occupation. 2 See Monthly Labor Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Dec., 1917, pp. 169-185. 1 2 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. This handbook has been prepared to aid physicians in general practice, industrial hygienists, safety engineers, and others who come into close professional contact with those who are engaged in industrial processes. Nine major hazards of employment are listed; namely, abnormalities of temperature; compressed air; dampness; dust; extreme light; infections; poor illumination; repeated motion, pressure, or shock; and the poisons. A separate section of the bul letin is devoted to a discussion of skin irritants. Long exposure to any of these will usually leave definite physical signs which the medical examiner can discover if he will look for them. To aid' him in detecting the hazards and their effects on the worker, two lists are presented. The first consists of the more common haz ardous occupations, arranged alphabetically; the second consists of hazards, together with their effects or symptoms, as well as the occupations affected. After each occupation in the first list is a reference in code to the particular hazard in the second list. The capital letters after each occupation, “A,” “ B,” “ C,” etc., refer to the general hazard. The Arabic numerals signify the particular hazard, as “ Dl,” inorganic dust; “ D2,” organic dust. The following example will show how this guide may be of value to the general practitioner: A man, who works in a garage, suffering from continuous headaches, visits his physician. The latter can find no cause for the patient’s illness. The patient shows no signs of disease other than the subjective symptoms which he describes. Perhaps the physician will recommend an examination of the sub ject’s eyes, ears, and sinuses, which will prove negative. A puzzling diagnosis such as this becomes very simple when the occupation is ascertained and this guide is utilized. Alongside of “ Garage work ers ” in the “Alphabetical list of hazardous occupations,” the physi cian finds the symbols J 16, 25. “ J ” represents the hazard poisons and “ 16, 25 ” the particular poisons—carbon monoxide and gasoline, respectively. Upon looking up the symptoms of these poisons in the second list he finds that both produce headache when inhaled in small quantities. In such a case the effective remedy lies in the removal of the etiological factor—the two poisons. The following procedure is therefore recommended: The medical examiner or physician should ascertain the occupation of the appli cant. He should then look for it in the “Alphabetical list of haz ardous occupations” (p. 4). If found there, it is possible that the person has been exposed to and is possibly suffering from the effects of some hazard of his occupation. The numerals will indicate the particular hazards of the occupation. The physician should then make special effort to discover the symptoms or signs referred to in the second list. By this means he can readily determine whether the person examined is in fact suffering from the effect of his occu pation. His examination is in this way made more illuminating. Physicians, not specialists in occupational hygiene, can thus learn to detect the effects of industry and, conversely, can eliminate the occu pation as the cause when certain symptoms are observed which do not fit the usually observed effects of the occupation. Medical examiners should remember that it is often necessary to keep in mind not only the present occupation, but the former one as well. Persons suffering from certain ailments may no longer be 3 engaged in the industry which was originally responsible for their condition. But careful inquiry into their occupational history will sometimes result in the recording of an occupation the effects of which are clearly those from which the patient is suffering. The medical profession must give occupational findings greater weight in forming their judgments regarding physical conditions and in diag nosing and treating disease. It is hoped in this way that the medical profession will become more and more acquainted with occupational diseases and help in the movement to discover and eliminate cases thereof. In our coun try, it is still true that very large numbers of working people are constantly exposed to serious occupational hazards and suffer, often unnecessarily, very seriously from the effects of such exposure. The greater interest of medical practitioners will help materially in the campaign of prevention. Medical schools can aid greatly in bringing about this result by giving due weight to the subject in their 'courses of study. Already the form and content of the pamphlet have recommended it to several schools, which report its value. In the same way, plant executives and safety engineers must take cognizance of the existence of these occupational diseases and look carefully into their own establishments to see to what degree the processes in their shops are devoid of the dangers which are usually associated with industrial operations. Factory inspectors, labor officials, and workmen’s compensation boards will find it helpful in inspecting and rating numerous industries. Many hazards should be revealed which they have not known were asso ciated with the processes of manufacture and of which the employers themselves have been ignorant. The comparatively new but rapidly expanding field of industrial rehabilitation should find this bulletin an aid in selecting occupations for those with arrested cases of tuber culosis and for others weakened by disease. INTRODUCTION. 88062°— 22------2 Section I.—ALPHABETICAL LIST Acetylene makers, D 1, J 4, 16, 43. Acid dippers, C, J 10, 22, 26, 37, 48. Acid finishers (glass), J 26, 28, 48. Acid makers. S e e particular acid. Acid mixers, J 26, 37, 48. Acid recdverers, J 26, 37, 48. Acid transporters, J. 26; 37, 48. Airplane-wing varnishers, J 50. S e e a lso Varnishers. Alcohol distillery workers, J 5, 6. Aldehyde pumpmen, J 1, 30. Alkali salt makers. C, J 14, 18, 26, 46, 47. Amber workers, J 28. Ammonium salts makers, A 1, J 4, 15, 22, 26, 48. Ammonium sulphate makers, J 48. Aniline dye makers. S e e Dye makers. Aniline makers, J 7, 10, 12, 26, 34, 37. Animal hair dressers. S e e Hair work ers. Animal handlers, F 1, 3. Annealers, A 1. Antimony extractors (refiners), A 1, J 8. Antimony fluoride extractors, J 27. Antipyrin makers, J 31, 40. Arsenic roasters, A 1, J 9. Art-glass workers, J 5, 11, 27, 28, 30, 52. Artificial flower makers, H, J 9, 21, 28, 29, 30. Artificial ice makers, A 2, C, J 4. Artificial leather makers, J 7, 9, 12, 37, 48. Artificial manure makers. S e e Ferti lizer makers. Artificial silk makers, C, J 4, 5, 15, 30. 47, 50. Asbestos workers, D 1. Asphalt testers, J 15. Auto painters, C. S e e a lso Painters. Babbitters, J 28. Bakelite makers, J 39. Bakers, A 2, D 2, J 16. Balloon (toy) fillers, J 10. Barbers, H. Bar-mill workers (iron and steel), A 1. Basic slag (artificial manure) work ers, D 1. Batch makers (glass works). S e e Glass mixers. Batch makers (rubber works). S e e Compounders (rubber). Baters (tannery), C, F 1. Battery (dry) makers, D 1, J 5, 10, 12, 21, 26, 28, 29, 49. Battery (storage) makers. S e e Stor age battery makers. 4 OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS, Beamers (textile), D 2. Beamhouse workers (tannery), 0, F 1. Beatermen (paper and pulp), C, J 18. Bed rubbers (rqarble and stone), D. 1. Bench molders (foundry), D 1, J 13, 28. Benzol stillmen, A 1, J 12. Bessemer-converter workers (iron and steel), A 1. Beta still operators (beta naphthol), A 1, J 48. Bevellers, D 1. Bicyclists, H. Billet mill workers (iron and steel), A 1. Bisque-kiln workers, A 1, D 1, J 16. Blacksmiths A 1, E, H, J 14,16, 22, 28. Blast-furnace workers, A 1, J 22, 46, 47. Bleachers, A 2, C, J 17, 18, 21, 27, 37, 46. Bleachers (cloth), A 2, C. Bleachery dryers, A 2, C. Blockers (felt hat), C J 16. Blooders (tannery), J 28. Blooming-mill workers (iron and steel), A 1. Blowers (felt hat), D 2, J 29. Blowers (glass manufacturing). S e e Glass blowers. Blowers-out (zinc smelting), A 1, J 13. Bluers (revolvers), A 1. Boiler-room workers, A 1, J 14, 16. Boiler washers, C. Bone-black makers, J 4, 42. Bone Tenderers, J 3. Bone workers, D 1. Bookbinders, J 9, 28, 30. Bottle-cap makers, J 28. Brass founders, A 1, J 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 28, 42, 46. Brass polishers, J 28. Braziers, A 1, J 13, 28. Brewers, A 2, C, J 14. Brick burners, A 1, J 14, 28. Brickmakers, A 1, C, D 1, F 2, J 28, 46. Briquet makers, J 49. Bronzers, D 1, J 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 25, 28, 29, 30, 47. Broom piakers D 2, J 18, 46. Browners (gun barrels), J 22, 28, 29, 38. Brushers (felt hat), D 2, J 29. Brush makers, D 2, F 1, J 28, 30, 49. Buffers, D 1, 2, G. Buffers (rubber), J 5, 11, 28. Burners (enameling), A 1, J 28. Burnishers (iron and steel), G, J 8, 48 Burnishers (rifle barrels), J 8. ALPHABETICAL LI&T OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS. Burrers (needles), D 1. Burr filers, D 1. Butchers, A 2, F 1, 3. Button makers, D 1, 2. Cable makers, J 28. Cable splicers, C, J 16, 28, 47, 52. Caisson workers, A 2, B, C, G, J 14. Calenderers (rubber), A 2, D 1. Calico printers, A 2, C, J 7, 8, 9, 16, 18, 21, 22, 26, 28, 30, 39, 48, 52. Camphor makers, J 26, 52. Candle (colored) makers, J 9, 21. Candy makers, A 2, C. Canners, A 2, C, F 3, J 28. Cap loaders, J 29. Cappers (window glass), A 1. Carbide makers, A 1, D 1, J 16. Carbolic acid makers, J 12, 26, 46, 48. Carbon brush makers, D 1. Carbon dioxide makers, J 14. Carbon disulphide makers, J 15. Carbonizers (shoddy), D 2, J 10, 26, 48. Carborundum workers, A 1, D 1. Carders (textile), D 2. Card grinders (textile), D 1, 2. Carpenters, H. Carpet makers, D 2, F 1, J 9. Carroters (felt hats), J 9, 29, 37. Cartridge cup washers, C. Cartridge dippers, J 26, 37, 48. Cartridge felt and wad makers, C. Cartridge makers, J 28, 29. Cartridge shot shell paraffin dippers, A 2, C. Case hardeners, A 1, J 22. Casters (brass foundry). Brass founders. Casters (iron and steel), A 1. Casting cleaners (foundry), D 1. Acid dippers. Cast scrubbers (electroplaters), J 11, 12. Catchers (iron and steel), A 1. Cattle salesmen, F 1. Celluloid makers, J 1, 5, 11, 15, 16, 22, 28, 30, 37, 47, 48. Celluloid polishers, D 2. Celluloid workers, D 2. Cementers (rubber shoes), J 11, 12, 15, 30, 52. Cement mixers (rubber), J 11, 12, 15. Cement workers, A 1, D 1. Chambermen (sulphuric acid), J 46, 48. Charcoal burners, J 14, 16. Charcoal workers (sugar refining), A 2, C, D 1. Chargers (sm elting), A 1, D 1. Chargers (zinc sm elting), A 1, D 1, J 9, 13, 16, 28, 46. Chasers (steel), D 1. Chauffeurs, H, J 25. Chimney sweepers, D 1, J 16, 49. Chippers, D 1, See also See 5 Chloride of lime makers, J 17,18. Chlorine makers (electrolytic), J 18, 29. Chloroform makers, J 17. Chromium workers, J 21. Cigar makers, D 2, H. Clay and bisque makers (pottery), A 2, C, D 1. Clay-plug makers (pottery), C, D 1. Clay-products workers. Pottery workers. Clerks, H. Cloth preparers, C. Bleach ers. Coal miners. Miners. Coal-tar workers, J 7, 12, 16, 39. Cobblers, D 2, F 1, H. Coke-oven workers, A 1, J 4, 12, 16, 49. Cold-storage-plant workers, A 2. Color makers, A 1, D 1, J 8, 9, 12, 21, 28, 29. Colored-paper workers, J 9. Colorers (white) of shoes, J 28. Comb makers (celluloid), D 2. Compositors, D 1, G, H, J 7, 8, 11, 28. Compounders (rubber), D 1, J 7, 8, 9, 1 1 , 12, 21. Concentrating-mill workers (lead and zinc), C, D 1, J 28. Coners (felt hats), D 2, J 29. Qonfectioners. Candy makers. Construction camp workers, F 2. Cooks, A 2. Copper founders, J 9. Miners. Copper miners. Copper smelters, A 1, J 9, 16, 46. Cord makers, D 2, J 49. Core makers, A 1, D 1, J 13, 16. Cork workers, D 2. Cotton-mill workers, C, D 2. Cotton twisters, D 2, H. Cranemen (glass industry), A 1. Cranemen.(iron and steel), A 1. Creosoting plant workers, C. Crucible mixers, D 1. Crucible-steel department employees, A 1. Crushermen (clay and stone), D 1. Cupola men (foundries), A 1. Curers, vapor (rubber). Vulcanizers. Curriers (tannery), D 2, F 1, J 9, 11. Cut-glass workers, D 1, J 9, 28. Cutlery makers, D 1, J 5, 28. Cyanamid makers, A 1, D 1. Dancers, H. Decorators (pottery), J 9, 11, 12, 28, 52. Degreasers (fertilizer, leather), J 11, 1 2 , 25. Dentists, J 29. Detonator cleaners, J 29. Detonator fillers, J 29. Detonator packers, J 29. Devil operators (felt hats), D 2, J 29. See See See also See See See 6 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. Diamond cutters, D 1, H. Diamond polishers, J 28. Digester-house workers (paper and pulp), A 2, C. Dimethyl-sulphate makers, J 10, 28, 30, 37, 48. Dippers (guncotton), J 37. Dippers (rubber), J 11. Dippers. Acid dippers. Disinfectant makers, J 17, 18. Divers. B. Dofifers (textile), C, D 2. Dressers (glass), A 1. Dresser tenders (textile), A 2, C. Drivers. A 2, C. Drop forgers, A 1. Dry battery workers. Battery (dry) makers. Dry cleaners, A 2, J 11, 12. 