View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L,

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Tfaehnicai,, and Clerical Pays
March 1981
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1981
Bulletin 2108




/n
^ A
✓ O tp

A

idafcnai Syr¥@f ©f
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,

March 1981
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1981
Bulletin 2108




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $4.75




Preface

should be emphasized that this survey, like any other
salary survey, does not provide mechanical answers to
pay policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. The occupations selected were
judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the
framework of a broad survey design, (b) representative of
occupational groups which are numerically important in
industry as well as in the Federal Service, and (c)
essentially of the same nature in both the Federal and
private sectors.
Occupational definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private
industry; however, they are also designed to be
translatable to specific General Schedule (GS) grades
applying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of
some occupations and work levels were limited to specific
elements that could be classified uniformly among
establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the
Office of Personnel Management worked jointly to
prepare the definitions.
The survey could not have been conducted without the
cooperation of the many firms whose salary data provide
the basis for the statistical information in this bulletin.
The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of the other
Federal agencies that contributed to survey planning,
wishes, to express appreciation for the cooperation it has
received.
This survey was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of
Occupational Wage Structures. Philip M. Doyle
prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Computer
programming and tabulation of data were developed by
Kay A. Wyllie under the direction of Richard W.
Maylott, Office of Statistical Operations. Terry Burdette
and Alan Tupek, of the Office of Survey Design, were
immediately responsible for the sampling design and
other statistical procedures. Fieldwork and data
collection for the survey were directed by the Bureau’s
Assistant Regional Commissioners for Operations.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and
may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced without
permission.

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, adminis­
trative, technical, and clerical occupations in private
industry. The nationwide salary information, relating to
March 1981,. is representative of establishments in a
broad spectrum of industries throughout the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
Although only nationwide salary data are presented in
this bulletin, salary data for clerical occupations and for
two technical jobs—computer operator and drafter—are
available for each metropolitan area in which the Bureau
conducts area wage surveys. These area reports also
include information on the incidence of employee benefits
such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, insurance,
and pension plans for nonsupervisory office workers.
In 1980, a survey of employee benefits in private
industry covered the same scope as the national survey of
professional, administrative, technical, and clerical pay.
The findings of the survey appear in Employee Benefits in
Industry, 1980, Bulletin 2107 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1981). Copies are for sale from the Government Printing
Office or the Bureau’s regional offices listed on the inside
back cover of this bulletin.
The results of the national white-collar salary survey
are used for a number of purposes, including general
economic analysis and wage and salary administration by
private and public employers. One important use is to
provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar salaries
under the provisions of the Federal Pay Comparability
Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has designated
the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the Office of
Management and Budget, and the Director of the Office
of Personnel Management to serve jointly as his agent to
establish pay for Federal white-collar employees.
The President’s agent is responsible for translating the
survey findings into recommendations to the President on
appropriate adjustments needed to make Federal pay
rates comparable with those of private enterprise for the
same levels of work. The agent also determines the
industrial, geographic, establishment size, and occupa­
tional coverage of the survey.
The role of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the
pay-setting process is limited to conducting the survey and
advising on the feasibility of proposed survey changes. It




iii




Contents

Page
Summary ................................................................................................... : .....................................
Characteristics of the su rv ey ...........................................................................................................
Employment .....................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary lev els..........................................................' ........................................................
Average salaries, March 1981 ..........................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan areas ................................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments ...................................................
Salary distributions .........................................................................................................................
Pay differences by in d u stry .............................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours .................................................................................

1
1
1
2
2
5
5
6
9
9

Text tables:
1. Occupational levels in which 5 percent or more of the incumbents were w o m en ---2. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1970-81 ......................................
3. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category, 1970-81 ........................
4. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion............................................

^
^
3
®

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States ...............................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan areas ......................................................................................................
3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or m o r e ..................................................

H
13
15

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations ..........................................................
5. Technical support occupations ..................................................................................
6. Clerical occupations ...............................................

17
24
26

7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division ....................................
8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division ................................................
9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division ..............................................

29
29
30

Charts:
1. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1981 ..................................
2. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1981
3. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division,
March 1981..........................................................................................................................
Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey ............................................................................................
B. Survey changes in 1981 ......................................................................................................
C. Occupational definitions / ..................................................................................................
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of
Federal employees under the General Schedule ........................................................




v

7
8
10

31
35
36
72




P r o fe s s io n a l, A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
T d o h in iie a i, a n d ! C le ir ie a l P a y ,

SHarelh 1SS1

Summary

permit comparisons of overall salary levels for
occupations, such as accountants and auditors.
The survey design does yield separate presentation of
data for metropolitan areas. These include the 276
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, as defined through
June 1977 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
Establishments in metropolitan areas employed slightly
more than four-fifths of all workers and nine-tenths of the
professional, administrative, clerical, and technical
employees within the scope of the survey. Similarly,
metropolitan areas accounted for nine-tenths of the
employees in occupations for which salary data were
developed. These occupations included more than
1,789,000 employees, or about one-sixth of the
professional, administrative, technical, and clerical
personnel in establishments covered by the survey.

Average salaries for most white-collar occupations
covered by this survey rose sharply during the year ended
March 1981.1 The 1980-81 occupational increases
typically fell in the 9- to 11-percent range compared with
annual averages of 7 to 8 percent over the 1975-80 period
and of 6 to 7 percent over the 1970-75 period.
Average monthly salaries for the 96 occupational levels
varied from $702 for clerks engaged in routine filing to
•$5,580 for the highest level in the attorney series. For most
of the occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for
all establishments within the full scope of the survey.
Salary levels and reported standard weekly hours in
finance industries were generally lower than in other
major industry divisions represented in the survey.

Characteristics of the survey

Employment

This survey, the 22nd in an annual series, provides
nationwide salary averages and distributions for 96 work
level categories covering 23 occupations. It relates to
establishments in all areas of the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, in the following industries: Mining;
construction; manufacturing; transportation, commun­
ications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
selected services. The minimum size of the establishments
surveyed is either 50,100, or 250 employees depending on
the industry.2
Occupational definitions in this study permit employees
to be classified by duties and responsibilities into
appropriate work levels—designated by Roman nu­
merals, with level “I” as the lowest. Specific job factors
determining classification, however, vary from occupa­
tion to occupation, as do levels of difficulty and
responsibility. Thus, Roman numeral designations do not
necessarily identify equivalent levels of work among
different occupations.3
The number of work levels in each occupation ranges
from one for messengers to eight for engineers. Most
occupations have more than one work level; some
occupations are defined, however, to cover specific bands
of levels which are not intended to represent all workers in
those occupations. Thus, the survey is not designed to



Occupational employment varied widely, reflecting not
only actual differences among occupations, but also
differences in the range of duties and responsibilities
covered by occupational definitions. Among professional
and administrative occupations, the eight levels of
engineers included 478,800 employees, whereas two other
occupational categories (chief accountants and job
analysts) each included fewer than 2,500 employees.
Accounting clerks and secretaries made up just over
three-fifths of the 785,800 employees in the clerical
occupations studied. Engineering technicians accounted
for slightly over two-fifths of the 267,000 employees in the
four technical support occupations studied; five levels
each of drafters and of computer operators made up onethird and one-fourth, respectively, of the technical
employment total. The newly surveyed occupation of
'Results of the March 1980 survey were presented in National Survey
o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March
1980, Bulletin 2081 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1980).
2 For a full description of the scope of the survey, see appendix A.
3 In the survey coding structure, the level designations among various
accounting jobs, for example, are not synonymous: Public accountants
levels I through IV equate to levels II-V for accountants. Likewise,
attorneys I equates to accountants III and public accountants II. For
more information see appendix D.

1

photographer had 1,700 employees in three publishable
work levels of five studied.
About one-half of the workers in the selected
occupations were women.4 The proportion of women
varied significantly, however, among the 23 survey
occupations. Women, for example, accounted for more
than 96 percent of the clerical employees but for less than
3 percent of the chief accountants and engineers. Text
table 1 shows occupational levels in which 5 percent or
more of the incumbents were women. Salary levels for
women were typically below those for men in the same
occupation and level—generally by 10 percent or less. In
nine occupational work levels, however, average salaries
for women exceeded those of men.

To show changes in salaries since 1970 for different
levels of work, occupational classifications were grouped
into the three broad categories described in text table 3.
Group A contains survey classifications which equate to
grades 1-4 of the Federal Government’s General Salary
Schedule; group B covers GS grades 5-9; and group C,
grades 11-15. (See appendix D, table D - 1, for a listing of
survey classifications that equate to each GS grade.)
Average salaries increased more for higher occupational
levels (group C) than for the two lower groups over the
1970-81 period.
Average salaries, Exarch 1981
Average monthly salaries for the occupations studied,
(table 1) ranged from $702 for file clerks I to $5,580 for the
top level of attorneys surveyed. These extremes reflect the
wide range of duties and responsibilities represented by
the work levels surveyed. Average salaries for workers in
the various occupational levels and a brief indication of

Changes in salary levels
Text table 2 presents increases in average salaries
between annual survey periods since 1970 for occupations
studied. Half of those occupations permitting compari­
sons over that time had record increases in 1980-81. The
smallest increases were for job analysts at 7.6 percent and
public accountants at 7.9 percent. Largest increases were
recorded for stenographers, at 12.1 percent, and directors
of personnel, at 11.4 percent.

4 Whenever possible, data were collected for men and women
separately. Bureau field representatives were unable to obtain data by
sex for about 11 percent of the workers in the occupations studied.

Text table 1. Occupational levels in which 5 percent or more of the incumbents were women
Women
(percent)
95 or more

90-94
80-84

Women
(percent)

Occupation and level

25-29

50-54

10-14

Accountants I
Computer operators II
Messengers
Purchasing assistants III

35-39

Auditors I
Chemists I
Computer operators I

30-34

Accountants II
Computer operators III
Drafters I

Accountants III
Drafters III
Engineering technicians II
Computer operators V
Accountants IV
Attorneys III
Directors of personnel II and IV
Chemists III and IV
Engineers I

Buyers I

45-49

Buyers II
Directors of personnel I
Auditors III
Attorneys II
Engineering technicians I
Computer operators IV

15-19

Job analysts I
Job analysts III
Personnel clerks V

Job analysts IV
Auditors II
Chemists II
Drafters II

20-24

Accounting clerks I
File clerks I and II
Key entry operators I and II
Personnel clerks I, II, and III
Purchasing assistants I
Secretaries I, II, III, IV, and V
Stenographers I and II
Typists I and II
File clerks III
Accounting clerks II and III
Personnel clerks IV
Accounting clerks IV
Job analysts II
Purchasing assistants II

75-79
65-69

5-9

NOTE: Data for public accountants did not meet a publication standard
that required sex data be available for at least 75 percent of the employment
total in an occupational work level.



Occupation and level

2

Auditors IV
Attorneys IV
Buyers III
Directors of personnel III
Engineers II
Engineering technicians III
Drafters IV
Photographers II

Ter.S table 2. Percent increases In average salaries by occupation, 1970-811

1970
to
1971

1971
to
19722

1972
to
1973

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

1979
to
1980

1980
to
1981

Professional, administrative, and
technical support:
Accountants ......................................
Chief accountants ...........................
Public accountants ..........................
A ud itors.............................................
Job analysts ......................................
Directors of personnel ....................
Attorneys ..........................................
Buyers ...............................................
Chemists ............................................
Engineers ..........................................
Engineering technicians..................
Drafters ..............................................
Computer operators ........................

6.7
9.1
(3)
7.0
7.7
8.0
5.0
7.0
5.5
5.7
6.5
5.6
(3)

5.6
3.9
(3)
5.5
6.8
3.9
6.1
6.3
5.1
5.2
5.1
7.2
(3)

4.9
5.8
(3)
5.2
5.2
7.5
6.3
5.0
3.7
5.1
4.7
6.2
(3)

6.1
7.2
(3)
5.2
6.1
7.2
5.8
6.0
7.1
5.4
6.0
6.7
(4)

9.8
8.6
(3)
6.8
7.5
6.1
7.6
9.2
10.1
8.4
9.0
8.0
(3)

6.4
6.6
(3)
5.5
6.0
7.8
6.1
6.7
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4
(4)

7.8
10.5
(3)
6.8
6.5
9.1
5.4
7.0
7.0
6.4
7.2
6.0
5.4

8.3
8.0
(3)
8.2
7.2
10.0
9.1
7.8
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5

8.0
7.7
(4)
6.5
8.6
7.5
8.9
7.0
7.6
8.4
7.6
(4)
7.2

9.2
11.3
4.2
8.8
8.1
11.2
9.3
8.1
9.8
9.8
11.0
11.8
8.3

10.0
9.5
7.9
10.3
7.6
11.4
9.8
9.8
9.4
10.9
10.2
10.9
(4)

Clerical:
Accounting clerks ...........................
File clerks ..........................................
Key entry operators .........................
Messengers ......................................
Personnel clerks/assistants.............
Secretaries ........................................
Stenographers ..................................
Typists ...............................................

6.0
6.1
7.0
6.7
(3)
6.6
7.5
6.1

(4)
8.9
4.6
7.7
7.2
6.2
6.9
6.9
5.9
5.4
9.6
6.4
9.7
9.3
5.5
5.5
5.4
7.3
9.9
7.6
7.1
6.8
9.1
5.9
5.5
5.1
5.6
7.4
6.8
10.1
7.5
6.0
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
8.6
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
9.6
5.1
6.4
7.3
6.5
5.2
6.5
11.6
8.2
12.1
10.1
8.0
7.9
4.0
6.7
8.0
8.5
8.9
9.9
7.1
6.2
1 For data on survey periods from 1961 to 1970, see National Survey of 3Not surveyed.
Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1979,
4Comparable data not available for both years.
Bulletin 2045 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979), p. 3.
2Survey data did not represent a 12-month period due to change in
NOTE: For method of computation, see appendix A.
survey timing. Data have been prorated to represent a 12-month interval.

9.6
8.0
8.2
9.7
(4)
(4)
12.1
10.2

Occupation

6.0
5.5
6.8
6.3
(3)
6.1
6.4
5.7

C h ief accountants-surveyed separately from
accountants-include those who develop or adapt and
direct the accounting program for a company or an
establishment (plant) of a company. Classification levels
are determined by the extent of delegated authority and
responsibility, the technical complexity of the accounting
system, and, to a lesser degree, the size of the professional
staff directed. Chief accountants at level I, who have
authority to adapt the accounting system established at
higher levels to meet the needs of an establishment with
relatively few and stable functions and work processes
(directing one or two accountants), averaged $2,631 a
month. Chief accountants IV,6 who have authority to
establish and maintain the accounting program, subject
to general policy guidelines, for a company with
numerous and varied functions and work processes
(directing as many as 40 accountants), averaged $4,668 a
month. Almost three-fourths of the chief accountants
who met the requirements of the definitions for these four
levels were employed in manufacturing industries.

the duties and responsibilities these levels represent are
summarized in the following paragraphs.5
Average monthly salaries for accountants ranged from
$1,377 for beginning professionals (level I) to $3,646 for
specialists in complex accounting systems (level VI). At
level III, the most heavily populated group, salaries
averaged $1,962 a month. Three-fifths of the accountants
surveyed were in manufacturing industries; the public
utilities, and the finance, insurance, and real estate
groups each accounted for one-tenth.

Tent table 3. Percent increases in average salaries
by work level category, 1970-81
Group A
Group B
Group C
(GS grades (GS grades (GS grades
Period1
1-4)
5-9)
11-15)
112.4
1970-81 ..................
119.1
122.3
1970-71 .............................
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.2
1971-722 ...........................
5.6
5.5
4.4
1972-73 .............................
5.7
6.2
1973-74 .............................
5.7
6.2
1974-75 .............................
9.1
8.6
8.8
7.6
6.4
1975-76 .............................
6.5
6.9
6.3
1976-77 .............................
7.7
7.5
8.0
1977-78 .............................
8.8
1978-79 .............................
7.2
7.5
8.0
9.1
10.1
1979-80 .............................
9.3
1980-81 .............................
9.8
10.2
9.6
'For data on survey periods from 1961 to 1970, see National Survey of
Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1979,
Bulletin 2045 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979).
2Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month
period.
NOTE: For method of computation, see appendix A. Fordetail on Federal
General Schedule (GS) grades, see appendix D.



Classification of employees in the occupations and work levels
surveyed is based on factors detailed in the definitions in appendix C.
Despite wide differences in the occupational pay levels reported by the
survey, salary averages for jobs of equivalent levels of work often fall
within relatively narrow bands. For example, monthly averages for the
following work-level equivalents (Federal grade level 13) spanned 7
percent, or$245: Accountant V I($3,646); chief accou ntantlll($3,708);
attorney IV ($3,738); director o f personnel III ($3,574); chemist VI
($3,493); and engineer VI ($3,552).
6
Data for chief accountants V, directors of personnel V, chemists
VIII, computer operators VI, and photographers I and V, as defined
in appendix C, did not meet publication criteria for this survey.
3

included in the study; the finance, insurance, and real
Auditors in the four levels defined for the survey had
estate industries ranked next with 29 percent of the job
average salaries ranging from $1,364 a month for
analysts and 13 percent of the directors of personnel.
auditors I, a trainee level, to $2,456 for auditors IV, who
Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight
conduct complex audits. Forty percent of the auditors
levels.9 Both series start with a professional trainee level,
were employed in manufacturing industries, 28 percent in
typically requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level
finance, insurance, and real estate, and 17 percent in
surveyed involves either full responsibility over a very
public utilities.
broad and highly complex and diversified engineering or
Among the four levels of public accountants surveyed,
average monthly salaries ranged from $1,344 for entry
chemical program, with several subordinates each
directing large and important segments of the program;
level employees, who are receiving practical experience in
applying the principles, theories, and concepts of or individual research and consultation in problem areas
where the chemist or engineer is a recognized authority
accounting and auditing to specific situations, (level I)
and where solutions would represent a major scientific or
to $2,146 for public accountants who direct the field work
technological advance.1 Average monthly salaries
0
for large or complex audits (level IV). This occupation
ranged from $1,508 for chemists I to $4,070 for chemists
was found only in public accounting firms which are part
VII, the highest level for which data could be presented,
of the selected services industry group.
and from $1,809 for engineers I to $4,107 for engineers
Attorneys are classified into survey levels based upon
the difficulty of their assignments and their responsibil­ VII and $4,736 for engineers VIII.
Level IV chemists and engineers, one of the largest
ities. Attorneys I, who include new law graduates with bar
groups in each profession and representing fully
membership and those performing work that is relatively
experienced employees, averaged $2,567 and $2,613 a
uncomplicated due to clearly applicable precedents and
month, respectively. Manufacturing industries accounted
well-established facts, averaged $1,873 a month.
for 89 percent of the chemists and 73 percent of the
Attorneys in the top level surveyed, level VI, averaged
engineers. Most of the remaining chemists were
$5,580 a month. These attorneys deal with legal matters of
in research and development laboratories. Engineers were
major importance to their organization (or corporation),
also found in significant numbers in establishments en­
and are usually subordinate only to the general counsel or
gaged in research and development, project design, and in
an immediate deputy in very large firms. Finance,
public utilities.
insurance, and real estate industries employed twoThe five-level series for engineering technicians is
fifths of the attorneys, and manufacturing industries
limited to employees providing semi-professional tech­
employed one-third.7
nical support to engineers engaged in areas such as
. Buyers averaged $1,350 a month at level I, which
research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
includes those who purchase “off-the-shelf” and readily
available items and services from local sources. Buyers
process improvement, and whose work pertains to
electrical, electronic, or mechanical components or
IV, who purchase large amounts of highly complex and
technical items, materials, or services, averaged $2,549 a equipment. Technicians engaged primarily in production
month. Manufacturing industries employed 83 percent of or maintenance work are excluded. Engineering
the buyers in the four levels.
technicians I, who perform simple routine tasks under
In the personnel management field, four work levels of close supervision, or from detailed procedures, averaged
job analysts and five levels of directors of personnel were $1,137 a month. Engineering technicians V, the highest
level surveyed, averaged $2,051 a month. That level
studied. Job analysts I averaged $1,412 compared with
$2,393 for job analysts IV, who, under general
includes fully experienced technicians performing more
complex assignments involving responsibility for planning
supervision, analyze and evaluate a variety of the more
and conducting a complete project of relatively limited
difficult jobs and who may participate in the development
scope, or a portion of a larger and more diverse project in
and installation of evaluation or compensation systems.
accordance with objectives, requirements, and design
Directors of personnel are limited by definition to those
who have programs that include, at a minimum,
approaches as outlined by the supervisor or a
professional engineer. Salaries for intermediate levels III
responsibility for administering a job evaluation system,
and IV, at which a majority of the technicians surveyed
employment and placement functions, and employee
relations and services functions. Those with significant
are classified, averaged $1,527 and $1,803, respectively.
Most technicians were employed in manufacturing (76
responsibility for actual contract negotiation with labor
unions as the principal company representative are
7
The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal advice
excluded. The definition provides for various combina­
or legal services.
tions of duties and responsibilities to determine the level.
8 See footnote 6.
Among personnel directors, average monthly salaries
9See footnote 6.
ranged from $2,321 for level I to $4,493 for level IV.8
1 It is recognized in the definition that top positions of some
0
Manufacturing industries employed 52 percent of the job
companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs are above that level.
analysts and 71 percent of the directors of personnel



4

for which average salaries were $953 and $1,121 a month,
respectively.
Five levels of personnel clerks (employment) were
surveyed. Salaries ranged from $898 a month for clerks
performing routine tasks while receiving training and
gaining experience (level I) to $1,673 a month for clerks
providing technical support in processing a variety of
complicated personnel actions (level V). Nearly two-fifths
of the classified personnel clerks were at level II, in which
employees process a variety of personnel documents,
selecting the most appropriate precedent, rule, or
procedure. They averaged $1,058 a month.
Data for three levels of purchasing assistants, who
provide clerical or technical support to buyers, were
published for the first time in 1981. Level I assistants,
who examine and review routine purchasing documents,
averaged $1,002 a month, while level III assistants, who
prepare purchase documents, expedite the purchase of
highly specialized items, or provide technical support
requiring detailed knowledge of company procedures,
averaged $1,641 a month.
In 22 of the 27 clerical work levels, employment in
manufacturing exceeded that in any of the nonmanufac­
turing divisions within the scope of the survey; highest
employment totals in the other 5 work levels were in the
finance, insurance, and real estate division. Women
constituted 95 percent or more of the employees in 18 of
the clerical work levels.

percent) and in the selected services studied (16 percent),
with public utilities employing nearly all the rest (4
percent). Although the ratio of such technicians to
engineers studied was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing
industries, a ratio of approximately 1 to 3 was found in
establishments manufacturing mechanical and electrical
equipment, 1 to 2 in research, development, and testing
laboratories, and 1 to 7 in public utilities.
Among the five levels of drafters surveyed, salaries
ranged from $923 a month for drafters I, who trace or
copy finished drawings, to $2,011 a month for drafters V,
who work closely with design originators in preparing
drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs.
Drafters were distributed by industry in somewhat the
same proportion as engineers, with 67 percent in
manufacturing, 7 percent in public utilities, and 19
percent in the selected services.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of
responsibility for solving problems and equipment
malfunctions, the degree of variability of their
assignments, and the relative level of sophistication of the
equipment they operate. Computer operators I whose
work assignments consist of on-the-job training averaged
$906 a month. Computer operators III, the largest of
the group surveyed, averaged $1,220. Computer
operators V, the highest level for which data could be
published, averaged $1,733 a m onth.1
1
Photographers were surveyed for the first time in 1981.
Average salaries ranged from $1,425 a month at level II,
which requires the use of standard still cameras to take
photographs involving limited problems of speed,
motion, contrast, or lighting to $ 1,932 for level IV, which
involves the use of special-purpose cameras and work
under technically demanding conditions.1 Manufacturing
2
industries employed 67 percent of the photographers;
selected services employed 14 percent.
Among the survey’s 9 clerical jobs, secretary was the
most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries for
secretaries ranged from $1,079 at level I to $1,635 at level
V. Average salaries of $1,099 and $1,311 were reported
for stenographers I and II; and $830 and $1,030 for the
two levels of typists. Generally, average salaries for
clerical workers were highest in the public utilities,
manufacturing, and mining industries and lowest in the
finance, insurance, and real estate, and retail trade
divisions. Manufacturing industries employed 42 percent
of the clerical employees classified in survey occupations.
The finance, insurance, and real estate industries and
public utilities also accounted for large numbers of
clerical workers, employing 24 and 11 percent of the total,
respectively.
Average monthly salaries for accounting clerks ranged
from $798 for those performing very simple and routine
clerical accounting operations (level I) to $1,407 for
employees who maintain journals or subsidiary ledgers of
an accounting system (level IV). Almost three-fourths of
the accounting clerks were classified in levels II and III,



Salary levels In metropolitan areas
For most occupational levels, average salaries in
metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than
national averages (table 1). In only 10 instances, however,
did these differences exceed 1.0 percent; only one
exceeded 2.0 percent.
About nine-tenths of the employment in survey
occupations was in metropolitan areas. The proportions
varied, however, among occupations and work levels.
More than 95 percent of the attorneys, auditors, job
analysts, messengers, and public accountants were
employed in metropolitan areas. In 62 of the 96 work
levels, 90 percent or more of the workers were in
metropolitan areas. It is apparent, therefore, that for
most work levels, salaries in nonmetropolitan counties
could have little effect upon the averages for all
establishments combined.
Salary levels in large establishments
Table 3 presents separate data for 83 occupational
work levels in large establishments (those employing
2,500 workers or more). Included are the proportions of
employees working in large establishments and their
salary levels relative to the full survey averages.
Large establishments accounted for 37 percent of all
employees in the 83 occupational levels—ranging from 10
"See footnote 6.
l2See footnote 6.

5

percent of file clerks I to 74 percent for photographers IV.
Large establishments generally employed a majority of
the workers at the highest levels of professional,
administrative, and technical support occupations. They
employed most workers at only three clerical levels—
purchasing assistant III and both levels of stenographers.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as
percents of levels in all establishments, combined, ranged
from 96 to 121. Salary levels in large establishments
exceeded all-establishment averages by 5 percent or more
in all but one of the clerical levels, but in only 31 of 59
nonclerical levels, as shown by the following tabulation
(all-establishment average for each occupational level =
100 percent):
Professional,
administrative, and
technical

Clerical

59

24

2
26
20
10
1

employees were more than twice those of the lowest paid
employees. The absolute spread between highest and
lowest paid workers within a given work level tended to
widen with each rise in work level for most occupations.
Individual salaries often overlapped substantially among
work levels of a given occupation. (Also, salary ranges for
established pay grades or work levels within individual
firms also often overlapped substantially.)
Median monthly salaries (the amount below and above
which 50 percent of the employees are found) for most
work levels were slightly lower than the weighted averages
(means) cited earlier, (that is, salaries in the upper halves
of the arrays affected averages more than salaries in the
lower halves). The relative difference between the mean
and the median was less than 2 percent for 37 of the 96
work levels, from 2 to 4 percent in 36 work levels, and
from 4 to slightly under 7.5 percent in the other 23 levels.
Charts 1 and 2 give the middle 50 and 80 percent of the
salary range, and the median salary for each occupational
work level. The charts point up occupational pay
relationships as well as the typically greater degree of
salary dispersion associated with the higher work levels in
each occupational series.
Expressing the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in each work level as a percent of the median
salary permits comparison of salary ranges and eliminates
extremely low and high salaries from each comparison.
As shown in text table 4, the degree of dispersion ranged
from 15 to 30 percent of the median salary in 83 of the 96
work levels. The degree of dispersion tended to be greater
in clerical occupations than in other occupations studied.
Differences in salaries within work levels reflect a
variety of factors other than duties and responsibilities.
These include salary structures within establishments
which provide for a range of rates for each grade level;

-

T o t a l n u m b e r o f le v e ls
9 5 - 9 9 p e r c e n t ..................................
1 0 0 -1 0 4 p e r c e n t .............................
1 0 5 -1 0 9 p e r c e n t ............................
1 1 0 -1 1 4 p e r c e n t .............................
115 p e r c e n t a n d o v e r ................

1
10
8
5

As expected, the pay relatives were close to 100 for
those work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to the total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.
Salary distributions
Percent distributions of employees by monthly salary
are presented for the professional and administrative
occupations in table 4, for technical support occupations
in table 5, and for the clerical occupations in table 6.
Within most work levels, salary rates for the highest paid

Text table 4. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion
Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of—
Occupation

Number
of
work
levels

All occupations ...................................................................
Accountants ....................................................................................
Chief accountants ...........................................................................
Public accountants .........................................................................
Auditors ...........................................................................................
Job analysts ....................................................................................
Directors of personnel ...................................................................
Attorneys ..........................................................................................
B uyers...............................................................................................
Chemists .........................................................................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Engineering technicians ................................................................
Drafters.............................................................................................
Computer operators .......................................................................
Photographers .................................................................................
Clerical workers ..............................................................................

Under
15
percent

15 and
under
20
percent

20 and
under
25
percent

96

7

25

37

6
4
4
4
4
4
6
4

—
2
2

2
2
2
1
2
1
—
—
4
7
2
1
—
—
1

4
—
—
3
1
1
5
4
2
—
3
3
2
1
8

—

1
—
—
—
1
1
—
—
—
—
—

7

8
5
5
5
3
27

1Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary for
that level.



6

25 and
under
30
percent

30
percent
and
over

21
—
—
—
—
—
2
1
—
—
—
—
1
3
1
13

6
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
5

Chart 1. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1931
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 pecent of employees

Occupation
and level

0

$500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000 $4,500 $5,000 $5,500 $6,000 $6,500

Accountants I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Chief I
accountants II
III
IV
Auditors I
II
III
IV
Public I
accountants II
III
IV
Attorneys I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Chemists I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Engineers I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineering I
technicians II
III
IV
V
Drafters I
II
III
IV
V
Computer I
operators II
III
IV
V
Photographers II
III
IV




7

Chart 2. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1981
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 pecent of employees

Occupation
and level

0

$500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000 $4,500 $5,000 $5,500 $6,000 $6,500

Job analysts
III
IV
Directors I
of personnel II
III
IV
Buyers I
II
III
IV
Accounting I
clerks II
[II
IV
File clerks I
II
III
Key entry
operators
Messengers
Personnel
clerks/
assistants
Purchasing
assistants

Secretaries

Stenographers




Typists

8

variations in occupational employment among industries,
as illustrated in table 7 and chart 3; and salary variations
among regions, particularly for clerical occupations.1
3
Clerical employees usually are recruited locally while
professional and administrative positions tend to be
recruited on a broader regional or national basis.

manufacturing and 123 percent in public utilities)
reflected the influence of lower salaries for the high
proportion (65 percent) of these workers employed in the
finance industries. The finance industries, however, also
reported slightly shorter average standard workweeks
than other industries surveyed, as shown in table 9.

Pay differences by industry

Average standard weekly hours

By combining the data for all levels of work studied in
each occupation, relative salary levels in major industry
divisions may be compared to each other and to salary
levels in all industries combined (table 8).
Relative salary levels for the professional, administra­
tive, and technical support occupations in manufacturing
industries tended to be closest to the average for all
industry divisions. However, manufacturing contributed
more to total employment than any other industry
division for all but two (attorneys and public
accountants) of the 14 occupations. Relative salary levels
in the mining and public utilities industry divisions were
generally the highest.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels
were lower in retail trade and in finance, insurance, and
real estate than in other industry divisions. Where retail
trade and the finance industries contributed a substantial
proportion of the total employment in an occupation,
the average salary for all industries combined was lower,
and the relative levels in industries such as manufacturing
and public utilities tended to be higher than the all­
industry level. For example, relative pay levels for file
clerks (113 percent of the all-industry level in




The length of the standard workweek, on which the
regular straight-time salary is based, was obtained for
individual employees in occupations studied. When
individual weekly hours were not available, particularly
for some higher level professional and administrative
positions, the predominant workweek of the office work
force was used as the standard workweek. The
distribution of average weekly hours (rounded to the
nearest half hour) is presented in table 9 for each
occupation by major industry division surveyed. Average
weekly hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real
estate (38 hours in most occupations) than in the other
industry divisions (39 or 40 hours). Average weekly hours
have been stable over the past decade.1
4
i-1 For analysis of interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see
Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and Regional
Summaries, 1977, Bulletin 1950-77. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1980)
and Wage Differences Am ong Metropolitan Areas, 1979, Summary 8011 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979).
1 For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers
4
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1978, Bulletin 2025-76 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1981).

9

Chart 3. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1931
Occupational group
Accountants and
chief accountants1
Auditors

0

20

10

30

Buyers
Directors of personnel
and job analysts
Chemists

50

60

70

80

90

100

______I______I______I______I______I______I______I_v - ______I______ I
_____I

L

1

— ...

Mall J
n
H ill
mmmm

r "
Attorneys

Percent

40

IIH

H

|M'' 1118111 1 I I H
1!
WBmnmm
' '

1

1

1

1

:

■

11

■

, ill sSss
§1
mm

'■

11

j
‘

Hi
■

-

Engineers

§§
§§
Illl
■Hi

Engineering technicians
and drafters

■I
—

Computer operators
Photographers

j

|1 ||||||||

S m

Clerical employees

and
construction

utilities

'Public accountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and
bookkeeping services in the selected services industry group.




10

Finance,
insurance,
and
real estate

Trade and
selected
services

Tab!® 1. A v e ra g e salaries: U n ite d S ta te s
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)

MONTHLY SALARIES9/
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2/

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES3/

ANNUAL SALA RIES 4/

MIDDLE RANGES/
SEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE 3 ANGE5/
HEAN

FIRST
QUAHTILE

MEDIAN

THIRD
QUARTILE

FIRST
QUA RTILE

THIRD
2UAHTILE

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIEF

13,290
21,975
39,950
21,326
8,988
1,539

81,377
1,679
1,962
2 „902
2,928
3,696

$1,350
1,618
1,925
2,360
2,915
3,590

$ 1 , 250
1,966
1,730
2, 130
2,610
3,332

$1,997
1,899
2,166
2, 62 5
3,200
3,95 8

$16,529
20,153
23,595
28,819
35,191
93,759

$16,200
19,912
23,098
28,320
39,980
93,083

$19,999
17,593
20,750
25,560
31,320
39,989

$17,969
2 2 ,1 9 1
25,990
31,500
33,900
97,996

I .................................................
I I . . . ............. ........................
I I I ............................................
IV..............................................

680
933
672
163

2,631
2,963
3,708
9,668

2,7 0 7
2,999
3,693
9,525

2,385
2, 666
3,915
9,982

2 ,818
3,200
3,917
9,89 8

31,576
35,560
99,999
55,016

32,987
35,986
93,716
59,300

23,620
31,987
90,989
53,778

33,816
33,900
97,009
58,177

I ........................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................

