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N ational Survey of
Professional, A dm inistrative,
Technical, and C lerical Pay,
M arch 1986
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
October 1986
Bulletin 2271




N ational Survey of
Professional, A dm inistrative,
Technical, and C lerical Pay,
M arch 1986
U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
October 1986
Bulletin 2271




Tor sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402




Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, adminis­
trative, technical, and clerical occupations in private
industry. The nationwide salary information, relating
to March 1986, is representative of establishments in a
broad spectrum of industries throughout the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The survey was expanded in 1986 to increase its cov­
erage of firms with as few as 50 workers. In conduct­
ing this survey, commonly referred to as the PATC
survey, the Bureau of Labor Statistics carries out its
responsibility under the Federal Pay Comparability Act
of 1970. The Bureau prepares a list of establishments
and collects, tabulates, and reports the data. The sur­
vey design, however, is the responsibility of the Presi­
dent’s Pay Agent—the Secretary of Labor, the Direc­
tor of the Office of Management and Budget, and the
Director of the Office of Personnel Management. More
information on the survey scope is contained in appen­
dix A.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. The definitions used to collect salary
data (appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in
private industry; however, they are also designed to be
translatable to specific General Schedule (GS) grades




applying to Federal employees (appendix D).
The survey could not have been conducted without
the cooperation of the many firms whose salary data
provided the basis for the statistical information in this
bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf
of the other Federal agencies that contributed to sur­
vey planning, wishes to express appreciation for the
cooperation it has received.
The analysis in this bulletin was prepared in the Of­
fice of Wages and Industrial Relations by the staff of
the Division of Occupational Pay and Employee Bene­
fit Levels. Computer programming and systems design
were provided by the Division of Directly Collected
Periodic Surveys. The Division of Wage Statistical
Methods was responsible for the sample design, non­
response adjustments, and other statistical procedures.
Fieldwork for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s
Assistant Regional Commissioners for Operations.
In 1985, a survey of employee benefits in private in­
dustry covered the same scope (medium and large firms)
as the 1985 nationwide survey of professional, admin­
istrative, technical, and clerical pay. The findings of the
survey appear in Employee Benefits in Medium and Large
Firms, 1985, Bulletin 2262 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1986).

ii i




Contents

Page

Summary......................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey.......................................................................................................
Employment ................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels ...............................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1986 .....................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan a re a s .................................................
Salary levels by establishment size...............................................................................................
Salary distributions.......................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry.........................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours...................................................................................................
Text tables:
1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation,
medium and large firms, 1976-86..............................................................................
2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category,
medium and large firms, 1976-86................. ,............................................................
3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1986 ...................
Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States ...............................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan areas.......................................................................................................
3. By size of establishment ..............................................................................................
Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations.............................................................
5. Technical support occupations....................................................................................
6 . Clerical occupations ...................................................................................................
Selected industry characteristics:
7. Occupational employment distribution.......................................................................
8 . Relative salary levels...................................................................................................
9. Average weekly h o u rs.................................................................................................

1
1
1

2
2
5
5
5
6
6

2
3
6

H
14
17

20
28
30

34
35
35

Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Salaries in professional occupations, March1986 .......................................................
Salaries in administrative and technical occupations, March 1986.............................
Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1986...............................................................
Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division,
March 1986 ...............................................................................................................

7
8
9
10

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey.............................................................................................. 3 7
B. Survey changes in 1986 ..................................................................................................... 42
C. Occupational definitions................................................................................................... 4 g
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with those of Federal
employees under the General Schedule.......................................................................... 9 3




v




Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1986

based on duties and responsibilities (see appendix C).
The number of work levels—designated by roman nu­
merals, with “I” the lowest—varies from occupation to
occupation, as do degrees of difficulty and responsibility.4
The number of levels in each occupation ranges from
one for messengers to eight for engineers. These work
levels, however, are not intended to represent all the
workers in a specific occupation. For example, the du­
ties and responsibilities of an establishment’s top engi­
neers may exceed those of the highest level of engineers
in the survey. Thus, the survey does not present com­
parisons of overall occupational salary levels, such as
between accountants as a group and engineers.
The approximately 155,700 establishments within the
scope of the survey employed about 33.5 million
workers; 40 percent were professional, administrative,
technical, and clerical employees on full-time schedules.
Of these white-collar workers, 17 percent were in oc­
cupations and work levels for which salary data were
developed. The survey presents separate occupational
data for metropolitan areas—where about nine-tenths
of the white-collar workers were employed—and for
various establishment size groups.

Summary

Average salaries for the 112 occupational work levels
published ranged from $10,335 for clerks performing
routine filing to $101,169 for the highest level of attor­
ney studied. For most occupations, salary levels in met­
ropolitan areas and in large establishments were higher
than the average for all establishments within the scope
of the survey. Among the industry divisions represented
in the survey, mining and public utilities usually re­
ported the highest salaries while finance, insurance, and
real estate industries generally reported the lowest sala­
ries and the shortest standard weekly hours.
In 1986, the survey was expanded to include firms
employing as few as 50 workers. 1 The increase in cov­
erage added about 350,000 workers to the 2 million em­
ployed by medium and large firms in the survey. A
large majority of the 350,000 workers were reported in
clerical positions, such as accounting clerk and general
clerk. (See appendix B for comparisons of data from
the expanded survey with the results if small firms had
been excluded.)
Characteristics of the survey

This survey—27th in an annual series—provides na­
tionwide data for 26 occupations spanning 112 work
level categories. Information was collected from estab­
lishments in all areas of the United States, except Alaska
and Hawaii. As in 1985,2 the following major industry
groups were surveyed: Mining; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate; and services.3
Occupations are divided into appropriate work levels

Employment

Employment varied widely among occupations in the
survey, reflecting both actual differences in employ­
ment counts and differences in the range of duties and
responsibilities covered by survey definitions. For ex­
ample there were 594,500 incumbents in the eight levels
of engineers, accounting for 72 percent of the 823,900
professional employees within the scope of the study;
corporate attorneys, in contrast, numbered under
15,200—a figure that does not include those in legal
firms.
The five levels of computer programmers and six
levels of systems analysts which were surveyed had
132,500 and 126,300 employees, respectively, and to­
gether accounted for about four-fifths of the employees

1F o r a m o re d eta ile d d esc rip tio n o f th e su r v e y ex p a n sion , se e a p ­
p en d ix B.
2 F o r a d e sc rip tio n and resu lts o f th e 1985 su r v e y , se e N ational Sur­

vey o f Professional, Adm inistrative, Technical, an d Clerical Pay, March
1985, B u lletin 2243 (B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics, 1985).
3 S e e a p p en d ix A fo r a full d e sc r ip tio n o f th e s c o p e o f th e su rv e y .
S e r v ic e s s e le c te d b y th e P r esid en t’s P a y A g e n t in c lu d e en g in e e r in g ,
arch itectu r a l, and su r v e y in g se rv ices; c o m m e r c ia lly o p era ted d e v e l­
o p m e n t and te stin g laboratories; c red it rep o rtin g and c o lle c tio n a g e n ­

4

cies; co m p u te r and d ata p r o c e ssin g se rv ices; m a n a g e m en t, co n su ltin g ,

T h e rom an n u m erals d o n o t n ec e ssa r ily id en tify eq u al le v e ls o f

w o r k a m o n g o c c u p a tio n s. F o r ex a m p le, p u b lic a cc o u n ta n t le v e ls I to

and p u b lic rela tio n s serv ices; n o n c o m m e r c ia l e d u ca tio n a l, sc ien tific,

I V eq u ate to a c c o u n ta n t le v e ls II to V w h ile a tto rn ey I eq u ates to

and resea rch org a n iza tio ns; and a c c o u n tin g , a u d itin g and b o o k k e e p ­

a cco u n ta n t III and p u b lic a cc o u n ta n t II. F o r m o re in form ation , se e

in g se r v ic e s.

ap p en d ix D .




1

in all administrative jobs studied. Other administrative
jobs studied include buyers, job analysts, and directors
of personnel.
Engineering technicians accounted for about twofifths of the 275,700 technical workers; computer op­
erators and drafters each accounted for about
three-tenths.
Secretaries constituted the largest clerical occupa­
tion, with nearly one-third of the clerical work force
of 965,200. The next largest clerical occupation was ac­
counting clerk, with slightly over one-fourth of the
total.
Occupational employment was heavily concentrated
in manufacturing and finance, insurance, and real es­
tate. (See table 7.) Manufacturing, for example, em­
ployed just over four-fifths of the buyers, chemists, en­
gineering technicians, and purchasing clerks/assistants;
about three-fourths of the engineers; roughly two-thirds
of the chief accountants, directors of personnel, drafters,
and photographers; and slightly more than one-half of
the accountants and personnel clerks/assistants.
The financial sector was the prime employer of
workers in such diverse occupations as auditors, attor­
neys, and file clerks. This sector also accounted for
about one-fifth of the computer personnel studied. Serv­
ices and public utilities also employed significant pro­
portions of workers.

Changes in salary levels

White-collar salaries increased moderately between
March 1985 and March 1986 in establishments of com­
parable size (medium and large firms) in both years.
Average salaries for most occupations surveyed rose
between 3.0 and 5.5 percent over the period—in line
with gains reported a year earlier. In contrast, occupa­
tional salary increases averaged about 7 percent a year
during the 1970’s, and more than 9 percent in 1981 and
1982, but started dropping back in 1983. (See text table
1 .)

Increases also varied by occupational work level,
with average salaries increasing faster in 1986 for the
senior levels of professional and administrative occupa­
tions than for both the middle levels and the lower
levels of technical and clerical occupations. Text table
2 shows average salary increases since 1976 for these
different groups, which equate to various grades of the
Federal Government’s General Salary Schedule—GS
1-4; GS 5-9; and GS 11-15. Cumulative increases over
the past 10 years have been largest for senior levels,
about 12 percentage points greater than for the middle
group and 17 points more than the lower group of work
levels.
Average salaries, March 1986

Reflecting the wide range of duties and responsibili-

Text table 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, medium and large firms,1 1976-862
Occupation
Professional, administrative, and
technical support:
Accountants ...........................................
Chief accountants...................................
Auditors...................................................
Public accountants.................................
Job analysts ...........................................
Directors of personnel.............................
Attorneys.................................................
B uyers....................................................
Chemists.................................................
Engineers ...............................................
Engineering technicians........................
Drafters...................................................
Computer operators..............................
Photographers.........................................
Computer programmers..........................
Systems analysts.....................................
Clerical:
Accounting clerks...................................
File c le rk s ...............................................
Key entry operators ..............................
Messengers.............................................
Personnel clerks/assistants....................
Purchasing assistants.............................
Secretaries...............................................
Stenographers.........................................
Typists.....................................................

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

1979
to
1980

1980
to
1981

1981
to
1982

1982
to
1983

1983
to
1984

1984
to
1985

1985
to
1986

7.8
10.5
6.8
(3)
6.5
9.1
5.4
7.0
7.0
6.4
7.2
6.0
5.4
(3)
(3)
(3)

8.3
8.0
8.2
(3)
7.2
10.0
9.1
7.8
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5
(3)
(3)
(3)

8.0
7.7
6.5
(4)
8.6
7.5
8.9
7.0
7.6
8.4
7.6
(3)
7.2
(3)
(3)
(3)

9.2
11.3
8.8
4.2
8.1
11.2
9.3
8.1
9.8
9.8
11.0
11.8
8.3
(3)
(3)
(3)

10.0
9.5
10.3
7.9
7.6
11.4
9.8
9.8
9.4
10.9
10.2
10.9
(4)
(4)
(3)
(3)

9.6
11.4
9.4
6.6
9.2
9.6
11.4
9.4
10.4
10.2
9.4
8.4
8.9
9.7
(4)
(3)

6.9
4.2
6.1
7.1
6.7
8.3
7.6
6.2
5.8
7.1
5.9
7.6
6.8
8.1
6.5
(3)

4.7
5.7
8.0
2.3
5.3
5.3
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.2
4.9
3.6
(4)
6.9
(4)
(4)

4.8
6.2
3.8
4.3
5.8
6.5
5.9
3.8
5.6
4.9
3.7
3.7
4.2
2.3
4.5
4.0

4.3
5.4
1.9
3.0
3.8
5.5
6.7
4.9
5.2
4.5
4.1
3.3
3.8
3.5
3.8
5.0

6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5
(3)
(3)
6.4
7.9
6.2

6.2
9.7
7.1
6.0
(3)
(3)
6.5
8.2
8.0

(4)
5.5
6.8
6.8
(4)
(3)
7.3
12.1

8.9
9.3
9.1
5.5
8.6
(3)
9.6
10.1
8.9

9.6
8.0
8.2
9.7
(4)
(3)
(4)
12.1
10.2

8.9
7.2
9.4
6.4
10.2
(4)
9.2
13.8
10.1

8.1
6.4
7.3
9.2
9.7
9.3
7.1
8.6
6.8

3.8
2.1
3.4
2.9
5.4
6.8
5.0
5.5
2.0

4.8
3.7
3.6
4.1
2.7
5.1
4.7
4.9
5.9

4.8
3.3
3.0
5.8
4.6
6.3
5.6
2.4
3.5

8.5

’ Limited to units which met the 1985 minimum establishment
size, which generally ranged from 100 to 250 employees, depending
on industry. (See appendix table B-2.)
2 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 edi­
tion of this publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-76, see the 1982 edition, Bulletin 2145.




3 Not surveyed,
4 Comparable data for both yearsnot available,
NOTE: For method of computation, see appendix A.

2

year and those at level IV, who conduct complex financial
audits, averaged $39,705. The finance, insurance, and real
estate sector employed almost two-fifths of the auditors, while
the manufacturing industries employed just under one-third
and public utilities just over one-eighth.
Public accountants at the entry level, who receive
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing (level I), av­
eraged $20,468 annually. The highest level of public
accountants (level IV), who direct the field work for
large or complex audits, averaged $32,116 a year. This
occupation was only found in public accounting firms,
which are a part of the services industry group.
Attorneys are classified based upon the difficulty of
their assignments and their responsibilities. Attorneys
I, who include new law school graduates with bar mem­

Text table 2. Percent increases in average salaries by work
level category,1 medium and large firms,2 1976-86
Group A
(GS grades 1-4)

Group B
(GS grades 5-9)

Group C
(GS grades 11-15)

94.1

99.1

111.0

1976-77 ................
1977-78 ................
1978-79
1979-80

6.9
7.5
7.2
9.1

6.3
8.0
7.5
10.1

7.7
8.8
8.0
9.3

1980-81 ................
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86

9.8
9.5
7.4
3.6
4.2
3.6

9.6
9.4
7.3
5.0
4.2
4.1

10.2
10.4
7.2
5.3
5.9
4.9

Period3
1976-86

' Group A contains survey classifications equating to GS grades 1-4 of the
Federal Government's General Salary Schedule; Group B covers GS grades 5-9;
and Group C, GS grades 11-15. See appendix D, table D-1, for a listing of survey
levels that equate to each GS grade.
2 Limited to units which met the 1985 minimum establishment size, which
generally ranged from 100 to 250 employees, depending on industry. (See appen­
dix table B-2.)
3 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 edition of this
publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-76, see the 1982 edition, Bulletin 2145.

bership and whose work is relatively uncomplicated
due to clearly applicable precedents and well-estab­
lished facts, averaged $31,014 a year. Attorneys in the
top level surveyed (VI) averaged $101,169. These at­
torneys deal with legal matters of major importance to
the organization and usually report only to the general
counsel or, in very large firms, to the deputy general
counsel. Finance, insurance, and real estate employed
two-fifths of the attorneys; manufacturing industries
employed about one-fourth; and about one sixth were in
public utilities.7
Buyers who purchase “off-the-shelf’ and readily avail­
able items and services from local sources (level I) av­
eraged $21,242 a year. Buyers IV, who purchase highly
complex and technical items, materials, or services that
are custom designed and manufactured, averaged
$41,304.
Computer programmers at the trainee level who are
developing basic programming skills (level I) averaged
$20,832 a year. Those at level V, who are either team
leaders, staff specialists, or consultants responsible for
complex programming, averaged $42,934 annually.
Computer systems analysts who are familiar with sys­
tems analysis procedures and work independently on
routine problems (level I) averaged $29,141 annually.
Systems analysts VI, the highest level, averaged $71,770
a year. At this level, analysts are senior managers re­
sponsible for the development and maintenance of very
large and complex computer systems.8
Personnel management occupations are represented

ties covered by the occupations studied, average annual
salaries ranged from $10,335 for file clerks I to $101,169
for the top level of attorneys (table l).5 The following
paragraphs summarize findings for the various occupa­
tions studied.
Accountants’ average annual salaries ranged from
$21,024 for beginning professional accountants (level I)
to $61,546 for specialists in complex accounting systems
(level VI). Salaries for the most numerous group (level
III) averaged $31,143 a year.
Work levels for chief accountants are determined by
the degree of authority and responsibility, the technical
complexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser
degree, the size of the professional staff (usually less
than 10 accountants at level II to as many as 40 ac­
countants at level IV). Of the chief accountants sur­
veyed, two-thirds were employed in manufacturing industries
and over one-eighth in finance, insurance, and real estate.
Chief accountants who administer either a stable ac­
counting system with complete authority or responsi­
bility or administer a moderately complex accounting
system within prescribed authority (level II) averaged
$47,963 a year. At level IV, those who have authority
to establish and maintain an accounting program, sub­
ject to general policy guidelines, for a company with
numerous and varied accounting functions and work
processes averaged $80,409 annually.6
Auditors at the trainee level (level I) averaged $21,545 a

6 T h e fo llo w in g o c c u p a tio n a l le v e ls w e r e su r v e y e d but d ata w e r e
in su fficien t to w arrant p u b lication : C h ie f a c co u n ta n t I and V ; d ir e c ­
tor o f p erso n n el V ; c h e m ist V III; c o m p u te r o p era to r V I; and p er­
so n n el c le r k /a ssista n t V .
7 T h e su r v e y e x c lu d e s estab lish m en ts p rim arily o ffe r in g le g a l a d v ic e

5 D e s p ite this w id e d iffe r e n c e , salary a v e r a g e s for p ro fessio n a l jo b s

o r se rv ices.

o f e q u iv a le n t le v e ls o f w o r k o fte n fell w ith in a r e la tiv e ly n arro w
band. F o r ex a m p le, annual a v e r a g e s for th e fo llo w in g w o r k le v e l

8 A s n o te d in a p p en d ix C , in form ation w a s c o lle c te d se p a r a tely for

e q u iv a le n ts fell w ith in a $ 5 ,0 5 0 o r 9 -p e rcen t range: A c c o u n ta n t V I

fiv e le v e ls o f n o n su p e r v iso r y sy stem s an alysts and four le v e ls o f sy s­

($61 ,5 4 6 ); c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t III ($62 ,8 8 0 ); a tto r n e y I V ($63,933); c h e m ­

tem s a n alysts su p e r v iso r s/m a n a g e r s. T h e d ata w e r e c o n so lid a te d for

ist V I ($60 ,7 9 6 ); and en g in e e r V I ($ 5 8 ,8 8 3 ).

p u b lic a tio n , u sin g th e ap p ro a ch sh o w n in a p p en d ix C.




3

by four levels of job analysts and five levels of directors
of personnel. Job analysts I averaged $22,240 a year
compared with $38,206 for level IV. Under general su­
pervision, job analysts IV analyze and evaluate a va­
riety of the more difficult jobs and may participate in
the development and installation of job evaluation and
compensation systems. Directors of personnel are lim­
ited by definition to those who, at a minimum, are re­
sponsible for administering a job evaluation system, em­
ployment and placement functions, and employee rela­
tions and services. Those with significant responsibility
as the principal company representative in contract ne­
gotiations with labor unions are excluded. Various com­
binations of work force size, duties, and responsibilities
determine the work level.
Among personnel directors, average yearly salaries
ranged from $39,817 for level I to $75,170 for level IV.9
Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight
levels1*starting with a professional trainee level typi­
0
cally requiring a bachelor’s degree. The highest level
surveyed involves either full responsibility over a broad,
complex, and diversified chemical or engineering pro­
gram, with several subordinates each directing large
and important segments of the program, or individual
research and consultation in problem areas where the
chemist or engineer is a recognized authority and where
solutions represent a major scientific or technological
advance.1 Average yearly salaries ranged from $22,539
1
for chemists I to $74,607 for chemists VII, the highest
level for which data could be published, and from
$27,866 for engineers I to $79,021 for engineers VIII.
Level IV engineers, the largest group in that profession
and representing fully experienced employees, averaged
$42,677, while level IV chemists averaged $41,548.
Employment of chemists and engineers was highly
concentrated in manufacturing industries (86 percent of
the chemists and 73 percent of the engineers). Most of
the remaining chemists were associated with research
and development laboratories. Engineers were also
found in significant numbers in research, development,
and testing laboratories, establishments providing engi­
neering services, and public utilities.
Engineering technicians is a five-level series limited to
employees providing semiprofessional technical support
to engineers. These technicians work with engineers in.
such areas as research, design, development, testing, or
manufacturing process improvement, and use electrical,
electronic, or mechanical components or equipment.
Technicians involved in production or maintenance
work are excluded. Engineering technicians I, who per­

form simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures, averaged $16,882 a year. En­
gineering technicians V, who work on more complex
projects under general guidelines supplied by a super­
visor or professional engineer, averaged $32,718. Sala­
ries for intermediate levels III and IV, containing a ma­
jority of the technicians surveyed, averaged $23,896 and
$28,412, respectively.
Just over four-fifths of the engineering technicians
were employed in manufacturing and about one-tenth
in selected services. The ratio of technicians to engi­
neers was about 1 to 5 in all manufacturing industries
combined and in public utilities. In mechanical and elec­
trical equipment manufacturing and in research, devel­
opment and testing laboratories, the ratio was 1 to 4.
Average salaries for drafters ranged from $13,054 a
year for level I (who trace or copy finished drawings)
to $31,004 for level V (who work closely with designers
preparing unusual, complex, or original designs).
Computer operators are classified on the basis of re­
sponsibility for problem solving, variability of assign­
ments, and scope of authority far corrective actions
needed by their equipment. Computer operators I,
whose work assignments consist of on-the-job training,
averaged $13,727 a year. The largest group surveyed,
level II, averaged $17,219, and the highest publishable
level (V) averaged $28,986.
Photographers studied in the survey ranged from those
taking routine pictures where several shots can be taken
or opportunities for retakes exist (level I) to those ap­
plying technical expertise to situations requiring novel
and unprecedented treatment (level V). Photographers
working for media establishments, such as newspapers
or advertising agencies, were excluded. The average
annual salary for level I photographers was $16,636
compared with $35,094 for level V’s. Manufacturing
industries employed two-thirds of the photographers
covered by the survey, while most of the remainder
were in services.
Among the survey’s ten clerical jobs, secretary was
the most populous. Average yearly salaries ranged from
$16,326 for level I secretaries to $28,051 for level V.
Average annual salaries of $18,374 and $21,739 were
reported for stenographers I and II. Typists I averaged
$12,584 and those at level II, $16,854.
Accounting clerks performing simple and routine
clerical accounting operations (level I) averaged $12,517
a year. Level IV clerks who maintain journals or sub­
sidiary ledgers averaged $21,872. Nearly four-fifths of
all accounting clerks were classified in levels II and
III, which averaged $14,687 and $17,954 a year,
respectively.
Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine tasks
requiring a knowledge of personnel rules and proce­
dures (level I) averaged $14,193 a year. Level IV as­
sistants, who provide paraprofessional support such as

9 S e e fo o tn o te 6.
10 S e e fo o tn o te 6.
" T h e d efin itio n r e c o g n iz e s that to p p o sitio n s in so m e co m p a n ie s
w ith u n u su a lly e x te n siv e and c o m p le x c h e m ic a l o r en g in e e r in g p ro ­
gra m s e x c e e d th is le v e l.




4

interviewing and recommending placement for well-de­
fined occupations, averaged $23,702.1
2
Level I purchasing clerks/assistants1 (a new first level
3
added in 1986) follow well-established and clear-cut
procedures to prepare and process purchasing docu­
ments. Their yearly average of $13,994 compares with
$29,384 for level IV assistants, who prepare compli­
cated purchase documents, expedite the purchase of
highly specialized items, or provide detailed technical
support to buyers.
A four-level general clerk job also was introduced in
1986.1 These clerks perform a combination of clerical
4
tasks to support office, business, or administrative op­
erations. Level I clerks, who follow detailed procedures
in performing simple and repetitive tasks, averaged
$10,478 annually. Level IV clerks, who use some sub­
ject matter knowledge and judgment to complete
various nonroutine assignments, averaged $19,322 a
year. Level II and III clerks, the most populous levels,
averaged $12,730 and $15,500 a year, respectively.
Clerical workers generally were highest paid in pub­
lic utilities, mining, and manufacturing, and were low­
est paid in finance, insurance, and real estate. Nearly
two-fifths of the clerical employees were employed in
manufacturing industries. The finance, insurance, and
real estate industries and public utilities also employed
large numbers of clerical workers, accounting for about
one-fourth and one-tenth of the total, respectively.

cent more in the largest size group than in the smallest.
The corresponding pay advantage for fully experienced
professionals usually averaged under 5 percent.
The largest size category accounted for one-third of all
employees in the 77 work levels shown in table 3. The pro­
portions ranged from one-tenth or less of accounting clerks
II, file clerks I, key entry operators I, and purchasing
assistants I to three-fourths of engineering technicians V.
Large establishments employed half or more of the in­
cumbents in certain professional/administrative jobs studied,
including the highest levels of programmers, systems
analysts, and engineers.
Salary distributions

Salary distributions for professional and administra­
tive occupations are presented in table 4, for technical
support occupations in table 5, and for clerical occupa­
tions in table 6. Within most work levels, the highest
salaries were more than twice the lowest salaries. As
illustrated in charts 1-3, these differences tended to in­
crease with each rise in the work level. Salary ranges
for specific work levels also tended to overlap each
other. This reflects both salary differences among es­
tablishments and the frequent overlapping of salary
ranges within individual firms.1 Median annual salaries
5
for most work levels were slightly lower than the mean
average salaries.1 Hence, salaries in the upper halves
6
of the arrays affected the means more than salaries in
the lower halves. The relative difference between the
mean and the median was less than 2 percent for 68 of
the 112 work levels published, from 2 to 4 percent for
32 levels, and from over 4 to 8 percent in the other 12 levels.
The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger
for clerical occupations than for professional, adminis­
trative, or technical occupations. These dispersions,
shown in text table 3, reflect the salary range of the
middle 50 percent of employees expressed as a percent
of the median salary. This eliminates the extremely low
and high salaries for each comparison. In about ninetenths of the )12 publishable work levels, the degree
of dispersion ranged between 15 and 30 percent.
Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety
of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These
include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; varia­
tions in occupational employment among industries (ta­
ble 7 and chart 4); and geographic salary differences,

Salary levels in metropolitan areas

For most occupational levels, average salaries in met­
ropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than na­
tional averages (table 1). In only 16 cases did such dif­
ferences exceed 1 percent.
Approximately nine-tenths of the employees surveyed
were located in metropolitan areas, with the proportion
varying among occupations and work levels.
Ninety-five percent or more of public accountants, sys­
tems analysts, job analysts, attorneys, stenographers,
and file clerks were in metropolitan areas. In 79 of the
112 work levels providing publishable data by type of
area, at least 90 percent of the workers were in metro­
politan areas.
Salary levels by establishment size

White-collar salaries varied by establishment size. Ta­
ble 3 presents the number of workers and average an­
nual salaries for 77 work levels publishable for each of
three establishment size groupings—(50 to 999 employ­
ees), (1,000 to 2,499), and (2,500 or more). It shows that
clerical workers and recent hires in the professional and
administrative positions studied were paid 10 to 20 per­

15 F o r an an alysis o f rate ran ges w ith in estab lish m en ts, se e M artin
E . P erso n ick , “W h ite -C o lla r P a y D e te r m in a tio n U n d e r R a n g e -o f-R a te
S y ste m s,” M onthly L abor Review, D e c e m b e r 1984, pp .25-30.
16T h e m ed ian d esig n a tes p osition ; o n e -h a lf o f th e w o r k e r s r e c e iv e

12 S e e fo o tn o te 6.

th e sam e as or m o re and o n e -h a lf r e c e iv e th e sam e as o r less than

13 S e e a p p en d ix B for further d etails.

th e m ed ian rate. T h e m ean is c o m p u te d for ea c h jo b b y to ta lin g th e

14 S e e a p p en d ix B for further d etails.

earn in gs o f all w o r k e r s and d iv id in g b y th e n u m b er o f w ork ers.




5

Text table 3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1986
Number of levels having degree
of dispersion1 of—
Occupation

All occupations.....................................
Accountants ...............................................
Chief accountants.......................................
Auditors.......................................................
Public accountants.....................................
Job analysts...............................................
Directors of personnel................................
Attorneys.....................................................
Buyers.........................................................
Chemists.....................................................
Engineers...................................................
Engineering technicians.............................
Drafters.......................................................
Computer operators...................................
Photographers.............................................
Computer programmers............................
Systems analysts.........................................
Clerical workers .........................................

Number of
work levels

112
6
3
4

4
4
4
6

4
7
8
5
5
5
5
5
6
31

Under
15 percent

15 and
under
20 percent

20 and
under
25 percent

25 and
under
30 percent

6
1
2

38

44

4

2
1
2
1
5
3
3
1
5
4
3

20
_
_
2
2
1
1
1

-

-

-

13

3

-

2
1
2
1
2
1
1

2

6

-

4

-

-

-

4

-

-

1

3
5
2

-

-

1
13

30
percent
and over

4
_
-

1

1 Degree of salary dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 per­
cent of employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary
for that level.

public utilities tended to be elevated above the all-industry
average. For example, relative pay levels of messengers in
manufacturing (109 percent of the all-industry average) and
public utilities (133 percent) reflect the influence on the all­
industry average of lower salaries for 47 percent of these
workers employed in finance, insurance, and real estate in­
dustries. These industries, however, also reported slightly
shorter average workweeks than other industries.

especially for clerical employees.'7 Clerical employees
usually are recruited locally, while professional and ad­
ministrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.
Pay differences by industry

Occupational salary levels in major industry divisions
were compared to the all-industry average (table 8).
Salary levels for professional, administrative, and tech­
nical occupations in manufacturing industries tended to
be closest to the all-industry average. (Manufacturing
accounted for more employment than any other sector,
except in the case of attorneys and public accountants.)
Relative salary levels were generally highest in mining
and public utilities.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels
were lowest in the wholesale trade, retail trade, and finance,
insurance, and real estate industries. Where these industries
employed a substantial proportion of workers in an occupa­
tion, the all-industry average was dampened; consequently,
relative pay levels in such industries as manufacturing and

Average standard weekly hours

The distribution of average weekly hours (rounded
to the nearest half hour) is shown in table 9 for each
occupation by major industry division. Average weekly
hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real estate
(38 to 40 hours for most occupations) than in other industries
(39 to 40 hours). Average weekly hours have been fairly
stable over the past decade.1 Standard weekly hours, the
1
7
8
base for regular straight-time salary, were obtained for in­
dividual employees in the occupations studied. When in­
dividual hours were not available, particularly for some
higher level professional and administrative positions, the
predominant workweek of the office force was used as the
standard.

17 F o r a n a ly sis o f interarea p a y d ifferen tia ls in c le r ic a l salaries, se e

Wage Differences A m ong Metropolitan Areas, 1985, S u m m a ry 86-5 (B u ­
reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics, 1986),and M ark S. S ielin g , “ C le r ic a l P a y

18

F o r in fo r m a tio n o n sc h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs o f o ffic e w o r k e r s e m ­

D iffe r e n c e s in M e tr o p o lita n A rea s, 19 6 1 -8 0 ,” M onthly L abor Review,

p lo y e d in m e tr o p o lita n areas, se e Area Wage Surveys .Selected M etro­

J u ly 1982, pp .1 0 -1 4 .

politan Areas, 1985, B u lletin 3030-71 (B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics, 1986).




6




7

Chart 2. Salaries in administrative and technical occupations, March 1986
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level

0

Job analysts

I—

$10,000

$20,000

$30,000

$40,000

$50,000

$60,000

$70,000

$80,000

IV Directors of
personnel
IV
Buyers

I-

First |
Mean
quartile

■B

IV
Computer
programmers
IV VSystems analysts

I-

IV
V
VI
Engineering
technicians

E

I
n
IV
V

Drafters

I—

m

n

IV
V
Computer
operators

I
||
III
IV
V

Photographers




I-

m

IV
V

8

Third
quartile

$90,000

Chart 3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1986
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level
Accounting clerks

0

$10,000 $12,500 $15,000 $17,500 $20,000 $22,500 $25,000 $27,500 $30,000 $32,500 $35,000

I—

I
IV First
quartile

File clerks

General clerks

I—

IV
Key entry operators
II Messengers

—

Personnel clerks/
assistants

IV
Purchasing clerks/
assistants

IV
Secretaries
II IV

Stenographers

I—
II -

Typists




9

Mean

Third
quartile

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1986
Percent
Occupational group

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Accountants a n d l ^ H S
chief accountants'
.

Auditors

1

I

Attorneys —
H

.

■_______

Buyers

Computer programmers

Systems analysts

Directors of personnel
and job analysts

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

Computer operators

Photographers

Clerical employees

Mining
and
construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

Finance,
insurance,
and real estate

Trade and
selected
services

1Public acountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services in the selected services
industry group.




10

100

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number of
employees 3

Annual salaries 4
Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean6

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accountants
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V .....................................................................
V I ....................................................................

