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National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1977

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Bulletin 1980




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National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1980







For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock No. 029-001-02122-4

Preface
This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s annual salary survey of selected profession­
al, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry. The nationwide salary
information, relating to March 1977, is representative o f establishments in a broad spectrum of
industries throughout the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The results of this survey are used for a number of purposes, including general economic
analysis and wage and salary administration by private and public employers. One important use is
to provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar salaries under the provisions of the Federal
Pay Comparability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has designated the Secretary of
Labor, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Chairman of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission, to serve jointly as his agent for the purpose of setting pay for Federal
white-collar employees. The agent is responsible for translating the survey findings into recommen­
dations to the President as to the appropriate adjustments needed in Federal pay rates to make
them comparable with private enterprise pay rates for the same levels of work. The President’s
agent also determines the industrial, geographic, establishment-size, and occupational coverage of
the survey. The role of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the pay-setting process is limited to
conducting the survey and advising on the feasibility of proposed survey changes. It should be
emphasized that this survey, like any other salary survey, does not provide mechanical answers to
pay policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties and responsibilities. The occupations
selected were judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within fhe framework of a broad survey
design, (b) representative of occupational groups which are numerically important in industry as
well as in the Federal service, and (c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal and private
sectors.
Occupational definitions used in the collection of the salary data (appendix C) reflect duties
and responsibilities in private industry; however, they are also designed to be translatable to
specific General Schedule grades applying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of some
occupations and work levels were limited to specific elements that could be classified uniformly
among establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Civil Service Commission collaborat­
ed in the preparation of the definitions.
At the request of the President’s agent, the industrial and establishment-size coverage of the
survey was expanded in 1977. This expansion was made to broaden the survey’s representativeness
of private industry. Changes in survey scope are discussed in appendix B.
The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation of the many firms whose
salary data provide the basis for the statistical information presented in this bulletin. The Bureau,
on its own behalf and on behalf of the other Federal agencies that collaborated in planning the
survey, wishes to express appreciation for the cooperation it has received.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations by the
Division of Occupational Wage Structures. The analysis in this bulletin was prepared by Philip M.
Doyle and Felice Porter. Field work for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional
Commissioners for Operations.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission
of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite the name and
number of the publication.




iii

Contents
Page

Summary
......................................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey
.....................................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary le v e ls ..................................................................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1977
Salary levels in metropolitan a r e a s .............................................................................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments
.........................................................................................................................................
Salary distributions ......................................................................................................................................................................
Pay differences by i n d u s t r y .........................................................................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours
................................................................................

1
1
1
3
6
6
7
7
11

Text tables:
1.
Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-77, by occupation and group .........................................................
2.
Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-77, by work level category .............................................................
3.
Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion .................................................................................

2
3
7

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1.
United S t a t e s ................ - ............................................................................................................................. 12
2.
Metropolitan a r e a s ............................................................
14
3.
Establishments employing 2,500 workers or m o r e ......................................................................................... 16
Employment distribution by salary:
4.
Professional and administrativeoccupations
.....................
18
5.
Technical support o c c u p a tio n s......................................................................................................................... 24
6.
Clerical occupations ......................................................................................................................................... 26
7.
Occupational employment distribution: By industry d iv is io n .................................................................................28
8.
Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
.........................................................................................29
9.
Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry d iv is io n .........................................................................................30
Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1977
Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1977 .........................................................................
Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1977 .........................................................................
Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1977

4
8
9
10

Appendixes:
A.
Scope and method of survey
..................................................................................................................................... 31
B.
Survey changes in 1977
35
C.
Occupational d e f in itio n s ............................................................................................................................................. 36
D.
Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with corresponding salary rates for Federal
employees under the General S c h e d u le ............................................................................................................. 62




IV

Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1977
from one for messengers to eight each for chemists and
engineers. Most occupations have more than one work level;
some occupations are purposely defined, however, to cover
specific bands of levels which are not intended to represent
all workers in those occupations.
The survey is designed to permit separate presentation of
data for metropolitan areas. These include the 276 Stan­
dard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through October 1975
by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Establish­
ments in metropolitan areas employed over four-fifths of all
the workers and nine-tenths of the professional, administra­
tive, clerical, and supervisory employees within the scope of
the survey. Ninety percent of the employees in the occupa­
tions chosen for study were employed in metropolitan
areas.
Selected occupations included more than 1,661,000 em­
ployees, or almost one-fifth of the estimated employment
in professional, administrative, clerical, and related occupa­
tions in establishments within the scope of the survey. Em­
ployment in the occupations varied widely, reflecting not
only actual differences among occupations, but also differ­
ences in the range of duties and responsibilities covered by
the occupational definitions. Among professional and ad­
ministrative occupations, the eight levels of engineers in­
cluded 424,885 employees, whereas each of three other
occupational categories (chief accountants, job analysts,
and directors of personnel) included fewer than 5,000 em­
ployees. Accounting clerks and secretaries made up over
one-half of the 796,216 employees in the clerical occupa­
tions studied. Selected drafting occupations had aggregate
employment of 83,216; five engineering technician levels
together had 90,018; and the six computer operator levels,
60,449.
Although approximately one-half of all employees in the
occupations studied were women, they were concentrated
in clerical positions. Women filled more than 90 percent of
the jobs at each level of keypunch operators, secretaries,
stenographers, and typists. A percent distribution of wom­
en employees by occupation and level is shown in appen­
dix A.

Summary

Average salaries of workers in the occupations covered
by this survey rose 6.9 percent from March 1976 to March
1977, the third largest annual increase recorded since the
survey was begun in 1960. Increases for 8 of the 12 profes­
sional, administrative, and technical support occupations
surveyed ranged from 6.0 to 7.8 percent; the average in­
crease was 7.1 percent. The average of the increases for the
clerical occupations surveyed was 6.6 percent; the increases
ranged from 5.5 to 7.9 percent.1
Average monthly salaries for the 78 occupational levels
varied from $506 for clerks engaged in routine filing to
$3,876 for the highest level in the attorney series. For most
of the occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for all
establishments within the full scope of the survey. Salary
levels in finance and retail trade industries generally were
lower than in other major industry divisions represented in
the survey. Reported average standard weekly hours also
were generally lower in the finance industries.
Characteristics of the survey

This survey, the 18th in an annual series, provides na­
tionwide salary averages and distributions for 78 work level
categories covering 19 occupations. It relates to establish­
ments in all areas of the United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii, in the following industries: Mining; construction;
manufacturing; transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate; and selected services. The
minimum size of the establishments surveyed is either 100
or 250 employees depending on the industry.2
Occupational definitions in this study permit employees
to be classified by duties and responsibilities into appropri­
ate work levels—
designated by Roman numerals, with lev­
el I as the lowest. Specific job factors determining classi­
fication, however, vary from occupation to occupation.
The number of work levels in each occupation ranges

‘ Results o f the March 1976 survey were presented in N ation al
Su rvey o f P rofessional, A d m in istra tive, Technical, an d Clerical Pay,
March 1 9 7 6 , Bulletin 1931 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1976).

Changes in salary levels

Text table 1 presents increases in average salaries that
occurred between annual survey periods since 1961 for

2 For a full description o f the scope o f the 1977 survey’ see
,
appendix A.




1

Text table 1.

Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-77, by occupation and group

Occupation and
group

All survey
occupa­
tions2 ..........
Professional,
administrative,
and technical
support2 ............
Accountants . .
Auditors ..........
Chief ac­
countants . . . .
Attorneys . . . .
B u yers..............
Job analysts . . .
Directors of
personnel . . . .
C h em ists..........
Engineers..........
Engineering
techni­
cians ..............
Drafters7 ..........
Computer op­
erators ............
Clerical2 ...............
Accounting
cle rk s ..............
File clerks . . . .
Keypunch op­
erators ............
Messengers . . . .
Secretaries . . . .
Stenog­
raphers ............
Typists..............

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

Average
annual
rate of
increase,
1961
to
1977

5.4

6.4

9.0

7.0

6.9

5.3

5.5
5.6
5.5

5.4
4.9
5.2

6.3
6.1
5.2

8.3
9.8
6.8

6.7
6.4
5.5

7.1
7.8
6.8

5.3
5.5
5.2

9.1
5.0
7.0
7.7

3.9
6.1
6.3
6.8

5.8
6.3
5.0
5.2

7.2
5.8
6.0
6.1

8.6
7.6
9.2
7.5

6.6
6.1
6.7
6.0

10.5
5.4
•7.0
6.5

5.8
(4 )
(5)
5.0

7.4
5.9
5.5

8.0
5.5
5.7

3.9
5.1
5.2

7.5
3.7
5.1

7.2
7.1
5.4

6.1
10.1
8.4

7.8
6.6
6.8

9.1
7.0
6.4

5.6
5.4
5.1

5.8
5.8

6.3
4.9

6.5
5.6

5.1
7.2

4.7
6.2

6.0
6.7

9.0
8.0

8.1
7.4

7.2
6.0

6 5.3
(4 )

( 5)
5.3

( s)
5.5

(5)
6.2

( 5)
6.5

( s)
6.1

( 5)
5.4

( 3)
6.4

( 5)
9.6

( 3)
7.3

5.4
6.6

( s)
5.2

3.3
5.1

4.7
6.8

4.7
5.5

6.2
5.5

6.0
6.1

6.0
5.5

4.6
5.9

6.9
5.4

7.7
9.6

7.2
6.4

6.9
5.5

4.8
6 5.2

3.7
2.8
(s)

5.2
5.4
( 3)

4.9
6.2
4.6

5.3
6.7
5.3

6.4
6.3
6.4

7.0
6.7
6.6

6.8
6.3
6.1

5.4
5.1
5.1

7.3
5.6
( 3)

9.9
10.1
(5)

7.6
7.4
( 3)

5.9
7.5
6.4

6 5.5
5.4
( 5)

2.9
2.6

4.6
5.4

4.9
5.8

5.9
5.7

5.8
6.0

7.5
6.1

6.4
5.7

5.2
4.0

6.5
6.7

11.6
9.9

8.0
7.1

7.9
6.2

6 5.6
5.1

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

1970
to
1971

5.4

5.7

6.2

6.6

5.8

4.2
4.6
4.8

5.5
5.7
5.5

5.8
7.0
7.2

6.2
6.7
7.0

6.7
6.7
7.0

3.3
4.0
( 3)
5.4

5.1
3.2
4.2
3.4

5.5
5.3
4.9
7.0

5.8
( 3)
6.6
2.1

7.1
7.1
6.1
4.1

3.5
3.9
3.2

3.6
4.8
3.7

3.8
4.4
4.3

5.4
5.1
5.4

5.4
6.5
6.2

3.6
2.6

2.3
( 3)

2.8
1.5

3.7
3.5

5.1
5.3

(5)
2.6

( 5)
2.7

(5)
2.4

(5)
3.0

(5)
4.8

3.0
( 3)

2.5
2.6

2.8
3.1

2.2
2.2

3.0
2.9

( 3)
2.6
( 5)

2.5
2.8
(5)

2.7
2.3
(5)

2.3
3.0
(s)

( 3)
2.5

2.5
2.6

2.4
2.6

2.3
2.5

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.1

3.3

4.5

3.0
2.8
2.9

3.3
3.3
3.6

3.4
2.8
3.1

3.7
3.5
3.9

3.6
3.8
3.8

2.6
3.2
( 5)
1.4

2.8
4.6
(5)
2.6

4.8
3.3
( 5)
3.5

3.9
4.2
( 5)
4.3

3.7
3.9
2.6

3.0
3.8
4.4

4.6
3.3
2.9

( 5)
3.2

2.9
3.6

( 5)
2.8

1966
1967
to
to
19671 1968

1971
1972
to
to
19721 1973

‘ S u r v e y d a t a d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t a 1 2 - m o n t h p e r io d d u e t o a
c h a n g e in s u r v e y t im in g . D a ta h a v e b e e n p r o r a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a
1 2 - m o n t h in t e r v a l .
2 D a ta f o r
1 a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t i o n
(m a n a g e r s o f o f f i c e
s e r v ic e s , la s t s u r v e y e d in 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 c le r ic a l s u p e r v is o r y o c c u p a t i o n
( k e y p u n c h s u p e r v is o r s , s u r v e y e d f r o m 1 9 7 0 t o 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d 3 c le r ic a l
o c c u p a t i o n s ( b o o k k e e p in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , la s t s u r v e y e d in 1 9 6 4 ,
a n d s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s a n d t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , la s t
s u r v e y e d in 1 9 7 0 ) , n o t s h o w n a b o v e , a re in c lu d e d in t h e a ll- s u r v e y

a n d t h e b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p a v e ra g e s f o r t h e p e r io d s d u r in g
w h ic h t h e y w e r e s u r v e y e d .
3 C o m p a r a b le d a t a n o t a v a ila b le f o r b o t h y e a rs .
4 C o m p a r is o n o v e r t h is p e r io d w a s n o t p o s s ib le b e c a u s e o f
c h a n g e s in t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n .
5 N o t s u rv e y e d .
6 A v e r a g e a n n u a l r a te o f in c r e a s e f r o m 1 9 6 2 t o 1 9 7 7 .
7 I n c lu d e s d r a f t e r - t r a c e r s .

each survey occupation.3 Also shown are average percent
changes for the two broad occupational groups covered by
the survey (the professional, administrative, and technical
support group; and the clerical group) and the average per­
cent change for the two groups combined.
The 6.9-percent increase in white-collar salaries in the
year ending March 1977 was the third largest recorded since
the series was begun. It was exceeded only by the increases
shown by the two previous surveys. Clerical salaries were up

6.6 percent; salaries of the professional, administrative, and
technical support occupations were up 7.1 percent. For the
first time in 6 years, the rate of increase for professional,
administrative, and technical support jobs exceeded the rate
of increase for clerical jobs.
Among the 19 occupations surveyed, the smallest in­
creases were for attorneys and computer operators, at 5.4
percent, and file clerks, at 5.5 percent. Showing the largest
increases were chief accountants, at 10.5 percent, and di­
rectors of personnel, at 9.1 percent.
To show changes in salaries since 1961 for different lev­
els of work, occupational classifications were grouped into
the three broad categories described in text table 2.

N O T E : F o r m e t h o d o f c o m p u t a t i o n , see a p p e n d ix A .

3 Beginning in 1965, data are for establishments in metropolitan
areas and nonmetropolitan counties; before 1965, data are for met­
ropolitan areas only. Establishments employing fewer than 250
workers were excluded before 1966.




2

Text table 2.

Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-77, by work level category

Work level category

Group A (GS grades
1-4 in appendix
D ) ........................
Group B (GS grades
5-10 in appendix
D ) ........................
Group C (GS grades
11-15 in appen­
dix D ) .................

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

2.8

2.7

2.7

2.2

2.9

4.5

2.6

4.0

2.6

3.3

3.7

3.5

3.7

3.5

4.2

4.2

in c re a s e s

have

‘ A c tu a l s u r v e y -to -s u rv e y
1 2 - m o n t h p e r io d .

been

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

1970
to
1971

1971
to
1972*

1972
to
1973

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1961
to
1977

5.1

5.5

6.2

6.2

6.3

5.5

6.2

9.1

7.6

6.9

122.7

4.8

5.8

6.5

6.3

6.3

5.2

4.4

5.7

8.6

6.4

6.3

123.1

4.1

4.7

5.9

6.4

6.2

5.6

5.7

6.2

8.8

6.5

7.7

132.7

1966
1967
to
to
19671 1968

p r o r a te d

to

a

N O T E : F o r m e t h o d o f c o m p u t a t i o n , see a p p e n d ix A .

Average salaries increased more for the higher occupa­
tional levels (group C) than for the two lower groups from
1961 through 1966, except for the 1962-63 period. Be­
tween 1966 and 1969, however, the middle occupational
levels (group B) showed larger annual increases than did the
lower or higher levels. Between 1969 and 1971, the in­
creases for all three groups were nearly identical, but since
1971, the middle group has trailed the other two. Although
occupational levels in group C show the largest cumulative
increase over the entire 1961-77 period, salaries of occupa­
tional levels in group A have increased the most (49.5 per­
cent) between 1971 and 1977.
Another method of examining salary trends is to com­
bine the data into the four occupational groups shown in
chart 1. Increases from 1976 to 1977 amounted to 7.6
percent for the experienced professional and administrative
group; 5.1 percent for the entry and developmental profes­
sional and administrative group; 6.3 percent for the techni­
cal support group; and 6.8 percent for the clerical group.4
The entry and developmental professional and administra­
tive group continued the pattern shown since 1970 of re­
cording the smallest percent change.
Increases in salaries for the entry and developmental pro­
fessional and administrative group averaged 5.0 percent
over the 16-year period— than the increases for the tech­
less
nical support group, 5.1 percent; the clerical group, 5.2
percent; and the experienced professional and administra­
tive group, 5.4 percent.5

Average salaries, March 1977

Average monthly salaries for the occupations studied
(table 1) ranged from $506 for file clerks I to $3,876 for
the top level of attorneys surveyed. These extremes reflect
the wide range of duties and responsibilities represented by
the work levels surveyed. Average salaries for workers in the
various occupational levels and a brief indication of the
duties and responsibilities these levels represent are sum­
marized in the following paragraphs.6
Among the five levels of accountants surveyed, average
monthly salaries ranged from $1,013 for accountants I to
$2,087 for accountants V. Auditors in the four levels de­
fined for survey had average salaries ranging from $1,047 a
month for auditors I to $1,794 for auditors IV. Level I in
both the accounting and auditing series included trainees
who had bachelor’s degrees in accounting or the equivalent
in education and experience combined. For level III, the
most heavily populated group in both series, monthly sala­
ries averaged $1,379 for accountants and $1,426 for audi­
tors. Sixty-four percent of the accountants and 39 percent
of the auditors were employed in manufacturing industries.
Large numbers of auditors also were employed in the fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate industries (32 percent);
and in public utilities (16 percent).7
Chief accountants—
surveyed separately-' from accoun­
tants—
include those who develop or adapt and direct the
accounting program for a company or an establishment
(plant) of a company. Classification levels are determined
by the extent of delegated authority and responsibility, the
technical complexity of the accounting system, and, to a
lesser degree, the size of the professional staff directed.
Chief accountants at level I, who have authority to adapt
the accounting system established at higher levels to meet
the needs of an establishment with relatively few and stable
functions and work processes (directing one or two accoun-

“Work levels used to compute 1976-77 increases were: Cler­
ical-A ll clerical levels. Technical support-A ll levels o f drafters, en­
gineering technicians, and computer operators. Entry and develop­
mental professional and adm inistrative-Accountants I and II; audi­
tors I and II; attorneys I; job analysts II; chemists I and II; and
engineers I and II. Experienced professional and administrative—
Accountants III, IV, and V; auditors III and IV; chief accountants I,
II, III, and IV; attorneys II, III, IV, V , and VI; job analysts III and
IV; directors o f personnel I, II, III, and IV; chemists III, IV, V, VI,
VII, and VIII; and engineers III, IV, V , VI, VII, and VIII.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with any o f the 4
occupational categories, were not used.
'Survey data for 1966-67 and 1971-72 did not represent a
12-month period due to changes in survey timing. Increases for
these years have been prorated to represent a 12-month period.




6 Classification o f employees in the occupations and work levels
surveyed is based on factors detailed in the definitions in appen­
dix C.
7 Establishments primarily engaged in providing accounting and
auditing services are excluded from the survey.

3

Chart 1. Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1977
Percent increase

8 ---

8
Technical support

6 ----

Mean
increase
1961
to
1977

Mean
increase
1961
to
1966

Mean
increase
1966
to
1971

1971
to
19721

1972
to
1973

Data were adjusted to a 12-month period.




4

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

65 percent of the job analysts and 70 percent of the direc­
tors of personnel included in the study; the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industries ranked next with 21 percent
of the job analysts and 10 percent of the directors of per­
sonnel.
C h em ists and engineers each are surveyed in eight levels.
Both series start with a professional trainee level, typically
requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed involves
either full responsibility over a very broad and highly com­
plex and diversified engineering or chemical program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important seg­
ments of the program; or individual research and consult­
ation in difficult problem areas where the chemist or engi­
neer is a recognized authority and where solutions would
represent a major scientific or technological advance.12 Av­
erage monthly salaries ranged from $1,073 for chemists I to
$3,720 for chemists VIII, and from $1,218 for engineers I
to $3,172 for engineers VIII. Although at level I the average
salaries of engineers exceeded those of chemists by 14 per­
cent, the salary advantage of engineers over chemists de­
creased steadily with each level, until at level IV the average
salaries for both occupations were nearly equal, and at level
VIII the average salaries for chemists exceeded those for
engineers by 17 percent.
Level IV represents the largest group in each series; it
includes professional employees who are fully competent in
all technical aspects of their assignments, work with consid­
erable independence, and in some cases, supervise a few
professional and technical workers. Manufacturing indus­
tries accounted for over 86 percent of all chemists and 69
percent of all engineers; the selected services, 7 and 13
percent; and public utilities, 1 and 12 percent, respectively.
By definition, the five-level series for engineering tech n i­
cians is limited to employees providing semiprofessional
technical support to engineers engaged in areas such as re­
search, design, development, testing, or manufacturing pro­
cess improvement, and whose work pertains to electrical,
electronic, or mechanical components or equipment. Tech­
nicians engaged primarily in production or maintenance
work are excluded. Engineering technicians I, who perform
simple routine tasks under close supervision, or from de­
tailed procedures, averaged $811 a month. Engineering
technicians V, the highest level surveyed, averaged $1,436 a
month. That level includes fully experienced technicians
performing more complex assignments involving responsi­
bility for planning and conducting a complete project of
relatively limited scope, or a portion of a larger and more
diverse project in accordance with objectives, requirements,
and design approaches as outlined by the supervisor or a
professional engineer. Salaries for intermediate levels III
and IV, at which a majority of the technicians surveyed are
classified, averaged $1,096 and $1,268, respectively. As
might be expected, most of the technicians as defined were

tants), averaged $1,880 a month. Chief accountants IV,8
who have authority to establish and maintain the account­
ing program, subject to general policy guidelines, for a com­
pany with numerous and varied functions and work pro­
cesses (directing as many as 40 accountants), averaged
$3,066 a month. Over two-thirds of the chief accountants
who met the requirements of the definitions for these four
levels were employed in manufacturing industries.
A tto r n e y s are classified into survey levels based upon the
difficulty of their assignments and their responsibilities. At­
torneys I, which include new law graduates with bar mem­
bership and those performing work that is relatively uncom­
plicated due to clearly applicable precedents and wellestablished facts, averaged $1,336 a month. Attorneys in
the top level surveyed, level VI, averaged $3,876 a month.
These attorneys deal with legal matters of major impor­
tance to their organization, and are usually subordinate
only to the general counsel or an immediate deputy in very
large firms. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries
employed over four-tenths of the attorneys; manufacturing
industries employed about three-tenths; and public utilities,
two-tenths.9
B u yers averaged $1,029 a month at level I, which in­
cludes those who purchase “off-the-shelf’ and readily avail­
able items and services from local sources. Buyers IV, who
purchase large amounts of highly complex and technical
items, materials, or services, averaged $1,826 a month. Man­
ufacturing industries employed 83 percent of the buyers in
the four levels.
In the personnel management field, four work levels of
jo b an alysts and five levels of d ire c to rs o f p erso n n el were
studied.10I Job analysts II, the lowest level for which data
could be presented, averaged $1,131 compared with $1,742
for job analysts IV who, under general supervision, analyze
and evaluate a variety of the more difficult jobs and may
participate in the development and installation of evalua­
tion or compensation systems. Directors of personnel are
limited by definition to those who have programs that in­
clude, at a minimum, responsibility for administering a job
evaluation system, employment and placement functions,
and employee relations and services functions. Those with
significant responsibility for actual contract negotiation
with labor unions as the principal company representative
are excluded. Provisions are made in the definition for
weighting various combinations of duties and responsibili­
ties to determine the level. Among personnel directors, av­
erage monthly salaries ranged from $1,588 for level I to
$3,149 for level IV.11 Manufacturing industries employed
8 Although chief accountants V, directors o f personnel V, and
job analysts I were surveyed, as defined in appendix C, too few
employees in each occupational level met requirements for the level
to warrant presentation o f salary figures.
9 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal
advice or legal services.
I °See footnote 8.
II See footnote 8.




12 It is recognized in the definition that top positions o f some
companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs are above that level.