1,899
3,251
9,313
2,699

1,369
1,651
2,033
2,956

1 ,3 3 3
1 ,6 2 9
2,000
2,391

1,250
1, 969
1,812
2 , 173

1 ,9 5 8
1,833
2,299
2,701

15,369
19, 819
29,901
29,975

15,996
19,982
29,000
28,689

1 9,999
17,633
21,791
26,070

1 7,993
21,991
2 5,933
32,917

8,993
8,721
7,868
3,875

1,399
1.500
1,7 8 6
2 , 196

1 ,3 3 3
1,983
1,799
2.100

1,275
1,900
1,617
1,916

1 ,3 9 9
1,583
1,916
2,332

15,130
18,000
21,926
25,798

15,996
17,793
20,992
25,200

15,300
16,800
19,909
22,991

16,793
13,992
22,991
27,989

181
929
666
998

1.912
1,525
1,900
2,393

1 ,3 2 0
1,959
1,837
2,395

1, 279
1,333
1,65 6
2, 15 2

1,9 9 5
1,675
2,026
2,6 0 7

16,990
18,296
22,799
28,718

15,890
17,513
22,091
28,190

15,299
15,996
19,992
25,829

17,390
20,100
29,312
31,289

1 ,267
2,053
812
352

2,321
2,933
3,579
9,993

2,200
2,889
3,579
9,9 7 5

2, 005
2,625
3,215
3 , 928

2,582
3 ,3 2 7
3,893
5 , 125

27 , 898
35,193
92,390
53 , 919

26,900
39,666
92,833
53,700

29,052
31,500
38,580
97,135

30,983
39,929
95,112
51,500

1,586
2,910
3,135
2,535
1,587
666

1,873
2,338
3,031
3,738
9,566
5,580

1,803
2,291
2,999
3,685
9,975
5,329

1,633
2,100
2,656
3 , 332
9,025
9,833

2,083
2,579
3,33 2
9,088
5,050
6,089

22,977
28,059
36,373
99 , 853
59,792
55,958

21,638
27,989
35,936
99,220
53,700
63,998

19,592
25,200
31,992
39,989
98,300
57,995

25,000
30,388
3 9 , 989
99,056
50,500
73,008

6,669
19,057
17,235
5,5 3 9

1 ,350
1,689
2,100
2,599

1,320
1, 6 51
2,058
2,991

1, 177
1,999
1,892
2,239

1,976
1 ,8 3 6
2,290
2 , 798

16, 202
20,256
25,196
30,583

15,890
19,813
29,690
29,887

19,119
17,993
22,107
26,858

17,717
22,033
27,980
33,573

I .......................................................................
I I ........ .............. .............. ................... ..
I I I . .............................................. .................
I V ................................. ................... ..............
V.......................................................................
V I . . . . ___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V I I ...................................... ...........................

3,991
6 , 131
11,686
1 1 ,2 2 1
8,708
3,788
1,622

1,508
1,7 5 7
2,120
2,557
3,055
3,993
9,070

1 ,9 9 9
1 ,7 2 9
2 , 095
2.5 5 0 '
3,030
3,900
3,991

1, 359
1,560
1,900
2, 315
2,79 1
3,193
3,66 0

1,638
1.929
2,327
2,776
3,315
3,759
9 , 21 9

18, 092
21,089
25,938
30 , 801
36,663
91,911
98,895

17,993
20,692
25,190
30,600
36,365
90,800
97,286

15,299
18,723
22,800
27,780
32,887
37,716
93,920

1 9,555
2 3 ,0 9 1
27,929
33,312
39,789
95,050
50,528

I .....................................................................
I I ..................................................................
I I I ................................................................
IV ..................................................................
V.....................................................................
V I ...........................
V I I ...............................................................
V I I I .............................................................

28,233
98,312
108,063
139,180
97,379
95,933
19,950
2,785

1,809
1,972
2,229
2,613
3,060
3,552
9,107
9,736

1,808
1,950
2,199
2,585
3,033
3,500
9,065
9,658

1,639
1,809
2,010
2, 36 0
2,76 6
3,220
3,710
9,280

1,925
2,116
2,915
2,895
3,333
3,829
9,920
5 , 19 1

21,712
23,563
26,796
31 , 352
36,725
92,522
99,287
56,828

21,691
23,900
26,389
31,023
36,399
92,000
98,780
55,900

2 0,209
21,703
29,120
2 8,320
33,192
38,690
99,520
51,350

23,103
25,390
28,980
39,190
39,995
9 5 , 883
53,090
51,592

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

AUDIT!3S
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
PUBLIC
PUBLIC
PUBLIC
PUBLIC

I ................................................................
I I . . . . . ................................................
I I I ...........................................................
I V .............................................................
V ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V I............................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I ..............................................
I I ............................................
I I I .........................................
I V . . ................ ................

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOB
JOB
JOB
JOB

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I .............................................................
I I .................................................. ..
I I I ........................................................
I V ........................................... ..............

DIRECTOHS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS

OF
OF
OF
OF

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

I ....................................
I I ..................................
I I I ...............................
IV ..................................

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS

I .....................................................................
I I ............................................................
I I I ................................................................
IV .................. ...............................................
V................................................ ..
V I..................................................................

ATTORNEYS

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I .................................... .......................................
I I .........................................................................
I I I .......................................................................
I V ..........................................................................
CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS

CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

See footnotes at end of table.




11

TsbS© 1. C on tinu ed —A verage salaries: U nited S tates
(E m ploym ent and average salaries fo r selected professional, adm inistrative, technical, and clerica. occupations in private indu stry,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)

MONTHLY 3 ALARIES4/
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2/

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES!/

ARNUAL 5 ALARIES4/
SIDDLE 3AH3E5/

MIDDLE RANGES/
MEAN

MEDIAN

HEIN
FIRST
QUARTILE

HEDIAN

THIRD
QUARTILE

FIRST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

I .................................
I I ...............................
I I I ............................
Iif...............................
V.................................

5,898
1 8 ,8 0 3
31,017
35,540
19,056

$1,137
1 ,3 0 7
1,527
1,803
2,051

$1,100
1 ,2 9 1
1,483
1,770
2,023

$991
1, 156
1,33 8
1 ,6 2 3
1,865

$1,239
1,423
1,6 7 5
1,9 5 3
2 ,220

$13,644
15,679
18,326
21,530
24,509

$13,203
15,494
17,790
21,240
24,276

$11,888
13,869
1 5,059
19,474
22,332

$14,868
1 7 ,0 8 1
20,100
23,556
26,640

DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

I .......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V...................... .......................................... . .

2,854
12,494
24,399
26,580
20,034

923
1,075
1,301
1,611
2,011

888
1,050
1,270
1,575
1,968

825
950
1,150
1,415
1,725

97 8
1, 178
1 ,425
1,777
2,238

11, 082
12, 900
15,512
19,336
2 4 , 129

10,656
12,600
15,246
13,903
23,619

9,900
11,400
13,800
16,977
20,700

1 1,732
14,135
17,100
21.325
26,355

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

I ..............................................
I I ...........................................
I I I .........................................
I V ............................................
V..............................................

6 , 135
12,849
29,299
1 6 ,6 7 1
3,-545

906
1,049
1 ,2 2 0
1,475
1,733

882
1 ,0 0 4
1,180
1,425
1,680

80 1
912
1, 04 1
1, 260
1,458

99 1
1,138
1,340
1,624
1 ,929

10, 869
12,586
14,645
17,704
20,796

10,584
12,044
14,160
17,102
20,150

9,615
10,949
12,495
15,120
17,612

1 1,392
13,661
16,080
19,492
23,150

PHOTOGRAPHERS I I ........................................ ...............
PHOTOGRAPHERS I I I ......................................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ........................................................

52 8
698
450

1,425
1,704
1,932

1,430
1,682
1,912

1 ,1 9 1
1,52 1
1,654

1 ,6 4 1
1,902
2 , 182

17,096
2 0,444
2 3 , 187

17,156
20,184
22,942

14,286
18,249
19,844

19,692
22,324
25,190

I .................................................
I I ..............................................
I I I ............................................
IV....................... ..

30,466
86,720
59,797
23,179

798
953
1 ,1 2 1
1,407

760
912
1,080
1 ,3 5 1

685
802
950
1,178

85 2
1,038
1,250
1 ,609

9,575
11,431
13,454
16,886

9,125
10,949
12,960
16,216

8,213
9,524
11,395
14,138

10,219
12,456
14,994
19,308

FILE CLERKS I ...............................................................
FILE CLERKS I I .............................................................
FILE CLERKS I I I ..........................................................

27,925
11,773
3,833

702
820
974

670
760
910

608
69 1
801

750
870
1,070

3,423
9, 836
11,691

8,040
9,120
10,916

7,300
8,290
9,615

9,120
10,440
12,340

KEI ENTRI OPERATORS I ...........................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I I .........................................

6 8,883
41,251

886
1,079

841
1,025

740
895

97 5
1 ,204

10,633
12,953

10,089
12,305

3,375
10,741

11,700
14,443

HESSENGERS.......................................................................

15,609

783

730

652

85 6

9,395

8,750

7,321

10,272

I .......................
I I .....................
I I I . . . . ____
I V .....................
V .... . . . . . .

2,556
5,096
3,999
1,866
416

898
1,058
1,192
1,400
1,673

869
1,002
1,159
1,317
1,650

73 2
910
1,04 0
1,200
1,499

955
1, 147
1 ,3 0 4
1,504
1,797

10,777
12,696
14,303
16,794
20,079

10,428
12,020
13,911
15,798
19,800

9,385
10,920
12,480
14,400
17,993

11,580
13,765
15,542
18,043
21,563

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I .......................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I ....................................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I I I . ...............................

5,135
4,322
1,904

1,002
1,274
1 ,6 4 1

961
1,200
1,554

85 9
1,069
1,385

1 ,0 8 1
1,421
1,830

12,025
15,287
19,588

11,533
14,400
13,543

10,423
12,825
16,622

12,972
17,050
2 1,961

I ...............................................................
I I .............................................................
I I I ..........................................................
I V .............................................................
V...............................................................

63,923
6 1 ,1 7 1
106,881
4 3,624
23,515

1 ,0 7 9
1,147
1,298
1,406
1,635

1 .0 2 5
1,125
1 , 2 53
1,390
1 ,5 9 9

900
993
1,09 6
1,208
1,390

1,176
1,279
1,443
1 ,5 3 3
1,850

12,947
13,769
15,576
15,372
19,615

12,300
13,495
15,032
15,690
19,192

10,800
11,914
13,153
14,495
16,635

14,112
15,344
17,310
13,992
22,200

STENOGRAPHERS I ..........................................................
STENOGRAPHERS I I ........................................................

17,422
14,725

1 ,0 9 9
1,311

1,043
1,320

878
1,07 9

1,29 3
1,525

13,191
15,727

12,514
15,840

10,532
12,942

15,512
13,301

TYPISTS I .........................................................................
TYPISTS I I .......................................................................

38,236
21,551

830
1,0 3 0

780
956

700
829

895
1,158

9,959
12,358

9,356
11,471

8,395
9,9 4 3

10,740
13,895

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
CLERKS/ASSISTANTS

SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES
SECBETABIES
SECRETARIES
SECRETARIES

’.■For scope of study, see table A-1 fn appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
2 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the
scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see ap­
pendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; l.e., the straight-




time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
Nonproduction Ponuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments arid incentive earnings are
Included.
‘ The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

12

Table 2. A verage salaries: M etropolitan areas
(Employment and average calories for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,

Kfereh 1981)
80NTHLY SALARIES9/
OCCUPATION AM LEVEL*/
D

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES!/

ANNUAL SALARIES*/
MIDDLE 3AHGE5/

MIDDLE RANGES/
REAN

HEDIAH

BEAN
FIRST
QUARTILE

HEDIAH
FIRST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

IHIBD
Q0ARTILE

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
1 1 ,9 7 1
19,178
30,063
18,885
7,601
1,968

61,389
1,692
1,970
2,905
2 ,936
3,656

$1,350
1,629
1,990
2,365
2,916
3,590

$1,250
1,977
1,733
2, 125
2,620
3,332

$1,999
1 ,8 5 9
2,177
2 , 693
3,207
3,9 5 8

$16,608
20,306
23,599
2 8 , 863
35,231
9 3 ,875

$16,200
19,553
23,280
28,380
34,986
43,084

$ 14,994
17,720
20,792
25,500
31,443
39,984

$17,993
22,432
26,122
31,711
39,479
47,496

I .................................................
I I .................................... ..
I I I ...........................................
IV............. ................................

995
768
623
163

2,617
2,979
3,707
9,668

2,707
3,000
3,693
9,525

2,392
2,6 9 2
3,9 1 5
9,9 0 5

2,765
3,299
3,917
9,898

31,935
35,693
99,979
56,316

32,487
36,001
43,716
54,300

28,134
31,699
40,984
52,855

33,180
39,985
4 7,304
58,177

I ......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................

1,821
3 ,125
9,069
2,5 5 9

1,369
1,651
2,039
2 ,9 5 7

1,333
1,629
2,000
2,3 9 8

1,250
1,96 1
1,796
2,179

1 ,958
1,83 3
2,299
2,709

15,368
19,816
29,912
29,983

15,996
19,492
24,000
28,776

14,994
17,531
21,551
26,153

17,493
21,991
25,983
32,445

8,353
8,611
7,798
3,775

1,396
1,501
1,787
2 , 190

1,333
1,983
1,799
2,100

1,291
1,913
1,625
1,905

1 ,3 9 9
1,583
1,916
2,325

15,157
18,017
21,993
25,686

15,996
17,793
20,992
25,203

15,494
16,958
19,497
22,859

16,793
13,992
22,991
27,901

179
905
655
936

1,911
1,529
1,900
2,399

1,302
1,979
1,835
2,395

1,255
1,333
1,650
2, 129

1,93 0
1 ,6 8 8
2,026
2,692

16,933
18,392
22,933
28 , 725

15,620
17,693
22,320
28,140

15,060
15,994
1 9,800
25,490

17,160
2 3,255
24,3 1 2
31,701

877
1,792
727
319

2,3 9 1
2 ,926
3,616
9,519

2,199
2,833
3,590
9,562

2,09 1
2 ,625
3,332
3 ,895

2,629
3,276
3,883
5 , 165

28,090
35,108
93,389
59,229

26,389
33,991
43,083
54,747

24,490
31,500
39,984
46,740

31,487
39,309
46,596
61,975

1,565
2,296
3,013
2,959
1,506
656

1,865
2,391
3,0 3 6
3,799
9,598
5,581

1,792
2,291
2,998
3,685
9,998
5,329

1,629
2,100
2.657
3 ,332
9,092
9,83 3

2,083
2,579
3,333
9 , 109
5,050
6,099

22,383
28,0 8 7
36,931
9 9 , 988
55,172
55,979

21,509
27,489
35,977
44,220
53.978
63,948

1 9,553
25,200
32,004
39,984
48,504
57,996

2 4,990
3 0,383
39,996
49,305
53,533
73,186

5,669
16,183
15,095
5,217

1,369
1,696
2 , 119
2,559

1 ,3 2 9
1,656
2,080
2,999

1,203
1,500
1,86 0
2,239

1,990
1 ,8 9 1
2.303
2,80 1

16,372
23,358
25,930
30 , 649

15,948
19,872
24,960
29,928

1 4,435
18,000
22,320
26,858

17,384
22,392
27,636
33,512

I .......................................................................
I I ....................................................................
I I I ...................................................................
I V . . . .............................................................
V . ................ ....................................................
V I .....................................................................
V I I ..................................................................

3 , 182
5,3 7 0
9,920
9,526
7,196
3,333
1,907

1,519
1,757
2,131
2,585
3,056
3,511
9,060

1,500
1 ,7 2 9
2, 105
2,579
3,036
3,900
3,875

1,37 9
1,55 0
1, 907
2,338
2,799
3 , 193
3,660

1 ,691
1,929
2,333
2.792
3,331
3,783
9,298

18,226
21,083
2 5 , 571
31,024
36,571
92 , 136
48,720

18,000
20,692
25,260
30,888
36,427
40,800
46,500

1 5,493
18,720
22,881
28,057
32,987
37,715
43,923

1 9 , 6 92
23,391
27,995
33,504
39,611
45,391
50,980

I ........................................... ........................
I I . . . . . . ...................................................
I I I ...................................................
I V .................................................................
V . . ............. ................................................
V I . . . . . . ........... .......................................
V I I . . . ........................................................
V I I I . . ............................... ........................

2 6,302
93,509
96,117
123,598
91,396
93,900
1 9 ,0 0 1
2,661

1,8 1 9
1 ,9 7 6
2,236
2,618
3,065
3,557
9,109
9,730

1,810
1,955
2,200
2,591
3,090
3,505
9,065
9,699

1,695
1,810
2,019
2,3 6 8
2,779
3, 225
3 ,7 0 5
9,2 7 0

1,925
2,123
2, 921
2,8 5 0
3,390
3,829
9 ,929
5,191

21,766
23,718
26 , 827
31,916
36,786
42 . 679
49,307
56,762

21,720
23,463
26,400
31,088
36,480
42,060
48,780
55,790

20,335
21,720
24,163
28,415
33,287
38,700
44,463
51,240

23,100
25,476
29,056
34,204
40,080
45,950
53,149
61,692

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIEF
CHIEF

I ................................................................
I I ............................ ...............
III....„ = ..................
I V .........................
V ..........................
V I...,,,,,,,.,,.,.,,,,.,,,,

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

AUDITORS
AUDITOBS
AUDITORS
AUDITOBS
PUBLIC
PUBLIC
PUBLIC
PUBLIC

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I ..............................................
I I ............................................
I I I .........................................
IV............................................

PEBSONNEL HANAGEHENI
JOB
JOB
JOB
JOB

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I .............................................................
I I .................................................
I I I ........................................................
I V . . . ...................................................

DIRECTOBS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS
DIRECTORS

OF
OF
OF
OF

PERSONNEL
PEBSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

I ....................................
I I .......................... ..
I I I ...............................
I V ..................................

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTOBNEYS

I . . . ....................... ...................... ..............
II...........................
I I I ..........................
I V . ................................................................
V...................................................................
V I ..................................................................

ATTORNEYS

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ..................................- - .....................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I ........................................................................
I V ..........................................................................
CHEMISTS AND ENGINEEB5

CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
CHEHISTS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEEBS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEEBS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

See footnotes at end of table.




13

T able 2. C on tinu ed —A verage salaries: M etro p o litan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1981)
___
'
' _________________________ ________________________________
___________________
'
MONTHLY

o cc u p atio n

AND

LEVEL2/

NU MBE R
OF

SA LA H IES4/

M ID D LE

e m pl o y e e s

;}/

ME AN

A N N UA L

HEAN
FIR ST
2U A R TILE

TECHNICA L
E N G IN EER IN G
EN G IN EER IN G
EN G IN EER IN G
EN G IN EEB IN G
EN G IN EER IN G

H IBDLE

H5NGE5/

M EDIAN

3ANGE5/

MEDIAN

THIRD
QUA RTILE

F IR ST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

SUPPOEI

T EC H N ICIA N S
TECHNICIANS
TEC H N ICIA N S
TEC H N ICIA N S
TECHNICIANS

$ 1 3 ,3 4 8
1 5 ,5 3 8
1 7 ,8 8 0
2 1 ,3 2 5
2 4 ,3 4 9

I ............... ..............................
I I ..........................................
I I I .......................................
I T ...........................................
V ..............................................

5 ,2 5 3
1 6 ,9 6 0
2 8 ,0 3 6
33, 147
1 8 ,3 4 0

$ 1 ,1 4 7
1 ,3 1 1
1 ,5 3 1
1 ,8 0 7
2 ,0 5 7

$ 1 ,1 1 2
1 ,2 9 5
1 ,4 9 0
1 ,7 7 7
2 ,0 2 9

$999
1, 160
1 ,3 3 8
1 ,6 3 0
1 ,8 6 5

$ 1 ,2 5 0
1 ,4 3 4
1 ,6 8 0
1 ,9 6 4
2 ,2 2 9

$ 1 3 ,7 6 3
1 5 ,7 3 8
1 8 ,3 7 2
2 1 ,6 8 2
2 4 ,5 3 8

DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

I ..................................................................................................
I I ..............................................................................................
I I I ..........................................................................................
I V ..............................................................................................
V - ................................ . ..........................................................

2 ,5 7 4
1 0 ,9 2 5
2 1 ,2 1 1
2 3 ,2 9 9
1 8 ,7 2 4

932
1 ,0 8 0
1 ,3 0 7
1 ,6 2 0
2 ,0 2 3

900
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,2 7 7
1 ,5 8 2
1 ,9 7 5

840
95 0
1 ,1 5 2
1 ,4 2 0
1, 7 3 3

978
1 , 183
1 ,4 2 5
1 ,7 8 3
2 ,2 5 7

11, 180
1 2 ,9 5 6
1 5 ,5 8 3
1 9 ,4 3 7
2 4 ,2 7 5

1
1
1
1
2

COHPUTER
C OMPU TER
C OM PU TE R
C OM PU TE R
C OM PU TER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

5 ,6 4
1 1 ,3 0
2 6 ,2 9
1 5 ,4 0
3 ,3 4

4
8
5
8
8

906
1 ,0 6 1
1 ,2 2 5
1 ,4 7 9
1 ,7 3 0

882
1 ,0 1 9
1, 182
1 ,4 2 5
1 ,6 7 0

80 2
921
1, 0 4 3
1 ,2 5 8
1 ,4 6 4

991
1 ,1 5 1
1 ,3 4 0
1 ,6 2 9
1 ,9 2 5

10, 867
1 2 ,7 2 8
1 4 ,7 0 1
1 7 ,7 4 3
2 0 ,7 6 0

468
639
380

1 ,4 1 6
1 ,722
1 ,9 8 5

1 ,4 3 7
1 ,7 1 1
1 ,9 3 4

1 ,1 2 4
1 ,5 3 4
1 ,7 3 8

1 ,6 4 1
1 ,9 1 0
2, 238

48
26
44
19

796
955
1 ,1 2 3
1 ,4 0 6

760
915
1 ,0 8 0
1 ,3 5 0

687
808
950
1 ,1 7 3

2 4 ,8 9 4
1 0 ,7 9 8
3 ,6 0 2

695
819
970

665
760
904

I ...........................................................
I I ........................................................

6 2 ,0 8 7
3 7 ,7 8 5

890
1 ,0 8 1

M E S S E N G E R S .................................................................................................

PHOTOGRAPHERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS

S A L A R IB S4/

I ...............................................................
I I ............... ... .........................................
I I I ........................................................
I V ............................................................
V ............................................ .................

I I .............................................................................
I I I .........................................................................
I V .............................................................................

0
2
5
8
3

,8 0 1
,6 0 0
,3 2 9
,9 8 4
,7 0 0

$1
1
2
2
2

$ 1 1 ,9 9 2
1 3 ,9 2 1
1 5 ,0 5 5
1 9 ,5 6 3
2 2 ,3 8 2
1 0 ,0
1 1 ,4
1 3 ,8
1 7 ,0
2 0 ,7

5
7
0
3
6

,0
,2
,1
,5
,7

00
06
50
68
48

8
0
2
4
9

0
0
4
0
6

1 1 ,7 3 2
1 4 ,1 9 4
1 7 ,1 0 2
2 1 ,3 9 1
2 7 ,0 8 9

1 0 ,5 8 4
1 2 ,2 2 8
1 4 ,1 8 2
1 7 ,1 0 0
2 0 ,0 4 4

9 ,6 2
1 1 ,0 5
1 2 ,5 1
1 5 ,0 9
1 7 ,5 6

0
4
4
4
3

1 1 ,3 9 2
1 3 ,8 1 7
1 6 ,0 8 0
1 9 ,5 5 2
2 3 ,0 9 8

1 5 ,9 9 5
2 0 , 564
2 3 ,8 1 4

1 7 ,2 4 7
2 0 ,5 3 2
2 3 ,2 0 2

1 3 ,4 9 4
1 8 ,4 0 5
2 0 ,8 5 5

1 9 ,6 9 2
2 2 ,9 2 1
2 5 ,3 5 5

850
1 ,0 3 8
1 ,2 4 9
1 ,6 0 0

9 ,5 5 4
1 1 ,4 6 0
13, 472
1 6 ,8 7 7

9 ,1 2 5
1 0 ,9 8 0
1 2 ,9 5 6
1 6 ,2 0 0

8 ,2
9 ,6
1 1 ,4
1 4 ,0

1
1
1
1

608
69 1
80 2

741
865
1 ,0 5 4

8 ,3 4 1
9, 831
1 1 ,6 4 6

7 ,9 8 2
9 ,1 2 5
1 0 ,8 4 5

7 ,2 9 7
8 ,2 9 0
9 ,5 2 8

8 ,8 9 1
1 0 ,3 8 0
1 2 ,5 4 3

845
1 ,0 2 5

743
895

981
1 ,2 0 2

1 0 ,6 8 2
1 2 ,9 7 5

1 0 ,1 4 0
1 2 ,3 0 5

8 ,9 1 4
1 0 ,7 4 1

1 1 ,7 7 3
1 4 ,4 2 4

CLER IC A L
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
F IL E
FIL E
F IL E
KEY
KEY

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
ENTRY
ENTRY

I .......................................................................................
I I ................................................................................ ...
I I I ................................................................................

OPERATORS
OPERATORS

27
75
54
21

,9
,7
,4
,0

3
9
0
7

8
8
0
8

0
2
4
9

,2
,4
,9
,2

0
5
8
0

0
6
3
0

1 4 ,8 4 0

779

725

652

84 9

9 ,3 5 1

8 ,7 0 0

7 ,8 2 2

I ................................
I I .............................
I I I ..........................
I V . . . . . . . . .
V . . . . . . . ____

2 ,0 4 7
4 , 1 84
3 ,1 8 5
1 ,6 7 9
3 84

1
1
1
1

913
,0 7 1
,1 8 9
,4 1 0
,6 6 3

874
,0 0 8
,1 6 6
,3 2 5
,6 4 9

79 0
916
1 ,0 4 3
1 ,2 3 0
1 ,4 7 5

9B8
1 , 175
1 ,2 9 7
1 ,5 0 4
1 ,7 9 0

1 0 ,9 5 0
12, 850
1 4 ,2 6 5
1 6 ,9 2 3
1 9 ,9 5 2

1 0 ,4 9 1
1 2 ,0 9 6
1 3 ,9 9 4
1 5 ,9 0 6
1 9 ,7 9 2

9 ,4 8 0
1 0 ,9 9 6
1 2 ,5 1 5
1 4 ,7 6 0
1 7 ,7 0 0

I .....................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I ..............................................

4 ,1 8 7
3 ,6 3 1
1 ,7 6 2

1 ,0 1 9
1 ,2 9 1
1 ,6 6 2

982
1 ,2 0 8
1 ,5 7 5

87 5
1 ,0 7 3
1 ,4 0 3

1 ,0 8 4
1 ,4 5 6
1 ,8 3 0

12, 227
1 5 ,4 9 8
1 9 ,9 4 2

1 1 ,7 8 4
1 4 ,4 9 4
1 8 ,8 9 6

1 0 ,5 0 0
1 2 ,8 7 9
1 6 ,8 3 1

1 3 ,3 0 8
1 7 ,4 7 2
2 1 ,9 6 1

I .......................................................................................
I I ....................................................................................
I I I ................................................................................
I V ....................................................................................

V................................................................

5 9 ,1 7 9
5 5 ,4 3 8
1 0 0 ,5 7 6
4 0 ,8 2 2
2 2 ,2 3 5

1 ,0 8 1
1 ,1 4 3
1 ,3 0 3
1 ,4 1 0
1 ,6 3 8

1 ,0 2 5
1 ,1 2 1
1 ,2 5 5
1 ,3 9 0
1 ,6 0 1

900
996
1 ,1 0 0
1 ,2 1 3
1 ,3 9 0

1 ,1 8 2
1 ,2 7 5
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,5 8 5
1 ,8 5 1

1 2 ,9 7 3
13, 778
1 5 ,5 3 1
1 6 ,9 1 6
1 9 ,6 5 6

1 2 ,3 0 0
1 3 ,4 5 5
1 5 ,0 6 0
1 6 ,6 8 5
1 9 ,2 1 4

1 0 ,8 0 3
1 1 ,9 5 7
1 3 ,2 0 0
1 4 ,5 5 7
1 6 ,6 8 5

1 4 ,1 3 2
1 5 ,3 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0
1 9 ,3 1 6
2 2 ,2 1 2

I ................................................................................
I I . . . . . . ............... ....................... ...

1 5 ,9 3 2
1 3 ,5 7 7

1 ,0 9 6
1 ,3 0 8

1 ,0 4 1
1 ,3 1 6

87 5
1 ,0 7 5

1 ,2 9 3
1 ,5 2 5

1 3 ,1 4 7
1 5 ,7 0 2

1 2 ,4 9 3
1 5 ,7 9 2

1 0 ,4 9 5
1 2 ,9 0 0

1 5 ,5 1 2
1 3 ,3 0 1

I .....................................................................................................
I I ......................................................................... .......................

3 5 ,9 7 5
2 0 ,5 7 8

829
1 ,0 2 9

780
956

697
82 6

891
1 ,1 5 8

9 ,9 4 4
1 2 ,3 4 7

9 ,3 5 6
1 1 ,4 7 1

8 ,3 6 4
9 ,9 0 7

1 0 ,6 8 9
1 3 ,8 9 8

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C LER K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S

PURCHA SING
PURCHASING
PURCHA SING
SEC R E T A R IE S
S EC R ETA R IE S
SE C R E T A R IE S
SEC R E T A R IE S
S ECR ETA R IE S

A SSISTA NTS
A SSISTA NTS
A SSISTA NTS

STENOGRAPHERS
STENOGRAPHERS
TY PIST S
TY P IS T S

I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I ...............................................................
I I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I V ................................ ... ...........................

1 For scope of study, s e e table A-1 In appendix A.
Occupational definitions appear In appendix C.
s Occupational employment estimates relate to the total In all establishments within the
scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see ap­
pendix A.
* Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; l.e., the straight2




1
1
1
1

1 0 ,1 8 8
.

1 1 ,3 5 1
1 4 ,1 0 0
1 5 ,5 5 9
1 8 ,0 4 3
2 1 ,4 8 0

time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-llving payments and Incentive earnings are
Included.
‘ The middle range (Interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

i-.1

14

Tabs® 3. Aw©rag© saflairi® Establishments <gm ]fing 25
g!“
pS@
i00 workers or mor©
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)

HONTHLY SALARIES5/
MIDDLE RANGE6/
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3/

HUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES!/

MEDIAN
FIRST
QUARTILE

THIRD
QUARTILE

$1,337
1,6 0 8
1,8 1 6
2,182
2, 674
3,320

$1,657
2 , 161
2 , 375
2,749
3 , 260
3, 930

LEVELS IN ESTABLISHBENTS
EMPLOYING 2 , 5 0 0 rIORKERS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED
lEMPLO YHEHT

BEAN
SALARIES

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I ..................................................................
I I ................................................................
I I I ...................................... . ....................
I V . . . . . ____ . . . . . . . ....... .............. ..
V . . . . . . ...................................................
VI.................. ............................. ..............

3,377
7,352
8,969
6,650
2,997
722

$1,500
1,380
2,098
2 , 4 80
2,999
3,675

$1,460
1,860
2,0 7 8
2,4 5 0
2,970
3, 575

25
33
26
31
35
47

109
112
107
103
132
101

113

3,562

3,4 6 7

3,285

3,802

17

95

561
1,020
1,672
1,154

1,433
1 , 7 81
2,142
2 , 5 81

1,391
1,737
2, 135
2,572

1,256
1,542
1, 897
2,249

1,55 0
1,978
2,399
2,893

30
31
39
44

135
108
135
135

JOB ANAL?STS I I ...................................... ......................
JOB ANALYSTS I I I . . ---- . . . . . . . ----- . . . . . . . . .
JOB ANALYSTS I V . ....................... ..

168
352
325

1 ,6 7 0
1,976
2 , 4 13

1 ,6 4 1
1,883
2, 384

1,416
1,717
2, 188

1,857
2, 116
2,608

40
53
73

110
104
131

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I I I .................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I V . . . .............................

117
162

3,899
4,8 4 6

3,907
4 , 916

3,435
4,226

4,307
5,375

14
46

1 39
108

329
689
98 9
904
696
323

2,138
2,520
3 ,1 44
3,861
4,707
5,759

2, 193
2,529
3,116
3,750
4,607
5,583

1, 917
2,249
2,798
3,382
4,167
5 ,0 8 1

2, 416
2,725
3,424
4,240
5, 198
5,350

21
29
32
36
44
48

114
133
134
103
133
133

1 ,0 5 4
4,803
6,282
3,117

1 ,5 3 4
1,826
2,213
2 , 5 12

1,460
1,766
2,157
2, 540

1,328
1,586
1,915
2 , 259

1,687
2,003
2,457
2,925

16
25
36
56

114
133
135
102

I . . . . . ........................................ .............. ..
I I ................ ......................................................
I I I .......................................................... ..
I V ......................................................................
V .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V I.............................
V I I . . ................................................................

607
1,891
3,524
3,832
3 , 161
1 ,5 6 4
693

1,702
1,870
2,251
2,700
3,125
3,597
4,153

1,700
1,846
2,235
2, 685
3,065
3,4 1 7
3,700

1, 519
1,626
1,960
2, 427
2,750
3,145
3, 648

1,865
2,090
2,525
2,950
3,417
3,9 5 0
4 , 419

17
31
30
34
36
41
43

113
136
135
1 05
102
133
102

I ....................... ...............................................
I I ....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V...... .................................................................
V I..................................................................
V I I .................. ...............................................
V I I I ........................................... ...................

13,596
21,53 6
49,462
70,265
56,684
27,270
10,269
1,795

1,342
2 , 0 22
2,283
2,667
3,090
3,564
4,124
4,790

1,830
1,999
2,2 5 0
2 , 647
3,065
3,519
4, 075
4,680

1,715
1,862
2,053
2, 403
2,794
3,249
3, 737
4,345

1,950
2 , 157
2,490
2 , 922
3,366
3,816
4 , 430
5 , 033

48
45
46
52
58
50
71
54

132
103
102
132
131
130
100
131

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I I I . . . . . ............. ...................
AUDITORS
AUDITOBS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS

I ..............................
I I ................................... ..................................
I I I . ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I V ........ .....................................................
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS

I . . . . . . . . ........ ....................................... ..
I I .................. .................................................
I I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... ..
IV .....................................................................
V . . . ...............................................................
V I . . . . ..........................................................
BUYERS

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ...............................................................................
I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___. . . . . .
I I I ..........................................................................
I V . . . . . . . . . ........... ..
CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS

CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

See footnotes at end of table.




15

Table 3. Continued—Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment ana average monthly salaries tor selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)
H O N T H LY

O CC U PA TIO N

AND

LEVEL3/

NUMBER
OF
EM PLO Y EES!*/

S A LA R IES5 /
M IDDLE

H EA N

M EDIAN
F IR ST
2UARTILE

TECHNICA L
E N G IN EER IN G
EN G IN EER IN G
E N G IN EER IN G
E N G IN EER IN G
EN G IN EER IN G
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS
DRAFTERS

RANGE6/

THIRD
2 OARTILE

LEVELS I N EST A B L IS H B E ST S
E M PLOYIN G 2 , 5 0 0
BOBKBRS
OR S O R E E X P R E S S E D AS
P E R C E N T O F T H O S E I N ALL
E S T A B L IS H B E N T S COH BIH ED

EMPLOYMEN T

MEAN
SA LA R IES

SUPPORT

T E C H N ICIA N S
TEC H N ICIA N S
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

I .................... ...........................
I I ..............................................
I I I ..........................................
I V ..............................................
V ....................... .......................