15. 30, 52. Dryers (felt hats), A 2, .1 30. Dryers (rubber), J 12, 15. Drying-room workers (miscellaneous), A 2, .1 14, 16. Dye makers. A 2. C. J 1, 2, 4, 0, 7. 8, 0, 10, 12, 17. 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30. 81, 34, 39, 40, 41, 44, 46, 47, 48, 52. Dyers, A 2, O, J 4, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 39, 44. See preparatory processes. Edison storage battery workers, J 29. Electricians. E. Electric linemen, E. Electroplnters, O, J 9,11, 12, 22. 28. Electro typers, A 2, D 1, J 28 Elect roplnters. Elevator runners, H. Embroidery workers. G. J 28. Emory wheel makers, I) 1, J 28. Enarnelers. Enamel makers. Enamel makers, A 1, O. IT. .! 5, 8, 9,10, 1 1 , 15. 16. 21, 26, 28, 37, 52. Engravers, D 1, H. Steel cngra vers. Etchers. J 27. 37, 39. Explosives workers. C, J 1, 5, 7, 1.2, 29. 30, 34. 35. 37, 44, 48. 51.. pa rticula r occupa tion. Extractor operators (soap), A 2, C. Farmers. F 1, 2. Fal Tenderers, A 2, J 3. Feather curers, D 2, J 9. Feather workers, D 2, F 3, J 7, 9, 11, 12, 30, 38. 52. Felt extractors, C. Felt-hat makers, A 2, G, D 2, J 9, 16, 29, 30, 37, 48. particular occupation. Ferro-silicon workers, J 9, 10. 13. Fertilizer makers, C. T) 1, F 1, 3, J 10, 12, 1.4, 26, 27, 37, 42. 46, 47, 48. See Phosphate mill employees. Fiber workers, D 2. Filament makers ( i n c a n d e s c e n t lam ps), J 16, 30. See also See also Sec also See See also See also See also also File cutters, D 1, ,T 28. Filers, D 1, J 8, 28. Film makers. Celluloid makers. Filter press workers, C. Finishers (incandescent lamps), J 16. Finishers (leather), D 2. Finishers (shoes). Shoe finishers. Fireworks milkers, J 8, 29, 42. Explosives. Fishermen, A 2, C. Fitters (shoes), J 30. Flangers (felt hats), A 2, J 16. Flatteners (glass), A 1. Flax rettery workers, .1 47. Flax spinners, C, D 2. Flint workers, D 1. Floor molders (foundry), A 1, D 1, J 13, 28. Flour workers, D 2. Flue cleaners. D 1. J 16. 46, 49. Flush tenders (aluminum), C. Forgemen, A 1. Formers (felt hats), D 2. Foundry workers, A 1, 1) 1, J 16. particular metal. Fruit-essence makers, J 6. Fruit preservers, J 46. Fulminate mixers, J 22, 29. Fumigators, J 22, 46. Fur carders, D 2. F 1. Fur clippers, D 2, F 1. Fur cutters, D 2, F 1. Fur handlers, I) 2. F 1. J 9, 29. Furnace workers, A 1. E. .1 14, 16. Furniture polishers, J 5, 11. 25. 30, 38. 52. Fur preparers, D 2. F 1, J ». 29, 37. Fur pullers, D 2, F 1. Galvnnizcrs, C, J 3, 4. 9, TO. 13, 26, 28, 37, 46. 48. Garage workers, J 16, 25. Garbage workers, F 3. Gardeners, J 9. Gas (illuminating) workers, A 2, J 4, 12, 16, 22, 39. 47, 49. Gas purifiers, .T 4, 22, 39, 47. Gatherers (glass). A 1. Gilders, J 5, 11, 12. 25, 30. Glass blowers, A 1, D 1, E. Glass cutters. O, D 1. Glass finishers, G, D 1, ,T 26, 27, 28, 48. Glass-furnace workers, A 1. E. Glass mixers, D 1, J 8, 9, 21, 26. 28. Glass polishers, J 28. Glaze dippers (pottery), C, «T 8, 9, 21, 28. Glaze mixers (pottery), D 1, J 8, 9, 21. 28 Glost-kiln workers. A 2, .T 16. 28. Glove makers (leather preparers), C, D 2. Tannery workers. Glue workers, A 2, C, D 2, F 3. J 4, 11, 12, 15, 26, 37. 46. 47. Gold beaters, I) 1, IT. Gold refiners, D 1. J 9. 22. 28. 29. See See aJlso Sec See also See also 7 ALPHABETICAL, LIST OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS. See See Grain elevator workers, D 2. Granite workers. Stonecutters. Graphite workers, A 1, D 1. Grinders (colors). Color makers. Grinders (m etals), C, D 1, J 8, 28. Grinders (rubber), D 2, J 8, 28. Guncotton dippers, J 37, 48. Guncotton pickers, D 2. Guncotton washers, C. Guncotton wringers, J 37. Gypsum workers, D 1. Hair workers, C, D 2, F 1, 3. Hammermen, H. Hardeners (felt hats), J 29, 30. Hardeners (m etals), A 1. Harness makers, D 2. Hat makers, felt. Felt-hat mak ers. Heater boys (riveters), J 28. Heel makers (shoes), D 2 Hemp workers, D 2. Horn workers, D 1. Hothouse workers, A 2. Hot-rod rollers (iron and steel), A 1. Hydrochloric-acid makers, J 26, 48. Ice (artificial) makers. Artificialice makers. Ice-cream makers, A 2, C. Imitation-pearl makers, J 28, 37. Incandescent-lamp makers, J 5, 16, 28, 29, 30, 37. particular occu pation. Incandescent-mantle hardeners, E. Ink makers, J 21, 30. Insecticide makers, J 9, 15, 28, 42. Insulators, J 49. Iron and steel workers (all depart ments), A 1. particular oc cupation. Ironers, A 2. Japan makers, A 2, J 9, 11, 28, 30, 52. Japanners. Japan makers. Jewelers, D 1, G, H, J 5, 9, 26, 28, 29, 37, 48. Junk metal refiners, A 1, D 1, J 13, 28. Jute workers, D 2. Kiln tenders, A 1, J 16. Knitters, H. Knitting-mill workers, D 2. Labelers (paint cans), J 28. Lace makers, D 2. Lacquerers. Lacquer makers. Lacquer makers, J 5, 11, 12, 28, 30, 52. Lampblack makers, J 38, 39. Lapidaries, D 1. Lard makers, J 3. Lasters (shoes), A 2, C, D 2, J 30. Lathe turners, H. Laundry workers, A 2, C, J 16,17, 18. Layer pullers (glass), A 1. Lead burners, J 10, 28. See See See also See also See See See also Leadfoil makers, A 1, J 28. Lead miners, J 28. Miners. Lead pipe makers, J 28. Lead salts makers, J 28. Lead smelters, A 1, D 1, J 8, 9, 16, 28, 46. Leather workers, D 2, F 1. Tannery workers. Leer tenders (glass), A 1. Letter sorters, H. Levermen (iron and steel), A 1. Lifters-over (glass), A 1. Lime burners, D 1, J 10, 14, 16. Limekiln chargers, D 1, J 14, 16. Lime pullers (tannery), C, F 1. Lime workers, D 1. Linen workers, D 2. Linoleum colorers, J 9, 21. Linoleum makers, A 2, C, D 1, J 3, 5, 11, 28, 30, 48, 52. Linotypers, J 8, 28. Linseed-oil boilers, J 3, 28. Lithographers, D 1, H, J 7, 9, 11, 12, 21, 28, 37, 52. Litho-transfer workers, J 28. Locksmiths, H. Longshoremen, F 1. Lumbermen, A 2, F 2. Luters (zinc smelting), A 1, J 13. Machinists, H. Marble cutters, D 1. Marblers (glass), A 1. Masons, C, D 1, H. Match-factory workers, C, D 1, 2, J 15, 21, 28, 42, 47. Mattress makers, D 2. Meat inspectors, F I. Melters (foundary; glass), A 1. Mercerizers, J 4, 48. Mercurial-vapor-lamp makers, J 29. Mercury bronzers, J 29. Mercury miners, J 29. Miners. Mercury salts workers, J 29. Mercury smelters, A 1, J 16, 29, 46. Mercury-solder makers, J 29. Mercury-still cleaners, J 29. Metal polishers, G. Metal-polish makers, J 25. Metal turners, D 1. Metal workers. particular occu pation. Mica strippers or splitters, D 1. Mica workers, D 1. Microscopists, H. Milkers, H. Millinery workers, J 7, 11, 12, 30, 38, 52. Miners, A 2, C, D 1, F 2, G, H, J 14, 16, 87, 47. Mirror silverers, A 2, C, J 1, 28, 29. Mixers (felt hats), D 2, J 29. Mixers (rubber), A 2, D 1, J 7, 8, 9, 1 1 , 12, 21, 28. Mixing-room workers (miscellaneous), See also Seealso See D 1, 2. 8 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. Mold breakers (foundry), D 1. Molders. Bench molders, Floor inolders. Monotypers, J 8, 28. Mordanters, J 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 21, 37. Motion-pieture-film makers. See Cellu loid makers. Motorinen, A 2. Mottlers (leather), ,T 5, 30. Moving-picture-machine operators, E. Mu file tenders, A 1. Muriatic-acid makers. See Hydro chloric-acid makers. Muriatic-acid mixers. See Acid mixers. Musical-instrument makers, J 28. Musicians, II. Nickel platers, C. See also Electro platers. Nitrators, J 37, 48. Nitric-acid workers, J 28, 37, 48. Nitroglycerin makers, J 10, 28, 35, 37, 48. Oilcloth makers. See Linoleum makers. Oil extractors, J 15. Oil-tlotation-plant workers, J 38, 40, 47, 48. Oil refiners. See Petroleum reliners. Oil-well workers, J 38. Open-hearth-department workers (iron and steel), A 1. Oxy-acetylene cutters, E. Packing-house employees, A 2, C. Painters, H, J 7, 11, 12, 25, 28, 30, 52. Paint makers. C, J 7, 11, 12, 15, 28, 29, 30, 49, 52. I‘aint removers, D 1, J 28. Pair heaters (tin-plate). A 1. Paper-box makers, H. Paper glazers, J 9. Paperhangers, D 1, J 9, 21, 28. Paper makers, A 2, C. par ticular occupation. Paraffin workers, ,T 15, 38, 49. Patent-leather makers, A 2, J 5, 16, 28 30, 48, 52. Pavers, A 1. II, J 49. Pencil (colored) makers, J 7, 9, 21. Perfume makers. .1 23, 30, 34. Petroleum refiners, A 1, C, J 25, 26, 28, 38, 46. 47, 48, 49. Phenol makers. Carbolic-acid makers. Phosgene makers, J 16, 18, 41. Phosphate-mill workers, A 2, C, D 1, J 42. Fertilizer makers. Phosphor-bronze workers, J 42. Phosphorus-compounds makers, .T 42. Phosphorus - evaporating - machine op erators, A 2, O. J 48. Phosphorus extractors, J 42, 43. Phosphorus (red) makers, J 43. See See also See See also Photo-engravers, J 12. 21, 30, 37. Photographers, E, G, J 30, 44. Photographic workers, ,1 7, 12, 18, 21, 22, 29. Photograph retouchers, J 28. Picklers, C, J 10, 22, 26. 37, 48. Picric-acid makers, J 37, 39, 44, 48. Pigment makers. Color makers. Pipe fitters, J 28. liquid piped. Pi tell workers, ,T 9. Pit molders (foundry), A 1, D 1. Planer men (stone, m etal), D 1. Plasterers, C, D 1. Plaster of Paris workers, D 1. Platers. Electroplaters. Plumbers, .1 28. substance manufactured. Pneumatic-tool workers. 1) 1,'ir. Polishers, I) 1, J 5, 25, 28, 30. Polishers (furniture). Furniture polishers. Porcelain makers. Pottery. Porters, II. Pot fillers (glass), A 1. Pot lifters (iron and steel), A 1. Pot pullers (foundry), A 1. Pot-room workers (aluminum foun dry; carbide plant), A 1. Pot setters, A 1. Pottery workers, A 1, C, D 1, J 9, 14. 16, 26, 28, 46. particular oc cupation. Pouncers (felt hats), D 1, 2. Pourers (brass foundry), A 1, J 13. Preparers (tannery), C, F 1, 3. Pressers, II, J 16. Pressman (oil refilling), C. Pressmen (printers), D l. Pressroom workers (rubber), A 2, J 7, 8 , 9, 11, 12. 21. Primers (explosives), J 29. Printers, I) 1, J 7, 8, 9, 11, 28, 52. Puddlers (iron and steel), A 1, E. Pullers-out, (felt hats), C. Pulp-mill employees, 0. par ticular occupation. Putty makers, D 1. J 11, 15, 28. Putty polishers (glass), D 1, J 28. Pyrites burners. A 1, I) 1. .1 9. 46. 47. Pyroxylin makers. Guncotton. Quarryrnen, D 1, F 2. Rag workers, D 2, F 3. Reclaimers (rubber), J 7,12,15, 26, 28, 48. Red-lead workers, .T 28. Refiners (m etals), A 1, J 9, 10, 16, 28. 29. 37, 46. particular metal. Refiners (sugar). Sugar refiners. Refrigerating-plant workers, A 2, ( \ J 4. Riveters, H, J 28. Roller coverers (cotton m ills), C, 1) 2. SeeSee also See See also See See See also See also See See also See Rollers (metals), A 1. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS. Roll setters (iron and steel), A 1. Roll wrenchers (iron and steel), A 1. Roofers, A 2, J 28, 49. Roofing-paper workers, J 49. Rope makers, D 2. Roughers (iron and steel), A 1. Rubber-glove makers, J 11. Rubber-substitute makers, J 45. Rubber-tire builders, J 9, 11, 12, 21. Rubber washers, J 9, 11, 12, 21. Rubber workers, A 2, D 1, 2, J 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 21, 25, 26, 28, 39, 46, 52. particular occupation. Sagger makers, C, D 1, J 28. Sailors, A 2, H. Salt extractors (Coke-oven by-prod ucts), J 4, 48. Salt preparers, A 2, C, D 1. Sand blasters, D 1. Sand cutters, D 1. Sanders, D 1. Sanding-machine operators, D 1. Sandpaper ers (enameling and painting auto bodies, etc.), D 1, J 28. Saw filers, D 1. Saw-mill workers, D 2, F 2. Sawyers, H. Scissors sharpeners, H. Scourers, wood lasts (shoes), D 2. Scrapers (foundry), D 1. Screen tenders (pulp m ill), C. Screen workers (lead and zinc smelt ing), D 1, J 28. Sealers (incandescent lamps), J ^6. Sealing-wax makers, J 9, 52. Seamstresses, H. Sewer workers, C, J 4, 14, 47. Sewing-machine operators, H. Shale-oil workers. Petroleum refiners. Shavers (felt hats, fur, tannery), C, D 2, F 1, 3. Shaving-brush makers, D 2, F 1. Sheep-dip makers, J 9. Sheet-metal workers, J 28. Shellackers. Shellac makers. Shellac makers, J 4, 5, 11, 12, 28, 30, 52. Shell fillers, J 35, 44, 51. Shepherds, F 1. Shoddy workers, D 2, F 3, J 10, 26, 48. Shoe-factory operatives, D 2, J 5, 12, 30. particular occupation. Shoe finishers, A 2, J 4, 5, 6,11, 12, 25, 30. Shoemakers. Cobblers. Shot makers, J 8, 9, 28. Shove-in boys (glass), A 1. Sifters, D 1, 2. Silicate extractors, J 27. Silk workers, D 2, F 3. Silo workers, J 14. Silverers (mirrors). Mirror silverers. Silver melters, A 2, J 16. See also See See See also See See 9 Silver refiners, J 22. Singers (cloth), J 16. Sintering-plant workers, D 1. Sizers (felt hats), C, J 29. Skimmers (glass), A 1. Slag-machine tenders (iron and steel), A 1. Slate workers, D 1. Slip makers (pottery), C, D 1, J 28. Slushers (porcelain enameling), J 28. Smelters. particular metal. Smokeless-powder makers, J 5, 12, 15, 34, 39, 44. Smoothers (glass), C, D 1. Soap makers, ^ 2, C, F 3, J 3, 30, 34. Soda makers, C, J 4, 14, 16, 37, 47. Sodium-hydroxide makers, C. Sodium-sulphide makers, J 47. Softeners (tannery), D 2. Solderers, J 26, 28. Sole stitchers (Blake machine), J 29. Spinners (asbestos), D 1. Spinners (textiles), D 2, H. Spongers, C. Sprayers, C. Sprayers (trees), J 9, 28. Spreaders (rubber works), A 2. Stablemen, F 1. Stainers (shoes), J 28. Stamp-mill workers, C, D 1. Starch makers, D 2, J 14, 47. Starters (felt hats), C, J 29. Statuary workers, D 1: Steam fitters. pipe fitters. Stearic-acid makers, A 2, J 3. Steel engravers, G, J 28, 29, 37. Engravers. Stereotypers, A 2, J 8, 28. Stiffeners (felt hats), J 29, 30. Still (coal-tar) cleaners, A 1, J 12, 49. Stillmen (carbolic acid), A 1, J 39. Stillmen, operating, A 1. Stitchers (shoes), J 30. Stokers, A 1, E, J 16. Stonecutters (dry), D 1, H. Stonecutters (wet process), C. D 1, H. Storage-battery makers, J 28, 29, 46, 48. Straw-hat makers, A 2, D 2. Submarine (storage-battery) workers, J 10. Sugar refiners, A 2, C, D 1, J 4, 14, 46, 47. Sulphite cooks (pulp m ill), A 2, C, J 46. Sulphur burners, A 1, D 1, J 9, 46. Sulphur-chloride makers, J 18, 26. Sulphurers (hops and m alt), J 46. Sulphur extractors, J 15. Sulphuric-acid workers, J 9, 10, 28, 37, 46, 48. Sumackers (tannery), C, F 1. Surgical-dressing makers, J 39. Table hands (tannery), C, F 1. Table operators (iron and steel), A 1. See See also See 10 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS, Table turners (enam eling), A 2r D 1, J 28. Tailors, H. Takers-down (glass), A 1. Tallow refiners, F 3, J 3, 15, 48. Tank men, C. Tannery workers, C, F 1, 3, J 7, 9, 11, 17, 21, 22, 28, 46, 47, 48. Tapers (airplanes) J 50. Tappers ( sm elting), A 1. Tar workers, J 49. Taxidermists, D 2, F 1, J 9, 29. Teazers (glass), A 1, J 16. Telegraphers, H. Telephone linemen (trench work), C. Temperers, A 1, C, J 16, 22, 28, 38, 48. Textile-comb makers, D 1. Textile printers. Calico printers. Textile workers, A 2, C, D 2. particular occupation. Thermometer makers, J 29. Thread glazers, A 2, C. Tile makers, A 2, C, D 1, J 28. Tin-foil makers, A 1, J 28. Tinners, A 1, C, J 3, 4, 9, 10, 2a 28. Tin-plate mill workers. Iron and steel workers. Tire builders. Rubber-tire makers. Tobacco moisteners, C. Tobacco rollers, D 2. Tobacco workers, D 2. Tongsmen (iron and steel), A 1. Tool makers, 1. Top fillers (foundry), A 1, D 1. Towermen (sulphuric acid), J 10, 37, 46, 48. Toy makers, J 5, 9, 28. Transfer workers (pottery), J 28, 52. Transporters of hides and wool, F 1. Treaders (rubber), J 12. Tree sprayers. Sprayers (trees). Trench diggers, F 2. Tubemakers (glass), A 1. Tubulators (incandescent lam ps), J 16. Tumbling barrel workers, D 1. Tunnel workers, B, F 2, G. Turners-out (glass), A 1. Turpentine extractors, C, J 52. Type cleaners, J 11, 30. Type founders, J 28. Typesetters, J 28. Typists, H. See See D See See algo See Upholsterers, D 2, J 30. Vapor curers. Vulcanizers. Varnish boilers, J 3. Varnish makers, A 2, J 1, 3, 4, 11, 12, 30, 52. Vatmen, C. Velvet makers, C, J 9. Veterinarians, F 1, 8. Vignetters, J 26. Vinegar workers, J 1. Vinters, J 14. Vulcanizers, A 2, C, J 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 21, 30, 45. Vulcanizers (steam) A 2, C. See Wallpaper printers, A 2, C, J 9, 21, 28. Warming-house employees (guncot ton), A 2. Washers, C. Washers (rubber), C. Washwomen, C, H. Watchmakers, G, H. Water gilders, J 29. Waterproof-cloth makers, J 25. Weavers, D 2, H. Weighers, D 1, 2. Welders, A 1, E, J 13, 28. White-lead workers, J 14, 28. Wire drawers, J 9, 48. Wirers (incandescent lam ps), J 5. Wood-alcohol distillers, J 30. Wood-last scourers (shoes), D 2. Wood preservers, J 9, 39, 49. Wood Stainers, J 21, 28. Woodworkers, D 2, J 25, 30. Wool carders, D 2, F 1. Wool scourers, A 2, C. Wool spinners, D 2, F 1. Wool workers, D 2, F 1. par ticular occupation. Wringers (guncotton), J 37. See also X-ray workers, E. Yeast makers, J 14. Zinc-chloride makers, J 10, 18, 26. Zinc-electrode makers, J 29. Zinc miners, J 9. Miners. Zinc smelters, A 1, J 13, 16, 28, 46. See also Section II.— LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, OCCUPATIONS EXPOSED, AND PREVENTION. A. ABNORM ALITIES OE TEM PERATUR E. The primary physiological effect of abnormal temperatures is the disturbance of the heat-regulating system of the body. Heat dilates the blood vessels on the surface of the body, increasing the supply of blood in this region. Cold, on the other hand, constricts the blood vessels, causing a diminished blood supply on the body surface. Continuous abrupt changes from one extreme of temperature to another may cause serious congestion of the internal organs, the heat-regulating system of the body not being capable of adapting itself to sudden variations. It is in this way that a cold draft, which causes a sudden variation of the temperature, may produce neu ralgia, paralysis, and respiratory diseases. Extremes of tempera ture may produce pathological changes by direct action. Thus, ex treme dry heat will cause conjunctivitis, cataract, and the familiar sunburn. Extreme cold may cause frostbite and eczema. With the above data in mind, abnormalities of temperature have been clas sified under only two headings; namely, “ Sudden variations of tem perature” and “ Extreme dry heat.” Extreme cold has not been listed as a distinct hazard, because a temperature so low as to cause the direct effects mentioned above is rarely met in industry. It is evident that the occupations listed in the division “ Extreme dry heat” are exposed, not only to the danger of the direct action of the high temperatures but also to the hazard “ Sudden variations of temperature.” The prevention of disease due to exposure to extremes of tem perature consists, obviously, in the avoidance of sudden variations of temperature. Drafts are particularly hazardous, and may be practically eliminated by the use of vestibule and storm doors. Workers m cold processes should keep active and avoid chill. The hot-process worker should allow his body to cool off gradually after completion of the day’s work. He should carefully regulate his diet, drinking plenty of water and avoiding meats. As direct pre ventive measures for the effects of extreme heat, it is advisable to make use of shields, helmets, goggles, water-cooled furnace doors, exhaust systems, cold air, fans, etc. 88062°— 22- 11 12 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. A. Abnormalities of Temperature. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 1. Extreme dry heat. Anemia, general debil Ammonium salts makers; annealers; antimony extractors ity, catarrh, stiff (refiners); arsenic roasters; bar-mill workers (iron and joints, cramps, lum steel); benzol-stillmen: Bessemer-converter workers (iron bago, Bright’s dis and steel); beta-still operators (beta naphthol); billet-mill ease, skin eruptions, workers (iron and steel); bisque-kiln workers; black premature old age, smiths; blast-furnace workers; blooming-mill workers cataracts, retinitis, (iron and steel); blowers-out (zinc smelting); bluers (re volvers); boiler-room workers: brass founders; braziers; conjunctivitis. brick burners; brick makers; burners (enameling); cap pers (window glass); carbide makers; carborundum makers; case hardeners; casters (iron and steel); catchers (iron and steel); cement workers; chargers (smelting); chargers (zinc smelting); coke-oven workers; color makers; copper smelters; core makers; cranemen (glassindustry); cranemen (iron and steel); crucible-steel-department employees; cupola men (foundries); cyanamid makers; dressers (glass); drop forgers; enamelers; flat tened (glass); floor molders (foundry); forgemen; foundry workers; furnace workers; gatherers (glass); glass blowers; glass-furnace workers; graphite work ers; hardeners (metals); hot-rod rollers (iron and steel); iron and steel workers (all departments); junk (metal) refiners; kiln tenders; layer pullers (glass); leadfoil makers; lead smelters; leer tenders (glass); levermen (iron and steel) ;lifters-over (glass) ;luters (zinc smelting); marblers (glass); melters (foundry; glass); mercury smelters; muffle tenders; open-hearth-department work ers (iron and steel); pair heaters (tin plate);pavers; petro leum refiners; pit molders (foundry); pot fillers (glass); potlifters (iron and steel);pot pullers (foundry);pot-room workers (aluminum foundry; carbide plant); pot setters; pottery workers; pourers (foundry); puddlers (iron and steel); pyrites burners; refiners (metals); rollers (metals); rollsetters (iron and steel);roll wrenehers (iron and steel); roughers (iron and steel);shove-in boys (glass); skimmers (glass); slag-machine tenders (iron and steel); still (coal-tar) cleaners; stillmen (carbolic acid); stillmen operating; stokers; sulphur burners; table operators (iron and steel); takers-down (glass); tappers (smelting); teazers (glass); temperers; tin-foil makers; tinners; tongsmen (iron ana steel); topfillers (foundry); tube makers (glass); turners-out (glass); welders; zinc smelters. 2. Sudden variations Congestion of internal Artificial-ice makers; bakers; bleachers; brewers; butchers;, of temperature. organs, catarrh, neu caisson workers; calenderers (rubber); calico printers; ralgic and rheumat candy makers; canners; cartridge shot shell paraffin dip ic affections, gastro pers; charcoal workers (sugar refining); clay and bisque intestinal and vesi makers (pottery); cold-storage-plant workers; cooks; cal catarrh, pneu digester-house workers (paper and pulp); dresser tenders monia, Bright’s dis (textile); drivers; dry cleaners; dryers (felt hats); dryingease. room workers (miscellaneous); dye makers; dyers; electro typers; extractor operators (soap); fat Tenderers; felt-hat makers; fishermen; flangers(feltnats); gas (illuminating) workers; glost-kiln workers; glue workers; hothouse work ers; ice cream makers;- ironers, japan makers; lasters (shoes); laundry workers; linoleum makers; lumbermen; miners; mirror silverers; mixers (rubber); motormen; packing-house employees; paper makers; patent-leather makers, phosphate-mill workers; phosphorus-evaporating machine operators; press-room workers (rubber); refrig erating-plant workers; roofers; rubber workers; sailors; salt preparers; shoe finishers; silver melters; soap makers; spreaders (rubber works); stearic-acid makers; stereo typers; straw-hat makers; sugar refiners; sulphite cooks (pulp mill); table turners (enameling); textile workers; thread glazers; tile makers; varnish makers; vulcanizers; wall paper printers; warming-house employees (guncot ton); wool scourers. See also occupations exposed to extreme dry heat. B . COM PRESSED A IR . In building tunnels, laying deep foundations for large buildings, etc., it is necessary for the work to be carried on under increased air pressure in order to prevent the entrance of water into the excava tions. The laborer is lowered gradually and at short intervals the LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION. 13 pressure of the air in the compartment is increased. The first sen sation of compression is felt on the eardrums, which may be relieved by the act of swallowing. If the air is too quickly compressed hemorrhage may occur. The greater part of the danger of working in compressed air lies in hasty decompression. While under com pression the blood and tissue juices dissolve an increased amount of ^ir, the gases of which are released when the pressure is suddenly decreased. The bubbles thus formed cut off the blood supply from various parts of the body by blocking up the capillaries. The symp toms of compressed air illness, the so-called “ bends,” are the result. Workers in compressed air must follow strictly the rules governing gradual compression and decompression, especially the latter. It is not advisable for boys and for men over 40 years of age to work under high pressure. B. Compressed Air. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. Compressed air......... Weakness, vertigo, pains in the back and legs, paraly Caisson workers; divers; tun sis of legs and arms, painful constriction of the nel workers. chest, cerebral hemorrhage and aphasia, coma, sub cutaneous hemorrhages, impairment of hearing. C. DAMPNESS. The moisture content of the air is very important for the proper adjustment of the physiologic processes of the body. Damp air will prevent the evaporation of moisture from the body and will there fore affect the body temperature. High humidity tends to increase the effects of high temperature. Moist cold air has the effect of un dermining the general vitality of the organism, weakening its re sistance to diseases of the respiratory passages, and to neuralgic and rheumatic affections. The same effects are noticed among workers around open tanks and vats, who are continuously working in wet clothes. Excessive dampness suggests dry air as a hazard. The lat ter causes chapped skin and catarrhal conditions. It has not been listed among the hazards because it is not characteristic of any one occupation but is prevalent generally, especially during the winter months. When dampness is a feature of an industrial process the following precautions should be taken to avoid ill effects: (1) Provision of exhaust systems wherever steam is generated. (2) Provision of floors with drain channels to prevent the accu mulation of water. (3) Provision of adequate waterproof clothing, such as rubber boots, rubberized aprons, etc. Wherever there is dampness special measures should be taken to keep the humidity at its proper percentage. In this connection the wet-bulb thermometer is invaluable in determining the degree of moisture in the air. By circulating the air the effects of high humid ity may be mitigated. 