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Q. 3/ /3 :

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1985

/

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1985
U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1985
Bulletin 2243

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

-

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*

Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical occupations in
private industry. The nationwide salary information,
relating to March 1985, is representative of
establishments in a broad spectrum of industries
throughout the United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii.
Data from the national white-collar salary survey are
used for a number of purposes, including general
economic analysis and wage and salary administration
by public and private employers. One important use is
to provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar
salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay Com­
parability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has
designated the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the
Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of
the Office of Personnel Management to serve jointly as
his a^ent to establish pay for Federal white-collar
employees.
The President’s agent specifies the geographic scope
of the Bureau’s salary survey, the industries to be
studied, the minimum establishment size to be included,
and the survey occupations. The agent also formulates
comparability procedures, uses the survey results to
develop statistical paylines, and recommends com­
parability pay adjustments to the President. The Bureau
of Labor Statistics, under the Federal Pay Comparability
Act of 1970, is responsible for conducting the survey
and advising on the feasibility of proposed survey
changes. The Bureau prepares a list of establishments
covered by the survey, draws a probability-based sample
from this list, collects, tabulates, and reports the data.
As mentioned above, however, the survey design is the
responsibility of the President’s Pay Agent. It should
also be emphasized that this survey, like other salary
surveys, does not provide mechanical answers to pay
policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. The occupations selected were
judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the
framework of a broad survey design, (b) representative
of occupational groups which generally are numerically
important in industry as well as the Federal service, and
(c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal and
private sectors.
Occupational definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private

industry; however, they are also designed to be
translatable to specific General Schedule ( g s ) grades ap­
plying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of
some occupations and work levels were limited to
specific elements that could be classified uniformly
among establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the Office of Personnel Management worked joint­
ly to prepare the definitions.
The survey could not have been conducted without
the cooperation of the many firms whose salary data
provide the basis for the statistical information in this
bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of
the other Federal agencies that contributed to survey
planning, wishes to express appreciation for the
cooperation it has received.
This survey was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Oc­
cupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels. Mark S.
Sieling prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Computer
programming and tabulation of data were developed by
Richard S. Schildt under the direction of Richard W.
Maylott, Office of Statistical Operations. Terry
Burdette and Glen Springer, of the Division of Wage
Statistical Methods, were responsible for the sampling
design and other statistical procedures. Field work and
data collection for the survey were directed by the
Bureau’s Assistant Regional Commissioners for Opera­
tions.
Although only nationwide salary data are presented
in this bulletin, salary data for clerical occupations and
for drafters and some computer occupations are
published for each metropolitan area in which the
Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These area reports
also include information on the incidence of employee
benefits such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, in­
surance, and pension plans for nonsupervisory office
workers.
In 1984, a survey of employee benefits in private in­
dustry covered the same scope as the nationwide survey
of professional, administrative, technical, and clerical
pay. The findings of the survey appear in Employee
Benefits in Medium and Large Firms, 1984, Bulletin
2237 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1985). Copies are for
sale from the Government Printing Office.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.
iii

Contents

Page
Summary.................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey.......................................................................................................
Employment ................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels ...............................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1985 .....................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan a re a s ..............................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments............................................................................................
Salary distributions......................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry.........................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours...................................................................................................

1
1
1
2
3
5
5
5
6
6

Text tables:
1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1975-85
...............................
2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category,1975-85 .........................
3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1985 ...................

2
2
6

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States ...............................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan areas.......................................................................................................
3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or m ore......................................................

11
14
17

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations.............................................................
5. Technical support occupations....................................................................................
6. Clerical occupations ...................................................................................................

20
28
30

Selected industry characteristics:
7. Occupational employment distribution.......................................................................
8. Relative salary levels...................................................................................................
9. Average weekly h o u rs...........................................................................................

33
34
35

Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Salaries in professional occupations, March 1985 ......................................................
Salaries in administrative and technical occupations, March 1985...........................
Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1985.......
Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division,
March 1985 ...............................................................................................................

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey.............................................................................................
B. A note on computer occupations......................................................................................
C. Occupational definitions...................................................................................................
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of Federal
employees under the General Schedule..........................................................................
v

7
8
9
10

36
41
42
86

Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1985

Summary

Occupations are divided into appropriate work levels
based on duties and responsibilities (see appendix C).
The number of work levels—designated by roman
numerals, with “ I” the lowest—varies from occupation
to occupation, as do degrees of difficulty and respon­
sibility.3
The number of levels in each occupation ranges from
one for messengers to eight for engineers. These work
levels, however, are not intended to represent all the
workers in a specific occupation. For example, the
duties and responsibilities of an establishment’s top
engineers may exceed those for the highest level of
engineers in the survey. Thus, the survey does not pre­
sent comparisons of overall occupational salary levels,
such as between accountants as a group and engineers.
The approximately 43,200 establishments within the
scope of the survey employed about 22.7 million
workers; 45 percent were professional, administrative,
technical, and clerical employees. Of these white-collar
workers, 19 percent were in occupations and work levels
for which salary data were developed. The survey
presents separate occupational data for metropolitan
areas—where over nine-tenths of the white-collar
workers were employed—and for establishments
employing 2,500 workers or more.

Average salaries for selected white-collar occupations
in medium- and large-size establishments increased
moderately between March 1984 and March 1985. For
most of the 25 occupations included in the survey, in­
creases ranged from 3 to 6 percent—in line with typical
gains reported a year earlier. In contrast, increases
averaged about 7 percent annually during the 1970’s; 9
to 11 percent in 1981 and 1982; and 6.0 to 8.5 percent in
1983.1
Average annual salaries for the 107 occupational
levels published ranged from $10,101 for clerks perform­
ing routine filing to $91,690 for the highest level of at­
torneys studied. For most occupations, salary levels in
metropolitan areas and in large establishments were
higher than the average for all establishments within the
scope of the survey. Among the industry divisions
represented in the survey, public utilities usually
reported the highest salaries while finance, insurance,
and real estate industries generally reported the lowest
salaries and the shortest standard weekly hours.
Characteristics of the survey

This survey—26th in an annual series—provides na­
tionwide salary data for 25 occupations spanning 107
work level categories. Information was collected from
establishments in all areas of the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii. The minimum size of the
establishments studied was either 50, 100, or 250
employees, depending on the industry. The following
major industry groups were surveyed: Mining; construc­
tion; manufacturing; transportation, communications,
electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and ser­
vices.2

Employment

Employment varied widely among occupations in the
survey, reflecting both actual differences in employment
counts and differences in the range of duties and
responsiblities covered by survey definitions. For exam­
ple, there were 552,800 incumbents in the eight levels of
engineers, accounting for 73 percent of the 761,000 pro­
fessional employees within the scope of the study; cor­
porate attorneys, in contrast, numbered under
14,600—a figure that does not include those in legal
firms. The five levels of computer programmers and six
levels of systems analysts which were surveyed had
120,400 and 113,200 employees, respectively, and
together accounted for about four-fifths of the

1 For results o f the 1984 survey, see National Survey o f Profes­
sional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1984,
Bulletin 2208 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1984).
2 See appendix A for a full description o f the scope o f the survey.
Services selected by the President’s Pay Agent include engineering, ar­
chitectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research,
development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, con­
sulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational,
scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and
bookkeeping services.

3
The roman numerals do not necessarily identify equal levels o f
work among occupations. For example, public accountant levels I to
IV equate to accountant levels II to V while attorney I equates to ac­
countant III and public accountant II. For more information, see ap­
pendix D.

1

ferent groups which equate to various grades of the
Federal Government’s General Salary Schedule—GS
1-4; g s 5-9; and g s 11-15. Cumulative increases over the
past 10 years have been largest for the senior levels,

employees in all administrative jobs studied, which also
included buyers, job analysts, and directors of person­
nel. Engineering technicians accounted for 44 percent of
the 258,400 technical workers, computer operators 30
percent, and drafters 25 percent. Secretaries constituted
the largest clerical occupation, with 45 percent of the
clerical work force of 639,400. The next largest clerical
occupation was accounting clerk, with about one-fourth
of the total.

Text table 2. Percent Increases in average salaries by work
level category,1 1975-85
Period2

Changes in salary levels

Group A
(GS grades 1-4)

Group B
(GS grades 5-9)

Group C
(GS grades 11-15)

101.6

103.5

114.2

1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

7.6
6.9
7.5
7.2
9.1

6.4
6.3
8.0
7.5
10.1

6.5
7.7
8.8
8.0
9.3

1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

9.8
9.5
7.4
3.6
4.2

9.6
9.4
7.3
5.0
4.2

10.2
10.4
7.2
5.3
5.9

1975-85 ........

After increasing about 7 percent a year during the
1970’s, salary levels for most of the survey jobs rose by
9 to 11 percent a year in 1981 and 1982 before declining
in 1983 to a 6.0- to 8.5-percent range. In 1984, increases
moderated further to a 3- to 6-percent range. (See text
table 1.) Moderation continued in 1985; increases for
the most part fell between 3 and 6 percent and ranged
from 2.3 percent for photographers to 6.5 percent for
directors of personnel.
Increases also varied by occupational work level, with
average salaries increasing faster in 1985 for the senior
levels of professional and administrative occupations
than for both the middle group of levels and the lower
levels of technical and clerical occupations. Text table 2
shows average salary increases since 1975 for these dif­

1 A contains survey classifications equating to gs grades 1-4 of the
Federal Government’s General Salary Schedule; Group B covers GS grades
5-9; and Group C, GS grades 11-15. See appendix D, table D-1, for a listing of
survey levels that equate to each gs grade.
2 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 edition of
this publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-75, see the 1982 edition, Bulletin
2145.

Text table 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1975-851

Occupation

Professional, administrative, and
technical support:
Accountants...........................................
Chief accountants ................................
Auditors .................................................
Public accountants................................
Job analysts...........................................
Directors of personnel..........................
A ttorneys...............................................
Buyers ...................................................
Chemists ...............................................
Engineers...............................................
Engineering technicians........................
Drafters .................................................
Computer operators..............................
Photographers......................................
Computer programmers.......................
Systems analysts..................................
Clerical:
Accounting clerks..................................
File clerks...............................................
Key entry operators..............................
Messengers...........................................
Personnel clerks/assistants.................
Purchasing assistants ..........................
Secretaries.............................................
Stenographers.......................................
Typists ...................................................

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

1979
to
1980

1980
to
1981

1981
to
1982

1982
to
1983

1983
to
1984

1984
to
1985

6.4
6.6
5.5

7.8
10.5
6.8

8.3
8.0
8.2

8.0
7.7
6.5

(2
)
6.0
7.8
6.1
6.7
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4

(2)
6.5
9.1
5.4
7.0
7.0
6.4
7.2
6.0
5.4

(2
)
7.2
10.0
9.1
7.8
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5

(3
)
8.6
7.5
8.9
7.0
7.6
8.4
7.6
(3
)
7.2

9.2
11.3
8.8
4.2
8.1
11.2
9.3
8.1
9.8
9.8
11.0
11.8
8.3

10.0
9.5
10.3
7.9
7.6
11.4
9.8
9.8
9.4
10.9
10.2
10.9

(2
)
(2)
(2)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

6.9
4.2
6.1
7.1
6.7
8.3
7.6
6.2
5.8
7.1
5.9
7.6
6.8
8.1
6.5

4.7
5.7
8.0
2.3
5.3
5.3
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.2
4.9
3.6

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

9.6
11.4
9.4
6.6
9.2
9.6
11.4
9.4
10.4
10.2
9.4
8.4
8.9
9.7

7.2
6.4
7.6
7.4

6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5

6.2
9.7
7.1
6.0

(3
)
5.5
6.8
6.8

(2
)
(2
)
(3
)
8.0
7.1

(2)
(2
)
6.4
7.9
6.2

(2)
(2
)
6.5
8.2
8.0

(3
)
(2
)
7.3
12.1
8.5

8.9
9.3
9.1
5.5
8.6

(3
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

’ For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 edition
of this publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-75, see the 1982' edition,
Bulletin 2145.
2 Not surveyed.

(2
)
9.6
10.1
8.9

(3
)
(3
)
(2)
(2
)
9.6
8.0
8.2
9.7
(3
)
(2
)
(3
)
12.1
10.2

(3
)
(2
)
8.9
7.2
9.4
6.4
10.2
(3
)
9.2
13.8
10.1

(2
)

(3
)
(3
)

4.8
6.2
3.8
4.3
5.8
6.5
5.9
3.8
5.6
4.9
3.7
3.7
4.2
2.3
4.5
4.0

8.1
6.4
7.3
9.2
9.7
9.3
7.1
8.6
6.8

3.8
2.1
3.4
2.9
5.4
6.8
5.0
5.5
2.0

4.8
3.7
3.6
4.1
2.7
5.1
4.7
4.9
5.9

3 Comparable data for both years not available,
Note: For method of computation, see appendix A.

2

<*)
6.9

which are a part of the selected services industry group.
Attorneys are classified based upon the difficulty of
their assignments and their responsibilities. Attorneys I,
who include new law school graduates with bar
membership and whose work is relatively un­
complicated due to clearly applicable precedents and
well-established facts, averaged $29,886 a year. At­
torneys in the top level surveyed (VI) averaged $91,690.
These attorneys deal with legal matters of major impor­
tance to the organization and usually report only to the
general counsel or, in very large firms, to the deputy
general counsel. Finance, insurance, and real estate
employed two-fifths of the attorneys and manufacturing
industries employed three-tenths.®
Buyers who purchase “ off-the-shelf” and readily
available items and services from local sources (level I)
averaged $20,896 a year. Buyers IV, who purchase
highly complex and technical items, materials, or ser­
vices that are custom designed and manufactured,
averaged $39,306. Approximately four-fifths of the
buyers studied were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries.
Computer programmers at the trainee level who are
developing basic programming skills (level I) averaged
$20,318 a year. Those at level V, who are either team
leaders, staff specialists, or consultants responsible for
complex programming, averaged $41,288 annually.
Manufacturing industries employed almost two-fifths
of all computer programmers surveyed; finance, in­
surance, and real estate accounted for almost onefourth; services, about one-fifth; and public utilities,
almost one-tenth.
Computer systems analysts who are familiar with
systems analysis procedures and work independently on
routine problems (level I) averaged $28,197 annually.
Systems analysts VI, the highest level, averaged $68,809
a year. At this level, analysts are senior managers
responsible for the development and maintenance of
very large and complex computer systems.7 About twofifths of all systems analysts surveyed were in manufac­
turing; just over one-fourth in finance, insurance, and
real estate; and about one-eighth each in services and
public utilities.
Personnel management occupations are represented
by four levels of job analysts and five levels of directors
o f personnel. Job analysts I averaged $20,774 a year
compared with $36,983 for level IV. Under general
supervision, job analysts IV analyze and evaluate a variety
of the more difficult jobs and may participate in the
development and installation of job evaluation and
compensation systems. Directors of personnel are
limited by definition to those who, at a minimum, are

about 12 percentage points greater than for the lower
and middle groups of work levels.
Average salaries, March 1985

Reflecting the wide range of duties and respon­
sibilities covered by the occupations studied, average
annual salaries ranged from $10,101 for file clerks I to
$91,690 for the top level of attorneys (table l).4 The
following paragraphs summarize findings for the
various occupations studied.
Accountants’ average annual salaries ranged from
$20,577 for beginning professional accountants (level I)
to $59,519 for specialists in complex accounting systems
(level VI). Salaries of the most numerous group (level
III) averaged $30,037 a year. Nearly three-fifths of the
accountants surveyed were in manufacturing industries;
finance, insurance, and real estate accounted for oneeighth; while public utilities employed just over onetenth.
Work levels for chief accountants are determined by
the degree of authority and responsibility, the technical
complexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser
degree, the size of the professional staff (usually 1-2 ac­
countants at the first levels to as many as 40 accountants
at level IV). Of the chief accountants surveyed, slightly
over two-thirds were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries and less than one-tenth each in the public utili­
ties and the finance, insurance, and real estate sectors.
Chief accountants who adapt accounting systems
which have only a few relatively stable functions and
work processes (level I) averaged $37,557 a year. At
level IV, those who have authority to establish and
maintain the accounting program, subject to general
policy guidelines, for a company with numerous and
varied accounting functions and work processes averaged
$74,735 annually.5
*
Auditors at the trainee level (level I) averaged $21,128
a year and those at IV, who conduct complex financial
audits, averaged $39,243. Manufacturing industries
employed almost two-fifths of the auditors, while the
finance, insurance, and real estate sector employed just
over one-third and public utilities over one-eighth.
Public accountants at the entry level, who receive
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing (level I),
averaged $19,657 annually. The highest level of public
accountants (level IV), who direct the field work for
large or complex audits, averaged $31,416 a year. This
occupation was only found in public accounting firms,
4 Despite this wide difference, salary averages for professional
jobs o f equivalent levels o f work often fell within a relatively narrow
band. For example, annual averages for the following work levels
(equivalent to Federal grade 13) fell within a $4,330 or 8 percent
range: Accountant VI ($59,519); chief accountant III ($60,466); at­
torney IV ($59,087); chemist VI ($58,210); and engineer VI ($56,136).
5 Data for chief accountants V; directors o f personnel V; chemists
VIII; computer operators VI; photographers V; and personnel
clerks/assistants V did not meet publication criteria for this survey.

6 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal ad­
vice or services.
7 As noted in appendix B, information was collected separately
for five levels o f nonsupervisory systems analysts and four levels o f
systems analysts supervisors/managers. The data were consolidated
for publication, using the approach shown in appendix B.

3

responsible for administering a job evaluation system,
employment and placement functions, and employee
relations and services. Those with significant respon­
sibility for contract negotiations with labor unions as
the principal company representative are excluded.
Various combinations of work force size, duties, and
responsibilities determine the work level.
Among personnel directors, average yearly salaries
ranged from $37,173 for level I to $70,663 for level IV.8
Manufacturing industries employed almost one-half of
the job analysts and seven-tenths of the directors of per­
sonnel included in the survey; the finance, insurance,
and real estate industries ranked next with about threetenths of the job analysts and one-eighth of the directors
of personnel.
Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight
levels9 starting with a professional trainee level typically
requiring a bachelor’s degree. The highest level surveyed
involves either full responsibility over a broad, complex,
and diversified chemical or engineering program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important
segments of the program, or individual research and
consultation in problem areas where the chemist or
engineer is a recognized authority and where solutions
represent a major scientific or technological advance.1
0
Average yearly salaries ranged from $22,631 for
chemists I to $68,710 for chemists VII, the highest level
for which data could be published, and from $27,405
for engineers I to $76,205 for engineers VIII. Level IV
chemists and engineers, the largest groups in each pro­
fession and representing fully experienced employees,
averaged $39,418 and $40,991 a year, respectively.
Employment of chemists and engineers was highly
concentrated in manufacturing industries (88 percent of
the chemists and 75 percent of the engineers). Most of
the remaining chemists were associated with research
and development laboratories. Engineers were also
found in significant numbers in research, development,
and testing laboratories, establishments providing
engineering services, and public utilities.
Engineering technician is a five-level series limited to
employees providing semiprofessional technical support
to engineers. These technicians work with engineers in
such areas as research, design, development, testing, or
manufacturing process improvement, and use electrical,
electronic, or mechanical components or equipment.
Technicians involved in production or maintenance
work are excluded. Engineering technicians I, who per­
form simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures, averaged $16,876 a year.
Engineering technicians V, who work on more complex
projects under general guidelines supplied by a super‘ See footnote 5.
* See footnote 5.
10
The definition recognizes that top positions in some companies
with unusually extensive and complex chemical or engineering pro­
grams exceed this level.

4

visor or professional engineer, averaged $31,386.
Salaries for intermediate levels III and IV, containing a
majority of the technicians surveyed, averaged $23,179
and $27,259, respectively.
Just over four-fifths of the engineering technicians
were employed in manufacturing and about one-eighth
in services. The ratio of technicians to engineers was
about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing industries combined;
in mechanical and electrical equipment manufacturing,
it was 1 to 4. In public utilities, the ratio was 1 to 5; and
in research, development, and testing laboratories, 1 to 3.
Average salaries of drafters ranged from $13,208 a
year for level I (who trace or copy finished drawings) to
$29,876 for level V (who work closely with designers
preparing unusual, complex, or original designs).
Seven-tenths of the drafters were in manufacturing
firms and about one-seventh in services.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of
responsibility for problem solving, variability of
assignments, and scope of authority for corrective ac­
tion needed by their equipment. Computer operators I,
whose work consists of on-the-job training, averaged
$13,670 a year. The largest group surveyed, level II,
averaged $16,973, and the highest published level (V)
averaged $28,440.1 About two-fifths of all computer
1
operators were located in manufacturing industries;
one-fourth in finance, insurance, and real estate; and
one-eighth in services.
Photographers studied in the survey range from those
taking routine pictures where several shots can be taken
or opportunities for retakes exist (level I) to those using
special-purpose cameras under technically demanding
conditions (level IV).1 Photographers working for
2
media establishments, such as newspapers or advertising
agencies, were excluded. The average annual salary for
level I photographers was $17,571 compared with
$30,210 for level IV’s. Manufacturing industries
employed almost seven-tenths of the photographers
covered by the survey while most of the remainder were
in services.
Among the survey’s nine clerical jobs, secretary was
the most numerous. Average yearly salaries ranged
from $15,869 for level I secretaries to $26,210 for level
V. Average annual salaries of $18,391 and $20,914 were
reported for stenographers I and II. Typists I averaged
$12,621 and those at level II, $15,847.
Accounting clerks performing simple and routine
clerical accounting operations (level I) averaged $12,380
a year. Level IV clerks who maintain journals or sub­
sidiary ledgers averaged $21,106. Three-fourths of all
accounting clerks were classified in levels II and III,
which averaged $14,728 and $17,327 a year, respectively.
Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine
tasks requiring a knowledge of personnel rules and pro­
cedures (level I) averaged $14,023 a year. Level IV
1 See footnote 5.
1
12 See footnote 5.

Professional,
administrative, and
technical

Clerical

Total number o f levels

73

26

95-99 p e r ce n t...................
100-104 p ercen t.................
105-109 p e r ce n t.................
110-114 p ercen t.................
115 percent and o v e r .........

assistants, who provide paraprofessional support such
as interviewing and recommending placement for welldefined occupations, averaged $22,355.1
3
Level I purchasing assistants examine and review
routine purchasing agreements. Their yearly average of
$16,363 compared with $28,150 for top level III
assistants, who prepare complicated purchase
documents, expedite the purchase of highly specialized
items, or provide detailed technical support to buyers.
Clerical workers generally were highest paid in
manufacturing, mining, and public utilities and lowest
paid in finance, insurance, real estate, and retail trade.
Over two-fifths of the clerical employees were employed
in manufacturing industries. The finance, insurance,
and real estate industries and public utilities also
employed large numbers of clerical workers, accounting
for about one-fourth and one-tenth of the total, respec­
tively.

3
41
20
8
1

1
4
8
7
6

As expected, pay relatives were close to 100 for those
work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.
Salary distributions

Employee distributions of annual salaries for profes­
sional and administrative occupations are presented in
table 4, for technical support occupations in table 5, and
for clerical occupations in table 6. Within most work
levels, the highest salary rates were more than twice as
large as the lowest rates. As illustrated in charts 1-3,
these differences tended to increase with each rise in the
work level. Salary ranges of specific work levels in an
occupation also tended to overlap each other. This reflects
both salary differences among establishments and the
frequent overlapping of salary ranges within individual
firms.1
4
Median annual salaries for most work levels were
slightly lower than the mean average salaries.1 Hence,
5
salaries in the upper halves of the arrays affected the
means more than salaries in the lower halves. The
relative difference between the mean and the median
was less than 2 percent for 69 of the 107 work levels
surveyed, from 2 to 4 percent in 31 levels, and from over
4 to 6.4 percent in the other 7 levels.
The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger for
clerical occupations than for professional, ad­
ministrative, or technical occupations. These disper­
sions, shown in text table 3, reflect the salary range of
the middle 50 percent of employees in each work level
expressed as a percent of the median salary. This
eliminates the extremely low and high salaries for each
comparison. In about nine-tenths of the 107 publishable
work levels, the degree of dispersion ranged between 15
and 30 percent.
Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety
of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These
include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; varia­
tions in occupational employment among industries
(table 7 and chart 4); and geographic salary differences,

Salary levels in metropolitan areas

For most occupational levels, average salaries in
metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than
national averages (table 1). In only 12 instances,
however, did these differences exceed 1 percent.
Approximately nine-tenths of the employees surveyed
were located in metropolitan areas, with the proportion
varying among occupations and work levels. Ninety-five
percent or more of public accountants, computer pro­
grammers, job analysts, attorneys, messengers, and file
clerks were in metropolitan areas. In 78 of the 107 work
levels providing publishable data, at least 90 percent of
the workers were in metropolitan areas.
Salary levels in large establishments

Large establishments—those employing 2,500
workers or more—accounted for about 41 percent of all
employees in the 99 occupational work levels for which
comparisons to all-establishment averages were possible
(table 3). The proportion of workers in large
establishments ranged from less than one-tenth of direc­
tors of personnel II and file clerks I to 97 percent of pur­
chasing assistants III. Large establishments commonly
employed a majority of workers at the highest levels of
professional, administrative, and technical support oc­
cupations. Among clerical occupations, however, they
employed a majority of only purchasing assistants III
and both levels of stenographers.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as
percents of levels in all establishments combined ranged
from 98 to 123. Salary levels in large establishments
were higher than the all-establishment average by 5 per­
cent or more in all but 5 of the clerical levels and in
about two-fifths of the 73 nonclerical levels, as shown in
the following tabulation (the all-establishment average
for each occupational level = 100):

14 For an analysis o f rate ranges within establishments, see Martin
E. Personick,“ White-collar Pay Determination Under Range-of-Rate
Systems,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1984, pp.25-30.
15 The median designates position; one-half o f the workers receive
the same as or more and one-half receive the same as or less than the
median rate. The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earn­
ings o f all workers and dividing by the number o f workers.

13 See footnote 5.

5

Text table 3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1985
Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of—
Number of
work levels

Under 15
percent

15 and under
20 percent

20 and under
25 percent

25 and under
30 percent

30 percent
and over

All occupations..................................

107

5

43

40

15

4

Accountants...................................................
Chief accountants ........................................
Auditors..........................................................
Public accountants.........................................
Job analysts...................................................
Directors of personnel..................................
A ttorneys.......................................................
Buyers ............................................................
Chemists .......................................................
Engineers........................................................
Engineering technicians................................
D ra fte rs ..........................................................
Computer operators......................................
Photographers...............................................
Computer programmers................................
Systems analysts...........................................
Clerical workers.............................................

6
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
7
8
5
5
5
4
5
6
26

-

3
3
2
2
1
2
1
3
6
2
5
2
1
3
5
2

•3
1
4
1
2
4
3
4
3
2
3
1
1
8

-

-

1
1
1
12

4

Occupation

2
2
1
-

1 Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 percent of employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary for that
level.

pay levels of messengers in manufacturing (112 percent
of the all-industry average) and public utilities (133 per­
cent) reflect the influence on the all-industry average of
lower salaries for 48 percent of these workers employed
in finance, insurance, and real estate industries. These
industries, however, also report slightly shorter average
standard workweeks than other industries.

especially for clerical employees.1 Clerical employees
1
*
4
6
usually are recruited locally, while professional and ad­
ministrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.
Pay differences by industry

Occupational salary levels in major industry divisions
were compared to the all-industry average (table 8).
Salary levels for professional, administrative, and tech­
nical occupations in manufacturing industries tended to
be closest to the all-industry average. Manufacturing,
however, accounted for more employment than any
other sector, except in the case of attorneys and public
accountants. Relative salary levels were generally
highest in mining and public utilities.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels
were lowest in the retail trade and finance, insurance,
and real estate industries. Where these industries
employed a substantial proportion of workers in an oc­
cupation, the all-industry average was dampened; con­
sequently, relative pay levels in such industries as
manufacturing and public utilities tended to be elevated
above the all-industry average. For example, relative

Average standard weekly hours

The distribution of average weekly hours (rounded to
the nearest half hour) is shown in table 9 for each oc­
cupation by major industry division. Average weekly
hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real estate
(about 38 hours for most occupations) than in other in­
dustries (39 to 40 hours). Average weekly hours have
been fairly stable over the past decade.1 Standard
7
weekly hours, the base for regular straight-time salary,
were obtained for individual employees in the occupa­
tions studied. When individual hours were not
available, particularly for some higher level professional
and administrative positions, the predominant
workweek of the office work force was used as the stan­
dard workweek.

14 For analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see

Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas. 1984, Summary 84-7

17 For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1984, Bulletin 3025-72 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1985).

(Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1984), and Mark Sieling,“ Clerical Pay
Differences in Metropolitan Areas, 1961-80,” Monthly Labor
Review, July 1982, pp. 10-14.

6

Chart 1. Salaries in professional occupations, March 1985
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level
Accountants

I

IV
V
VI
Chief accountants

I

II
III
IV
Auditors

I

II
III
IV
Public accountants

I

II
III
IV
Attorneys

I

II
III
IV
V
VI
Chemists

I

II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Engineers

I

II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

7

Chart 2. Salaries in administrative and technical occupations, March 1985
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 Dercent of employees)

Occupation
and level

$20,000

$30,000

Job analysts

Directors of
personnel

Buyers

Programmers/
programmer
analysts

Systems analysts

Engineering
technicians

Drafters

Computer
operators

Photographers

8

$40,000

$50,000

$60,000

$70,000

$80,000

Chart 3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1985
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level
Accounting clerks

File clerks

Key entry operators

Messengers
Personnel clerks/
assistants

Purchasing assistants

Secretaries

Stenographers
Typists

9

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1985
Percent
Occupational group

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Accountants and
chief accountants1

Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers

Computer programmers

Systems analysts

Directors of personnel
and job analysts

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

Computer operators

Photographers

Clerical employees

Mining
and
construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

Finance,
insurance,
and real estate

Trade and
selected
services

1 Public accountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services in the selected services
industry group.

10

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries'*
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

A cco un tan ts and auditors

1 ...................................................
II ..................................................
III .................................................
I V .................................................
V ..................................................
V I .................................................

12,465
22,874
36,599
21,232
7,841
1,612

$1,715
2,112
2,503
3,134
3,907
4,960

$1,705
2,083
2,474
3,105
3,873
4,890

$1,524
1,875
2,205
2,832
3,556
4,451

$1,875
2,328
2,750
3,415
4,207
5,350

$20,577
25,349
30,037
37,607
46,879
59,519

$20,460
24,990
29,688
37,266
46,481
58,677

$18,293
22,500
26,460
33,986
42,667
53,414

$22,500
27,931
33,000
40,983
50,480
64,200

1...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I I I .........................................................
I V ........................................................

1,855
3,627
5,185
2,345

1,761
2,155
2,604
3,270

1,708
2,097
2,550
3,208

1,583
1,925
2,280
2,916

1,934
2,375
2,840
3,607

21,128
25,854
31,246
39,243

20,492
25,166
30,600
38,496

18,992
23,100
27,360
34,986

23,208
28,500
34,075
43,283

1 ........................................
I I .......................................
I I I ......................................
IV ......................................

10,596
9,886
8,221
3,877

1,638
1,844
2,158
2,618

1,624
1,833
2,102
2,582

1,566
1,716
1,950
2,332

1,708
1,964
2,310
2,791

19,657
22,134
25,891
31,416

19,492
21,991
25,224
30,988

18,792
20,592
23,400
27,989

20,492
23,568
27,720
33,487

1 .........................................
II ........................................
III .......................................
I V .......................................

764
1,127
648
224

3,130
3,876
5,039
6,228

3,128
3,957
5,072
6,250

2,916
3,499
4,500
5,748

3,499
4,166
5,586
6,700

37,557
46,517
60,466
74,735

37,536
47,481
60,864
75,000

34,986
41,983
54,000
68,972

41,983
49,996
67,026
80,400

1,184
3,046
4,556
3,466
1,823
481

2,490
3,105
3,979
4,924
6,150
7,641

2,417
3,078
3,931
4,888
6,123
7,477

2,203
2,749
3,570
4,307
5,434
6,856

2,749
3,410
4,332
5,415
6,649
8,358

29,886
37,256
47,742
59,087
73,805
91,690

29,004
36,936
47,172
58,652
73,471
89,722

26,439
32,987
42,840
51,679
65,208
82,267

32,987
40,920
51,979
64,974
79,786
100,293

6,373
18,061
18,224
5,545

1,741
2,134
2,648
3,276

1,686
2,115
2,600
3,206

1,520
1,898
2,356
2,941

1,891
2,332
2,891
3,550

20,896
25,606
31,774
39,306

20,232
25,374
31,198
38,477

18,240
22,774
28,276
35,296

22,691
27,989
34,692
42,600

1................................
I I ...............................
I I I ..............................
I V .............................
V ..............................

14,201
34,235
44,128
19,279
8,517

1,693
1,974
2,364
2,809
3,441

1,691
1,999
2,343
2,817
3,468

1,499
1,792
2,158
2,595
3,248

1,885
2,158
2,560
3,034
3,700

20,318
23,690
28,367
33,708
41,288

20,292
23,990
28,116
33,804
41,618

17,993
21,498
25,894
31,140
38,976

22,618
25,894
30,723
36,408
44,400

1...........................................
I I ..........................................
I II .........................................
I V ........................................
V .........................................
VI ........................................