I ...................................................................... . ...........................
I I .................................................................................................
I I I ..............................................................................................

2 ,5 0 2
7 ,3 8 4
1 3 ,9 1 9
1 8 ,8 6 7
1 3 ,5 5 9

$ 1 ,2 0 6
1 ,3 79
1 ,5 7 2
1 ,3 2 9
2 ,0 6 2

$ 1 , 184
1 ,3 4 0
1 ,5 3 1
1 ,7 9 4
2 ,0 4 1

$ 1 , 032
1 ,2 1 1
1 ,3 6 6
1, 6 4 7
1 ,8 8 3

$ 1 ,3 3 0
1 ,5 2 0
1 ,7 5 5
2 ,0 0 5
2 ,2 3 0

42
39
95
53
71

105
106
103
101
131

648
,0 3 3
,0 7 4
,9 3 4
,1 7 9

1 ,0 0 9
1 ,1 8 5
1 ,4 4 5
1 ,7 0 5
2 ,0 8 1

957
1 , 156
1, 392
1 ,6 6 8
2, 008

875
1, 021
1, 237
1 ,4 7 4
1,' 7 6 6

1 ,0 4 1
1 ,3 4 2
1 ,6 1 4
1 ,9 0 0

109
110
111
106
103

DRAFTERS

V .....................................................................................................

3
6
7
9

2 j 33 9

23
24
25
30
46

C O M PU TER
C O M PU TER
COMPUTER
CO M PU TER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

I ..................................................................
I I ...............................................................
I I I ...........................................................
I V ..............................................................
V ..................................................................

1 ,8 2 7
3 ,2 5 4
7 ,9 1 9
6 ,0 7 1
1 ,8 4 3

1 ,0 0 5
1 ,2 0 3
1 ,3 8 6
1 ,6 3 2
1 ,3 6 0

992
1, 184
1 ,3 2 7
1 ,5 7 5
1 ,8 5 9

869
1, 009
1 ,1 6 1
1 ,3 9 5
1, 605

1 ,0 9 8
1 ,3 7 4
1 ,5 1 5
1 ,8 2 7
2 ,0 0 3

30
25
27
36
52

111
115
114
111
107

I I ................................................... ...........................
I I I . .........................................................................
I V ......................... .....................................................

224
371
333

1 ,5 4 4
1 ,7 3 1
1 ,9 0 4

1 ,5 7 0
1 ,7 1 1
1 ,8 4 7

1, 312
1 ,5 2 4
1 ,6 1 3

1 ,7 6 1
1 ,9 0 2
2 ,2 0 1

42
53
74

133
102
99

I I .......................................
I I I ...............................................................
I V ..................................................................

1 4 ,7 8 2
1 3 ,0 5 6
8 ,1 6 6

1 ,1 0 6
1 ,2 6 6
1 ,5 8 4

1 ,0 3 4
1 ,2 3 8
1 ,5 2 5

904
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,3 5 5

1 ,2 9 4
1 ,4 1 5
1 ,8 2 0

17
22
35

115
113
113

I ..........................................................................................
I I .......................................................................................
I I I .................................................... ..............................

2 ,7 6 2
2 ,5 0 2
1, 188

751
924
1 ,0 4 7

700
817
934

639
708
810

795
1, 051
1 ,2 5 2

10
21
31

107
113
137

I ...............................................................
I I ...........................................................

1 1 ,3 6 2
1 1 ,5 4 0

1 ,0 7 5
1 ,2 1 3

1 ,0 0 5
1 ,1 2 1

847
962

1 ,2 3 6
1 ,4 0 5

16
28

121
112

M E S S E N G E R S .....................................................................................................

4 ,7 2 5

354

769

683

939

30

109

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

I . . . . .....................
I I . . . ......................
I I I . . . . . . . . .

275
1 ,0 5 3
549

1 ,0 4 3
1 ,1 9 0
1 ,3 8 1

982
1, 151
1 ,3 5 9

843
966
1 ,1 7 3

1 , 195
1 ,3 6 7
1 ,5 7 5

11
21
14

116
112
116

I ........................................................
I I ....................................................
I I I .................................................

741
1 ,2 8 2
1 ,1 8 2

1 ,2 1 9
1 ,4 5 8
1 ,7 7 4

1 ,2 0 4
1, 4 30
1 ,6 7 2

966
1, 141
1, 500

1 ,4 2 2
1 ,7 1 0
1 ,9 9 6

14
30
62

122
114
103

I ..........................................................................................
I I ............................ - .....................................................
I I I ...................................................................................
I V .......................................................................................
V ..........................................................................................

1 7 ,9 4 9
2 0 ,8 8 6
4 0 ,9 0 9
1 4 ,6 8 0
8 ,5 9 1

1 ,2 3 0
1 ,2 2 6
1 ,4 1 8
1 ,5 3 5
1 ,7 8 2

1, 125
1 ,1 9 1
1 ,3 6 5
1 ,5 2 5
1 ,7 6 6

978
1 ,0 7 4
1, 183
1 ,3 4 7
1 ,5 3 2

1 ,4 3 5
1 ,3 4 0
1 ,6 1 6
1 ,7 1 2
2 ,0 1 0

28
34
38
34
37

114
107
109
109
109

I . . . . . ..................................................................
I I ................................................................................

8 ,9 8 2
7 ,7 2 0

1 ,1 2 2
1 ,3 7 5

1 ,0 5 5
1, 3 9 2

889
1, 170

1 ,3 1 4
1 ,5 6 8

52
52

102
105

I ........................................................................................................
I I ................................................................. ...

8 ,5 5 8
8 ,6 8 1

9 24
1 ,1 2 5

856
1 ,0 5 5

751
882

1 ,0 2 5
1 ,3 3 5

22
40

111
109

PHOTOGRAPHERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
PHOTOGRAPHERS

CLER IC A L
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
FIL E
F IL E
F IL E
KEY
K EY

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
ENTRY
ENTRY

OPERATORS
OPERATORS

C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S
C L E R K S/A S S IS T A N T S

PURCHA SING
PURCHASING
PURCHASING
SE C R E T A R IE S
SEC R E T A R IE S
SEC R E T A R IE S
SE C R E T A R IE S
SEC R E T A R IE S

A SSISTA N TS
A SSISTA N TS
A SSISTA N TS

STENOGRAPHERS
STENOGRAPHERS
TY PIST S
T Y P IS T S

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 In appendix A.
2 Includes data from a few large companies that provide company-wide data not Identified by
size of .establishment.
3 Occupational definitions appear In appendix C.
4 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total In all establishments within the
scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see ap-




5 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; l.e., the straighttime salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and Incentive earnings are
included.
•The middle range (Interquartile) Is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

16

Tafol© 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, escept Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1B81)

ACC00NTANTS

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS

M
ONTHLY SALARY
I

II

IV

III

V

I

-

-

$1, 00 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$1 ,1 00
$ 1 ,1 50
$1, 20 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
ONDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 . . ------. . .
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ....................

1.5
3. 4
3.5
6 .0
1 1.0

(1-2)
1. 4
2. 3

_
-

$1 ,2 50
$1 ,3 00
$1 ,3 50
$1 ,4 0 0
$1 ,4 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEH
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 . . . ............
$ 1 ,5 0 0 ....................

10.3
11. 7
8 .9
9. 4
8. 0

2.8
3. 7
4.8
6. 1
8. 1

$1,500
$1 ,5 5 0
$1 ,6 00
$1 ,6 5 0
$1 ,7 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 . . ___ . . .
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ...................

5. 2
5 .0
3. 8
2 .4
2 .0

9. 9
7.2
6.3
6.7
5. 1

3.
3.
3.
5.
6.

$1 ,7 50
$1 ,8 00
$1 ,8 50
$1 ,9 00
$1 ,9 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ...................
$ 1 ,9 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ...................

1. 2
1.3
(2.9)
-

5.0
4.6
3.4
2.9
2. 0

5. 1
7.7
5. 1
6.8
6. 2

1.2
1.9
1.7
2.5
3.3

_
_
-

$2 ,0 00
$2 ,0 50
$ 2 ,1 00
$2 ,1 50
$2 ,2 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ....................

2. 1
2. a
1. 9
1. 6
2 .3

5.0
5.8
3.9
3.5
3.3

4.6
5.1
4.3
4. 6
5.5

_
(2.8)
1.7

$2 ,2 50
$2 ,3 00
$2 ,3 50
$2 ,4 00
$2 ,4 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$2, 300....................
$ 2 ,3 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ....................

-

1.0
3.0
(2. 2)
-

3. 1
3.5
2.2
1. 9
2.0

5.5
6.5
5.0
5.0
5.2

1. 5
1.6
2.9
2.3
4.0

_
_
-

$2 ,5 00
$ 2 ,6 00
$2 ,7 00
$2 ,8 00
$2 ,9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0 ________ _
$ 2 ,7 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 3 ,0 0 0 ....................

—
-

-

9. 1
6.9
5.7
3.8
4.6

7.0
7.9
8.7
9.0
10.0

$ 3 ,0 00
$3 ,1 00
$3 ,2 00
$3 ,3 00
$3 ,4 00

A’ D
N
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 . . . ............
$3, 300...................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ...................

2.4
1.2
(2.4)
-

$3,500
$3 ,6 0 0
$3, 700
$3 ,8 00
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 . ............ ..
$3, 900....................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ....................

~

2. 6
2. 5
(1-6)
_
-

-

$4 ,0 0 0
$4, 100
$4 ,2 0 0
$4 ,3 0 0
$4, 400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEH
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 __________
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ...................

-

$4 ,5 0 0
$4, 60 0
$ 4 ,7 00
$ 4 ,8 00
$4 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 ,6 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 9 0 0 . . . _____
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ...................

$ 5 ,0 00
$5 ,1 0 0
$5, 20 0
$ 5 ,3 00
$ 5 ,4 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEH
UNDER
UNDER

UNDEB $ 1 , 0 0 0 .............................................

2. 5

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

~
-

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 5 ,2 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 . . ...............
$ 5 , 5 0 0 .................

-

_
-

-

$5 ,5 0 0 AND UNDER $ 5 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 5 ,6 00 AND UNDER $ 5 , 7 0 0 ....................

_
-

_
-

TOTAL

-

VI

-

_
(1. 8)
1.6
2.5

_
(1.8)

III

II

IV

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

-

~

~

-

-

-

-

-

~
-

-

-

-

_
_
-

-

~
-

2. 4
5.3
7.6
5.0
8.7

(0.9)
1.9
3.9
4.2

~
-

(0.4)
1.8
1.8
2.3

2. 1
7.8
26.0
12. 1
6.3

4.8
14. 1
8.5
5. 1
7.2

(0.3)
1.0
. 1
~
.4

8.3
7. 1
6.0
6.4
2.9

5. 3
3.6
8.6
9.9
8.2

1.5
5.6

13. 8
9.6
7. 4
8.3
3.0

4.8
5.7
2.7
7.6
14. 1

-

2. 6
1.8
1. 4
2.1
(1.9)

1 0. 4
9.1
6-6
3. 2
7.0

-

4. 2
1. 2
.5
-

-

-

8.6
7.7
8.6
9. 1
10.3

1.8
*

-

4.7
4. 3
3.4
2.3
1. 2

-

1. 4
(0 .1 )
-

5.7
.6
2.8
.4
.9

1.8
11.7
2.5
1.8
2 2. 1

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
-

-

5
7
3
2
5

-

2.6
(3 .4 )
-

4.0
. 1
. 1
-

12.3
4 .9
1.8
17.2
4.9

4. 2
_
-

7. 4
2.5

_
3.7
100 .0

—
_
-

_
-

-

-

_
_
(0.9)
4. 1
4.7

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

,

_
-

3. 7

.........................................

100. 0

10 0. 0

100 .0

100.0

100 .0

10 0 .0

100 .0

100. 0

100 .0

NUM
BER OF EMPLOYEES.............................

13 ,2 90

2 1 .9 7 5

3 4 ,4 5 0

2 1 ,3 26

8,488

1,5 39

680

938

672

163

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY......................

$ 1 ,3 7 7

$ 1 ,6 7 9

$1 ,9 6 2

$ 2 ,4 02

$2,928

$3,646

$ 2 ,6 31

$2,963

$3,708

$ 4 ,6 6 8

See footnotes at end of table.




17

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)

PDELIC ACCOUNTANTS

AUDITORS
MONTHLY SALARY
I

IV

III

II

III

II

I

IV

UNDER $ 1 , 0 0 0 .............................................

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$1 ,0 00
$1 ,0 50
$1, 100
$1, 150
$1 ,2 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ...................

1.8
3.9
8. 1
6. 2
7. 0

_
~
(1-0)
2. 1
2.0

_

-

=(0.4)
1. 4
1. 3
3.8
10.4

_
-

-

-

(1. 9)

~
“

$1 ,2 50
$1 ,3 00
$1,350
$1, 40 0
$1 ,4 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , ^ 0 0 ....................

9.8
17.3
6.5
12.2
5.0

3.6
2.6
3. 1
6.9
11.4

~
(1.0)
1. 4
2. 1

-

-

15.9
2 1 .6
21.5
10.3
4. 0

2.7
7.0
1 2. 5
1 4 .0
19.9

(0. 6)
1. 5
2. 8
3 .0

-

$1 ,5 00
$1 ,5 50
$1, 600
$1, 650
$1, 70 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ...................

4.2
4.7
3. 0
3.2
1.2

8.2
5.8
8.4
8.4
5.5

1 .8
2. 1
3.5
4. 6
3.3

(1.8)

4.6
3.7
(1.2)
",

10.9
9.0
7.4
5.0
3.7

5. 0
9. 0
8. 8
8.9
11.2

(1. 1)
2. 1
2. 4
1.3

$1, 750
$1, 80 0
$1 ,8 50
$1, 900
$1, 950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ....................
$1 , 9 5 0 ............ .......
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ....................

1. 6
.8
.3
.2
1. 0

2. 7
5 .9
3 .4
3. 2
5.7

4. 5
6.3
4. 8
7.7
5.8

1.8
2.3
.3
1. 1
5.2

“

3.0
1.4
( 1 .8 )

8. 6
7.9
5.8
5.0
6.0

6.8
5 .4
4.6
5.6
6.4

$2 ,0 00
$2, 050
$2 ,1 00
$2 ,1 50
$2 ,20 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEH
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ....................

(1.0)
-

2.3
1. 7
1.6
1.0

8 .3
4. 2
3. 8
6. 0
4. 2

3.5
2 .4
2.6
5 .4
7.9

_

-

“

7.9
5.7
6.2

_

3. 2
2.9
1.9
1.7
1.5

$2 ,2 50
$2, 300
$2, 350
$2, 400
$2 ,4 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 __________
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ....................

-

3.3
3.7
2. 3
3. 4
3. 3

5 .9
5 .3
4.7
4.0
5.7

-

-

1.5
(3. 2)
-

4 .6
5. 1
2.8
3.3
3. 6

$2 ,5 00
$2 ,60 0
$2 ,7 00
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEH
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ...................

-

-

-

-

8.0
6.4
5.3
5. 1
4.9

-

-

2.6
3. 0
1. 3
(1.7)
”

*
“

“

”

2 .6
2.9
2.4
2.5
1.3

_

-

-

2.6
3.2
4.3

-

-

-

(1-4)

~

~

$3 ,0 00 AND UNDER $ 3 , 1 0 0 ....................
$3, 100 AND UNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0 ....................
$3,200 AND OVER....................................

-

~

.5

.6
1. 1
(1.4)
“

-

-

_

"
-

-

"
-

-

5 .5

6. 6

.........................................

10 0. 0

100 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

10 0 .0

10 0 .0

100.0

100.0

NUM
BER OF EMPLOYEES.............................

1,8 49

3 , 25 1

4,313

2,649

8 ,4 4 3

8,721

7 ,8 6 8

3,875

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY......................

$ 1 ,3 6 4

$ 1 ,6 51

$2,033

$2 ,4 5 6

$1,344

$1,500

$ 1 ,7 86

$2,146

TOTAL

See footnotes at end of table.




18

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees In selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL

JOB ANALYSTS
M
ONTHLY SALARY
i

III

II

IV

I

III

II

$975 AND O DEB $ 1 , 0 0 0 ................. ..
N
$1, 05 0 AND 0NDEE $ 1 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 1 ,1 00 AND UNDER $ 1 , 1 5 0 ...................
$1, 15 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 2 0 0 ...................
$1, 20 0 AND DNDEH $ 1 , 2 5 0 ...................

3.9
.6
2.2
2.8
19.9

.

_

_

.

1 .9
3.8
1.9
5.2

~
-

“

“

“

$1, 25 0
$1, 300
$1 ,3 5 0
$1, 900
$1, 950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ...................

18.2
15.5
9.9
7.7
6. 1

9.0
11.6
9.7
7.3
8 .5

(2. 9)
1.8

“

-

-

*

-

$1, 50 0
$1, 55 0
$1, 60 0
$1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ...................

3.3
.6
.6
1.1

13.0
3.8
2. 8
5.0
4.0

3.9
5.9
10. 9
9. 9
6.6

(2.0)
2.2

_
9. 1
.9
1.6

-

$1, 75 0
$1, 800
$1, 85 0
$1, 900
$1 ,9 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ....................

.6
.6
.6
1. 7
.6

9.5
1. 7
.9
.9
2.9

9. 1
12. 0
6.9
3. 6
5.3

1. 3
1.1
.9
9.0
1.6

.6
.5
9.6
3.2
5.9

$2, 000
$2 ,0 5 0
$2, 10 0
$2, 150
$2, 20 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ....................

1.1
2.8
2 .2
.6
2 .8

.7
.9
.7
2. 1
(2 .8)

9.8
5. 1
5. 9
1. 9
1.9

6.3
2.5
2.9
3.8
8.3

11.9
5. 1
5. 1
6.9
3.2

( 1 .6 )
5.5

$2, 250
$2, 300
$2, 35 0
$2 ,9 0 0
$2, 950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 9 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ....................

_

-

. 8
. 5
.5
.5
.6

5. 1
8.9
5.9
9.7
5. 1

7.2
2.0
1. 1
3.7
5.6

2.9
2.8
1. 3
1. 9
9.8

1.7

$2, 50 0
$2 ,6 0 0
$2, 700
$2, 80 0
$2, 90 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

-

8.3
9.0
7.6
3. 1
3.3

3.5
5. 1
3.5
2.5
9. 1

9.2
9.8
1 3 .5
9.2
7.9

2.2
2.1
.7
9.8
9. 1

-

-

1. 8
.8
.6
2. 9
1. 1

$3, 00 0
$3, 10 0
$3, 20 0
$3, 30 0
$3, 90 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ...................

*

-

.6
-

3.3
.2
.9
2.5
(0. 7)

9.2
1. 6
1.7
“
2. 1

6.7
3.7
5.9
1 1 .2
2.5

2.7
9.9
9.9
7.5
11.2

~
6.3
9.7

$ 3 ,5 00
$3, 60 0
$ 3 ,7 00
$3, 80 0
$ 3 ,9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 3 . 9 0 0 ....................
$ 9 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

-

-

—

-

9.0
.7
3.9
1.0
1. 1

8.9
9. 0
7. 1
5. 9
9 .9

2.0
1.1
9. 8
11.9

$9, 00 0
$9 ,1 0 0
$9 ,200
$9, 300
$9 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 9 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 9 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 9 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 9 . 5 0 0 ...................

-

(1. 9)
-

1.1
3.6
3 .6
3. 1
2 .7

1.9
9.5
9.3
3. 1
1.7

$9,500
$9, 60 0
$9 ,7 0 0
$9, 800
$9, 90 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 9 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 9 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 9 , 9 0 0 . .................
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ...................

-

.2
1. 2
.9
1. 0
1.0

7. 1
7.9
.9
.6
3.7

$5,000
$5 ,1 0 0
$ 5 ,2 00
$5 ,3 0 0
$5 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ...................

-

9. 8
2.8
6.0
1.7
.6

$5 ,5 0 0
$5,600
$5 ,7 0 0
$5 ,8 0 0
$5 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 6 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

*

$6,000 AND UNDER $ 6 , 1 0 0 ....................
$6 ,200 AND UNDER $ 6 , 3 0 0 ....................

-

-

*

*

-

_

-

*

-

-

-

-

_
*
“

-

-

“

“

-

~
-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(0. 9)
-

“

*

-

-

-

“

“
_
-

-

"

_
*

-

-

-

“

-

*

-

_

~

-

-

-

-

_

IV

-

-

-

~
-

-

~
~
~

3. 1
2.3
1. 1
9. 3
2.0

_

-

~

1. 1
.3

*

TOTAL............................. - ..................

100.0

10 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100 .0

100 .0

100 .0

NUM
BER OP EMPLOYEES.............................

181

929

666

998

1,267

2 ,0 5 3

812

352

$1 ,9 12

$ 1 ,5 2 5

$1,900

$2,393

$ 2 ;3 2 1

$2,933

$3 ,5 7 9

$9,993

AVERAGE M
ONTHLY SALARY............. ..
See footnotes at end of table.




19

1 0 0 .0

Table 4. Continued—Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupation by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1081)

ATTORNEYS
I
UNDER $ 1 , 3 0 0 ................................. ............
$ 1 ,3 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$1, 35 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 4 0 0 ....................
$1, 40 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 4 5 0 ....................
$ 1 ,4 5 0 AND UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0 ....................

II
0.6
2.4
2.3
5. 0
2.3

III

IV

V

VI

_

_

_

_

_

“

-

_
-

-

$1 ,5 00
$1 ,5 50
$1 ,6 00
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$1, 700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 - .................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ....................

1 .5
7. 4
4. 4
9. 8
1 0.5

_
(2. 5)

_
-

$1 ,7 5 0
$1 ,8 00
$1, 85 0
$1 ,9 0 0
$1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ________ _
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ....................

3.8
4. 2
2. 4
4. 3
4.2

1. 9
3. 4
1. 3
1. 2
4. 9

$2 , 0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$2 ,1 00
$2 ,1 50
$ 2 ,2 0 0

and B
onder

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 _________
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 . . . .............

2. 3
8- 8
1.6
2. 4
6. 1

3.4
6. 4
5. 1
7. 1
9.8

_
(0.7)

$2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$2 ,3 5 0
$2 ,4 0 0
$2 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 __________
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ...................

2. 4
3 .0
.8
2. 3
1. 6

4. 1
6. 1
5. 2
3. 3
1.7

1.1
2.2
1.1
2.2
6.5

_
_
_
-

$2 ,5 00
$2 ,60 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$2 ,8 00
$2 ,9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ................. ..
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ....................

1.6
1. 1
(1.2)
-

11.4
6.0
6.7
2. 5
1. 8

6.3
6.9
7.2
6.4
11.4

(1.9)
1.1
1. 8
1.0
2 .4

_
_
_
_
0. 1

$3 ,0 00
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$3, 20 0
$3,30 0
$3, 400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
ONDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 __________
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ....................

“

1.7
1. 0
(1-7)
-

7.9
4.9
5.6
8.3
5. 1

4.2
7. 1
4. 9
7.6
6.3

1.8
2.8
.9
1.8
1.2

_

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$3 ,60 0
$3 ,7 00
$3 ,8 00
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ............ ..
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 __________
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ...................

-

-

*

6.0
1. 2
2.2
1.9
2.5

5.9
6. 2
9.2
5.9
6.7

1. 9
3.2
4.7
1. 8
3.8

(0.5)
2.4

$4 ,0 00
$4 ,1 00
$4 ,20 0
$4, 300
$4 ,4 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 . 1 0 0 _______ _ .
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ................. ..
$ 4 , 3 0 0 __________
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ....................

_
-

-

1.1
(1.0)
-

3.2
5. 4
4.2
3.4
.9

5.3
4.2
6.3
5.4
6.4

1.2
.3
.5
1.7
2.0

$ 4, 5 0 0
$4 ,60 0
$4 ,7 00
$ 4, 8 0 0
$4,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
ONDER
UNDER
ONDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 6 0 0 . ________
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 __________
$ 4 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

-

*

~

*

1.7
1.0
1.5
1.3
1. 5

6.9
3.3
3.8
4.2
» 1.8

1 .8
2 .6
3.6
1 1 .0
2 .0

$ 5 ,0 0 0
$5, 10 0
$5, 20 0
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$5, 40 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 ,1 0 0 .........
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ...................

_

( 3 .9 )
~

5.1
4.2
2.8
2.0
3.2

6.9
5.1
5. 1
6.3
2 .4

$5 ,5 00
$ 5 ,6 0 0
$ 5 ,7 0 0
$5 ,8 00
$ 5 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 7 0 0 ................. ..
$ 5 , 8 0 0 . .................
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 6 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

.7
.8
.9
.8
2.9

2.7
2.0
.6
5 .4
6.0

$ 6 ,0 0 0
$6 ,10 0
$ 6 ,2 0 0
$6, 300
$6 ,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 , 1 0 0 . .................
$ 6 , 2 0 0 ................. ..
$ 6 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 6 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 6 , 5 0 0 ....................

-

-

1. 0
(4 .1 )
~
-

3.6
2. 3
2.6
2.7
1. 1

$ 6 ,5 0 0
$6 ,6 00
$ 6 ,7 0 0
$6 ,8 00
$6 ,90 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 6 . 7 0 0 ...................
$ 6 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 6 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 7 , 0 0 0 ....................

_
-

-

-

*

.8
4.1
.3
1.1
1.1

$7 ,0 00
$ 7 ,1 0 0
$7 ,20 0
$7 ,30 0
$7 ,4 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 , 1 0 0 ________ _
$ 7 , 2 0 0 ............ .......
$ 7 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 7 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 7 , 5 0 0 ....................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.5
.2
1.5
.6
1. 4

$ 7 ,5 0 0
$7 ,60 0
$ 7 ,7 0 0
$7 ,80 0

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 7 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 7 , 8 0 0 ................. ..
$ 7 , 9 0 0 __________

$8 ,0 00 AND OVER............................. .........
TOTAL..................................................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

~
*
_
-

*
-

100. 0

~

-

-

-

-

100.0

100.0

*
100.0

_
-

10 0 .0

_
_
_
_
-

-

.3
.9
.2
.3
2.1
10 0. 0

NUM
BER OF EMPLOYEES...............- ...........

1, 58 6

2 ,4 1 0

3 ,1 3 5

2,535

1,5 8 7

666

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY......................

$1 ,8 73

$2,338

$3 ,0 31

$3,738

$4,566

$5,580

See footnotes at end of table.




20

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary. United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March ,1981)

BOYEHS
HONTHLY SALARY
II

I

IV

III

UNDER $92 5..................................................
$925 AND UNDER $950.............................
$950 AND UNDER $975______ ________
$975 AND UNDER $ 1 , 0 0 0 ........................

1 .2
1 .0
.6
1.4

_
-

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 . .................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ...................

4. 1
4.7
6.9
7.7
8 .4

-

_
-

(1.6)
2.1

-

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ...................

10.5
8.4
8.6
7.0
6.5

2.4
3.2
4. 8
5 .2
6- 1

_
(1 .0 )
1. 0

■

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ...................

5. 1
3.8
4 .0
2.6
1. 2

7 .7
7. 3
8.5
8.3
7.6

1.5
1.8
2.7
2.9
5.0

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1,85 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ...................

1. 5
1.1
.7
1. 2
( 1. 8 )

5 .4
6. 3
3. 5
3.4
3.7

4.6
5. 4
4.7
5.5
7.5

(1.9)
1.2
1.4
2. 4

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ....................

_
-

2. 6
2.3
1.1
1.2
1.2

5.5
5.5
4. 3
7.0
5. 3

2. 4
3.9
3.8
4. 8
4.4

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 __________

(4.6)
~

4.7
3.5
2.6
3. 1
1.9

4.2
5.8
4.5
4.7
6.4

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 . . . ............
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ....................

-

-

3. 1
2.8
2.2
1. 4
1. 5

9.5
7.4
6 .4
4. 5
6.2

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$3,200
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 3 , 1 0 0 ...................
UNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0 ....................
UNDER $ 3 , 3 0 0 ....................
UNDER $ 3 , 4 0 0 ....................
OVER ....................................

-

1.0
( 1 .0 )

4. 3
3.4
1.1
1 .7
3.6

-

“
-

~
-

-

“
-

“

-

TOTAL..................................................

1 0 0. 0

10 0 .0

100 .0

100 .0

NUM
BEH OF EMPLOYEES.............................

6.664

19 ,057

17 ,2 35

5 ,5 3 9

AVERAGE BCNTHIY SALARY......................

$ 1 ,3 5 0

$ 1 ,6 8 9

$ 2 ,1 0 0

$2,549

See footnotes at end of table.




21

Tab!© 4. Continued—Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)

CHE3ISTS

MONTHLY SALARY
I

II

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$1 ,1 0 0
$1 ,1 50
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEH
UNDEK
UNDER
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ..............................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 .............................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 .............................
$1 , 2 0 0 . ..........................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ...................

2.5
1.0
.8
4.8
5 .4

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$1,1*00
$1, 45 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 . ..........................
$ 1 , 3 5 0 .............................
$1,1*00 .............................
$ 1 , 4 5 0 .............................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 .............................

5.3
4. 1
7 .6
7.8
11 .5

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .............................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 .............................
$1 , 6 5 0 .............................
$1,700, .............................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 .............................

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDER
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$2 ,4 5 0

III

V

VI

-

(1.2)

-

-

1. 6
2. 1
3.3
3 .6
5. 9

_

_

_

-

_
_

(0. 9)

-

11.3
9. 1
5. 1
3 .4
3 .4

6. 1
7 .0
8.8
6.7
7.4

2. 1
2. 0
1.6
3.6
2.9

_

_

_

-

_
-

_
_
_

-

-

-

$ 1 , 8 0 0 .............................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 .............................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .............................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 .............................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 .............................

4 .4
2.7
3.3
1. 9
1. 8

6.8
5 .3
6. 1
5. 3
3 .8

2.9
5.1
3.8
6.7
6.0

(0.7)
1. 0
.4
1. 1
2.0

_

_

_

_
-

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

$ 2 , 0 5 0 .............................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 .............................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ...................

(2.7)

3. 1
3. 1
2.5
2. 2
1.7

5. 6
7.8
6.1
6. 1
4.5

2.0
1.3
2.3
3.7
4.2

_

_

-

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

-

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDER
ONDER
ONDEB

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ...................

_

2.0
1. 1
1.6
(1-6)

4. 8
4.7
3.0
3.7
3.3

5.0
4.4
6.3
3.8
6.4

(3 .0 )
1.6
1.3
2.5
2. 1

_
_
_

_
_

(0.7)

-

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$2 ,7 0 0
$2, 800
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 2 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ...................

_

_
-

1 1. 4
1 0. 7
9.9
6.0
5.3

5.1
7. 1
8.0
8. 1
8.8

1.0
1.4
2. 0
2.2
5.9

_

-

4. 1
2.9
2.5
1.5
(1. 7)

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$3 ,3 00
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDER
ONDEB

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 ...................

-

-

-

4.5
2. 1
1.7
1.0
(2-5)

7.7
8.7
1 0. 0
6.7
5.4

4. 8
14.7
1 1. 5
5. 8
9.7

(1. 1)
1. 5
3.3
1 .7

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
UNDER
UNDER
ONDEB

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ...................
$3, 900...................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ...................

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.7
2.6
2.3
1. 6
.9

6.6
5.4
5. 1
3.7
4.0

4. 0
22. 2
7. 6
6. 4
8.8

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
UNDER
ONDEB

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 . .................
$ 4 . 5 0 0 ...................

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1.2
( 2 .7 )

3.7
2.9
1. 4
1.1
1.4

8. 8
7. 6
5.5
2. 0
2. 2

$ 4 ,5 0 0
$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 ....................
$4900......................
$ 5 , 0 0 0 ...................

2. 8
2.2
.4
1.9
.4

$ 5 ,0 0 0
$ 5 ,1 0 0
$ 5 ,2 0 0
$5, 300
$ 5 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDER
ONDER
ONDEB

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ...................

-

$ 5 ,5 0 0 AND ONDEB $ 5 , 6 0 0 .................
$ 5 ,6 0 0 AND OVER...................................

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

VII

-

-

-

IV

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

_

(5.2)

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

~

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

~

~

_

_
_

_

_
_
_

-

_

_

_
_
_

-

_

-

-

_

2.2
.9
.9
.4
.5
1.1
3. 6

_

TOTAL..................................................

100 .0

10 0 .0

100.0

100 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.............................

3,4 91

6 , 131

11 ,6 8 6

1 1,221

8,708

3 ,7 8 8

1 ,6 2 2

AVERAGE M
ONTHLY SALARY......................

$ 1 ,5 0 8

$1,757

$2,120

$ 2 ,5 67

$3,055

$3 ,4 9 3

$ 4 ,0 7 0

See footnotes at end of table.




22

1 0 0. 0

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 188J)

ENGINEERS
I
OHDEE $ 1 , 3 0 0 .............................................
$1 ,300 AND UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0 ...................
$1 ,3 50 AND UNDER $ 1 , 4 0 0 ...................
$1, 400 AND ONDES $1,1(50....................
$1 ,4 50 AND UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0 ....................

III

II

_

V

IV

VII

VI

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

■

0. 9
1. 6
.9
1.4
2.0

(2. 0)

“

~

VIII
_
“

_
■

$1 ,5 00
$1 ,5 50
$1 ,6 0 0
$1, 650
$1 ,7 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 __________
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ....................

3.5
3.3
5. 1
7.8
10.5

1.6
1.5
2.6
3.3
5.3

(1.2)
1.0
1.2

"

-

-

"

$1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 00
$1 ,8 50
$1 ,9 00
$ 1 ,9 50

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 . . ............ ..
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 ...................

9.7
13.4
9.7
7.9
6.6

6.8
8.3
8.3
9 .4
8.9

2. 0
3.6
3.3
4. 9
6. 1

(2.9)

”

“

-

$2,000
$2, 050
$2 ,1 00
$2 ,1 50
$2 ,2 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ............ .......
$ 2 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ....................

3.7
3 .4
2 .9
1.6
1.3

8.0
7. 1
5. 1
4.6
4.3

6.
6.
6.
7.
7.

1. 1
1. 7
2. 1
3.2
3.5

-

“

_
■

_
-

$2 ,2 5 0
$2 ,3 00
$2 ,3 50
$2 ,4 00
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ------. ------$ 2 , 4 5 0 ...................
$ 2 , 5 0 0 ...................

(2.7)
-

3.3
2 .5
2. 1
1.2
.9

4.

4.6
5.0
4.7
5.0
6.0

(4.0)
1.0
1.4
1.8

-

-

“

$2 ,5 0 0
$2 ,6 00
$2, 700
$2 ,8 00
$ 2 ,9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 6 0 0 __________
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 8 0 0 ...................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ...................

11 .3
10.6
9.4
7.7
6 .5

4.4
6.5
8. 3
9. 1
10.4

( 1 .7 )
1. 6
2.9
4.2

-

-

$3, 000
$3, 100
$3 ,2 00
$3 ,3 00
$3,400

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 2 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 4 0 0 ...................
$ 3 , 5 0 0 . .......... .......