5

employed in manufacturing (77 percent) and in the selected
services studied (14 percent), with public utilities em­
ploying nearly all the rest (7 percent). Although the ratio of
such technicians to engineers studied was about 1 to 4 in all
manufacturing industries, a ratio of approximately 1 to 3
was found in establishments manufacturing mechanical and
electrical equipment, 1 to 8 in public utilities, and 1 to 3 in
research, development, and testing laboratories.
In the drafting field, the definitions used in the survey
cover four levels of work—
drafter-tracers, and drafters I, II,
and III. Monthly salaries averaged $768 for drafter-tracers
and ranged from $863 to $1,319 among the three levels of
drafters. Drafter-tracers copy plans and drawings prepared
by others or prepare simple or repetitive drawings of easily
visualized items. The three drafter levels, as defined, range
from employees preparing detailed drawings of single units
or parts (level I) to those who, working in close support
with the design originator, plan the graphic presentation of
complex items having distinctive design features, and either
prepare or direct the preparation of the drawings (level III).
The drafting employees were distributed by industry in
about the same proportion as engineers, with 64 percent in
manufacturing, 11 percent in public utilities, and 15 per­
cent in the selected services studied.
Computer operators, surveyed in six levels, are classified
on the basis of responsibility for solving problems and
equipment malfunctions, the degree of variability of their
assignments, and the relative level of sophistication of the
equipment they operate. Computer operators I whose work
assignments consist of on-the-job training averaged $665 a
month. Computer operators III, the largest group surveyed,
averaged $877. At the highest level, computer operator VI,
the average monthly salary was $1,369; less than 2 percent
of the operators, however, were at this level. Computer
operators and keypunch operators were distributed by in­
dustry in approximately similar proportions. Nearly twothirds were employed in the manufacturing and the finance,
insurance, and real estate industries; one-tenth were em­
ployed in both public utilities and selected services.
Among the survey’s seven clerical jobs, secretary was the
most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries for secre­
taries ranged from $777 at level I to $1,117 at level V.
Average salaries of $757 and $848 were reported for gener­
al and senior stenographers; $678 and $866 for accounting
clerks I and II; and $600 and $715 for the two levels of
typists. Generally, average salaries for clerical workers were
highest in the public utilities, manufacturing, and mining
industries and lowest in the finance, insurance, and real
estate, and retail trade divisions. In 12 of the 17 clerical
work levels, employment in manufacturing exceeded that in
any of the nonmanufacturing divisions within the scope of
the survey; highest employment totals in the other five lev­
els were in the finance, insurance, and real estate division.
Women constituted 95 percent or more of the employees in
11 of the clerical work levels; men constituted more than
one-half in only one (messenger).



Median monthly salaries (the amount below and above
which 50 percent of the employees are found) for most
work levels were slightly lower than the weighted averages
(means) cited above (i.e., salaries in the upper halves of the
arrays affected averages more than salaries in the lower
halves). The relative difference between the mean and the
median was less than 3 percent for 50 of the 78 work levels,
from 3 to 5 percent in 18 work levels, and from 5 to 7
percent in the other 10 levels.
Salary levels in m e tro p o lita n areas

In most occupational levels, average salaries for employ­
ees in metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than
average salaries for employees in all establishments within
the full scope of the survey (table 1). Only in 2 of the 78
work levels for which separate data could be presented were
average salaries more than 1.5 percent higher in metropoli­
tan areas than in all areas combined. Employment in the
survey occupations in metropolitan areas was about ninetenths of the total nationwide employment reported in
these occupations. The proportions varied, however, among
occupations and work levels. Nearly all attorneys, for exam­
ple, but less than four-fifths of the directors of personnel,
were employed in metropolitan areas. In 68 of the 78 work
levels, 85 percent or more of the employment was in metro­
politan areas. It is apparent, therefore, that for most work
levels, salaries'in nonmetropolitan counties could have little
effect upon the averages for all establishments combined.
S alary levels in large establishm ents

Table 3 presents separate data for 75 occupational work
levels in large establishments—
those with 2,500 employees
or more. Included are the proportions of employees work­
ing in large establishments and their salary levels relative to
the full survey averages.
Large establishments accounted for 36 percent of all em­
ployees in the 75 occupational levels—
ranging from 5 per­
cent for directors of personnel II to 71 percent for the
highest level of engineering technicians studied. The propor­
tion was near one-third for most professional, administra­
tive, and technical support occupations although for the
numerically important engineer and engineering technician
occupations the proportions were 52 and 51 percent, re­
spectively. The proportion was 27 percent for employees in
the clerical occupations.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as per­
cents of levels in all establishments, combined, ranged from
99 to 134 and averaged 109 for the 75 occupational levels.
Salary levels in large establishments exceeded all-establish­
ment averages by 5 percent or more in all but one of the
clerical levels, but in only 35 of 5 8 .nonclerical levels, as
shown by the tabulation on the next page (all-establishment
average for each occupational level =100 percent).
6

P rofessional,
a d m in is tra tiv e ,
a n d te c h n ic a l

C le ric a l

Total number of levels . . . .

58

17

9 5 -9 9 p e rc e n t.............................
1 0 0 -1 0 4 p e rc e n t........................
1 0 5 -1 0 9 p e rc e n t........................
1 1 0 -1 1 4 p e rc e n t........................
115 percent and o v e r.................

1
22

tional pay relationships as well as the typically greater de­
gree of salary dispersion associated with the higher work
levels in each occupational series.
Expressing the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in each work level as a percent of the median
salary permits comparison of salary ranges and eliminates
extremely low and high salaries from each comparison. As
shown in text table 3, the degree of dispersion ranged from
15 to 30 percent of the median salary in 66 of the 75 work
levels. The degree of dispersion tended to be greater in the
clerical occupations than in the other occupations studied.
Differences in salaries paid within work levels reflect a
variety of factors other than duties and responsibilities.
These include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; variations
in occupational employment among industries, as illustrat­
ed in table 7 and chart 4; and salary variations among re­
gions—
particularly for clerical occupations.13 Clerical em­
ployees usually are recruited locally while professional and
administrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.

—

17
11

7

1
2

9
5

As expected, the pay relatives were close to 100 for
those work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to the total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.
Salary d is trib u tio n s

Percent distributions of employees by monthly salary
are presented for the professional and administrative occu­
pations in table 4, for technical support occupations in
table 5, and for the clerical occupations in table 6. Within
all 78 work levels, salary rates for the highest paid employ­
ees were more than twice those of the lowest paid employ­
ees. The absolute spread between highest and lowest paid
workers within a given work level tended to widen with
each rise in work level for most occupations. All occupa­
tions showed a substantial degree of overlapping of individ­
ual salaries between work levels. Ranges in salary rates of
employees in established pay grades or work levels within
salary structures of individual firms also often overlapped
substantially.
The middle 50 and 80 percent of the salary range, and
the median salary for each occupational work level, have
been charted (charts 2 and 3). The charts point up occupa­

T e x t ta b le 3 .

Pay d ifferences by ind u stry

By combining the data for all levels of work studied in
each occupation, relative salary levels in major industry di­
visions may be compared to each other and to salary levels
in all industries combined (table 8).
13For analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries,

see Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and Reg­
ional Summaries, 1973-74, Bulletin 1795-29 (Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, 1976) and Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas,
1974-75, Summary 76-10 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1976).

D is trib u tio n o f w o r k levels by degree o f salary dispersion
Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of—
Number
of
work
levels

15
and
under

20

percent

Occupation

Under
15
percent

and
under
25
percent

25
and
under
30
percent

30
percent
and
over
11

20

All o ccupations.........................................................

78

1

13

32

21

A ccountants.................................................................................
A u d ito rs ........................................................................................
Chief accountants.......................................................................
Attorneys ......................................................................................
Buyers.............................................................................................
Job analysts .................................................................................
Directors of personnel................................................................
Chem ists........................................................................................
Engineers .....................................................................................
Engineering technicians..............................................................
Drafters2 ........................................................................................
Computer operators ...................................................................
Clerical workers ..........................................................................

5

—
—
—
—
—

1

3

—

2
2

1
2

4
4
6

4
3

4
8
8

—
—
—

1

1

4
6

17

5

—
-

5

1 Degree o f dispe rsion equals th e salary range o f th e m id d le 50
pe rce n t o f em ployees in a w o rk level expressed as a p e rc e n t o f the




2
1

2

-

—
—

2

2

3

—

2
6
2

1
1

3
—

1

1

-

1

m edian salary fo r th a t level,
2 Includes d ra fte r-tra ce rs.

7

5

—
—
3
3
8

_
—
—
—
—
—

1
—
—
—
1
1
8

Chart 2. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1977
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees
.

Occupation and level

Accountants

Auditors

Chief accountants

Attorneys

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians

Drafter-tracers
Drafters

Computer operators




8

Chart 3. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1977
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees

$500

Occupation and level

Directors o f personnel

I
II
III
IV

Secretaries

$2,000

II
III
IV

Buyers

$1,500

I
II
III
IV

Job analysts

$1,000

I
II
III
IV
V

Clerks, accounting

I
II

Stenographers,
general

Stenographers,
senior

Keypunch operators

Clerks, file

|
II

I
II
III

Typists

Messengers




9

$2,500

$3,000

$3,500

$4,000

$4,500

$5,000

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1977
Percent

Occupational group

Accountants and
chief accountants

Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers

Directors o f personnel
and job analysts

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

Computer operators

Clerical employees




Public
utilities

10

Finance,
insurance,
and
real estate

Trade and
selected
services

Relative salary levels for the 12 professional, administra­
tive, and technical support occupations tended to be closest
to the average for all industry divisions in manufacturing.
However, manufacturing contributed more to total employ­
ment than any other industry division for all but one (attor­
neys) of the 12 occupations. Relative salary levels in the
mining and public utilities industry divisions were generally
the highest.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels were
lower in retail trade and in finance, insurance, and real
estate than in other industry divisions'. Where retail trade
and the finance industries contributed a substantial propor­
tion of the total employment in an occupation, the average
salary for all industries combined was lowered, and the rela­
tive levels in industries such as manufacturing and public
utilities tended to be well above 100 percent of the all­
industry level. For example, relative pay levels for file
clerks (109 percent of the all-industry level in manufactur­
ing and 141 percent in public utilities) reflected the influ­
ence of lower salaries for the high proportion (63 percent)
of these workers employed in the finance industries. The
finance industries, however, also reported lower average
standard weekly hours than the other industries surveyed,
as shown in table 9.

Average standard weekly hours

The length of the standard workweek, on which the reg­
ular straight-time salary is based, was obtained for individ­
ual employees in the occupations studied. When individual
weekly hours were not available, particularly for some
higher level professional and administrative positions, the
predominant workweek of the office work force was used
as the standard workweek. The distribution of average
weekly hours (rounded to the nearest half hour) is present­
ed in table 9 for each occupation by major industry division
surveyed. Average weekly hours were lower in finance, in­
surance, and real estate (38 hours in most occupations)
than in the other industry divisions (39 or 39.5 hours).
Average weekly hours have been stable over the past de­
cade.14
14For information on scheduled weekly hours of office workers
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1975, Bulletin 1850-88 (Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, 1977).

Although only nationwide salary data are presented in this bulletin, salary data for
clerical and drafting occupations are available for each of the metropolitan areas in which
the Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These area reports also include information on
supplementary benefits such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, insurance, and pension
plans relating to nonsupervisory office workers. A directory of occupational wage surveys,
which contains a listing by State and area, is available at the Bureau’s regional offices listed
on the inside back cover of this bulletin.




11

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1977)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

ACCOUNTANTS

I ............................................................................
I I .........................................................................
III
......................................................................
IV .........................................................................

CHI Eh ACCOUNTANTS
CHIE F ACCOUNTANTS
CH IE F ACCOUNTANTS
CH IE F ACCOUNTANTS

Annual salaries4
Middle range5

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

AND AUDITORS

ACCOUNTANTS I ....................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I ................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I I
..............................................................
ACCUUNTANTS IV .................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS V ....................................................................
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS

Number
of
employees3

I ...................................................
I I ................................................
I I I .............................................
I V ................................................

B «10 1
15,271
3 5 , 1B9
2 2,227
8 ,4 6 5

S I , 013
1,2 1 9
1 ,3 7 9
1 ,6 9 7
2 ,0 8 7

$ 1,0 00
1,1 8 3
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,6 6 7
2 ,0 8 2

$910
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,208
1,5 1 3
1 ,8 5 8

$ 1,1 00
1 ,37 5
1,5 2 3
1 ,8 5 0
2 ,2 8 9

$12 ,15 5
14,6 24
1 6,5 45
2 0,3 67
2 5,0 42

$ 12,000
1 4,194
1 6,2 00
20,0 04
2 4,9 87

$ 10,916
1 2,6 00
1 4,4 94
1 8,156
2 2,2 91

$13 ,20 0
16,500
18,276

1 ,5 3 9
2 ,9 0 3
5 ,6 1 2
3 ,6 4 6

1 ,0 4 7
1 ,2 0 9
1 ,4 2 6
1 ,7 9 4

1,0 2 5
1 ,1 3 8
1 ,4 0 0
1,7 5 5

883
1 ,0 3 4
1 ,2 6 0
1 ,5 9 0

1 ,1 5 5
1 ,3 4 2
1 ,5 4 5
1,9 8 3

12,5 70
14,503
17,108
2 1,5 26

1 2,3 00
1 3,6 56
16,800

21,060

1 0,596
12,410
1 5,1 20
19,080

1 3,860
1 6,104
1 8,540
2 3,800

568
1 ,1 9 7
782
360

1,8 8 0
, 110
2 ,6 1 0
3 ,0 6 6

1 ,8 0 0
2 ,0 8 6
2,5 1 1
3 ,0 0 7

1 ,7 1 8
1,841
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,7 0 8

2 ,0 5 7
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,9 0 1
3 ,3 0 7

22,5 58
2 5,320
31,324
3 6,789

21,6 00
25,0 27
3 0,1 37
3 6,086

2 0,621
2 2,0 92
2 7,4 93
3 2,4 96

2 4,681
2 7,4 89
3 4,8 10
3 9,6 84

1 ,3 3 6
1 ,6 6 1

1,1 7 3
1,4 7 5
1 ,8 8 3
2 ,2 8 7
2 ,9 1 6
3 ,4 4 0

1 ,45 5
1,825
2 ,3 0 8
2 ,8 6 5
3 ,5 4 2
4 ,2 6 2

16,0 33
19,938
25,460
3 0,973
3 8,8 28
46,5 09

1 5,6 00
1 9,500
2 4,9 96
3 0,7 20
3 7,9 92
4 6 ,5 00

1 4,0 78
17,7 00
2 2,5 91
27,4 39
3 4,986
4 1,2 83

17,460
2 1,9 00
2 7,700
3 4,3 80
42,5 04
51,1 44

1 ,1 6 3
1 ,4 0 2
1 ,6 4 3
2 ,0 1 8

1 2,3 46
15,099
18,021
21,9 07

11,992
1 4,7 60
1 7,675
21,1 80

10,555
13,184
1 5,7 60
1 8,916

13,953
1 6,823
1 9,716
2 4,211

2

22,200

27,4 69

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS 1 .........................................................................
ATTORNEYS I I ......................................................................
ATTORNEYS I I I
...................................................................
ATTORNEYS IV ......................................................................
ATTORNEYS V .........................................................................
ATTORNEYS V I ......................................................................

1 ,2 8 6
1 ,9 2 5
2 ,5 0 4
2 ,5 7 5
1 ,801
822

2 ,5 8 1
3 ,2 3 6
3 ,8 7 6

1 ,3 0 0
1 ,6 2 5
2 ,0 8 3
2 ,5 6 0
3 ,1 6 6
3 ,8 7 5

5 ,2 2 9
1 4,513
16,233
5 ,6 3 2

1 ,0 2 9
1 ,2 5 8
1 ,5 0 2
2o

1,8

9 99
1 ,2 3 0
1 ,4 7 3
1,7 6 5

880
1 ,0 9 9
1,3 1 3
1 ,5 7 6

240
558
569

1,131
1,418
1 ,7 4 2

1 ,08 5
1 ,3 7 5
1 ,7 2 4

1 ,2 5 0
1,5 3 4

1 ,2 5 8
1 ,5 8 5
1 ,9 3 5

13,572
1 7,016
2 0 ,9 08

1 3,0 20
16,500
2 0,6 92

1 4,994
1 8,405

15,094
19,020
23,220

1 ,1 3 9
2 ,2 3 9
1,038
3 38

1 ,5 8 8
1,9 8 0
2 ,4 3 2
3 , 14 9

1,582
1 ,9 1 6
2 ,3 4 0
3 , 1 00

1 ,3 9 8
1 ,7 1 4

2,200

1,7 4 7

2 ,8 2 5

2 ,7 5 0
3 ,5 0 0

1 9,0 62
2 3,7 55
2 9,1 88
37,7 85

1 8,9 79
2 2,9 91
28,0 82
37,2 00

1 6,7 79
2 0,5 69
24,0 00
3 3,900

20,9 67
2 6,4 00
3 3,000
4 2,0 00

1,0 5 9
1 ,191
1,4 5 8
1 ,7 8 5
2 ,1 5 8
2 ,4 9 9
3 ,0 2 5
3,6 5 7

12,872
1 4,4 39
17,6 00
2 1 ,6 74
2 6,2 14
3 0 ,5 26
3 6 ,3 29
44*642

12,708
14,292
17,493
21,4 20
25,8 96
2 9,9 93
3 6,3 00
43*884

11,210
1 2,895
1 5,642
19,200
2 3,280
2 7 ,4 89
3 1,9 87
38*460

1 4,5 99
16,080
19,344
24,0 00
2 8,8 96
3 3,0 00
39,765
4 8 ,2 33

1 4,6 13
1 6,221
1 8,6 96
2 2,0 72
2 5 ,6 20
2 9,3 76
32,9 99
3 8,063

14,4 00
16,026
1 8,420

1 3,500
1 4,904
16,800
19,892
2 3,1 12
2 6,3 89
2 9,232
3 3,1 20

15,600
1 7,363
2 0,4 00
2 4,1 20
27,881
3 1,9 87
3 6,097
41 , 4 9 6

2,122

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ..................................................................................
11 ...............................................................................
III
............................................................................
IV ...............................................................................
PERSONNEL

JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS

MANAGEMENT

I I ..............................................................
III
...........................................................
I V ..............................................................

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL

I .....................................
I I ..................................
III
...............................
IV ..................................

1,000

2,000

12,000

CHEMISTS ANU ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
CHEMISTS
C HE MI S TS
C HE M I ST S
C HE MI S TS
C HE M I ST S
ENGINEERS
ENGIN EERS
ENGIN EERS
ENGINEERS
ENGIN EERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGIN EERS

2,110

1 ............................................................................
I I .........................................................................
III
......................................................................
I V .........................................................................
V ............................................................................
V I .........................................................................
V I I ......................................................................
V I I I ...................................................................

4 ,1 7 1
9 ,5 5 7
11,143
9 ,1 3 2
4 ,5 6 5
1 ,5 6 4
438

1,0 7 3
1 ,2 0 3
1,4 6 7
1 ,8 0 6
2 ,1 8 4
2 ,5 4 4
3 ,0 2 7
3 ,7 2 0

I .........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
III
....................................................................
I V ......................................................................
V .........................................................................
V I ......................................................................
V I I ....................................................................
V III
................................................................

15,892
3 2,7 84
9 2,340
1 25,903
8 9,0 94
4 6,2 35
1 7,933
4 ,7 0 4

1 ,2 1 8
1,3 5 2
1 ,5 5 8
1,8 3 9
2 ,1 3 5
2 ,4 4 8
2 ,7 5 0
3 , 1 72

1,200
1,3 3 6
1,5 3 5
1 ,8 2 4
2 ,1 0 8
2 ,4 1 5
2 ,7 1 6
3 ,0 9 4

See footnotes at end o f table.




12

934
1,0 7 5
1 ,3 0 4
1 ,6 0 0
1,9 4 0
2 ,2 9 1

2,666
3 ,2 0 5
1,1 2 5
1,242
1 ,40 0
1 ,6 5 8
1 ,9 2 6
2 ,1 9 9
2 ,4 3 6
2 ,7 6 0

1 ,2 1 7
1 ,3 4 0

1,612
2,000
2 ,408
2 ,7 5 0
3 ,3 1 4
4 ,0 1 9
1,3 0 0
1 ,4 4 7
1 ,7 0 0

2,010
2 ,3 2 3
2,666
3 ,0 0 8
3 ,458

21,888
2 5,2 96
28,9 80
3 2,5 88
3 7,1 24

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1977)
Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

TECHNICAL

Number
of
employees3

Middle range3

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$ 9 ,3 85
1 1,160
1 3,154
1 5,225
17,093

$8,400
9 ,8 7 6
1 1,5 13
13,695
15,705

$10,722
12,600
14,662
1 6,633
1 8,6 84

SUPPORT
I ..................................
I I ...............................
III
.............................
I V ...............................
V ..................................

3 ,1 4 2
1 5,0 33
2 5,0 56
2 8,460
18,327

$811
946
1 ,0 9 6
1 ,2 6 8
1 ,4 3 6

$78 2
930
1 ,0 9 6
1,2 6 9
1 ,4 2 4

$700
823
959
1,1 4 1
1 ,3 0 9

$8 9 3
1 ,0 5 0
1,3 8 6
1 ,5 5 7

$9,727
1 1,3 55
13,151
1 5,221
1 7,2 37

DRAFTER-TRACERS ..............................................................
UR AF Tt RS I ...........................................................................
DRAFTERS I I .........................................................................
DRAFTERS I I I ......................................................................

4 ,0 9 0
1 8,1 40
3 1,4 18
29,5 68

768
863
1 ,0 6 9
1 ,3 1 9

750
82 9
1,0 4 0
1 ,2 8 8

646
720
916
1 ,1 2 6

896
967
1 ,2 05
1 ,459

9 ,2 1 4
10,3 54
1 2,8 33
1 5,8 28

8 ,9 9 4
9 ,9 4 8
12,480
1 5,4 54

7 ,7 5 7
8 ,6 4 0
10,996
1 3,5 15

10,749
11,601
14,457
1 7,509

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

4 ,8 9 0
8 ,8 8 9
2 5 ,6 36
16,251
3 ,7 7 5
1,0 0 8

665
789
8 77
1 ,0 4 6
1 ,1 7 5
1 ,3 6 9

634
770
852

574
66 2
74 2
89 7
1 ,0 0 4
1 ,2 4 5

71 5
895
980
1,1 8 6
1 ,3 0 4
1 ,511

7 ,9 7 9
9 ,4 6 3
1 0,5 29
1 2,5 57
1 4,0 99
16,423

7 ,6 1 2
9 ,2 4 0
1 0,219

6 ,8 8 2
7 ,9 4 7
8,901
1 0,7 64
12,044
14,940

8 ,5 8 0
10,741
11,758
1 4,234
15,653
1 8,1 37

9 6,1 81
8 2,4 19
2 9,073
1 6,834
5 ,4 4 6
6 3,3 25
46,5 23
21,9 49
4 1,7 02
78,7 26
85,4 80
54,0 97
19,589
3 3,2 28
3 8,1 19
4 8,651
3 4,874

678

767

8 ,1 3 8
1 0,388
6 ,0 6 8
7 ,1 6 8
9 ,0 8 2
8 ,0 4 5
9 ,3 3 7
7 ,1 6 6
9 ,3 2 9

EN GIN EERING
ENG INEE RING
EN GIN EER ING
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TE CH NI CI A NS
T E CH NI CI A NS
TE CH NI CIA NS
TEC HN IC IA NS
TE CH NI CIA NS

OPERATORS I ................................................
OPERATORS I I .............................................
..........................................
OPERATORS I I I
OPERATORS IV .............................................
OPERATORS V ................................................
OPERATORS V I .............................................

1,010
1,1 5 6
1,3 6 9

1,222

12,120

13,867
1 6,424

CL ER ICAL
CLERKS. ACCOUNTING I ................................................
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING I I .............................................
CLERKS, F I L E I .................................................................
CLERKS, F I L E I I ..............................................................
CL ER KS, F IL E I I I
...........................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS I .......................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS I I .............................................
MESSENGERS ............................................................................
SECRETARIES I ...................................................................
SECRETARIES I I .................................................................
SECRETARIES I I I
..............................................................
SECRETARIES I V .................................................................
SECRETARIES V ....................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ..........................................
STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR .............................................
TY P IS TS I ...............................................................................
TY P IS TS I I ............................................................................