13,846
29,311
46,228
23,733
8,227
1,397

$1,752
2,129
2,595
3,274
4,103
5,129

$1,741
2,083
2,541
3,249
4,025
5,050

$1,565
1,875
2,332
2,945
3,683
4,582

$1,896
2,332
2,840
3,520
4,444
5,504

$21,024
25,554
31,143
39,293
49,231
61,546

$20,892
24,990
30,488
38,984
48,300
60,600

$18,780
22,500
27,989
35,346
44,197
54,978

$22,748
27,984
34,078
42,240
53,329
66,048

1,756
2,928
4,709
2,022

1,795
2,176
2,677
3,309

1,791
2,124
2,657
3,249

1,670
1,952
2,335
2,916

1,896
2,332
2,950
3,640

21,545
26,108
32,121
39,705

21,491
25,490
31,887
38,984

20,042
23,423
28,026
34,986

22,756
27,989
35,400
43,683

11,606
11,595
8,897
4,275

1,706
1,893
2,219
2,676

1,707
1,873
2,166
2,624

1,624
1,791
2,025
2,416

1,791
1,999
2,374
2,916

20,468
22,714
26,633
32,116

20,488
22,479
25,992
31,487

19,492
21,491
24,300
28,988

21,491
23,990
28,489
34,986

1,454
475
230

3,997
5,240
6,701

4,000
5,151
6,568

3,707
4,671
6,164

4,332
5,831
7,289

47,963
62,880
80,409

48,000
61,812
78,811

44,482
56,058
73,970

51,979
69,972
87,465

1,377
3,199
4,347
3,500
1,847
587

2,584
3,303
4,177
5,328
6,533
8,431

2,525
3,250
4,082
5,248
6,497
8,488

2,249
2,958
3,749
4,657
5,831
7,397

2,778
3,634
4,530
5,839
7,166
9,360

31,014
39,635
50,119
63,933
78,396
101,169

30,304
39,000
48,980
62,975
77,969
101,859

36,989
35,502
44,982
55,886
69,972
88,765

33,337
43,603
54,360
70,074
85,992
112,320

6,914
22,990
18,323
4,798

1,770
2,197
2,798
3,442

1,749
2,167
2,735
3,406

1,560
1,976
2,499
3,011

1,928
2,377
3,065
3,796

21,242
26,369
33,580
41,304

20,992
25,998
32,820
40,870

18,719
23,712
29,988
36,137

23,130
28,524
36,780
45,548

15,974
38,540
46,996
21,524
9,492

1,736
2,046
2,444
2,910
3,578

1,749
2,041
2,426
2,905
3,612

1,517
1,841
2,240
2,686
3,371

1,965
2,233
2,627
3,130
3,850

20,832
24,558
29,324
34,919
42,934

20,992
24,490
29,118
34,860
43,344

18,199
22,091
26,880
32,238
40,453

23,580
26,800
31,527
37,560
46,200

21,402
47,518
38,943
15,506
2,666
233

2,428
2,907
3,500
4,126
4,867
5,981

2,400
2,907
3,450
4,032
4,816
5,958

2,191
2,655
3,199
3,762
4,412
5,520

2,660
3,141
3,750
4,460
5,333
6,444

29,141
34,881
41,997
49,515
58,404
71,770

28,800
34,886
41,400
48,381
57,786
71,496

26,289
31,863
38,394
45,144
52,944
66,240

31,920
37,697
45,000
53,525
64,000
77,322

103
350

1,853
2,107

1,841
2,001

1,600
1,810

1,914
2,357

22,240
25,288

22,091
24,014

19,200
21,725

22,968
28,286

Auditors
1 ......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Public accountants
1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Chief accountants
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Attorneys
1 ......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
V I....................................................................
Buyers
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Computer programmers
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Systems analysts
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
Job analysts
1 .......................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




11

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Job analysts
III .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

Number of
employees 3

Annual salaries 4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

624
520

$2,550
3,184

$2,432
3,090

$2,234
2,834

$2,882
3,455

$30,605
38,206

$29,188
37,082

$26,809
34,009

$34,586
41,455

1,849
2,082
1,179
395

3,318
3,861
5,321
6,264

3,200
3,880
5,165
6,023

2,959
3,332
4,831
5,748

3,778
4,332
5,667
6,900

39,817
46,328
63,855
75,170

38,400
46,560
61,975
72,271

35,503
39,984
57,977
68,972

45,336
51,979
68,004
82,798

3,580
6,673
10,244
9,257
7,266
3,632
848

1,878
2,267
2,845
3,462
4,223
5,066
6,217

1,866
2,249
2,791
3,435
4,198
5,075
6,033

1,625
1,998
2,555
3,131
3,870
4,606
5,638

2,041
2,483
3,140
3,749
4,517
5,517
6,769

22,539
27,205
34,141
41,548
50,678
60,796
74,607

22,391
26,989
33,487
41,220
50,380
60,900
72,395

19,500
23,976
30,664
37,572
46,440
55,278
67,658

24,490
29,796
37,685
44,988
54,204
66,199
81,228

40,469
71,336
145,165
157,033
111,913
52,105
13,395
3,097

2,322
2,599
2,976
3,556
4,231
4,907
5,717
6,585

2,365
2,595
2,956
3,532
4,203
4,881
5,650
6,545

2,207
2,409
2,719
3,250
3,855
4,450
5,200
6,045

2,475
2,783
3,213
3,832
4,582
5,334
6,127
7,065

27,866
31,194
35,715
42,677
50,769
58,883
68,602
79,021

28,381
31,146
35,472
42,383
50,436
58,568
67,800
78,540

26,489
28,908
32,634
39,000
46,260
53,400
62,400
72,540

29,700
33,396
38,560
45,982
54,978
64,008
73,518
84,780

5,797
17,342
32,193
35,397
19,399

1,407
1,693
1,991
2,368
2,726

1,380
1,666
1,972
2,346
2,700

1,277
1,522
1,781
2,146
2,500

1,534
1,841
2,175
2,573
2,938

16,882
20,312
23,896
28,412
32,718

16,557
19,992
23,669
28,158
32,400

15,324
18,264
21,370
25,748
29,998

18,407
22,091
26,099
30,876
35,253

2,982
12,102
25,970
24,371
14,362

1,088
1,321
1,683
2,054
2,584

1,083
1,300
1,665
2,038
2,541

953
1,150
1,474
1,829
2,276

1,172
1,456
1,868
2,253
2,860

13,054
15,854
20,201
24,652
31,004

12,999
15,599
19,980
24,461
30,489

11,439
13,794
17,688
21,942
27,308

14,060
17,471
22,411
27,038
34,317

10,704
37,530
25,698
8,059
1,260

1,144
1,435
1,794
2,046
2,416

1,125
1,408
1,749
2,012
2,426

997
1,240
1,560
1,820
2,140

1,250
1,595
1,978
2,236
2,615

13,727
17,219
21,524
24,550
28,986

13,495
16,893
20,992
24,140
29,112

11,959
14,876
18,719
21,840
25,678

14,994
19,135
23,736
26,832
31,380

401
873
791
331
104

1,386
1,908
2,251
2,632
2,924

1,331
1,916
2,189
2,601
2,842

1,205
1,638
2,052
2,335
2,429

1,499
2,120
2,483
2,864
3,391

16,636
22,896
27,009
31,584
35,094

15,972
22,991
26,264
31,212
34,109

14,455
19,654
24,624
28,020
29,147

17,993
25,440
29,794
34,369
40,687

Directors of personnel
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Chemists
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
V I.....................................................................
V II....................................................................
Engineers
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
V II....................................................................
V III...................................................................
Engineering technicians
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Drafters
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Computer operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Photographers
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




12

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number of
employees 3

Annual salaries 4
Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accounting clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

36,023
133,183
79,215
22,354

$1,043
1,224
1,496
1,823

$1,000
1,187
1,456
1,766

$867
1,057
1,300
1,549

$1,115
1,343
1,647
2,032

$12,517
14,687
17,954
21,872

$11,995
14,247
17,471
21,192

$10,399
12,687
15,599
18,593

$13,375
16,119
19,758
24,378

20,916
10,110
2,100

861
1,013
1,302

842
958
1,255

763
878
1,127

926
1,100
1,429

10,335
12,156
15,625

10,108
11,495
15,060

9,154
10,531
13,519

11,111
13,195
17,148

1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................

68,827
30,770

1,096
1,408

1,049
1,343

925
1,170

1,207
1,560

13,146
16,901

12,583
16,119

11,100
14,040

14,481
,18,719

Messengers....................................

9,842

1,023

945

849

1,114

12,276

11,340

10,193

13,373

2,521
4,414
3,255
1,298

1,183
1,409
1,641
1,975

1,174
1,350
1,621
1,915

1,040
1,248
1,432
1,742

1,287
1,539
1,821
2,175

14,193
16,903
19,696
23,702

14,091
16,200
19,447
22,982

12,479
14,975
17,184
20,902

15,443
18,473
21,848
26,102

4,014
5,585
4,197
1,037

1,166
1,440
1,865
2,449

1,127
1,387
1,837
2,350

1,040
1,265
1,600
2,136

1,261
1,543
2,078
2,794

13,994
17,282
22,381
29,384

13,519
16,639
22,046
28,200

12,479
15,183
19,200
25,629

15,134
18,511
24,936
33,530

59,859
69,450
110,604
49,403
16,038

1,361
1,526
1,763
1,987
2,338

1,300
1,485
1,708
1,956
2,282

1,150
1,317
1,517
1,749
2,000

1,498
1,694
1,958
2,201
2,622

16,326
18,306
21,152
23,839
28,051

15,599
17,820
20,492
23,478
27,389

13,800
15,807
18,199
20,992
24,000

17,980
20,330
23,491
26,413
31,465

6,811
5,648

1,531
1,812

1,512
1,846

1,239
1,619

1,838
1,961

18,374
21,739

18,139
22,152

14,871
19,428

22,056
23,536

25,125
12,842

1,049
1,404

1,021
1,334

910
1,161

1,144
1,622

12,584
16,854

12,252
16,008

10,919
13,935

13,727
19,464

11,811
59,359
65,101
33,472

873
1,061
1,292
1,610

850
1,014
1,250
1,552

780
880
1,100
1,377

947
1,148
1,430
1,872

10,478
12,730
15,500
19,322

10,200
12,167
14,994
18,624

9,359
10,560
13,200
16,529

11,364
13,779
17,159
22,464

File clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
Key entry operators

Personnel clerks/assistants
1 ......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants
1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
Ill ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Secretaries
1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V .....................................................................
Stenographers
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Typists
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
General clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace
industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay




increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses, and
incentive payments, however, are included.
5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range
is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or
more than the higher rate.

13

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,'
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accountants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................

12,703
26,619
40,781
21,228
7,633
1,327

$1,760
2,140
2,598
3,290
4,101
5,123

$1,749
2,093
2,541
3,250
4,015
5,060

$1,579
1,892
2,332
2,957
3,682
4,582

$1,904
2,333
2,847
3,544
4,444
5,500

$21,117
25,676
31,176
39,481
49,216
61,481

$20,992
25,115
30,488
38,997
48,181
60,720

$18,948
22,704
27,989
35,486
44,182
54,978

$22,851
27,996
34,168
42,533
53,329
66,000

1,452
2,791
4,584
1,972

1,795
2,179
2,679
3,304

1,770
2,124
2,661
3,249

1,641
1,949
2,335
2,902

1,920
2,341
2,954
3,640

21,536
26,150
32,154
39,650

21,242
25,490
31,926
38,984

19,692
23,391
28,026
34,825

23,040
28,089
35,446
43,680

11,534
11,433
8,807
4,239

1,706
1,894
2,219
2,672

1,707
1,874
2,166
2,624

1,624
1,791
2,020
2,416

1,791
1,999
2,374
2,916

20,469
22,730
26,630
32,066

20,488
22,491
25,992
31,487

19,492
21,491
24,240
28,988

21,491
23,990
28,489
34,986

1,293
372
210

3,991
5,153
6,773

4,000
5,025
6,697

3,704
4,629
6,206

4,332
5,700
7,289

47,894
61,833
81,282

48,000
60,296
80,364

44,442
55,548
74,470

51,979
68,397
87,465

1,321
3,133
4,255
3,318
1,740
584

2,588
3,304
4,183
5,350
6,585
8,437

2,532
3,250
4,082
5,315
6,550
8,497

2,249
2,958
3,749
4,681
5,876
7,414

2,785
3,634
4,535
5,892
7,193
9,368

31,055
39,645
50,195
64,197
79,019
101,243

30,386
39,000
48,980
63,774
78,600
101,959

26,989
35,502
44,982
56,178
70,508
88,964

33,420
43,603
54,420
70,704
86,313
112,421

5,810
19,218
16,454
4,571

1,805
2,209
2,818
3,444

1,774
2,167
2,745
3,410

1,586
1,985
2,500
3,012

1,958
2,389
3,082
3,800

21,663
26,513
33,820
41,328

21,291
25,998
32,940
40,920

19,031
23,820
30,000
36,148

23,495
28,663
36,980
45,600

14,685
35,544
44,777
20,744
9,268

1,751
2,054
2,446
2,914
3,588

1,750
2,042
2,428
2,906
3,620

1,555
1,849
2,246
2,686
3,386

1,989
2,241
2,626
3,136
3,855

21,017
24,643
29,351
34,966
43,055

21,000
24,501
29,136
34,870
43,440

18,660
22,191
26,955
32,238
40,634

23,866
26,893
31,512
37,635
46,260

20,287
45,294
37,403
15,077
2,512
230

2,432
2,915
3,505
4,122
4,870
5,975

2,405
2,916
3,457
4,032
4,831
5,958

2,192
2,666
3,205
3,762
4,405
5,520

2,661
3,150
3,757
4,453
5,354
6,422

29,178
34,986
42,066
49,464
58,443
71,695

28,860
34,986
41,483
48,381
57,977
71,496

26,310
31,987
38,460
45,144
52,860
66,240

31,936
37,800
45,082
53,430
64,245
77,069

103
344

1,853
2,108

1,841
2,001

1,600
1,806

1,914
2,370

22,240
25,295

22,091
24,014

19,200
21,668

22,968
28,442

Auditors
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Public accountants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Chief accountants
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Attorneys
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
Buyers
1 .......................................................................

II ......................................................................
Ill .................... ................................................
IV .....................................................................
Computer programmers
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Systems analysts
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV ......................................................x.............
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
Job analysts

See footnotes at end of table.




14

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Job analysts
III .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

Number of
employees3

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

617
516

$2,548
3,186

$2,432
3,090

$2,215
2,834

$2,882
3,458

$30,575
38,231

$29,188
37,084

$26,580
34,009

$34,586
41,495

1,155
1,748
1,061
382

3,275
3,896
5,366
6,242

3,207
3,911
5,165
6,000

2,974
3,415
4,900
5,748

3,512
4,355
5,706
6,896

39,298
46,750
64,394
74,908

38,485
46,927
61,975
72,000

35,686
40,984
58,800
68,972

42,144
52,260
68,473
82,751

3,260
6,042
8,862
7,774
6,033
2,995
702

1,869
2,272
2,863
3,470
4,226
5,078
6,259

1,845
2,250
2,816
3,450
4,198
5,091
6,099

1,591
1,968
2,550
3,166
3,885
4,612
5,734

2,041
2,499
3,195
3,751
4,482
5,555
6,872

22,426
27,260
34,353
41,642
50,711
60,931
75,110

22,145
27,000
33,786
41,400
50,380
61,093
73,192

19,092
23,616
30,600
37,989
46,620
55,344
68,812

24,488
29,988
38,337
45,012
53,782
66,657
82,467

37,755
64,658
129,153
143,389
105,902
50,285
13,036
2,897

2,323
2,607
2,981
3,560
4,231
4,908
5,716
6,584

2,365
2,604
2,962
3,539
4,204
4,881
5,650
6,545

2,207
2,416
2,725
3,255
3,856
4,450
5,200
6,043

2,475
2,791
3,217
3,835
4,582
5,335
6,110
7,070

27,875
31,283
35,771
42,724
50,776
58,893
68,586
79,008

28,381
31,247
35,542
42,463
50,448
58,570
67,800
78,540

26,489
28,988
32,700
39,060
46,276
53,400
62,395
72,516

29,700
33,492
38,604
46,016
54,978
64,020
73,320
84,840

5,323
16,096
30,383
33,193
18,516

1,415
1,696
1,992
2,374
2,731

1,387
1,669
1,974
2,353
2,707

1,286
1,525
1,778
2,149
2,500

1,549
1,841
2,175
2,583
2,951

16,975
20,355
23,901
28,488
32,778

16,639
20,033
23,688
28,234
32,487

15,438
18,303
21,339
25,790
30,002

18,594
22,091
26,096
30,996
35,409

2,501
10,155
22,943
22,120
13,435

1,094
1,335
1,706
2,063
2,598

1,083
1,317
1,695
2,045
2,548

953
1,176
1,511
1,833
2,284

1,183
1,465
1,868
2,255
2,882

13,130
16,020
20,475
24,759
31,170

12,999
15,807
20,341
24,542
30,574

11,439
14,112
18,132
21,991
27,408

14,194
17,575
22,411
27,062
34,588

9,711
34,365
23,410
7,678
1,237

1,164
1,446
1,807
2,050
2,415

1,141
1,416
1,766
2,022
2,428

1,025
1,250
1,581
1,824
2,140

1,270
1,604
1,986
2,244
2,615

13,966
17,351
21,688
24,597
28,983

13,687
16,993
21,192
24,264
29,138

12,300
14,994
18,972
21,890
25,678

15,240
19,242
23,835
26,934
31,380

334
713
694
313
97

1,426
1,884
2,283
2,665
2,960

1,375
1,924
2,231
2,650
2,992

1,205
1,638
2,083
2,403
2,456

1,620
2,083
2,507
2,887
3,410

17,109
22,606
27,395
31,981
35,523

16,503
23,086
26,772
31,800
35,904

14,455
19,654
24,996
28,836
29,472

19,440
24,996
30,088
34,643
40,919

Directors of personnel
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Chemists
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V .....................................................................
V I ....................................................................
V II...................................................................
Engineers
1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
Ill ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
V I ....................................................................
V II...................................................................
V III..................................................................
Engineering technicians
1 ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
Ill ....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Drafters
1 ......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Computer operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Photographers
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




15

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level1
2

Number of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accounting clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

31,950
119,122
70,880
20,794

$1,052
1,234
1,502
1,821

$1,005
1,192
1,462
1,765

$867
1,062
1,322
1,549

$1,127
1,348
1,647
2,019

$12,624
14,814
18,030
21,847

$12,063
14,304
17,543
21,175

$10,399
12,745
15,864
18,593

$13,519
16,173
19,758
24,230

19,824
9,773
2,053

865
1,016
1,311

845
958
1,256

769
880
1,135

930
1,104
1,435

10,386
12,188
15,729

10,139
11,495
15,072

9,222
10,562
13,623

11,160
13,246
17,214

1 ............ ..........................................................
II ......................................................................

62,303
28,700

1,099
1,419

1,050
1,350

927
1,183

1,213
1,575

13,183
17,032

12,595
16,197

11,127
14,194

14,559
18,900

Messengers....................................

9,258

1,029

945

854

1,116

12,345

11,340

10,246

13,394

2,252
3,619
2,821
1,196

1,184
1,420
1,660
1,984

1,176
1,354
1,652
1,938

1,040
1,255
1,473
1,758

1,287
1,547
1,833
2,175

14,203
17,045
19,924
23,804

14,111
16,244
19,821
23,262

12,479
15,060
17,679
21,096

15,443
18,564
21,991
26,102

3,395
4,678
3,934
1,025

1,178
1,470
1,881
2,452

1,127
1,416
1,848
2,354

1,041
1,293
1,626
2,145

1,261
1,564
2,093
2,794

14,131
17,637
22,578
29,427

13,519
16,993
22,176
28,248

12,495
15,516
19,509
25,738

15,134
18,763
25,114
33,530

55,146
65,550
103,559
46,794
15,402

1,371
1,529
1,768
1,990
2,352

1,303
1,490
1,710
1,958
2,292

1,165
1,325
1,524
1,750
2,015

1,500
1,693
1,960
2,203
2,635

16,456
18,342
21,211
23,878
28,225

15,640
17,880
20,520
23,491
27,501

13,982
15,900
18,290
21,000
24,180

18,000
20,316
23,520
26,435
31,620

6,423
5,602

1,548
1,814

1,539
1,850

1,258
1,624

1,848
1,962

18,572
21,764

18,469
22,200

15,096
19,488

22,176
23,539

22,502
12,337

1,062
1,407

1,030
1,337

924
1,166

1,150
1,616

12,750
16,879

12,362
16,044

11,088
13,994

13,800
19,395

10,265
50,569
60,052
31,583

885
1,067
1,298
1,621

866
1,023
1,257
1,560

780
898
1,107
1,387

953
1,148
1,436
1,872

10,624
12,800
15,580
19,454

10,393
12,275
15,079
18,719

9,359
10,776
13,280
16,639

11,439
13,774
17,232
22,466

File clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
Key entry operators

Personnel clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Secretaries
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Stenographers
1 .......................................................................

II ......................................................................
Typists
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
General clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................

increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses, and
incentive payments, however, are included.
5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range
is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or
more than the higher rate.

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendixC.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace
industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay




16

Table 3. Average salaries: By size of establishment
(Employment and average annual salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, three
establishment size groupings,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Establishments employing 50-999
workers3
Occupation and level2
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6

Establishments employing
1,000-2,499 workers
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more4
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

2,826
7,353
9,361
6,303
2,536

$22,436
28,597
33,205
39,987
50,090

$22,091
28,189
32,783
39,300
48,970

25,290
31,915
39,146

1,020
1,628
837

27,436
33,681
39,929

26,324
33,000
39,456

32,029
39,948
49,659
63,212
79,395

31,287
39,600
49,552
62,075
77,760

307
713
1,215
1,346
900

35,293
42,319
52,805
64,475
78,598

35,400
42,077
51,292
62,975
77,508

965
2,940
2,835

22,885
27,737
34,131

22,920
27,000
33,731

1,607
5,161
6,936

23,581
27,984
34,255

22,878
27,391
33,687

19,008
23,591
28,320
33,986

4,043
8,785
9,429
4,249

21,321
24,526
28,771
34,229

21,660
24,795
28,577
34,260

4,029
11,502
18,324
10,797

22,941
26,028
30,542
35,525

22,740
26,004
30,156
35,268

28,539
34,199
41,502
49,287

28,442
34,086
41,453
49,084

4,865
10,139
8,504
2,602

29,248
35,132
42,718
50,079

29,014
34,986
42,223
49,278

7,505
18,072
17,308
8,732

29,797
35,469
42,017
49,455

29,220
35,424
40,968
48,381

712

62,408

61,016

320

65,003

63,575

147

68,364

66,973

3,943
6,264
4,845
3,105

25,781
32,913
40,337
49,906

25,680
32,487
39,932
49,548

1,216
1,594
1,757
1,543

26,742
33,389
41,192
50,690

26,689
33,137
40,984
50,480

1,514
2,386
2,655
2,618

31,283
37,869
43,992
51,585

31,440
38,040
43,826
50,958

13,871
23,687
56,039
53,788
29,213
10,790
2,771

25,955
29,640
34,486
41,840
49,575
56,720
70,444

26,190
29,638
34,186
41,583
49,080
57,777
69,672

7,025
12,996
25,196
28,225
20,870
11,966
2,839

28,607
32,642
37,305
43,789
51,377
58,810
68,631

28,650
32,580
37,200
43,248
50,580
58,092
67,075

19,573
34,653
63,930
75,020
61,830
29,349
7,785

28,954
31,713
36,167
42,859
51,128
59,708
67,935

28,806
31,458
36,000
42,768
50,980
59,176
67,200

2,793

16,295

16,119

1,751

16,790

16,633

1,253

18,318

17,893

Mean7

Median7

Mean7

Median7

7,613
16,674
30,178
13,592
3,743

$20,111
24,165
30,466
38,840
47,968

$19,992
23,990
29,988
38,784
47,381

3,407
5,284
6,689
3,838
1,948

$21,896
25,701
31,316
39,755
50,538

$21,491
25,380
30,852
39,456
49,760

1,255
2,135
741

25,387
31,213
39,353

25,190
30,988
38,984

653
946
444

25,419
31,486
39,873

826
1,939
2,286
1,480
690

29,124
38,559
48,862
63,768
77,760

28,489
37,985
47,981
63,974
79,968

244
547
846
674
257

4,342
14,889
8,552

20,011
25,540
32,851

19,774
25,499
32,009

7,902
18,253
19,243
6,478

19,507
23,647
28,435
34,361

9,032
19,307
13,131
4,172

Accountants
1.....................................................................
I I ....................................................................
I l l ...................................................................
I V ..................................................................
V ...................................................................
Auditors
I I ....................................................................
I l l ...................................................................
IV ..................................................................
Attorneys
1.....................................................................
I I ....................................................................
I l l ...................................................................
IV ..................................................................
V ...................................................................
Buyers
1.....................................................................
I I ....................................................................
I l l ...................................................................
Computer programmers

I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ...................................................................
Systems analysts
1.....................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ...................................................................
Directors of personnel
III....................................................................
Chemists
I I ....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
V ...................................................................
Engineers
1......................................................................
I I ....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ..................................................................
V .......................................................................
VI ......................................................................
VII .....................................................................

Engineering technicians
1.........................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




17

Table 3. Average salaries: By size of establishment—Continued
(Employment and average annual salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, three
establishment size groupings,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Establishments employing 50-999
workers3
Occupation and level2
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

7,041
11,036
8,070
1,574

$19,794
23,424
27,869
32,192

$19,758
23,400
27,828
31,260

9,253
18,547
13,781
4,719

15,168
19,504
23,858
29,721

6,385
23,916
13,361
2,527

Establishments employing
1,000-2,499 workers
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

5,010
7,286
7,212
3,701

$20,051
23,731
28,726
33,746

$19,752
23,242
28,289
33,693

14,767
19,343
23,918
29,580

1,199
2,704
3,787
2,635

18,087
21,443
25,242
29,459

13,111
16,334
20,692
23,446

12,999
16,181
20,340
23,328

2,224
6,918
5,150
1,468

28,256
109,174
54,519
11,926

11,974
14,141
17,204
20,466

11,851
13,980
16,899
20,400

17,904
7,396

10,223
11,851

1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................

55,557
17,090

Messengers..................................

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more4
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Median7

5,291
13,871
20,115
14,124

$21,248
24,358
28,517
32,507

$20,904
24,119
28,319
32,175

17,928
21,264
24,924
29,772

1,650
4,719
6,803
7,008

18,074
22,231
25,931
32,449

17,610
22,254
25,404
31,887

13,943
17,891
21,654
23,800

13,733
17,471
21,240
23,502

2,095
6,696
7,187
4,064

15,375
19,685
22,978
25,507

14,834
19,668
22,566
25,257

3,711
12,451
12,077
3,104

12,403
15,879
18,804
21,675

11,995
15,594
18,781
21,240

4,056
11,558
12,619
7,324

16,398
18,555
20,376
24,245

15,287
18,490
20,052
23,990

10,092
11,295

1,819
1,095

10,605
12,416

9,660
11,699

1,193
1,619

11,595
13,375

10,659
12,219

12,804
16,081

12,479
15,594

6,584
5,905

13,842
17,042

12,780
16,605

6,686
7,775

15,308
18,595

14,400
17,887

4,679

11,178

10,796

2,493

12,597

11,622

2,670

13,901

12,684

1,560
2,886
2,248
690

13,913
16,227
19,064
22,379

14,034
15,813
18,888
21,291

603
798
383
163

14,553
17,315
20,752
22,376

14,663
16,847
20,276
22,491

358
730
624
445

14,806
19,124
21,325
26,241

14,394
18,552
21,226
26,102

3,296
3,759
1,883

13,742
16,662
21,227

13,519
16,194
20,341

482
851
399

14,473
17,527
20,715

14,351
17,221
20,694

236
975
1,915

16,527
19,459
23,863

15,599
18,723
23,890

35,490
36,159
50,044
21,727
5,544

15,279
17,581
19,954
22,870
26,737

15,079
17,304
19,524
22,671
26,640

8,409
12,090
19,895
9,267
3,477

15,859
17,837
20,754
23,343
26,185

15,599
17,291
20,278
23,167
25,920

15,960
21,201
40,665
18,409
7,017

18,902
19,811
22,822
25,233
30,014

18,000
19,200
22,046
24,958
29,274

1,391

Engineering technicians
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
V ....................................................................

Mean7

15,601

15,132

876

20,122

20,538

4,544

18,885

18,979

Drafters
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
V ....................................................................
Computer operators
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ...................................................................
Accounting clerks
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
IV ...................................................................
File clerks
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
Key entry operators

Personnel clerks/assistants
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
Secretaries

I I .....................................................................

Stenographers

See footnotes at end of table.




18

Table 3. Average salaries: By size of establishment—Continued
(Employment and average annual salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, three
establishment size groupings,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Establishments employing 50-999
workers3
Occupation and level2
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

17,465
4,953

$12,121
16,103

$12,011
15,599

8,622
42,746
39,148
14,590

9,926
12,108
14,968
18,240

9,983
11,745
14,559
17,993

Establishments employing
1,000-2,499 workers
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

3,464
2,901

$13,008
15,646

$12,307
14,760

1,147
6,781
9,308
6,286

12,161
12,687
15,053
19,404

11,443
12,479
14,714
18,593

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more4
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

4,196
4,988

$14,160
18,302

$13,259
17,760

2,042
9,832
16,645
12,596

11,864
15,467
17,000
20,535

11,630
14,039
16,171
20,611

Typists
1.....................................................................
I I ....................................................................
General clerks
1.....................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ...................................................................
I V ...................................................................

holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace
industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay
increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses,
and incentive payments, however, are included.
7
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown.

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Includes establishments employing fewer than 50 workers at the
time of the survey.
4 Includes data from some large companies that provide company-wide
data not identified by size of establisment.
5 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
6 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,




19

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1986)
Chief accountants

Accountants
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

II

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

13,846
$21,024

29,311
$25,554

46,228
$31,143

23,733
$39,293

8,227
$49,231

1,397
$61,546

1,454
$47,963

475
$62,880

230
$80,409

T o ta l..................................................
Under $15,500 ........................................
$15,500 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................

100.0
1.9
6.6
12.9
17.2
22.2
17.2
10.3
4.8
3.5
1.6

100.0
(2
)
.6
2.2
4.9
8.5
14.0
14.5
14.9
11.9
9.7

100.0
(2
)
(2
)
.4
.5
1.6
3.2
7.0
9.1
13.9

100.0
(2
)
.1
.1
.3
.5
1.5

100.0
(2
)

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

.7
.5
.3
.1
.1

6.2
3.8
3.9
2.2
1.2
.7
.5
.3
.1
(2
)

14.5
12.1
8.8
10.3
6.2
3.9
2.7
2.2
1.9
.8

2.3
4.4
4.8
9.4
9.5
10.6
12.3
12.2
8.2
6.3

.1
.7

_
6.9
4.1
1.0
.9
6.3
1.4

_
-

_
-

.4
.2
.1
.1
.1

5.3
3.5
2.6
1.9
.6
.8
.6
.5
.4
.1

11.6
7.7
9.2
7.1
7.9
6.5
6.5
4.9
4.3
2.5

.6
1.6
1.0
3.7
3.1
5.5
5.5
8.2
5.9
5.1

18.8
5.6
5.2
17.3
6.1
6.6
3.9
6.5
3.8
1.0

_
7.2
2.1
3.6
3.6
2.1
3.8
6.5
8.2

_
-

.2
.1

2.1
1.1
1.4
.5
.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.3

8.2
5.8
5.8
7.4
7.6
4.7
2.4
2.6
3.1
2.0

1.7
1.7
.5
.1

9.7
4.0
3.4
6.1
2.5
2.3
9.1
1.9
10.1
2.5

_

.4
.9
10.4
.9
6.1
.4
.9
2.6
5.7

.3
.2
.2

2.9
1.4
1.2
.6
.8
.4
.6
.4
.2
.1

-

2.3
4.4
.8
1.7
1.1
.6
.2

3.5
16.5
1.3
3.0
3.0
6.1
10.0
5.7
.9

.2

-

-

2.2
5.7
1.3
.9
11.3

$29,000
$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

(2
)
-

$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

(2
)
(2
)
-

$59,000
$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

-

$74,000
$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500
$89,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$89,000
$90,500
$92,000
$93,500
$95,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $90,500 ..................
under $92,000 ..................
under $93,500 ..................
under $95,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

(2
)
.4
.3
(2
)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

.1
.2
.5
2.4
2.9
5.0
5.1
7.3

_

(2
)
-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
.4

-

20

(2
)
(2
)

“

-

See footnotes at end of table.




(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

_
-

.1
.1
.3

.3
.6
-

-

-

_________

.2
-

.4
-

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1986)
Public accountants

Auditors
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

1,756
$21,545

2,928
$26,108

4,709
$32,121

2,022
$39,705

11,606
$20,468

11,595
$22,714

8,897
$26,633

4,275
$32,116

T o ta l.................................................
Under $15,500 ........................................
$15,500 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................

100.0
.6
4.7
8.9
10.6
28.3
23.6
11.3
5.5
3.5
.7

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
.3
1.2
12.7
25.7
39.6
13.5
5.0
1.7
.1
.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

.8
.7
.1
.3
.2

5.4
3.8
4.4
1.3
1.6
1.2
.5
.3
.2
.1

$29,000
$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000

$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $45,500 ..................
under $47,000 ..................
under $48,500 ..................
under $50,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

.1
-

-

_
“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.9
4.9
4.6
9.8
18.3
19.1
13.3
10.2

.2
.3
1.1
3.8
7.4
9.1
9.2
8.8
15.2
9.9
8.7
6.9
7.2
3.1
3.5
1.6
1.1

2.2
4.3
9.0
10.2
6.0
9.2
14.1
8.2
6.9
5.9

1.1
.4
.6
.3
.5

4.2
7.8
2.6
2.6
5.6

(2
)
<
*>
-

See footnotes at end of table.




.1
.2
.7

21

1.4
6.3
19.6
36.6
20.0
11.0
2.9
.9

_

.6
.3
.1

-

-

-

(2
)
0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

4.5
8.9
14.6
22.0
18.0
13.9

(*)
.4
.6
4.2
9.4
11.3

6.2
5.5
2.6
1.7
.7
.4
.1
.2
.1
-

15.8
14.4
9.8
10.0
9.6
5.0
3.3
3.1
1.4
.3

.1
.1
.2
.2
.1

.9
.2
.2
-

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1986)
Job analysts

Directors of personnel

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

103
$22,240

350
$25,288

624
$30,605

520
$38,206

1,849
$39,817

2,082
$46,328

1,179
$63,855

395
$75,170

T o ta l..................................................
Under $17,000 ........................................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................
$29,000 and under $30,500 ..................