20,649
42,666
34,202
12,785
2,688
179

2,350
2,789
3,305
3,894
4,705
5,734

2,315
2,758
3,284
3,828
4,623
5,656

2,120
2,526
3,002
3,505
4,218
5,265

2,525
3,004
3,565
4,220
5,170
6,177

28,197
33,465
39,663
46,729
56,461
68,809

27,781
33,096
39,413
45,942
55,480
67,872

25,440
30,314
36,026
42,060
50,616
63,182

30,303
36,048
42,783
50,640
62,040
74,126

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Public
Public
Public
Public
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

A tto rn eys

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

1 ........................................................
II .......................................................
III ......................................................
I V ......................................................
V .......................................................
V I ......................................................
Buyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

1 .............................................................
I I ............................................................
I I I ...........................................................
IV ..........................................................

Program m ers and system s analysts

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems

programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

See footnotes at end of table.

1
1

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

157
472
670
590

$1,731
1,967
2,492
3,082

1,767
2,079
1,233
363

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$1,666
1,883
2,449
3,013

$1,541
1,666
2,182
2,807

$1,835
2,160
2,799
3,335

$20,774
23,602
29,905
36,983

3,098
3,814
4,943
5,889

2,982
3,749
4,853
5,800

2,666
3,340
4,519
5,270

3,464
4,143
5,278
6,497

3,096
5,768
9,609
10,101
8,843
4,174
1,093

1,886
2,227
2,705
3,285
3,976
4,851
5,726

1,847
2,200
2,660
3,240
3,965
4,822
5,638

1,667
1,999
2,407
2,982
3,595
4,320
5,044

31,121
59,275
135,494
148,785
106,966
54,701
13,958
2,490

2,284
2,523
2,862
3,416
4,030
4,678
5,470
6,350

2,291
2,505
2,849
3,400
3,998
4,615
5,386
6,222

1................................
I I ...............................
III ..............................
I V .............................
V ..............................

5,239
18,697
33,464
37,435
19,717

1,406
1,612
1,932
2,272
2,615

1 ...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I I I .........................................................
IV .........................................................
V ..........................................................

2,135
8,190
19,336
20,949
15,763

1 ......................................
II .....................................
III ....................................
IV ....................................
V .....................................

1................................................
I I ...............................................
III .............................................
I V ............................................

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$19,992
22,591
29,389
36,154

$18,493
19,992
26,190
33,687

$22,021
25,923
33,589
40,020

37,173
45,764
59,317
70,663

35,786
44,982
58,235
69,600

31,987
40,084
54,228
63,240

41,563
49,716
63,335
77,969

2,067
2,434
3,016
3,533
4,295
5,323
6,300

22,631
26,722
32,461
39,418
47,706
58,210
68,710

22,167
26,400
31,920
38,880
47,580
57,864
67,658

20,000
23,990
28,888
35,786
43,140
51,840
60,534

24,803
29,205
36,189
42,396
51,540
63,874
75,600

2,166
2,348
2,600
3,115
3,660
4,209
4,940
5,750

2,416
2,692
3,100
3,700
4,373
5,095
5,915
6,796

27,405
30,275
34,348
40,991
48,366
56,136
65,641
76,205

27,495
30,060
34,188
40,800
47,981
55,384
64,632
74,667

25,990
28,182
31,200
37,380
43,920
50,504
59,276
69,000

28,988
32,305
37,200
44,400
52,479
61,140
70,980
81,553

1,388
1,585
1,903
2,266
2,600

1,250
1,421
1,720
2,055
2,394

1,530
1,777
2,132
2,449
2,799

16,876
19,339
23,179
27,259
31,386

16,656
19,024
22,838
27,194
31,200

15,000
17,052
20,640
24,660
28,728

18,355
21,318
25,582
29,388
33,588

1,101
1,374
1,667
1,996
2,490

1,083
1,357
1,647
1,982
2,480

953
1,213
1,473
1,773
2,200

1,170
1,517
1,809
2,195
2,741

13,208
16,488
20,006
23,950
29,876

12,999
16,289
19,758
23,786
29,760

11,439
14,559
17,673
21,277
26,400

14,039
18,199
21,707
26,340
32,891

9,305
32,988
23,039
8,573
1,416

1,139
1,414
1,722
2,001
2,370

1,116
1,375
1,683
1,979
2,420

988
1,221
1,499
1,787
2,149

1,253
1,580
1,900
2,158
2,526

13,670
16,973
20,664
24,016
28,440

13,390
16,500
20,192
23,748
29,039

11,851
14,654
17,993
21,444
25,788

15,037
18,960
22,800
25,896
30,314

219
727
806
365

1,464
1,835
2,207
2,517

1,459
1,875
2,203
2,542

1,300
1,612
1,950
2,218

1,577
2,064
2,423
2,794

17,571
22,019
26,489
30,210

17,512
22,500
26,436
30,504

15,599
19,343
23,398
26,622

18,927
24,763
29,076
33,531

Personnel m anagem ent

Job
Job
Job
Job

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

of
of
of
of

1 ...................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I .................................................
IV .................................................
personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

1 ..................................
II .................................
I I I ................................
I V ................................

Chem ists and en gineers

Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

1.........................................................
I I ........................................................
I I I .......................................................
IV ......................................................
V .......................................................
VI ......................................................
VII .....................................................

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

1........................................................
I I .......................................................
I II ......................................................
I V .....................................................
V ......................................................
VI .....................................................
V I I ....................................................
V III...................................................
Technical support

Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

Photographers
Photographers
Photographers
Photographers

See footnotes at end of table.

12

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,’ United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4
Number
of
employees3
4

Mean5

Median5

1 ..........................................
I I .........................................
I I I ........................................
IV ........................................

27,038
76,029
50,107
17,868

$1,032
1,227
1,444
1,759

File clerks 1 .......................................................
File clerks I I ......................................................
File clerks I I I .....................................................

16,778
8,781
1,962

Key entry operators 1 ......................................
Key entry operators II .....................................

Occupation and level1
2

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$11,803
14,242
16,864
20,532

$10,200
12,479
14,767
18,180

$14,247
16,223
19,152
23,771

10,101
11,836
14,707

9,720
11,086
13,987

8,579
10,165
12,533

11,046
12,600
16,140

1,212
1,558

13,200
16,600

12,687
15,932

10,996
14,143

14,544
18,696

810

1,062

11,685

11,023

9,720

12,739

1,127
1,322
1,545
1,847

1,027
1,179
1,374
1,670

1,252
1,491
1,731
2,050

14,023
16,375
18,870
22,355

13,519
15,859
18,540
22,163

12,323
14,143
16,493
20,040

15,027
17,887
20,778
24,594

1,364
1,761
2,346

1,300
1,748
2,302

1,179
1,501
2,089

1,473
1,987
2,674

16,363
21,135
28,150

15,599
20,976
27,624

14,143
18,011
25,067

17,679
23,839
32,084

53,266
61,039
111,029
47,854
17,227

1,322
1,477
1,666
1,877
2,184

1,274
1,450
1,630
1,865
2,157

1,118
1,277
1,442
1,624
1,914

1,458
1,638
1,850
2,089
2,430

15,869
17,721
19,988
22,520
26,210

15,287
17,400
19,560
22,380
25,890

13,415
15,324
17,304
19,492
22,968

17,496
19,656
22,200
25,068
29,160

Stenographers 1................................................
Stenographers II ..............................................

9,093
5,966

1,533
1,743

1,536
1,742

1,235
1,578

1,805
1,862

18,391
20,914

18,427
20,904

14,819
18,936

21,656
22,339

Typists 1 .............................................................
Typists I I ............................................................

19,976
13,119

1,052
1,321

985
1,275

866
1,088

1,170
1,497

12,621
15,847

11,816
15,300

10,396
13,056

14,039
17,964

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$984
1,187
1,405
1,711

$850
1,040
1,231
1,515

$1,187
1,352
1,596
1,981

$12,380
14,728
17,327
21,106

842
986
1,226

810
924
1,166

715
847
1,044

920
1,050
1,345

45,527
29,908

1,100
1,383

1,057
1,328

916
1,179

Messengers......................................................

9,356

974

919

Personnel
Personnel
Personnel
Personnel

1.........................
I I ........................
I I I .......................
I V ......................

1,787
3,120
2,545
1,353

1,169
1,365
1,572
1,863

Purchasing assistants 1 ...................................
Purchasing assistants I I ..................................
Purchasing assistants I I I .................................

3,804
3,798
1,062

1 .....................................................
II ....................................................
III ...................................................
I V ...................................................
V ....................................................

Clerical

Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
Accounting

clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks

clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants

Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries

cluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is
defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn earn the same
as or more than the higher rate.

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually sur­
veyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work sched­
ules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal
work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are ex­

13

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,’
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

A cco un tan ts and auditors

1 ...................................................
II ..................................................
I I I .................................................
I V .................................................
V ..................................................
V I .................................................

11,584
20,978
33,065
19,444
7,409
1,559

$1,719
2,124
2,513
3,138
3,906
4,956

$1,708
2,093
2,493
3,115
3,864
4,890

$1,527
1,883
2,207
2,832
3,555
4,450

$1,875
2,335
2,766
3,417
4,207
5,350

$20,627
25,489
30,156
37,651
46,876
59,468

$20,492
25,112
29,916
37,385
46,368
58,677

$18,329
22,591
26,489
33,986
42,660
53,400

$22,500
28,015
33,187
41,001
50,480
64,200

1...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I I I .........................................................
I V ........................................................

1,662
3,394
4,936
2,272

1,764
2,158
2,595
3,273

1,724
2,118
2,550
3,209

1,541
1,925
2,278
2,915

1,960
2,375
2,832
3,623

21,165
25,891
31,144
39,273

20,692
25,415
30,600
38,508

18,493
23,100
27,336
34,983

23,520
28,500
33,986
43,479

1 ........................................
I I .......................................
I I I ......................................
IV ......................................

10,414
9,782
8,069
3,813

1,636
1,844
2,157
2,618

1,624
1,833
2,100
2,582

1,566
1,708
1,950
2,332

1,708
1,964
2,308
2,791

19,636
22,123
25,882
31,411

19,492
21,991
25,200
30,988

18,792
20,496
23,400
27,989

20,492
23,568
27,696
33,487

1 .........................................
II ........................................
III .......................................
I V .......................................

548
1,007
566
215

3,308
3,877
5,123
6,217

3,325
3,875
5,102
6,250

3,013
3,499
4,582
5,738

3,499
4,195
5,639
6,700

39,702
46,525
61,471
74,608

39,900
46,500
61,224
75,000

36,157
41,983
54,978
68,852

41,983
50,340
67,673
80,400

1,100
2,959
4,435
3,193
1,798
481

2,512
3,108
3,983
4,983
6,144
7,641

2,456
3,078
3,933
4,940
6,123
7,477

2,203
2,749
3,570
4,409
5,423
6,856

2,786
3,414
4,332
5,456
6,630
8,358

30,147
37,292
47,791
59,801
73,723
91,690

29,474
36,936
47,194
59,276
73,471
89,722

26,439
32,987
42,840
52,911
65,076
82,267

33,433
40,973
51,979
65,473
79,560
100,293

5,779
15,294
16,348
5,265

1,755
2,161
2,686
3,282

1,686
2,135
2,647
3,211

1,524
1,924
2,395
2,942

1,907
2,339
2,916
3,560

21,060
25,927
32,235
39,387

20,232
25,620
31,759
38,532

18,293
23,091
28,739
35,305

22,884
28,069
34,993
42,720

1................................
I I ...............................
I I I ..............................
IV .............................
V ..............................

13,213
32,230
42,011
18,869
8,446

1,707
1,983
2,370
2,814
3,440

1,699
1,999
2,348
2,820
3,467

1,499
1,800
2,162
2,600
3,245

1,903
2,166
2,566
3,037
3,700

20,483
23,792
28,441
33,770
41,282

20,382
23,990
28,179
33,840
41,608

17,993
21,600
25,946
31,198
38,940

22,835
25,990
30,792
36,449
44,400

1...........................................
I I ..........................................
I I I .........................................
I V ........................................
V .........................................
V I ........................................

18,728
39,985
32,559
12,226
2,536
175

2,354
2,798
3,313
3,897
4,711
5,718

2,310
2,766
3,291
3,832
4,640
5,656

2,116
2,532
3,009
3,507
4,215
5,260

2,540
3,007
3,575
4,220
5,183
6,169

28,243
33,571
39,751
46,768
56,528
68,614

27,720
33,196
39,488
45,980
55,678
67,872

25,390
30,389
36,103
42,083
50,580
63,121

30,480
36,086
42,900
50,640
62,200
74,023

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Public
Public
Public
Public
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

A tto rn eys

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

1 ........................................................
II .......................................................
III ......................................................
I V ......................................................
V .......................................................
V I ......................................................
B uyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

1 .............................................................
I I ............................................................
I I I ...........................................................
IV ..........................................................

P rogram m ers and system s analysts

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems

programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

See footnotes at end of table.

14

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,'
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

152
453
647
574

$1,739
1,969
2,495
3,092

1,184
1,718
1,061
341

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$1,666
1,883
2,457
3,025

$1,541
1,666
2,182
2,810

$1,841
2,149
2,819
3,341

$20,866
23,629
29,941
37,099

$19,992
22,591
29,488
36,300

$18,493
19,992
26,190
33,720

$22,095
25,790
33,827
40,093

3,085
3,825
4,942
5,877

2,978
3,750
4,831
5,748

2,678
3,340
4,465
5,265

3,387
4,165
5,278
6,539

37,019
45,906
59,304
70,526

35,736
45,000
57,977
68,972

32,137
40,084
53,579
63,175

40,644
49,980
63,335
78,469

Personnel m anagem ent

Job
Job
Job
Job

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

of
of
of
of

1 ...................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I .................................................
IV .................................................
personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

1 ..................................
II .................................
III ................................
IV ................................

C hem ists and engineers

Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

1.........................................................
I I ........................................................
I I I .......................................................
IV ......................................................
V .......................................................
VI ......................................................
VII .....................................................

2,765
5,260
8,216
8,765
7,668
3,665
947

1,883
2,228
2,728
3,279
3,979
4,877
5,785

1,844
2,201
2,682
3,240
3,973
4,872
5,687

1,666
1,985
2,416
2,999
3,634
4,383
5,083

2,050
2,440
3,043
3,527
4,280
5,350
6,415

22,591
26,730
32,738
39,345
47,744
58,521
69,423

22,131
26,406
32,187
38,880
47,681
58,469
68,250

19,992
23,820
28,988
35,986
43,603
52,594
61,000

24,600
29,280
36,516
42,324
51,360
64,200
76,980

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

1........................................................
I I .......................................................
III......................................................
I V .....................................................
V ......................................................
V I .....................................................
V I I ....................................................
V III...................................................

28,839
54,266
122,893
138,679
102,762
53,440
13,787
2,458

2,293
2,538
2,873
3,428
4,039
4,679
5,474
6,354

2,300
2,522
2,855
3,414
4,000
4,620
5,394
6,237

2,169
2,364
2,615
3,128
3,665
4,210
4,940
5,750

2,420
2,700
3,110
3,708
4,382
5,095
5,925
6,796

27,518
30,457
34,471
41,134
48,463
56,150
65,682
76,247

27,600
30,264
34,264
40,973
48,006
55,440
64,722
74,848

26,028
28,368
31,380
37,536
43,982
50,520
59,276
69,000

29,040
32,405
37,315
44,496
52,579
61,140
71,100
81,553

1................................
I I ...............................
I I I ..............................
I V .............................
V ..............................

4,945
16,076
30,391
33,687
18,662

1,406
1,625
1,931
2,282
2,623

1,383
1,610
1,903
2,274
2,608

1,244
1,430
1,715
2,067
2,406

1,530
1,797
2,135
2,465
2,807

16,876
19,498
23,174
27,382
31,474

16,591
19,320
22,838
27,290
31,296

14,933
17,159
20,580
24,802
28,868

18,355
21,561
25,620
29,578
33,687

1 ...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I I I .........................................................
IV .........................................................
V ..........................................................

2,037
7,481
17,021
18,736
15,284

1,104
1,383
1,685
2,010
2,493

1,083
1,368
1,666
1,996
2,482

960
1,213
1,487
1,792
2,200

1,186
1,547
1,830
2,209
2,745

13,244
16,591
20,219
24,116
29,916

12,999
16,416
19,992
23,955
29,783

11,522
14,559
17,845
21,504
26,400

14,226
18,563
21,957
26,503
32,945

1 ......................................
II .....................................
III ....................................
IV ....................................
V .....................................

8,688
29,793
21,732
8,340
1,389

1,151
1,429
1,723
2,004
2,372

1,123
1,389
1,684
1,982
2,426

997
1,232
1,499
1,788
2,155

1,270
1,591
1,899
2,161
2,526

13,808
17,154
20,676
24,044
28,461

13,478
16,672
20,212
23,784
29,112

11,959
14,788
17,993
21,459
25,863

15,240
19,093
22,791
25,929
30,314

1................................................
I I ...............................................
III .............................................
I V .............................................

210
670
701
317

1,453
1,836
2,253
2,580

1,459
1,880
2,262
2,600

1,295
1,615
2,045
2,360

1,577
2,064
2,463
2,823

17,439
22,032
27,036
30,959

17,512
22,560
27,142
31,198

15,542
19,377
24,540
28,320

18,927
24,763
29,556
33,881

Technical support

Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

Photographers
Photographers
Photographers
Photographers

See footnotes at end of table.

15

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Monthly salaries4
Number
of
employees3
4

Mean5

1 ..........................................
I I .........................................
I I I ........................................
IV ........................................

24,645
67,149
44,838
16,036

$1,030
1,235
1,451
1,781

File clerks 1 .......................................................
File clerks I I ......................................................
File clerks I I I .....................................................

16,156
8,433
1,916

Key entry operators 1 ......................................
Key entry operators II .....................................

Occupation and level1
2

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Median5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$985
1,200
1,416
1,732

$841
1,040
1,250
1,539

$1,192
1,365
1,600
1,984

$12,355
14,824
17,407
21,367

845
986
1,224

815
920
1,157

721
849
1,042

920
1,049
1,345

40,942
28,426

1,105
1,389

1,058
1,331

923
1,183

Messengers......................................................

8,888

973

918

Personnel
Personnel
Personnel
Personnel

1.........................
I I ........................
I I I .......................
I V ......................

1,523
2,745
2,131
1,240

1,176
1,391
1,584
1,869

Purchasing assistants 1 ...................................
Purchasing assistants I I ..................................
Purchasing assistants I I I .................................

3,262
3,570
1,058

1 .....................................................
II ....................................................
I I I ...................................................
I V ...................................................
V ....................................................

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$11,820
14,400
16,993
20,784

$10,096
12,479
14,994
18,468

$14,299
16,380
19,200
23,808

10,143
11,829
14,684

9,780
11,046
13,883

8,657
10,191
12,505

11,046
12,588
16,140

1,222
1,567

13,265
16,671

12,695
15,973

11,071
14,194

14,658
18,799

808

1,059

11,678

11,016

9,697

12,708

1,131
1,330
1,574
1,860

1,039
1,209
1,416
1,670

1,273
1,520
1,741
2,058

14,108
16,690
19,006
22,429

13,571
15,963
18,892
22,316

12,469
14,507
16,993
20,040

15,276
18,240
20,892
24,698

1,381
1,773
2,346

1,333
1,754
2,300

1,200
1,517
2,089

1,484
2,002
2,674

16,571
21,281
28,149

15,994
21,048
27,599

14,400
18,199
25,062

17,813
24,024
32,087

48,371
58,398
104,988
45,650
16,636

1,333
1,479
1,676
1,889
2,200

1,278
1,456
1,640
1,876
2,166

1,125
1,286
1,454
1,641
1,928

1,471
1,640
1,859
2,102
2,440

15,994
17,749
20,116
22,663
26,397

15,339
17,471
19,680
22,507
25,990

13,495
15,434
17,450
19,697
23,136

17,653
19,680
22,306
25,218
29,280

Stenographers 1................................................
Stenographers II ..............................................

7,874
5,773

1,511
1,745

1,529
1,742

1,235
1,583

1,754
1,862

18,132
20,943

18,349
20,904

14,819
18,992

21,048
22,344

Typists 1.............................................................
Typists I I ............................................................

18,639
12,728

1,060
1,318

987
1,276

866
1,095

1,183
1,497

12,725
15,820

11,845
15,308

10,396
13,135

14,191
17,964

Clerical
Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
Accounting

clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks

clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants

Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually sur­
veyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work sched­
ules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal
work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are ex­

cluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is
defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn earn the same
as or more than the higher rate.

16

Table 3. Average salaries: Large establishments
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry.’establishments employing
2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Levels in large establishments as a
percent of those in all establishments
combined

Annual salaries5
Occupation and level3

Number
of
employees'*

Middle range6
Mean6

Employment

Median6

Mean salaries

First quartile Third quartile

A ccountants and auditors

1 ...................................................
II ..................................................
III .................................................
I V .................................................
V ..................................................
V I .................................................

3,126
7,573
9,812
6,707
2,896
802

$21,695
27,741
31,879
38,547
47,987
59,689

$21,422
27,504
31,524
37,985
47,220
57,886

$19,882
24,490
27,924
34,033
42,689
52,479

$23,141
30,996
35,779
42,516
51,900
66,274

25
33
27
32
37
50

105
109
106
103
102
100

1...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I II.........................................................
I V ........................................................

601
1,079
1,996
995

21,710
27,125
32,981
40,087

20,635
26,150
32,400
38,892

18,900
23,016
28,219
34,986

24,022
30,300
37,316
44,982

32
30
38
42

103
105
106
102

Chief accountants III .......................................
Chief accountants I V .......................................

104
64

62,820
75,863

60,416
74,220

55,682
65,329

67,141
84,965

16
29

104
102

305
886
1,494
1,346
1,028
301

33,844
40,647
50,452
60,504
74,565
93,000

33,687
39,984
49,561
58,976
73,609
92,743

29,388
36,000
44,208
52,854
66,036
84,428

37,939
45,091
56,220
66,900
81,268
102,180

26
29
33
39
56
63

113
109
106
102
101
101

1,430
5,189
7,180
3,481

22,389
27,039
33,063
39,092

22,098
26,599
32,518
38,280

19,758
24,072
29,144
34,629

24,288
29,236
36,339
42,494

22
29
39
63

107
106
104
99

1................................
I I ...............................
I I I ..............................
I V .............................
V ..............................

4,392
11,826
17,691
10,514
6,037

21,968
25,305
29,778
34,563
41,766

21,630
25,248
29,424
34,500
41,820

19,804
23,328
27,475
32,220
39,481

24,139
27,100
31,848
36,792
44,380

31
35
40
55
71

108
107
105
103
101

1...........................................
I I ..........................................
I II.........................................
I V ........................................
V .........................................
V I ........................................

8,570
18,428
15,593
7,193
1,682
152

29,402
34,801
40,713
47,651
58,750
68,832

28,380
34,651
40,460
46,844
57,573
67,760

26,040
31,512
37,328
43,440
52,360
63,750

31,680
37,240
43,729
51,420
64,074
73,873

42
43
46
56
63
85

104
104
103
102
104
100

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors

A tto rn eys

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

1 ........................................................
II .......................................................
III ......................................................
I V ......................................................
V .......................................................
V I ......................................................
B uyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

1 .............................................................
I I ............................................................
I I I ...........................................................
IV ..........................................................

P ro gram m ers and system s analysts

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems

programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers
programmers

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

See footnotes at end of table.

17

Table 3. Average salaries: Large establishments—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry.'establishments employing
2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Levels in large establishments as a
percent of those in all establishments
combined

Annual salaries5
Number
Occupation and level3
employees4

Middle range6
Mean6

Median6

Employment

Mean salaries

First quartile Third quartile

P ersonnel m anagem ent

Job analysts I I ..................................................
Job analysts I I I .................................................
Job analysts IV .................................................

172
367
378

$25,630
30,831
37,963

$25,729
30,000
36,991

$21,907
26,310
34,386

$28,897
34,317
40,699

36
55
64

109
103
103

Directors of personnel I I .................................
Directors of personnel I I I ................................
Directors of personnel IV ................................

143
232
104

50,898
62,911
78,720

49,800
60,912
76,992

46,981
55,058
70,798

53,575
70,683
86,643

7
19
29

111
106
111

657
1,751
2,640
3,238
3,056
1,229
502

24,923
29,368
35,084
41,335
49,481
59,465
71,729

24,690
29,437
35,586
41,461
49,241
59,700
69,104

22,591
26,820
31,311
37,800
45,624
54,496
66,672

27,192
32,477
39,000
44,280
52,992
63,600
77,441

21
30
27
32
35
29
46

110
110
108
105
104
102
104

18,119
30,854
65,232
79,456
56,792
33,263
7,674
1,231

27,803
30,721
34,747
41,311
48,348
56,213
65,226
76,591

27,755
30,548
34,603
41,160
48,204
55,560
64,095
74,170

26,489
28,858
31,848
37,885
44,100
50,880
59,280
68,739

29,040
32,549
37,485
44,496
52,360
60,960
70,091
82,329

58
52
48
53
53
61
55
49

101
101
101
101
100
100
99
101

1................................
I I ...............................
I I I ..............................
I V .............................
V ..............................

1,650
6,127
13,820
20,741
13,406

17,171
20,291
23,504
27,582
31,305

16,587
19,966
23,138
27,369
31,079

15,287
17,958
20,798
25,000
28,723

18,573
22,560
25,980
30,019
33,648

31
33
41
55
68

102
105
101
101
100

1 ...........................................................
I I ..........................................................
I I I .........................................................
IV .........................................................
V ..........................................................

206
1,923
5,506
7,762
8,131

15,021
17,706
21,580
25,002
31,115

14,148
17,419
21,600
24,750
30,678

13,103
14,820
18,900
22,254
27,541

17,289
20,356
23,897
27,915
34,577

10
23
28
37
52

114
107
108
104
104

1 ......................................
II .....................................
III ....................................
IV ....................................
V .....................................

2,560
8,024
7,460
4,704
986

15,066
19,434
22,645
25,073
28,837

14,559
19,602
21,942
24,588
29,555

13,085
16,431
19,343
22,217
26,244

16,794
21,708
25,140
27,089
30,314

28
24
32
55
70

110
115
110
104
101

1................................................
I I ...............................................
III .............................................
I V .............................................

78
277
444
300

17,270
23,693
26,896
30,147

16,639
23,502
27,298
29,964

15,000
21,276
24,698
26,591

19,300
26,090
28,998
33,850

36
38
55
82

98
108
102
100

C hem ists and engineers

Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

1.........................................................
I I ........................................................
I I I .......................................................
IV ......................................................
V .......................................................
VI ......................................................
VII .....................................................

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

1........................................................
I I .......................................................
III......................................................
I V .....................................................
V ......................................................
VI .....................................................
V I I ....................................................
VIII ...................................................
Technical support

Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters
Drafters

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

Photographers
Photographers
Photographers
Photographers

See footnotes at end of table.

18

Table 3. Average salaries: Large establishments—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1
establishments employing
2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)
Levels in large establishments as a
percent of those in all establishments
combined

Annual salaries5
Occupation and level1
3
2

Number
of
employees4

Middle range6
Mean6

Employment

Median6

Mean salaries

First quartile Third quartile

Clerical

1 ..........................................
I I .........................................
I I I ........................................
IV ........................................

6,854
13,693
12,511
7,744

$15,265
17,512
19,124
22,951

$15,287
16,802
18,420
22,241

$13,519
14,330
16,500
19,711

$16,639
20,611
21,916
25,898

25
18
25
43

123
119
110
109

File clerks 1 .......................................................
File clerks I I ......................................................
File clerks I I I .....................................................

1,136
1,953
638

11,657
13,275
15,933

10,696
11,880
14,544

9,520
10,399
12,739

13,369
14,559
18,600

7
22
33

115
112
108

Key entry operators 1 ......................................
Key entry operators II .....................................

8,466
10,042

15,559
18,736

14,961
18,500

12,852
15,287

17,783
21,214

19
34

118
113

Messengers......................................................

2,920

13,226

12,234

10,405

15,366

31

113

1.........................
I I ........................
I I I .......................
I V ......................

262
589
639
443

14,469
18,836
20,374
24,812

14,039
18,251
20,307
24,702

12,480
15,391
18,147
22,800

15,840
22,098
22,612
26,098

15
19
25
33

103
115
108
111

Purchasing assistants 1 ...................................
Purchasing assistants II ..................................
Purchasing assistants I I I .................................

881
1,709
1,033

19,549
23,032
28,263

18,300
23,472
27,713

15,807
19,800
25,234

22,867
26,270
32,263

23
45
97

119
109
100

1 .....................................................
II ....................................................
III ...................................................
I V ...................................................
V (....................................................

19,125
21,392
42,953
20,424
7,673

17,781
18,436
21,483
23,802
27,712

16,847
17,880
20,880
23,688
27,491

14,642
15,911
18,459
20,928
24,022

19,860
20,484
24,272
26,400
31,080

36
35
39
43
45

112
104
107
106
106

Stenographers 1................................................
Stenographers II ..............................................

5,195
4,759

18,016
21,095

18,427
20,904

14,520
19,083

21,032
23,086

57
80

98
101

Typists 1 .............................................................
Typists I I ............................................................

5,504
5,876

14,260
17,065

12,995
16,452

11,075
13,800

15,828
19,962

28
45

113
108

Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
Accounting

Personnel
Personnel
Personnel
Personnel

clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks

clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants
clerks/assistants

Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries
Secretaries

work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are ex­
cluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
6
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is
defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn earn the same
as or more than the higher rate.

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Includes data from some large companies that provide companywide
data not identified by size of establishment.
3 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
4 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually sur­
veyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
5 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work sched­
ules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal

19

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii1
March 1985)
Accountants

Chief accountants

Annual salary
1

II

III

IV

V

VI

I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

12,465
$20,577

22,874
$25,349

36,599
$30,037

21,232
$37,607

7,841
$46,879

1,612
$59,519

764
$37,557

1,127
$46,517

648
$60,466

224
$74,735

T o ta l.......................................................
Under $15,000 ..........................................
$15,000 and under $16,500 ...................
$16,500 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,500 ...................
$19,500 and under $21,000 ...................
$21,000 and under $22,500 ...................
$22,500 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $25,500 ...................
$25,500 and under $27,000 ...................
$27,000 and under $28,500 ...................
$28,500 and under $30,000 ...................

100.0
2.4
6.6
14.0
14.3
21.0
16.4
12.5
6.0
3.7
1.7
2 1.4

100.0
2 .4
1.6
4.4
7.9
10.5
15.7
14.8
14.3
9.5
6.9

100.0
_
_
2 .3
1.0
3.0
5.4
8.8
10.9
11.7
12.7

100.0
_
_
_
2 1.5
2.3
3.8

100.0
_
_
_
_
_

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_

100.0

_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3.5
8.8

-

-

-

$30,000
$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

4.9
5.1
1.7
1.1
2 1.0
-

_
_
_
_
2 2.1

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

10.6
10.3
6.9
5.7
4.8
3.5
1.6
2 2.6
-

_

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

_
-

3.2
1.6
1.0
2 2.7
-

_

_

_

-

-

_
_
-

-

_

_

_

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_

-

_

_

_

$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500
$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500
$60,000

-

4.1
8.4
9.2
11.6
10.3
12.1
8.9
8.5
6.5
4.3

2 .9
2.0
2.3
1.7
3.5
5.8
6.0
8.4
9.8
10.1
9.1
8.1
10.0
6.2
4.0
3.2
2.4
1.8
1.0

-

-

1.3
3.9
4.2
4.5
6.0
4.5
4.9
8.1
8.6
10.5

$60,000
$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500
$75,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

$75,000
$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500
$90,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$90,000
$91,500
$93,000
$94,500

and
and
and
and

under $91,500 ...................
under $93,000 ...................
under $94,500 ...................
o v e r......................................

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

“

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.

20

5.4
4.2
1.6
15.7
10.7
8.9
9.6
14.8
14.5

1.3
1.3
4.3
.5
11.0
9.8
8.0
7.8

_
_
_
_
_
2.4
_
_
-

5.1
5.8
6.1
4.4
4.2
3.0
2.8
2.4
2.5
1.6

4.2
_
_
1.2

_

2 3.7
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
2 .4
8.0
8.0
1.3
.9
.9
9.4
7.1
10.3
.4
1.8

1.5
2 1.9

11.2
2.7
9.8
6.7
.4
7.1
2.2
3.1
.4

-

_
_
_

_

2.9
2.6
6.0
9.9
5.1
8.2
4.8
4.9
.6
2.8

_
_
_
_

-

-

.9
2.5
2.2
4.6
8.0
6.6
7.9
8.3
2.3

3.1
12.8
10.4
8.6
7.1
1.9
1.2
3.8
5.9
2 1.1

_

2 3.5
_

_
_

_

_
_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

1.8
.9
1.8
3.0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'
March 1985)
Auditors

Public accountants

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

1,855
$21,128

3,627
$25,854

5,185
$31,246

2,345
$39,243

10,596
$19,657

9,886
$22,134

8,221
$25,891

3,877
$31,416

T o tal.......................................................
$12,000 and under $13,000 ...................
$13,000 and under $14,000 ...................
$14,000 and under $15,000 ...................
$15,000 and under $16,000 ...................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ...................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ...................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ...................