866

506
59 7
75 7
670
77 8
5 97
77 7
842
930

1,012
1 ,1 1 7
75 7
848
600
71 5

63 8
817
482
550
702
630
745
551
75 5
81 7
90 2
9 98

1,100
715
82 0
570
675

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the

4

1,000
543
660
881
739
873
660
869
943
1 ,045
1 ,1 5 0
1 ,2 7 5
879
969
652
8 12

10,100
1 1,1 59
1 2,1 38
1 3,4 07
9 ,0 8 6
10,178
7 ,2 0 2
8 ,5 8 5

7 ,6 5 6
9 ,8 0 2
5 ,7 8 8
6 ,6 0 0
8 ,4 2 4
7 ,5 6 0
8 ,9 4 0
6 ,6 1 1
9 ,0 6 0
9 ,8 0 2
1 0,8 24
1 1,972
1 3,2 00
8 ,5 8 0
9 ,8 4 0
6 ,8 4 0

8,100

6 ,5 9 7
8 ,3 4 0
5 ,2 8 0
5 ,8 3 9
7 ,3 5 2
6 ,7 5 7
7 ,7 9 5
5 ,8 8 0
7 ,8 6 0
8,551
9,5 4 3
1 0,2 60
11,400
7 ,3 4 4
8 ,5 7 7
6 ,0 4 8
7 ,0 3 9

9 ,2 0 4

12,000
6 ,5 1 8
7 ,9 2 0
10,572
8 ,8 6 4
10,476
7 ,9 2 5
10,428
11,314
12,540
13,800
1 5,3 00
1 0,548
11,627
7 ,8 2 1
9 ,7 4 0

Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings
are included.
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper
and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see
appendix A.




550
695
440
487
613
563
650
490
655
713
79 5
855
950
612
71 5
5 04
587

5

13

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1977)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Annual salaries4

Number
of
employees3

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

7 ,0 7 4
13,738
30,5 04
1 9,6 04
7 ,8 1 2

$ 1,014
1 ,2 3 0
1,3 8 8
1,7 0 4
2 ,0 9 4

$ 1,0 00
1 ,1 8 5
1 ,3 3 5
1 ,65 0
2 ,0 8 0

$905
1 ,0 5 8
1,2 0 8
1 ,5 0 0
1,8 5 0

$ 1,0 80
1 ,3 5 4
1 ,4 8 7
1 ,8 0 0
2 ,2 8 5

1 ,5 2 7
2 ,7 4 3
5 ,2 4 6
3 ,4 5 8

1,0 4 7
1 ,2 1 3
1 ,4 3 1
1 ,7 9 8

1,0 2 5
1,1 4 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,7 9 1

883
1 ,041
1 ,2 6 0
1 ,5 9 5

492
948
643
358

1 ,8 9 7
2 ,1 4 9
2 ,5 9 1
3 ,0 6 7

1 ,7 9 0
2 ,1 0 8
2 ,4 9 9
3 ,0 0 7

1,2 5 2
1,832
2 ,4 3 9
2 ,5 1 3
1 ,7 7 5
810

1 ,3 4 0

2 ,1 2 3
2 ,5 8 5
3 ,2 3 7
3 ,8 7 6

4 ,3 1 3
11,890
14,092
5 ,2 9 2

1 ,0 4 4
1,271
1,5 1 3
1 ,8 2 3

216
537
548

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

$ 12 ,17 0
1 4,755
1 6,661
2 0 ,4 43
25,127

$ 11,995
14,220
1 6,0 20
1 9,800
2 4 ,9 60

$ 10,860
1 2,6 95
14,494
1 8,000

22,200

$ 12 ,96 0
16,247
17,843
2 1,600
27,420

1 ,1 5 5
1,3 5 1
1 ,5 2 5

2,000

12,5 70
14,5 59
1 7,168
2 1,5 82

1 2,3 00
1 3 ,6 80
16,800
21,491

1 0,5 96
1 2,4 95
15,120
19,146

13,860
1 6,2 16
1 8,3 00
2 4,0 00

1 ,7 1 8
1 ,9 6 1
2 ,2 4 9
2 ,7 0 8

1 ,9 5 8
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,7 5 5
3 ,3 0 7

22,7 59
2 5 ,7 87
31,0 88
36,8 08

21,4 84
25,3 00
29,9 88
36,0 86

2 0,621
2 3,5 33
26,9 89
3 2,4 96

23,5 00
27,4 89
3 3,060
3 9,6 84

1 ,2 9 9
1 ,6 2 5
2 ,0 8 3
2 ,5 6 1
3 ,1 6 7
3 ,8 7 5

1 ,1 6 9
1,4 7 5
1 ,8 8 3
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,8 9 9
3 ,4 3 2

1 ,45 6
1 ,8 0 3
2 ,3 1 6
3 ,5 8 2
4 ,2 6 2

1 6,0 75
1 9,9 90
2 5,4 81
3 1,0 21
3 8,8 44
4 6,5 12

1 5,5 94
1 9,5 00
24,996
3 0,7 33
3 8,0 04
4 6,5 00

14,032
17,7 00
2 2,591
27,489
3 4,7 88
4 1,1 84

17,467
21,638
2 7,7 89
3 4,3 86
42,9 83
51,1 49

99 9

1 ,4 5 0
1,7 4 5

88 5
1 ,0 8 6
1,3 0 8
1 ,5 7 0

1 ,1 3 8
1 ,3 4 7
1 ,6 1 0
1 ,975

12,531
1 5,246
18,1 56
21,879

1 1,992
1 4,472
17,4 00
20,940

1 0,6 20
13,035
15,694
1 8,8 40

13,661
16,163
1 9,320
2 3,7 00

1 ,1 4 7
1 ,4 2 8
1 ,7 4 3

1,1 0 7
1 ,3 7 5
1 ,7 2 0

1 ,0 5 0
1,2 5 0
1 ,5 3 4

1, 6 0 0

1 ,2 8 7

1 ,9 3 5

13,7 68
1 7,1 37
2 0,9 18

1 3,284
1 6,500
20,6 40

1 2,595
15,0 00
1 8,4 05

1 5,444
19,200
23,220

717
1 ,7 5 3
90 3
2 98

1 ,6 1 3
1 ,991
2 , 4 36
3 ,1 5 7

1 ,5 8 3
1,9 5 8
2 ,4 1 6
3 ,1 0 0

1,4 9 9
1 ,7 2 5
2 ,0 5 0
2 ,8 3 3

1 ,7 1 6
2 ,2 8 5
2 ,8 3 2
3 ,4 5 3

1 9,3 53
23,8 97
29,2 28
3 7,882

1 8,992
23,491
2 8,9 88
37,2 00

17,993
20,7 00
2 4 ,6 00
33,9 96

2 0,5 95
2 7,420
3 3,9 86
4 1 ,4 36

1 ,8 9 4
3 ,7 4 7
8 ,3 5 3
9 ,3 3 0
7 ,8 0 7
4 ,0 1 7
1 ,45 9
397

1 ,0 6 0
1 ,2 0 4
1,4 7 4
1,811
2 ,1 7 4
2 ,5 4 5
3 ,0 3 2
3 ,7 3 2

1 ,0 4 3
1 ,1 7 2
1 ,4 3 3
1 ,7 6 1

2 ,5 1 5
3 ,0 4 1
3 ,6 7 4

904
1 ,0 6 6
1 ,3 0 0
1 ,5 9 0
1 ,9 0 8
2 ,2 9 5
2 ,6 9 1
3 ,1 9 8

1 ,1 9 1
1,3 2 2
1 ,5 7 9
1,9 3 5
2 ,3 1 6
2 ,7 4 9
3 ,2 9 9
4 ,0 1 9

12,722
14,4 50
1 7,687
2 1,7 35
26,090
3 0 ,5 44
3 6,3 81
44,7 81

1 2,5 16
1 4,0 64
1 7,1 93
21,1 32
2 5,3 44
3 0,1 80
36,492
44,0 88

1 0,853
12,795
15,600
19,080
22,891
27,541
3 2,2 87
3 8,3 76

1 4,294
15,864
1 8,952
2 3,2 20
2 7,7 89
3 2,9 87
39,5 84
4 8 ,2 33

1,1 9 6
1 ,3 2 5
1 ,5 1 7
1 ,8 0 0
2 ,0 8 6
2,3 9 2
2 ,7 0 0
3,0 9 2

1,1 2 3
1 , 2 36
1,3 9 9
1,6 5 0
1 ,9 1 6
2 ,1 8 6
2 ,4 2 5
2 ,7 6 3

1 ,2 7 9
1 ,4 2 0
,6 6 0
1 ,9 6 5
2 ,2 6 6
2 ,6 1 6
2 ,9 8 6
3 ,4 5 0

1 4,6 34
1 6,2 73
1 8,807
2 2,205
2 5 ,6 59
29,3 63
3 2 ,9 59
38,040

14,352
1 5,9 00
1 8,2 09
2 1,6 00
25,0 27
2 8,7 04
3 2,4 00
3 7,100

1 3,475
1 4,834
1 6,793
1 9,800
22,991
2 6,2 26
2 9,1 00
33,161

15,351
1 7,040
1 9,917
2 3,580
27,1 89
3 1,388
3 5,832
41,4 00

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS I ....................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I .................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I I
..............................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I V ................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS V ....................................................................
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS

I ............................................................................
I I .........................................................................
III
......................................................................
IV .........................................................................

C HI E F ACCOUNTANTS
CH IE F ACCOUNTANTS
CH IE F ACCOUNTANTS
CH IE F ACCOUNTANTS

I ...................................................
I I ................................................
III
.............................................
I V ................................................

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS

I .........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
III
....................................................................
IV ......................................................................
V .........................................................................
VI ......................................................................

1,666

2,866

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I .................................................................................
I I ...............................................................................
III
............................................................................
I V ...............................................................................

1,206

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS

I I ..............................................................
III
...........................................................
IV ................. - .........................................

DIRECTORS OF
DIRECTORS OF
DIRECTORS OF
DIRECTORS OF

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

CHEMISTS

I .....................................
I I ..................................
III
...............................
IV ..................................

AND ENGINEERS

CHEMISTS I ............................................................................
CHEMISTS I I .........................................................................
CHEMISTS I I I
......................................................................
CHEMISTS I V .........................................................................
CHEMISTS V ............................................................................
CHEMISTS V I .........................................................................
CHEMISTS V I I ......................................................................
CHEMISTS V I I I ....................................................................
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

I .........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
III
...................................................................
IV ......................................................................
V .........................................................................
V I ......................................................................
V I I ....................................................................
V I I I ................................................................

14,541
30,062
8 3,554
1 1 4,478
82,16 1
43,564
1 7,267
4 ,6 2 0

1,220
1 ,3 5 6
1,5 6 7
1,8 5 0
2 ,1 3 8
2 ,4 4 7
2 ,7 4 7
3 ,1 7 0

2,112

See footnotes at end of table.




14

1

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1977)
Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4
Number
employees3

TECHNIC AL

Middle range5

Middle range5

Occupation and level2
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

1 ,1 8 0
1 ,3 5 8
1 ,5 3 0

$9,7 65
1 1,2 90
1 3,104
15,266
17,2 50

$ 9,2 70
1 0,9 20
1 2,879
1 5,0 00
1 6,914

$8,400
9 ,6 1 5
11,395
1 3,634
15,642

$10,440
1 2,149
14,160
1 6,296
18,357

Third
quartile

SUPPORT
1 ..................................
I I ...............................
III
............................
IV ................................
V ..................................

2 ,6 1 1
1 2,8 79
2 2,1 71
2 6 , OS 8
17,055

$814
941
1 ,092
1 ,2 7 2
1,4 3 7

$77 3
910
1 ,0 7 3
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,4 1 0

$700
801
950
1 ,1 3 6
1 ,3 0 4

DRAFTER-TRACERS ..............................................................
DRAFTERS I ............................................................................
DRAFTERS I I .........................................................................
DRAFTERS I I I
......................................................................

3 ,4 2 2
15,633
2 6,6 00
2 6,9 32

781
872
1,0 8 6
1 ,3 3 4

779
81 9
1 ,1 0 7
1,2 7 5

667
71 7
953

1,121

909
93 2
1 ,3 4 7
1,4 2 5

9 ,3 7 7
1 0,4 68
1 3,026
1 6,003

9 ,3 4 3
9 ,8 2 3
1 3,2 85
1 5,3 00

8 ,0 0 3
8 ,6 0 3
1 1,4 36
13,452

1 0,908
11,179
16,163
17,100

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

4 ,7 1 5
7 ,9 1 3
23,5 18
1 4,792
3 ,6 0 4
914

79 3
8 79
1 ,0 5 3
1 ,1 7 7
1,365

726
93 2
973
1 ,1 7 4
1 ,3 0 4
1,482

7 ,9 8 9
9 ,5 1 2
1 0,552
1 2,6 37
1 4,128
16,378

7 ,5 9 6
9 ,3 8 5
10,219

1,1 5 6
1,3 6 8

5 74
692
747
900
1,0 0 4
1 ,2 3 8

13,867
1 6,416

6 ,8 8 2
8 ,3 1 0
8,9 6 8
1 0,8 00
12,044
1 4,8 60

8 ,7 0 7
11,184
11,679
14,088
1 5,648
1 7,7 80

84,4 34
7 3,709
26,711
1 5,7 86
5 ,0 2 0
7 , 6o7
4 2,6 61
20,6 57
3 8,1 72
7 3 ,0 19
79,6 20
5 1,556
1 8,6 83
29,6 94
3 5,4 97
4 4 ,7 44
3 2,5 36

68 2
871
505
596
7 53
675
78 5
59 7
78 2
845
9 35
1,0 1 7
1 ,1 2 5
759
849
602
718

626
808
482
550
6 97
634
74 5
56 3
7 56
806
902
9 93
1,1 0 8
71 3
8 10
57 9
673

547
690
440
485
613
57 8
650
490
660
710
795
857
958
613
7 09
511
589

739
97 5
54 2

8 ,1 8 7
10,452
6 ,0 5 9
7 , 151
9 ,0 3 6
8 ,1 0 4
9 ,4 1 8
7 ,1 6 3
9 ,3 8 6
1 0,1 43

7 ,5 0 8
9 ,6 9 8
5 ,7 8 8
6 ,6 0 0
8 ,3 6 9
7,6 1 2
8 ,9 4 0
6 ,7 5 7
9 ,0 7 2
9 ,6 7 2
1 0,8 20
11,911
1 3,2 96
8 ,5 5 1
9 ,7 2 0
6 ,9 4 5
8 ,0 8 2

6 ,5 7 0
8 ,2 8 0
5 ,2 8 0
5 ,8 2 0
7,3 5 2
6 ,9 3 4
7 ,8 0 0
5 ,8 8 0
7,9 2 5
8 ,5 2 0
9 ,5 4 2
1 0,2 89
11,495
7 ,3 5 2
„
8 ,5 1 2
6 ,1 2 6
7 ,0 6 8

8 ,8 6 4
11,700
6 ,5 0 7
7 ,9 4 7
1 0,616
8 ,8 6 4
10,355
8 ,0 6 4
10,365
1 0,996
12,409
13,661
15,360
10,445
1 1,3 16
8 ,0 5 7
9 ,5 4 2

EN GIN EER ING
ENG INEE RING
EN GIN EER ING
ENGIN EER ING
ENGIN EER ING

TE C H N IC IA N S
TE C H N IC IA N S
TE CH NI CIA NS
TEC HN IC IA NS
TE CH NI CI A NS

OPERATORS I ................................................
UPERATURS IT ..............................................
..........................................
OPERATORS I I I
OPERATORS IV ..............................................
OPERATORS V ................................................
OPERATORS V I ..............................................

666

633
782
852

1,010

$870

1,012

12,120

CL ER ICAL
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING I ................................................
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING I I .............................................
CL ERKS, F I L E I .................................................................
CLERKS, F I L E I I ..............................................................
CLERKS, F I L E I I I
...........................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS I ................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS I I .............................................
MESSENGERS ............................................................................
SECRETARIES I ....................................................................
SECRETARIES I I
.................................................................
SECRETARIES I I I
..............................................................
SECRETARIES I V .................................................................
SECRETARIES V ....................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ...........................................
STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR .............................................
TY PI S TS I ...............................................................................
TY PI S TS I I ............................................................................

6

88 5
739
863
6 72
864
91 6
1 ,0 3 4
1,138
1 ,2 8 0
870
94 3
671
795

11,222

1 2,2 06
1 3,4 95
9 ,1 1 4
1 0,184
7 ,2 2 1
8 ,6 1 6

4

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the

Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings
are included.
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper
and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see
appendix A.




662

5

•»

15

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,3
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1977)
Levels in establishments
employing 2,500 workers
or more expressed as
percent of those in all
establishments combined

Monthly salaries5
Occupation and level3

Number
of
employees4

Middle range6
Median

Mean

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Employment

Mean
salaries

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS

110
110

ACCOUNTANTS I ......................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I ....................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I I I
.................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS I V ...................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS V .......................................................................

2 , 20 3
5 , 988
9 ,4 8 5
, 53 5
3 , 255

*1 ,1 1 8
1, 341
1 ,5 0 2
1,7 6 5
2 ,1 0 5

*960
1 ,0 9 5
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,5 0 8
1 ,9 2 0

*917
1,0 2 5
1 .3 6 9
1 ,4 1 6
1 ,7 7 9

*1 ,0 0 8
1 ,1 6 6
1 ,3 0 2
1 ,5 9 0
2 ,0 6 0

27
39
27
29
38

AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS
AUDITORS

695
1 ,2 4 6
1 ,9 8 6
1, 543

1 ,1 4 6
1 ,3 1 1
1 ,4 9 0
1 ,8 4 4

1 ,0 6 5
, 166
1 ,3 6 9

980
1 ,0 5 2
1 ,2 3 5
1,5 4 5

1 ,1 6 6
1 ,3 4 2
1 ,4 9 1
1 ,8 1 2

45
43
35
42

70
236
129

2,5 3 2
2,791
3 ,0 4 6

2 ,6 2 0
2 ,9 9 9

2 ,0 8 3
2 ,3 6 0
2 ,6 7 7

2 ,2 9 1
2 ,9 2 5
3 ,3 0 0

30
36

204
5 65
792
906
640
400

1 ,5 8 4
1,8 2 9
2,2 6 2
2 ,7 2 8
3 ,2 5 4
3 ,8 6 9

1 ,5 0 0
1 ,6 2 1
1 ,9 9 9
2 ,4 5 7
3 ,0 0 0
3 ,5 9 7

1 ,4 5 0
1 ,5 0 0
1,8 3 3
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,8 1 7
3,2 9 2

1 ,6 2 4
1 ,7 1 6
2 ,0 8 3
2 ,5 5 1
3 ,2 3 2
3 ,8 0 8

16
29
32
35
36
49

1 ,0 5 9
3 ,4 3 8
5 ,1 1 7
3* 4 9 6

1,2 3 2
1 ,4 0 6
1 ,5 8 8
1 ,8 3 6

1 ,0 3 3
, 120
1 , 325
1 ,6 8 0

956
1 ,0 3 4

20
24
32
62

106

1 ,5 4 9

1 ,1 0 8
1 ,1 7 7
1 ,4 1 3
1 ,8 4 5

127
327
364

1 ,1 8 0
1 ,5 0 8
l , 789

1 , 193
1 ,4 8 0
1 , 7 80

1,061
1,3 2 8
1 ,6 2 5

1 ,3 7 9
1 ,6 3 8
1 ,9 3 5

53
59
64

1 04
1 06
103

116
153
160

2 ,6 4 6
2 ,9 5 6
3 ,3 4 5

2 ,4 8 5
2 ,9 9 2
3 ,3 1 4

2 ,2 9 5
2 ,6 0 7
2 ,9 2 5

2 ,8 0 0
3 ,2 9 1
3 ,6 5 0

5
15
47

106

CHEMISTS I ...............................................................................
CHEMISTS I I ............................................................................
CHEMISTS I I I
.........................................................................
CHEMISTS IV ............................................................................
CHE MIS TS V ...............................................................................
CHEMISTS VI ............................................................................
CHEMISTS V I I .........................................................................

404
1, 150
2 ,9 7 2
3 , 738
3, 136
2 ,1 4 8
70 6

1 ,1 7 8
1 ,3 4 3
1 ,6 0 7
1 ,9 2 8
2 ,2 7 6
2 ,6 0 6
3 ,0 8 6

1 ,0 5 9

95 8
1 ,1 5 0
1 ,3 1 6
1 ,6 2 4
1 ,8 8 3
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,7 2 5

1 ,1 4 3
1 ,2 8 3
1 ,4 9 0
1 ,8 1 0
2 ,1 7 0
2 ,6 4 9
3 ,2 7 5

19
28
31
34
34
47
45

110
112
110

ENGINEERS I ............................................................................
ENGINEERS I I .........................................................................
ENGINEERS I I I
......................................................................
ENGINEERS IV .........................................................................
ENGINEERS V ............................................................................
ENGINEERS V I .........................................................................
ENGINEERS V I I ......................................................................
ENGINEERS V I I I ....................................................................

7 ,0 7 8
14,513
44,323
6 5,6 35
4 4,7 76
2 5,9 09
11,542
3 , 05 8

1 ,2 7 5
1 ,3 9 2
0
1 ,9 0 0
2,1 8 1
2 ,4 9 8
2 ,7 5 6
3,2 3 1

1 ,1 9 5
1 ,3 0 0
1 ,5 0 5
1 ,8 1 6

45
44
48
52
56
56
64
65

105
103
10 4
10 3

CH IE F
C HI E F
CH IE F

I ...............................................................................
I I ............................................................................
III
.........................................................................
IV ............................................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I I ...................................................
III
................................................
I V ...................................................

6

1
1,686
2, 100

6

109
1 04

1.01

109
1 08
105
103

120
107
99

ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS I ............................................................................
ATTORNEYS I I .........................................................................
......................................................................
ATTORNEYS I I I
ATTORNEYS IV .........................................................................
ATTORNEYS V ............................................................................
ATTORNEYS VI .........................................................................

11 9

110
107
106

101
100

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ....................................................................................
I I ..................................................................................
III
...............................................................................
I V ..................................................................................
PERSONNEL

JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS
JOB ANALYSTS

1,220

120
112
101

MANAGEMENT

I I .................................................................
III
..............................................................
IV .................................................................

0 I R E C T Jk S OF PERSONNEL
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
CHEMISTS

1

I I .....................................
III
..................................
IV .....................................

1 34

122

AND ENGINEERS

1, 208
1 ,4 2 0
1 ,7 3 7
2 ,0 1 6
2 .4 9 0
3 ,0 4 0
1 , 150
1 ,2 5 6
1 ,4 3 6
1 ,7 2 0

1,62

2,000

2 ,2 9 5
2 ,5 8 2
2 ,9 5 0

See footnotes at end of table.




16

1,100
1,200
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,6 0 4
1 ,8 6 9
2 ,1 3 3
2 ,35 7
2 ,7 3 0

2,110
2 ,4 3 0
2 ,7 8 1
3 ,2 1 7

107
10 4

102
102

102
102
100
102

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more—Continued
( E m p l o y m e n t a n d a ve ra ge m o n t h l y s a la ri es f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , 1 i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2
U n ite d States e x c e p t A la sk a and H a w a ii, M a rc h 1977)
Levels in e sta blishm ents

M o n t h l y sa la ri es 5

e m ploying 2 ,5 0 0 workers
o r m o r e e x p r e s s e d as

Number
M id d le range6

of

O c c u p a tio n and level3

e m p lo ye e s 4

M ean

M edia n

p e r c e n t o f t h o s e i n a ll
e sta blishm ents c o m b in e d

T E C H N IC IA N S

I

E N G IN E E R IN G

T E C H N IC IA N S

E m p lo ym e n t

..............................................

1 ,4 1 3

$865

$773

$723

$834

45

..........................................

5 ,3 4 9

1 ,0 0 4

850

800

900

36

II

M ea n
sal ar ies

107
106

......................................

1 0 ,9 0 8

1 ,1 2 7

1 ,0 2 0

942

1 ,0 9 6

44

103

..........................................

1 5 ,4 0 9

1 ,2 9 7

1 ,2 2 5

1 ,1 3 6

1 ,2 9 3

54

102

..............................................

1 2 ,9 7 5

1 ,4 5 1

1 ,4 0 0

1 ,3 0 9

1 ,4 9 0

71

101

768

667

870

E N G IN E E R IN G

T E C H N IC IA N S

I I I

E N G IN E E R IN G

T E C H N IC IA N S

IV

E N G IN E E R IN G

T E C H N IC IA N S

V

................................................................................

1 ,6 9 5

849

41

111

................................................................................................

5 ,0 1 2

1 ,0 1 0

826

743

860

28

117

.............................................................................................