14 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. C. Dampness. Health hazard. Dampness. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. Diseases of the respira Acid dippers; alkali-salt makers; artificial-ice makers; artitory passages, neu tificial-silk makers; auto painters; haters (tannery); beamralgic and rheu house workers (tanners); beatermen (paper and pulp); bleachers; bleachery dryers; blockers (felt hats); ooiler matic affections. washers; brewers; brickmakers; cable splicers; caisson workers; calico printers; candy makers;canners;cartridgecup washers; cartridge felt and wadmakers; cartridge shot shell paraffin dippers; charcoal workers (sugar refining); clay and bisque makers (pottery); clay-plug makers (pot tery); cloth preparers; concentrating-mill workers (lead and zinc); cotton-mill workers; creosoting-plant workers; digester-house workers (paper and pulp); doffers (textile); dresser tenders (textile); drivers; dye makers; dyers; electroplaters; enamelers; explosives workers; extractor operators (soap); felt extractors; felt-hat makers; fertilizer makers; filter-press workers; fishermen; flax spinners; flush tenders (aluminum); galvanizers; glass cutters; glass finishers; glaze dippers (pottery); glove makers (leather preparers); glue workers; grinders (metals); gun cotton washers; hair workers; ice-cream makers; lasters (shoes);laundry workers;lime pullers (tannery);linoleum makers; masons; match-factory workers; miners; mirror silverers; nickel platers; packing-house employees; paint makers; paper makers; petroleum refiners; phosphatemiUworkers;phosphorus-evaporating-machineoperators; picklers; plasterers; pottery workers; preparers (tannery); pressmen (oilrefining); pullers-out (felt hats); pulp-mill employees; refrigerating-plant workers; roller coverers (cotton mills); sagger makers; salt preparers; screen tend ers (pulp mill);sewer workers; shavers (felt hats, fur, tan nery); sizers (felt hats); slip makers (pottery); smoothers (glass); soap makers; soda makers; sodium-hydroxide makers; spongers; stamp-mill workers; starters (felt hats); stonecutters (wet process); sugar refiners; sulphite cooks (pulp mill); sumackers (tannery); table hands (tannery); tank men; tannery workers; telephone linemen (trench work); temperers; textile workers; thread glazers; tile makers; tinners; tobacco moisteners; turpentine extract ors; vatmen; velvet makers; vulcanizers (steam); wall paper printers; washers; washers (rubber); wool scourers. D. DUST. Dusts have here been divided into two kind's, according to their chemical composition, namely, organic and inorganic. The dif ference in symptoms listed under each is based on the findings of recent investigators that *organic dusts do not cause pulmonary lesions. Dr. H. K M. Landis1*has found that wherever fibrosis was >. present in the lungs of men exposed to organic dust, the latter was always mixed with some form of mineral or metallic dust. Tobacco workers exposed to organic dust for years showed no pulmonary changes other than those found in people living in the city. Mineral and metallic dusts, however, produce fibrosis of the lung tissue, the extent of which depends on the time of exposure and the particular dust inhaled. Of the inorganic dusts, silica is the most harmful, producing serious pulmonary damage in a comparatively short pe riod of time, while the least harmful are those which produce slight changes and then only after long exposure, for example, lime, coal, etc. The relationship between occupational dust and tuberculosis is rather a doubtful one. Authorities disagree as to the effect of fibrosis on the resisting power to the tubercle bacillus. Dust, by acting as a carrier of the bacilli, may increase, their number in the 1 See article on “ The Pathological and Clinical Manifestations ^Following the Inhalation of Dust/7in The Journal of Industrial Hygiene, July, 1919, pp. 117-139. LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION. 15 lungs. In this way, men exposed to dust may be in greater danger of contracting tuberculosis than others. Dr. H. R. M. Landis claims, however, that in the trades exposed to inorganic dust, mistaken diagnosis of pneumoconiosis swells the mortality statistics for tuber culosis. As a means of avoiding incorrect diagnosis of pneumoco niosis, Roentgen ray examinations of the lungs and sputum analyses are invaluable. There are four effective methods that may be used to prevent the inhalation of dust generated during industrial processes. No one of these can apply to all conditions, but the particular method to be used must be adapted to the peculiarities of the process. (1) The use of water to dampen the dust and thus prevent it from rising and filling the atmosphere. (2) The use of exhaust systems which remove the dust at the point of origin. (3) The use of enclosing chambers in which the dust-producing processes are confined, being regulated from the outside. (4) The use of respirators and helmets. In many cases it may be necessary to combine several of these measures effectively to prevent the inhalation of dust by the worker. D. Dust. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 1. Inorganic dust— Cough, dyspnea, pleu Acetylene makers; asbestos workers; basic slag (artificial ritic pains, hemopty . manure) workers; battery (dry) makers; bed rubbers sis, clubbed fingers, (marble and stone); bench molders (foundry); bevellers; marked flatness of bisque-kiln workers; bone workers; brickmakers; bronzers; chest, deficient ex buffers; burrers (needles); burr filers; button makers; pansion (unilateral), calenderers (rubber); carbide makers; carbon-brush dullness, diminished makers; carborundum workers; card grinders (textiles); resonance, mucous casting cleaners (foundry); cement workers; charcoal rales, fibrosis, in workers (sugar refining); chargers (smelting); chargers flammatory condi (zinc smelting); chasers (steel); chimney sweepers; tion of eyes, ears, chippers; clay and bisque makers (pottery); clay-plug nose and throat; makers (pottery); color makers; compositors; compound colds,chronic catarrh ers (rubber); concentrating-mill workers (lead and of respiratory tract, zinc); core makers; crucible mixers; crushermen (clay chronic catarrh of and stone); cut-glass workers; cutlery makers; cyanamia digestive tract, pleu makers; diamond cutters; electrotypers; emery-wheel makers; engravers; fertilizer makers; file cutters; filers; risy, tuberculosis. flint workers; floor molders (foundry); 'flue cleaners; foundry workers; glass blowers; glass cutters; glass finishers; glass mixers; glaze mixers (pottery); gold beaters; gold refiners; graphite workers; grinders (metals); gypsum workers; horn workers; jewelers; junk (metal) refiners; lapidaries; lead smelters; lime burners; lime kiln chargers; lime workers; linoleum makers; litho graphers; marble cutters; masons; match-factory workers; metal turners; mica strippers or splitters; mica workers; miners; miters (rubber); mixing-room workers (mis cellaneous); mold breakers (foundry); paint removers; paperhangers; phosphate-mill workers; pit molders (foundry); planer men (stone, metal); plasterers; plaster of Paris workers; pneumatic-tool workers; polishers; pottery workers; pouncers (felt hats); pressmen (printers); printers; putty makers; putty polishers (glass); pyrites burners; quarrymen; rubber workers; sagger makers; salt preparers; sand blasters; sand cutters; sanders: sanding machine operators; sandpaperers (enameling and painting auto bodies,etc.); saw filers; scrapers (foundry); screen workers (lead and zinc smelting); sifters; sinteringplant workers; slate workers; slip makers (pottery); smoothers (glass); spinners (asbestos); stamp-mill workers; statuary workers; stone cutters (dry); stone cutters (wet process); sugar refiners; sulphur burners; table turners (enameling); textile-comb makers; tile makers; tool makers; top fillers (foundry); tumblingbarrel workers; weighers. 16 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. D. Dust—Concluded. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 2. Organic dust........ Dryness of nose, throat Bakers; beamers (textiles); blowers (felt hats); broom and mouth, cough, makers; brushers (felt hats),\ brush makers; buffers; anaphylaxis,asthma, button makers; carbonizers (shoddy); carders (textiles); bronchitis, emphy card grinders (textiles); carpet makers; celluloid polishers', celluloid workers; cigar makers; cobblers; comb makers sema, tuberculosis. (celluloid); coners (felt hats); cork workers; cotton-mill workers; cotton twisters; curriers (tannery); devil oper ators (felt hats); doffers (textiles); feather curers; feather workers; felt-hat makers; fiber workers; finishers (leather); flax spinners; flour workers; formers (felt hats); fur carders; fur clippers; fur cutters; fur handlers; fur pre parers; fur pullers; glove makers (leather preparers); glue workers; grain-elevator workers; grinders (rubber); gun cotton pickers; hair workers; harness makers; heel makers (shoe); hemp workers; jute workers; knitting-mill work ers; lace makers; lasters (shoes); leather workers; linen workers; match-factory workers; mattress makers; mixers (felt hats); mixing-room workers (miscellaneous); pouncers (felt hats); rag workers; roller coverers (cotton mills); ropemakers; rubber workers; sawmill workers; scourers, wood lasts (shoes); shavers (felt hats, furs, tannery);’ shaving-brush makers; shoddy workers; shoe-factory operatives; sifters; silk workers; softeners (tannery); spinners (textiles); starch makers; straw-hat makers; taxidermists; textile workers; tobacco rollers; tobacco workers; upholsterers; weavers; weighers; wood-last scourers (shoes); wood workers; wool carders; wool spin ners; wool workers. E. EXTREME LIGHT. Intense light is usually a product of a process associated with heat. Among the different kinds of light included under this heading are the arc light, furnace glare, glowing metal or glass, and X-ray. Poor illumination as a hazard is treated under “ G. Poor illumination.” Continuous exposure to strong light is not only irritating to the con junctiva, but may also cause a degeneration of the retina and decom position of the visual purple. Repeated electric flashes of brilliant light have caused severe ophthalmia, retinitis, and even blindness. Glass blowers and steel puddlers, who have to look at a glowing molten mass, are apt to develop cataracts. It seems that the invisible ultra-violet rays and infra-red rays are responsible. The introduc tion of X-rays into the medical field has brought to light the highly dangerous character of the radiographer’s work. Severe dermatitis and cancer may ensue after exposure to X-rays. The following protective devices prove effective in preventing the injurious action of extreme light: (1) Shields. (2) Helmets. (3) Goggles which eliminate the ultra-violet and infra-red rays. (4) Clothing which covers the skin completely. (5) X-ray apparatus should be inclosed as completely as possible with lead plates. LIST OF HAZARDS, BTC., AND PREVENTION. 17 E. Extreme Light. Health hazard. Extreme light... Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. Cataracts, retinitis, conj unctivitis, dermati-* tis, ulceration and exfoliation of the skin, electrical oph thalmia, cancer. Blacksmiths; electricians; electric linemen; furnace work ers; glass blowers; glass-furnace workers; incandescentmantle hardeners; moving-picturj machine operators; oxyacetylene cutters; photographers; puddlers (iron and steel); stokers; welders; X-ray workers. F. INFECTIONS. There are many infectious diseases, such as tetanus, trachoma, and syphilis, which are often of occupational origin. They are not, how ever, specifically occupational; that is, they do not arise from a con dition caused by an industrial process. The conditions which cause these diseases in industry are identical with "those which cause them out of industry. The above-mentioned diseases have not therefore been included in this list of occupational infections. Those diseases which have been included arise primarily in occupational exposure. There are a number of other diseases which occur in occupations, but these are of such little numerical importance that they also have not been included. Besides the general rules of sanitation, the following measures are recommended: (1) A nthrax .—All hides and animal hair must be thoroughly sterilized. Foreign skins or hair should not be carried on the un protected shoulder. The hands should be frequently washed with bichloride of mercury. Hair sorters should wear respirators. (2) H ookworm ,.