100.0
4.9
8.7
21.4
10.7
31.1
3.9
3.9
4.9
1.0

100.0
1.1
8.0
15.1
15.1
16.9
9.7
6.6
4.3
6.6

100.0
1.3
.2
3.0
4.5
12.8
11.5
15.5
7.5

100.0
.2
1.5
4.8
1.0

100.0
.8
2.0
2.1
3.7

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

9.3
5.9
5.1
6.7
5.0
4.8
1.6
1.3
1.8
.8

6.5
8.3
10.2
10.8
13.5
9.0
7.3
6.2
2.9
4.4

2.9
6.9
5.0
12.1
10.8
8.5
8.5
7.4
.5
3.9

3.1
11.9
1.8
1.2
4.3
6.3
7.8
5.7
3.4

_
-

_
-

.8

1.3
3.1
1.2
3.7
1.7
2.1
.4

10.1
9.4
4.2
2.7
6.2
2.7
3.7
3.0
5.9
1.4

.8
.4
5.6
1.4
2.1
1.8
3.7
6.3
5.5
12.6

2.8
1.3
.3

1.2
.6
1.2
.6
.1
.2
.6
.1

12.5
5.3
4.9
5.9
4.5
2.9
1.6
1.8
.7
1.0

6.8
1.5
1.0
5.3
6.6
8.1
16.7
10.4
2.0

.1

3.0
1.1
6.4
.9
2.0
.1
1.0
.1
.4
.1
1.3
.6

1.5
2.0
2.0
4.3
4.1
6.3
1.8
2.0
2.5
2.5
1.3
6.8

$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
.................. '
..................
..................
..................
..................

3.9
4.9
1.0
-

7.7
1.4
2.6
4.3
.3
.3
-

$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.3
5.9
2.1
2.1
1.8
2.5
1.6
.1
.4

$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500
$89,000
$90,500
$92,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $77,000 ..................
under $78,500 ..................
under $80,000 ..................
under $81,500 ..................
under $83,000 ..................
under $84,500 ..................
under $86,000 ..................
under $87,500 ..................
under $89,000 ..................
under $90,500 ..................
under $92,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_
”

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

.5

See footnotes at end of table.




22

-

-

-

-

(2
)
(2
)
-

.4

-

“

.3
.9
.3

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii,’March 1986)
Attorneys
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

1,377
$31,014

3,199
$39,635

4,347
$50,119

3,500
$63,933

1,847
$78,396

587
$101,169

T o ta l.................................................
Under $24,500 ........................................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................
$29,000 and under $30,500 ..................
$30,500 and under $32,000 ..................
$32,000 and under $33,500 ..................
$33,500 and under $35,000 ..................
$35,000 and under $36,500 ..................
$36,500 and under $38,000 ..................

100.09.0
13.1
6.8
11.4
12.6
9.9
12.6
4.5
5.1
3.7

100.0
1.4
.3
.2
2.7
3.2
4.9
8.8
12.4
9.8

100.0
.1
.4
1.4
.9

100.0
(2
)
(2
)

100.0
-

100.0
-

3.1
2.4
1.3
2.0
1.5
.4
.1
.4
.1
-

10.0
7.5
8.6
9.2
8.3
4.1
2.1
1.9
1.3
.8

3.5
2.8
3.5
7.7
8.9
8.9
8.9
7.5
7.9
7.2

.1

.5
1.2
.1
.2
.1
.3
.2

6.4
5.8
3.0
2.7
2.6
2.7
.9
1.4
.8
.7

4.7
4.3
4.3
4.2
6.9
4.6
5.4
6.7
2.5
8.3

.8
.4
1.4
1.5
2.3
1.2
.8
3.3
2.2
2.7

-

1.2
.7
.6
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

2.9
7.8
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.5
4.5
1.9
.6
1.5

2.6
9.7
6.0
3.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
3.4
7.3

_

.5
.5
.7
.3
.7
.5
.1
.4
.2

2.6
5.7
3.8
3.0
3.4
1.9
3.6
2.5
2.3
1.2

3.1
3.6
2.2
4.4
2.6
2.2
2.9
2.2
7.8
5.3

.9
1.2
.5
.2

3.7
10.6
7.7
12.9
3.1
2.0
1.2
9.9

$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

-

(2
)
-

-

-

$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500
$89,000
$90,500
$92,000
$93,500
$95,000
$98,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$84,500 ..................
$86,000 ..................
$87,500 ..................
$89,000 ..................
$90,500 ..................
$92,000 ..................
$93,500 ..................
$95,000 ..................
$98,000 ..................
$101,000 ................

_

_

_

-

-

(2
)
-

under $104,000 ..............
under $107,000 ..............
under $110,000 ..............
under $113,000 ..............
under $116,000 ..............
under $119,000 ..............
under $122,000 ..............
o v e r.................................

_

$101,000
$104,000
$107,000
$110,000
$113,000
$116,000
$119,000
$122,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




-

-

-

.1
.4

-

“

23

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

See footnotes at end of table.

_

.1
.1
.4
.4
1.6
1.2
1.6
3.0
8.4

-

-

“

-

-

-

.4

__________

-

-

.5
1.0
.7
.5
.9
6.1
2.0
.9

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1986)
Buyers
Mrinuai salary
I

II

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

6,914
$21,242

22,990
$26,369

18,323
$33,580

4,798
$41,304

T o ta l..................................................
Under $14,000 ........................................
$14,000 and under $15,500 ..................
$15,500 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................

100.0
1.2
3.6
5.5
11.0
20.0
19.6
12.2
11.9
5.0
3.7

100.0
(2
)

100.0
(2
)

100.0
(2
)

2.1
1.3
1.0
.8
.4
.4
.2

12.7
6.8
5.0
3.3
2.6
1.5
.7
.9
.3
.2

$27,500
$29,000
$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$29,000
$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3
2.3
2.9
5.0
8.8
14.5
16.6
15.4

-

-

_

under $44,000 ..................
under $45,500 ..................
under $47,000 ..................
under $48,500 ..................
under $50,000 ..................
under $51,500 ..................
under $53,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

-

-

-

“

.1
.4

“

1.3
1.4
3.7
5.2
7.5
7.9
6.9
10.0
6.9
10.1

2.2
1.6
.9
.8
.4
.4
.2
.1

-

-

-

9.0
10.7
12.8
11.3
11.0
8.2
6.9
4.8
5.3
2.5

-

-

_

.2
.2
1.9
3.0
5.6

-

-

-

<
*>

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

-

-

-

8.4
5.4
5.5
4.8
3.2
3.6
2.0
6.0

Computer programmers
I

II

Ill

IV

V

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

15,974
$20,832

38,540
$24,558

46,996
$29,324

21,524
$34,919

9,492
$42,934

T o ta l..................................................
Under $15,500 ........................................
$15,500 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................

100.0
8.0
6.7
12.3
15.7
17.2
11.9
11.7
9.8
3.7
1.9

100.0
.4
.6
2.1
6.0
9.1
15.9
16.3
16.4
14.8
9.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

.7
.2
.1

4.4
2.3
1.0
.5
.3
.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(*>

16.7
13.2
9.0
4.8
3.8
2.0
.7
.7
.2
.1

$29,000
$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $45,500 ..................
under $47,000 ..................
under $48,500 ..................
under $50,000 ..................
under $51,500 ..................
under $53,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

(2
)
-

-

_
-

(2
)
-

See footnotes at end of table.




24

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.2
.4
1.2
2.0
5.1
10.2
12.8
16.8

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
“

-

-

(2
)

-

.2
.5
1.2
1.3
3.7

.1
.2
.4
.7

6.5
10.1
13.8
15.9
13.6
11.8
9.0
5.4
3.2
2.0

.7
1.3
1.4
2.0
2.7
4.3
5.9
9.0
13.6
14.1

.7
.5
.3
.1

13.5
12.6
8.1
4.9
2.5
1.0
1.1

(2)
.1
.1

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1986)
Systems analysts
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

Number of employees...........................
Average annual salary...........................

21,402
$29,141

47,518
$34,881

38,943
$41,997

15,506
$49,515

2,666
$58,404

233
$71,770

T o ta l.................................................
Under $20,000 ........................................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................
$29,000 and under $30,500 ..................
$30,500 and under $32,000 ..................
$32,000 and under $33,500 ..................

100.0
.3
1.1
3.8
6.3
11.6
13.6
15.4
14.1
10.0
10.5

100.0
(2
)
.1
.3
.3
1.5
2.5
3.9
7.8
10.5
12.6

100.0
(2
)
.2
.3
.5
1.3
2.0

100.0
(2
)
(2
)
.1
.1
.1
.4

100.0
.2
-

100.0
-

$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.7
3.1
2.4
1.0
.6
.4
.2
(2
)
(2
)
-

12.6
13.6
11.8
7.2
5.8
4.1
2.5
1.3
.7
.3

4.0
6.5
8.2
9.4
15.4
9.9
10.6
8.8
6.5
5.1

.5
1.0
1.7
2.5
2.8
3.5
5.4
8.2
7.2
17.3

.6
.6
.2
.9
.6
.7
1.4
.6
1.5
2.1

_
-

$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000
$63,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

.1
.1
.1

-

9.5
6.0
6.7
5.7
5.4
4.1
3.0
3.2
1.3
1.0

2.9
5.3
8.5
8.0
7.9
7.1
6.4
8.7
4.0
4.7

-

-

3.6
2.3
1.6
1.1
.9
.5
.4
.2
.2
.2

_

-

-

.9
1.1
.5
.3
.1
.2
.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

5.0
3.7
5.2
4.0
2.5
1.4
1.7
1.1
.5
.5

6.4
6.0
7.3
9.9
4.7
9.4
6.9
3.0
4.7
6.4

.4
.4
.2
.6

4.7
1.7
5.6
9.0

-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000

and
and
and
and

under $80,000 ..................
under $81,500 ..................
under $83,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000
$78,500

(2
)
.1
(2
)
(*>
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

(2
)
(2
)

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




25

1.7
1.3
1.3
1.7
3.0
5.2

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,1
March 1986)
Chemists
Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

3,580
$22,539

6,673
$27,205

10,244
$34,141

9,257
$41,548

7,266
$50,678

3,632
$60,796

848
$74,607

T o ta l..................................................
Under $17,000 ........................................
$17,000 and under $18,500 ..................
$18,500 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................
$29,000 and under $30,500 ..................

100.0
5.4
12.0
10.1
13.4
14.8
19.9
8.7
6.3
2.9
.8

100.0
.1
.2
2.4
4.4
9.7
14.2
10.5
15.3
11.3
10.6

100.0
-

100.0

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

4.6
.7

7.0
4.4
5.1
2.1
1.0
.7
.6
.1

12.9
13.9
11.6
8.3
5.6
7.4
4.9
6.4
2.2
1.7

2.1
2.4
5.2
7.8
8.7
9.8
11.2
11.8
9.4
7.1

1.1
.3
.1

6.9
5.2
4.5
2.0
1.8
1.7
.6
.2

$30,500
$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$45,500
$47,000
$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$47,000 ..................
$48,500 ..................
$50,000 ...........................
$51,500 ...........................
$53,000 ...........................
$54,500 ...........................
$56,000 ...........................
$57,500 ...........................
$59,000 ...........................
$60,500 ...........................

-

.1
.2
.1
-

-

-

-

-

(2
)

-

-

-

(*)

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

(*)

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1
1.2

0
(2
)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1
.2
2.1
.7
2.6
2.5
6.6
6.1

.5
.1
2.8
.5
1.7
.9

6.7
7.7
11.6
12.5
9.4
7.6
5.3
4.2
3.8
3.2

1.6
1.2
1.8
2.0
3.7
5.9
4.6
4.4
6.9
9.4

-

.4
_

.4
-

.2
-

.9
1.8
.5

-

-

(*)
-

-

-

-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

1.7
2.3
1.2
.7
.4
.4
.2
(2
)
(2
)
.1

9.1
4.7
7.8
7.0
4.8
3.7
2.6
3.2
2.0
2.1

4.6
.7
4.1
7.4
7.4
4.8
13.4
3.7
4.2
4.5

(2
)
(*)
(2
)

1.0
1.2
.2
1.4
.7
.2

4.2
3.5
3.5
4.8
3.1
3.5
3.2
2.5
2.1
.7

.1
.1

$60,500
$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$62,000
$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500

...........................

_

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

-

-

-

-

$75,500
$77,000
$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500
$89,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $77,000
under $78,500
under $80,000
under $81,500
under $83,000
under $84,500
under $86,000
under $87,500
under $89,000
under $90,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(2
)
-

$90,500
$92,000
$93,500
$95,000
$96,500

and
and
and
and
and

under $92,000 ..................
under $93,500 ..................
under $95,000 ...........................
under $96,500 ...........................
o v e r ....................................................

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

“

”

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

-

.1
.6
1.1
3.2
4.4
3.8
10.4

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

26

-

.2
“
-

2.5
2.4
1.3
1.1
2.5

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,1
March 1986)
Engineers
Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

40,469
$27,866

71,336
$31,194

145,165
$35,715

157,033
$42,677

111,913
$50,769

52,105
$58,883

13,395
$68,602

3,097
$79,021

T o ta l..................................................
Under $20,000 ........................................
$20,000 and under $21,500 ..................
$21,500 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,500 ..................
$24,500 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,500 ..................
$27,500 and under $29,000 ..................
$29,000 and under $30,500 ..................
$30,500 and under $32,000 ..................
$32,000 and under $33,500 ..................

100.0
1.3
2.8
6.0
4.2
8.0
14.2
27.1
20.7
10.1
3.4

100.0
(1
2
)
.2
1.0
1.7
4.2
6.2
13.0
16.0
17.4
16.0

100.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
ft
.6
1.4
3.3
6.7
8.8
11.1

100.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
.1
.5
.9
1.9

100.0
ft
ft
ft
ft
.2

100.0
ft
-

100.0
ft
-

100.0
ft
-

1.4
.5
.2
.1
.1

11.7
6.3
3.4
1.6
.6
.3
.2
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

14.2
13.1
12.0
9.5
7.6
4.9
2.9
1.7
1.1
.4

3.3
5.1
7.3
8.9
11.3
11.6
11.6
9.7
8.2
6.4

.2
.5
.8
1.5
2.5
3.7
4.7
6.9
8.0
8.7

ft
-

_
ft
-

.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

4.4
2.9
2.5
1.2
.8
.4
.3
.2
.1
.1

9.6
9.3
8.7
7.2
6.4
5.9
4.2
3.6
2.8
1.4

3.5
4.6
6.3
7.0
6.8
6.8
7.8
7.5
6.8
6.7

.4
.7
1.1
1.3
2.3
2.7
3.4
4.7
6.6
6.8

.1

1.1
.6
.5
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

5.9
4.4
3.8
3.0
2.7
2.1
1.5
1.1
.8
.5

7.9
5.9
7.1
6.8
9.7
5.0
4.4
4.3
3.1
2.3

2.9
3.7
2.3
3.3
4.3
4.9
6.4
5.9
7.0
5.7

.3
.2
.1
.2

2.6
2.3
1.5
1.1
.8
1.0
.8
.5
.8
.3
.4
1.2

9.7
4.8
7.3
2.9
4.6
2.5
1.4
7.4
1.3
1.4
1.7
5.5

$33,500
$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$35,000
$36,500
$38,000
$39,500
$41,000
$42,500
$44,000
$45,500
$47,000
$48,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

ft
(2
)
-

$48,500
$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$50,000
$51,500
$53,000
$54,500
$56,000
$57,500
$59,000
$60,500
$62,000
$63,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

(2
)
-

$63,500
$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$65,000
$66,500
$68,000
$69,500
$71,000
$72,500
$74,000
$75,500
$77,000
$78,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

-

-

-

$78,500
$80,000
$81,500
$83,000
$84,500
$86,000
$87,500
$89,000
$90,500
$92,000
$93,500
$95,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $80,000 ..................
under $81,500 ..................
under $83,000 ..................
under $84,500 ..................
under $86,000 ..................
under $87,500 ..................
under $89,000 ..................
under $90,500 ..................
under $92,000 ..................
under $93,500 ..................
under $95,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

_
-

(2
)
ft
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

_
-

_

ft
ft
ft

-

-

-

“

“

“

-

-

-

-

1 For the scope of the study.see table A-1 in appendix A .
2 Less than 0.05 percent,




.9
1.1
.8
1.2
2.4
2.5

ft

(2
)
(2
)
-

-

_
-

.1
ft

-

(2
)
(2
)
-

ft
ft

ft
.1
.1

-

ft
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft

.1
.1
.1

_
_
.1
ft
.1
.4
.3
.4
1.9

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100. To
ensure confidentiality of individual company data, open-ended intervals are
used to start and end most distribution tables; in some instances, values isolated
in an interval near the top of a distribution have been suppressed.

27

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1986)
Engineering technicians

Drafters

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

17,342
$20,312

32,193
$23,896

35,397
$28,412

19,399
$32,718

100.0
.5
1.6
3.9
5.2
10.0
17.8
17.4
14.8
10.7

100.0
.2
1.1
1.1
3.5
6.2
9.1
13.3

100.0
(2
)
.1
.8
1.1
1.8
4.6

100.0
(2
)
.3

100.0
-

7.3
4.6
2.6
1.5
.5
.6
.2
.6
.1
.1

15.7
13.2
10.9
8.7
6.3
4.4
2.2
1.6
.9
.8

6.2
7.1
10.1
11.0
12.0
10.9
8.7
6.8
5.5
4.7

.6
1.3
1.6
3.1
4.9
7.5
8.3
9.6
11.2
10.5

.6
.1
.1

3.5
1.6
1.1
1.0
.7
.1
.4
.1
(2
)
(2
)

9.8
7.2
7.2
4.9
3.9
2.5
2.1
1.2
.8
.5

7.9
12.7
8.2
9.2
10.1
8.1
6.6
5.1
4.7
2.9

-

-

.3

1.0

7.3

-

-

Number of employees ............................
5,797
Average annual salary............................ $16,882
T o ta l..................................................
Under $10,000 ........................................
$10,000 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $12,000 ..................
$12,000 and under $13,000 ..................
$13,000 and under $14,000 ..................
$14,000 and under $15,000 ..................
$15,000 and under $16,000 ..................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000
$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$39,000 and o v e r...................................

_
(2
)
-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




28

I

Ill

2,982
$13,054

12,102
$15,854

25,970
$20,201

24,371
$24,652

14,362
$31,004

100.0
3.3
17.1
15.6
15.7
18.3
13.8
7.3
2.1
4.5
1.1

100.0
1.4
5.3
9.3
12.0
15.4
12.9
14.7
9.7
6.1

100.0
-

.4
.8
2.7
5.8
8.2
9.3
12.6

100.0
(2
)
.3
.2
.1
.6
1.3
3.6

100.0
-

.6
.3
.2

4.4
3.1
2.7
1.1
1.0
.5
.1
.2
.1
(2
)

11.2
11.3
10.0
11.4
5.5
3.4
1.7
2.0
.9
1.0

4.3
7.5
8.0
9.6
9.9
11.8
10.2
6.6
6.9
5.8

.1
1.1
2.0
1.0
2.5
3.4
5.7
6.8
7.4
6.7

.1

.4
.5
.2
.1
.1
.5

5.0
2.3
2.1
1.3
1.4
.7
.2
.3
.1
(2
)

7.8
10.1
8.4
6.6
4.4
4.3
3.9
3.9
2.9
2.4

(2
)
(2
)
.2
.3
.7
1.1
1.9
2.7
4.2
5.8

-

-

_
-

IV

V

II

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
-

f2
)

(2
)
.2

8.4

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'March 1986)
Photographers

Computer operators
Annual salary
I

II

III

10,704
Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................ $13,727

37,530
$17,219

25,698
$21,524

100.0
1.0
3.1
10.2
12.8
14.8
17.7
16.1
8.4
5.2
4.2

100.0
.2
.3
.9
2.0
6.1
7.2
10.3
13.0
12.0
12.2

T o ta l..................................................
Under $9,000 ..........................................
$9,000 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $12,000 ..................
$12,000 and under $13,000 ..................
$13,000 and under $14,000 ..................
$14,000 and under $15,000 ..................
$15,000 and under $16,000 ..................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................

IV

V

I

II

Ill

8,059
$24,550

1,260
$28,986

401
$16,636

873
$22,896

791
$27,009

331
$31,584

104
$35,094

100.0
ft
ft
.1
.6
1.1
3.6
5.3
7.3

100.0
ft
.1
.2
.4
.5
1.8

100.0
-

100.0
1.5
12.0
3.2
19.2
14.2
4.0
22.9

100.0
.2
7.2
8.0
.8

100.0
.3
.8

100.0
-

100.0
-

9.6
6.6
4.9
3.7
4.6
2.5
1.9
.3
.4
.2

9.6
10.8
11.8
9.4
9.8
7.5
5.9
4.4
3.8
3.0

3.2
5.0
6.9
8.1
11.2
10.5
11.0
8.4
8.5
6.5

1.5
6.5
4.0
3.0
5.0
1.0
.7

6.2
5.6
8.8
9.6
4.5
9.6
11.6
3.9
3.3
3.6

.5
2.5
4.9
2.1
2.4
6.7
11.0
12.8
11.9
6.4

_
.3
.9
1.2
3.3
3.9
4.5
3.3
6.9

10.6
2.9
2.9

.3
.1
.2

1.5
.9
1.1
1.4
.4
.2
.2
.1
.2
.1

5.5
3.5
2.0
2.2
1.2
.8
1.0
.7
.4
.1

2.5
5.4
6.5
.5
1.3
.1
.8

4.7
10.6
6.3
3.9
5.7
2.4
.8
.9
1.8
.3

6.9
4.5
10.9
7.9
7.9
10.9
4.5
3.0
3.0
5.4

3.8
4.8
7.7
3.8
3.8
5.8
1.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

.1
.1
.1

3.3
3.6
1.2
.3
.3
.3
1.5

_
5.8
11.5
2.9
4.8
4.8
6.7
3.8

-

-

$18,000
$19,000
$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$19,000
$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.6
1.8
.7
.5
.1
.5
.1
(2
)
-

$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $29,000
under $30,000
under $31,000
under $32,000
under $33,000
under $34,000
under $35,000
under $36,000
under $37,000
under $38,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
(2
)
(2
)
-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
-

$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $39,000 ..................
under $40,000 ..................
under $41,000 ..................
under $42,000 ..................
under $43,000 ..................
under $44,000 ..................
under $45,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

_
-

_
-

ft

-

-

-

ft

-

-

-

-

-

~

“

“

ft
ft

“

.5
.5
1.0
4.5
4.2
7.4
9.1
7.9
7.9

NOTE:
100.

29

1.2
-

6.3
8.3
10.9
13.4
3.9
4.0
2.9
1.5
1.4
1.0

-

-

1.4
1.6
.4

_
-

_
-

-

-

“

-

ft
ft

-

1 For the scope of the study.see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




IV

V

“

-

-

-

-

-

_
1.9
1.0

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1986)
Accounting clerks

File clerks

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

36,023
$12,517

133,183
$14,687

79,215
$17,954

22,354
$21,872

20,916
$10,335

10,110
$12,156

2,100
$15,625

T o ta l..................................................
Under $7,500 ..........................................
$7,500 and under $8,000 .......................
$8,000 and under $8,500 .......................
$8,500 and under $9,000 .......................
$9,000 and under $9,500 .......................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................

100.0
.1
.2
2.6
3.8
4.6
5.6
9.4
7.7
9.6
7.7

100.0
(2
)

100.0
(2
)

100.0
(2
)

100.0
3.1
4.7
6.8
8.2
11.5
13.7
11.1
12.0
10.6
4.7

100.0
-

100.0

2.7
4.1
1.5
2.2
.7
.7
.7
.3
.3
.1

6.9
6.3
3.8
7.2
4.2
3.0
1.8
1.5
.6
.8

5.3
3.9
5.1
7.8
9.7
8.8
8.3
6.1
5.7
5.3

.2

.8
.4
.4
.8
.1
.1
.3
.4

2.7
4.7
4.2
3.6
.7
1.7
1.5
1.2
.6
.7

-

-

.4
.1
.7
1.8
2.4
2.3
4.3
5.2

-

-

-

-

-

I2
)
I2
)

-

.2
.3
.6
1.4

.1
(2
)

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

11.9
7.8
5.6
5.1
2.8
2.1
.9
1.4
1.2
.8

6.3
9.6
6.0
7.7
8.2
7.6
5.2
6.8
4.5
4.1

1.1
1.7
2.4
2.6
3.8
4.6
4.9
5.5
7.0
9.1

.2
.3
.2
.7
.3
1.6
1.8
1.6
2.4
3.5

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.2
1.7
1.3
.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
.8
.1

3.1
2.3
2.4
1.2
1.5
1.1
.7
.7
1.2
.5

6.1
6.0
6.1
6.2
5.5
3.5
4.8
2.3
1.3
2.1

2.0
4.2
5.0
5.0
3.2
4.4
4.5
8.4
4.2
5.4

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $23,000 ..................
under $24,000 ..................
under $25,000 ..................
under $26,000 ..................
under $27,000 ..................
under $28,000 ..................
under $29,000 ..................
under $30,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

2.7
.3
.1
(2
)
.2
(2
)
.1

1.3
.8
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1
(2
)
.2

2.8
3.7
1.5
1.1
1.4
.9
.5
.1
.6

8.8
6.2
3.5
3.7
4.9
4.6
3.4
1.4
5.1

-

See footnotes at end of table.




30

-

-

1.6
2.6
4.5
15.8
10.5
15.7
9.3

-

0
.1
.1
.2
(2
)
0
(*>
-

(2
)
.1
I2
)

(2
)
<
*>
(*)

.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1

.2
“

-

-

(2
)

.8
1.1
.3
.9
1.6
4.2

1.1
.2
.9
.6
.7
.8
.2
(2
)
.1

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupatlons-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1March 1986)

Key entry operators
Annual salary

General clerks

Messengers
I

II

II

I

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

9,842
$12,276

68,827
$13,146

30,770
$16,901

11,811
$10,478

59,359
$12,730

65,101
$15,500

33,472
$19,322

T o ta l..................................................
Under $7,500 ..........................................
$7,500 and under $8,000.......................
$8,000 and under $8,500 .......................
$8,500 and under $9,000.......................
$9,000 and under $9,500.......................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................

100.0
.2
.5
3.9
4.3
5.1
7.5
11.1
12.8
8.3
8.0

100.0
.1
.1
1.7
1.3
2.3
3.6
6.9
8.3
7.4
9.5

100.0
0
-

.6
.6
1.0
2.5
1.9

100.0
3.3
4.6
4.2
5.4
15.4
11.1
18.8
7.9
7.6
5.3

100.0
.4
.6
1.7
2.8
4.2
3.8
11.0
6.9
8.7
8.5

100.0
(2
)
.2
.1
.9
1.3
2.0
2.9
4.6

100.0
(2
)
(2
)
.4
.3
.2

-

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
.............. .
..................
..................

5.8
5.3
3.3
3.9
3.4
2.2
1.5
1.4
1.2
.8

8.6
9.7
5.6
6.5
4.5
4.4
3.0
3.7
2.4
1.8

4.7
3.2
4.8
5.0
4.9
5.4
6.6
7.0
7.7
6.7

5.5
2.5
2.1
1.5
1.2
1.5
.5
1.1
.5
.4

9.0
10.1
3.9
6.1
4.5
3.1
2.2
1.2
1.0
1.8

6.0
5.4
5.1
7.6
7.1
7.7
5.2
8.1
5.1
5.2

1.1
1.2
2.4
3.0
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.8
3.5
6.6

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3

4.4
4.1
3.2
2.3
3.4
3.1
2.5
1.7

.3
.3
.1

2.3
.9

.3
1.1
4.1
.3
.4
.4
.2
.2

1.8
1.4
1.0

.8
.8
.1
.2
.2
.3
.2

3.4
3.3
4.5
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.0
.9
1.3
1.3

5.4
5.1
7.5
4.6
2.9
5.2
2.4
3.5
3.2
2.5

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $23,000 ..................
under $24,000 ..................
under $25,000 ..................
under $26,000 ..................
under $27,000 ..................
under $28,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

.9
.2
.4
.1
.4
.1
.1

.5
1.6
.1
.2
.4
.1
.1

1.4
1.3
1.3
.3
.1
.2
.3

8.0
6.3
2.8
2.3
6.1
.4
1.5

.7

.7

1.0
.5
.2
.2
.7

.7

.2

1.7

.7

1.8
1.4
1.1
1.1
.4
.3
4.5

.4
.2
.1
.3
(2
)
.2

See footnotes at end of table.




31

(2
)
.2
(*)
(2
)
(*)
-

.7

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.'March 1986)
Purchasing clerks/assistants

Personnel clerks/assistants
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

2,521
$14,193

4,414
$16,903

3,255
$19,696

1,298
$23,702

4,014
$13,994

5,585
$17,282

4,197
$22,381

1,037
$29,384

T o ta l..................................................
Under $10,000 ........................................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................
$12,000 and under $12,500 ..................
$12,500 and under $13,000 ..................
$13,000 and under $13,500 ..................

100.0
.6
4.6
1.6
3.0
5.6
11.7
4.3
8.4

100.0
.6
.2
.1
.5
1.1
1.7
4.6

100.0
.5
1.6
.1
.1
1.7
.2

100.0
-

100.0
.8
.8
3.4
2.0
11.0
11.0
10.0
4.5

100.0
.4
.4
.5
.9
2.4
3.0

100.0
.1

100.0
-

2.8
6.0
7.2
6.9
10.0
7.1
7.0
8.0

.6
.6
2.3
.3
2.4
1.4
3.6
2.6

7.6
5.4
3.5
3.2
3.1
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.3

3.6
3.1
3.6
3.3
5.6
4.7
5.4
3.1
3.3

1.8
3.9
1.6
.7
.6
.3
.2

7.7
9.0
10.0
8.4
2.2
4.7
2.5

9.5
3.8
3.6
7.3
9.1
12.6
7.0

.2
.6
.1
.1

1.2
.7
1.0
.7
1.1
.5
.5
.3
.6
.2

8.1
5.8
1.6
2.0
3.8
1.8
8.0
2.6
1.7
8.9

-

-

$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

9.1
12.3
9.3
7.4
10.0
2.1
2.3
2.7

5.1
6.4
7.7
6.7
11.6
8.9
7.5
6.1

.2
4.3
1.0
.9
1.7
2.9
6.0
6.0

_

1.5
1.8
1.6
.2

15.5
6.8
6.9
7.6
6.7
2.1
1.6
2.1

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3
2.0
.2
2.1
.1
.2
.7
-

2.4
4.4
4.5
3.2
2.2
2.1
3.6
2.0
.5

3.5
7.0
7.3
6.0
6.8
2.5
4.2
4.2
9.6

1.0
2.8
2.9
5.3
.5
5.9
1.8
10.9
4.4

1.8
.9
.3
2.4
.1
.7
.1
.1
.5

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.4
.2
.1
.1
.3

2.1
1.4
1.6
.9
.2
.2
1.0

5.5
3.8
5.2
2.5
1.8
1.4
.5

9.6
6.8
9.6
6.4
7.3
5.9
1.0

$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $30,000 ..................
under $31,000 ..................
under $32,000 ..................
under $33,000 ..................
under $34,000 ..................
under $35,000 ..................
under $36,000 ..................
under $37,000 ..................
under $38,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

.1

1.1
.1
.3

2.2
4.5
1.7
.5
1.8
.2
1.0
.8
.1

-

_
-

(2
)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




32

.2
-

(2
)
(2
)
.2
.1
-

-

(2
)
“

_

-

.3
.3
.3
.1
.3
.5
.2
1.2

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'March 1986)
Secretaries

Stenographers

Typists

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

I

II

I

II

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

59,859
$16,326

69,450
$18,306

110,604
$21,152

49,403
$23,839

16,038
$28,051

6,811
$18,374

5,648
$21,739

25,125
$12,584

12,842
$16,854

T o ta l.................................................
Under $9,500 ..........................................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................
$12,000 and under $12,500 ..................
$12,500 and under $13,000 ..................
$13,000 and under $13,500 ..................

100.0
.1
.2
.5
.8
1.8
2.7
4.8
5.0
5.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

ft

ft

.1
.6
.5
.9
1.9
1.7

100.0
(2
)
ft
.1
.1
.2
.3
.7

100.0
1.5
.6
.4
.6
1.2
.9
2.5
1.7
3.0

100.0
.4
.2
.4
.2
.9
.5

100.0
9.3
3.4
7.5
6.3
8.5
10.5
10.2
8.2
6.3

100.0
.4
.7
1.8
1.0
1.5
3.0
3.8
4.1
3.7

3.4
6.0
4.7
4.5
3.6
4.0
3.5
4.8

.8
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.8
2.7
2.2
2.4

7.9
6.0
4.8
1.8
2,7
1.2
1.1
1.2

6.5
4.4
6.6
6.5
5.9
6.3
4.7
4.5

ft
ft

.1
-

.1

_

$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

6.9
6.9
6.1
7.3
7.3
5.4
5.1
5.4

2.8
3.2
5.0
4.4
7.0
6.0
7.3
6.3

.6
.8
1.8
1.9
2.4
3.2
3.4
3.9

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.6
3.3
3.7
2.6
1.9
1.9
1.1
1.4
1.2

6.2
5.8
5.1
5.2
3.7
4.6
4.1
2.4
1.9

4.2
5.1
6.1
5.6
5.8
5.1
4.7
5.1
4.9

1.6
2.1
2.6
3.1
4.5
3.6
4.2
5.2
5.6

.1
.4
1.1
1.4
1.2
1.6
2.3
1.7
1.7

2.7
3.2
4.7
2.8
1.9
2.9
2.0
5.2
3.0

2.0
2.7
2.3
3.0
3.4
4.3
3.7
7.1
4.7

.5
.3
.5
.4
.3
.4
.1
.2
.3

2.3
4.0
1.7
1.8
2.9
2.1
2.3
2.8
1.3

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$23,000 ..................
$24,000 ..................
$25,000 ..................
$26,000 ................................
$27,000 ...............................
$28,000 ...............................
$29,000 ...............................
$30,000 ................................