9, 274

1 ,1 7 0

1 ,0 1 7

945

1 ,0 9 1

1 2 ,0 5 0

1 ,4 2 9

1 , 191

1 ,0 8 6

1 ,2 9 0

30
41

108

D R A FTE R -TR A C E R S
DRAFTERS

I

DRAFTERS

II
I I I

..........................................................................................
I

644

606

709

22

119

2 ,4 4 8

872

695

643

739

28

.......................................................

6, 589

997

799

743

850

26

111
114

II

OPERATORS

1 ,0 8 5

...........................................................

OPERATORS
OPERATORS

COMPUTER

I I I

COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS

V

OPERATORS

792

.......................................... ................

5 ,8 9 3

1 ,1 6 3

975

36

1» 7 o J

1 ,2 5 3

1 ,1 8 2

912
1 ,0 6 9

1 ,0 4 3

...............................................................

1 ,2 7 6

47

111
107

1 , 369

1 ,2 8 7

1 ,4 6 5

54

103

IV

COMPUTER

109

...............................................................

COMPUTER
COMPUTER

COMPUTER

quartile

SUPPORT

E N G IN E E R IN G

DRAFTERS

T h ird

quartile

T E C H N IC A L

F irst

1 ,4 1 5

...........................................................

VI

C L E R IC A L
CLERKS,

...............................................................

1 7 ,0 5 1

613

627

18

120

...........................................................

1 9 ,1 1 6

1 ,0 0 5

732

645

797

23

116

...................................................................................

2 ,9 6 9

608

478

469

495

10

120

................................................................................

3 ,5 2 8

695

520

475

547

21

116

............................................................................

2 , 199

861

671

617

794

40

114

A C C O U N TIN G

I

CLERKS,

A C C O U N T IN G

II

CLERKS,

F IL E

I

CLERKS,

F IL E

II

CLERKS,

F IL E

I I I

...............................................................

1 3 ,0 3 0

825

580

547

...........................................................

1 2 ,6 2 2

891

678

613

735

27

114

6, 460

550
700

504

29

110
109

OPERATORS

I

KEYPUNCH

OPERATORS

I I

MESSENGERS
S E C R E T A R IE S

I

S E C R E T A R IE S

I I

S E C R E T A R IE S
S E C R E T A R IE S

IV

S E C R E T A R IE S

V

123

......................................................................................

1 2 ,6 7 5

650

...................................................................................

2 4 ,7 9 2
2 9 ,9 5 7

929

752

700

800

31

................................................................................

1 ,0 0 7

813

758

871

35

108

...................................................................................

1 7 ,1 6 0

1 ,1 4 0

916

826

993

32

113

6 , 139

......................................................................................

30

110

1 ,2 4 8

1 ,0 5 0

933

1 ,1 2 5

31

........................................................

1 1 ,4 1 9

832

652

593

110

1 5 ,4 7 4

885

752

695

708
819

34

...........................................................

41

104

....................................................................................................

9, 620

686

521

481

543

20

114

.................................................................................................

1 2 ,2 3 5

792

610

556

663

35

111

STENOGRAPHERS,

GENERAL
S E N IO R

I

21

630
747

STENOGRAPHERS,
I I

635

660
849

I I I

T Y P IS T S

495

.................................................................................................

KEYPUNCH

T Y P IS T S

575

1

F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , see t a b l e A - 1 i n a p p e n d i x A .

2

I n c l u d e s d a t a f r o m 6 l ar g e c o m p a n i e s t h a t p r o v i d e c o m p a n y w i d e d a t a n o t i d e n t i f i e d

b y si ze o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
3

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s a p p e a r i n a p p e n d i x C.

4

5 S a la r ie s r e p o r t e d
hours. N o n p r o d u c t io n

bonuses are e x c lu d e d , b u t co st- of- liv in g p a y m e n ts and inc entive earn­

i ngs ar e i n c l u d e d .
6 T h e m i d d l e r a n g e ( i n t e r q u a r t i l e ) is t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e a r r a y e x c l u d i n g t h e u p p e r
and lo w e r f o u r t h s o f th e e m p lo y e e d is trib u tio n .

a p p e n d ix A .




a r e s t a n d a r d sa la ri es p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i.e., t h e

s tr a ig h t- tim e salary c o rre s p o n d in g t o th e e m p lo y e e 's n o rm a l w o r k schedule ex c lu d in g o v e r tim e

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t estim ates relate t o th e to ta l in all esta blis hm ents w i t h in

t h e s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y a n d n o t t o t h e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d . F o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n , see

112

17

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(P erc ent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected p ro fe ssio nal and a d m in is tr a ti v e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y sala ry, U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s k a an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1977)

Accountants

C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts

A u d ito rs

M o n t h l y salary
1
UNDER
$725

$725
AND

UNDER

$750

. . .

............................ .

III

IV

1 .2

.......................................

II
-

-

-

2 .3

-

-

V

1

II

III

IV

1

II

III

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

(1 .1 )

-

1 .9

-

-

-

-

— .

-

-

-

-

-

-

IV

$750

AND

UNDER

$775

. . .

2. 7

-

$775

AND

UNDER

$800

. . .

3 .4

-

-

-

-

2 .7

-

-

-

-

-

-

$800

AND

UNDER

$825

. . .

2 .4

-

-

-

-

3 .1

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

3 .7

(2 .1 )

-

-

-

-

5 .8

1 .7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

—
-

-

-

3 .6

-

-

4 . 1

(2 .1 )

-

$825

AND

UNDER

$850

. . .

$850

AND

UNDER

$875

. . .

$875

AND

UNOER

$900

. . .

2 .9

1 .6

-

-

-

2 .8

1 .4

-

-

$900

AND

UNOER

$925

. . .

7 .8

3 .9

_

_

_

6 .5

3 .0

_

_

1 .6

1 .9

-

-

-

-

2 .7

3 .2

-

-

-

(1 .1 )

-

-

-

-

2 .4

-

_

-

_

................................

$925

AND

UNDER

$950

. . .

3. 8

1 .9

-

$950

AND

UNDER

$975

. . .

9 .2

2 .9

(2 .5 )

$975

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

-

.

5 .8

3 .8

1 .0

-

-

7 .5

5 .0

$ 1 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0

1 3 .4

7 .9

3 .0

-

-

1 2 .0

1 0 .3

$ 1 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

1 2 .4

9 .9

3 .9

-

1 1 .0

1 4 .0

3 .0

-

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,1 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0

8 .2

9 .6

4 .7

-

7 .0

8 .4

3 .2

-

-

-

-

-

$1. 150

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 0 0

5 .0

8 .3

7 .5

(1 .4 )

5 .2

3 .4

4 .5

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

3. 1

8 .0

8 .7

1 .6

4 .4

5 .2

9 .4

(1 .3 )

*

-

$ 1 ,2 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0

2 .7

6 .7

7 .5

1 .4

-

2 .7

3 .9

8 .8

1 .2

-

_

-

$ 1 ,3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

2 .5

5 .6

1 0 .4

3 .0

-

4 .9

6 .7

7 .2

1 .4

-

1 .2

4 .9

8 .8

2 .7

(0 .4 )

-

—
-

-

1 .7

4 .7

1 0 .8

2 .7

3 .0

-

-

-

• • • • • • • • •

.............................

$ 1 ,3 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

1. 1

5. 1

8 .5

3 .2

$ 1 ,4 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

(2 .6 )

4 .1

7 .2

5 .7

4 .9

6 .9

6 .0

(2 .1

3 .6

6 .0

8 .1

1 .4

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

$ 1 ,5 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

-

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0

AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0

-

6 .3

4. 7

7 .1

1 .4

-

1 .5

3 .8

8 .1

2 .7

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

-

1 .2

3. 3

8. 7

3 .7

)

1 .4

9 .7

4 .0

2 .1

2 .2

-

6 .8

6 .2

.7

_

2 .5

3 .2

4 .7

7 .4

4 .2
-

0 . 1
-

1 .6

4 .2

6 .7

7 .2

1 .1

3 .7

5 .5

4 .2

2 .1
2 .6

1 .2

2 .4

8 .0

2 0 .4

4 .4

-

-

.6

1 .7

8 .4

1 .9

5 .2

_

_

5 .3

1 0 .7

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

-

( 1 .2 )

2 .6

7 .0

3 .6

UNOER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

-

-

2 .3

7 .0

3 .9

1 .0

4 .0

5 .0

-

( 1 .8 )

4 .4

6 .1

4 .2

6 .2

2 .3

5 .0

3 .5

6 .4

-

-

-

2 .7

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 5 0

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0

$ 2 ,0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0

-

-

$ 2 ,0 5 0

AND

UNOER

$ 2 ,1 0 0

-

-

AND

$ 2 ,1 0 0

-

-

6 .3

5 .6

$ 2 ,2 5 0

$ 2 ,2 5 0

AND

UNOER

$ 2 ,3 0 0

-

.............................
-

$ 2 ,3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 5 0

-

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,4 0 0

-

$ 2 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,4 5 0

$ 2 ,4 5 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 2 ,5 0 0

$ 2 ,5 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 2 ,6 0 0

$ 2 ,6 0 0

AN O

UNDER

$ 2 ,7 0 0

.............................

.............................

-

$ 2 ,8 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 2 ,9 0 0

-

$ 3 ,0 0 0

6 .0

l. 7

1 .1
-

1 .9

6 .8

6 .9

.3

9 .8

6 .1

4 .4

2 .0

2 .2

-

4 .0

-

_

-

1 .4

-

4 .0

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .2
(3 .8 )
-

-

3 .0

. 7
2 .5
1 .2

-

3 .7

1 .9
2 .0

2 .8

. 5

3 .7

3 .6

.3

-

.4

4 .0

8 .2

1 .9

-

1 .8

.6

1 1 .5

7 .5

2 .7

-

3 .8

*

“

-

-

3 .5

-

-

-

-

1 .9

-

-

2 .6

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .3

-

-

1. 1
1 .6
-

-

-

.6

2 .2

8. 1

5 .0

4 .0

4. 1

5 .8
1 .9

.5

6 .4

-

-

.7

8 .6

9 .7

-

-

-

.4

-

-

5 .2
3 .3

1 6 .9

-

.4

1 0 .6

-

(0 .8 )

-

.9

3 .6

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

.3

6 .7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

3 .5
-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .8

-

-

-

“

.8

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

~

.3
3.3

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,7 0 0

$ 3 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,8 0 0

$ 3 ,8 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,9 0 0

*
-

-

-

-

.............................
.............................

*

*
-

-

*
-

_

......................

“

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

lo o .o

.3
1 .3

-

1. 9

*

*
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 .6
3 .9

1 .4
1 .1
4 .7

1 0 0 .0

8 ,1 0 1

1 5 ,2 7 1

3 5 ,1 6 9

2 2 ,2 2 7

8 ,4 6 5

1 ,5 3 9

2 ,9 0 3

5 ,6 1 2

3 ,6 4 6

568

1 ,1 9 7

782

360

$ 1 ,0 1 3

$ 1 ,2 1 9

$ 1 ,3 7 9

$ 1 ,6 9 7

$ 2 ,0 8 7

$ 1 ,0 4 7

$ 1 ,2 0 9

(1 ,4 2 6

$ 1 ,7 9 4

$ 1 ,8 8 0

$ 2 ,1 1 0

$ 2 ,6 1 0

$ 3 ,0 6 6

S ee f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




1 .2

.4

1 .5

-

• • • • • • • • •

$ 3 ,6 0 0

. . .

9 .7

2 .5

-

$ 3 ,6 0 0

SALARY

2 .1

-

$ 3 ,5 0 0

EMPLOYEES

-

-

UNDER

MONTHLY

(0 .3 )

-

UNDER

OF

2 .0

-

AN O

AVERAGE

6 .6

-

AND

NUMBER

4 .6

-

$ 3 ,5 0 0

.......................................

_

4 .4

-

$ 3 ,4 0 0

TOTAL

1 .4

-

• • • • • • • • •
.............................
• • • • • • • • •

OVER

2 .2

-

$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND

.5

_

UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0

5 .4

_

UNDER

$ 4 ,0 0 0

(2 .3 )
-

-

UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0

-

_

AND

UNOER

5 .0

-

-

AND

UNDER

7 .3

-

AND

AND

1 .8

-

$ 3 ,3 0 0

AND

*

5 .9

-

$ 3 ,1 0 0

$ 3 ,9 0 0

-

1 .4

• • • • • • • • •

$ 3 ,2 0 0

$ 4 ,0 0 0

-

*

-

$ 2 ,8 0 0

$ 3 ,2 0 0

-

.4

-

_

UNOER

$ 3 ,1 0 0

1. 7

-

-

AN D

UNDER

1 .3
9 .9

-

-

$ 2 ,7 0 0

UNDER

4 .2
1 3 .0

7 .4

-

-

AND

(1 .2 )

5 .3
5 .8

5 .5

-

-

7 .9

1 .0

6 .5

-

$ 2 ,3 5 0

-

1 .3

1 .8

$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND

1 .9

-

-

1 .3

UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,9 0 0

3 .2

.1

( 1 .4 )
-

(3 .7 )

$ 2 ,1 5 0

ANO
AND

$ 3 ,0 0 0

-

“

UNOER

$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

-

1 .6

AN D

$ 1 ,9 0 0

-

1 .4

$ 1 ,7 0 0

$ 1 ,8 5 0

-

1 .5

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0

_

18

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(P ercen t d is t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected profes sion al and a d m in is tr a ti v e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary. U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s ka an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1977)

A ttorneys
M o n t h l y s a la r y
II

III

IV

V

VI

^ .6

-

-

-

-

-

............................

3 .9

_

-

-

-

-

1
$975

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

....................................

AND

UNDER

$ 1 .0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

6 .1

(1 .6 1

$1, 100

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0

.............................

8. 9

1 .2

$ 1 ,1 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 0 0

.............................

8 .2

.8

$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

.............................

1 0 .0

1 .2

$ 1 ,2 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0

.............................

1 0 .0

3 .5

-

$ 1 ,3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

.............................

15. 2

2 . 8

-

$1, 350

4 .5

$ 1 ,0 0 0

$ 1 ,0 5 0

-

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

.............................

5 .4

$ 1 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

.............................

5. 1

5 .7

-

$ 1 .*5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

.............................

5. 5

8 .3

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

.............................

4 .5

7 .2

$ 1 .5 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 0 0

.............................

1 .6

8 .2

1 .2
1 .4

$ 1 ,6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 5 0

.............................

2 .3

7 .8

-

-

(0 .4 )

$ 1 ,5 0 0

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

.9

-

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

.............................

5 .2

1 1 .1

5 .1

$ 1 ,7 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

.............................

2 .3

4 .8

3 .7

1. 1

$ 1 ,7 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

.............................

.5

5 .1

1 .9

1. 1

$1. 800

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

.............................

•1 .0

5.5

7 .0

.7

(1 .1 )

-

4 .4

1 .1

3 .2

6 .1

2 .3

2 .4

6 .7

.8

~

-

1 .7

4 .1

1 .9

-

-

2 .3

1 0 .5

1 .4

5 .9

_

-

$ 1 ,8 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

1 .2

$ 1 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 5 0

.............................

(1 .5 )

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,0 0 0

AND

$ 2 ,0 5 0

.............................

2 .3

$2. 050

AND

UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,1 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,1 5 0

.............................

$ 2 ,1 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

1 .2

3 .5

5 .1

$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 5 0

.............................

-

1 .7

5 .5

3.3

1 .0

6 .3
3 .7

4 .5

4.5

2 .1

2 .4

4 .2

(3 .5 )

7 .6

-

2 .4

$ 2 ,2 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0

.............................

-

$ 2 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 5 0

............................

-

$ 2 ,3 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,4 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,4 5 0

.............................

$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,5 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,5 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0

1 .3
(2 .2 )
3 .1

.............................
.............................

-

-

~

-

2 .9
3 .0

$ 2 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,8 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

$2. 800

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,9 0 0

.............................

-

$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,0 0 0

.............................

“

(2 .1 )

$ 3 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,3 0 0

.............................

-

$ 3 ,3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

-

$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,5 0 0

.............................

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,7 0 0

$ 3 ,7 0 0

$ 3 ,8 0 0

.............................

.............................

$ 3 ,8 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,9 0 0

________________

$ 3 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0

.............................

-

-

1 1 .8
7 .7

-

3 . 1
3 .7

_
-

7 .0

6 .4

(3 .6 )

5 .6

1 .9

7 .6

1 0 .7

2 .8

4 .7

1 0 .3

3 .9

-

2 .4

7 .7

3 .3

2 .0

8 .3

4 .3

2 .1

5 .2
5 .2

2 .8
4 .4

1 .3
-

-

1 .2

6 . 1

-

-

(1 .9 )
-

3 .5

6 .3
6 .3

2 .4

5 .5
5 .7

............................

$4. 000

_

............................

UNDER

-

3. 3

6 . 0

-

AND

“
“

1 .3

-

$ 3 ,2 0 0

$ 3 .5 0 0

-

1 .3

$ 3 ,1 0 0

$ 3 ,6 0 0

-

2 . 1
2 .1

-

_

-

$ 4 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,3 0 0

.............................

-

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,5 0 0

.............................

3 .6

_

1 .8

1 2 .0

-

2 .2

5 .7

-

2 .3

4 .6

-

$ 4 ,5 0 0

4 .0

-

-

$ 4 ,3 0 0

2 .8

-

-

$ 4 ,2 0 0

-

“

-

.4

5 .1

1 .7

3 .6

AND

UNDER

$4*600

............................

-

-

-

-

$ 4 ,6 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 4 ,7 0 0

.............................

-

-

(0 .8 )
-

2 .3

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,8 0 0

.............................

-

-

$ 4 ,7 0 0

-

-

-

-

2 .4

-

“

“

$4, 800

AN D

UNDER

$ 4 ,9 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 5 ,0 0 0

.............................

$ 5 .0 0 0

AND

OVER

-

.............................

$ 4 ,9 0 0

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

-

-

1 0 0 .0

..................

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

...........................................

SALARY

...............................

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.6
2 .6

~
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

4 .6
1 0 0 .0

1 .2 8 6

1 ,9 2 5

2 ,5 0 4

2 ,5 7 5

1 ,8 0 1

822

$ 1 ,3 3 6

$ 1 ,6 6 1

$ 2 ,1 2 2

$2,581

$ 3 ,2 3 6

$ 3 ,8 7 6

See f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




1 .8

19

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(P erc ent d is t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected pro fe ss ional and a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary, U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s ka an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 197 7)

B uyers
M o n t h l y s a la r y
1

UNDER

$675

.........................................................................

II

III

IV

0 .6

$675

AND

UNDER

$700

..........................................

1. 8

-

-

-

$700

AND

UNDER

$725

..........................................

.5

_

_

_

$725

ANO

UNDER

$750

...........................................

3 .0

-

-

-

$750

AND

UNDER

$775

...........................................

2 .8

-

-

-

$775

AND

UNDER

$800

...........................................

3 .4

-

-

-

$800

AND

UNDER

$825

...........................................

2 .3

_

_

_

$825

...........................................

-

AND

UNDER

$850

4 .6

-

$850

AND

UNDER

$875

..........................................

5 .4

(3 .0 )

-

-

$875

AND

UNDER

$900

.............................

4 .7

1 .3

-

-

..........................................

AND

UNDER

$925

5 .3

1 .1

-

_

$925

AND

UNDER

$950

......................... ...

7 .6

1 .4

-

$950

AND

UNDER

$975

...........................................

5 .4

1 .9

-

-

$975

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

4. 1

3 .3

(0 .7 )

-

.............................

9 .2

6 .2

l.D

_

$900

$ 1 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

....................................

$ 1 ,0 5 0

$ 1 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

.............................

7 .2

7 .5

1 .7

-

$ 1 ,1 0 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0

.............................

5 .5

9 .7

2 .7

-

$ 1 ,1 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

7 .0

7 .9

4 .2

-

$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

.............................

4 .6

1 0 .3

6 .1

-

4. 0

8 .3

6 .3

(1 .5 )

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0

............................

$ 1 ,3 0 0

$ 1 ,2 5 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

. . . . . . . . .

2 .8

6 .1

7 .9

1 .5

$ 1 ,3 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

.............................

2 .7

6 .2

6 .9

2 .7

$ 1 ,4 0 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

.............................

1 .5

5 .9

9 .2

3 .4

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

.............................

1 .5

4 .4

8 .2

5 .4

$ 1 ,5 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

.............................

4 .3

7 .2

5 .9

2 .9

6 .2

8 .0

2 .2

7 .3

1 .6

4 .3

6 .9

1 .1

3 .0

6 .9

$ 1 ,5 5 0

AND

UNOER

$ 1 ,6 0 0

.............................

(2 .6 )
-

$ 1 ,6 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 5 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,8 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

.............................

$ 1 ,9 0 0

.............................

$ 1 ,8 5 0

6 .3

1 .0

3 .5

6 .4

(2 .5 )
-

2 .9

5 .9

2 .2

3. 7

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 5 0

.............................

-

1 .7

3 .9

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

1 .7

5 .6

$ 2 ,0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0

.............................

-

-

1 .4

3 .1

$ 2 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,1 0 0

.............................

-

-

1 .0

$ 2 ,1 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,1 5 0

.............................

-

-

1 2 .7 )

$ 2 ,1 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

$ 2 ,2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 5 0

.............................

*

$ 2 ,2 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0

.............................

_

$ 2 ,3 0 0

AND

OVER

.........................................................

-

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

.............................................. ..........................

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

...........................................

SALARY

................................

-

-

2 .1

-

1 0 .4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 .2 2 9

1 4 ,5 1 3

1 6 ,2 3 3

5 ,6 3 2

$ 1 ,0 2 9

$ 1 ,2 5 8

$ 1 ,5 0 2

$ 1 ,8 2 6

S ee f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




2 .2

*
_

3 .6
2 .2
2 .6

20

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Pe rc ent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected profes sion al an d a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary. U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s ka an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1977)

J o b analy sts

D ir e c to rs o f pers onnel

M o n t h l y salary
II

III

IV

1

II

III

IV

*775

AND

UNDER

*800

..........................................

1 .3

-

-

-

-

-

-

*800

AND

UNDER

*825

..........................................

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

*825

AND

UNOER

*850

..........................................

2 .9

-

-

*8 5 0

AND

UNDER

*875

..........................................

3 .3

(0 .4 1

*

-

*875

AND

UNDER

*900

..........................................

.4

1 .1

**

-

*

-

-

*900

AND

UNDER

*925

...........................................

6 .7

.9

-

-

-

-

-

*925

AND

UNDER

*950

................................ ...

3 .8

-

AND

UNDER

*975

...........................................

1 .7

2 .3

-

-

-

*9 5 0

-

-

-

*975

AND

UNDER

*1 ,0 0 0

...................................

3 .8

.7

-

-

-

9 .2

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0

.............................

2 .2

-

-

-

*1 .0 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .1 0 0

.............................

1 9 .6

.5

-

1 .0

-

-

*1 .1 0 0

AND

UNDER

(1 .1 5 0

.............................

1 2 .5

3 .8

-

3 .8
-

-

-

-

-

*1 ,0 0 0

1 .3

-

*1 ,1 5 0

ANO

UNDER

*1 ,2 0 0

.............................

4 .6

3 .2

*1 .2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 .2 5 0

............................

4 .6

1 1 .5

(2 .3 )

3 .0

-

-

-

*1 ,2 5 0

A NO

UNDER

(1 .3 0 0

............................

3 .3

1 1 .6

1 .2

3 .6

_

-

-

*1 .3 0 0

*1 .3 5 0

.............................

6 .7

-

-

-

-

AND

UNDER

9 .0

1 .6

2 .1

*1 ,3 5 0

AND

UNDER

(1 .4 0 0

.............................

7 .5

5 .9

3 .9

8 .7

*1 .4 0 0

AND

UNOER

*1 ,4 5 0

.............................

2 .5

6 .5

5 .3

4 .6

(2 .2 )
1 .7

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AN D

UNDER

(1 .5 0 0

............................

1 .7

4. 1

3 .0

8 .1

4 .7

9 .5

1 1 .6

-

-

*1 .5 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 .5 5 0

.............................

2 .1

7 .9

*1 .5 5 0

AND

UNDER

(1 ,6 0 0

.............................

1 .3

4 .7

7 .4

6 .7

4 .8

-

-

*1 .6 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .6 5 0

.............................

( 0 .8 )

5 .9

4 .9

3 .5

3 .6

(1 .3 )

-

ANO

UNDER

*1 .7 0 0

.............................

2 .9

8 .6

-

AND

UNOER

*1 .7 5 0

............................

4. 1

7. 7

AND

UNDER

(1 ,8 0 0

............................