\
_

5.5
3.7
2.5
1.0
(1-9)

8.7
8.8
7.9
6.9
5 .9

5 .9
6.9
8 -4
9.2
8 .9

(2 .1 )
1.1
2. 3
3.5
3 .8

-

(0.8)
2. 1

$3,5 00
$ 3 ,60 0
$ 3 ,70 0
$3,8 00
$3 ,9 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 8 0 0 ....................
$ 3 , 9 0 0 ...................
$ 4 , 0 0 0 ...................

-

-

“

-

4.2
3.9
2 .3
1.3
(3.0)

8.3
8 .4
7.2
6.0
4.7

5 .7
5 .8
6 .5
6 .8
7.0

1.2
3.4
1.9
1.7
2. 8

$4 ,0 0 0
$4 ,1 00
$4, 200
$4 ,3 0 0
$4 ,4 00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 4 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 5 0 0 ....................

-

3.6
3.0
2. 1
1.7
1.5

8. 2
8.2
6 .4
6 .0
5.3

3.4
4.3
3.8
6. 1
7.4

$4 ,5 00
$4,600
$4, 700
$4,800
$4, 900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 , 6 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 7 0 0 ....................
$ 4 , 8 0 0 _________
$ 4 , 9 0 0 . . . . ------$ 5 , 0 0 0 ....................

1.2
(2. 7)
~
-

4 .9
2.8
2 .6
2. 3
1.8

6.5
8.8
5.7
4.9
4. 1

$5,000
$5,100
$5, 200
$5 ,3 0 0
$5 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 1 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 2 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 3 0 0 ....................
$ 5 , 4 0 0 . . . .............
$ 5 , 5 0 0 ...................

-

1.7
1.0
( 4 .3 )

4.3
4.7
2.8
2.4
3.5

$5 ,5 0 0
$5 ,6 0 0
$5 ,7 0 0
$5 ,8 0 0
$5 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 , 6 0 0 __________
$ 5 , 7 0 0 ............
$ 5 , 8 0 0 ............
$ 5 , 9 0 0 ............
$ 6 , 0 0 0 ............

$6 ,0 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 , 1 0 0 ____________
$6 ,1 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 , 2 0 0 ............
$6 ,2 0 0 AND OVER ......................

-

-

-

6.2
5.7
a
4. 5
3 .7
6.
4.
3.
1.
1.

1. 5
(1. 4)
-

2
6
9
2
0

0
9
5
6
2

(1.3)
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

*

-

-

-

_

_

-

~

-

~

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

*
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

~
-

~

~
-

-

-

~

~

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
~
-

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~
-

“

2.8
1.5
.7
2.2
.5
.6

11
.

3.7

-

TOTAX...............................

10 0 .0

100 .0

100. 0

10 0 .0

100 .0

10 0 .0

100 .0

100. 0

HUHBER OF EMPLOYEES..................

28 ,23 3

4 8 ,3 1 2

108,0 63

13 4 ,1 8 0

97,379

45,433

14,45 0

2,785

AVERAGE tfONTHIY SALARY......................

$1 ,80 9

$1 ,9 7 2

$ 2 ,2 29

$2 ,6 1 3

$3,060

$3,552

$4,107

$4,736

1 For scope of study, see table A in appendix A.
-1
Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near theextrernesiot
the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these Intervals have




been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme Interval containing
at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown In parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

23

Tab!© I. Employment distribution by saiary: Technical support occupations
{Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS

DRAFTERS

MONTHLY SALARY
I

UNDEB $ 6 7 5 ......................................................
$6 75 AND UNDEB $ 7 0 0 ............................ ..

II

III

IV

V

I

II

III

IV

V

-

-

-

-

-

1. 6
1.8

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.4
.3
5.3
9.8

(0.6)
1.0
.6
1.8

_
-

_
-

-

$70 0
$7 25
$7 50
$7 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 7 2 5 ........... ..
$ 7 5 0 . . .........................
$ 7 7 5 ...............................
$ 8 0 0 ...............................

-

$80 0
$82 5
$85 0
$8 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 8 2 5 ...... .........................
$ 8 5 0 ...............................
$E 75 ..................... .........
$ 9 0 0 ...............................

(2.5)
2. 0
1 .8

-

-

_
-

_
-

5.4
8.5
8. 1
9.4

1.9
1.9
3 .2
3 .6

_
-

_
-

_
-

$90 0
$9 25
$9 50
$9 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB

$9 2 5 .............. .................
$ 9 5 0 .............
$ 9 7 5 ...............................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ..........................

4.3
3.7
7.5
6. 1

(2.4)
1.5
1.6

_
“

_
“

_
-

8.5
4.7
9.6
7.5

4.9
4.4
7 .8
5. 1

(2.8)
1. 1
1.4
1. 4

-

_
-

-

_

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 .....................

1 1 1 .0
9.6
9.7
8.6

4 .7
5.4
8.0
9.8
9.6

_
(1.2)
1. 5
3 .0
4. 3

_
-

_
-

6.7
3. 3
2. 1
1.8
1.7

12.8
11.0
9.7
7.5
6 .0

4.8
5. 1
8.2
10.3
11.5

_
(1.3)
1.5
2 .7
2.9

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0 .........
$ 1 , 3 5 0 . . . .............
$ 1 , 4 0 0 . . . . ...........
$ 1 , 4 5 0 . ..................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 .....................

5. 1
6.3
3.2
1. 5
1. 5

8.3
11.3
8.9
6.4
5.5

7 .4
10.0
7. 6
9 .7
7 .6

_
( 1 -9 )
2. 1
2.7
3 .8

_
“

1. 1
1.3
(1. D
-

4 .4
3.4
3.9
1.5
(3.0)

8. 6
9.4
8.5
4. 9
4.2

3 .3
5.0
6.0
7.8
6.4

_
(1.6)
1 .7
1 .6
1.4

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 .................. ..

.6
.5
1. 1
.3
.5

3 .5
3. 1
1.7
2.4
1.5

7. 2
6 .5
6.4
4. 4
3.4

5 .9
6.0
5.8
9.9
8.2

(1.6)
1.4
2.2
2 .8
3 .5

_
-

_
~
-

4 .5
3. 3
2.9
1.9
1. 1

7 .7
8.9
6.3
6 .9
5.6

3 .2
4.2
3.9
4.6
5.6

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 ,8 0 0 .........
$ 1 , 8 5 0 . . ____ . . .
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 .....................

1. 5
( 0 .9 )
"

1. 1
1. 2
(2.0)

3 .2
3. 3
3.9
3. 4
2.0

9.4
6. 8
5.9
5 .5
4.6

5.6
5 .9
8.9
8 .3
6 .6

_
-

_
-

.6
1. 1
(2.6)
-

5. 2
3 .7
3.5
3.4
1.8

5.7
4.0
4.7
5.7
5.6

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 2 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ______ . . .
$ 2 ,2 0 0 .........
$ 2 , 2 5 0 ............. ..

_
-

-

1.4
(2.5)
-

4.3
3 .7
3.7
2.4
2 .2

7.0
7.5
5.8
5.2
5.3

_
-

_
-

_
-

1.9
1.4
2.7
(4.0)
-

5.5
4.2
5.8
3.5
2.8

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ............. ..
$ 2 , 3 5 0 ............. ..
$ 2 , 4 0 0 ............. ..
$ 2 , 4 5 0 ............. ..
$ 2 , 5 0 0 . .............

_
-

_
-

_
-

1.5
1.1
(2.7)
-

3 .9
3.8
3 .5
2.3
3.1

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

3.0
3.2
1 .7
1 .8
1. 9

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 2 , 6 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 7 0 0 ............. ..
$ 2 , 8 0 0 .....................
$ 2 ,9 0 0 .........
$ 3 , 0 0 0 ___. . . . . .

-

-

-

_

3 .8
(2.0)

_

_

_

-

$ 3 , 0 0 0 AND OVER................................. ..
TO TA L. ..................................................
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES...............................
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY..................

-

100.0

-

*
-

-

-

100.0

5,8 9 8

18,803

31.017

$1 , 137

$1,307

-

100 . 0

100.0

$1,527

-

~
-

-

-

-

~
~

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

-

( 2 /)

100.0

100.0

35,540

24

100.0

3. 1
3.9
1. 6
1 .7
2.6

19,056

2,854

12,494

24,399

26,580

20,034

$1,803

See footnotes at end of table.




_

-

-

$2,051

$ 92 3

$1,075

$1,30 1

$1,611

$2,011

100.0

100.0

T able 5. C ontinued— E m ploym ent distribution by salary: T echnical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)
CO MPU TER
B ONIH LY

OPERATORS

I

I I

I I I

U ND ER $ 6 2
$ 6 2 5 AND
$ 6 5 0 AND
$ 6 7 5 AND

5 .........................................................................
U N D ER $ 6 5 0 ...........................................
U N D ER $ 6 7 5 ...........................................
UNDER $ 7 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 .8
1 .7
2 .5
2 .3

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 ..........................................
$ 7 5 0 ...........................................
$ 7 7 5 ................................
$ 8 0 0 . . _____ _____ . . .

3
2
3
6

$800
$825
$850
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
U N D ER
UN DE R

$825
$850
$ 8 7
$900

8. 1
6. 9
7. 1
9 .0

3
3
6
9

.1
. 1
.2
.6

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
A ND
A ND

U N D ER
UNDER
UNDER
U N D ER

$
$
$
$

6
9
5
9

5
5
7
7

.5
.7
.2
.2

...........................................
..........................................
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................... ................ ...

9 2 5 ..........................................
9 5 0 ...........................................
9 7 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 , 0 0 0 ...................................

.6
.6
.9
.8

.7
.9
.6
.2

-

IV

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

(2 .2 )
1 .5
1 .9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

0 .9

(1 .9 )
1. 0
1 .2
1. 9

_

_

-

-

3 .8
2 .5

-

-

-

-

.2
1 .1
.8
.8

3.
2.
3.
3.

(1 .9 )

-

1 1 .6
8 .9
7 .6
9 .9
2 .7

8 .9
8 .2
8. 5
9. 7
8 .9

1 .6
2 .3
9. 1
9 .6
8 .5

_
(2 /)
1 .0
1 .9
1 .6

5 .9
1 .9
5-9
2 .8
7 .2

2 .3
2 .3
5 .3
2 .6
1 .9

7 .2
6. 5
5. 5
9. 9
2. 9

8
8
6
7
6

.0
.2
.6
.2
.9

2 .7
5 .6
9 .2
6 .3
9 .2

9
6
2
9
8

(2 .2 )

2 .2
1 .8

5
6
5
9

.9
.9
.9
. 5

1 , 3 0 0 . . . . . . . . .
1 , 3 5 0 . . . . . . . . .
1 , 9 0 0 .............................
1 , 9 5 0 .............................
1 , 5 0 0 . . . . _____ _

1. 1
(2 .0 )

$
$
$
$
$

,5
,5
,6
,6
,7

AND
AND
AND
AND
AN D

U N D ER
UNDER
U N D ER
UNDER
UNDER

$
$
$
$
$

1 , 5 5 0 .............................
1 , 6 0 0 .............................
1 , 6 5 0 .............................
1 , 7 0 0 . . . _____ _
1 , 7 5 0 ............. ..

_
-

-

-

1 .0
(5 .8 )

-

-

-

-

_

-

UNDER
U N D ER
UNDEH
U N D ER
O N D ER

$
$
$
$
$

1 , 8 0 0 .....................
1 , 8 5 0 .....................
1 , 9 0 0 . . ................
1 , 9 5 0 .....................
2 , 0 0 0 .....................

$
$
$
$
$

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
U N D ER
UNDER
UNDER
U N D ER

$
$
$
$
$

2 , 0 5 0 .....................
2 , 1 0 0 . . . . . . . . .
2 , 1 5 0 .....................
2 , 2 0 0 .....................
2 , 2 5 0 .............................

_

2
2
2
2
2

,0
,0
,1
,1
,2

0
5
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0

2 , 3 0 0 .....................
2 , 3 5 0 .....................
2 , 9 0 0 .....................
2 , 9 5 0 .....................
2 , 5 0 0 . . . . . . . . .

-

-

.....................
.....................

-

-

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 2 ,9 5 0

AND UNDEH
AND UNDER
AND UND ER
AND U N D E R
AND UNDEH

$
$
$
$
$

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0

AND
AND

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0

UNDER
UNDER

T O T A L . . . . . .........................................

RUBBER
A V E RA G E

OE

EMPLOYEES..........................................

HONTBLY

-

S A L A R Y ................................

-

1 0 0 .0

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

(1-6)
1 .3

1 .3

.9
.6
.7
.9
.5

1 .6
5 .9
5 .6
3 .2
3 .0

2 .9
3 .3
3. 8
3 .8

3 .8
8 .7
2 .8
2 .7

2.2

9. 5
6 .0
10. 1
9 .2
6 .3

8 .6
1 2 .8
3 .9
9 .3
8 .5

2 .3
2 .0
1 .9
1 .8
2 .0

9 .3
5 .1
3 .6
8 .6
2 .5

9 .5
1 .9

7 .7

.8

5 .2
6 .9
9 .0

1. 1

. 9

1 .9
3 .9

.7
.7
.6
.7

-

.9
.3
.7

-

1 .0
(2 /)

*

-

1 0 0 .0

9.9

6. 1
(9 .2 )

1.3

-

1 .3
1 .3

-

-

1 .6

1 .0
3 .9
2 .1
2 .7
1 .7

-

2 .0
3 .8

3.3
3 .3
6 .9
9 .0
5. 1
5. 1
7 .6
6 .9
3
2
2
9

.8
.7
.9
.0

9 .9

.3
.3
.9
1. 6

.2
2 .0

.7
.8

-

(0 .6 )

3. 1

1 .7
2 .2

-

-

9.9

1 .0
1 .2
1 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.9
3.3

5. 1

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

6 ,1 3 5

1 2 ,8 9 9

2 9 ,2 9 9

1 6 ,6 7 1

3 ,5 9 5

528

698

950

$906

$ 1 , 09*9

$ 1 ,2 2 0

$ 1 ,9 7 5

$ 1 ,7 3 3

$ 1 ,9 2 5

$ 1 ,7 0 9

$ 1 ,9 3 2

' For scope of study, see table A-1 in aopendix A.
1 Less than 0.05 percent.

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these intervals have
been accumulated and are shown in the Interval above or below the extreme interval containing
at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of




_

5
1
7
6

$
$
$
$
$

AND
A ND
AND
A ND
AND

-

-

UNDER
UNDER
U ND ER
UNDER
U N D ER

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

-

-

_

AN D
AND
A ND
AN D
A ND

-

-

-

,2 5 0
,3 0 0
,3 5 0
,9 0 0
,9 5 0
0
0
0
0
0

-

_

$1
$1
$1
$1
$1

0
5
0
5
0

-

-

1 ,0 5 0
1 ,1 0 0
1 , 1 5
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,2 5 0

-

IV

-

$
$
$
$
$

-

I I I

-

UNDER
U ND E H
UNDER
U N D ER
U N D ER

6 .1
6 .6
9 .9
1 .7
1 .9

I I

-

AND
AND
A ND
AND
A ND

.............................
.............................
0 . . . . . . . . .
.............................
.............................

V

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

1
1
1
1
1

PHOTOGRAPHERS

SA LARY

I

25

Table 6..Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent d istrib u tio n o f employees in selected clerical occupations by m o n th ly salary, United"States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)

ACCOUNTING CLERKS

F ILE CLERKS

KEY ENTRY OPERATOBS

HONTHLY SALARY
II

I

III

IV

$ 5 00
$ 5 25
$550
$ 5 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
ONDEB
UNDER
ONDEB

$ 5 2 5 ...............................
$ 5 5 0 . . ..........................
$ 5 7 5 ...............................
$ 6 0 0 ...............................

0.9
1. 0
. 6
2.5

*

-

$600
$625
$650
$67 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 2 5 ...............................
$ 6 5 0 ...............................
$ 6 7 5 . . . .......................
$ 7 0 0 ...............................

5.2
3.7
8.2
8.2

(1-2)
1. 1
1.7
.6

_
-

$700
$725
$75 0
$7 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 ...............................
$ 7 5 0 ...............................
$ 7 7 5 . . ..........................
$ 8 0 0 . . ..........................

7.3
8.8
6. 9
8. 1

3.3
4 .7
4 .2
5.0

_
(1-9)
1.6
1.7

$8 00
$8 25
$850
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 . . ..........................
$ 8 5 0 ..............................
$ 8 7 5 ...............................
$SQ0....................... ..

6.4
6.3
4. 8
3.4

5 .3
6 .0
6.7
5 .6

1.9
2.7
3.9
3.6

$90 0
$92 5
$95 0
$97 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
ONDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 9 2 5 ...............................
$ 9 5 0 ...............................
$ 9 7 5 ........... ...................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 . . .....................

2.2
1 .7
2.3
1.5

5 .2
5.7
5 .8
4 .9

I

II

III

0.2
2.2
3.6
12.0

0 .2
2.3

12.8
9 .5
11. 1
9.2

4 .6
5.4
7.3
10.0

6.7
5.7
5.2
3 .7

_
-

4.0
4.0
5. 1
5 .2

-

-

-

II

I

(0.4)
3 .8

-

_
(0.8)
1.6
1.5

2 .6
1.9
3.8
5. 1

_
(0.9)

7. 1
8 .5
8 .5
7.2

4.2
4. 1
4.9
5 .8

4 .0
5.6
5.4
6 .7

1.0
2.3
2.3
3 .5

3 .5
2.8
3.3
2. 1

5 .0
4 .8
4.9
2 .2

8.9
6. 1
6. 8
3.3

6 .3
6 .4
6. 7
5 .2

2. 8
4. 1
4.5
4. 2

(2.6)
1.1
1.6
1.4

1.3
.9
1.4
(2.9)

4 .8
2 .7
1.6
1.0

5.7
3.7
5-4
1.7

4 .8
3.2
3 .0
2.8

4. 8
4.8
5.3
4.3

-

2.3
1. 1
.8
1.2
(6.5)

7 .5
5.8
4. 4
3 .3
2. 4

5 .2
3 .7
2 .6
2 .9
1.3

9 .2
8. 6
6. 1
5.6
5. 1

-

-

-

-

3. 1
.8
1. 4
.9
.7

1. 1
(5.5)
“

4.3
3. 0
2.0
2. 1
1.2

.7
.5
.5
. 6
1.0

-

-

.9
.8
.9
1.7
1 .1
(2.6)

_
-

-

-

-

-

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 2 5 0 .....................

2.0
1.9
1. 2
1. 1
(3.8)

7 .9
5.4
3.6
3 .0
2 .0

9 .4
9.1
9.2
6.5
5 .5

4.4
6 .2
5.0
5 .0
6.5

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ............. ..
$ 1 ,3 5 0 .........
$1,1*00............. ..
$ 1 , 4 5 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ............. ..

-

1.3
1.4
1.6
1.4
(3.4)

4.3
3.9
3. 5
3. 5
2. 1

6 .6
9. 1
6 .9
6 .9
4 .3

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 6 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ............. ..

_

_

-

-

4.2
2.7
3.1
4.2
4.0

-

-

1.4
1.0
1.0
.6
.7

-

-

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ............. ..
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 . . . . ...........
$ 2 , 0 0 0 .....................

-

-

1. 1
(1.8)
-

2.6
2 .0
1.5
1.0
.9

_
-

_

1.2
(0.8)

*

-

“

~

*
“

~

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 . . . . . ____
$ 2 , 2 0 0 .................. ..
$ 2 , 2 5 0 .....................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

1.8
1.4
.6
.5
.7

$ 2 , 2 5 0 AND UNDEB $ 2 , 3 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 3 0 0 AND OVER........... .............................

-

_

-

-

-

1.3
. 1

-

-

TOTAL..................... - .............................

100.0

*

-

100.0

*

“
*

“
-

“

-

-

*

*

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

27,925

11,773

3,833

68,883

41,251

$702

$8 20

$974

$886

$1,079

NUflBEB OF EMPLOYEES...............................

30,466

86,720

59,797

23,179

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY.......................

$798

$953

$1,121

$1,407

See footnotes at end of table.




-

26

Table 8. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary. United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)
PEBSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
MONTHLY SALARY

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS

dESSENGEBS.
I

II

DNDEB $ 5 5 0 .....................................................
$550 AND DNDEB $ 5 7 5 ................. ............
$575 AND UNDER $ 6 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.0
3.2
6.5

-

$600
$6 25
$650
$6 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
DNDEB
DNDEB
UNDEB

$ 6 2 5 ...............................
$ 6 5 0 ...............................
$ 6 7 5 ...............................
$ 7 0 0 ...............................

6.2
6.9
9.2
8.6

_
(1.9)
1.5
6.1

$700
$725
$7 50
$7 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
DNDEB
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 ...............................
$ 7 5 0 ...............................
$ 7 7 5 ...............................
$ 8 0 0 ...............................

7.5
6.7
6.3
5.9

$800
$8 25
$850
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 ...............................
$ 8 5 0 ...............................
$ 8 7 5 ...............................
$ 9 0 0 ...............................

$9 00
$9 25
$950
$9 75

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

III

IV

I

V

-

-

' -

~
~

_
-

_
-

6 .2
3 .9
9 .5
9.3

(1.9)
1.6
1.7

_
(0.9)
1.0

3. 9
2.9
5.9
2.9

6.7
10.6
8.8
9. 1

3 .0
3.5
9.2
6. 1

$ 9 2 5 ...............................
$ 9 5 0 ...............................
$ 9 7 5 ...............................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ....................... .

2.9
2.2
1. 3
1. 3

9.0
3 .6
6 .9
1.7

II

III

-

-

-

_
-

_
(0.6)

_
-

_
-

_
1.2
-

-

3 .0
2.6
1.7
2 .7

-

_ '
-

.9
1.1
.7
2. 0

1.9
. 1

-

5.5
5.6
6.6
3.5

_
(0.9)
1.3
2. 1

-

8.0
9.7
7 .7
7 .3

1.5
2.7
9.3
3 .6

. 1
.5
1 .7
.9

_
-

6.2
8.9
6.2
7 .0

1.8
1.3
9 .7
2 .8

(0.2)

_

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 - ..................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 .....................

2.7
1.9
1. 7
1. 1
1. 1

9.2
1.6
1.8
2.5
1.2

10.9
8.6
6.9
3 .7
9.9

9 .7
1 10.3
11.3
9.7

.8
2 .6
6. 1
9.2
9.9

_
(0.7)
1.7

8.0
11.5
9. 1
9.2
2.2

7 .0
9.2
8.9
9.9
8.5

1.2
.3
1.0
2.6
2.9

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 , . . . ____ _
$ 1 , 3 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 .....................

(3.9)
-

1.6
(3.3)
-

2 .9
3.3
1.9
1.3
1.2

5.5
3.9
9.9
3 .8
3 .0

9 .9
13.6
7.9
9.5
3.3

1.0
7 .9
3 .6
3. 1
7 .0

1.8
1.0
1. 5
.8
.3

5.6
9 .6
5 .9
2. 6
3 .5

9. 9
7 .5
6 .0
9 .5
6 .2

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDEB
UNDER

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .................. ..
$ 1 , 6 0 0 ____ - ____
$ 1 , 6 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 ............. ..

_
“

-

1.3
.6
.7
.5
.9

2 .3
1.9
1. 1
.7
2.3

5.9
1.6
2. 0
1.7
.6

2 .6
15.9
2.6
7 .9
5.3

1. 1
.5
.8
1. 2
(1.0)

3.1
9. 1
1.9
1.6
2. 1

7 .8
5.5
7 .8
2.8
3 .6

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 1 , 8 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 . . ................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 . . . ____ _

“

_
-

1.2
(0.9)
~
“

(2.0)
-

1. 1
1.9
3.9
-

10.6
13.5
3 .8
1.9
1.9

_
-

.6
1.7
(5.3)
-

3 .2
5 .9
2. 8
1 .3
2 .5

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
DNDEB

$ 2 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 .....................
$ 2 ,2 0 0 .........
$ 2 , 2 5 0 .....................

-

-

-

-

1.7
1.3
2 .9
1.2
1.0

2 .9
2 .9
-

_
-

_
-

9.5
.9
. 2
.3
.8

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,900
$2,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 2 , 3 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 2 ,9 5 0 .........
$ 2 , 5 0 0 .....................

-

_
-

-

.2
1. 2

-

-

-

-

-

.2
1.7
(1-7)
-

_
-

-

.8
.8
1.0
.9
.7

$ 2 , 5 0 0 AND UNDER $ 2 , 6 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 6 0 0 AND UNDER $ 2 , 7 0 0 .................. ..
$ 2 , 7 0 0 AND UNDER $ 2 , 8 0 0 . . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

2 .6
.8
1. 1

1 00. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

10 0 . 0

15,609

2,556

5,096

3,999

1,866

916

5,135

9,322

1,909

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY....................

$783

$ 898

$1,058

$1,192

$1,673

$1,002

$1,279

$1,691

See footnotes at end of table.




27

o
o

TOTAL......................................................
NUMBER OE EMPLOYEES...............................

TsbS® ®. C o n tin u e d — E m p lo y m e n t d is trib u tio n b y salary: C lerical o ccu p ation s
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1981)

SECRETARIES

STENOGEAPHEBS

TYPISTS

MONTHLY SALARY
I
ONDER $ 5 7 5 ......................................................
$5 75 AND ONDEB $ 6 0 0 ...............................

II

IV

III

V

I

II

I

II

_

_

_

_

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

0 .5
2 .2

-

_

_

_

-

-

(1-9)

_
“

3.2
9.9
6.9
8.1

(1 - 2)
1.3
2. 8

-

_
-

-

2 .9
2 .5
2.3
3 .8

(0.9)
1. 1
1-5

8. 1
7 .7
7.3
8. 1

2. 1
2 .7
3 .6
5.5

1.6
1.9
1.8
1.9

5 .8
5.1
5. 1
2.9

9.5
5. 1
5.3
9.7

$6 00
$625
$ 6 50
$67 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

DNDEE
ONDEB
UNDEE
UNDEB

$ 6 2 5 ...............................
$ 6 5 0 ...............................
$ 6 7 5 ...............................
$ 7 0 0 ...............................

_
(1.2)

_
-

_
-

$ 70 0
$7 25
$75 0
$ 77 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
0NDER
UNDER
ONDEB

$ 7 2 5 ...............................
$ 7 5 0 ...............................
$ 7 7 5 ...............................
$ 8 0 0 ............ .............. .

1 .0
1.8
2.2
2.6

_
(1.6)
1.6

-

$ 80 0
$825
$ 85 0
$87 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
ONDER

$ 8 2 5 ...............................
$ 8 5 0 ...............................
$ 6 7 5 ...............................
$ 9 0 0 ............ .................

2.9
3.6
5.3
3.8

1.8
1.9
2.6
2.7

_
(1-5)
1.9
1.2

_
-

_

*

3 .3
3 .9
9 .5
3.9

$900
$ 9 25
$95 0
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDEB
UNDEB
ONDER
ONDEB

$ 9 2 5 ...............................
$S 50 ..................... ..
$ 9 7 5 ...............................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ................ ..

5. 9
9.7
5.5
5.5

3 .0
3.3
3.7
9.3

1.5
1.7
2.3
2.7

(3.0)
1.9
1.9

(1-3)

3.5
3.9
9.3
9. 1

2.3
2 .2
2.0
2. 0

3.3
2 .2
2. 1
1.6

9.7
5 .0
9.3
3.9

-

-

$1,000
$1,050
$ 1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
ONDEB
UNDEB
ONDEB
ONDEB

$ 1 , 0 5 0 .............
$ 1 , 1 0 0 . . ___. . . .
$ 1 , 1 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 ........... ..
$ 1 , 2 5 0 .....................

9.2
8.7
7. 8
5. 9
9.9

8.9
10.0
9.6
9.5
7 .9

5.9
7.5
7 .7
7.9
8. 1

3.6
3 .8
9 .6
5.6
7.6

1.0
1.5
1.9
2 .6
3.2

6 .7
6 .8
5 .7
9. 1
3.8

9. 1
9.3
5. 5
5.5
5. 0

3 .6
1.9
2 .0
1.9
1.9

8.0
6 .2
9.0
2.9
3. 1

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
ONDEB
ONDER
UNDEE
ONDER

$ 1 , 3 0 0 .............
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ........... ..
$ 1 . 9 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ........... .........

3. 0
2.2
1.9
1. 5
1. 1

6.6
5.8
9.2
2 .9
2.2

7.9
7 .8
5.9
5 .0
9.7

6 .6
7. 1
6.7
6. 8
6.6

9.2
5.9
5. 1
5.9
5.7

9 .2
5 .0
9 .2
3.3
1.5

5. 9
3.0
5. 7
8. 1
7 .7

(9.9)
-

3 .5
3. 0
1.8
1.8
1. 1

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
UNDEB
UNDEH
ONDEB
UNDEB

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 . ..................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 .....................

1.6
1. 1
.9
1.0
(3.7)

1.9
.9
1 .1
.8
.6

3.2
2.8
2.3
1.8
1.6

5 .6
6.3
9.1
9 .0
3.9

6.5
6 .3
5.8
7.2
9. 1

.5
1.5
1.3
3.7
2.9

3.9
9.3
2.3
6. 0
2.8

-

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$ 1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEB
ONDEB
ONDER
UNDEB
ONDER

$ 1 , 8 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 8 5 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 0 0 .....................
$ 1 , 9 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 0 0 0 .....................

_

1.0
(0.9)
' ~
-

1.1
1.6
1.0
.9
1 .2

2.3
2.3
1.8
1.3
1.2

3.8
3.9
9.2
3. 2
2 .9

(1-2)
-

2. 0
3.6
. 6
1.2
(0.5)

_

$2,000
$ 2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ONDER
ONDEB
ONDEB
ONDER
ONDER

$ 2 , 0 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 1 5 0 .....................
$ 2 , 2 0 0 .....................
$ 2 , 2 5 0 .....................

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

2.9
2. 2
2 .0
2.0
2.3

-

-

(2.2)
-

-

~

(2.3)
-

~
“

$ 2 , 2 5 0 AND OVEH ......................................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

106,881

93,629

23.515

$1,298

$1,906

$1,635

100. 0

100.0

100.0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES...............................

6 3,923

61,171

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY.......................

$1,079

$1,197

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.

1.3
1.7
.7
1.5
(2.9)

*

_
-

-

-

“

-

-

-

~

-

100.0

100.0

100.0

17.922

19,725

38,236

2 1 ,5 5 1

$1,099

$1,311

$83 0

$1,030

100.0

been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval containing
at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown In parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of
the distribution for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these intervals have




9.5

100.0

TOTAL........... ..........................................

-

-

28

TabS® 7. Occupational em ploym ent distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL

MINING

CON­
STRUCTION

M
ANU­
FACTURING

PUBLIC
WHOLESALE
UT ILITIES!/ TRADE

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE, SELECTED
AND REAL SERVICES!/
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADHINISTEATIVE
ACC ODNTANTS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUDITOR S................................ - ..........................„ ..............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS................................................
CHIEF ACCOUHTANTS.................................. .. .............
ATTORNEYS.......... .. .................. .. ..................... ..............
BUYERS..................................................................... ..............
JOB ANALYSTS............................... .................................
DIRECTORS OF P E R S O N N E L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHEMISTS.............. ......................................... ......................
ENGINEERS........................... ................................................

(5):
(5)

64
40

10
17

(5)
(5)

(5)
5

10
28

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

74
33
83
52
71
89
73

4
13
5
9
(5)
(5)
7

4
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
4

8
41
(5)
29
13

(5)

<5>

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)

76
67
42
67

4
7
9
6

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

41
15
36
31
62
82
48
45
34

12
6
7
9
6
5
9
34
9

5

4

-

(5)
4
(5)
(5)
4
(5)
(5)

_

-

_

-

(5)
(5)
100
4

_

(5)

4
6
(5)
3
15

-

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS...... .................... ......... ..
DRAFTERS..... ................................ .. ............... ..............
COHPUTEB OPERATORS................ ...................................
PHOTOGRAPHERS ................................................................

(5)

(5)

(5)
(5)
7

(5)

_

(5)

(5)
5
5

(5)
23
(5)

16
19
13
14

13
(5)
8
5
5
(5)
5
(5)
4

17
65
23
41
15
4
22
11
41

4
(5|
14
8
5
(5)
7
4
7

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING C L E R K S . . . . . ........................... ..
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS..............................................
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS ........................
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS ................................... .. . .
SECRETARIES.................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS............................................................
TYPISTS. ............................... .................................... ..

-

(5)

' Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
For scope of study, see table A in appendix A.
-1
transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; com­

9

6

1
0
(5)
(5)
(5)
5
4
(5)

puter and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing
and bookkeeping services.
5 Less than 4 percent..

2

Note: A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found In the industry.

TabS© 0. Relative salary Bevels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1981)
(Average salary for each occupation in all industries=100)
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL

MINING

CON­
STRUCTION

M
ANU­
FACTURING

110
113

100
109

100
104

WHOLESALE
PUBLIC
UT ILI TIE S!/ TRADE

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE, SELECTED
AND REAL SERVICES 4/
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACCOUNTANTS................................ .................. ......
AUDITORS.................................................... .............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS............... ................ ..
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS............. ..
ATTORNEYS...............................................
BUYERS............................................. .........................
JOB ANALYSTS.........................................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL..................................
CHEHISTS........................................ .........................
ENGINEERS.......... .....................................................

97
99
(5)
(5)
107
(5)
(5)
(5|
(5)

95
94
(5)
130
102
(5)
98
(5)

(5)
116
117
(5)
118
117
119

(5)
(5)
102
91
(5)
(5)
103

100
105
99
106
100
100
100

105
107
(5)
101
110
107
117
(5)
102

120
111
113
123

113
106
(5)
106

99
98
105
102

112
105
114
113

(5)
(5)
96
(5)

115
121
115
99
125
103
112
89
1 13

101
107
100
94
(5)
90
95
(5)
95

101
113
106
106
102
100
103
102
108

119
123
125
122
113
111
113
107
124

96
102
133
108
(5)
97
100
108
105

-

-

-

(5)

98
101
130
93
99
93
(5)
90
98
98

89
(5)
91

(5)
(5)
91
90

99
132
91
87

94
98
97
95
89
91
90
91
96

83
93
89
91
89
85
90
70
86

93
89
“
93
93
101
86
94
-

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS................................
DRAFTERS............ ........................... .........................
COHPUTER OPERATORS..._________________
PHOTOGRAPHERS...... ........... .......................

-

CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS.............................................
FILE CLERKS........... ..............................................
KEY ENTRY O P E R A T O R S . . . . . . . . . . ---- . . . . .
HESSENGERS........ ................- ........... ..
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS ............... PURCHASING ASSISTANTS ................................
SECRETARIES............................ .........................
STENOGRAPHERS............................ ............. ...........
TYPISTS.....................................................................

r

' Each occupation includes the work levels shown In table 1. In computing relative salary
levels for each occupation by industry division, the total employment In each work level in all
Industries surveyed was used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of dif­
ferences in the proportion of employment In various work levels within each occupation.
1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
5Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated




93
133
89
99
99
94
133
92
133

research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public rela­
tions services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and ac­
counting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
■Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation of data.
Note: A dash indicated that no workers in the occupation were found In the industry.