100.0
.3
1.4
.9
3.3
7.2
6.7
8.1
6.9

100.0
2 .6
1.7
2.0
4.8

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
.6
1.5
1.6
2.4
7.5
20.2
32.7

100.0
.2
1.8
1.2
12.6

100.0
1.0

100.0
_
-

_

18.2
4.9
6.0
2.2
1.8
2 .3
-

16.2
24.0
13.4
13.6
8.5
4.9
2.0
2 1.6
-

_
_

9.5
11.8
9.9
4.6
5.9
2.7
1.6
2.8
1.5
1.0

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

22.6
7.2
7.9
5.1
8.8
4.9
2.9
1.6
.1
2.2

3.1
4.1
8.2
9.8
13.6
10.5
5.0
6.6
9.9
6.1

2 1.1
3.2
3.7
4.5
5.1
5.1
7.0
8.4
7.0

_
2 1.8
1.2
2.3

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

2 1.8
-

3.8
1.8
2.9
1.3
2 4.2
-

8.1
6.9
7.8
6.6
4.5
3.0
3.4
2.8
2.8
1.5

3.0
3.6
4.6
4.8
5.2
6.1
6.5
6.1
8.1
7.8

$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

1.3
1,2
1.6
.7
.4
1.1
2 1.2

3.0
3.8
5.6
4.6
4.4
4.9
2.1
1.7
1.6
1.2

under $51,000 ...................
under $52,000 ...................
under $53L
000 ...................
o v e r......................................

_
~

$50,000 and
$51,000 and
$52,000 and
$53,000 and

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
“

-

See footnotes at end of table.

21

1.4
.8
1.7
2.1

-

-

2.9
5.3
12.0
13.5
12.9
13.2
8.5
9.3
8.1
3.3

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

2.6
2.7
1.1
2 3.6
-

.6
3.3
.9
5.3
6.7
9.4
8.5
8.0

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

.9
1.2
1.2
2 2.7
_
_
_

_
-

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'
March 1985)
Job analysts

Directors of personnel

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

157
$20,774

472
$23,602

670
$29,905

590
$36,983

1,767
$37,173

2,079
$45,764

1,233
$59,317

363
$70,663

T o ta l.......................................................
$15,000 and under $16,500 ...................
$16,500 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,500 ...................
$19,500 and under $21,000 ...................
$21,000 and under $22,500 ...................
$22,500 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $25,500 ...................
$25,500 and under $27,000 ...................
$27,000 and under $28,500 ...................
$28,500 and under $30,000 ...................

100.0
3.2
9.6
28.7
32.5
4.5
6.4
3.8
2.5
.6
1.9

100.0
3.8
12.5
19.9
11.7
12.5
12.1
8.1
4.9
4.7

100.0
1.0
1.6
4.0
5.2
7.6
11.5
11.3
12.5

100.0
.2
1.9
2.9
.8
2.5

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

2.8
2.5
3.6
2 1.1
-

10.7
7.3
8.7
6.3
3.6
3.6
1.9
1.5
2 1.5
-

3.2
6.8
16.8
12.2
13.1
9.3
8.1
3.4
4.6
2.4

6.7
14.0
7.0
11.3
9.5
7.3
3.5
4.2
8.3
4.0

2 1.2
4.0
1.2
2.8
4.4
3.9
8.9
5.7
8.6
10.3

_
2 1.5
1.1
1.5

_
-

.7
3.5
1.3
1.5
2.8
2 1.7
-

6.0
7.0
10.7
2.7
3.6
3.5
5.3
3.3
2.1
2.6

.9
4.5
.8
2.8
5.3
6.2
5.7
7.3
14.6
13.4

_

2 2.3
-

3.6
4.5
3.2
6.7
2.0
1.5
1.7
1.0
1.6
3.0

3.0
2.8
5.5
2.5
10.5
7.2
10.7
4.1
2.5
5.0

.6
1.6
1.0
2 2.3
-

.6
3.9
3.3
.6
7.2
1.9
.8
3.9
.8
.3

-

1.7
.6
2.6
7.9

$30,000
$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500
$45,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

6.4
-

$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500
$60,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

-

4.1
3.9
2.5
1.0
2 .3
-

$60,000
$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500
$75,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

-

_
-

-

_
-

$75,000
$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500
$90,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

$90,000 and under $91,500 ...................
$91,500 and under $93,000 ...................
$93,000 and under $94,500 ...................
$94,500 and under $96,000 ...................
$96,000 and under $97,500 ...................
$97,500 and under $99,000 ...................
$99,000 and under $100,500 .................
$100,500 and under $102,000 ...............
$102,000 and o v e r..................................

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.

22

_
-

-

-

-

-

1.1
4.1
.3
1.7
8.0
1.9

1.1
1.1
.8
.6
.8
1.1
.6

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'
March 1985)
Attorneys
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

1,184
$29,886

3,046
$37,256

4,556
$47,742

3,466
$59,087

1,823
$73,805

481
$91,690

T o ta l.......................................................
Under $20,000 ..........................................
$20,000 and under $22,000 ...................
$22,000 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $26,000 ...................
$26,000 and under $28,000 ...................
$28,000 and under $30,000 ...................
$30,000 and under $32,000 ...................
$32,000 and under $34,000 ...................
$34,000 and under $36,000 ...................
$36,000 and under $38,000 ...................
$38,000 and under $40,000 ...................

100.0
3.0
2.0
5.7
9.2
20.2
15.6
14.4
9.0
7.8
4.8
3.0

100.0,
2.4
3.0
4.3
9.3
13.7
14.6
12.1
13.4

100.0
1.2
.9
3.1
3.4
6.7

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

2.7
1.4
2 1.3
-

9.7
3.4
4.5
3.3
2.6
2.0
2 1.7
-

5.6
13.2
9.4
12.2
11.1
9.6
5.0
5.9
4.1
2.6

2 1.1
1.4
2.8
4.6
8.7
7.6
6.3
9.0
7.3
8.8

_
2 .9
1.2
2.0
1.9
2.5

_
-

2.2
.9
1.2
2 1.9

6.7
3.2
7.8
4.5
7.0
6.9
8.6
9.7
7.6
5.7

_
2 1.0
4.4
1.0
.2
2.7
2.5
6.9
5.0
6.4
6.7
5.8
8.7
3.7
4.4
6.9
4.0
4.6

$40,000
$42,000
$44,000
$46,000
$48,000
$50,000
$52,000
$54,000
$56,000
$58,000
$60,000
$62,000
$64,000
$66,000
$68,000
$70,000
$72,000
$74,000
$76,000
$78,000
$80,000
$82,000
$84,000
$86,000
$88,000
$90,000
$92,000
$94,000
$96,000
$98,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$42,000
$44,000
$46,000
$48,000
$50,000
$52,000
$54,000
$56,000
$58,000
$60,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

-

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.5
6.3
7.8
5.8
4.2
2.3
2.4
2.3
.7
1.5

$82,000 ...................
$84,000 ...................
$86,000 ...................
$88,000 ...................
$90,000 ...................
$92,000 ...................
$94,000 ...................
$96,000 ...................
$98,000 ...................
$100,000 .................

_
-

-

-

_
-

2 2.7
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.2
3.2
3.1
2.5
1.3
2.5
1.6
2.1
1.7
2 1.9

$62,000
$64,000
$66,000
$68,000
$70,000
$72,000
$74,000
$76,000
$78,000
$80,000

-

-

-

$100,000
$102,000
$104,000
$106,000
$108,000
$110,000
$112,000
$114,000
$116,000
$118,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

$120,000
$122,000
$124,000
$126,000

and
and
and
and

under $122,000 ...............
under $124,000 ...............
under $126,000 ...............
o v e r...................................

$102,000
$104,000
$106,000
$108,000
$110,000
$112,000
$114,000
$116,000
$118,000
$120,000

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

3.5
5.0
2.7
1.2
3.7
1.7
1.5
1.9
1.5
.4

See footnotes at end of table.

23

_

.4
1.2
.4

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,1 March 1985)
Buyers

Computer programmers

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

IV

V

Number of employees .............................
Average annual salary.............................

6,373
$20,896

18,061
$25,606

18,224
$31,774

5,545
$39,306

14,201
$20,318

34,235
$23,690

44,128
$28,367

19,279
$33,708

8,517
$41,288

T o ta l.......................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

_

_
-

_

_

_
_
2 1.3

_
_
_
-

_

-

-

6.3
10.5
9.7
12.0
13.1
11.2
8.2
6.1
3.3
2.1

1.1
1.8
2.7
5.3
6.5
8.9
9.0
12.0
10.2
9.5

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
-

1.7
1.0
2 .8
_
-

8.7
6.8
5.1
3.5
2.3
1.7
1.3
2 2.1
_

-

-

Under $14,000 ..........................................
$14,000 and under $15,000 ...................
$15,000 and under $16,000 ...................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ...................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ...................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ...................

2.7
1.1
6.9
9.1
13.8
13.9

_
2 2.2
1.5
4.6

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

11.2
9.1
9.1
6.7
4.9
3.7
2.2
1.2
.4
.7

4.5
5.9
8.9
9.0
10.7
10.2
10.1
8.3
5.9
4.6

_
2 1.5
2.3
3.2
4.0
5.7
5.3
9.3
8.6

_
2 1.4
2.4

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

1.6
2 1.7
-

3.8
2.5
1.6
1.9
2 3.8
-

8.8
7.3
7.7
7.4
6.4
5.0
3.4
2.9
2.2
2.3

1.9
2.7
3.9
6.5
4.1
8.5
7.1
6.7
9.7
6.8

$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

1.5
1.1
1.3
2 2.9
-

5.8
3.8
6.0
5.9
3.0
1.9
1.7
.9
1.3
1.2

$50,000 and
$51,000 and
$52,000 and
$53,000 and
$54,000 and
$55,000 and

-

-

-

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_

under $51,000 ...................
under $52,000 ...................
under $53,000 ...................
under $54,000 ..................
under $55,000 ...................
o v e r......................................

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

“

-

-

-

.7
1.0
.6
.7
1.2
2.4

See footnotes at end of table.

24

1.6
5.2
3.2
7.4
10.4
9.2
10.8
11.2
11.4
9.0
6.3
5.2
4.0
2.1
2.1
2 1.0
-

2 .7

1.0
1.6
1.6
4.4
4.9

_
_

_

_

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

_
_
-

-

-

_
-

_
_

2 1.4
1.1
.8
1.8
3.0
3.3
5.1

2 1.8

7.4
9.1
9.0
10.1
10.4
8.3
9.2
7.1
4.0
3.8

1.3
1.0
.9
1.4
2.3
2.9
3.4
5.3
5.1
9.2

2.1
2 2.9
.
_
_
_
_
_

9.4
9.0
9.6
9.1
8.3
7.9
4.9
3.3
1.8
1.2

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

_
_
_

_

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2 .9
_

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1985)
Systems analysts
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

20,649
$28,197

42,666
$33,465

34,202
$39,663

12,785
$46,729

2,688
$56,461

179
$68,809

T o tal.......................................................
$18,000 and under $19,500 ...................
$19,500 and under $21,000 ...................
$21,000 and under $22,500 ...................
$22,500 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $25,500 ...................
$25,500 and under $27,000 ...................
$27,000 and under $28,500 ...................
$28,500 and under $30,000 ...................

100.0
*1.1
2.2
3.6
7.1
12.2
16.1
16.9
13.5

100.0
2 1.1
1.9
3.7
6.4
9.5

100.0
2 1.1
1.4

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
_
-

$30,000
$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500
$45,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

9.7
6.9
4.2
2.0
1.2
2 3.4
-

11.5
14.7
12.6
11.4
10.8
6.1
3.9
2.4
1.2
2 2.7

2.2
4.1
6.5
9.2
10.9
12.1
11.6
11.4
8.9
6.1

_
2 1.6
1.3
1.9
3.4
5.5
11.0
7.6
12.1

_
2 2.4
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.0

$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500
$60,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

4.9
3.4
2.0
1.8
22.5
-

9.0
8.8
7.8
6.5
5.4
4.4
3.8
2.8
2.6
1.1

2.5
4.7
5.9
7.3
8.1
5.9
9.0
8.0
5.5
5.9

_
_
2 2.4
1.1
3.9

$60,000
$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500
$75,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2 3.4
-

3.3
5.1
3.3
4.6
3.5
2.5
2.9
1.2
2 3.8
-

5.0
10.1
6.1
10.1
7.8
7.3
6.1
4.5
5.6
10.1

$75,000 and under $76,500 ...................
$76,500 and under $78,000 ...................
$78,000 and under $79,500 ...................
$79,500 and under $81,000 ...................
$81,000 and under $82,500 ...................
$82,500 and under $84,000 ...................
$84,000 and under $85,500 ...................
$85,500 and o v e r......................................

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

-

_
-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.

25

-

10.1
3.4
1.7
_

_
_
2.8
1.9

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary. United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'
March 1985)
Chemists
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

VII

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

3,096
$22,631

5,768
$26,722

9,609
$32,461

10,101
$39,418

8,843
$47,706

4,174
$58,210

1,093
$68,710

T o tal.......................................................
Under $15,000 ..........................................
$15,000 and under $16,500 ...................
$16,500 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,500 ...................
$19,500 and under $21,000 ...................
$21,000 and under $22,500 ...................
$22,500 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $25,500 ...................
$25,500 and under $27,000 ...................
$27,000 and under $28,500 ...................
$28,500 and under $30,000 ...................

100.0
1.4
1.4
3.2
11.7
14.5
21.1
12.8
17.6
6.3
3.2
4.4

100.0
2 .4
1.3
5.9
8.7
10.9
11.7
18.3
13.1
10.1

100.0
2 .8
2.7
3.5
6.1
9.6
12.0

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

$30,000
$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500
$45,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

1.4
2 1.0
-

5.1
8.3
2.8
1.6
1.1

-

12.0
11.4
8.4
7.2
8.9
6.7
5.1
2.4
1.9
2 1.4

3.1
4.7
7.6
9.3
11.0
12.9
10.1
11.5
9.1
4.0

$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500
$60,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

_
-

4.3
3.5
2.4
1.7
1.1
2 1.5
-

$60,000
$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500
$75,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

-

-

$75,000
$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500
$90,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

under $91,500 ...................
under $93,000 ...................
under $94,500 ...................
o v e r......................................

_

_
-

$90,000 and
$91,500 and
$93,000 and
$94,500 and

-

-

-

2 .9
1.3

_

_

2 .8
1.2
.8
1.5
3.1
5.2
8.2
5.6
8.7

2 1.4
1.7
.5
1.0
.7
1.3

-

7.9
9.4
11.2
7.4
7.3
5.0
4.5
3.2
3.3
2.0

2.2
2.6
5.4
4.5
4.9
7.1
4.9
7.7
5.8
5.2

-

_
-

1.7
2 2.0
-

8.6
4.8
7.2
2.9
5.0
2.7
1.7
3.3
1.4
1.8

3.2
2.8
5.7
6.8
5.7
11.4
3.1
2.1
2.8
5.4

_
-

_
-

_
-

2 3.9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.1
1.8
2.5
3.5
2.1
2.0
.5
1.7
2.2
1.6

_
-

2 .7
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

-

_

"

See footnotes at end of table.

26

-

.3
1.9

_
1.6
.2
.2
2.0
3.2
3.2
2.0
1.1
8.4

1.2
.3
1.8
1.6

t

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
2
March 1985)
Engineers
Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

. 31,121
$27,405

59,275
$30,275

135,494
$34,348

148,785>
$40,991

106,966
$48,366

54,701
$56,136

13,958
$65,641

2,490
$76,205

T o tal.......................................................
$16,500 and under $18,000 ...................
$18,000 and under $19,500 ...................
$19,500 and under $21,000 ...................
$21,000 and under $22,500 ...................
$22,500 and under $24,000 ...................
$24,000 and under $25,500 ...................
$25,500 and under $27,000 ...................
$27,000 and under $28,500 ...................
$28,500 and under $30,000 ...................

100.0
.1
1.0
.9
2.5
5.2
11.1
20.0
27.6
17.5

100.0
2 .9
1.5
3.2
7.6
15.1
19.6

100.0
2 .6
1.4
2.3
5.4
7.1

100.0
2 1.3

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

8.4
3.5
1.2
2 1.0
-

18.9
15.3
8.6
4.9
2.6
1.0
2 .7
-

10.3
12.6
13.2
13.1
10.9
8.3
5.9
3.7
2.2
1.4

1.7
3.1
4.8
6.6
8.4
10.1
11.8
11.1
10.6
9.2

_
2 .7
1.1
1.6
3.0
4.0
5.1
7.4
8.3

_
2 1.5
1.5
2.9

_
-

2 1.6
-

7.0
5.1
3.2
2.1
1.4
2 2.3
-

9.6
9.5
9.3
8.4
7.0
6.1
5.2
4.3
2.9
2.0

3.7
4.5
6.0
7.4
7.5
7.8
7.6
6.9
6.7
6.6

_
2 2.3
2.9
2.9
3.6
4.6
5.1
7.2

2 .5
1.0
1.3

1.7
2 2.7
-

5.6
4.9
4.4
3.7
2.8
2.1
1.9
1.1
2 3.0
-

7.1
6.7
6.9
7.4
5.8
5.9
5.0
5.2
5.1
3.0

4.5
1.6
3.7
3.3
4.0
4.9
7.9
6.5
6.6
7.5

2.3
2.1
1.9
1.0
1.2
1.0
2 4.0
_

5.9
6.3
4.1
4.3
3.9
2.8
1.4
1.2
3.0
1.4

-

$30,000
$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,500
$33,000
$34,500
$36,000
$37,500
$39,000
$40,500
$42,000
$43,500
$45,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

$45,000
$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$46,500
$48,000
$49,500
$51,000
$52,500
$54,000
$55,500
$57,000
$58,500
$60,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

$60,000
$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$61,500
$63,000
$64,500
$66,000
$67,500
$69,000
$70,500
$72,000
$73,500
$75,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

$75,000
$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$76,500
$78,000
$79,500
$81,000
$82,500
$84,000
$85,500
$87,000
$88,500
$90,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$90,000 and under $91,500 ...................
$91,500 and under $93,000 ...................
$93,000 and under $94,500 ...................
$94,500 and under $96,000 ...................
$96,000 and under $97,500 ...................
$97,500 and under $99,000 ...................
$99,000 and under $100,500 .................
$100,500 and under $102,000 ...............
$102,000 and under $103,500 ...............
$103,500 and o v er...................................

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

-

-

“

_
_
_

1 For the scope of the study see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or
near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the per­
centages of employees in these intervals have been accumulated and

_
-

_
-

-

"

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

1.2
2.3
.6
1.4
.4
.9
.4
1.4
.7
3.0

are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval containing
at least 1 percent,
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not eaual

100.

27

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1985)
Engineering technicians

Drafters

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

I

II

Ill

IV

V

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

5,239
$16,876

18,697
$19,339

33,464
$23,179

37,435
$27,259

19,717
$31,386

2,135
$13,208

8,190
$16,488

19,336
$20,006

20,949
$23,950

15,763
$29,876

T o ta l.......................................................
$8,000 and under $9,000 ........................
$9,000 and under $10,000......................

100.0
-

100.0
_

100.0
_

100.0
-

100.0
_

100.0
_

100.0
_

100.0
_

100.0

-

-

-

-

-

100.0
.4
2.1

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

8.6
23.9
16.7
20.5
11.8
5.9
4.9
1.6
.6
1.1

1.4
1.6
6.5
8.2
13.7
14.4
15.8
11.8
6.9
8.2

_
_

_
_
_
_

.8
1.1

5.8
1.3
2.3
1.1
2 .7

$10,000
$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000
$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000
$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

.1
1.3
3.5
7.1
12.9
14.6
16.8
14.2
9.1
7.8

2 .4
1.1
3.3
6.0
13.6
12.0
13.2
11.3

2 .8
1.4
3.5
6.2
7.5

2 .6
1.1

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

7.8
1.5
.7
1.0
2 1.7
-

11.1
9.0
7.4
5.1
3.1
1.5
1.0
2 1.0
-

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

“

-

-

-

$40,000 and under $41,000 ...................
$41,000 and o v e r......................................

-

9.8
11.6
11.3
9.7
8.9
7.5
7.4
5.6
3.3
2.0

1.6
3.3
5.4
8.3
8.2
9.3
10.6
13.3
10.4
7.4

1.3
2 2.3

6.3
4.7
2.7
2.9
1.5
2 2.7
_
-

_
_

See footnotes at end of table.

28

_
_
_
_
_
_
2 1.0
1.0
1.8
3.0
5.1
7.1
8.7
10.9
9.6
12.1
9.2
8.2
6.0
5.0
3.2
2.8
1.4
1.3
2 2.6
-

2 .2

_

_
_
_
_

-

-

2 1.3
3.7
5.6
8.6
9.4
13.2
11.0

_
2 .8
1.3
2.1
5.2
5.8

11.1
13.4
8.1
3.8
2.8
2.4
1.5
1.7
2 2.6
-

_
_
_
_
2 .7

7.3
9.0
9.8
11.4
11.7
9.0
6.0
5.4
4.5
5.7

1.3
2.8
4.1
3.8
4.5
5.0
7.2
7.8
7.6
8.3

1.9
1.4
2 1.8

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

6.4
8.6
7.9
4.4
3.9
3.8
2.4
2.9
1.9
1.7

-

-

-

-

2.7
.4

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1985)
Computer operators

Photographers

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

I

II

III

IV

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

9,305
$13,670

32,988
$16,973

23,039
$20,664

8,573
$24,016

1,416
$28,440

219
$17,571

727
$22,019

806
$26,489

365
$30,210

T o tal.......................................................
$8,000 and under $ 9 ,000........................
$9,000 and under $10,000......................

100.0
1.3
3.7

100.0
.4

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

-

-

.5
4.1
4.6
6.8
15.1
6.4
18.3
21.9
3.7

_
2.3
6.1
5.1
1.0
2.1
7.4
9.6

_
2 .7
2.9
3.3

_
-

4.4
5.2
10.5
9.9
14.9
5.4
6.9
3.3
3.4
.4

3.2
5.7
6.3
5.8
6.0
8.3
12.9
11.7
7.3
6.8

2 1.4
1.4
6.0
6.8
3.0
3.0
4.9
4.7
7.4
9.6

.3
.1
1.0
.8

7.1
4.5
1.0
1.0
.4
.6
3.5
2 1.0
-

5.5
8.5
8.5
9.9
4.9
2.2
4.7
3.0
1.4
3.3

$10,000
$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000
$20,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

9.9
13.7
16.1
13.8
15.8
7.9
6.6
5.7
2.6
1.1

1.8
2.5
5.8
7.0
12.0
14.0
13.0
10.4
8.8
6.1

2 1.6
2.6
5.1
7.6
8.8
11.5
10.7

2 1.6
2.0
4.0
6.5

_
-

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

1.0
2 .9
-

4.4
5.7
3.5
1.7
1.1
2 2.0
-

10.0
12.1
6.0
6.2
4.8
3.7
2.4
1.5
1.0
1.5

6.6
11.9
11.1
9.2
9.6
13.3
6.6
4.4
3.3
3.0

2 .8
1.9
5.2
4.5
8.7
5.7
6.9
6.1
10.2
11.6

10.0
4.6
.5
.9
.5
2.3
-

2 2.8
-

1.0
1.2
1.0
1.2
2 2.2
-

19.7
5.9
4.7
1.8
1.5
2.4
2.3
2 .2
“

_
-

$30,000 and
$31,000 and
$32,000 and
$33,000 and
$34,000 and
$35,000 and
$36,000 and
$37,000 and
$38,000 and
$39,000 and

under $31,000 ...................
under $32,000 ...................
under $33,000 ...................
under $34,000 ...................
under $35,000 ...................
under $36,000 ...................
under $37,000 ...................
under $38,000 ...................
under $39,000 ...................
o v e r......................................

“

_
“

“

ing at least 1 percent.

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or
near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the per­
centages of employees in these intervals have been accumulated and
are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval contain­

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal

100.

29

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1985)
Accounting clerks

File clerks

Key entry operators

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

Ill

I

II

Number of em ployees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

27,038
$12,380

76,029
$14,728

50,107
$17,327

17,868
$21,106

16,778
$10,101

8,781
$11,836

1,962
$14,707

45,527
$13,200

29,908
$16,600

T o ta l.......................................................
Under $7,000 ............................................
$7,000 and under $7 ,500........................
$7,500 and under $ 8 ,000 ........................
$8,000 and under $8,500 ........................
$8,500 and under $9,000 ........................
$9,000 and under $ 9 ,500........................
$9,500 and under $10,000......................

100.0
2 .5
2.1
2.1
2.8
9.6
5.6

100.0
2 .7
1.1
1.4

100.0
_
-

100.0
_
-

100.0
1.1
2.8
9.2
9.9
10.5
12.8
10.8

100.0
_
_
2 .6
3.3
5.0
10.1

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_

100.0
_
_
_

100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
2 1.6
2.1
2.7

9.2
7.1
5.9
5.9
2.9
2.4
3.0
.9
1.0
.6

13.2
15.7
8.7
9.7
7.2
6.1
3.8
3.5
1.7
2.3

2 1.5
4.8
3.3
5.5
9.0
12.4
4.7
9.5
8.2
6.8

6.5
9.0
7.7
6.3
8.1
7.8
8.7
7.0
3.8
4.3

2 2.5
2.5
2.2
2.6
5.0
4.6
4.7
6.9
6.0

1.3
2 2.4
_
_
_
_
-

1.3
1.3
.6
.6
1.2
2 4.3
_
_
_

4.6
4.1
3.4
4.4
1.6
2.9
3.5
1.0
.8
1.5

3.5
2.3
2.4
1.8
1.8
1.3
1.3
.5
.6
.5

8.0
6.4
4.9
6.2
3.9
4.4
2.9
3.6
3.3
4.2

7
.5
.4
1.1
.3
.6
.2
1.3
2 1.7
-

1
2 3.9
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

20
1.6
2.3
1.4
.5
1.3
2 6.0
_
_

-

$10,000
$10,500
$11,000
$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$10,500
$11,000
$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
............ .......
...................
...................
...................

8.0
7.9
7.4
8.0
5.7
6.0
4.3
3.2
3.8
3.6

2.7
3.2
4.6
5.5
6.5
6.4
7.0
7.8
7.9
6.8

_
2 4.1
2.8
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.8
5.0

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

3.0
3.5
2.1
4.7
2.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1

6.2
4.8
4.7
3.2
2.7
3.4
1.6
1.1
1.2
1.1

4.9
6.9
5.4
7.2
6.5
5.2
6.9
3.9
3.1
3.0

2.3
2.4
1.4
2.2
4.7
4.5
5.6
5.9
5.4
4.2

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500
$25,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

.2
.2
1.7
2 .5
-

15
1.4
.7
1.3
1.1
2 2.5
-

21
1.7
1.5
1.8
2.1
1.8
1.2
2.2
.7
.7

46
4.3
4.9
5.4
5.7
2.6
1.8
2.9
1.7
2.9

$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000
$29,500
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $25,500 ...................
under $26,000 ...................
under $26,500 ...................
under $27,000 ...................
under $27,500 ...................
under $28,000 ...................
under $28,500 ...................
under $29,000 ...................
under $29,500 ...................
under $30,000 ...................
o v e r.....................................

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

.6
.3
1.1
2 2.0

-

-

-

-

“

_
_
“

See footnotes at end of table.

30

2.5
1.9
.9
1.6
2.3
1.5
.9
.7
1.3
.8
3.8

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

2 2.0
1.4
1.9
4.5

-

-

-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1985)
Purchasing assistants

Personnel clerks/assistants
Annual salary

Messengers
I

II

Ill

IV

I

II

III

Number of employees .............................
Average annual salary.............................

9,356
$11,685

1,787
$14,023

3,120
$16,375

2,545
$18,870

1,353
$22,355

3,804
$16,363

3,798
$21,135

1,062
$28,150

T o tal.......................................................
$7,000 and under $7,500 ........................
$7,500 and under $8,000 ........................
$8,000 and under $8,500 ........................
$8,500 and under $9,000 ........................
$9,000 and under $9,500 ........................
$9,500 and under $10,000......................

100.0
2 .6
1.4
7.0
6.1
7.1
8.7

100.0
2 .7
1.3

100.0
2.1
.5

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

_
-

_
2 2.3
1.6
1.7
2.1
3.7
5.8
6.0
7.5
8.9

_
-

_
-

2 2.1
1.2

$10,000
$10,500
$11,000
$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$10,500
$11,000
$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

8.2
10.3
8.1
8.4
6.2
6.0
3.7
3.5
1.3
1.8

2.2
4.0
7.5
6.4
13.0
4.2
8.2
11.6
8.2
5.7

.3
.2
1.1
2.2
1.9
3.3
4.7
5.7
6.3
8.2

2 .7
1.6
.4
.6
1.3
3.1
1.5

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

1.7
1.5
.5
1.1
.5
1.0
1.2
1.1
2 3.0
-

5.8
3.0
2.1
4.9
.8
1.0
2.2
1.7
1.1
-

7.8
10.1
6.5
5.2
3.9
6.1
2.1
2.4
2.5
2.5

5.6
5.9
5.0
2.4
7.6
4.9
8.5
6.4
5.6
6.5

2 .3
3.4
.3
.9
3.2
2.8
5.1
1.2
1.8
5.2

8.0
6.9
7.8
5.3
6.7
3.1
4.7
2.5
2.3
1.1

3.1
5.6
2.8
2.3
2.6
5.1
5.8
3.4
5.0
3.5

_
2 1.4
1.0
.8
1.2
1.1
.4

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500
$25,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

_

2.2

3.1
1.0
2.4
.5
2.3
.6
1.1
.1
.3
1.1

4.7
4.5
3.5
4.0
3.2
2.0
2.6
1.5
.8
.4

9.6
4.0
5.2
4.9
3.6
7.1
4.1
9.8
1.1
7.3

1.0
1.4
1.3
.8
1.2
2 6.5
-

4.0
4.6
4.6
6.9
2.9
3.2
5.0
2.0
3.1
4.3

1.0
.7
1.2
4.1
1.4
2.2
1.9
2.3
1.3
2.6

$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000
$29,500
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $25,500 ...................
under $26,000 ...................
under $26,500 ...................
under $27,000 ...................
under $27,500 ...................
under $28,000 ...................
under $28,500 ...................
under $29,000 ...................
under $29,500 ...................
under $30,000 ...................
o v e r.....................................

2 2.1

1.4
.4
1.0
.3
.2
1.3
2 .7
“

2.5
3.5
5.0
.7
.5
1.0
.6
.8
.7
.3
3.6

2.2
1.6
1.5
1.7
2.4
1.3
1.3
.9
.5
1.4
2.3

5.8
3.2
5.9
5.4
3.2
4.4
4.6
6.0
3.2
1.4
3 32.0

-

-

-

.6
.1
.3
.1
1.3
2 .1
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

“

-

See footnotes at end of table.

31

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1985)
Secretaries

Stenographers

Typists

Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

I

II

I

II

Number of employees.............................
Average annual salary.............................

53,266
$15,869

61,039
$17,721

111,029
$19,988

47,854
$22,520

17,227
$26,210

9,093
$18,391

5,966
$20,914

19,976
$12,621

13,119
$15,847

T o ta l.......................................................
$7,000 and under $8,000 ........................
$8,000 and under $ 9 ,000........................
$9,000 and under $10,000......................

100.0
.1
1.3

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
_

100.0
_

100.0

100.0
_
_

100.0

-

2 1.1

100.0
.9
7.4
11.3
18.8
15.9
13.0
7.2
7.4
4.3
4.0
2.5
1.6
.5

3.1
7.3
10.9
12.9
11.0
8.1
10.0
10.2
5.0
4.1

.6
.6
.8
.4
.3
2.3
_
_

3.6
4.4
1.1
.9
2.7
1.7
2 .2

-

-

_

_

_
_

_
_

-

-

$10,000
$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$11,000
$12,000
$13,000
$14,000
$15,000
$16,000
$17,000
$18,000
$19,000
$20,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

2.3
6.0
10.8
13.0
13.4
12.1
11.8
8.0
6.0
3.9

2 .7
1.3
3.4
5.5
10.2
11.8
11.8
12.7
12.6
7.9

2 .6
1.0
1.9
4.3
6.4
8.3
9.8
11.4
11.3

_
2 1.0
1.4
1.6
3.7
6.3
7.0
7.9

_
2 .2
1.1
1.3
3.7
3.2

1.7
3.8
5.6
6.6
7.3
6.7
5.8
8.1
6.8
7.1

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

2.7
1.7
1.3
1.5
2 3.9
-

7.4
4.4
3.3
1.9
2.7
1.1
2 1.5
-

10.5
7.7
6.7
5.3
4.0
2.5
2.4
3.0
2 2.8
-

8.2
9.2
8.8
10.5
8.9
6.3
5.6
4.0
2.8
2.8

4.3
5.3
6.8
7.8
9.5
8.9
6.3
8.4
7.3
5.8

10.0
6.1
8.0
1.4
7.2
4.7
1.8
.1
-

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

1.1
1.1
2 1.6
_

4.5
6.1
2.4
1.5
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.3
2 1.5

_
-

_
_

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

_

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or
near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the per­
centages of employees in these intervals have been accumulated and
are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval contain­
ing at least 1 percent.
3 Workers are distributed as follows: 2.6 percent at $30,000 and un­
der $31,000, 2.5 percent at $31,000 and under $32,000, 3.9 percent at
$32,000 and under $33,000, 6.6 percent at $33,000 and under

$34,000,
$35,000
$37,000,
$38,000
$40,000.