2 .5

5 .3

*1 .6 5 0
*1 ,7 0 0
*1 .7 5 0

_

3 .9

-

7 .5

1 .2

2 .5

1 2 .1

1 0 .2

3 .4

“

4 .8

6 .1

2 .8

-

$ 1 ,8 0 0

ANO

UNDER

*1 .8 5 0

.............................

-

2 .7

4 .0

4 .5

-

AND

UNDER

(1 .9 0 0

.............................

1 .1

4 .9

-

UNDER

(1 .9 5 0

.............................

3 .0

8 .6

6 .1

4 .5
5 .1

1 .4

AND

-

3 .7
-

4 .2

$ 1 .8 5 0
*1 ,9 0 0

3 .3

(2 .0 )

3 .2

2 .1

7 .4

4 .5

(1 .2 )

-

5 .8

1 .0

4 .6

2 .6

-

1 .9

.6

4 .0

4 .5

-

2 .5

4 .1

2 .6

1 .2
.9
-

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND

UNDER

*2 ,0 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

$ 2 .0 0 0

AND

UNOER

*2 .0 5 0

.............................

-

*2 . 050

AND

UNOER

(2 .1 0 0

............................

*2 .1 0 0

AND

UNDER

*2 .1 5 0

............................

*2 .1 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 .2 0 0

.............................

-

.9

.1
-

2 .1

2 .1

*2 .2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 5 0

.............................

-

-

1 .8

1 .7

3 .6

3 .7

.3

*2 ,2 5 0

AND

UNDER

*2 .3 0 0

.............................

_

-

1 .8

1 .3

3 .9

4 .4

3 .0

1 .4

*2 .3 0 0

ANO

-

-

1 .9

( 0 .6 )
-

2 .6

2 .5

-

-

(0 .7 )

-

1 .3

3 .3

2 .7

4 .1

2 .1

5 .6

2 .4

$ 2 ,3 5 0

.............................

*2 .3 5 0

A NO

UNDER

*2 ,4 0 0

.............................

*2 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

*2 ,4 5 0

.............................

*2 .4 5 0

AND

UNDER

(2 .5 0 0

.............................

~

*

*2 .5 0 0

AND

UNDER

(2 ,6 0 0

............................

-

-

UNOER

AND

UNDER

(2 .7 0 0

.............................

-

UNOER

*2 .8 0 0

.............................

*2 .8 0 0

ANO
AND

UNDER

(2 ,9 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

UNDER

*3 .0 0 0

.............................

~

-

-

2 .1

—

-

-

AND

-

1 .3

-

*2 , 600
*2 ,7 0 0
*2 .9 0 0

2 .9

6 .5
.9

1 .9

5 .0

3 .3

.8

7 .8

7 .1

1 .0

2 .8

2 .4

-

1 .4

6 .9

1 6 .0

*3 .0 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 3 ,1 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

-

3 .8

AND

UNDER

(3 .2 0 0

............................

-

-

-

1 .1

1 3 .9

*3 .2 0 0

AN D

UNOER

(3 .3 3 3

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

(2 .7 )
-

.9

*3 .1 0 0

-

-

4 .0

-

-

-

*3 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,4 0 0

............................

$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

(3 .5 0 0

.............................

ANO

________________

_

(3 .7 0 0

.............................
.............................
............................

-

UNOER

*3 .8 0 0
*3 .9 0 0

UNDER

(4 ,0 0 0

............................

*3 .5 0 0
*3 .6 0 0

AND

UNOER
UNDER

*3 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,8 0 0

AND

*3 ,9 0 0

AND

$ 3 ,6 0 0

-

-

.9

.3

6 .5

1 .0

-

5 .6
4 .7
4 .4

-

_

_

-

.7

-

-

-

-

2 .4

-

-

-

(0 .5 )

5 .0

-

2 .1

-

*

*

1 .0

2 .7

*4 .0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

(4 ,1 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

-

-

-

*4 ,1 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*4 .2 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .8

*4 .2 0 0

AND

OVER

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .7

1 0 0 .0

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

E M P L O Y E E S .............................

MONTHLY

SALARY

................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

240

558

* 1 . 131

*1 .4 1 8

See f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




21

2 .7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

569

1, 139

2 ,2 3 9

1 ,0 3 8

338

*1 ,7 4 2

(1 ,5 8 8

*2 ,4 3 2

*3 ,1 4 9

*1 ,9 8 0

1 0 0 .0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(P erc ent d is t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected profession al and a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary, U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s k a an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1 977)

M o n t h l y salary

UNDER

*725

.......................................

2 .7

*725

ANO

UNDER

*7 5 0

. . .

*750

ANO

UNDER

*775

. . .

1.8
1.6

*775

AND

UNDER

*800

. . .

1 .5

*8 0 0

AN O

UNDER

*825

. . .

( 1.2)
3 .2

*825

AND

UNDER

*850

. . .

1 .3
.3

*8 5 0

AND

UNDER

*875

. . .

5 .5

*875

AND

UNDER

*900

. . .

2.1

1 .3

. . .

7 .1

2 .3

*900

*925

.2

1 .3

AND

UNDER

*925

AND

UNDER

*950

. . .

5 .7

*950

AND

UNDER

*9 7 5

. . .

5 .3

1.2

*975

AND

UNDER

*1 .0 0 0

.

4 .4

2 .5

.4

*1 .0 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .0 5 0

8 .7

*1 .0 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,1 0 0

9 .1

*1 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,1 5 0

6 .5

8.2
8.8
10.2

*1 .1 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .2 0 0

7 .3

1 0 .5

(1 .7 )

2.0
1 .4
3 .4
2 .9

6.6
6.1

*1 .2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,2 5 0

8 .9

9 .3

*1 .2 5 0

AN O

UNDER

*1 ,3 0 0

6 .5

*1 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .3 5 0

6. 1

8.1
7 .3

7 .6

1.6

*1 .3 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,4 0 0

3 .4

7 .3

9 .6

2 .9

*1 .4 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,4 5 0

1 .4

4 .6

7 .8

2 .4

*1 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,5 0 0

3 .9

9 .5

4 .6

*1 .5 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 .5 5 0

2 .5

7 .6

3 .8

$ 1 ,5 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 .6 0 0

(1 .6 0 0

ANO

UNDER

*1 .6 5 0

*1 .6 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

1.8
1. 1

*1 .7 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,7 5 0

(0 .4 )

$ 1 ,7 5 0

1.6
(1.0)

2 .3

(3 .0 )

( 1 .5 )

1.1

7 .0

6.0

5 .5

5 .8

1 .4

4. 5

5 .7

1 .3

3 .9

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

3 .3

(1 .8 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,8 5 0

2 .9

(1 .8 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,9 0 0

*1 .9 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,9 5 0

*1 .9 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 .0 0 0

ANO

UNDER

8.0

1 .3

2 .9

8 .4

2.2

7. 1

4 .2

4 .8
5 .6

5. 1
4 .9

4 .8

6 .3

(2 ,0 0 0

2.2
1.8
1.0

*2 .0 5 0

(1 .7 )

5 .2

4 .5

( 3 .3 )
3 .8

*2 ,0 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 ,1 0 0

3 .8

6 .5

1 .7

(2 .1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,1 5 0

3 .5

5 .5

*2 .1 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 0 0

2 .7

6.2

4 .5

(2 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

(2 ,2 5 0

2 .4

(2 .2 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 ,3 0 0

3 .0

*2 .3 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 ,3 5 0

1 .5

3 .7

5 .0

.9

*2 .3 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*2 .4 0 0

.7

4 .6

4 .8

4 .0

.6
1.0
( 1.2)

2 .4

( 1 .5 )

5 .9

5 .8

1 .5

5 .1

3 .9

(2 .4 0 0

AN D

UNDER

(2 .4 5 0

*2 .4 5 0

AN D

UNDER

(2 .5 0 0

(2 .5 0 0

AND

UNDER

*2 .6 0 0

*2 .6 0 0
*2 .7 0 0

ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,7 0 0
*2 .8 0 0

2.8

*2 .8 0 0

AN O

UNDER

*2 ,9 0 0

2 .4

9 .0
9 .4
5 .3

*2 .9 0 0

AND

UNDER

*3 ,0 0 0

1 .4

4 .6

*3 .0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*3 ,1 0 0

3 .7

$ 3 ,1 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*3 .2 0 0

1.0
( 1.0)

*3 ,2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*3 .3 0 0

(3 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

*3 .4 0 0

.7

*3 ,4 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*3 .5 0 0

1 .3

*3 .6 0 0

(1.6)

3 .8
3 .2
5 .9
4 .3

6 .3

8.0
11.1

2.1
1.6

.8
3 .4
2 .7

(0 .7 )

6.2

2 .3

5 .5
5 .7
7 .6

2 .3

8.2
1 0 .9

8 .7

9 .1

3 .9

6 .7
9 .8

AN D

UNDER

*3 .6 0 0

ANO

UNDER

*3 .7 0 0

*3 .7 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*3 ,8 0 0

(3 .8 0 0

AND

UNDER

(3 ,9 0 0

*3 .9 0 0

AND

UNDER

*4 .0 0 0

(4 .0 0 0

AND

UNDER

(4 .1 0 0

2.6
2.2
2 .9
1.2
.6
1.0
.8

(4 ,1 0 0

(4 .2 0 0

.4

(3 .5 0 0

1.1
1.6
2.1
8.2
3 .9
5 .5

6.8
5 .5
2.1
1 3 .5
5 .3
6 .4

AN O

UNDER

*4 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

*4 .3 0 0

(4 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

*4 ,4 0 0

(4 ,4 0 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 4 ,5 0 0

*4 .5 0 0

AND

UNDER

(4 .6 0 0

AND

UNDER

*4 .7 0 0

1.6

(4 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

(4 ,8 0 0

1 .4

.6

2.1
(1.2)

*4 ,6 0 0

3 .9
2 .5
.7

1.6
.5

(4 .8 0 0

AND

UNDER

(4 .9 0 0

.5

*4 .9 0 0

AND

UNDER

*5 .0 0 0

1 .4

*5 .0 0 0

AND

OVER

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

. . . . . . .

6 .4

100.0

.................. ...

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

. . .

S A L A R Y ..

2. 110
*1 ,0 7 3

4 , 171

9 ,5 5 7

1 1 ,1 4 3

9 ,1 3 2

4 ,5 6 5

1 .5 6 4

438

(1 .2 0 3

$ 1 ,4 6 7

(1 ,8 0 6

*2 ,1 8 4

*2 ,5 4 4

*3 ,0 2 7

*3 ,7 2 0

S ee f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




22

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Pe rc ent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected pro fe ss ional an d a d m in is tr a ti v e o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y sala ry. U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s ka an d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1977)

Engineers
II

1

UNDER
$975

$975
AND

2 .7

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

1 .6

......................

III

IV

V

(0 .6 )

“

V II

_

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0

.............................

3 .7

1 .0

-

$ 1 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

.............................

9 .6

2 .0

-

UNDER

3 .9

( 1 .4 )

1 4 .4

VI

_

$ 1 ,1 0 0

AND

$1, 150

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

.............................
.............................

1 6 .0

7 .7

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

.............................

1 4 .8

1 1 .4

.............................

1 1 .1

1 3 .9

_
“

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 .0

$ 1 ,3 0 0

-

-

1 .5

$ 1 ,2 0 0

V III

_

AND

UNDER

3 .9

-

$ 1 ,3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

.............................

8 .7

1 2 .3

6 .4

( 1 .5 )

$1. 350

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

.............................

7. 1

1 1 .7

7 .8

1 .6

$ 1 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

.............................

4 .3

1 0 .9

8 .5

2. 1

-

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

.............................

2 .9

7 .8

9 .8

3 .2

*

-

S I. 500

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

.............................

1 .3

5 .3

1 0 .2

4 .1

-

-

-

_

$ 1 ,5 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 0 0

.............................

4 .2

8 .3

5 .0

(2 .4 )

-

-

1 .3

-

$ 1 ,2 5 0

-

-

-

_

-

-

AND

UNDER

.............................

(2 .0 )
-

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

............................

-

$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

.............................

$ 1 ,7 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

.............................

_

-

5 .0

7 .7

3 .7

-

_

_

$ 1 ,8 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

.............................

3. 8

7 .6

4 .4

(2 .2 )

$ 1 .8 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 0 0

.............................

-

-

3 .5

7 .1

5 .5

1 .0

-

-

-

$ 1 ,6 0 0

$ 1 ,6 5 0

2 .7

7 .0

6 .1

2 .0

6 .9

7 .2

1 .6

-

-

(2 .6 )

5 .6

7 .9

2 .6

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 5 0

.............................

-

3 .3

6 .8

6 .3

1 .5

-

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0

. . . . . . ____

-

-

1 .9

5 .7

6 .3

3 .3

-

-

$ 2 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0

.............................

_

-

5 .3

7 .0

3 .7

_

-

$ 2 . 1 0 0 ......................... ...

-

(2 .2 )
-

4 .5
3 .9

7 .2

4 .1

( 2 . 3)

-

6 .8

4 .2

2 .7

-

-

2 .9

6 .6

5 .2

3 .3

-

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,1 0 0

AND

UNOER

$ 2 , 1 5 0 ......................... ' .

-

$2. 150

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 0 0

-

$ 2 ,0 5 0

.............................

-

$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,2 5 0

.............................

-

-

-

2 .9

6 .2

5 .1

3 .0

-

$ 2 ,2 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

_

-

_

2 .1

5 .0

5 .6

3 .7

(2 .0 )

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,3 5 0

.............................

-

-

-

1 .9

4 .6

6 .2

3 .7

$ 2 ,3 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

~

-

1 .1

4 .0

6 .1

3 .7

1 .0

$2, 400

AND

UNOER

$ 2 ,4 5 0

.............................

-

( 1 .8 )

3 .6

5 .8

3 .5

1 .0

$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,5 0 0

.............................

5 .7

4 .5

1 .0

$ 2 ,3 0 0

_

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,7 0 0

............................

$ 2 ,7 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,8 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,8 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,9 0 0

.............................

-

$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,0 0 0

.............................

.............................

.............................

-

-

_

-

-

$ 2 ,5 0 0

$ 2 ,6 0 0

3 .2
4 .8

9 .9

9 .1

4 .9

-

-

-

3 .0

7 .9

8 .7

7 .8

-

-

-

2 .0
(1 .9 )

6 .9

9 .6

4 .8

9 .3
8 .7

*

4 .1

8 .0

7 .9

-

-

-

_

_

2 .4

8 .4

$ 3 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0

5 .6

6 .5

$ 3 .1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

6 .9

$ 3 ,3 0 0

.............................

-

1 .2

5 .1

$ 3 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

-

AND

UNDER
UNDER

-

4 .9

AND

-

1 .6

$ 3 ,2 0 0

-

-

-

-

(1 .6 )

2 .7

6 .3

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,5 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .6

6 .5

$ 3 ,5 0 0

$ 3 ,6 0 0

.............................

$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

7 .1

AND

UNDER

-

-

-

-

-

_

1 .7

3 .9

$ 3 ,6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,7 0 0

.................. ...

-

1 .8

4 .1

UNDER

$ 3 ,8 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

AND

-

-

$ 3 .7 0 0

-

$ 3 ,8 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 3 ,9 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

(1 .6 )
-

3 .3
1 .8

$3. 900

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,0 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .6

$4, 000

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

2 .1

$ 4 ,2 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .3

-

-

-

-

3 .9

$ 4 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 4 ,2 0 0

AN D

OVER

1 0 0 .0

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

1

OF

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

...........................................

SALARY

.................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 5 ,8 9 2

3 2 ,7 8 4

9 2 ,3 4 0

$ 1 ,2 1 8

$ 1 ,3 5 2

$1. 558

F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , see t a b l e A - 1 i n a p p e n d i x A .

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

125, 903

8 9 ,0 9 4

4 6 ,2 3 5

1 7 ,9 3 3

4 ,7 0 4

$1. 839

$ 2 .1 3 5

$ 2 ,4 4 8

$ 2 ,7 5 0

$ 3 ,1 7 2

t h e s e i n t e r v a l s h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d a n d ar e s h o w n i n t h e i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r b e l o w t h e
e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n i n g a t l ea st 1 p e r c e n t . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e e m ­

N O T E : T o a v o id s h o w in g sm all p r o p o r t i o n s o f e m p lo y e e s sca tte red at o r nea r

p l o y e e s a r e s h o w n i n p a r e n t h e s e s . B e c au s e o f r o u n d i n g , s u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y

th e e x tr e m e s o f th e d is t r ib u t io n s f o r s om e o c c u p a ti o n s . T h e percen tage s o f e m p lo y e e s in




n o t e q u a l 100.

23

Ta ble 5. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Pe rc ent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected te c h n ic a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary. U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 19 7 7 )

E n g in eering te c h n ic ia n s
1
$450

AND

UNDER

AND

UNDER

$500

...........................................

II

IV

-

$ 4 7 5 .............................

$475

III

-

_

tracers

V
_

$500

AND

UNDER

$525

.............................

-

-

AND

UNDER

$550

...........................................

(0 .3 )

$550

AND

UNDER

$575

..........................................

3 .8

-

AND

UNDER

$600

...........................................

1 .3

$600

AN0

UNDER

$625

................................

2 .0

-

$625

AND

UNDER

$650

...........................................

6 .3

-

-

$575

_

-

(0 .7 )

-

_

2 .5

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

2 .7

_

III

-

(2 .0 )

2 .2

“

-

-

-

_

-

2 .3

$650

AND

UNDER

$675

............................. ...

5 .0

1 .2

AND

UNDER

$700

.............................

5 .2

2 .7

$700

AND

UNDER

$725

...........................................

3 .4
3 .3

-

4 .5

“

4 .8
9 .0

$675

3 .9

-

5 .0

-

6 .1

5 .5

(2 .8 )

-

5 .8

5 .1
5 .3

1 .1

-

1 .8

-

5 .8

-

-

4 .7

2 .8

$725

AND

UNDER

$750

...........................................

7 .6

3 .0

-

$750

AND

UNDER

$775

...........................................

1 1 .7

4 .5

( 1 .3 )

~

-

3 .9

$775

AND

UNOER

$800

................................ ...

7 .0

5 .6

2 .0

$800

AND

UNDER

$825

..........................................

5 .6

4 .8

2 .2

_

$825

AND

UNDER

$850

.............................

6 .4

5 .2

3 .2

-

$850

AND

UNDER

$875

...........................................

5 .3

5 .9

3 .2

$875

AND

UNDER

$900

............... ...........................

4 .7

5 .4

3 .4

*

$900

AND

UNDER

$925

...........................................

4 . 5

7 .3

3 .9

(2 .3 )

-

$925

AND

UNDER

$950

...........................................

2. 1

4 .5

3 .8

1 .2

-

$950

AND

UNDER

$975

...........................................

2. 5

6 .9

4 .6

1 .3

$975

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

ANO

II

0 .2

5 .3

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0

1

1 .3

-

$525

D ra ft e rs

D ra ft e r-

M o n t h l y salary

-

*

3 .7

6 .8

2 .1

-

4 .3

5 .1

2 .8

-

5 .0

6 .3

3 .4

-

2 .1

-

6 .4

4 .3

' -

9 .2

4 .2

3 .6

6 .3

4 .1

4 .8

1 .1

(3 .2 )

5 .1

3 .3

4 .2

1 .1

2 .5

4 .4

6 .0

1 .4

1 .6

4 .5

5 .0

1 .7

(0 .7 )

.7

2 .2

5 .9

2 .2

$ 1 ,0 5 0

UNDER

. . . . . . . . .

3 .2

9 .1

9 .6

5 .3

1 .3

1 .1

3 .9

9 .9

5 .9

1 .9

............... ... .................

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

.............................

3. 3

8 .7

8 .2

2 .7

4 .0

8 .1

$ 1 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0

.............................

2 .4

5 .5

1 0 .9

8. 1

2 .8

1 .1

4 .1

6 .6

7 .1

$ 1 ,1 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 0 0

.............................

1 .5

3 .7

9 .8

9 .4

4 .4

1 .1

2 .3

6 .9

8 .3

$ 1 ,2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

.............................

(2 .1 )

3 .5

7 .9

1 0 .7

5 .7

(0 .7 )

3 .1

5 .1

7 .4

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

7 .4

$ 1 ,0 5 0

6 .4

-

1 .6

9 .2

1 0 .2

$ 1 ,3 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

.............................

-

1 .2

4 .1

1 2 .0

$ 1 ,3 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

1 .0

3 .7

8. 7

1 0 .9

-

$ 1 ,4 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

.............................

(0 .6 1

1 .5

6 .7

1 1 .3

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

.............................

1 .0

6 .3

9 .9

-

( 1 .4 )
-

3 .7

$ 1 ,2 5 0

_

6 .7

-

1 .0

4 .7

9.8

-

3 .3

8 .2

-

(2 .8 )
-

2 .0

6 .3

1 .5

5 .0

8 .5

-

-

1 .5

4 .4

2 .9

5 .3

-

5 .7

-

(2 .2 )
-

2 .7

1 .3
( 1 .9 )

5 .2

-

-

$ 1 ,5 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

.............................

$ 1 ,5 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 0 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,6 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 5 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,6 5 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,7 0 0

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

.............................

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

.............................

_

-

-

-

2 .2

$ 1 ,8 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

.............................

-

-

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 0 0

.............................

-

-

-

$ 1 ,8 5 0

-

2 .0
(1 .8 )

$ 1 ,9 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,9 5 0

. . . . . . . . .

$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 0 0

.............................

$ 2 ,0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0

.............................

-

_

-

-

-

-

$ 2 ,0 5 0

A NO

OVER

................................... ....................

-

-

-

-

~

-

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

.........................................................................

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

..........................................

SALARY

................................

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

7 .9

2 .5
1 .7
1 .6

-

_

-

-

1 .5
1 .4
1 .0

.9

*

“

1 .1

_

-

1 .0

-

-

“

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

3 . 142

1 5 ,0 3 3

2 5 ,0 5 6

2 8 ,4 6 0

1 8 ,3 2 7

4 ,0 9 0

1 8 ,1 4 0

3 1 ,4 1 8

2 9 ,5 6 8

$811

$946

$ 1 ,0 9 6

$ 1 ,2 6 8

$ 1 ,4 3 6

$768

$863

$ 1 ,0 6 9

$ 1 ,3 1 9

See f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




5 .5

4 .0

-

1 0 0 .0

6 .4

24

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support
occupations—Continued
(Pe rc ent d is t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected te ch nic al s u p p o r t o c c u p a tio n s b y m o n t h l y salary, U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s k a and
H a w a ii,1 M a rc h 1977)

C o m p u t e r op e ra to rs
M o n t h l y s al ar y
1
UNDER
$450
$475

$450
AND

II

III

IV

V

VI

l . 8

_

_

_

-

_

....................................

1 .1

0 .7

-

-

....................................

1 .6

1 .3

*

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

..................................................................

UNDER

$475

ANO

UNDER

$500

$500

AND

UNDER

$525

....................................

6 .2

1 .5

$525

AND

UNDER

$550

....................................

6 .4

.8

$550

AND

UNDER

$575

....................................

8. 7

2 .9

(1 .5 )

$575

AND

UNDER

$600

......................... ...

7 .5

3 .4

1 .2

$600

AND

UNDER

$625

....................................

1 2 .6

4 .6

2 .2

$625

-

*

“

-

-

-

A N D -U N D E R

$650

....................................

8. 2

4 .6

1 .9

(1 .4 )

-

$650

ANO

UNDER

$675

...................................

1 0 .7

8 .5

3 .8

1 .2

-

-

$675

AND

UNDER

$700

....................................

7 .4

5 .6

5 .1

1 .1

$700

AND

UNDER

$725

....................................

5 .0

7 .0

5 .4

1 .4

-

-

AND

UNDER

$725

-

-

$750

....................................

2 .9

4 .7

6 .0

1 .6

$750

AND

UNDER

$775

...................................

4 .2

7 .6

5 .4

2 .4

-

$775

AND

UNDER

$800

....................................

1 .8

5 .2

5 .8

2 .0

( 1 .0 )

....................................

AND

UNDER

$825

1 .6

4 . 8

4 .9

AND

UNDER

$850

....................................

1 .9

4 .7

6 .0

3 .6

2 .8

-

$850

AND

UNDER

$875

....................................

1. 1

4 . 5

7 .0

4 .1

1 .6

3 .3

$875

AND

UNDER

$900

............................

1 .0

3 .6

4 .0

3 .7

1 .0

.2

$900

AND

UNDER

$925

....................................

.9

3 .5

4 .9

4 .7

2 .9

1 .6

$925

AND

UNDER

$950

....................................

1. 3

3 .7

4 .3

5 .6

4 .3

.8

$950

AND

UNDER

$975

....................................