29

Table §„ Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard weekly hours1 for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,1 by industry division,3 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1931)

.MINING

OCCUPATION AND LEVELf

CON­
STRUCTION.

UO. 0
40 .0

MANU­
FACTURING

PU BLIC
WHOLESALE
U T I L I T I E S 4 / TRADE

RETAIL
TRADE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE
SELECTED
AND REAL I SE8V ICE 55/
ESTATE

PROFESSIONAL AND ADHIHISTBATIYE
40.0
40.0

39.5
39.0

39.5
39.5

-

-

-

-

(6)
40 .0
39.5
(6)
40 .0
40.0
40.0

(6)
(6)
40.0
40.0
(6)
(6)

39.5
39.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

(6)
39.5
39 .5
39 .5
40. 0
(6)
40 .0

(6)
(6)
39.5
(5)
(5)
(6)
(5)

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

40 .0
39.5
39 .0
39 .5

(6)
(6|
39.5

39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5

39 .5
39.5
39.5
39 .0
39. 5
40 .0
39.5
39.5
39 .5

39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5

o
o

•P

ACCOUNTANTS......................................... . . . » .................
AUDITORS............................................................ . ............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS............................................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS.......................... ..
ATTORNEYS............................................. ..
BUYERS............. .............. ........................ ..........................
JOB ANALYSTS................................. .. .............................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL............. ..........................
CHEMISTS.............................................................................
ENGINEERS........................................ ...............................

40. 0
40.0
-

39. 0
38 .5
-

(5)
38. 0
38. 5
(5)
40. 0
(5)

38.0
38.0
39.0
38.0
38.0
38.0
38.5
(6)

39 .5
39.0
33.5
40.0
39 . 5
33.5
(6)
39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS........... .........
DRAFTERS....................................... ..
COMPUTER OPERATORS..........................
PHOTOGRAPHERS...............................................................

...

40 .0
40 .0
40 .0
40.0

4 0 .0

40.0
(6)

40.0

(6)

-

37 .5
(6)
38-5

(6)
38.0
37.5

39. 5
40.0
39.5
39 .5

39. 0
39. 0
39. 0
38. 5
39.5
39. 0
38. 5
39 .5
39. 0

38.0
38.0
38.0
37.5
38.0
38.0
38.0
37.5
37.0

39.5
39. 0
39.5
33. 0
39 .5
39.5
39. 6
39.0
39.0

(6)

CLERICAL

.................................................

39.5
40.0
40.0
40.0
(6)

39.5
40.0
(6)
o
o

MESSENGERS ...........................................................

PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANIS .......................................
PURCHASING A SS IS TA N T S ................
SECRETARIES................................................... ..................
STENOGRAPHERS. .............. ................................................................ ...
TYPISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40 .0
40 .0
40 .0
40 .0
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
40 .0

■
P

ACCOUNTING CLERKS........................ ............................. ........................
FILE CLERKS.......................................................................................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. ................. .......................... ........................

1 Based on standard workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time
salary. If standard hours were not available, the standard hours applicable for a majority of
the office work force in the establishment were used. The average for each job category was
rounded to the nearest half hour.
1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For scope of study, see table A-1 In appendix A.
4Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.




(6)

39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

' Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public rela­
tions services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and ac­
counting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
• Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation of data.

Note: A dash indicated that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry.

30

Appeudlre A. S©@p@ amd
Mettod ©f Survey

Survey design
The design for a survey consists of the method by which
individual establishments are classified into homogeneous
groups or strata, how sample sizes were chosen for the indi­
vidual strata, and the method by which the sample of
establishments was selected from each stratum.
Establishments within scope of the 1981 survey were
stratified by industry group and by total employment.
The sample size in a stratum was approximately propor­
tional to the total employment of all establishments within
the stratum. Thus, a stratum which contained 1 percent of
total employment within the scope of the survey received
approximately 1 percent of the total sample. Within each
stratum, a random sample was selected systematically to
maximize the probability of retaining establishments which
were selected for the 1980 sample.3 This method of
selection would reduce collection costs by decreasing the
number of new establishments in the sample.

Scope
The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least a
specified minimum number of workers, and engaged in the
following industries: Mining; construction; manufacturing;
transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services (except the U.S. Postal Service); wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance and real estate; and selected
services (table A-l). Establishments which employed fewer
than the minimum number of employees specified for each
industry division were excluded. Establishments which met
the minimum size criteria during the reference period of the
information used in compiling the survey universe were in­
cluded, even if they employed fewer than the specified
minimum number of workers at the time of the survey.
Establishments found to be outside of the industrial scope
of the survey at the time of data collection were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of establish­
ments and employees within scope of the survey and the
number within the sample actually studied for each major
industry division. Separate estimates are presented for
establishments employing 2,500 workers or more and for
those located in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(SMSA’s).2 Similar estimates of the number of full-time
white-collar employees are also provided.

Data collection
Data for the survey were obtained by personal visits of
the Bureau’s field representatives to a nationwide sample
of establishments. Collection was scheduled during the
months of January through April to reflect an average ref­
erence period of March 1981.4
Employees were classified by occupation and level using
job descriptions (appendix C) prepared jointly by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of Personnel
Management. Descriptions are designed to reflect duties and
responsibilities of employees in private industry and to be
translatable to specific General Schedule grades applying
to Federal employees (appendix D). Thus, definitions of
some occupations and work levels were limited to specific
elements which could be classified uniformly among
establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in job descriptions, the
Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of
company officials, extensively used company position

Sampling frame
The list of establishments (called the sampling frame)
from which the sample was selected was developed by
updating the 1980 survey samplingframe usingdatafrom
the most recently available (usually March 1979) unem­
ployment insurance reports for the 48 states and the
District of Columbia. During the update process, some
establishments were added, some were removed, while
others changed address, employment, type of industry, or
other information.
^ o r this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an
auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. In manu­
facturing industries the establishment is usually a single physical
location. In nonmanufacturing industries, all locations o f an indi­
vidual company within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
(SMSA) or within a nonmetropolitan county are usually con­
sidered an establishment.

3

This method modifies the method introduced by Nathan
Keyfitz in 1951 in his paper titled “Sampling with Probabilities
Proportional to Size-Adjusting for Changes in the Probabilities,”
Journal o f the American Statistical Association, No. 46, pp.
105-109.
4The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1970 and 1971 surveys had a June reference period.

2 Metropolitan area data relate- to all 276 SMSA’s within the
48 states as revised through June 1977 by the U.S. Office of Man­
agement and Budget.




31

ment estimate was derived by multiplying the full-time
employment in the occupation in each sample establish­
ment by the establishment weight and then summing these
results.

descriptions, organization charts, and other personnel
records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations are paid to full­
time employees for standard work schedules, i.e., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s
normal work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonpro­
duction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments
and incentive earnings are included.

Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate) for
a specific occupational level was obtained by dividing total
wages for that level by the corresponding total employ­
ment. Median and quartile values were derived from distri­
butions of employees by salary using 10-cent class intervals.
All salary averages in the tables were rounded to the near­
est dollar. For all annual salary calculations, individual
monthly salaries (to the nearest one-tenth cent) were
multiplied by 12 before performing the necessary data
aggregation.

Survey nonresponse
In the March 1981 survey, salary data were not available
from about 14 percent of the assigned sample establish­
ments (representing 2,950,000 employees in the total
universe). An additional 4 percent of the sampled estab­
lishments (representing 833,000 employees) were either
out of business or outside the scope of the survey.
If data were not provided by a sample member, the
weights of responding establishments randomly selected
from the same stratum were increased to adjust for the
missing data. No adjustment was made for establishments
which were out of business or out of the scope of the
survey at the time of data collections.
Some sampled companies had a policy of not disclosing
salary data for certain employees. No adjustments were
made to salary estimates for the survey as a result of these
missing data. In all but 8 of the 96 professional, admin­
istrative, technical, and clerical levels surveyed, the pro­
portion of employees for whom salary data were not avail­
able was less than 5 percent.5

Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in
text table 2 were obtained by adding the aggregate salaries
for each level in each of 2 successive years and dividing the
later sum by the earlier sum. To eliminate the effects of
year-to-year employment shifts in this computation,
average salaries in each year were multiplied by employ­
ment in the most recent year.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group specified
in text table 3 were determined by adding average salaries
for all occupational levels in the group for two consecu­
tive years, and dividing the later sum by the earlier sum.
The trends in text table 3 were obtained by linking
changes for the individual periods.
Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupational
definitions were incorporated into the various trend series
as soon as two consecutive periods with comparable data
were available.

Survey estimation methods
Data conversion. Salary data were collected from com­
pany records in the most readily available form, i.e.,
weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annually.
Before initial tabulations, all salary data were converted to
a monthly basis. The factors used to convert the salary
data are as follows:
Payroll basis
W e e k ly
B i w e e k ly
S e m im o n th ly
M o n th ly
A n n u a lly

Limitations
Survey occupations were limited to employees meeting
the specific criteria in each survey definition and were not
intended to include all employees in each field of work.6
Employees whose salary data were not available, as well as
those for whom there was no satisfactory basis for classifi­
cation by work level, were not taken into account in the
estimates. For these reasons, and because of differences in
occupational structure among establishments, estimates of
occupational employment obtained from the sample of es­
tablishments studied indicate only the relative importance
of occupations and levels as defined for the survey. These
qualifications of employment estimates should not materi­
ally affect the accuracy of the earnings data.

Conversion
4 .3 4 5 0
2 .1 7 2 5
2 .0 0 0 0
1 .0 0 0 0
.0 8 3 3

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for the
month were used to convert hourly rates to a monthly
basis.
Employment. Occupational employment counts, gener­
ated by the survey, are estimates of the total for all estab­
lishments within scope of the survey and are not limited to
establishments actually studied. An occupational employ­

6Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in engineer­
ing work within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced
engineering graduates and excluding only those within certain fields
o f specialization or in positions above those covered by level VIII.
In contrast, occupations such as chief accountants and directors of
personnel include only those with responsibility for a specified
program and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each
o f the more limited number o f work levels selected for study.

5 Those with 5 percent or more were: Chief accountants II at 8 percent
and levels III and IV at 11 percent; attorneys IV—6 percent; and
directors of personnel I, II, III and IV—5, 7, 19, and 28, respectively.




32

the relative standard error, the greater the reliability of the
estimate.7 Estimates of relative standard errors for the
1981 survey vary widely among various occupational work
levels depending on a number of factors, which include:
The frequency with which the job occurs, the dispersion of
salaries for the job, and the survey design. For the 96
published occupational work levels, estimated relative
standard errors for the average salary estimates were dis­
tributed as follows: 62 were under 1 percent; 20 were
between 1 and 2 percent; 6 were between 2 and 3 percent;
8 were between 3 and 4 percent. The current method of
estimating standard errors for this survey indicates a 70
percent chance that the true value of a salary average lies
within a band of values defined by the reported average
plus and minus two standard errors.

Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are sub­
ject to limitations which reflect the nature of the data
collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not only gen­
eral salary increases and merit or other increases in the
same work level category, but also other factors such as
employee turnover, expansions or contractions in the work
force, and changes in staffing patterns within estab­
lishments with different salary levels. For example, an
expansion in force may increase the proportion of em­
ployees at the minimum salary range for a work level,
which would tend to lower the average; whereas, a reduc­
tion or a low turnover in the work force may have the op­
posite effect. Similarly, promotions of employees to higher
work levels of professional and administrative occupations
may affect the average of each level. Established salary
ranges for such occupations are relatively wide, and em­
ployees who may have been paid the maximum of the
salary scale for the lower level are likely to be replaced by
less experienced employees who may be paid the minimum.
Occupations most likely to reflect such changes are the
higher levels of professional and administrative occupa­
tions and single-incumbent positions such as chief accoun­
tant and director of personnel.

7 A replication technique with one replicate was used to obtain
estimates of relative standard errors for the 1981 survey. Standard­
ized survey wage rate estimates are, thus, approximately distributed
as a student’s “t” random variable with one degree o f freedom.
Although no estimates o f the effects o f nonresponse are available,
the reduction o f the reliability o f wage rate estimates should be
small because o f the nature o f the data collected, the survey
method, and high response rate.

Reiiahility of estimates
The relative standard error of an average salary estimate
is a measure of the reliability of that estimate: The smaller




33

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by industry
division, United States, March 1981.
Industry division1

United States
All Industries23 ....................................................................
4
Manufacturing ...............................................................................

Minimum
employment
in
Number of
establishments
establishments
within
scope of
survey

Within scope of survey
Workers in establishments
Clerical
Professional
and
Total
and
technical
administrative support

Number of
establishments

Studied
Workers in establishments
Professional Clerical
and
and
Total
administrative technical
support

5,483,032

3,436

6,295,054

12,643,565

4,910,806
2,433,497

1,697,840

1,673

3,623,449

485,256
351,000
2,921,363
1,005,063
3,088,516
2,401,470
788,367

85,425
75,464
615,136
279,945
338,904
702,131
380,304

53,117
56,407
707,451
280,327
986,227
1,431,369
270,294

69
62
365
271
290
423
283

94,055
56,351

“100-250
100
250
100
650-100

635
673
4,055
4,361
3,644
6,181
2,541

All industries ......................................................................
Manufacturing ...............................................................................

3100-250

34,936
14,945

19,990,940
9,800,699

4,451,430
2,114,089

5,068,539
1,459,702

Nonmanufacturing:
Mining .....................................................................................
Construction ..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services ................................................
Wholesale trade ....................................................................
Retail tra d e .............................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ...................................
Selected services5

250
250
“100-250
100
250
100
650—
100

351
614
3,014
4,290
3,442
5,813
2,467

286,991
324,673
2,586,869
908,602
3,001,553
2,306,387
775,166

59,634
70,577
560,536
263,846
330,467
675,146
377,135

36,216
53,001
643,571
267,491
967,988
1,376,302
264,268

All industries ......................................................................

__

1,066

1,720,589

Manufacturing ...............................................................................

—

481

6,950,699
3,791,094

1,802,380
587,837

Nonmanufacturing:
Mining .....................................................................................
Construction ..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services ................................................
Wholesale trade ....................................................................
Retail tra d e .............................................................................
Finance, insurance and real estate ....................................
Selected services5 ................................................................

3100-250

43,238
20,648

23,684,600

250
250

1,573,635
863,838

1,478,029

18,891
14,716

1,141,329
72,588
511,826
576,453
219,003

26,134
20,200
283,514
25,772
59,320
181,284
113,573

309,726
25,006
160,705
342,775
71,062

2,925

5,874,413

1,503,077

1,423,688

1,310

3,306,280

815,885

500,206

38
53

56,727
49,329

18,214
18,210

13,357
13,498

319
248
277
403
277

1,102,056
69,597
504,686
568,824
216,914

275,410
25,229
58,402
178,822
112,905

303,933
24,580
159,533
338,625
69,956

680
398

4,775,350
2,888,127

1,230,541
725,093

1,109,034
430,808

535,148

Metropolitan areas7

Establishments employing
2,500 workers or more

1As defined in the 1972 edition of VneStandard Industrial Classification Manual,U.S. Office of Man­
agement and Budget.
Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation indicated in the first
column; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
3Minimum employment size was 100 for chemical and allied products; petroleum refining and re­
lated industries; machinery, except electrical; electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies; trans­
portation equipment; and instrumentsand related product. Minimum size was 250 in all other manu­
facturing industries.
4Minimum employment size was 100 for railroad transportation; local and suburban transit; deep
sea foreign and domestic transportation; air transportation; communications, electric, gas and sani­



982,747

tary services; and pipelines; and 250 for all other transportation industries. U.S. Postal Services is
excluded from the survey.
5Limited to advertising; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing
services; research and development laboratories; commercial testing laboratories; managementand
public relations services; engineering and architectural services; noncommercial research organiza­
tions; and accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
6Minimum employment size was 50 for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services; and 100 for
all other selected services.
Standard metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised
through June 1977 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Appendix B. Survey Changes
in 1981

requirement for jobs in the pay comparability process and
the survey.
The job titles for the two stenographer work levels
were modified slightly.

Changes in ©€<eypati@naS definitions
The definition for messenger was revised to improve
clarity during the job matching process.
The definitions for computer operator and personnel
clerk/assistant (formerly personnel clerk) were revised to
improve alignment with Federal personnel classification
standards.
The definition for secretary underwent a major change
to conform to a new Federal classification standard—a




©<g©ypati@eis added
Five levels of photographers and three levels of
purchasing assistants, as defined in appendix C, have
been added to the survey.

35

Appendix ©„ Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist
its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels within occupations, work­
ers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from
establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupa­
tional wage rates representing comparable job content. To secure comparability of job
content, some occupations and work levels are defined to include only those workers meet­
ing specific criteria as to training, job functions, and responsibilities. Because of this empha­
sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
occupational definitions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establish­
ments or those prepared for other purposes.

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANT
Performs professional operating or cost accounting work
requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of record­
ing, classifying, examining, and analyzing the data and
records of financial transactions. The work generally re­
quires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare in­
stances, equivalent experience and education combined.
Positions covered by this definition are characterized by the
inclusion of work that is analytical, creative, evaluative, and
advisory in nature. The work draws upon and requires a
thorough knowledge of the fundamental doctrines, theo­
ries, principles, and terminology of accountancy, and often
entails some understanding of such related fields as business
law, statistics, and general management. (See also chief
accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include several
such duties as:

Interpreting the meaning of accounting records,
reports, and statements;
Advising operating officials on accounting matters;
and
Recommending improvements, adaptions, or revi­
sions in the accounting system and procedures.
(Entry and developmental level positions provide oppor­
tunity to develop ability to perform professional duties
such as those enumerated above.)
In addition to such professional work, most accoun­
tants are also responsible for assuring the proper recording
and documentation of transactions in the accounts. They,
therefore, frequently direct nonprofessional personnel
in the actual day-to-day maintenance of books of accounts,
the accumulation of cost or other comparable data, the
preparation of standard reports and statements, and similar
work. (Positions involving such supervisory work but not
including professional duties as described above are not
included in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax advis­
ing, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing among
the several levels of work are inappropriate for such jobs.)
Note, however, that professional accountant positions with
responsibility for recording or reporting accounting data
relative to taxes are included, as are other operating or cost
accountants whose work includes, but is not limited to,
improvement of the accounting system.

Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account
relationships;
Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures
should be developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as
the basis for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of
proposed plans on capital investments, income, cash
position, and overall financial condition;



36

practical experience and to develop professional judgement
in the application of basic accounting techniques to simple
problems. Is expected to be competent in the application of
standard procedures and requirements to routine transac­
tions, to raise questions about unusual or questionable
items, and to suggest solutions. (Terminal positions are
excluded.)

Some accountants use electronic data processing equip­
ment to process, record, and report accounting data. In
some such cases the machine unit is a subordinate segment
of the accounting system; in others it is a separate entity
or is attached to some other organization. In either in­
stance, provided that the primary responsibility of the
position is professional accounting work of the type other­
wise included, the use of data processing equipment of any
type does not of itself exclude a position from the accountant
description nor does it change its level.

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its
general accuracy arid coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure professional growth. Progress is
evaluated in terms of ability to apply professional knowl­
edge to basic accounting problems in the day-to-day opera­
tions of an established accounting system.

Accountant S
General characteristics. At this beginning professional level,
the accountant learns to apply the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting to a specific system. The position is
distinguishable from nonprofessional positions by the
variety of assignments; rate and scope of development ex­
pected of the incumbent; and the existence, implicit or
explicit, of a planned training program designed to give the
entering accountant practical experience. (Terminal posi­
tions are excluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working papers,
schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating the extent
of the examination and presenting and supporting findings
and recommendations. Examines a variety of accounting
documents to verify accuracy of computations and to
ascertain that all transactions are properly supported, are in
accordance with pertinent policies and procedures, and are
classified and recorded according to acceptable accounting
standards.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an ex­
perienced accountant whose guidance is directed primarily
to the development of the trainee’s professional ability and
to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of as­
signments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are
specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to
supervisor are identified.

Responsibility for direction of others. Usually none, al­
though sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.
Accountant SS
S

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of financial
statements for completeness, internal accuracy, and con­
formance with uniform accounting classifications or other
specific accounting requirements; reconciling reports and
financial data with financial statements already on file, and
pointing out apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out
assigned steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing
standard ratios; assembling and summarizing accounting
literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple
financial statements not involving problems of analysis or
presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other ex­
hibits to be used in reports. In addition to such work, may
also perform some nonprofessional tasks for training
purposes.

General characteristics. The accountant, at this level, ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult problems.
Receives detailed instructions concerning the overall
accounting system and its objectives, the policies and pro­
cedures under which it is operated, and the nature of
changes in the system or its operation. Characteristically,
the accounting system or assigned segment is stable and
well established, (i.e., the basic chart of accounts, clas­
sifications, the nature of the cost accounting system, the
report requirements, and the procedures are changed
infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervison of the dayto-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a relatively
small establishment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general
accounting; cost accounting; or financial statements and
reports) of a somewhat larger system, or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and spe­
cialized segment dealing with some problem, function, or
portion of work which is itself of the level of difficulty
characteristic of this level.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Usually none.
Accountant 1
1
General characteristics. At this level, the accountant makes
practical application of technical accounting practices and
concepts beyond the mere application of detailed rules and
instructions, as a phase in developing greater professional
competence. Initial assignments are designed to expand




Direction received. A higher level professional accountant
normally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
37

and specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of dif­
ficulty characteristic to this level.

needed. Work is reviewed for technical accuracy, adequacy
of professional judgement, and compliance with instruc­
tions through spot checks, appraisal of results, subsequent
processing, analysis of reports and statements, and other
appropriate means.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is
available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is
reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary respon­
sibility of most positions at this level is to assure that the
assigned day-to-day operations are carried out in accord­
ance with established accounting principles, policies, and
objectives. The accountant performs such professional work
as: Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g.,
those containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations of
accounting, cost budgeting, or comparable information); in­
terpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from
standards; projecting data into the future; predicting the
effects of changes in operating programs; or identifying
management informational needs, and refining account
structures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treatment
of financial transactions. Is expected to recommend solu­
tions to moderately difficult problems and propose changes
in the accounting system for approval at higher levels. Such
recommendations are derived from personal knowledge of
the application of well-established principles and practices.

Typical duties and responsibilities. As a level III, a primary
characteristic of most positions at this level is the respon­
sibility of operating an accounting system or major segment
of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment
in making frequent appropriate recommendations for: New
accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types of
ledgers; revisions in reporting system or subsidiary records;
changes in instructions regarding the use of accounts, new
or refined account classifications or definitions; etc. Also
makes day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting
treatment of financial transactions and is expected to rec­
ommend solutions to complex problems beyond incum­
bent’s scope of responsibility.
Responsibility for direction of others. Accounting staff
supervised, if any, may include professional accountants.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. In most instances
is responsible for supervision of a subordinate nonprofes­
sional staff; may coordinate the work of lower level profes­
sional accountants.

Accountant V
General characteristics. The accountant V applies account­
ing principles, theories, concepts, and practices to the solu­
tion of problems for which no clear precedent exists or
performs work which is of greater than average responsi­
bility due to the nature or magnitude of the assigned work.
Responsibilities at this level, in contrast to accountants at
level IV, extend beyond accounting system maintenance
to the solution of more complex technical and managerial
problems. Work of accountants V is more directly con­
cerned with what the accounting system (or segment)
should be, what operating policies and procedures should
be established or revised, and what is the managerial as well
as the accounting meaning of the data included in the re­
ports and statements for which they are responsible.
Typically this level of work approaches chief accountant
positions in terms of the nature of the concern for the ac­
counting system and its operation, but not in terms of the
breadth or scope of responsibility.

Accountant IV
General characteristics. At this level the accountant applies
well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts,
and practices to a wide variety of difficult problems. Re­
ceives instructions concerning the objectives and operation
of the overall accounting system. Compared with level III,
the accounting system or assigned segment is more com­
plex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b) must adjust to new
or changing company operations, (c) is substantially larger
or (d) is complicated by the need to provide and coordinate
separate or specialized accounting treatment and reporting
(e.g., cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divisions
of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coordina­
tion involved, the accountant IV may have such assign­
ments as the supervision of the day-to-day operation of:
(a) The entire accounting system of an establishment having
a few relatively stable accounting segments, or (b) a major
segment (e.g., general accounting; cost accounting; or
financial statements and reports) of an accounting system
serving a larger and more complex establishment, or (c) in
a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow




Examples of assignments characteristic of this level are
supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire
accounting system of an establishment having a few rela­
tively complex accounting segments, or (b) a major segment
of a larger and more complex accounting system, or (c) the
entire accounting system (or major segment) of a company
that has a relatively stable and conventional accounting
38

Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at this level
are delegated complete responsibility from higher authority
to establish and implement new or revised accounting poli­
cies and procedures. Typically, accountants VI participate
in decision-making sessions with operating managers who
have policy-making authority for their subordinate organi­
zations or establishments; recommend management ac­
tions or alternatives which can be taken when accounting
data disclose unfavorable trends, situations, or deviations;
and assist management officials in applying financial data
and information to the solution of administrative and oper­
ating problems.

system when the work includes significant responsibility for
accounting systems design and development, or (d) in a
complex system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, function,
or portion of work which is itself of the level of difficulty
characteristic of this level.
Direction received. An accountant of higher level normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment, com­
pliance with instructions, and overall quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V per­
forms such professional work as: Participating in the devel­
opment and coordinating the implementation of new or
revised accounting systems, and initiating necessary instruc­
tions and procedures; assuring accounting reporting systems
and procedures are in compliance with established company
policies, regulations, and acceptable accounting practices;
providing technical advice and services to operating man­
agers, interpreting accounting reports and statements, and
identifying problem areas; evaluating completed assign­
ments for conformance with applicable policies, .regulations,
and tax laws.

Responsibility for the direction of others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
NOTE: Excluded are accountants above Level VI whose
principal function is to direct, manage or administer an ac­
counting program in that they are primarily concerned with
the administrative, budgetary, and policy matters of the
program rather than the actual supervision of the day-today operations of an accounting program. This type of
work requires extensive managerial ability as well as supe­
rior professional competence in order to cope with the
technical accounting and management problems encoun­
tered. Typically this level of work involves responsibility
for more than one accounting activity (e.g., cost account­
ing, sales accounting, etc.).

Responsibility for direction of others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
Accountant V
S

CHIEF ACCOUNTANT

General characteristics. At this level the accountant applies
accounting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
specialized, unique, or nonrecurring complex problems
(e.g., implementation of specialized automated accounting
systems). The work is substantially more difficult and of
greater responsibility than Level V because of the unusual
nature, magnitude, importance, or overall impact of the
work on the accounting program.
At this level the accounting system or segment is usually
complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must adjust to
the frequent changing needs of company operations, or (c)
is complicated by the need to provide specialized or indi­
vidualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervision
of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and complex
corporate accounting system, or (b) a major segment (e.g.,
general accounting, property accounting, etc.) of an un­
usually complex accounting system requiring technical
expertise in a particular accounting field (e.g., cost account­
ing, tax accounting, etc.).

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets, liabilities,
income, expense, and capital accounts, including responsi­
bility for profit and loss and balance sheet statements); and
(2) at least one other major accounting activity, typically
tax accounting, cost accounting, property accounting, or
sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as
payroll and timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data
processing operations which are an adjunct of the account­
ing system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all
of the following:
(1)

(2)

Direction received. A higher level professional accountant is
normally available to furnish advice as needed. Work is re­
viewed for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance
with instructions and policies, and overall quality.




39

On own responsibility, developing, adapting or re­
vising an accounting system to meet the needs of
the organization;
Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and
quantity of work performed, training and develop­
ment of subordinates, work scheduling and review,
coordination with other parts of the organization
served, etc.;

TsibS® C-1 Criteria for matching, chief aeoountaots by level
Authority
Subordinate Professional
Technical
Level
and
Accounting Staff
Complexity1
Responsibility1
I

AR-l

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant
III job definition.

II

AR-l

TC-2

About 5 to 10 professional accountants, with at least one or two matching the
accountant IV job definition.

AR-2

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match the accountant IV job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant
IV job definition.

AR-l

TC-3

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. At least one or two match the
accountant V job definition.

AR-2

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but some may match the accountant V job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match as high as accountant V.

AR-2

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant V
job definition, but several may exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or two may
exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level

III
OY

OY

IV

V

1 A R -l, -2, and -3 and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained in the accompanying text.

(3)

Providing directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
(a)

The status of financial resources and the
financial trends or results of operations as
revealed by accounting data, and selecting
a manner of presentation that is meaningful
to management;

(b)

financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general
accounting and one or more other major accounting activi­
ties but which do not fully meet all of the responsibilities
of a chief accountant specified above may be covered by
the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility and (b) technical complexity,
using table C-1.

Methods for improving operations as sug­
gested by an expert knowledge of account­
ing, e.g., proposals for improving cost con­
trol, property management, credit and col­
lection, tax reduction, or similar programs.

Authority and Responsibility
AR-l. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, procedures,
and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable
detail by higher levels in the company or.organization. The
chief accountant has final, unreviewed authority within the
prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs
of the organization served, e.g., in the following or com­
parable ways:

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement; or­
ganization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar non­
accounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are some­
times titled comptroller, budget and accounting manager,




40

Provides greater detail in accounts and reports or finan­
cial statements;

Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;

Establishes additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and

Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to
the company’s accounting system suggested by sub­
ordinate units; and

Provides special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.

Taking final action on ah technical accounting matters.
Characteristically, participates extensively in broad
company management processes by providing accounting
advice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data
accumulated in the accounting system and on professional
judgment and experience.

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.
AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad
outline rather than in specific detail. While certain major
financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are
required by the basic system, the chief accountant has
broad latitude and authority to decide the specific meth­
ods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within
the organizational segment served. Approval must be
secured from higher levels only for those changes which
would basically affect the broad requirements prescribed
by such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include:

Technical Complexity
TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work proc­
esses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging. The
accounting system operates in accordance with wellestablished principles and practices or those of equivalent
difficulty which are typical of that industry.

Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects of the accounting system or activities not pre­
scribed by higher authority;

TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, products,
work processes, etc. which require substantial and frequent
adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs
(e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and sub­
sidiary records; revision of instructions for the use of ac­
counts; improvement or expansion of methods for accumu­
lating and reporting cost data in connection with new or
changed work processes).

Extending cost accounting operations to areas not pre­
viously covered;
Instituting new cost accounting procedures;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the
accounting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for
which incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data
submitted by subordinate segments.

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organization
for specialized and extensive adaptations of the basic system
to meet management needs. Such demands arise because
the functions, products, work processes, etc., of the organi­
zation are very numerous, diverse, unique, or specialized, or
there are other comparable complexities. Consequently, the
accounting system, to a considerable degree, is developed
well beyond established principles and accounting practices
in order to:

This degree of authority is most typically found at inter­
mediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or
division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some
company level situations where the authority of the chief
accountant is less extensive than is described in AR-3. More
rarely it is found in plant level chief accountants who have
been delegated more authority than usual for such positions
as described in AR-1.

Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which
these theories and practices have not previously been
applied.

AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system
used in the company, subject only to general policy guid­
ance and control from a higher level company official
responsible for general financial management. Typical re­
sponsibilities include:
Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s
accounting system and the specific accounts to be used;

Subordinate Staff
In table C-l, the number of professional accountants super­
vised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion for
distinguishing between various levels.1 It is to be considered

Devising and preparing accounting reports and state­
ments required to meet management’s needs for data;

1 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation
o f average salaries.




41

less important in the matching process than the other criteria.
In addition to the staff of professional accountants in the
system for which the chief accountant is responsible, there are
clerical, machine operation, bookkeeping and related person­
nel.

provide practical experience in applying the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting and auditing to
specific situations. (Terminal positions are excluded.)
Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced auditor whose guidance is directed primarily
to the development of the trainee’s professional ability and
to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of
assignments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are
specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to
supervisor are identified.

AUDITOR
Performs professional auditing work requiring a bache­
lor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent
experience and education combined. Audits the financial
records and practices of a company, or of divisions or com­
ponents of the company, to appraise systematically and
verify the accounting accuracy of records and reports and
to assure the consistent application of accepted accounting
principles. Evaluates the adequacy of the accounting system
and internal financial controls. Makes appropriate recom­
mendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent
determined necessary, examines the transactions entering
into the balance sheet, and the transactions entering into
income, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making audits
by performing such tasks as: Verification of the accuracy of
the balances in various records; examination of a variety of
types of documents and vouchers for accuracy of compu­
tations; checking transactions to assure they are properly
documented and have been recorded in accordance with
correct accounting classifications; verifying the count of
inventories; preparing detailed statements, schedules,
and standard audit working papers; counting cash and
other assets; preparing simple reconciliations and similar
functions.

The existence of recorded assets (including the
observation of the taking of physical inventories)
and the all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.
The accuracy of financial statements or reports
and the fairness of presentation of facts therein.
The propriety or legality of transactions.
The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

Auditor 3
S
*

General characteristics. At this level the professional audi­
tor serves as a junior member of an audit team, independently
performing selected portions of the audit which are limited in
scope and complexity, as a phase in developing greater profes­
sional competence. Auditors at this level typically have ac­
quired knowledge of company operations, policies, and pro­
cedures. (Terminal positions are excluded,)

Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the fi­
nancial management of company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles of sound
financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls;
b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive
examination of a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions respon­
sible for performing a segment of an audit (i.e.,
examining individual items on a balance sheet, rather
than the entire balance sheet), as long as the work
directly relates to the financial audit program; and
c. EDP auditors. These positions require an extensive
knowledge of computer systems, programming, etc.
Auditor S
General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering
professional level, performs a variety of routine assign­
ments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety
of tasks under a planned training program designed to



Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished and
the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to
insure conformance with required procedures and spe­
cial instructions, and to assure the auditor’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior. Progress
is evaluated in terms of ability to apply professional knowl­
edge to basic auditing situations.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge of
accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit assign­
ments, including such tasks as: The verification of reports
against source accounts and records to determine their
reliability; reconciliation of bank and other accounts and
verifying the detail of recorded transactions; detailed
examinations of cash receipts and disbursement vouchers,
payroll records, requisitions, work orders, receiving reports,
and other accounting documents to ascertain that transac­
tions are properly supported and are recorded correctly
from an accounting or regulatory standpoint; or preparing
working papers, schedules, and summaries.
42

Auditor IS
S
General characteristics. Work at this level consists of the
audit of operations and accounting processes that are
relatively stable, well-established, and typical of the indus­
try. The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis
of readily available findings; there is previous audit experi­
ence that is directly applicable; the audit reports are nor­
mally prepared in a prescribed format using a standard
method of presentation; and few, if any, major problems
are anticipated. The work performed requires the applica­
tion of substantial knowledge of accounting principles
and practices, e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital
maintenance and operating expenses; accruing reserves for
taxes; and other accounting considerations of an equivalent
nature.
Direction received. Work is normally within an established
audit program and supervision is provided by a higher
level auditor who outlines and discusses assignments. Work
is spot-checked in progresss. Completed assignments are
reviewed for adequacy of coverage, soundness of judg­
ment, compliance with professional standards, and adher­
ence to policies.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines
transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; prepares
audit working papers and submits an audit report in the
required pattern containing recommendations for needed
changes or improvements. Usually is responsible for select­
ing the detailed audit methods to follow, choosing the
audit sample and its size, determining the extent to which
discrepancies need to be investigated and deciding the
depth of the analyses required to support reported findings
and conclusions.
A s a t e a m l e a d e r o r w o r k i n g a lo n e , i n d e p e n d e n t l y
c o n d u c ts a u d its o f th e c o m p le te a c c o u n ts a n d r e ­
l a t e d o p e r a t i o n s o f s m a ll e r o r le s s c o m p l e x c o m ­
p a n ie s ( e .g ., in v o lv i n g a c e n t r a l i z e d a c c o u n t i n g
s y s te m w i t h f e w o r n o s u b o r d i n a t e , s u b s i d i a r y ,
o r b ra n c h a c c o u n tin g re c o rd s ) o r o f c o m p a ra b le
se g m e n ts o f la rg e r c o m p a n ie s.