1.0
1.0
2.3
.5
.3
.3
.4
.3

4.4
3.4
1.8
1.1
.8
2.5
.3
.1

7.5
6.5
5.4
3.7
3.0
2.3
1.8
.9

9.2
11.6
8.0
7.7
7.7
4.6
4.8
3.1

5.3
7.2
8.1
6.3
8.7
8.9
5.2
5.8

5.7
11.4
3.4
1.1
2.0
1.2
.3
.1

14.3
14.4
3.2
5.3
3.7
4.4
1.8
1.4

.2
.1
.1
.1
.6

4.8
2.8
1.3
1.1
1.3
.6
1.0
.1

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $31,000 ..................
under $32,000 ................................
under $33,000 ..................
under $34,000 ..................
under $35,000 ..................
under $36,000 ..................
under $37,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

.6
.3
.1

.1

.8
.9
1.8
.4
.4
.1
.1
.1

2.3
1.9
.9
.4
.4
1.7
.1
.2

5.6
5.2
3.8
3.6
3.0
2.1
1.8
8.2

(2
)
“

0

.2
(2
)
ft
ft
ft
ft

.3
.3
.6
.6
1.1
1.4

ft

-

ft

.4
.1
.4

ft

.4
2.0

_
-

-

-

.1
.3

_
-

-

ft

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

“

NOTE:
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

1 For the scope of the study.see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




.1
f t

33

Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 by industry division,1 United States, except
2
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)

Occupation

All industries

Mining

Construction

6
3

-

-

Manufacturing

-

Public
utilities3

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

11
14

6
6

4
3

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Services4

Professional and
administrative
Accountants................................
Auditors.......................................
Public accountants......................
Chief accountants.......................
Attorneys.....................................
Buyers..........................................
Computer programmers .............
Systems analysts........................
Job analysts................................
Directors of personnel................
Chemists .....................................
Engineers....................................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4
5
1
1
2
1
2
1
2

4
(5
)
(S
)
(6
)
-

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

54
32

2

-

-

-

-

5
2
100
3
6
4
22
21
7
6
8
16

(5
)
1
8
4

_
5
4

_
23
1

11
21
15
18

10
5
10
3
3
2
7
1
4
7

15
3
9
4
12
3
2
12

16
70
22
47
13
3
26
5
44
25

5
4
15
10
7
4
8
4
11
4

-

-

-

4
17
4
9
13
9
7
2
5

8
4
1
6
5
2
2
3
1

f)
3
(5
)
3
2
3
5

3

67
27
83
37
32
44
62
86
73

1
1
2
1

_
3
-

82
67
37
67

6
7
10
4

2
2
(*)
2
2
1
2
(5
)
2

2
(5
)
(5
)
(5
)
2
1

36
14
33
23
57
84
44
42
29
32

14
2
10
11
7
4
9
47
10
15

-

-

13
39
-

14
40
2
22
24
35
14

Technical support
Engineering technicians.............
Drafters........................................
Computer operators....................
Photographers.............................

-

Clerical
Accounting clerks........................
File clerks....................................
Key entry operators....................
Messengers ................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing clerks/assistants......
Secretaries..................................
Stenographers.............................
Typists .........................................
General cle rks.............................

-

1
3

services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and
accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
5 Less than 0.5 percent
NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the
occupation-industry designation. Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal 100.

1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in Appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services;
commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories;
credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing




34

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 by industry division,1 United States, except Alaska and
2
Hawaii, March 1986)

Occupation

Wholesale
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Services4

94
93
97
96
100
95
96
91
96
-

96
105
100
99
103
99
98
98
98
94
89
94

_
92
-

_
93
91

95
98
95
94

92
105
87
96
94
91
95
95

90
96
92
87
89
90
68
91
91

95
101
95
100
99
100
91
94
96

Retail
trade

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities3

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

110
117

96

100
105

105
106

-

-

-

-

-

-

117
116
119
116
114
113
114
118

-

99
102
109
106
106
114
-

-

103
102
92

96
100
98
-

100
98
114
99
102
93
-

-

-

-

101

101
104
99
102
101
105
99
101
100

103

-

-

100
100
100
100

121
110
107
-

_
102
-

99
99
102
101

114
116
117
116

_
100
96

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

112
113
114
109
113
109
107
112

103
96
101
-

101
109
103
109
102
99
103
97
107
100

120
132
127
133
115
114
113
107
122
123

97
97
114
97
101
98
95
94

P rofessional and
adm inistrative

Accountants................................
Auditors.......................................
Public accountants......................
Chief accountants.......................
Attorneys.....................................
Buyers..........................................
Computer programmers .............
Systems analysts........................
Job analysts................................
Directors of personnel................
Chemists .....................................
Engineers....................................

-

-

-

99
93

101
100

Te chnical support

Engineering technicians.............
Drafters........................................
Computer operators....................
Photographers.............................
Clerical

Accounting clerks........................
File clerks....................................
Key entry operators....................
Messengers ................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing clerks/assistants......
Secretaries..................................
Stenographers.............................
Typists.........................................
General cle rks.............................

-

100
95
90

1
Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In
computing relative salary levels for each occupation by industry division,
the total employment in each work level in all industries surveyed was
used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of
differences in the proportion of employment in various work levels within
each occupation.
1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in Appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.




35

4
Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services:
commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories;
credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing
services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and
accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
NOTE: A dash indicates insufficient employment in 1 work level or
more in the occupation-industry designation to warrant separate
presentation of data.

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard weekly hours1for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 by industry division,3 United States,
2
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)
Occupation

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities4

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance

Services5

39.5
39.0
39.5
40.0
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
40.0

40.0
0

40.0
39.0

40.0
40.0

39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0

38.5
38.5

-

-

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
O
40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

39.5
38.5
39.5
38.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.5

Professional and
administrative
Accountants................................
Auditors.......................................
Public accountants......................
Chief accountants.......................
Attorneys.....................................
Buyers..........................................
Computer programmers .............
Systems analysts........................
Job analysts................................
Directors of personnel................
Chemists .....................................
Engineers....................................

-

39.5

40.0
39.5
38.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
ft
40.0

40.0

39.5
39.0
39.5
40.0
38.5
39.5
40.0
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
39.0
39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0
39.5
38.5

ft
40.0
39.0
39.0

ft
40.0
38.5
38.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
39.0
39.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.0

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5

38.5
38.5
38.5
38.0
38.5
39.0
38.5
36.5
37.5
38.5

39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
38.5
39.5
40.0

-

-

-

40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0
39.0
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.0
39.0

40.0

40.0
39.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

ft
40.0
40.0
-

40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
(6)
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
ft
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

39.5
39.0
39.0
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0

ft
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
-

-

-

39.5
38.5
38.0
38.0
38.0
38.5
39.0
-

Technical support
Engineering technicians.............
Drafters........................................
Computer operators....................
Photographers.............................
Clerical
Accounting clerks........................
File clerks....................................
Key entry operators....................
Messengers ................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing clerks/assistants......
Secretaries..................................
Stenographers.............................
Typists .........................................
General cle rks.............................

commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories;
credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing
services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and
accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
6
Insufficient number of establishments to warrant separate
presentation of data.
NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the
occupation-industry designation.

1 Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their
regular straight-time salary. If standard hours are not available, the
standard hours applicable for a majority of the office work force in the
establishment were used. The average for each job category was
rounded to the nearest half-hour.
2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in Appendix A.
4 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
5 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services;




36

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

Scope

BLS programs) in which establishments known to be
missing were added; out-of-business and out-of-scope
establishments were removed; some units were recon­
figured to meet the establishment/collection unit defi­
nitions; and for some, address, employment, type of in­
dustry, or other information was corrected.
This type of refinement was not practical for the large
number of units in the expanded portion of the sam­
pling frame (see appendix B). Instead, the new units se­
lected were screened prior to collection to verify loca­
tion, employment, and industry.

The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least
50 workers1 and engaged in the following industries:
2
Mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation,
communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services (ex­
cept the U.S. Postal Service and government agencies,
such as the Tennessee Valley Authority); wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and services (table A-l).
Establishments which met the minimum size criterion
during the reference period of the information used in
compiling the survey universe were included even if
they employed fewer than 50 workers at the time of
the survey. Establishments found to be outside of the
industrial scope of the survey at the time of data col­
lection were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of establish­
ments and employees within the scope of the survey
(the universe) and the number within the sample actu­
ally studied for each major industry division. Separate
estimates are presented for establishments located in
metropolitan areas3 and for those employing 2,500
workers or more. These estimates are shown for all
workers in an establishment and separately for full-time
white-collar groupings.

Survey design

The design for a survey of this nature includes
methods of classifying individual establishments into
homogeneous groups or strata, determining the size of
the sample for each stratum, and selecting the sample
of establishments for each stratum.4
Establishments within the scope of the 1986 survey
were stratified by industry group and by total
employment.
The sample size in a stratum of the firms within the
previous scope of the survey (medium and large firms)
was proportionate to the expected number of employ­
ees (based on previous surveys) to be matched in pro­
fessional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC
survey) occupations in the stratum. That is, the larger
the expected number of employees in all surveyed oc­
cupations for all establishments in a stratum, the larger
the sample in that stratum. Also, an upward adjustment
was made to the sample size in those strata expected to
have specified occupations with relatively high sam­
pling errors based upon the results from previous sur­
veys. (See “Reliability of estimates” section for a dis­
cussion of sampling errors.)
For the expanded portion of the survey—small
firms—the estimated number of occupational matches
in each size class was derived from information on the

Sampling frame

The list of establishments (the sampling frame) from
which the sample was selected was developed using
data from the most recently available (usually March
1984) unemployment insurance reports for the 48 con­
tiguous States and the District of Columbia. For the
portion of the sampling frame already in place, updat­
ing procedures were used (including results of other
1F o r th is su r v e y , an esta b lish m en t is an e c o n o m ic unit w h ic h p ro ­
d u c e s g o o d s o r se r v ic e s, a cen tra l a d m in istra tiv e o ffic e , o r an a u x il­
ia ry unit p r o v id in g su p p o rt se r v ic e s to a c o m p a n y . In m a n u factu rin g
in d ustries, th e esta b lish m en t is u su a lly at a sin g le p h y sic a l lo c a tio n .
In n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d ustries, all lo c a tio n s o f an in d iv id u a l c o m ­

4

p a n y in a M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a o r P rim ary M e tr o p o lita n S ta ­

In 1986, a sam p le w a s s e le c te d sy ste m a tic a lly to m axim ize the

tistica l A r e a o r n o n m etro p o lita n c o u n ty are u su a lly c o n sid e r e d an
estab lish m en t.

p rob ab ility o f retain in g estab lish m en ts that had b een s e le c te d for th e

2 S e e a p p en d ix B for d eta ils o n th e ex p a n sio n o f th e su r v e y in 1986.

b y N ath an K e y fitz in 1951 in his p ap er titled “ S a m p lin g w ith P ro b a ­

3 M etro p o lita n d ata rela te to all 327 M S A ’s an d P M S A ’s w ith in th e

b ilities P ro p o rtio n a te to Size: A d ju stin g fo r C h a n g e s in th e P rob a­

1985 su rv e y . T h is m e th o d is a m o d ific a tio n o f th e m e th o d in tr o d u ce d

b ilitie s,” Journal o f the Am erican Statistical Association, N o . 46,

c o n tig u o u s 48 S ta tes as d efin e d b y th e U .S . O ffic e o f M an a g em en t
and B u d g e t th r o u g h Ju n e 1983.




- p . 105-09.

37

creased to adjust for the missing data. The weights for
establishments which are out of business or outside the
scope of the survey are changed to zero.
Some sampled companies have a policy of not dis­
closing salary data for certain employees. No adjust­
ments are made to salary estimates for the survey as a
result of these missing data. In all but six of the profes­
sional, administrative, technical, and clerical work levels
published in this bulletin, the proportion of employees
for whom salary data were not available was less than
5 percent. These six are chief accountants III and V (5
percent); systems analysts VI (23 percent); directors of
personnel II (7 percent), III (9 percent), and IV (17
percent).

expected incidence of workers matched in the larger
size classes, and an appropriate sample selected. Sup­
plementary samples were prepared and designated for
collection for those strata where the out-of-business and
out-of-scope rate was unusually high.
Data collection

Data for the survey are obtained primarily by per­
sonal visits of the Bureau’s field representatives to a
nationwide sample of establishments. Collection for the
1986 survey was from November 1985 through May
1986 and reflects an average reference month of March
1986.5
Employees are classified by occupation and work
level using job descriptions (appendix C) prepared
jointly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office
of Personnel Management. Descriptions are designed
to reflect duties and responsibilities of employees in pri­
vate industry and to be translatable to specific General
Schedule grades applying to Federal employees (ap­
pendix D). Thus, definitions of some occupations and
work levels are limited to specific elements which can
be classified uniformly among establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in job descriptions,
the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance
of company officals, make extensive use of company
position descriptions, organization charts, and other per­
sonnel records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations are those
paid to full-time employees for standard work sched­
ules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the
employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours and premium pay for work on weekends, holi­
days, and late shifts. Excluded are performance bonuses
and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the
auto and aerospace industries6 as well as profit-sharing
,
payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end
bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay in­
creases (but not bonuses) under cost-of-living allowance
clauses and incentive payments, however, are included.

Survey estimation methods

Salary data are collected from com­
pany records in the most readily available form, i.e.,
weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annual.
Before initial tabulations, all salary data are converted
to a monthly basis. The factors used to convert the
salary data are as follows:

Data conversion.

P a y ro ll basis

C onversion fa c to r

W e e k ly ..............................................
B iw ee kly............................................

4.3333
2.1665

S e m im o n t h ly ..........................................
M o n t h l y ....................................................
A n n u a l...................................................................

2 .0 0 0 0
1.0000
.0833

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for
the month are used to convert hourly rates to a monthly
basis.
Occupational employment data pub­
lished in this bulletin are estimated totals for all estab­
lishments within the scope of the survey and are not
limited to establishments actually studied. An occupa­
tional employment estimate is derived by multiplying
the full-time employment in the occupation in each sam­
ple establishment by the establishment weight and sum­
ming these results.

Employment.

Survey nonresponse

In the March 1986 survey, salary data were not avail­
able from 13 percent of the sample establishments (rep­
resenting 4,546,000 employees in the total universe cov­
ered by the survey). An additional 6 percent of the
sample establishments (representing 1,867,000 employ­
ees) were either out of business or outside the scope of
the survey.
If data are not provided by a sample member, the
weights of responding sample establishments are in­

The mean salary (average wage rate)
for a specific occupational level is obtained by dividing
total wages for that level by the corresponding total
employment. Median and quartile values are derived
from distributions of employees by salary using 10-centper-hour class intervals. All salary averages in the ta­
bles are rounded to the nearest dollar. For all annual
salary calculations, individual monthly salaries (to the
nearest one-tenth cent) are multiplied by 12 before per­
forming the necessary data aggregation.
Salary averages.

5T h e M a rch p a y ro ll p erio d has b een u sed sin c e th e 1972 su r v e y .
T h e 1970 and 1971 su r v e y s had a Ju n e r e fe r e n c e p erio d .

Per­
cent increases for each occupation in text table 1 were

Salary trends for medium and large establishments.

6 F o r a d isc u ssio n o f su c h p a y m e n ts, se e “ W a g e H ig h lig h ts ,” C ur­

rent Wage Developments, N o v e m b e r 1983, pp. 1-5.




38

obtained by adding the product of average annual sala­
ries and employment for each level in each of two suc­
cessive years and dividing the later sum by the earlier
sum. To eliminate the effects of year-to-year employ­
ment shifts in this computation, average salaries in each
year were multiplied by employment in the most recent
year.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group speci­
fied in text table 2 were determined by adding average
monthly salaries for all occupational levels in the group
for two consecutive years, and dividing the later sum
by the earlier sum. The trends in text table 2 were ob­
tained by linking changes for the individual periods.
Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupa­
tional definitions were incorporated into the various
trend series as soon as two consecutive periods with
comparable data were available.

Established salary ranges for such occupations are relative­
ly w ide, and em ployees who may have been paid the max­
imum o f the salary scale for the lower level are likely to be
replaced by less experienced em ployees who may be paid
the minimum. Occupations most likely to reflect such
changes are the higher levels o f professional and ad­
ministrative occupations and single incumbent positions such
as chief accountant and director o f personnel.

Reliability of estimates
T h e statistics in the report are estim ates derived from
a sample survey. There are two types o f errors possible
in an estim ate based on a sam ple su rv ey — sam pling and
nonsam pling.
Sampling errors o ccu r because observations c o m e o n ly
from a sam ple, not the entire population. T h e particu­
lar sam ple used in this su rvey is on e o f a num ber o f all
possible sam ples o f the sam e size that co u ld h a v e been
selected using the sam e sam ple design. Estim ates deri­
v ed from the different sam ples w o u ld differ from each
other.
A m easure o f the variation am ong these differing es­
tim ates is called the standard error or sam pling error.8
It indicates the p recision w ith w h ich an estim ate from
a particular sam ple approxim ates the average result o f
all possible sam ples. T h e relative standard error (R S E )
is the standard error divid ed b y the estim ate. T h e sm aller
the R S E , the greater the reliability o f the estim ate.
E stim ates o f relative standard errors for the 1986 sur­
v e y vary am ong the occupational w ork lev els d ep en d ­
ing on such factors as the frequency w ith w h ich the
jo b occurs, the dispersion o f salaries for the jo b , and
the su rvey design. F o r the 112 publishable w ork lev els,
estim ated relative standard errors for average salary es­
tim ates are distributed as follow s:

Limitations

Survey occupations are limited to employees meet­
ing the specific criteria in each job definition and are
not intended to include all employees in each field of
work.7 Employees whose salary data are not available,
as well as those for whom there is no satisfactory basis
for classification by work level, are not taken into ac­
count in the estimates. For these reasons, and because
of differences in occupational structure among estab­
lishments, estimates of occupational employment ob­
tained from the sample of establishments studied indi­
cate only the relative importance of occupations and
levels as defined for the survey. These qualifications of
employment estimates do not materially affect the ac­
curacy of the earnings data.
Data for year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the
data collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not
only general salary increases and merit or other in­
creases in the same work level category, but also other
factors such as employee turnover, expansions or con­
tractions in the work force, and changes in staffing pat­
terns within establishments with different salary levels.
For example, an expansion in the work force may increase
the proportion of employees at the minimum salary of a rate
range for a work level, which tends to lower the average
for a job; a reduction or a low turnover in the work force
may have the opposite effect. Similarly, promotions of
employees to higher work levels of professional and ad­
ministrative occupations may affect the average of each level.

R elative sta n da rd e rro r

N u m b e r ° f occupational
w o rk levels

L ess than 1 p e r c e n t ..............................
1 - 2 p e r c e n t...........................................
2 - 3 p e r c e n t ...........................................
3 percent or m o r e ................................

46
51
14
1

T h e Bureau evaluates the reliability o f its estim ates
based in part on the value o f tw o relative standard er­
rors for an occu p ation al lev el. F o r exam ple, a 95-per­
cen t co n fid en ce interval9 for accountants I (su rvey es­
*
tim ate = $21,024 annually) is from $20,688 to $21,360.
8 A r ep lica tio n te c h n iq u e w ith 15 ran d om g ro u p s w a s u sed to obtain
estim a te s o f r e la tiv e standard errors for th e 1986 su rv e y .

7 E n g in e e r s, fo r ex a m p le, in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in e n g in e e r in g
w o r k w ith in a band o f e ig h t le v e ls , startin g w ith in e x p e r ie n c e d e n ­

9 A 9 5 -p e rcen t c o n fid e n c e in te rv a l m ean s that, if all p o ssib le sam p les

g in e e r in g g ra d u a te s and e x c lu d in g o n ly th o s e w ith in certa in field s o f

w e r e se le c te d and an estim a te o f th e salary and its sam p lin g error

sp e c ia liz a tio n o r in p o sitio n s a b o v e th o s e c o v e r e d b y le v e l V I I I . In

w e r e co m p u te d for e a c h , then, fo r a p p ro x im a tely 95 p e r c e n t o f the

co n tra st, o c c u p a tio n s su c h as c h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts and d ir e c to r s o f p er­

sam p les, th e in te rv a l from 2 standard errors b e lo w th e estim a te to 2

so n n e l in c lu d e o n ly th o s e w ith r esp o n sib ility fo r a s p e c ific p rogram

standard errors a b o v e th e estim a te w o u ld in c lu d e th e true a v e r a g e

and w ith d u ties and resp o n sib ilities as in d ica ted for e a c h o f th e m o re

salary. F o r a c c o u n ta n ts I, th e 2 r e la tiv e standard errors w e r e 1.6 p er­

lim ited num ber o f w o r k le v e ls se le c te d fo r stu d y .

c e n t in 1986.




39

Nonsampling errors can come from many sources,
such as inability to obtain information from some es­
tablishments; definitional difficulties; inability of re­
spondents to provide correct information; mistakes in
recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors
of collection, response, coverage, and estimation of
missing data. Although not specifically measured, the
survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to be mini­
mal due to the high response rate and the extensive and
continuous training of field representatives, careful
screening of data at several levels of review, annual
maintenance and evaluation of the suitability of job defi­
nitions, and thorough field testing of new or revised
job definitions.
To measure and better control nonsampling errors
that occur during data collection, a quality control pro­
cedure was added to the PATC survey in 1983 and re­
peated in the following years.1 The procedure, job
0

10
F o r a m o re d eta ile d d e sc r ip tio n o f th e p ro cess, se e N ational Sur­
vey o f Professional, Adm inistrative, Technical, an d Clerical Pay, M arch
1983, B u lletin 2181 (B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics, 1983), p.35.




40

match validation (JMV), is designed to identify the fre­
quency, reasons for, and sources of incorrect decisions
made by Bureau field representatives in matching com­
pany jobs to survey occupations. Once identified, the
problems are discussed promptly with the field repre­
sentatives while the data are still being collected. Sub­
sequently, the JMV results are tallied, reported to BLS
staff, and become the basis for remedial action at an­
nual training conferences.
The 1986 JMV process was limited to a sample of
the expanded portion of the PATC survey. About 13
percent of the sampled 549 job match decisions checked
with respondents were subsequently changed by survey
reviewers. Of those revised, over three-fifths (72) were
either original job matches that should have been ex­
cluded or company jobs excluded by the field repre­
sentative that should have been matches for BLS oc­
cupational work levels. Nearly one-fourth of these er­
rors of inclusion or exclusion were made in matching
the newly added occupation of general clerk. Most of
the remaining errors were matching one work level too
high or too low within the appropriate occupation, e.g.,
accountant IV instead of accountant III.

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by industry division, United States, March 1986
Actually studied

Within scope of survey
Industry division1

Workers in establishments

Workers in establishments
Number of
establishments

Total

Professional and
administrative

Clerical and
technical support

Number of
establishments

Total

Professional and
administrative

Clerical and
technical support

United States
All industries1 .............................................
2

155,748

33,471,481

7,003,367

6,363,015

4,717

6,542,179

1,880,954

1,548,563

Manufacturing .....................................................

58,581

14,856,991

2,926,433

1,908,188

2,110

3,352,415

977,090

634,875

2,455
9,109

439,685
1,375,702

104,071
185,293

62,399
72,952

110
102

68,114
347,823

27,700
102,405

16,787
8,250

11,637
15,082
36,600
15,651
6,633

3,448,099
1,770,326
7,105,151
3,260,539
1,214,988

755,105
498,521
863,710
1,068,780
601,454

818,713
377,405
1,080,042
1,650,352
392,964

433
410
503
597
452

1,263,271
105,226
517,655
631,004
256,671

314,869
40,977
64,091
214,994
138,828

324,135
31,109
106,016
348,759
78,632

All industries2 .............................................

126,069

28,193,864

6,307,352

5,782,535

4,020

6,209,374

1,814,933

1,504,111

Manufacturing .....................................................

43,624

11,249,366

2,511,404

1,646,348

1,681

3,083,349

926,903

603,999

1,082
8,704

200,766
1,302,201

70,056
178,877

46,818
70,025

64
92

46,577
340,198

22,109
100,863

13,511
7,176

9,064
13,730
29,687
13,912
6,266

3,171,700
1,622,185
6,389,845
3,076,018
1,181,783

708,067
461,726
772,466
1,018,470
586,286

759,365
362,242
947,915
1,566,651
383,171

376
384
436
554
433

1,253,215
101,905
508,583
623,530
252,017

312,667
40,295
62,934
212,777
136,385

321,929
30,821
104,086
344,916
77,673

918
402

6,745,363
3,268,991

1,909,022
1,002,039

1,604,928
633,659

616
339

4,980,868
2,604,438

1,438,624
796,049

1,182,694
527,546

Nonmanufacturing:
Mining ............................................................
Construction..................................................
Transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services..........................
Wholesale trade ...........................................
Retail trad e ....................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ...........
Services3 ........................................................
Metropolitan areas4

Nonmanufacturing:
Mining ............................................................
Construction ..................................................
Transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services..........................
Wholesale trade ............................................
Retail trad e ....................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ............
Services3 ........................................................
Establishments employing
2,500 workers or more
All industries.................................................
Manufacturing .....................................................

1 As defined in the 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, U.S. Office Of
Management and Budget.
2 Establishments with total employment at or above the 50-worker minimum; excludes Alaska and
Hawaii.
3 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research,
development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data




processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial
educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping
services.
4
Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, as defined through June 1983 by the U.S. Office of Management and
Budget.

Appendix B. Survey Changes
in 1986

Changes in scope

number actually studied within this more limited scope.
(Table A-l shows similar information for the expanded
scope of the 1986 survey.)

At the request of the President’s Pay Agent, the 1986
PATC survey was expanded to increase its coverage
of small establishments within the industries currently
studied. Accordingly, the survey’s minimum establish­
ment size requirement, which generally had ranged from
100 to 250 employees depending on industry, was low­
ered to 50 employees in 1986, regardless of industry.
This request was part of a proposal by the President’s
Cabinet Council on Management and Administration
(CCMA) to expand the PATC survey to major seg­
ments of the labor force not covered previously and to
use this additional information to broaden the base of
the Federal pay comparability process.
Table B-l compares March 1986 occupational em­
ployment and salary data from all surveyed establish­
ments with data from only those establishments above
the previous minimum size. Table B-2 presents the es­
timated number of establishments and workers and the




Changes in occupational coverage

A new entry level for purchasing clerk/assistant cov­
ering the most routine work in processing purchasing
requests was introduced in 1986. Levels II, III, and IV
of the 1986 definitions equate to Levels I, II, and III
in the 1985 survey.
Also, a four-level general clerk job was added that
covers a combination of clerical tasks supporting office,
business, or administrative operations. Workers per­
forming a variety of office clerical operations are com­
monly found in small firms. In medium and large firms,
the general clerk classification is a common way to
“broadband” or consolidate individual clerical duties to
gain versatility or flexibility within the work force.

42




Table B-1. Survey results for 1986 for establishments within previous scope and expanded scope of survey, by
occupation
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)

Establishments within
previous scope3

Establishments
within expanded scope4

Occupation and level2
Employment5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

Employment5

All establishments
as a percent of
establishments in
previous scope

Annual salaries6
Employment
Mean7

Salaries
(mean)

Median7

Accountants
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
I V ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
VI ....................................................................

11,792
23,687
37,090
21,389
7,597
1^93

$21,309
26,112
31,360
39,430
49,476
61,533

$21,162
25,668
30,858
38,997
48,564
60,600

13,846
29,311
46,228
23,733
8,227
1,397

$21,024
25,554
31,143
39,293
49,231
61,546

$20,892
24,990
30,488
38,984
48,300
60,600

117.4
123.7
124.6
111.0
108.3
100.3

98.7
97.9
99.3
99.7
99.5
100.0

1,676
2,880
4,667
2,012

21,645
26,126
32,057
39,676

21,491
25,490
31,715
38,984

1,756
2,928
4,709
2,022

21,545
26,108
32,121
39,705

21,491
25,490
31,887
38,984

104.8
101.7
100.9
100.5

99.5
99.9
100.2
100.1

11,606
11,595
8,897
4,275

20,468
22,714
26,633
32,116

20,488
22,479
25,992
31,487

11,606
11,595
8,897
4,275

20,468
22,714
26,633
32,116

20,488
22,479
25,992
31,487

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1,220
475
221

49,199
62,880
79,730

49,500
61,812
76,969

1,454
475
230

47,963
62,880 <
80,409

48,000
61,812
78,811

N 119.2
100.0
104.1

97.5
100.0
100.9

1,102
2,973
4,144
3,438
1,798
553

32,031
39,776
50,190
63,806
78,320
99,277

30,988
39,000
48,980
62,766
77,576
99,960

1,377
3,199
4,347
3,500
1,847
587

31,014
39,635
50,119
63,933
78,396
101,169

30,304
39,000
48,980
62,975
77,969
101,859

125.0
107.6
104.9
101.8
102.7
106.1

96.8
99.6
99.9
100.2
100.1
101.9

5,800
18,038
16,466
4,794

21,485
26,658
33,648
41,300

21,033
26,362
32,809
40,869

6,914
22,990
18,323
4,798

21,242
26,369
33,580
41,304

20,992
25,998
32,820
40,870

119.2
127.5
111.3
100.1

98.9
98.9
99.8
100.0

14,870
35,554
43,800
20,308
9,374

21,075
24,706
29,429
34,867
42,835

21,000
24,689
29,268
34,764
43,296

15,974
38,540
46,996
21,524
9,492

20,832
24,558
29,324
34,919
42,934

20,992
24,490
29,118
34,860
43,344

107.4
108.4
107.3
106.0
101.3

98.8
99.4
99.6
100.1
100.2

Auditors
1.......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Public accountants
1.......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
Chief accountants
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
I V ....................................................................
Attorneys
1........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V ......................................................................
VI .....................................................................
Buyers
1........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
I V .....................................................................
Computer programmers
1........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V ......................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




Table B-1. Survey results for 1986 for establishments within previous scope and expanded scope of survey, by
occupation—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)

Establishments within
previous scope3

Establishments
within expanded scope4

Occupation and level2Employment5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

Employment5

All establishments
as a percent of
establishments in
previous scope

Annual salaries6
Employment
Mean7

Salaries
(mean)

Median7

Systems analysts
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
VI .....................................................................

20,478
45,882
38,273
15,426
2,666
233

$29,171
34,957
41,994
49,445
58,404
71,770

$28,788
34,918
41,389
48,381
57,786
71,496

21,402
47,518
38,943
15,506
2,666
233

$29,141
34,881
41,997
49,515
58,404
71,770

$28,800
34,886
41,400
48,381
57,786
71,496

104.5
103.6
101.8
100.5
100.0
100.0

99.9
99.8
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0

103
350
624
520

22,240
25,288
30,605
38,206

22,091
24,014
29,188
37,082

103
350
624
520

22,240
25,288
30,605
38,206

22,091
24,014
29,188
37,082

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1,778
1,952
1,179
395

39,636
47,020
63,855
75,170

38,385
46,981
61,975
72,271

1,849
2,082
1,179
395

39,817
46,328
63,855
75,170

38,400
46,560
61,975
72,271

104.0
106.7
100.0
100.0

100.5
98.5
100.0
100.0

3,138
5,928
8,815
8,689
7,104
3,559
843

22,832
27,466
34,323
41,733
50,628
60,797
74,632

22,936
27,089
33,780
41,321
50,380
61,093
72,500

3,580
6,673
10,244
9,257
7,266
3,632
848

22,539
27,205
34,141
41,548
50,678
60,796
74,607

22,391
26,989
33,487
41,220
50,380
60,900
72,395

114.1
112.6
116.2
106.5
102.3
102.1
100.6

98.7
99.0
99.5
99.6
100.1
100.0
100.0

37,159
64,932
131,219
145,706
106,946
50,910
13,279
3,097

28,189
31,418
35,914
42,777
50,842
58,866
68,499
79,021

28,500
31,308
35,686
42,483
50,580
58,560
67,773
78,540

40,469
71,336
145,165
157,033
111,913
52,105
13,395
3,097

27,866
31,194
35,715
42,677
50,769
58,883
68,602
79,021

28,381
31,146
35,472
42,383
50,436
58,568
67,800
78,540

108.9
109.9
110.6
107.8
104.6
102.3
100.9
100.0

98.9
99.3
99.4
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.2
100.0

5,437
16,481
30,850
34,771
19,207

16,945
20,393
23,961
28,437
32,750

16,639
20,112
23,713
28,182
32,448

5,797
17,342
32,193
35,397
19,399

16,882
20,312
23,896
28,412
32,718

16,557
19,992
23,669
28,158
32,400

106.6
105.2
104.4
101.8
101.0

99.6
99.6
99.7
99.9
99.9

Job analysts
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Directors of personnel
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Chemists
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
VI .....................................................................
VII ....................................................................
Engineers
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
VI .....................................................................
VII ....................................................................
VIII ...................................................................
Engineering technicians
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V ......................................................................

See footnotes at end of tabie.




Table B-1. Survey results for 1986 for establishments within previous scope and expanded scope of survey, by
occupation—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)

Establishments within
previous scope3

Establishments
within expanded scope4

Occupation and level2
Employment5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

Employment5

All establishments
as a percent of
establishments in
previous scope

Annual salaries6
Employment
Mean7

Median7

Salaries
(mean)

Drafters
I ........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V ......................................................................

1,861
7,942
18,718
19,848
13,539

$13,642
16,611
20,563
24,909
31,053

$13,519
16,418
20,408
24,625
30,519

2,982
12,102
25,970
24,371
14,362

$13,054
15,854
20,201
24,652
31,004

$12,999
15,599
19,980
24,461
30,489

160.2
152.4
138.7
122.8
106.1

95.7
95.4
98.2
99.0
99.8

9,422
31,258
23,319
7,792
1,260

13,939
17,589
21,750
24,616
28,986

13,631
17,159
21,240
24,204
29,112

10,704
37,530
25,698
8,059
1,260

13,727
17,219
21,524
24,550
28,986

13,495
16,893
20,992
24,140
29,112

113.6
120.1
110.2
103.4
100.0

98.5
97.9
99.0
99.7
100.0

276
799
759
331
104

17,400
23,231
27,085
31,584
35,094

17,199
23,294
26,352
31,212
34,109

401
873
791
331
104

16,636
22,896
27,009
31,584
35,094

15,972
22,991
26,264
31,212
34,109

145.3
109.3
104.2
100.0
100.0

95.6
98.6
99.7
100.0
100.0

23,736
73,941
52,890
18,255

12,907
15,316
18,317
22,268

12,271
14,700
17,887
21,600

36,023
133,183
79,215
22,354

12,517
14,687
17,954
21,872

11,995
14,247
17,471
21,192

151.8
180.1
149.8
122.5

97.0
95.9
98.0
98.2

15,243
7,809
1,928

10,363
12,261
15,637

10,076
11,595
15,079

20,916
10,110
2,100

10,335
12,156
15,625

10,108
11,495
15,060

137.2
129.5
108.9

99.7
99.1
99.9

I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................

47,659
25,828

13,457
17,354

12,812
16,476

68,827
30,770

13,146
16,901

12,583
16,119

144.4
119.1

97.7
97.4

M essengers...................................