3.1
and
3.8
and

-

2 .7
1.5
2.1
2.6
3.2
5.2
5.6
4.7
10.3

-

15.6
19.3
6.5
3.6
3.4
3.4
6.8
2.6
.5
.9

_
-

1.0
.6

_
_
_
_

_
_
-

-

-

2 .4
2.5

_
-

percent at $34,000 and under $35,000, 3.0
under $36,000, 4.2 percent at $36,000
percent at $37,000 and under $38,000, 1.9
under $39,000, and .3 percent at $39,000

percent at
and under
percent at
and under

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
100 .

32

Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,1 by industry division,2 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)

Occupation

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities3

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Services"

1
(1
5
4
3
2
)

11
13
8
14
5
9
14
11
5
3
7

4
6
6
4
2
7
5
2
3
(5)
1

2
4
1
4
1
3
3
4
1
(6
)
(5
)

12
34
8
40
3
23
26
29
13
(5
)
(5
)

4
2
100
4
3
3
17
12
6
5
7
10

Professional and
adm inistrative

Accountants..................................
Auditors .........................................
Public accountants.......................
Chief accountants........................
Attorneys.......................................
Buyers............................................
Computer programmers..............
Systems analysts .........................
Job analysts..................................
Directors of personnel.................
Chemists .......................................
Engineers......................................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

8
3
4
5
2
1
3
1
2
1
1

(5
)
(5
)
2
(5
)
(5
)
0
1
5

58
37
68
30
83
38
37
46
69
88
75

100
100
100
100

1
1
3
2

(5
)
3
(5)
(5
)

81
70
39
66

6
10
9
6

1
1
8
3

(5
)
(5
)
4
4

(5
)
(5)
24
2

11
15
12
18

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

2
1
1
2
2
1
2
(5
)
(5
)

1
(5)
1
(5)
(5)
1
1
(5
)
3

41
12
35
25
58
84
51
43
37

12
4
7
9
7
7
8
47
9

10
4
9
3
3
1
6
1
4

13
5
8
5
5
1
3
1
4

17
68
31
48
17
4
23
5
35

4
5
8
8
8
3
6
3
8

-

-

Technical support

Engineering technicians..............
Drafters..........................................
Computer operators.....................
Photographers..............................
C lerical

Accounting clerks.........................
File clerks......................................
Key entry operators.....................
Messengers ..................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing assistants..................
Secretaries....................................
Stenographers..............................
Typists...........................................

1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural,and surveying services; commer­
cially operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit re­
porting and collection agencies; computer and data processing services;
management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial

33

educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, audit­
ing, and bookkeeping services.
5 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the occupation
in the industry. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,1 by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii, March 1985)

Occupation

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

106
108

98
106

-

-

-

103
104
109
106
103
109
103

105
98
104
98
111

-

-

101

98
103
99
103
102
105
100
100
100

94
91
97
112
92
96
-

101

-

-

119
108
102
-

97
-

99
99
103
102

112
109
116
-

_
99
-

113
122
112
107
113
127
112

96
92
-

102
115
106
112
101
100
103
97
112

120
143
128
133
109
107
112
106
117

95
106
95
112
95
101
120
109

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

107
111

102

100
103

-

-

118
113
110
112
118
118
120

-

100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Public
utilities1
3
2

Finance,
insurance,
and
real estate

Services4

P rofessional and
ad m inistrative

Accountants..................................
Auditors .........................................
Public accountants.......................
Chief accountants........................
Attorneys.......................................
Buyers............................................
Computer programmers..............
Systems analysts.........................
Job analysts..................................
Directors of personnel.................
Chemists .......................................
Engineers......................................

-

101
106
105
-

92
93
101
94
96
95
97
91
94
-

95
96
100
100
94
98
96
97
91
94
90
96

97
-

_
92
-

96
100
95
92

94
103
96
90
90
88
98
99

87
94
90
88
90

94
104
93
98
101
99
100
86
94

Te chnical support

Engineering technicians..............
Drafters..........................................
Computer operators.....................
Photographers..............................
Clerical

Accounting clerks.........................
File clerks......................................
Key entry operators.....................
Messengers ..................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing assistants..................
Secretaries....................................
Stenographers..............................
Typists...........................................

-

108

-

98
-

93

1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In
computing relative salary levels for each occupation by industry division,
the total employment in each work level in all industries surveyed was
used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of
differences in the proportion of employment in various work levels within
each occupation.
2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services;

-

90
67
85

commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories;
credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing
services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and
accounting, auditing, and bookeeping services.
NOTE: A dash indicates insufficient employment in 1 work level or
more in the occupation-industry designation to warrant separate
presentation of data.

34

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard weekly hours’ for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,2 by industry division,3 United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1985)

Occupation

All industries

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Public
utilities4

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
40.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0

39.5
39.5

39.5
40.0

39.5
40.0

39.5
40.0

38.5
39.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

39.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

40.0
39.0
40.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
O
40.0

40.0
39.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
O
40.0

39.0
38.0
38.0
38.0
38.0
38.5
38.5
38.5
39.5

39.5
39 0
39.5
39.0
38.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.0
39.5
40.0
40.0

40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

0
40.0
40.0
O

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

40.0
39.0
39.0
39.5

38.5
39.5
39.5
38.0

O
37.5
39.5
38.5

O
39.5
38.5
38.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5

39.5
38.5
39.0
38.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
O
40.0

40.0
39.5
40.0
0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
40.0

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.0
40.0
40.0

38.5
38.0
38.5
37.5
38.5
38.0
38.5
36.5
37.5

39.0
39.0
39.0
38.5
39.0
39.5
39.0
39.0
39.0

Services5

P rofessional and
ad m inistrative

Accountants..................................
Public accountants.......................
Chief accountants........................
Attorneys.......................................
Buyers............................................
Computer programmers..............
Systems analysts.........................
Job analysts..................................
Directors of personnel.................
Chemists .......................................
Engineers......................................

-

Technical support

Engineering technicians..............
Drafters..........................................
Computer operators.....................
Photographers..............................
Clerical

Accounting clerks.........................
File clerks......................................
Key entry operators.....................
Messengers ..................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .......
Purchasing assistants..................
Secretaries....................................
Stenographers..............................
Typists ...........................................

cially operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit re­
porting and collection agencies; computer and data processing services;
management, consulting, and public t relations services; noncommercial
educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, audit­
ing, and bookkeeping services.
6
Insufficient number of establishments to warrant separate presenta­
tion of data.

1 Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their
regular straight-time salary. If standard hours are not available, the stand­
ard hours applicable for a majority of the office work force in the estab­
lishment were used. The average for each job category was rounded to
the nearest half-hour.
2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
4 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
5 Limited to engineering, architectural,and surveying services; commer­

NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the occupation
in the industry.

35

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

Scope

Survey design

The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing a specified
minimum number of workers and engaged in the
following industries: Mining; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services (except the U.S. Postal Service and
government agencies, such as the Tennessee Valley
Authority); wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, in­
surance, and real estate; and selected services (table
A-l).
Establishments which met the minimum size criteria
during the reference period of the information used in
compiling the survey universe were included even if they
employed fewer than the specified minimum number of
workers at the time of the survey. Establishments found
to be outside of the industrial scope of the survey at the
time of data collection were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of
establishments and employees within the scope of the
survey (the universe) and the number within the sample
actually studied for each major industry division.
Separate estimates are presented for establishments
employing 2,500 workers or more and for those located
in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (M SA’s) and Primary
Metropolitan Statistical Areas ( p m s a ’s) . 2 Similar
estimates of the number of full-time white-collar
employees are also provided.

The design for a survey of this nature includes
methods of classifying individual establishments into
homogeneous groups or strata, determining the size of
the sample for each stratum, and selecting the sample of
establishments for each stratum.3
Establishments within the scope of the 1985 survey
were stratified by industry group and by total employ­
ment.
The sample size in a stratum was a function of the ex­
pected number of employees (based on previous
surveys) in all professional, administrative, technical,
and clerical occupations in the stratum. That is, the
larger the expected number of employees in all surveyed
occupations, the larger the sample in the stratum. Also,
an upward adjustment was made to the sample size in
those strata expected to have specified occupations
which had relatively high sampling errors in previous
surveys. (See “ Reliability of estimates” section for a
discussion of sampling errors.)
Data collection

Data for the survey were obtained primarily by per­
sonal visits of the Bureau’s field representatives to a na­
tionwide sample of establishments. Collection was
scheduled from January through mid-May to reflect an
average reference period of March 1985.4
Employees were classified by occupation and work
level using job descriptions (appendix C) prepared joint­
ly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of
Personnel Management. Descriptions are designed to
reflect duties and responsibilities of employees in
private industry and to be translatable to specific
General Schedule grades applying to Federal employees
(appendix D). Thus, definitions of some occupations
and work levels were limited to specific elements which
could be classified uniformly among establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in job descriptions,
the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of
company officials, made extensive use of company posi-

Sampling frame

The list of establishments (the sampling frame) from
which the sample was selected was developed by up­
dating the 1984 survey sampling frame using data from
the most recently available (usually March 1983)
unemployment insurance reports for the 48 contiguous
States and the District of Columbia. During the update
process, some establishments were added; some were
removed; and for some, address, employment, type of
industry, or other information was changed.1
*
2
1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which pro­
duces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary
unit providing support services to a company. In manufacturing in­
dustries, the establishment is usually at a single physical location. In
nonmanufacturing industries, all locations o f an individual company
within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or Primary Metropolitan
Statistical Area (PMSA) or within a nonmetropolitan county are usual­
ly considered an establishment.
2 Metropolitan data relate to all 327 MSA’s and PMSA’s within the
48 contiguous States as defined by the U.S. Office o f Management
and Budget through June 1983.

3 In 1985, a random sample was selected systematically to maximize
the probability o f retaining establishments which were selected for the
1984 survey. This method was a modification o f the method introduced
by Nathan Keyfitz in 1951 in his paper titled “ Sampling with Probabilities
Proportional to Size: Adjusting for Changes in the Probabilities,” Journal
o f the American Statistical Association, No. 46, pp. 105-09.
4 The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey. The
1970 and 1971 surveys had a June reference period.

36

tion descriptions, organization charts, and other per­
sonnel records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations were those
paid to full-time employees for standard work
schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to
the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over­
time hours. Cost-of-living allowances and incentive
payments, however, were included. Excluded were per­
formance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type
negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries,5 as well
as profit-sharing payments, attendence bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduc­
tion bonuses.

Employment. Occupational employment data published
in this bulletin are estimated totals for all establishments
within the scope of the survey and are not limited to
establishments actually studied. An occupational
employment estimate was derived by multiplying the
full-time employment in the occupation in each sample
establishment by the establishment weight and then
summing these results.
Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate)
for a specific occupational level was obtained by
dividing total wages for that level by the corresponding
total employment. Median and quartile values were
derived from distributions of employees by salary using
10-cent-per-hour class intervals. All salary averages in
the tables were rounded to the nearest dollar. For all an­
nual salary calculations, individual monthly salaries (to
the nearest one-tenth cent) were multipled by 12 before
performing the necessary data aggregation.

Survey nonresponse

In the March 1985 survey, salary data were not
available from about 13 percent of the sample
establishments (representing 2,753,000 employees in the
total universe covered by the survey). An additional 3
percent of the sample establishments (representing
497,200 employees) were either out of business or out­
side the scope of the survey.
If data were not provided by the sample member, the
weights of responding sample establishments were in­
creased to adjust for the missing data. No adjustment
was made for establishments which were out of business
or outside the scope of the survey.
Some sampled companies had a policy of not disclos­
ing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments
were made to salary estimates for the survey as a result
of these missing data. In all but three of the profes­
sional, administrative, technical, and clerical work
levels published, the proportion of employees for whom
salary data were not available was less than 5 percent.
These three are directors of personnel level II (6
percent), level III (12 percent), and level IV (10 percent).

Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in
text table 1 were obtained by adding the product of
average annual salaries and employment for each level
in each of 2 successive years and dividing the later sum
by the earlier sum. To eliminate the effects of year-toyear employment shifts in this computation, average
salaries in each year were multipled by employment in
the most recent year.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group
specified in text table 2 were determined by adding
average monthly salaries for all occupational levels in
the group for 2 consecutive years, and dividing the later
sum by the earlier sum. The trends in text table 2 were
obtained by linking changes for the individual periods.
Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupa­
tional definitions were incorporated into the various
trend series as soon as two consecutive periods with
comparable data were available.

Survey estimation methods
Data conversion. Salary data were collected from com­
pany records in the most readily available form, i.e.,
weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annually.
Before initial tabulations, all salary data were converted
to a monthly basis. The factors used to convert the
salary data are as follows:
Payroll basis

Limitations

Survey occupations were limited to employees
meeting the specific criteria in each job definition and
were not intended to include all employees in each field
of work.6 Employees whose salary data were not
available, as well as those for whom there was no
satisfactory basis for classification by work level, were
not taken into account in the estimates. For these
reasons, and because of differences in occupational
structure among establishments, estimates of occupa-

Conversion factor

W eek ly...............................................
Biweekly.............................................
Sem im onthly....................................
M onthly.............................................
Annually.....................................................

4.3333
2.1665
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for
the month were used to convert hourly rates to a monthly
basis.

6
Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in engineering
work within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced
engineering graduates and excluding only those within certain fields of
specialization or in positions above those covered by level VIII. In
contrast, occupations such as chief accountants and directors of per­
sonnel include only those with responsibility for a specific program
and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each o f the more
limited number o f work levels selected for study.

5 For a discussion of such payments, see “Wage Highlights,” Current

Wage Developments, November 1983, pp. 1-5.

37

tional employment obtained from the sample of
establishments studied indicate only the relative impor­
tance of occupations and levels as defined for the
survey. These qualifications of employment estimates
should not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Data for year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the
data collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not
only general salary increases and merit or other in­
creases in the same work level category, but also other
factors such as employee turnover, expansions or con­
tractions in the work force, and changes in staffing pat­
terns within establishments with different salary levels.
For example, an expansion in force may increase the
proportion of employees at the minimum salary of a
rate range for a work level, which would tend to lower
the average of a job; a reduction or a low turnover in the
work force may have the opposite effect. Similarly, pro­
motions of employees to higher work levels of profes­
sional and administrative occupations may affect the
average of each level. Established salary ranges for such
occupations are relatively wide, and employees who
may have been paid the maximum of the salary scale for
the lower level are likely to be replaced by less experienced
employees who may be paid the minimum. Occupations
most likely to reflect such changes are the higher levels
of professional and administrative occupations and
single-incumbent positions such as chief accountant and
director of personnel.

on such factors as the frequency with which the job oc­
curs, the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the
survey design. For the 107 publishable work levels, esti­
mated relative standard errors for average salary
estimates were distributed as follows:
Relative standard error
Less than 1 percen t.....................
1-2 percent ....................................
2-3 percent....................................
3 percent or m ore..........................

Number o f occupational
work levels
47
47
12
1

The Bureau evaluates the reliability of its estimates
based in part on the value of two relative standard er­
rors for an occupational level. For example, a
95-percent confidence interval8 for accountants I
(survey estimate = $20,628 yearly) is from $19,926 to
$21,328.
Nonsampling errors can come from many sources,
such as inability to obtain information from some
establishments; definitional difficulties; inability of
respondents to provide correct information; mistakes in
recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors
of collection, response, coverage, and estimation of
missing data. Although not specifically measured, the
survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to be minimal
due to the high response rate and the extensive and con­
tinuous training of field representatives, careful screen­
ing of data at several levels of review, annual
maintenance and evaluation of the suitability of job
definitions, and thorough field testing of new or revised
job definitions.
To measure and better control nonsampling errors
that occur during data collection, a quality control pro­
cedure was added to p a t c in 1983 and repeated in the
following years.9 The procedure, job match validation
( j m v ) , was designed to identify the frequency, reasons
for, and sources of incorrect decisions made by Bureau
field representatives in matching company jobs to
survey job categories. Once identified, the problems
were discussed promptly with the field representatives
while the data were still being collected. Subsequently,
the j m v results were tallied, reported to b l s staff, and
have become the basis for remedial action at annual
training conferences.
Tabulations of the 1985 j m v process showed that
about 6 percent of the 2,044 job match decisions check­
ed with respondents were subsequently changed by

Reliability of estimates

The statistics in the report are estimates derived from
a sample survey. There are two types of errors possible
in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and
nonsampling.
Sampling errors occur because observations come on­
ly from a sample, not the entire population. The par­
ticular sample used in this survey is one of a number of
all possible samples of the same size that could have
been selected using the same sample design. Estimates
derived from the different samples would differ from
each other.
A measure of the variation among these differing
estimates is called the standard error or sampling error.7
It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a
particular sample approximates the average result of all
possible samples. The relative standard error ( r s e ) is the
standard error divided by the estimate. The smaller the
r s e , the greater the reliability of the estimate.
Estimates of relative standard errors for the 1985
survey vary among the occupational work levels depending

8 A 95-percent confidence interval means that, if all possible
samples were selected and an estimate o f the salary and its sampling
error were computed for each, then, for approximately 95 percent of
the samples, the interval from 2 standard errors below the estimate to
2 standard errors above the estimate would include the true average
salary. For accountants I, the 2 relative standard errors were 3.4 per­
cent in 1985.
9 For a more detailed description o f the process, see National

Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1983, Bulletin 2181 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1983), p.35.

7 A replication technique with 15 random groups was used to ob­
tain estimates o f relative standard errors for the 1985 survey.

38

occupational work levels. Most of the remaining errors
were matching one work level too high or too low within
the appropriate occupation, e.g., accountant IV instead
of accountant III.

survey reviewers. Of those revised (126), about threetenths were either original job matches that should have
been excluded or company jobs excluded by the field
representative that should have been matches for b l s

39

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by Industry division, United States, March 1985

Industry division’

Minimum
employment
in
establishments
within
scope of
survey

Within scope of survey

Studied
Workers in establishments

Workers in establishments
Number of
establishments

Total

Professional
and
administrative

Clerical
and technical
support

Number of
establishments

Total

Professional
and
administrative

Clerical
and technical
support

U nited S ta te s

All industries1 *...............................................
24
.

-

43,220

22,704,574

5,438,992

4,879,057

3,209

6,039,816

1,759,189

1,421,076

Manufacturing...........................................................

’ 100-250

18,180

11,430,931

2,657,477

1,596,657

1,486

3,312,982

972,143

528,521

250
250

578
662

362,189
238,718

97,356
55,782

55,302
36,641

59
53

75,299
69,071

29,520
24,018

18,314
15,015

*100-250
100
250
100
• 50-100

4,353
4,921
4,110
7,242
3,174

2,794,501
1,050,943
3,337,992
2,618,471
870,829

616,729
326,698
380,654
855,912
448,384

653,013
273,077
608,538
1,385,516
270,313

311
225
199
507
369

1,123,766
87,915
497,512
630,582
242,689

294,068
32,739
60,568
216,592
129,541

288,594
30,539
113,572
352,317
74,204

Nonmanufacturing:
M in in g .................................................................
Construction ......................................................
Transportation, communications,
electric, gas, and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Retail trade ........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ...............
Services5 .............................................................
M e tro p o lita n a re a s 7

All industries ..................................................

-

36,347

19,695,054

4,998,064

4,562,866

2,836

5,755,292

1,705,509

1,384,905

Manufacturing...........................................................

’ 100-250

13,973

9,229,492

2,375,618

1,410,915

1,229

3,100,064

935,988

505,946

250
250

348
580

199,660
202,829

70,562
52,108

43,589
33,674

41
45

53,285
57,778

23,082
22,693

14,612
14,222

*100-250
100
250
100
5 50-100

3,297
4,512
3,729
6,826
3,082

2,515,595
980,692
3,180,802
2,532,465
853,519

570,386
310,492
346,749
832,498
439,651

601,782
263,881
602,640
1,342,420
263,965

272
214
193
484
358

1,101,790
85,884
492,905
624,367
239,219

289,394
32,346
59,650
214,676
127,680

284,548
30,286
113,231
348,996
73,154

1,027

6,720,936

1,897,499

1,561,824

605

4,585,861

1,355,487

1,060,155

494

3,701,494

1,137,554

612,708

336

2,649,931

818,356

431,908

Nonmanufacturing:
M in in g .................................................................
Construction ...........................................
T ransportation .communications,
electric, gas, and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Retail trade ........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Services5 .............................................................
E s ta b lis h m e n ts e m plo yin g
2,500 w o rkers or m ore

All industries ..................................................
Manufacturing....................................................

-

1 As defined in the 1972 edition of the S ta n d a rd In dustrial C la ss ific atio n M anual, U.S. Office of Manage­
ment and Budget.
2 Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation indicated in the first column; ex­
cludes Alaska and Hawaii.
’ Minimum employment size was 100 for chemical and allied products; petroleum refining and related in­
dustries; machinery, except electrical; electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies; transportation equip­
ment; and instruments and related products. Minimum size was 250 in all other manufacturing industries.
4 Minimum employment size was 100 for railroad transportation; local and suburban transit; deep sea
foreign and domestic transportation; air transportation; communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services;

and pipelines; and 250 for all other transportation industries. U.S. Postal Service is excluded from the survey.
5
Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research, develop­
ment, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing ser­
vices; management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and
research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
• Minimum employment size was 50 for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services; and 100 for all
other selected services.
7
Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, as defined through June 1983 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Appendix B. A Note on
Computer Occupations

A five-level series for nonsupervisory systems analysts
and a separate four-level series for systems analyst
supervisors/managers were first added to the survey in
1984. (See appendix C.) For publication purposes,
however, data from these series were combined into six
levels as shown at the right. In 1985, systems analyst VI
was published for the first time.
The title for another computer job series,“ programmer/programmer analyst” was changed to “ computer
programmer” in 1985. No substantive revisions to the
definition, however, were made.

Level
I
II
III
IV
V
VI

41

.....................
......................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

Systems analyst
Supervisory/
managerial

Nonsupervisory
I
II
III
IV
V

-

I
II
III
IV

Appendix C. Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for
the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels
within occupations, workers who are employed under a
variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to
area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. To secure

comparability of job content, some occupations and
work levels are defined to include only those workers
meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions,
and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on in-*
terestablishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual
establishments or those prepared for other purposes.

Accountants and Auditors
ACCOUNTANT

Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and
Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions in
the accounting system and procedures.

Performs professional operating or cost accounting
work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of
recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the
data and records of financial transactions. The work
generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or,
in rare instances, equivalent experience and education
combined. Positions covered by this definition are
characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical,
creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work
draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the
fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and ter­
minology of accounting, and often entails some
understanding of such related fields as business law,
statistics, and general management. (See also chief ac­
countant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include such
duties as:
Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account relation­
ships;
Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;

Entry and developmental level positions provide op­
portunity to develop ability to perform professional
. duties such as those enumerated above.
In addition, most accountants are also responsible for
assuring the proper recording and documentation of
transactions in the accounts. They, therefore, frequent­
ly direct nonprofessional personnel in the actual day-today maintenance of books of accounts, the accumula­
tion of cost or other comparable data, the preparation
of standard reports and statements, and similar work.
(Positions involving such supervisory work, but not in­
cluding professional duties as described above, are not
included in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax
advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing
among the several levels of work are inappropriate for
such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant
positions with responsibility for recording or reporting
accounting data relative to taxes are included, as are
other operating or cost accountants whose work in­
cludes, but is not limited to, improvement of the ac­
counting system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing
equipment to process, record, and report accounting

Planning the manner in which account structures should be
developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as the basis
for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of proposed
plans on capital investments, income, cash position, and
overall financial condition;
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports,
and statements;
42

designed to expand practical experience and to develop
professional judgment in the application of basic ac­
counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to
be competent in the application of standard procedures
and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques­
tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug­
gest solutions. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

data. In some such cases, the machine unit is a subor­
dinate segment of the accounting system; in others, it is
a separate entity or is attached to some other organiza­
tion. In either instance, provided that the primary
responsibility of the position is professional accounting
work of the type otherwise included, the use of data
processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex­
clude a position from the accountant description nor
does it change its level.

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to
insure conformance with required procedures and
special instructions, and to assure professional growth.
Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to apply profes­
sional knowledge to basic accounting problems in the
day-to-day operations of an established accounting
system.

Accountant I

General characteristics. At this beginning professional
level, the accountant learns to apply the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific
system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes­
sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and
scope of development expected; and the existence, im­
plicit or explicit, of a planned training program design­
ed to give the entering accountant practical experience.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working
papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating
the extent of the examination and presenting and sup­
porting findings and recommedations. Examines a
variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of
computations and to ascertain that all transactions are
properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent
policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded
according to acceptable accounting standards.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced accountant whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of
financial statements for completeness, internal ac­
curacy, and conformance with uniform accounting
classifications or other specific accounting re­
quirements; reconciling reports and financial data with
financial statements already on file, and pointing out
apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out assigned
steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing
standard ratios; assembling and summarizing account­
ing literature on a given subject; preparing relatively
simple financial statements not involving problems of
analysis or presentation; and preparing charts, tables,
and other exhibits to be used in reports. In addition,
may also perform some nonprofessional tasks for train­
ing purposes.

Accountant III

General characteristics. The accountant at this level ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob­
lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the
overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies
and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation.
Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned
segment is stable and well established (i.e., the basic
chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost
accounting system, the report requirements, and the
procedures are changed infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervision of the
day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a
relatively small establishment; or (b) a major segment
(e.g., general accounting, cost accounting, or financial
statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system; or
(c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively
narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob­
lem, function, or portion of work which is appropriate
for this level.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
Accountant II

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
makes practical application of technical accounting
practices and concepts beyond the mere application of
detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing
greater professional competence. Initial assignments are
43

ment having a few relatively stable accounting
segments; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general ac­
counting, cost accounting, or financial statements and
reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and
more complex establishment; or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of
difficulty characteristic of this level.

Direction received. A higher level professional account­
ant normally is available to furnish advice and
assistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac­
curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com­
pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal
of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports
and statements, and other appropriate means.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary re­
sponsibility of most positions at this level is to assure
that the assigned day-to-day operations are carried out
in accordance with established accounting principles,
policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such
professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports
and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts
reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost
budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting
and pointing out trends or deviations from standards;
projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of
changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account struc­
tures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat­
ment of financial transactions, is expected to recom­
mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and
propose changes in the accounting system for approval
at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived
from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed.
Work is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results
for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance
with instructions, and overall accuracy and quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a
primary characteristic of most positions at this level is
the responsibility of operating an accounting system or
major segment of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent, appropriate recommendations for:
New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new
types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub­
sidiary records; and changes in instructions regard­
ing the use of accounts, new or refined account
classifications or definitions; etc. Also makes day-today decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions and is expected to recommend
solutions to complex problems beyond incumbent’s
scope of responsibility.

Responsibility for direction o f others. In most in­
stances, is responsible for supervision of a subordinate
nonprofessional staff; may coordinate the work of
lower level professional accountants.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised, if any, may include professional account­
ants.
Accountant V

Accountant IV

General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac­
counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
the solution of problems for which no clear precedent
exists or performs work which is of greater than average
responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the
assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast
to accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting
system maintenance to the solution of more complex
technical and managerial problems. Work of account­
ants V is more directly concerned with what the account­
ing system (or segment) should be, what operating
policies and procedures should be established or revised,
and what is the managerial as well as the accounting
meaning of the data included in the reports and
statements for which they are responsible. Typically,
this level of work approaches chief accountant positions
in terms of the nature of the concern for the accounting
system and its operation, but not in terms of the breadth
or scope of responsibility.

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult
problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec­
tives and operation of the overall accounting system.
Compared with level III, the accounting system or
assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively
unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company
operations, (c) is substantially larger, or (d) is com­
plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate
or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e,g.,
cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divi­
sions of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coor­
dination involved, the accountant IV may have such
assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera­
tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an establish­
44

segment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting,
etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir­
ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field
(e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.).

Examples of assignments characteristic of this level
are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The
entire accounting system of an establishment having a
few relatively complex accounting segments; or (b) a
major segment of a larger and more complex accounting
system; or (c) the entire accounting system (or major
segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and
conventional accounting system when the work includes
significant responsibility for accounting systems design
and development; or (d) in a complex system, may be
assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment
dealing with some problem, function, or portion of
work which is of a difficulty characteristic of this level.

Direction received. A higher level professional accoun­
tant is normally available to furnish advice as needed.
Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judg­
ment, compliance with instructions and policies, and
overall quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at this
level are delegated complete responsibility from higher
authority to establish and implement new or revised ac­
counting policies and procedures. Typically, account­
ants VI participate in decisionmaking sessions with
operating managers who have policymaking authority
for their subordinate organizations or establishments;
recommend management actions or alternatives which
can be taken when accounting data disclose unfavorable
trends, situations, or deviations; and assist management
officials in applying financial data and information to
the solution of administrative and operating problems.

Direction received. An accountant of higher level nor­
mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional
judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall
quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V
performs such professional work as: Participating in the
development and coordinating the implementation of
new or revised accounting systems, and initiating
necessary instructions and procedures; assuring
accounting reporting systems and procedures are in
compliance with established company policies, regula­
tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing
technical advice and services to operating managers, in­
terpreting accounting reports and statements, and iden­
tifying problem areas; and evaluating completed
assignments for conformance with applicable policies,
regulations, and tax laws.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
N o t e : Excluded are accountants above level VI
whose principal function is to direct, manage, or ad­
minister an accounting program in that they are
primarily concerned with the administrative, budgetary,
and policy matters of the program rather than the actual
supervision of the day-to-day operations of an account­
ing program. This type of work requires extensive
managerial ability as well as superior professional com­
petence in order to cope with the technical accounting
and management problems encountered. Typically, the
level of work involves responsibility for more than one
accounting activity (e.g., cost accounting, sales account­
ing, etc.).

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
Accountant VI

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant ap­
plies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and
practices to specialized, unique or nonrecurring com­
plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized
automated accounting systems). The work is substan­
tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than
level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im­
portance, or overall impact of the work on the account­
ing program.
At this level, the accounting system or segment is
usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must
adjust to the frequent changing needs of company
operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide
specialized or individualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi­
sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and
complex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major

CHIEF ACCOUNTANT

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsi­
ble for directing the accounting program for a company
or for an establishment of a company. The minimum
accounting program includes: (1) General accounting
(assets, liabilities, income, expense, and capital ac­
counts, including responsibility for profit and loss and
balance sheet statements); and (2) at least one other ma­
jor accounting activity, typically tax accounting, cost
accounting, property accounting, or sales accounting. It
may also include such other activities as payroll and
timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data process­
ing operations which are an adjunct of the accounting
system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically not included.)
45

The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all
of the following:

needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.

1. On own responsibility, developing, adapting, or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of
the organization;

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.

2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and quan­
tity of work performed, training and development of
subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina­
tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.;

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in
broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer­
tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and
general policies are required by the basic system, the
chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to
decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts,
reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg­
ment served. Approval must be secured from higher
levels only for those changes which would basically af­
fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher
levels. Typical responsibilities include:

3. Providing directly, or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
a.

The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed
by accounting data, and selecting a manner of
presentation that is meaningful to management;

Evaluating and taking final action on recommedations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
Instituting new cost accounting procedures;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the ac­
counting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for which
incumbent is responsible, often consolidating data sub­
mitted by subordinate segments.

b. Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g.,
proposals for improving cost control, property
management, credit and collection, tax reduction,
or similar programs.
Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part
of the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measure­
ment; organization, methods, and procedures studies;
or similar nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such
breadth are sometimes titled comptroller, budget and
accounting manager, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting ac­
tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon­
sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be
covered by the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described r*re classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility, and (b) technical complexi­
ty, using table C-l.

This degree of authority is most typically found at in­
termediate organizational levels such as regional offices,
or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found
in some company-level situations where the authority of
the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in
AR-3. More rarely, it is found in plant-level chief ac­
countants who have been delegated more authority than
usual for such positions as described in AR-1.
AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting
system used in the company, subject only to general
policy guidance and control from a higher level com­
pany official responsible for general financial manage­
ment. Typical responsibilities include:

Authority and Responsibility

AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro­
cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in
considerable detail by higher levels in the company or
organization. The chief accountant has final, unreview­
ed authority, within the prescribed system, to expand it
to fit the particular needs of the organization served,
e.g., in the following or comparable ways:

Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s
accounting system and the specific accounts to be used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements
required to meet management’s needs for data;

Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;
Establishing additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Providing special or interim reports and statements

Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;
Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the
company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate
units; and
46

Taking final action on all technical accounting matters.
Characteristically, participates extensively in broad
company management processes by providing account­
ing advice, interpretations, or recommendations based
on data accumulated in the accounting system and on
professional judgment and experience.

serves has a relatively large number of functions, pro­
ducts, work processes, etc., which require substantial
and frequent adaptations of the basic system to meet
management needs (e.g., adoption of new accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; revision of in­
structions for the use of accounts; improvements or ex­
pansion of methods for accumulating and reporting cost
data in connection with new or changed work
processes).