(2 )

A s a m e m b e r o f a n a u d it te a m , in d e p e n d e n tly ac­
c o m p l i s h e s v a r ie d a u d i t a s s i g n m e n t s o f t h e a b o v e
d e s c rib e d c h a ra c te ris tic s , ty p ic a lly m a jo r s e g m e n ts
o f c o m p le te a u d its , o r a s s ig n m e n ts o th e rw is e
lim ite d in s c o p e , o f la rg e r a n d m o re c o m p le x
c o m p a n i e s ( e .g ., c o m p l e x i n t h a t t h e a c c o u n t i n g
s y s te m e n ta ils c o s t, in v e n to r y , a n d c o m p a ra b le
s p e c ia li z e d system s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l
a c c o u n tin g s y s te m ).

General characteristics. Auditors at this level are experi­
enced professionals who apply thorough knowledge of
accounting principles and theory in connection with a
variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by the
audit of organizations and accounting processes which are
complex and difficult because of such factors as: Presence
of new or changed programs and accounting systems;
existence of major specialized accounting functions (e.g.,
cost accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting),
in addition to general accounting; need to consider exten­
sive and complicated regulatory requirements; lack of or
difficulty in obtaining information; and other similar
factors. Typically, a variety of different assignments are en­
countered over a period of time, e.g., one year. The audit
reports prepared are comprehensive, explain irregularities,
cite rules and regulations violated, recommend remedial
actions, and contain analyses of items of special importance
or interest to company management.

Examples of assignments involving work at this level:
(1 )

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of report­
ing of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or main­




Audstor S
V

Direction received. Within an established audit program, has
responsibility for independently planning and executing
audits. Unusually difficult problems are discussed with the
supervisor who also reviews completed assignments for
adherence to principles and standards and the soundness
of conclusions.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit aids,
such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit experi­
ence and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used for
determining depreciation rates of equipment; evaluation of
assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation of the
reliability of accounting and reporting systems; analysis
of cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the
basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of accounting
procurement and supply management records, controls, and
procedures; and many others.

Examples of assignments involving work at this level:
(1 )

tenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a railroad);
or, the checking, verification, and balancing of all accounts
receivable and accounts payable; or, the analysis and
verification of assets and reserves or, the inspection and
evaluation of accounting controls and procedures.

43

A s a te a m le a d e r o r w o rk in g a lo n e , in d e p e n d e n tly
p la n s a n d c o n d u c ts a u d its o f th e c o m p le te a c ­
c o u n t s a n d r e l a t e d o p e r a t i o n s o f r e la ti v e ly la r g e
c o m p l e x c o m p a n i e s ( e .g ., c o m p l e x i n t h a t t h e
a c c o u n tin g s y s te m e n ta ils c o s t, in v e n to r y , a n d
c o m p a r a b l e s p e c ia li z e d a c c o u n t i n g system s i n t e ­

(2)

grated with the general accounting system) or, of ! technical problems not covered by instructions are brought
company branch, subsidiary, or affiliated organiza­ to the attention of a superior.
tions which are individually of comparable size
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic audit
and complexity.
tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports against
source accounts and records; reconciling bank and other
As a member of an audit team independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that consti­ accounts; and examining cash receipts and disbursements,
tute major segments of audits of very large and
payroll records, requisitions, receiving reports, and other
complex organizations, for example, those with
accounting documents in detail to ascertain that transac­
financial responsibilities so great as to involve spe­
tions are properly supported and recorded. Prepares
cialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate ac­
selected portions of audit working papers.
counting systems that are complete in themselves.
Publi© Ae©®ynHainit S
I

jiji

NOTE: Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve special­
ized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves; or are team members as­
signed to major segments of audits of even larger or more
complex organizations. Also excluded are positions pri­
marily responsible for overseeing multiple concurrent
audits.
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT
Performs professional auditing work in a public account­
ing firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s degree in ac­
counting. Participates in or conducts audits to ascertain the
fairness of financial representations made by client com­
panies. May also assist the client in improving accounting
procedures and operations.
Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to accept­
able practices. Samples and tests transactions, internal
controls, and other elements of the accounting system(s)
as needed to render the accounting firm’s final written
opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full profes­
sional accounting training. Also excluded are specialist posi­
tions in tax or management advisory services.

General characteristics. At this level, the public accountant
carries out routine audit functions and detail work with
relative independence. Serves as a member of an audit team
on assignments planned to provide exposure to a variety
of client organizations and audit situations. Specific assign­
ments depend upon the difficulty and complexity of the
audit and whether the client has been previously audited by
the firm. On moderately complex audits where there is
previous audit experience by the firm, accomplishes com­
plete segments of the audit (i.e., functional work areas
such as cash, receivables, etc.). When assigned to more
complicated audits, carries out activities similar to Public
Accountant I.
Direction received. Works under the supervision of a higher
level public accountant who provides instructions and con­
tinuing direction as necessary. Work is spot checked in
progress and reviewed upon completion to determine the
adequacy of procedures, soundness of judgment, compliance
with professional standards, and adherence to clearly
established methods and techniques. All interpretations are
subject to close professional review.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety of
sampling and testing procedures in accordance with the
prescribed audit program, including the examination of
transactions and verification of accounts, the analysis and
evaluation of accounting practices and internal controls,
and other detail work. Prepares a share of the audit working
papers and participates in drafting reports. In moderately
complex audits, may assist in selecting appropriate tests,
samples, and methods commonly applied by the firm and
may serve as primary assistant to the accountant in charge.
In more complicated audits concentrates on detail work.
Occasionally may be in charge of small, uncomplicated
audits which require only one or two other subordinate
accountants. Personal contacts usually involve only the
exchange of factual technical information and are usually
limited to the client’s operating accounting staff and
department heads.

PubBS© A©©©unftant I
General Characteristics. As an entry level public account­
ant, serves as a junior member of an audit team. Receive
classroom and on-the-job training to provide practical
experience in applying the principles, theories, and con­
cepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations.
(Positions held by trainee public accountants with advanced
degrees, such as MBA’s, are excluded at this level.)
Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished and
work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conformance with
required procedures and instructions, and usefulness in
facilitating the accountant’s professional growth. Any




PublS© Aooouintaiiit SI
S
General characteristics. At this level the public accountant
44

corporations; or businesses with very high dollar or trans­
action volume. Clients are frequently large with a variety
of operations which may have different accounting systems.
Guidelines may be general or lacking and audit programs
are intricate, often requiring extensive tailoring to meet
atypical or novel situations.

is in charge of complete audit and may lead a team of sev­
eral subordinates. Audits are usually accomplished one at
a time and are typically carried out at a single location. The
firms audited are typically moderately complex and there is
usually previous audit experience by the firm. The audit
conforms to standard procedural guidelines, but is often
tailored to fit the client’s business activities. Routine proce­
dures and techniques are sometimes inadequate and require
adaptation. Necessary data are not always readily available.
When assigned to more difficult and complex audits (see
level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a major
component or serve as the primary assistant to the accoun­
tant in charge.

Direction received. Works under general supervision. The
supervisor sets overall objectives and resource limits but
relies on the accountant to fully plan and direct all tech­
nical phases of the audit. Issues not covered by guidelines
or known precedents are discussed with the supervisor, but
the accountant’s recommended approaches and courses
of action are normally approved. Work is reviewed for
soundness of approach, completeness, and conformance
with established policies of the firm.

Direction received. Works under the general supervision of a
higher level public accountant who oversees the operation
of the audit. Work is performed independently, applying
generally accepted accounting principles and auditing
standards, but assistance on difficult technical matters is
available. Work may be checked occasionally during prog­
ress for appropriateness and adherence to time require­
ments, but routine analyses, methods, techniques, and pro­
cedures applied at the work site are expected to be correct.

PybSio Accountant IV

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for carry­
ing out the operational and technical features of the audit,
directing the work of team members, and personally per­
forming the most difficult work. Often participates in the
development of the audit scope, and drafts complicated
audit programs with a large number of concurrently exe­
cuted phases. Independently develops audit steps and
detailed procedures, deviating from traditional methods to
the extent required. Makes program adjustments as neces­
sary once an audit has begun; selects specific methods,
types and sizes of samples, the extent to which discrep­
ancies need to be investigated, and the depth of required
analyses. Resolves most operational difficulties and un­
anticipated problems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for appro­
priateness, conformance to time requirements, and adher­
ence to generally accepted accounting principles and
auditing standards. Consolidates working papers, draft
reports, and findings; and prepares financial statements,
management letters, and other closing memoranda for
management approval. Participates in “closing” meetings
as a technical resource and may be called upon to sell or
defend controversial and critical observations and recom­
mendations. Personal contacts are extensive and typically
include top executives of smaller clients and mid- to
upper-level financial and management officers of large
corporations, e.g., assistant controllers or controllers.
Such contacts involve coordinating and advising on work
efforts and resolving operating problems.

General characteristics. At this level the public accountant
directs field work including difficult audits, e.g., those
involving initial audits of new clients, acquisitions, or
stock registrations— may oversee a large audit team split
and
between several locations. The audit team usually includes
one or more level III public accountants who handle major
components of the audit. The audits are complex and
clients typically include those engaged in projects which
span accounting periods; highly regulated industries which
have various external reporting requirements; publicly held

NOTE: Excluded from this level are public accountants
who direct field work associated with the complete range of
audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest and most
difficult audits, and who frequently oversee teams perform­
ing concurrent audits. This type of work requires extensive
knowledge of one or more industries to make subjective
determinations on questions of tax, law, accounting, and
business practices. Audits may be complicated by such
factors as: The size and diversity of the client organizations
(e.g., multinational corporations and conglomerates with a

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for carry­
ing out the technical features of the audit, leading team
members and personally performing the most difficult
work. Carries out field work in accordance with the general
format prescribed in the audit program, but selects specific
methods and types and sizes of samples and tests. Assigns
work to team members, furnishes guidance, and adjusts
workloads to accommodate daily priorities. Thoroughly
reviews work performed for technical accuracy and ade­
quacy. Resolves anticipated problems within established
guidelines and priorities but refers problems of unusual
difficulty to superiors for discussion and advice. Drafts
financial statements, final reports, management letters,
and other closing memoranda. Discusses significant rec­
ommendations with superiors and may serve as technical
resource at “closing” meetings with clients. Personal con­
tacts are usually with chief accountants and assistant
controllers, of medium size companies and divisions of large
corporations to explain and interpret policies and proce­
dures governing the audit process.




45

large number of separate and distinct subsidiaries); account­
ing issues where precedents are lacking or in conflict; and,
in some cases, clients who are encountering substantial
financial difficulties. They perform most work without
technical supervision and completed audits are reviewed

mainly for propriety of recommendations and conformance
with general policies of the firm. Also excluded are public
accountants whose principal function is to manage, rather
than perform accounting work, and the equity owners of
the firm who have final approval authority.

Personnel Management
JOB ANALYST

jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems
and procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the
locality or participate in conducting surveys of broad
compensation areas. May assist in developing survey
methods and plans. Receives general supervision but
responsibility for final action is limited.

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job quali­
fications, and worker characteristics as a basis for com­
pensating employees in a fair equitable, and uniform
manner. Performs such duties as studying and analyzing
jobs and preparing description of duties and responsibilities
and of the physical and mental requirements needed by
workers; evaluating jobs and determining appropriate wage
or salary levels in accordance with their difficulty and
responsibility, independently conducting or participating
with representatives of other companies in conducting
compensation surveys within a locality or labor market
area; assisting in administering merit rating programs;
reviewing changes in wages and salaries indicated by surveys
and recommending changes in pay scales; and auditing
individual jobs to check the propriety of evaluations and to
apply current job classifications. (Positions also responsible
for supplying management with a high technical level of
advice regarding the solution of broad personnel manage­
ment problems should be excluded.)

Job Analyst IV
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures,
and is given assignments which regularly include respon­
sibility for the more difficult kinds of jobs. (“More dif­
ficult” means jobs which consist of hard-to-understand
work processes; e.g., professional, scientific, ad­
ministrative, or technical; or jobs in new or emerging
occupational fields; or jobs which are being established
as part of the creation of new organizations; or where
other special considerations of these types apply.)
Receives general supervision, but responsibility for final
action is limited. May participate in the development
and installation of evaluation or compensation systems,
which may include those for merit rating programs.
May plan survey methods and conduct or direct wage
surveys within a broad compensation area.

Job Analyst I
As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and techni­
ques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs and
prepares reports for review by a job analyst of higher
level.

DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL
Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top manage­
ment officials of the organization as the source of ad­
vice and assistance on personnel management matters
and problems generally; is typically consulted on the
personnel implications of planned changes in manage­
ment policy or program, the effects on the organization
of economic or market trends, product or production
method changes, etc.; represents management in con­
tacts with other companies, trade associations, govern­
ment agencies, etc., dealing primarily with personnel
management matters.
Typically the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer
of similar level. Below the company level the director of
personnel typically reports to a company officer or a

Job Analyst IS
Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishment. Works independently on such assignments
but is limited by defined areas of assignment and instruc­
tions of superior.

Job Analyst 11
1
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried



46

3.
Employee relations and services function: i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and produc­
tivity at a high level (for example, administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying and
recommending solutions for personnel problems such as
absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity, etc.; ad­
ministration of beneficial suggestions system, retirement,
pension, or insurance plans, merit rating system, etc.;
overseeing cafeteria operations, recreational programs,
industrial health and safety programs, etc.).

high management offical who has responsibility for the
operation of a plant, establishment, or other segment of
the company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program must include responsibility
for all three of the following functions:
1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a system
in which there are established procedures by which jobs are
analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their duties, respon­
sibilities, and qualification requirements in order to provide
a foundation for equitable compensation. Typically, such a
system includes the use of one or more sets of job evaluation
factors and the preparation of formal job descriptions. It
may also include such related functions as wage and salary
surveys or merit rating system administration. The job
evaluation system(s) does not necessarily cover all jobs in
the organization, but does cover a substantial portion of the
organization.
2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruiting
activity for at least some kinds of workers through a variety
of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employment agencies,
professional societies, etc.); evaluating applicants against
demands of particular jobs by use of such techniques as job
analysis to determine requirements, interviews, written tests
of aptitude, knowledge, or skill, reference checks, ex­
perience evaluations, etc.; recommending selections and job
placements to management, etc.

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas:
Employee training and development;
Labor relations activities which are confined mainly to the
administration, interpretation, and application of those
aspects of labor union contracts that are essentially of the
type described under (3) above. May also participate in
bargaining of a subordinate nature, e.g. to negotiate detail­
ed settlement of such matters as specific rates, job classifica­
tions, work rules, hiring or layoff procedures, etc., within
the broad terms of a general agreement reached at higher
levels, or to supply advice and information on technical
points to the company’s principal representative;
Equal employment opportunity (EEO);
Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHA).

Table G=2„ Criteria for mateiiSng directors of personnel by level

Number of employees in
w ork force serviced
250-750 ........................................
1,000-5,000 .................................
6 000-12,000 ................................
15,000-25,000 .............................

"Operations level"
personnel program1
"T ype A "
organization
serviced3
1
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

1 "Operations level” personnel program—d ire cto r o f personnel
servicing an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) o f a com pany,
w here the basic personnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc.,
are established at com pany headquarters or at some oth e r higher
level between the p la n t and the com pany headquarters level. The
personnel d ire cto r's re sp o n sib ility is to p u t these in to op eration at
the local level, in such a m anner as to m ost e ffe ctive ly serve the
local m anagem ent needs.
2 "Development level" personnel program—either:
(a) D ire c to r o f personnel servicing an entire com pany (w ith
or w ith o u t subordinate establishm ents) where the personnel d i­
re ctor plays an im p o rta n t role in establishm ent of basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., fo r the com pany subject
to p o licy d ire ctio n and co n tro l fro m com pany officers, or (b)
d ire c to r o f personnel servicing an interm ediate organization be­
low the com pany level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary, to w hich a
re la tive ly com plete delegation o f personnel program planning
and developm ent re sp o n sib ility is made. In th is situ a tio n o n ly
basic p o licy d ire ctio n is given by the parent com pany and local
officers. The d ire cto r o f personnel has essentially the same de­
gree o f la titu d e and re sp o n sib ility fo r establishm ent of basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., as described above in (a).
3 "Type A " organization serviced—m ost jobs serviced do no t
present p a rtic u la rly d iffic u lt or unusual re cru itm e n t, jo b evaluation.



Number of employees in
work force serviced

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

250-750 ...........................................
1,000-5,000 ....................................
6’000-12,000 .................................
15,000-25,000 ..............................

"Development level"
personnel program2
"T ype A "
organization
serviced3

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

or tra in in g problem s because the jobs consist o f re la tive ly easy-tounderstand w o rk processes, and an adequate labor supply is avail­
able. These c o n d itio n s are m ost lik e ly to be fo u n d in organizations
in w hich the w o rk force and organizational stru ctu re are relatively
stable.
4 "Type B " organization serviced—a substantial p ro p o rtio n o f
the jobs present d iffic u lt re cru itm e n t, job evaluation, or tra in in g
problem s because the jobs: C onsist o f hard-to-understand w o rk p ro ­
cesses (e.g., professional, scie n tific, ad m inistrative, or techn ical);
have hard-to-m atch skill requirem ents; are in new o r em erging occu­
pations; or are e xtrem ely hard to till. These co n d itio n s are m ost
lik e ly to be fo u n d in organizations in w hich the w o rk force, organi­
zational structure, w o rk processes or fu n ctio n s, etc., are c o m p li­
cated o r unstable.
N O TE : There are gaps betw een d iffe re n t degrees o f all three
elem ents used to determ ine jo b level matches. These gaps have been
provided purposely to a llo w room fo r jud g m e n t in getting the best
overall jo b level m atch fo r each job. Thus, a jo b w hich services a
w o rk fo rce o f 85 0 em ployees should be m atched w ith level II if it is
a personnel program op erations level jo b w here the nature o f the
organization serviced seems to fall slig h tly be low the d e fin itio n fo r
typ e B. However, the same jo b should be m atched w ith level I if the
nature o f the organization serviced clearly falls w ell w ith in th e d e fi­
n itio n fo r typ e A.
47

Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work2 in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C-2.

Excluded are positions in which responsibility for ac­
tual contract negotiation with labor unions as the prin­
cipal company representative is a significant aspect of
the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a primary
basis for qualification requirements and compensation.

2 In su fficien t d a ta were o b tain e d fo r level V to w a rra n t p re sen ta tio n
o f average salaries.

Attorneys
tory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can
be firmly established and there are precedent cases di­
rectly applicable to the situation.
Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but n o t involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other
major factual or legal issues.

ATTORNEY
Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out
the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, privileges,
and obligations of the company. The work performed re­
quires completion of law school with an LL.B. degree (or
the equivalent) and admission to the bar. Responsibilities or
functions include one or more of the following or compar­
able duties:
Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publica­
tions, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of
proposed legislation which might affect the company;
Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one or
more of the following: The absence of clear and directly
applicable legal precedents; the different possible interpre­
tations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the
precedents involved; the substantial importance of the legal
matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000
are generally directly or indirectly involved); the matter is
being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings
or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or gov­
ernment agencies involved.

Excluded from this definition are:

E x a m p le s o f D -2 w o rk :

Patent work which requires professional training in
addition to legal training (typically a degree in engineer­
ing or in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar

Advising on the legal implications of advertising rep­
resentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to
different interpretations.
Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel
for an organized group.
Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated
by the absence of precedent decisions that are directly
applicable to the organization’s situation.

w o r k f o r w h ic h p ro fe ss io n a l legal tra in in g a n d b a r m e m ­
b e rsh ip is n o t e sse n tia l;

Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and formula­
tion of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult because
of one or more of the following: The questions are unique
and require a high order of original and creative legal en­
deavor for their solution; the questions require extensive
research and analysis and the obtaining and evaluation of
expert testimony regarding controversial issues in a scientif­
ic, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other
highly technical area; the legal matter is of critical impor­
tance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or
contested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified in accordance with table C-3 and the definitions
which follow.
D ifficulty
D-l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly applicable legal precedents; and
matters not of substantial importance to the organization.
(Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few
thousand dollars, are involved.)

E x a m p le s o f D -3 w o rk :

Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Fed­
eral antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded market-

E x a m p le s o f D - l w o rk :

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research prepara­



48

Table C-3. Criteria for matching attorneys by level
Level
I

Difficulty
of legal work1

Responsibility
of job1

This is the entry level. The duties and
responsibilities after initial orientation
and training are those described in D-l
and R-l.

Experience required
Completion of law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admis­
sion to the bar.

D-l

R-2

D-2

R-l

D-2

R-2

D-3

R-l

D-2

R-3

D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the “D-3” level.

VI

D-3

R-4

Extensive professional experience at the “D-3” and “ R-3” levels.

II
or
III

Sufficient professional experience (at least 1 year, usually more)
at the “D-l” level to assure competence as an attorney.
*
*
At least 1 year, usually more, of professional experience at the
“D-2” level.

or
IV

Extensive professional experience at the “D-2” or a higher level.

or

1D - l, -2, -3 a n d R - l , -2, -3, an d -4 are ex p lain ed in th e acco m p a n y in g te x t.

issues, drafting necessary legal documents, and developing
conclusions and recommendations. Decisions having an im­
portant bearing on the organization’s business are reviewed.
(Receives information from supervisor regarding unusual
circumstances or important policy considerations pertaining
to a legal problem. If trials are involved, may receive guid­
ance from a supervisor regarding presentation, line of ap­
proach, possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc.
In the case of nonroutine written presentations the final
product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with organiza­
tion policy. Some (but not all) attorneys make assignments
to one or more lower level attorneys, aids, or clerks.)

ing operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility com­
pany in rate or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts or all of several States.
Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate
court where the case is highly important to the future
operation of the organization and is vigorously contested
by very distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or
national reputation) legal talent.
Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and
staff of an insurance company on the legal problems in
the sale, underwriting, and administration of group con­
tracts involving nationwide or multistate coverages and
laws.
Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine
major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuat­
ing new major financing steps.

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes final
legal determinations in matters of substantial importance to
the organization. Such determinations are subject to review
only for consistency with company policy, possible prece­
dent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry out assign­
ments, deals regularly with company officers and top level
management officials and confers or negotiates regularly
with senior attorneys and officials in other companies or in
government agencies on various aspects of assigned work.
(Receives little or no preliminary instruction on legal prob­
lems and a minimum of technical legal supervision. May
assign and review work of a few attorneys, but this is not a
primary responsibility.)

Responsibility
R-l. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little devi­
ation from standard practice is involved. Any decisions or
actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s
business are reviewed. (Is given guidance in the initial stages
of assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research
and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moder­
ate independence although guidance is generally available
and is sought from time to time on problem points.)

R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems
of the highest importance to the organization and develop-

R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the facts,
searching legal precedents, defining the legal and factual



49

OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a staff of
attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom regularly per­
form D-3 legal work. With respect to the work directed,
gives advice directly to corporation officers and top mana­
gerial officers, or may give such advice through the general
counsel. (Receives guidance as to organization policy but
no technical supervision or assistance except when request­
ing advice from, or briefing by, the general counsel on the
overall approach to the most difficult, novel, or important
legal questions. Usually reports to the general counsel or
deputy.)

ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the organiza­
tion at conferences, hearings, or trials and personally con­
fers and negotiates with top attorneys and top-ranking offi­
cials in private companies or in government agencies. On
various aspects of assigned work may give advice directly
and personally to corporation officers and top level manag­
ers, or may work through the general counsel of the com­
pany in advising officers. (Generally receives no preliminary
instruction on legal problems. On matters requiring the con­
centrated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing the
work of the attorneys involved.)

cation and qualifications in a physical science or in en­
gineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a
few related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe up­
pers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is re­
quired to judge the relative value of the goods offered
and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each
purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organiza­
tion’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the super­
vision of other buyers or the management, direction, or
supervision of a purchasing program;
f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing con­
tracts; and
h. Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work.

BUYER

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and services
(e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some instances
items are of types that must be specially designed, pro­
duced, or modified by the vendor in accordance with draw­
ings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or
recommends supplier. May interview prospective vendors.
Purchases items and services at the most favorable price
consistent with quality, quantity, specification require­
ments, and other factors. Prepares or supervises preparation
of purchase orders from requisitions. May expedite delivery
and visit vendors’ offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are con­
sistent with past experience, and are in conformance with
established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transac­
tions that deviate from the usual or from past experience in
terms of prices, quality of items, quantities, etc., or that
may set precedents for future purchases, are reviewed by
higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary and
subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose of
surplus, salvage, or used materials, equipment, or supplies.

Boyer S

Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of readily available, com­
monly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services,
etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers,
jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representatives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e.g.,
those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common station­
ery and office supplies; standard types of office furniture
and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, screws; janitorial and
common building maintenance supplies; and common
building maintenance or common utility services or office
machine repair services.

NOTE: Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing
of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in­
cludes items and work described at more than one of the
following levels, the position should be considered to equal
the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial
portion of the buyer’s time.
Excluded are:

Buyer §
S

a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for in­
vestment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional edu­



Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of standard, generally
available technical items, materials, and services. Trans­
actions may involve occasional modification of standard and
common usage items, materials, and services, and include a
50

few stipulations about unusual packing, marking, ship­
ping, etc.

special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.

Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.

Buyer IV

Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.

Examples of items purchased include: Industrial types
of handtools; standard electronic parts, components
and component test instruments; electric motors;
gasoline service station equipment; PBX or other
specialized telephone services; special purpose printing
services; and routine purchases of common raw materials
such as standard grades and sizes of steel bars, rods, and
angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of
the types described for buyer I when the quantities pur­
chased are large so that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturers on a broader than local scale.

Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer
determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.

Buyer S8
S

In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)

Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.

Examples of items purchased include: Special pur­
pose high cost machine tools and production facilities;
specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines; raw
materials of critically important characteristics or quali­
ty; parts, subassemblies, components, etc., specially
designed and made to order (e.g., communications
equipment for installation in aircraft being manufac­
turer; component assemblies for missiles and rockets;
and motor vehicle frames).

Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­
tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging re­
quirements; export packs; overseas port differentials;
etc.

NOTE: Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of
science or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual
or unit value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to
expand their plants or convert facilities to the produc­
tion of new items or services. These types of buying
functions are often performed by program managers or
company officials who have primary responsibilities
other than buying.

Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;



51

Chemists and Engineers
Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature and
extent of analysis required, specifies methods and criteria
on new types of assignments, and reviews work for thor­
oughness of application of methods and accuracy of results.

CHEMIST
Performs professional work in research, development, in­
terpretation, and analysis to determine the composition,
molecular structure, and properties of substances; to devel­
op or investigate new materials and processes; and to inves­
tigate the transformations which substances undergo. Work
typically requires a B.S. degree in chemistry or the equiva­
lent in appropriate and substantial college level study of
chemistry plus experience.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide vari­
ety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures. In ac­
cordance with specific instructions may carry out proposed
and less common ones. Is expected to detect problems in
using standardized procedures because of the condition of
the sample, difficulties with the equipment, etc. Recom­
mends modifications of procedures, e.g., extending or cur­
tailing the analysis or using alternate procedures, based on
knowledge of the problem and pertinent available litera­
ture. Conducts specified phases of research projects as an
assistant to an experienced chemist.

Chemist I
General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide experi­
ence in the application of training in chemistry as it relates
to the company’s programs. May also receive formal class­
room or seminar type training. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Responsibility for the direction of others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.

Chemist IIS

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives
specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress, and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of chemical
tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory, using judg­
ment in the independent evaluation, selection, and adapta­
tion of standard methods and techniques. May carry
through a complete series of tests on a product in its differ­
ent process stages. Some assignments require a specialized
knowledge of one or two common categories of related
substances. Performance at this level requires developmen­
tal experience in a professional position, or equivalent grad­
uate level education.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods, practices,
and programs of the company. The work includes a variety
of routine qualitative and quantitative analyses; physical
tests to determine properties such as viscosity, tensile
strength, and melting point; and assisting more experienced
chemists to gain additional knowledge through personal ob­
servation and discussion.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application of sound professional judg­
ment.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none.

Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature of the problem, selects standard
methods, tests or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternate or modified methods with supervisor’s
concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing samples or
testing new procedures that require specialized training be­
cause (a) standard methods are inapplicable, (b) analytical
findings must be interpreted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) specialized and advanced
equipment and techniques must be adapted.

Chemist IS
General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine chemical work requiring selection
and application of general and specialized methods, tech­
niques, and instruments commonly used in the laboratory,
and the ability to carry out instructions when less common
or proposed methods or procedures are necessary. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or ap­
propriate graduate level study. For training and develop­
mental purposes, assignments may include some work that
is typical of a higher level. (Terminal positions are exclud­
ed.)



Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aids, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.
52

Chemist IV

supervised is comparable to that described for chemist IV.
(2) As individual researcher or worker, carries out projects
requiring development of new or highly modified scientific
techniques and procedures, extensive knowledge of special­
ty, and knowledge of related scientific fields.

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
(a) mastery of specialized techniques or ingenuity in select­
ing and evaluating approaches to unforeseen or novel prob­
lems, and (b) ability to apply a research approach to the
solution of a wide variety of problems and to assimilate the
details and significance of chemical and physical analyses,
procedures, and tests. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

Responsibility for the direction of others. Supervises, co­
ordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of chemists
and technicians engaged in varied research and development
projects, or a larger group performing routine analytical
work. Estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns
work to meet completion date. Or, as individual researcher
or worker, may be assisted on projects by other chemists or
technicians.
Chemist V
S

Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for proj­
ects.

General characteristics. Performs work requiring leadership
and expert knowledge in a specialized field, product, or
process. Formulates and conducts a systematic attack on a
problem area of considerable scope and complexity which
must be approached through a series of complete and con­
ceptually related studies, or a number of projects of lesser
scope. The problems are complex because they are difficult
to define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with indi­
viduals and units within and outside the organization, with
responsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory as­
signments requiring the determination and evaluation of al­
ternative procedures and the sequence of performing them.
Performs complex, exacting, unusual analytical assignments
requiring specialized knowledge of techniques or products.
Interprets results, prepares reports, and may provide techni­
cal advice in specialized area.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.

Chemist V
(
General characteristics. Participates in planning laboratory
programs on the basis of specialized knowledge of problems
and methods and probable value of results. May serve as an
expert in a narrow specialty (e.g., class of chemical com­
pounds, or a class of products), making recommendations
and conclusions which serve as the basis for undertaking or
rejecting important projects. Development of the knowl­
edge and expertise required for this level of work usually
reflects progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (l)In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire chemical program of a com­
pany, when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Activities supervised are of such a scope that they
require a few (3 to 5) subordinate supervisors or team lead­
ers with at least one in a position comparable to level V.
(2) As individual researcher or worker determines, con­
ceives, plans, and conducts projects of major importance to
the company. Applies a high degree of originality and inge­
nuity in adapting, extending, and synthesizing existing the­
ory, principles, and techniques into original combinations
and configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (l)In a supervisory capacity, plans, organizes, and
directs assigned laboratory programs. Independently defines
scope and critical elements of the projects and selects ap­
proaches to be taken. A substantial portion of the work



Responsibility for the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
53

and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual worker or researcher, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other chemists and technicians.
Chemist V S
Si

Chemist VIS
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive chemical activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented chemical problems, determining program ob­
jectives and requirements, organizing programs and pro­
jects, and developing standards and guides for diverse chem­
ical activities.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a chemical program of a com­
pany with extensive and diversified scientific requirements,
or (b) the entire chemical program of a company where the
program is more limited in scope. The overall chemical pro­
gram contains critical problems the solution of which re­
quires major technological advances and opens the way for
extensive related development. Makes authoritative techni­
cal recommendations concerning the scientific objectives
and levels of work which will be most profitable in light of
company requirements and scientific and industrial trends
and developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consultant,
selects problems for research to further the company’s ob­
jectives. Conceives and plans investigations in which the
phenomena and principles are not adequately understood,
and where few or contradictory scientific precedents or re­
sults are available for reference. Outstanding creativity and
mature judgment are required to devise hypotheses and
techniques of experimentation and to interpret results. As a
leader and authority in the company, in a broad area of
specialization, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one,
advises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important pro­
grams. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and jus­
tifying proposed and current programs and projects and
furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel problems
in the specialty field. Typically will have contributed inno­
vations (e.g., techniques, products, procedures) which are
regarded as significant advances in the field.
Responsibility for the direction of others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are



54

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are authoritative and have a far-reaching impact
on extensive chemical and related activities of the com­
pany. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top
level chemists and officers of other organizations and com­
panies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a high
degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in
planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical pro­
grams and activities of outstanding novelty and importance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) the entire chemical program of a company which is of
moderate scope, or (b) an important segment of a chemical
program of a company with very extensive and highly diver­
sified scientific requirements, where programs are of such
complexity and scope that they are of critical importance
to overall operations and include problems of extraordinary
difficulty that have resisted solution. Decides the kind and
extent of chemical programs needed to accomplish the ob­
jectives of the company, for choosing the scientific ap­
proaches, for planning and organizing facilities and pro­
grams, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual re­
searcher and consultant formulates and guides the attack on
problems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance
to the company and/or industry. Problems are character­
ized by the lack of scientific precedents and source materi­
als, or the lack of success of prior research and analysis so
that their solution would represent an advance of great sig­
nificance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting
work for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as major
advances in the field.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual re­
searchers some of whose positions are comparable to chem­
ist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an individual re­
searcher and consultant may be assisted on individual proj­
ects by other chemists or technicians.3
NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical
program may match any of several of the survey job levels,
depending on the size and complexity of chemical pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Chemists in
3 In su fficien t d a ta were o b tain e d fo r level V III to w a rra n t p re sen ta ­
tio n o f average salaries.

charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing of highly diversified or unusually novel products and
procedures) that one or more subordinate supervisory
chemists are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose
decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy
for the organization (included, however, are supervisors de­
ciding the “kind and extent of chemical programs” within
broad guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as national
and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in
very broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.
ENGINEER
Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction, mainte­
nance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application,
or standardization of engineering facilities, systems, struc­
tures, processes, equipment devices, or materials requiring
knowledge of the science and art by which materials, natu­
ral resources, and power are made useful. Work typically
requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in
combined education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control engineers,
sales engineers, and engineers whose primary responsibility
is to be in charge of nonprofessional maintenance work.)