—Workers in mines and others who are exposed to infected soil should make special effort to keep the skin clean. Shoes must always be worn and gloves are also of value in prevent ing the entrance of the hookworm through the skin. Infected soil should be disinfected and kept dry. The stools of infected individ uals must be disinfected immediately. (3) Septic infections .—Workers should avoid puncturing the skin. Cuts, scratches, or abrasions should be treated at once to avoid in fection. Men having open wounds should not be allowed to work with putrid material. 18 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. F , Infections. Health hazard. 1. Anthrax: External. Internal. Symptom, condition, or dis ease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 1. Malignant pustule .—Begins as inflamed pimple or boil. Papule becomes nard, with a purple center and deep red zone ofinfiltration surround ing. appearance of minute vesicular areola. Central papule becomes vesicular, discharges thick, bloody serum, later forming a brown gangrene., A painful lym phangitis with nard edema extending over neck and arm. Local phlebitis in the edema tous area,chilliness, anorexia, vomiting, prostration, high temperature, feeble pulse. 2. Malignant edema.—Aspread ing inflammation of loose connective tissue accompa nied by sloughing and gan grene. Constitutional symp toms those of premia. High fever, pains in head and back, vomiting, constipation, pain and tenderness in the abdomen, rapid, feeble pulse, palpable spleen, dyspnea, cyanosis. May be hemor rhage from bowels. When Animal handlers ;baters(tannery) ;beamhouse work ers (tannery); brush makers; butchers; carpet makers; cattle salesmen; cobblers; curriers; farm ers; fertilizer makers; fur carders; fur clippers; fur cutters; fur handlers; fur preparers; fur pull ers; hair (workers; leather workers; lime pullers (tannery); longshoremen; meat inspectors; pre parers (tannery);shavers (felt hats, fur, tannery); shaving brush makers; shepherds; stablemen; sumackers (tannery); table hands (tannery); tan nery workers; taxidermists; transporters of hides and wool; veterinarians; wool carders; wool spin ners; wool workers. pain in the chest, suffocation. 2. Hookworm (anky Anemia, pallor of the face even lostomiasis). when the blood count is not very low; a dull, heavy, listless expression, manner, speech, and gait; increasing muscular weakness; occur rence of parasites in stool. Victims often complain of gastrointestinal pains and cramp s;in exaggerated cases there areedema, ascites, pro gressive emaciation, protu berant abdomen, andmcreasing stupor. 3. Septic infections.. Skin infections such as boils, carbuncles, blood poisoning, localized lymphangitis or cellulitis. 6. Brick makers; construction camp workers; farmers; lumbermen; miners; quarrymen; sawmill work ers; trench diggers; tunnel workers; workers who come in contact with infected soil, especially prevalent in gold mines of California. Animal handlers; butchers; canners; feather work ers; fertilizer makers; garbage workers; glue mak ers; hair workers; preparers (tannery); rag work ers; shavers (felt hats, fur, tannery);shoddy mak ers; silk workers; soap makers; tallow refiners; tannery workers; veterinarians; handlers of putrid or decomposing animal products. POOR ILLBIOHATION. The effects of poor illumination are not easily apparent. The hazard may be present in any plant, but is especially prevalent in a limited number of occupations because of the peculiar conditions that make it difficult properly to illuminate the workroom. Miner’s nystagmus is the outstanding example of the effects of this hazard. Poor illumination is not only the cause of the conditions listed below but is also an important factor in the causation of accidents. Artificial light is least harmful to the worker when it comes from overhead, reflected from the ceiling by inverted bowl-shaped re flectors. Light-colored walls and ceilings aid materially in properly illuminating a room. Special precaution must be taken to avoid glare. All lights should be shaded so that only diffused light reaches the eye. LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION. Ch Poor Illumination. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. 19 Occupations which offer such exposure* Poor illumination... Nystagmus, eyestrain, defi Buffers; burnishers (iron and steel); caisson work cient vision due to astigma ers; compositors; embroidery workers; jewelers; tism or hyperopia, headache, metal polishers; miners; photographers; steel en giddiness. Eyestrain con gravers; tunnel workers; watchmakers; any fac tributes to neurasthenia. tory worker. H. REPEATED MOTION, PRESSURE, SHOCK. ETC. Under this heading are included those muscle-strain conditions which are caused by the continuous repetition of movements, pres sure, or blows. This section is not concerned with the neurasthenic phenomena which are sometimes called occupational neurosis. Everyone is familiar with the muscular strain experienced in per forming for the first time some exercise, such as rowing, long walk ing, etc. Men newly introduced into a process requiring such re peated action are affected similarly but often much more severely, so as to disable them temporarily for the particular job. The in jury does not stop with muscular strain but may even cause in flammation of the surrounding sheaths or paralysis of the parts concerned. Many types of occupational neurosis may be avoided by working at a comfortable pace, avoiding fatigue. Where continuous pressure or shock is the cause, pads or cushions are often beneficial. Workers who have to grasp tools tightly would do well frequently to change their method of holding the instrument, if this is possible. Occa sional rest periods will do much towards the prevention of muscular pains and cramps. H. Repeated Motion, Pressure, Shock, Etc. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. Repeated motion, Pain of muscle used, Artificial-flower makers; barbers; bicyclists; blacksmiths; pressure, shock, set up by a myosti- carpenters; chauffeurs; clerks; cobblers; compositors; cot tis, bursitis, synovi ton twisters; dancers; diamond cutters; elevator runners; etc. tis, or other local enamelers; engravers; gold beaters; hammermen; jewelers; changes of a chronic knitters; lathe turners; letter sorters; lithographers;lock inflammatory na smiths; machinists; masons; microscopists; milkers; min ture; trembling, ers; musicians; painters; paper box makers; pavers; gradual emaciation pneumatic tool workers; porters; pressers; riveters; sailers; and partial paralysis sawyers; scissors sharpeners; seamstresses; sewing ma of parts, acropares chine operators; spinners (textiles); stone cutters (dry); thesia. stone cutters (wet process); tailors; telegraphers; typists; washwomen; watchmakers; weavers. J. POISONS. The continued introduction of new processes making use of new poisonous substances in industry makes this section of more and more importance. The enormous increase in the production of dye stuffs and other chemicals will no doubt show its effects on the workmen in the form of industrial poisoning. During the war the increased production of trinitrotoluol and tetrachlorethane for air 20 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. plane dope resulted in a large number of cases of poisoning from these substances. Forthe data presented under this heading, the revised “ List pf industrial poisons,” compiled by Sommerfeld and Fischer for the International Association for Labor Legislation, has been drawn upon largely. The arrangement is similar.3 The mate rial in that list has been revised and brought up to date. Several poisons have been added and all the occupations exposed are given for each poison. The symptoms are those given by recent investi gators. In order to avoid swelling the list of poisons to unwar ranted proportions, substances the effects of which are similar have been grouped. Thus, all nitro compounds of benzol and its homologues have been included under one heading and the same pro cedure has been followed with amido compounds. An endeavor has been made to limit this list to those substances the actions of which are mainly constitutional. The next section (p. 29) is devoted to the substances occurring in industry which act as skin irritants. Because of the very large number of substances in the latter class, it has not been possible to treat them as fully as the other poisons. To prevent industrial poisoning the following precautions should be taken: Personal cleanliness must be maintained, iWorkers must be instructed as to the toxicity of the substance handled. Frequent medical examinations of workers must be made to detect early symp toms of disease. Men should not be allowed to eat in workrooms where poisonous substances are handled. Work clothes should be removed at end of day’s work. Proper lavatory facilities should be provided. Work clothes should receive special attention. The use of gloves and boots are often necessary. Mechanical devices for confining the poisons are of prime importance. (See also preventive measures, under “ Dust.”) Fumes and gases should be taken care of by proper ventilation, the use of exhaust systems, fans, and blowers. Men who work in an atmosphere polluted by poisonous fumes and gases should always wear gas masts properly suited for the obtaining conditions. J. Poisons. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. l. Acetaldehyde___ Irritation of the mu Aldehyde pump men; celluloid makers; dye makers; ex cous membranes of plosives workers; mirror silverers; varnish makers; vine the nose, larynx, gar workers. bronchi, and eyes; acceleration of the heart's action; pro fuse night sweats. 2. Acridine................ Irritation and inflam Dye makers. mation of skin and mucous membranes, severe burning and itching of the skin, violent sneezing. 3. Acrolein............... Itching in the throat, Bone Tenderers; fat Tenderers; galvanizers; lard makers; irritation oftheeyes, linoleum makers; linseed oil boilers; soap makers; exciting lachryma- stearic-acid Makers; tallow refiners; tinkers; vanish tion, conjunctivitis, boilers. irritation of the air passages, bronchial catarrh•See United States Bureau of Labor, Bulletin No. 100, May* 1912. LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION, 21 J. Poisons—Continued. Health hazard. 4. Ammonia 5. Amyl acetate. 6. Amyl alcohol. 7. Aniline and other amino com pounds of ben zol and its homologues. 8. Antimony and its compounds. 9. Arsenic and its compounds. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. A cu te inflammation of the respiratory or gans, cough, edema of the lungs, chronic bronchial catarrh, redness of the eyes, increased secretion of saliva, retention of the urine. Nervous symptoms, headache, fullness of the head, giddiness, numbness, nausea, disturbances of di gestion, palpitation of the heart, inflam mation of tne respi ratory organs, fatty degeneration of the liver. Congestion of the head, oppression of the cnest, irritation of the air passages, lowering of the blood pressure, faint ness, nausea. Pallor of the skin, ver tigo, unsteady gait, loss of appetite, in creased frequency of respiration, anemia, slowing of the pulse, eczematous erup tions, bloody urine, spasmodic muscular pains, cyanosis. Itching eruptions of the skin; inflamma tion of the mouth, throat, and stomach; albumin in the urine, weakness of the heart, vertigo, faintness, coryza, dyspepsia, intesti nal colic, nephritis. Headache, melancho lia, sleeplessness, gastric disturbances, emaciation, catarrh of the mucous mem branes, skin dis eases of various forms, falling out of the hair and nails, melanosis, perfora tions of the nasal septum, bleeding gums, peripheral multiple neuritis, paralysis. Acetylene makers; ammonium-salts makers; artificial-ice makers; artificial-silk makers; boneblack makers; bronzers; coke-oven workers; dye makers; dyers; galvanizers; gas (illuminating) workers; gas purifiers; glue workers; mercerizers- refrigerating-plant workers; salt extractors (coke-oven by-products); sewer workers; shellac makers; shoe finishers; soda makers; sugar refiners; tinners; var nish makers. Alcohol-distillery workers; art-glass workers; artificial-silk makers; battery (dry) makers; bronzers; buffers (rubber); celluloid makers; cutlery makers; enamelers; explosives workers; furniture polishers; gilders; incandescent-lamp makers; jewelers; lacquer makers; linoleum makers; mottlers (leather); patent-leather makers; polishers;shel lac makers; shoe factory workers; shoe finishers; smoke less-powder makers; toy makers; wirers (incandescent lamps). 