Technical Complexity

TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work pro­
cesses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging.
The accounting system operates in accordance with
well-established principles and practices or those of
equivalent difficulty which are typical of that industry.

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organiza­
tion fo r specialized and extensive adaptations of the
basic system to meet management needs. Such demands
arise because the functions, products, work processes,
etc., of the organization are very numerous, diverse,
unique, or specialized, or there are other comparable

TC-2. The organization which the accounting program

Table C-1. Criteria for matching chief accountants by level

Level

Authority
and
responsibility1

Technical
complexity'

Subordinate professional accounting staff

I

AR-1

TC-1

Only 1 or 2 professional accountants who do not exceed the accountant III
job definition.

II

AR-1

TC-2

About 5 to 10 professional accountants, with at least one or two matching the
accountant IV job definition.

AR-2

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most o f these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match the accountant IV job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

Only 1 or 2 professional accountants who do not exceed the accountant IV
job definition.

AR-1

TC-3

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. At least one or two match the
accountant V job definition.

AR-2

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many o f these match the accountant
IV job definition, but some may match the accountant V job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most o f these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match as high as accountant V.

AR-2

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many o f these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Most o f these match the accountant
IV job definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or two may
exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many o f these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

or

III

IV

or

V

1 AR-1, -2, -3, and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained in the text.

47

receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions responsible
for performing a segment of an audit (i.e., examining
individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the
entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly
relates to the fmancial audit program; and

complexities. Consequently, the accounting system, to a
considerable degree, is developed well beyond establish­
ed principles and accounting practices in order to:
Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which these
theories and practices have not previously been applied.

c. EDP auditors. These positions require an extensive
knowledge of computer systems, programming, etc.

Subordinate Staff

Auditor I

In table C-l, the number of professional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing between various levels. It is to be con­
sidered less important in the matching process than the
other criteria. In addition to the staff of professional ac­
countants in the system for which the chief accountant
is responsible, there are clerical, machine operation,
bookkeeping, and related personnel.

General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the
entering professional level, performs a variety of
routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated
through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro­
gram designed to provide practical experience in apply­
ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting
and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

AUDITOR

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced auditor whose guidance is directed primari­
ly to the development of the trainee’s professional abili­
ty and to the evaluation of advancement potential.
Limits of assignments are clearly defined, methods of
procedure are specified, and kinds of items to be noted
and referred to supervisor are identified.

Performs professional auditing work requiring a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances,
equivalent experience and education combined. Audits
the financial records and practices of a company, or of
divisions or components of the company, to appraise
systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of
records and reports and to assure the consistent applica­
tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the
adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan­
cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for
improvement as necessary. To the extent determined
necessary, examines the transactions entering into the
balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in­
come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making
audits by performing such tasks as: Verifying the ac­
curacy of the balances in various records; examining a
variety of types of documents and vouchers for ac­
curacy of computations; checking transactions to assure
they are properly documented and have been recorded
in accordance with correct accounting classifications;
verifying the count of inventories; preparing detailed
statements, schedules, and standard audit working
papers; counting cash and other assets; and preparing
simple reconciliations and similar functions.

1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the
all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.
2. The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein.

Auditor II

3. The propriety or legality of transactions.

General characteristics. At this level, the professional
auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in­
dependently performing selected portions of the audit
which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in
developing greater professional competence. Auditors
at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com­
pany operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

4. The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning fmancial transactions.
Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the
fmancial management of company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles of sound
fmancial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished
and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to
verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual
problems, to insure conformance with required pro­
cedures and special instructions, and to assure the

b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex­
amination of a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
48

vestigated, and deciding the depth of the analyses re­
quired to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems
not covered by instructions are brought to the attention
of a superior. Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to
apply professional knowledge to basic auditing situa­
tions.

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies
(e.g., involving a centralized accounting system with
few or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch ac­
counting records) or of comparable segments of
larger companies.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge
of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit
assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of
reports against source accounts and records to deter­
mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other
accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac­
tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and
disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions,
work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting
documents to ascertain that transactions are properly
supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparation of working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently ac­
complishes varied audit assignments of the above
described characteristics, typically major segments of
complete audits, or assignments otherwise limited in
scope, of larger and more complex companies (e.g.,
complex in that the accounting system entails cost,
inventory, and comparable specialized systems in­
tegrated with the general accounting system).
Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of
reporting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing
or maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of
a railroad); or the checking, verification, and balancing
of all accounts receivable and accounts payable; or the
analysis and verification of assets and reserves; or the
inspection and evaluation of account controls and pro­
cedures.

Auditor III

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of
the audit of operations and accounting processes that
are relatively stable, well established, and typical of the
industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and
analysis of readily available findings; there is previous
audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit
reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format us­
ing a standard method of presentation; and few, if any,
major problems are anticipated. The work performed
requires the application of substantial knowledge of ac­
counting principles and practices, e.g., bases for
distinguishing among capital maintenance and
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and
other accounting considerations of an equivalent
nature.

Auditor IV

General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex­
perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge
of accounting principles and theory in connection with a
variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by
the audit of organizations and accounting processes
which are complex and difficult because of such factors
as: Presence of new or changed programs and account­
ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting
functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting,
sales accounting), in addition to general accounting;
need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory
requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining informa­
tion; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety of
different assignments are encountered over a period of
time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are com­
prehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and regula­
tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and con­
tain analyses of items of special importance or interest
to company management.

Direction received. Work is normally within an
established audit program and supervision is provided
by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses
assignments. Work is spot checked in progress. Com­
pleted assignments are reviewed for adequacy of
coverage, soundness of judgment, compliance with pro­
fessional standards, and adherence to policies.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor ex­
amines transactions and verifies accounts; observes and
evaluates accounting procedures and internal controls;
and prepares audit working papers and submits an audit
report in the required pattern containing recommenda­
tions for needed changes or improvements. Usually is
responsible for selecting the detailed audit methods to
follow, choosing the audit sample and its size, determin­
ing the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­

Direction received. Within an established audit pro­
gram, has responsibilities for independently planning
and executing audits. Usually difficult problems are
discussed with the supervisor who also reviews com­
pleted assignments for adherence to principles and stand­
ards and the soundness of conclusions.
49

Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to
be used, development of nonstandard or specialized
audit aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous
audit experience and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used
for determining depreciation rates of equipment;
evaluation of assets where original costs are unknown;
evaluation of the reliability of accounting and reporting
systems; analysis of cost accounting systems and cost
reports to evaluate the basis for cost and price setting;
evaluation of accounting procurement and supply
management records, controls, and procedures; and
many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final
written opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full pro­
fessional accounting training. Also excluded are
specialist positions in tax or management advisory ser­
vices.
Public Accountant I

General characteristics. As an entry level public account­
ant, serves as a junior member of an audit team.
Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific
situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants
with advanced degrees, such as M BA’s, are excluded at
this level.)

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts
and related operations of relatively large complex
companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting
system entails cost, inventory, and comparable
specialized accounting systems integrated with the
general accounting system) or of company branch,
subsidiary, or affiliated organizations which are in­
dividually of comparable size and complexity.

Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform­
ance with required procedures and instructions, and
usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic
audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports
against source accounts and records; reconciling bank
and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and
disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving
reports, and other accounting documents in detail to
ascertain that transactions are properly supported and
recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working
papers.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial
responsibilities so great as to involve specialized
subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting
systems that are complete in themselves.
N ote : Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits
of very large and complex organizations, for example,
those with financial responsibilities so great as to in­
volve specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate ac­
counting systems that are complete in themselves; or are
team members assigned to major segments of audits of
even larger or more complex organizations. Also ex­
cluded are positions primarily responsible for oversee­
ing multiple concurrent audits.

Public Accountant II

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant carries out routine audit functions and detail work
with relative independence. Serves as a member of an
audit team on assignments planned to provide exposure
to a variety of client organizations and audit situations.
Specific assignments depend upon the difficulty and
complexity of the audit and whether the client has been
previously audited by the firm. On moderately complex
audits where there is previous audit experience by the
firm, accomplishes complete segments of the audit (i.e.,
functional work areas such as cash, receivables, etc.).
When assigned to more complicated audits, carries out
activities similar to public accountant I.

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT

Performs professional auditing work in a public ac­
counting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits
to ascertain the fairness of financial representations
made by client companies. May also assist the client in
improving accounting procedures and operations.
Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac­
ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter­
nal controls, and other elements of the accounting

Direction received. Works under the supervision of a
higher level public accountant who provides instructions
and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot
checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to
determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of
judgment, compliance with professional standards, and
50

selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples
and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes
guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily
priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for
technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated
problems within established guidelines and priorities but
refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for
discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final
reports, management letters, and other closing
memoranda. Discusses significant recommendations
with superiors and may serve as technical resource at
“ closing” meetings with clients. Personal contacts are
usually with chief accountants and assistant controllers
of medium-size companies and divisions of large cor­
porations to explain and interpret policies and pro­
cedures governing the audit process.

adherence to clearly established methods and tech­
niques. All interpretations are subject to close profes­
sional review.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety
of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with
the prescribed audit program, including examination of
transactions and verification of accounts, the analysis
and evaluation of accounting practices and internal con­
trols, and other detail work. Prepares a share of the
audit working papers and participates in drafting
reports. In moderately complex audits, may assist in
selecting appropriate tests, samples, and methods com­
monly applied by the firm and may serve as primary
assistant to the accountant in charge. In more com­
plicated audits, concentrates on detail work. Occa­
sionally, may be in charge of small, uncomplicated
audits which require only one or two other subordinate
accountants. Personal contacts usually involve only the
exchange of factual technical information and are
usually limited to the client’s operating accounting staff
and department heads.

Public Accountant IV

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant directs field work including difficult
audits—e.g., those involving initial audits of new
clients, acquisitions, or stock registrations—and may
oversee a large audit team split between several loca­
tions. The audit team usually includes one or more level
III public accountants who handle major components
of the audit. The audits are complex and clients typical­
ly include those engaged in projects which span accoun­
ting periods; highly regulated industries which have
various external reporting requirements; publicly held
corporations; or businesses with very high dollar or
transaction volume. Clients are frequently large with a
variety of operations which may have different accoun­
ting systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking and
audit programs are intricate, often requiring extensive
tailoring to meet atypical or novel situations.

Public Accountant III

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a
team of several subordinates. Audits are usually ac­
complished one at a time and are typically carried out at
a single location. The firms audited are typically
moderately complex, and there is usually previous audit
experience by the firm. The audit conforms to standard
procedural guidelines, but is often tailored to fit the
client’s business activities. Routine procedures and
techniques are sometimes inadequate and require adap­
tation. Necessary data are not always readily available.
When assigned to more difficult and complex audits (see
level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a major
component or serve as the primary assistant to the ac­
countant in charge.

Direction received. Works under general supervision.
The supervisor sets overall objectives and resource
limits but relies on the accountant to fully plan and
direct all technical phases of the audit. Issues not
covered by guidelines or known precedents are discussed
with the supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended
approaches and courses of action are normally ap­
proved. Work is reviewed for soundness of approach,
completeness, and conformance with established
policies of the firm.

Direction received. Works under the general supervision
of a higher level public accountant who oversees the
operations of the audit. Work is performed in­
dependently, applying generally accepted accounting
principles and auditing standards, but assistance on dif­
ficult technical matters is available. Work may be
checked occasionally during progress for ap­
propriateness and adherence to time requirements, but
routine analyses, methods, techniques, and procedures
applied at the worksite are expected to be correct.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features of
the' audit, directing the work of team members, and per­
sonally performing the most difficult work. Often par­
ticipates in the development of the audit scope, and
drafts complicated audit programs with a large number
of concurrently executed phases. Independently
develops audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating
from traditional methods to the extent required. Makes

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading
team members, and personally performing the most dif­
ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with
the general format prescribed in the audit program, but
51

program adjustments as necessary once an audit has
begun; and selects specific methods, types, and sizes of
samples, the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­
vestigated, and the depth of required analyses. Resolves
most operational difficulties and unanticipated prob­
lems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for ap­
propriateness, conformance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers,
drafts reports and findings; and prepares financial
statements, management letters, and other closing
memoranda for management approval. Participates in
“ closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be
called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical
observations and recommendations. Personal contacts
are extensive and typically include top executives of
smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and
managment officers of large corporations, e.g., assis­
tant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve
coordinating and advising on work efforts and resolving
operating problems.

N o t e : Excluded from this level are public account­
ants who direct field work associated with the complete
range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest
and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee
teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work
requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries
to make subjective determinations on questions of tax,
law, accounting, and business practices. Audits may be
complicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of
the client organization (e.g., multinational corporations
and conglomerates with a large number of separate and
distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues where
precedents are lacking or in conflict; and, in some cases,
clients who are encountering substantial financial dif­
ficulties. They perform most work without technical
supervision, and completed audits are reviewed mainly
for propriety of recommendations and conformance
with general policies of the firm. Also excluded are
public accountants whose principal function is to
manage, rather than perform accounting work, and the
equity owners of the firm who have final approval
authority.

Personnel Management
JOB ANALYST

Job Analyst I

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job
qualifications, and worker characteristics as a basis for
compensating employees in a fair, equitable, and
uniform manner. Performs such duties as studying and
analyzing jobs and preparing descriptions of duties and
responsibilities and of the physical and mental re­
quirements needed by workers; evaluating jobs and
determining appropriate wage or salary levels in accor­
dance with their difficulty and responsibility; in­
dependently conducting or participating with represen­
tatives of other companies in conducting compensation
surveys within a locality or labor market area; assisting
in administering merit rating programs; reviewing
changes in wages and salaries indicated by surveys and
recommending changes in pay scales; and auditing in­
dividual jobs to check the propriety of evaluations and
to apply current job classifications.

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and tech­
niques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs
and prepares reports for review by a job analyst of
higher level.
Job Analyst II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishment. Works independently on such
assignments but is limited by defined areas of assign­
ment and instructions of superior.
Job Analyst III

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems
and procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the
locality or participate in conducting surveys of broad
compensation areas. May assist in developing survey
methods and plans. Receives general supervision but
responsibility for final action is limited.

Excluded are:
a. Positions also responsible for supplying management
with a high technical level of advice regarding solu­
tion of broad personnel management problems;
b. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.

Job Analyst IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accord­
ance with established evaluation systems and pro­
cedures, and is given assignments which regularly in52

necessarily cover all jobs in the organization, but
does cover a substantial portion of the organization.

elude responsibility for the more difficult kinds of jobs.
(“ More difficult” means jobs which consist of hard-tounderstand work processes; e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical; or jobs in new or
emerging occupational fields; or jobs which are being
established as part of the creation of new organizations;
or where other special considerations of these types ap­
ply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for
final action is limited. May participate in the develop­
ment and installation of evaluation or compensation
systems, which may include those for merit rating pro­
grams. May plan survey methods and conduct or direct
surveys within a broad compensation area.

2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruiting
actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employ­
ment agencies, professional societies, etc.);
evaluating applicants against demands of particular
jobs by use of such techniques as job analysis to
determine requirements, interviews, written tests of
aptitude, knowledge or skill, reference checks, ex­
perience evaluations, etc.; recommending selections
and job placements to management, etc.
3. Employee relations and services function: i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying
and recommending solutions for personnel problems
such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity
etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system,
retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating
system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea­
tional programs, industrial health and safety pro­
grams, etc.).

DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL

Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top manage­
ment officials of the organization as the source of ad­
vice and assistance on personnel management matters
and problems generally; is typically consulted on the
personnel implications of planned changes in manage­
ment policy or program, the effects on the organization
of economic or market trends, product or production
method changes, etc.; and represents management in
contacts with other companies, trade associations,
government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with per­
sonnel management matters.
Typically, the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer
of similar level. Below the company level, the director
of personnel typically reports to a company officer or a
high management official who has responsibility for the
operation of a plant, establishment, or other segment of
the company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program must include responsibility
for all three of the following functions:

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas:
a. Employee training and development;
b. Labor relations activities which are confined mainly
to the administration, interpretation, and application of
those aspects of labor union contracts that are essential­
ly of the type described under (3) above. May also par­
ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature, e.g., to
negotiate detailed settlement of such matters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff
procedures, etc., within the broad terms of a general
agreement reached at higher levels, or to supply advice
and information on technical points to the company’s
principal representative;
c. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); and
d. Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHA).

1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a
system in which there are established procedures by
which jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of
their duties, responsibilities, and qualification re­
quirements in order to provide a foundation for
equitable compensation. Typically, such a system in­
cludes the use of one or more sets of job evaluation
factors and the preparation of formal job descrip­
tions. It may also include such related functions as
wage and salary surveys or merit rating system ad­
ministration. The job evaluation system(s) does not

Excluded are positions in which responsibility for ac­
tual contract negotiations with labor unions as the prin­
cipal company representative is a significant aspect of
the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a primary
basis for qualification requirements and compensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C-2.

Attorneys
Performs consultation and advisory work and carries
out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights,

privileges, and obligations of the company. The work
performed requires completion of law school with an
53

Table C-2. Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level
"Development level”
personnel program*

"Operations level"
personnel program’
Number of employees in
work force serviced

.......................
250-750
1,000-5,000 ..................................
6,000-12,000 ................................
15,000-25.000 ..............................

"Type A"
organization
serviced-

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

I
II

Number of employees in
work force serviced

II
III
IV
V

III

IV

250-750 .......................................
1,000-5,000 ................................
6,000-12,000 ..............................
15,000-25,000 ............................

1 "Operations level” personnel program— director of personnel servicing
an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company where the basic per­
sonnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc., are established at company
headquarters or some other higher level between the plant and the com­
pany headquarters level. The personnel director’s responsibility is to put
these into operation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively
serve the local management needs.
2 "Development level" personnel program— either:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im­
portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives,
etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control from com­
pany officers: or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate
organization below the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary to
which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and development responsibility is made. In this situation, only basic policy
direction is given by the parent company and local officers. The director of
personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility
for basic personnel policies, plans objectives, etc., as described above
in (a).
3 “Type A" organization serviced— most jobs serviced do not present par­
ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems

"Type A"
organization
serviced3

“Type B"
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes,
and an adequate labor supply is available These conditions are most likely to
be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc­
ture are relatively stable.
4 "Type B" organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre­
sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the
jobs Consist of hard-to-understand work processes (e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical); have hard-to-match skill requirements; are
in new or emerging occupations; or are extremely hard to fill. These condi­
tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force,
organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc., are complicated
or unstable.
N ote There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements
used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur­
posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match
for each job Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees
should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level
job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below
the definition for type B. However, the same job should be matched with level
I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well within the
definition for type A.

Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and form­
ulation of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

l .l .b.

degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the
bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more
o f the following or comparable duties:
Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to
be classified in accordance with table C-3 and the defini­
tions which follow.

Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications,
etc.) for legal implications; advising officials o f proposed
legislation which might affect the company;

Difficulty

Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trade­
marks;

D-l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly applicable legal precedent; and
matters not of substantial importance to the organiza­
tion. (Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a
few thousand dollars, are involved.)

Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pretrial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and

Examples of D-l work:

Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre­
paratory to defending the organization in potential or
actual lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts
can be firmly established and there are precedent cases
directly applicable to the situation.

Excluded from this definition are:
Patent work which requires professional training in ad­
dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or
in a science);

Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals, text­
books, and other legal references, and preparing draft
opinions on employee compensation or benefit questions
when there is a substantial amount of clearly applicable
statutory, regulatory, and case material.

Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar work
for which professional legal training and bar membership
is not essential; and
54

Table C-3. Criteria for matching attorneys by level
Difficulty
o f legal work1

Level
I

Responsibility
o f job1

This is the entry level. The duties and re­
sponsibilities after initial orientation and
training are those described in D -l and R -l.

Experience required
Completion o f law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admission to the
bar.
Sufficient professional experience (at least 1 year, usually more) at the D-l
level to assure competence as an attorney.

D -l

R-2

D-2

R-l

D-2

R-2

D-3

R-l

D-2

R-3

D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the D-3 level.

VI

D-3

R-4

Extensive professional experience at the D-3 and R-3 levels.

II

or

III

At least 1 year, usually more, o f professional experience at the D-2 level.

or
IV

Extensive professional experience at the D-2 or higher level.

or

1 D -l, -2, -3, and R -l, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the text.

Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in con­
nection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but not involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other ma­
jor factual or legal issues.

creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions
require extensive research and analysis and the obtain­
ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con­
troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate
organization, engineering, or other highly technical
area; and the legal matter is of critical importance to the
organization and is being vigorously pressed or con­
tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one
or more of the following: The absence of clear and
directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi­
ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the
laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor­
tance of the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums
as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly
involved); and the matter is being strongly pressed or
contested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by
the individuals, corporations, or government agencies
involved.

Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Federal
antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing
operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company
in rate or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts of all or several States.

Examples of D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising re­
presentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to dif­
ferent interpretations.

Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court
where the case is highly important to the future operation
of the organization and is vigorously contested by very
distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national
reputation) legal talent.

Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.

Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of
an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale,
underwriting, and administration of group contracts in­
volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws.

Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for
an organized group.

Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine,
major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuating
new major financing steps.

Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by
the absence of precedent decisions that are directly ap­
plicable to the organization’s situation.

Responsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult
because of one or more of the following: The questions
are unique and require a high order of original and

R-l. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedent'' *nd in which little
55

deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci­
sions or actions having a significant bearing on the
organization’s business are reviewed. Is given guidance
in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and
organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are
then carried out with moderate independence although
guidance is generally available and is sought from time
to time on problem points.

cies on various aspects of assigned work. Receives little
or no preliminary instruction on legal problems and a
minimum of technical legal supervision. May assign and
review work of a few attorneys, but this is not a primary
responsibility.
R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal prob­
lems of the highest importance to the organization and
developing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or
other legal products. To carry out assignments,
represents the organization at conferences, hearings, or
trials and personally confers and negotiates with top at­
torneys and top-ranking officials in private companies
or in government agencies. On various aspects of as­
signed work, may give advice directly and personally to
corporation officers and top-level managers, or may
work through the general counsel of the company in ad­
vising officers. Generally receives no preliminary in­
structions on legal problems. On matters requiring the
concentrated efforts of several attorneys or other
specialists, is responsible for directing, coordinating,
and reviewing the work of the attorneys involved.

R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and
factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents,
and developing conclusions and recommendations.
Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza­
tion’s business are reviewed. Receives information from
supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or impor­
tant policy considerations pertaining to a legal problem.
If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a
supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach,
possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In the
case of nonroutine written presentations, the final pro­
duct is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with
organization policy. Some, but not all, attorneys make
assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aides,
or clerks.

OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a
staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom
regularly performs D-3 legal work. With respect to the
work directed, gives advice directly to corporation of­
ficers and top managerial officers, or may give such ad­
vice through the general counsel. Receives guidance as
to organization policy but no technical supervision or
assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief­
ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to
the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions.
Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy.

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes
final legal determinations in matters of substantial im­
portance to the organization. Such determinations are
subject to review only for consistency with company
policy, possible precedent effect, and overall effec­
tiveness. To carry out assignments, deals regularly with
company officers and top-level management officials
and confers or negotiates regularly with senior attorneys
and officials in other companies or in government agen­

Computer Programmers
in work processes; maintains records to document pro­
gram development and revisions.
At levels I, II, and III, some computer programmers
may also perform programming analysis such as:
Gathering facts from users to define their business or
scientific problems and to investigate the feasibility of
solving problems through new or modified computer
programs; developing specifications for data inputs,
flow, actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating
on a continuing basis in the overall program planning
along with other EDP personnel and users.
In contrast, at levels IV and V, some programming
analysis must be performed as part of the programming
assignment. The analysis duties are identified as a
separate paragraph at levels I, II, III, and IV and are

Performs programming services for establishments or
for outside organizations who may contract for services.
Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about
business or scientific problems into a sequence of de­
tailed instructions to solve problems by electronic data
processing (EDP) equipment, i.e., digital computers.
Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of
data and develops the precise steps and processing logic
which, when entered into the computer in coded
language (COBOL, f o r t r a n , or other programming
language), cause the manipulation of data to achieve
desired results. Tests and corrects programs and
prepares instructions for operators who control the
computer during production runs. Modifies programs
to increase operating efficiency or to respond to changes
56

part of each alternative described at level V. However,
the systems requirements are defined by systems
analysts or scientists.
Excluded are:

In addition, as training and to assist higher level staff,
computer programmers may perform elementary fact­
finding concerning a specified work process, e.g., a file
of clerical records which is treated as a unit (invoices, re­
quisitions, or purchase orders, etc.); reports findings to
higher level staff.
Receives classroom and/or on-the-job training in
computer programming concepts, methods, and techni­
ques and in the basic requirements of the subject matter
area. May receive training in elementary factfinding.
Detailed, step-by-step instructions are given for each
task and any deviation must be authorized by a super­
visor. Work is closely monitored in progress and review­
ed in detail upon completion.

a. Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;
b. Positions responsible for developing and modify­
ing computer systems;
c. Computer programmers who perform level IV or V
programming duties but who perform no programming
analysis;

Computer Programmer II

d. Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization;

At this level, initial assignments are designed to
develop competence in applying established programm­
ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine
programming assignments that do not require skilled
background experience but do require knowledge of
established programming procedures and data process­
ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and
complete specifications. The data are refined and the
format of the final products is very similar to that of the
input or is well defined when significantly different, i.e.,
there are few, if any, problems with interrelating varied
records and outputs.
.Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes ap­
proved changes by amending program flow charts,
developing detailed processing logic, and coding
changes. Tests and documents modifications and writes
operator instructions. May write routine new programs
using prescribed specifications; may confer with e d p
personnel to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc.
In addition and as continued training, computer pro­
grammers may evaluate simple interrelationships in the
immediate programming area, e.g., whether a con­
templated change in one part of a simple program
would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers
with user representatives to gain an understanding of
the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change;
implements the change upon approval of the supervisor
or higher level staff. The incumbent is provided with
charts, narrative descriptions of the functions perform­
ed, an approved statement of the product desired (e.g.,
a change in a local establishment report), and the in­
puts, outputs, and record formats.
Reviews objectives and assignment details with higher
level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judg­
ment in selecting among authorized procedures and
seeks assistance when guidelines are inadequate, signifi­
cant deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated
problems arise. Work is usually monitored in progress;
all work is reviewed upon completion for accuracy and
compliance with standards.

e. Computer systems programmers or analysts who
primarily write programs or analyze problems
concerning the system software, e.g., operating
systems, compilers, assemblers, system utility
routines, etc., which provide basic services for the
use of all programs and provide for the scheduling of
the execution of programs; however, positions
matching this definition may develop a "total
package” which includes not only writing programs
to process data but also selecting the computer equip­
ment and system software required;
f. Employees who have significant responsibility for the
management or supervision of workers (e.g., systems
analysts) whose positions are not covered in this
definition; or employees with significant responsibili­
ty for other functions such as computer operations,
data entry, system software, etc.; and
g. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.
Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions.
Computer Programmer I

At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned
to develop basic programming skills because in­
cumbents are typically inexperienced in applying such
skills on the job. Assists higher level staff by performing
elementary programming tasks which concern limited
and simple data items and steps and which closely
follow patterns of previous work done in the organiza­
tion, e.g., drawing flow charts, writing operator instruc­
tions, or coding and testing routines to accumulate
counts, tallies, or summaries. May perform routine pro­
gramming assignments (as described in level II) under
close supervision.
57

Computer Programmer III

in the review and analysis of detailed program specifica­
tions and in program design to meet changes in work
processes.
Works independently under specified objectives; ap­
plies judgment in devising program logic and in select­
ing and adapting standard programming procedures;
resolves problems and deviations according to establish­
ed practices; and obtains advice where precedents are
unclear or not available. Completed work is reviewed
for conformance to standards, timeliness, and effi­
ciency. May guide or instruct lower level programmers;
may supervise technicians and others who assist in
specific assignments.

As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies
standard programming procedures and detailed
knowledge of pertinent subject matter (e.g., work pro­
cesses, governing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a
programming area such as: A recordkeeping operation
(supply, personnel and payroll, inventory, purchasing,
insurance payments, depositor accounts, etc.); a welldefined statistical or scientific problem; or other stand­
ardized operation or problem. Works according to ap­
proved statements of requirements and detailed
specifications. While the data are clear cut, related, and
equally available, there may be substantial interrelation­
ships of a variety of records, and several varied se­
quences or formats are usually produced. The programs
developed or modified typically are linked to several
other programs in that the output of one becomes the
input for another. Recognizes probable interactions of
other related programs with the assigned program(s)
and is familiar with related system software and com­
puter equipment. Solves conventional programming
problems. (In small organizations, may maintain pro­
grams which concern or combine several operations,
i.e., users, or develop programs where there is one
primary user and the other gives input.)
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned programs; designs and implements
modifications to the interrelation of Hies and records
within programs in consultation with higher level staff;
monitors the operation of assigned programs and
responds to problems by diagnosing and correcting er­
rors in logic and coding; and implements and/or main­
tains assigned portions of a scientific programming pro­
ject, applying established scientific programming
techniques to well-defined mathematical, statistical,
engineering, or other scientific problems usually requir­
ing the translation of mathematical notation into pro­
cessing logic and code. (Scientific programming in­
cludes assignments such as: Using predetermined
physical laws expressed in mathematical terms to relate
one set of data to another; the routine storage and
retrieval of field test data; and using procedures for
real-time command and control, scientific data reduc­
tion, signal processing, or similar areas.) Tests and
documents work and writes and maintains operator in­
structions for assigned programs. Confers with other
e d p personnel to obtain or provide factual data.
In addition, computer programmers may carry out
factfinding and programming analysis of a single activi­
ty or routine problem, applying established procedures
where the nature of the program, feasibility, computer
equipment, and programming language have already
been decided. May analyze present performance of the
program and take action to correct deficiencies based on
discussion with the user and consultation with and ap­
proval of the supervisor or higher level staff. May assist

OR
Works on complex programs (as described in level IV)
under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor.
May assist higher level staff by independently perform­
ing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more
difficult tasks under close supervision.
Computer Programmer IV

Applies expertise in programming procedures to com­
plex programs; recommends the redesign of programs,
investigates and analyzes feasibility and program re­
quirements, and develops programming specifications.
Assigned programs typically affect a broad multiuser
computer system which meets the data processing needs
of a broad area (e.g., manufacturing, logistics planning,
finance management, human resources, material
management, etc.) or a computer system for a project in
engineering, research, accounting, statistics, etc. Plans
the full range of programming actions to produce
several interrelated but different products from
numerous and diverse data elements which are usually
from different sources; solves difficult programming
problems. Uses knowledge of pertinent system soft­
ware, computer equipment, work processes, regula­
tions, and management practices.
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains complex programs; designs and implements
the interrelation of Hies and records within programs
which will effectively fit into the overall design of the
project; working with problems or concepts, develops
programs for the solution to major scientific computa­
tional problems requiring the analysis and development
of logical or mathematical descriptions of functions to
be programmed; and develops occasional special pro­
grams, e.g., a critical path analysis program to assist in
managing a special project. Tests, documents, and
writes operating instructions for all work. Confers with
other e d p personnel to secure information, investigate
and resolve problems, and coordinate work efforts.
In addition, performs such programming analysis as:
Investigates the feasibility of alternate program design
58

area) or a number of small programming projects
with complex features. A substantial portion of
the work supervised (usually two to three workers) is
comparable to that described for level IV. Super­
vises, coordinates, and reviews the work of a small
staff, normally not more than 15 programmers and
technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules,
assigns, and reviews work to meet completion date.
These day-to-day supervisors evaluate performance,
resolve complaints, and make recommendations on hir­
ing and firing. They do not make final decisions on cur­
tailing projects, reorganizing, or reallocating resources.

approaches to determine the best balanced solution,
e.g., one that will best satisfy immediate user needs,
facilitate subsequent modification, and conserve
resources; on typical maintenance projects and smaller
scale, limited new projects, assists user personnel in
defining problems or needs and determines how the
work should be organized, the necessary Hies and
records, and their interrelation within the program; and
on large or more complicated projects, usually par­
ticipates as a team member along with other e d p person­
nel and users and is typically assigned a portion of the
project.
Works independently under overall objectives and
direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and
unusual complications. Modifies and adapts precedent
solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include
constraints imposed by the related programs with which
the incumbent’s programs must be meshed. Completed
work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other
work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May
function as team leader or supervise a few lower level
programmers or technicians on assigned work.