Engineer S
General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional work knowledge and abilities. May
also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)
Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives
specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

rying out a sequence of related engineering tasks. Limited
exercise of judgment is required on details of work and in
making preliminary selections and adaptations of engineer­
ing alternatives. Requires work experience acquired in an
entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study.
For training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical of a higher level. (Termi­
nal positions are excluded.)
Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for unus­
ual or difficult problems and selects techniques and proce­
dures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives close
supervision on new aspects of assignments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed meth­
ods, performs specific and limited portions of a broader
assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies standard
practices and techniques in specific situations, adjusts and
correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in results, and fol­
lows operations through a series of related detailed steps or
processes.
Responsibility for the direction of others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.
Engineer III
General characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects,
and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures,
and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations
and modifications. Assignments have clear and specified ob­
jectives and require the investigation of a limited number of
variables. Performance at this level requires developmental
experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate
level education.
Direction received. Receives instructions on specific assign­
ment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions.
Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is
reviewed for application of sound professional judgment.

Engineer II

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work which
involves conventional types of plans, investigations, surveys,
structures, or equipment with relatively few complex fea­
tures for which there are precedents. Assignments usually
include one or more of the following: Equipment design
and development, test of materials, preparation of specifica­
tions, process study, research investigations, report prepara­
tion, and other activities of limited scope requiring knowl­
edge of principles and techniques commonly employed in
the specific narrow area of assignments.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine engineering work requiring applica­
tion of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in car­

Responsibility for the direction of others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, prac­
tices, and programs of the company.
Responsibility for the direction of others. Usually none.




Engineer IV

dinates, and directs a large and important engineering proj­
ect or a number of small projects with many complex fea­
tures. A substantial portion of the work supervised is com­
parable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As individual
researcher or worker carries out complex or novel assign­
ments requiring the development of new or improved tech­
niques and procedures. Work is expected to result in the
development of new or refined equipment, materials, proc­
esses, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff
specialist develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a
variety of projects and activities to be carried out by others.
Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed engineer­
ing evaluation tests, products, or equipment when necessary
data are insufficient or confirmation by testing is advisable.
Usually performs as a staff advisor and consultant as to a
technical specialty, a type of facility or equipment, or a
program function.

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and'conducts work requiring
judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and sub­
stantial adaptation and modification of standard tech­
niques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to
problems encountered. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for proj­
ects.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as individual
researcher or staff specialist may be assisted on projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules, con­
ducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the engineering
work in a part of a major project or in a total project of
moderate scope. Performs work which involves convention­
al engineering practice but may include a variety of com­
plex features such as conflicting design requirements, un­
suitability of standard materials, and difficult coordination
requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge of prece­
dents in the specialty area and a good knowledge of princi­
ples and practices of related specialties.

Engineer VS

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for
interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating assign­
ments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned
with unique or controversial problems which have an im­
portant effect on major company programs. This involves
exploration of subject area, definition of scope and selec­
tion of problems for investigation, and development of nov­
el concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with individu­
als and units within or outside the organization, with re­
sponsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to own field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to engineer V.

Responsibility for the direction of others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineer V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversified
knowledge of engineering principles and practices in broad
areas of assignments and related fields. Makes decisions in­
dependently on engineering problems and methods, and
represents the organization in conferences to resolve impor­
tant questions and to plan and coordinate work. Requires
the use of advanced techniques and the modification and
extension of theories, precepts, and practices of own field
and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually result from
progressive experience, including work comparable to engi­
neer IV.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire engineering program of a
company when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Extent of responsibilities generally requires a few (3
to 5) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least
one in a position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker conceives, plans, and conducts re­
search in problem areas of considerable scope and com-

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops, coor­



56

plexity. The problems must be approached through a series
of complete and conceptually related studies, are difficult
to define, require unconventional or novel approaches, and
require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides
and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially relat­
ed to the problem, or may be largely lacking due to the
novel character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance in
the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff specialist
serves as the technical specialist for the organization (divi­
sion or company) in the application of advanced theories,
concepts, principles, and processes for an assigned area of
responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility
or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization for
the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis of pro­
grams or new programs warranted by such developments.
Responsibility for the direction of others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist may be
assisted on individual projects by other engineers or techni­
cians.
Engineer VII
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive engineering activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and
solving unprecedented engineering problems, determining
program objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects and developing standards and guides for di­
verse engineering activities.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of the engineering program of a
company with extensive and diversified engineering require­
ments, or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when it is more limited in scope. The overall engineering
program contains critical problems the solution of which
requires major technological advances and opens the way
for extensive related development. Extent of responsibili­
ties generally requires several subordinate organizational
segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and



57

funds required to carry out programs which are directly
related with and directed toward fulfillment of overall com­
pany objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further the
company’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations of
broad areas of considerable novelty and importance for
which engineering precedents are lacking in areas critical to
the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by
associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed
on the incumbent’s scientific interpretations T 'advice'.
and
Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or
techniques which are regarded as major advances in the
field.
Responsibility for the direction of others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are
in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other engineers and technicians.
Engineer V S
S!
General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive engineering and related activi­
ties of the company. Negotiates critical and controversial
issues with top level engineers and officers of other organi­
zations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate
a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive engineering
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and impor­
tance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (l)In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a very extensive and highly
diversified engineering program of a company, or (b) the
entire engineering program of a company when the program
is of moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity
and scope that they are of critical importance to overall
objectives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty
that often have resisted solution, and consist of several
segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible
for deciding the kind and extent of engineering and related
programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the com­
pany, for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning
and organizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting
results. (2) As individual researcher and consultant formu­
lates and guides the attack on problems of exceptional diffi­
culty and marked importance to the company or industry.
Problems are characterized by their lack of scientific prece­

dents and source material, or lack of success of prior re­
search and analysis so that their solution would represent
an advance of great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a recog­
nized authority for broad program areas or in an intensely
specialized area of considerable novelty and importance.

NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s engineering
program may match any of several of the survey job levels
depending on the size and complexity of engineering pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers in
charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing of research and development on a variety of complex
products or systems with numerous novel components) that
one or more subordinate supervisory engineers are perform­
ing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “kind and
extent of engineering and related programs” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual researchers
and consultants who are recognized as national and/or in­
ternational authorities and scientific leaders in very broad
areas of scientific interest and investigation.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual research­
ers some of whose positions are comparable to engineer VII
and sometimes engineer VIII. As an individual researcher
and consultant may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Teetaifea!
ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN

also be reviewed in process. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria: (1) Provides semiprofes­
sional technical support for engineers working in such areas
as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement. (2) Work pertains to electrical, elec­
tronic, or mechanical components or equipment. (3) Re­
quired to have some knowledge of science or engineering.
{Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality con­
trol testers, craft workers, drafters, designers, and engi­
neers .)

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equip­
ment or parts. May service or repair simple instruments
or equipment;
Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare
test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equip­
ment; records test data;
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed
sources; processes the data following well-defined meth­
ods; presents the data in prescribed form.

Engineering Technician S
II
Performs assignments that are not completely standard­
ized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard procedures or
equipment. Receives initial instructions, equipment require­
ments, and advice from supervisor or engineer; technical
adequacy of completed work is checked. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Engineering Technician S
Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process or on
completion. Performs, at this level, one or a combination of
such typical duties as:
Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring
simple wiring, soldering, or connecting;
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as ten­
sile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test
equipment; records test data;
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineer­
ing data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computa­
tions by substituting numbers in specified formulas;
plots data and draws simple curves and graphs.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models
or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and
correct malfunctions;
Conducts various tests or experiments which may re­
quire minor modifications in test setups or procedures;
selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment
and records test data;
Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering'data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures. Performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness of data.

Engineering Technician 1
1
Performs standardized or prescribed assignments involv­
ing a sequence of related operations. Follows standard work
methods or explicit instructions; technical adequacy of rou­
tine work is reviewed on completion; nonroutine work may



Engineering Technician IV
Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial variety
and complexity. Receives objectives and technical advice
58

from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed for technical
adequacy. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

The following are excluded when they constitute the
primary purpose of the job:
Design work requiring the technical knowledge,
skill, and ability to conceive or originate designs;
Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation of charts, dia­
grams, room arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation of
maps or plats and related materials and drawings of
geological structures; and
Supervisory work involving the management of a
drafting program or the supervision of drafters when
either constitutes the primary purpose of the job.

Works on limited segment of development project;
constructs experimental or prototype models to meet
engineering requirements; conducts tests or experiments;
records and evaluates data and reports findings;
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of test equipment and test
procedures; records data; analyzes data and prepares test
reports;
Compiles and computes a variety of engineering data;
may analyze test and design data; develops or prepares
schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review de­
signs or specifications for adequacy.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Drafter I
Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions. Uses
appropriate templates to draw curved lines. Assignments are
designed to develop increasing skill in various drafting
techniques. Work is spot checked during progress and
reviewed upon completion.

Engineering Technician ¥
Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete proj­
ect of relatively limited scope or a portion of a larger and
more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques,
designs, or layouts. May coordinate portions of overall as­
signments; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical
work of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines
objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed
work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of
requirements. May be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

NOTE: Exclude drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting methods.
Drafter S
I
Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns and
present few technical problems. Supervisor provides de­
tailed instructions on new assignments, gives guidance when
questions arise, and reviews completed work for accuracy.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, de­
vices, or equipment; conducts tests or experiments; ana­
lyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to im­
prove performance;reports results;
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equip­
ment performance. Determines test requirements, equip­
ment modification, and test procedures; conducts tests,
analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on
findings and recommendations;
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives;
may calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May
check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine
adequacy of drawings and design.

Drafter 11
1
Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,
including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work requires
use of most of the conventional drafting techniques and a
working knowledge of the terms and procedures of the
industry. Familiar or recurring work is assigned in general
terms; unfamiliar assignments include information on
methods, procedures, sources of information, and prece­
dents to be followed. Simple revisions to existing drawings
may be assigned with a verbal explanation of the desired
results; more complex revisions are produced from sketches
which clearly depict the desired product.

DRAFTER
Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and skill in
drafting methods, procedures, and techniques. Prepares
drawings of structures, mechanical and electrical equip­
ment, piping and duct systems, and similar equipment,
systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used to communicate
engineering ideas, designs, and information in support of
engineering functions. Uses recognized systems of symbols,
legends, shadings, and lines having specific meaning in
drawings.




Drafter IV
Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which
include multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. Drawings include complex design features that
require considerable drafting skill to visualize and portray.
Assignments regularly require the use of mathematical
59

formulas to compute weights, load capacities, dimensions,
quantities of materials, etc. Working from sketches and
verbal information supplied by an engineer or designer,
determines the most appropriate views, detail drawings, and
supplementary information needed to complete assign­
ments. Selects required information from precedents,
manufacturer’s catalogues, and technical guides. Independ­
ently resolves most of the problems encountered. Super­
visor or designer may suggest methods of approach or
provide advice on unusually difficult problems.

Compyter Operator 1
Work assignments consist of on-the-job training (some­
times augmented by classroom training). Operator is pro­
vided detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments and is under close personal supervision.
Compyter Operator S
i
Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing (i.e., one program is processed
at a time). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective
procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to
preplanned procedure.

NOTE; Exclude drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

OR
Drafter V
Works closely with design originators, preparing draw­
ings of unusual, complex, or original designs which require
a high degree of precision. Performs unusually difficult
assignments requiring considerable initiative, resource­
fulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that anticipated
problems in manufacture, assembly, installation, and opera­
tion are resolved by the drawings produced. Exercises
independent judgment in selecting and interpreting data
based on a knowledge of the design intent. Although
working primarily as a drafter, may occasionally perform
engineering design work in interpreting general designs
prepared by others or in completing missing design details.
May provide advice and guidance to lower level drafters or
serve as coordinator and planner for large and complex
drafting projects.

Work assignments typically are established production runs
(i.e., programs which present few operating problems) ex­
ecuted by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing of
two or more programs). Operator serves as an assistant
operator working under close supervision or performing a por­
tion of a more senior computer operator’s work. In response
to computer output instructions or error conditions, may ap­
ply standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers
problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure.
Computer Operator Hi
Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.
OR
Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing. Selects from a variety of
standard setup and operating procedures. In response to
computer output instructions or error conditions, deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution. Then refers or aborts program.

COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital
computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:
Studies operating instructions to determine equip­
ment setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates computer;
Responds to operating instructions and computer
output instructions;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems;
Maintains operating record.

OR
Work assignments are established production runs (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing of two or
more programs). In response to computer output instruc­
tions or error conditions, applies standard operating or
corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not re­
spond to preplanned procedures.

May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope
of this definition are fully qualified computer operators,
trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and
lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level
operators.




C©mpyter Operator IV
Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
60

photographers use standard equipment (including simple
still, graphic, and motion picture cameras, video and
television hand cameras, and similar commonly used
equipment) and/or use special purpose equipment
(including specialized still and graphic cameras, motion
picture production, television studio, and high speed
cameras and equipment). At the higher levels a complex
accessory system of equipment may be used, as needed,
with sound or lighting systems, generators, timing or
measurement control mechanisms, or improvised stages
or environments, etc. Work of photographers at all levels
is reviewed for quality and acceptability. Photographers
may also develop, process, and edit film or tape, may
serve as a lead photographer to lower level workers, or
may do work described at lower levels as needed.

(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. Selects
from a variety of standard setup and operating procedures.
In response to computer output instructions or error
conditions, deviates from standard procedures if standard
procedures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems
or aborts program.
OR
Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by multiprocessing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.

Excluded are:
(a) Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;

OR
Work assignments are established production runs, (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety of standard setup
and operating procedures. In response to computer output
instructions or error conditions, deviates from standard
procedures if standard procedures do not provide a solu­
tion. Then refers problems or aborts program.

(b) Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,
or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut, or splice negatives;
(c) Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or edit
photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain, or
repair photographic equipment;
(d) Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures of
television; writers and editors; and

Computer Operator V

(e) Photographers taking pictures for commercial
newspaper or magazine publishers, television stations,
or movie producers.

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
testing and introduction of new programs, applications, and
procedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems). In responding to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss of
information or to conserve computer time, operator de­
viates from standard procedures or aborts program. Such
actions may materially alter the computer unit’s production
plans. Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on
setup techniques.

Positions are matched to the appropriate definition
level based on the difficulty of, and responsibility for the
photography performed, including the subject-matter
knowledge and artistry required to fulfill the assignment.
While the equipment may be an indication of the level of
difficulty, photographers at the higher levels may use
standard equipment, as needed.

Computer Operator VI

Photographer S
Takes routine pictures in situations where several shots
can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pictures
where complications, such as speed, motion, color
contrast, or lighting are not present or where there is no
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are taken
for identification, employee publications, information, or
publicity purposes. Workers must be able to focus, center,
and provide simple flash-type lighting for an uncompli­
cated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies,
interviews, banquets or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to

In addition to level V characteristics, assignments at this
level require a knowledge of program language, computer
features, and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or programs;
(2) developing operating instructions and techniques to
cover problem situations; (3) switching to emergency
backup procedures.4

PHOTOGRAPHER
Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of photographic
techniques, equipment, and processes. Typically, some
familiarity with the company’s activities (e.g., scientific,
engineering, industrial, technical, retail, commercial, etc.)
and some artistic ability are needed at the higher levels.
Depending on the objectives of the assignment,



4 Insu fficien t d a ta w ere o b tain e d fo r level VI to w a rra n t p re sen ta ­
tio n o f average salaries.

61

Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

record the condition at a specified time. Assignments are
usually performed without direct guidance due to the
clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.5
Photographer II

Photographer IV

Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed,
motion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the subjects
photographed are similar to those at Level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut
objectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and
filters, camera angles, exposure times, and type of film.
Requires familiarity with the situation gained from
similar past experience to arrange for specific emphasis,
balanced lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as
needed. May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture
cameras for simple shots such as moving equipment,
individuals at work or meetings, and the like, where
available or simple artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily there is opportunity for repeated shots or
for retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory.
Consults with supervisor or more experienced photog­
raphers when problems are anticipated.

Uses special purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually makes
all the technical decisions, although the objective of the
pictures is determined by operating officials. Conceives
and plans the technical photographic effects desired by
operating officials and discusses modifications and
improvements to their original ideas in light of the
potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, colors, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical examples
of equipment used at this level include ultra-high speed,
motion picture production, studio television, animation
cameras, specialized still and graphic cameras, electronic
timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in
light values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets
up precise photographic measurement and controls
equipment; uses high speed color photography, syn­
chronized stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or
timed electronic triggering; operates equipment from a
remote point; or arranges and uses cameras operating at
several thousand frames per second. In other assignments,
selects and sets up motion picture or television cameras
and accessories and shoots a part of a production or a
sequence of scenes, or takes special scenes to be used for
background or special effects in the production.
Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with
supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual
problems or altering existing equipment.

Photographer III

Selects from a range of standard photographic
equipment for assignments demanding exact renditions,
normally without opportunity for later retakes, when
there are specific problems or uncertainties concerning
lighting, exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses
technical requirements with operating officials or
supervisor and customizes treatment for each situation
according to a detailed request. Varies camera processes
and techniques and uses ..the setting and background to
produce esthetic, as well as accurate and informative,
pictures. Typically, standard equipment is used at this
level although “specialized” photography work is usually
performed; may use some special purpose equipment
under closer supervision.
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawing, charts,
maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computation of
reduction ratios and exposure times and precise
equipment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail
and exact color when color and condition of the tissue
may deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures
or conditions which normally cannot be recaptured;
machine or motor parts to show wear or corrosion in
minute wires or gears; specialized real estate or retail
goods for company catalogs or listings where saleability is
enhanced by the photography; company products, works,
construction sites, or patrons in prescribed detail to
substantiate legal claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or
technical design layouts requiring precise equipment
settings; fixed objects on the ground or air-to-air objects
which must be captured quickly and require directing the
pilot to get the correct angle of approach.



Photographer V

As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations
requiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically
performs one or more of the following assignments: (1)
Develops and adapts photographic equipment or
processes to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and
modify equipment for use in extreme conditions such as
excessive heat or cold, radiation, high altitude,
underwater, wind and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2)
plans and organizes the overall technical photographic
coverage for a variety of events and developments in phases
of a scientific, industrial, medical, or commercial research
project or similar program; or (3) creates the desired
illusion or emotional effect through developing trick or
special effects photography for novel situations requiring
62

action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.5

a high degree of ingenuity and imaginative camera work
to heighten, simulate, or alter reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are
responsible for the substance of the project. Uses
imagination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging the

N o t e : Excluded are photographers above Level V who
independently plan the objectives, scope, and substance
of the photography for the project in addition to planning
the overall technical photographic coverage.
insufficient data were obtained for levels I and V to warrant
presentation of average salaries.

Cfl©ri(sal

ACCOUNTING CLERK

and checking that expenditures will not exceed
obligations in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and
reconciling collection vouchers; posting data to transac­
tion sheets where employee identifies proper accounts
and items to be posted; and coding documents in
accordance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee
follows specific and detailed accounting procedures.
Completed work is reviewed for accuracy and compliance
with procedures.

Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconciling
accounts; verifying the internal consistency, complete­
ness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting docu­
ments; assigning prescribed accounting distribution
codes; examining and verifying the clerical accuracy of
various types of reports, lists, calculations, postings, etc.;
preparing journal vouchers; or making entries or
adjustment to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where there
are few variations in the types of transactions handled. In
addition, some jobs at each level may require a basic
knowledge and understanding of the terminology, codes,
and processes used in an automated accounting system.

Accounting Clerk III
Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in
performing one or more of the following: Posts actions to
journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected and
debit and credit entries to be made and assigning proper
codes; reviews computer printouts against manually
maintained journals, detecting and correcting erroneous
postings, and preparing documents to adjust accounting
classifications and other data; or reviews lists of
transactions rejected by an automated system, determin­
ing reasons for rejections, and preparing necessary
correcting material. On routine assignments, employee
selects and applies established procedures and techniques.
Detailed instructions are provided for difficult or unusual
assignments. Completed work and methods used are
reviewed for technical accuracy.

Accounting Clerk 1
Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and
repetitive accounting documents, verifying mathematical
accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and bringing
them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor gives clear
and detailed instructions for specific assignments.
Employee refers to supervisor all matters not covered by
instructions. Work is closely controlled and reviewed in
detail for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to
instructions.

Accounting Clerk IV
Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an
accounting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,
ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit,
determining accounts involved, coding transactions, and
processing material through data processing for applica­
tion in the accounting system); and/or analyzes and
reconciles computer printouts with operating unit reports
(contacting units and researching causes of discrepancies,
and taking action to ensure that accounts balance).
Employee resolves problems in recurring assignments in
accordance with previous training and experience.

Accounting Clerk II
Performs one or more routine accounting clerical
operations, such as: Examining, verifying, and correcting
accounting transactions to ensure completeness and
accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts,




63

or following specific procedures or detailed instructions,
works from various standardized source documents
which have been coded and require little or no selecting,
coding, or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers to
supervisor problems arising from erroneous items, codes,
or missing information.

Supervisor provides suggestions for handling unusual or
nonrecurring transactions. Conformance with require­
ments and technical soundness of completed work are
reviewed by the supervisor or are controlled by
mechanisms built into the accounting system.
N o t e : Excluded from level IV are positions responsi­
ble for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

FILE

Key Entry Operator II

Work requires the application of experience and
judgment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to
be entered from a variety of source documents. On
occasion may also perform some routine work as
described for level I.

C LER K

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established
filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.

NOTE: Excluded are operators above level II using the
key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive actions,
or to make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge.

File Cl@rk I

Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronolog­
ical, or numerical). As requested, locates readily available
material in files and forwards material; may fill out
withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and
manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

MESSENGER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or
mailers, opening mail, distributing mail on a regularly
scheduled route or in a familiar area, and other minor
clerical work. May deliver mail that requires some special
handling, e.g., mail that is insured, registered, or marked
for special delivery.

File Clerk 1
1

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly
identified material in files and forwards material. May
perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and
service files.

as

Excluded a r e p o s i t io n s w h ic h in c lu d e a n y o f th e f o llo w in g
significant d u tie s :
( a ) O p e r a t i n g m o t o r v e h ic le s;
(b ) D e liv e r in g v a lu a b le s o r s e c u rity - c la s s if ie d m a il w h e n

File Clerk Ell
Classifies and indexes file material such as corres­
pondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with the files. May
lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

the w ork requires a con tin u in g k n ow led ge o f special
p r o c e d u r e s f o r h a n d li n g s u c h ite m s
(c ) W e ig h in g m a il, d e te r m i n i n g p o s ta g e , o r r e c o r d in g a n d
c o n tr o l l in g r e g is te r e d , in s u r e d , a n d c e r tif ie d m a il in
th e m a il r o o m ;
( d ) M a k in g d e liv e rie s t o u n f a m i l ia r o r w id e ly s e p a r a t e d
b u i ld i n g s o r p o i n ts w h ic h a r e n o t p a r t o f a n e s t a b ­
lis h e d r o u te ; o r

KEY ENTRY OPERATOR

(e ) D ir e c tin g o t h e r w o r k e r s .

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating an
alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of
transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equip­
ment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Key Entry Operator-I

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision




64

PERSONNEL CLERK/ASSISTANT (EMPLOYMENT)

Personnel clerks/ assistants (employment) provide cleri­
cal and technical support to personnel professionals or
managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and termination of
company employees. At the lower levels, clerks/ assistants
primarily provide basic information to current and
prospective employees, maintain personnel records and
information listings, and prepare and process papers on
personnel actions (hires, transfers, changes in pay, etc.).

At the higher levels, clerks/ assistants (often titled
personnel assistants or specialists) may perform limited
aspects of a personnel professional’s work, e.g.,
interviewing candidates, recommending placements, and
preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on personnel
actions are made by personnel professionals or managers.
Some clerks/ assistants may perform a limited amount of
work in other specialties, such as benefits, compensation,
or employee relations. Typing may be required at any
level.

Detailed company rules and procedures are available
for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and assistance
on unusual questions are available at all times. Work is
spot checked, often on a daily basis.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) II
Examines and/or processes personnel action documents
using experience in applying company personnel
procedures and policies. Ensures that all information is
complete and consistent and determines whether further
discussion with applicants or employees is needed or
whether personnel information must be checked against
additional files or listings. Must select the most
appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure as a basis for
the personnel action from a number of alternatives.
Responds to varied questions from applicants, employ­
ees, or managers for readily available information which
can be obtained from file material or manuals; response
requires skill to secure cooperation in correcting
improperly completed personnel action documents or to
explain regulations and procedures. May provide
information to managers on availability of applicants and
status of hiring actions; may verify employment dates and
places supplied on job applications; may maintain
assigned personnel records; may administer typing and
stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently. Detailed
guidance is available for situations which deviate from
established precedents. Clerks/ assistants are relied upon
to alert higher level clerks/ assistants or supervisor to such
situations. Work may be spot checked periodically.

Excluded are:
(a) Workers who primarily compute and process payrolls
or compute and/ or respond to questions on company
benefits or retirement claims;
(b) Workers who receive additional pay primarily for
maintaining and safeguarding personnel record files
for a company;
(c) Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of
the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such as
receptionists, messengers, typists* or stenographers;
(d) Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree;
and
(e) Workers who are primarily compensated for duties
outside the employment specialty, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions. The work described is essentially at
a responsible clerical level at the low levels and progresses
to a staff assistant or technician level. At Level III, which
is transitional, both types of work are described. Jobs
which match either type of work described at Level III, or
which are combinations of the two, can be matched.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) III
Type A
Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing the
most complicated types of personnel actions, e.g.,
temporary employment, rehires, and dismissals and in
providing information when it is necessary to consolidate
data from a number of sources, often with short
deadlines. Screens applications for obvious rejections.
Resolves conflicts in computer listings or other sources of
employee information. Locates lost documents or
reconstructs information using a number of sources. May
check references of applicants when information in
addition to dates and places of past work is needed, and
judgment is required to ask appropriate routine follow-up
questions. May provide guidance to lower level clerks.
Supervisory review is similar to Level II.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) I
Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of
company personnel procedures and rules, such as:
Providing simple employment information and appro­
priate lists and forms to applicants or employees on types
of jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to
obtain additional information; ensuring that the proper
company forms are completed for name changes, locator
information, applications, etc. and reviewing completed
forms for signatures and proper entries; or maintaining
assigned segments of company personnel records,
contacting appropriate sources to secure any missing
items, and posting the items, such as, dates of promotion,
transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or personal data. (If this
information is computerized, skill in coding or entering
information may be needed as a minor duty.) May answer
outside inquiries for simple factual information, such as
verification of dates of employment in response to
telephone credit checks on employees. Some receptionist
or other clerical duties may be performed. May be
assigned work to provide training for a higher level
position.




ANID/OiR

Typ© 83
Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to
company programs, facilities, rules on time and
attendance, and leave policies; computing basic statistical
65

PURCHASING ASSISTANT

information for reports on manpower profiles, EEO
progress and accomplishments, hiring activities, attend­
ance and leave profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening
applicants for well defined positions, rejecting those who
do not qualify for available openings for clear cut reasons,
referring others to appropriate employment interviewer.
Guidance is provided on possible sources of information,
methods of work, and types of reports needed. Completed
written work receives close technical review from higher
level personnel office employees; other work may be
checked occasionally.

Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase goods,
materials, equipment, services, etc. Assistants at Level I
examine requisitions and purchase documents, such as,
purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and
supporting papers; they review, verify, prepare, or control
the documents to assure accuracy, completeness, and
correct processing. Assistants at Levels II and III may
also expedite purchases already made, by contacting
vendors and analyzing and reporting on supplier
problems related to delivery, availability of goods, or any
other part of the purchase agreement. Assistants at Level
III may also develop technical information for buyers,
e.g., comparative information on materials sought. All
assignments require a practical knowledge of company
purchasing procedures and operations and experience in
applying company regulations, guidelines, or manuals to
specific transactions. Assistants may type the purchasing
documents they prepare or may perform work described
at lower levels, as needed. Final decisions on purchasing
transactions are made by buyers or contract specialists.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) IV
Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge of personnel
procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references
and recommends placement of applicants in a few welldefined occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable
organization or unit; conducts post-placement or exit
interviews to identify job adjustment problems or reasons
for leaving the company; performs routine statistical
analyses related to manpower, EEO, hiring, or other
employment concerns, e.g., compares one set of data to
another set as instructed; and requisitions applicants
through employment agencies for clerical or similar level
jobs. At this level assistants typically have a range of
personal contacts within and outside the company with
applicants, and must be tactful and articulate. May
perform some clerical work in addition to the above
duties. Supervisor reviews completed work against stated
objectives.

Excluded a re :
(a ) P u r c h a s i n g c le rk s o r a s s i s t a n ts , ty p is ts , file c le r k s ,
s e c re ta r ie s , r e c e p tio n is ts , a n d t r a in e s s , w h o d o n o t
examine p u r c h a s e r e q u is it i o n s o r o t h e r d o c u m e n t s t o
assure a c c u r a c y , c o m p l e te n e s s a n d c o r r e c t p ro c e s s in g ;
w o r k e r s in th e s e e x c l u d e d p o s i t io n s m a y p r e p a r e a n d
ty p e th e fin a l p u r c h a s e o r d e r , e n te r in g s u c h p r e s c r ib e d
ite m s a s q u a n ti t ie s , m o d e l n u m b e r s , a d d r e s s e s , o r
p ric e s , a f te r a h ig h e r lev el e m p lo y e e s c r e e n s t h e
r e q u is it i o n a n d a s s u r e s t h e p u r c h a s e o r d e r d a t a a r e
c o m p l e te a n d a c c u r a te .

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) V
Workers at this level perform duties similar to Level IV,
but are responsible for more complicated cases and work
with greater independence. Performs limited aspects of
professional personnel work dealing with a variety of
occupations common to the company which are clear-cut
and stable in employment requirements. Typical duties
include: Researching recruitment sources, such as
employment agencies or state manpower offices, and
advising managers on the availability of candidates in
common occupations; screening and selecting employees
for a few routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer
employment; or answering inquiries on a controversial
issue, such as a hiring or promotion freeze. These duties
often require considerable skill and diplomacy in
communications. Other typical duties may include:
Surveying managers for future hiring requirements;
developing newspaper vacancy announcements or
explaining job requirements to employment agencies for
administrative or professional positions; or reviewing the
effect of corporate personnel procedural changes on local
employment programs (e.g., automation of records, new
affirmative action goals). May incidentally perform some
clerical duties. Supervisory review is similar to Level IV.



(b ) W o r k e r s w h o p r o c e s s o r e x p e d i t e th e p u r c h a s e o f
ite m s f o r d ir e c t s a le e it h e r w h o le s a le o r r e ta il;
(c) W o r k e r s w h o a s a p r i m a r y d u ty : M a i n t a i n a f ilin g
s y s te m o r lis tin g to m o n i t o r i n v e n t o r y lev els; r e o r d e r
ite m s b y p h o n e u n d e r o n g o i n g c o n tr a c t s ; o r re c e iv e
a n d d i s b u r s e s u p p lie s a n d m a t e r i a ls f o r u se in th e
com pany;
(d ) P r o d u c t i o n e x p e d i t e r s o r c o n tr o l l e r s w h o p r i m a r i ly
e n s u r e t h e tim e ly a r r i v a l a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f
p u r c h a s e d m a t e r i a ls w ith a s s e m b ly lin e o r p r o d u c t i o n
s c h e d u le s a n d r e q u ir e m e n ts ;
(e ) P u r c h a s i n g e x p e d i t e r s w h o o n ly c h e c k o n th e s t a tu s o f
p u r c h a s e s a lr e a d y m a d e a n d w h o d o n o t a n a ly z e th e
f a c ts a t h a n d a n d d o n o t m a k e r e c o m m e n d a ti o n s f o r
e it h e r e x te n s i o n o f d e liv e ry d a te s o r f o r o t h e r s im ila r
m o d if i c a t io n s to th e p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t , a s d e s c r ib e d
a t L ev e l I I , b;
(f) P o s it i o n s w h ic h r e q u ir e a t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e o f
e q u ip m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s ti c s a n d p a r ts , p r o d u c t i o n
c o n tr o l , o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g m e t h o d s a n d p r o c e d u r e s ;
(g ) P o s it i o n s r e q u ir i n g a b a c h e l o r ’s d e g re e ; a n d
(h ) B u y e rs.
66

Positions are classified into levels based on the following
definitions according to the complexity of the work, the
conditions of the purchase, and the amount of
supervision.

r e c o m m e n d s e x te n s i o n o f d e liv e ry d a t e o r o t h e r s im ila r
m o d if ic a tio n s . I n s o m e c a s e s , d e c id e s t o re fe r p r o b l e m s
t o p r o d u c ti o n , p a c k a g in g , o r o t h e r c o m p a n y s p e c ia lis ts .
M a y r e o r d e r s t a n d a r d ite m s u n d e r a v a r ie ty o f e x is tin g
p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t s w h e r e j u d g m e n t is n e e d e d t o a s k
f u r t h e r q u e s t io n s a n d f o llo w - u p a n d c o o r d in a te
t r a n s a c ti o n s .
A s s is t a n t s a t th is lev e l e x p e d i t e p u r c h a s e s o f s t a n d a r d
g o o d s , s u p p lie s , e q u ip m e n t, o r se rv ic e s, a n d / o r
p u r c h a s e s o f s p e c ia liz e d ite m s w h e n th e c o m p l e x it y o f
th e ite m d o e s not a f fe c t th e a s s i s t a n t ’s w o r k , i.e ., t h e
a s s i s t a n t d o e s n o t c o o r d in a te r e q u e s ts f o r m in o r
d e v ia t io n s f r o m
c o n t r a c t s p e c if ic a tio n s , e tc ., a s
d e s c r ib e d a t L e v e l I I I , b.

Purchasing Assistant S
According to detailed procedures or company regula­
tions, examines documents such as requisitions, purchase
orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and supporting
papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to determine
whether the correct item description, price, quantity,
discount terms, shipping instructions, and/or delivery
terms have been included and selects the appropriate
purchase phrases and forms from prescribed company
lists or files. Obtains any missing or corrected
information, prepares the purchase order, and gives it to
the buyer for approval when satisfied that the
information is complete and the computations are
accurate. Contacts are usually within the establishment to
verify or correct factual information. May contact
vendors for information about purchases already made
and may reorder items under routine and existing
purchase arrangements where few, if any, questions arise.
Receives detailed instructions on new assignments.
Refers questions to supervisor who may spot check work
on a daily basis.