10. Arseniureted hy General malaise, diffi culty of breathing, drogen. fainting fits, gastric disturbance, jaun dice, bluish discolor ation of the mucous membrane, pain in the region of the spleen and kidney, darkened urine, fe tor of the mouth re sembling garlic. Alcohol-distillery workers; dye makers; fruit-essence makers; mordanters; shoe finishers. Aniline makers; artificial-leather makers; calico printers; coal-tar workers; compositors; compounders (rubber); dye makers; explosive workers; feather workers; litho graphers; millinery workers; mixers (rubber); painters; paint makers; pencil (colored) makers; photographic workers; pressroom workers (rubber); printers; reclaim ers (rubber); rubber workers; tannery workers; vulcanizers. Antimony extractors (refiners); brass founders; burnishers (iron and steel); burnishers (rifle barrels); calico printers; color makers; compositors; compounders (rubber); dye makers; enamel makers; filers; fireworks makers; glass mixers; glaze dippers (pottery); glaze mixers (pottery); grinders (metals); grinders (rubber); lead smelters; linotypers; mixers (rubber); monotypers; mordanters; pressroom workers (rubber); printers; rubber workers; shot makers; stereotypers; vulcanizers. Arsenic roasters; artificial-flower makers; artificial-leather makers; bookbinders; brass founders; bronzers; calico printers; candle (colored) makers; carpet makers; carroters (felt hats); chargers (zinc smelters); color makers; colored-paper workers; compounders (rubber); copper founders; copper smelters; curriers (tannery); cut-glass workers; decorators (pottery); dye makers; electro platers; enamelers; feather curers; feather workers; felt-hat makers; ferrosilicon workers; fur handlers; fur preparers; galvanizers; gardeners; glass mixers; glaze dippers (pottery); glaze mixers (pottery); gold refiners; insecticide makers; japan makers; jewelers; lead smelt ers; linoleum colorers; lithographers; mixers (rubber); mordanters; paper glazers; paperhangers; pencil (col ored) makers; pitch workers; pottery workers; press room workers (rubber); printers; pyrites burners; refiners (metals); rubber-tire builders; rubber washers; rubber workers; sealing-wax makers; sheep-dip makers ; shot makers; sprayers (trees); sulphur burners; sulphuricacid workers; tannery workers; taxidermists; tmners; toy makers; velvet makers; wallpaper printers; waxornament makers; wire drawers; wood preservers; zinc miners. Acid dippers; aniline workers; balloon (toy) fillers’; bat tery (dry) makers; bronzers; carbonizers (shoddy) dimethyl-sulphate makers; dye makers; enamelers;ferro silicon workers; fertilizer'makers; galvanizers; lead burn ers; lime burners; nitroglycerin makers; picklers; refiners (metals); shoddy workers; submarine (storage battery workers); sulphuric acid workers; tinners; towermen (sulphuric acid); zinc chloride makers. 22 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. J. Poisons—Continued./ Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 11. Benzine.............. Headache, v e r tig o , Art-glass workers; bronzers; buffers (rubber); cast scrub nausea, cough, ir bers (electroplaters); celluloid makers; cementers (rub regular respiration, ber shoes); cement mixers (rubber); compositors; com w e a k n e ss of th e pounders (rubber); curriers (tannery); decorators (pot heart, drowsiness, tery); degreasers (fertilizer, leather); dippers (rubber); cyanosis, twitching dry cleaners; electroplaters; enamelers; feather workers; of the muscles, psy furniture polishers; gilders; glue workers; japan makers: chosis, skin lesions. lacquer makers; linoleum makers; lithographers; milli nery workers; mixers (rubber); mordanters; painters; paint makers; pressroom workers (rubber); printers; putty makers; rubber-glove makers; rubber-tire builders; rubber washers; rubber workers; shellac makers; shoe finishers; tannery workers; type cleaners; varnish makers; vulcanizers. 12. Benzol,.............. Headache, vertigo, an Aniline makers: artificial-leather makers; battery (dry) emia, muscular tre makers; benzol stillmen; bronzers; carbolic-acid makers; mor, scarlet lips, cast scrubbers: cementers (rubber shoes); cement mixers spots of extravasated (rubber); coal-tar workers; coke-oven workers; color blood in the skin, makers; compounders (rubber); decorators (pottery); irritant cough, fatty degreasers (fertilizer, leather); dry cleaners; driers (rub degeneration of liver, ber); dye makers; electroplaters; explosives workers; kidneys, and heart. feather workers; fertilizer makers; gas (illuminating) workers; gilders; glue workers; lacquer makers; lithog raphers; millinery workers; mixers (rubber); mordanters; painters; paint makers; photo-engravers; photographic workers; pressroom workers (rubber); reclaimers (rub ber); rubber-tire builders; rubber washers; rubber work ers; shellac makers; shoe-factory workers; shoe finishers; smokeless-powder makers; still (coal-tar) cleaners; treaders (rubber); varnish makers; vulcanizers. 13. Brass (zinc)____ Headache, g e n e r a l Bench molders (foundry); blowers-out (zinc smelting); malaise, throat irri brass founders; braziers; bronzers; chargers (zinc smelting; tation, cough, nau core makers; floor molders (foundry); galvanizers; junksea, vomiting, con metal refiners; luters (zinc smelting); pourers (brass foun stipation,trembling, dry); welders; zinc smelters. muscular pains, ac celerated respiration, profuseeweating, de posit of green tartar on the teeth, metallic taste in the mouth, anemia, premature old age, respiratory and aegen erative diseases. 14. Carbon dioxide.. Anemia, c y a n o s is , Alkali-salt makers; blacksmiths; boiler-room workers; headache, drowsi brass founders; brewers; brick burners; caisson workers; ness, Vertigo, tin carbon-dioxide makers; charcoal burners; drying-room nitus, and general workers (miscellaneous); fertilizer makers; furnace work nervousness. ers; lime burners; limekiln chargers; miners; pottery workers; sewer workers; silo workers; soda makers; starch makers; sugar refiners; vinters; white-lead makers; yeast makers. 15. C arbon disul Headache, pain in the Ammonium-salts makers; artificial-silk makers; asphalt extremities, trem testers; caTbon-disulphide makers; celluloid makers; ce phide. bling, dearness, re menters (rubber shoes); cement mixers (rubber); dry duction of the re cleaners; driers (rubber); enamelers; glue workers; insec flexes. acceleration ticide makers; match-factory workers; oil extractors; of the heart’s action, paint makers; paraffin workers; putty makers; reclaimers nausea, digestive (rubber); smokeless-powder makers; sulphur extractors; trouble, emaciation, tallow refiners; vulcanizers. disturbance of sense of vision, excitement and violent temper followed by depres sion, hvperstimulation of sexual in stinct, later its ab normal decline, chronic dementia. LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION. 23 J. Poisons— Continued. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 16. Carbon monox Headache (usually Acetylene makers; bakers; bisque-kiln workers; black ide. frontal), dizziness, smiths; blockers (felt hats); boiler-room workers; brass sense of fullness of founders; cable splicers; calico printers; carbide makers; the head, fatigue, celluloid makers; charcoal burners; chargers (zinc smeltnausea, g e n e r a l ing);chimney sweepers; coal-tar workers;coke-oven work weakness, polycy ers; copper smelters; ewe makers; drying-room workers (miscellaneous); enamelers; felt-hat makers; filament themia. makers (incandescent lamps); finishers (incandescent lamps); Gangers (felt hats); flue cleaners; foundry work ers; furnace workers; garage workers; gas (illuminating) workers; glost-kiln workers; incandescent-lamp makers; kiln tenders; laundry workers; lead smelters; lime burn ers; limekiln chargers; mercury smelters; miners; patent-leather makers; phosgene makers; pottery work ers; pressers; refiners (metals); sealers (incandescent lamps); silver melters; singers (cloth); soda makers; stokers; teazers (glass); temperers; tubulators (incan-# descent lamps); zinc smelters. 17. Chloride of lime. Irritating cough, in Bleachers; chloride of lime makers; chloroform makers; dis flammation of upper infectant makers; dye makers; laundry workers; tannery air passages, diffi workers. culty of breathing, bronchitis, asthma, sometimes hemop tysis, conjunctivi tis, 1achrymation, hyperhidrosis, burn ing eruption on the skin. 18. Chlorine.. Pallid countenance, Alkali-salt makers; beatermen (paper and pulp); bleach emaciation, decayed ers; broom makers; calico printers; chloride oflime mak teeth, bronchial irri ers; chlorine makers; disinfectant makers; dye makers; tation and asthma, laundry workers; phosgene makers; photographic work gastric disturbances, ers; sulphur-chloride makers; zinc-chloride makers. irritation of the skin, chloracne. 19. Chlorodinitro- See Nitrobenzol........... benzol. 20. C hloronitroben- See Nitrobenzol. zol. 21. Chromium com Pitlike, phagedenic Artificial-flower makers; battery (dry) makers; bleachers; pounds. ulcers, very difficult calico printers; candle (colored) makers; chromium work to heal and very ers; color makers; compounders (rubber); dye makers; painful; perforation dyers; enamelers; glass mixers; glaze dippers (pottery); of the nasal septum glaze mixers (pottery); ink makers; linoleum colorers; at the cartilaginous lithographers; match-factory workers; mixers (rubber); portion, irritation of mordanters; paperhangers; pencil (colored) makers; th e conjunctiva, photo-engravers; photographic workers, pressroom work small areas of in ers (rubber); rubber-tire builders; rubber washers; rub flammation in the ber workers; tannery workers; vulcanizers; wall-paper lungs, inflammation printers; wax-ornament workers; wood stainers. of the k id n eys, chron ic gastritis, anemia. 22. Cyanogen com Headache, vertigo, un Acid dippers; ammonium-salts makers; blacksmiths; blast pounds. steadiness of gait, furnace workers; browners (gun barrels); calico printers; • nausea, loss of appe case hardeners; celluloid makers; dye makers; electrotite, disturbance of platers; fulminate mixers; fumigators; gas (illuminating) gastric and intesti workers; gas purifiers: gold refiners; photographic work nal functions, slow ers; picklers; silver refiners; tannery workers, temperers. ing of the pulse, al buminuria. 23. Dimethyl sul Strongly corrosive ef Dimethyl-sulphate makers; dye makers; perfume makers. phate. fect on the skin and mucous membranes, hoarseness, lachrymation, conjuncti vitis, edema, photo phobia. 24. Dinitrobenzol... See Nitrobenzol........... 25. Gasoline.............. See Naphtha................ 26. H ydrochloric Irritation of mucous Acid dippers; acid finishers (glass); acid mixers; a«id recov acid. membranes; con- ered; acid transporters; alkali-salt makers; ammonium j unctivitis; coryza; salts makers; aniline makers, battery (dry) makers; pharyngeal, laryn calico printers; camphor makers; carbolic-acid makers; geal, and bronchial carbomzers (shoddy); cartridge dippers; dye makers! catarrh; dental ca dyers; enamel makers; fertilizer makers; galvanizers! glass finishers; glass mixers; glue workers, hydrochloric! ries. acid makers; jewelers; petroleum refiners; picklers; pot tery workers; reclaimers (rubber); rubber workers" shoddy workers; solderers; sulphur-chloride makers; tin-; ners; vignetters; zinc-chloride makers. 24 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS, J. Poisons—Continued. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which ofler such exposure. 27. H y d r o fluoric Intense irritation of Antimony fluoride extractors; art-glass workers; bleachers; acid. the eyelids and con dyers; etchers; fertilizer makers; glass finishers; silicate junctiva, coryza, extractors. bronchial catarrh with sp a sm o d ic cough; ulceration of the nostrils, gums, and oral mucous membrane; painful ulcers of the cuticle, erosion and forma tion of vesicles, sup puration under the finger nails. 