2. As team leader, staff specialist, or consultant,
defines complex scientific problems (e.g., computa­
tional) or other highly complex programming prob­
lems (e.g., generating overall forecasts, projections,
or other new data fields widely different from the
source data or untried at the scale proposed) and
directs the development of computer programs for
their solution; or designs improvements in complex
programs where existing precedents provide little
guidance, such as an interrelated group of
mathematical/statistical programs which support
health insurance, natural resources, marketing
trends, or other research activities. In conjunction
with users (scientists or specialists), defmes major
problems in the subject-matter area. Contacts co­
workers and user personnel at various locations to
plan and coordinate project and gather data; devises
ways to obtain data not previously available; and ar­
bitrates differences between various program users
when conflicting requirements arise. May perform
simulation studies to determine effects of changes in
computer equipment or system software or may
assess the feasibility and soundness of proposed pro­
gramming projects which are novel and complex.
Typically, develops programming techniques and
procedures where few precedents exist. May be
assisted on projects by other programmers or techni­
cians.

Computer Programmer V

At level V, workers are typically either supervisors,
team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants. Some pro­
gramming analysis is included as a part of the program­
ming assignment. Supervision and review are similar to
level IV.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following:
1. In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coor­
dinates, and directs a large and important pro­
gramming project (finance, manufacturing,
sales/marketing, human resources, or other broad

Computer Systems Analysts
Excluded are:

Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolu­
tion through electronic data processing. Gathers infor­
mation from users, defines work problems, and, if
feasible, designs a system of computer programs and
procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete
specifications to enable computer programmers to
prepare required programs: Analyzes subject-matter
operations to be automated; specifies number and types
of records, files, and documents to be used and outputs
to be produced; prepares work diagrams and data flow
charts; coordinates tests of the system and participates
in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recom­
mends computer equipment changes to obtain mpre ef­
fective operations. May also write the computer pro­
grams.

(a) Trainees who receive detailed directives and work
plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific
situations, and seek assistance for deviations and
problems;
(b) Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;
(c) Computer programmers who write computer pro­
grams and solve user problems not requiring systems
modification;
59

(d) Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization; and

tory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establish­
ment, or processing a limited problem in a scientific
project. Requires competence in most phases of systems
analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software
and computer equipment and of the work processes, ap­
plicable regulations, workload, and practices of the
assigned subject-matter area. Recognizes probable in­
teractions of related computer systems and predicts im­
pact of a change in assigned system.
Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope,
and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and
prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives
in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and
personnel, and recommends a course of action; and,
upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for
development of computer programs. Determines and
resolves data processing problems and coordinates the
work with programmers, users, etc.; orients user per­
sonnel on new or changed procedures. May conduct
special projects such as data element and code standar­
dization throughout a broad system, working under
specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the
supervisor any unusual problems or controversies.
Works independently under overall project objectives
and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress
and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include
existing systems and the constraints imposed by related
systems with which the incumbent's work must be mesh­
ed. Adapts design approaches successfully used in
precedent systems. Completed work is reviewed for
timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effec­
tiveness in meeting requirements. May provide func­
tional direction to lower level assistants on assigned
work.

(e) Computer systems programmers or analysts who
primarily write programs or analyze problems con­
cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems,
compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use of all programs
and provide for the scheduling of the execution of pro­
grams; however, positions matching this definition
may develop a “total package” which includes not on­
ly analyzing work problems to be processed but also
selecting the computer equipment and system software
required.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Computer Systems Analyst I

At this level, initial assignments are designed to ex­
pand practical experience in applying systems analysis
techniques and procedures. Provides several phases of
the required systems analysis where the nature of the
system is predetermined. Uses established factfinding
approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and
procedures, and familiarity with related computer pro­
gramming practices, system software, and computer
equipment.
Carries out factfinding and analysis as assigned,
usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies
established procedures where the nature of the system,
feasibility, computer equipment, and programming
language have already been decided; may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifica­
tions required by computer programmers from informa­
tion developed by the higher level analyst; may research
routine user problems and solve them by modifying the
existing system when the solutions follow clear
precedents. When costs and deadline estimates are re­
quired, results receive close review.
The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and
deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt
guides to specific situations; resolve problems and
deviations according to established practices; and ob­
tain advice where precedents are unclear or not
available. Completed work is reviewed for conformance
to requirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May super­
vise technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing
scheme or broad system, as described for computer
systems analysts, level III. Works independently on
routine assignments and receives instructions and
guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for
accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions,
and to insure proper alignment with overall system.
Computer Systems Analyst III

Applies systems analysis and design techniques to
complex computer systems in a broad area such as
manufacturing; finance management; engineering, ac­
counting, or statistics; logistics planning; material
management; etc. Usually, there are multiple users of
the system; however, there may be complex single-user
systems, e.g., for engineering or research projects. Re­
quires competence in all phases of available systems
analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and
knowledge of available systems software, computer

Computer Systems Analyst II

Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area
such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A
system of several varied sequences or formats is usually
developed, e.g., develops systems for maintaining
depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts
receivable in a retail establishment, maintaining inven­
60

IV staff specialist or consultant as described below.

equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques,
and management practices of one or more subjectmatter areas. Since input data usually come from
diverse sources, is responsible for recognizing probable
conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and
sources. Produces innovative solutions for a variety of
complex problems.
Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops
new subsystems such as an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales
analysis record in which every item of each type is
automatically processed through the full system of
records. Guides users in formulating requirements; ad­
vises on alternatives and on the implications of new or
revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user
project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in re­
quirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recom­
mends optimum approach and develops system design
for approved projects. Interprets information and in­
formally arbitrates between system users when conflicts
exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup,
directing and integrating the work of one or two lower
level analysts, each responsible for several programs.
Supervision and nature of review are similar to level
II; existing systems provide precedents for the operation
of new subsystems.

2. As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a
specialty area (e.g., data security, telecommunica­
tions, systems analysis techniques, e d p standards
development, etc.), plans and conducts analyses of
unique or unyielding problems in a broad system.
Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned
area and prepares overall project recommendations
from an e d p standpoint, including feasible ad­
vancements in e d p technology; upon acceptance,
determines a design strategy that anticipates direc­
tions of change; designs and monitors necessary
testing and implementation plans. Performs work
such as: Studies broad areas of projected work pro­
cesses which cut across established organization e d p
systems; conducts continuing review of computer
technological developments applicable to systems
design and prepares long-range forecasts; develops
e d p standards where new and improved approaches
are needed; or develops recommendations for a
management information system where new concepts
are required.

Computer Systems Analyst V

As a top technical expert, develops broad un­
precedented computer systems and/or conducts critical
studies central to the success o f large organizations hav­
ing extensive technical or highly diversified computer re­
quirements. Considers such requirements as broad com­
pany policy, and the diverse user needs of several
organization levels and locations. Works under general
administrative direction.

Computer Systems Analyst IV

Applies expert systems analysis and design techniques
to complex systems development in a specialized design
area and/or resolves unique or unyielding problems in
existing complex systems by applying new technology.
Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and
flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the
organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the
systems software and computer equipment. Objectives
and overall requirements are defined in organization
edp policies and standards; the primary constraints
typically are those imposed by the need for compatibili­
ty with existing systems or processes. Supervision and
nature of review are similar to levels II and III.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more the
following:
1. As team or project leader, guides the development of
broad unprecedented computer systems. The infor­
mation requirements are complex and voluminous.
Devises completely new ways to locate and develop
data sources; establishes new factors and criteria for
making subject-matter decisions. Coordinates fact­
finding, analysis, and design of the system and ap­
plies the most recent developments in data processing
technology and computer equipment. Guidelines
consist of state-of-the-art technology and general
organization policy. At least one team member per­
forms work at level IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following:
1. As team project leader, provides systems design in
a specialized and highly complex design area, e.g., in­
terrelated business statistics and/or projections,
scientific systems, mathematical models, or similar
unprecedented computer systems. Establishes the
framework of new computer systems from feasibility
studies to postimplementation evaluation. Devises
new sources of data and develops new approaches
and techniques for use by others. May serve as
technical authority for a design area. At least one or
two team members perform work at level III; one or
two team members may also perform work as a level

2. As staff specialist or consultant, is a recognized
leader and authority in a large organization (as defin­
ed above). Performs at least two of the following: (a)
Has overall responsibility for evaluating the sig­
nificance of technological advancement and develop­
ing e d p standards where new and improved ap­
proaches are needed, e.g., programming techniques;
(b) conceives and plans exploratory investigations
critical to the overall organization where useful
61

LS-1. Plans, coordinates, and evaluates the work of a
small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers,
systems analysts, and technicians; estimates personnel
needs and schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet
completion date; interviews candidates for own unit and
recommends hires, promotions, or reassignments;
resolves complaints and refers group grievances and
more serious unresolved complaints to higher level
supervisors; and may reprimand employees.

precedents do not exist and new concepts are re­
quired, e.g., develops recommendations regarding a
comprehensive management information system; or
(c) evaluates existing e d p organizational policy for ef­
fectiveness, devising and formulating changes in
the organization’s position on broad policy issues.
May be assisted on individual projects by other
analysts.

LS-2. Directs a sizable staff (normally 15-30 em­
ployees), typically divided into subunits controlled by
subordinate supervisors; advises higher level manage­
ment of work problems of own unit and the impact on
broader programs; collaborates with heads of other
units to negotiate and/or coordinate work changes;
makes decisions on work or training problems presented
by subordinate supervisors; evaluates subordinate
supervisors and reviews their evaluations of other
employees; selects nonsupervisors (higher level approval
is virtually assured) and recommends supervisory selec­
tions; and hears group grievances and serious or
unresolved complaints. May shift resources among pro­
jects and perform long-range budget planning.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST
SUPERVISOR/MANAGER

Supervises three or more employees, two of whom
perform systems analysis. Work requires substantial
and recurring use of systems analysis skills in directing
staff. May also supervise programmers and related
clerical and technical support personnel.
Excluded are:
(a) Positions also having significant responsibility for
the management or supervision o f functional areas
(e.g., system software development, data entry, or
computer operations) n o t related to the Computer
Systems Analyst and Computer Programmer defini­
tions.

NOTE:
In rare instances, supervisory positions
responsible for directing a sizable staff (e.g., 20-30
employees) may not have subordinate supervisors, but
have all other LS-2 responsibilities. Such positions are
matched to LS-2.

(b) Supervisory positions having base levels below Com­
puter Systems Analyst II or Computer Programmer
IV.
(c)

Managers who supervise two or more subordinates
performing at Computer Systems Analyst Supervisor/
Manager level IV.

Supervisory jobs are matched at 1 of 4 levels ac­
cording to two factors: (a) Base level of work supervis­
ed, and (b) level of supervision. Table C-4 indicates the
level of the supervisor for each combination of factors.

LS-3. Directs two subordinate supervisory levels, and
the work force managed typically includes substantially
more than 30 employees. Makes major decisions and
recommendations which have a direct, important, and
substantial effect on own organization and work. Per­
forms at least three of the following:

Base Level of Work

The base level of work is that level of nonsupervisory
work under the direct or indirect supervision of the
supervisor/manager which (when added to the non­
supervisory levels above it) represents at least 25 percent
of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff and at
least two of the full-time positions supervised.
To determine the base level of nonsupervisory,
nonclerical work: (1) Positions are arrayed by level of
difficulty; (2) the number of workers in each position is
determined; and (3) the highest level is determined that
has at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory,
nonclerical staff accumulated from itself and levels
above itself.

Decides what programs and projects should be initiated,
dropped, expanded, or curtailed;
Determines long-range plans in response to program
changes, evaluates program goals, and redefines objec­
tives;
Determines changes to be made in organizational struc­
ture, delegation o f authority, coordination o f units, etc.;
Decides what compromises to make in operations in view
o f public relations implications and need for support from
various groups;

Level of Supervision

Decides on the means to substantially reduce operating
costs without impairing overall operations; justifies major
equipment expenditures; and

Supervisors and managers are matched at 1 of the 3
LS levels below best describing their supervisory respon­
sibility.

Resolves differences between key subordinate officials;
decides, or significantly affects final decisions, on per­
sonnel actions for supervisors and other key officials.

62

Table C-4. Criteria for matching computer systems analyst supervisors/managers
Supervisor/manager level

Base level of nonsupervisory job(s)

Level of supervision
Matched in the
corpputer programmers
definition

Matched in the
computer systems
analysts definition

LS-1

LS-2

LS-3

IV
V

II
III
IV
V

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
Exclude

III
IV
Exclude
Exclude

-

-

BUYERS
Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and ser­
vices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some
instances, items are of types that must be specially
designed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accor­
dance with drawings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects
or recommends supplier. May interview prospective
vendors. Purchases items and services at the most
favorable price consistent with quality, quantity,
specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares
or supervises preparation of purchase orders from re­
quisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’ of­
fices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are
consistent with past experience and are in conformance
with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase
transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex­
perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities,
etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are
reviewed by higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary
and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or
dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip­
ment, or supplies.

engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few
related items o f highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe
uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge o f the item is
required to judge the relative value o f the goods of­
fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price
o f each purchase in terms o f its probable effect on
the organization’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervi­
sion o f a purchasing program;
f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist o f ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing
contracts;
h. Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work; and
i. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years o f ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination o f experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.

Buyer I

N ote : Some buyers are responsible for the purchas­

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available,
commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture,
services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers, whole­
salers, jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales represent­
atives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts,
e.g.-, those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common sta­
tionery and office supplies; standard types of office fur­
niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, and screws;
janitorial and common building maintenance supplies;
or common utility services or office machine repair ser­
vices.

ing of a variety of items and materials. When the variety
includes items and work described at more than one of
the following levels, the position should be considered
to equal the highest level that characterizes at least a
substantial portion of the buyer’s time.
Excluded are:
a. Buyers o f items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest­
ment purposes;

c. Positions that specifically require professional educa­
tion and qualifications in a physical science or in

63

Buyer II

Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;
special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of standard, general­
ly available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions may involve occasional modification of
standard and common usage items, materials, and ser­
vices, and include a few stipulations about unusual
packing, marking, shipping, etc.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Standard in­
dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equip­
ment; standard electronic parts, components, and com­
ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline ser­
vice station equipment; p b x or other specialized
telephone services; special-purpose printing services;
and routine purchases of common raw materials such as
standard grades and sizes of steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of
the types described for buyer I when the quantities pur­
chased are so large that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturers on a broader-than-local scale.

Buyer IV

Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer
determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.
In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples of items purchased include: Specialpurpose high-cost machine tools and production
facilities; specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines;
raw materials of critically important characteristics or
quality; and parts, subassemblies, components, etc.,
specially designed and made to order (e.g., communica­
tions equipment for installation in aircraft being
manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and
rockets; and motor vehicle frames).

Buyer III

Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­
tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging re­
quirements; export packs; overseas port differentials;
etc.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.

N ote : Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of
science or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual
or unit value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to
expand their plants or convert facilities to th e produc­
tion of new items or services. These types of buying
functions are often performed by program managers or
company officials who have primary responsibilities
other than buying.
64

Chemists and Engineers
study. For training and developmental purposes,
assignments may include some work that is typical of a
higher level. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

CHEMIST

Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com­
position, molecular structure, and properties of
substances; to develop or investigate new materials and
processes; and to investigate the transformations which
substances undergo. Work typically requires a B.s.
degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and
substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex­
perience.

Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature
and extent of analysis required, specifies methods and
criteria on new types of assignments, and reviews work
for thoroughness of application of methods and ac­
curacy of results.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide
variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures.
In accordance with specific instructions, may carry out
proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect
problems in using standardized procedures because of
the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip­
ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures,
e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter­
nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem
and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified
phases of research projects as an assistant to an ex­
perienced chemist.

Chemist I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Performs
assignments designed to develop professional
capabilities and to provide experience in the application
of training in chemistry as it relates to the company’s
programs. May also receive formal classroom or
seminar-type training. (Terminal positions are
excluded.)

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aides or technicians.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during pro­
gress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Chemist III

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of
chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory,
using judgment in the independent evaluation, selec­
tion, and adaptation of standard methods and techni­
ques. May carry through a complete series of tests on a
product in its different process stages. Some
assignments require a specialized knowledge of one or
two common categories of related substances. Perfor­
mance at this level requires developmental experience in
a professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company. The work in­
cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative
analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as
viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and
assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional
knowledge through personal observation and discus­
sion.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.

Chemist II

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

General characteristics. At this continuing develop­
mental level, performs routine chemical work requiring
selection and application of general and specialized
methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used
in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instruc­
tions when less common or proposed methods or pro­
cedures are necessary. Requires work experience acquired
in an entry level position, or appropriate graduate level

Typical duties and responsibilites. In accordance with
instructions as to the nature of the problem, selects stan­
dard methods, tests, or procedures; when necessary,
develops or works out alternative or modified methods
with supervisor’s concurrence. Assists in research by
analyzing samples or testing new procedures that re­
quire specialized training because (a) standard methods
are inapplicable, (b) analytical findings must be inter­
65

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.

preted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with
standards, or (c) specialized and advanced equipment
and techniques must be adapted.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aides, and
be assisted by lower level chemists.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
organizes, and directs assigned laboratory programs.
Independently defines scope and critical elements of the
projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan­
tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that
described for chemist IV. (2) As individual researcher or
worker, carries out project requiring development of
new or highly modified scientific techniques and pro­
cedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and
knowledge of related scientific fields.

Chemist IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional areas of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or
ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un­
foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a
research approach to the solution of a wide variety of
problems and to assimilate the details and significance
of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and
tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to
assure competence as a fully trained worker; or, for
positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be
substituted for experience.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and
development projects, or a larger group performing
routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date.
Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted
on projects by other chemists or technicians.

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on pro­
posed plans for projects.

Chemist VI

General characteristics. Performs work requiring
leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field,
product, or process. Formulates and conducts a
systematic attack on a problem area of considerable
scope and complexity which must be approached
through a series of complete and conceptually related
studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The
problems are complex because they are difficult to
define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within and outside the organiza­
tion, with responsibility for acting independently on
technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this
level usually requires extensive progressive experience
including work comparable to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory
assignments requiring the determination and evaluation
of alternative procedures and the sequence of perform­
ing them. Performs complex, exacting, unusual
analytical assignments requiring specialized knowledge
of techniques or products. Interprets results, prepares
reports, and may provide technical advice in specialized
area.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.
Chemist V

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.

General characteristics. Participates in planning
laboratory programs on the basis of specialized
knowledge of problems and methods and probable
value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow
specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class
of products), making recommendations and conclusions
which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im­
portant projects. Development of the knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually reflects
progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire chemical
program of a company, when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such
66

precedents or results are available for reference.
Outstanding creativity and mature judgment are re­
quired to devise hypotheses and techniques of ex­
perimentation and to interpret results. As a leader and
authority in the company, in a broad area of specializa­
tion, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one, ad­
vises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important
programs. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating,
and justifying proposed and current programs and pro­
jects and furnishing advice on unusually complex and
novel problems in the specialty field. Typically will have
contributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products,
procedures) which are regarded as significant advances
in the field.

a scope that they require a few (three to five) subordi­
nate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a
position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker, determines, conceives, plans, and
conducts projects of major importance to the company.
Applies a high degree of originality and ingenuity in
adapting techniques into original combinations and
configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or research­
er, may be assisted on individual projects by other
chemists or technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists and technicians.

Chemist VII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive chemical ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key chemists and officials of other organizations and
companies. Requires skill in persuasion and negotiation
of critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature judg­
ment in anticipating and solving unprecedented
chemical problems, determining program objectives and
requirements, organizing programs and projects, and
developing standards and guides for diverse chemical
activities.

Chemist VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive chemical and related ac­
tivities of the company. Negotiates critical and con­
troversial issues with top level chemists and officers of
other organizations and companies. Individuals at this
level have demonstrated a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive chemical programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a chemical program of a
company with extensive and diversified scientific re­
quirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a
company where the program is more limited in scope.
The overall chemical program contains critical problems
the solution of which requires major technological ad­
vances and opens the way for extensive related develop­
ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations
concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work
which will be most profitable in light of company re­
quirements and scientific and industrial trends and
developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul­
tant, selects problems for research to further the com­
pany’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in
which the phenomena and principles are not adequately
understood, and where few or contradictory scientific

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified chemical program of a company; or
(b) the entire chemical program of a company when the
program is of moderate scope. The programs are of
such complexity and scope that they are of critical im­
portance to overall objectives, include problems of ex­
traordinary difficulty that often have resisted solution,
and consist of several segments requiring subordinate
supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind and ex­
tent of chemical and related programs needed to ac­
complish the objectives of the company, for choosing
the scientific approaches, for planning and organizing
facilities and programs, and for interpreting results. (2)
As individual researcher and consultant, formulates and
guides the attack on problems of exceptional difficulty
and marked importance to the company and/or industry.
67

and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Performs
assignments designed to develop professional work
knowledge and abilities. May also receive formal
classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

Problems are characterized by the lack of scientific
precedents and source materials, or the lack of success of
prior research and analysis so that their solution would
represent an advance of great significance and impor­
tance. Performs advisory and consulting work for the
company as a recognized authority for broad program
areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has made
contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as
major advances in the field.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during pro­
gress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whose
positions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual
researchers, some of whose positions are comparable to
chemist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.

N ote : Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical
program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of chemical
programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1)
Chemists in charge of programs so extensive and com­
plex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or unusually
novel products and procedures) that one or more subor­
dinate supervisory chemists are performing at level
VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and
substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind
and extent of chemical program’’ within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); and (3) individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as na­
tional and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in­
vestigation.

Engineer II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring
application of standard techniques, procedures, and
criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering
tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on
details of work and in making preliminary selections
and adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or
appropriate graduate level study. For training and
developmental purposes, assignments may include some
work that is typical of a higher level. (Terminal posi­
tions are excluded.)
Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects of assignments.

ENGINEER

Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, design, testing, analysis, production, construc­
tion, maintenance, operation, planning, survey,
estimating, application, or standardization of engineer­
ing facilities, systems, structures, processes, equipment,
devices, or materials, requiring knowledge of the science
and art by which materials, natural resources, and
power are made useful. Work typically requires a B.s.
degree in engineering or the equivalent in combined
education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control
engineers, sales engineers, and engineers whose primary
responsibility is to be in charge of nonprofessional
maintenance work.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of
related detailed steps or processes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aides or technicians.
Engineer III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates,
selects, and applies standard engineering techniques,
procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making
minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments

Engineer I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
68

materials, and difficult coordination requirements.
Work requires a broad knowledge of precedents in the
specialty area and a good knowledge of principles and
practices of related specialties.

have clear and specified objectives and require the in­
vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perfor­
mance at this level requires developmental experience in
a professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific
assignment objectives, complex features, and possible
solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Engineer V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversi­
fied knowledge of engineering principles and practices
in broad areas of assignments and related fields. Makes
decisions independently on engineering problems and
methods, and represents the organization in conferences
to resolve important questions and to plan and coor­
dinate work. Requires the use of advanced techniques
and the modification and extension of theories,
precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences
and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required
for this level of work usually result from progressive ex­
perience, including work comparable to engineer IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work
which involves conventional types of plans, investiga­
tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively
few complex features for which there are precedents.
Assignments usually include one or more of the follow­
ing: Equipment design and development, test of
materials, preparation of specifications, process study,
research investigations, report preparation, and other
activities of limited scope requiring knowledge of prin­
ciples and techniques commonly employed in the
specific narrow area of assignments.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on propos­
ed plans for projects.

Topical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a large and important
engineering project or a number of small projects with
many complex features. A substantial portion of the
work supervised is comparable to that described for
engineer IV. (2) As individual researcher or worker, car­
ries out complex or novel assignments requiring the
development of new or improved techniques and pro­
cedures. Work is expected to result in the development
of new or refined equipment, materials, processes, pro­
ducts, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff specialist,
develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a variety of
projects and activities to be carried out by others. As­
sesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed
engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment
when necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by
testing is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor
and consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of
facility or equipment, or a program function.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules,
conducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the
engineering work in a part of a major project or in a
total project of moderate scope. Performs work which
involves conventional engineering practices but may in­
clude a variety of complex features such as conflicting
design requirements, unsuitability of standard

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
engineers and technicians; estimates personnel needs
and schedules and assigns work to meet completion
date. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist,
may be assisted on projects by other engineers or techni­
cians.

Engineer IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter of the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation,
selection, and substantial adaptation and modification
of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria.
Devises new approaches to problems encountered. Re­
quires sufficient professional experience to assure com­
petence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions
primarily of a research nature, completion of all re­
quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for
experience.

69

obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual researcher or staff
specialist, may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Engineer VI

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility
for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordi­
nating assignments. Plans and develops engineering
projects concerned with unique or controversial pro­
blems which have an important effect on major com­
pany programs. This involves exploration of subject
area, definition of scope and selection of problems for
investigation, and development of novel concepts and
approaches. Maintains liaison with individuals and
units within or outside the organization with responsi­
bility for acting independently on technical matters per­
taining to the field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work com­
parable to engineer V.

Engineer VII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive engineering ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key engineers and officials of other organizations and
companies requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation
of critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature
engineering judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented engineering problems, determining pro­
gram objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects, and developing standards and guides for
diverse engineering activities.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire engineer­
ing program of a company when the program is of
limited complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities
generally requires a few (three to five) subordinate
supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a posi­
tion comparable to level V. (2) As individual researcher
or worker, conceives, plans, and conducts research in
problem areas of considerable scope and complexity.
The problems must be approached through a series of
complete and conceptually related studies, be difficult
to define, require unconventional and novel ap­
proaches, and require sophisticated research techniques.
Available guides and precedents contain critical gaps,
are only partially related to the problem, or may be
largely lacking due to the novel character of the project.
At this level, the individual researcher generally will
have contributed inventions, new designs, or techniques
which are of material significance in the solution of im­
portant problems. (3) As a staff specialist, serves as the
technical specialist for the organization (division or
company) in the application of advanced theories, con­
cepts, principles, and processes for an assigned area of
responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of
facility or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new
scientific methods and developments affecting the
organization for the purpose of recommending changes
in emphasis of programs or new programs warranted by
such developments.

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of the engineering pro­
gram of a company with extensive and diversified
engineering requirements, or (b) the entire engineering
program of a company when it is more limited in scope.
The overall engineering program contains critical pro­
blems, the solution of which requires major
technological advances and opens the way for extensive
related development. Extent of responsibilities generally
requires several subordinate organizational segments or
teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and funds re­
quired to carry out programs which are directly related
to and directed toward fulfillment of overall company
objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant,
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further
the company’s objectives. Conceives and plans in­
vestigations of broad areas of considerable novelty and
importance for which engineering precedents are lack­
ing in areas critical to the overall engineering program.
Is consulted extensively by associates and others, with a
high degree of reliance placed on the incumbent’s scien­
tific interpretations and advice. Typically, will have
contributed inventions, new designs, or techniques
which are regarded as major advances in the field.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
70

dustry. Problems are characterized by their lack of
scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc­
cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution
would represent an advance of great significance and
importance. Performs advisory and consulting work for
the company as a recognized authority for broad pro­
gram areas or in an intensely specialized area of con­
siderable novelty and importance.

Engineer VIII

General charactistics. Makes decisions and recommen­
dations that are recognized as authoritative and have a
far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and
related activities of the company. Negotiates critical and
controversial issues with top level engineers and officers
of other organizations and companies. Individuals at
this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whose
positions are comparable to engineer VII and sometimes
engineer VIII. As an individual researcher and consul­
tant, may be assisted on individual projects by other
engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified engineering program of a company,
or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when the program is of moderate scope. The programs
are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical
importance to overall objectives, include problems of
extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu­
tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor­
dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind
and extent of engineering and related programs needed
to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos­
ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz­
ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates
and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif­
ficulty and marked importance to the company or in­

N ote : Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer­
ing program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of
engineering programs. Excluded from the definition
are: (1) Engineers in charge of programs so extensive
and complex (e.g., consisting of research and develop­
ment on a variety of complex products or systems with
numerous novel components) that one or more subor­
dinate supervisory engineers are performing at level
VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and
substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind
and extent of engineering and related programs” within
broad guidelines set at a higher level); and (3) individual
researchers and consultants who are recognized as na­
tional and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in­
vestigation.

Technical Support Occupations
ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN

knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their
duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who
may perform the same duties using only practical skills
and knowledge).
Also excludes engineering technicians:

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria:
1. Provides semiprofessional technical support for
engineers working in such areas as research, design,
development, testing, or manufacturing process im­
provements.

a. Below level I who are limited to simple tasks
such as: Measuring items o f regular shape with a
caliper and computing cross-sectional areas; identify­
ing, weighing, and marking easy-to-identify items; or
recording simple instrument readings at specified in­
tervals; and

2. Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical
components or equipment.
3. Required to have some practical knowledge of
science or engineering; some positions may also
require a practical knowledge of mathematics or
computer science.

b. Above level V who perform work o f broad scope
and complexity either by planning and accomplishing
a complete project or study or by serving as an expert
in a narrow aspect o f a particular field of engineering.

Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality
control technicians or testers, modelmakers or other
craftworkers, chemical or other nonengineering techni­
cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers,
and engineers (who are required to apply a professional

Engineering Technician I

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process
71

Engineering Technician IV

or on completion. Performs, at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial
variety and complexity, using precedents which are not
fully applicable. May also plan such assignments.
Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer
(as needed, performs recurring work independently);
work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity
with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni­
cians and have frequent contact with professionals and
others within the establishment. Performs at this level
one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple
wiring, soldering, or connecting.
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or
hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data.
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineering
data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by
substituting numbers in specified formulas; and plots data
and draws simple curves and graphs.

Works on limited segment o f development project; con­
structs experimental or prototype models to meet engineer­
ing requirements; conducts tests or experiments and re­
designs them as necessary; and records and evaluates data
and reports findings.

Engineering Technician II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows stan­
dard work methods on recurring assignments but
receives explicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments;
technical adequacy of routine work is reviewed on com­
pletion; nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification o f a wide variety o f critical test
equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates
equipment; records data, measures and records problems o f
sufficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at
higher level; and analyzes data and prepares test reports.

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or
parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip­
ment.

Extracts and analyzes a variety o f engineering data; ap­
plies conventional engineering practices to develop or
prepare schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or
makes recommendations regarding these items. May review
designs or specifications for adequacy.

Conducts a variety o f standardized tests; may prepare test
specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment;
records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from
equipment malfunction or observational errors.

Engineering Technician V

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion
of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts
plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person­
nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and
coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates
the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional
engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design
approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical
adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train
and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at
this level one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but
nonstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and
geometry; presents the data in prescribed form.

Engineering Technician ill

Performs assignments that are not completely
standardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard
procedures or equipment, using fully applicable
precedents. Receives initial instructions, equipment re­
quirements, and advice from supervisor or engineer as
needed; performs recurring work independently; and
work is reviewed for technical adequacy or conformity
with instructions. Performs, at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or
equipment; conducts tests or experiments, analyzes results
and redesigns or modifies equipment to improve perform­
ance; and reports results.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or
adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct
malfunctions.
Conducts various tests or experiments which may require
minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as
subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and records test data.

Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment
performance. Determines test requirements, equipment
modification, and test procedures; conducts tests, analyzes
and evaluates data, and prepares reports on findings and
recommendations.

Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data from
field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data,
identifying errors or inconsistencies; and selects methods o f
data presentation.

Reviews and analyzes a variety o f engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives; may
calculate design data; and prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May

72

including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work re­
quires use of most of the conventional drafting techni­
ques and a working knowledge of the terms and pro­
cedures of the industry. Familiar or recurring work is
assigned in general terms; unfamiliar assignments in­
clude information on methods, procedures, sources of
information, and precedents to be followed. Simple
revisions to existing drawings may be assigned with a
verbal explanation of the desired results; more complex
revisions are produced from sketches which clearly
depict the desired product.

check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine ad­
equacy o f drawings and designs.

DRAFTER

Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and
skill in drafting methods, procedures, and techniques.
Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and elec­
trical equipment, piping and duct systems, and similar
equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used
to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and infor­
mation in support of engineering functions. Uses
recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and
lines having specific meanings in drawings.
The following are excluded when they constitute the
primary purpose of the job:

Drafter IV

Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which in­
clude multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. Drawings include complex design features
that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and
portray. Assignments regularly require the use of
mathematical formulas to compute weights, load
capacities, dimensions, quantities of materials, etc.
Working from sketches and verbal information supplied
by an engineer or designer, determines the most ap­
propriate views, detail drawings, and supplementary in­
formation needed to complete assignments. Selects re­
quired information from precedents, manufacturers’
catalogs, and technical guides. Independently resolves
most of the problems encountered. Supervisor or
designer may suggest methods of approach or provide
advice on unsually difficult problems.

Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill,
and ability to conceive or originate designs;
Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation o f charts, diagrams,
room arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation o f maps
or plats and related materials and drawings of geological
structures; and
Supervisory work involving the management of a draft­
ing program or the supervision o f drafters when either
constitutes the primary purpose o f the job.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Drafter I

Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions.
Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines.
Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in
various drafting techniques. Work is spot checked dur­
ing progress and reviewed upon completion.