9,269

12,358

11,395

9,842

12,276

11,340

106.2

99.3

2,100
3,960
2,747
1,195

14,211
16,972
20,122
23,781

14,034
16,223
19,908
23,100

2,521
4,414
3,255
1,298

14,193
16,903
19,696
23,702

14,091
16,200
19,447
22,982

120.0
111.5
118.5
108.6

99.9
99.6
97.9
99.7

Computer operators
I ........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
Photographers
I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
Accounting clerks
I ........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
File clerks
I .......................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
Key entry operators

Personnel clerks/assistants
I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I l l ......................................................................
I V .....................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.

Table B-1. Survey results for 1986 for establishments within previous scope and expanded scope of survey, by
occupation—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1986)

Establishments
within expanded scope4

Establishments within
previous scope3
Occupation and level1
2
Employment5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

All establishments
as a percent of
establishments in
previous scope

Annual salaries6
Employment

Employment5

Mean7

Salaries
(mean)

Median7

Purchasing clerks/assistants
I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
I V ....................................................................

2,588
4,462
3,878
1,037

$14,097
17,497
22,493
29,384

$13,519
16,993
22,176
28,200

4,014
5,585
4,197
1,037

$13,994
17,282
22,381
29,384

$13,519
16,639
22,046
28,200

155.1
125.2
108.2
100.0

99.3
98.8
99.5
100.0

48,281
62,915
101,349
46,097
15,495

16,657
18,362
21,252
23,884
28,056

15,934
17,844
20,590
23,502
27,350

59,859
69,450
110,604
49,403
16,038

16,326
18,306
21,152
23,839
28,051

15,599
17,820
20,492
23,478
27,389

124.0
110.4
109.1
107.2
103.5

98.0
99.7
99.5
99.8
100.0

6,520
5,611

18,541
21,777

18,490
22,202

6,811
5,648

18,374
21,739

18,139
22,152

104.5
100.7

99.1
99.8

20,727
11,546

12,735
17,005

12,393
16,210

25,125
12,842

12,584
16,854

12,252
16,008

121.2
111.2

98.8
99.1

7,892
35,535
41,330
27,538

10,923
13,208
16,017
19,513

10,500
12,595
15,354
19,080

11,811
59,359
65,101
33,472

10,478
12,730
15,500
19,322

10,200
12,167
14,994
18,624

149.7
167.0
157.5
121.5

95.9
96.4
96.8
99.0

Secretaries

^

4

as




I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
Stenographers
I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
Typists
I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
General clerks
I .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
I V ....................................................................

1 For industrial coverage, see appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Establishments with minimum employment generally ranging from
100 to 250 workers, depending on industry. See table B-2, footnotes
3-6, for detail.
4 Establishments employing as few as 50 workers.
5 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
6 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,

holidays, and late shifts.
Also excluded are performance bonuses
and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and
aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance
bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction
bonuses. Pay increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living
allowance clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included.
7
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers.
The median
designates position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or
more and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown.

Table B-2. Number of establishments and workers within previous scope of the survey and number studied, by industry division, United States, March 1986

Industry division’

Minimum
employment in
establishments
within previous
scope of survey

Actually studied

Within previous scope

Workers in establishments

Workers in establishments
Number of
establishments

Total

Professional and
Clerical and
administrative technical support

Number of
establishments

Total

Clerical and
Professional and
technical support
administrative

United States
All industries1 3
24
.........................................

-

46,526

23,314,553

5,572,582

4,935,010

3,101

6,391,233

1,855,419

1,523,364

Manufacturing.................................................

3 100-250

19,559

11,022,968

2,508,942

1,585,720

1,474

3,287,006

968,675

628,630

250
250

553
489

295,588
527,107

84,452
119,755

48,926
23,205

57
41

63,787
341,319

26,723
101,905

16,176
7,864

4 100-250
100
250
100
6 50-100

3,906
5,539
5,598
7,424
3,458

2,810,928
1,139,861
3,867,392
2,660,608
990,101

673,282
328,146
455,294
884,678
518,033

695,053
254,968
640,561
1,381,276
305,301

332
210
196
426
365

1,255,009
91,538
484,505
617,718
250,351

313,603
37,235
60,144
210,703
136,431

322,353
28,260
101,609
342,293
76,179

All industries2 .........................................

-

38,897

20,114,900

5,115,805

4,609,838

2,706

6,086,761

1,793,197

1,482,661

Manufacturing..................................................

3 100-250

14,504

8,524,271

2,191,310

1,391,535

1,184

3,033,790

920,187

598,951

250
250

284
438

142,023
487,666

58,578
114,469

37,460
20,918

38
33

44,357
333,892

21,377
100,369

13,005
6,794

4 100-250
100
250
100
6 50-100

3,090
5,070
5,262
6,935
3,314

2,655,091
1,044,054
3,737,426
2,553,168
971,201

642,523
306,551
434,936
858,906
508,532

656,459
244,949
620,234
1,336,762
301,521

306
199
188
406
352

1,246,994
89,109
480,833
611,697
246,089

311,739
36,794
59,587
209,011
134,133

320,532
28,061
100,790
339,136
75,392

1,604,928
633,659

616
339

4,980,868
2,604,438

1,438,624
796,049

1,182,694
527,546

Nonmanufacturing:
M ining........................................................
Construction ..............................................
Transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.....................
Wholesale tra d e ........................................
Retail tra d e ...............................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate........
Services5 *..................................................
.
Metropolitan areas7

^

4

Nonmanufacturing:
M ining........................................................
Construction ..............................................
Transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services .....................
Wholesale tra d e ........................................
Retail tra d e ...............................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate........
Services5 ...................................................

/

Establishments employing
2,500 workers or more
All industries.............................................
Manufacturing..................................................

-

918
402

6,745,363
3,268,991

1 As defined in the 1972 edition of the S tandard Industrial C lassification M anual, U.S. Office of
Management and Budget.
2 Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation indicated in the first
column; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
3 Minimum employment size was 100 for chemical and allied products;petroleum refining and
related industries; machinery, except electrical; electrical
machinery, equipment, and supplies;
transportation equipment; and instruments and related products. Minimum size was 250 in all other
manufacturing industries.
4 Minimum employment was 100 for railroad transportation; local and suburban transit; deep sea
foreign and domestic transportation; air transportation; communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services; and pipelines; and 250 for all other transportation industries. U.S. Postal Service is excluded




1,909,022
1,002,039

from the survey.
* Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research,
development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data
processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial
educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
6 Minimum employment was 50 for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services; and 100 for all
other services.
7 Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, as defined through June 1983 by the U.S. Office of Management and
Budget.

Appendix C. Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for
the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels
within occupations, workers who are employed under a
variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to
area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. To secure

comparability of job content, some occupations and
work levels are defined to include only those workers
meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions,
and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on inter­
establishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual
establishments or those prepared for other purposes.

Accountants and Auditors
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports,
and statements;

ACCOUNTANTS

Performs professional operating or cost accounting
work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of
recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the
data and records of financial transactions. The work
generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or,
in rare instances, equivalent experience and education
combined. Positions covered by this definition are
characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical,
creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work
draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of
the fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and
terminology of accounting, and often entails some
understanding of such related fields as business law,
statistics, and general management. (See also chief
accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include such
duties as:

Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and
Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions in
the accounting system and procedures.

Entry and developmental level positions provide op­
portunity to develop ability to perform professional
duties such as those enumerated above.
In addition to such professional work, most account­
ants are also responsible for assuring the proper record­
ing and documentation of transactions in the accounts.
They, therefore, frequently direct nonprofessional per­
sonnel in the actual day-to-day maintenance of books of
accounts, the accumulation of cost or other comparable
data, the preparation of standard reports and state­
ments, and similar work. (Positions involving such
supervisory work, but not including professional duties
as described above, are not included in this description.)

Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account relation­
ships;

Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax
advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing
among the several levels of work are inappropriate for
such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant
positions with responsibility for recording or report­
ing accounting data relative to taxes are included, as
are other operating or cost accountants whose work

Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures should be
developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as the basis
for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of proposed
plans on capital investments, income, cash position, and
overall financial condition;




48

greater professional competence. Initial assignments are
designed to expand practical experience and to develop
professional judgment in the application of basic ac­
counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to
be competent in the application of standard procedures
and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques­
tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug­
gest solutions.

includes, but is not limited to, improvement of the
accounting system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing
equipment to process, record, and report accounting
data. In some such cases, the machine unit is a subor­
dinate segment of the accounting system; in others, it is
a separate entity or is attached to some other organiza­
tion. In either instance, provided that the primary
responsibility of the position is professional accounting
work of the type otherwise included, the use of data
processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex­
clude a position from the accountant description nor
does it change its level.

Work is reviewed closely to verify
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems,
and to insure conformance with required procedures
and special instructions.

Direction received.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working
papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating
the extent of the examination and presenting and sup­
porting findings and recommendations. Examines a
variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of
computations and to ascertain that all transactions are
properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent
policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded
according to acceptable accounting standards.

Accountants I
General characteristics. At this beginning professional
level, the accountant learns to apply the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific
system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes­
sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and
scope of development expected; and the existence, im­
plicit or explicit, of a planned training program designed
to give the entering accountant practical experience.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Works under close supervision of
an experienced accountant whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Direction received.

Accountants III
General characteristics. The accountant at this level
applies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob­
lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the
overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies
and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation.
Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned
segment is stable and well established (i.e., the basic
chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost
accounting system, the report requirements, and the
procedures are changed infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervision of the
day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a
relatively small establishment; or (b) a major segment
(e.g., general accounting, cost accounting, or financial
statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system; or
(c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively
narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob­
lem, function, or portion of work which is appropriate
for this level.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of
financial statements for completeness, internal accuracy,
and conformance with uniform accounting classifications
or other specific accounting requirements; reconciling
reports and financial data with financial statements
already on file, and pointing out apparent inconsistencies
or errors; carrying out assigned steps in an accounting
analysis, such as computing standard ratios; assembling
and summarizing accounting literature on a given sub­
ject; preparing relatively simple financial statements not
involving problems of analysis or presentation; and
preparing charts, tables, and other exhibits to be used inreports. In addition, may also perform some nonprofes­
sional tasks for training purposes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Usually none.

Accountants II
General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
makes practical application of technical accounting
practices and concepts beyond the mere application of
detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing




A higher level professional ac­
countant normally is available to furnish advice and
assistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac­

Direction received.

49

curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com­
pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal
of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports
and statements, and other appropriate means.

more complex establishment; or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of
difficulty characteristic of this level.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary re­
sponsibility of most positions at this level is to assure
that the assigned day-to-day operations are carried out
in accordance with established accounting principles,
policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such
professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports
and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts
reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost
budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting
and pointing out trends or deviations from standards;
projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of
changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account struc­
tures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat­
ment of financial transactions. Is expected to recom­
mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and
propose changes in the accounting system for approval
at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived
from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices.

A higher level accountant normally is
available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.
Direction received.

Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a
primary characteristic of most positions at this level is
the responsibility of operating an accounting system or
major segment of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent, appropriate recommendations for:
New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new
types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub­
sidiary records; and changes in instructions regard­
ing the use of accounts, new or refined account
classifications or definitions; etc. Also makes day-today decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions and is expected to recommend
solutions to complex problems beyond incumbent’s
scope of responsibility.

Accounting
staff supervised, if any, may include professional
accountants.

In most in­
stances, is responsible for supervision of a subordinate
nonprofessional staff; may coordinate the work of
lower level professional accountants.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Accountants V
Accountants IV

General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac­
counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
the solution of problems for which no clear precedent
exists or performs work which is of greater than average
responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the
assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast to
accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting
system maintenance to the solution of more complex
technical and managerial problems. Work of accountants
V is more directly concerned with what the accounting
system (or segment) should be, what operating policies
and procedures should be established or revised, and
what is the managerial as well as the accounting meaning
of the data included in the reports and statements for
which they are responsible. Typically, this level of work
approaches chief accountant positions in terms of the
nature of the concern for the accounting system and its
operation, but not in terms of the breadth or scope of
responsibility.
Examples of assignments characteristic of this level
are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The
entire accounting system of an establishment having a
few relatively complex accounting segments; or (b) a

At this level, the accountant
applies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult
problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec­
tives and operation of the overall accounting system.
Compared with level III, the accounting system or
assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively
unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company
operations, (c) is substantially larger, or (d) is com­
plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate
or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e.g.,
cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divi­
sions of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coor­
dination involved, the accountant IV may have such
assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera­
tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an
establishment having a few relatively stable accounting
segments; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general ac­
counting, cost accounting, or financial statements and
reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and
General characteristics.




50

A higher level professional account­
ant is normally available to furnish advice as needed.
Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment,
compliance with instructions and policies, and overall
quality.

major segment of a larger and more complex accounting
system; or (c) the entire accounting system (or major
segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and
conventional accounting system when the work includes
significant responsibility for accounting systems design
and development; or (d) in a complex system, may be
assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment
dealing with some problem, function, or portion of
work which is of a difficulty characteristic of this level.

Direction received.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at
this level are delegated complete responsibility from
higher authority to establish and implement new or
revised accounting policies and procedures. Typically,
accountants VI participate in decisionmaking sessions
with operating managers who have policymaking
authority for their subordinate organizations or
establishments; recommend management actions or
alternatives which can be taken when accounting data
disclose unfavorable trends, situations, or deviations;
and assist management officials in applying financial
data and information to the solution of administrative
and operating problems.

An accountant of higher level nor­
mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional
judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall
quality.

Direction received.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V
performs such professional work as: Participating in
the development and coordinating the implementation
of new or revised accounting systems, and initiating
necessary instructions and procedures; assuring
accounting reporting systems and procedures are in
compliance with established company policies, regula­
tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing
technical advice and services to operating managers,
interpreting accounting reports and statements, and
identifying problem areas; and evaluating completed
assignments for conformance with applicable policies,
regulations, and tax laws.

Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.

Responsibility for direction o f others.

NOTE: Excluded are accountants above level VI whose
principal function is to direct, manage, or administer an
accounting program in that they are primarily concerned
with the administrative, budgetary, and policy matters of
the program rather than the actual supervision of the dayto-day operations of an accounting program. This type of
work requires extensive managerial ability as well as
superior professional competence in order to cope with the
technical accounting and management problems encoun­
tered. Typically, the level of work involves responsibility
for more than one accounting activity (e.g., cost account­
ing, sales accounting, etc.).

Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.

Responsibility for direction o f others.

Accountants VI
General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
applies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and
practices to specialized, unique or nonrecurring com­
plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized
automated accounting systems). The work is substan­
tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than
level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im­
portance, or overall impact of the work on the account­
ing program.
At this level, the accounting system or segment is
usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must
adjust to the frequent changing needs of company
operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide
specialized or individualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi­
sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and com­
plex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major seg­
ment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting,
etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir­
ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field
(e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.).




AUDITORS

Performs professional auditing work requiring a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances,
equivalent experience and education combined. Audits
the financial records and practices of a company, or of
divisions or components of the company, to appraise
systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of
records and reports and to assure the consistent applica­
tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the
adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan­
cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for
improvement as necessary. To the extent determined
necessary, examines the transactions entering into the
balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in­
come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:
1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation o f the taking o f physical inventories) and the
all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.
2. The accuracy o f financial statements or reports and
the fairness o f presentation of facts therein.
51

3. The propriety or legality of transactions.

Auditors II

4. The degree o f compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

General characteristics. At this level, the professional
auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in­
dependently performing selected portions of the audit
which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in
developing greater professional competence. Auditors
at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com­
pany operations, policies, and procedures.

Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the
financial management o f company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles o f sound
financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls.

Detailed instructions are furnished
and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to
verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual
problems, to insure conformance with required pro­
cedures and special instructions, and to assure the
auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems
not covered by instructions are brought to the attention
of a superior.

Direction received.

b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex­
amination o f a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions responsible
for performing a segment o f an audit (i.e., examining
individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the
entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly
relates to the financial audit program; and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge
of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit
assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of
reports against source accounts and records to deter­
mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other
accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac­
tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and
disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions,
work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting
documents to ascertain that transactions are properly
supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparation of working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

c. Electronic data processing (EDP) auditors. These
positions require an extensive knowledge o f computer
systems, programming, etc.

Auditors I

As a trainee auditor at the
entering professional level, performs a variety of
routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated
through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro­
gram designed to provide practical experience in apply­
ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting
and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)
General characteristics.

Auditors III
General characteristics. Work at this level consists of
the audit of operations and accounting processes that
are relatively stable, well established, and typical of the
industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and
analysis of readily available findings; there is previous
audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit
reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format using
a standard method of presentation; and few, if any, major
problems are anticipated. The work performed requires
the application of substantial knowledge of accounting
principles and practices, e.g., bases for distinguishing
among capital maintenance and operating expenses; accru­
ing reserves for taxes; and other accounting considerations
of an equivalent nature.

Works under close supervision of
an experienced auditor whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Direction received.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making
audits by performing such tasks as: Verifying the ac­
curacy of the balances in various records; examining a
variety of types of documents and vouchers for ac­
curacy of computations; checking transactions to assure
they are properly documented and have been recorded
in accordance with correct accounting classifications;
verifying the count of inventories; preparing detailed
statements, schedules, and standard audit working
papers; counting cash and other assets; and preparing
simple reconciliations and similar functions.



Work is normally within an estab­
lished audit program and supervision is provided
by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses
assignments. Work is spot checked in progress. Completed
assignments are reviewed for adequacy of coverage,
soundness of judgment, compliance with professional
standards, and adherence to policies.

Direction received.

52

Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines
transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; and prepares
audit working papers and submits an audit report in the re­
quired pattern containing recommendations for needed
changes or improvements. Usually is responsible for select­
ing the detailed audit methods to follow, choosing the
audit sample and its size, determining the extent to which
discrepancies need to be investigated, and deciding the
depth of the analyses required to support reported findings
and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

Direction received. Within an established audit program,
has responsibilities for independently planning and
executing audits. Usually difficult problems are dis­
cussed with the supervisor who also reviews completed
assignments for adherence to principles and standards and
the soundness of conclusions.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit
aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit
experience and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used
for determining depreciation rates of equipment; evalua­
tion of assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation
of the reliability of accounting and reporting systems;
analysis of cost accounting systems and cost reports to
evaluate the basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of
accounting procurement and supply management records,
controls, and procedures; and many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system with few
or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting
records) or of comparable segments of larger companies.
2. As a member of an audit team, independently accomp­
lishes varied audit assignments of the above described
characteristics, typically major segments of complete
audits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope,
of larger and more complex companies (e.g., complex
in that the accounting system entails cost, inven­
tory, and comparable specialized systems integrated
with the general accounting system).

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts
and related operations of relatively large complex
companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system
entails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized
accounting systems integrated with the general
accounting system) or of company branch, subsidiary,
or affiliated organizations which are individually
of comparable size and complexity.

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of report­
ing of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or
maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a
railroad); or the checking, verification, and balancing of
all accounts receivable and accounts payable; or the
analysis and verification of assets and reserves; or the
inspection and evaluation of account controls and pro­
cedures.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial
responsibilities so great as to involve specialized
subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves.

Auditors IV

General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex­
perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge
of accounting principles and theory in connection with a
variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by
the audit of organizations and accounting processes
which are complex and difficult because of such factors
as: Presence of new or changed programs and account­
ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting
functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting,
sales accounting), in addition to general accounting;
need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory
requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining infor­
mation; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety
of different assignments are encountered over a period
of time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are
comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and
regulations violated, recommend remedial actions, and
contain analyses of items of special importance or in­
terest to company management.




N o t e : Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve
specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting
systems that are complete in themselves; or are team
members assigned to major segments of audits of even
larger or more complex organizations. Also excluded are
positions primarily responsible for overseeing multiple
concurrent audits.

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS

Performs professional auditing work in a public
accounting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits
to ascertain the fairness of financial representations
made by client companies. May also assist the client in
improving accounting procedures and operations.
53

Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac­
ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter­
nal controls, and other elements of the accounting
system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final
written opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full pro­
fessional accounting training. Also excluded are special­
ist positions in tax or management advisory services.

higher level public accountant who provides instructions
and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot
checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to
determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of judg­
ment, compliance with professional standards, and
adherence to clearly established methods and techniques.
All interpretations are subject to close professional review.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety
of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with the
prescribed audit program, including examination of trans­
actions and verification of accounts, the analysis and
evaluation of accounting practices and internal controls,
and other detail work. Prepares a share of the audit work­
ing papers and participates in drafting reports. In
moderately complex audits, may assist in selecting
appropriate tests, samples, and methods commonly ap­
plied by the firm and may serve as primary assistant to the
accountant in charge. In more complicated audits, concen­
trates on detail work. Occasionally, may be in charge of
small, uncomplicated audits which require only one or two
other subordinate accountants. Personal contacts usually
involve only the exchange of factual technical information
and are usually limited to the client’s operating accounting
staff and department heads.

Public Accountants I

General characteristics. As an entry level public ac­
countant, serves as a junior member of an audit team.
Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific
situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants
with advanced degrees, such as M B A ’s , are excluded at
this level.)
Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform­
ance with required procedures and instructions, and
usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior.

Public Accountants III

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a team of
several subordinates. Audits are usually accomplished one
at a time and are typically carried out at a single location.
The firms audited are typically moderately complex, and
there is usually previous audit experience by the firm. The
audit conforms to standard procedural guidelines, but is
often tailored to fit the client’s business activities. Routine
procedures and techniques are sometimes inadequate and
require adaptation. Necessary data are not always readily
available. When assigned to more difficult and complex
audits (see level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a
major component or serve as the primary assistant to the
accountant in charge.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic
audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports
against source accounts and records; reconciling bank
and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and
disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving
reports, and other accounting documents in detail to
ascertain that transactions are properly supported and
recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working
papers.
Public Accountants II

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant carries out routine audit functions and detail work
with relative independence. Serves as a member of an
audit team on assignments planned to provide exposure
to a variety of client organizations and audit situations.
Specific assignments depend upon the difficulty and
complexity of the audit and whether the client has been
previously audited by the firm. On moderately complex
audits where there is previous audit experience by the
firm, accomplishes complete segments of the audit (i.e.,
functional work areas such as cash, receivables, etc.).
When assigned to more complicated audits, carries out
activities similar to public accountants I.
Direction received.



Direction received. Works under the general supervision
of a higher level public accountant who oversees the opera­
tions of the audit. Work is performed independently,
applying generally accepted accounting principles and
auditing standards, but assistance on difficult technical
matters is available. Work may be checked occasionally
during progress for appropriateness and adherence to time
requirements, but routine analyses, methods, techniques,
and procedures applied at the worksite are expected to be
correct.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading
team members, and personally performing the most dif­

Works under the supervision of a
54

ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with the
general format prescribed in the audit program, but
selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples
and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes
guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily
priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for
technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated
problems within established guidelines and priorities but
refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for
discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final
reports, management letters, and other closing memoran­
da. Discusses significant recommendations with superiors
and may serve as technical resource at “ closing”
meetings with clients. Personal contacts are usually with
chief accountants and assistant controllers of mediumsize companies and divisions of large corporations to
explain and interpret policies and procedures governing
the audit process.

adjustments as necessary once an audit has begun; and
selects specific methods, types, and sizes of samples, the
extent to which discrepancies need to be investigated, and
the depth of required analyses. Resolves most operational
difficulties and unanticipated problems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for
appropriateness, conformance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers,
drafts reports and findings; and prepares financial
statements, management letters, and other closing
memoranda for management approval. Participates in
“closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be
called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical
observations and recommendations. Personal contacts
are extensive and typically include top executives of
smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and
managment officers of large corporations, e.g., assist­
ant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve coor­
dinating and advising on work efforts and resolving
operating problems.

Public Accountants IV

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant directs field work including difficult audits—e.g.,
those involving initial audits of new clients, acquisitions,
or stock registrations—and may oversee a large audit team
split between several locations. The audit team usually
includes one or more level III public accountants who
handle major components of the audit. The audits are
complex and clients typically include those engaged in
projects which span accounting periods; highly regulated
industries which have various external reporting require­
ments; publicly held corporations; or businesses with very
high dollar or transaction volume. Clients are frequently
large with a variety of operations which may have different
accounting systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking
and audit programs are intricate, often requiring extensive
tailoring to meet atypical or novel situations.

N o t e : Excluded from this level are public account­
ants who direct field work associated with the complete
range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest
and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee
teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work
requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries to
make subjective determinations on questions of tax, law,
accounting, and business practices. Audits may be com­
plicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of the
client organization (e.g., multinational corporations and
conglomerates with a large number of separate and
distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues where precedents
are lacking or in conflict; and, in some cases, clients who
are encountering substantial financial difficulties. They
perform most work without technical supervision, and
completed audits are reviewed mainly for propriety of
recommendations and conformance with general policies
of the firm. Also excluded are public accountants whose
principal function is to manage, rather than perform
accounting work, and the equity owners of the firm who
have final approval authority.

Works under general supervision.
The supervisor sets overall objectives and resource limits
but relies on the accountant to fully plan and direct all
technical phases of the audit. Issues not covered by
guidelines or known precedents are discussed with the
supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended approaches
and courses of action are normally approved. Work is
reviewed for soundness of approach, completeness, and
conformance with established policies of the firm.

D irection received.

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets,
liabilities, income, expense, and capital accounts, in­
cluding responsibility for profit and loss and balance sheet
statements); and (2) at least one other major accounting
activity, typically tax accounting, cost accounting, proper­
ty accounting, or sales accounting. It may also include
such other activities as payroll and timekeeping, and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features of
the audit, directing the work of team members, and
personally performing the most difficult work. Often
participates in the development of the audit scope, and
drafts complicated audit programs with a large number
of concurrently executed phases. Independently develops
audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating from tradi­
tional methods to the extent required. Makes program




55

mechanical or electronic data processing operations which
are an adjunct of the accounting system. (Responsibility
for an internal audit program is typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of
the following:

subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Providing special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations o f the organization served.

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.

1. On own responsibility, developing, adapting, or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of
the organization;

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in
broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer­
tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and
general policies are required by the basic system, the
chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to
decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts,
reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg­
ment served. Approval must be secured from higher
levels only for those changes which would basically af­
fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher
levels. Typical responsibilities include:

2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and quan­
tity of work performed, training and development of
subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina­
tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing directly, or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
a.

b.

The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed
by accounting data, and selecting a manner of
presentation that is meaningful to management;

Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects o f the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;

Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g.,
proposals for improving cost control, property
management, credit and collection, tax reduction,
or similar programs.

Extending cost accounting
previously covered;

not

Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for which
incumbent is responsible, often consolidating data sub­
mitted by subordinate segments.

This degree of authority is most typically found at in­
termediate organizational levels such as regional offices,
or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found
in some company-level situations where the authority of
the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in
AR-3. More rarely, it is found in plant-level chief ac­
countants who have been delegated more authority than
usual for such positions as described in AR-1.
AR-3.
Has complete responsibility for establishing
and maintaining the framework for the basic accounting
system used in the company, subject only to general
policy guidance and control from a higher level com­
pany official responsible for general financial manage­
ment. Typical responsibilities include:

AR-1.
The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro­
cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in
considerable detail by higher levels in the company or
organization. The chief accountant has final, unre­
viewed authority, within the prescribed system, to ex­
pand it to fit the particular needs of the organization
served, e.g., in the following or comparable ways:

Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s
accounting system and the specific accounts to be used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements
required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies,
and procedures;

Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;




areas

Instituting new cost accounting procedures;

Authority and Responsibility

controls,

to

Expanding the utilization o f computers within the ac­
counting process; and

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;
organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar
nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are
sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting
manager, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting ac­
tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon­
sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be
covered by the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility, and (b) technical complexity,
using table C -l.

Establishing additional accounting

operations

interpretations,

Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the
company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate
units; and

accounts,
56

Table C-1. Criteria for matching chief accountants by level
—

A u th o r ity
and
resp o n sib ility '

T ech n ica l
c o m p lex ity '

I

A R -1

TC-1

O n ly 1 or 2 p r o fe ss io n a l a cco u n ta n ts w h o d o n o t excee d th e a cc o u n ta n t III
jo b d e fin itio n .

II

A R -I

T C -2

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n ts , w ith at least o n e or tw o m a tc h in g th e
a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. M ost o f these m atch th e a cc o u n ta n t
III jo b d e fin itio n , but o n e or tw o m ay m atch th e a c c o u n ta n t IV j o b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC -1

O n ly 1 or 2 p r o fe ss io n a l a cco u n ta n ts w h o d o n o t ex cee d th e a cc o u n ta n t IV
jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -1

T C -3

A b o u t 15 to 20 p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. A t least o n e or tw o m atch the
a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 2 0 p r o fe ss io n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. M an y o f th e se m atch th e a cc o u n ta n t
IV jo b d e fin itio n , but so m e m ay m atch th e a cc o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. M ost o f th e se m atch th e a cc o u n ta n t
III jo b d e fin itio n , but o n e or tw o m ay m atch as h igh as a cco u n ta n t V .

A R -2

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 4 0 p r o fe ss io n a l a c c o u n ta n ts . M an y o f th e se m atch th e a c c o u n ta n t
V jo b d e fin itio n , but several m ay exceed that level.

A R -3

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 2 0 p r o fe ss io n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. M ost o f th e se m atch th e a c c o u n ta n t
IV jo b d e fin itio n , but several m ay m atch th e a c c o u n ta n t V a n d o n e o r tw o m ay
e x cee d that level.

A R -3

T C -3

A b o u t 25 t o 4 0 p r o fe ss io n a l a c c o u n ta n ts. M an y o f th e se m atch th e a c c o u n ta n t
V jo b d e fin itio n , but several m ay excee d that level.

L evel

III

S u b o rd in a te p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n tin g s ta ff

or

IV

or

V

1 A R -1 , -2, -3 , and T C -1 , -2, an d -3 are e x p la in ed in the text.

Taking final action on all technical accounting matters.

serves has a relatively large number o f functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and fre­
quent adaptations o f the basic system to meet management
needs (e.g., adoption o f new accounts, subaccounts, and
subsidiary records; revision o f instructions for the use o f
accounts; improvements or expansion o f m ethods for ac­
cumulating and reporting cost data in connection with new
or changed work processes).

C haracteristically, participates extensively in broad
com p any m anagem ent processes by providing a ccou n t­
ing ad vice, interpretations, or recom m en dation s based
on data accum ulated in the accoun ting system and on
p rofessional judgm ent and experience.

Technical Complexity

T C -3 . The organization which the accounting p ro­
gram serves puts a h ea vy d e m a n d on th e accoun tin g
org a n iza tio n f o r sp e c ia lize d a n d ex ten sive a d a p ta tio n s
o f the basic system to m eet m anagem ent needs. Such
dem ands arise because the fu n ction s, products, work
processes, etc., o f the organization are very num erous,
diverse, unique, or specialized, or there are other co m ­
parable com p lexities. C onsequ en tly, the accounting
system , to a considerable degree, is developed well

T C -1 . The organization w hich the accounting pro­
gram serves has relatively few fu n ction s, products, work
processes, e tc ., and these tend to be stable and unchan g­
ing. The accounting system operates in accordance with
w ell-established principles and practices or those o f
equivalent d ifficu lty which are typical o f that industry.
T C -2.

The organization which the accounting program




57

Subordinate Staff

beyond established principles and accoun ting practices
in order to:

In table C - l , the num ber o f p rofessional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing betw een various levels. It is to be co n ­
sidered less im portant in the m atching process than the
other criteria. In addition to the sta ff o f p rofessional ac­
countants in the system for which the ch ief accountant
is responsible, there are clerical, m achine op eration ,
b o o k k eep in g, and related personnel.

Provide for the solution o f problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which these
theories and practices have not previously been applied.

Attorneys
Performs consultation and advisory work and carries
out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights,
privileges, and obligations of the company. The work
performed requires completion of law school with an
l . l . b . degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the
bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more
o f the following or comparable duties:

Difficulty

D -l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that
are well established; clearly applicable legal precedent;
and matters not of substantial importance to the
organization. (Usually relatively limited sums of money,
e.g., a few thousand dollars, are involved.)
Examples o f D-l work:

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre­
paratory to defending the organization in potential or
actual lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the
facts can be firmly established and there are precedent
cases directly applicable to the situation.

Acting as agent o f the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications,
etc.) for legal implications; advising officials o f proposed
legislation which might affect the company;

Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount o f clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.

Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of com­
pany’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;

Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring
the development o f detailed information but not
involving serious questions regarding titles to pro­
perty or other major factual or legal issues.

Conducting pretrial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

Excluded from this definition are:
D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one
or more of the following: The absence of clear and
directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi­
ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the
laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor­
tance of the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums
as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly
involved); and the matter is being strongly pressed or
contested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by
the individuals, corporations, or government agencies
involved.

Patent work which requires professional training in ad­
dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or
in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar work
f o r which professional legal training and bar membership
is not essential; and
Attorneys, frequently titled “ general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and form­
ulation o f policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities o f such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

Examples o f D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising rep­
resentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to
different interpretations.

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to
be classified in accordance with table C-2 and the
definitions which follow.



58

Table C-2. Criteria for matching attorneys by level
D iffic u lty
o f legal w o rk 1

L ev el

I

R esp o n sib ility
o f jo b 1

T h is is th e en try lev<si. T h e d u ties an d resp o n sib ilitie s a fter iilitia l o r ie n ta tio n and
tra in in g are th o s e des<;ribed in D - l a n d R - l.
D -l

II

R -2

E xp erien ce required

C o m p le tio n o f law sc h o o l w ith an L L .B . or J .D . degree p lu s a d m issio n to the
bar.

S u ffic ie n t p r o fe ssio n a l exp erien ce (at least 1 y ear, u su ally m ore) at the D -l
lev el to assure co m p e te n c e as an a tto rn ey .

or
D -2

R -l

D -2

R -2

D -3

R -l

D -2

R-3

D -3

R -2

V

D -3

R -3

E x te n siv e p r o fe ssio n a l ex p erien ce at th e D -3 level.

VI

D -3

R -4

E x ten siv e p r o fe ss io n a l exp erien ce at th e D -3 an d R -3 levels.