1 .4

3 .0

4 .6

5 .5

4 .8

. 3

$975

ANO

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

.7

2 .9

3 .8

6 .7

4 .6

1 .6

4 .3

5 .5

8 .4

7 .8

.............................

$ 1 ,0 5 0

......................

1 .6

_

$800
$825

$ 1 ,0 0 0

2 .8

-

1 .0
.2

$ 1 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 0 0

.....................

1 .0

2 .0

3 .9

7 .8

8 .7

1 .0

$ 1 ,1 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,1 5 0

......................

1 .6

3 .3

6 .9

8 .0

3 .6

$ 1 ,1 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 0 0

......................

(1 .3 )
-

.6

3 .1

6 .1

8. 1

$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

......................

1 .7

2 .2

4 .8

9 .0

9 .3
5 .7

-

$ 1 ,2 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0

(0 .9 )

1 .5

4 .3

8 .5

$ 1 ,3 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

......................

-

1 .1

4 .3

6 .3

$ 1 ,3 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 0 0

......................

-

-

3 .3

4.4

$ 1 ,4 0 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

......................

-

-

(1 .6 )
-

1 .7

3 .6

7 .4

$ 1 ,4 5 0

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 0 0

......................

-

-

1 .1

2 .6

6 .5

.....................

9 .8
7 .7
1 5 .1

$ 1 ,5 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0

. . . . . . .

-

_

_

1 .2

5 .8

$ 1 ,5 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 0 0

. . . . . . .

~

-

-

1 .0

1 .0

7 .2

$ 1 ,6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,6 5 0

......................

-

-

2 .3

2. 3

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 0 0

.....................

-

-

-

(1 .6 )
-

.6

4. 8

$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,7 5 0

......................

-

“

-

-

.4

1 .6

$ 1 ,7 5 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0

......................

-

_

_

-

1 .3

1 .6

$ 1 ,8 5 0

......................

-

-

-

~

( 1 .3 )

1 .8

.................................................

-

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,8 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,8 5 0

ANO

OVER

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

........................................................ ...

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

....................................

SALARY

.........................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 .2
100. 0

4 ,8 9 0

8 ,8 8 9

2 5 ,6 3 6

1 6 ,2 5 1

3 ,7 7 5

1 ,0 0 8

$665

$789

$877

$ 1 ,0 4 6

$ 1 ,1 7 5

$1 , 3 6 9

1 F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , see t a b l e A - 1 i n a p p e n d i x A .

h a ve b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d a n d ar e s h o w n i n t h e i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r

N O T E : T o a v o id sh o w in g sm all p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s

pe rcentages re pre se nting these E m plo y ees are s h o w n in pare n­

scatte red a t o r near th e ext re m e s o f th e d is t r ib u t io n s f o r som e

theses. B ec a u se o f r o u n d i n g , s u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t

o c c u p a tio n s , th e percen tage s o f e m p lo ye e s in these intervals

equal 100.

b e l o w t h e e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n i n g a t l ea st 1 p e r c e n t . T h e




25

Ta b le 6. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Pe rc ent d is t r i b u t i o n o f e m p lo y e e s in selected clerical o c cu p a ti o n s , b y m o n t h l y salary, U n ite d States e x c e p t A la s ka an d H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1 977)

Clerks, a c c o u n ti n g

Clerks, file

K e y p u n c h op e ra to rs

M o n t h l y s a la r y

M e ss en ge rs
1

UNDER

*375

.........................................................................

*375

AND

UNDER

*400

...........................................

II

_

1
_

II

III

1

II

_

_

_

.

4 .0

-

1 .0

-

-

(1 .2 )

0 .5

*400

AND

UNDER

*425

............... ...

1 1 .3 1

_

8 .4

4 .3

0 .3

0 .5

*425

AND

UNDER

*450

..........................................

2 .5

-

1 6 .3

5 .7

1 .2

1 .2

*450

AND

UNDER

*475

...................... . ................

3 .4

-

1 4 .6

9 .1

1 .8

2 .1

-

_

*475

ANO

UNDER

*500

..........................................

5 .3

-

1 3 .4

1 3 .9

2 .5

3 .3

(1 .4 )

1 0 .5

(1 .5 1

1 2 .4

4 .0
5 .4
7 .6

*500

AND

UNDER

*525

..........................................

6 .9

1 3 .9

4 .4

6 .9

1 .4

1 0 .2

*525

AND

UNDER

*550

...........................................

5 .8

1 .3

7 .0

B .l

4 .0

7 .3

2 .4

9 .7

*550

AND

UNOER

*575

..........................................

7 .5

2 .1

7 .1

S .5

3 .7

1 0 .8

3 .5

8 .5

*575

AND

UNDER

*600

................................

7 .1

2 .6

5 .4

5 .9

5 .2

8 .2

4 .2

6 .5

*600

AND

UNDER

*6 2 5

..........................................

7. 1

3 .7

2 .5

5 .4

4 .9

7 .5

5 .6

4 .9

*6 2 5

AND

UNOER

*650

...........................................

5 .2

4 .0

2 .2

5 .2

8. 8

6 .8

6 .8

5 .2

*650

AND

UNDER

*675

..........................................

7 .0

5 .9

1 .2

4 .8

6 .7

7 .9

6 .8

3 .7

*675

AND

UNDER

*700

..........................................

5 .1

5 .5

(4 .9 )

3 .2

5. 6

5 .7

7 .1

3 .3

AND

UNDER

6 .2

2 .1

*725

......................... ...

4 .5

5 .3

-

2 .7

6 .7

4 .7

*725

AND

UNDER

*750

...........................................

3 .8

5 .3

-

1 .5

3. 3

3 .7

5 .9

1 .8

*750

AND

UNDER

*775

..........................................

3 .7

5 .1

1 .4

2. 9

3 .4

6 .2

2 .5

*775

AND

UNDER

*800

...........................................

2 .9

4 .8

1 .6

3 .1

2 .6

5 .2

1 .5

*800

AND

UNDER

*825

...........................................

2 .0

4 .0

-

1 .8

2 .8

1 .9

4 .3

1 .5

*825

AND

UNDER

*8 5 0

2 .2

2 .3

4 .9

1 .2

-

1 .2

3 .8

1 .6

3 .5

1 .0

1 .0

2 . 1

1 .4

3 .4

.7

2 .7

1 .8

2 .3

1 .2

*700

2 .1

3 .9

*850

AND

UNDER

*875

...........................................

1 .8

4 .1

*875

AND

UNDER

*900

...........................................

............... ...

2 .1

3 .0

*900

AND

UNDER

*925

...........................................

1 .9

2 .9

*925

AND

UNOER

*950

...........................................

2 .3

*950

AND

UNDER

*975

............................. ...

2 .0

*975

AND

UNDER

*1 ,0 0 0

....................................

.9

_

.8

3 .7

-

1 .3

2. 4

1 .2

2 .0

3 .2

-

.3

1 .7

1 .2

2 .6

1 .3

1 .3

2 .7

-

.4

2. 3

.4

1 .3

(3 .6 )

.3

*1 .0 5 0

.............................

1 .4

4 .1

_

1 .7

2. 6

3 .0

_

*1 .0 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .1 0 0

.............................

1 .4

3 .4

1 .3

3 .4

-

AND

UNDER

*1 ,1 5 0

............................

3 .4

-

2 .4

*1 .1 0 0

3. 7

1 .2

2 .7

-

*1 .0 0 0

AN D

UNDER

1 .6

*1 .1 5 0

ANO

UNDER

*1 .2 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

(2 .9 )
-

4 .0

-

(2 .4 )
-

3 .9

(1 .5 )

1 .3

*1 .2 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,2 5 0

. . . . . . . . .

-

4 .4

-

-

1. 0

-

L .2

-

*1 .2 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,3 0 0

.............................

_

1 .7

_

( 1 . 1)

_

(1 .5 )

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

UNDER

*1 .3 5 0

............................

*1 .3 5 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,4 3 0

.............................

-

1 .1

-

*1 .4 0 0

AND

O V E R ........................................................

-

(1 .6 )

-

TOTAL

.........................................................................

*1 .3 0 0

AND

NUM8ER
AVERAGE

OF

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

.......................................

SALARY

. . . . . . . . .

-

1 .5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

9 6 .1 8 1

8 2 ,4 1 9

2 9 ,0 7 3

1 6 .8 3 4

5 ,4 4 6

6 3 ,3 2 5

4 6 ,5 2 3

2 1 ,9 4 9

*678

*866

*506

*5 9 7

*7 5 7

*670

*778

*597

See f o o t n o t e a t e n d o f t a b l e .




-

26

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f em ployees in selected clerical occupations, b y m o n th ly salary, U n ited States except Alaska and H a w a ii,1 March 1977)

Steno g-

1

II

III

IV

raphers,

g e n e r al

V

Sten og -

r a p h e rs ,

Secretaries
M o n t h l y salary

senio r

T y p is ts
1

II

*375

AND

UNDER

*400

.................. ... ....................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0 .8

-

*400

AND

UNDER

*425

...........................................

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

1 .2

-

4 .0

0 .2

-

-

*425

AND

UNDER

*450

.............................

*450

AND

UNDER

*4 7 5

...........................................

AND

UNDER

*500

...........................................

-

-

(1 .1 )

*4 7 5

1 .4

UNDER

*525

1 .8

_

_

AND

UNDER

*550

...........................................

2 .2

( 1 .9 )

-

*550

AND

UNDER

*575

...........................................

2 .9

1 .2

*575

AND

UNDER

*6 0 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 .6

2 .3

AND

..........................................

• -

-

-

-

5 .8

1 .2

1 1 .2

2 .4

*525

*500

(1 .4 )

2 .5

3 .0
3 .9

1 0 .6

4 .0

( 1 .4 )

8 .3

5 .6

~

4 .8

1 .5

9 .9

7 .4

*

6 .2

1 .9

8 .2

7 .3

8 .0

7 .2

-

( 1 .5 )

*6 0 0

AND

UNDER

$625

...........................................

4 .9

3 .1

1 .1

-

-

6 .3

3 .0

*625

AND

UNDER

*6 5 0

................................

4 .9

3 .7

(2 .5 )

(1 .2 )

6 .0

3 .1

5 .7

*650

AND

UNDER

*675

.............................

6 .5

5 .0

1 .1
2 .8

2 .0

1 .7

7 .0

5 .6

5 .1

7 .2

5 .6

4 .5

3 .6

5 .6

$675

AND

UNDER

$700

..........................................

6 .9

4 .5

2 .7

1 .0

.7

*700

AND

UNDER

*725

..........................................

6 .1

5 .7

3 .0

«f.5

.8

4 .8

7 .3

6 .6

3 .3

*725

AND

UNDER

*750

..........................................

6 .2

5 .7

3 .8

2 .4

.7

4 .5

6 .1

2 .0

5 .0

*750

AND

UNDER

*775

...........................................

6 .3

6 .2

4 .5

2 .4

1 .7

4 .1

6 .0

1 .6

4 .2

5 .3

*775

AND

UNDER

*800

............... ..........................

5 .6

5 .9

5 .0

2 .9

1 .7

3 .7

5 .3

1 .5

3 .7

6 .0

3 .5

1 .9

3 .6

5 .5

1 .6

2 .9

6 . 1

6 .4

*825

AND

UNDER

*850

..........................................

5 .0

6 .1

6 .1

4 .7

4 .6

6 .0

1 .5

3 .7

*850

AND

UNDER

(8 7 5

..........................................

4 . 5

5 .5

5 .9

4 .9

2 .9

2 .8

4 .3

1 .1

*875

AND

UNDER

(9 0 0

...........................................

2 .9

4 .8

5 .5

4 .2

2 .7

4 .2

3 .5

(5 .1 )

2 .1
3 .7

(9 0 0

AND

UNDER

*925

..........................................

2 .8

4 .5

5 .5 *

4 .4

3 .3

3 .2

3 .2

-

$925

AND

UNDER

*9 5 0

..........................................

2 .8

3 .1

4 .7

4 .6

2 .9

2 .3

4 .7

2 .2

2 .8

4 .6

4 .3

5 .2

1 .7

4 .0

1 .9

2 .9

4 .7

4 .6

2 .8

1 .3

3 .0

2 .9

5 .1

7 .0

8 .8

8 .5

2 .4

6 .1

*800

ANO

UNDER

*825

..........................................

*950

AND

UNDER

*975

(9 7 5

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

*1 .0 0 0

AND

UNDER

..........................................
......................

*1 .0 5 0

.............................

2 .5

$ 1 ,0 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .1 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

2 .7

3 .8

6 .0

8. 1

8 .2

2 .7

AND

UNDER

*1 .1 5 0

..................

3 .0

3 .2

4 .6

7 .1

7 .4

4 .3

4 .0

*1 .1 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 ,2 0 0

.............................

1 .9

2 .4

4 .0

6 .6

8 .3

1 .9

AN D

UNDER

$ 1 ,2 5 0

.............................

( 1 .2 1

1 .5

3 .2

4 .6

6 .3

(1 .4 )

AND

UNDER

$1 , 3 0 0

.............................

-

(2 .6 )

*1 .3 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,3 5 0

.............................

UNDER

*1 .4 0 0

-

1 .5
2 .3

2 .2

*1 ,2 5 0

-

2 .5

*1 .2 0 0

2 .1
1 .0

-

3 .8

$ 1 ,1 0 0

1 .8
1 .9

-

*1 .3 5 0

AND

3 .7

6 .2

-

1 .5

-

3 .1

5 .4

-

(0 .5 )

-

-

-

”

“

~

-

-

4 .2

-

1 .8

4 .3

-

“

1. 1

2 .4

-

-

1 .1

1 .3

-

-

-

-

-

(1 .1 )

l .4

-

-

-

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,4 5 0

.............................

-

AND

UNDER

(1 .5 0 0

. . . . . . . . .

*

*1 .5 0 0

AN D

UNDER

*1 ,5 5 0

. . . . . . . . .

_

*1 .5 5 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .6 0 0

.............................

*1 .6 0 0

AND

UNDER

*1 .6 5 0

.............................
. . . . . . . . .

-

“

$ 1 ,6 5 0

AN D

UNDER

AND

O V E R .................................................

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

*1 ,7 0 0

EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY

-

-

-

-

.5
“

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

..........................................

4 1 .7 0 2

7 8 ,7 2 6

8 5 .4 8 0

................................

*777

$842

*930

SALARY

1 .9

.8

1 0 0 .0

.........................................................................

-

1 .8
(2 .6 )
-

*1 .4 0 0
*1 .4 5 0

* 1 ,7 0 0

( 1 .9 )

2 .2

-

............................

1 .5

2 .0

“

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 4 ,0 9 7

1 9 ,5 8 9

3 3 .2 2 8

3 8 ,1 1 9

4 8 ,6 5 1

3 4 ,8 7 4

*1 .0 1 2

$ 1 .1 1 7

*7 5 7

$848

$600

*715

1 0 0 .0

1 F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , see t a b l e A - 1 i n a p p e n d i x A .

intervals have been a c c u m u la te d an d are s h o w n in th e inte rv al abo ve o r b e lo w th e e x tr e m e

N O T E : T o av o id s h o w in g small p r o p o r t i o n s o f e m p lo ye e s sca tte red at o r near th e

s h o w n i n p a r e n t h e s e s . B e c au s e o f r o u n d i n g , s u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 .

i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n i n g a t l ea st 1 p e r c e n t . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e e m p l o y e e s are
extr e m e s o f th e d i s t r ib u tio n s f o r s om e o c c u p a ti o n s , th e percentages o f e m p lo ye e s in these




27

Table 7. Occupational em ploym ent distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 by industry division,2 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1977)

Occupation

Mining

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

Public3
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected4
services

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACCOUNTANTS .........................................................................
AUDITORS .................................................................................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS ..........................................................
ATTORNEYS ..............................................................................
BUYERS.....................................................................................
JOB ANALYSTS ......................................................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL .............................................
CHEMISTS .................................................................................
ENGINEERS ..............................................................................

l 5)
(5 )
4
( 5)
(5 )
( 5)
(5 )
15)
( 5)

1 5)
(5 )
(5 )
( 5)
(5 )
( 5)
(5 )
(5 )
4

o4
39
68
30
d3
65
70
86
69

13
16
7
19
6
8
o
(5 )
12

5
( 5)
6
(5 )
( 5)
(5)
( 5)
( 5)
(5 )

(51
7
(5 )
(5 )
( 5)

(5 )
( 5)
(5 )

(5 )
7
( 5)

77
64
40

7
11
11

15 )
( 5)
(5 )
(5 )
1 5)
15)
(5 )

(5 )
(5 )
( 5)
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

42
20
40
34
52
47
37

14
6
10
13
10
21
9

5
( 5)
(5 )

8
32
6
42
(5 )
21
10
( 5)
(5 )

(5 )
(51
5
(5 1
(51
4
(51
7
13

( 5)
(5 )
7

(5 )
(5 )
6

(5 )
(5 )
25

14
15
10

9
4
9
4
6
4
( 5)

13
5
8
5
4
(5 )
4

17
63
21
38
22
19
42

(51
(5 )
9
5
5
4
4

-

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS ...........................................
DRAFTERS.................................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS .......................................................
CLER ICAL
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING ........................................................
CLERKS, FIL E .......................................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS .......................................................
MESSENGERS ............................................................................
SECRETARIES .........................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS ....................................................................
TYPISTS.....................................................................................
1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.

4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; com­
puter and data processing services; management, consulting and public relations service*; and
Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sani­
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations.
5 Less than 4 percent.

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.

3
tary services.




28

Ta ble 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(R elative salary levels fo r selected professional, adm inistrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 b y industry division,2 Un ited States except Alaska and Haw aii, March 1977)

(Average salary for each occupation in all industries - 100)

Occupation

Mining

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

Public3
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected4
services

PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
ACC CUNT ANTS.........................................................................
AUDITORS.............................. ..................................................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS..........................................................
ATTORNEYS..............................................................................
BUYERS.....................................................................................
JOB ANALYSTS......................................................................
DIRECTORS of p e r s o n n e l .............................................
CH^MISTS................................................................................
ENGINEERS..............................................................................

10U
(5 )
112
108
107
(5 )
117
106
104

99
95
( 5)
(5 )
100
(51
( 5)

105
106
103
99
108
112
104
( 5)
104

97
105
(5 )
(5 )
100
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

95
94
99
58
109
( 5)
100
( 51

54
92
97
94
(5 )
85
(5 )
( 5)

100

100
105
100
107
100
102
100
100
99

(5 1

(5 )

108
102
100
94
103
( 5)
91
99

110
109
103

( 5)
107
(5 )

98
98
105

114
108
115

<5 )

92
100

(5 J
( 5)
95

59
84
90

103
95
93

124
113
112
100
105
103
109

97
106
102
94
94
96
98

102
109
104
104
103
101
107

124
141
123
129
113
114
124

94
99
97
101
98
103
106

88
106
95
94
89
90
103

85
91
89
87
90
83
88

92
109
89
98
101
91
100

95

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS...........................................
DRAFTERS................................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS.......................................................
CLERICAL
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING .....................................................
CLERKS, F IL E ......................................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERATORS.......................................................
MESSENGERS...........................................................................
SECRETARIES.........................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS....................................................................
TYPISTS...................................................................................

1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In computing relative
salary levels for each occupation by industry division, the total employment in each work
level in all industries surveyed was used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the
effect of differences in the proportion of employment in various work levels within each
occupation.
2 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and
sanitary services.




4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially oper­
ated research, development and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collec­
tion agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public
relations services; and noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations.
5 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation
of data.

29

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by indsutry division
(Average standard weekly hours1 for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations2 by industry division,3 United States except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1977)

Occupation

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected5
services

(6 )
(6 )

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
16)
3 8 .0
16)
16)
16)

3 9 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 $ .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
16)
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
( 6)
(6 )
4 0 .0
( 6)
(6 )
(6 )

39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
40. 0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
40. 0
16)
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
40. 0
(6 )
(6 )
39. 5
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
(6 I

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
39. 5
16)

Public4
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

AUOITORS..............................................................................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS........................................................
ATTORNEYS............................................................................
BUYER S ............................................................ ......................
JOB ANALYSTS....................................................................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL...........................................
CHEMISTS....................................................... ......................
ENGINEERS............................................................................

3 9 -0 *
(6 )
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
( 6)
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

o
o

AND ADMINISTRATIVE

a c c o u n t a n t s .......................................................................

o
o

p r o f e s s io n a l

Mining

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
4 0 .0
40. 0
39. 5

o
o

ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS.........................................
DR ART ERS..............................................................................
COMPUTER OPERATORS.....................................................

(6 )

(6 )

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

16)
3 9 .5
39. 5

16)
(6 )
3 9 .5

3 6 .5
3 7 .0
3 8 .0

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
37. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
39. 5

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

40. 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .0
39i, 5
39 .0

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 7 .5

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

CLERICAL
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING.......................................... ..........
CLERKS, FIL E ....................................................................
KEYPUNCH OPERA 1U K i.....................................................
MESSENGERS.........................................................................
SECRETARIES.......................................................................
STENOGRAPHERS..................................................................
T Y PIST S.................................................................................

1 Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their regular
straight-time salary. If standard hours were not available, the standard hours applicable for a
majority of the office work force in the establishment were used. The average for each job
category was rounded to the nearest half hour.
2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
4 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and
sanitary services.




Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially oper­
ated research, development and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collec­
tion agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public
relations services; and noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations.
6 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation
of data.

30

A ppendix A.

Scope and M ethod of S urvey
Employees were classified according to occupation and lev­
el, with the assistance of company officials, on the basis of
the BLS job definitions which appear in appendix C. In
comparing actual duties and responsibilities of employees
with those enumerated in the survey definitions, extensive
use was made of company occupational descriptions, organ­
ization charts, and other personnel records.

Scope of survey

The survey relates to establishments in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, in the following industires: Mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation,
communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services (except
the U.S. Postal Service); wholesale trade; retail trade; fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate; and selected services. Ex­
cluded are establishments employing fewer than the mini­
mum number of workers, as indicated for each industry
division in table A-l, at the time of reference of the uni­
verse data (March 1975). The variable minimum employ­
ment size, which was first adopted in the 1966 survey,
more nearly equalizes the white-collar employment of es­
tablishments among the various industry divisions. Estab­
lishments within the scope of the survey at the time of
universe preparation are included even if they employed
fewer than the specified minimum number of workers when
visited for the survey. However, establishments found to be
outside of the industrial scope of the survey during the visit
are excluded.
The estimated number of establishments and the total
employment within the scope of this survey, and within the
sample actually studied, are shown for each major industry
division in table A-l. These estimates also are shown sepa­
rately for establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
and for those located in Standard Metropolitan Statistical
Areas (SMSA’s).1

Sampling and estimating procedures

All establishments within the scope of the survey were
stratified by major industry group and total employment
(size-class) and then arranged by geographic region. A na­
tionwide sample of approximately 4,060 establishments
(not necessarily companies) was systematically selected.3
Sampling rates varied by major industry group and by sizeclass. Industries which employed more of the employees in
the survey occupations were sampled more heavily and a
greater proportion of large than of small establishments was
selected. In combining the data, each establishment was
weighted according to the inverse of its probability of selec­
tion so that unbiased estimates of universe totals were gen­
erated. To illustrate, in strata where 1 establishment out of
4 was selected, each sample establishment was given a
weight of 4, thus representing itself plus three others. If data
were not provided by an original sample member, weights
of sample establishments randomly selected from respond­
ing sample establishments within the same stratum were
adjusted to account for the missing establishment. No ad­
justment was made for establishments which were out of
business or out of scope of the survey at the time of data
collection. In the March 1977 survey, data were not avail­
able from about 10 percent of the sample members (repre­
senting 2,311,000 employees in the total universe); an addi­
tional 3 percent (representing 450,000 employees) were
either out of business or out of the scope of the survey.

Tim ing o f survey and method o f collection

Data collection was planned so that the data would re­
flect an average reference peirod of March 1977.1
2
Data were obtained by Bureau field economists who vis­
ited a nationwide sample of representative establishments
within the scope of the survey between January and May.
1The metropolitan area data relate to all 276 SMSA’s (within the
48 States surveyed) as revised through October 1975 by the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget. Earlier surveys represented
SMSA’s ranging in number from 188 for surveys before 1963 to 263
in the 1975 and 1976 surveys.
2 The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1967 through 1971 surveys had a June reference period for all
occupations. Before the 1967 study, the average reference period
was February for clerical and drafting jobs, and March for all other
occupations. Until 1963, reports listed “Winter” as the reference
period. From 1963 through 1966, the more specific designation
“February-March” was used.