N ote : Excludes drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

Drafter V

NOTE: Excludes drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting
methods.

Works closely with design originators, preparing
drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs which
require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually
difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative,
resourcefulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that an­
ticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, installa­
tion, and operation are resolved by the drawings pro­
duced. Exercises independent judgment in selecting and
interpreting data based on a knowledge of the design in­
tent. Although working primarily as a drafter, may
occasionally perform engineering design work in inter­
preting general designs prepared by others or in com­
pleting missing design details. May provide advice and
guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator
and planner for large and complex drafting projects.

Drafter II

Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns
and present few technical problems. Supervisor pro­
vides detailed instructions on new assignments, gives
guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed
work for accuracy.
Drafter III

Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,

73

Computer Operators
Computer Operator III

Monitors and operates the control console of either a
mainframe digital computer or a group of minicom­
puters, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:

Processes a range of scheduled routines. In addition
to operating the system and resolving common error
conditions, diagnoses and acts on machine stoppage and
error conditions not fully covered by existing pro­
cedures and guidelines (e.g., resetting switches and
other controls or making mechanical adjustments to
maintain or restore equipment operations). In response
to computer output instructions or error conditions,
may deviate from standard procedures if standard pro­
cedures do not provide a solution. Refers problems
which do not respond to corrective procedures.

Studies operating instructions to determine equipment
setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates control console;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems; and

Computer Operator IV

Adapts to a variety of nonstandard problems which
require extensive operator intervention (e.g., frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, or pro­
cedures). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, chooses or devises a course of action
from among several alternatives and alters or deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution (e.g., reassigning equipment in order
to work around faulty equipment or to transfer chan­
nels); then refers problems. Typically, completed work
is submitted to users without supervisory review.

Maintains operating record.

May test run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the
scope of this definition are fully qualified computer
operators, trainees working to become fully qualified
operators, and lead operators providing technical
assistance to lower level positions.
Excluded are:
a. Workers operating small' computer systems where
there is little or no opportunity for operator interven­
tion in program processing and few requirements to
correct equipment malfunctions;

Computer Operator V

b. Peripheral equipment operators and remote term­
inal or computer operators who do not run the
con trol console o f either a mainframe digital com­
puter or a group o f minicomputers; and

Resolves a variety of difficult operating problems
(e.g., making unusual equipment connections and rarely
used equipment and channel configurations to direct
processing through or around problems in equipment,
circuits, or channels or reviewing test run requirements
and developing unusual system configurations that will
allow test programs to process without interferring with
on-going job requirements). In response to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss
of information or to conserve computer time, operator
deviates from standard procedures. Such actions may
materially alter the computer unit’s production plans.
May spend considerable time away from the control sta­
tion providing technical assistance to lower level
operators and assisting programmers, systems analysts,
and subject matter specialists in resolving problems.

c. Workers using the computer for scientific, technical,
or mathematical work when a knowledge o f the sub­
ject matter is required.

Computer Operator I

Receives on-the-job training in operating the control
console (sometimes augmented by classroom training).
Works under close personal supervision and is provided
detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments. As instructed, resolves common operating
problems. May serve as an assistant operator working
under close supervision or performing a portion of a
more senior operator’s work.
Computer Operator II

Processes scheduled routines which present few dif­
ficult operating problems (e.g., infrequent or easily
resolved error conditions). In response to computer out­
put instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedure. May
serve as an assistant operator, working under general
supervison.

Computer Operator VI

In addition to level V responsibilities, uses a
knowledge of program language, computer features,
and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or pro­
grams; (2) developing operating instructions and techni­
ques to cover problem situations; and (3) switching to
emergency backup procedures.
74

Photographers
taken for identification, employee publications, infor­
mation, or publicity purposes. Workers may be able to
focus, center, and provide simple flash-type lighting for
an uncomplicated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, in­
terviews, banquets, or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to
record the condition at a specified time. Assignments
are usually performed without direct guidance due to
the clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.

Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of
photographic techniques, equipment, and processes.
Typically, some familiarity with the company’s ac­
tivities (e.g., scientific, engineering, industrial,
technical, retail, commercial, etc.) and some artistic
ability are needed at the higher levels. Depending on the
objectives of the assignment, photographers use stand­
ard equipment (including simple still, graphic, and
motion picture cameras, video and television hand
cameras, and similar commonly used equipment)
and/or use special-purpose equipment (including
specialized still and graphic cameras, motion picture
production, television studio, and high-speed cameras
and equipment). At the higher levels, a complex ac­
cessory system of equipment may be used, as needed,
with sound or lighting systems, generators, timing or
measurement control mechanisms, or improvised stages
or environments, etc. Work of photographers at all
levels is reviewed for quality and acceptability.
Photographers may also develop, process, and edit film
or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to lower level
workers, or may do work described at lower levels as
needed.
Excluded are:

Photographer II

Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed,
motion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the sub­
jects photographed are similar to those at level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut
objectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and
filters, camera angles, exposure times, and type of film.
Requires familiarity with the situation gained from
similar past experience to arrange for specific emphasis,
balanced lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as
needed. May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture
cameras for simple shots such as moving equipment, in­
dividuals at work or meetings, and the like, where
available or simple artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily, there is opportunity for repeated shots or
for retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory.
Consults with supervisor or more experienced
photographers when problems are anticipated.

a. Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;
b. Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,
or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut, or splice negatives;
c. Workers who prim arily develop, process, print, or
edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain,
or repair photographic equipment;
d. Workers who prim arily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures
for television writers and editors; and

Photographer III

Selects from a range of standard photographic equip­
ment for assignments demanding exact renditions, nor­
mally without opportunity for later retakes, when there
are specific problems or uncertainties concerning
lighting, exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses
technical requirements with operating officials or super­
visor and customizes treatment for each situation ac­
cording to a detailed request. Varies camera processes
and techniques and uses the setting and background to
produce esthetic, as well as accurate and informative,
pictures. Typically, standard equipment is used at this
level although “ specialized” photography work is
usually performed; may use some special-purpose
equipment under closer supervision.
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings,
charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computa­
tion of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise
equipment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail
and exact color when color and condition of the tissue

e. Photographers taking pictures for c o m m e rc ia l
newspaper or magazine publishers, television sta­
tions, or movie producers.

Positions are matched to the appropriate level based
on the difficulty of, and responsibility for, the
photography performed, including the subject-matter
knowledge and artistry required to fulfill the assign­
ment. While the equipment may be an indication of the
level of difficulty, photographers at the higher levels
may use standard equipment, as needed.
Photographer I

Takes routine pictures in situations where several
shots can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pic­
tures where complications, such as speed, motion', color
contrast, or lighting are not present or where there is no
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are
75

may deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures
or conditions which normally cannot be recaptured;
machine or motor parts to show wear or corrosion in
minute wires or gears; specialized real estate or retail
goods for company catalogs or listings where saleability
is enhanced by the photography; company products,
work, construction sites, or patrons in prescribed detail
to substantiate legal claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or
technical design layouts requiring precise equipment set­
tings; fixed objects on the ground or air-to-air objects
which must be captured quickly and require directing
the pilot to get the correct angle of approach.
Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

sion cameras and accessories and shoots a part of a pro­
duction or a sequence of scenes, or takes special scenes
to be used for background or special effects in the pro­
duction.
Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with
supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual pro­
blems or altering existing equipment.
Photographer V

As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations re­
quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically
performs one or more of the following assignments: (1)
Develops and adapts photographic equipment or pro­
cesses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and
modify equipment for use in extreme conditions such as
excessive heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under­
water, wind and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2)
plans and organizes the overall technical photographic
coverage for a variety of events and developments in
phases of a scientific, industrial, medical, or commer­
cial research project or similar program; or (3) creates
the desired illusion or emotional effect through develop­
ing trick or special effects photography for novel situa­
tions requiring a high degree of ingenuity and im­
aginative camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter
reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are
responsible for the substance of the project. Uses im­
agination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging
the action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.

Photographer IV

Uses special-purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually
makes all the technical decisions, although the objective
of the pictures is determined by operating officials.
Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects
desired by operating officials and discusses modifica­
tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of
the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex­
amples of equipment used at this level include ultra-high
speed, motion picture production, studio television,
animation cameras, specialized still and graphic
cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in
light values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets
up precise photographic measurement and controls
equipment; uses high-speed color photography, syn­
chronized stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or
timed electronic triggering; operates equipment from a
remote point; or arranges and uses cameras operating at
several thousand frames per second. In other
assignments, selects and sets up motion picture or televi­

N ote : Excluded are photographers above level V
who independently plan the objectives, scope, and
substance of the photography for the project in addition
to planning the overall technical photographic coverage.

Clerical
ACCOUNTING CLERK

entries or adjustments to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording of
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where

Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil­
ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com­
pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting
documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu­
tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical ac­
curacy of various types of reports, lists, calculations,
postings, etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making
76

ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and, if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter­
mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and pro­
cessing material through data processing for application
in the accounting system); and/or analyzes and recon­
ciles computer printouts with operating unit reports
(contacting units and researching causes of discrepan­
cies, and taking action to ensure that accounts balance).
Employee resolves problems in recurring assignments in
accordance with previous training and experience.
Supervisor provides suggestions for handling unusual or
nonrecurring transactions. Conformance with re­
quirements and technical soundness of completed work
are reviewed by the supervisor or are controlled by
mechanisms built into the accounting system.

there are few variations in the types of transactions
handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may re­
quire a basic knowledge and understanding of the ter­
minology, codes, and processes used in an automated
accounting system.
Accounting Clerk I

Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and
rep etitiv e accounting documents, verifying
mathematical accuracy, and identifying discrepancies
and bringing them to the supervisor’s attention. Super­
visor gives clear detailed instructions for specific
assignments. Employee refers to supervisor all matters
not covered by instructions. Work is closely controlled
and reviewed in detail for accuracy, adequacy, and
adherence to instructions.

NOTE: Excluded from level IV are positions responsi­
ble for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

Accounting Clerk II

Performs one or more routine accounting clerical
operations, such as: Examining, verifying, and correct­
ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and
accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts,
and checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga­
tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing-, and
reconciling collection vouchers; posting data to transac­
tion sheets where employee identifies proper accounts
and items to be posted; and coding documents in accor­
dance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee
follows specific and detailed accounting procedures.
Completed work is reviewed for accuracy and com­
pliance with procedures.

FILE CLERK

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish­
ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.
File Clerk I

Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chrono­
logical, or numerical). As requested, locates readily
available materials in files and forwards material; may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical
and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

Accounting Clerk III
File Clerk II

Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in
performing one or more of the following: Posts actions
to journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected
and debit and credit entries to be made and assigning
proper codes; reviews computer printouts against
manually maintained journals, detecting and correcting
erroneous postings, and preparing documents to adjust
accounting classifications and other data; or reviews
lists of transactions rejected by an automated system,
determining reasons for rejections, and preparing
necessary correcting material. On routine assignments,
employee selects and applies established procedures and
techniques. Detailed instructions are provided for dif­
ficult or unusual assignments. Completed work and
methods used are reviewed for technical accuracy.

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material
by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly iden­
tified material in files and forwards material. May per­
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and ser­
vice files.
File Clerk III

Classifies and indexes file material such as cor­
respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with the
files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

Accounting Clerk IV
KEY ENTRY OPERATOR

Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an ac­
counting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
77

com puter processing. W ork requires skill in operating
an alphanum eric keyboard and an understanding o f
transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equip­
m ent.
P osition s are classified into levels on the basis o f the
follow in g definition s.

clerical and technical support to personnel professionals
or m anagers in m atters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and term ination o f co m ­
pany em ployees. A t the low er levels, clerks/assistants
primarily provide basic in form ation to current and pro­
spective em p loyees, m aintain personnel records and in ­
form ation listings, and prepare and process papers on
personnel actions (hires, transfers, changes in p ay, etc.).
A t the higher levels, clerks/assistants (often titled per­
sonnel assistants or specialists) m ay perform lim ited
aspects o f a personnel p ro fessio n a l’s w ork, e .g ., inter­
view ing candidates, recom m ending placem ents, and
preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on person­
nel actions are m ade by personnel p rofessionals or
m anagers. Som e clerks/assistants m ay perform a
lim ited am ount o f work in other specialties, such as
b en efits, com p en sation, or em p loyee relations. Typing
m ay be required at any level.
E x c lu d e d are:

Key Entry Operator I
W ork is routine and repetitive. U nder close supervi­
sion or follow in g specific procedures or detailed instruc­
tio n s, w orks from various standardized source
docum ents which have been coded and require little or
no selecting, cod in g, or interpreting o f data to be
entered. R efers to supervisor problem s arising from er­
roneous item s, cod es, or m issing in form ation .

Key Entry Operator II
W ork requires the application o f experience and ju d g ­
m ent in selecting procedures to be follow ed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to
be entered from a variety o f source d ocum ents. On
occasion , m ay also perform som e routine w ork as
described for level I.

a. Workers who primarily compute and process pay­
rolls or compute and/or respond to questions on
company benefits or retirement claims;
b. Workers who receive additional pay primarily for
maintaining and safeguarding personnel record files
for a company;

N ote : Excluded are operators above level II using the
key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance o f specific records to take substantive actions,
or to m ake entries requiring a sim ilar level o f
know ledge.

c. Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of
the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such
as receptionists, messengers, typists, or stenographers;
d. Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree;
and

MESSENGER
P erform s various routine duties such as running er­
rands, operating m inor o ffic e m achines such as sealers
or m ailers, opening m ail, distributing m ail on a regular­
ly scheduled route or in a fam iliar area, and other m inor
clerical w ork. M ay deliver m ail that requires som e
special handling, e .g ., m ail that is insured, registered, or
m arked for special delivery.
E x c lu d e d are p ositions w hich include any o f the
follow in g as s ig n ific a n t duties:

e. Workers who are primarily compensated for duties
outside the employment specialty, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations.
P osition s are classified into levels on the basis o f the
follow in g d efinition s. The work described is essentially
at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and pro­
gresses to a sta ff assistant or technician level. A t level
III, w hich is transitional, both types o f w ork are
described. Jobs w hich m atch either type o f w ork
described at level III, or w hich are com b ination s o f the
tw o , can be m atched.

a. Operating motor vehicles;
b. Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when
the work requires a continuing knowledge o f special
procedures for handling such items;

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) I

c. Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording
and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail
in the mail room;

Perform s routine tasks w hich require a know ledge o f
com pany personnel procedures and rules, such as: P ro ­
viding sim ple em ploym ent in form ation and appropriate
lists and form s to applicants or em ployees on types o f
job s being filled, procedures to fo llo w , and w here to o b ­
tain additional inform ation; ensuring that the proper
com pany form s are com pleted for nam e changes,
locator in form ation , ap plications, etc ., and reviewing
com pleted form s for signatures and proper entries; or
m aintaining assigned segm ents o f com p any personnel
records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any

d. Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated
buildings or points which are not part o f an estab­
lished route; or
e. Directing other workers.

PERSONNEL CLERK/ASSISTANT
(EMPLOYMENT)
P ersonnel

clerks/assistants

(em ploym ent)

provide
78

ask appropriate routine follow -up questions. M ay provide
guidance to lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar
to level II.

m issing item s, and posting the item s, such as, dates o f
p rom otion , transfer, and hire, or rates o f pay or per­
sonal data. (If this in form ation is com puterized, skill in
coding or entering inform ation m ay be needed as a
m inor duty.) M ay answer outside inquiries for sim ple
factual in form ation , such as verification o f dates o f
em ploym ent in response to telephone credit checks on
em ployees. Som e receptionist or other clerical duties
m ay be perform ed. M ay be assigned work to provide
training for a higher level p osition.
D etailed com pany rules and procedures are available
for all aspects o f the assignm ent. G uidance and
assistance on unusual questions are available at all
tim es. W ork is spot checked, o ften on a daily basis.

AND/OR
Type B
Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new em ployees to com ­
pany programs, facilities, rules on tim e and attendance,
and leave policies; com puting basic statistical information
for reports on manpower profiles, e e o progress and ac­
com plishments, hiring activities, attendance and leave pro­
files, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants for welldefined positions, rejecting those w ho do not qualify for
available openings for clear-cut reasons, referring others to
appropriate em ployment interviewer. Guidance is provid­
ed on possible sources o f inform ation, m ethods o f work,
and types o f reports needed. Com pleted written work
receives close technical review from higher level person­
nel office em ployees; other work m ay be checked
occasionally.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) II
E x a m in es a n d /o r p ro ce sse s p erso n n el a c tio n
docum ents using experience in applying com pany per­
sonnel procedures and p olicies. Ensures that all in for­
m ation is com plete and consistent and determ ines
whether further discussion w ith applicants or em ployees
is needed or whether personnel inform ation m ust be
checked against additional files or listings. M ust select
the m ost appropriate precedent, rule, or procedures as a
basis for the personnel action from a num ber o f alter­
natives. R esponds to varied questions from applicants,
em ployees, or m anagers for readily available in form a­
tion which can be obtained from file m aterial or
m anuals; responses require skill to secure coop eration in
correcting im properly com pleted personnel action
docum ents or to explain regulations and procedures.
M ay provide in form ation to m anagers on availability o f
applicants and status o f hiring actions; m ay verify
em ploym ent dates and places supplied on job applica­
tions; m ay m aintain assigned personnel records, and
m ay adm inister typing and stenography tests.
C o m p letes rou tin e assign m en ts in d ep en d en tly .
D etailed guidance is available for situations which
deviate from established precedents. C lerks/assistan ts
are relied upon to alert higher level clerks/assistants or
supervisor to such situations. Work may be spot checked
periodically.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) IV
Performs work in support o f personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge o f personnel
procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references and
recommends placement o f applicants in a few well-defined
occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable organization
or unit; conducts postplacement or exit interviews to iden­
tify job adjustment problems or reasons for leaving the
company; performs routine statistical analyses related to
manpower, e e o , hiring, or other em ploym ent concerns,
e.g ., compares one set o f data to another set as instructed;
and requisitions applicants through em ploym ent agencies
for clerical or similar level jobs. A t this level, assistants
typically have a range o f personal contacts within and out­
side the com pany and with applicants, and must be tactful
and articulate. May perform som e clerical work in addi­
tion to the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed
work against stated objectives.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) V

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) III
Type A

Workers at this level perform duties similar to level IV,
but are responsible for m ore com plicated cases and work
with greater independence. Performs limited aspects o f
professional personnel work dealing with a variety o f oc­
cupations com m on to the com pany which are clear cut and
stable in em ployment requirements. Typical duties in­
clude: Researching recruitment sources, such as em ploy­
ment agencies or State manpower offices, and advising
managers on the availability o f candidates in com m on oc­
cupations; screening and selecting em ployees for a few
routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer em ploy­
ment; or answering inquiries on a controversial issue, such

Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the m ost complicated types o f personnel actions, e.g ., tem ­
porary em ployment, rehires, and dismissals, and in pro­
viding information when it is necessary to consolidate data
from a number o f sources, often with short deadlines.
Screens applications for obvious rejections. Resolves con­
flicts in computer listings or other sources o f em ployee in­
form ation. Locates lost documents or reconstructs infor­
m ation using a number o f sources. May check references
o f applicants when inform ation in addition to dates and
places o f past work is needed, and judgment is required to

79

as a hiring or prom otion freeze. These duties often require
considerable skill and diplomacy in com m unications.
Other typical duties m ay include: Surveying m anagers
for future hiring requirem ents; developing newspaper
vacancy announcem ents or explaining job requirem ents
to em ploym ent agencies for adm inistrative or p rofes­
sion al positions; or reviewing the effect o f corporate
personnel procedural changes on local em ploym ent p ro­
gram s (e .g ., au tom ation o f records, new affirm ative ac­
tion goals). M ay incidentally perform som e clerical
duties. Supervisory review is sim ilar to level IV.

p u rc h a sed m a ter ia ls w ith a ss e m b ly lin e o r p r o d u c tio n
sc h e d u le s a n d req u irem en ts;
e . P u r c h a sin g e x p e d ite r s w h o o n ly c h e c k o n th e sta tu s
o f p u rc h a ses a lre a d y m a d e a n d w h o d o n o t a n a ly z e
th e fa c ts at h a n d a n d d o n o t m a k e r e c o m m e n d a tio n s
fo r eith er e x te n s io n

d e sc r ib ed a t lev e l II, b;
f.

clerk s

or

or

as

ty p is ts ,

file

a n d tr a in e e s, w h o

q u a n titie s,

p r ice s,

a fte r

cle rk s,
do

not

a

m odel
h ig h er

n u m b ers,
lev e l

ad­

e m p lo y e e

d a ta are c o m p le te a n d a ccu ra te;

ite m s

who

fo r

p r o c e ss

d irect

or e x p e d ite

sa le ,

of

p r o d u c t io n

A ccording to detailed procedures or com pany regula­
tion s, exam ines docum ents such as requisitions, pur­
chase orders, invitations to b id, contracts, and support­
ing papers. R eview s the purchase requisition to deter­
m ine w hether the correct item description, price, quan ti­
ty, discount term s, shipping instructions, a n d /o r
delivery term s have been included and selects the ap­
propriate purchase phrases and form s from prescribed
com pany list or files. O btains any m issing or corrected
in form ation , prepares the purchase order, and gives it
to the buyer for approval w hen satisfied that the in fo r­
m ation is com plete and the com p utations are accurate.
C ontacts are usually w ithin establishm ent to verify or
correct factual in form ation . M ay contact vendors for
in form ation about purchases already m ade and m ay
reorder item s under routine and existing purchase ar­
rangem ents where few , if any, questions arise. R eceives
detailed instructions on new assignm ents. R efers ques­
tions to supervisor w ho m ay spot check w ork on a daily
basis.
A ssistants at this level exam ine docum ents for order
o f standard g o o d s, supplies, equipm ent, or services,
a n d /o r for order o f specialized item s w hen the co m p lex ­
ity o f the item does n ot affect the assistan t’s w ork , i.e .,
the assistant is n o t required to use considerable ju d g ­
m ent to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline,
as described at level II, a.

sc r ee n s th e r e q u isitio n a n d a ssu res th e p u rc h a se ord er

b . W o r k e rs

k n o w le d g e

p a r ts,

Purchasing Assistant I

a n d ty p e th e fin a l p u rc h a se o rd er, e n te r in g su ch p r e ­
ite m s

te c h n ic a l
and

P o sitio n s are classified into levels based on the
follow in g d efinition s according to the com plexity o f the
w ork, the con d itions o f the purchase, and the am ount
o f supervision.

in g ; w o r k e rs in th e se e x c lu d e d p o s itio n s m a y p rep are

d r e sse s,

a

h . B u y ers.

examine p u rc h a se r e q u isitio n s or o th e r d o c u m e n ts to
assure a c c u r a c y , c o m p le te n e s s , a n d co rr ec t p r o c e s s­

sc r ib ed

req u ire

c h a r a c t e r is t ic s

g . P o s it io n s r eq u irin g a b a c h e lo r ’s d eg ree; a n d

a ss is ta n ts,

r e c e p tio n is ts,

w h ic h

c o n tr o l, o r m a n u fa c tu r in g m e th o d s a n d p r o c ed u r es;

Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists w ho deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc ., o u ts id e the com pany to purchase
g o o d s, m aterials, equipm ent, services, etc. A ssistants at
level I exam ine requisitions and purchase d ocum ents,
such as purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts,
and supporting papers; they review, verify, prepare, or
con trol the docum ents to assure accuracy, co m ­
p leteness, and correct processing. A ssistants at levels II
and III m ay also expedite purchases already m ade, by
contacting vendors and analyzing and reporting on sup­
plier problem s related to delivery, availability o f g o o d s,
or any other part o f the purchase agreem ent. A ssistants
at level III m ay also develop technical in form ation for
buyers, e .g ., com parative inform ation on m aterials
sought. A ll assignm ents require a practical know ledge
o f com pany purchasing procedures and operations a n d
experience in applying com p any regulations, guidelines,
or m anuals to specific transactions. A ssistants m ay type
the purchasing docum ents they prepare or m ay perform
w ork described at low er levels, as needed. Final deci­
sions on purchasing transactions are m ade by buyers or
contract specialists.
E x c lu d e d are:

se c re ta ries,

P o s it io n s
e q u ip m e n t

PURCHASING ASSISTANT

a . P u r c h a sin g

o f d e liv e r y d a te s o r fo r o th e r

sim ila r m o d ific a tio n s t o th e p u rc h a se a g r e e m e n t, as

eith er

th e

p u rc h a se

w h o le s a le

or

of

retail;

Purchasing Assistant II

c . W o r k e rs w h o as a p rim a ry d u ty: M a in ta in a filin g

A ssistants at this level perform assignm ents described
in paragraphs a or b , or a com b ination o f the tw o .

sy stem o r listin g t o m o n ito r in v e n to r y lev e ls; reord er
ite m s b y p h o n e u n d er o n g o in g c o n tr a cts; o r receiv e

a.

a n d d isb u r se su p p lie s a n d m a ter ia ls fo r u se in th e
com pany;
d . P r o d u c tio n
e n su r e

th e

e x p e d ite r s
tim e ly

or

c o n tr o lle r s

a rriv a l

and

who

p rim arily

c o o r d in a t io n

of

80

R e v ie w s a n d p r ep a res p u rc h a se d o c u m e n ts fo r sp e ­
c ia liz e d ite m s , su ch as ite m s w ith o p t io n a l fe a tu r e s o r
te c h n ic a l e q u ip m e n t r eq u irin g p r e cise s p e c ific a tio n s .
S in ce th e tr a n sa c tio n s u s u a lly req u ire s p e c ia l p u r ­
c h a sin g c o n d itio n s , e .g ., m u ltip le d e liv e r ie s, p r o v i­

s io n o f sp a re p a r ts, o r r e n e g o tia tio n s o f te rm s, c o n ­
sid era b le ju d g m e n t is n e e d e d to fin d a p r e v io u s tr a n s­
a c tio n t o u se as a g u id elin e; as r eq u ire d , a d a p ts
th e p h ra ses o r c la u se s in th e g u id e lin e tr a n sa c tio n
th a t a p p ly to th e p u rc h a se a t h a n d . In s o m e c a se s,
rev iew s p u rc h a sin g d o c u m e n ts p rep a red b y lo w e r
lev e l clerk s o r p rep a red b y p e r so n n e l in o th e r c o m ­
p a n y u n its to d e te c t p r o c e s sin g d isc r ep a n c ie s or to
c la r ify th e p u rc h a se p a p ers; c o rrects c lerica l errors.
M a y a d v ise c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s o n h o w to p rep are
r e q u isitio n s fo r item s to b e o r d e re d .
b.

b . E x p e d ite s

c o n tr a c t

p rice r e d e te r m in a tio n ,

p a y m e n ts ,

C o m p lic a te d

fo r

te stin g

and

fo r
th e

pu rch ase

d o c u m e n ts

and

in fo r m a tio n
p roced ures

tr a n sa c tio n s

to
and

a gree

o th e r s

if

to

needed,

th e

b a sed

ite m s w ith in

c o n ta in

sp ec ia l

e x is tin g

p u rc h a se c o n ­

p u r c h a sin g

c o n d itio n s .

te c h n ic a l

su p p o r t

tr a n sa c tio n s
fo r

b id s

c o n tr a c ts

and
to

to

b u y ers

or

c o n tr a c t

k n o w le d g e o f c o m p a n y
p roced u res,
d e te rm in e

in te re st o f b id d e rs

e .g .,

th e

standard

fo r

ana­

p o s sib le
com ­

d e n te d p u r c h a s e s , e .g . , fo r sp e c ia lly d e sig n e d e q u ip ­
and

su m m a riz es

sp ec ia l

in fo r m a tio n

e q u ip m e n t

and

th e

on

th e

a b ility

a v a ila b ility
of

su p p lie rs

of
to

m e et c o m p a n y n e e d s.

P urchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurem ent p olicies. A ssistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problem s but are expected
to propose solu tions for supervisory approval. Super­
visory review is sim ilar to level II; drafts o f special
clauses, etc., are reviewed in detail.

N ote : Excluded are higher level w orkers who:
N eg o tia te agreem ents w ith con tractors o n m inor
changes in the term s o f an established contract; or
analyze and m ake recom m endations ab out p roposals o f
specialized equipm ent, about the solvency and p erfor­
m ance o f firm s, or about clerical processing m ethods
needed to fit new purchasing p olicies.

SECRETARY
P rovides principal secretarial support in an o ffic e,
usually to one individual, and, in som e cases, also to the
subordinate sta ff o f that individual. M aintains a close
and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day ac­
tivities o f the supervisor and sta ff. W orks fairly in ­
dependently receiving a m inim um o f detailed supervi­
sion and guidance. P erform s varied clerical and
secretarial duties requiring know ledge o f o ffic e routine
and an understanding o f the organ ization, program s,
and procedures related to the w ork o f the o ffic e.
E x c lu sio n s. N o t all p ositions titled “ secretary”
possess the above characteristics. Exam ples o f p ositions
which are excluded from the d efinition are as follow s:

o rd ered

on

a g r e e m e n t,

b u y er s,

r ev isio n s

m e n t or fo r c o m p le x o n e -tim e tr a n sa c tio n s; g a th ers

p r o g ress

com ­

a ssu res

sp e c ia lists ,

sp e c ia l c la u se s, te rm s, o r r eq u ire m en ts fo r u n p r e c e ­

m a y a lso e x ist. A s n e c e s sa r y , d r a fts sp e c ia l c la u se s,
a u th o r ita tiv e

w h ic h

n u m b er a n d

te rm s, o r r eq u ire m en ts fo r u n u s u a l p u rc h a ses. P r o ­
pany

th e

m o d itie s a n d serv ices; a ss e m b le s c o n tr a c ts a n d d r a fts

ite m , o r fo r m e e tin g c o m p a n y p r o d u c tio n sc h e d u le s

v id e s

p u rc h a se

ly ze s

tr a n sa c tio n s

ev a lu a tin g

w ith

R ecom m end s

p u rc h a sin g

or c o st in c e n tiv e s

p r o v isio n s

u ser s.

s p e c ia lists , u s in g a d e ta ile d

sio n s su ch as fix e d -p r ic e c o n tr a c ts w ith p r o v is io n s fo r
needed.

or

c . F u r n ish es

ex ist th a t ca n b e u sed as g u id e lin e s a n d w h er e p r o v i­

are

w h en

a s s is ta n t’s

in le v e l II, b .

R e v iew s a n d p rep a res p u rc h a se d o c u m e n ts fo r h ig h ly

e s c a la tio n ,

ite m s

a ffe c t th e

Q u e s tio n s w h ic h arise are h a n d le d sim ila r ly to th o s e

A ssistants at this level have a good understanding o f
purchase circum stances for specialized item s— what to
buy, where to b uy, and under what terms buyers
n e g o tia te and m ak e p u r ch a ses. T h ey p erfo rm
assignm ents described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a
com bination o f any o f these.

p r e ce d e n t

does

sp e c ific a tio n s

and

sp e c ia liz e d

tr a cts

Purchasing Assistant III

fe w

sp e c ia liz e d

u p o n c o m p a n y r eq u ire m en ts. M a y reord er te c h n ic a l
and

A ssistants at this level coordinate inform ation with
com pany buyers and with suppliers outside the com ­
pany and keep others inform ed o f the progress o f tran­
saction s. M ajor changes in com pany regulations and
procedures are explained by supervisor. R efers unusual
situations to supervisor, w ho also spot checks all com ­
pleted w ork for adequacy.

w h ere

c o n tr a c t

su p p lie rs,

p u rc h a ses b y making a recommendation
b a sed o n sim p le a n a ly sis o f th e fa c ts at
h a n d , c o m p a n y g u id e lin e s , a n d th e b a c k g r o u n d o f
th e p u rch a se: C o n ta c ts su p p lie rs to o b ta in in fo r m a ­
tio n o n d e liv e r ie s o r o n c o n tr a c ts; b a sed o n clearcu t g u id e lin e s fo r e a ch ty p e o f p u rc h a se a n d p r e v io u s
p e r fo r m a n c e o f su p p lie r, a v a ila b ility o f ite m , or
im p a c t o f d e la y , r e c o m m e n d s e x te n sio n o f d eliv ery
d a te o r o th e r sim ila r m o d ific a tio n s . In s o m e c a se s,
d e c id e s to refer p r o b le m s t o p r o d u c tio n , p a c k a g in g ,
or o th e r c o m p a n y s p e c ia lists . M a y reo rd er sta n d a rd
item s u n d e r a v a r ie ty o f e x is tin g p u rc h a se a g r ee m en ts
w h er e ju d g m e n t is n e e d e d to a sk fu rth er q u e s tio n s
a n d f o llo w u p a n d c o o r d in a te tr a n sa c tio n s. A s s is t­
a n ts at th is lev e l e x p e d ite p u rc h a ses o f sta n d a rd
g o o d s , su p p lie s, e q u ip m e n t, or se r v ic es, a n d / o r p u r­
c h a se s o f sp e c ia liz e d ite m s w h e n th e c o m p le x ity o f
th e item d o e s not a f f e c t th e a s s is ta n t’s w o r k , i .e ., th e
a ssista n t d o e s n o t c o o r d in a te r eq u ests fo r m in o r
d e v ia tio n s fr o m c o n tr a c t s p e c if ic a t io n s , e t c ., as
d e sc r ib ed at lev e l III, b .

item s

ite m s

a n d c o o r d in a te s r eq u e sts fo r m in o r d e v ia tio n s fr o m
th e

E x p e d ite s

sp e c ia liz e d

of

o f th e

w o r k . (S e e lev e l II, b .) In v e s tig a te s su p p lie r p r o b le m s

for action

a.

p u rc h a ses

c o m p le x ity

th a t

w ith

b a sic

a.

pro­

C lerk s or secreta ries w o r k in g u n d er th e d ir e c tio n o f
secreta ries

c u r em e n t p o lic ie s .

in e;

8
1

or

a d m in istr a tiv e

a ss is ta n ts

as

d e sc r ib ed

b. S te n o g r a p h er s

not

fu lly

p e r f o r m in g

s e c r e t a r ia l

supervisor m ay have an im pact on the policies and m ay
deal w ith im portant outside con tacts, as described in
LS-3.

d u ties;
c . S te n o g r a p h e r s

or

se creta ries

m o r e p r o fe s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l,

a ss ig n e d

to

tw o

or

or m a n a g e r ia l p e r so n s

L S -3 . O rganizational structure is divided in to tw o or

o f e q u iv a le n t rank;
d . A s sista n ts

or

secreta ries

p e r fo rm in g

any

k in d

m ore subordinate supervisory levels ( o f w hich at least
one is a m anagerial level) w ith several subdivisions at
each level. E xecu tive’s program (s) are usually interlock­
ed on a direct and continuing basis w ith other m ajor
organizational segm ents, requiring constant attention to
extensive form al coordination , clearances, and pro­
cedural con trols. Executive typically has: Financial deci­
sionm aking authority for assigned program (s); co n ­
siderable im pact on the entire organ ization ’s financial
p osition or im age; and responsibility for, or has sta ff
specialists in, such areas as personnel and adm inistra­
tion for assigned organization. Executive plays an im ­
portant role in determ ining the policies and m ajor pro­
gram s o f the entire organ ization, and spends co n ­
siderable tim e dealing w ith outside parties actively in­
terested in assigned program (s) and current or co n ­
troversial issues.

of

te c h n ic a l w o r k , e .g ., p e r so n n e l, a c c o u n tin g , o r leg a l
w o rk ;
e. A d m in is tr a tiv e

a ssista n ts

or

su p e rv iso r s

p e r fo r m in g

d u tie s w h ic h are m o r e d iffic u lt o r m o r e r e sp o n sib le
th a n th e secreta ria l w o r k d escrib ed in L R -1 th r o u g h
L R -4 ;
f.