Assistants at this level coordinate information with
company buyers and with suppliers outside the company
and keep others informed of the progress of transactions.
Major changes in company regulations and procedures
are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual situations to
supervisor who also spot checks all completed work for
adequacy.

Purchasing Assistant III
Assistants at this level have a good understanding of
purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to
buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers negotiate
and make purchases. They perform assignments
described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a combination of any
of these.

Assistants at this level examine documents for order of
standard goods, supplies, equipment or services, and/or
for order of specialized items when the complexity of the
item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the assistant
is not required to use considerable judgment to find a
previous transaction to use as a guideline, as described at
Level II, a.

a. R e v ie w s a n d p r e p a r e s p u r c h a s e d o c u m e n t s f o r h ig h ly
s p e c ia liz e d ite m s w h e re fe w p r e c e d e n t t r a n s a c t i o n s e x is t
t h a t c a n b e u s e d a s g u id e lin e s a n d w h e r e p r o v is io n s s u c h
a s f i x e d - p r ic e c o n t r a c t s w ith p r o v i s i o n s f o r e s c a l a t i o n ,
p r ic e r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , o r c o s t in c e n tiv e s a r e n e e d e d .
C o m p li c a t e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s p a y m e n t s , f o r
te s tin g a n d e v a l u a t i n g th e o r d e r e d ite m , o r f o r m e e tin g
c o m p a n y p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u le s m a y a ls o e x is t. A s
n e c e s s a ry , d r a f t s s p e c ia l c la u s e s , te r m s , o r r e q u ir e s m e n ts
fo r u n u s u a l p u rc h a se s. P ro v id e s a u th o rita tiv e in fo rm a ­
t io n to o t h e r s o n c o m p a n y p u r c h a s e p r o c e d u r e s a n d
a s s u r e s t h a t d o c u m e n t s a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s a g r e e w ith
b a s ic p r o c u r e m e n t p o lic e s.

Purchasing Assistant li
Assistants at this level perform assignments described in
paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two.
a. R e v ie w s a n d
p re p are s
p u rc h a se d o c u m e n ts fo r
s p e c ia liz e d ite m s , s u c h a s i te m s w ith o p t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o r
te c h n ic a l e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir i n g p re c is e s p e c if ic a tio n s .
S in c e th e t r a n s a c t i o n s u s u a lly r e q u ir e s p e c ia l p u r c h a s ­
in g c o n d it i o n s , e .g ., m u ltip le d e liv e rie s , p r o v i s i o n o f
s p a r e p a r ts , o r r e n e g o t ia t io n o f te r m s , c o n s i d e r a b le
j u d g m e n t is n e e d e d t o f in d a p r e v io u s t r a n s a c t i o n to u se
a s a g u id e lin e ; a s r e q u ir e d , a d a p t s th e p h r a s e s o r c la u s e s
in th e g u id e lin e t r a n s a c t i o n t h a t a p p ly to th e p u r c h a s e a t
h a n d . I n s o m e c a s e s , re v ie w s p u r c h a s i n g d o c u m e n t s
p r e p a r e d b y lo w e r lev el c le r k s o r p r e p a r e d b y p e r s o n n e l
in o t h e r c o m p a n y u n i ts t o d e te c t p r o c e s s in g d i s c r e p a n ­
c ie s o r t o c la r if y th e p u r c h a s e p a p e r s ; c o r r e c ts c le ric a l
e r r o r s . M a y a d v is e c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s o n h o w t o
p r e p a r e r e q u is it i o n s f o r i te m s t o b e o r d e r e d .

b. E x p e d ite s p u r c h a s e s o f s p e c ia liz e d ite m s (s e e L e v e l II,
b .) w h e n t h e c o m p l e x it y o f th e ite m s does a f fe c t th e
a s s i s t a n t ’s w o r k . I n v e s tig a te s s u p p l i e r p r o b le m s a n d
c o o r d in a te s r e q u e s ts f o r m i n o r d e v ia t io n s f r o m th e
c o n tr a c t s p e c ific a tio n s w ith s p e c ia lis ts , b u y e rs , s u p p lie rs ,
a n d u s e rs . R e c o m m e n d s r e v is io n s t o th e c o n t r a c t o r
p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t, if n e e d e d , b a s e d u p o n c o m p a n y
r e q u ir e m e n ts . M a y r e o r d e r te c h n ic a l a n d s p e c ia liz e d
ite m s w ith in e x is tin g p u r c h a s e c o n t r a c t s w h ic h c o n ta i n
s p e c ia l p u r c h a s i n g c o n d it i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s w h ic h a r is e
a r e h a n d le d s im ila r ly t o th o s e in L e v e l I I , b.
c. F u r n i s h e s te c h n ic a l s u p p o r t to b u y e r s o r c o n t r a c t
s p e c ia lis ts , u s in g a d e ta ile d k n o w le d g e o f c o m p a n y
p u r c h a s i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , e .g ., a n a ly z e s
b id s f o r c o n t r a c t s t o d e te r m i n e th e p o s s ib le n u m b e r a n d
in te r e s t o f b i d d e r s f o r standard c o m m o d i ti e s a n d
se rv ice s; a s s e m b le s c o n t r a c t s a n d d r a f t s s p e c ia l c la u s e s ,
te r m s , o r r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r u n p r e c e d e n t e d p u r c h a s e s ,
e .g ., f o r s p e c ia lly d e s ig n e d e q u ip m e n t o r f o r c o m p le x
o n e -tim e t r a n s a c tio n s ; g a th e r s a n d s u m m a r iz e s in f o r m a ­

b . E x p e d ite s p u r c h a s e s b y making a recommendation fo r
action b a s e d o n s im p le a n a ly s is o f t h e f a c ts a t h a n d ,
c o m p a n y g u id e lin e s , a n d th e b a c k g r o u n d o f th e
p u r c h a s e : C o n t a c t s s u p p l i e r s to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n o n
d e liv e rie s o r o n c o n tr a c t s ; b a s e d o n c le a r - c u t g u id e lin e s
f o r e a c h ty p e o f p u r c h a s e a n d p r e v io u s p e r f o r m a n c e o f
s u p p lie r , a v a i l a b i li t y o f ite m , o r i m p a c t o f d e la y ,




67

CSassifoeatiora by Level
Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics are
matched at one of five levels according to two factors: (a)
Level of the secretary’s supervisor within the overall
organizational structure, and (b) Level of the secretary’s
responsibility. The table following the explanations of
these factors indicates the level of the secretary for each
combination of factors.

t i o n o n th e a v a ila b ility o f s p e c ia l e q u ip m e n t a n d th e
a b il i ty o f s u p p lie r s t o m e e t c o m p a n y n e e d s .

Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurement policies. Assistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected to
propose solutions for supervisory approval. Supervisory
review is similar to Level II; drafts of special clauses, etc.,
are reviewed in detail.

LEVEL OF SECRETARY’S SUPERVISOR (LS)

N o t e : Excluded are higher level workers who: Negotiate

agreements with contractors on minor changes in the
terms of an established contract; or analyze and make
recommendations about proposals of specialized equip­
ment, about the solvency and performance of firms, or
about clerical processing methods needed to fit new
purchasing policies.

Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS
levels below best describing the organization of the
secretary’s supervisor.

SECRETARY

LS-1 Organizational structure is not complex and
internal procedures and administrative controls are
simple and informal; supervisor directs staff
through face-to-face meetings.

Provides principal secretarial support in an office,
usually one individual, and, in some cases, also to the
subordinate staff of that individual. Maintains a close and
highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day activities
of the supervisor and staff. Works fairly independently
receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and
guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties
requiring a knowledge of office routine and an
understanding of the organization, programs, and
procedures related to the work of the office.

LS-2 Organizational structure is complex and is divided
into subordinate groups that usually differ from
each other as to subject-matter, function, etc.;
supervisor usually directs staff through intermedi­
ate supervisors; internal procedures and adminis­
trative controls are formal. An entire organization
(e.g., division, subsidiary, or parent organization)
may contain a variety of subordinate groups which
meet the LS-2 definition. Therefore, it is not
unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to report to
another LS-2 supervisor.
The presence of subordinate supervisors does not
by itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical pro­
cessing organization divided into several units,
each performing very similar work is placed in
LS-1.

Exclusions. N o t a ll p o s i t io n s t it l e d “ s e c r e t a r y ” p o s s e s s th e
a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s ti c s . E x a m p l e s o f p o s i t io n s w h ic h a r e e x c lu d e d
f r o m th e d e f in i t io n a r e a s f o llo w s :
a. C le r k s o r s e c re ta r ie s w o r k i n g u n d e r th e d i r e c ti o n o f
s e c re ta r ie s o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n ts a s d e s c r ib e d in e;

In smaller organizations or industries such as retail
trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the
supervisor may have an impact on the policies and
major programs of the entire organization, and
may deal with important outside contacts, as
described in LS-3.

b. S t e n o g r a p h e r s n o t f u lly p e r f o r m i n g s e c r e t a r i a l d u tie s ;
c. S t e n o g r a p h e r s o r s e c re ta r ie s a s s ig n e d t o tw o o r m o r e
p r o f e s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l, o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n s o f
e q u iv a l e n t r a n k ;
d . A s s is t a n t s o r s e c re ta r ie s p e r f o r m i n g a n y k i n d o f
t e c h n ic a l w o r k , e .g ., p e r s o n n e l, a c c o u n ti n g , o r le g a l
w o rk ;

LS-3 Organizational structure is divided into two or
more subordinate supervisory levels (of which at
least one is a managerial level) with several
subdivisions at each level. Executive’s program(s)
are usually interlocked on a direct and continuing
basis with other major organizational segments,
requiring constant attention to extensive formal
coordination, clearances, and procedural controls.
Executive typically has: Financial decision-making
authority for assigned program(s); considerable
impact on the entire organization’s financial
position or image; and responsibility for, or has
staff specialists in, such areas as personnel and
administration for assigned organization. Execu­

e. A d m i n is tr a t iv e a s s i s t a n ts o r s u p e r v is o r s p e r f o r m i n g
d u t ie s w h ic h a r e m o r e d if f ic u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s ib le t h a n
th e s e c r e ta r ia l w o r k d e s c r i b e d in L R - 1 , t h r o u g h L R - 4 ;
f. S e c r e t a r i e s r e c e iv in g a d d i t i o n a l p a y p r i m a r i ly f o r
m a i n t a i n i n g c o n f id e n ti a li t y o f p a y r o ll r e c o r d s o r o t h e r
s e n s itiv e i n f o r m a t io n ;
g . S e c r e t a r i e s p e r f o r m i n g r o u t in e r e c e p ti o n i s t , ty p in g , a n d
f ilin g d u t ie s f o llo w in g d e ta i le d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d
g u id e lin e s ; th e s e d u t ie s a r e less r e s p o n s ib le t h a n th o s e
d e s c r ib e d in L R -1 b e lo w ;
h . T r a in e e s .




68

tive plays an important role in determining the
policies and major programs of the entire
organization, and spends considerable time dealing
with outside parties actively interested in assigned
program(s) and current or controversial issues.

a n d r e p o r t o n th e p r o c e e d in g s .
c. R e v ie w s o u t g o in g m a t e r i a ls a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r
i n t e r n a l c o n s is te n c y a n d c o n f o r m a n c e w ith s u p e r v i s o r ’s
p r o c e d u r e s ; a s s u r e s t h a t p r o p e r c le a r a n c e s h a v e b e e n
o b ta in e d , w h e n n e ed e d .
d. C o lle c ts i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m th e file s o r s t a f f f o r r o u t in e
in q u ir ie s o n o ffic e p r o g r a m ( s ) o r p e r io d ic r e p o r t s .
R e f e r s n o n - r o u t i n e r e q u e s t s t o s u p e r v is o r o r s ta ff.

LEVEL OF SECRETARY’S RESPONSIBILITY (LR)

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship
e. E x p la in s to s u b o r d i n a t e s t a f f s u p e r v i s o r ’s r e q u ir e m e n t s
between the secretary and the supervisor or staff, and the
c o n c e r n in g o ffic e p r o c e d u r e s . C o o r d i n a t e s p e r s o n n e l
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m s f o r th e o ffic e a n d f o r w a r d s f o r
extent to which the secretary is expected to exercise
p r o c e s s in g .
initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be matched at
the level best describing their level of responsibility. When
LR-3 Uses greater judgment and initiative to determine
a position’s duties span more than one LR level, the
the approach or action to take in non-routine
introductory paragraph at the beginning of each LR level
situations. Interprets and adapts guidelines,
should be used to determine which of the levels best
including unwritten policies, precedents, and
matches the position. (Typically, secretaries performing
practices, which are not always completely
at the higher levels of responsibility also perform duties
applicable to changing situations. Duties include or
described at the lower levels.)
are comparable to the following:
LR-1 Carries out recurring office procedures independ­
a. B a s e d o n a k n o w le d g e o f th e s u p e r v i s o r ’s v ie w s,
ently. Selects the guideline or reference which fits
c o m p o s e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n o w n i n itia tiv e a b o u t
the specific case. Supervisor provides specific
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s a n d g e n e r a l o ffic e p o lic ie s f o r
s u p e r v i s o r ’s a p p r o v a l .
instructions on new assignments and checks
b. A n t i c i p a te s a n d p r e p a r e s m a t e r i a ls n e e d e d b y th e
completed work for accuracy. Performs varied
s u p e r v is o r f o r c o n f e r e n c e s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a p p o i n t ­
duties including or comparable to the following:
a. R e s p o n d s to r o u t i n e te l e p h o n e r e q u e s ts w h ic h h a v e
s t a n d a r d a n s w e rs ; re fe rs c a lls a n d v is ito rs to a p p r o p r i a t e
sta ff. C o n t r o ls m a il a n d a s s u r e s tim e ly s t a f f r e s p o n s e ;
m a y s e n d f o r m le tte rs .
b. A s i n s t r u c t e d , m a i n t a i n s s u p e r v i s o r ’s c a l e n d a r , m a k e s
a p p o in t m e n t s , a n d a r r a n g e s f o r m e e tin g r o o m s .
c. R e v ie w s m a t e r i a ls p r e p a r e d f o r s u p e r v i s o r ’s a p p r o v a l
f o r ty p o g r a p h i c a l a c c u r a c y a n d p r o p e r f o r m a t .
d . M a i n ta i n s r e c u r r i n g i n te r n a l r e p o r t s , s u c h as: T im e a n d
le a v e r e c o r d s , o ffic e e q u ip m e n t lis tin g s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e
c o n tr o l s , t r a i n i n g p la n s , e tc .

m e n ts , m e e tin g s , t e l e p h o n e c a lls , e tc ., a n d in f o r m s
s u p e r v i s o r o n m a t t e r s to b e c o n s id e r e d .
c. R e a d s p u b l ic a ti o n s , r e g u la ti o n s , a n d d ir e c tiv e s a n d
ta k e s a c t i o n o r r e fe r s th o s e t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o th e
s u p e r v is o r a n d sta ff.
d . P r e p a r e s s p e c ia l o r o n e - tim e r e p o r t s , s u m m a r i e s , o r
re p lie s t o in q u ir ie s , s e le c tin g r e le v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m
a v a r ie ty o f s o u r c e s s u c h a s r e p o r t s , d o c u m e n t s ,
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o t h e r o ffic e s , e tc ., u n d e r g e n e r a l
d ir e c tio n .
e. A d v is e s s e c r e ta r ie s in s u b o r d i n a t e o ffic e s o n n e w
p r o c e d u r e s ; r e q u e s t s i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f r o m th e
s u b o r d i n a te o ffic e (s) f o r p e r io d i c o r s p e c ia l c o n f e r e n c e s ,
r e p o r t s , in q u ir ie s , e tc . S h if ts c le r ic a l s t a f f t o a c c o m m o ­
d a te w o r k l o a d n e e d s .

e. R e q u is it i o n s s u p p lie s , p r i n ti n g , m a i n t e n a n c e , o r o t h e r
s e rv ic e s. T y p e s , ta k e s a n d t r a n s c r i b e s d i c t a ti o n , a n d
e s ta b lis h e s a n d m a i n t a i n s o ffic e files.

LR-4 Handles a wide variety of situations and conflicts
involving the clerical or administrative functions of
LR-2 Handles differing situations, problems, and
the office which often cannot be brought to the
deviations in the work of the office according to the
attention of the executive. The executive sets the
supervisor's general instructions, priorities, duties,
overall objectives of the work. Secretary may
policies, and program goals. Supervisor may assist
participate in developing the work deadlines.
secretary with special assignments. Duties include
Duties include or are comparable to the following:
or are comparable to the following:
a. C o m p o s e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e q u ir i n g s o m e u n d e r s t a n d ­
a . S c r e e n s t e l e p h o n e c a lls , v is ito r s , a n d
i n c o m in g
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n d s t o r e q u e s ts f o r
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n in g o ffic e p r o c e d u r e s ; d e te r m in e s
w h ic h r e q u e s ts s h o u l d b e h a n d le d b y t h e s u p e r v is o r ,
a p p r o p r ia te s ta ff m e m b e rs , o r o th e r offices. M a y p r e p a r e
a n d sig n r o u tin e , n o n - t e c h n ic a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e in o w n
o r s u p e r v i s o r ’s n a m e .
b . S c h e d u le s t e n t a ti v e a p p o i n t m e n t s w i t h o u t p r i o r c le a r ­
a n c e . M a k e s a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r conferences a n d
m e e tin g s a n d
a s s e m b le s e s t a b lis h e d
b ack g ro u n d
m a te r ia ls , a s d i r e c te d . M a y a t t e n d m e e tin g s a n d r e c o r d




69

in g o f te c h n ic a l m a tte r s ; m a y s ig n f o r e x e c u tiv e w h e n
te c h n ic a l o r p o lic y c o n t e n t h a s b e e n a u th o r i z e d .
b. N o te s c o m m i tm e n ts m a d e b y e x e c u tiv e d u r i n g m e e tin g s
a n d a r r a n g e s f o r s t a f f i m p l e m e n t a t io n . O n o w n
in itia tiv e , a r r a n g e s f o r s t a f f m e m b e r t o r e p r e s e n t
o r g a n iz a t i o n a t c o n f e r e n c e s a n d m e e tin g s , e s ta b lis h e s
a p p o i n t m e n t p r i o r it i e s , o r r e s c h e d u le s o r re fu s e s
a p p o i n t m e n t s o r in v it a ti o n s .
c. R e a d s o u t g o in g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r e x e c u ti v e ’s a p p r o ­
v a l a n d a le r ts w r ite r s t o a n y c o n f li c t w ith th e file o r
d e p a r t u r e f r o m p o lic ie s o r e x e c u ti v e ’s v ie w p o in ts ; g iv e s
a d v ic e to re s o lv e th e p r o b le m s .

in a n o ffic e a n d p e r f o r m i n g m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e a n d
d i s c r e t i o n a r y ta s k s , a s d e s c r ib e d in L R -1 t h r u L R - 4 in
th e S e c r e t a r y d e f in itio n .

d . S u m m a r i z e s th e c o n t e n t o f i n c o m in g m a te r ia ls ,
s p e c ia lly g a th e r e d i n f o r m a t io n , o r m e e tin g s to a s s is t
e x e c u tiv e ; c o o r d in a te s th e n ew i n f o r m a t i o n w ith
b a c k g r o u n d o ffic e s o u rc e s ; d r a w s a t t e n t i o n to i m p o r ­
t a n t p a r t s o r c o n f lic ts .
e. I n t h e e x e c u ti v e ’s a b s e n c e , e n s u r e s t h a t r e q u e s t s f o r
a c t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n a r e r e la y e d t o th e a p p r o p r i a t e
s t a f f m e m b e r; a s n e e d e d , i n te r p r e t s r e q u e s t a n d h e lp s
i m p le m e n t a c t i o n ; m a k e s s u r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n is
f u r n i s h e d in tim e ly m a n n e r ; d e c id e s w h e t h e r e x e c u tiv e
s h o u l d b e n o tif ie d o f i m p o r t a n t o r e m e r g e n c y m a t t e r s .

(c ) S t e n o g r a p h e r s w h o t a k e d i c t a t i o n i n v o lv in g th e
f r e q u e n t u se o f a w id e v a r ie ty o f t e c h n ic a l o r
s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u l a r y . T y p ic a lly th is k in d
of
v o c a b u l a r y cannot b e l e a r n e d in a r e la tiv e ly s h o r t
p e r io d o f tim e , e .g ., a m o n th o r tw o .
(d ) S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s u c h a s s h o r t h a n d r e p o r t e r s , w h o
r e c o r d m a t e r i a l v e r b a t im a t h e a r i n g s , c o n f e r e n c e s , o r
s im ila r p r o c e e d in g s .

Excludes secretaries performing any of the following
duties:

Stenographer S
Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignments along with detailed instructions on such
requirements as form and presentation. The transcribed
material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the final
transcription is reviewed for conformance with the rough
draft. May maintain files, keep simple records, or
perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.

Acts as office manager for the executive’s
organization, e.g., determines when new procedures
are needed for changing situations and devises and
implements alternatives; revises or clarifies proce­
dures to eliminate conflict or duplication; identifies
and resolves various problems that affect the orderly
flow of work in transactions with parties outside the
organization.

Stenographer S
S
Takes and transcribes dictation determining the most
appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties
requiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than Stenographer I. Supervisor typically
provides general instructions. Work requires a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office
procedures and of the specific business operations,
organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties
and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining follow­
up files; assembling material for reports, memoranda,
and letters; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail;
answering routine questions; etc.

Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discus­
sion topics to participants; drafts introductions and
develops background information and prepares
outlines for executive or staff members) to use in
writing speeches;
Advises individuals outside the organization on the
executive’s views on major policies or current issues
facing the organization; contacts or responds to
contacts from high-ranking outside officials (e.g.,
city or State officials, Members of Congress,
presidents of national unions or large national or
international firms, etc.) in unique situations. These
officials may be relatively inaccessible, and each
contact typically must be handled differently, using
judgment and discretion.

TYPIST
Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to type
various materials. Included are automatic typewriters
that are used only to record text and update and
reproduce previously typed items from magnetic cards or
tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar
materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical
work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

Table C-4 Criteria for matching secretaries by level

Level of Secretary’s Responsibility
Level of
LR-4
LR-3
LR-2
LR-1
Secretary’s
Su pervisor
IV
II
III
I*
LS-1
V
IV
III
LS-2
I*
V
V
IV
LS-3
I*
'Regardless of LS Level.

STENOGRAPHER
Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to
transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally
transcribe from voice recordings.

E x c lu d e d f r o m t h is d e f in i t io n is w o r k t h a t i n v o lv e s ;
( a ) T y p in g d ir e c tly f r o m s p o k e n m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s b e e n
r e c o r d e d o n d is c s , c y lin d e rs , b e lts , t a p e s , o r o t h e r
s im ila r m e d ia ;

q u a lif ie d

( b ) T h e u se o f v a r it y p e m a c h in e s , c o m p o s in g e q u ip m e n t,
o r a u t o m a t i c e q u ip m e n t in p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r
p r in tin g ; a n d

(b ) S e c r e ta r ie s p r o v i d in g th e p r in c ip a l s e c r e ta r ia l s u p p o r t

(c ) F a m il i a r i t y w ith s p e c ia liz e d t e r m i n o lo g y in v a r io u s
k e y b o a r d c o m m a n d s t o m a n i p u l a t e o r e d it th e

E x c lu d e d f r o m t h is d e f in i t io n a re :
( a ) T r a i n e e p o s itio n s
s te n o g ra p h e r.




not

r e q u ir i n g

a

f u lly

70

syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual
words or foreign language materials; or planning layout
and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain
uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.

r e c o r d e d t e x t t o a c c o m p l i s h r e v is io n s , o r to p e r f o r m
t a s k s s u c h a s e x t r a c t i n g a n d lis tin g ite m s f r o m th e t e x t,
o r t r a n s m i t t i n g t e x t to o t h e r te r m i n a l s , o r u s in g s o r t
c o m m a n d s t o h a v e t h e m a c h in e r e o r d e r m a te r ia l.
T y p ic a lly r e q u ir e s t h e u s e o f a u t o m a t i c e q u ip m e n t
w h ic h m a y b e e it h e r c o m p u t e r lin k e d o r h a v e a
p r o g r a m m a b l e m e m o r y so t h a t m a t e r i a l c a n b e
o r g a n iz e d in r e g u la r ly u s e d f o r m a t s o r p r e f o r m e d
p a r a g r a p h s w h ic h c a n t h e n b e c o d e d a n d s t o r e d f o r
f u t u r e u se in le tte r s o r d o c u m e n t s .

NOTE: The occupational titles1 and definitions for ac­
counting clerks, drafters, file clerks, key entry operators,
stenographers, and typists are the same as those used in the
Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in
metropolitan areas.
Revised definitions for stenographer and typist were in­
troduced into the area surveys in calendar year 1981; the
4-level accounting clerk in 1980; and the 5-level drafter in
1979. Three years are required to bring a new job definition
into all areas covered by the program.

Typist I
Performs one or more o f thefollowing: Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set
up and spaced properly.
Typist S
S
Performs one or more of the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from
several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling;




Before 1981, level designations differed between the area and national
surveys. See National Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical and
Clerical Pay, March 1980. Bulletin 2081 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1980),
page 68, for details.

71

Appemdlix D„ Comparison) ©f
Salairi©s aimPriwat® Indystry with
Salarites ©f Fedsral Employe®®
under Sh® ©©menai Sehedlyl®

Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational work level
definitions used in the survey. Definitions were graded by
OPM according to standards established for each grade
level. Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work
levels equivalent to General Schedule grade levels.

The survey was designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure
collection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the
General Schedule grade levels, the Office of Personnel
Management (OPM ), in cooperation with the Bureau of




72

Table 0.1 Comparisoni off average annual salaries in private indusfiry with salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1
File clerks 1 ...........................................................
Messengers .........................................................
Accounting clerks 1 ............................................
Drafters 1 ...........................................................
File clerks II .........................................................
Key entry operators 1 .........................................
Typists 1.................................................................
Accounting clerks II ..........................................
Drafters II .............................................................
Engineering technicians 1 .................................
File clerks III .......................................................
Key entry operators II ........................................
Personnel clerks/assistants 1 ...........................
Stenographers 1 ................................................
Typists II ...............................................................
Accounting clerks III ..........................................
Computer operators 1 .......................................
Drafters III ...........................................................
Engineering technicians I I .................................
Personnel clerks/assistants II ...........................
Purchasing assistants 1 .......................................
Secretaries 1 .........................................................
Stenographers II ..................................................
Accounting clerks IV ..........................................
Accountants 1 ..................................................
Auditors 1 .........................................................
Buyers 1 .................................................................
Chemists II.........................................................
Computer operators II .......................................
Drafters IV ...........................................................
Engineers 1 ...........................................................
Engineering technicans I I I .................................
Job analysts 1 ..................................................
Personnel clerks/assistants III ..........................
Photoqraphers I I ..............................................
Purchasing assistants II .....................................
Secretaries II ...........................................
Computer operators III .......................................
Personnel clerks/assistants IV ..........................
Purchasing assistants III ...................................
Secretaries III .............................................
See footnotes at end of table.




Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2
March 1981
$ 8,423
9,395
9,575
11,082
9,836
10,633
9,959
11,431
12,900
13,644
11, ,691
12,953
10,777
13,191
12,358
13 454
10^869
15,612
15,679
12,696
12,025
12,947
15,727

S alary rates fo r Federal em ployees under th e G eneral S chedule, M arch 19813
S te p 6

Grade4

Average5
March 1981

1

GS 1

2

3

$8,066

$7,960

$8,225

$8,490

4
$8,755

$9,020

$9,175

GS 2

9,145

8,951

9,163

9,459

9,712

9,820

v j o v3

10,441

9,766

10,092

10,418

10,744

GS 4

12,154

10,963

11,328

11,693

16,886
16,529
16,396
16,202
18,092
12,586
19,336
21,712
18,326
16,940
14,303
17,096
15,287
13,769

GS 5

13,883

12,266

12,675

14,645
16,794
19,688
15,576

GS 6

15,702

13,672

14,128

5

6

7

8

9

10

$9,437

$9,699

$9,712

$9,954

10,109

10,398

10,687

10,976

11,265

11,070

11,396

11,722

12,048

12,374

12,700

12,058

12,423

12,788

13,153

13,518

13,883

14,248

13,084

13,493

13,902

14,311

14,720

15,129

15,538

15,947

14,584

15,040

15,496

15,952

16,408

16,864

17,320

17,776

Table D-1. Continued— Comparison of average annua! salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal
employees under the Genera! Schedule

Average
Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1
Accountants II ......................................................
Auditors II .............................................................
Buyers II ...............................................................
Chemists II ...........................................................
Computer operators IV .......................................
Drafters V .............................................................
Engineers II .........................................................
Engineering technicans IV .................................
Job analysts II ......................................................
Personnel clerks/assistants V ............................
Photographers III ................................................
Public accountants I ...........................................
Secretaries IV ......................................................
Computer operators V .......................................
Secretaries V ........................................................
Accountants III ....................................................
Attorneys I ...........................................................
Auditors III ...........................................................
Buyers III .............................................................
Chemists III .........................................................
Engineers I I I .........................................................
Engineering technicians V .................................
Job analysts III ....................................................
Photographers IV ................................................
*»Public accountants II .........................................
Accountants IV ....................................................
Attorneys I I ...........................................................
Auditors IV ...........................................................
Buyers IV .............................................................
Chemists IV .........................................................
Chief accountants I .............................................
Directors of personnel I .....................................
Engineers IV .........................................................
Job analysts IV ....................................................
Public accountants III .........................................
Accountants V ......................................................
Attorneys III .........................................................
Chemists V ...........................................................
Chief accountants II ...........................................
Directors of personnel II ...................................
Engineers V .........................................................
Public accountants IV .........................................
See footnotes at end of table.




salary
in private
industry2
March 1981
$20,153
19,814
20,266
21,089
17,704
24.129
23,663
21,630
18,296
20,079
20,444
16.130
16,872
20,796
19,615

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19813
Grade4

Average5
March 1981

GS 7

Step6
$18,735

9
$19,241

10
$19,747

20,192

20,753

21,314

21,875

21,685

22,305

22,925

23,545

24,165

25,486

26,236

26,986

27,736

28,486

29,236

30,543

31,441

33,239

33,237

34,135

35,033

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

$17,182

$15,193

$15,699

$16,205

$16,711

$17,217

$17,723

$18,229

GS 8

19,524

16,826

17,387

17,948

18,509

19,070

19,631

23,545
22,477
24,401
25,196
25,438
26,746
24,609
22,799
23,187
18,000

GS 9

20,804

18,585

19,205

19,825

20,445

21,065

28,819
28,059
29,475
30,583
30,801
31,576
27,848
31,352
28,718
21,426
35,141
36,373
36,663
35,560
35,193
36,725
25,748

GS 11

25,369

22,486

23,236

23,986

24,736

GS 12

30,485

26,951

27,849

28,747

29,645

Table D-1. Continued— Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal
employees under the Genera! Schedule

Attorneys V ...........................................................
Chemists V II.........................................................
Chief accountants I V ..........................................
Directors of personnel IV ...................................
Engineers VII .......................................................

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry2
March 1981
$43,754
44,853
41,911
44,494
42,890
42,622
54,792
48,845
56,016
53,914
49,287

Attorneys VI .........................................................
Engineers VIII .....................................................

66,958
56,828

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1
Accountants VI ....................................................
Attorneys IV .........................................................
Chemists VI .........................................................
Chief accountants I I I ..........................................
Directors of personnel III ...................................
Engineers V I.........................................................

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19813
S tep8

Grade4

Average5
March 1981

GS 13

$36,582

1
$32,048

2
$33,116

3
$34,184

4
$35,252

5
$36,320

6
$37,388

7
$38,456

8
$39,524

9
$40,592

10
$41,660

GS 14

43,183

37,871

39,133

40,395

41,657

42,919

44,181

45,443

46,705

47,967

49,229

GS 157

49,015

44,547

46,032

47,517

49,002

50,487

51,972

53,457

54,942

56,427

57,912

’ For definitions, see appendix C.
2Survey findings, as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope of survey, see appendix A.
3General Schedule rates in effect in March 1981, the reference date of thePATC survey.
“Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the Office of Personnel
Management.
5Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of Mar. 31, 1981. Not limited to
Federal employees in occupations surveyed by BLS.
6Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for within-grade increases on condition that the

employee’s work is of an acceptable level of competence as defined by the head of the agency. For
employees who meet this condition, the service requirements are 52 calendar weeks each for
advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks each for advancement to salary rates 5,6, and 7;
and 156 weeks each for advancement to salary rates 8,9,10. Section 5336 provides that an additional
within-grade increase may be granted within any period of 52 weeks in recognition of high quality
performance above that ordinarily found in the type of position concerned.
7The rate of pay foremployeesat some steps is limited by section 5308 of title 5 of the U.S. Codeto
the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule, $50,112.50.

☆
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1981
0 -3 4 1 -2 7 0




Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher minimum rates (but not exceeding the
maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level) and a
corresponding new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under certain
conditions. The conditions include a finding that the Government’s recruitment or retention of
well qualified persons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are
substantially above the salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1981, special,
higher salary ranges were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and
GS-7), and at GS-9 and GS-11. In addition, special rates were authorized for mining engineers at
GS-12 and 13 and for petroleum engineers at GS-12, 13 and 14. Information on special salary
rates, including the occupations and the areas to which they apply, may be obtained from the
Office of Personnel Management, Washington, D.C. 20415, or its regional offices.

Tw©
Productivity

[Rfep®[r8g

□

from the Bureau of Labor Statistics

Productivity
Measures for
Selected industries,
1954-79.

Updates through 1979
indexes of output per
employee hour for the
industries currently
included in the U.S.
Government’s program
of productivity
measurement. Data are
presented for 96
industries.

206 pages.
Technology,
Productivity, and
Labor in the
Bituminous Coal
Industry, 1950-79.

Bulletin 2072

The following BLS
regional offices will
expedite orders.:

W here to
g® order
flxd!

1603 JFK Building
Boston, Mass. 02203
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036

How to pay

P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
1371 Peachtree St., NE
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Bldg.
Dallas, Tex. 75202
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

GPO Stock No.
029-001 -02556-4

69 pages.

□

Price $6.50

A chartbook appraising
some of the major
structural and
technological changes in
the bituminous coal
industry.

Bulletin 2093

GPO Stock No.
029-001 -02572-6

Price $4.00

You may send your order directly to:
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
Note: GPO prices are subject to
San Francisco, Calif. 94102 change without notice.

□

Enclosed is a check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents.

□

Charge to my GPO account no_____________________________________

□

D

Charge to MasterCard*,
Charge to VISA*,

Account no------------------------------------------------------Expiration date.
Account no_______________________________ Expiration date

'Available only on orders sent directly to Superintendent of Documents.

Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State,
ZIP Code




Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region S
S

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region IS
S

3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




Region IV

Regions VIS and VIII

Region V

Region S

Regions IX and X

1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102