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National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1982
-rrr
U.S. Department of Labor
an of Labor Statistics
. )mber 1982

DOCUMENT COLLECTION

in 2145




O C T 2 5 1982
Dayton & iViontgomer
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Public LI br

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National S u tw of
e ®^
P r® fes»nalgAdministrative,
Technical, and Clerical P afg
iiareh 1982
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1982
Bulletin 2145




F o r sa le by th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office
W a sh in g ton , D.C. 2 0 402 - P rice $4.75




some occupations and work levels were limited to
specific elements that could be classified uniformly
among establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the Office of Personnel Management worked joint­
ly to prepare the definitions.
The survey could not have been conducted without
the cooperation of the many firms whose salary data
provide the basis for the statistical information in this
bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of
the other Federal agencies that contributed to survey
planning, wishes to express appreciation for the
cooperation it has received.
This survey was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Oc­
cupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels. Mark S.
Sieling prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Computer
programming and tabulation of data were developed by
Kay A. Wyllie under the direction of Richard W.
Maylott, Office of Statistical Operations. Terry
Burdette and Alan Tupek, of the Office of Survey
Design, were responsible for the sampling design and
other statistical procedures. Fieldwork and data collec­
tion for the survey were directed by the Bureau’s Assis­
tant Regional Commissioners for Operations.
Although only nationwide salary data are presented
in this bulletin, salary data for clerical occupations and
for two technical jobs—computer operator and
drafter—are available for each metropolitan area in
which the Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These
area reports also include information on the incidence
of employee benefits such as paid vacations, holidays,
and health, insurance, and pension plans for nonsupervisory office workers.

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical occupations in
private industry. The nationwide salary information,
relating to March 1982, is representative of
establishments in a broad spectrum of industries
throughout the United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii.
The results of the national white-collar salary survey
are used for a number of purposes, including general
economic analysis and wage and salary administration
by private and public employers. One important use is
to provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar
salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay Com­
parability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has
designated the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the
Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of
the Office of Personnel Management to serve jointly as
his agent to establish pay for Federal white-collar
employees.
The President’s agent is responsible for translating
the survey findings into recommendations to the Presi­
dent on appropriate adjustments needed to make
Federal pay rates comparable with those of private
enterprise for the same levels of work. The agent also
determines the industry, geographic, establishment size,
and occupational coverage of the survey.
The role of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the pay­
setting process is limited to conducting the survey and
advising on the feasibility of proposed survey changes.
It should be emphasized that this survey, like any other
salary survey, does not provide mechanical answers to
pay policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. The occupations selected were
judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the
framework of a broad survey design, (b) representative
of occupational groups which generally are numerically
important in industry as well as in the Federal Service,
and (c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal
and private sectors.
Occupational definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private
industry; however, they are also designed to be
translatable to specific General Schedule (GS) grades
applying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of



In 1981, a survey of employee benefits in private in­
dustry covered the same scope as the national survey of
professional, administrative, technical, and clerical pay.
The findings of the survey appear in Employee Benefits
in Medium and Large Firms, 1981, Bulletin 2140
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1982), Copies are for sale
from the Government Printing Office or the Bureau’s
regional offices listed on the inside back cover of this
bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced
without permission.

iii




©®[n]S@ntS

Page

Summary............................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey.............................................................................................................
Employment......................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels.....................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1982...........................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan areas...................................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments..................................................................................................
Salary distributions..........................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry...............................................................................................................
Average standard weekly h o u rs.......................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
4
5
5
5
6

Text tables:
1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1970-82 ............................................
2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category, 1970-82 ...............................
3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion..................................................

2
2
6

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States.....................................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan areas....................... ....................... .........................................................
3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or m o re .........................................................

10
12
14

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations.................................................................
5. Technical support occupations........................................................................................
6. Clerical occupations.........................................................................................................
7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division........................................
8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division..................................................
9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division................................................

16
23
25
28
28
29

Charts:
1. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1982........................................
2. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1982 ......................................
3. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1982 .

7
8
9

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey................................................................................................
B. Survey changes in 1982 .......................................................................................................
C. Occupational definitions.................
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of Federal employees
under the General Schedule ..........................................................................................




v

30
34
35
77

Professional, Administrative,
TeohnieaS, aredl CferieaS Pay,
Eiareh 1982

Summary

The number of levels in each occupation ranges from
one for messengers to eight for engineers. These work
levels, however, are not intended to represent all the
workers in a specific occupation. Thus, the survey does
not present comparisons of overall occupational salary
levels, such as between accountants as a group and
engineers.
The approximately 44,000 establishments within the
scope of the survey employed just over 23 million
workers, of whom about two-fifths were professional,
administrative, technical, or clerical employees. Onesixth of these white-collar employees (1,927,000
workers) were in occupations for which salary data were
developed. The survey presents separate occupational
data for metropolitan areas—where nine-tenths of the
white-collar workers were employed—and for
establishments employing 2,500 workers or more.

Average salaries for most white-collar occupations
covered by the survey rose sharply during the year ended
March 1982.1 The 1981-82 occupational increases com­
monly fell in the 9- to 10-percent range. As in the
previous year, these increases were substantially higher
than in the 1975-80 period—7 to 8 percent—and in the
1970-75 period—6 to 7 percent.
Average monthly salaries for the 101 occupational
levels studied ranged from $752 for clerks performing
routine filing to $6,350 for the highest level attorneys
surveyed. For most occupations, salary levels in
metropolitan areas and in large establishments were
higher than the average for all establishments within the
scope of the survey. Among the major industry divi­
sions represented in the survey, finance industries usual­
ly reported the lowest salaries and the shortest standard
.weekly hours.

Employment

Occupational employment varied widely, reflecting
both actual differences among occupations and dif­
ferences in the range of duties and responsibilities
covered by the definitions. For example, there were
511,000 incumbents in the eight levels of engineers, ac­
counting for two-thirds of the 771,000 professional
employees; corporate attorneys, in contrast, numbered
under 15,000—a figure that does not include those in
legal firms. The newly surveyed occupation of programmers/programmer analysts had 123,700 employees in
five work levels, or about 95 percent of the employees in
all administrative jobs surveyed, which also included oc­
cupations such as job analysts and directors of person­
nel. Engineering technicians accounted for just over
two-fifths of the 274,300 technical workers, followed by
drafters (three-tenths) and computer operators (onefourth). Secretaries constituted the largest clerical oc­
cupation, accounting for two-fifths of the three-quarter
million clerical work force. The next largest clerical oc­
cupation was accounting clerk with slightly over onefourth of the total.

Gharaeteristies ©f the survey

This survey—the 23rd in an annual series—provides
nationwide salary data for 24 occupations spanning 101
work level categories. The information was collected
from establishments in all areas of the United States, ex­
cept Alaska and Hawaii. The following major industrial
groups were surveyed: Mining; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected serv­
ices. The minimum size of the establishments studied
was either 50, 100, or 250 employees, depending on the
industry.2
Occupations are divided into appropriate work levels
based on duties and responsibilities (see appendix C).
The number of work levels—designated by Roman
numerals, with level “ I” the lowest—varies from oc­
cupation to occupation, as do degrees of difficulty and
responsibility.3
1 For results o f the 1981 survey, see National Survey o f Professional, A d­
ministrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1981, Bulletin 2108 (Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1981).
2 See appendix A for a full description o f the scope o f the survey.
3 The Roman numerals do not necessarily identify equal levels o f work among
occupations. For example, public accountant levels I to IV equate to accountant
levels II to V while attorney I equates to accountant III and public accountant II.
For more information, see appendix D.




Changes in salary levels

Following substantial increases in 1980-81, salary
levels for most of the surveyed jobs again rose sharply
during the 1981-82 period. (See text table 1.) In 1981-82,
1

Taxt table 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1970-821
Occupation

1970
to
1971

1971
to
19722

1972
to
1973

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

1979
to
1980

1980
to
1981

1981
to
1982

6.7
9.1
(3
)
7.0
7.7
8.0
5.0
7.0
5.5
5.7
6.5
5.6
(3
)

5.6
3.9
(3
)
5.5
6.8
3.9
6.1
6.3
5.1
5.2
5.1
7.2
(3
)

4.9
5.8
(3
)
5.2
5.2
7.5
6.3
5.0
3.7
5.1
4.7
6.2
(3
)

8.0
7.7
(4
)
6.5
8.6
7.5
8.9
7.0
7.6
8.4
7.6
(4)
7.2

9.2
11.3
4.2
8.8
8.1
11.2
9.3
8.1
9.8
9.8
11.0
11.8
8.3

10.0
9.5
7.9
10.3
7.6
11.4
9.8
9.8
9.4
10.9
10.2
10.9

(3
)

6.4
6.6
(3
)
5.5
6.0
7.8
6.1
6.7
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4
(4
)
(3
)

8.3
8.0
(3
)
8.2
7.2
10.0
9.1
7.8
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5

(3
)

9.8
8.6
(3
)
6.8
7.5
6.1
7.6
9.2
10.1
8.4
9.0
8.0
(3
)
O

7.8
10.5
(3
)
6.8
6.5
9.1
5.4
7.0
7.0
6.4
7.2
6.0
5.4

ft

6.1
7.2
(3
)
5.2
6.1
7.2
5.8
6.0
7.1
5.4
6.0
6.7
(4)

(3
)

<)
3

(3
)

ft

9.6
11.4
6.6
9.4
9.2
9.6
11.4
9.4
10.4
10.2
9.4
8.4
8.9
9.7

6.0
6.1
7.0
6.7
(3
)
6.6
7.5
6.1

6.0
5.5
6.8
6.3
(3
)
6.1
6.4
5.7

4.6
5.9
5.4
5.1
(3
)
5.1
5.2
4.0

7.7
9.6
9.9
10.1
(3
)
(4
)
11.6
9.9

7.2
6.4
7.6
7.4
(3
)
(4
)
8.0
7.1

6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5
(3
)
6.4
7.9
6.2

6.2
9.7
7.1
6.0
(3
)
6.5
8.2
8.0

(4
)
5.5
6.8
6.8
(4)
7.3
12.1
8.5

8.9
9.3
9.1
5.5
8.6
9.6
10.1
8.9

9.6
8.0
8.2
9.7

8.9
7.2
9.4
6.4
10.2
9.2
13.8
10.1

Professional, administrative, and
technical support:
Accountants ......................................
Chief accountants ...........................
Public accountants ..........................
A u d ito rs .............................................
Job analysts ......................................
Directors of personnel ....................
Attorneys ..........................................
Buyers ...............................................
Chemists ............................................
Engineers ..........................................
Engineering te ch nicia ns..................
Drafters ..............................................
Computer operators ........................
Photographers................................

ft

ft
ft

Clerical:
Accounting clerks ...........................
File clerks ..........................................
Key entry operators .........................
Messengers ......................................
Personnel clerks/assistants .............
Secretaries ........................................
Stenographers ...................................
Typists ...............................................

6.9
5.4
7.3
5.6
(3
)

ft

6.5
6.7

1For data on survey periods from 1961 to 1970, see National Survey of
Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1979,

12.1
10.2

3Not surveyed.
"Comparable data not available for both years.

Bulletin 2045 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979), p. 3.
2Survey data did not represent a 12-month period due to change in
survey timing. Data have been prorated to represent a 12-month interval.

NOTE: For method of computation, see appendix A.

Accountants’ average monthly salaries ranged from
$1,522 for beginning professional accountants (level I)
to $4,046 for specialists in complex accounting systems
(level VI). Salaries of the most populated group (level

the smallest average increases were for messengers (6.4
percent) and public accountants (6.6 percent); the
highest was recorded for stenographers (13.8 percent).
Increases for the remaining occupations typically fell in
the 9- to 10-percent range.
Increases also varied by occupational work level, with
average salaries increasing fastest for the journeyman
and senior levels of professional and administrative oc­
cupations over the 1981-82 period. Text table 2 shows
average salary increases since 1970 for different work
levels grouped into three broad categories. Since 1970,
cumulative increases have been greatest for the higher
occupational levels and lowest for the middle group of
work levels.

Text table 2. Percent increases in average salaries
by work level category,1 1970-82
Group A
(GS grades
1-4)

Group B
(GS grades
5-9)

Group C
(GS grades
11-15)

..................

130.4

123.0

135.0

1970-71 .............................
1971-723 ...........................
1972-73 .............................
1973-74 .............................
1974-75 .............................

6.2
6.3
5.5
6.2
•9.1

6.3
5.2
4.4
5.7
8.6

6.2
5.6
5.7
6.2
8.8

1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82

7.6
6.9
7.5
7.2
9.1
9.8
9.5

6.4
6.3
8.0
7.5
10.1
9.6
9.4

6.5
7.7
8.8
8.0
9.3
10.2
10.4

Period2
1970-82

Average salaries, Siareh 1982

Reflecting the wide range of duties and respon­
sibilities covered by the occupations studied, average
monthly salaries ranged from $752 for file clerks I to
$6,350 for the top level of attorneys (table l).4 The
following paragraphs summarize the various occupa­
tions studied.

.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
............................

’Group A contains survey classifications equating to GS grades 1-4 of
the Federal Government’s General Salary Schedule; Group B covers GS
grades 5-9 and Group C, GS grades 11-15. See appendix D, table D-1, for
a listing of survey levels that equate to each GS grade.
2For data on survey periods from 1961 to 1970, see National Survey of

" Despite this wide difference, salary averages for jobs o f equivalent levels of
work often fell within a relatively narrow band. For example, monthly averages
for the following work-level equivalents (Federal grade level 13) differed by $287
or 7 percent: Accountant VI ($4,046); chief accountant III ($4,201); attorney IV
($4,152); director o f personnel III ($3,963); chemist VI ($3,914); and engineer VI
($3,953).




ft
ft

Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1979,

Bulletin 2045 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979).
3
Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month
period.

2

Ill) averaged $2,139 a month. Just over three-fifths of
the accountants surveyed were in manufacturing in­
dustries; public utilities, and the finance, insurance, and
real estate sector each accounted for about one-tenth.
Chief accountants who adapt accounting systems
with only a few relatively stable functions and work pro­
cesses (level I) averaged $2,875 a month. At level IV,
those who have authority to establish and maintain the
accounting program, subject to general policy
guidelines, for a company with numerous and varied
functions and work processes averaged $5,105 a
month.5
Work levels for chief accountants are determined by
degree of authority and responsibility, the technical
complexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser
degree, the size of the professional staff (usually 1-2 ac­
countants at the first levels to as many as 40 accountants
at level IV). Of the chief accountants surveyed, just over
seven-tenths were employed in manufacturing industries
and just under one-tenth in the finance, insurance, and
real estate sector.
Auditors at the trainee level (level I) averaged $1,492
a month and auditors IV, who conduct complex audits,
averaged $2,667. Manufacturing industries employed
roughly one-third of the auditors as did the finance, in­
surance, and real estate sector.
Public accountants at the entry level, who receive
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing (level I),
averaged $1,439 a month. The highest level public ac­
countants (level IV), who direct the field work for large
or complex audits, averaged $2,274 a month. This oc­
cupation was found only in public accounting firms
which are a part of the selected services industry group.
Attorneys are classified based upon the difficulty of
their assignments and responsibilities. Attorneys I, who
include new law graduates with bar membership and
those whose work is relatively uncomplicated due to
clearly applicable precedents and well-established facts,
averaged $2,097 a month. Attorneys in the top level
surveyed (VI) averaged $6,350. These attorneys deal
with legal matters of major importance to the organiza­
tion (or corporation), and usually report only to general
counsels or, in very large firms, to their immediate
deputies. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries
employed 44 percent of the attorneys and manufactur­
ing industries employed 31 percent.6
Buyers who purchase “ off-the-shelf” and readily
available items and services from local sources (level I)
averaged $1,506 a month. Buyers IV, who purchase
large amounts of highly complex and technical items,

materials, or services, averaged $2,784. Just over fourfifths of the buyers studied were employed by manufac­
turing industries.
Programmers/programmer analysts were surveyed
for the first time in 1982. Average salaries ranged from
$1,461 a month at level I, which is a trainee level design­
ed to develop basic programming skills, to $2,952 for
level V, which includes supervisors, team leaders, staff
specialists, or consultants responsible for complex pro­
gramming involving some systems analyst work.
Manufacturing industries employed 38 percent of all
programmers/programmer analysts surveyed; finance,
insurance, and real estate, 27 percent; selected services,
13 percent; and public utilities, 12 percent.
Personnel management occupations are represented
by four levels of job analysts and five levels of directors
of personnel. Job analysts I averaged $1,548 a month
compared with $2,602 for level IV. Under general super­
vision, job analysts IV analyze and evaluate a variety of
the more difficult jobs and may participate in the
development and installation of job evaluation and
compensation systems. Directors of personnel are
limited by definition to those who, at a minimum, are
responsible for administering a job evaluation system,
employment and placement functions, and employee
relations and services. Those with significant respon­
sibility for actual contract negotiations with labor
unions as the principal company representative are ex­
cluded. Various combinations of duties and respon­
sibilities determine the work level.
Among personnel directors, average monthly salaries
ranged from $2,595 for level I to $4,822 for level IV.7
Manufacturing industries employed one-half of the job
analysts and just under seven-tenths of the directors of
personnel included in the study; the finance, insurance,
and real estate industries ranked next with just under
one-third of the job analysts and one-seventh of the
directors of personnel.
Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight
levels8starting with a professional trainee level typically
requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed in­
volves either full responsibility over a broad, complex,
and diversified engineering or chemical program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important
segments of the program or individual research and con­
sultation in problem areas where the chemist or engineer
is a recognized authority and where solutions represent
a major scientific or technological advance.9 Average
monthly salaries ranged from $1,637 for chemists I to
$4,471 for chemists VII, the highest level for which data
could be published, and from $1,969 for engineers I to
$4,528 for engineers VII and $5,208 for engineers VIII.

5 Data for chief accountants V, directors o f personnel V; chemists VIII; per­
sonnel clerks/assistants V; engineering technicians VI; and photographers I and
V did not meet publication criteria for this survey.
6 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal advice or legal
services.

7 See footnote 5.
8 See footnote 5.
9 The definition recognizes that top positions in some companies with
unusually extensive and complex chemical or engineering programs exceed this
level.




3

Level IV chemists and engineers, the largest group in
each profession and representing fully experienced
employees, averaged $2,837 and $2,870 a month,
respectively. Employment of chemists and engineers
was highly concentrated inmanufacturing industries (85
percent of the chemists and 72 percent of the engineers).
Most of the remaining chemists were associated with
research and development laboratories. Engineers were
also found in significant numbers in establishments
engaged in research and development, project design,
and public utilities.
Engineering technician is a six-level series1 limited to
0
employees providing semiprofessional technical support
to engineers. These technicians work with engineers in
such areas as research, design, development, testing, or
manufacturing process improvement, and utilize elec­
trical, electronic, or mechanical components or equip­
ment. Technicians involved in production or
maintenance work are excluded. Engineering techni­
cians I, who perform simple routine tasks under close
supervision or from detailed procedures, averaged
$1,224 a month. Engineering technicians V, who work
on more complex projects under general guidelines sup­
plied by a supervisor or professional engineer, averaged
$2,230. Salaries for intermediate levels III and IV, con­
taining a majority of the technicians surveyed, averaged
$1,685 and $1,968, respectively.
Almost three-fourths of the engineering technicians
for which data could be published were employed in
manufacturing and just over one-sixth in selected serv­
ices. The ratio of technicians to engineers was about 1
to 4 in all manufacturing industries combined. In public
utilities, the ratio was 1 to 6; in mechanical and elec­
trical equipment manufacturing, it was 1 to 3; and in
research, development,and testing laboratories, 1 to 2.
Drafter salary levels ranged from $978 a month for
level I, who trace or copy finished drawings, to $2,159
for level V, who work closely with design originators in
preparing unusual, complex, or original designs. Slight­
ly under two-thirds of the drafters were in manufactur­
ing firms and one-fifth in selected services.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of
responsibility for problem solving, variability of
assignments, and relative sophistication of their equip­
ment. Computer operators I, whose work consists of
on-the-job training, averaged $991 a month. The largest
group surveyed, level III, averaged $1,317, and the
highest level (VI) averaged $1,939. About two-fifths of
all computer operators surveyed were located in
manufacturing industries; one-fourth in finance, in­
surance, and real estate; and one-eighth in selected serv­
ices.
Photographers at level II are required to use standard
still cameras to take pictures involving limited problems

of speed, motion, contrast, or lighting.1 Their average
1
monthly salary of $1,564 compared with $2,116 for level
IV work which requires using special-purpose cameras
under technically demanding conditions. Manufactur­
ing industries employed almost two-thirds of the
photographers studied.
Clerical workers generally were highest paid in
manufacturing, mining, and public utilities and lowest
paid in finance, insurance, real estate, and retail trade.
About two-fifths of the clerical employees surveyed
were employed by manufacturing industries. The
finance, insurance, and real estate industries and public
utilities also employed large numbers of clerical
workers, accounting for about one-fourth and onetenth of the total, respectively.
Among the survey’s nine clerical jobs, secretary was
the most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries
ranged from $1,167 for level I secretaries to $1,796 for
level V’s. Average salaries of $1,239 and $1,508 were
reported for stenographers I and II. Typists I averaged
$908 and those at level II, $1,144 a month.
Accounting clerks performing simple and routine
clerical accounting operations (level I) averaged $873 a
month. Level IV clerks who maintain journals or sub­
sidiary ledgers averaged $1,507. About three-fourths of
all accounting clerks were classified in levels II and III,
which averaged $1,041 and $1,226 a month, respective­
ly.
Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine
tasks while receiving training (level I) averaged $976 a
month. Level IV clerks, who provide technical support
in processing a variety of personnel actions, averaged
$1,536.1
2
Level I purchasing assistants examine and review
routine purchasing agreements. Their monthly average
of $1,132 compared with $1,856 for the top level III
assistants, who prepare purchase documents, expedite
the purchase of highly specialized items, or provide
detailed technical support to buyers.
S alary levels in metropolitan areas

For most occupational levels, average salaries in
metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than
national averages (table 1). In only eight instances,
however, did these differences equal or exceed 1 per­
cent; only one exceeded 2 percent.
Just over nine-tenths of the employees surveyed were
located in metropolitan areas. The proportion,
however, varied among occupations and work levels.
More than 95 percent of attorneys, auditors, job
analysts, messengers, and public accountants were
employed in metropolitan areas. In 64 of the 101 work
levels providing publishable data, at least 90 percent of
the workers were in metropolitan areas. It is apparent,

10
The sixth level was added to the 1982 survey on a test basis; it did not pro­
duce sufficient observations to warrant publication, however.




4

1 See footnote 5.
1
1 See footnote 5.
2

to increase with each rise in the work level. Salary
ranges of specific work levels in an occupation also
tended to overlap each other. This reflects both salary
differences among establishments and the frequent
overlapping of salary ranges within individual firms.
Median monthly salaries for most work levels were
slightly lower than the mean average salaries.1
4
Hence, salaries in the upper halves of the arrays affected
averages more than salaries in the lower halves. The
relative difference between the mean and the median
was less than 2 percent for 41 of the 96 work levels pro­
viding this comparison, from 2 to 4 percent in 40 levels,
and from over 4.0 to 8.6 percent in the other 15 levels.
The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger for
clerical occupations than for professional, ad­
ministrative, or technical occupations. These disper­
sions, shown in text table 3, reflect the middle 50 per­
cent of employees in each work level expressed as a per­
cent of the median salary. This eliminates the extremely
low and high salaries from each comparison. In just
under nine-tenths of the 96 work levels providing earn­
ings distributions, the degree of dispersion ranged be­
tween 15 to 30 percent.
Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety
of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These
include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; varia­
tions in occupational employment among industries
(table 7 and chart 3); and regional salary differences,
especially for clerical occupations.1 Clerical employees
5
usually are recruited locally, while professional and ad­
ministrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.

therefore, that for most work levels, salaries in
nonmetropolitan counties could have little effect on the
occupational averages for all areas combined.

Salary levels In large establishments

Large establishments—those employing 2,500
workers or more—accounted for 38 percent of all
employees in the 90 occupational work levels for which
comparisons were possible (table 3). The proportion of
workers in large establishments ranged from one-tenth
of file clerks I to just over three-fourths of
photographers IV. Large establishments commonly
employed a majority of the workers at the highest levels
of professional, administrative, and technical support
occupations. Among clerical occupations, however,
they employed a majority of only purchasing assistants
Ill’s and both levels of stenographers.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as
percents of levels in all establishments combined ranged
from 97 to 126. Salary levels in large establishments
were higher than the all-establishment average by 5 per­
cent or more for all but two of the clerical levels
(stenographers I and II), but for only about one-half of
the 64 nonclerical levels, as shown in the following
tabulation (the all-establishment average for each oc­
cupational level = 100):
Professional,
administrative, and
technical
Clerical
Total number of levels ...

64

26

95-99 percent........................
100-104 percent....................
105-109 percent....................
110-114 percent....................
115 percent and over..............

2
32
21
7
2

-

2
7
12
5

Pay differences by industry

Relative occupational salary levels in major industry
divisions were compared to each other and to the all­
industry average (table 8). Salary levels for professional,
administrative, and technical occupations in manufac­
turing industries tended to be closest to the industrywide
average. Manufacturing, however, accounted for more
occupational employment than any other sector, except
in the case of attorneys and public accountants. Relative
salary levels were generally highest in mining and public
utilities.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels
were lowest in the retail trade and finance, insurance,
and real estate industries. Where these industries
employed a substantial proportion of workers in an oc-

As expected, pay relatives were close to 100 for those
work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.
Salary distributions

Employee distributions of monthly salaries for pro­
fessional and administrative occupations (except pro­
grammers1 ) are presented in table 4, for technical sup­
3
port occupations in table 5, and for clerical occupations
in table 6. Within most work levels, the highest salary
rates were more than twice as large as the lowest rates.
As illustrated in charts 1 and 2, these differences tended

1 Median monthly salaries are the amounts below and above which 50 percent
4
o f the employees are found. The mean salary is the weighted average o f all
salaries.
1 For analyses o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see Area Wage
5

1 Because the programmer job was newly added to the 1982 survey, not all
3
large employers o f these workers were able to provide individual earnings infor­
mation on short notice. Thus, salary distributions and measures o f central
tendency, e.g., medians and middle ranges, were not computed for program­
mers.




Surveys, Metropolitan Areas, United States and Regional Summaries, 1977
Bulletin 1950-77; Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas, 1981, BLS
Summary 81-15; and Mark Sieling,“ Clerical pay differences in metropolitan
areas, 1961-80,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1982, pp. 10-14.

5

Texi {tabB© 3. DisfriMaoei of work levels by degree of salary dispersion
Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of—

Occupation

Number
of
work
levels

All occupations ....................................................................

20 and
under
25
percent

25 and
under
30
percent

5

6
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
7
8
5
5
6

15 and
under
20
percent
22

41

23

2
2
2

4

__

3
4
1
4
3
3

96

Accountants ....................................................................................
Chief accountants ...........................................................................
Public accountants .........................................................................
Auditors ...........................................................................................
Job analysts ....................................................................................
Directors of personnel ...................................................................
Attorneys .........................................................................................
B u y e rs ...............................................................................................
Chemists .........................................................................................
Engineers .........................................................................................
Engineering technicians ................................................................
D ra fte rs.........................................................................................
Computer operators .......................................................................
Photographers ................................................................................
Clerical workers ..............................................................................

Under
15
percent

__
2
2

—
—
_

3

—

3

—
—
1
—
—
—
—

_

26

—

-

1
4
7
1

4
4
3
1
7

30
percent
and
over
5

1

1

1

__
.

—
1
3
2
15

—
—
—
—
4

1Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary for
that level.

cupation by major industry division. Average weekly
hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real estate
(about 38 hours for most occupations) than in other in­
dustries (39 to 40 hours). Average weekly hours have
been fairly stable over the past decade.1 Standard week­
6
ly hours, the base for regular straight-time salary, were
obtained for individual employees in the occupations
studied. When individual hours were not available, par­
ticularly for some higher level professional and ad­
ministrative positions, the predominant workweek of
the office work force was used as the standard
workweek.

cupation, the all-industry average was dampened; con­
sequently, relative levels in such industries as manufac­
turing and public utilities tended to be elevated above
the all-industry average. For example, relative pay levels
of typists in manufacturing (111 percent of the all­
industry average) and public utilities (123 percent)
reflect the influence of lower salaries for about twofifths of these workers employed in the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries. These industries,
however, also reported slightly shorter average standard
workweeks than other industries.
Average stodard weekly
The distribution of average weekly hours (rounded to
the nearest half hour) is shown in table 9 for each oc­




1
6
For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers employed in
metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected Metropolitan Areas, 1980,
Bulletin 3000-72 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1981).

6

Chart 1o Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1982
(Mean monthly salaries and ranges within whleh fell 80 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level

o

Accountants

Chief
accountants
Auditors
Public
accountants
Attorneys

III
IV
V
VI

$1,000

$ 2 ,0 0 0

$3,0 0 0

$ 4 ,0 0 0

JZ3 :
\
■■±11:
I H
rw m .
i—
m

IV

$6,000

$ 7 ,000

:
ZL

Li
: fmimr

IV
m

:

IV
□

Chemists

$ 5 ,000

IV
V
VI

n
r

"i

tz d
r ^ r

Engineers

IV
V
VI
VII
I

mm

m

Engineering
technicians
Drafters

Computer
operators

Photographers




1

IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

IV
V

n

IV

i

First decile
i —1
W K ^} !
m r

IV
V

IV
V
VI

r '

r e

ME

r~ ~ ~ i
: KZ3

E

E

7

Mean

"S i
Ninth decile

C hart 2 o Salaries In a d m in istra tive and clerical occupations,, March 1982
(Mean m onthly sa la rie s end rang©® w ithin whSoh fell SO p©re©nt @ ©mpS@y©©©)
tf

1,000

0

$ 2,000

$ 3,000

$ 4,000

$ 5,000

$ 6,000

Occupation
and iov@
S
Job analysts

IV
Directors
of personnel

m

IV
Buyers

First decile
IV
Accounting
clerks
IV
File clerks

E

Key entry
operators
Messengers
Personnel
clerks/
assistants

V
IV

Purchasing
agents
Secretaries

IV
V
Stenographers
Typists




8

Mean

j Ninth decile

C hart 3 . Relative @rrspl©¥m@nt In selected ©ecupatlenal group® by In d u s try dlvlsl©n0
March 19i 2
O ccupational group
0

percent
10

20

30

40

50

00

70

80

90

100

A ccountants and ,
chief accountants

A uditors

P rogram m ers/
program m er analysts
D irectors of personnel
and job analysts

Chem ists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and d ra fte rs

C om puter o p e ra to rs

Photographers

Clerical employees

Mining
M anufacturing
and
co n s tru c tio n

Public
u tilitie s

Finance,
insurance,
and
real e sta te

Trade and
selected
services

1 Public accounta nts are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and
bookkeeping services In the selected services in d u stry group.




9

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations In private Industry,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1982)
MONTHLY S A L A R I E S ' ) /
NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES^/

OCCUPATION AND L EV EL 2 /

ANNUAL S A L A R I E S 4 /

MIDDLE KANGE5/.
MEAN

MEDIAN

MI DDLE R \ N 3 E 5 /
MEAN

FIRST
JUARTIL E

MEDIAN

T HI RD
QUAPTILE

FIRST
Q UA RT I LE

THI RD
2 JARTILE

519,968
24,420
20,3 8 9
34,7 0 7
41,9 8 3
52,8 7 9

.ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDI TOPS
14,281
23,570
35,575
21,187
7,614
1,344

51,522
1,83 9
2,13 9
2,638
3,223
4,04 6

$1,500
1,799
2,1 0 0
2, 600
3,200
3,9 7 b

11,3 5 5
1,608
1,885
2,3 5 0
2,89 4
3,64 4

$1,664
2,035
2,366
2 , 802
3,49 9
4,40 7

$ 13,260
22 ,0 6 3
2 5, 673
31 ,6 5 8
38 ,6 8 0
4 8 , 54 9

$ 18,000
21,591
25,2 0 0
31,200
38,4 0 0
47,7 1 2

$16,260
1 9,29 2
22,626
28,700
34 ,7 2 8
43,733

I ..........................................................
1 1 .......................................................
I I I ....................................................
I V .......................................................