III

A t least 1 y ear, u su ally m o re, o f p r o fe ssio n a l exp erien ce at th e D -2 level.

or

IV

E x ten siv e p r o fe ssio n a l exp erien ce at the D -2 or higher level.

or

1 D - l , -2 , -3 , a n d R - l , -2 , -3 , and -4 are e x p la in ed in th e tex t.

Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of
an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale,
underwriting, and administration o f group contracts in­
volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws.

Reviewing and advising on the implications o f new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for
an organized group.

Performing the principal legal work in nonroutine,
major revision o f the company’s charter or in effectuating
new major financing steps.

Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by
the absence o f precedent decisions that are directly ap­
plicable to the organization’s situtation.

Responsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult
because of one or more of the following: The questions
are unique and require a high order of original and
creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions
require extensive research and analysis and the obtain­
ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con­
troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate
organization, engineering, or other highly technical
area; and the legal matter is of critical importance to the
organization and is being vigorously pressed or con­
tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

R -l. Responsibility for final action is usually limited
to matters covered by legal precedents and in which little
deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci­
sions or actions having a significant bearing on the
organization’s business are reviewed. Is given guidance
in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and
organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are
then carried out with moderate independence although
guidance is generally available and is sought from time
to time on problem points.
R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and
factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents,
and developing conclusions and recommendations.
Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza­
tion’s business are reviewed. Receives information from
supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or impor­
tant policy considerations pertaining to a legal problem.
If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a
supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach,
possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In the
case of nonroutine written presentations, the final prod­
uct is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with

Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications o f Federal
antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing
operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company
in rate or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts of all or several States.
Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court
where the case is highly important to the future operation
o f the organization and is vigourously contested by very
distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national
reputation) legal talent.




59

ranking officials in private companies or in government
agencies. On various aspects of assigned work, may give
advice directly and personally to corporation officers and
top-level managers, or may work through the general
counsel of the company in advising officers. Generally
receives no preliminary instructions on legal problems.
On matters requiring the concentrated efforts of several
attorneys or other specialists, is responsible for directing,
coordinating, and reviewing the work of the attorneys
involved.

organization policy. Some, but not all, attorneys make
assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aides,
or clerks.
R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes
final legal determinations in matters of substantial impor­
tance to the organization. Such determinations are subject
to review only for consistency with company policy, possi­
ble precedent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry
out assignments, deals regularly with company officers
and top-level management officials and confers or
negotiates regularly with senior attorneys and officials in
other companies or in government agencies on various
aspects of assigned work. Receives little or no preliminary
instruction on legal problems and a minimum of technical
legal supervision. May assign and review work of a few
attorneys, but this is not a primary responsibility.

OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a
staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom
regularly performs D-3 legal work. With respect to
the work directed, gives advice directly to corporation
officers and top managerial officers, or may give such
advice through the general counsel. Receives guidance
as to organization policy but no technical supervision or
assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief­
ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to
the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions.
Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy.

R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems
of the highest importance to the organization and develop­
ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the
organization at conferences, hearings, or trials and per­
sonally confers and negotiates with top attorneys and top­

Buyers
N o t e : Some buyers are responsible for the purchas­
ing of a variety of items and materials. When the variety
includes items and work described at more than one of
the following levels, the position should be considered
to equal the highest level that characterizes at least a
substantial portion of the buyer’s time.

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and serv­
ices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some
instances, items are of types that must be specially de­
signed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accord­
ance with drawings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects
or recommends supplier. May interview prospective
vendors. Purchases items and services at the most
favorable price consistent with quality, quantity,
specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares
or supervises preparation of purchase orders from req­
uisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’
offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are
consistent with past experience and are in conformance
with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase
transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex­
perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities,
etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are
reviewed by higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary
and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or
dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip­
ment, or supplies.




Excluded are:
a. Buyers o f items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest­
ment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional educa­
tion and qualifications in a physical science or in
engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few
related items o f highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe
uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is
required to judge the relative value o f the goods of­
fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price
of each purchase in terms o f its probable effect on
the organization’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervis­
ion o f a purchasing program;
60

the types described for buyer I when the quantities pur­
chased are so large that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturers on a broader-than-local scale.

f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing
contracts;

Buyers III

h. Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work; and

Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­
tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging require­
ments; export packs; overseas port differentials; etc.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;
special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.

i. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years o f admin­
istrative, technical, or substantive clerical experi­
ence; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any
equivalent combination of experience and education
yielding basic skills in problem analysis and communi­
cation.

Buyers I

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available,
commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture,
services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers, whole­
salers, jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representa­
tives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts,
e.g., those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common sta­
tionery and office supplies; standard types of office fur­
niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, and screws;
janitorial and common building maintenance supplies; or
common utility services or office machine repair services.
Buyers II

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of standard, general­
ly available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions may involve occasional modification of
standard and common usage items, materials, and serv­
ices, and include a few stipulations about unusual pack­
ing, marking, shipping, etc.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Standard in­
dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equipment;
standard electronic parts, components, and component
test instruments; electric motors; gasoline service station
equipment; p b x or other specialized telephone services;
special-purpose printing services; and routine purchases of
common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes
of steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of




Buyers IV

Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer
determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.
61

In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples of items purchased include: Specialpurpose, high-cost machine tools and production
facilities; specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines;
raw materials of critically important characteristics or
quality; and parts, subassemblies, components, etc.,
specially designed and made to order (e.g., communica­
tions equipment for installation in aircraft being
manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and
rockets; and motor vehicle frames).

N o t e : Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of science
or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual or unit
value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to expand
their plants or convert facilities to the production of new
items or services. These types of buying functions are often
performed by program managers or company officials
who have primary responsibilities other than buying.

Computer Systems Analysts1
Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolu­
tion through electronic data processing. Gathers infor­
mation from users, defines work problems, and, if
feasible, designs a system of computer programs and
procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete
specifications to enable computer programmers to
prepare required programs: Analyzes subject-matter
operations to be automated; specifies number and types
of records, files, and documents to be used and outputs
to be produced; prepares work diagrams and data flow
charts; coordinates tests of the system and participates
in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recom­
mends computer equipment changes to obtain more
effective operations. May also write the computer
programs.
Excluded are:
(a) Trainees who receive detailed directives and work
plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific
situations, and seek assistance for deviations and
problems;
(b) Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
o f several possible scientific fields;

compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use o f all programs
and provide for the scheduling o f the execution o f pro­
grams; however, positions matching this definition may
develop a “total package” which includes not only
analyzing work problems to be processed but also
selecting the computer equipment and system software
required.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Computer Systems Analysts I

At this level, initial assignments are designed to ex­
pand practical experience in applying systems analysis
techniques and procedures. Provides several phases of
the required systems analysis where the nature of the
system is predetermined. Uses established factfinding
approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and
procedures, and familiarity with related computer pro­
gramming practices, system software, and computer
equipment.
Carries out factfinding and analysis as assigned,
usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies
established procedures where the nature of the system,
1
For publication purposes, data for Computer Systems Analysts and Com­
puter Systems Analysts Supervisors/Managers were combined into a six level
series as follows:

(c) Computer programmers who write computer pro­
grams and solve user problems not requiring systems
modification;

Systems Analysts
Level

(d) Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization; and

I .......................................................................

(e) Computer systems programmers or analysts who
primarily write programs or analyze problems con­
cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems,

II
Ill
IV
V
-

Supervisory/
Managerial

I

II .................................................................
III ...............................................................
IV ...............................................................
V ................................................................
V I ................................................................




Nonsupervisory

62

I
II
III
IV

feasibility, computer equipment, and programming
language have already been decided; may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifica­
tions required by computer programmers from informa­
tion developed by the higher level analyst; may research
routine user problems and solve them by modifying the
existing system when the solutions follow clear
precedents. When costs and deadline estimates are re­
quired, results receive close review.
The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and
deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt
guides to specific situations; resolve problems and
deviations according to established practices; and obtain
advice where precedents are unclear or not available.
Completed work is reviewed for conformance to re­
quirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May supervise
technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

compatibility with other work, and effectiveness in
meeting requirements. May provide functional direction
to lower level assistants on assigned work.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing
scheme or broad system, as described for computer
systems analysts, level III. Works independently on
routine assignments and receives instructions and
guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for
accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions,
and to insure proper alignment with overall system.
Computer Systems Analysts III

Applies systems analysis and design techniques to
complex computer systems in a broad area such as
manufacturing; finance management; engineering, ac­
counting, or statistics; logistics planning; material
management; etc. Usually, there are multiple users of
the system; however, there may be complex single-user
systems, e.g., for engineering or research projects. Re­
quires competence in all phases of available systems
analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and
knowledge of available systems software, computer
equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques,
and management practices of one or more subjectmatter areas. Since input data usually come from
diverse sources, is responsible for recognizing probable
conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and
sources. Produces innovative solutions for a variety of
complex problems.
Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops
new subsystems such as an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales
analysis record in which every item of each type is
automatically processed through the full system of
records. Guides users in formulating requirements; ad­
vises on alternatives and on the implications of new or
revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user
project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in re­
quirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recom­
mends optimum approach and develops system design
for approved projects. Interprets information and in­
formally arbitrates between system users when conflicts
exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup,
directing and integrating the work of one or two lower
level analysts, each responsible for several programs.
Supervision and nature of review are similar to level
II; existing systems provide precedents for the operation
of new subsystems.

Computer Systems Analysts II

Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area
such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A
system of several varied sequences or formats is usually
developed, e.g., develops systems for maintaining
depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts
receivable in a retail establishment, maintaining inven­
tory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establish­
ment, or processing a limited problem in a scientific
project. Requires competence in most phases of systems
analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software
and computer equipment and of the work processes,
applicable regulations, workload, and practices of the
assigned subject-matter area. Recognizes probable in­
teractions of related computer systems and predicts
impact of a change in assigned system.
Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope,
and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and
prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives
in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and
personnel, and recommends a course of action; and,
upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for
development of computer programs. Determines and
resolves data processing problems and coordinates the
work with programmers, users, etc.; orients user per­
sonnel on new or changed procedures. May conduct
special projects such as data element and code standard­
ization throughout a broad system, working under
specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the
supervisor any unusual problems or controversies.
Works independently under overall project objectives
and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress
and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include
existing systems and the constraints imposed by related
systems with which the incumbent’s work must be meshed.
Adapts design approaches successfully used in prece­
dent systems. Completed work is reviewed for timeliness,




Computer Systems Analysts IV

Applies expert systems analysis and design techniques
to complex systems development in a specialized design
area and/or resolves unique or unyielding problems in
63

existing complex systems by applying new technology.
Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and
flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the
organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the
systems software and computer equipment. Objectives
and overall requirements are defined in organization
e d p
policies and standards; the primary constraints
typically are those imposed by the need for compatibili­
ty with existing systems or processes. Supervision and
nature of review are similar to levels II and III.
Typical duties and responsibilities.
following:

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following:
1. As team or project leader, guides the development of
broad unprecedented computer systems. The infor­
mation requirements are complex and voluminous.
Devises completely new ways to locate and develop
data sources; establishes new factors and criteria for
making subject-matter decisions. Coordinates fact­
finding, analysis, and design of the system and ap­
plies the most recent developments in data processing
technology and computer equipment. Guidelines
consist o f state-of-the-art technology and general
organization policy. A t least one team member per­
form s work at level IV.

One or more of the

1. As team project leader, provides systems design in
a specialized and highly complex design area, e.g.,
interrelated business statistics and/or projections,
scientific systems, mathematical models, or similar
unprecedented computer systems. Establishes the
fram ework o f new computer systems from feasibility
studies to postimplementation evaluation. Devises
new sources o f data and develops new approaches
and techniques for use by others. May serve as
technical authority for a design area. At least one or
two team members perform work at level III; one or
two team members may also perform work as a level
IV staff specialist or consultant as described below.

2. As staff specialist or consultant, is a recognized
leader and authority in a large organization (as de­
fined above). Performs at least two of the following: (a)
Has overall responsibility for evaluating the signifi­
cance of technological advancement and developing
e d p standards where new and improved approaches
are needed, e.g., programming techniques; (b) conceives
and plans exploratory investigations critical to the
overall organization where useful precedents do not
exist and new concepts are required, e.g., develops
recommendations regarding a comprehensive management
information system; or (c) evaluates existing e d p
organizational policy for effectiveness, devising
and formulating changes in the organization’s position
on broad policy issues. May be assisted on individual
projects by other analysts.

2. As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a
specialty area (e.g., data security, telecommunica­
tions, systems analysis techniques, e d p standards
development, etc.), plans and conducts analyses o f
unique or unyielding problems in a broad system.
Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned
area and prepares overall project recommendations
from an e d p standpoint, including feasible ad­
vancements in e d p technology; upon acceptance,
determines a design strategy that anticipates direc­
tions of change; designs and monitors necessary
testing and implementation plans. Performs work
such as: Studies broad areas o f projected work proc­
esses which cut across established organization e d p
systems; conducts continuing review o f computer
technological developments applicable to systems
design and prepares long-range forecasts; develops
e d p standards where new and improved approaches
are needed; or develops recommendations for a
management information system where new concepts
are required.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
SUPERVISORS/MANAGERS

Supervises three or more employees, two of whom
perform systems analysis. Work requires substantial
and recurring use of systems analysis skills in directing
staff. May also supervise programmers and related
clerical and technical support personnel.
Excluded are:
a.

b. Supervisory positions having base levels below Computer
Systems Analyst II or Computer Programmer IV.

Computer Systems Analysts V

c.

As a top technical expert, develops broad unprec­
edented computer systems and/or conducts critical studies
central to the success o f large organizations having
extensive technical or highly diversified computer
requirements. Considers such requirements as broad
company policy, and the diverse user needs of several
organization levels and locations. Works under general
administrative direction.



Positions also having significant responsibility for
the management or supervision of functional areas
(e.g., system software development, data entry, or
computer operations) not related to the Computer
Systems Analyst and Computer Programmer defini­
tions.

Managers who supervise two or more subordinates
performing at Computer Systems Analyst Supervisor/
Manager level IV.

Supervisory jobs are matched at 1 of 4 levels accord­
ing to two factors: (a) Base level of work supervised,
and (b) level of supervision. Table C-3 indicates the
level of the supervisor for each combination of factors.
64

Table C-3.

Criteria for matching computer systems analyst supervisors/managers
Supervisor/manager level

Base level of nonsupervisory job(s)

Level of supervision
Matched in the
computer programmers
definition

Matched in the
computer systems
analysts definition

IV
V

II
III
IV

-

-

LS-1

LS-3

I
II
11
1
IV

V

LS-2

II
III
IV
Exclude

III
IV
Exclude
Exclude

supervisors and reviews their evaluations of other
employees; selects nonsupervisors (higher level approval
is virtually assured) and recommends supervisory selec­
tions; and hears group grievances and serious or
unresolved complaints. May shift resources among
projects and perform long-range budget planning.

Base Level of Work

The base level of work is that level of nonsupervisory
work under the direct or indirect supervision of the
supervisor/manager which (when added to the non­
supervisory levels above it) represents at least 25 percent
of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff and at
least two of the full-time positions supervised.
To determine the base level of nonsupervisory,
nonclerical work: (1) Positions are arrayed by level of
difficulty; (2) the number of workers in each position is
determined; and (3) the highest level is determined that
has at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory,
nonclerical staff accumulated from itself and levels
above itself.

N o t e : In rare instances, supervisory positions
responsible for directing a sizable staff (e.g., 20-30
employees) may not have subordinate supervisors, but
have all other LS-2 responsibilities. Such positions are
matched to LS-2.

LS-3. Directs two subordinate supervisory levels, and
the work force managed typically includes substantially
more than 30 employees. Makes major decisions and
recommendations which have a direct, important, and
substantial effect on own organization and work. Per­
forms at least three of the following:

Level of Supervision

Supervisors and managers are matched at 1 of the 3
LS levels below best describing their supervisory
responsibility.

Decides what programs and projects should be initiated, drop­
ped, expanded, or curtailed;

LS-1 Plans, coordinates, and evaluates the work of a
small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers,
systems analysts, and technicians; estimates personnel
needs and schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet
completion date; interviews candidates for own unit and
recommends hires, promotions, or reassignments;
resolves complaints and refers group grievances and
more serious unresolved complaints to higher level
supervisors; and may reprimand employees.

Determines long-range plans in response to program changes,
evaluates program goals, and redefines objectives;
Determines changes to be made in organizational structure,
delegation of authority, coordination of units, etc.;
Decides what compromises to make in operations in view
of public relations implications and need for support from
various groups;

LS-2. Directs a sizable staff (normally 15-30 em­
ployees), typically divided into subunits controlled by
subordinate supervisors; advises higher level manage­
ment of work problems of own unit and the impact on
broader programs; collaborates with heads of other
units to negotiate and/or coordinate work changes;
makes decisions on work or training problems presented
by subordinate supervisors; evaluates subordinate

Decides on the means to substantially reduce operating costs
without impairing overall operations; justifies major equip­
ment expenditures; and
Resolves differences between key subordinate officials;
decides, or significantly affects final decisions, on person­
nel actions for supervisors and other key officials.

Computer Programmers
Performs programming services for establishments or
for outside organizations who may contract for services.




Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about
business or scientific problems into a sequence of de65

tailed instructions to solve problems by electronic data
processing (E D P ) equipment, i.e., digital computers.
Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of
data and develops the precise steps and processing logic
which, when entered into the computer in coded
language (C O B O L , f o r t r a n , or other programming
language), cause the manipulation of data to achieve
desired results. Tests and corrects programs and
prepares instructions for operators who control the
computer during production runs. Modifies programs
to increase operating efficiency or to respond to changes
in work processes; maintains records to document pro­
gram development and revisions.
At levels I, II, and III, some computer programmers
may also perform programming analysis such as:
Gathering facts from users to define their business or
scientific problems and to investigate the feasibility of
solving problems through new or modified computer
programs; developing specifications for data inputs,
flow, actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating
on a continuing basis in the overall program planning
along with other e d p personnel and users.
In contrast, at levels IV and V, some programming
analysis must be performed as part of the programming
assignment. The analysis duties are identified as a
separate paragraph at levels I, II, III, and IV and are
part of each alternative described at level V. However,
the systems requirements are defined by systems
analysts or scientists.
Excluded are:
a. Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any

o f several possible scientific fields;
b. Positions responsible for developing and modifying
computer systems;
c. Computer programmers who perform level IV or V
programming duties but who perform no programming

or utilization;
programmers

or

analysts who

primarily write programs or analyze problems concern­
ing the system software, e.g., operating systems,
compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use o f all pro­
grams and provide for the scheduling o f the execution
of programs; however, positions matching this defini­
tion may develop a “ total package” which includes
not only writing programs to process data but also
selecting the computer equipment and system software
required;
f. Employees who have significant responsibility for the
management or supervision of workers (e.g., systems




Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions.
Computer Programmers I

At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned to
develop basic programming skills because incumbents
are typically inexperienced in applying such skills on the
job. Assists higher level staff by performing elementary
programming tasks which concern limited and simple data
items and steps and which closely follow patterns of
previous work done in the organization, e.g., drawing flow
charts, writing operator instructions, or coding and testing
routines to accumulate counts, tallies, or summaries. May
perform routine programming assignments (as described
in level II) under close supervision.
In addition, as training and to assist higher level staff,
computer programmers may perform elementary fact­
finding concerning a specified work process, e.g., a file
of clerical records which is treated as a unit (invoices,
requisitions, or purchase orders, etc.); reports findings
to higher level staff.
Receives classroom and/or on-the-job training in com­
puter programming concepts, methods, and techniques
and in the basic requirements of the subject matter area.
May receive training in elementary factfinding. Detailed,
step-by-step instructions are given for each task and any
deviation must be authorized by a supervisor. Work is
closely monitored in progress and reviewed in detail upon
completion.

At this level, initial assignments are designed to
develop competence in applying established programm­
ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine
programming assignments that do not require skilled
background experience but do require knowledge of
established programming procedures and data process­
ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and
complete specifications. The data are refined and the
format of the final products is very similar to that of the
input or is well defined when significantly different, i.e.,
there are few, if any, problems with interrelating varied
records and outputs.
Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes
approved changes by amending program flow charts,
developing detailed processing logic, and coding changes.
Tests and documents modifications and writes operator

d. Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
systems

g. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of administrative,
technical, or substantive clerical experience; (2) a
bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent
combination o f experience and education yielding basic
skills in problem analysis and communication.

Computer Programmers II

analysis;

e. Computer

analysts) whose positions are not covered in this defi­
nition; or employees with significant responsibility
for other functions such as computer operations, data
entry, system software, etc.; and

66

instructions. May write routine new programs using
prescribed specifications; may confer with e d p personnel
to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc.
In addition and as continued training, computer pro­
grammers may evaluate simple interrelationships in the
immediate programming area, e.g., whether a con­
templated change in one part of a simple program
would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers
with user representatives to gain an understanding of
the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change;
implements the change upon approval of the supervisor
or higher level staff. The incumbent is provided with
charts, narrative descriptions of the functions perform­
ed, an approved statement of the product desired (e.g.,
a change in a local establishment report), and the in­
puts, outputs, and record formats.
Reviews objectives and assignment details with higher
level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judg­
ment in selecting among authorized procedures and seeks
assistance when guidelines are inadequate, significant
deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated problems
arise. Work is usually monitored in progress; all work is
reviewed upon completion for accuracy and compliance
with standards.

portions of a scientific programming project, applying
established scientific programming techniques to welldefined mathematical, statistical, engineering, or other
scientific problems usually requiring the translation of
mathematical notation into processing logic and code.
(Scientific programming includes assignments such
as: Using predetermined physical laws expressed in
mathematical terms to relate one set of data to another;
the routine storage and retrieval of field test data; and
using procedures for real-time command and control,
scientific data reduction, signal processing, or similar
areas.) Tests and documents work and writes and main­
tains operator instructions for assigned programs.
Confers with other e d p personnel to obtain or provide
factual data.
In addition, computer programmers may carry out
factfinding and programming analysis of a single activity
or routine problem, applying established procedures
where the nature of the program, feasibility, computer
equipment, and programming language have already
been decided. May analyze present performance of the
program and take action to correct deficiencies based on
discussion with the user and consultation with and ap­
proval of the supervisor or higher level staff. May assist in
the review and analysis of detailed program specifications
and in program design to meet changes in work processes.
Works independently under specified objectives; ap­
plies judgment in devising program logic and in selecting
and adapting standard programming procedures; re­
solves problems and deviations according to established
practices; and obtains advice where precedents are
unclear or not available. Completed work is reviewed for
conformance to standards, timeliness, and efficiency.
May guide or instruct lower level programmers; may
supervise technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

Computer Programmers III

As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies
standard programming procedures and detailed knowledge
of pertinent subject matter (e.g., work processes, govern­
ing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a programming area
such as: A recordkeeping operation (supply, personnel
and payroll, inventory, purchasing, insurance payments,
depositor accounts, etc.); a well-defined statistical or scien­
tific problem; or other standardized operation or problem.
Works according to approved statements of requirements
and detailed specifications. While the data are clear cut,
related, and equally available, there may be substantial
interrelationships of a variety of records, and several
varied sequences or formats are usually produced. The
programs developed or modified typically are linked to
several other programs in that the output of one becomes
the input for another. Recognizes probable interactions of
other related programs with the assigned program(s) and is
familiar with related system software and computer equip­
ment. Solves conventional programming problems. (In
small organizations, may maintain programs which con­
cern or combine several operations, i.e., users, or develop
programs where there is one primary user and the other
gives input.)
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned programs; designs and implements
modifications to the interrelation of files and records
within programs in consultation with higher level staff;
monitors the operation of assigned programs and responds
to problems by diagnosing and correcting errors in logic
and coding; and implements and/or maintains assigned




OR
Works on complex programs (as described in level IV)
under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor.
May assist higher level staff by independently performing
less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more dif­
ficult tasks under close supervision.
Computer Programmers IV

Applies expertise in programming procedures to com­
plex programs; recommends the redesign of programs,
investigates and analyzes feasibility and program
requirements, and develops programming specifications.
Assigned programs typically affect a broad multiuser
computer system which meets the data processing needs
of a broad area (e.g., manufacturing, logistics planning,
finance management, human resources, material manage­
ment, etc.) or a computer system for a project in engineer­
ing, research, accounting, statistics, etc. Plans the full
range of programming actions to produce several inter­
67

related but different products from numerous and diverse
data elements which are usually from different sources;
solves difficult programming problems. Uses knowledge
of pertinent system software, computer equipment, work
processes, regulations, and management practices.
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains complex programs; designs and implements
the interrelation of files and records within programs
which will effectively fit into the overall design of the
project; working with problems or concepts, develops
programs for the solution to major scientific computa­
tional problems requiring the analysis and development
of logical or mathematical descriptions of functions to
be programmed; and develops occasional special pro­
grams, e.g., a critical path analysis program to assist in
managing a special project. Tests, documents, and writes
operating instructions for all work. Confers with other
ed p
personnel to secure information, investigate and
resolve problems, and coordinate work efforts.
In addition, performs such programming analysis as:
Investigates the feasibility of alternate program design
approaches to determine the best balanced solution,
e.g., one that will best satisfy immediate user needs,
facilitate subsequent modification, and conserve resources;
on typical maintenance projects and smaller scale, limited
new projects, assists user personnel in defining problems
or needs and determines how the work should be organiz­
ed, the necessary files and records, and their interrelation
within the program; and on large or more complicated
projects, usually participates as a team member along with
other e d p personnel and users and is typically assigned a
portion of the project.
Works independently under overall objectives and
direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and
unusual complications. Modifies and adapts precedent
solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include
constraints imposed by the related programs with which
the incumbent’s programs must be meshed. Completed
work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other
work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May
function as team leader or supervise a few lower level
programmers or technicians on assigned work.

gramming analysis is included as a part of the program­
ming assignment. Supervision and review are similar to
level IV.
Typical duties and responsibilities.
following:

One or more of the

1. In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coordinates,
and directs a large and important programming project
(finance, manufacturing, sales/marketing, human re­
sources, or other broad area) or a number o f small pro­
gramming projects with complex features. A substantial
portion o f the work supervised (usually two to three
workers) is comparable to that described for level IV.
Supervises, coordinates, and reviews the work o f a small
staff, normally not more than 15 programmers and
technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules,
assigns, and reviews work to meet completion date. These
day-to-day supervisors evaluate performance, resolve
complaints, and make recommendations on hiring and
firing. They do not make final decisions on curtailing pro­
jects, reorganizing, or reallocating resources.

2. A s team leader, staff specialist, or consultant, defines
complex scientific problems (e.g., computational) or other
highly complex programming problems (e.g., generating
overall forecasts, projections, or other new data
fields widely different from the source data or untried
at the scale proposed) and directs the development of
computer programs for their solution; or designs improve­
ments in complex programs where existing precedents
provide little guidance, such as an interrelated group of
mathematical/statistical programs which support health
insurance, natural resources, marketing trends, or other
research activities. In conjunction with users (scientists or
specialists), d e f in e s m a jo r p r o b le m s in t h e s u b je c t-m a tte r
area. Contacts coworkers and user personnel at various
locations to plan and coordinate project and gather data;
devises ways to obtain data not previously available; and
arbitrates differences between various program users when
conflicting requirements arise. May perform simulation
studies to determine effects o f changes in computer equip­
ment or system software or may assess the feasibility and
soundness of proposed programming projects which are
novel and complex. Typically, develops programming tech­
niques and procedures where few precedents exist. May be
assisted on projects by other programmers or technicians.

Computer Programmers V

At level V, workers are typically either supervisors,
team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants. Some pro­

Personnel Management
JOB ANALYSTS

preparing descriptions of duties and responsibilities and of
the physical and mental requirements needed by workers;
evaluating jobs and determining appropriate wage or
salary levels in accordance with their difficulty and
responsibility; independently conducting or participating
with representatives of other companies in conducting

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifi­
cations, and worker characteristics as a basis for compen­
sating employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner.
Performs such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and



68

compensation surveys within a locality or labor market
area; assisting in administering merit rating programs;
reviewing changes in wages and salaries indicated by
surveys and recommending changes in pay scales; and
auditing individual jobs to check the propriety of
evaluations and to apply current job classifications.
Excluded are:

rating programs. May plan survey methods and conduct
or direct surveys within a broad compensation area.

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL

Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top management
officials of the organization as the source of advice and
assistance on personnel management matters and pro­
blems generally; is typically consulted on the personnel im­
plications of planned changes in management policy or
program, the effects on the organization of economic or
market trends, product or production method changes,
etc.; and represents management in contacts with other
companies, trade associations, government agencies, etc.,
dealing primarily with personnel management matters.
Typically, the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer of
similar level. Below the company level, the director of per­
sonnel typically reports to a company officer or a high
management official who has responsibility for the opera­
tion of a plant, establishment, or other segment of the
company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program must include responsibility for
all three of the following functions:

a. Positions also responsible for supplying management
with a high technical level o f advice regarding solu­
tion o f broad personnel management problems;
b. Positions not requiring (1) three years o f adminis­
trative, technical, or substantive clerical experience;
(2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent
combination o f experience and education yielding basic
skills in problem analysis and communication.

Job Analysts I

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and tech­
niques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs
and prepares reports for review by a job analyst of
higher level.
Job Analysts II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishment. Works independently on such assignments
but is limited by defined areas of assignment and
instructions of superior.

1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a system
in which there are established procedures by which jobs
are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their duties,
responsibilities, and qualification requirements in order
to provide a foundation for equitable compensation.
Typically, such a system includes the use of one or more
sets of job evaluation factors and the preparation of for­
mal job descriptions. It may also include such related
functions as wage and salary surveys or merit rating
system administration. The job evaluation system(s)
does not necessarily cover all jobs in the organization,
but does cover a substantial portion of the organization.

Job Analysts III

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and
procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality
or participate in conducting surveys of broad compensa­
tion areas. May assist in developing survey methods and
plans. Receives general supervision but responsibility for
final action is limited.

2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruiting
actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employment
agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating ap­
plicants against demands of particular jobs by use of
such techniques as job analysis to determine re­
quirements, interviews, written tests of aptitude,
knowledge or skill, reference checks, experience evalua­
tions, etc.; recommending selections and job placements
to management, etc.

Job Analysts IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures, and is
given assignments which regularly include responsibility
for the more difficult kinds of jobs. (“ More difficult”
means jobs which consist of hard-to-understand work
processes; e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or
technical; or jobs in new or emerging occupational fields;
or jobs which are being established as part of the creation
of new organizations; or where other special considera­
tions of these types apply.) Receives general supervision,
but responsibility for final action is limited. May partic­
ipate in the development and installation of evaluation or
compensation systems, which may include those for merit




3. Employee relations and services function: i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying
and recommending solutions for personnel problems
such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity,
etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system,
retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating
69

system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea­
tional programs, industrial health and safety pro­
grams, etc.).

agreement reached at higher levels, or to supply advice
and information on technical points to the company’s
principal representative;
c. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); and

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas:

d. Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHA).

Excluded are positions in which responsibility for
actual contract negotiations with labor unions as the
principal company representative is a significant aspect
of the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a
primary basis for qualification requirements and com­
pensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C -4 .

a. Employee training and development;
b. Labor relations activities which are confined mainly
to the administration, interpretation, and application of
those aspects o f labor union contracts that are essential­
ly of the type described under (3) above. May also par­
ticipate in bargaining o f a subordinate nature, e.g., to
negotiate detailed settlement o f such matters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff
procedures, etc., within the broad terms o f a general

Table C-4. Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level
"Development level”
personnel program2

"Operations level”
personnel program1
Number of employees in
work force serviced

Number of employees in
work force serviced

"Type B”
organization
serviced4

“ Type A”
organization
serviced3

“ Type A ”
organization
serviced3

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

r
1
250-750 .......................................
II
1,000-5,000 .................................
6,000-12,000 .........................
III
IV
15,000-25,000 .............................
............. ..
..................... . .
_________________

i,
in

250-750 ...............................
1,000-5,000 ...............................
6,000-12,000 .............................
15,000-25,000 ...........................

IV
V

1 "Operations level” personnel program—director of personnel servicing
an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company where the basic per­
sonnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc., are established at company
headquarters or some other higher level between the plant and the com­
pany headquarters level. The personnel director’s responsibility is to put
these into operation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively
serve the local management needs.
2 "Development level" personnel program— either:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im­
portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives,
etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control from com­
pany officers: or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate
organization below the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary to
which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and development responsibility is made. In this situation, only basic policy
direction is given by the parent company and local officers. The director of
personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility
for basic personnel policies, plans objectives, etc., as described above
in (a).
3 "Type A" organization serviced— most jobs serviced do not present par­
ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems

because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes,
and an adequate labor supply is available These conditions are most likely to
be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc­
ture are relatively stable.
4
"Type B" organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre­
sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the
jobs Consist of hard-to-understand work processes (e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical): have hard-to-match skill requirements: are
in new or emerging occupations: or are extremely hard to fill These condi­
tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force,
organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc , are complicated
or unstable
NOTE There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements
used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur­
posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match
for each job Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees
should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level
job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below
the definition for type B However, the same job should be matched with level
I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well within the
definition for type A

Chemists and Engineers
CHEMISTS

degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and
substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex­
perience.

Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com­
position, molecular structure, and properties of
substances; to develop or investigate new materials and
processes; and to investigate the transformations which
substances undergo. Work typically requires a b . s .




Chemists I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
70

no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide ex­
perience in the application of training in chemistry as it
relates to the company’s programs. May also receive
formal classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)
received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during prog­
ress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

D irection

T ypical du ties a n d responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company. The work in­
cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative
analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as
viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and
assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional
knowledge through personal observation and discussion.
R e sp o n sib ility f o r direction o f oth ers.

Usually none.

Chemists II
G eneral characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine chemical work requiring
selection and application of general and specialized
methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used
in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instructions
when less common or proposed methods or procedures are
necessary. Requires work experience acquired in an entry
level position, or appropriate graduate level study. For
training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical of a higher level.
D irection received. Supervisor establishes the nature
and extent of analyses required, specifies methods and
criteria on new types of assignments, and reviews work
for thoroughness of application of methods and ac­
curacy of results.