Nature of data collected and reported

Reported salaries are standard salaries paid for standard
work schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding
3
A few o f the largest employers, together employing approxi­
mately 1,160,000 workers, gave data on a companywide basis.
These companies were eliminated from the universe to which the
procedure described applies. The sample count includes the estab­
lishments o f these companies within the scope o f the survey.
31

Table A -1 .

Num ber o f establishments and workers w ith in scope o f survey and num ber studied, by industry division

United States, March 1977
Within scope of survey2

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in estab­
lishments
in scope of
survey

Studied

Workers in
establishments
Number of
estab­
lishments

Workers in
establishments

Total

Professional,
adminis­
trative,
supervisory,
and
clerical3

Number of
estab­
lishments

35,719

21,178,053

8,821,128

4 10 0 -2 5 0

18,155

12,378,811

250
250

429
588

5 1 0 0 -2 5 0
100
250

Total

Professional,
adminis­
trative,
supervisory,
and
clerical3

3,547

6,847,481

3,086,243

3,893,886

1,799

4,031,583

1,456,667

305,390
243,392

94,485
87,151

86
77

94,158
66,395

27,043
35,084

3,726
3,616
2,887

2,603,734
777,252
2,552,964

1,297,069
422,523
828,320

487
214
326

1,165,850
59,058
727,317

616,259
35,742
252,197

100
100

4,968
1,350

1,864,827
451,683

1,818,059
379,635

405
153

528,959
174,161

521,410
141,841

—

28,189

17,553,863

7,977,947

2,980

6,319,598

2,945,955

4 1 00-250

12,782

9,504,018

3,330,247

1,399

3,632,457

1,361,780

250
250

218
528

153,514
194,219

57,443
78,011

42
63

48,678
50,062

14,851
31,770

5 1 0 0 -2 5 0
100
250

2,615
3,330
2,669

2,243,489
734,323
2,476,342

1,165,323
408,474
806,763

416
205
315

1,116,773
57,505
723,119

599,027
35,055
250,639

100
100

4,743
1,304

1,809,731
438,227

1,762,963
368,723

392
148

522,133
168,871

514,584
138,249

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more — All
industries.......................................................

-

1,026

6,510,497

2,894,282

732

4,976,801

2,269,881

M anufacturing................................................

-

536

3,891,832

1,460,861

415

3,064,484

1,151,592

United States — All
industries2 ..................................................
M anufacturing.....................................................
Nonmanufacturing:
M in in g ..............................................................
C o nstru ctio n ..................................................
Transportation, communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services .........................................................
Wholesale t r a d e .............................................
Retail t r a d e .....................................................
Finance, insurance, and
real estate
..................................................
Selected services6 .........................................
Metropolitan areas — All
industries7 ..................................................
M anufacturing.....................................................
Nonmanufacturing:
M in in g ..............................................................
Construction '..................................................
Transportation, communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services .........................................................
Wholesale t r a d e .............................................
Retail t r a d e .....................................................
Finance, insurance, and
real estate
..................................................
Selected services6 .........................................

-

1 A s d e f in e d in t h e 1 9 7 2 e d i t i o n o f t h e Standard Industrial Class­
ification Manual, U .S . O f f ic e o f M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t.
2 E s t a b lis h m e n t s
m in i m u m l i m i t a t i o n

s M in i m u m e m p lo y m e n t s iz e w a s 1 0 0 f o r r a il r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ;
lo c a l
and
s u b u rb a n
t r a n s it ;
deep
sea f o r e ig n
and
d o m e s t ic
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; c o m m u n ic a t io n s , e l e c t r ic , gas,
and
s a n it a r y
s e r v ic e s ;
and
p ip e lin e s
and
250
fo r
a ll
o th e r
t r a n s p o r t a t io n in d u s t r ie s . U .S . P o s ta l S e r v ic e is e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e
s u rv e y .

w ith
to ta l
e m p lo y m e n t
at o r above
th e
in d ic a t e d in t h e f i r s t c o l u m n ; e x c lu d e s A la s k a

a n d H a w a ii.
3 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t iv e , a d m in is t r a t iv e , p r o f e s s io n a l, s u p e r v is o r y ,
a n d c le r ic a l e m p lo y e e s , b u t e x c lu d e s t e c h n ic ia n s , d r a f t e r s , a n d s a le s
p e r s o n n e l.
4 M in i m u m e m p lo y m e n t s iz e w a s 1 0 0 f o r c h e m ic a l a n d a llie d
p r o d u c t s ; p e t r o le u m
r e f i n in g a n d r e la t e d in d u s t r ie s ; m a c h in e r y ,
e x c e p t e l e c t r ic a l; e le c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t , a n d s u p p lie s ;
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u ip m e n t ; a n d i n s t r u m e n t s a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s .
M in i m u m s iz e w a s 2 5 0 in a ll o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g in d u s t r ie s .




6 L i m i t e d t o e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v ic e s ; r e s e a r c h a n d
d e v e lo p m e n t a n d c o m m e r c ia l t e s t in g la b o r a t o r ie s ; a d v e r t is in g ; c r e d it
r e p o r t i n g a n d c o l l e c t i o n ; m a n a g e m e n t a n d p u b l i c r e la t io n s ; a n d
n o n c o m m e r c ia l r e s e a r c h o r g a n iz a t io n s .
’ S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s in t h e U n it e d S ta te s ,
e x c e p t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii, as r e v is e d t h r o u g h O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 b y t h e
U .S . O f f ic e o f M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t.

32

to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over­
time hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but costof-living payments and incentive earnings are included. Av­
erage salaries are for full-time employees for whom salary
data are available.
Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are sub­
ject to limitations which reflect the nature of the data col­
lected. Changes in average salaries reflect not only general
salary increases and merit or other increases given to indi­
viduals while in the same work level category, but they also
may reflect other factors such as employee turnover, expan­
sions or reductions in the work force, and changes in staff­
ing patterns within establishments with different salary lev­
els. For example, an expansion in force may increase the
proportion of employees at the minimum of the salary
range established for a work level, which would tend to
lower the average, whereas a reduction or a low turnover in
the work force may have the opposite effect. Similarly,
promotions of employees to higher work levels of profes­
sional and administrative occupations may affect the aver­
age of each level. The established salary ranges for such
occupations are relatively wide, and promoted employees,
who may have been paid the maximum of the salary scale
for the lower level, are likely to be replaced by less experi­
enced employees who may be paid the minimum. Occupa­
tions most likely to reflect such changes in the salary aver­
ages are the higher levels of professional and administrative
occupations and single-incumbent positions such as chief
accountant and director of personnel.4
Some companies had an established policy of not dis­
closing salary data for some of their employees. Often this
policy related to higher level positions because these em­
ployees were considered part of the management group or
were classified in categories which included only one em­
ployee. In nearly all instances, however, information was
provided on the number of such employees and the appro­
priate occupational classification. It was thus possible to
estimate the proportion of employees in each category for
whom salary data were not available. In all but 6 of the 78
occupational levels surveyed, the proportion of employees
for whom salary data were not available was less than 5 per­
cent.5
Comparisons between establishments that provided sala­
ry data for each specific occupational level and those that
did not, indicate that the two classes of establishments did
not differ materially in industries represented, employment,
or salary levels for other jobs in this series for which data
were available.
Occupational employment counts generated by the sur­
vey are estimates of the total for all establishments within

the scope of the survey and not just for the establishments
actually studied. An occupational employment estimate
was derived by multiplying the full-time employment in the
occupation in each sample establishment by the establish­
ment weight and then summing these results.
Employees whose salary data were not available were
not taken into account in the estimates. Also not taken into
account were the few instances in which salary data
were available but there was no satisfactory basis for classi­
fying the employees by work level. In addition, survey oc­
cupations were limited to employees meeting the specific
criteria in each survey definition and were not intended to
include all employees in each field of work.6 For these
reasons, and because of differences in occupational struc­
ture among establishments, estimates of occupational em­
ployment obtained from the sample of establishments stud­
ied indicate only the relative importance of the occupations
and levels as defined for the survey. These qualifications of
the employment estimates do not materially affect the ac­
curacy of the earnings data.
Wherever possible, data were collected for men and
women separately. For clerical occupations in which both
men and women are commonly employed, separate data by
sex are available from the Bureau’s area wage survey reports
compiled by metropolitan area. Occupations and work lev­
els in which women accounted for 5 percent or more of the
employment were distributed according to the proportion
of women employees as follows:
W om en (percent)

95 or m o re .....................

90-94 ...............................
85-89
80-84
55-59
45-49
40-44
35-39

30-34 ...............................
25-29 ...............................
20-24 ...............................
1 5 -1 9 ...............................

1 0 -1 4 ...............................

File clerks I, senior stenographers,
all levels of keypunch operators,
secretaries, and typists
Accounting clerks I, file clerks
II, and general stenographers
File clerks III
Accounting clerks II
Job analysts II
Messengers
Drafter-tracers
Buyers I, chemists I, and computer
operators II
Auditors I and job analysts III
Accountants I, engineering techni­
cians I, and computer operators I
Accountants II, chemists II, and
computer operators 1 1
1
Auditors II, attorneys I, job
analysts IV, and engineering tech­
nicians II
Accountants III, attorneys II,
buyers II, chemists III, computer
operators IV, and drafters I

6 Engineers, for example, are defined to classify employees en­
gaged in engineering work within a band o f eight levels, starting with
inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those with­
in certain fields o f specialization or in positions above those covered
by level VIII. In contrast, occupations such as chief accountants and
directors o f personnel are defined to include only those with respon­
sibility for a specified program and with duties and responsibilities
as indicated for each o f the more limited number o f work levels
selected for study.

4 These types o f occupations also may be subject to greater sam­
pling error, as explained in the paragraph headed “Estimates o f
sampling error.”
5 Those with 5 percent and over were: Chief accountants I, II,
and III- 7 , 8, and 6 percent, respectively; and directors o f personnel
II, III, and I V -9 , 7, and 12 percent, respectively.




...............................
...............................
...............................
...............................
...............................
...............................

O ccupation and level

33

W omen (percent) —
C o n tin u e d

5 - 9 ....................................

Estimates of sampling error

Occupation and level —
t C ontinued

The survey procedure yields estimates with widely vary­
ing sampling errors, depending on the frequency with which
the job occurs and the dispersion of salaries. For the 78
surveyed occupational work levels, relative sampling errors
of the average salaries were distributed as follows: 49 were
under 2 percent; 19 were 2 and under 4 percent; 7 were 4
and under 6 percent; and 3 were 6 percent and over.7 Sam­
pling errors measure the validity of the band within which
the true average is likely to fall. Thus, for an occupation
with a sample average monthly salary of $1,000 and sam­
pling error of 4 percent, the chances are 19 out of 20 that
the interval of $960 to $1040 covers the true average.

Accountants IV , auditors III,
attorneys III and IV, buyers III,
chemists IV , directors of personnel
I and II, engineers I, engineering
technicians III, drafters II, and
computer operators V and V I.

Conversion of salary rates

Salary data were collected from company records in
their most readily available form, i.e., weekly, biweekly,
semimonthly, monthly, or annually. For the initial tabula­
tions, the salary data were First converted to a weekly basis
for clerical and drafting occupations and to a monthly basis
for all others. The factors used to convert these data are as
follows:

Methods of com putation of annual percent increases

The percent increases for each occupation in text table 1
were obtained by adding the aggregate salaries for each level
in each of 2 successive years and dividing the later sum by
the earlier sum. The resultant relative, less 100, is the per­
cent increase. To eliminate the effects of year-to-year em­
ployment shifts, employment in the most recent year was
multiplied by the average salaries in both years. Changes in
the scope of the survey and in occupational definitions
were incorporated into the series as soon as two comparable
periods were available. Increases for each of the two broad
occupational groups (the professional, administrative, and
technical support group; and the clerical group) were ob­
tained by averaging the increases of the occupations within
the group. Increases for all survey occupations combined
were determined by ‘averaging the increases for the two
broad occupational groups. Annual increases were then
linked to obtain changes that have occurred since this series
was begun and to compute average annual rates of increase
for each occupation and group and for all occupations com­
bined.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group specified
in text table 2 and chart 1 were determined by adding
average salaries for all occupations in the group for 2 con­
secutive years, dividing the later sum by the earlier sum,
shifting the decimal two places to the right, and subtracting
100. Changes in the scope of the survey or in occupational
definitions were incorporated into the series as soon as
comparable data for 2 consecutive periods were available.
The 16-year trends in text table 2 were obtained by linking
changes for the individual periods.

Conversion factors

P a yro ll basis

To weekly
basis

Weekly ....................................
1.0000
B iw e e kly ..................................
.5000
Semimonthly ........................ .................. 4602
Monthly .................................. .................. 2301
Annual ....................................
.0192

T o m o n th ly
basis

4.3450
2.1725
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

All salaries were rounded to the nearest dollar. Average
monthly salaries in tables 1, 2, and 3 and annual salaries in
tables 1 and 2 for clerical and drafting occupations were
derived from average weekly salaries (to the nearest penny)
by multiplying the salaries by 4.345 and 52.14, respective­
ly, and rounding the results. To obtain annual salaries for
all other occupations in tables 1 and 2, average monthly
salaries (to the nearest penny) were multiplied by 12 and
rounded to the nearest dollar.

Method o f determ ining median and quartile values

Median and quartile values were derived from distribu­
tions of employees by salary using $1 class intervals. Week­
ly salary class intervals were used for drafting and clerical
occupations and monthly salary class intervals were used
for all other occupations. Weekly values were multiplied by
4.345 to obtain monthly values and by 52.14 to obtain
annual values. Annual values for other than drafting and
clerical occupations were obtained by multiplying monthly
values by 12.




7The 6-percent-and-over group included: Chief accountants
1 -1 0 .6 percent; directors o f personnel I I I —7.5 percent; and engi­
neering technicians 1 -7 .5 percent.

34

A ppendix B.

Survey C hanges in 1977
and Clerical Pav, March 1976. These test data provide a

Changes in survey scope

base for computing the 1976-77 changes in average salaries,
thereby permitting the trend series for the survey to be
continued.

At the request of the President’s agent, the survey was
expanded (1) to include a number of industries not current­
ly studied, and (2) to lower from 250 employees to 100 the
survey’s minimum establishment size requirement for six of
the manufacturing industries currently studied. (See listing
below.) This request was made as part of a continuing ef­
fort by the President’s agent to improve the design of the
survey and in response to recommendations from the Gen­
eral Accounting Office after its review of the survey pro­
cess.1
Data from a full-survey test of this scope expansion in
1976 are published as appendix E to BLS Bulletin 1931,

Changes in occupational coverage

A five-level keypunch supervisor job was dropped from
the survey.

Changes in occupational definitions

National Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical,

Exclusions of managerial positions from the job defini­
tions of chemists and engineers have been clarified. Evalua­
tion of survey data and collection experience reveals that
the clarified definitions had little effect on matches made in
the previous survey and did not adversely affect compari­
sons of data for trend purposes.

1Improvements Needed in the Survey o f Non-Federal Salaries
Used as a Basis for Adjusting Federal White-Collar Salaries, Report
B-167266 (General Accounting Office, 1973). Copies are available
for $1 each from the U.S. General Accounting Office, Room 4518,
441 G Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20548.

Table B-1.

Survey scope expansions, March 1977
Industry division

Minimum
employment

Current industries with lowered size cutoff

Added industries

C o nstru ctio n ................................................................
Pipe lin e s ...........................................................
Advertising ...................................................................
Consumer credit reporting agencies.
mercantile reporting agencies, and
adjustment and collection agencies...................
Computer and data processing services .................
Management, consulting, and public relations services...........................................................
Noncommercial educational, scientific,
and research organizations.................................

Chemicals and allied p ro d u c ts .................................
Petroleum refining and related industries..............
Machinery, except electrical ....................................
Electrical and electronic machinery,
equipment and supplies ......................................
Transportation equipm ent.........................................
Measuring, analyzing and controlling
instruments; photographic, medical
and optical goods; watches and
c lo c k s ........................................................................

250
250
250
100
100

100
100

100
100
100
100
100

100

100
100

1 I n c lu d e s a ll b u t c u r r e n t l y s u r v e y e d r a ilr o a d , lo c a l a n d s u b u r b a n
p a s s e n g e r,
deep
sea
w a te r
( fo r e ig n
and
d o m e s t ic )
and
a ir




Minimum
employment

Industry division

t r a n s p o r t a t io n
s u rv e y .

35

in d u s t r ie s .

U .S .

P o s ta l S e r v ic e is e x c lu d e d f r o m

th e

A ppendix C.

O ccupational Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist
its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels within occupations, work­
ers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from
establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupa­
tional wage rates representing comparable job content. To secure comparability of job
content, some occupations and work levels are defined to include only those workers meet­
ing specific criteria as to training, job functions, and responsibilities. Because of this empha­
sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
occupational definitions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establish­
ments or those prepared for other purposes. Also see note referring to the definitions for the
drafting and clerical occupations at the end of this appendix.

Accountants and Auditors
ACCOUNTANT

A d v is in g

o p e r a t in g

o ffic ia ls

o n

a c c o u n t in g

m a tte rs ;

and
R e c o m m e n d in g

Performs professional accounting work requiring knowl­
edge of the theory and practice of recording, classifying,
examining, and analyzing the data and records of financial
transactions. The work generally requires a bachelor’s de­
gree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent experi­
ence and education combined. Positions covered by this
definition are characterized by the inclusion of work that is
analytical, creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The
work draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the
fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and terminolo­
gy of accountancy, and often entails some understanding of
such related fields as business law, statistics, and general
management. (See also chief accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include several
such duties as:
A n a ly z in g

th e

e ffe c ts

o f

t r a n s a c t io n s

u p o n

s io n s in

E v a lu a t in g

s h o u ld

be

th e

a cco u n t

P r o je c t in g
posed

p la n s

tio n , a n d

a de qu a cy

o f t r e a t in g

w h ic h

tr a n s a c t io n s ;

a c co u n t

s tru c tu re s

need

c a p it a l

o f

th e

a c c o u n t in g

s y s te m

as

m a n a g e m e n t;
fo r n e w
d a ta

to

o r changed
show

in v e s t m e n t s ,

th e

c o n tr o ls ;

e ffe c ts o f p r o ­

in c o m e ,

cash

p o s i­

o v e r a ll f in a n c ia l c o n d it io n ;

In te r p r e tin g
p o r ts , a n d

th e

to

a c c o u n t in g
on

in

o r m o d ifie d ;

b a s is f o r r e p o r t i n g
C o n s id e r in g

m eans

m a n n e r

d e v e lo p e d

A s s u r in g
th e

a lt e r n a t iv e
th e

th e

m e a n in g

o f

a c c o u n t in g

re c o rd s ,

re ­

s ta te m e n ts ;




im p r o v e m e n t s ,

a c c o u n tin g

s y s te m

and

a d a p t a t io n s ,

o r

r e v i­

p ro c e d u re s .

(Entry and developmental level positions provide opportu­
nity to develop ability to perform professional duties such
as those enumerated above.)
In addition to such professional work, most accountants
are also responsible for assuring the proper recording and
documentation of transactions in the accounts. They, there­
fore, frequently direct nonprofessional personnel in the ac­
tual day-to-day maintenance of books of accounts, the ac­
cumulation of cost or other comparable data, the prepara­
tion of standard reports and statements, and similar work.
(Positions involving such supervisory work but not includ­
ing professional duties as described above are not included
in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole duties
consist of designing or improving accounting systems or
other nonoperating staff work, e.g., financial analysis, fi­
nancial forecasting, tax advising, etc. (The criteria that fol­
low for distinguishing among the several levels of work are
inappropriate for such jobs.) Note, however, that profes­
sional accountant positions with responsibility for record­
ing or reporting accounting data relative to taxes are in­
cluded, as are operating or cost accountants whose work
includes, but is not limited to, improvement of the account­
ing system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing equip­
ment to process, record, and report accounting data. In

r e la t io n s h ip s ;

P la n n in g

th e

36

problems. Is expected to be competent in the application of
standard procedures and requirements to routine transac­
tions, to raise questions about unusual or questionable
items, and to suggest solutions. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

some such cases the machine unit is a subordinate segment
of the accounting system; in others it is a separate entity or
is attached to some other organization. In either instance,
provided that the primary responsibility of the position is
professional accounting work of the type otherwise includ­
ed, the use of data processing equipment of any type does
not of itself exclude a position from the accountant de­
scription nor does it change its level.

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its

general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure professional growth. Progress is
evaluated in terms of ability to apply professional knowl­
edge to basic accounting problems in the day-to-day opera­
tions of an established accounting system.

Accountant I

General characteristics. At this beginning professional level,
the accountant learns to apply the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting to a specific system. The position is
distinguishable from nonprofessional positions by the vari­
ety of assignments; rate and scope of development expected
of the incumbent; and the existence, implicit or explicit, of
a planned training program designed to give the entering
accountant practical experience. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working papers,
schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating the extent of
the examination and presenting and supporting findings and
recommendations. Examines a variety of accounting docu­
ments to verify accuracy of computations and to ascertain
that all transactions are properly supported, are in accor­
dance with pertinent policies and procedures, and are classi­
fied and recorded according to acceptable accounting stan­
dards.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an ex­

perienced accountant whose guidance is directed primarily
to the development of the trainee’s professional ability and
to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of as­
signments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are
specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to
supervisor are identified.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none,

although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.
A ccountant III

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of

accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of financial
statements for completeness, internal accuracy, and con­
formance with uniform accounting classifications or other
specific accounting requirements; reconciling reports and
financial data with financial statements already on file, and
pointing out apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out
assigned steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing
standard ratios; assembling and summarizing accounting
literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple fi­
nancial statements not involving problems of analysis or
presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other exhib­
its to be used in reports. In addition to such work, may also
perform some nonprofessional tasks for training purposes.

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or

cost accounting work requiring the standardized application
of well-established accounting principles, theories, con­
cepts, and practices. Receives detailed instructions con­
cerning the overall accounting system and its objectives, the
policies and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation. Character­
istically, the accounting system or assigned segment is sta­
ble and well established (i.e., the basic chart of accounts,
classifications, the nature of the cost accounting system,
the report requirements, and the procedures are changed
infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the accountant
may have such assignments as supervision of the day-to-day
operation of: (a) The entire system of a subordinate estab­
lishment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting;
cost accounting; or financial statements and reports) of a
somewhat larger system, or (c)in a very large and complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and special­
ized segment dealing with some problem, function, or por­
tion of work which is itself of the level of difficulty charac­
teristic of this level.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.

A ccountant II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level the professional accountant makes practical applica­
tions of technical accounting practices and concepts be­
yond the mere application of detailed rules and instruc­
tions. Assignments are designed to expand practical experi­
ence and to develop professional judgment in the applica­
tion of basic accounting techniques to simple professional



Direction received. A higher level professional accountant

normally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
37

(e.g., employing several thousand persons) subordiante es­
tablishment which in other respects has an accounting sys­
tem of the complexity that characterizes level III.

needed. Work is reviewed for technical accuracy, adequacy
of professional judgment, and compliance with instructions
through spot checks, appraisal of results, subsequent pro­
cessing, analysis of reports and statements, and other appro­
priate means.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is

available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is
reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary responsibil­

ity of most positions at this level is to assure that the as­
signed day-to-day operations are carried out in accordance
with established accounting principles, policies, and objec­
tives. The accountant performs such professional work as:
Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g., those
containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations of ac­
counting, cost budgeting, or comparable information); in­
terpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from stan­
dards; projecting data into the future; predicting the effects
of changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account structures
or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes dayto-day decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions. Is expected to recommend solutions
to complex problems and propose changes in the account­
ing system for approval at higher levels. Such recommenda­
tions are derived from personal knowledge of the applica­
tion of well-established principles and practices.

Typical duties and responsibilities. As at level III, a primary
characteristic of most positions at this level is the responsi­
bility of operating an accounting system or major segment
of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent appropriate recommendations for: New
accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types of
ledgers; revisions in reporting system or subsidiary records;
changes in instructions regarding the use of accounts; new
or refined account classifications or definitions; etc. Also
makes day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting
treatment of financial transactions and is expected to rec­
ommend solutions to complex problems beyond incum­
bent’s scope of responsibility.
Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff su­

pervised, if any, may include professional accountants.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. In most instances

is responsible for supervision of a subordinate nonprofes­
sional staff.