654
953
5 72
1 80

2,875
3,309
4,201
5,1 0 5

2 ,080
3 , 332
4,1 5 7
5,123

2 ,657
2, 9 b 8
3 ,749
4 ,75 0

3,067
3 ,609
4,53 6
5,331

3 4 , 50 6
39 ,7 0 8
5 0,414
61,255

34 ,5 6 0
39,984
49,8 3 3
61,475

31,887
3 5 , 6 16
44 , 9 8 2
57,0 0 C

36,804
4 3 ,30 3
54,4 2 8
63,974

A UD IT ORS I .....................................................................................
AUD IT ORS I I ..................................................................................
AUD IT ORS I I I ...............................................................................
A UD IT ORS I V ..................................................................................

2, '>5f>
3,760
4,7 9 7
2,559

1,4 9 2
1,833
2,208
2,667

1,4 5 3
1,800
2,180
2 ,588

1,333
1,600
1,9 4 2
2 ,374

1,6 5 5
2 ,0 7 4
2,44 4
2,930

17,901
22,065
26,502
32 ,0 0 4

17,496
21,600
26,1 6 0
31,0 5 2

15 ,9 9 4
1 9,200
2 3 ,30 0
28,489

19,360
24,383
2 9 , 32G
35,160

PU BLIC
PUBL IC
PUBLIC
PUBL IC

9 ,035
9,570
8 , 4 85
a , 439

1,43 9
1,59 8
1 ,90 3
2,2 7 4

1,425
1,575
1,874
2,2 2 4

1,3 7 4
1 , 49 9
1,70 8
2 ,0 2 5

1,499
1,6 7 3
2,04 1
2,475

1 7, 266
19,177
22,830
27 ,2 6 6

17,100
18,900
22,491
26,6 8 9

1 6,493
17,99 3
20 ,* 9 6
24 ,3 0 0

17,993
20,1 4 2
24,490
2 9 , 7 00

ANA LY S T S I .........................................................................
ANALYSTS 1 1 ......................................................................
ANALYSTS I I I ................................................. .................
ANALYSTS I V ......................................................................

21 o
444
822
52H

1,5 4 8
1,658
2,0 8 6
2,60 2

1,499
1, 533
2,0 7 0
2 ,607

1,308
1,500
1,808
2,30 0

1,640
1,63 3
2,25 3
2,883

1 8, 57 3
19,900
25,028
31,221

17,993
19,000
24,840
31,284

15,696
1 8,00 0
21,6 9 1
2 7,6 0 C

1 9,680
21,991
27,030
34,5 9 6

D I R E CT O RS OF PERSONNEL I ...........................................
D IR EC TO RS OF PERSONNEL I I .......................................
D I R E CT O RS OF PERSONNEL I I I .....................................
D IR EC TO RS OF PERSONNEL I V ........................................

1,061
2,1 2 0
958
2 87

2,595
3,181
3 ,963
4,82 2

2,500
3, 166
3, 900
4,667

2,380
2, 744
3, 4 9 9
4,415

2,86 2
3,50 9
4,250
5 ,1 2 3

31,1 3 6
38 ,1 6 8
47,5 5 3
57 ,8 5 9

30,000
37,9 9 2
46,8 0 0
56,000

20,557
3 2 ,9 29
41 , 9 8 3
5 2 ,9 8 1

34,3 4 5
4 2 , 103
51,0 0 0
61,475

1,6 2 8
3,008
3 ,622
2,919
1,896
707

2,097
2 ,64 1
3,304
4 ,152
5,132
6,3 5 0

1,917
2, 535
3,2 6 7
4,042
4,9 9 8
6 , 250

1,7 5 0
2,3 4 9
2,316
3 ,6 6 5
4 ,498
5, 514

2,391
2,918
3,5 8 3
4,570
5,73 1
7 , 0 81

25 ,1 6 2
31,696
3 9 , o4 9
4 9,818
61,579
76,202

23,00 4
30,4 1 8
39,200
48,5 0 4
59,9 7 6
75,0 0 0

21 , 0 0 C
23,189
34 ,9 9 2
43 ,9 8 2
53,976
66,168

2 3,589
35,0 1 5
43,000
54,3 4 0
68,772
34,966

6,4 2<;
15,901
17,561
5,449

1 ,50 6
1,84 6
2,28 5
2,7 8 4

1,453
1, 807
2 , 2 36
2,7 0 7

1,318
1,64 1
2,0 0 2
2,42 5

1,64 9
2,00 0
2 ,499
3 ,0 4 1

18,074
22,174
27,4 2 4
3 3,409

17,433
21,682
26,830
32,4 8 7

15,8 1 6
19,692
2 4 , 0 ?4
29,10 0

19,789
24,000
29,903
3 6 , 4 89

I ................
I I .............
I I I ....
I V .............
V................

13,043
30,366
45,970
26,360
7,950

1,461
1,719
2,09 9
2 ,4 4 7
2,552

-

-

-

-

-

~

17, 535
2 0,62 9
25,1 9 2
2 9 , 36S
3 5, 43 0

I ....................................................................................
I I ..................................................................................
I I I ..............................................................................
I V ..................................................................................
V.....................................................................................
V I .................................................................................
V I j . ...............................................................................

3,617
6,6 7 7
10,900
11,023
3,912
3,823
1 ,433

1,037
1,9 5 6
2 ,.>3 5
2 , 3 37
3,351
3,91 4
4 ,47 1

1, 6 2 5
1,9 1 6
2 , 2 95
2, 791
3 ,307
3,823
4,3 6 5

1,448
1,7 4 9
2,0 7 0
2, 542
3,0 0 0
3,4 9 9
3,920

1,80 0
2 , 1 50
2 ,574
3 ,000
3,64 0
4 ,167
4,78 2

19,640
2 3,474
28 ,0 1 6
3 4 ,0 4 7
40,207
46,071
53,658

19,497
22,991
27,5 4 0
33,487
39,684
45,802
52,3 7 9

17 ,3 7 6
20 ,9 9 2
2 4 , 8 40
30 ,5 0 8
36 , 0 0 0
4 1,98 3
47,04 0

21,600
25,300
3 0,033
36,960
43,6 8 0
4 9,999
5 7,389

ENG I N E'ERS I .
. . . . . . . . . .
E NG I NE E RS I I ...............................................................................
E NG I NE E RS I I I . . . . . ’.............................................................
E N GI NE ERS I V ..............................................................................
E NG I NE E RS V..................................................................................
E N GI NE ERS V I ...............................................................................
E NG I NE E RS V i l ...........................................................................
E NG I NE E RS V I I I ........................................................................

31,293
60,083
116,212
130,972
101,701
45,353
1 4 , 102
2,3 7 4

1,909
2,172
2,444
2,870
3,3 9 0
3 ,953
4 ,528
5,2 0 8

1,965
2,166
2,420
2 ,860
3, 380
3,900
4,4 5 7
5 ,033

1,333
2,0 0 0
2,2 2 3
2,600
3, 0 7 6
3,570
4,09 1
4, 630

2 , 110
2,3 2 6
2,6 4 3
3 ,1 1 0
3 ,670
4 ,2 9 0
4,906
5,517

2 3 ,6 2 2
2 6 ,0 6 0
20,3 3 1
34,4 4 3
4 0,677
47 ,4 4 2
5 4,33*
62,4 9 4

23,580
25,9 9 0
29,040
34,323
40,557
46,800
' 53,1)79
60,991

2 1,9 9 1
24 , 0 0 0
2 6,6 7 6
3 1 ,2 0 0
36,9 17
4 2 ,8 4 3
49,0 9 2
56,160

25,323
2 7 , ) 1.1
31,7 1 8
37,323
44,040
5 1,476
58,859
6 6,204

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIFF

I ............................................................................
I I .........................................................................
I I I ......................................................................
I V ........................................................................
V............................................................................
V I ........................................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

PERSONNEL
JOB
JOB
JOB
JOB

I ......................................................
1 1 ...................................................
I I I .................................................
I V ....................................................

MANAGEM ENT

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS I ..................................................................................
ATTORNEYS 1 1 ............................................................. .................
ATTORNEYS I I I ........................................................................... *
ATTORNEYS I V ...............................................................................
ATTORNEYS V..................................................................................
ATTORNEYS V i ...............................................................................
BUYERS
BUYERS I ...........................................................................................
BUYERS I I . .....................................................................................
BUYERS I I I .....................................................................................
BUYERS I V ........................................................................................
PROGuAMMEKS/ANALYST-S6
PR 0 GhA KME K5 / P h UG R AMHER
PROG RAM M E RS / P R OGH AMHER
PROGRAMMER5/PRCG3AMHER
PROGRAMMe RS/PKCGRAMHER
PROGRAMMERS/? ROGRAM MER

ANALYS TS
Ali A L I S T S
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

-

”

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

C H E M I S T S AND E N GI NE ERS
C HE M I S T S
C HE M I S T S
C HE M I S T S
C HE M I S T S
CHEMISTS
C HE M I S T S
C HE M I S T S

See footnotes at end of table.




10

Table 1. Continued— Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1982)
______________________________ ____________________________________________________ ______________________________ _

ANNUAL SALARIES4 /

MONTHLY SA LARIES4/
NUMBER
OF
EMPL3YEES3/

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2/

MIDDLE RANGE5/
MEAN

MIDDLE RAN3E5/
MEAN

MEDIAN
FIRST
QUARTILE

MEDIAN
FI RST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
I ...................................
I I ................................
I I I ..............................
I V ................................
V........... .......................

7,178
20,271
31,340
36,630
2 1 ,6 5 1

£1 , 22 4
1,437
1,685
1 ,96 8
2,23 0

$1,183
1,408
1,638
1,939
2,216

$1,070
1,27 0
1,489
1,77 0
2,0 2 8

$1,335
1 ,560
1,845
2 , 158
2,440

$14,688
17,246
20,219
23,620
26,761

$14,194
16,893
19,654
23,271
26,592

$12,840
15,245
17,866
21,249
24,340

$16,015
18,720
2 2 , 140
25,994
29,280

DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

I „ ........................................................................
I I ..............................................- .......................
I I I ......................................................................
1 7 ____ - ............................................................
V...........................................................................

3 , 161
11,929
23,277
26,149
20,762

978
1, 188
1,42 0
1,747
2 , 159

962
1, 162
1,378
1,708
2, 122

86 7
1,037
1,24 1
1,54 2
1,863

1,061
1 ,300
1,571
1,931
2 ,426

11,739
14,257
17, 0 46
2 0 , 964
25,909

11,539
13,944
16,536
20,492
25,464

10,399
12,444
14,892
1 8 ,504
22,358

12,735
15,600
18,852
23,172
2 9,118

COHPUTER
COMPUTES
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

I ................................................
I I ..............................................
I I I ...........................................
IV ..............................................
V................................................
V I ..............................................

6,141
14,92 8
29,523
16,252
3,212
360

991
1 ,158
1,317
1,610
1 ,90 7
1 ,939

954
1,095
1,283
1, 559
1,838
1,920

86 0
9 86
1,130
1,382
1,64 9
1 ,7 1 1

1,085
1,2 9 5
1,447
1,785
2,143
2 , 105

11,896
13, 895
15 , 80 4
19,325
22,889
23,267

11,444
13,140
15,391
18,708
22,051
23,040

10,318
11 , 82 9
13,560
16,587
19,792
20,534

13,023
15,536
17,364
21,420
2 5 , 716
25,260

PHOTOGRAPHERS I I ...........................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS I I I ........................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV...........................................................

570
725
434

1,564
1,86 9
2,116

1,583
1,860
2,073

1,335
1,681
1,79 9

1,777
2 ,07 0
2,395

18,773
22,425
25,392

18,992
22,320
24,880

16,020
2 0 , 174
21,593

21,318
2 4 , 840
28,740

I ...................................................
I I ................................................
I I I .............................................
I V ................................................

27,738
85,417
58,670
23,519

873
1,04 1
1,226
1,507

836
1,000
1, 183
1,460

737
87 9
1,030
1,27 8

940
1,140
1,359
1,710

10, 4 7 8
12,488
14,713
18,083

10,035
11,995
14,190
17,520

8,8 4 2
10,545
12,354
15,339

11,280
13,680
16,306
20,520

F IL E CLERKS I . ................................................................
F I L E CLERKS I I ................................................................
F I L E CLERKS I I I .............................................................

22,496
12,109
4,037

75 2
873
1,066

725
823
1,017

650
73 9
88 8

824
94 5
1,156

9,018
10,474
12,794

8,700
9 ,879
12,204

7,799
8,8 6 2
10,656

9,890
11,335
13,872

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ..............................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I I ...........................................

59,672
40,048

981
1,163

930
1,105

82 3
96 4

1,075
1,288

11,77 1
1 3, 9 5 6

11,156
13,259

9,879
11,564

12 , 8 95
15,459

MESSENGERS................................................................ ..........

ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

1 3, 9 3 1

83 3

780

69 9

90 6

9, 99 9

9,359

8,3 8 7

10,867

I .........................
I I ......................
I T I ....................
I V ......................

2,353
4,683
3,576
1,787

976
1, 177
1 , 31 0
1 ,5 3 6

950
1, 120
1,296
1,467

849
1,005
1, 125
1,33 3

1,066
1,274
1,452
1,675

1 1,706
14,122
15,718
18 , 432

11,400
13,440
15,549
17,600

10,191
12,060
13,498
15,994

12,795
15,287
17,418
20,100

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I .........................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I ......................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I I ...................................

4,791
4,605
1,577

1,132
1,42 6
1,856

1,066
1,385
1,833

95 0
1 , 183
1,583

1, 199
1,636
2,03 8

13,589
17,117
22,276

12,791
16,620
21,996

11 , 3 9 5
1 4 , 194
18,991

14,390
19,632
24,459

I ...................................................................
I I ................................................................
I I I .............................................................
I V ................................................................
V...................................................................

63,768
63,060
106,688
45,616
22,679

1,167
1,245
1,421
1 ,5 5 0
1,796

1,106
1,213
1,374
1,520
1,761

97 5
1 ,0 7 1
1,210
1,333
1,53 8

1,292
1,38 7
1,579
1,745
2,03 2

14 , 000
14 , 9 39
17,051
18,603
21,546

13,269
14,559
16,493
18,243
2 1 , 135

1 1,699
12,852
14,520
15,996
18,459

15,504
16,639
18,952
20,944
24,384

STENOGRAPHERS I .............................................................
STENOGRAPHERS I I ...........................................................

1 5 ,5 6 2
11,534

1 ,239
1,508

1,192
1,526

99 3
1,26 8

1,434
1,74 0

14,867
18,094

14,309
18,315

11,91 1
15,214

17,211
2 0 , 880

TYPISTS I .............................................................................
TYPISTS I I ...........................................................................

31,703
17,822

908
1 ,144

849
1,070

75 0
9 20

97 8
1 ,3 0 4

10,893
13,723

10,191
12,843

9,000
11,034

11,739
15,642

P8RSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS

SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES

...............

............- ...

—

- - -

-------^

’ For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
’Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
’Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the scope
of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the straighttim e salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are in­
cluded.




—_
•
“The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower
fourths of the employee distribution.
8Because the programmer job was newly added to the 1982 survey, not all large employers of
these workers were able to provide individual earnings information on short notice. Thus, salary
distributions and measures of central tendency, e.g. medians and middle ranges, were not com­
puted for programmers.

1
1

TabS© 2. A verag e s alaries: M e tro p o lita n areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations In private Industry, metropolitan areas,' United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1982)______________________________________________________________

MONTHLY SALARIES9/
NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES^/

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL

ANNUAL S ALARIF.S4/

MIDDLE RANGE'S/
SEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE RABGE5/
HBAN

FIRST
QUARTILE

MEDIAN

THIRD
QUARTILE

FIRST
QUARTILE

THIBB
QUARTILE

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
CHIEF
CHIEF
C HI EF
CHI EF

12,633
20,879
31,210
1 0 ,9 9 1
0,070
1,288

i 1, 531
1 ,098
2,191
2,636
3,225
9,09b

$1,500
1,013
2,100
2, 600
3,199
3,990

$1,379
1,621
1,883
2,399
2,891
3,66 5

$1,66 6
2,095
2,379
2,890
3,999
9,907

$18,379
2 2 , 17S
25, 697
31,638
3 8,697
98,551

$18,093
21,736
25,200
31,200
38,388
97,881

*16,993
19,998
22,591
28,189
39,686
93,981

*19,992
29,592
28,985
39,680
91,983
52,879

I ...................................................
I I ................ ...............................
I I I ..............................................
I V ................................................

983
774
691
177

■ ,877
2
3,300
4,209
5,101

2,899
3 , 35 2
9,165
5,123

2,657
2, 368
3,79 9
4,750

3,067
3,6 0 8
4,58 2
5,331

39, 529
39,595
50,507
61,213

39,732
90,229
49,980
61,475

31,888
35,616
44 .,9 82
57,000

36,809
93,300
59,978
63,978

I ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
I V ........................................................................

2,416
3,554
4,473
2 ,457

1,493
1, 840
2,205
2,667

1,458
1,800
2,1 9 7
2,600

1,33 3
1,59 2
1,93 3
2,379

1,665
2,08 0
2,441
2 ,930

17 , 91 6
22,083
26,957
32,006

17,996
21,600
26,362
31,198

15,999
1 9 , 109
2 3 , 191
28,489

19,980
29,950
29,289
35,160

8,985
9,460
8,425
4,349

1 ,440
1,599
1 ,904
2 ,2 6 3

1,925
1,575
1,874
2 ,207

1,374
1,49 9
1,718
2,024

1,499
1,684
2,04 1
2 ,476

17,283
19,191
22,843
2 7,221

17,100
18,900
22,491
26,489

16,493
17,993
20,617
24,291

17,993
2 0 , 210
24,490
29,711

159
437
800
519

1 , 56 8
1 ,660
2,084
2 , 599

1, 499
1,583
2,062
2, 608

1 ,3 4 4
1,50 0
1,800
2,300

1,640
1,83 7
2 ,266
2,883

18,811
19 , 920
25,006
31,192

17,993
19,000
24,742
31,296

16,129
18,000
21,598
27,600

19,680
22,099
2 7,189
34,596

702
1,760
865
241

2,619
3,128
3,984
4,85 9

2, 500
3,112
3,915
4, 831

2 , 41 6
2,678
3 , 600
4,439

2 ,749
3,501
9 ,250
5,215

3 1,933
37,539
47,814
5 8,313

30,000
37,398
96,981
57,977

28,988
3 2 , 137
93,200
53,271

32,987
92,007
51,000
62,580

1,606
2,899
3,403
2,852
1,817
6 99

2 , 089
2,64 1
3,308
4 , 158
5,158
6,354

1,915
2,530
3,270
4 , 0 42
4,998
6,250

1,750
2,350
2 ,925
3,665
4,500
5,514

2,3 7 9
2 ,917
3,59 2
4,570
5,748
7,0 8 3

25,063
3 1 , 690
3 9 , 693
49,899
61,897
7 6,242

22,985
30,360
39,240
48,504
59,976
75,000

21,000
28,200
35,105
43,982
54,000
66,168

2 8 , 989
35,009
83,108
58,880
68,972
84,996

5,517
15,789
1 5 ,2 0 1
5,234

1,519
1,859
2,306
2,787

1, 460
1,815
2,262
2, 707

1,33 3
1,65 2
2,024
2, 426

1,665
2,0 1 5
2,513
3,04 9

18,231
22,306
2 7 , 6 78
3 3,445

17,520
21,776
27,144
32,487

15,994
19,823
24,282
29,118

19,980
28,180
30,158
36,588

I .............
I I ...........
I I I ____
IV ...........
V..............

12,413
28,488
43,533
25,399
7,744

1,461
1 ,722
2 , 109
2,951
2,957

_

_
-

-

-

I ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V...........................................................................
V I........................................................................
V I I ................... .......... ......................................

3,358
5 , 863
9 ,27 0
9,43 5
7,515
3,320
1,233

1 ,638
1,956
2,338
2,84 6
3,34 7
3,927
4 ,467

I ........................................................................
I I ................................... .. ...............................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V........................................................................
V I .....................................................................
V I I ...................................................................
V I I I ................................................................

28,690
54,306
10?,985
127,702
95,72 0
43,568
13,618
2,74 6

1 ,9 b 7
2 , 172
2 , 450
2,878
3,393
3 , 959
4,52 8
5,199

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
PUBLIC
PUBLIC
PUPLIC
PUBLIC

I . . . ................ .........................................
I I . . . ...................
I I I . ................................ ..
I V . ........................... .. ...............................
V..............................................................
V I . ................................ ............................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I ................................................
1 1 .............................................
I I I ...........................................
I V .............................................

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOE
JOS
JOB
JOB

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I ................................................................
1 1 ..............................................................
I I I ...........................................................
I V .............................................................

DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS

OF
OF
OF
OF

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

I .....................................
I I ...................................
I I I ................................
I V ...................................

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS

I ...... .................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V........................................................................
VI .....................................................................

ATTORNEYS

8 UYE RS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ................................................................................
I I ..............................................................................
I I I ..........................................................................
I V .............................................................................
PROGK6MM E3S/ANALYSTS6

PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMHEP
PROGRAMMF.RS/PROGRAMMEH
PROGRA MMERS/PRCGRAMHER
PROGRAHMERS/PRCGFAMMER
PROGRAMMERS/PEOGRAMSEP

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17,527
20,663
2 5,306
29,415
3 5 , 4 85

1,639
1,916
2,321
2,801
3 , 305
3, 833
4,248

1,45 4
1 ,7 4 4
2,07 0
2,57 0
3 ,015
3,495
3,920

1,80 0
2 ,134
2,583
3 ,082
3,63 2
4,1 8 0
4,817

19 , 6 53
23,469
28,061
3 4 , 157
4 0,159
47,126
5 3 , 602

19,662
22,991
27,852
33,610
39,660
46,002
50,980

17,448
20,931
29,891
30,840
36,180
41,940
47,040

2 1,500
2 5,608
30,996
36,985
83,583
50,160
5 7,808

1 ,9 6 4
2 , 1 66
2, 426
2,872
3,385
3, 90 3
4,451
5,065

1,833
2,000
2 , 23 1
2,61 0
3,0 8 2
3,582
4 ,090
4,672

2 , 102
2 ,327
2,650
3 , 120
3 ,675
4,293
4,900
5 ,505

2 3 , 6 06
26,070
29,399
3 4 , 53 4
40,715
47,510
54,332
6 2 , 385

23,568
25,990
29,118
34,463
40,620
46,900
53,412
60,780

21,991
24,000
26,778
31,320
3 6,985
42,983
49,080
56,064

25,228
2 7,919
3 1 , 800
37,440
98,100
51,518
5 8 , 800
66,060

-

-

CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
FNGINFERS
ENGINEERS

See footnotes at end of table.




12

Table 2. Continued— Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1982)

ANNUAL SALARIES 4 /

MONTHLY SALARIES4/
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2/

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES3/

MIDDLE RANGE5/

MIDDLE RANGE5/
MEAN

MEAN

MEDIAN
FIRST
QUARTILE

MEDIAN
FIRST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

THIRD
QJARTIL2

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
1,226
1 ,4 3 6
1,688
1,97 1
2 ,2 3 8

$ 1 , 184
1 ,390
1,642
1,943
2,223

$1,075
1,26 5
1,48 6
1,77 8
2,045

$1,335
1,56 9
1,850
2,1 5 7
2,44 8

$14,703
17,233
20,251
23,654
26,853

$19,205
16,680
19,704
23,315
26,675

$12,895
15,180
17,835
21,339
24,540

£ 16,015
18,833
2 2,200
2 5 , 890
2 9,378

2,914
10,390
20,315
23,179
19,180

97 8
1 , 193
1,42 9
1 ,749
2,159

963
1,166
1, 387
1,710
2,123

86 9
1,04 0
1,250
1,54 7
1,874

1,063
1,316
1,579
1,933
2 , 436

1 1, 734
14,317
17,151
20,988
26,034

11,553
13,994
16,639
20,520
25,478

10,428
12,479
14,994
18,563
22,491

12,750
15,794
18,953
2 3 , 191
29,235

I ................................................
I I .............................................
I I I ...........................................
I V ..............................................
V................................................
V I ..............................................

5,75*4
13,060
26,972
15,212
3,055
330

992
1, 176
1 ,3 2 2
1,613
1,903
1 ,924

955
1, 108
1,289
1,560
1, 825
1,900

86 0
99 5
1, 140
1,33 6
1,64 8
1,70 9

1,087
1,3 1 6
1,450
1,78 5
2 , 129
2,095

11,903
14,112
15,863
19,356
22,837
23,088

11,960
13,296
15,458
18,720
21,900
22,800

10,321
11,940
13,675
16,633
19,778
20,507

13,095
15,794
17,403
21,922
25,549
2 5 , 190

PHOTOGRAPHERS I I ...........................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS I I I ........................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS I V ...........................................................

492
667
373

1 ,5 6 0
1 , 87 9
2 , 162

1,583
1,375
2, 106

1,313
1,636
1,879

1,765
2 , 100
2,432

18,720
22,548
25,942

18,992
22,504
25,272

15,755
20,237
22,553

2 1 , 181
25,197
29,188

I ...................................................
I I ................................................
I I I ..............................................
I V ................................................

25,703
74,037
53,284
21,497

87 0
1 ,044
1 ,230
1,504

83 2
1 ,000
1,187
1, 458

73 7
88 4
1,03 3
1,27 4

93 6
1,140
1,365
1,69 9

10,440
12,531
14,758
18,045

9,9 8 3
12,000
14,244
17,493

8,839
10 , 6 0 7
12,395
15,294

1 1, 231
13 , 67 5
16,379
2 0 ,3 92

FI L E CLERKS I ..................................................................
FI L E CLERKS I I ................................................................
F IL E CLERKS I I I .............................................................

20,626
10,762
3,860

750
875
1,059

725
823
1,006

65 0
74 0
885

823
931
1, 148

9,001
10,500
12 , 70 7

8,7 0 0
9, 879
12,076

7,799
8,876
10,620

9,879
11,172
13,779

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I .............................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I I ...........................................

53,723
37,296

988
1, 165

93 4
1, 105

828
96 6

1,080
1,290

1 1,854
13,982

11,210
13,260

9,931
11,595

12,957
15,973

MESSENGERS...........................................................................

I ...................................
I I ................................
I I I ..............................
I V ................................
V...................................

6,399
17,254
27,926
33,747
20,549

DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

I ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V...........................................................................

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

1

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

13,480

835

781

70 0

90 3

10,015

9,372

8,397

10,836

I . . . . ..............
I I ......................
I I I ...................
IV ................... ..

1 ,8 3 1
3,847
2,992
1,604

93 1
1,195
1, 30 6
1 , 52 8

953
1,137
1, 299
1, 464

850
1,018
1, 145
1,33 4

1,075
1,29 5
1,450
1,668

11,770
14, 340
15,676
18,335

11,433
13,649
15,588
17,568

10,201
12,219
13,741
16,008

12,900
15,540
17,400
2 0 , 0 18

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ........................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I ......................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I I ...................................

4,051
3,941
1,506

1,14 8
1 , 44 5
1,864

1,083
1,405
1 ,8 5 9

95 3
1,205
1,615

1 ,2 1 0
1,647
2,052

13,772
17,344
22,373

12,995
16,860
22,311

11,439
14,460
19,380

19,520
19,759
24,624

I ..................................................................
I I ................................................................
I I I .............................................................
I V ................................................................
V...................................................................

59,336
58,399
101,047
42,765
21,673

1, 168
1 ,250
1,42 5
1,554
1 ,7 9 9

1, 106
1 ,2 2 2
1 ,3 77
1, 524
1,761

97 5
1,080
1 ,2 1 3
1,33 5
1,540

1,299
1,391
1,58 3
1,748
2,03 9

14,022
15,001
.1 7, 10 0
18,649
21,585

13,269
14,658
16,524
18,293
21,135

11,699
12,960
14,559
16,024
18,480

15, 59 4
16,693
18,992
20,973
2 4 , 4 70

STENOGRAPHERS I .............................................................
STENOGRAPHERS I I ...........................................................

14,467
10 ,4 61

1 ,2 4 1
1,539

1,196
1,526

990
1,271

1,444
1,735

14,898
18,104

14,351
18,315

11,880
15,252

17,325
20,819

TYPISTS I .............................................................................
TYPISTS I I ..........................................................................

29,899
17,013

90 6
1, 145

845
1, C73

75 0
91 5

97 5
1,312

10, 8 78
13,745

10,139
12,876

8,995
10,981

11,699
15,799

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS

SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the scope
of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
'Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the straighttime salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are in­
cluded.




•

.

8
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower
fourths of the employee distribution.
“Because the programmer job was newly added to the 1982 survey, not all large employers of
these workers were able to provide individual earnings information on short notice. Thus, salary
distributions and measures of central tendency, e.g. medians and middle ranges, were not com­
puted for programmers.

13

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations In private industry,1 In establishments employing
2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1982)

MONTHLY SALAEIES5/
NUMBER
OF
EMPLOY EKS4/

OCCUPATION AND LEV EL 3/

MIDDLE RANGE6/
MEAN

MEDIAN
FI RST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

LEVELS I K ESTABLISHESSTS
EHPLOTIHG 2 , 5 0 0 H08KEHS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS C3HBIHED
EMPLOYMENT

MEAN
SALARIES

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I .....................................................................
I I ..................................................................
I I I ................................................................
I V ..................................................................
V........................... .........................................
V I - ................................................................

3, U0
7,537
9,058
6, 380
2,386
61 8

$1,641
1,996
2,271
2,733
3,258
4,103

$1,600
1,970
2,253
2,709
3,220
9,015

$1,459
1,733
1,999
2,935
2,916
3,602

$1,798
2,254
2,5 5 0
2,9 7 5
3,530
4,4 7 3

24
32
25
30
31
96

108
109
136
100
101
101

118

4,071

4,000

3,690

9,957

18

97

56 5
1, 172
1,980
995

1,541
1,918
2,311
2,806

1,510
1,875
2,270
2,795

1,365
1,665
2,000
2 , 9 55

1,691
2.1 B 0
2,603
3 , 0 79

23
31
31
39

10 3
1 09
10 5
105

JOB ANALYSTS I I ................................................................
JOB ANALYSTS I I I .............................................................
JOB ANALYSTS I V................................................................

156
38 4
38 4

1,824
2 ,217
2,636

1,74 9
2, 143
2,641

1,570
1,899
2,427

2,085
2,457
2,9 0 0

35
47
73

110
106
10 1

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I I I ...................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I V ......................................

126
99

4 ,334
5 ,032

9,167
4,920

3,873
9,589

4 , 665
5,210

13
34

109
10 9

339
691
1,080
959
719
296

2 , 4 79
2,816
3,486
4 , 294
5,231
6,507

2,958
2,749
3,385
4 , 1 65
5,065
6,372

2,187
2 , 499
3,090
3,739
4,582
5 , 598

2,737
3,063
3,816
9 ,720
5 ,807
7,200

24
23
30
33
38
42

118
107
10 5
103
102
102

1,294
9,89 1
6,360
3, 134

1, 695
1 ,965
2,369
2 , 809

1, 625
1,907
2,307
2,726

1,464
1,712
2,055
2,416

1,900
2 , 133
2 , 621
3,107

20
26
36
58

113
106
104
101

1,588
1,861
2 , 286
2 , 614
3,064

-

_
-

-

~
-

-

-

-

34
34
40
43
57

109
108
1 09
137
104

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I I I ................................................
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I ........................................................................
I V ...........................................................................
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS

I ..........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
I V . . . ................................................................
V...........................................................................
V I ........................................................... ..
BUYERS

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ..................................................................................
I I ................................................................................
I I I .............................................................................
I V ...............................................................................
PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS 7

PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMEE
PROGRAMMEES/PROGRAMMER
PROGBAMMERS/PROGRAMMER
PROGRAMMERS/PRCGRAMMZR
PROGBAMMERS/PROGRAMMER

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I ................
I I ..............
I I I ...........
I V .............
V................