S ecreta ries
m a in ta in in g

r ec eiv in g

a d d itio n a l

c o n fid e n tia lity

of

pay

p rim a rily

p a y r o ll

r eco rd s

fo r
or

o th e r se n sitiv e in fo r m a tio n ;
g . S ecreta ries

p e r fo r m in g

r o u tin e

r e c e p tio n is t,

ty p in g ,

a n d filin g d u tie s fo llo w in g d e ta ile d in str u c tio n s a n d
g u id elin es; th e se d u tie s are less r e s p o n s ib le th a n th o s e
d e sc r ib ed in L R -1 b e lo w ; a n d
h . T r a in ee s.

Classification by Level

Level of secretary’s responsibility (LR)

Secretary job s w hich m eet the required characteristics
are m atched at one o f five levels according to tw o fa c­
tors: (a) Level o f the secretary’s supervisor w ithin the
overall organizational structure, and (b) level o f the
secretary’s responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level
o f the secretary for each com bination o f factors.

This factor evaluates the nature o f the w ork relation­
ship betw een the secretary and the supervisor or sta ff,
and the extent to w hich the secretary is expected to exer­
cise initiative and judgm ent. Secretaries should be
m atched at the level best describing their level o f respon­
sibility. W hen a p o sitio n ’s duties span m ore than one
LR level, the introductory paragraph at the beginning o f
each LR level should be used to determ ine w hich o f the
levels best m atches the p osition . (T ypically, secretaries
perform ing at the higher levels o f responsibility also
perform duties described at the low er levels.)

Level of secretary’s supervisor (LS)
Secretaries should be m atched at on e o f the three LS
levels below best describing the organization o f the
secretary’s supervisor.
L S -1 . O rganizational structure is not com p lex and inter­

Carries ou t re c u rrin g o ffic e procedures in ­
dependently. Selects the guideline or reference w hich
fits the specific case. Supervisor provides specific in­
structions on new assignm ents and checks com pleted
w ork for accuracy. Perform s varied duties including or
com parable to the follow ing:

L R -1 .

nal procedures and adm inistrative controls are sim ple
and inform al; supervisor directs sta ff through face-toface m eetings.
L S -2 . O rganizational structure is com plex and is divided

into subordinate groups that usually differ from each
other as to subject m atter, fun ction , etc.; and supervisor
usually directs sta ff through interm ediate supervisors;
internal procedures and adm inistrative controls are for­
m al. A n entire organization (e .g ., d ivision , subsidiary,
or parent organization) m ay contain a variety o f subor­
dinate groups which m eet the LS-2 d efinition .
T h erefore, it is not unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to
report to another LS-2 supervisor.
The presence o f subordinate supervisors does not by
itself m ean LS-2 applies, e .g ., a clerical processing
organization divided into several units, each perform ing
very sim ilar w ork, is placed in LS-1.
In sm aller organizations or industries such as retail
trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the

a. R e sp o n d s to
sta n d a rd

r o u tin e t e le p h o n e r eq u e sts w h ic h h a v e

a n sw ers;

p r o p r ia te

sta ff.

refers

c a lls

C o n tr o ls

and

m a il

v isito r s

and

a ssu r es

to

ap­

tim e ly

s t a f f r e s p o n s e ; m a y se n d fo r m letters.
b. A s

in str u c te d ,

m akes

m a in t a in s

a p p o in t m e n t s ,

and

s u p e r v is o r ’s
arran ges

c a le n d a r ,

fo r

m e e tin g

ro o m s.
c . R e v iew s m a ter ia ls p rep a red fo r su p e r v iso r ’s a p p r o v a l
fo r ty p o g r a p h ic a l a c cu ra c y a n d p r o p e r fo r m a t.
d . M a in ta in s recu rrin g in te rn a l r e p o r ts, su c h as: T im e
and

le a v e

r e c o r d s,

o f f ic e

e q u ip m e n t

lis tin g s,

cor­

r e s p o n d e n c e c o n tr o ls , tr a in in g p la n s , e tc .
e . R e q u is itio n s

82

s u p p lie s ,

p r in tin g ,

m a in t e n a n c e ,

or

e.

o th e r ser v ic es. T y p e s, ta k e s a n d tra n scrib es d ic ta tio n ,

A d v is e s

se creta ries

in

su b o r d in a te

p r o c ed u r es;

p r o c ed u r es;

prepare

sta ff

and

m e m b e r s,

s ig n

or

d e te rm in e s

o f f ic e s .

o th e r

or

sp ec ia l

con­

S h ifts c lerica l s t a f f

M ay

n o n te c h n ic a l

r o u tin e ,

p e r io d ic

new
th e

involving the clerical or adm inistrative functions o f the
o ffic e w hich o ften cannot be brought to the attention o f
the executive. The executive sets the overall objectives
o f the w ork. Secretary m ay participate in developing the
w ork deadlines. D uties include or are com parable to the
follow ing:

w h ic h r eq u e sts sh o u ld b e h a n d le d b y th e su p e rv iso r ,
a p p ro p ria te

fo r

on

fr o m

L R -4 . H andles a w ide variety o f situations and con flicts

r e sp o n d e n c e ; p e r so n a lly r e s p o n d s to r eq u e sts fo r in ­
o ffic e

o f f ic e ( s )

o f f ic e s

needed

t o a c c o m m o d a te w o r k lo a d n e e d s.

a . S creen s te le p h o n e c a lls, v isito r s , a n d in c o m in g c o r ­
c o n c e r n in g

in fo r m a tio n

fe r e n c e s , r ep o rts, in q u ir ie s, e tc .

H andles differing situ ation s, problem s, and
deviations in the work o f the o ffic e according to the
supervisor’s general instructions, priorities, duties,
p olicies, and program goals. Supervisor m ay assist
secretary w ith special assignm ents. D uties include or are
com parable to the follow ing:
L R -2 .

fo r m a tio n

r eq u e sts

su b o r d in a te

a n d e sta b lish e s a n d m a in ta in s o f f ic e file s.

cor­

a.

C o m p o ses

corresp on d en ce

r eq u irin g

so m e

under­

sta n d in g o f te c h n ic a l m a tters; m a y sig n fo r e x e c u tiv e

r e sp o n d e n c e in o w n o r su p e r v iso r ’s n a m e .

w h e n te c h n ic a l o r p o lic y c o n te n t h a s b e e n a u th o r iz e d .
b . S c h e d u le s
c le a r a n c e .

t e n t a t iv e

a p p o in t m e n t s

w it h o u t

p r io r
b.

M a k e s a r ra n g em e n ts fo r c o n fe r e n c e s a n d

m e e t in g s

and

m a ter ia ls,

as

a s s e m b le s
d ir ec ted .

e s t a b lis h e d

M ay

a tten d

background
m e e tin g s

N o te s

c o m m itm e n ts

m ade

by

e x e c u tiv e

d u rin g

m e e tin g a n d arra n g es fo r s t a f f im p le m e n ta tio n . O n
o w n in itia tiv e , arra n g es fo r s t a f f m e m b er t o rep re­

an d

se n t

rec o rd a n d rep o rt o n th e p r o c e e d in g s .

o r g a n iz a tio n

at

c o n fe r e n c e s

and

m e e tin g s ,

e sta b lish e s a p p o in tm e n t p r io r itie s, or r es c h e d u le s or
c. R e v iew s o u tg o in g m a ter ia ls a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e fo r
in tern a l
v iso r ’s

c o n s is te n c y
p ro ced u res;

and

c o n fo r m a n c e

a ssu res

th a t

w ith

p ro p er

r efu ses a p p o in tm e n ts o r in v ita tio n s .

su p e r ­
c.

cle a ra n ce s

R e a d s o u tg o in g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e fo r e x e c u tiv e ’s a p ­
p r o v a l a n d a lerts w riters to a n y c o n flic t w ith th e file

h a v e b e e n o b ta in e d , w h e n n e e d e d .

o r d ep a rtu re fr o m p o lic ie s o r e x e c u tiv e ’s v ie w p o in ts;
d . C o lle c ts

in fo r m a tio n

fr o m
o f f ic e

on

th e

file s

or

p ro g r a m (s)

r o u tin e

in q u iries

rep o rts.

R e fer s n o n r o u tin e r eq u e sts to

sta ff

or

fo r

g iv es a d v ic e t o r e so lv e th e p r o b le m s.

p e r io d ic
d.

su p e v is o r or

S u m m a riz es

th e

c o n te n t

of

in c o m in g

m a ter ia ls,

sp ec ia lly g a th e r ed in fo r m a tio n , or m e e tin g s to a ssist

sta ff.

e x ec u tiv e;
e . E x p la in s

to

q u ir e m e n ts

s u b o r d in a te
c o n c e r n in g

d in a te s p e r so n n e l a n d

sta ff

o ffic e

s u p e r v i s o r ’s

proced u res.

a d m in istr a tiv e

re­

c o o r d in a te s

th e

new

in fo r m a tio n

w ith

b a c k g r o u n d o f f ic e so u rc e s; a n d d ra w s a tte n tio n to

C oor­

im p o r ta n t p a rts o r c o n f lic t s .

fo r m s fo r th e
e.

o f f ic e a n d fo r w a rd s fo r p r o c e s sin g .

In th e e x e c u tiv e ’s a b s e n c e , en su re s th a t r eq u ests fo r
a c tio n or in fo r m a tio n are r ela y ed to th e a p p ro p ria te
s t a f f m em b er; as n e e d e d , in terp rets r eq u e st a n d h e lp s

L R -3 . U ses greater judgm ent and initiative to deter­

im p le m e n t a c tio n ;

m ine the approach or action to take in nonroutine situa­
tions. Interprets and adapts guidelines, including un­
w ritten p olicies, precedents, and practices, w hich are
not alw ays com pletely applicable to changing situations.
D uties include or are com parable to the follow ing:

fu r n ish ed

in

m a k e s su re th a t in fo r m a tio n

tim e ly

m a n n er;

d e c id e s

w h eth er

is
ex­

e c u tiv e sh o u ld b e n o tifie d o f im p o r ta n t or e m er g en cy
m a tters.

E x c lu d e s secretaries perform ing any o f the follow in g

duties:
a . B a se d

on

co m p o ses

a

k n o w le d g e

correspon dence

of

th e

on

su p e r v iso r ’s

ow n

v ie w s,

in itia tiv e

a.

about

a d m in istr a tiv e a n d g e n e ra l o f f ic e p o lic ie s fo r su p e r ­

ed

v is o r ’s a p p r o v a l.
b . A n tic ip a te s
s u p e r v iso r

A c ts as o f f i c e m a n a g e r fo r th e e x e c u tiv e ’s o r g a n iz a ­
t io n , e .g ., d e te rm in e s w h e n n e w p r o c e d u r e s are n e e d ­
fo r

c h a n g in g

s itu a tio n s

and

d e v ise s

and

im ­

p le m e n ts a lter n a tiv es; rev ises o r c la r ifie s p r o c ed u r es

and

p rep a res

fo r

c o n fe r e n c e s,

m a ter ia ls

needed

by

corresp on d en ce,

to e lim in a te c o n f lic t o r d u p lic a tio n ; id e n tifie s a n d

th e

r eso lv e s v a r io u s p r o b le m s th a t a f f e c t th e o r d e rly flo w

ap­

p o in tm e n ts , m e e tin g s , t e le p h o n e c a lls, e t c ., a n d in ­

of

fo r m s su p e rv iso r o n m a tter s to b e c o n sid e r e d .

o r g a n iz a tio n .

in

tr a n sa c tio n s

P repares

agenda

ta k e s a c tio n o r refers th o s e th a t are im p o r ta n t to th e

d isc u s sio n

to p ic s

su p e rv iso r a n d s t a f f .

tio n s

c. R eads

p u b lic a tio n s ,

r e g u la tio n s ,

and

d ir ec tiv e s

b.

w ork

and

to

in q u iries,

se le c tin g

relev a n t

o th e r

o f f ic e s ,

e t c .,

o u ts id e

c o n fe r e n c e s;

p a r ticip a n ts;
background

d r a fts

th e

e x p la in s
in tr o d u c ­

in fo r m a tio n

and

u se in w ritin g sp e e c h e s.

in fo r m a tio n
c.

fr o m a v a r ie ty o f so u r c e s su ch as rep o rts, d o c u m e n ts ,
correspon dence,

d e v e lo p s

fo r

p a r ties

p rep ares o u tlin e s fo r e x e c u tiv e or s t a f f m e m b er s(s) to

d . P re p a r es sp ec ia l o r o n e -tim e rep o rts, su m m a rie s, or
rep lies

and

to

w ith

under

A d v is e s

in d iv id u a ls

o u ts id e

th e

o r g a n iz a tio n

on

th e e x e c u tiv e ’s v ie w s o n m a jo r p o lic ie s o r cu rren t

g en era l

issu e s

d ir e c tio n .

83

f a c in g

th e

o r g a n iz a tio n ;

c o n ta c ts

or

resp on d s

to

c o n ta c ts

fr o m

h ig h -r a n k in g

etc. U ses this know ledge in perform ing stenographic
duties and responsible clerical tasks such as m aintaining
follow u p files; assem bling m aterial for reports,
m em oranda, and letters; com p osin g sim ple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incom ing
mail; answering routine questions; etc.

o u ts id e

o f f ic ia ls ( e .g ., c ity or S ta te o f f ic ia ls , M em b er s o f
C o n g r e ss ,

p r e sid e n ts

n a tio n a l

or

situ a tio n s .
c e s sib le ,

of

n a tio n a l

in te r n a tio n a l

T h e se

o f f ic ia ls

a n d e a ch

u n io n s

firm s,
m ay

e tc .)

be

or

in

large

u n iq u e

rela tiv ely

in a c ­

c o n ta c t ty p ic a lly m u st b e h a n ­

d le d d iffe r e n tly , u sin g ju d g m e n t a n d d isc r e tio n .

Table C-5. Criteria for matching secretaries by level

TYPIST

Level of secretary’s responsibility

Level of
secretary's
supervisor

LR-2

I
I
I

LS-1
LS-2
LS-3

LR-3
III
IV
V

U ses a m anual, electric, or autom atic typewriter to
type various m aterials. Included are au tom atic
typewriters that are used on ly to record text and update
and reproduce previously typed item s from m agnetic
cards or tape. M ay include typing o f stencils, m ats, or
sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicating processes. M ay
do clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incom ing m ail.
E x c lu d e d from this d efinition is work that involves:

LR-4

II
III
IV

LR-1

IV
V
V

STENOGRAPHER
Prim ary duty is to take dictation using short­
hand and to transcribe the dictation. M ay also type
from written cop y. M ay operate from a stenographic
p ool. M ay occasion ally transcribe from voice recor­
dings.
E x c lu d e d from this d efinition are:
a.

T r a in ee

p o s itio n s

not

req u irin g

a

fu lly

a.

r ec o rd ed o n d isc s, c y lin d e r s, b e lts, ta p e s , o r o th e r
sim ilar m ed ia ;
b.

q u a lifie d

T h e u se o f v a rity p e m a c h in e s, c o m p o s in g e q u ip m e n t,
or a u to m a tic e q u ip m e n t in p rep a rin g m a ter ia l fo r

ste n o g r a p h er ;
b.

T y p in g d ir ec tly fr o m s p o k e n m a teria l th a t h a s b een

p rin tin g ; a n d

S ecreta ries p r o v id in g th e p rin cip a l secreta ria l su p p o rt
in a n o f f ic e a n d p e r fo r m in g m o r e r e s p o n s ib le an d

c.

F a m ilia rity w ith sp e c ia liz e d te r m in o lo g y in v a r io u s

d isc r etio n a r y ta s k s , as d e sc r ib ed in L R -1 th ru L R -4 in

c.

k e y b o a r d c o m m a n d s to m a n ip u la te or e d it th e r e c o r d ­

th e secreta ry d e fin itio n ;

e d te x t to a c c o m p lish r e v isio n s , or to p e r fo r m ta sk s
su ch as e x tra c tin g a n d listin g item s fr o m th e te x t, o r

S te n o g r a p h er s w h o ta k e d ic ta tio n in v o lv in g th e fre­

tra n sm ittin g te x t t o o th e r te r m in a ls, o r u sin g so rt c o m ­

q u en t u se o f a w id e v a riety o f te c h n ic a l o r sp ec ia liz ed

m a n d s to h a v e th e m a c h in e reord er m a ter ia l. T y p ic a lly

v o c a b u la r y . T y p ic a lly th is k in d o f v o c a b u la r y c a n n o t

req u ires th e u se o f a u to m a tic e q u ip m e n t w h ic h m a y b e

b e lea rn ed in a r ela tiv e ly sh ort p e r io d o f tim e , e .g ., a

e ith er

m o n th o r tw o ; a n d

c o m p u te r

lin k e d

or

have

a

p r o g r a m m a b le

m e m o r y so th a t m a ter ia l can b e o r g a n iz e d in reg u la rly
d.

S te n o g r a p h e r s,

su ch

as

sh o rth a n d

rep o rte rs,

who

u sed fo r m a ts o r p r e fo r m e d p a ra g ra p h s w h ic h c a n th e n

r eco rd m a ter ia l v e rb a tim at h e a r in g s, c o n fe r e n c e s , or

be coded and
d o c u m e n ts .

sim ila r p r o c e e d in g s .

sto r ed

fo r

fu tu re u se in lette rs o r

Stenographer I
T akes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignm ents along with detailed instructions on such re­
quirem ents as form s and presentation. The transcribed
m aterial is typically reviewed in rough draft and the
final transcription is reviewed for conform ance with the
rough drafts. M ay m aintain files, keep sim ple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.

N o t e : The occupational titles1 and definitions for ac­
counting clerks, drafters, file clerks, key entry operators,
stenographers, a n d ty p ists are th e sa m e as th o s e u s e d in the
Bureau’s program o f occupational wage surveys in
metropolitan areas.
Revised definitions for stenographer and typist were in­
troduced into the area surveys in calendar year 1981; the

Stenographer II
T akes and transcribes dictation, determ ining the m ost
appropriate form at. P erform s stenographic duties re­
quiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro­
vides general instruction. W ork requires a thorough
w orking know ledge o f general business and o ffic e pro­
cedures and o f the specific business operations,
organ izations, policies, procedures, files, w ork flow ,

4 -lev e l a c c o u n tin g c le rk s, in 1980; a n d th e 5 -lev el d r a fter ,
in 1979. T h ree yea rs are req u ired to b rin g a n e w jo b
d e fin itio n in to all area s c o v e r e d b y th e p r o g r a m .
' Before 1981, level designations differed between the area and national
surveys. See National Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay, March 1980, Bulletin 2081 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1980),
p. 68, for details.

84

Typist I

m aterial in final form w hen it involves com bining
m aterial from several sources; or responsibility for cor­
rect spelling; syllabification, punctuation, etc., o f
technical or unusual w ords or foreign language
m aterials; or planning layout and typing o f com plicated
statistical tables to m aintain uniform ity and balance in
spacing. M ay type routine form letters, varying details
to suit circum stances.

P erform s one o f more o f the following: C opy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing o f form s,
insurance p olicies, etc.; or setting up sim ple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore com plex tables already set
up and spaced properly.

Typist II
P erform s

one or more o f the following: Typing

Classification by Standard Occupational Codes
foun d in the soc m anual. For exam ple, the p a t c o c­
cupations A ccou n tan t, C h ief A cco u n ta n t, A ud itor, and
P ublic A ccoun tan t are all classified in the soc m anual
as accountants and auditors. The soc occup ation (code
1412) includes a variety o f accounting occup ations (e .g .,
b u d g et a c c o u n ta n ts, cred it a n a ly sts, a c c o u n tin g
m ethods analysts) that are excluded from the p a t c
description.

The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes to the right o f the
(PATC) occup ations in table C -6 are taken from the
1980 edition o f the Standard Occupational Classifica­
tion Manual (SOC), issued by the U .S . D epartm ent o f
C om m erce, O ffice o f Federal Statistical P olicy and
Standards.
In general, the Bureau o f Labor Statistics’ occu p a­
tional descriptions are m uch m ore specific than those
bls

Table C-6. Comparison of occupations in the professional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC) survey with the
Standard Occupational Classification Manual
patc

occupation

Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC)

soc
code

Accountants........
Chief accountants
Auditors
Public accountants
Job analysts
Directors of personnel
Attorneys

1412
1412
1412
1412
143
143
211

Accountants and auditors
Accountants and auditors
Accountants and auditors
Accountants'and auditors
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Lawyers

Buyers
Computer programmers
Systems analysts

1449
397
1712

Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified
Programmers
Computer systems analysts

Chemists
Engineers

1845
162-3

Chemists, except biochemists
Engineers

Engineering technicians
Drafters
Computer operators
Photographers

371
372
4612
326

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians
Drafting occupations
Computer operators
Photographers

Accounting clerks
File c le rks..........................
Key entry operators
M essengers....................
Personnel clerks/assistants
Purchasing assistants
Secretaries........................
Stenographers
Typists

4712
4696
4793
4745
4692
4664
4622
4623
4624

Bookkeepers and accounting and auditing clerks
File clerks
Data entry operators
Messengers
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping
Order clerks

85

Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists

Appendix D. Comparisons of Salaries
in Private Industry with Salaries
of Federal Employees
Under the General Schedule

Bureau o f Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational
work level d efinition s used in the survey. D efin itions
were graded by o p m according to standards established
for each grade level. Table D -l show s the surveyed jobs
grouped by work levels equivalent to General Schedule
grade levels.

The survey was designed to provide a basis for co m ­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification
and pay system w ith salaries in private enterprise. To
assure collection o f pay data for work levels equivalent
to the General Schedule grade levels, the O ffice o f P er­
sonnel M anagem ent ( o p m ) , in cooperation w ith the

86

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by B LS ’

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,2
March 1985

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19853

Grade4

Step6

Average,5
March
1985

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

$10,101
11,685

GS 1

$ 9,523

$ 9,339

$ 9,650

$ 9,961

$10,271

$10,582

$10,764

$11,071

$11,380

$11,393

$ 1 1 ,6 8 6

Accounting clerks I
Drafters I
File clerks II
Key entry operators I
Typists I ................................................

12,380
13,208
11,836
13,200
12,621

GS 2

10,748

10,501

10,750

11,097

11,393

11,521

11,860

12,199

12,538

12,877

13,216

Accounting clerks II
Drafters II
Engineering technicians I
File clerks I I I ..........................................
Key entry operators II
Personnel clerks/assistants I
Stenographers I
Typists II

14,728
16,488
16,876
14,707
16,600
14,023
18,391
15,847

GS 3

12,236

11,458

11,840

12,222

12,604

12,986

13,368

13,750

14,132

14,514

14,896

Accounting clerks III
Computer operators I
Drafters III
Engineering technicians II
Personnel clerks/assistants II
Photographers I
Purchasing assistants I
Secretaries I
Stenographers I

17,327
13,670
20,006
19,339
16,375
17,571
16,363
15,869
20,194

GS 4

14,272

12,862

13,291

13,720

14,149

14,578

15,007

15,436

15,865

16,294

16,723

Accounting clerks IV
Accountants I
Auditors I
Buyers I
Chemists I
Computer operators II
Drafters IV
Engineers I .............................................
Engineering technicians III
Job analysts I
Personnel clerks/assistants III
Photographers II
Computer programmers I
Purchasing assistants II
Secretaries II

21,106
20,577
21,128
20,896
22,631
16,973
23,950
27,405
23,179
20,774
18,870
22,019
20,318
21,135
17,721

GS 5

16,289

14,390

14,870

15,350

15,830

16,310

16,790

17,270

17,750

18,230

18,710

File clerks I
Messengers

S e e fo o tn o te s at end of table.

Table D-1. Continued—Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS'

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,2
March 1985

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19853

Grade4

Step6

Average,5
March
1985

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Computer operators I I I ...........................
Personnel clerks/assistants I V ..............
Purchasing assistants III ......................
Secretaries III.........................................

$20,664
22,355
28,150
19,988

GS 6

$18,467

$16,040

$16,575

$17,110

$17,645

$18,180

$18,715

$19,250

$19,785

$20,320

$20,855

Accountants II .....................................
Auditors I I ...............................................
Buyers I I .................................................
Chemists I I .............................................
Computer operators IV ..........................
Drafters V ...............................................
Engineers II ...........................................
Engineering technicians IV ................
Job analysts I I .........................................
Photographers I I I ...................................
Computer programmers I I ....................
Public accountants I ...............................
Secretaries IV .........................................

25,349
25,854
25,606
26,722
24,016
29,876
30,275
27,259
23,602
26,489
23,690
19,657
22,520

GS 7

20,227

17,824

18,418

19,012

19,606

20,200

20,794

21,388

21,982

22,576

23,170

Computer operators V
Secretaries V .........................................

28,440
26,210

GS 8

22,885

19,740

20,398

21,506

21,714

22,372

23,030

23,688

24,346

25,004

25,662

Accountants II I .......................................
Attorneys I .............................................
Auditors I I I .............................................
Buyers III ...............................................
Chemists III ...........................................
Engineers I I I ...........................................
Engineering technicians V ....................
Job analysts III
Photographers I V ...................................
Computer programmers III....................
Public accountants I I .............................
Systems analysts I .................................

30,037
29,886
31,246
31,774
32,461
34,348
31,386
29,905
30,210
28,367
22,134
28,197

GS 9

24,508

21,804

22,531

23,258

23,985

24,712

25,439

26,166

26,893

27,620

28,347

Accountants IV .......................................
Attorneys I I ...............................................
Auditors I V .............................................
Buyers I V ...............................................
Chemists IV ...........................................
Chief accountants I ...............................
Directors of personnel I ........................
Engineers IV ...........................................
Job analysts I V .........................................
Computer programmers IV....................

37,607
37,256

GS 11

29,772

26,381

27,260

28,139

29,018

29,897

30,776

31,655

32,534

33,413

34,292

See footnotes at end of table.

39,243

39,306
39,418
37,557
37,173
40,991
36,983
33,708

Table D-1. Continued—Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS'

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,1
2
March 1985

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19853

Grade4

Step6

Average,5
March
1985

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Public accountants III............................
Systems analysts II

$25,891
$33,465

Accountants V .......................................
Attorneys III ..................................
Chemists V .............................................
Chief accountants I I ...............................
Directors of personnel II
Engineers V .....................................
Computer programmers V ....................
Public accountants IV ............................
Systems analysts III

46,879
47,742
47,706
46,517
45,764
48,366
41,288
31,416
39,663

GS 12

$36,082

$31,619

$32,673

$33,727

$34,781

$35,835

$36,889

$37,943

$38,997

$40,051

$41,105

Accountants VI
Attorneys IV
Chemists VI ...........................................
Chief accountants III ............................
Directors of personnel I I I ......................
Engineers V I ...........................................
Systems analysts IV

59,519
59,807
58,210
60,466
59,317
56,136
46,729

GS 13

43,523

37,599

38,852

40,105

41,358

42,611

43,864

45,117

46,370

47,623

48,876

Attorneys V
Chemists V II...........................................
Chief accountants IV ............................
Directors of personnel IV
Engineers VII
Systems analysts V

73,805
68,710
74,735
70,663
65,641
56,461

GS 14

51,714

44,430

45,911

47,392

48,873

50,354

51,835

53,316

54,797

56,278

57,759

Attorneys VI
Engineers VIII
Systems analysts VI

91,690
76,205
68 900

GS 15

61,505

52,262

54,004

55,746

57,488

59,230

60,972

62,714

64,456

66,198

67,940

1 For definitions, see appendix C.
2 Survey findings as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope of survey, see appen­
dix A.
3 General schedule rates in effect in March 1985, the reference date of the patc survey.
4 Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the Office of Personnel
Management.
5 Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of March 31,1985. Not
limited to Federal employees in occupations surveyed by BLS.
6 Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for within-in grade increases on condi­
tion that the employees’s work is of an acceptable level of competence as defined by the
head of the agency. For employees who meet this condition, the service requirements are 52
calendar weeks for each advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks for advance­
ment to salary rates 5, 6, and 7; and 156 weeks for each advancement to salary rates 8, 9,
and 10. Section 5336 provides that an additional within-grade increase may be granted within

any 52-week period in recognition of high quality performance above that ordinarily found in
the type of position concerned.
NOTE: Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher minimum rates (but not ex­
ceeding the maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level)
and a corresponding new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under
certain conditions. The conditions include a finding that the Government’s recruitment or
retention of well-qualified persons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in
private industry are substantially above the salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of
March 1985, special higher salary rates were authorized for professional engineers at the en­
try grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at GS-9 and GS-11. In addition, special rates were authorized
for mining and electrical engineers at GS-5 through GS-12 and petroleum engineers at GS-5
through GS-13. Information on special salary rates, including the occupations and the areas
to which they apply, may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management,
Washington, D C. 20415, or its regional offices.

Employee Benefits
in Medium and Large
Firms, 1984
U.S. D epartm ent of Labor
Bureau of Labor S tatistics
Bulletin 2237

The Bureau of Labor S tatistics issues its
1984 bulletin on em ployee benefits in m edium
and large firm s. This survey is the sixth in an
annual series.

Data available
• Incidence and detailed ch a ra cte ristics of 11
private sector em ployee benefits paid for at
least in part by the em ployer: Lunch and rest
periods, holidays, vacations, and personal and
sick leave; sickness and accident, long-term
disability, health, and life insurance; and p ri­
vate retirem ent pension plans.
• Incidence data on 18 other employee bene­
fits, including stock, savings and thrift, and
pro fit sharing plans; em ployee discounts; and
educational assistance.
• Data presented separately for three o ccu p a ­
tional groups— professional-adm inistrative,
tech n ica l-cle rical, and production workers.

Coverage
• M ajor benefits in medium and large firm s,
nationwide.
• M inim um em ploym ent in establishm ents
covered is generally 100 to 250 employees,
depending on the industry.
Publications are available
from the
Superintendent
of Documents,
U.S. Government
Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402,
or the Bureau
of Labor Statistics
Chicago Regional Office,
P.O. Box 2145
Chicago, III. 60690

Source of data
• Sample of about 1,500 establishm ents in a
cross-section of the N a tio n ’s private industries;
p rim arily by personal interview .

Uses
• Benefit adm inistration in public and private
em ploym ent.
• Union co ntra ct negotiations.
• Conciliation and a rbitration in public and
private sectors.
• Developm ent of legislation a ffe ctin g the
w elfare of workers.

O rder form
Please send

..

copies of

E m p l o y e e B e n e f i t s in M e d i u m a n d L a r g e F i r m s , 1 9 8 4 ,

Bulletin 2237,

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Charge to GPO Deposit Account No._______________________ Order N o . ________________________
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Expiration Date
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Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N E.
Atlanta, Ga. 3 0 3 6 7
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Federal Building
525 Griffin St., Rm. 221
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

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