May be assisted

by a few aides or technicians.
Chemists III
G eneral characteristics. Performs a broad range of
chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory,
using judgment in the independent evaluation, selection,
and adaptation of standard methods and techniques. May
carry through a complete series of tests on a product in its
different process stages. Some assignments require a
specialized knowledge of one or two common categories of
related substances. Performance at this level requires
developmental experience in a professional position, or
equivalent graduate level education.

On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application of sound professional
judgment.
D irection received.

Typical du ties a n d responsibilites. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature of the problem, selects standard
methods, tests, or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternative or modified methods with super­
visor’s concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing
samples or testing new procedures that require specialized
training because (a) standard methods are inapplicable,
(b) analytical findings must be interpreted in terms of
compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) spe­
cialized and advanced equipment and techniques must be
adapted.

May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aides, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.
R espon sibility f o r direction o f others.

Chemists IV
G eneral characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional areas of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or
ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un­
foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a
research approach to the solution of a wide variety of
problems and to assimilate the details and significance
of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and
tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to assure
competence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions
primarily of a research nature, completion of all re­
quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for
experience.

T yp ica l d u ties a n d respon sibilities. Carries out a wide
variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures.
In accordance with specific instructions, may carry out
proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect
problems in using standardized procedures because of
the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip­
ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures,
e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter­
nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem
and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified
phases of research projects as an assistant to an ex­
perienced chemist.




R e sp o n sib ility f o r d irectio n o f oth ers.

71

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on pro­
posed plans for projects.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory
assignments requiring the determination and evaluation of
alternative procedures and the sequence of performing
them. Performs complex, exacting, or unusual analytical
assignments requiring specialized knowledge of techniques
or products. Interprets results, prepares reports, and may
provide technical advice in specialized area.
Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

General characteristics. Performs work requiring
leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field,
product, or process. Formulates and conducts a
systematic attack on a problem area of considerable
scope and complexity which must be approached
through a series of complete and conceptually related
studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The
problems are complex because they are difficult to
define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within and outside the organiza­
tion, with responsibility for acting independently on
technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this
level usually requires extensive progressive experience
including work comparable to chemist V.
Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.

Chemists V

General characteristics. Participates in planning
laboratory programs on the basis of specialized
knowledge of problems and methods and probable
value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow
specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class
of products), making recommendations and conclusions
which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im­
portant projects. Development of the knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually reflects
progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire chemical
program of a company, when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such
a scope that they require a few (three to five) subordi­
nate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a
position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker, determines, conceives, plans, and
conducts projects of major importance to the company.
Applies a high degree of originality and ingenuity in
adapting techniques into original combinations and
configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
organizes, and directs assigned laboratory programs.
Independently defines scope and critical elements of the
projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan­
tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that
described for chemist IV. (2) As individual researcher
or worker, carries out projects requiring development
of new or highly modified scientific techniques and
procedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and
knowledge of related scientific fields.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans,
organizes, and supervises the work of a staff of chemists
and technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and
results obtained, and recommends major changes to
achieve overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or
researcher, may be assisted on individual projects by
other chemists or technicians.

Chemists VII

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises,
coordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and
development projects, or a larger group performing
routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date.
Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted
on projects by other chemists or technicians.



Chemists VI

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommen­
dations that are recognized as authoritative and have an
important impact on extensive chemical activities. Ini­
tiates and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists
and officials of other organizations and companies. Re­
quires skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues.
72

impact on extensive chemical and related activities of the
company. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with
top level chemists and officers of other organizations and
companies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a
high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and
importance.

At this level, individuals will have demonstrated creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving
unprecedented chemical problems, determining program
objectives and requirements, organizing programs and
projects, and developing standards and guides for diverse
chemical activities.
Direction received.
direction.

Receives general administrative

Direction received.
direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a chemical program of
a company with extensive and diversified scientific
requirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a
company where the program is more limited in scope.
The overall chemical program contains critical problems
the solution of which requires major technological ad­
vances and opens the way for extensive related develop­
ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations
concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work
which will be most profitable in light of company re­
quirements and scientific and industrial trends and
developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul­
tant, selects problems for research to further the com­
pany’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in
which the phenomena and principles are not adequately
understood, and where few or contradictory scientific
precedents or results are available for reference.
Outstanding creativity and mature judgment are re­
quired to devise hypotheses and techniques of ex­
perimentation and to interpret results. As a leader and
authority in the company, in a broad area of specializa­
tion, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one, ad­
vises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important
programs. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating,
and justifying proposed and current programs and proj­
ects and furnishing advice on unusually complex and
novel problems in the specialty field. Typically will have
contributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products,
procedures) which are regarded as significant advances
in the field.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) Iin a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified chemical program of a company; or
(b) the entire chemical program of a company when the
program is of moderate scope. The programs are of
such complexity and scope that they are of critical im­
portance to overall objectives, include problems of ex­
traordinary difficulty that often have resisted solution,
and consist of several segments requiring subordinate
supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind and
extent of chemical and related programs needed to ac­
complish the objectives of the company, for choosing
the scientific approaches, for planning and organizing
facilities and programs>and for interpreting results. (2)
As individual researcher and consultant, formulates and
guides the attack on problems of exceptional difficulty
and marked importance to the company and/or industry.
Problems are characterized by the lack of scientific
precedents and source materials, or the lack of success of
prior research and analysis so that their solution would
represent an advance of great significance and impor­
tance. Performs advisory and consulting work for the
company as a recognized authority for broad program
areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as
major advances in the field.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises
several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of
whose positions are comparable to chemist VII, or in­
dividual researchers, some of whose positions are com­
parable to chemist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As
an individual researcher and consultant, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists and technicians.

N o t e .- Individuals in charge of a company’s
chemical program may match any of several of the
survey job levels, depending on the size and complexity
of chemical programs. Excluded from the definition
are: (1) Chemists in charge of programs so extensive
and complex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or
unusually novel products and procedures) that one or

Chemists VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommen­
dations that are authoritative and have a far-reaching




Receives general administrative

73

more subordinate supervisory chemists are performing
at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organiza­
tion (included, however, are supervisors deciding the
“ kind and extent of chemical program” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); and (3) individual
researchers and consultants who are recognized as
national and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and
investigation.
ENGINEERS

Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction,
maintenance, operation, planning, survey, estimating,
application, or standardization of engineering facilities,
systems, structures, processes, equipment, devices, or
materials, requiring knowledge of the science and art by
which materials, natural resources, and power are made
useful. Work typically requires a B.s. degree in engineer­
ing or the equivalent in combined education and ex­
perience. (Excluded are: Safety engineers, industrial
engineers, quality control engineers, sales engineers, and
engineers whose primary responsibility is to be in charge
of nonprofessional maintenance work.)
Engineers I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Performs assignments
designed to develop professional work knowledge and
abilities. May also receive formal classroom or seminartype training.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of
related detailed steps or processes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.
by a few aides or technicians.

May be assisted

Engineers III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates,
selects, and applies standard engineering techniques,
procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making
minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments
have clear and specified objectives and require the in­
vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in
a professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work
which involves conventional types of plans, investiga­
tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively
few complex features for which there are precedents.
Assignments usually include one or more of the follow­
ing: Equipment design and development, test of
materials, preparation of specifications, process study,
research investigations, report preparation, and other
activities of limited scope requiring knowledge of prin­
ciples and techniques commonly employed in the
specific narrow area of assignments.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company.
Usually none.

Engineers II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring
application of standard techniques, procedures, and
criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering
tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on
details of work and in making preliminary selections and



Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects of assignments.

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific
assignment objectives, complex features, and possible
solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during prog­
ress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or
appropriate graduate level study. For training and
developmental purposes, assignments may include some
work that is typical of a higher level.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise
or coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and
others who assist in specific assignments.
74

Engineers IV

coordinates, and directs a large and important engineering
project or a number of small projects with many complex
features. A substantial portion of the work supervised is
comparable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As indi­
vidual researcher or worker, carries out complex or novel
assignments requiring the development of new or improv­
ed techniques and procedures. Work is expected to result
in the development of new or refined equipment, materi­
als, processes, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As
staff specialist, develops and evaluates plans and criteria
for a variety of projects and activities to be carried out by
others. Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed
engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment when
necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by testing
is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor and
consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of facility or
equipment, or a program function.

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer
in all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation,
selection, and substantial adaptation and modification
of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria. Devi­
ses new approaches to problems encountered. Requires
sufficient professional experience to assure competence
as a fully trained worker; or, for positions primarily of a
research nature, completion of all requirements for a
doctoral degree may be substituted for experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on propos­
ed plans for projects.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as in­
dividual researcher or staff specialist, may be assisted on
projects by other engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules,
conducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the
engineering work in a part of a major project or in a
total project of moderate scope. Performs work which
involves conventional engineering practices but may
include a variety of complex features such as conflicting
design requirements, unsuitability of standard materi­
als, and difficult coordination requirements. Work re­
quires. a broad knowledge of precedents in the specialty
area and a good knowledge of principles and practices
of related specialties.

Engineers VI

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility
for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating
assignments. Plans and develops engineering projects con­
cerned with unique or controversial problems which have
an important effect on major company programs. This in­
volves exploration of subject area, definition of scope and
selection of problems for investigation, and development
of novel concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within or outside the organization
with responsibility for acting independently on technical
matters pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually
requires extensive progressive experience including work
comparable to engineer V.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineers V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversi­
fied knowledge of engineering principles and practices
in broad areas of assignments and related fields. Makes
decisions independently on engineering problems and
methods, and represents the organization in conferences
to resolve important questions and to plan and coor­
dinate work. Requires the use of advanced techniques
and the modification and extension of theories,
precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences
and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required'
for this level of work usually result from progressive
experience, including work comparable to engineer IV.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad,
general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of
the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large and
important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire engineering
program of a company when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities generally
requires a few (three to five) subordinate supervisors or
team leaders with at least one in a position comparable to
level V. (2) As individual researcher or worker, conceives,
plans, and conducts research in problem areas of

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts,
and policy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning
unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops,




75

considerable scope and complexity. The problems must be
approached through a series of complete and conceptually
related studies, be difficult to define, require unconven­
tional and novel approaches, and require sophisticated
research techniques. Available guides and precedents
contain critical gaps, are only partially related to the
problem, or may be largely lacking due to the novel
character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance
in the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff
specialist, serves as the technical specialist for the
organization (division or company) in the application
of advanced theories, concepts, principles, and processes
for an assigned area of responsibility (i.e., subject
matter, function, type of facility or equipment, or
product). Keeps abreast of new scientific methods and
developments affecting the organization for the purpose
of recommending changes in emphasis of programs or new
programs warranted by such developments.

opens the way for extensive related development. Extent of
responsibilities generally requires several subordinate
organizational segments or teams. Recommends facilities,
personnel, and funds required to carry out programs
which are directly related to and directed toward fulfill­
ment of overall company objectives. (2) As individual
researcher and consultant, is a recognized leader and
authority in the company in a broad area of specialization
or in a narrow but intensely specialized field. Selects
research problems to further the company’s objectives.
Conceives and plans investigations of broad areas of con­
siderable novelty and importance for which engineering
precedents are lacking in areas critical to the overall
engineering program. Is consulted extensively by associates
and others, with a high degree of reliance placed on the in­
cumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice. Typically,
will have contributed inventions, new designs, or tech­
niques which are regarded as major advances in the field.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist, may
be assisted on individual projects by other engineers or
technicians.

Engineers VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have a far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and
related activities of the company. Negotiates critical and
controversial issues with top level engineers and officers
of other organizations and companies. Individuals at
this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and
activities of outstanding novelty and importance.

Engineers VII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and have
an important impact on extensive engineering activities.
Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with key
engineers and officials of other organizations and com­
panies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation of
critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature engineer­
ing judgment in anticipating and solving unprecedented
engineering problems, determining program objectives
and requirements, organizing programs and projects,
and developing standards and guides for diverse
engineering activities.
Direction received.
direction.

Direction received.
direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified engineering program of a company,
or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when the program is of moderate scope. The programs
are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical
importance to overall objectives, include problems of
extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu­
tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor­
dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind
and extent of engineering and related programs needed
to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos­
ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz­

Receives general administrative

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of the engineering program
of a company with extensive and diversified engineering
requirements, or (b) the entire engineering program of a
company when it is more limited in scope. The overall
engineering program contains critical problems, the solu­
tion of which requires major technological advances and



Receives general administrative

76

assisted on individual projects by other engineers or
technicians.

ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates
and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif­
ficulty and marked importance to the company or in­
dustry. Problems are characterized Jby their lack of
scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc­
cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution
would represent an advance of great significance and
importance. Performs advisory and consulting work
for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas or in an intensely specialized area of
considerable novelty and importance.

Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer­
ing program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of engineering
programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers
in charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g.,
consisting of research and development on a variety of
complex products or systems with numerous novel
components) that one or more subordinate supervisory
engineers are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals
whose decisions have direct and substantial effect on set­
ting policy for the organization (included, however, are
supervisors deciding the “ kind and extent of engineering
and related programs” within broad guidelines set at a
higher level); and (3) individual researchers and con­
sultants who are recognized as national and/or interna­
tional authorities and scientific leaders in very broad areas
of scientific interest and investigation.
N o te:

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises
several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of
whose positions are comparable to engineer VII, or in­
dividual researchers some of whose positions are com­
parable to engineer VII and sometimes engineer VIII.
As an individual researcher and consultant, may be

Technical Support Occupations

recording simple instrument
intervals; and

ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria:

b. Above level V who perform work o f broad scope
and complexity either by planning and accomplishing
a complete project or study or by serving as an expert
in a narrow aspect o f a particular field o f engineering.

1. Provides semiprofessional technical support for
engineers working in such areas as research, de­
sign, development, testing, or manufacturing process
improvements.

Engineering Technicians I

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process
or on completion. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

2. Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical
components or equipment.
3. Required to have some practical knowledge of
science or engineering; some positions may also
require a practical knowledge o f mathematics or
computer science.

Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple
wiring, soldering, or connecting.

Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality
control technicians or testers, modelmakers or other
craftworkers, chemical or other nonengineering techni­
cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers,
and engineers (who are required to apply a professional
knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their
duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who
may perform the same duties using only practical skills
and knowledge).
Also excludes engineering technicians:

Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or
hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data.
Gathers and maintains specified records o f engineering
data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by
substituting numbers in specified formulas; and plots data
and drag's simple curves and graphs.

Engineering Technicians II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows standard
work methods on recurring assignments but receives ex­
plicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments; technical

a. Below level I who are limited to simple tasks
such as: Measuring items o f regular shape with a
caliper and computing cross-sectional areas; identify­
ing, weighing, and marking easy-to-identify items; or




readings at specified

77

adequacy of routine work is reviewed on completion;
nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and adap­
tation or modification o f a wide variety o f critical test
equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates equip­
ment; records data, measures and records problems o f suf­
ficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at higher
level; and analyzes data and prepares test reports.

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or
parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip­
ment.

Extracts and analyzes a variety o f engineering data; applies
conventional engineering practices to develop or prepare
schematics; designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review
designs or specification for adequacy.

Conducts a variety o f standardized tests; may prepare test
specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment;
records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from
equipment malfunction or observational errors.
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but
rionstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and
geometry; presents the data in prescribed form.

Engineering Technicians V

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion
of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts
plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person­
nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and
coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates
the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional
engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design
approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical
adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train
and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at
this level one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Engineering Technicians III

Performs assignments that are not completely
standardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard
procedures or equipment, using fully applicable
precedents. Receives initial instructions, equipment re­
quirements, and advice from supervisor or engineer as
needed; performs recurring work independently; and
work is reviewed for technical adequacy or conformity
with instructions. Performs, at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:
Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or
adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct
malfunctions.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or equip­
ment; conducts tests or experiments; analyzes results and redesigns
or modifies equipment to improve performance; and reports results.

Conducts various tests or experiements which may require
minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as
subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and record test data.

Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment performance.
Determines test requirements, equipment modification, and test pro­
cedures; conducts tests, analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares
reports on findings and recommendations.

Extracts and compiles a variety o f engineering data from
field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data,
identifying errors or inconsistencies; and selects methods o f
data presentation.

Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to determine
requirements to meet engineering objectives; may calculate design
data; and prepares layouts, detailed specifications, parts lists,
estimates, procedures, etc. May check and analyze drawings or
equipment to determine adequacy of drawing and designs.

Engineering Technicians IV

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial
variety and complexity, using precedents which are not
fully applicable. May also plan such assignments.
Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer
(as needed, performs recurring work independently);
work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity
with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni­
cians and have frequent contact with professionals and
others within the establishment. Performs at this level
one or a combination of such typical duties as:

DRAFTERS

Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and
skill in drafting methods, procedures, and techniques.
Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and elec­
trical equipment, piping and duct systems, and similar
equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used
to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and infor­
mation in support of engineering functions. Uses
recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and
lines having specific meanings in drawings.
The following are excluded when they constitute the
primary purpose of the job:

Works on limited segment of development project; con­
structs experimental or prototype models to meet engineer­
ing requirements; conducts tests or experiments and
redesigns them as necessary; and records and evaluates data
and report findings.




Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill, and
ability to conceive or originate designs;
78

on methods, procedures, sources of information, and
precedents to be followed. Simple revisions to existing
drawings may be assigned with a verbal explanation of
the desired results; more complex revisions are produced
from sketches which clearly depict the desired product.

Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation of charts, diagrams, room
arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation of maps or plats
and related materials and drawing of geological structures;
and

Drafters IV

Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which
include multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. Drawings include complex design features
that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and
portray. Assignments regularly require the use of math­
ematical formulas to compute weights, load capacities,
dimensions, quantities of materials, etc. Working from
sketches and verbal information supplied by an engineer or
designer, determines the most appropriate views, detail
drawings, and supplementary information needed to com­
plete assignments. Selects required information from
precedents, manufacturers’ catalogs, and technical guides.
Independently resolves most of the problems encountered.
Supervisor or designer may suggest methods of approach
or provide advice on unusually difficult problems.

Supervisory work involving the management of a drafting
program or the supervision of drafters when either constitutes
the primary purpose of the job.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Drafters I

Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions.
Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines.
Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in
various drafting techniques. Work is spot checked dur­
ing progress and reviewed upon completion.
N o t e : Excludes drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting
methods.

N o t e : Excludes drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

Drafters II

Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns
and present few technical problems. Supervisor pro­
vides detailed instructions on new assignments, gives
guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed
work for accuracy.

Drafters V

Works closely with design originators, preparing
drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs which
require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually
difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative,
resourcefulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that
anticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, instal­
lation, and operation are resolved by the drawings
produced. Exercises independent judgment in selecting
and interpreting data based on a knowledge of the
design intent. Although working primarily as a drafter,
may occasionally perform engineering design work in
interpreting general designs prepared by others or in
completing missing design details. May provide advice and
guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator
and planner for large and complex drafting projects.

Drafters III

Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,
including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work requires
use of most of the conventional drafting techniques and
a working knowledge of the terms and procedures of the
industry. Familiar or recurring work is assigned in gen­
eral terms; unfamiliar assignments include information

Computer Operators
setup needed;

Monitors and operates the control console of either a
mainframe digital computer or a group of minicom­
puters, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:

Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates control console;

Studies operating instructions to determine equipment




79

error conditions not fully covered by existing pro­
cedures and guidelines (e.g., resetting switches and
other controls or making mechanical adjustments to
maintain or restore equipment operations). In response
to computer output instructions or error conditions,
may deviate from standard procedures if standard pro­
cedures do not provide a solution. Refers problems
which do not respond to corrective procedures.

Reviews error messages and makes corrections during opera­
tion or refers problems; and
Maintains operating record.

May test run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the
scope of this definition are fully qualified computer
operators, trainees working to become fully qualified
operators, and lead operators providing technical
assistance to lower level positions.
Excluded are:

Computer Operators IV

Adapts to a variety of nonstandard problems which
require extensive operator intervention (e.g., frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, or pro­
cedures). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, chooses or devises a course of action
from among several alternatives and alters or deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution (e.g., reassigning equipment in order
to work around faulty equipment or to transfer chan­
nels); then refers problems. Typically, completed work
is submitted to users without supervisory review.

a. Workers operating small computer systems where
there is little or no opportunity for operator interven­
tion in program processing and few requirements to
correct equipment malfunctions;
b. Peripheral equipment operators and remote term­
inal or computer operators who do not run the
control console o f either a mainframe digital com­
puter or a group o f minicomputers; and
c. Workers using the computer for scientific, technical,
or mathematical work when a knowledge o f the sub­
ject matter is required.

Computer Operators V

Resolves a variety of difficult operating problems
(e.g., making unusual equipment connections and rarely
used equipment and channel configurations to direct
processing through or around problems in equipment,
circuits, or channels or reviewing test run requirements
and developing unusual system configurations that will
allow test programs to process without interferring with
on-going job requirements). In response to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss
of information or to conserve computer time, operator
deviates from standard procedures. Such actions may
materially alter the computer unit’s production plans.
May spend considerable time away from the control sta­
tion providing technical assistance to lower level
operators and assisting programmers, systems analysts,
and subject matter specialists in resolving problems.

Computer Operators I

Receives on-the-job training in operating the control
console (sometimes augmented by classroom training).
Works under close personal supervision and is provided
detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments. As instructed, resolves common operating
problems. May serve as an assistant operator working
under close supervision or performing a portion of a
more senior operator’s work.
Computer Operators II

Processes scheduled routines which present few dif­
ficult operating problems (e.g., infrequent or easily
resolved error conditions). In response to computer out­
put instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedure. May
serve as an assistant operator, working under general
supervison.

Computer Operators VI

In addition to level V responsibilities, uses a
knowledge of program language, computer features,
and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or pro­
grams; (2) developing operating instructions and
techniques to cover problem situations; and (3) switch­
ing to emergency backup procedures.

Computer Operators III

Processes a range of scheduled routines. In addition
to operating the system and resolving common error
conditions, diagnoses and acts on machine stoppage and

Photographers
scientific, engineering, industrial, technical, retail,
commercial, etc.) and some artistic ability are needed at
the higher levels. Depending on the objectives of the

Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of photo­
graphic techniques, equipment, and processes. Typically,
some familiarity with the company’s activities (e.g.,



80

assignment, photographers use standard equipment
(including simple still, graphic, and motion picture
cameras, video and television hand cameras, and similar
commonly used equipment) and/or use special-purpose
equipment (including specialized still and graphic
cameras, motion picture production, television studio,
and high-speed cameras and equipment). At the higher
levels, a complex accessory system of equipment may be
used, as needed, with sound or lighting systems,
generators, timing or measurement control mechanisms,
or improvised stages or environments, etc. Work of
photographers at all levels is reviewed for quality and
acceptability. Photographers may also develop, process,
and edit film or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to
lower level workers, or may do work described at lower
levels as needed.
Excluded are:
a. Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;
b. Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,
or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut, or splice negatives;
c. Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or
edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain,
or repair photographic equipment;

Photographers II

Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed, mo­
tion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the subjects
photographed are similar to those at level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut ob­
jectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and filters,
camera angles, exposure times, and type of film. Requires
familiarity with the situation gained from similar past ex­
perience to arrange for specific emphasis, balanced
lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as needed.
May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture cameras for
simple shots such as moving equipment, individuals at
work or meetings, and the like, where available or simple
artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily, there is opportunity for repeated shots or for
retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory. Consults
with supervisor or more experienced photographers when
problems are anticipated.
Photographers III

d. Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing o f motion pictures
for television writers and editors; and

Selects from a range of standard photographic
equipment for assignments demanding exact renditions,
normally without opportunity for later retakes, when there
are specific problems or uncertainties concerning lighting,
exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses technical
requirements with operating officials or supervisor and
customizes treatment for each situation according to a
detailed request. Varies camera processes and techniques
and uses the setting and background to produce esthetic,
as well as accurate and informative, pictures. Typically,
standard equipment is used at this level although
“ specialized” photography work is usually performed;
may use some special-purpose equipment under closer
supervision.
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings,
charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computation
of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise equip­
ment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail and exact
color when color and condition of the tissue may
deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures or con­
ditions which normally cannot be recaptured; machine or
motor parts to show wear or corrosion in minute wires or
gears; specialized real estate or retail goods for company
catalogs or listings where saleability is enhanced by the
photography; company products, work, construction
sites, or patrons in prescribed detail to substantiate legal
claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or technical design layouts
requiring precise equipment settings; fixed objects on the
ground or air-to-air objects which must be captured quick­

e. Photographers taking pictures for commercial news­
paper or magazine publishers, television stations,
or movie producers.

Positions are matched to the appropriate level based
on the difficulty of, and responsibility for, the photog­
raphy performed, including the subject-matter knowl­
edge and artistry required to fulfill the assignment.
While the equipment may be an indication of the level
of difficulty, photographers at the higher levels may use
standard equipment, as needed.
Photographers I

Takes routine pictures in situations where several shots
can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pictures
where complications, such as speed, motion, color con­
trast, or lighting are not present or where there is no
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are
taken for identification, employee publications, informa­
tion, or publicity purposes. Workers may be able to
focus, center, and provide simple flash-type lighting for
an uncomplicated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, inter­
views, banquets, or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to




record the condition at a specified time. Assignments are
usually performed without direct guidance due to the
clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.

81

supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual prob­
lems or altering existing equipment.

ly and require directing the pilot to get the correct angle of
approach.
Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

Photographers V

As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations re­
quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically per­
forms one or more of the following assignments:
(1) Develops and adapts photographic equipment or pro­
cesses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and modify
equipment for use in extreme conditions such as excessive
heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under-water, wind
and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2) plans and
organizes the overall technical photographic coverage
for a variety of events and developments in phases of a
scientific, industrial, medical, or commercial research
project or similar program; or (3) creates the desired
illusion or emotional effect through developing trick
or special effects photography for novel situations
requiring a high degree of ingenuity and imaginative
camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are respon­
sible for the substance of the project. Uses imag­
ination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging the
action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.

Photographers IV

Uses special-purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually
makes all the technical decisions, although the objective
of the pictures is determined by operating officials.
Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects
desired by operating officials and discusses modifica­
tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of
the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex­
amples of equipment used at this level include ultra-high
speed, motion picture production, studio television,
animation cameras, specialized still and graphic
cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in light
values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets up
precise photographic measurement and controls equip­
ment; uses high-speed color photography, synchronized
stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or timed elec­
tronic triggering; operates equipment from a remote point;
or arranges and uses cameras operating at several thou­
sand frames per second. In other assignments, selects
and sets up motion picture or television cameras and
accessories and shoots a part of a production or a sequence
of scenes, or takes special scenes to be used for
background or special effects in the production.
Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with

N o t e .- Excluded are photographers above level V
who independently plan the objectives, scope, and
substance of the photography for the project in addition
to planning the overall technical photographic coverage.

Clerical
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording of
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where
there are few variations in the types of transactions
handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may re­

ACCOUNTING CLERKS

Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil­
ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com­
pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting
documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu­
tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical accuracy
of various types of reports, lists, calculations, postings,
etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making entries or
adjustments to accounts.



82

the accounting system); and/or analyzes and reconciles
computer printouts with operating unit reports (contact­
ing units and researching causes of discrepancies, and
taking action to ensure that accounts balance). Employee
resolves problems in recurring assignments in accordance
with previous training and experience. Supervisor pro­
vides suggestions for handling unusual or nonrecurring
transactions. Conformance with requirements and
technical soundness of completed work are reviewed by
the supervisor or are controlled by mechanisms built into
the accounting system.

quire a basic knowledge and understanding of the ter­
minology, codes, and processes used in an automated
accounting system.
Accounting Clerks I

Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and re­
petitive accounting documents, verifying mathematical
accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and bringing
them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor gives
clear detailed instructions for specific assignments.
Employee refers to supervisor all matters not covered by
instructions. Work is closely controlled and reviewed in de­
tail for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions.

N o t e : Excluded from level IV are positions respon­
sible for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

Accounting Clerks II

FILE CLERKS

Performs one or more routine accounting clerical opera­
tions, such as: Examining, verifying, and correct­
ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and ac­
curacy of data and proper identification of accounts, and
checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga­
tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and rec­
onciling collection vouchers; posting data to transaction
sheets where employee identifies proper accounts and
items to be posted; and coding documents in accord­
ance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee follows
specific and detailed accounting procedures. Completed
work is reviewed for accuracy and compliance with pro­
cedures.

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish­
ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.

Accounting Clerks III

File Clerks II

Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in per­
forming one or more of the following: Posts actions to
journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected and
debit and credit entries to be made and assigning proper
codes; reviews computer printouts against manually main­
tained journals, detecting and correcting erroneous
postings, and preparing documents to adjust accounting
classifications and other data; or reviews lists of transac­
tions rejected by an automated system, determining
reasons for rejections, and preparing necessary correcting
material. On routine assignments, employee selects and ap­
plies established procedures and techniques. Detailed in­
structions are provided for difficult or unusual
assignments. Completed work and methods used are
reviewed for technical accuracy.

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material
by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index
and cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly
identified material in files and forwards material. May
perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and
service files.
Classifies and indexes file material such as cor­
respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with the
files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

Accounting Clerks IV

GENERAL CLERKS

Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an ac­
counting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,
ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and, if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter­
mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and proc­
essing material through data processing for application in

Performs a combination o f clerical tasks to support
office, business or administrative operations, such
as: Maintaining records; receiving, preparing, or verify­
ing documents; searching for and compiling information
and data; responding to routine requests with standard
answers (by phone, in person, or by correspondence).
The work requires a basic knowledge of proper office
procedures. Workers at levels I, II, and III follow




File Clerks I

Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chrono­
logical, or numerical). As requested, locates readily
available materials in files and forwards material; may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical
and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

File Clerks III

83

tions on departmental services and functions, operating a
variety of office machines, posting to various books,
balancing a restricted group of accounts to controlling
accounts, and assisting in preparation of budgetary
requests. May oversee work of lower level clerks.

prescribed procedures or steps to process paperwork;
they may perform other routine office support work,
(e.g., typing, filing, or operating a keyboard controlled
data entry device to transcribe data into a form suitable
for data processing). Workers at level IV are also re­
quired to make decisions about the adequacy and content
of transactions handled in addition to following proper
procedures.
Clerical work is controlled (e.g., through spot checks,
complete review, or subsequent processing) for both
quantity and quality. Supervisors (or other employees)
are available to assist and advise clerks on difficult prob­
lems and to approve their suggestions for significant
deviations from existing instructions.
Excluded from this definition are: Workers whose
pay is primarily based on the performance of a single
clerical duty such as typing, stenography, office machine
operation, or filing; and other workers, such as secre­
taries, messengers, receptionists or public information
specialists who perform general clerical tasks incidental
to their primary duties.

General Clerks IV

Uses some subject matter knowledge and judgment to
complete assignments consisting of numerous steps that
vary in nature and sequence. Selects from alternative
methods and refers problems not solvable by adapting or
interpreting substantive guides, manuals, or procedures.
Proficiency in the full cycle of operations or variety of
work may require from several months to 1 year of
on-the-j ob-experience.
Typical duties include: Assisting in a variety of
administrative matters; maintaining a wide variety of
financial or other records; verifying statistical reports for
accuracy and completeness; and handling and adjusting
complaints. May also direct lower level clerks.
Positions above level IV are excluded. Such positions
(which may include supervisory responsibility over lower
level clerks) require workers to use a thorough knowledge
of an office’s work and routine to: (1) Choose among wide­
ly varying methods and procedures to process complex tran­
sactions, and (2) select or devise steps necessary to complete
assignments. Typical jobs covered by this exclusion include
administrative assistants, clerical supervisors, and office
managers.

General Clerks I

Follows a few clearly detailed procedures in perform­
ing simple repetitive tasks in the same sequence, such as
filing precoded documents in a chronological file or
operating office equipment, e.g., mimeograph, photo­
copy, addressograph or mailing machine. Full perform­
ance can usually be reached after a few days of training
and on-the-job practice.

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS

General Clerks II

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating
an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of tran­
scribing procedures and relevant data entry equipment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Follows a number of specific procedures in com­
pleting several repetitive clerical steps performed in a
prescribed or slightly varied sequence, such as coding
and filing documents in an extensive alphabetical file,
simple posting to individual accounts, opening mail,
running mail through metering machines, and calculating
and posting charges to departmental accounts. Little or
no subject matter knowledge is required, but the clerk
needs to choose the proper procedure for each task. Full
performance can usually be reached after a few days to
2 weeks of training.

Key Entry Operators I

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervi­
sion or following specific procedures or detailed instruc­
tions, works from various standardized source documents
which have been coded and require little or no selecting,
coding, or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers to
supervisor problems arising from erroneous items,
codes, or missing information.

General Clerks III

Work requires a familiarity with the terminology of
the office unit. Selects appropriate methods from a wide
variety of procedures or makes simple adaptations and
interpretations of a limited number of substantive
guides and manuals. The clerical steps often vary in type
or sequence, depending on the task. Recognized prob­
lems are referred to others. Full performance can usual­
ly be reached after several weeks to several months.
Typical duties include a combination of the fol­
lowing: Maintaining time and material records, taking
inventory of equipment and supplies, answering ques­




Key Entry Operators II

Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to
be entered from a variety of source documents. On
occasion, may also perform some routine work as
described for level I.
84

N ote’
•

Excluded are operators above level II using
the key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive actions,
or to make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge.
MESSENGERS

Performs various routine duties such as running er­
rands, operating minor office machines such as sealers
or mailers, opening mail, distributing mail on a regular­
ly scheduled route or in a familiar area, and other minor
clerical work. May deliver mail that requires some
special handling, e.g., mail that is insured, registered, or
marked for special delivery.
Excluded are positions which include any of the
following as significant duties:
a. Operating motor vehicles;
b. Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when
the work requires a continuing knowledge o f special
procedures for handling such items;

c. Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge o f the
company’s personnel rules and procedures, such as
receptionists, messengers, typists, or stenographers;
d. Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and
e. Workers who are primarily compensated for duties out­
side the employment specialty, such as benefits, com­
pensation, or employee relations.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions. The work described is essentially
at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and pro­
gresses to a staff assistant or technician level. At level
III, which is transitional, both types of work are
described. Jobs which match either type of work
described at level III, or which are combinations of the
two, can be matched.
Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) I

c. Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording
and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail
in the mail room;
d. Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated
buildings or points which are not part o f an estab­
lished route; or
e. Directing other workers.

PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
(EMPLOYMENT)

Personnel clerks/assistants (employment) provide
clerical and technical support to personnel professionals
or managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and termination of com­
pany employees. At the lower levels, clerks/assistants
primarily provide basic information to current and pro­
spective employees, maintain personnel records and in­
formation listings, and prepare and process papers on
personnel actions (hires, transfers, changes in pay, etc.).
At the higher levels, clerks/assistants (often titled per­
sonnel assistants or specialists) may perform limited
aspects of a personnel professional’s work, e.g., inter­
viewing candidates, recommending placements, and
preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on person­
nel actions are made by personnel professionals or
managers. Some clerks/assistants may perform a limited
amount of work in other specialties, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations. Typing may be re­
quired at any level.
Excluded are:
a. Workers who primarily compute and process payrolls or
compute and/or respond to questions on company
benefits or retirement claims;
b. Workers who receive additional pay primarily for main­




taining and safeguarding personnel record files for a
company;

85

Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of
company personnel procedures and rules, such as: Pro­
viding simple employment information and appropriate
lists and forms to applicants or employees on types of
jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to ob­
tain additional information; ensuring that the proper
company forms are completed for name changes,
locator information, applications, etc., and reviewing
completed forms for signatures and proper entries; or
maintaining assigned segments of company personnel
records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any
missing items, and posting the items, such as, dates of
promotion, transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or per­
sonal data. (If this information is computerized, skill in
coding or entering information may be needed as
aminor duty.) May answer outside inquiries for simple
factual information, such as verification of dates of
employment in response to telephone credit checks on
employees. Some receptionist or other clerical duties
may be performed. May be assigned work to provide
training for a higher level position.
Detailed company rules and procedures are available
for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and assist­
ance on unusual questions are available at all times.
Work is spot checked, often on a daily basis.

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) II

Examines and/or processes personnel action documents
using experience in applying company personnel pro­
cedures and policies. Ensures that all information is com­
plete and consistent and determines whether further
discussion with applicants or employees is needed or
whether personnel information must be checked against
additional files or listings. Must select the most ap­
propriate precedent, rule, or procedures as a basis for the

personnel action from a number of alternatives. Responds
to varied questions from applicants, employees, or
managers for readily available information which can be
obtained from file material or manuals; responses require
skill to secure cooperation in correcting improperly com­
pleted personnel action documents or to explain regula­
tions and procedures. May provide information to
managers on availability of applicants and status of hiring
actions; may verify employment dates and places supplied
on job applications; may maintain assigned personnel
records, and may administer typing and stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently. Detailed
guidance is available for situations which deviate from
established precedents. Clerks/assistants are relied upon to
alert higher level clerks/assistants or supervisor to such
situations. Work may be spot checked periodically.

procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references and
recommends placement of applicants in a few well-defined
occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable organization
or unit; conducts postplacement or exit interviews to iden­
tify job adjustment problems or reasons for leaving the
company; performs routine statistical analyses related to
manpower, E E O , hiring, or other employment concerns,
e.g., compares one set of data to another set as instructed;
and requisitions applicants through employment agencies
for clerical or similar level jobs. At this level, assistants
typically have a range of personal contacts within and out­
side the company and with applicants, and must be tactful
and articulate. May perform some clerical work in addi­
tion to the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed
work against stated objectives.

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) III
Type A

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) V

Workers at this level perform duties similar to level IV,
but are responsible for more complicated cases and work
with greater independence. Performs limited aspects of
professional personnel work dealing with a variety of oc­
cupations common to the company which are clear cut and
stable in employment requirements. Typical duties in­
clude: Researching recruitment sources, such as employ­
ment agencies or State manpower offices, and advising
managers on the availability of candidates in common oc­
cupations; screening and selecting employees for a few
routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer employ­
ment; or answering inquiries on a controversial issue, such
as a hiring or promotion freeze. These duties often require
considerable skill and diplomacy in communications.
Other typical duties may include: Surveying managers for
future hiring requirements; developing newspaper vacancy
announcements or explaining job requirements to employ­
ment agencies for administrative or professional positions;
or reviewing the effect of corporate personnel procedural
changes on local employment programs (e.g., automation
of records, new affirmative action goals). May incidentally
perform some clerical duties. Supervisory review is similar
to level IV.

Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the most complicated types of personnel actions, e.g., tem­
porary employment, rehires, and dismissals, and in pro­
viding information when it is necessary to consolidate data
from a number of sources, often with short deadlines.
Screens applications for obvious rejections. Resolves con­
flicts in computer listings or other sources of employee
information. Locates lost documents or reconstructs infor­
mation using a number of sources. May check references
of applicants when information in addition to dates and
places of past work is needed, and judgment is required to
ask appropriate routine follow-up questions. May provide
guidance to lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar
to level II.
AND/OR
Type B

Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to com­
pany programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance,
and leave policies; computing basic statistical information
for reports on manpower profiles, e e o progress and
accomplishments, hiring activities, attendance and leave
profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants for
well-defined positions, rejecting those who do not qualify
for available openings for clear-cut reasons, referring
others to appropriate employment interviewer. Guidance
is provided on possible sources of information, methods of
work, and types of reports needed. Completed written
work receives close technical review from higher level
personnel office employees; other work may be checked
occasionally.

PURCHASING CLERKS/ASSISTANTS

Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase
goods, materials, equipment, services, etc. Clerks/
assistants at level I prepare and process purchase
documents, such as purchase orders, invitations to bid,
contracts, and supporting papers. Clerks/assistants at
level II also examine, review, verify, and control these
documents to assure accuracy, and correct processing.
Clerks/assistants at levels III and IV may also expedite
purchases already made, by contacting vendors and
analyzing and recommending company reactions to sup­
plier problems related to delivery, availability of goods,

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) IV

Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge of personnel



86

or precedents for each transaction. Contacts are usually
limited to the supervisor and the immediate work unit.
Receives step-by-step instructions on new assignments.
Refers questions to supervisor who may spot check
work on a daily basis.

or any other part of the purchase agreement. Clerks/
assistants at level IV may also develop technical infor­
mation for buyers, e.g., comparative information on
materials sought.
All assignments require a practical knowledge of
company purchasing procedures and operations.
Assignments above level I require experience in applying
company regulations, guidelines, or manuals to specific
transactions. Clerks/assistants may type the purchasing
documents or perform work described at lower levels, as
needed. Final decisions on purchasing transactions are
made by buyers, contract specialists, or supervisors.
Excluded are:

Purchasing Clerks/Assistants II

According to detailed procedures or company regula­
tions, examines documents such as requisitions, purchase
orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and supporting
papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to determine
whether the correct item description, price, quantity, dis­
count terms, shipping instructions, and/or delivery terms
have been included and selects the appropriate purchase
phrases and forms from prescribed company lists or files.
Obtains any missing or corrected information, prepares
the purchase order, and gives it to the buyer for approval
when satisfied that the information is complete and the
computations are accurate. Contacts are usually within
establishment to verify or correct factual information.
May contact vendors for information about purchases
already made and may reorder items under routine and
existing purchase arrangements where few, if any, ques­
tions arise. Receives detailed instructions on new
assignments. Refers questions to supervisor who may
spot check work on a daily basis.
Assistants at this level examine documents for orders of
standard goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or
for orders of specialized items when the complexity of the
item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the assist­
ant is not required to use considerable judg­
ment to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline,
as described at level III, a.

a. Typists, file clerks, secretaries, receptionists, and
trainees not required to have a knowledge o f company
purchasing procedures and operations;
b. Workers who process or expedite the purchase of
items for direct sale, either wholesale or retail;
c. Workers who as a primary duty: Maintain a filing
system or listing to monitor inventory levels; reorder
items by phone under ongoing contracts; or receive
and disburse supplies and materials for use in the
company;
d. Production expediters or controllers who primarily
ensure the timely arrival and coordination of
purchased materials with assembly line or production
schedules and requirements;
e. Purchasing expediters who only check on the status
o f purchases already made and who do not analyze
the facts at hand and do not make recommendations
for either extension o f delivery dates or for other
similar modifications to the purchase agreement, as
described at level III, b;
f. Positions which require a technical knowledge o f
equipment characteristics and parts, production
control, or manufacturing methods and procedures;

Purchasing Clerks/Assistants III

Assistants at this level perform assignments described
in paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two.

g. Positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and
a. Reviews and prepares purchase documents for spe­
cialized items, such as items with optional features or
technical equipment requiring precise specifications.
Since the transactions usually require special pur­
chasing conditions, e.g., multiple deliveries, provi­
sion o f spare parts, or renegotiation o f terms, con­
siderable judgment is needed to find a previous trans­
action to use as a guideline; as required, adapts
the phrases or clauses in the guideline transaction
that apply to the purchase at hand. In some cases,
reviews purchasing documents prepared by lower
level clerks or prepared by personnel in other com­
pany units to detect processing discrepancies or to
clarify the purchase papers; corrects clerical errors.
May advise company employees on how to prepare
requisitions for items to be ordered.

h. Buyers.

Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions according to the complexity of the
work, the conditions of the purchase, and the amount
of supervision.
Purchasing Clerks/Assistants I

Following well established and clear-cut procedures and
instructions, prepares and processes documents such as
purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and sup­
porting papers. Enters such prescribed information as
quantities, model numbers, addresses and prices, after a
higher level employee screens the requisition for com­
pleteness and accuracy. Posts data from requisitions to
internal controls. Work requires a knowledge of proper
terminology (including spelling and abbreviations) and
some judgment in selecting the appropriate procedures




b. Expedites purchases by making a recommendation
f o r action based on simple analysis o f the facts at
hand, company guidelines, and the background of
87

the purchase: Contacts suppliers to obtain informa­
tion on deliveries or on contracts; based on clearcut guidelines for each type of purchase and previous
performance o f supplier, availability o f item, or
impact o f delay, recommends extension o f delivery
date or other similar modifications. In some cases,
decides to refer problems to production, packaging,
or other company specialists. May reorder standard
items under a variety o f existing purchase agreements
where judgment is needed to ask further questions
and follow up and coordinate transactions. Assist­
ants at this level expedite purchases of standard
goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or pur­
chases o f specialized items when the complexity of
the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the
assistant does not coordinate requests for minor
deviations from contract specifications, etc., as
described at level IV, b.

c. Furnishes technical support to buyers or contract
specialists, using a detailed knowledge o f company
purchasing transactions and procedures, e.g., ana­
lyzes bids for contracts to determine the possible
number and interest o f bidders for standard com­
modities and services; assembles contracts and drafts
special clauses, terms, or requirements for unprece­
dented purchases, e.g., for specially designed equip­
ment or for complex one-time transactions; gathers
and summarizes information on the availability o f
special equipment and the ability o f suppliers to
meet company needs.

Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurement policies. Assistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected to
propose solutions for supervisory approval. Supervisory
review is similar to level III; drafts of special clauses, etc.,
are reviewed in detail.

Assistants at this level coordinate information with
company buyers and with suppliers outside the com­
pany and keep others informed of the progress of trans­
actions. Major changes in company regulations and
procedures are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual
situations to supervisor, who also spot checks all com­
pleted work for adequacy.

NOTE: Excluded are higher level workers who:
Negotiate agreements with contractors on minor changes
in the terms of an established contract; or analyze and
make recommendations about proposals of specialized
equipment, about the solvency and perform ­
ance of firms, or about clerical processing methods need­
ed to fit new purchasing policies.

Purchasing Cierks/Assistants IV

Assistants at this level have a good understanding of
purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to
buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers negoti­
ate and make purchases. They perform assignments
described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a combination of
any of these.

SECRETARIES

Provides principal secretarial support in an office,
usually to one individual, and, in some cases, also to the
subordinate staff of that individual. Maintains a close
and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day
activities of the supervisor and staff. Works fairly
independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervi­
sion and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties requiring knowledge of office routine
and an understanding of the organization, programs, and
procedures related to the work of the office.
Exclusions: Not all positions titled “ secretary”
possess the above characteristics. Examples of positions
which are excluded from the definition are as follows:

a. Reviews and prepares purchase documents for highly
specialized items where few precedent transactions
exist that can be used as guidelines and where provi­
sions such as fixed-price contracts with provisions for
escalation, price redetermination, or cost incentives
are needed. Complicated provisions for progress
payments, for testing and evaluating the ordered
item, or for meeting company production schedules
may also exist. As necessary, drafts special clauses,
terms, or requirements for unusual purchases. Pro­
vides authoritative information to others on company
purchase procedures and assures that documents and
transactions agree with basic procurement policies.

a. Clerks or secretaries working under the direction of
secretaries or administrative assistants as described in e;

b. Expedites purchases o f specialized items when the
complexity o f the items does affect the assistant’s
work. (See level III, b.) Investigates supplier problems
and coordinates requests for minor deviations from
the contract specifications with specialists, buyers,
suppliers, and users. Recommends revisions to the
contract or purchase agreement, if needed, based
upon company requirements. May reorder technical
and specialized items within existing purchase con­
tracts which contain special purchasing conditions.
Questions which arise are handled similarly to those
in level III, b.




b. Stenographers not fully performing secretarial duties;
c. Stenographers or secretaries assigned to two or more
professional, technical, or managerial persons of
equivalent rank;
d. Assistants or secretaries performing any kind of
technical work, e.g., personnel, accounting, or legal
work;
e. Administrative assistants or supervisors performing
duties which are more difficult or more responsible than
the secretarial work described in LR-1 through LR-4;
88

more subordinate supervisory levels (of which at least one
is a managerial level) with several subdivisions at each
level. Executive’s program(s) are usually interlocked on a
direct and continuing basis with other major organiza­
tional segments, requiring constant attention to extensive
formal coordination, clearances, and procedural con­
trols. Executive typically has: Financial decisionmaking
authority for assigned program(s);considerable impact
on the entire organization’s financial position or image;
and responsibility for, or has staff specialists in, such
areas as personnel and administration for assigned
organization. Executive plays an important role in deter­
mining the policies and major programs of the entire
organization, and spends considerable time dealing with
outside parties actively interested in assigned program(s)
and current or controversial issues.

f. Secretaries receiving additional pay primarily for main­
taining confidentiality of payroll records or other
sensitive information;
g. Secretaries performing routine receptionist, typing, and
filing duties following detailed instructions and
guidelines; these duties are less responsible than those
described in LR-1 below; and
h. Trainees.

Classification by Level

Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of five levels according to two fac­
tors: a) Level of the secretary’s supervisor within the
overall organizational structure, and (b) level of the
secretary’s responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level
of the secretary for each combination of factors.

Level of secretaries’ responsibility (LR)

Level of secretaries’ supervisor (LS)

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relation­
ship between the secretary and the supervisor or staff,
and the extent to which the secretary is expected to
exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be
matched at the level best describing their level of respon­
sibility. When a position’s duties span more than one
LR level, the introductory paragraph at the beginning of
each LR level should be used to determine which of the
levels best matches the position. (Typically, secretaries
performing at the higher levels of responsibility also
perform duties described at the lower levels.)

Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS
levels below best describing the organization of the
secretary’s supervisor.
LS-1. Organizational structure is not complex and in­
ternal procedures and administrative controls are simple
and informal; supervisor directs staff through face-toface meetings.
LS-2. Organizational structure is complex and is
divided into subordinate groups that usually differ from
each other as to subject matter, function, etc.; and
supervisor usually directs staff through intermediate
supervisors; internal procedures and administrative con­
trols are formal. An entire organization (e.g., division,
subsidiary, or parent organization) may contain a variety
of subordinate groups which meet the LS-2 definition.
Therefore, it is not unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to
report to another LS-2 supervisor.
The presence of subordinate supervisors does not by
itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical processing
organization divided into several units, each performing
very similar work, is placed in LS-1.
In smaller organizations or industries such as retail
trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the super­
visor may have an impact on the policies and may deal
with important outside contacts, as described in LS-3.
LS-3.

LR-1. Carries out recurring office procedures in­
dependently. Selects the guideline or reference which
fits the specific case. Supervisor provides specific in­
structions on new assignments and checks completed
work for accuracy. Performs varied duties including or
comparable to the following:
a. Responds to routine telephone requests which have
standard answers; refers calls and visitors to appropriate
staff. Controls mail and assures timely staff response;
may send form letters.
b. As instructed, maintains supervisor’s calendar, makes
appointments, and arranges for meeting rooms.
c. Reviews materials prepared for supervisor’s approval
for typographical accuracy and proper format.
d. Maintains recurring internal reports, such as: Time and
leave records, office equipment listings, correspondence
controls, training plans, etc.

Organizational structure is divided into two or

e. Requisitions supplies, printing, maintenance, or other
services. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and
establishes and maintains office files.

Table C-5. Criteria for matching secretaries by level
Level of
secretary’s
supervisor
LS-1
LS-2
LS-3




Level of secretary's responsibility
LR-1
I
I
I

LR-2

LR-3

LR-4

II
III
IV

III
IV
V

IV
V
V

LR-2. Handles differing situations, problems, and
deviations in the work of the office according to the
supervisor’s general instructions, priorities, duties,
policies, and program goals. Supervisor may assist
89

LR-4. Handles a wide variety of situations and con­
flicts involving the clerical or administrative functions
of the office which often cannot be brought to the atten­
tion of the executive. The executive sets the overall
objectives of the work. Secretary may participate in
developing the work deadlines. Duties include or are
comparable to the following:

secretary with special assignments. Duties include or are
comparable to the following.
a. Screens telephone calls, visitors, and incoming cor­
respondence; personally responds to requests for in­
formation concerning office procedures; determines
which requests should be handled by the supervisor,
appropriate staff members, or other offices. May
prepare and sign routine, nontechnical correspond­
ence in own or supervisor’s name.

a. Composes correspondence requiring some under­
standing o f technical matters; may sign for
executive when technical or policy content has been
authorized.

b. Schedules tentative appointments without prior
clearance. Makes arrangements for conferences and
meetings and assembles established background
materials, as directed. May attend meetings and
record and report on the proceedings.

b. Notes commitments made by executive during
meeting and arranges for staff implementation. On
own initiative, arranges for staff members to repre­
sent organization at conferences and meetings,
establishes appointment priorities, or reschedule
or refuses appointments or invitations.

c. Reviews outgoing materials and correspondence for
internal consistency and conformance with super­
visor’s procedures; assures that proper clearances
have been obtained, when needed.

c. Reads outgoing correspondence for executive’s ap­
proval and alerts writers to any conflict with the file
or departure from policies or executives’s view­
points; gives advice to resolve the problems.

d. Collects information from the files or staff for routine
inquiries on office program(s) or periodic reports.
Refers nonroutine requests to supevisor or staff.

d. Summarizes the content o f incoming materials,
specially gathered information, or meetings to assist
executive; coordinates the new information with
background office sources; and draws attention to
important parts or conflicts.

e. Explains to subordinate staff supervisor’s require­
ments concerning office procedures. Coordinates
personnel and administrative forms for the office
and forwards for processing.

e. In the executive’s absence, ensures that requests for
action or information are relayed to the appropriate
staff member; as needed, interprets requests and
helps implement action; makes sure that informa­
tion is furnished in timely manner; decides whether
executive should be notified o f important or
emergency matters.

LR-3. Uses greater judgment and initiative to deter­
mine the approach or action to take in nonroutine situa­
tions. Interprets and adapts guidelines, including un­
written policies, precedents, and practices, which are
not always completely applicable to changing situations.
Duties include or are comparable to the following:

Excludes secretaries performing any of the following
duties:

a. Based on a knowledge o f the supervisor’s views,
composes correspondence on own initiative about
administrative and general office policies for super­
visor’s approval.

a. Acts as office manager for the executive’s organization,
e.g., determines when new procedures are needed for
changing situations and devises and implements alter­
natives; revises or clarifies procedures to eliminate
conflict or duplication; identifies and resolves various
problems that affect the orderly flow o f work in transac­
tions with parties outside the organization.

b. Anticipates and prepares materials needed by the
supervisor for conferences, correspondence, ap­
pointments, meetings, telephone calls, etc., and in­
forms supervisor on matters to be considered.
c. Reads publications, regulations, and directives and
takes action or refers those that are important to the
supervisor and staff.

b. Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discussion
topics to participants; drafts introductions and develops
background information and prepares outlines for execu­
tive or staff members(s) to use in writing speeches.

d. Prepares special or one-time reports, summaries, or
replies to inquiries, selecting relevant information
from a variety o f sources such as reports, documents,
correspondence, other offices, etc., under general
direction.

c. Advises individuals outside the organization on the
executive’s views on major policies or current issues fac­
ing the organization; contacts or responds to contacts
from high-ranking outside officials (e.g., city or State
officials, Members o f Congress, presidents o f national
unions or large national or international firms, etc.) in
unique situations. These officials may be relatively
inaccessible, and each contact typically must be handled
differently, using judgment and discretion.

e. Advises secretaries in subordinate offices on new
procedures; requests information needed from the
subordinate office(s) for periodic or special con­
ferences, reports, inquiries, etc. Shifts clerical staff
to accommodate workload needs.



90

STENOGRAPHERS

TYPISTS

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand
and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from
written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool.
May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings.
Excluded from this definition are:

Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to
type various materials. Included are automatic type­
writers that are used only to record text and update and
reproduce previously typed items from magnetic cards
or tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar
materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.
Excluded from this definition is work that involves:

a.

Trainee positions not requiring a fully qualified
stenographer.

b.

Secretaries providing the principal secretarial support
in an office and performing more responsible and
discretionary tasks, as described in LR-1 thru LR-4 in
the secretary definition;

c.

Stenographers who take dictation involving the fre­
quent use of a wide variety of technical or specialized
vocabulary. Typically this kind of vocabulary cannot
be learned in a relatively short period of time, e.g., a
month or two; and

d.

Stenographers, such as shorthand reporters, who
record material verbatim at hearings, conferences, or
similar proceedings.

Stenographers I

Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignments along with detailed instructions on such re­
quirements as forms and presentation. The transcribed
material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the final
transcription is reviewed for conformance with the
rough drafts. May maintain files, keep simple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.
Stenographers II

Takes and transcribes dictation, determining the most
appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties re­
quiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro­
vides general instructions. Work requires a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedures and of the specific business operations,
organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties
and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining
followup files; assembling material for reports,
memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incoming m ail;.
answering routine questions; etc.




91

a.

Typing directly from spoken material that has been
recorded on discs, cylinders, belts, tapes, or other
similar media;

b.

The use o f varitype machines, composing equipment,
or automatic equipment in preparing material for
printing; and

c.

Familiarity with specialized terminology in various
keyboard commands to manipulate or edit the record­
ed text to accomplish revisions, or to perform tasks
such as extracting and listing items from the text, or
transmitting text to other terminals, or using sort com­
mands to have the machine reorder material. Typically
requires the use o f automatic equipment which may be
either computer linked or have a programmable
memory so that material can be organized in regularly
used formats or preformed paragraphs which can then
be coded and stored for future use in letters or
documents.

Typists I

Performs one o f more o f the following: Copy typ­
ing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of
forms, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple stand­
ard tabulations; or copying more complex tables already
set up and spaced properly.
Typists II

Performs one or more o f the following: Typing
material in final form when it involves combining
material from several sources; or responsibility for cor­
rect spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of
technical or unusual words or foreign language
materials; or planning layout and typing of complicated
statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details
to suit circumstances.

Classification by Standard Occupational Codes
found in the S O C manual. For example, the p a t c oc­
cupations Accountant, Chief Accountant, Auditor, and
Public Accountant are all classified in the soc manual
as accountants and auditors. The soc occupation (code
1412) includes a variety of accounting occupations (e.g.,
budget accountants, credit analysts, accounting
methods analysts) that are excluded from the p a t c
description.

The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes to the right of the
(P A T C ) occupations in table C-6 are taken from the
1980 edition of the Standard Occupational Classifica­
tion Manual (S O C ), issued by the U.S. Department of
Commerce, Office of Federal Statistical Policy and
Standards.
In general, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupa­
tional descriptions are much more specific than those
bls

Table C-6. Comparison of occupations in the professional, administrative, technical, and clerical
Standard Occupational Classification Manual
patc

occupation

(PATC)

survey with the

Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC)

soc
code
Accountants
Chief accountants
Auditors
Public accountants
Job analysts
Directors of personnel
Attorneys

1412
1412
1412
1412
143
143
211

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants

and
and
and
and

auditors
auditors
auditors
auditors

Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Lawyers

Buyers
Computer programmers
Systems analysts ........

1449
397
1712

Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified
Programmers
Computer systems analysts

Chemists
Engineers

1845
162-3

Chemists, except biochemists
Engineers

Engineering technicians
D ra fte rs ......................
Computer operators
Photographers

371
372
4612
326

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians
Drafting occupations
Computer operators
Photographers

Accounting clerks..............
File c le rk s ..........................
Key entry operators
M essengers......................
Personnel clerks/assistants
Purchasing assistants
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists
General c le rk s ..................

4712
4696
4793
4745
4692
4664
4622
4623
4624
463

Bookkeepers and accounting andauditing clerks
File clerks
Data entry operators
Messengers
Personnel clerks, exceptpayroll andtimekeeping
Order clerks
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists
General office occupations




92

Appendix D. Comparisons of
Salaries in Private Industry
with Those of Federal
Employees Under the General
Schedule

tion with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, prepares the
occupational work level definitions used in the survey.
Definitions are developed by OPM according to stand­
ards established for each grade level. Table D-l shows
the surveyed jobs grouped by work levels equivalent
to General Schedule grade levels.

The PATC survey is designed to provide a basis for
comparing salaries under the General Schedule classi­
fication and pay system with salaries in private enter­
prise. To assure collection of pay data for work levels
equivalent to the General Schedule grade levels, the
Office of Personnel Management (OPM), in coopera­




93

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1986

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS'

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule3
Step6
Grade4

Average5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

File clerks I .............................................
General clerks I .....................................
Messengers ............................................

$10,335
10,478
12,276

GS 1

$ 9,584

$ 9,339

$ 9,650

$ 9,961

$10,271

$10,582

$10,764

$11,071

$11,380

$11,393

$11,686

Accounting clerks I ................................
Drafters I ................................................
File clerks I I ............................................
General clerks II ....................................
Key entry operators I ............................
Typists I ..................................................

12,517
13,054
12,156
12,730
13,146
12,584

GS 2

10,785

10,501

10,750

11,097

11,393

11,521

11,860

12,199

12,538

12,877

13,216

Accounting clerks I I ...............................
Drafters I I ...............................................
Engineering technicans I ......................
File clerks II I ...........................................
General clerks III ...................................
Key entry operators II ...........................
Personnel clerks/assistants I ................
Purchasing clerks/assistants I ..............
Stenographers I .....................................
Typists II .................................................

14,687
15.854
16,882
15,625
15,500
16,901
14,193
13,994
18,374
16.854

GS 3

12,225

11,458

11,840

12,222

12,604

12,986

13,368

13,750

14,132

14,514

14,896

Accounting clerks I I I ..............................
Computer operators I ............................
Drafters I I I ...............................................
Engineering technicans II .....................
General clerks I V ...................................
Personnel clerks/assistants I I ..............
Photographers I .....................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants I I .............
Secretaries I ...........................................
Stenographers II ....................................

17,954
13,727
20,201
20,312
19,322
16,903
16,636
17,282
16,326
21,739

GS 4

14,235

12,862

13,291

13,720

14,149

14,578

15,007

15,436

15,865

16,294

16,723

Accounting clerks IV .............................
Accountants I .........................................
Auditors I .................................................
Buyers I ..................................................
Chemists I ...............................................
Computer operators I I ...........................
Drafters IV ..............................................
Engineers I .............................................
Engineering technicans III ....................
Job analysts I .........................................
Personnel clerks/assistants III..............
Photographers II ....................................
Computer programmers I ......................
Purchasing clerks/assistants I I I ............
Secretaries II ..........................................

21,872
21,024
21,545
21,242
22,539
17,219
24,652
27,866
23.896
22,240
19,696
22.896
20,832
22,381
18,306

GS 5

16,272

14,390

14,870

15,350

15,830

16,310

16,790

17,270

17,750

18,230

18,710

Computer operators I I I ..........................
Personnel clerks/assistants I V .............

21,524
23,702

GS 6

$18,432

$16,040

$16,575

$17,110

$17,645

$18,180

$18,715

$19,250

$19,785

$20,320

$20,855

See footnotes at end of table.




Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1986 —Continued

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule3
Step6
Grade4

Average5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Purchasing clerks/assistants IV ...........
Secretaries I I I .........................................

$29,384
21,152

Accountants II ........................................
Auditors II ...............................................
Buyers I I ..................................................
Chemists I I ..............................................
Computer operators IV ..........................
Drafters V ...............................................
Engineers II ............................................
Engineering technicans IV ....................
Job analysts I I ........................................
Photographers III ...................................
Computer programmers I I .....................
Public accountants I ..............................
Secretaries IV .........................................

25,554
26,108
26,369
27,205
24,550
31,004
31,194
28,412
25,288
27,009
24,558
20,468
23,839

GS 7

20,241

17,824

18,418

19,012

19,606

20,200

20,794

21,388

21,982

22,576

23,170

Computer operators V ...........................
Secretaries V ..........................................

28,986
28,051

GS 8

22,901

19,740

20,398

21,506

21,714

22,372

23,030

23,688

24,346

25,004

25,662

Accountants I I I .......................................
Attorneys I ..............................................
Auditors III ..............................................
Buyers I I I .................................................
Chemists II I ............................................. '
Engineers III ...........................................
Engineering technicans V .....................
Job analysts I I I .......................................
Photographers I V ...................................
Computer programmers III....................
Public accountants I I .............................
Systems analysts I ................................

31,143
31,014
32,121
33,580
34,141
35,715
32,718
30,605
31,584
29,324
22,714
29,141

GS 9

24,521

21,804

22,531

23,258

23,985

24,712

25,439

26,166

26,893

27,620

28,347

Accountants IV .......................................
Attorneys II .............................................
Auditors I V ..............................................
Buyers I V ................................................
Chemists I V ............................................
Directors of personnel I ........................
Engineers I V ...........................................
Job analysts IV ......................................
Photographers V ....................................
Computer programmers I V ...................
Public accountants I I I ............................
Systems analysts II ...............................

39,293
39,635
39,705
41,304
41,548
39,817
42,677
38,206
35,094
34,919
26,633
34,881

GS 11

29,881

26,381

27,260

28,139

29,018

29,897

30,776

31,655

32,534

33,413

34,292

Accountants V ........................................
Attorneys III ............................................
Chemists V .............................................
Chief accountants II ..............................
Directors of personnel I I .......................

49,231
50,119
50,678
47,963
46,328

GS 12

$36,176

$31,619

$32,673

$33,727

$34,781

$35,835

$36,889

$37,943

$38,997

$40,051

$41,105

See footnotes at end of table.




Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1986—Continued

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS’

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry1
2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule3
Step6
Grade4

Average5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Engineers V ............................................
Computer programmers V ....................
Public accountants IV ...........................
Systems analysts III ..............................
Accountants V I.......................................
Attorneys IV ............................................
Chemists VI ............................................
Chief accountants III .............................
Directors of personnel I I I .......................
Engineers V I ...........................................
Systems analysts I V ..............................
VO
Ov

$50,769
42,934
32,116
41,997
61,546
63,933
60,796
62,880
63,855
58,883
49,515

GS 13

43,533

37,599

38,852

40,105

41,358

42,611

43,864

45,117

46,370

47,623

48,876

Attorneys V .............................................
Chemists VII ...........................................
Chief accountants IV .............................
Directors of personnel IV ......................
Engineers V II..........................................
Systems analysts V ...............................

78,396
74,607
80,409
75,170
68,602
58,404

GS 14

51,791

44,430

45,911

47,392

48,873

50,354

51,835

53,31(3

54,797

56,278

57,759

Attorneys V I ............................................
Engineers V III.........................................
Systems analysts V I ..............................

101,169
79,021
71,770

GS 15

61,722

52,262

54,004

55,746

57,488

59,230

60,972

62,714

64,456

66,198

67,940

1 For definitions, see appendix c.
2 Survey findings as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope of survey, see appendix A.
3 General schedule rates in effect in March 1986, the reference date of PATC survey.
4 Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the Office of Personnel
Management.
5 Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of March 31, 1986. Not
limited to Federal employees in occupations surveyed by BLS.
6 Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for within-grade increases on condition that
the employees’s work is of an acceptable level of competence as defined by the head of the
agency. For employees who meet this condition, the service requirements are 52 calendar weeks
for each advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks for advancement to salary rates 5, 6,
and 7; and 156 weeks for each advancement to salary rates 8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides
that an additional within-grade increase may be granted within any 52-week period in recognition of




high quality proformance above that ordinarily found in the type of position concerned.
NOTE: Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher minimum rates (but not exceeding
the maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level) and a
corresponding new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under certain
conditions. The conditions include a finding that the Government’s recruitment or retention of wellqualified persons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are
subtantially above the salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1986, special higher
salary rates were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at
GS-9 and GS-11. In addition, special rates were authorized for mining and electrical engineers at
GS-5 through GS-12 and petroleum engineers at GS-5 through GS-13. Information on special
salary rates, including the occupations and the areas to which they apply, may be obtained from the
Office of Personnel Management, Washington, D.C. 20415, or its regional offices.

Employee Benefits
in Medium and Large
Firms, 1985

Employee Benefits in Medium
and Large Firms, 1985
U S Department of Labor
Bureau ot Labor S ta tistics
July 1986

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 2262

The Bureau of Labor Statistics issues its 1985
Bulletin on employee benefits in medium and
large firms. This survey is the seventh in an
annual series.
Data available
• Incidence and detailed characteristics of 14
private sector employee benefits paid for at
least in part by the employer: Lunch and rest
periods, holidays, vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, and sick leave;
sickness and accident, long-term disability,
health, and life insurance; and private
retirement/capital accumulation plans. Included
in the retirement data is information on defined
benefit plans, such as benefit formulas and
pension replacement rates, and on defined
contribution plans, such as salary reduction or
401 (k) plans.
• Incidence data on 17 other employee
benefits, including financial counseling,
prepaid legal services, and child care.

Source of data
• Sample of about 1,500 establishments in a
cross-section of the Nation’s private industries;
primarily by personal interview.

Coverage
• Major benefits in medium and large firms,
nationwide.
• Minimum employment in establishments
covered is generally 100 or 250 employees,
depending on the industry.

Uses
• Union contract negotiations.
• Conciliation and arbitration in public and
private sectors.
• Development of legislation affecting the
welfare of workers.

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