4,453
10,414
1 8 ,5 7 1
1 1 ,2 4 3
4,500

CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I ........................................................................
TV...........................................................................
V.............................................................................
V I ..........................................................................
V I I ........................................................................

72 9
1,69 1
2,739
3,163
2,731
1,490
633

1 ,866
2 , 130
2,500
2,946
3 , 493
3,933
4 ,620

1,874
2,115
2,464
2,861
3, 446
3,798
4,375

1 ,6 9 1
1,872
2,178
2 , 672
3,065
3,357
3 , 920

2,019
2,350
2,777
3 , 165
3,782
4,310
5,038

20
25
25
29
31
39
47

119
109
107
104
109
100
103

I ..................................................................... ..
I I .......................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V......... ................................................................
V I ........................... ...........................................
V I I .....................................................................
V I I I ..................................................................

15,399
30,461
55,350
75,463
53,70 1
26,136
9,683
1,789

1,980
2, 194
2,438
2,917
3,423
4,001
4,537
5,259

1,970
2, 179
2, 473
2,916
3,430
3, 957
4,480
5,120

1,858
2,043
2,275
2,665
3 , 125
3,615
4 , 125
4,770

2 , 100
2,320
2,676
3, 154
3 ,699
4,333
4 , 900
5 , 559

51
51
48
54
58
57
69
62

101
101
13 2
102
101
101
130
101

See footnotes at end of table.




14

Table 3. Continued— Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing
2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1982)

MONTHLY SALARIES5/
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3 /

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES^/

MIDDLE RANGE6/
MEDIAN

MEAN

FIRST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
EMPLOYING 2 , 5 0 3 NORKERS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED
EMPLOYMENT

MEAN
SALARIES

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

I ......................................
I I . . .............................
I I I .................- ............
I V ...................................
V . ...................................

1,824
7,562
14,268
20,518
15,471

$1,335
1, 499
1,727
1,977
2,241

$1,302
1, 450
1,683
1,955
2,240

$1,140
1,319
1,504
1,782
2,046

$ 1,480
1,65 0
1,927
2 , 179
2,4 5 5

25
37
46
56
71

109
104
103
100
101

DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

I .............................................................................
I I ...........................................................................
I I I ........................................................................
I V . . . ..................................................................
V.............................................................................

499
3,140
6,111
7,972
8,696

1,098
1,309
1 ,565
1,838
2 , 234

1,075
1,300
1,520
1,802
2, 157

995
1,140
1,350
1,625
1,907

1,175
1,456
1,749
2,0 3 5
2,511

16
26
26
30
42

112
110
110
105
103

COHPOTER
COMPUTER
COHPOTER
COHPOTER
COHPOTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

I ................... ..............................
I I ................................................
I I I .............................................
I V ................................................
V.............. .. .................................

1,886
4,354
7,731
6,237
1,747

1,126
1,3 6 8
1,484
1,763
2,04,1

1, 101
1,397
1,441
1,716
2,0 5 9

970
1, 131
1,250
1,521
1,768

1,235
1,558
1,624
1,955
2,260

31
29
26
38
54

114
118
113
109
107

PHOTOGRAPHERS I I .............................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS I I I . . .....................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV.............................................................

260
344
328

1,682
1 ,906
2 , 082

1,708
1,875
2, 022

1,470
1,712
1,751

1, 889
2 , 107
2,374

46
47
76

108
102
98

I .....................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I ................................................
I V ...................................................

4,494
15,326
13,152
7,768

1 ,017
1, 195
1,3 8 2
1,667

938
1, 136
1,348
1,625

815
976
1,161
1 ,4 4 1

1, 167
1,413
1,56 0
1,929

16
18
22
33

116
115
113
11 1

FI LE CLERKS I .....................................................................
F IL E CLERKS I I ..................................................................
F IL E CLERKS I I I ................................................................

2,165
2,30 7
986

815
998
1, 125

7 65
910
997

705
780
890

867
1,116
1,305

10
19
24

108
114
106

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ................................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I I .............................................

11,499
10,668

1,152
1,321

1,095
1,220

919
1,050

1,328
1,547

19
27

117
114

HESSENGERS.............................................................................

3,7 6 0

948

866

7 65

1,065

27

114

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

I .............. ..
I I ........................
I I I ......................
I V ........................

■288
1, 113
635
369

1,089
1, 383
1,443
1 ,743

1,031
1, 270
1,417
1,794

908
1 ,1 3 4
1,257
1,456

1,224
1,574
1,585
2,073

12
24
18
21

112
118
110
113

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ...........................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I ........................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I I ......................................

91 9
1,744
1,030

1,429
1,587
1,972

1,378
1,606
1,946

1,047
1,308
1,751

1,855
1,833
2,2 0 5

19
38
65

126
111
106

I .....................................................................
I I ..................................................................
I I I ................................................................
I V ...................................................................
V.....................................................................

19,186
19,673
39,388
15,863
8,076

1,328
1,365
1,547
1,683
1,961

1,239
1,328
1, 504
1,668
1,950

1,065
1, 185
1,300
1,458
1,706

1,535
1,50 4
1,765
1,907
2,173

30
31
37
35
36

114
110
109
109
109

STENOGRAPHERS I ...............................................................
STENOGRAPHERS I I .............................................................

8,490
6,569

1,280
1,515

1,257
1,527

1,028
1,296

1,471
1,735

55
57

103
100

TYPISTS I ................................................................................
TYPISTS I I .............................................................................

7,913
7,783

1,034
1,210

94 8
1, 140

832
954

1 , 183
1,425

25
44

114
106

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS

SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES

Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are in­
cluded.
“The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower
jourths of the employee distribution.
7Because the programmer job was newly added to the 1982 survey, not all large employers of
these workers were able to provide individual earnings information on short notice. Thus, salary
distributions and measures of central tendency, e.g. medians and middle ranges, were not com­
puted for programmers.

’For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
includes data from a few large companies that provide company-wide data not identified by
size of establishment.
Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in ali establishments within the scope
of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
_“Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the straighttime salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.




15

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
[Percent distribution of employees In selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

ACCOOH TAHTS

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS

HOHTHLX SALARY
I

UNDBR
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ...................................................
AND UNDER $ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
AND ONDER $ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
AND ONDER $ 1 , 2 0 0 ......................
AND UNDER $ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

II

III

(1.0)
1.4
2.4
3.3
5.1

_
(1.7)

IV

_
-

V

VI

I

II

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

III

IV

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 ,3 5 0 .........
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

5.4
5.6
5.1
1 0.0
9.3

1.2
1.2
1.3
3.0
5.5

(2.0)

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 . 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 . 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

8.5
6.0
9.4
8.4
5.1

5.2
4.4
6.6
7.0
7.2

1. 1
1.7
1.6
2.7
3 .5

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

$ 1 , 7 5 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................

2.8
2.5

5.8
5.7

3 .5
5.5

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ 1 , 8 5 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 AND UNDER $ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

1.7
1.8
1.0

6.4
5.0
4.9

4.3
5.6
5.9

_
(3.2)
1.4

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

4. 1
3.2
3.0
2.4
2.7

6.0
6.3
4.8
5.4
4.8

1.2
1 .9
1.9
2 .9
3. 6

_
-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

0 .5
-

_
-

- .

-

--

3 .5
19.1
11.5
15.9
6.3

4.2
1. ft
1.5
6.3
14.2

0. 1

-

1.5
1.4
2. 9
5. 1
4.4

13.9
8.7
2 .6
2.6
1.7

6. 5
6.7
5.8
10.1
8- 3

1 .9
.9
.9
4. 2

-

4 .3
4 .3
5.5
2 .4
2 .2

3.2
10.0
8.0
6.5
6. 0

4.3
-

7.3
7.6
7.9
5. 1
4.6

4 .9
2 .7
12.9
4. 3
5 .7

0 .6
1.7

1. 1
1.2
1. 1
(2.8)

5.4
7.8
3-1
6. 5
7.4

-

(1.6)
"

3.3
15. 3
5. 2
4.2
7 .9

_
1.7
3.3

~

2 .6
5.4
1. 6
2. 1
1.8

_
-

-

4 . ft

10.6
1. 1
1.7

.9
. 8
1.2
(2.5)

“

-

. 1
3 .9
1 .3
. 1
.3

“

_
-

-

_
3 .9
-

1. 1
1 .7
7. 2

_

“

-

-

1. 1
5.0
.6

AND
AND
AHD
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

1.3
(2.9)

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

2.9
3.4
.9
1.3
.7

4.6
4.2
4.0
3.5
3.4

4.0
4. 8
4. 0
4.7
6.3

(1-4)
1.0
.9
.8
1.6

-

2 .4
2 .8
1.8
2 .9

$2,500
$ 2 , 600
$2,700
$ 2 , 800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
ONDER
UNDER
UNDER
ONDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 . . .................

-

1.2
( 2 . 1i
-

5.2
4.3
2.3
1.4
(2.4)

9.4
9.4
9. 1
7. 4
7.1

3.2
4 .0
5.6
6 .8
9 .5

1.0
. 4
. 5

$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ................... .
$ 3 . 4 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ......................

*

-

-

5.5
3. 3
2. 6
2.1
1. 5

7 .2
7 .8
10 . 1
8. 1
7.1

$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
ONDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ____ . . . . .
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

_
“

-

(2.7)
-

$ 4 , 0 00
$4,100
$4 , 2 00
$4,300
$4,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
ONDER
UNDER
ONDER

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

-

-

$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$ 4,800
$4,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 4 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ......................

—
-

-

-

-

$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$ 5 , 40 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

-

-

-

~
~

-

-

“

-

_
-

”

$5,500
$5,600
$5,700
$ 5 , 800
$ 5 , 9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 0 0 0 ......................

$ 6 , 000 AND UNDER $ 6 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 1 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 , 2 0 0 . . ................
$ 6 , 2 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 , 3 0 0 . ...................

*

-

*

-

~
-

-

*

*
-

*

_
-

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

-

-

-

-

*

-

_
-

-

6. 3
1. 9
1 .5
1. 5

-

-

-

3.0

2.2
2.3
16. 1

23.3
2.2
5. 0

3.9

1.7

.6

...................... - .....................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

lon.o

SOMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

1 4 ,2 8 1

23,570

35,575

2 1,187

7 , 6 14

1,344

654

953

672

180

AVERAGE MONTHLY SA LARY.....................

$1,522

$1,839

$2,139

$2,638

$3,223

$4,046

$2,875

$ 3 # 309

$4,201

$5,105

TOTAL

See footnotes at end of table.




16

10 0 .0

Table 4. Continued— Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

AUDITORS

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS

MONTHLY SALARY
I

II

III

_

IV

I

_

_

_

1. 0

-

-

0.3
1.8
1.9

II

III

_
*

IV

_
-

_
-

51,000
S I . 050
$1,100
$1,150
$ 1,200

AND
AHD
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 . 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ........... ..
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ................... ..

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0 .........
$ 1 ,3 5 0 .........
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

2 .8
4 .6
9.3
7 .7
13.7

.6
3. 5
2 .5
3. 5
4. 4

_
(0.1)
1.8

-

4.5
10.2
14.2
2 2.5
2 0.7

(1.1)
4 .5
7. 0
15 . 2

_
(0.6)
1.7

$1,500
$1,550
$1 , 6 0 0
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

7 .0
3 .0
5.0
6 .3
5 .6

3. 3
6.2
6 .4
6.9
5.5

1.8
. 5
1.4
2.8
1.3

*

11.0
5.3
2.7
1.8
.9

15.6
16. 2
9. 8
7 .0
6. 5

2.9
2. 5
7. 1
7.4
8. 8

(0.6)
1 .4

$1,750
$1,800
$1 , 8 5 0
$1 , 9 0 0
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 . 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 . 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

2 .7
4 .6
3 .5
.8
1.4

6. 0
5 .6
5. 5
5. 5
3 .8

3.3
4.9
2.9
5. 1
4. 1

(1.7)
1.2
. 5

6 .8
3. 3
2. 2
1.8
1. 1

7.3
8.0
8.7
6.7
8. 1

1 .8
1. 8
2.7
5.0
7.5

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0 .........
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ____ ______
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ........... ..
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

(1-9)
-

3.2
3. 4
1. 9
5. 6
2. 8

4.8
5.7
4.6
5.3
5.2

1.
2.
1.
2.
5.

3
5
8
3
1

_
-

(1.7)

-

6. 1
4.3
4. 2
4.2
2 .8

6.4
7.0
3. 6
9.0
8.0

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 . . ................

_
-

2. 8
4. 7
1.4
. 6
. 9

4.5
6.3
4.3
4.9
4.2

2.7
3.9
4. 3
7.7
4. 8

_
-

_
-

2. 1
1. 7
1.3
(3.4)

5.0
3. 6
5.3
3.7
4.0

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

. 7
1.3
(0.3)
-

6.4
6.6
2.4
1.0
1.6

10.7
5. 7
7 .9
8. 7
5. 6

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7. 1
5 .1
4. 5
2.9
2. 1

$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$ 3 ,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 .................. .
$ 3 , 3 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ......................

(2.1)
-

6. 4
5. s
2 .0
1.7
2. 2

-

“

(2.0)
-

S 3 , 5 0 0 AND OVER...........................................
TOTAL

.............................................

1 .4
1. 1
1. 1
7.1
9 .4

-

-

100.0

-

100. 0

100.0

(3.4)
100.0

1.2
( 1 . 1)
-

-

-

100.0

-

100.0

100. 0

-

100.0

HUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

2 , 4 56

3,760

4 , 797

2 ,55 9

9,035

9,5 7 0

8 ,485

4 , 439

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY.........................

$ 1 ,492

$1,839

$ 2 , 208

$ 2,667

$1,439

$1,598

$1,903

$2,274

See footnotes at end of table.




17

Tab!© 4. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees In selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1982)

JOB AHALISTS

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL

BOHTHLY SALARY
I

II

III

IV

I

II

-

-

-

III

IV

$1,000
$1,050
$ 1,100
$1,150
$1,200

ABO
AHE
AHE
ABO
AHE

ODDER
UHDEfi
0HDER
OHDBB
OHBER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

10.6
6.9
3.2

2 .5
1.4
.5

*

-

-

$1,250
$1,300
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1,400
$ 1,450

AHE
AHE
ABB
AHE
AHE

UHOER
OHBEH
OtIBEB
OHBER
UHOER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ........... ..
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 1 ,4 5 0 .........
$ 1 ,5 0 0 .........

.9
7.9
.9
14. 4
9.7

2.3
5.0
5 .9
2.9
3 .8

_
0.9
1.6
2.2
1.2

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

S I . 50 0
S I . 550
$1,600
$ 1,650
$1,700

AHE
AHE
AHE
AHE
AHE

UHBEB
UHBEB
ORDER
UHDEB
ORDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
S 1 . 6 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 1 ,6 5 0 .........
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

8.8
9. 3
4.2
.9
.9

17.3
10.1
5.0
8.1
6. 1

1.0
.6
3. 5
2 .9
5. 8

1. 3
2. 5
. 2
.8

_
2 .8
2. 1

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

S 1.750
S I .'800
$ 1 ,850
81.900
$1,950

AHE
AHE
AHE
AHE
AHE

ORDER
OHDER
OHDEB
OHDER
OHDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 . 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 . 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

2.3
.9
.5
6.0

3.2
2 .9
4 .7
3 .8
1.6

5.0
2 .2
2 .9
8.6
2 .3

. 2
. 2
1.7
1. 1
1. 1

1 .5
.2
.5

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

$ 2,000
$2,050
$ 2,100
$ 2,150
$2,200

AHE
A HD
AHE
AtID
AHE

OHDEB
OHDBB
OHDER
OHDER
OHDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ........... .........
$ 2 ,1 5 0 .........
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 ,2 5 0 .........

.5
. 5
1.4
.5
1.4

2.3
1.1
.9
1.4
.9

6. 1
10.6
6. 6
6 .0
4.0

2. 7
1. 0
2. 1
2.5
1. 7

_
.5
3.1
4.1

_
(2.4)
1. 3

-

_
-

-

-

8 2 ,250
82,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AHE
AHE
A HD
A HE
AHE

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDER
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 . 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

.9
2.3
3.2
.9

2.9
.5
1 .4
.5
.2

3 .9
1.3
3 .8
2.2
1. 1

4.4
3.6
1. 7
3. 1
8. 0

3 .8
4.5
5.3
12.8
5 .8

2.2
3 .9
.6

-

_
-

-

-

$2,500
$ 2,600
$2,700
$ 2,800
$ 2,900

AHE
A HE
A HD
AHE
AHD

UHDEB
OHDER
OHDER
OHDER
OHDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ......................

-

_
1 .1
-

3 .5
1.6
1-9
2 .2
1.3

7. 6
10.9
8. 6
8.0
8.4

16. 6
6 .0
3 .9
2.9
7.3

4.7
7.5
7.6
4.1
5.9

0 .2
1 .1
2. 3
.6
3 .4

_
-

3 3 ,0 0 0
$3,100
$3,200
8 3,300
$3,400

A HD
ASD
AHE
A HD
AHE

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 . 2 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ___ _______
$ 3 ,5 0 0 .........

-

-

.5
1.5
(1. D

1.1
4.6
1 .2
3 .9
2.3

6.6
5.3
7.6
6.4
7.0

4 .8
.3
3.8
4 .7
6.4

_
-

-

6 .7
2.5
1. 9
. 4
1.7

83.500
$ 3,600
$3,700
$3,800
83,900

AHD
AHD
AHE
AHD
AHE

UHDEB
OHDER
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 3 , 8 0 0 . . . . ............
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ____ . . . . .
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ......................

~
-

-

-

1.5
. 2
1. 3
(0.4)

_
3.2
-

2.6
5.0
5.0
4. 1
-

2.0
3. 3
6.6
9. 5
7.4

_
2.B
2.4
. 7

$ 4,000
$ 4,100
84,200
84,300
$ 4,400

ABO
AHD
AHD
AHE
AHE

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDER
OHDEB
UHDEB

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

_
*

•
“

_
-

_
-

3.3
. 9
2. 8
. 1
.8

9 .6
8.2
1.8
1. 1
4 .6

.7
4.2
4.2
7.7
12.9

84,500
$4,600
54,700
8 4,800
$ 4 ,900

AHD
AHD
ANE
AHE
AHE

OHDEB
OHDEB
UNDER
OHDEB
OHDER

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ................ ..
$ 4 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 9 0 0 . . . . ............
$ 5 . 0 0 0 ................

_
-

~

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_
. 1
1 .2
(0.5)

3 .5
3 .0
.4
.6
.9

7.0
8.7
1.0
3.8
4.5

85,000
$5,100
35,200
$ 5 , 3 00
$5,400

AHD
AHD
AHD
ADD
AHE

OHDER
OHDER
UHDEB
OHDER
OHDER

$ 5 . 1 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ................... ..
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

9.4
6. 3
3.8
2.3
1.0

$5,500
$ 5 , 6 00
8 5.700
$5,800
$5,900
8 6,000

AHE
AHE
AHD
AHE
AHE
AHE

OHDER $ 5 , 6 0 0 ......................
OHDER $ 5 , 7 0 0 ......................
OHDEB $ 5 , 8 0 0 ......................
OHDEB.$ 5 , 9 0 0 ......................
OHDEB $ 6 , 0 0 0 ......................
OVER..........................................

4.9
2.4
4.5
. 3
1.0
(1.0)

TOTAL

.............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

HUHBEB OF EMPLOYEES.................................

216

4 44

822

524

1,061

2,120

9 58

287

AVERAGE HCNTHLY SALARY........................

$ 1,548

$1, 658

$2,086

$ 2,602

$2,595

$3,181

$3,963

$4,822

*

-

-

-

*

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

.3
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

1 .7
. 1
.2
2 .0
1.9

-

*

-

-

-

-

1.4
(2.3)

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

18

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 0. 0

Tabs© 4. C o n tin u e d -- Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations

See footnotes at end of table.




19

Table 4. C ontinued— Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

See footnotes at end of table.




20

Table 4. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

CHEMISTS
HOHTHLI SALARY
I

UHDSR
$1,100
$1,150
£1.200

$ 1 , 1 0 0 ...................................................
ADO OHDEB $ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
ADD 0UDEB $ 1 , 2 0 0 . . . . . . . . .
ADD OHDEB $ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

III

II

V

VI

VII

.

.

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

(1.3)
2.3
1.6
1.4

IV

-

-

_

_

_

$1,250
£1.300
31,350
$1,400
$1,450

ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 1 ,« 0 0 .. . . . . . . .
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

2.5
4.5
4.8
6.7
5.8

(1.9)
1.8
1 .8

-

$1,500
£1,550
£1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 ,5 0 0 .........
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 . . .................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ................... ..

4.7
8.0
10.3
6.6
8. 1

2 .5
3 .6
4.0
4 .3
6 .2

(1-0)
1.4
.9
1.3
1.8

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 ,0 0 0 .........

5.8
4.9
5 .1
1 .8
3.9

6 .9
8 .5
5 .9
5 .5
5 .5

2 .2
3.0
2. 7
2 .5
3.5

-

-

7 .1
5 .6
3 .7
4 .3
4 .2

3.7
3.8
5.4
6.4
5.6

_

-

2.3
3.1
1.3
(2.8)

_

-

$ 2 , 0 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
£ 2 . 1 0 0 AHD OHDEB £ 2 , 1 5 0 . . . . . . . . .
£ 2 , 1 5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

_

_

(3.6)
1.4
1.4

-

-

-

-

-

$ 2 , 2 5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
£ 2 , 3 0 0 ADD OHDEB $ 2 . 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
£ 2 . 4 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

“

1.9
2 .4
3.1
2 .5
1.0

4.9
4 .0
4. 3
6.8
4.2

1.8
3 .1
2.5
3.4
3.6

_
(2.9)

-

-

£ 2 , 5 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 6 0 0 . . . ..............
$ 2 , 6 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 3 , 0 0 0 ......................

-

2 .3
1 .4
1.0
(1.1)

7.4
6 .9
4. 1
2.9
3 .0

9.9
8.8
1 1 .1
9 .4
9.8

2.0
3.3
4.8
4.8
7.2

_
-

_
(1 -2 )

$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
83,300
$3,400

AHD
AHD
AHD
ADD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 3 .4 0 0 .........
$ 3 . 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

1.2
1. 7
1.0
(2.2)

7.1
6.4
4.7
2.9
2.8

7.5
7.7
9.0
8.4
6.6

(2.8)
2.3
4 .7
10.0
5. 8

1.2
. 2

$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$ 3,900

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 3 . 7 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ......................

-

-

-

1. 1
1.0
(4.4)

7.9
7.2
5. 1
2.9
2 .7

5 .9
6 .8
7.7
10.5
7 .8

2.1
5.4
2. 3
1.0
1 7. 6

$4,000
$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OBDEB
OHDEB

$ 4 . 1 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ......................

_
“

_
-

-

-

-

-

1.9
2.0
1.3
1.4
(3.4)

6 .6
5.6
3 .2
3.4
2. 3

5.9
8.2
3.0
4. 2
10.5

$4,500
$4,600
$ 4 ,700
$4,800
£4,900

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 9 0 0 ___ . . . . . .
$ 5 , 0 0 0 . . .................

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

2. 1
2. 8
1.5
1.6
1. 2

3. 9
2.5
6.7
2. 0
2.7

$5,000
$5,100
£5,200
$5,300
$5,400

AHD
AHD
AHD
AND
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
ONDEB
OHDEB

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 5 . 3 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ......................

_
*

_
-

-

_
-

(5.3)

-

-

-

1.6
2.1
1.1
1.3
2. 4

$ 5 * 5 0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 5 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 6 0 0 AND OHDEB $ 5 , 7 0 0 . . . . . . . . .
$ 5 , 7 0 0 AHD OVER...........................................

-

-

-

_
-

-

“

*

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

-

_
*

-

-

_
-

_

2.3
1. 5
(6 . 7 )

..............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

HUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

3,617

6,677

10,900

11,028

8 , 912

3 ,828

1 ,438

AVERAGE HOHTHLI SALARY........................

$1,637

$1,956

$2,335

$2,837

$3,351

$3,914

$4 , 471

TOTAL

See footnotes at end of table.




21

Table 4. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

ENGINEERS
MONTHLY SA1AEY
I

UNDER $ 1 , 4 5 0 ..................................................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

(2.7)
1.7

II

III

_

V

IV

_

VI

VII

V III

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

1.5
1 .3
1.9
2.8
4.1

-

-

(2.0)
1. 1
1.6

*

$1 ,7 5 0
$1,800
$1,850
$1 ,9 0 0
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

4 .7
7. 2
8.1
10.2
9 .7

2.2
2. 9
3 .5
5.5
6. 0

_
(3.0)
1.8
2.3

-

-

-

-

-

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

9.0
7 .8
7 .5
5 .4
3 .5

7.7
7.9
7. 3
8.3
8.4

2.7
4.0
3 .6
4.9
5.9

_
(2.4)
1. 1

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AMD
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

2 .8
2.0
1.6
1.4
1.0

7.2
6. 4
4. 8
3.8
3. 0

6. 1
6.3
6.0
6. 9
6.2

1. 5
2. 1
2. 3
3. 2
3.6

(2.4)

_
-

_

-

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 . 6 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 2 . 9 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ......................

1.3
(i.i)
-

4. 4
2.4
1.7
(1-9)

11.5
9. 1
7.2
4.3
3. 1

8.4
8. 6
10. 0
10 . 2
10. 6

1.7
2.3
3.3
4.2
6.1

(2.0)

_
-

$ 3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ......................

_
-

-

1.8
1.3
(2.0)
-

9.
8.
6.
4.
2.

3
1
5
6
5

6.6
7.6
8.4
8. 8
8.8

1.6
2. 8
3. 8
4.4
6. 0

(2.5)

$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEH
UNDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

-

_
-

1.6
1.0
(2 . 1)
-

8.3
8.2
6.2
4.2
3.5

6. 4
7.2
8. 1
7. 6
7. 1

1.6
2. 8
2.9
4.0
5.5

_
(1.*)
1. 9

$4,000
$4,100
$ 4,200
$4,300
$4,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

-

_
-

2.8
1.9
1.3
(3.1)
*

6.6
6.7
5 .4
4. 7
4. 1

6. 0
6.3
7.3
7. 1
7.2

.6
1.9
2.4
2. 6
4.0

$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 . . ................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 4 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

-

-

-

-

3. 5
2. 3
2.4
1.8
1.5

6.4
5.3
4. 7
5.24. 8

4.5
6.2
5. 6
6.8
6.0

$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$5,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 5 . 3 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ......................

1.0
(2 - 9 )
*

3.6
3. 0
2. 8
2.3
2. f.

7.2
6.6
6.1
•3.9
5.5

$5,500
$5,600
$5,700
$5,800
$5,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

1. 3
1.2
(4.1)
-

3. 9
2.2
2.6
2.0
1.6

$6 , 0 0 0
$6,100
$6,200
$6,300
$6,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

-

-

-

■

2.0
1.3
1. 1
.9
1.6

$ 6 , 5 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 6 , 6 0 0 AND OVER..........................................

-

-

-

1.3
(5.4)

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

“

*

-

-

"

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

”

-

_
_
-

.............................................

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

10 0. 0

100.0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

31,293

60,083

116,212

138,972

101,701

45,853

1 4 , 102

2 , 074

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY.........................

$1,969

$2,172

$2,444

$2,870

$3 , 390

$3,953

? 4 ,528

55,208

TOTAL

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
N ote : T o avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the ex­
tremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these




22

intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme inter­
val containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in
parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

DRAFTERS

ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
MONTHLY SALARY
I

II

IV

III

V

I

II

III

IV

7

DUDEB $ 7 0 0 ........................................................

-

-

-

-

-

(0.6)

-

-

-

-

$7 0 0
$ 72 5
$7 50
$775

AND
AND
A HD
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UN DEB
UNDEB

$ 7 2 5 ................................
$ 7 5 0 ................................
$ 7 7 5 .............................
$ 8 0 0 ................................

-

-

_
-

*

-

3.5
1.6
.5
3.2

_
~

.
-

-

-

$800
$ 82 5
$ 85 0
$8 7 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 .................................
$ 8 5 0 ................................
$ 8 7 5 ................................
$ 9 0 0 . ____ . . . . -------

_
(1.3)

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

6 .0
8.2
9.7
3.7

_
(2.9)
2.0
1.1

_
-

-

-

$900
$ 92 5
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ................................
$ 9 5 0 ................................
$ 9 7 5 ____ . . . . . . . . .
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ...........................

1.5
.6
9. 1
2.9

-

-

-

_
-

9.5
4.2
11.6
3.9

2.7
3.3
3.2
3.9

_
(1.3)
1.2

(1.6)
1.8
9. 2
9. 1
8.9

(2.0)

_
-

_
-

16.5
8.3
9.5
2.8
2.3

8.6
9.2
9.5
10.0
8. 8

2.6
2 .9
5.1
5.5
9.0

(0.8)
1. 3

-

-

-

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

11.1
8.7
11.8
10.5
8.3

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 . 3 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 --------------$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

8.4
7 .3
7. 1
4 .7
3 .2

8.6
9.2
9 .9
7.7
1 0.9

2 .3
3.2
5 .6
6 .4
8 .5

_
(1-8)
1.6

_
-

1.5
1 .2
.2
1. 1
(0.9)

8.9
4. 9
3.5
4. 8
2.8

9.9
7.9
9.1
7.5
6.2

2 .9
2. 5
3. 5
4. 1
5.2

(1.0)
1.9

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
0NDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 .....................
$ 1 . 7 5 0 ......................

1.8
1.0
1.4
.9
.4

6 .9
6.0
9.3
9.0
2.8

7 .9
8.4
7 .8
6 .9
5 .7

1.8
2.9
9.0
9.7
5.5

_
(1.2)
1. 1
1. 1
1.5

_
-

3. 6
2. 1
1.5
(2.6)

5.6
5.6
9 .2
3. 0
3. 5

6.5
7. 0
7.7
7.2
7. 7

1.9
1.9
2. 3
2.6
3.7

$1,750
$1,800
$ 1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
U DEB
N
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

1.2
(2.1)
-

1. 4
2.1
1.2
1. 1
1 .2

5 .8
5. 1
3 .9
3 .6
3 .1

6.5
7.2
9.1
6.2
7 .5

2.2
2. 4
3. 4
9.3
5. 1

_
-

*

2.8
1.8
.9
1.3
(9. 1)

5.6
6. 1
9.7
4. 3
4.7

3.6
5.3
9.3
4. 8
5.5

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 . 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

-

1 .1
(1.9)
■

2.1
2 .7
2 .3
2 .0
2.1

5.6
5. 1
9.6
5.1
9 .1

9.
9.
7.
5.
6.

5
3
0
1
4

_
-

_
-

-

3.0
3.9
1. 9
1.7
2 .0

5.5
4.1
5 .7
5.9
3.1

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,900
$2,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 . . ................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

-

(2.7)
-

3.9
3 -1
2.5
1.7
1.8

6. 3
9 .8
5. 1
5. 0
9 .3

_
-

1. 6
1. 8
. 9
1.0
(1.9)

9.5
3. 6
3.3
3.1
3.1

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 .....................

-

~
-

-

1.7
(2.0)

-

-

7. 3
6. 5
3. 3
1.2
(1.5)

-

_
-

6 .4
3. 1
3.6
2.2
1.5

$ 3 , 0 0 0 AND UNDER $ 3 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 3 , 1 0 0 AND UNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0 .....................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 AND OVER...........................................

*

-

~
-

_
-

1.2
2.0
(0.3)

~

-

-

"
_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

7,178

20 , 271

31 , 3 9 0

36,630

21,651

3 , 161

11,929

23,277

2 6 , 149

20, 76 2

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY........................