28. Lead and its Sallow, pale, yellowish Acid finishers (glass); amber workers; art-glass workers; hue of the skin; me artificial-flower makers; babbitters; battery (dry) mak compounds. tallic taste, nausea, ers; bench molders (foundry); blacksmiths; blooders anorexia, constipa (tannery); bookbinders; bottle-cap makers; brass found tion, lead line, asthe ers; brass polishers; braziers; brick burners; brickmafcers; nia, lassitude, head bronzers; Drowners (gun barrels); brush makers; buffers aches, arthralgias (rubber); burners (enameling); cable makers; cable and neuritis, weak splicers: calico printers; canners; cartridge makers: cellu ness of grip, tremors loid makers; chargers (zinc smelting); color makers; colof fingers and tongue; orers (white) of shoes; compositors; concentrating-mill lead paralyses,espe workers (lead and zinc); cut-glass workers; cutlery mak cially of muscles ers; decorators (pottery); diamond polishers; dye mak used most; atrophy ers; dyers; electroplaters; electrotypers: embroidery workers; emery-wheel makers; enamel makers; file cut of optic nerve. ters; filers; floor molders (foundry); galvanizers; glass finishers; glass mixers; glass polishers; glaze dippers (pottery); glaze mixers (pottery); glost-kiln workers; gold refiners; grinders (metals); grinders (rubber); neater boys (riveters); imitation-pearl makers; incan descent-lamp makers; insecticide makers ; japan makers; j ewelers: junk-metal refiners; labelers (paint cans); lac quer makers; lead burners; lead-foilmakers; lead miners; lead-pipe makers; lead-salts makers; lead smelters; lin oleum makers; linotypers; linseed-oil boilers jlithographers; lithotransfer workers; match-factory workers; mir ror silverers; mixers (rubber); monotypers; musicalinstrument makers; nitric-acid workers; nitroglycerin makers; painters; paint makers; paint removers; paperhangers; patent-leather makers; petroleum refiners; photograph retouchers; pipefitters; plumbers; polishers; pottery workers; pointers; putty makers; putty polish ers (glass); reclaimers (rubber); red-lead workers; refin ers (metals); riveters; roofers; rubber workers; sagger makers; sandpaperers (enameling and painting auto bodies, etc.); screen workers (lead and zinc smelting); sheet-metalworkers; shellac makers; shot makers; slip makers (pottery); slushers (porcelainenameling); solderers; stainers (shoes); steel engravers; stereotypers, stor age-battery makers; sulphuric-acid workers; table turn ers (enameling); tannery workers; temperers; tile mak ers; tin-foil makers; tinners; toy makers; transfer work ers (pottery); tree sprayers; typefounders; typesetters; wallpaper printers; welders; white-lead workers; wodd stainers; zinc smelters. 29. Mercury and its Ptyalism; swelling, Artificial-flower makers; battery (dry) makers; blowers inflammation, and (felt hats); bronzers: browners (gun barrels); brushers compounds. bleeding of the gums: (felt hats); cap loaders; carroters (felt hats); cartridge blue line on the makers; chlorine makers (electrolytic); color makers; gums,rodent ulcers, coners (felt hats); dentists; detonator cleaners; detonator pallor, mercurialtre- fillers; detonator packers; devil operators (felt hats); dye mor, digestive dis makers; Edison storage battery workers; explosive work turbances, localized ers; felt-hat makers; fireworks makers; fulminate mix white spots in the ers; fur handlers; fur preparers; gold refiners; hardeners mucosa surrounded (felt hats); incandescent-lamp makers; jewelers; mercu by pale blue or red rial-vapor-lamp makers; mercury bronzers; mercury dened area, general miners; mercury-salts workers; mercury smelters; mer weakness of the cury-solder makers; mercury-still cleaners; mirrorsilverhand and digital ex ers; mixers (felt hats); paint makers; photographic work tensors, foul breath, ers; primers (explosives); refiners (metals); sizers (felt corrosion of the hats); sole-stitchers (Blake machine); starters (felt hats); teeth, furunculosis, steel engravers; stiffeners (felt hats); storage-battery makers; taxidermists; thermometer makers; water pression or drowsi gilders; zinc-electrode makers. ness and apathy, loss of energy ana initiative. lilST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION, 25 J. Poisons—Continued. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. 30. Methyl alcohol.. Headache, nausea, ab dominal cram ps, ringing in the ears, muscular prostra tion, insomnia, de lirium, difficulty of breathing, inflam mation of the throat and mucous mem brane of the air pas sages, conjunctivitis, serious affections of the retina and optic nerve resulting in blindness, fatty de generation of the liver. 31. Methyl bromide. Vertigo, headache, staring look, pallor of the skin, retarded pulse, constipation, excitability, trem bling. Headache, vertigo, 32. Naphtha. nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, palpita tion, insomnia, hys teria. See Aniline. 33. Nitraniline......... 34. Nitrobenzol and Icterical skin which other nitro com gradually becomes pounds of benzol cyanotic, methemoand its h o m o - globin formation, general debility .ane logues. mia, presence of hematophorphyrin, al bumin, and some times free poison in the urine; skin erup tions, visual disturb ances , dyspnea, odor of bitter almonds in breath. 35. Nitroglycerin__ Severe headache, ver tigo, nausea, paral ysis of the muscles of the head and eyes as well as of the lower extremities, cyano sis, reddening of the countenance, burn ing in the throat and stomach, disturb ances of digestion, trembling,neuralgia, colic, retarded res piration and heart action, obstinate ulcers under nails and on the finger tips, eruptions on the plantor aspect of the feet and interdigital spaces, with extreme drynessand formationof fissures. 36. Nitronaphtha- See Nitrobenzol. lene. 37. Nitrous gases and Irritation of air pas sages, cough, labored nitric acid. respiration, inflam mation of the eyes, corrosion of# jJt&e teeth, ero§ihn»vati(} perforation^ o£riasal septum. Occupations which offer such exposure. Aldehyde pumpmen; art-glass workers; artificial-flower makers; artificial-silk makers; bookbinders; bronzers; brush makers; calicoprinters; celluloid makers; cementers (rubber shoes); dimethylsulphate makers; dry cleaners; dryers (felt hats); dye makers; explosives workers; feather workers; felt-hat makers; filament makers (incandescent lamps); fitters (shoes); furniture polishers; gilders; hard eners (felt hats); incandescent-lamp makers; ink makers; japan makers; lacquer makers; lasters (shoes); linoleum makers; millinery workers; mottlers (leather); painters; paint makers; patent-leather makers; perfume makers; photo-engravers; photographers; polishers; shellac makers; shoe-factory operatives; shoe finishers; soap makers ;stiffeners (felt hats); stitchers (shoes); type cleaners: uphol sterers; varnish makers; vulcanizers; wood-alcohol dis tillers; woodworkers. Antipyrin makers; dye makers. Bronzers; chauffeurs; degreasers (fertilizer, leather); dyers; furniture polishers; garage workers; gilders; metal-polish makers; painters; petroleum refiners; polishers; rubber workers; shoe finishers; waterproof-cloth makers; wood workers. Aniline makers; dye makers; explosives workers; perfume makers; smokeless-powder makers; soap makers. Explosives workers; nitroglycerin workers; shell fillers. Acid dippgrs> arid* mixers* acid. recoverers; acid trans porters;* ajjitjne* makers;* artincigd-leather makers; bl6aeljer§; earrotyrs* (felt hats?;‘ cartridge dippers; cellu loid fakers; <Jimethyl-sul]5hdte »makere; dippers (gun cotton) ; enamelers; etchers; explosive fcGrkets;Jteft*hpt makers; fertilizer makers; fur preparers; ‘ galvahiz^rS; glue workers; guncotton dippers; guncotton wtingers; imitation pearl makers; incandescent-lamp makers^ jewelers-vlithographers; miners; mordanters; nitrators*. nitnc-ac«f faerberS;* ‘nitijogiyt^fcre ^orkqfig; Jflidto-engravers; •picfclQrg; *picric*acid makers* •refiners (metals); sodamiatoessr.stett* engfiawC^sC culfthUrifc-h^ Wprl£ers; towermen (sulphuricacid);wringers (guncotton). 26 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS, J. Poisons—Continued. Health hazards Symptom, condition, dr disease to look lor. Inflammation of the skin,acne, suppura ting ulcers; papil loma; numbness and irritation of the Schneiderian membraiie;headache and sensory disturb ances; affections of the respiratory organs. Erosion ofthe skin, ec 39. Phenol zema, irritation of respiratory organs) digestive disturb ances, symptoms of degeneration of the blood,a emaciation, nephritis, gangrene, icterus. 40. Phenyl hydra- Vesicular eruptions on the skin with itch ing and burning, diarrhea; loss of ap petite, granular de generation of the b lood corpuscles, formation of methemoglobin, a sense of general malaise. Destruction ©flung tis 41. Phosgene. sue, emphysema and edema, myocardial insufficiency due to t h e emonvsema, pleural thickening and a d h e s i o n s , chronic bronchitis, mild diffuse bron chiectasis, noctur nal dyspnea, poly cythemia. Inflammation a n d 42. Phosphorus. sclerosis of the bones and of the perios teum, necrosis of the bones of the jaw, swelling and ulcera tion of the gums and buccal membrane, loosening and falling out of the teeth, sup puration a n d des truction of jawbone with fistulous chan nels b u r r o w i n g through the cheek, meningeal inflam mation, brittleness of bones, digestive d i s t u r bances, emaciation. 43. Phosphuretted Oppressed feeling in hydrogen. the chest, headache, vertigo, tinnitus aurium, general debil ity, loss of appetite, great thirst. 38. Petroleum. Occupations which oiler such exposure. Browners (gun barrels); feather workers; furniture polish ers; lampblack makers; millinery workers; oil-flotationplant workers; oil-well workers; paraffin workers; petrol eum refiners; temperers. Bakelite makers; calico printers; coal-tar workers; dye makers; dyers; etchers; gas (illuminating) workers; gas purifiers; lampblack makers; picric add makers; rubber workers; smokeless powder makers; stillmen (carbolic acid); surgical-dressing makers; wood preservers. Antipyrin makers; dye makers. Dye makers; phosgene makers. Boneblack makers; brass founders; fertilizer makers; fire works makers; insecticide makers; match-factory workers; phosphate-mill workers; phosphor-bronze workers; phos phorus-compounds makers; phosphorus extractors. Acetylene makers; ferrosilicon workers; phosphorus ex tractors; phosphorus (red) makers. LIST OF HAZARDS, ETC., AND PREVENTION. 27 J. Poisons—Continued. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Itching, inflammation of the skin, vesicular eruptions, yellow pigmentation of ep idermis and conjunc tiva, inflammation of buccal mucous membrane, digestive disturbances, ver tigo, jaundice, nasal catarrh, nephritis. 45. Sulphur chloride. Symptoms are due to the combined effects of chlorine, hydro chloric acid and sul phur dioxide. Sul phur chloride when in contact with mois ture reacts with water to form these products. 46. Sulphur dioxide. Irritation of the mu cous membrane of respiratory organs ana eyes, spasmodic c o u g h , bronchial catarrh, digestive disturbances, bloodtinged mucous. 44. Picric acid. Occupations which offer such eflposure. Dye makers; dyers; explosives workers; photographers; picric acid makers; shell fillers; smokeless-powder makers. Rubber-substitute makers; vulcanizers. Alkali-salt makers; blastfurnace workers; bleachers; brass founders; brick makers; broom makers; carbolic acid makers; chambermen (sulphuric acid); chargers (zinc smelting); copper smelters; dye makers; fertilizer makers; flue cleaners; fruit preservers; fumigators; galvanizers; glue workers; lead smelters; mercury smelters; oil-flota tion-plant workers; petroleum refiners; pottery workers; pyrites burners; refiners (metals); rubber workers; storage battery makers; sugar refiners; sulphite cooks; sulphur burners; sulphurers (hops and malt); sulphuric-acid workers; tannery workers; towermen (sulphuric acid); zinc smelters. Alkali-salt makers; artificial-silk makers; blast-furnace workers; bronzers; cable splicers; celluloid makers; dye makers; fertilizer makers; flax-rettery workers; gas (il luminating) workers; gas purifiers; glue workers; matchfactory workers; miners; oil-flotation-plant workers; petroleum refiners; pyrites burners; sewer workers; soda makers; sodium sulphide makers; starch makers; sugar refiners; tannery workers. 47. Sulphuretted hy Headache, debility, drogen. vertigo, nausea, dis turbances of diges tion, sallow com plexion and emacia tion, slowing of the pulse, conjunctival catarrh, tendency to the formation of boils. 48. Sulphuric acid... Inflammation of respir Acid dippers; acid finishers (glass); acid mixers; acid re atory organs, injury covered; acid transporters; ammonium-salts makers; to teeth through ammonium-sulphate makers; artificial-leather makers; softening of the den beta-still operators (beta naphthol); burnishers (iron and tine, chronic catarrh. steel); calico printers; carbolic acid makers; carbonizers (shoddy); cartridge dippers; celluloid makers; chambermen (sulphuric acid); dimethyl-sulphate makers; dye makers; explosives workers; felt-hat makers; fertilizer makers; galvanizers; glass finishers; guncotton dippers; hydrochloric acid makers; jewelers; linoleum makers; mercerizers; nitrators; nitric-acid makers; nitroglycerine makers; oil - flotation - plant workers; patent-leather makers; petroleum refiners; phosphorus-evaporating ma chine operators; picklers; picric acid makers; reclaimers (rubber); salt extractors (coke-oven byproducts); shoddy workers; storage-battery makers; sulphuric-acid workers; tallow refiners; tannery workers; temperers; towermen (sulphuric acid); wire drawers. Tar itch, diffuse acne, Battery (dry) makers; briquet makers; brush makers; 49. Tar. eczema or psoriasis, chimney sweepers; coke-oven workers; cord makers; flue loss of appetite, nau cleaners; gas (illuminating) workers; insulators; baint sea, diarrhea, head makers; paraffin workers; pavers; petroleum refiners; ache, numbness, ver roofers; roofing-paper workers; still (coal-tar) cleaners; tigo, albuminuria, tar workers; wood preservers. edema, ischuria, conjunctivitis, bronchi tis. 28 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS, J. Poisons—Concluded. Health hazard. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for. Occupations which offer such exposure. 50. Tetrachlorethane Abnormal sense of fa Airplane-wing vamishers; artificial-silk makers; tapers (acetylene tetra tigue, profuse per (airplanes). chloride). spiration, general discon ten t and grouchiness, inabil ity to concentrate, nocturia, slight pol yuria, dreaming, headache, vertigo, nervousness, insom nia, loss of appetite, constipation, diar rhea, gas in stom ach, general abdom inal pain, nausea, eructations of gas, vomiting, loss of weight, jaundice, enlarged liver, bile in the urine, abdom inal ' tenderness, in crease erf •mononu clear cells, appearanceof many imma ture large mononu clears, elevation in the white count, of platelets. 51. Trinitrotoluol... Nose and throat irrita Explosive workers; shell fillers. tion , ob stin ate cough, bluish color of the lips and lobes of the ears, yellow ing of the whites of the eyes, expectora tion of yellow mu cous, discoloration— a mixture of lividity and jaundice, rash on the skin, short ness of breath, ane mia, palpitation of the heart, bilestained urine, rapid weak pulse. 52. Turpentine. Irritation of the mu Art-glass workers; cable splicers; calico printers; camphor cous membrane of makers; cementers (rubber shoes); decorators (pottery); the eyes, nose, and dry cleaners; dye makers; enamelers; enamel makers; upper air passages; feather workers; furniture polishers; japan makers; lac cough, bronchial in quer makers; linoleum makers; lithographers; millinery flammation; saliva workers; painters; paint makers; patent-leather makers; tion; giddiness, printers; rubber workers; sealing-wax makers; shellac headache, irritation makers; transfer workers (pottery); turpentine extractors; of the kidneys, odor varnish makers. of violets in urine, severe irritation of the skin, eczema and hardening of the epidermis. Section III.— SKIN IRRITANTS. Because of the fact that dermatoses form such a large proportion of all occupational diseases and are often disabling, the more impor tant occupations that are exposed to skin irritants have been listed separately. A complete enumeration of such occupations would be impossible. Almost any foreign substance can become a skin irritant if it is in continuous contact with the skin. Thus soap and water, which ordinarily do not irritate the skin, may cause severe dermatoses in washerwomen. The data presented below are a compilation of the literature on the subject, taken largely from Dr. R. Prosser White’s compilation of “ Occupational Affections of the Skin.” Skin affections caused by different external irritants often show the same clinical picture. A number of occupational skin eruptions have no specific lesions or special pathology, which makes their dif ferential diagnosis very difficult. Most superficial industrial skin diseases show simply a difference in degree of catarrhal inflamma tion, depending on the intensity of the irritant. For these reasons the symptoms for each irritating substance have not been listed as has been done for the other hazards. Occupational dermatoses are characterized by their grouping, situ ation, mode of appearance, spread, and evolution. They crop up in series, retaining their initial type throughout, unless they are secondarily infected. They are most often local, except when they are a differentiating sign of the toxemias. The onset and develop ment are usually sudden. The inflammation is sharply outlined. Exudation is excessive and there is deep-seated edema. The erup tion usually predominates on the right side. There are many cases of dermatitis which are caused by physical agents, such as heat, cold, friction, etc. In this bulletin these condi tions are dealt with only as they are related to the hazards listed. Thus among the symptoms for “ Extreme dry heat ” and “ Extreme light ” we find skin eruptions. The following is the list of the more common occupations exposed to dermatoses with the irritating substances concerned: Occupations Exposed to Specified Skin Irritants. Occupation exposed. Skin irritants. Acetylene makers........................................ Acid workers................................................ Alkali-salt makers....................................... Artificial-flower makers.............................. Bakelite makers.......................................... Barbers......................................................... Battery (dry) makers................................. Beatermen (paper and pulp).................... Bleachers (cloth)......................................... Blooders (tannery)...................................... Calcium carbide. Acids. Caustic alkali Caustic alkali, dyes. Formaldehyde, phenol. Soap, hair tonics. Acids, zinc chloride, ammonium salts, charcoal. Caustic alkali, dyes. Acids, bleaching powder, caustic alkali, hydrogen peroxide, sodium silicate. Dyes. 29 30 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS, Occupations Exposed to Specified Skin Irritants—Continued. Occupation exposed. Skin irritants. Bobbin carriers............................................ Bricklayers........................................ .......... Bronzers........................................................ Broom makers............................................. Calico printers.............................................. Candy makers.............................................. Cap loaders................................................... Carbide makers............................................ Carbolic-add makers.................................. Cardboard stickers...................................... Carroters (felt hats).................................... Cartridge dippers................... ..................... Celluloid makers.......................................... Cementers (rubber shoes)........................... Cement workers..................................... . Cloth preparers............................................ Confectioners................................................ Cotton sizers................................................. Curriers (tannery) *..................................... Dampers (conditioning cotton)............ Dentists.......... ........................................ Detonator cleaners....................................... Detonator fillers.......................................... Detonator packers....................................... Disinfectant makers................................... Druggists....... .............................................. Dye makers.................................. '............... Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Lime. Dyes. Dyes, vegetable dust. Dyes. Sugar. Mercury compounds. Calcium carbide. Caustic alkali, phenol. Sodium silicate. Acids, mercury compounds. Acids, soap. Dyes. Benzine, coal-tar products, naphtha, methyl alcohol. Lime. Acids, caustic alkali, lime, soap, potassium salts, sodium salts, sodium silicate. Sugar. Acids, zinc, chloride, arsenic salts, phenol. Paraffin, benzine. Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Procain. Mercury compounds. Mercury compounds. Mercury compounds. Formaldehyde. Bleaching powder, soap, iodoform, sodium salts, sugar. Acids, benzine, caustic alkali, coal-tar products, dye interme diates, dyes, turpentine, antimony compounds, barium salts, calcium salts, cresol, dextrins, ferrocyanides, formaldehyde, gums, hydroquinone, lead salts, phenol, potassium chlorate. Dyes. Acids, benzine, caustic alkali, lime, potassium cyanide, soap, nickel sulphate. Formaldehyde. Acids, caustic alkali, ferric chloride, potassium cyanide. Acids, caustic alkali. Dye intermediates, explosives (TNT, etc), ammonium salts, oromine, mercury compounds. Acids, mercuric nitrate, dyes. Brine. Lime, brine. Benzine, caustic alkali, naphtha, turpentine, methyl alcohol, pyridin, rosin. Dyes. Ammonium chloride. Thorium compounds. Charcoal, pitch, rosin. Caustic alkali. Dyes. Soot. Caustic alkali, soap. Lime. Lime. Dyes. Cutting compounds, lubricants, oils. Lime. Dyes, dextrins, gums. Acids, caustic alkali. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Acids, caustic alkali, chromates, zinc chloride, aluminum salts, antimony compounds, arsenates, chromium salts, copper salts, iron salts, lead salts, phosphates, silicates, tin salts Dyes. Atnc chloride, nickel sulphate. Acids, explosives. Brine. Acids, caustic alkali, paints, zinc chloride. Dyers................ ........................................... Electroplaters.............................................. Einbalmers.................................................. Engravers..................................................... Etchers.......................................................... Explosives workers.............................. ...... Felt-hat makers........................................... Fish dressers................................................ Flax spinners............................................... Furniture polishers................................. Fur workers................................................. Galvanizers................................................. Gas-mantle impregnators........................... Glass blowers.............................................. Glass mixers................................................. Ink makers................................................... Lampblack makers..................................... Laundry workers......................................... Lime burners............................................... Lime pullers (tannery).............................. Linoleum makers.......................... ......... Machinists.................................................... Masons......................................................... Match-factory workers................................ Mercerizers.................................................... Mixers (rubber)......................................... Mordanters................................................... Mottlers (leather)...................................... Nickel platers............................................... Nitroglycerin makers.................................. Packing-house employees........................... Painters........................................................ 31 SKIN IRRITANTS, Occupations Exposed to Specified Skin Irritants—Concluded. Occupation exposed. Paint makers......... Paper-box makers. Paraffin workers... Parchment makers. Pencil (colored) makers....... Petroleum refiners................ Photographers..................... Photographic plate cleaners. Pitch workers....................... Plasters.................................. Polishers................................ Polishers (silver and brass). Printers.................................. Rock-salt workers. Rope makers........ Rubber workers.. Salt preparers................................ Scratch brushers (electroplating). Shell fillers...................................... Shoe finishers................................. Sizers (cotton).............. ............... Soap makers................................... Sodium hydroxide makers........... Solderers......................................... Sugar refiners................... .'............ Tannery workers............................. Temperers........................................ Tinners............................................. Tobacco rollers................................ Tube layers (cotton conditioning). Typists....................................... Vulcanizers. Washers......................... Washwomen................. Watchmakers............... Waterproofers (paper). Wax-ornament makers Wet-bobbin winders... Wood preservers.......... Zinc-chloride makers. Skin irritants. Paints. Glue. Paraffin. Zinc chloride. Dyes. Caustic alkali, paraffin. Acids, caustic alkali, chromates, metol, pyrogallic acid, tur pentine, amidol, bronzing powder, hydroquinone, rodinal. Caustic alkali. Pitch. Lime. Caustic alkali, naphtha. Potassium cyanide. Ink, benzine. Brine. Oil, tar. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Brine. Acids, benzine, lime, oils. Explosives (TNT, etc.). Benzine, coal-tar products, naphtha, methyl alcohol. Zinc chloride, aluminum salts, calcium salts, magnesium salts. Caustic alkali, soap, vegetable oils, sodium silicate. Caustic alkali. Acids, zinc chloride. Sugar. Acids, lime, sodium sulphide, arsenic salts, brine, calcium hydrosulphide, chromium salts. Oil, brine. Zinc chloride. Vegetable dust, vegetable oils. Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Carbon paper. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Caustic alkali. Caustic alkali, soap, sodium salts. Potassium cyanide. Paraffin. Dye intermediates, potassium cyanide. Lime, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Tar, zinc chloride. Acids, zinc chloride. ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D. C. AT 5 CENTS PER COPY V