$1,229

$1,937

$1,685

$1,968

$2,230

$978

$1,188

$1,920

$1,797

22, 159

TOTAL

See footnotes at end of table.




23

Table 5. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

CDHPOTER OPERATORS

PHOTOGRAPHERS

HONTHLT SALARY
I
0 ODEB $ 6 7 5 ........................................................
$ 6 7 5 AND UNDEB $ 7 0 0 ................................

(1.2)
1. 8

II

III

IV

V

VI

II

III

I V

_

_

_

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
3.3

_
-

_
-

-

-

1.4
.5

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AHD

UUDEB
UN DEB
UUDEB
UUDEB

$ 7 2 5 .................................
$ 7 5 0 .................................
$ 7 7 5 . ..............................
$ 8 0 0 ................................

1.2
2.8
1.1
3.9

_
(2.0)
2. 1

_
-

-

$800
$825
$850
$875

AND
AND
AHD
AND

ONDEB
UNDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB

$ 8 2 5 ...........................
$ 8 5 0 .................................
$ 8 7 5 ................................
$ 9 0 0 ................................

4.2
6.2
6.7
6.0

.8
1.5
2.4
1.2

_
(1. D
1.0
.6

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AHD
AND

UNDEB
ONDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 9 2 5 .................................
$ 9 5 0 .................................
$ 9 7 5 ................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ...........................

8. 1
5. 1
5.7
5.0

2. 6
4 .7
5. 9
6 .7

•8
1.5
1.6
1.4

_
-

_
-

_
-

.

$1,000
$1,050
$ 1 ,100
$1,150
$ 1 , 200

AND
AND
AND
ADD
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 . ................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

9. 5
8 .4
5.4
4.4
3.8

11. 3
9 .4
8.8
6. 2
5 .5

5.2
6.3
8.2
7.5
9 .5

(1.7)
1.9
2.7
3.5

_
-

_
-

.4
2 .5
7.4
1.6
1.9

-

-

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$ 1,400
$1,450

AHD
ADD
AHD
ADD
AHD

UNDEB
UNDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 . 3 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

2.3
1 .4
2.2
1.0
(2.4)

4 .7
3.9
2.4
1.7
1.6

9.1
7 .8
7.3
6.3
5.1

5.0
6.4
6.4
6.8
7.6

(1.8)
1.6
2.6
3 .6
5.2

_
(2.2)

2 .5
6.5
3.3
3.5
3.7

_
(0.7)
1.7
1.9
3.9

_
-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
ADD
AHD
ADD
AHD

UNDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 . . . . ...........
$ 1 , 6 5 0 . . . . ...........
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

_
-

4. 9
3 .6
3.2
(2.8)
*

4.3
3.1
2.1
1.9
1.3

6.8
6.0
5.3
6.2
5.1

2.2
3.8
4.5
5.4
4.3

1.4
.6
1.9
4.7
18.3

9.6
7.9
1.6
6.0
9.5

5.0
3 .7
4.3
6. 6
14.3

_
(2. 3)
4.1
4. 6
4. 1

$1,750
$ 1,800
$1,850
$ 1 , 900
$ 1,950

AND
AUD
AHD
AND
AUD

UNDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UUDEB

$ 1 , 8 0 0 . . . . ...........
$ 1 , 8 5 0 . . . . ...........
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

-

-

1.0
(5.8)
-

5.5
4.0
3.8
2. 1
1.3

11.0
4. 2
4.1
3.1
3.8

4.4
6. 1
7.5
6.1
6. 1

6.1
2.5
3.7
3.0
2 .6

1.7
5 .0
8 .0
6 .6
3.6

4. 6
2. 1
2. 8
8. 1
5.3

$ 2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$ 2,150
$2,200

AND
AUD
AUD
AND
AND

UNDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

-

-

-

1.7
1.7
1.3
1.4
1.3

3.6
3.5
9.7
1.6
1.6

9.4
4.7
5.6
7.5
5.6

1.9
3.2
.4
.2
.2

4 .4
4.8
8.7
4.4
1.8

3. 9
6. 9
4. 4
2. 3
6.2

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AHD
AND
AND
AUD
AUD

UNDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UUDEB
UNDEB

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

“

-

_
-

4.7
1.7
1.5
1.7
1.6

2.8
.3
.3
.8
•8

1 .1
.4
.7
1.1
(0.2)

3. 9
1.8
1.2
(2.0)

-

.7
. 6
.5
.6
.9

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AHD
AND
AND
AHD

UNDEB $ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
UNDEB $ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
UNDEB $ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
UNDEB $ 2 , 9 0 0 ......................
OVEB................... .......................

_

(i.i)

-

2.2
(0.6)

_

-

-

-

-

2.2
3.3
1.0
(1.0)
-

_

-

-

TOTAL

-

“

-

-

-

-

•-

-

-

.
1.
6.
4.
i

9.
4
7
4
7

6. 5
3. 7
2. B
1. 2
(4.9)

..............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

HUMBER OP EMPLOYEES.................................

6 ,1 4 1

14,928

29,523

16,252

3,2 1 2

360

570

725

43 4

AVERAGE EOHTHLY SALARY.........................

$991

$1,158

$1,317

$1,610

$1,907

$1,939

$1,564

$1,869

$2,11 6

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
N ote : T o avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the exTemes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these




24

100. 0

intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme
interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are
shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

FILE CLERKS

ACCOUNTING CLERKS

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS

aONTHLS SALARY
I

$ 5 2 5 AND UNDER $ 5 5 0 ................................
$ 5 5 0 AND UNDER $ 5 7 5 ................................
S 57 5 AND UNDER 26 0 0.................................

II

III

(1 -7 )
1.3

-

IV

-

I

II

III

I

II

-

(0 .3 )
1.8
5.2

(0.5)

"

-

“

~

$60 0
$625
$ 650
$675

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 2 5 .................................
$ 6 5 0 ................................
$ 6 7 5 .................................
$ 7 0 0 ................................

1 -3
3.5
3.5
5.9

(1.5)
1.2

-

-

9.5
9 .1
9.2
6. 8

1. 3
3 .0
4 .6
4-3

-

.
(1.6)
1.2
3.0

.
-

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 .................................
$ 7 5 0 ................................
$ 7 7 5 ................................
$ 8 0 0 .................................

9.6
5.9
5.8
5.3

1.9
1 .6
3.0
3.2

-

-

7.9
7.8
6.6
5.8

6.5
8.5
6 .9
7 .7

(0.3)
1.0
1.9
3.3

2.4
3.5
9.3
9.2

(1.2)
2. 2
1.5

$800
$825
$850
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 .................................
$ 8 5 0 ................................
$ 8 7 5 .................................
$9 0 0.................................

8-4
6.4
6.6
5.8

3 .8
3-7
5.0
9.7

(2.1)
1.2
1-9
1.7

-

5.6
5.9
3.3
4. 4

7. 3
7.6
5 .9
3 .7

5.9
9.7
9.3
7.0

5.0
5.5
7.0
9.8

1.8
2.2
3. 6
3.2

$900
$925
$ 95 0
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ................................
$ 9 5 0 .................................
$ 9 7 5 ................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ...........................

6.8
3.5
3 -3
2.8

5.6
4.9
6- 1
4 .9

2 .8
3.0
3.9
3 .7

(2.5)

2.2
1.7
1.5
1.8

5.0
2.6
4.1
1.9

5.5
5.9
6.0
2.5

6.6
5.5
4.9
4. 1

3 .5
3. 6
4. 3
9 .6

1.8
(2.9)

5.2
2.3
3.3
1.5
.7

10.8
7.1
8.7
9. 5
5.2

8.5
5.9
9.7
3 .6
2.5

9. 1
8. 1
7. 7
7. 5
6 .8

.6
1.0
(3.7)

3.9
2.2
1 .4
1.0
1.2

2.1
1.7
1 .0
(6.3)

5.7
3. 5
4 .0
2.6
1.4

-

1.0

.4

.7
.4

-

. 7
1. 1

<-

. 8
. 8
2.0

-

(2 .9 )

-

"

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,000
$1,050
$1,100
$ 1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$1 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

3-7
3.5
2 .1
1.7
1-2

10.0
8.3
7.3
5.1
4- 1

7.6
7.6
8 .1
8.8
9. 1

1.8
2.7
9.3
5.2
5. 3

$ 1 ,250
$1,300
$1,350
$ 1 ,900
$ 1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ......................
$1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

-9
.2
.5
.3
.3

2.8
1.5
1.4
1.6
1.9

7 .9
5.2
4.0
3.8
2.7

5.6
6.3
7 .2
6-9
6-9

$1,500
$1,550
$ 1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$1 , 7 5 0 ......................

1-5
(1.5)

1.6
(3.2)

2.9
3 .4
1.9

5.3
6.7
9.5
3-2
3.6

$1 , 7 5 0

$ 1 ,800
$1,850
$1 , 9 0 0
$ 1 ,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................

-

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 0 50 ......................
UNDER $ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
UNDER $ 2 . 1 5 0 ......................
OVER..................................

TOTAL

.............................................

100.0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

27.738

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY........................

$8 73

$ 1, 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 95 0 ......................

-

1.1
-

1. 1

-

.9

-

1. 1

-

(2.6)

2.8
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.4

.7

.6

$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................
_
-

~
"

-

1-8
1. 7
1 .3
( 3 . 0)

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

100.0

100.0

100.0

85,917

5 8 , 670

23,519

22,996

$ 1 ,0 4 1

$ 1 , 226

$ 1 , 507 v

$752

25

.6
. 6

.6
. 7
. 4

1.3
(0.7)
-

1. 9

_

-

100.0

1 0 0 .0

See footnotes at end of table.




-

.6

_

*

100.0

100.0

100.0

12,109

9,037

59,672

40,048

$873

$1,066

$981

$ 1 , 163

Table 6. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS

PERSONNEL CLEHKS/ASSISTANTS
HCNTHLY SALARY

MESSENGERS
I

UNDER $ 6 0 0 .......................................................

II

III

IV

I

II

III

(1 . 6 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4600
$625
$6 5 0
$675

AMD
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 2 5 ................................
$ 6 5 0 .................................
$ 6 7 5 .................................
$ 7 0 0 ................................

4.3
5.6
6.5
5 .3

(0.7)
1. 6
. 3

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 ................................
$ 7 5 0 ................................
$ 7 7 5 ................................
$ 8 0 0 ................................

5 .8
8.4
7.2
5.9

1.5
1. 1
4 .5
5. 2

(0.5)

-

-

0.9
1.7
2 .0
. 4

-

-

$800
$825
$8 5 0
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 ................................
$ 8 5 0 ................................
$ 8 7 5 ................................
$ 9 0 0 ................................

6.8
5.0
5.7
3.3

5. 5
5.1
7. 1
4 .6

1. 1
.9
2.2
3.2

_
(2.6)
1.0
.8

_
-

1.8
1.5
5. 1
3.7

_
0.2
1.0
(2/)

-

$90 0
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 .................................
$ 9 5 0 ................ ...............
$ 9 7 5 ................................
$ 1 . 0 0 0 ...........................

4 .1
3.8
2.8
1.7

8.8
4. 0
5 .3
5.3

3. 1
3.8
4.0
5 .8

_
1.5
.5
2.5

-

2 .2
6. 4
4.4
2. 6

. 1
.7
.5
1.1

_
-

-

-

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ......................
$1 , 2 5 0 ......................

3 .0
2.2
1.3
1. 1
.8

1 2.2
9. 1
4. 9
3 .5
3. 0

11.2
10. 1
9.9
9.0
7.3

5.9
5.5
7.3
9.7
6.6

(1.4)
2. 5
3. 1
3. 0
6.2

13.7
12.4
8.7
8. 1
3 .9

5.8
5. 1
6.4
6.6
6.4

_
1. 1
.8
2.0

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

1 .0
1 .2
(3.3)
-

1.7
1.5
1.1
(2.4)

6.4
2.8
3 .7
2 .6
1.9

7.3
10.0
7.4
6.3
5.8

5. 9
5 .8
7. 4
7. 9
11.4

4.2
1.3
1.0
1.9
1.1

7. 0
4.6
5.7
6.8
3. 1

1.5
1.8
3. 5
1.4
3.8

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$1 , 6 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

_
-

“

1.3
1 .0
1.6
.7
.5

4.3
2.7
1.7
1.8
1.6

6.0
6. 5
3. 4
9.9
1. 3

1.5
1.0
1.1
.6
.3

5.6
4.8
5.3
3.5
4.4

3. 6
6.5
2.7
4. 4
2. J

$1,750
$1,800
$1 , 850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

_
-

-

.5
.4
.9
1.8
1.3

1.0
1 .6
1.8
.6
.4

1. 6
1. 0
2.2
. 6
1. 0

. 4
. 6
1.6
1.0
. 3

2 .6
2.3
3.0
1.3
1.1

5.1
8.9
6. 0
4.4
6. 2

4 2 .000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ......................

*

(0.3)
-

(2/)
1.0
(0.8)

3. 0
2. 2
.4
1.2
. 5

.9
. 4
1.0
(0.3)
-

(5.0)
-

e.3
2.0
3.3
1.3
4.7

$ 2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ......................
$ 2 . 4 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

-

. 6
1.2
1.5
(1.3)
-

-

-

1.6
.3
.3
1.0
1.1

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 6 0 0 ......................
UNDER $ 2 , 7 0 0 ......................
UNDER $ 2 , 8 0 0 ......................
OVER..........................................

-

-

-

1.3
2. 3
2. 2
.1

TOTAL

..............................................

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

HUMBER OF EMPLOYEES................................

13,931

2, 35 3

4,683

3,576

1 ,787

4,791

4 ,605

1 , 577

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY........................

$8 33

$976

$ 1 , 177

$1,310

$1,536

$1,132

$1,426

$1 , 856

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




26

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 0. 0

Table 6. Continued— Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1982)

STENOGRAPHERS

SECRETARIES

ty :
j

ISTS

MONTHLY SALABI
I
ONDEB $ 6 2 5 ........................................................
$ 6 2 5 AND UNDER $ 6 5 0 ................................
$ 6 50 AND 0NDEB $ 6 7 5 ................................
$ 6 7 5 AND UNDER $ 7 0 0 .................................

II

III

IV

V

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$7 00
$725
$7 50
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 .................................
$ 7 5 0 . . . . ......................
$ 7 7 5 ................................
$8 0 0.................................

(2 . 2 )
1.3

-

_
-

$800
$825
$ 8 50
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 ................................
$ 8 5 0 ................................
$ 8 7 5 .............. .................
$ 9 0 0 ................................

2.1
2.6
3.3
2 .6

(2.6)
1.3
1 .8

“

-

_
-

$ 9 00
$925
$95 0
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 . ..............................
$ 9 5 0 ................................
$ 9 7 5 ................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ...........................

3.0
3.9
4.3
4.0

2 .0
2. 3
3. 1
2 .5

(2.2)
1.2
1.0

(1.9)

-

-

I

II

I

II

-

_
-

(1 .7 )
2.5
3.0
5 .1
5.7
7.0
6.3
6.9

1.
.
2.
2.

_
(0 - 7 )

-

-

(1.2)
1.0
1.7

-

-

2. 4
1.5
2.7
2.4

7.1
5.2
6.0
5. 1

2 .5
3.4
4. 6
3. 5

-

2 .9
3. 1
3.5
3 .6

(4.8)
1.2

5.2
3.9
3.8
2 .8

4.6
4. 7
4. 0
4. 4

1
7
0
6

$1,000
$ 1,050
$1,100
$ 1,150
$ 1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

OH DEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ......................

9.6
9.3
9.1
6.7
6.4

6.4
7 .9
8.7
8.0
9.0

3. 1
4.2
5.4
5.9
7.8

1.6
2.1
2.8
3 .5
4. 1

(1.2)
1.3
1.7

7.2
6.2
7. 1
4.4
5. 1

2.9
2.5
3.6
2.5
5 .5

4.3
3.3
2.3
1. 6
2.4

8.4
7. 1
7. 7
5. 3
3.8

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1,300
$1 , 3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
ONDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ......................

5.7
4. 1
3.5
3.0
2.0

8 .3
7. 1
5.1
5.3
4.3

8.2
7.4
6.6
6.9
6.1

5.2
6. 1
5.7
7.6
6.8

2.2
2 .8
3.3
3.3
5.0

4. 1
5 .3
3.4
7. 1
4 .4

5.3
4.9
4 .7
5. 3
4.7

1 .3
1.1

3.4
7. 5
3. 0
3.2
4. 4

$ 1,500
$1,550
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ......................

2.1
1.2
1 .1
1. 1
.9

3.6
2.5
1.4
1.3
1.0

5.9
4.4
3 .8
3.4
2.5

6.2
5.3
5.6
5.6
5.5

5.8
5. 1
5. 2
5.5
6.1

3 .5
4.6
. 8
.7
1.5

7.2
7.6
4.8
2.8
7.0

1.1
(3.0)
-

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AHD
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$1 , 8 0 0 ......................
$1 , 8 5 0 ......................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 95 0 ......................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ......................

1. 1
(3.8)
-

1.0
1.5
(2.0|
-

4. 0
3.3
3.2
2.7
2.5

6.0
4.8
5.2
4.1
3.5

.4
. 8
3.1
2.7
(1.6)

2.9
2 .1
4. 1
3.6
2.9

-

“

2.1
1.7
1.9
1 .4
1.2

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$ 2 ,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ......................
$ 2 . 2 5 0 ......................

-

-

1.6
( 4 . 1)
-

3.8
4.8
2 .9
2.4
2.4

_
-

1.9
3.9
1. 1
(0.5)

-

(0.9)

~

-

-

2.0
1.6
1. 2
1.6
(2.3)

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 .........................
$ 2 . 4 5 0 .........................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ......................

1.8
1.9
2. 1
1.0
.9

$ 2 , 5 0 0 AND UNDEB $ 2 , 6 0 0 .........................
$ 2 , 6 0 0 AND UNDEB $ 2 , 7 0 0 .........................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 AND OVER..........................................

*
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

*

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

1.6
1.3
(1.0)

-

.9

.3
1.1

-

-

-

1. 6
1.6
1.2
. 7
1. 1
. 7
. 6
1.6
. 8
. 2
1.2

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

.............................................

100.0

100.0

1 00.0

100.0

100.0

1C0.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

NUHBER OF EMPLOYEES.................................

63,768

63,060

106,688

45,616

22,679

15,562

11,534

3 1,703

17,822

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY........................

$1,167

$1 , 2 4 5

$1,421

$1,550

$1,796

$1,239

$1,508

$908

31 , 144

TOTAL

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2Less than 0.05 percent.

the distribution for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these intervals have
been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extremes interval containing
at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Note : To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of




27

T a b le 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,1by industry division,2United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1982)

MINING
OCCUPATION

CONSTBUCTION

MANU­
FACTURING

PUBLIC
WHOLESALE
UTILITIES3/
TRADE

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE, SELECTED
AND REAL SERVICES Ji/
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACCOUNTANTS........................................................................
AUDITORS................................................................................
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS.....................................................
CUTFF ACCOUNTANTS........................................................
ATTORNEYS...........................................................................
BUYERS.....................................................................................
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAKMER ANALYSTS...................
JOB ANALYSTS.....................................................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL...........................................
CHEMISTS................................................................................
ENGINEERS...........................................1 ...............................

6
4

(■5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
[5)

(5)
(5)
(5)
<5)

<o>
(5)
C5)
(“
5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

61
35

10
19

-

(5)
(5)
u
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
“
a

-

-

4

71
31
82
38
50
69
85
72

5
12
4
12
10
4
(5)
6

(5)
5
(5)
(5)

75
65
39
68

5
7
10
5

(5)
(5)
05)
(5)
(5)
(5)

42
15
36
33
62
82

13
6
8
10
5
5

( 5)

49

10

~

(5)

92
32

40

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS........................................
DRAFTERS................................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS......................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS..................................................................

(5)
5
4
4
(5)
5
(5)
(5)

9
6
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

11
33
9
44
(5)
27
32
14
-

-

_
(5)
7
(5)

_

6
4

24
(5)

12
(5)
9
4
8
(5)

16
64
26
38
15
5

4
(5)

22
8

(5)

42

(5)
(5)
100
4
(5)
4
13
4
4
11
16

16
20
12
16

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS........................................................
F ILE CLERKS........................................................................
K7Y ENTRY OPERATORS...................................................
MESSENGERS...........................................................................
PERSONNEL CI. SR KS/ASSISTANTS..............................
PURCHASING ASS JSTANTS.............................................
SECRETARIES........................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS..................................................................
TYP IS TS ..................................................................................

(5)

( 5)

’Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
2For scope of study, see table A*1 in appendix A.
transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.
4Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; com­

11

9
5
9
4
(5)
(5)
5
(5)
(5)

4
(5)
10
9
4
4
8

(5)
6

puter and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services; non­
commercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and
bookkeeping services.
“Less than 4 percent.
N ote: A dash indicated that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry.

Tab!© 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' by Industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March
1982)

MINING
OCCUPATION

CON­
STRUCTION

MANU­
FACTURING

PU ELIC
WHOLESALE
UTILITIES3/
TRADE

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE, SELECTED
AND REAL SSR VI C ES 4/
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACCOUNTANTS........................................................................
AUDITORS................................................................................
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS......................................................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS........................................................
ATTORNEYS.............................................................................
BUYERS......................................................................................
PROGRAMME*S/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS...................
JOB ANALYSTS.....................................................................
DTRFCTORS OF PERSONNEL...........................................
CHEMISTS................................................................................
ENGINEERS.............................................................................

114
120

96
104

100
104

105
107

96
99

94
97

-

-

-

-

-

-

(5)
1 19
123
111
(5)
122
125
171

(5)
(5)
ID 1
95
100
(5)
(5)
102

100
103
99
103
108
100
100
100

(5)
100
107
119
109
114
(5)
101

(5)
103
108
97
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
98
97
94
(5)
99
(5)

125
115
112
(5)

114
102
(5)
(5)

99
98
105
102

112
106
116
11 1

{“
5)
(5)
95
(5)

112
1 16
114
108
132
118
1 12
85
112

97
106
96
95
101
(5)
97
(5)
95

101
113
106
108
102
100
103
101
111

119
119
127
121
115
108
113
106
123

99
103
100
98
100
(5)
101
105
103

TECHNIC7\L SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS........................................
DRAFTERS................................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS......................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS...................................................................

92
92
93
97
99
91
85
95
(5)

96
100
100
93
98
97
96
94
93
96
97

89
(5)
89

(5)
(5)
91
(5)

97
101
92
89

95
101
99
97
91
30
90
85
97

87
93
88
88
90
82
89
75
65

97
103
91
99
100
98
100
87
101

_

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS........................................................
F IL E CLERKS........................................................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS...................................................
MFSSENGEES..........................................................................
PERSONNEL CLERK5/ASS TSTANTS..............................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS..............................................
SECRETARIES........................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS...................................................................
TY PI ST S...................................................................................

'Each occupation Includes the work levels shown in table 1. In computing relative salary levels
for each occupation by industry division, the total employment In each work level In all In­
dustries surveyed was used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of dif­
ferences in the proportion of employment In various work levels within each occupation.
2For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.
‘ Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated




research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public rela­
tions service; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accoun­
ting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
‘ Insufficient employment In 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation of data.
N o te A dash Indicated that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry.

28

T a b le 9. A verag e w e e k ly hours: O c c u p a tio n by ind ustry division
(Average standard weekly hours1 for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,2 by industry division,3 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1982)

MINING
OCCUPATION

CON­
STRUCTION

MANU­
FACTURING

PUBLIC
WHOLESALE
TRADE
UTILITIES4/

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE, SELECTED
AND REAL SERVICES 5 /
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACCOUNTANTS........... ............................................................
AUDITORS................................................................................
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS......................................................
CHI EF ACCOUNTANTS........................................................
ATTORNEYS.............................................................................
BUYERS.....................................................................................
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMM ER ANALYSTS...................
JOB ANALYSTS.....................................................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL...........................................
CHEMISTS................................................................................
ENGINEERS..............................................................................

40.0
40.0
(6)
40.0
40.0
3 9.5
(6)
3 9.5
40.0
4 0.0

40.0
40. 0
(fa)
(fa)
40 . 0
40.0
40.0
(6)
(fa)
40.0

39.5
39.5
40.0
3 9.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40. 0
3 9.5
(fa)
39.5
39.5
4 0.0
4 0.0
3 9.5
(6)
4 0.0

40.0
38.5
(6)
39.0
39.5
4 0.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

39.5
39.0
(6)
3 8.0
3 8.5
3 9.5
4 0.0
(6)
(6)

38.5
38.5
38.5
38.5
38.0
38.0
38.5
38.5
( fa)

3 9.5
3 7.5
39.5
40.0
3 8.0
3 9.5
3 9.5
3 9.0
3 9.5
4 0.0
39.5

£10.0
4 0.0
40.0
(6)

40 . 0
40.0
(fa)
(fa)

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

4 0.0
3 9.5
39.0
39.5

(6)
(6)
39.5
(6)

38. 5
(6)
39.0

(6)
(fa)
38.0
(6)

39. 5
40.0
3 9.5
39. 5

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
4 0.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

39.5
40. 0
40. 0
40 . 0
40.0
(6)
40 . 0
(6)
40.0

3 9.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5

39.5
40. 0
39.5
39.0
3 9.5
4 0.0
39.0
3 9.5
39.5

40.0
39.5
40.0
38. 0
3 9.5
(6)
39.5
40.0
39. 5

3 9.0
3 9.0
3 9.0
3 8.5
39.5
3 9.0
39.0
4 0.0
3 9.5

38.0
38.0
38.5
37.5
3 8.5
38.0
38.0
37.5
37.5

39.5
3 9.0
39. 5
38. 5
3 9.5
3 9.5
39.0
3 9.5
3 9.0

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS........................................
DRAFTERS................................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS.....................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS..................................................................

-

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS........................................................
F IL E CLERKS........................................................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS...................................................
MESSENGERS...........................................................................
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANT5..............................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS.............................................
SECRETARIES........................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS...................................................................
TYP IS TS ...................................................................................

1Based on standard* workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salary.
If standard hours were not available, the standard hours applicable for a majority of the office
work force in the establishment were used. The average for each job category was rounded to
the nearest half hour.
2Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.




“Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public rela­
tions services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accoun­
ting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
“Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation of data.
N ote: A dash indicated that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry.

29

Appendix
Usttodl © Survey
if

ho

S @ am
© p@ id

Se@p®

Survey design
The design for a survey of this nature includes
methods for classifying individual establishments into
homogeneous groups or strata, determining the size of
the sample for each stratum, and selecting the sample of
establishments from each stratum.
Establishments within the scope of the 1982 survey
were stratified by industry group and by total employ­
ment.
The sample size in a stratum was a function of the ex­
pected number of employees (based on previous
surveys) in all professional, administrative, technical,
and clerical occupations in the stratum. That is, the
larger the expected number of employees in all surveyed
occupations, the larger the sample in the stratum. Also,
an upward adjustment was made to the sample size in
those strata expected to have specified occupations
which had higher sampling errors in previous surveys.
(See“ Reliability of estimates” section for a discussion
of sampling errors.)
For 1982 only, the sample of establishments consisted
of all 1981 sample establishments still within the scope
of the survey3, plus a sample of new establishments (Bir­
ths).

The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least a
specified minimum of workers, and engaged in the
following industries; Mining; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services (except the U.S. Postal Service and
governmental agencies, such as the Tennessee Valley
Authority); wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, in­
surance, and real estate; and selected services (table
A-l). Establishments which employed fewer than the
minimum number of employees specified for each in­
dustry division were excluded. Establishments which
met the minimum size criteria during the reference
period of the information used in compiling the survey
universe were included even if they employed fewer than
the specified minimum number of workers at the time of
the survey. Establishments found to be outside of the in­
dustrial scope of the survey at the time of data collection
were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of
establishments and employees within the scope of the
survey (the universe) and the number within the sample
actually studied for each major industry division.
Separate estimates are presented for establishments
employing 2,500 workers or more and for those located
in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA’s).2
Similar estimates of the number of full-time white-collar
employees are also provided.

Data c@ etB ini
li© ©
Data for the survey were obtained primarily by per­
sonal visits of the Bureau’s field representatives to a na­
tionwide sample of establishments. Collection was
scheduled from January through mid-May to reflect an
average reference period of March 1982.4
Employees were classified by occupation and level
using job descriptions (appendix C) prepared jointly by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of Person­
nel Management. Descriptions are designed to reflect
duties and responsibilities of employees in private in­
dustry and to be translatable to specific General
Schedule grades applying to Federal employees (appen­
dix D). Thus, definitions of some occupations and work

Sampling tram©

The list of establishments (the sampling frame) from
which the sample was selected was developed by up­
dating the 1981 survey sampling frame using data from
the most recently available (usually March 1980)
unemployment insurance reports for the 48 States and
the District of Columbia. During the update process,
some establishments were added, some were removed,
and for some, address, employment, type of industry,
or other information was changed.

3 In 1981, a random sample was selected systematically to maximize the pro­
bability o f retaining establishments which were selected for the 1980 survey. This
method was a modification o f the method introduced by Nathan Keyfitz in 1951
in his paper titled “ Sampling with Probabilities Proportional to Size Adjusting
for Changes in Probabilities,” Journal o f the American Statistical Association,
N o. 46, pp. 105-109.
4The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey. The 1970 and
1971 surveys had a June reference period.

1For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which produces goods
or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support
services to a company. In manufacturing industries, the establishment is usually
a single physical location. In nonmanufacturing industries, all locations o f an in­
dividual company within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) or
within a nonmetropolitan county are usually considered an establishment.
2 Metropolitan data relate to all 276 SM SA’s within the 48 States as revised
through June 1977 by the U .S. Office o f Management and Budget.




30

levels were limited to specific elements which could be
classified uniformly among establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in job descriptions,
the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of
company officials, made extensive use of company posi­
tion descriptions, organization charts, and other per­
sonnel records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations were those
paid to full-time employees for standard work
schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to
the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over­
time hours. Nonproduction bonuses were excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings were in­
cluded.

Survey nonresponse
In the March 1982 survey, salary data were not
available from about 12 percent of the sample
establishments (representing 2,858,000 employees in the
total universe covered by the survey). An additional 4
percent of the sample establishments (representing
863,000 employees) were either out of business or out­
side the scope of the survey.
If data were not provided by the sample member, the
weights of responding sample establishments from the
same stratum were increased to adjust for the missing
data. No adjustment was made for establishments
which were out of business or outside the scope of the
survey.
Some sampled companies had a policy of not disclos-.
ing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments
were made to salary estimates for the survey as a result
of these missing data. In all but two of the professional,
administrative, technical, and clerical work levels
published, the proportion of employees for whom
salary data were not available was less than 5 percent.5
Survey

methods
Data conversion. Salary data were collected from
company records in the most readily available form,
i.e., weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or an­
nual. Before initial tabulations, all salary data were con­
verted to a monthly basis. The factors used to convert
the salary data are as follows:

Payroll basis
Weekly....................
Biweekly .................
Semimonthly...........
Monthly..................
Annual....................

Employment. Occupational employment counts
generated by the survey are estimates of the total for all
establishments within the scope of the survey and are
not limited to establishments actually studied. An oc­
cupational employment estimate was derived by
multiplying the full-time employment in the occupation
in each sample establishment by the establishment
weight and then summing these results.
Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate)
for a specific occupational level was obtained by
dividing total wages for that level by the corresponding
total employment. Median and quartile values were
derived from distributions of employees by salary using
10-cent-an-hour class intervals. All salary averages in
the tables were rounded to the nearest dollar. For all an­
nual salary calculations, individual monthly salaries (to
the nearest one-tenth cent) were multiplied by 12 before
performing the necessary data aggregation.
Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in
text table 1 were obtained by adding the aggregate
monthly salaries for each level in each of two successive
years and dividing the later sum by the earlier sum. To
eliminate the effects of year-to-year employment shifts
in this computation, average salaries in each year were
multiplied by employment in the most recent year.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group
specified in text table 2 were determined by adding
average monthly salaries for all occupational levels in
the group for two consecutive years, and dividing the
later sum by the earlier sum. The trends in text table 2
were obtained by linking changes for the individual
periods.
Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupa­
tional definitions were incorporated into the various
trend series as soon as two consecutive periods with
comparable data were available.
limitations

Survey occupations were limited to employees
meeting the specific criteria in each survey definition
and were not intended to include all employees in each
field of work.6 Employees whose salary data were not
available, as well as those for whom there was no
satisfactory basis for classification by work level, were

Conversion factor
4.3333
2.1725
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

6
Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in engineering work
within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced engineering graduates
and excluding only those within certain fields o f specialization or in positions
above those covered by level VIII. In contrast, occupations such as chief accoun­
tants and directors o f personnel include only those with responsibility for a
specified program and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each of
the more limited number o f work levels selected for study.

5 Those with 5 percent or more were: Chief accountant IV, 14 percent; and
directors o f personnel IV, 23 percent.




Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for
the month were used to convert hourly rates to a
monthly basis.

31

not taken into account in the estimates. For these
reasons, and because of differences in occupational
structure among establishments, estimates of occupa­
tional employment obtained from the sample of
establishments studied indicate only the relative impor­
tance of occupations and levels as defined for the
survey. These qualifications of employment estimates
should not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the
data collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not
only general salary increases and merit or other in­
creases in the same work level category, but also other
factors such as employee turnover, expansions or con­
tractions in the work force, and changes in staffing pat­
terns within establishments with different salary levels.
For example, an expansion in force may increase the
proportion of employees at the minimum salary range
for a work level, which would tend to lower the average;
a reduction or a low turnover in the work force may
have the opposite effect. Similarly, promotions of
employees to higher work levels of professional and ad­
ministrative occupations may affect the average of each
level. Established salary ranges for such occupations are
relatively wide, and employees who may have been paid
the maximum of the salary scale for the lower level are
likely to be replaced by less experienced employees who
may be paid the minimum. Occupations most likely to
reflect such changes are the higher levels of professional
and administrative occupations and single-incumbent
positions such as chief accountant and director of per­
sonnel.
Reliability of estimates

The statistics in the report are estimates derived from
a sample survey. There are two types of errors possible
in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and
nonsampling.
Sampling errors occur because observations come on­
ly from a sample, not the entire population. The par­
ticular sample used in this survey is one of the large
number of all possible samples of the same size that
could have been selected using the same sample design.
Estimates derived from the different samples would dif­
fer from each other.
A measure of the variation among these differing




estimates is called the standard error or sampling error.7
It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a
particular sample approximates the average result of all
possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is
the standard error divided by the value being estimated.
The smaller the RSE, the greater the reliability of the
estimate.
Estimates of relative standard errors for the 1982
survey vary among the occupational work levels de­
pending on such factors as the frequency with which the
job occurs, the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the
survey design. For the 101 publishable work levels,
estimated relative standard errors (RSE) for average
salary estimates were distributed as follows:
Relative standard error

Number of occupations

Less than 1 p e rc e n t...................
1-2 percent ..................................
2-3 percent .................................
3 percent or m o re.......................

42
51
6
2

The Bureau evaluates the reliability of its estimates
based in part on the value of two relative standard er­
rors for an occupational level. For example, a
95-percent confidence interval8 for accountants I
(survey estimate = $1,522 monthly) is from $1,499 to
$1,545.
Nonsampling errors can be attributed to many
sources, such as inability to obtain information from
some establishments; definitional difficulties; inability
to provide correct information by respondents; mistakes
in recording or coding the data obtained; and other er­
rors of collection, response, coverage, and estimation
for missing data. Although not specifically measured,
the survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to be
minimal due to the high response rate and the extensive
and continuous training of field representatives, careful
screening of data at several levels of review, annual
maintenance and evaluation of the suitability of job
definitions, and thorough field testing.

7
A replication technique with 15 random groups was used to obtain estimates
o f relative standard errors for the 1982 survey.
* A 95-percent confidence interval means that if all possible samples were
selected and an estimate o f salary and its sampling error computed for each, then
for approximately 95 percent of the samples the interval from 2 standard errors
below the estimate to 2 standard errors above the estimate would include the
average salary o f all possible samples.

32

Table "A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by industry
division, United States, March 1982.
Minimum
employment
in
establishments
within
scope of
survey

Industry division1

Number of
establishments

-

W ithin scope of survey
Workers in establishments
------------------------ G

Studied
Workers in establishments
Clerical
Professional
and
and
Total
technical
administrative
support

Total

Professional
and
administrative

Clerical
and
technical
support

Number of
establishments

44,144

23,169,771

5,014,856

5,329,197

3,480

6,163,035

1,598,011

1,469,295

3
100-250

20,678

11,903,343

2,433,679

1,656,875

1,687

3,353,615

852,017

517,386

250
250

623
656

433,971
362,528

96,991
89,886

62,205
64,480

83
60

103,763
66,419

32,325
25,160

23,143
15,800

“100-250
100
250
100
6
50-100

4,135
5,044
3,828
6,441
2,739

2,958,792
1,050,645
3,213,070
2,421,076
826,346

628,071
291,877
337,477
718,666
418,209

766,605
288,697
823,588
1,397,951
268,796

389
239
303
418
301

1,213,922
90,474
562,568
536,275
235,999

303,662
29,943
62,665
165,733
126,506

347,798
27,600
151,170
312,772
73,626

-

35,666

19,603,631

4,554,492

4,910,509

2,952

5,728,699

1,520,281

1,410,635

3100-250

14,828

9,195,471

2,121,097

1,417,854

1,315

3,033,464

800,533

479,949

250
250

348
612

241,580
318,473

69,535
83,323

44,952
60,402

46
52

63,146
57,314

22,792
23,307

17,407
14,749

“100-250
100
250
100
6
50-100

3,081
4,495
3,563
6,081
2,658

2,640,733
949,699
3,111,191
2,337,620
808,864

573,866
273,930
325,937
695,467
411,337

703,592
275,974
800,294
1,346,590
260,851

342
222
287
395
293

1,174,537
87,412
553,526
529,200
230,100

295,335
29,410
61,383
163,789
123,732

341,815
27,189
149,453
308,495
71,578

1,051

6,749,919

1,733,512

1,689,543

651

4,599,234

1,233,123

1,092,139

431

3,389,202

963,761

556,535

358

2,609,076

705,037

411,089

United States
All Industries2 ....................................................................
Manufacturing ...............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing:
Mining ....................................................................................
Construction ..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services ...............................................
Wholesale trade ....................................................................
Retail tr a d e .............................................................................
Finance, insurance and real estate ....................................
Selected services5 ................................................................

Metropolitan areas7
All industries ......................................................................
Manufacturing ...............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing:
Mining ....................................................................................
Construction .........................................................................
Transportation, communication, electric,'
gas, and sanitary services ...............................................
Wholesale trade ....................................................................
Retail tr a d e .............................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ..................................
Selected services5..........................................................................

Establishments employing
2,500 workers or more
All industries ......................................................................
Manufacturing ...............................................................................
1 defined in the 1972 edition of th eStandard
As
agement and Budget.

-

Industrial Classification Manual, U.S. Office of Man­

tary services; and pipelines; and 250 for all other transportation industries. U.S. Postal Services is
excluded from the survey.

Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation indicated in the first
column; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
3Minimum employment size was 100 for chemical and allied products; petroleum refining and re­
lated industries; machinery, except electrical; electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies; trans­
portation equipment; and instruments and related product. Minimum size was 250 in all other manu­
facturing industries.

5Limited to advertising; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing
services; research and development laboratories; commercial testing laboratories; managementand
public relations services; engineering and architectural services; noncommercial research organiza­
tions; and accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
6Minimum employment size was 50 for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services; and 100 for
all other selected services.

“Minimum employment size was 100 for railroad transportation; local and suburban transit; deep
sea foreign and domestic transportation; air transportation; communications, electric, gas and sani­

standard metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised
through June 1977 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.




Appandlre B. Surwoy Chang@s
m

1®
@2

A five-level series for computer programmer/programmer analyst, defined in appendix C, was
added to the survey. In addition, the definition for
engineering technician was revised to improve alignment




with Federal personnel classification standards; a sixth
level of engineering technician was tested but was not
published because of insufficient observations.

34

Appendix C. Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for
the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels
within occupations, workers who are employed under a
variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to
area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. To secure

comparability of job content, some occupations and
work levels are defined to include only those workers
meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions,
and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on in­
terestablishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual
establishments or those prepared for other purposes.

Accountants and Auditors
ACCOUNTANT
Performs professional operating or cost accounting
work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of
recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the
data and records of financial transactions. The work
generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or,
in rare instances, equivalent experience and education
combined. Positions covered by this definition are
characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical,
creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work
draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the
fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and ter­
minology of accountancy, and often entails some
understanding of such related fields as business law,
statistics, and general management. (See also chief ac­
countant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include several
such duties as:
Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account
relationships;
Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures should
be developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as the
basis for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of pro­
posed plans on capital investments, income, cash position,
and overall financial condition;
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports,
and statements;



35

Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and
Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions
in the accounting system and procedures.
(Entry and developmental level positions provide op­
portunity to develop ability to perform professional
duties such as those enumerated above.)
In addition to such professional work, most account­
ants are also responsible for assuring the proper record­
ing and documentation of transactions in the accounts.
They, therefore, frequently direct nonprofessional per­
sonnel in the actual day-to-day maintenance of books of
accounts, the accumulation of cost or other comparable
data, the preparation of standard reports and
statements, and similar work. (Positions involving such
supervisory work, but not including professional duties
as described above, are not included in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax
advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing
among the several levels of work are inappropriate for
such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant
positions with responsibility for recording or reporting
accounting data relative to taxes are included, as are
other operating or cost accountants whose work in­
cludes, but is not limited to, improvement of the ac­
counting system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing
equipment to process, record, and report accounting
data. In some such cases the machine unit is a subor­
dinate segment of the accounting system; in others it is a

separate entity or is attached to some other organiza­
tion. In either instance, provided that the primary
responsibility of the position is professional accounting
work of the type otherwise included, the use of data
processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex­
clude a position from the accountant description nor
does it change its level.

Accountant 1
General characteristics. At this beginning professional
level, the accountant learns to apply the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific
system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes­
sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and
scope of development expected of the incumbent; and
the existence, implicit or explicit, of a planned training
program designed to give the entering accountant prac­
tical experience. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to
insure conformance with required procedures and
special instructions, and to assure professional growth.
Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to apply profes­
sional knowledge to basic accounting problems in the
day-to-day operations of an established accounting
system.
Typical duties and responsibilities, performs a variety
of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working
papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating
the extent of the examination and presenting and sup­
porting findings and recommendations. Examines a
variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of
computations and to ascertain that all transactions are
properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent
policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded
according to acceptable accounting standards.

Direction received, \yorks under close supervision of an
experienced accountant whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others, ysually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.

Typical duties and responsibilities, performs a variety
of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of
financial statements for completeness, internal ac­
curacy, and conformance with uniform accounting
classifications or other specific accounting re­
quirements; reconciling reports and financial data with
financial statements already on file, and pointing out
apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out assigned
steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing stan­
dard ratios; assembling and summarizing accounting
literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple
financial statements not involving problems of analysis
or presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other
exhibits to be used in reports. In addition to such work,
may also perform some nonprofessional tasks for train­
ing purposes.

Accountant IIS
General characteristics. T[he accountant, at this level,
applies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob­
lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the
overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies
and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation.
Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned
segment is stable and well established, (i.e., the basic
chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost
accounting system, the report requirements, and the
procedures are changed infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervision of the
day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a
relatively small establishment, or (b) a major segment
(e.g., general accounting; cost accounting; or financial
statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system, or
(c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively
narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob­
lem, function, or portion of work which is itself of the
level of difficulty characteristic of this level.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
Accountant II

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
makes practical application of technical accounting
practices and concepts beyond the mere application of
detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing
greater professional competence. Initial assignments are
designed to expand practical experience and to develop
professional judgment in the application of basic ac­



counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to
be competent in the application of standard procedures
and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques­
tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug­
gest solutions. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

Direction received. A. higher level professional account­
36

ant normally is available to furnish advice and
assistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac­
curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com­
pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal
of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports
and statements, and other appropriate means.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary respon­
sibility of most positions at this level is to assure that the
assigned day-to-day operations are carried out in
accordance with established accounting principles,
policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such
professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports
and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts
reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost
budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting
and pointing out trends or deviations from standards;
projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of
changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account struc­
tures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat­
ment of financial transactions. Is expected to recom­
mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and
propose changes in the accounting system for approval
at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived
from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices.

segments, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general account­
ing; cost accounting; or financial statements and
reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and
more complex establishment, or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of
difficulty characteristic of this level.
Direction received. A higher level accountant normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed.
Work is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results
for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance
with instructions, and overall accuracy and quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a
primary characteristic of most positions at this level is
the responsibility of operating an accounting system or
major segment of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent appropriate recommendations for:
New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new
types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub­
sidiary records; changes in instructions regarding the
use of accounts, new or refined account classifications
or definitions; etc. Also makes day-to-day decisions
concerning the accounting treatment of financial trans­
actions and is expected to recommend solutions to com­
plex problems beyond incumbent’s scope of respon­
sibility.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. In most instances
is responsible for supervision of a subordinate non­ Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
professional staff; may coordinate the work of lower supervised, if any, may include professional account­
ants.
level professional accountants.
Accountant IV

Accountant V

General characteristics. At this level the accountant ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult
problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec­
tives and operation of the overall accounting system.
Compared with level III, the accounting system or
assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively
unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company
operations, (c) is substantially larger or (d) is com­
plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate
or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e.g.,
cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divi­
sions of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coord­
ination involved, the accountant IV may have such
assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera­
tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an establish­
ment having a few relatively stable accounting

General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac­
counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
the solution of problems for which no clear precedent
exists or performs work which is of greater than average
responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the
assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast
to accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting
system maintenance to the solution of more complex
technical and managerial problems. Work of account­
ants V is more directly concernd with what the account­
ing system (or segment) should be, what operating
policies and procedures should be established or revised,
and what is the managerial as well as the accounting
meaning of the data included in the reports and
statements for which they are responsible. Typically this
level of work approaches chief accountant positions in
terms of the nature of the concern for the accounting
system and its operation, but not in terms of the breadth
or scope of responsibility.




37

complex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major
segment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting,
etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir­
ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field
(e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.).

Examples of assignments characteristic of this level
are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The
entire accounting system of an establishment having a
few relatively complex accounting segments, or (b) a
major segment of a larger and more complex accounting
system, or (c) the entire accounting system (or major
segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and
conventional accounting system when the work includes
significant responsibility for accounting systems design
and development, or (d) in a complex system, may be
assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment
dealing with some problem, function, or portion of
work which is itself of the level of difficulty
characteristic of this level.

Direction received. A higher level professional account­
ant is normally available to furnish advice as needed.
Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judg­
ment, compliance with instructions and policies, and
overall quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at this
level are delegated complete responsibility from higher
authority to establish and implement new or revised ac­
counting policies and procedures. Typically, account­
ants VI participate in decision-making sessions with
operating managers who have policy-making authority
for their subordinate organizations or establishments;
recommend management actions or alternatives which
can be taken when accounting data disclose unfavorable
trends, situations, or deviations; and assist management
officials in applying financial data and information to
the solution of administrative and operating problems.

Direction received. An accountant of higher level nor­
mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional
judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall
quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V
performs such professional work as: Participating in the
development and coordinating the implementation of
new or revised accounting systems, and initiating
necessary instructions and procedures; assuring
accounting reporting systems and procedures are in
compliance with established company policies, regula­
tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing
technical advice and services to operating managers, in­
terpreting accounting reports and statements, and iden­
tifying problem areas; evaluating completed
assignments for conformance with applicable policies,
regulations, and tax laws.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional account­
ants.
n o t e : Excluded are accountants above level VI whose
principal function is to direct, manage or administer an
accounting program in that they are primarily concern­
ed with the administrative, budgetary, and policy mat­
ters of the program rather than the actual supervision of
the day-to-day operations of an accounting program.
This type of work requires extensive managerial ability
as well as superior professional competence in order to
cope with the technical accounting and management
problems encountered. Typically this level of work in­
volves responsibility for more than one accounting ac­
tivity (e.g., cost accounting, sales accounting, etc.).

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
A@e@untamt V
S
General characteristics. At this level the accountant ap­
plies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and
practices to specialized, unique, or nonrecurring com­
plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized
automated accounting systems). The work is substan­
tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than
level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im­
portance, or overall impact of the work on the account­
ing program.
At this level the accounting system or segment is
usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must
adjust to the frequent changing needs of company
operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide
specialized or individualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi­
sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and



CHIEF ACCOUNTANT
As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsi­
ble for directing the accounting program for a company
or for an establishment of a company. The minimum
accounting program includes: (1) General accounting
(assets, liabilities, income, expense, and capital ac­
counts, including responsibility for profit and loss and
balance sheet statements); and (2) at least one other ma­
jor accounting activity, typically tax accounting, cost
accounting, property accounting, or sales accounting. It
may also include such other activities as payroll and
timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data process­
ing operations which are an adjunct of the accounting
38

TabS© C-1. Criteria for matching ©hie! accountants by 8 w 8
©®
Authority
and
Responsibility1

Technical
Complexity1

I

AR-l

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant
III job definition.

II

AR-l

TC-2

About 5 to 10 professional accountants, with at least one or two matching the
accountant IV job definition.

AR-2

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match the accountant IV job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant
IV job definition.

AR-l

TC-3

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. At least one or two match the
accountant V job definition.

AR-2

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but some may match the accountant V job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match as high as accountant V.

AR-2

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or two may
exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many o f these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

Level

III

IV

V

Subordinate Professional Accounting Staff

1 AR-l, -2, -3 and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained in the accompanying text.

system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all
of the following:
1.

On own responsibility, developing, adapting or revis­
ing an accounting system to meet the needs of the
organization;

2.

Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and quan­
tity of work performed, training and development of
subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina­
tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.;

3.

b.

Providing directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
a.

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part
of the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measure­
ment; organization, methods, and procedures studies;
or similar nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such
breadth are sometimes titled comptroller, budget and
accounting manager, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting ac­
tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon­

The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed




by accounting data, and selecting a manner of
presentation that is meaningful to manage­
ment;
Methods for improving operations as sug­
gested by an expert knowledge of accounting,
e.g., proposals for improving cost control,
property management, credit and collection,
tax reduction, or similar programs.

39

the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in
AR-3. More rarely it is found in plant level chief ac­
countants who have been delegated more authority than
usual for such positions as described in AR-1.

sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be
covered by the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility and (b) technical complexi­
ty, using table C-l.

AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting
system used in the company, subject only to general
policy guidance and control from a higher level com­
pany official responsible for general financial manage­
ment. Typical responsibilities include:

Authority and Responsibility

AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro­
cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in
considerable detail by higher levels in the company or
organization. The chief accountant has final, unreview­
ed authority within the prescribed system, to expand it
to fit the particular needs of the organization served,
e.g., in the following or comparable ways:

Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s ac­
counting system and the specific accounts to be used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements
required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations, and
procedures;

Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;

Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the
company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate
units; and

Establishing additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Providing special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.

Taking final action on all technical accounting matters.
Characteristically, participates extensively in broad
company management processes by providing account­
ing advice, interpretations, or recommendations based
on data accumulated in the accounting system and on
professional judgment and experience.

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.
AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in
broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer­
tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and
general policies are required by the basic system, the
chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to
decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts,
reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg­
ment served. Approval must be secured from higher
levels only for those changes which would basically af­
fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher
levels. Typical responsibilities include:
Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;

Technical Complexity

TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work
processes, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchang­
ing. The accounting system operates in accordance with
well-established principles and practices or those of
equivalent difficulty which are typical of that industry.
TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, pro­
ducts, work processes, etc., which require substantial
and frequent adaptations of the basic system to meet
management needs (e.g., adoption of new accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; revision of in­
structions for the use of accounts; improvement or ex­
pansion of methods for accumulating and reporting cost
data in connection with new or changed work
processes).

Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
•Instituting new cost accounting procedures;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the ac­
counting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for which
incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data sub­
mitted by subordinate segments.

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organiza­
tion fo r specialized and extensive adaptations of the
basic system to meet management needs. Such demands
arise because the functions, products, work processes,
etc., of the organization are very numerous, diverse,
unique, or specialized, or there are other comparable

This degree of authority is most typically found at in­
termediate organizational levels such as regional offices,
or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found
in some company level situations where the authority of



40

complexities. Consequently, the accounting system, to a
considerable degree, is developed well beyond establish­
ed principles and accounting practices in order to:
Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which these
theories and practices have not previously been applied.

for performing a segment of an audit (i.e., examining
individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the
entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly
relates to the financial audit program; and
c. EDP auditors. These positions require an extensive
knowledge of computer systems, programming, etc.
Auditor I
General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the
entering professional level, performs a variety of
routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated
through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro­
gram designed to provide practical experience in apply­
ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting
and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

Subordinate Staff
In table C-l, the number of professional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing between various levels.1 It is to be
considered less important in the matching process than
the other criteria. In addition to the staff of professional
accountants in the system for which the chief account­
ant is responsible, there are clerical, machine operation,
bookkeeping and related personnel.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced auditor whose guidance is directed primari­
ly to the development of the trainee’s professional abili­
ty and to the evaluation of advancement potential.
Limits of assignments are clearly defined, methods of
procedure are specified, and kinds of items to be noted
and referred to supervisor are identified.

AUDITOR
Performs professional auditing work requiring a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances,
equivalent experience and education combined. Audits
the financial records and practices of a company, or of
divisions or components of the company, to appraise
systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of
records and reports and to assure the consistent applica­
tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the
adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan­
cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for
improvement as necessary. To the extent determined
necessary, examines the transactions entering into the
balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in­
come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making
audits by performing such tasks as: Verification of the
accuracy of the balances in various records; examina­
tion of a variety of types of documents and vouchers for
accuracy of computations; checking transactions to
assure they are properly documented and have been
recorded in accordance with correct accounting
classifications; verifying the count of inventories;
preparing detailed statements, schedules, and standard
audit working papers; counting cash and other assets;
preparing simple reconciliations and similar functions.

1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the
all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.
2. The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein.

Auditor II

3. The propriety or legality of transactions.

General characteristics. At this level the professional
auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in­
dependently performing selected portions of the audit
which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in
developing greater professional competence. Auditors
at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com­
pany operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

4. The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.
Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the
financial management of company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles of sound
financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished
and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to
verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual
problems, to insure conformance with required pro­
cedures and special instructions, and to assure the
auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems

b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex­
amination of a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions responsible



1 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of
average salaries.

41

vestigated and deciding the depth of the analyses re­
quired to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

not covered by instructions are brought to the attention
of a superior. Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to
apply professional knowledge to basic auditing situa­
tions.

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies
(e.g., involving a centralized accounting system with
few or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch
accounting records) or of comparable segments of
larger companies.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge
of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit
assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of
reports against source accounts and records to deter­
mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other
accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac­
tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and
disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions,
work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting
documents to ascertain that transactions are properly
supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparing working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently ac­
complishes varied audit assignments of the above
described characteristics, typically major segments of
complete audits, or assignments otherwise limited in
scope, of larger and more complex companies (e.g.,
complex in that the accounting system entails cost,
inventory, and comparable specialized systems in­
tegrated with the general accounting system).

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of
reporting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing
or maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of
a railroad); or, the checking, verification, and balancing
of all-accounts receivable and accounts payable; or, the
analysis and verification of assets and reserves or, the
inspection and evaluation of accounting controls and
procedures.

Aydit@r Dl
O
f

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of
the audit of operations and accounting processes that
are relatively stable, well-established, and typical of the
industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and
analysis of readily available findings; there is previous
audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit Auditor W
reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format us­
ing a standard method of presentation; and few, if any, General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex­
major problems are anticipated. The work performed perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge
requires the application of substantial knowledge of ac­ of accounting principles and theory in connection with a
counting principles and practices, e.g., bases for variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by
distinguishing among capital maintenance and the audit of organizations and accounting processes
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and ■
which are complex and difficult because of such factors
other accounting considerations of an equivalent as: Presence of new or changed programs and account­
nature.
ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting
functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting,
Direction received. Work is normally within an sales accounting), in addition to general accounting;
established audit program and supervision is provided need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory
by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining informa­
assignments. Work is spot-checked in progress. Com­ tion; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety of
pleted assignments are reviewed for adequacy of different assignments are encountered over a period of
coverage, soundness of judgment, compliance with pro­ time, e.g., one year. The audit reports prepared are
comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and
fessional standards, and adherence to policies.
regulations violated, recommend remedial actions, and
contain anaylses of items of special importance or in­
Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor ex­ terest to company management.
amines transactions and verifies accounts; observes and
evaluates accounting procedures and internal controls;
prepares audit working papers and submits an audit Direction received. Within an established audit pro­
report in the required pattern containing recommenda­ gram, has responsibility for independently planning and
tions for needed changes or improvements. Usually is executing audits. Unusually difficult problems are
responsible for selecting the detailed audit methods to discussed with the supervisor who also reviews com­
follow, choosing the audit sample and its size, determin­ pleted assignments for adherence to principles and
ing the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­ standards and the soundness of conclusions.



42

Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to
be used, development of nonstandard or specialized
audit aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous
audit experience and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used
for determining depreciation rates of equipment;
evaluation of assets where original costs are unknown;
evaluation of the reliability of accounting and reporting
systems; analysis of cost accounting systems and cost
reports to evaluate the basis for cost and price setting;
evaluation of accounting procurement and supply
management records, controls, and procedures; and
many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:
1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts
and related operations of relatively large complex
companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting
system entails cost, inventory, and comparable
specialized accounting systems integrated with the
general accounting system) or, of company branch,
subsidiary, or affiliated organizations which are in­
dividually of comparable size and complexity.
2. As a member of an audit team independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial
responsibilities so great as to involve specialized
subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting
systems that are complete in themselves.
NOTE: Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits
of very large and complex organizations, for example,
those with financial responsibilities so great as to in­
volve specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate ac­
counting systems that are complete in themselves; or are
team members assigned to major segments of audits of
even larger or more complex organizations. Also ex­
cluded are positions primarily responsible for oversee­
ing multiple concurrent audits.

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT
Performs professional auditing work in a public ac­
counting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits
to ascertain the fairness of financial representations
made by client companies. May also assist the client in
improving accounting procedures and operations.
Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac­
ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter­
nal controls, and other elements of the accounting



system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final
written opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full pro­
fessional accounting training. Also excluded are
specialist positions in tax or management advisory
services.
Pyblie Aeeountant S

General characteristics. As an entry level public
accountant, serves as a junior member of an audit team.
Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific
situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants
with advanced degrees, such as MBA’s, are excluded at
this level.)
Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform­
ance with required procedures and instructions, and
usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior.
Typical duties and responsibilities, (parries out basic
audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports
against source accounts and records; reconciling bank
and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and
disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving
reports, and other accounting documents in detail to
ascertain that transactions are properly supported and
recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working
papers.
Public Accountant S
S

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant carries out routine audit functions and detail
work with relative independence. Serves as a member of
an audit team on assignments planned to provide ex­
posure to a variety of client organizations and audit
situations. Specific assignments depend upon the dif­
ficulty and complexity of the audit and whether the
client has been previously audited by the firm. On
moderately complex audits where there is previous audit
experience by the firm, accomplishes complete segments
of the audit (i.e., functional work areas such as cash,
receivables, etc.). When assigned to more complicated
audits, carries out activities similar to Public Account­
ant I.
Direction received. Works under the supervision of a
higher level public accountant who provides instructions
and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot
checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to

43

team members and personally performing the most dif­
ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with
the general format prescribed in the audit program, but
selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples
and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes
guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily
priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for
technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated
problems within established guidelines and priorities but
refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for
discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final
reports, management letters, and other closing
memoranda. Discusses significant recommendations
with superiors and may serve as technical resource at
“ closing” meetings with clients. Personal contacts are
usually with chief accountants and assistant controllers
of medium size companies and divisions of large cor­
porations to explain and interpret policies and pro­
cedures governing the audit process.

determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of
judgment, compliance with professional standards, and
adherence to clearly established methods and techni­
ques. All interpretations are subject to close profes­
sional review.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety
of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with
the prescribed audit program, including the examina­
tion of transactions and verification of accounts, the
analysis and evaluation of accounting practices and in­
ternal controls, and other detail work. Prepares a share
of the audit working papers and participates in drafting
reports. In moderately complex audits, may assist in
selecting appropriate tests, samples, and methods com­
monly applied by the firm and may serve as primary
assistant to the accountant in charge. In more com­
plicated audits concentrates on detail work. Occasional­
ly may be in charge of small, uncomplicated audits
which require only one or two other subordinate ac­
countants. Personal contacts usually involve only the
exchange of factual technical information and are
usually limited to the client’s operating accounting staff
and department heads.

Public Accountant IV

General characteristics. At this level the public account­
ant directs field work including difficult audits, e.g.,
those involving initial audits of new clients, acquisi­
tions, or stock registrations—and may oversee a large
audit team split between several locations. The audit
team usually includes one or more level III public ac­
countants who handle major components of the audit.
The audits are complex and clients typically include
those engaged in projects which span accounting
periods; highly regulated industries which have various
external reporting requirements; publicly held corpora­
tions; or businesses with very high dollar or transaction
volume. Clients are frequently large with a variety of
operations which may have different accounting
systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking and audit
programs are intricate, often requiring extensive tailor­
ing to meet atypical or novel situations.

Public Accountant IIS
General characteristics. At this level the public account­
ant is in charge of complete audit and may lead a team
of several subordinates. Audits are usually accomplish­
ed one at a time and are typically carried out at a single
location. The firms audited are typically moderately
complex and there is usually previous audit experience
by the firm. The audit conforms to standard procedural
guidelines, but is often tailored to fit the client’s
business activities. Routine procedures and techniques
are sometimes inadequate and require adaptation.
Necessary data are not alway readily available. When
assigned to more difficult and complex audits (see level
IV), the accountant may run the audit of a major com­
ponent or serve as the primary assistant to the account­
ant in charge.

Direction received. Works under general supervision.
The supervisor sets overall objectives and resource
limits but relies on the accountant to fully plan and
direct all technical phases of the audit. Issues not
covered by guidelines or known precedents are discussed
with the supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended
approaches and courses of action are normally approv­
ed. Work is reviewed for soundness of approach, com­
pleteness, and conformance with established policies of
the firm.

Direction received. Works under the general supervision
of a higher level public accountant who oversees the
operation of the audit. Work is performed independent­
ly, applying generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards, but assistance on difficult
technical matters is available. Work may be checked oc­
casionally during progress for appropriateness and
adherence to time requirements, but routine analyses,
methods, techniques, and procedures applied at the
work site are expected to be correct.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features of
the audit, directing the work of team members, and per­
sonally performing the most difficult work. Often par­
ticipates in the development of the audit scope, and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading



44

drafts complicated audit programs with a large number
of concurrently executed phases. Independently
develops audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating
from traditional methods to the extent required. Makes
program adjustments as necessary once an audit has
begun; selects specific methods, types and sizes of
samples, the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­
vestigated, and the depth of required-analyses. Resolves
most operational difficulties and unanticipated pro­
blems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for ap­
propriateness, conformance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers,
draft reports, and findings; and prepares financial
statements, management letters, and other closing
memoranda for management approval. Participates in
“ closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be
called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical
observations and recommendations. Personal contacts
are extensive and typically include top executives of
smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and
management officers of large corporations, e.g., assis­
tant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve

coordinating and advising on work efforts and resolving
operating problems.
NOTE: Excluded from this level are public account­
ants who direct field work associated with the complete
range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest
and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee
teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work
requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries
to make subjective determinations on questions of tax,
law, accounting, and business practices. Audits may be
complicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of
the client organizations (e.g., multinational corpora­
tions and conglomerates with a large number of
separate and distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues
where precedents are lacking or in conflict; and, in some
cases, clients who are encountering substantial financial
difficulties. They perform most work without technical
supervision and completed audits are reviewed mainly
for propriety of recommendations and conformance
with general policies of the firm. Also excluded are
public accountants whose principal function is to
manage, rather than perform accounting work, and the
equity owners of the firm who have final approval
authority.

Personnel Sianag@m@mt
JOB ANALYST
Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job
qualifications, and worker characteristics as a basis for
compensating employees in a fair, equitable, and
uniform manner. Performs such duties as studying and
analyzing jobs and preparing descriptions of duties and
responsibilities and of the physical and mental re­
quirements needed by workers; evaluating jobs and
determining appropriate wage or salary levels in accord­
ance with their difficulty and responsibility, in­
dependently conducting or participating with represent­
atives of other companies in conducting compensation
surveys within a locality or labor market area; assisting
in administering merit rating programs; reviewing
changes in wages and salaries indicated by surveys and
recommending changes in pay scales; and auditing in­
dividual jobs to check the propriety of evaluations and
to apply current job classifications.
Excluded are:
a.
b.

Positions also responsible for supplying management
with a high technical level of advice regarding solu­
tion of broad personnel management problems:
Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.




45

Job Analyst 1
As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and techni­
ques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs and
prepares reports for review by a job analyst of higher
level.
Job Analyst 0
1
Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishment. Works independently on such
assignments but is limited by defined areas of assign­
ment and instructions of superior.
Job Analyst S
IS
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems
and procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the
locality or participate in conducting surveys of broad
compensation areas. May assist in developing survey
methods and plans. Receives general supervision but
responsibility for final action is limited.
Job Analyst IV
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accord­

ance with established evaluation systems and pro­
cedures, and is given assignments which regularly in­
clude responsibility for the more difficult kinds of jobs.
(“ More difficult” means jobs which consists of hard-tounderstand work processes; e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical; or jobs in new or
emerging occupational fields; or jobs which are being
established as part of the creation of new organizations;
or where other special considerations of these types app­
ly.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for
final action is limited. May participate in the develop­
ment and installation of evaluation or compensation
systems, which may include those for merit rating pro­
grams. May plan survey methods and conduct or direct
wage surveys within a broad compensation area.
DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL
Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top manage­
ment officials of the organization as the source of ad­
vice and assistance on personnel management matters
and problems generally; is typically consulted on the
personnel implications of planned changes in manage­
ment policy or program, the effects on the organization
of economic or market trends, product or production
method changes, etc.; represents management in con­
tacts with other companies, trade associations, govern­
ment agencies, etc., dealing primarily with personnel
management matters.

Typically the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer
of similar level. Below the company level the director of
personnel typically reports to a company officer or a
high management offical who has responsibility for the
operation of a plant, establishment, or other segment of
the company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program must include responsibility
for all three of the following functions:
1 Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a
.
system in which there are established procedures by
which jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of
their duties, responsibilities, and qualification re­
quirements in order to provide a foundation for
equitable compensation. Typically, such a system in­
cludes the use of one or more sets of job evaluation
factors and the preparation of formal job descrip­
tions. It may also include such related functions as
wage and salary surveys or merit rating system ad­
ministration. The job evaluation system(s) does not
necessarily cover all jobs in the organization, but
does cover a substantial portion of the organization.
2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruiting
actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employ­
ment agencies, professional societies, etc.);
evaluating applicants against demands of particular
jobs by use of such techniques as job analysis to
determine requirements, interviews, written tests of

Tab!® 0 -2, Criteria for matching dar@ t@ of personnel by level
@ rs
"Development level”
personnel program2

"Operations level”
personnel program1
Number of employees in
work force serviced

250-750
1 nnn-5 non
fin n n -i? o o o
15,000-25,000 ............................

"Type A”
organization
serviced3
I
II
III
IV

Number of employees in
work force serviced

“ Type B”
organization
serviced4
II
III
IV
V

250-750 ....................................
1,000-5,000 ..............................
6,000-12,000 ............................
15,000-25,000 ..........................

' " Operations level" personnel program— director of personnel servicing
an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company, where the basic per­
sonnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc., are established at company
headquarters or at some other higher level between the plant and the com­
pany headquarters level. The personnel director’s responsibility is to put
these into operation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively
serve the local management needs.
2 "Development level" personnel program— either:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im­
portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives,
etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control frohn com­
pany officers, or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate or­
ganization below the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidary, to
which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning and
development responsibility is made. In this situation only basic policy
direction is given by the parent company and local officers. The director
of personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility
for basic personnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., as described above in
(a).
3 ‘,‘Type A" organization serviced— most jobs serviced do not present par­
ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems



"Type A"
organization
serviced3

"Type B”
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V
-

because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes,
and an adequate labor supply is available. These conditions are most likely to
be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc­
ture are relatively stable.
4
"Type B" organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre­
sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the
jobs: Consist of hard-to-understand work processes (e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical); have hard-to-match skill requirements; are
in new or emerging occupations; or are extremely hard to fill. These condi­
tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force,
organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc., are complicated
or unstable.
NOTE: There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements
used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur­
posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match
for each job. Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees
should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level
job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below
the definition for type B. However, the same job should be matched with level
I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly falls will within the definition
for type A.

46

aptitude, knowledge, or skill, reference checks, ex­
perience evaluations, etc.; reconunending selections
and job placements to management, etc.
3. Employee relations and services function: i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure, identifying
and recommending solutions for personnel problems
such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity,
etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system,
retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating
system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea­
tional programs, industrial health and safety pro­
grams, etc.).
In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas:
a.

Employee training and development;

b.

Labor relations activities which are confined
mainly to the administration, interpretation,
and application of those aspects of labor union
contracts that are essentially of the type
described under (3) above. May also- par­

ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature,
e.g., to negotiate detailed settlement of such
matters as specific rates, job classifications,
work rules, hiring or layoff procedures, etc.,
within the broad terms of a general agreement
reached at higher levels, or to supply advice
and information on technical points to the
company’s principal representative;
c.

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO);

d.

Reporting under the Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA).

Excluded are positions in which responsibility for ac­
tual contract negotiation with labor unions as the prin­
cipal company representative is a significant aspect of
the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a primary
basis for qualification requirements and compensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work2 in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C-2.
2 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of
average salaries.

Attorneys
ATTORNEY
Performs consultation and advisory work and carries
out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights,
privileges, and obligations of the company. The work
performed requires completion of law school with an
LL.B. degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the
bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more
o f the following or comparable duties:

for which professional legal training and bar membership
is not essential;
Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and form­
ulation of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified in accordance with table C-3 and the definitions
which follow.

Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications,
etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of proposed
legislation which might affect the company;

Difficulty

Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trade­
marks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the comp­
any in lawsuits; and

Example of D-l work:
Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre­
paratory to defending the organization in potential or
actual lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts
can be firmly established and there are precedent cases
directly applicable to the situation.

Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.
Excluded from this definition are:
Patent work which requires professional training in ad­
dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or
in a science);

Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals, text­
books, and other legal references, and preparing draft
opinions on employee compensation or benefit questions
when there is a substantial amount of clearly applicable

Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar work



D-l. I^egal questions are characterized by: Facts that are well
established; clearly applicable legal precedents; and matters
not of substantial importance to the organization (Usually
relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few thousand dollars,
are involved.)

47

Tabi® C=3. Criteria for matching attorneys by level
Level
I

II

Difficulty
of legal work1

Responsibility
of job1

This is the entry level. The duties and re­
sponsibilities after initial orientation and
training are those described in D-l and R-l.
R-2

D-l

Experience required
Completion of law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admission to the
bar.
Sufficient professional experience (at least 1 year, usually more) at the “ D -l”
level to assure competence as an attorney.

or
D-2
III

R-l

D-2

R-2

At least 1 year, usually more, of professional experience at the “ D-2” level.

or
R-l

D-3
IV

D-2

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the “ D-2” or a higher level.

or
D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the “ D-3” level.

VI

D-3

R-4

Extensive professional experience at the “ D-3” and “ R-3” levels.

1 D -l, -2, -3 and R-l, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the accompanying text.

statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in con­
nection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but not involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other ma­
jor factual or legal issues.
D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one
or more of the following: The absence of clear and
directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi­
ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the
laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor­
tance of the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums
as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly
involved); the matter is being strongly pressed or con­
tested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by the
individuals corporations, or government agencies
involved.
Examples of D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising
representations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to dif­
ferent interpretations.

require extensive research and analysis and the obtain­
ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con­
troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate
organization, engineering, or other highly technical
area; the legal matter is of critical importance to the
organization and is being vigorously pressed or con­
tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).
Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Federal
antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing
operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company
in rate or government franchise cases involving a geographic
area including parts or all of several States.
Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court
where the case is highly important to the future operation of
the organization and is vigorously contested by very
distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national
reputation) legal talent.

Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.

Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of
an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale,
underwriting and administration of group contracts in­
volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws.

Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for
an organized group.

Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine
major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuating
new major financing steps.

Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by
the absence of precedent decisions that are directly ap­
plicable to the organization’s situation.
D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult
because of one or more of the following: The questions
are unique and require a high order of original and
creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions



48

Responsibility

R-l. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little
deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci­
sions or actions having a significant bearing on the
organization’s business are reviewed. (Is given guidance

in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and
organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are
then carried out with moderate independence although
guidance is generally available, and is sought from time
to time on problem points.)
R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and
factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents,
and developing conclusions and recommendations.
Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza­
tion’s business are reviewed. (Receives information
from supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or im­
portant policy considerations pertaining to a legal pro­
blem. If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a
supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach,
possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In the
case of nonroutine written presentations the final prod­
uct is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with
organization policy. Some (but not all) attorneys make
assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aids,
or clerks.)
R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes
final legal determinations in matters of substantial im­
portance to the organization. Such determinations are
subject to review only for consistency with company
policy, possible precedent effect, and overall effec­
tiveness. To carry out assignments, deals regularly with
company officers and top level management officials
and confers or negotiates regularly with senior attorneys
and officials in other companies or in government agen­
cies on various aspects of assigned work. (Receives little
or no preliminary instruction on legal problems and a

minimum of technical legal supervision. May assign and
review work of a few attorneys, but this is not a primary
responsibility.)
R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal prob­
lems of the highest importance to the organization and
developing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or
other legal products. To carry out assignments,
represents the organization at conferences, hearings, or
trials and personally confers and negotiates with top at­
torneys and top-ranking officials in private companies
or in government agencies. On various aspects of assign­
ed work may give advice directly and personally to cor­
poration officers and top level managers, or may work
through the general counsel of the company in advising
officers. (Generally receives no preliminary instruction
on legal problems. On matters requiring the concen­
trated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing
the work of the attorneys involved.)
OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a
staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom
regularly perform D-3 legal work. With respect to the
work directed, gives advice directly to corporation of­
ficers and top managerial officers, or may give such ad­
vice through the general counsel. (Receives guidance as
to organization policy but no technical supervision or
assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief­
ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to
the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions.
Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy.)

Computer Programmers/Programmer Analysts
modifies programs to increase operating efficiency or to
respond to changes in work processes; maintains
records to document program development and revi­
sions.
A t levels I, II, and III some computer programmers
(typically called computer programmer analysts) may
also perform some systems analysis duties such as:
Gathering facts from users to define their business or
scientific problems and to investigate the feasibility of
solving problems through new or modified computer
programs; designing systems to resolve defined prob­
lems and providing specifications for data inputs, flow,
actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating on a
continuing basis in the overall program planning re­
quired, along with other e d p personnel and users.
In contrast, at levels IV and V some systems analysis
must be performed as part o f the programming assign-

This definition includes both programmers and pro­
grammer analysts.
Performs programming services fo r establishments or
fo r outside organizations who may contract fo r services.
Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about
business or scientific problems, typically prepared by
(or with the assistance of) a computer systems analyst,
into a sequence of detailed instructions to solve prob­
lems by electronic data processing (.EBP') equipment,
i.e., digital computers. Draws program flow charts to
describe the processing of data and develops the precise
steps and processing logic which, when entered into the
computer in coded language ( c o b o l . f o r t r a n , or other
programming language), cause the manipulation of data
to achieve desired results. Tests and corrects programs
and prepares instructions fo r operators who control the
computer during production runs. Analyzes and



49

merit. The systems analysis duties are identified in a
separate paragraph at levels, I, II, III, and IV and are
part of each alternative described at level V.
Excluded are:
a.

Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;

b.

Computer systems analysts who primarily perform
the kinds of duties identified in the paragraphs ex­
plaining systems analysis duties;

c.

gramming assignments (as described in level II) under
close supervision.
In addition, as training and to assist a higher level
analyst, computer programmer analysts may perform
elementary fact-finding concerning a specified work
process, e.g., a file of clerical records which is treated as
a unit (invoices, requisitions, or purchase orders, etc.);
reports findings to higher level analyst.
Incumbents at level I receive classroom and/or onthe-job training in computer programming concepts,
methods, and techniques and in the basic requirements
to the subject-matter area. May receive training in
elementary fact-finding. Detailed, step-by-step instruc­
tions are given fo r each task and any deviation must be
authorized by a supervisor. Work is closely monitored
in progress and reviewed in detail upon completion.

Computer programmers who perform level IV
or V programming duties but who perform no system
analysis;

d.

e.

f.

Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization relative to meeting the organization’s
needs;

Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst 1
1

At this level, initial assignments are designed to
develop competence in applying established programm­
ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine
programming assignments that do not require skilled
background experience but do require knowledge of
established programming procedures and data process­
ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and
complete specifications. The data are refined and the
format of the final product(s) is very similar to that of
the input or is well defined when significantly different,
i.e., there are few, if any, problems with interrelating
varied records and outputs.
Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes ap­
proved changes by amending the program flow chart,
developing the detailed processing logic, and coding the
changes. Tests and documents modifications and writes
the operator instructions. May write routine new pro­
grams using prescribed specifications; may confer with
the e d p personnel to clarify procedures, processing
logics, etc.
In addition and as continued training, computer pro­
grammer analysts may evaluate simple interrelation­
ships in the immediate programming area, e.g., whether
a contemplated change in one part o f a simple program
would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers
with user representatives to gain an understanding of
the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change;
implements the change upon approval of the supervisor
or higher level analyst. A higher level analyst provides
the incumbent with charts, narrative description of the
functions performed, an approved statement of the pro­
duct desired (e.g., a change in a local establishment
report), and the inputs, outputs, and record formats.
Incumbents at level II review objectives and assign­
ment details with higher level staff to insure thorough
understanding; they use judgment in selecting among
authorized procedures and seek assistance when
guidelines are inadequate or significant deviations are

Positions not requiring; (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.
Computer systems programmers or analysts who

primarily write programs or analyze problems con­
cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems
compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use of all pro­
grams and provide for the scheduling of the execu­
tion of programs; however, postions matching this
definition may develop a ”total package” which in­
cludes not only writing the program to process the
data but also selecting the computer equipment and
system software required; and
g.

Employees who have significant responsibility for the
management or supervision of workers (e.g., system
analysts) whose positions are not covered in this
definition; or employees with significant responsibil­
ity for other functions such as payroll, accounting,
the operation of the computer, the system software,
etc.

Postions are classified into levels based on the follow­
ing definitions.
G©mpyt@r IPr@gramm@r/Progr@mm®r Analyst! i
At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned
to develop basic programming skills because in­
cumbents are typically inexperienced in applying such
skills on the job. Assists higher level staff by performing
elementary programming tasks which concern limited
and simple data items and steps and which closely
follow patterns of previous work done in the organiza­
tion, e.g., drawing flow charts, writing operator instruc­
tions, or coding and testing routines to accumulate
counts, tallies, or summaries. May perform routine pro­



50

the nature o f the program, feasibility, computer equip­
ment and programming language have already been
decided. May analyze present performance of a routine
program and take action to correct deficiencies based on
discussion with the user and consultation with and ap­
proval of the supervisor or higher level analyst. May
assist in the review and analysis of detailed program
specifications and in program design to meet changes in
work processes.
Incumbents at level III work independently under
specified objectives; apply judgment in devising pro­
gram logic and in selecting and adapting standard pro­
gramming procedures; resolve problems and deviations
according to established practices; and obtain advice
where precedents are unclear or not available. Com­
pleted work is reviewed for conformance to standards,
timeliness, and efficiency. May guide or instruct lower
level programmers and/or programmer analysts; may
supervise technicians and others who assist in the
specific assignment.

proposed, or when unanticipated problems arise. Work
is usually monitored in progress; all work is reviewed
upon completion for accuracy and compliance with
standards.
Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst SI
S
As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies
standard programming procedures and detailed
knowledge o f pertinent subject matter (e.g., work pro­
cesses, governing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a
programming area such as: A record keeping operation
(supply, personnel and payroll, inventory, purchasing,
insurance payments, depositor accounts, etc.); a welldefined statistical or scientific problem; or other stan­
dardized operation or problem. Works according to ap­
proved statements o f requirements and detailed
specifications. While the data are clear-cut, related, and
equally available, there may be substantial interrelation­
ships o f a variety o f records and several varied se­
quences or formats are usually produced. The programs
developed or modified typically are linked to several
other programs in that the output o f one becomes the
input fo r another. Recognizes probable interactions of
other related programs with the assigned program(s)
and is familar with related system software and com­
puter equipment. Solves conventional programming
problems. (In small organizations, may maintain pro­
grams which concern or combine several operations,
i.e., users, or develop programs where there is one
primary user and the others give input.)
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned programs; designs and implements
modifications to the interrelation of files and records
within the program in consultation with a higher level
analyst; monitors the operation of assigned programs
and responds to problems by diagnosing and correcting
errors in logic and coding; implements and/or main­
tains assigned portions of a scientific programming pro­
ject, applying established scientific programming
techniques to a well-defined mathematical, statistical,
engineering, or other scientific problem usually requir­
ing the translation of mathematical notation in
specifications into processing logic and code. (Scientific
programming includes assignments such as: The use of a
predetermined physical law expressed in mathematical
terms to relate one set of data to another set of data; the
routine storage and retrieval of field test data; the use of
procedures for real-time command and control, scien­
tific data reduction, signal processing, or similar areas.)
Tests and documents work and writes and maintains
operator instructions for assigned programs. Confers
with other e d p personnel to obtain or provide factual
data.
In addition, computer programmer analysts may
carry out fact-finding and analysis o f a single activity or
routine problem, applying established procedures where



OR
Works on complex programs (as described in level IV)
under close direction o f higher level sta ff or supervisor.
May assist higher level staff by independently perform­
ing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more
difficult tasks under close supervision.
Computer Programmer Analyst IV
Applies expertise in programming procedures to
assigned complex programs; recommends the redesign
of the programs, investigates and analyzes feasibility
and program requirements, and develops programming
specifications. Assigned complex programs typically af­
fect a broad multiuser computer system which meets the
data processing needs o f a broad area (e.g., manufac­
turing, logistics planning, finance management, human
resources, material management, etc.) pr a computer
system fo r a project in engineering, research, accoun­
ting, statistics, etc. Plans the fu ll range ofprogramming
actions to produce several interrelated but different pro­
ducts from numerous and diverse data elements which
are usually from different sources; solves difficult pro­
gramming problems, l/ses systems analysis techniques
relevant to the assignment and knowledge of pertinent
system software, computer equipment, work processes,
regulations, and management practices. As necessary,
integrates facets of the work performed by others.
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned complex programs; designs and im­
plements the interrelation of files and records within the
program which will effectively fit into the overall design
of the project; working with problems or concepts,
develops programs for the solution to major scientific
computational problems requiring the analysis and
51

Typical Duties and Responsibilities. One or more of the
following:

development of logical or mathematical descriptions of
functions to be programmed; develops a major program
system, e.g., a sales accounting system or a resources
planning system; develops occasional special programs,
e.g., a critical path analysis program to assist in manag­
ing a special project. Tests, documents, and writes
operating instructions for all work. Confers with other
e d p personnel to secure information, investigate and
resolve problems and coordinate work efforts.

1.

In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coor­
dinates, and directs a large and important program­
ming project (finance, manufacturing, sales/
marketing, human resources, or other broad area) or
a number of small programming projects with com­

plex features. A substantial portion o f the work
supervised (usually 2 to 3 workers) is comparable to
that described fo r level IV. Supervises, coordinates,
and reviews the work of a small staff, normally not
more than 15 programmers, programmer analysts
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and
schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet comple­
tion date. These day-to-day supervisors evaluate per­

In addition, the computer programmer analyst per­
forms such duties as: Recommends the redesign of
assigned programs and carries out studies by in­
vestigating the feasibility of alternative design ap­
proaches to determine the best balanced solution, e.g.,
one that will best satisfy immediate user needs, facilitate
subsequent modification, and conserve resources; on
typical maintenance projects and smaller scale, limited
new projects, assists user personnel in defining the pro­
blem or need and determines how the work should be
organized, the necessary files and records, and their in­
terrelation within the program; on larger or more com­
plicated projects, usually participates as a team member
along with other e d p personnel and users and is typical­
ly assigned a portion of the project.

formance, resolve complaints and make recommen­
dations on hiring and firing. They do not make final
decisions on curtailing projects, reorganizing, or
reallocating resources.
2.

Incumbents at level IV work independently under
overall objectives and direction, apprising the super­
visor about progress and unusual complications.
Modifies and adapts precedent solutions and proven ap­
proaches. Quidelines include constraints imposed by the
related programs with which the incumbent’s programs
must be meshed. Completed work is reviewed for
timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effec­
tiveness in meeting requirements. May function as team
leader or supervise a few lower level programmers
and/or programmer analysts or technicians on assigned
work.

As team leader, staff specialist or consultant, defines
complex scientific problems (e.g., computa­
tional) or other highly complex programming prob­
lems (e.g., generating overall forecasts, projections,
or other new data fields widely different from the
source data or untried at the scale proposed) and
directs the development o f computer programs fo r
their solution; or, designs improvements in complex
programs where existing precedents provide little
guidance, such as an interrelated group of
mathematical/statistical programs which support
health insurance, natural resources, marketing
trends, or other research activities, and may lead a
design group responsible for maintaining and im­
proving the system. In conjunction with users (scien­
tists or specialists), defines major problems in the
subject-matter area and analyzes and revises existing
system logic difficulties. Contacts coworkers and
user personnel at various locations to plan and coor­
dinate project and gather data; devises ways to ob­
tain data not previously available; arbitrates dif­
ferences between various program users when con­
flicting requirements arise. May perform simulation
studies to determine effects of changes in computer
equipment or system software or may assess the
feasibility and soundness of proposed programming
projects which are novel and complex. Typically
develops programming techniques and procedures
where few precedents exist. May be assisted on proj­
ects by other program analysts, programmers or
technicians.

Computer Programmer Analyst ¥
A t level V workers are typically either supervisors,
team leaders, staff specialists or consultants. §ome
systems analyst work is included as a part o f the pro­
gramming assignment, however, the overall system re­
quirements for broad new projects or for complex new
scientific systems are defined by higher level analysts,
specialists, or scientists. Supervision and review are
similar to level IV.

NOTE: Excluded are programmer/analysts above level
V (working in the computer industries) who develop
technology for entirely new application systems for
future marketing (e.g., 5-8 years).

Buyers
BUYER
Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and serv­
ices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some
instances items are of types that must be specially



designed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accor­
dance with drawings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects
or recommends supplier. May interview prospective
52

vendors. Purchases items and services at the most
favorable price consistent with quality, quantity,
specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares
or supervises preparation of purchase orders from req­
uisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’ of­
fices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are
consistent with past experience, and are in conformance
with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase
transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex­
perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities,
etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are
reviewed by higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but
not all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks
who perform routine aspects of the work. As a second­
ary and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or
dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip­
ment, or supplies.
NOTE: Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing
of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in­
cludes items and work described at more than one of the
following levels, the position should be considered to
equal the highest level that characterizes at least a
substantial portion of the buyer’s time.
Excluded are:

a.

Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;

b.

Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest­
ment purposes;

c.

Positions that specifically require professional educa­
tion and qualifications in a physical science or in
engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);

d.

Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few
related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe
uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is
required to judge the relative value of the goods of­
fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price
of each purchase in terms of its probable effect on
the organization’s profit and competitive status.
Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervi­
sion of a purchasing program;

e.
f.

Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;

g.

Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing
contracts; and

h.

Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work; and

i.

Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analyses and
communication.




Buyer I
Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available,
commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture,
services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers,
wholesalers, jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales
representatives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts,
e.g., those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common sta­
tionery and office supplies; standard types of office fur­
niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, screws;
janitorial and common building maintenance supplies;
or common utility services or office machine repair serv­
ices.
Buyer S
I
Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of standard, general­
ly available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions may involve occasional modification of
standard and common usage items, materials, and serv­
ices, and include a few stipulations about unusual pack­
ing, marking, shipping, etc.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Standard in­
dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equip­
ment; standard electronic parts, components and com­
ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline serv­
ice station equipment; p b x or other specialized
telephone services; special purpose printing services;
and routine purchases of common raw materials such as
standard grades and sizes of steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of
the types described for Buyer I when the quantities pur­
chased are large so that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturers on a broader than local scale.
Buyer III
Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­

53

tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging re­
quirements; export packs; overseas port differentials;
etc.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;
special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.

determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.
In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples of items purchased include: Special pur­
pose high cost machine tools and production facilities;
specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines; raw
materials of critically important characteristics or quali­
ty; parts, subassemblies, components, etc., specially
designed and made to order (e.g., communications
equipment for installation in aircraft being manufac­
tured; component assemblies for missiles and rockets;
and motor vehicle frames).
n o t e : Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of
science or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual
or unit value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to
expand their plants or convert facilities to the produc­
tion of new items or services. These types of buying
functions are often performed by program managers or
company officials, who have primary responsibilities
other than buying.

0uy@r S
V
Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer

Chamists and Engineers
propriate education and experience. Performs
assignments designed to develop professional
capabilities and to provide experience in the application
of training in chemistry as it relates to the company’s
programs. May also receive formal classroom or
seminar-type training. (Terminal positions are
excluded.)

CHEMIST

Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com­
position, molecular structure, and properties of
substances; to develop or investigate new materials and
processes; and to investigate the transformations which
substances undergo. Work typically requires a B.S.
degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and
substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex­
perience.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instruction as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during
progress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon comple­
tion.

Chemist I
General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­



Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
54

assignments require a specialized knowledge of one or
two common categories of related substances. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in a
professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company. The work in­
cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative
analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as
viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and
assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional
knowledge through personal observation and discus­
sion.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
Chemist S
I

Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with
instructions as to the nature of the problem, selects
standard methods, tests or procedures; when necessary,
develops or works out alternate or modified methods
with supervisor’s concurrence. Assists in research by
analyzing samples or testing new procedures that re­
quire specialized training because (a) standard methods
are inapplicable, (b) analytical findings must be inter­
preted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with
standards, or (c) specialized and advanced equipment
and techniques must be adapted.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine chemical work requiring
selection and application of general and specialized
methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used
in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instruc­
tions when less common or proposed methods or pro­
cedures are necessary. Requires work experience ac­
quired in an entry level position, or appropriate
graduate level study. For training and developmental
purposes, assignments may include some work that
is typical of a higher level. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aids, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.

Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature
and extent of analysis required, specifies methods and
criteria on new types of assignments, and reviews work
for thoroughness of application of methods and ac­
curacy of results.

Chemist IV
General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or
ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un­
foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a
research approach to the solution of a wide variety of
problems and to assimilate the details and significance
of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and
tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to
assure competence as a fully trained worker; or, for
positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be
substituted for experience.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide
variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures.
In accordance with specific instructions may carry out
proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect
problems in using standardized procedures because of
the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip­
ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures,
e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter­
nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem
and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified
phases of research projects as an assistant to an ex­
perienced chemist.

Chemist SS
S

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on propos­
ed plans for projects.

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of
chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory,
using judgment in the independent evaluation, selec­
tion, and adaptation of standard methods and tech­
niques. May carry through a complete series of tests on
a product in its different process stages. Some

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory
assignments requiring the determination and evaluation
of alternative procedures and the sequence of perform­
ing them. Performs complex, exacting, unusual
analytical assignments requiring specialized knowledge
of techniques or products. Interprets results, prepares

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.




55

reports, and may provide technical advice in specialized
area.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within and outside the organiza­
tion, with responsibility for acting independently on
technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this
level usually requires extensive progressive experience
including work comparable to Chemist V.

Chemist ¥
General characteristics. Participates in planning
laboratory programs on the basis of specialized
knowledge of problems and methods and probable
value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow
specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class
of products), making recommendations and conclusions
which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im­
portant projects. Development of the knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually reflects
progressive experience through Chemist IV.
Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
organizes and directs assigned laboratory programs. In­
dependently defines scope and critical elements of the
projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan­
tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that
described for Chemist IV; (2) As individual researcher
or worker, carries out projects requiring development of
new or highly modified scientific techniques and pro­
cedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and
knowledge of related scientific fields.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and
development projects, or a larger group performing
routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date.
Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted
on projects by other chemists or technicians.
Chemist ¥1
General characteristics. Performs work requiring
leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field,
product, or process. Formulates and conducts a
systematic attack on a problem area of considerable
scope and complexity which must be approached
through a series of complete and conceptually related
studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The
problems are complex because they are difficult to
define and require unconventional or novel approaches



Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance, or (b) is responsible for the entire chemcial
program of a company, when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such
a scope that they require a few (3 to 5) subordinate
supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a posi­
tion comparable to level V. (2) As individual researcher
or worker determines, conceives, plans, and conducts
projects of major importance to the company. Applies a
high degree of originality and ingenuity in adapting
techniques into original combinations and configura­
tions. May serve as a consultant to other chemists in
specialty.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or re­
searcher, may be assisted on individual projects by other
chemists or technicians.

Chemist V S
S

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive chemical ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key chemists and officials of other organizations and
companies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation
of critical issues. At this level individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature judg­
ment in anticipating and solving unprecedented chem­
ical problems, determining program objectives and re­
quirements, organizing programs and projects, and
developing standards and guides for diverse chemical
activities.
Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.
56

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a chemical program of a
company with extensive and diversified scientific re­
quirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a
company where the program is more limited in scope.
The overall chemical program contains critical problems
the solution of which requires major technological ad­
vances and opens the way for extensive related develop­
ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations
concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work
which will be most profitable in light of company re­
quirements and scientific and industrial trends and
developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul­
tant, selects problems for research to further the comp­
any’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in
which the phenomena and principles are not adequately
understood, and where few or contradictory scientific
precedents or results are available for reference. Out­
standing creativity and mature judgment are required to
devise hypotheses and techniques of experimentation
and to interpret results. As a leader and authority in the
company, in a broad area of specialization, or in a nar­
row but intensely specialized one, advises the head of a
large laboratory or company officials on complex
aspects of extremely broad and important programs.
Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and justi­
fying proposed and current programs and projects and
furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel prob­
lems in the specialty field. Typically will have con­
tributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products, pro­
cedures) which are regarded as significant advances in
the field.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to Chemist VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists and technicians.
Chemists VIII
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive chemical and related ac­
tivities of the company. Negotiates critical and con­
troversial issues with top level chemists and officers of
other organizations and companies. Individuals at this
level have demonstrated a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive chemical programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose
positions are comparable to Chemist VII, or individual
researchers some of whose positions are comparable to
Chemist VII and sometimes Chemist VIII. As an in­
dividual researcher and consultant may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists or technicians.3
n o t e : Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical
program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of chemical
programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1)
Chemists in charge of programs so extensive and com­
plex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or unusually
novel products and procedures) that one or more subor­
dinate supervisory chemists are performing at level
VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and
substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind
and extent of chemical program” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual researchers
and consultants who are recognized as national and/or
international authorities and scientific leaders in very
broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.

EMG1WEER
Performs professional work in research, develop-

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.



Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible
for (a) the entire chemical program of a company which
is of moderate scope, or (b) an important segment of a
chemical program of a company with very extensive and
highly diversified scientific requirements, where pro­
grams are of such complexity and scope that they are of
critical importance to overall operations and include
problems of extraordinary difficulty that have resisted
solution. Decides the kind and extent of chemical pro­
grams needed to accomplish the objectives of the com­
pany, for planning and organizing facilities and pro­
grams, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual
researcher and consultant formulates and guides the at­
tack on problems of exceptional difficulty and marked
importance to the company and/or industry. Problems
are characterized by the lack of scientific precedents and
source materials, or the lack of success of prior research
and analysis so that their solution would represent an
advance of great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a
recognized authority for broad program areas of con­
siderable novelty and importance. Has made contribu­
tions such as new products or techniques, development
of processes, etc., which are regarded as major advances
in the field.

3 Insufficient data were obtained for level VIII to warrant presentation of
average salaries.

57

ment, design, testing, analysis, production, construc­
tion, maintenance, operation, planning, survey,
estimating, application, or standardization of engineer­
ing facilities, systems, structures, processes, equipment,
devices, or materials, requiring knowledge of the
science and art by which materials, natural resources,
and power are made useful. Work typically requires a
B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in combined
education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control
engineers, sales engineers, and engineers whose primary
responsibility is to be in charge of nonprofessional
maintenance work.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of
related detailed steps or processes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.
Engineer S
IS
General characteristics. Independently evaluates,
selects, and applies standard engineering techniques,
procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making
minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments
have clear and specified objectives and require the in­
vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in a
professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Engineer i
General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Perform s
assignments designed to develop professional work
knowledge and abilities. May also receive formal
classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific
assignment objectives, complex features, and possible
solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during
progress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work
which involves conventional types of plans, investiga­
tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively
few complex features for which there are precedents.
Assignments usually include one or more of the follow­
ing: Equipment design and development, test of
materials, preparation of specifications, process study,
research investigations, report preparation, and other
activities of limited scope requiring knowledge of prin­
ciples and techniques commonly employed in the
specific narrow area of assignments.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
Engineer 1
1
General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring
application of standard techniques, procedures, and
criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering
tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on
details of work and in making preliminary selections
and adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or
appropriate graduate level study. For training and
developmental purposes, assignments may include some
work that is typical of a higher level. (Terminal posi­
tions are excluded.)

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.
Engineer S
V
General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter of the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation,
selection, and substantial adaptation and modification
of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria.
Devises new approaches to problems encountered. Re­
quires sufficient professional experience to assure com­
petence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects of assignments.



58

primarily of a research nature, completion of all re­
quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for
experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on pro­
posed plans for projects.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules,
conducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the
engineering work in a part of a major project or in a
total project of moderate scope. Performs work which
involves conventional engineering practice but may in­
clude a variety of complex features such as conflicting
design requirements, unsuitability of standard
materials, and difficult coordination requirements.
Work requires a broad knowledge of precedents in the
specialty area and a good knowledge of principles and
practices of related specialties.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineer ¥

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diver­
sified knowledge of engineering principles and practices
in broad areas of assignments and related fields. Makes
decisions independently on engineering problems and
methods, and represents the organization in conferences
to resolve important questions and to plan and coor­
dinate work. Requires the use of advanced techniques
and the modification and extension of theories,
precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences
and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required
for this level of work usually result from progressive ex­
perience, including work comparable to Engineer IV.
Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a large and important engineer­
ing project or a number of small projects with many
complex features. A substantial portion of the work
supervised is comparable to that described for Engineer
IV. (2) As individual researcher or worker carries out
complex or novel assignments requiring the develop­
ment of new or improved techniques and procedures.
Work is expected to result in the development of new or
refined equipment, materials, processes, products,



59

and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff specialist
develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a variety of
projects and activities to be carried out by others.
Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed
engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment
when necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by
testing is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor
and consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of
facility or equipment, or a program function.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
engineers and technicians; estimates personnel needs
and schedules and assigns work to meet completion
date. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist may
be assisted on projects by other engineers or technicians.
Engineer ¥1
General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility
for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coor­
dinating assignments. Plans and develops engineering
projects concerned with unique or controversial prob­
lems which have an important effect on major company
programs. This involves exploration of subject area,
definition of scope and selection of problems for in­
vestigation, and development of novel concepts and ap­
proaches. Maintains liaison with individuals and units
within or outside the organization with responsibility
for acting independently on technical matters pertaining
to the field. Work at this level usually requires extensive
progressive experience including work comparable to
Engineer V.
Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projeccts or a project of major scope and
importance, or (b) is responsible for the entire engineer­
ing program of a company when the program is of
limited complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities
generally requires a few (3 to 5) subordinate supervisors
or team leaders with at least one in a position com­
parable to level V. (2) As individual researcher or
worker conceives, plans, and conducts research in prob­
lem areas of considerable scope and complexity. The
problems must be approached through a series of com­
plete and conceptually related studies, are difficult to
define, require unconventional or novel approaches,
and require sophisticated research techniques. Available
guides and precedents contain critical gaps, are only
partially related to the problem, or may be largely lack­

objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant is
a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further
the company’s objectives. Conceives and plans in­
vestigations of broad areas of considerable novelty and
importance for which engineering precedents are lack­
ing in areas critical to the overall engineering program.
Is consulted extensively by associates and others, with a
high degree of reliance placed on the incumbent’s scien­
tific interpretations and advice. Typically, will have
contributed inventions, new designs, or techniques
which are regarded as major advances in the field.

ing due to the novel character of the project. At this
level, the individual researcher generally will have con­
tributed inventions, new designs, or techniques which
are of material significance in the solution of important
problems. (3) As a staff specialist serves as the technical
specialist for the organization (division or company) in
the application of advanced theories, concepts, prin­
ciples, and processes for an assigned area of respon­
sibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility or
equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization
for the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis
of programs or new programs warranted by such
developments.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to Engineer VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual researcher or staff
specialist may be assisted on individual projects by other
engineers or technicians.

Engineer V S '
SS
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have a far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and
related activities of the company. Negotiates critical and
controversial issues with top level engineers and officers
of other organizations and companies. Individuals at
this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.

Engineer VI!
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive engineering ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key engineers and officials of other organizations and
companies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation
of critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature
engineering judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented engineering problems, determining pro­
gram objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects and developing standards and guides for
diverse engineering activities.

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible
for (a) an important segment of the engineering pro­
gram of a company with extensive and diversified
engineering requirements, or (b) the entire engineering
program of a company when it is more limited in scope.
The overall engineering program contains critical prob­
lems the solution of which requires major technological
advances and opens the way for extensive related
development. Extent of responsibilities generally re­
quires several subordinate organizational segments or
teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and funds re­
quired to carry out programs which are directly related
to and directed toward fulfillment of overall company



60

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified engineering program of a company,
or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when the program is of moderate scope. The programs
are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical
importance to overall objectives, include problems of
extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu­
tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor­
dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind
and extent of engineering and related programs needed
to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos­
ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz­
ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates
and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif­
ficulty and marked importance to the company or in­
dustry. Problems are characterized by their lack of
scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc­

ing program may match any of several of the survey job
levels depending on the size and complexity of engineer­
ing programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1)
Engineers in charge of programs so extensive and com­
plex (e.g., consisting of research and development on a
variety of complex products or systems with numerous
novel components) that one or more subordinate super­
visory engineers are performing at level VIII; (2) in­
dividuals whose decisions have direct and substantial ef­
fect on setting policy for the organization (included,
however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind and extent
of engineering and related programs” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual researchers
and consultants who are recognized as national and/or
international authorities and scientific leaders in very
broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.

cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution
would represent an advance of great significance and
importance. Performs advisory and consulting work for
the company as a recognized authority for broad pro­
gram areas or in an intensely specialized area of con­
siderable novelty and importance.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose
positions are comparable to Engineer VII, or individual
researchers some of whose positions are comparable to
Engineer VII and sometimes Engineer VIII. As an in­
dividual researcher and consultant may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers or technicans.
NOTE:.

Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer­

TaehoIoaS Sypp@rt ©eeupaiti®ns
or on completion. Performs at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:

ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria:
1.
Provides semiprofessional technical support for
engineers working in such areas as research, design,
development, testing, or manufacturing process
improvement.
2.

Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or
hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data.

Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical
components or equipment.

3.

Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple
wiring, soldering, or connecting.

Required to have some practical knowledge of
science or engineering; some positions may also
require a practical knowledge of mathematics or
computer science.

Gathers and maintains specified records of engineering
data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by
substituting numbers in specified formulas; plots data and
draws simple curves and graphs.
Engineering Technician S
I
Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows stand­
ard work methods on recurring assignments but receives
explicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments;
technical adequacy of routine work is reviewed on com­
pletion; nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality
control technicians or testers, model makers or other
craftworkers, chemical or other nonengineering techni­
cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers,
and engineers (who are required to apply a professional
knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their
duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who
may perform the same duties using only practical skills
and knowledge).
Also excludes engineering technicians:
a.

b.

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or
parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip­
ment.

Below level I who are limited to simple tasks
such as: Measuring items of regular shape with a
caliper and computing cross sectional areas; identify­
ing, weighing, and marking easy to identify items; or
recording simple instrument readings at specified in­
tervals; and

Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare test
specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment;
records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from
equipment malfunction or observational errors.
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but
nonstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and
geometry; presents the data in prescribed form.

Above level VI who plan and conduct highly dif­
ficult projects or studies where standard engineering
methods, procedures, and techniques are -rarely ap­
plicable and conflicting issues characterize the work.

Engin®©ring Technician IS
S
Performs assignments that are not completely stan­
dardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard pro­
cedures or equipment, using fully applicable precedents.

Engineering Technician S

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process



61

Receives initial instructions, equipment requirements,
and advice from supervisor or engineer as needed; per­
forms recurring work independently; work is reviewed
for technical adequacy or conformity with instructions.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such
typical duties as:

and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at
this level one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or
adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct
malfunctions.

Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment
performance. Determines test requirements, equipment
modification, and test procedures; conducts tests, analyzes
and evaluates data, and prepares reports on findings and
recommendations.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or
equipment; conducts tests or experiments; analyzes results
and redesigns or modifies equipment to improve perform­
ance; reports results.

Conducts various tests or experiments which may require
minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as
subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and records test data.

Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives; may
calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed specifica­
tions, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May check and
analyze drawings or equipment to determine adequacy of
drawings and designs.

Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data from
field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data,
identifying errors or inconsistencies; selects methods of data
presentation.

Engineering Technicen ¥1
Engineering Technician IV

Performs work of broad scope and complexity in­
volving responsibility for independently planning and
accomplishing a complete project or study, or serves as
an expert in a narrow aspect of a particular field of
engineering, e.g., environmental factors affecting elec­
tronic engineering. Complexity of assignments typically
requires considerable creativity and judgment in devis­
ing ways to accomplish the work, and making sound
engineering compromises and decisions in situations
where standard engineering methods, procedures, and
techniques may not be applicable. Selects approaches to
resolve design or operational problems; visualizes and
develops new design techniques or methods, as needed.
Coordinates complex engineering and administrative
problems needing resolution with suppliers, contrac­
tors, engineers, etc., after discussing with supervisor ap­
proach to be taken. Supervisor or professional engineer
provides advice on unusual controversial problems or
policy matters; completed work is reviewed for com­
pliance with overall project objectives. May supervise a
small staff or train and be assisted by lower level techni­
cians.4 Performs, at this level, one or a combination of
such typical duties as:

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial
variety and complexity, using precedents which are not
fully applicable. May also plan such assignments.
Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer
(as needed; performs recurring work independently);
work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity
with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni­
cians, and have frequent contact with professionals and
others within the establishment. Performs at this level
one or a combination of such typical duties as:
Works on limited segment of development project;
constructs experimental or prototype models to meet
engineering requirements; conducts tests or experiments and
redesigns as necessary; records and evaluates data and
reports findings.
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of a wide variety of critical test
equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates
equipment; records data, measures and records problems of
sufficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at
higher level; analyzes data and prepares test reports.
Extracts and analyzes a variety of engineering data; ap­
plies conventional engineering practices to develop or
prepare schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or
makes recommendations regarding these items. May review
designs or specifications for adequacy.

Plans approach and details and conducts various ex­
periments to develop equipment or systems characterized by
(a) difficult performance requirements because of conflict­
ing attributes such as versatility, reliability, size, ease of
operation, and maintenance; or (b) unusual combination of
techniques or components. Explores and evaluates possible
approaches with close collaboration of supervisor and
others, and plans various phases of approach; arranges for
fabrication of pilot models and determines test procedures
and design of special test equipment.

Engineering Technician V

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion
of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts
plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person­
nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and
coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates
the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional
engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design
approaches: completed work is reviewed for technical
adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train



Designs and coordinates test setups and experiments to
prove or disprove the feasibility of preliminary design; uses
untried and untested measurement techniques; improves the
performance of the equipment to meet desirable features.
4
Insufficient data were obtained for level VI to warrant presentation of
average salaries.

62

May advise equipment users on redesign to solve unique
operational deficiencies. <

guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed
work for accuracy.

Writes technical reports on projects covering progress,
evaluation, analysis, and conclusion of the application of Drafter III
Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,
new or modified devices and makes any necessary design
changes. May prepare technical papers on new processes in including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
development work for publication in engineering or scien­ hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work re­
tific journals. Contributes to the preparation of formal
quires use of most of the conventional drafting tech­
reports on special technical investigations or studies.
niques and a working knowledge of the terms and pro­
DF1AFTER
cedures of the industry. Familiar or recurring work is
Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and assigned in general terms; unfamiliar assignments in­
skill in drafting methods, procedures, and techniques. clude information on methods, procedures, sources of
Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and elec­ information, and precedents to be followed. Simple
trical equipment, piping and duct systems, and similar revisions to existing drawings may be assigned with a
equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used verbal explanation of the desired results; more complex
to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and infor­ revisions are produced from sketches which clearly
mation in support of engineering functions. Uses depict the desired product.
recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and
Drafter IV
lines having specific meaning in drawings.
Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which in­
The following are excluded when they constitute the
clude multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
primary purpose of the job:
drawings. Drawings include complex design features
Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill,
that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and
and ability to conceive or originate designs;
portray. Assignments regularly require the use of
Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
mathematical formulas to compute weights, load
Work involving the preparation of charts, diagrams, capacities, dimensions, quantities of material, etc.
room arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Working from sketches and verbal information supplied
by an engineer or designer, determines the most ap­
Cartographic work involving the preparation of maps
or plats and related materials and drawings of geological propriate views, detail drawings, and supplementary in­
structures; and
formation needed to complete assignments. Selects re­
Supervisory work involving the management of a draft­ quired information from precedents, manufacturers’
ing program or the supervision of drafters when either catalogues, and technical guides. Independently resolves
constitutes the primary purpose of the job.
most of the problems encountered. Supervisor or
designer may suggest methods of approach or provide
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
advice on unusually difficult problems.
following definitions.
Drafter fl

Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions.
Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines.
Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in
various drafting techniques. Work is spot checked dur­
ing progress and reviewed upon completion.
n o t e : Exclude drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting
methods.

Drafter fill

Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns
and present few technical problems. Supervisor pro­
vides detailed instructions on new assignments, gives



n o t e : Excludes drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

Drafter ¥

Works closely with design originators, preparing
drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs which
require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually
difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative,
resourcefulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that an­
ticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, installa­
tion, and operation are resolved by the drawings pro­
duced. Exercises independent judgment in selecting and
interpreting data based on a knowledge of the design in­
tent. Although working primarily as a drafter, may oc­
casionally perform engineering design work in inter­
preting general designs prepared by others or in com­
pleting missing design details. May provide advice and
guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator
and planner for large and complex drafting projects.
63

COMPUTER OPERATOR

Monitors and operates the control console of a digital
computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:
Studies operating instructions to determine equipment
setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);

introduction of new programs, applications, and pro­
cedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems) executed by serial proc­
essing. In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or correc­
tion procedures. Refers problems which do not respond
to preplanned procedures.
OR

Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates computer;
Responds to operating instructions and computer out­
put instructions;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems;
Maintains operating record.
May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the
scope of this definition are fully qualified computer
operators, trainees working to become fully qualified
operators, and lead operators providing technical
assistance to lower level operators.
©ompustor Operator 1

Work assignments consist of on-the-job training
(sometimes augmented by classroom training). Oper­
ator is provided detailed written or oral guidance before
and during assignments and is under close personal
supervision.

Work assignments typically are established produc­
tion runs (i.e., programs which present few operating
problems) executed by serial processing. Selects from a
variety of standard setup and operating procedures. In
response to computer output instructions or error con­
ditions, deviates from standard procedures if standard
procedures do not provide a solution. Then refers prob­
lems or aborts program.
OR
Work assignments are established production runs
(i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous process­
ing of two or more programs). In response to computer
output instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or correction procedures. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedures.
Computer Operator IV

Work assignments typically are established produc­
tion runs (i.e., programs which present few operating
problems) executed by serial processing (i.e., one pro­
gram is processed at a time). In response to computer
output instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedure.

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and pro­
cedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems) executed by serial proc­
essing. Selects from a variety of standard setup and
operating procedures. In response to computer output
instruction or error conditions, deviates from standard
procedures if standard procedures do not provide a
solution. Then refers problems or aborts program.

OR

OR

Work assignments typically are established produc­
tion runs (i.e., programs which present few operating
problems) executed by multiprocessing (i.e.,
simultaneous processing of two or more programs).
Operator serves as an assistant operator working under
close supervision or performing a portion of a more
senior computer operator’s work. In response to com­
puter output instructions or error conditions, may apply
standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers
problems which do not respond to preplanned pro­
cedure.

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and pro­
cedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems) executed by
multiprocessing. In response to computer output in­
structions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedures. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedures.

Computer Operator S
I

©ompytsr ©p®r®t®r IS
B

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent



OR
Work assignments are established production runs
(i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety of

standard setup and operating procedures. In response to
computer output instructions or error conditions,
deviates from standard procedures if standard pro­
cedures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems
or aborts program.

c.
d.

Compwter Operator V

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
testing and introduction of new programs, applications,
and procedures (i.e., situations which require the
operator to adapt to a variety of problems). In respond­
ing to computer output instructions and error condi­
tions or to avoid loss of information or to conserve
computer time, operator deviates from standard pro­
cedures or aborts program. Such actions may materially
alter the computer unit’s production plans. Advises pro­
grammers and subject-matter experts on setup tech­
niques.

e.

or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut, or splice negatives;
Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or
edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain,
or repair photographic equipment;
Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures
of television writers and editors; and
Photographers taking pictures for commerieal news­
paper or magazine publishers, television stations, or
movie producers.

Positions are matched to the appropriate definition
level based on the difficulty of, and responsibility for
the photography performed, including the subjectmatter knowledge and artistry required to fulfill the
assignment. While the equipment may be an indication
of the level of difficulty, photographers at the higher
levels may use standard equipment, as needed.

Computer Operator ¥1

In addition to level ¥ characteristics, assignments at
this level require a knowledge of program language,
computer features, and software systems to assist in: (1)
Maintaining, modifying, and developing operating
systems or programs; (2) developing operating instruc­
tions and techniques to cover problem situations; (3)
switching to emergency backup procedures.
PHOTOGRAPHER

Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of pho­
tographic techniques, equipment, and processes.
Typically, some familiarity with the company’s ac­
tivities (e.g., scientific, engineering, industrial,
technical, retail, commercial, etc.) and some artistic
ability are needed at the higher levels. Depending on the
objectives of the assignment, photographers use stand­
ard equipment (including simple still, graphic, and mo­
tion picture cameras, video and television hand
cameras, and similar commonly used equipment)
and/or use special purpose equipment (including
specialized still and graphic cameras, motion pictue pro­
duction, television studio, and high speed cameras and
equipment). At the higher levels a complex accessory
system of equipment may be used, as needed, with
sound or lighting systems, generators, timing or
measurement control mechanisms, or improvised stages
or environments, etc. Work of photographers at all
levels is reviewed for quality and acceptability.
Photographers may also develop, process, and edit film
or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to lower level
workers, or may do work described at lower levels as
needed.
Excluded are:
a.

Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;

b.

Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,




65

Photographer S
Takes routine pictures in situations where several
shots can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pic­
tures where complications, such as speed, motion, color
contrast, or lighting are not present or where there is no
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are
taken for identification, employee publications, infor­
mation, or publicity purposes. Workers must be able to
focus, center, and provide simple flash-type lighting for
an uncomplicated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, in­
terviews, banquets, or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to
record the condition at a specified time. Assignments
are usually performed without direct guidance due to
the clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.
Photographer IS
Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed,
motion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the sub­
jects photographed are similar to those at level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut
objectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and
filters, camera angles, exposure times, and type of film.
Requires familiarity with the situation gained from
similar past experience to arrange for specific emphasis,
balanced lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as
needed. May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture
cameras for simple shots such as moving equipment, in­
dividuals at work or meetings, and the like, where
available or simple artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily there is opportunity for repeated shots or

animation cameras, specialized still and graphic
cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in
light values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets
up precise photographic measurement and controls
equipment; uses high speed color photography, syn­
chronized stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or
timed electronic triggering; operates equipment from a
remote point; or arranges and uses cameras operating at
several thousand frames per second. In other
assignments, selects and sets up motion picture or televi­
sion cameras and accessories and shoots a pari of a pro­
duction or a sequence of scenes, or takes special scenes
to be used for background or special effects in the pro­
duction.
Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with
supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual prob­
lems or altering existing equipment.

for retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory.
Consults with supervisor or more experienced
photographers when problems are anticipated.
Photographer SS
S

Selects from a range of standard photographic equip­
ment for assignments demanding exact renditions, nor­
mally without opportunity for later retakes, when there
are specific problems or uncertainties concerning
lighting, exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses
technical requirements with operating officials or super­
visor and customizes treatment for each situation ac­
cording to a detailed request. Varies camera processes
and techniques and uses the setting and background to
produce esthetic, as well as accurate and informative,
pictures. Typically, standard equipment is used at this
level although “ specialized” photography work is
usually performed; may use some special purpose equip­
ment under closer supervision
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings,
charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computa­
tion of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise
equipment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail
and exact color when color and condition of the tissue
may deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures
or conditions which normally cannot be recaptured;
machine or motor parts to show wear or corrosion in
minute wires or gears; specialized real estate or retail
goods for company catalogs or listings where saleability
is enhanced by the photography; company products,
works, construction sites, or patrons in prescribed detail
to substantiate legal claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or
technical design layouts requiring precise equipment set­
tings; fixed objects on the ground or air-to-air objects
which must be captured quickly and require directing
the pilot to get the correct angle of approach.
Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

Photographer V

Photographer IV

Uses special purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually
makes all the technical decisions, although the objective
of the pictures is determined by operating officials.
Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects
desired by operating officials and discusses modifica­
tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of
the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex­
amples of equipment used at this level include ultra-high
speed, motion picture production, studio television,



66

As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations re­
quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically
performs one or more of the following assignments: (1)
Develops and adapts photographic equipment or proc­
esses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and
modify equipment for use in extreme conditions such as
excessive heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under­
water, wind and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2)
plans and organizes the overall technical photographic
coverage for a variety of events and developments in
phases of a scientific, industrial, medical, or commer­
cial research project or similar program; or (3) creates
the desired illusion or emotional effect through develop­
ing trick or special effects photography for novel situa­
tions requiring a high degree of ingenuity and imagin­
ative camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are
responsible for the substance of the project. Uses imag­
ination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging
the action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.5
NOTE: Excluded are photographers above level V who
independently plan the objectives, scope, and substance
of the photography for the project in addition to plan­
ning the overall technical photographic coverage.
5
Insufficient data were obtained for levels I and IV to warrant presentation o f
average salaries.

©OaroeaO
accou^ ™

© CLERK
Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil­
ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com­
pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting
documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu­
tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical ac­
curacy of various types of reports, lists, calculations,
postings, etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making
entries or adjustment to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording of
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where
there are few variations in the types of transactions
handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may re­
quire a basic knowledge and understanding of the ter­
minology, codes, and processes used in an automated
accounting system.
Accounting Clerk S
Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and
repetitive accounting documents, verifying ma­
thematical accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and
bringing them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor
gives clear and detailed instructions for specific
assignments. Employee refers to supervisor all matters
not covered by instructions. Work is closely controlled
and reviewed in detail for accuracy, adequacy, and
adherence to instructions.

Accounting Clerk IV

Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an ac­
counting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,
ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter­
mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and
processing material through data processing for applica­
tion in the accounting system); and/or analyzes and
reconciles computer printouts with operating unit
reports (contacting units and researching causes of
discrepancies, and taking action to ensure that accounts
balance). Employee resolves problems in recurring
assignments in accordance with previous training and
experience. Supervisor provides suggestions for handl­
ing unusual or nonrecurring transactions. Conformance
with requirements and technical soundness of complete
work are reviewed by the supervisor or are controlled by
mechanisms built into the accounting system.
n o t e : Excluded from level IV are positions responsi­
ble for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

A e s ysiting C rk IS
<<@
S@
Performs one or more routine accounting clerical
operations, such as: Examining, verifying and correct­
ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and
accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts,
and checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga­
tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and
reconciling collection vouchers; posting data to transac­
tion sheets where employee identifies proper accounts
and items to be posted; and coding documents in accor­
dance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee
follows specific and detailed accounting procedures.
Completed work is reviewed for accuracy and com­
pliance with procedures.

FILE CLERK

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish­
ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.
File Clerk I

Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical,
chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates
readily available material in files and forwards material;
may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple

Accounting C rlc III
5@
Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in



performing one or more of the following: Posts actions
to journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected
and debit and credit entries to be made and assigning
proper codes; reviews computer printouts against
manually maintained journals, detecting and correcting
erroneous postings, and preparing documents to adjust
accounting classifications and other data; or reviews
lists of transactions rejected by an automated system,
determining reasons for rejections, and preparing
necessary correcting material. On routine assignments,
employee selects and applies established procedures and
techniques. Detailed instructions are provided for dif­
ficult or unusual assignments. Completed work and
methods used are reviewed for technical accuracy.

67

clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and serv­ ning errands, operating minor office machines such as
sealers or maners, opening mail, distributing mail on a
ice files.
regularly scheduled route or in a familiar area, and
other minor clerical work. May deliver mail that re­
File Clerk IS
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple quires some special handling, e.g., mail that is insured,
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material registered, or marked for special delivery.
Excluded are positions which include any of the
by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly iden­ following as significant duties:
tified material in files and forwards material. May per­
a. Operating motor vehicles;
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and
b. Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when
service files.
the work requires a continuing knowledge of special
procedures for handling such items;

File CS@ III
rk

Classifies and indexes file material such as cor­
respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with the
files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

c.

Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording
and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail
in the mail room;

d.

Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated
buildings or points which are not part of an estab­
lished route; or

e.

Directing other workers.

KEY EWTRY OPERATOR

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating
an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of
transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equip­
ment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
K®y Entry Operator S

Work is routine and repetitive: Under close supervi­
sion or following specific procedures or detailed in­
structions, works from various standardized source
documents which have been coded and require little or
no selecting, coding, or intepreting of data to be
entered. Refers to supervisor problems arising from er­
roneous items, codes, or missing information.
Key Entry Operator II

Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to
be entered from a variety of source documents. On oc­
casion may also perform some routine work as describ­
ed for level I.

PERSONNEL CLERK/ASSSSTANT
(ESV1PLOYSV1EMT)

Personnel clerks/assistants (employment) provide
clerical and technical support to personnel professionals
or managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and termination of
com pany em ployees. At the lower levels,
clerks/assistants primarily provide basic information to
current and prospective employees, maintain personnel
records and information listings, and prepare and proc­
ess papers on personnel actions (hires, transfers,
changes in pay, etc.). At the higher levels,
clerks/assistants (often titled personnel assistants or
specialists) may perform limited aspects of a personnel
professional’s work, e.g., interviewing candidates,
recommending placements, and preparing personnel
reports. Final decisions on personnel actions are made
by personnel professionals or managers. Some
clerks/assistants may perform a limited amount of work
in other specialities, such as benefits, compensation, or
employee relations. Typing may be required at any
level.
Excluded are:
a.

Workers who primarily compute and process pay­
rolls or compute and/or respond to questions on
company benefits or retirement claims;

b.

key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive ac­
tions, or to make entries requiring a similar level of
knowledge.

Workers who receive additional pay primarily for
maintaining and safeguarding personnel record files
for a company;

c.

Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of
the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such
as receptionists, messengers, typists, or steno­
graphers;

flESSENQER

d.

Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree;
and

NOTE: Excluded are operators above level II using the

Performs various routine duties such as run­



68

e.

Workers who are primarily compensated for duties
outside the employment specialty, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions. The work described is essentially
at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and prog­
resses to a staff assistant or technician level. At level
III, which is transitional, both types of work are
described. Jobs which match either type of work
described at level III, or which are combinations of the
two can be matched.

Personnel Clsrk/Assistaint (Employment) U
S
Type A
Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the most complicated types of personnel actions, e.g.,
temporary employment, rehires, and dismissals and in
providing information when it is necessary to con­
solidate data from a number of sources, often with
short deadlines. Screens applications for obvious rejec­
tions. Resolves conflicts in computer listings or other
sources of employee information. Locates lost
documents or reconstructs information using a number
of sources. May check references of applicants when in­
formation in addition to dates and places of past work is
needed, and judgment is required to ask appropriate
routine follow-up questions. May provide guidance to
lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar to level
II.

Personnel Cterk/Assistamt (Employment) f
l
Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of
company personnel procedures and rules, such as: Pro­
viding simple employment information and appropriate
lists and forms to applicants or employees on types of
jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to ob­
tain additional information; ensuring that the proper
company forms are completed for name changes,
locator information, applications, etc., and reviewing
completed forms for signatures and proper entries; or
maintaining assigned segments of company personnel
records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any
missing items, and posting the items, such as, dates of
promotion, transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or per­
sonal data. (If this information is computerized, skill in
coding or entering information may be needed as a
minor duty.) May answer outside inquiries for simple
factual information, such as verification of dates of
employment in response to telephone credit checks on
employees. Some receptionist or other clerical duties
may be performed. May be assigned work to provide
training for a higher level position.
Detailed company rules and procedures are available
for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and
assistance on unusual questions are available at all
times. Work is spot checked, often on a daily basis.

AND /O R
Typ® i
Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to com­
pany programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance,
and leave policies; computing basic statistical informa­
tion for reports on manpower profiles, e e o progress
and accomplishments, hiring activities, attendance and
leave profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants
for well defined positions, rejecting those who do not
qualify for available openings for clear cut reasons,
referring others to appropriate employment interviewer.
Guidance is provided on possible sources of informa­
tion, methods of work, and types of reports needed.
Completed written work receives close technical review
from higher level personnel office employees; other
work may be checked occasionally.

Parson in ! Clsrk/Assistant (Employmant) 1
©
1
Examines and/or processes personnel action
documents using experience in applying company per­
sonnel procedures and policies. Ensures that all infor­
mation is complete and consistent and determines
whether further discussion with applicants or employees
is needed or whether personnel information must be
checked against additional files or listings. Must select
the most appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure as a
basis for the personnel action from a number of alter­
natives. Responds to varied questions from applicants,
employees, or managers for readily available informa­
tion which can be obtained from file material or
manuals; responses require skill to secure cooperation in
correcting improperly completed personnel action
documents or to explain regulations and procedures.
May provide information to managers on availability of



applicants and status of hiring actions; may verify
employment dates and places supplied on job applica­
tions; may maintain assigned personnel records; may
administer typing and stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently.
Detailed guidance is available for situations which
deviate from established precedents. Clerks/assistants
are relied upon to alert higher level clerks/assistants or
supervisor to such situations. Work may be spot check­
ed periodically.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) 8¥
Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge of personnel
procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references
and recommends placement of applicants in a few welldefined occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable
organization or unit; conducts post-placement or exit
69

interviews to identify job adjustment problems or
reasons for leaving the company; performs routine
statistical analyses related to manpower, e e o , hiring, or
other employment concerns, e.g., compares one set of
data to another set as instructed; and requisitions ap­
plicants through employment agencies for clerical or
similar level jobs. At this level assistants typically have a
range of personal contacts within and outside the com­
pany and with applicants, and must be tactful and ar­
ticulate. May perform some clerical work in addition to
the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed work
against stated objectives.

of company purchasing procedures and operations and
experience in applying company regulations, guidelines,
or manuals to specific transactions. Assistants may type
the purchasing documents they prepare or may perform
work described at lower levels, as needed. Final deci­
sions on purchasing transactions are made by buyers or
contract specialists.
Excluded are:
a.

Purchasing clerks or assistants, typists, file clerks,
secretaries, receptionists, and trainees, who do not
examine purchase requisitions or other documents to
assure accuracy, completeness and correct process­
ing; workers in these excluded positions may prepare
and type the final purchase order, entering such pre­
scribed items as quantities, model numbers, ad­
dresses, or prices, after a higher level employee
screens the requisition and assures the purchase order
data are complete and accurate.

b.

Workers who process or expedite the purchase of
items for direct sale either wholesale or retail;

c.

Workers who as a primary duty: Maintain a filing
system or listing to monitor inventory levels; reorder
items by phone under ongoing contracts; or receive
and disburse supplies and materials for use in the
company;

d.

Production expediters or controllers who primarily
ensure the timely arrival and coordination of
purchased materials with assembly line or production
schedules and requirements;

e.

Purchasing expediters who only check on the status
of purchases already made and who do not analyze
the facts at hand and do not make recommendations
for either extension of delivery dates or for other
similar modifications to the purchase agreement, as
described at level II. b,

f.

Positions which require a technical knowledge of
equipment characteristics and parts, production
control, or manufacturing methods and procedures;

g.

Positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and

h.

Buyers.

Personnel Clerk/Asslstant (Employment) ¥

Workers at this level perform duties similar to level
IV , but are responsible for more complicated cases and

work with greater independence. Performs limited
aspects of professional personnel work dealing with a
variety of occupations common to the company which
are clear-cut and stable in employment requirements.
Typical duties include: Researching recruitment
sources, such as employment agencies or State man­
power offices, and advising managers on the availability
of candidates in common occupations; screening and
selecting employees for a few routine, nonpermanent
jobs, such as summer employment; or answering in­
quiries on a controversial issue, such as a hiring or pro­
motion freeze. These duties often require considerable
skill and diplomacy in communications. Other typical
duties may include: Surveying managers for future hir­
ing requirements; developing newspaper vacancy an­
nouncements or explaining job requirements to employ­
ment agencies for administrative or professional posi­
tions; or reviewing the effect of corporate personnel
procedural changes on local employment programs
(e.g., automation of records, new affirmative action
goals). May incidentally perform some clerical duties.
Supervisory review is similar to level IV.6
PURCHASING ASSISTANT

Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase
goods, materials, equipment, services, etc. Assistants at
level I examine requisitions and purchase documents,
such as purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts,
and supporting papers; they review, verify, prepare, or
control the documents to assure accuracy, com­
pleteness, and correct processing. Assistants at levels II
and III may also expedite purchases already made, by
contacting vendors and analyzing and reporting on sup­
plier problems related to delivery, availability of goods,
or any other part of the purchase agreement. Assistants
at level III may also develop technical information for
buyers, e.g., comparative information on materials
sought. All assignments require a practical knowledge



Positions are classified into levels based on the follow­
ing definitions according to the complexity of the work,
the conditions of the purchase, and the amount of
supervision.
Purchasing Assistant 1

According to detailed procedures or company regula­
tions, examines documents such as requisitions, pur­
chase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and support­
ing papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to deter­
mine whether the correct item description, price, quanti­
ty, discount terms, shipping instructions, and/or
delivery terms have been included and selects the ap­
propriate purchase phrases and forms from prescribed
company lists or files. Obtains any missing or corrected
6
Insufficient data were obtined for level V to warrant presentation of average
salaries.

70

information, prepares the purchase order, and gives it
to the buyer for approval when satisfied that the infor­
mation is complete and the computations are accurate.
Contacts are usually within the establishment to verify
or correct factual information. May contact vendors for
information about purchases already made and may
reorder items under routine and existing purchase ar­
rangements where few, if any, questions arise. Receives
detailed instructions on new assignments. Refers ques­
tions to supervisor who may spot check work on a daily
basis.
Assistants at this level examine documents for order
of standard goods, supplies, equipment or services,
and/or for order of specialized items when the complex­
ity of the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e.,
the assistant is not required to use considerable judg­
ment to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline,
as described at level II, a.

company buyers and with suppliers outside the com­
pany and keep others informed of the progress of tran­
sactions. Major changes in company regulations and
procedures are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual
situations to supervisor who also spot checks all com­
pleted work for adequacy.
.Pyrehasimg Assistant Bi
D

Assistants at this level have a good understanding of
purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to
buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers
negotiate and make purchases. They perform
assignments described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a
combination of any of these. l
a.

Pyrehasing Assistant S
i

Assistants at this level perform assignments described
in paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two.
a.

b.

Reviews and prepares purchase documents for spe­
cialized items, such as items with optional features or
technical equipment requiring precise specifications.
Since the transactions usually require special pur­
chasing conditions, e.g., multiple deliveries, provi­
sion of spare parts, or renegotiation of terms, con­
siderable judgment is needed to find a previous trans­
action to use as a guideline; as required, adapts
the phrases or clauses in.the guideline transaction
that apply to the purchase at hand. In some cases,
reviews purchasing documents prepared by lower
level clerks or prepared by personnel in other com­
pany units to detect processing discrepancies or to
clarify the purchase papers; corrects clerical errors.
May advise company employees on how to prepare
requisitions for items to be ordered.
Expedites purchases by making a recommendation
fo r action based on simple analysis of the facts at
hand, company guidelines, and the background of
the purchase: Contacts suppliers to obtain informa­
tion on deliveries or on contracts; based on clearcut guidelines for each type of purchase and previous
performance of supplier, availability of item, or
impact of delay, recommends extension of delivery
date or other similar modifications. In some cases,
decides to refer problems to production, packaging,
or other company specialists. May reorder standard
items under a variety of existing purchase agreements
where judgment is needed to ask further questions
and follow-up and coordinate transactions. Assist­
ants at this level expedite purchases of standard
goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or pur­
chases of specialized items when the complexity of
the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the
assistant does not coordinate requests for minor
deviations from contract specifications, etc., as
described at level III, b.

Assistants at this level coordinate information with



71

b.

c.

Reviews and prepares purchase documents for highly
specialized items where few precedent transactions
exist that can be used as guidelines and where provi­
sions such as fixed-price contracts with provisions for
escalation, price redetermination, or cost incentives
are needed. Complicated provisions for progress
payments, for testing and evaluating the ordered
item, or for meeting company production schedules
may also exist. As necessary, drafts special clauses,
terms, or requirements for unusual purchases. Pro­
vides authoritative information to others on com­
pany purchase procedures and assures that
documents and transactions agree with basic pro­
curement policies.
Expedites purchases of specialized items (see level II,
b.) when the complexity of the items does affect the
assistant’s work. Investigates supplier problems and
coordinates requests for minor deviations from the
contract specifications with specialists, buyers, sup­
pliers, and users. Recommends revisions to the con­
tract or purchase agreement, if needed, based upon
company requirements. May reorder technical and
specialized items within existing purchase contracts
which contain special purchasing conditions. Ques­
tions which arise are handled similarly to those in
level II, b.
Furnishes technical support to buyers or contract
specialists, using a detailed knowledge of company
purchasing transactions and procedures, e.g., ana­
lyzes bids for contracts to determine the possible
number and interest of bidders for standard com­
modities and services; assembles contracts and drafts
special clauses, terms, or requirements for unprece­
dented purchases, e.g., for specially designed equip­
ment or for complex one-time transactions; gathers
and summarizes information on the availability of
special equipment and the ability of suppliers to
meet company needs.

Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurement policies. Assistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected
to propose solutions for supervisory approval. Super­
visory review is similar to level II; drafts of special
clauses, etc., are reviewed in detail.
NOTE:

Excluded are higher level workers who:

Negotiate agreements with contractors on minor levels below best describing the organization of the
changes in the terms of an established contract; or secretary’s supervisor.
analyze and make recommendations about proposals of
specialized equipment, about the solvency and per­
LS-1 Organizational structure is not complex and
formance of firms, or about clerical processing methods
internal procedures and administrative controls
needed to fit new purchasing policies.
are simple and informal; supervisor directs
staff through face-to-face meetings.
SECRETARY
LS-2 Organizational structure is complex and is
Provides principal secretarial support in an office,
divided into subordinate groups that usually
usually to one individual, and, in some cases, also to the
differ from each other as to subject-matter,
subordinate staff of that individual. Maintains a close
function, etc.; supervisor usually directs staff
and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day ac­
through intermediate supervisors; internal pro­
tivities of the supervisor and staff. Works fairly in­
cedures and administrative controls are formal.
dependently receiving a minimum of detailed supervi­
An entire organization (e.g., division, sub­
sion and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
sidiary, or parent organization) may contain a
secretarial duties requiring a knowledge of office
variety of subordinate groups which meet the
routine and an understanding of the organization, pro­
LS-2 definition. Therefore, it is not unusual for
grams, and procedures related to the work of the office.
one LS-2 supervisor to report to another LS-2
Exclusions. Not all positions titled “ secretary”
supervisor.
possess the above characteristics. Examples of positions
The presence of subordinate supervisors does
which are excluded from the definition are as follows.
not by itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical
a.

b.

Stenographers
duties;

c.

Stenographers or secretaries assigned to two or
more professional, technical, or managerial persons
of equivalent rank;

d.

Assistants or secretaries performing any kind of
technical work, e.g., personnel, accounting or legal
work;

e.

Administrative assistants or supervisors performing
duties which are more difficult or more responsible
than the secretarial work described in LR-1 through
LR-4;

f.

Secretaries receiving additional pay primarily for
maintaining confidentiality of payroll records or
other sensitive information;

g.

Secretaries performing routine receptionist, typing,
and filing duties following detailed instructions and
guidelines; these duties are less responsible than those
described in LR-1 below;

h.

processing organization divided into several
units, each performing very similar work, is
placed in LS-1.
In smaller organizations or industries such as
retail trade, with relatively few organizational
levels, the supervisor may have an impact on
the policies and may deal with important out
side contracts, as described in LS-3.

Clerks or secretaries working under the direction of
secretaries or administrative assistants as described
in e;

Trainees.

not

fully

performing

secretarial

LS-3 Organizational structure is divided into two or
more subordinate supervisory levels (of which
at least one is a managerial level) with several
subdivisions at each level. Executive’s
program(s) are usually interlocked on a direct
and continuing basis with other major
organizational segments, requiring constant at­
tention to extensive formal coordination,
clearances, and procedural controls. Executive
typically has: Financial decision-making au­
thority for assigned program(s); considerable
impact on the entire organization’s financial
position or image; and responsibility for, or has
staff specialists in, such areas as personnel and
administration for assigned organization. Ex­
ecutive plays an important role in determining
the policies and major programs of the entire
organization, and spends considerable time
dealing with outside parties actively interested
in assigned program(s) and current or con­
troversial issues.

OisisSfieati©n iby Level

Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of five levels according to two fac­
tors (a) level of the secretary’s supervisor within the
overall organizational structure, and (b) level of the
secretary’s responsibility. The table following the ex­
planations of these factors indicates the level of the
secretary for each combination of factors.

LEVEL OF SECRETARY’S RESPONSIBILITY (LR)

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relation­
ship between the secretary and the supervisor or staff,
Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS and the extent to which the secretary is expected to exer-

liW E l ©F SECRETARY’S SUPERVISOR (IS)




72

cise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be
matched at the level best describing their level of respon­
sibility. When a position’s duties span more than one
LR level, the introductory paragraph at the beginning of
each LR level should be used to determine which of the
levels best matches the position. (Typically, secretaries
performing at the higher levels of responsibility also
perform duties described at the lower levels.)

d.

Collects information from the files or staff for
routine inquiries on office program(s) or periodic
reports. Refers non-routine requests to supervisor or
staff.

e.

Explains to subordinate staff supervisor’s re­
quirements concerning office procedures. Coordi
nates personnel and administrative forms for the of­
fice and forwards for processing.

LR-3Uses greater judgment and initiative to deter­
mine the approach or action to take in non­
routine situations. Interprets and adapts
guidelines, including unwritten policies,
precedents, and practices, which are not always
completely applicable to changing situations.
Duties include or are comparable to the follow­
ing:

LR-1 Carries out recurring office procedures
independently. Selects the guideline or
reference which fits the specific case. Super­
visor provides specific instructions on new
assignments and checks completed work for ac­
curacy. Performs varied duties including or
comparable to the following:

a.

Based on a knowledge of the supervisor’s views,
composes correspondence on own initiative about
administrative matters and general office policies for
supervisor’s approval.

b.

Anticipates and prepares materials needed by the
supervisor for conferences, correspondence,
appointments, meetings, telephone calls, etc., and in­
forms supervisor on matters to be considered.

Reviews materials prepared for supervisor’s ap­
proval for typographical accuracy and proper
format.

c.

Reads publications, regulations, and directives and
takes action or refers those that are important to the
supervisor and staff.

d.

Maintains recurring internal reports, such as:
Time and leave records, office equipment listings,
correspondence controls, training plans, etc.

d.

e.

Requisitions supplies, printing, maintenance, or
other services. Types, takes and transcribes dicta­
tion, and establishes and maintains office files.

Prepares special or one-time reports, summaries, or
replies to inquiries, selecting relevant information
from a variety of sources such as reports, documents,
correspondence, other offices, etc. under general
direction.

e.

Advises secretaries in subordinate offices on new
procedures; requests information needed from the
subordinate office(s) for periodic or special confer­
ences, reports, inquires, etc. Shifts clerical staff to
accommodate workload needs.

a.

Responds to routine telephone requests which have
standard answers; refers calls and visitors to ap­
propriate staff. Controls mail and assures timely
staff response; may send form letters.

b.

As instructed, maintains supervisor’s calendar,
makes appointments, and arranges for meeting
rooms.

c.

LR-2 Handles differing situations, problems, and
deviations in the work of the office according
to the supervisor’s general instructions, pri­
orities, duties, policies, and program goals.
Supervisor may assist secretary with special
assignments. Duties include or are comparable
to the following:
a.

b.

c.

LR-4 Handles a wide variety of situations and con­
flicts involving the clerical or administrative
functions of the office which often cannot be
brought to the attention of the executive. The
executive sets the overall objectives of the
work. Secretary may participate in developing
the work deadlines. Duties include or are com­
parable to the following:

Screens telephone calls, visitors, and incoming
correspondence; personally responds to re­
quests for information concerning office pro­
cedures; determines which requests should be handl­
ed by the supervisor, appropriate staff members, or
other offices. May prepare and sign routine,
nontechnical correspondence in own or supervisor’s
name.

a.

b.

Reviews outgoing materials and correspondence for
internal consistency and conformance with super­
visors’s procedures; assures that proper clearances
have been obtained, when needed.




73

Notes commitments made by executive during
meetings and arranges for staff implementation. On
own initiative, arranges for staff member to repre­
sent organization at conferences and meetings,
establishes appointment priorities, or reschedules or
refuses appointments or invitations.

c.

Schedules tentative appointments without prior
clearance. Makes arrangements for conferences
and meetings and assembles established back­
ground m aterials, as directed. May attend
meetings and record and report on the proceedings.

Composes correspondence requiring some under­
standing of technical matters; may sign for execu­
tive when technical or policy content has been
authorized.

Reads outgoing correspondence for executive’s
approval and alerts writers to any conflict with the

file or departure from policies or executive’s view­
points; gives advice to resolve the problems.
Summarizes the content of incoming materials, spe­
cially gathered information, or meetings to assist
executive; coordinates the new information with
background office sources; draws attention to impor­
tant parts or conflicts.

e.

In the executive’s absence, ensures that requests for
action or information are relayed to the appropriate
staff member; as needed, interprets request and helps
implement action; makes sure that information is
furnished in timely manner; decides whether ex­
ecutive should be notified of important or emergency
matters.

Excludes secretaries performing any of the following
duties:
Acts as office manager for the executive’s organi­
zation, e.g., determines when new procedures are needed
for changing situations and devises and implements
alternatives; revises or clarifies procedures to eliminate
conflict or duplication; identifies and resolves various
problems that affect the orderly flow of work in trans­
actions with parties outside the organization.

Stenographers who take dictation involving the
frequent use of a wide variety of technical or
specialized vocabulary. Typically this kind of
vocabulary cannot be learned in a relatively short
period of time, e.g., a month or two.
Stenographers, such as shorthand reporters, who
record material verbatim at hearings, conferences, or
similar proceedings.

Stenographer 1

Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignments along with detailed instructions on such re­
quirements as forms and presentation. The transcribed
material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the
final transcription is reviewed for conformance with the
rough drafts. May maintain files, keep simple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.
Stenographer 1
1

Takes and transcribes dictation determining the most
appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties re­
quiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro­
vides general instructions. Work requires a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedures and of the specific business operations,
organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow,
etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic
duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining
followup files; assembling material for reports,
memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incoming
mail; answering routine questions; etc.

Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discussion
topics to participants; drafts introductions and develops
background information and prepares outlines for execu­
tive or staff member(s) to use in writing speeches;
Advises individuals outside the organization on the
executive’s views on major policies or current issues fac­
ing the organization; contacts or responds to contacts
from high-ranking outside officials (e.g., city or State of­
ficials, Members of Congress, presidents of national
unions or large national or international firms, etc.) in
unique situations. These officials may be relatively inac­
cessible, and each contact typically must be handled dif­
ferently, using judgment and discretion.

TYPIST

Table C-4. Criteria for matching secretaries by level

Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to
type various materials. Included are automatic
typewriters that are used only to record text and update
and reproduce previously typed items from magnetic
cards or tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May
do clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.
Excluded from this definition is work that involves;

Level of secretary’s responsibility
LR-1

LR-2

LR-3

LR-4

*l
*l
*l

II
III
IV

III
IV
V

IV
V
V

LS-1
LS-2
LS-3

c.

d.

d.

Level of
secretary’s
supervisor

in the secretary definition.

* Regardless of LS level.

STENOGRAPHER

a.

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand,
and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from writ­
ten copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May
occasionally transcribe from voice recordings.
Excluded from this definition are:

Typing directly from spoken material that has
been recorded on discs, cylinders, belts, tapes,
or other similar media;

b.

The use of varitype m achines, com posing
equipment, or automatic equipment in prepar­
ing material for printing; and

c.

Fam iliarity with specialized term inology in
various keyboard commands to manipulate or
edit the recorded text to accomplish revisions,
or to perform tasks such as extracting and list­
ing items from the text, or transmitting text
to other terminals, or using sort commands to

a.

Trainee positions not requiring a fully qualified
stenographer.

b.

Secretaries providing the principal secretarial support
in an office and performing more responsible and
discretionary tasks, as described in LR-1 thru LR-4




74

have the machine reorder material. Typically
requires the use of automatic equipment which
may be either computer linked or have a
programmable memory so that material can be
organized in regularly used formats or per­
formed paragaphs which can then be coded and
stored for future use in letters or documents.

Typist S

Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying more complex tables already
setup and spaced properly.
Typist S
I

Performs one or more o f the following: Typing
material in final form when it involves combining
material from several sources; or responsibility for cor­
rect spelling; syllabification, punctuation, etc, of
technical or unusual words or foreign language




75

materials; or planning layout and typing of complicated
statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details
to suit circumstances.
NOTE: The occupational titles1 and definitions for
accounting clerks, drafters, file clerks, key entry
operators, stenographers, and typists are the same as
those used in the Bureau’s program of occupational
wage surveys in metropolitan areas.
Revised definitions for stenographer and typist
were introduced into the area surveys in calendar year
1981; the 4-level accounting clerk in 1980; and the
5-level drafter in 1979. Three years are required to
bring a new job definition into all areas covered by
the program.
1 Before 1981, level designations differed between the area
and national surveys. See National Survey o f Professional,
Administrative, Technical and Clerical Pay, March 1980,
Bulletin 2081 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1980), page 68, for
details.

The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes next to the b l s
occupations in table C-l are taken from the 1980 edition
of the Standard Occupational Classification Manual
(soc), issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce,
Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards.
In general, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupa­
tional descriptions are much more specific thanjhose
found in the soc manual. For example, the p a t c oc­

cupations Accountant, Auditor, Chief Accountant,
and Public Accountant are all classified in the soc
manual as accountants and auditors. The soc occupa­
tion (code 1412) includes a variety of accounting oc­
cupations (e.g. budget accountants, credit analysts, ac­
counting methods analysts) that are excluded from the.
p a t c description.

Table C-1. Comparison of occupations in the professional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC) survey with the
Standard Occupational Classification Manual
PATC occupation

Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC)
SOC
C ode

T itle

..........
..........
..........
..........

1412
1412
1412
1412

Job a n a ly s ts ........................................................................... ..........
Directors of personnel........................................................... ..........
Attorneys................................................................................. ..........

143
143
211

B u y e rs ..................................................................................... ..........
Programmers/programmer analysts..................................... ..........

1449
397
1712

Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified
Programmers
Computer systems analysts

C h e m ists................................................................................. ..........
Engineers ............................................................................... ..........

1845
162-3

Chemists, except biochemists
Engineers

Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ....................................................... ..........

371

D ra fte rs ................................................................................... ..........
Computer operators............................................................... ..........
Photographers....................................................................... ..........

372
4612
326

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and
technicians
Drafting occupations
Computer operators
Photographers

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

4712
4696
4793
4745
4692
4664
4622
4623
4624

Bookkeepers and accounting and auditing clerks
File clerks
Data entry operators
Messengers
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping
Order clerks
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists

A cco u n ta n ts...........................................................................
Chief a c c o u n ta n ts .................................................................
A u d ito rs...................................................................................
Public accountants ...............................................................

Accounting clerks .................................................................
File c le rk s ...............................................................................
Key entry o p e ra to rs ...............................................................
Messengers.............................................................................
Personnel c le rks/a ssista n ts.................................................
Purchasing a ssista n ts...........................................................
S e c re ta rie s.............. ..............................................................
Stenographers .......................................................................
T y p is ts .....................................................................................




76

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants

and
and
and
and

auditors
auditors
auditors
auditors

Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Lawyers

Appendix D„ C@mparos@n @
ff
Salaries in Private Industry
with Salaries of Federal
Emptefees under the ©enerai
Schedule

The survey was designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure
collection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the
General Schedule grade levels, the Office of Personnel
Management (OPM), in cooperation with the Bureau of




Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational work level
definitions used in the survey. Definitions were graded by
OPM according to standards established for each grade
level. Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work
levels equivalent to General Schedule grade levels.

77

Tafelle D-1. ©smpariooin! off swarag© annual salaries Ss private flndliuisSiry with eatery rates ter Federal employees
ir
ysndl©r fifoe Gsresral S©lh@
dyl©
i'.
Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19823

salary
in private
Grade4

Step®

Average5
March 1982

March 1982

1

2

3

File clerks I ............................................................
Messengers ..........................................................

$8,440

$8,342 J

$8,620 j

$8,898 j

10,478
11,739
10,474
11,771
10,893

GS 2

9,587

9,381

9,603

Accounting clerks II ...........................................
Drafters II .............................................................
Engineering technicians I ..................................
File clerks III ........................................................
Key entry operators II .........................................
Personnel clerks/assistants I ............................
Stenographers I ..................................................
Typists II ...............................................................

oc

GS 1

Accounting clerks I .............................................
Drafters I ...............................................................
File clerks II ..........................................................
Key entry operators I .........................................
Typists I .................................................................

-Nj

$9,018i
9,999

12,488
14,257
14,688
12,794
13,956
11,706
14,867
13,723

GS 3

10,915,

10,235

10,576 !

Accounting clerks III ...........................................
Computer operators I .........................................
Drafters III ...........................................................
Engineering technicians I I ..................................
Personnel clerks/assistants II ............................
Purchasing assistants I ........................................
Secretaries I ..........................................................
Stenographers II ..................................................

14,713
11,896
17,046
17,246
14,122
13,589
14,000
18,094

GS 4

12,739

11,490

Accounting clerks IV ...........................................
Accountants I ......................................................
Auditors I .............................................................
Buyers I .................................................................
Chemists I ............................................................|
Computer operators II .......................................
Drafters IV ...........................................................
Engineers I ...........................................................
Engineering technicans I I I ..................................
Job analysts I ...............i .....................................
Personnel clerks/assistants III ..........................
Photographers I I ..................................................
Purchasing assistants II .....................................
Secretaries II ........................................................
Programmers/Programmer analysts I ..............

18,083
18,260
17,901
18,074
19,640
13,895
20,964
23,622
20,219 |
18,573
15,718
18,773
17,117
14,939
17,535

GS 5

14,539

12,854

Computer operators III ....................................... i
Personnel clerks/assistants IV ...................... ..
Purchasing assistants III ...................................
Secretaries III ......................................................

15,804
18,432
22,276
17,051

GS 6

16,442

14,328

.

See footnotes at end of table.




4

9

10

$10,178

$10,439

11,201

11,504

11,807

12,281

12,622

12,963

13,304

13,405

13,788

14,171

14,554

14,937

14,566

14,994

15,422

15,850

16,278

•16,706

16,240

16,718

17,196

17,674

18,152

18,630

5

6

7

8

$9,175 j
|

$9,453]

$9,6151

$9,890 V $10,165

9,913

10,718

10,292

10,595

10,898

10,917

11,258

11,599

11,940

11,873

12,256

12,639

13,022

13,282

13,710

14,138

15,284

15,762

I

\

14,806

l

Tabs© D-1. Coir8iilray©d"Comparls©irii off average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates tor Federal
employees under the General Schedule

Accountants II .....................................................
Auditors I I .............................................................
Buyers II ...............................................................
Chemists II ...........................................................
Computer operators IV .......................................
Drafters V ......... ..................................................
Engineers II .........................................................
Engineering technicans I V .................................
Job analysts II ......................................................
Photographers III ................................................
Public accountants I ..........................................
Secretaries IV .....................................................
Programmers/Programmer analysts II ............

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2
March 1982
$22,068
22,065
22,174
23,474
19,325
25,909
26,060
23,620
19,900
22,425
17,266
18,603
20,629

Computer operators V .......................................
Secretaries V .......................................................

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule March 19823
Step8

Average5
Grade4
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

GS 7

$18,007

$15,922

$16,453

$16,984

i$17,515

$18,046

$18,577

$19,108

$19,639

$20,170

$20,701

22,889
21,546

GS 8

20,463

17,634

18,222

18,810

19,398

19,986

20,574

21,162

21,750

22,338

22,926

Accountants III ....................................................
Attorneys I ...........................................................
Auditors III ...........................................................
Buyers III .............................................................
Chemists III ........................................................
Computer operator V I .........................................
Engineers I I I .............................. ...........................
Engineering technicians V .................................
Job analysts III ....................................................
Photographers IV ................................................
Public accountants II .........................................
Programmers/Programmer analysts I I I ............

25,673
25,162
26,502
27,424
28,016
23,267
29,311
26,761
25,028
25,392
19,177
25,192

GS 9

21,811

19,477

20,126

20,775

21,424

22,073

22,722

23,371

24,020

24,669

25,318

Accountants IV ....................................................
Attorneys I I ...........................................................
Auditors IV ...........................................................
Buyers IV .............................................................
Chemists IV .........................................................
Chief accountants I ............................................
Directors of personnel I .....................................
Engineers I V .........................................................
Job analysts IV ....................................................
Public accountants III .........................................
Programmers/Programmer analysts I V ............

31,658
31,696
32,004
33,409
34,047
34,506
31,136
34,443
31,221
22,830
29,365

GS 11

26,594

23,566

24,352

25,138

25,924

26,710

27,496

28,282

29,068

29,854

30,640

Accountants V .....................................................
Attorneys III .........................................................
Chemists V ...........................................................
Chief accountants II ..........................................
Directors of personnel II ...................................
Engineers V .........................................................
Public accountants IV ........................................
Programmers/Programmer analysts V ............

38,680
39,649
40,207
39,708
38,168
40,677
27,286
35,430

GS 12

32,065

28,245

29,187

30,129

31,071

32,013

32,955

33,897

34,839

35,781

36,723

See footnotes at end of table.




Tablle D-1. C ortlnyedl— Com parison oil average annual salaries In private Indostry with salary rates tor Federal
em ployees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Accountants VI ....................................................
Attorneys IV .........................................................
Chemists VI ..........................................................
Chief accountants I I I ...........................................
Directors of personnel III ...................................
Engineers V I .........................................................
Attorneys V ...........................................................
Chemists V I I .........................................................
Chief accountants I V ........................ ..................
Directors of personnel I V ...................................
Engineers VII ........................................................

o

76,202
62,494

Step6

Grade4

Average5
March 1982
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

GS 13

$38,571

$33,586

$34,706

$35,826

$36,946

$38,066

$39,186

$40,306

$41,426

$42,546

$43,666

GS 14

45,713

39,689

41,102

42,335

43,658

44,981

46,304

47,627

48,950

50,273

51,596

GS 157

61,579
53,658
61,255
57,859
54,338

Attorneys VI .........................................................
Engineers VIII ......................................................

00

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19823

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2
March 1982
$48,549
49,818
46,971
50,414
47,553
47,442

53,513

46,685

48,241

49,797

51,353

52,909

54,465

56,021

57,577

59,133

60,689

.

1For definitions, see appendix C.
2Survey findings, as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope of survey, see appendix A.
3
General Schedule rates in effect in March 1982, the reference date of the PATC survey!
“Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the Office of Personnel
Management.
_
____
5Mean salary of all General"Schedule employees in each grade as of Mar. 31,1982. Not limited to
Federal employees in occupations surveyed by BLS.
6Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for within-grade increases on condition that the

*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1982 0-361-270/3961




10

employee’s work is of an acceptable level of competence as defined by the head of the agency. For
employees who meet this condition, the service requirements are 52 calendar weeks each for
advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks each for advancement to salary rates 5,6, and 7;
and 156 weeks each for advancement to salary rates 8,9,10. Section 5336 provides that an additional
within-grade increase may be granted within any period of 52 weeks in recognition of high quality
performance above that ordinarily found in the type of position concerned.
7The rate of payforem ployeesat some steps is limited by section 5308 of title 5 of the U.S. Codeto
the rate of level V of the Executive Schedule, $57,500.

Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code,.higher minimum rates (but not exceeding the
maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level) and a
corresponding new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under certain
conditions. The conditions include a finding that the Government’s recruitment or retention of
well qualified persons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are
substantially aboveJhe salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1982, special,
higher salary ranges were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and
GS-7), and at GS-9 and GS-11. In addition, special rates were authorized for mining engineers at
GS-5 through GS-13 and for petroleum engineers at GS-5 through GS-14. Information on
special salary rates, including the occupations and the areas to which they apply, may be ob­
tained from the Office of Personnel Management, Washington, D.C. 20415, or its regional offices.

• ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1982

0 - 3 6 1 - 2 7 0 (4 9 6 1 )

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