A ccountant V

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or

cost accounting work which is of greater than average pro­
fessional difficulty and responsibility because of the pres­
ence of unusual and novel problems or the unusual magni­
tude or impact of the accounting program. Typically this
level of difficulty arises from (a) the large size of the ac­
counting and operating organization, (b) the atypical nature
of the accounting problems encountered, or (c) the unusu­
ally great involvement in accounting systems design and
development.
Examples of assignments characteristic of this level are
the supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The en­
tire accounting system of a subordinate establishment hav­
ing an unusually novel and complex accounting system, or
(b) the entire accounting system of a large (e.g., employing
several thousand persons) subordinate establishment which
in other respects has an accounting system of the complexi­
ty that characterizes level IV, or (c) the entire accounting
system of a company or corporation that has a relatively
stable and conventional accounting system and employs
several thousand persons and has a few subordinate estab­
lishments which include accounting units, or (d) a major
segment of an accounting system that substantially exceeds
the characteristics described in any one of the preceding
examples.

A ccountant IV

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work which requires the application of
well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts,
and practices to a wide variety of difficult problems. Re­
ceives instructions concerning the objectives and operation
of the overall accounting system. At this level, compared
with level III, the accounting system or assigned segment is
more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b) must ad­
just to new or changing company operations, (c) serves or­
ganizations of unusually large size, or (d) is complicated by
the need to provide and coordinate separate or specialized
accounting treatment and reporting (e.g., cost accounting
using standard cost, process cost, and job order techniques)
for different operations or divisions of the company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coordina­
tion involved, the accountant IV may have such assign­
ments as the supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a)
The entire accounting system of a subordinate establish­
ment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting; cost
accounting; or financial statements and reports) of an ac­
counting system serving a larger and more complex estab­
lishment, or (c) the entire accounting system of a large




38

normally do not require or permit professional audit work
to be performed.)

Direction received. An accountant of higher level normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment, compli­
ance with instructions, and overall quality.

Auditor I

Typical duties and responsibilities. The work is character­
ized by its unusual difficulty or responsibility. Accountants
V typically are directly concerned on a relatively continu­
ous basis with what the nature of the accounting system
should be, with the devising or revising of the operating
accounting policies and procedures that are necessary, and
with the managerial as well as the accounting meaning of
the reports and statements for which they are responsible.
Accountants V are necessarily deeply involved in funda­
mental and complex accounting matters and in the manage­
rial problems that are affected.

General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering
professional level, performs a variety of routine assign­
ments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety of
tasks under a planned training program designed to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)
Direction received. Works under close supervision of an ex­
perienced auditor whose guidance is directed primarily to
the development of the trainee’s professional ability and to
the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of assign­
ments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are speci­
fied, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to super­
visor are identified.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.

A U D IT O R

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making audits
by performing such tasks as: Verification of the accuracy of
the balances in various records; examination of a variety of
types of documents and vouchers for accuracy of computa­
tions; checking transactions to assure they are properly doc­
umented and have been recorded in accordance with cor­
rect accounting classifications; verifying the count of inven­
tories; preparing detailed statements, schedules, and stan­
dard audit working papers; counting cash and other assets;
preparing simple reconciliations; and similar functions.

Performs professional auditing work requiring a bache­
lor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent
experience and education combined. Audits the financial
records and practices of a company, or of divisions or com­
ponents of the company, to appraise systematically and
verify the accounting accuracy of records and reports and
to assure the consistent application of accepted accounting
principles. Evaluates the adequacy of the accounting system
and internal financial controls. Makes appropriate recom­
mendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent
determined necessary, examines the transactions entering
into the balance sheet and the transactions entering into
income, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

Auditor II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level the professional auditor serves as a junior member of
an audit team, independently performing selected portions
of the audit which are limited in scope and complexity.
Auditors at this level typically have acquired knowledge of
company operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

The existen ce o f recorded assets (including the obser­
vation o f the taking o f physical inventories) and the allinclusiveness o f recorded liabilities;
The accuracy o f financial statem ents or reports and
the fairness o f presentation o f facts therein;
The propriety or legality o f transactions;
The degree o f com pliance w ith established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished and
the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure the auditor’s professional growth.
Any technical problems not covered by instructions are
brought to the attention of a superior. Progress is evaluated
in terms of ability to apply professional knowledge to basic
auditing situations.

Excluded are positions which do not require full profes­
sional accounting training because the work is confined on
a relatively permanent basis to repetitive examinations of a
limited area of company operations and accounting pro­
cesses, e.g., only accounts payable and receivable; demur­
rage records and related functions, or station operations
only of a railroad company; branch offices which do not
engage in the full range of banking and accounting activities
of the main bank; warehouse operations only of a mail
order company; checking transactions to determine wheth­
er or not they conform to prescribed routines or proce­
dures. (Examinations of such a repetitive or limited nature



Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge of
accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of rela­
tively simple professional problems in audit assignments,
39

accounts receivable and accounts payable; or, the analysis
and verification of assets and reserves; or, the inspection
and evaluation of accounting controls and procedures.

including such tasks as: The verification of reports against
source accounts and records to determine their reliability;
reconciliation of bank and other accounts and verifying the
detail of recorded transactions; detailed examinations of
cash receipts and disbursement vouchers, payroll records,
requisitions, work orders, receiving reports, and other ac­
counting documents to ascertain that transactions are prop­
erly supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparing working papers,
schedules, and summaries.

Auditor IV

General characterisitcs. Auditors at this level are experi­
enced professionals who apply a thorough knowledge of
accounting principles and theory in connection with a vari­
ety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by the
audit of organizations and accounting processes which are
complex and difficult because of such factors as: Presence
of new or changed programs and accounting systems; exis­
tence of major specialized accounting functions (e.g., cost
accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting), in ad­
dition to general accounting; need to consider extensive and
complicated regulatory requirements; lack of or difficulty
in obtaining information; and other similar factors. Typical­
ly, a variety of different assignments are encountered over a
period of time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are
comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules or regula­
tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and contain
analyses of items of special importance or interest to com­
pany management.

Auditor III

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of the
audit of operations and accounting processes that are rela­
tively stable, well-established, and typical of the industry.
The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis of
readily available findings; there is previous audit experience
that is directly applicable; the audit reports are normally
prepared in a prescribed format using a standard method of
presentation; and few if any major problems are anticipat­
ed. The work performed requires the application of sub­
stantial knowledge of accounting principles and practices,
e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital maintenance and
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and other
accounting considerations of an equivalent nature.

Direction received. Within an established audit program, has
responsibility for independently planning and executing au­
dits. Unusually 'difficult problems are discussed with the
supervisor who also reviews completed assignments for ad­
herence to principles and standards and the soundness of
conclusions.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines
transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; prepares audit
working papers and submits an audit report in the required
pattern containing recommendations for needed changes or
improvements. Usually is responsible for selecting the de­
tailed audit methods to follow, choosing the audit sample
and its size, determining the extent to which discrepancies
need to be investigated, and deciding the depth of the anal­
yses required to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit aids
such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit experi­
ence and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used for
determining depreciation rates of equipment; evaluation of
assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation of the
reliability of accounting and reporting systems; analysis of
cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the
basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of accounting
procurement and supply management records, controls, and
procedures; and many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

As a team leader or w orking alone, in d ep en d en tly
con d u cts audits o f the com p lete accounts and related
operations o f smaller or less com p lex com panies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system w ith few or no
subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting records)
or o f com parable segm ents o f larger com panies.
As a m em ber o f an audit team , indep en d en tly accom ­
plishes varied audit assignm ents o f the above described
characteristics, typically major segm ents o f com p lete au­
dits, or assignm ents otherw ise lim ited in scop e o f larger
and m ore com plex com panies (e.g., com p lex in that the
accounting system entails co st, inventory, and com para­
ble specialized s y s te m s integrated w ith the general ac­
counting system ).

As a team leader or w orking alon e, in d ep endently
plans and con d u cts audits o f the com p lete accou nts and
related operations o f relatively large and com p lex com ­
panies (e.g., com p lex in that the accounting system en­
tails co st, in ven tory, and com parable specialized ac­
cou n tin g s y s te m s integrated w ith the general accounting
sy stem ) or o f com pany branch, subsidiary, or affiliated
organizations w hich are individually o f com parable size
and c o m p lex ity .

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of re­
porting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or
maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a rail­
road); or, the checking, verification, and balancing of all



40

nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are
sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting mana­
ger, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting activities
but which do n o t fully meet all of the responsibilities of a
chief accountant specified above may be covered by the
descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics de­
scribed are classified by level of work1 according to
(a) authority and responsibility and (b) technical complex­
ity, using the table accompanying the definitions which fol­
low.

As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute ma­
jor segments of audits of very large and complex organi­
zations, for example, those with financial responsibilities
so great as to involve specialized subordinate, subsidiary,
or affiliate accounting systems that are complete in
themselves.
N O T E : E x c lu d ed from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct c o m p le te audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve special­
ized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves; or are team members as­
signed to major segments of audits of even larger or more
complex organizations.

Authority and responsibility
A R -1 . The accounting system (i.e., accounts, procedures,

CHIEF A CC O U N TA N T

and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable
detail by higher levels in the company or organization. The
chief accountant has final, unreviewed authority within the
prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs
of the organization served, e.g., in the following or compar­
able ways:

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets, liabilities,
income, expense, and capital accounts, including responsi­
bility for profit and loss and balance sheet statements); an d
(2) at least one other m ajor accounting activity, typically
tax accounting, cost accounting, property accounting, or
sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as
payroll and timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data
processing operations which are an adjunct of the account­
ing system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically n o t included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of
the following:

Provides greater detail in accounts and reports or fi­
nancial statements;
Establishes additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Provides special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.
This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.
A R -2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad

1. On own responsibility, developing or adapting or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of the
organization;
2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full man­
agement responsibility for the quality and quantity of
work performed, training and development of subordi­
nates, work scheduling and review, coordination with
other parts of the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing, directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top management
officials of the organization served as to:
a. The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed by ac­
counting data, and selecting a manner of presentation
that is meaningful to management;
b. Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g., proposals
for improving cost control, property management,
credit and collection, tax reduction, or similar pro­
grams.

outline rather than in specific detail. While certain major
financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are
required by the basic system, the chief accountant has
broad latitude and a u th o rity to decide the specific meth­
ods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within
the organizational segment served. Approval must be se­
cured from higher levels only for those changes which
would basically affect the broad requirements prescribed by
such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include:
Evaluating and taking final action on recommenda­
tions proposed by subordinate establishments for
changes in aspects of the accounting system or activities
not prescribed by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
'
Changing from one cost accounting method to anoth­
er;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the
accounting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflect­
ing the events and progress of the entire organization for

E x c lu d ed are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program i f they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;
organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar




1Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

41

Table C-1.

Criteria for matching chief accountants by level

Level

Authority
and
responsibility1

Technical
complexity1

1

AR-1

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant ill job
definition.

II

AR-1

TC-2

About 5 to 10 professional accountants, with at least one or two matching the
accountant IV job definition.

AR-2

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant III job
definition, but one or two may match the accountant IV job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

Only one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant IV job
definition.

AR-1

TC-3

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. A t least one or two match the accountant V
job definition.

AR-2

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant IV job
definition, but some may match the accountant V job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant III job
definition, but one or two may match as high as accountant V.

AR-2

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant V job
definition, but several may exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant IV job
definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or two may exceed that
level.

AR-3

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant V job
definition, but several may exceed that level.

Subordinate professional accounting staff

or

III
or

IV
or

V

1 AR-1, -2, and -3 and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained in the accompanying text.

the company’s accounting system suggested by subordi­
nate units; and
Taking final action on all technical accounting mat­
ters.

which incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data
submitted by subordinate segments.
This degree of authority is most typically found at inter­
mediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or
division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some
company level situations where the authority of the chief
accountant is less extensive than is described in A R -3 . More
rarely it is found in plant level chief accountants who have
been delegated more authority than usual for such positions
as described in A R -1.

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad com­
pany management processes by providing accounting ad­
vice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data ac­
cumulated in the accounting system and on professional
judgment and experience.
Technical complexity

Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system
used in the company, subject only to general policy guid­
ance and control from a higher level company official re­
sponsible for general financial management. Typical respon­
sibilities include:

A R -3 .

TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work pro­
cesses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging.
The accounting system operates in accordance with wellestablished principles and practices or those of equivalent
difficulty which are typical of that industry.

Determining the basic characteristics of the com­
pany’s accounting system and the specific accounts to be
used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and state­
ments required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;
Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to




TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and frequent
adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs
(e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and subsidi­

42

Provide for the solution of problems for which no
clear precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of account­
ing theories and practices to deal with problems to
which these theories and practices have not previously
been applied.

ary records; revision of instructions for the use of accounts;
improvement or expansion of methods for accumulating
and reporting cost data in connection with new or changed
work processes).

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organization
for specialized and extensive adaptations of the basic sys­
tem to meet management needs. Such demands arise be­
cause the functions, products, work processes, etc., of the
organization are very numerous, diverse, unique, or special­
ized, or there are other comparable complexities. Conse­
quently, the accounting system, to a considerable degree, is
developed well beyond established principles and account­
ing practices in order to:

Subordinate staff

In table C-l the number of professional accountants su­
pervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion for
distinguishing between various levels. It is to be considered
less important in the matching process than the other crite­
ria. In addition to the staff of professional accountants in
the system for which the chief accountant is responsible,
there are clerical, machine operation, bookkeeping, and re­
lated personnel.

Attorneys
Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified in accordance with table C-2 and the definitions
which follow.

ATTORNEY

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out
the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, privileges,
and obligations of the company. The work performed re­
quires completion of law school with an LL.B. degree (or
the equivalent) and admission to the bar. Responsibilities or
functions include one or more o f the following or compar­
able duties:

Difficulty

D-l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly'applicable legal precedents; and
matters not of substantial importance to the organization.
(Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few thous­
and dollars, are involved.)

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publica­
tions, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of
proposed legislation which might affect the company;
Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

Exam ples o f D - l work:

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research prepara­
tory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can
be firmly established and there are precedent cases di­
rectly applicable to the situation.
Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but n o t involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other
major factual or legal issues.

Excluded from this definition are:
Patent work which requires professional training in
addition to legal training (typically a degree in engineer­
ing or in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar

D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one or
more of the following: The absence of clear and directly
applicable legal precedents; the different possible interpre­
tations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the
precedents involved; the substantial importance of the legal
matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000
are generally directly or indirectly involved); the matter is
being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings

w o rk f o r which professional legal training and bar m e m ­
bership is n o t essential;

Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and formula­
tion of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)




43

Table C-2.

Criteria for matching attorneys by level
Difficulty
of legal work'

Level

Responsibility
of job 1

This is the entry level. The duties and
responsibilities after initial orientation
and training are those described in D-1
and R-1.

1

Experience required
Completion of law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admission to the bar.
•

Sufficient professional experience (at least 1 year, usually more) at the "D -1" level
to assure competence as an attorney.

D-1

R-2

D-2

R-1

D-2

R-2

D-3

R-1

D-2

R-3

D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the "D -3 " level.

VI

D-3

R-4

Extensive professional experience at the "D -3" and "R -3" levels.

II
or

III

At least 1 year, usually more, of professional experience at the "D -2 ” level.

or

IV

Extensive professional experience at the "D -2" or a higher level.

or

1 D-1, -2, -3 and R-1, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the accompanying text.

or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or gov­
ernment agencies involved.

Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate
court where the case is highly im portant to the future
operation o f the organization and is vigorously con tested
by very distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or
national rep u tation ) legal talent.
Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and
staff o f an insurance com pany on the legal problem s in
the sale, underw riting, and adm inistration o f group con ­
tracts involving nationw ide or m ultistate coverages and
laws.
Perform ing the principal legal work in a nonroutine
major revision o f the co m p a n y ’s charter or in effectu a t­
ing new major financing steps.

Examples of D-2 work:
Advising on the legal im plications o f advertising rep­
resentations w hen the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to
different interpretations.
R eview ing and advising on the im plications o f new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence law suit w hich is strongly pressed by counsel
for an organized group.
Providing legal counsel on tax questions com plicated
by the absence o f precedent decisions that are directly
applicable to the organization’s situation.

Responsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult because

R -1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to

of one or more of the following: The questions are unique
and require a high order of original and creative legal en­
deavor for their solution; the questions require extensive
research and analysis and the obtaining and evaluation of
expert testimony regarding controversial issues in a scientif­
ic, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other
highly technical area; the legal matter is of critical impor­
tance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or
contested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

matters covered by legal precedents and in which little devi­
ation from standard practice is involved. Any decisions or
actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s
business are reviewed. (Is given guidance in the initial stages
of assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research
and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moder­
ate independence although guidance is generally available
and is sought from time to time on problem points.)
R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the facts,

searching legal precedents, defining the legal and factual
issues, drafting necessary legal documents, and developing
conclusions and recommendations. Decisions having an im­
portant bearing on the organization’s business are reviewed.
(Receives information from supervisor regarding unusual
circumstances or important policy considerations pertaining
to a legal problem. If trials are involved, may receive guid­

Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and im plications o f F ed­
eral antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded m arket­
ing operations involving jo in t ventures w ith several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a u tility com ­
pany in rate or governm ent franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts or all o f several States.




44

ance from a supervisor regarding presentation, line of ap­
proach, possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc.
In the case of nonroutine written presentations the final
product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with organiza­
tion policy. Some (but not all) attorneys make assignments
to one or more lower level attorneys, aids, or clerks.)

ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the organiza­
tion at conferences, hearings, or trials and personally con­
fers and negotiates with top attorneys and top-ranking offi­
cials in private companies or in government agencies. On
various aspects of assigned work may give advice directly
and personally to corporation officers and top level manag­
ers, or may work through the general counsel of the com­
pany in advising officers. (Generally receives no preliminary
instruction on legal problems. On matters requiring the con­
centrated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing the
work of the attorneys involved.)

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes final

legal determinations in matters of substantial importance to
the organization. Such determinations are subject to review
only for consistency with company policy, possible prece­
dent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry out assign­
ments, deals regularly with company officers and top level
management officials and confers or negotiates regularly
with senior attorneys and officials in other companies or in
government agencies on various aspects of assigned work.
(Receives little or no preliminary instruction on legal prob­
lems and a minimum of technical legal supervision. May
assign and review work of a few attorneys, but this is not a
primary responsibility.)

OR

As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a staff of
attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom regularly per­
form D-3 legal work. With respect to the work directed,
gives advice directly to corporation officers and top mana­
gerial officers, or may give such advice through the general
counsel. (Receives guidance as to organization policy but
no technical supervision or assistance except when request­
ing advice from, or briefing by, the general counsel on the
overall approach to the most difficult, novel, or important
legal questions. Usually reports to the general counsel or
deputy.)

R -4. Carries out assignments which entail independently

planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems
of the highest importance to the organization and develop­

Buyers
N O T E : Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing

BUYER

of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in­
cludes items and work described at more than one of the
following levels, the position should be considered to equal
the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial
portion of the buyer’s time.

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and services
(e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some instances
items are of types that must be specially designed, pro­
duced, or modified by the vendor in accordance with draw­
ings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or
recommends supplier. May interview prospective vendors.
Purchases items and services at the most favorable price
consistent with quality, quantity, specification require­
ments, and other factors. Prepares or supervises preparation
of purchase orders from requisitions. May expedite delivery
and visit vendors’ offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are con­
sistent with past experience, and are in conformance with
established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transac­
tions that deviate from the usual or from past experience in
terms of prices, quality of items, quantities, etc., or that
may set precedents for future purchases, are reviewed by
higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary and
subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose of
surplus, salvage, or used materials, equipment, or supplies.




E x c lu d e d are:

a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for in­
vestment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional edu­
cation and qualifications in a physical science or in en­
gineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a
few related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe up­
pers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is re­
quired to judge the relative value of the goods offered
and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each
purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organiza­
tion’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the super­
vision of other buyers or the management, direction, or
supervision of a purchasing program;
f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract adminsitration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
45

The number of potential vendors is likely to be small and
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing con­
tracts; and
price differentials often reflect important factors (quality,
h.
Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­ delivery dates and places, etc.) that are difficult to evaluate.
chase expediting work.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may be
large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such com­
Buyer I
plications as: Specifications that detail, in technical terms,
thd required physical, chemical, electrical, or other compar­
Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of readily available, com­
able properties; special testing prior to acceptance; grouping
monly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services,
of items for lot bidding and awards; specialized processing,
etc.
packing, or packaging requirements; export packs; overseas
Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers,
port differentials; etc.
jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representatives.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product devel­
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e.g.,
opments. May be required to locate new sources of supply.
those available from local sources.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training or
E xam ples of items purchased include: Common statio­
supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
nery and office supplies; standard types of office furniture
E x a m p les of items purchased include: Castings; special
and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, screws; janitorial and
common building maintenance supplies; and common
extruded shapes of normal size and material; special for­
mula paints; electric motors of special shape or speeds; spe­
building maintenance or common utility services.
cial packaging of items; and raw materials in substantial
quantities.
Buyer II

Buyer IV

Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of standard, generally
available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with manu­
facturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be rel­
atively large, particularly in the case of contracts for con­
tinuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possible
new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep abreast
of market trends, changes in business practices in the as­
signed markets, new or altered types of materials entering
the market, etc.
E xam ples of items purchased include: Industrial types of
handtools; electronic tube and component test instruments;
standard electronic parts and components; electric motors;
gasoline service station equipment; PBX or other specialized
telephone services; and routine purchases of common raw
materials such as standard grades and sizes of steel bars,
rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of the
types described for buyer I when the quantities purchased
are large so that local sources of supply are generally inade­
quate and the buyer must deal directly with manufacturers
on a broader than local scale.

Purchases highly complex and technical items, materials,
or services, usually those specially designed and manufac­
tured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and of­
ten involve persuading potential vendors to undertake the
manufacturing of custom-designed items according to com­
plex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire large
organization for an extended period of time. Complex
schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer determines
appropriate quantities to be contracted for at any given
period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements for
spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or technical
literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments. De­
velops new sources of supply.
In addition to the work described above, a few positions
may also require supervision over a few lower level buyers
or clerks. (No position is included in this level so le ly be­
cause supervisory duties are performed.)
E x am ples of items purchased include: Special purpose
high cost machine tools and production facilities; raw ma­
terials of critically important characteristics or quality;
parts, subassemblies, components, etc., specially designed
and made to order (e.g., communications equipment for
installation in aircraft being manufactured; component as­
semblies for missiles and rockets; and motor vehicle
frames).

Buyer III

Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical and
specialized nature. The items, while of a common general
type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet the
user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufacturers.




46

(2) unusually high individual or unit value. Such buyers of­
ten persuade suppliers to expand their plants or convert
facilities to the production of new items or services. These
types of buying functions are often performed by program
managers or company officials who have primary responsi­
bilities other than buying.

N O T E : E x c lu d ed are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such unusu­
ally large quantities that they can affect the market price of
a commodity or produce other significant effects on the
industry or trade concerned. Others may purchase items of.
either (1) extraordinary technical complexity, e.g., involv­
ing the outermost limits of science or engineering, or

Personnel Management
or participate in conducting surveys of broad compensation
areas. May assist in developing survey methods and plans.
Receives general supervision but responsibility for final ac­
tion is limited.

JOB A N A LY S T

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and de­
veloping occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifica­
tions, and worker characteristics as a basis for compensating
employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner. Per­
forms such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and pre­
paring descriptions of duties and responsibilities and of the
physical and mental requirements needed by workers; eval­
uating jobs and determining appropriate wage or salary lev­
els in accordance with their difficulty and responsibility;
independently conducting or participating with representa­
tives of other companies in conducting compensation sur­
veys within a locality or labor market area; assisting in ad­
ministering merit rating programs; reviewing changes in
wages and salaries indicated by surveys and recommending
changes in pay scales; and auditing individual jobs to check
the propriety of evaluations and to apply current job classi­
fications. (Positions also responsible for supplying manage­
ment with a high technical level of advice regarding the
solution of broad personnel management problems should
be excluded.)

Job Analyst IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures, and is
given assignments which regularly include responsibility for
the more difficult kinds of jobs. (“More difficult” means
jobs which consist of hard-to-understand work processes;
e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or technical; or
jobs in new or emerging occupational fields; or jobs which
are being established as part of the creation of new organi­
zations; or where other special considerations of these types
apply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for
final action is limited. May participate in the development
and installation of evaluation or compensation systems,
which may include those for merit rating programs. May
plan survey methods and conduct or direct wage surveys
within a broad compensation area.
2 Insufficient data were obtained for level I to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

Job Analyst I

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and of
limited occupational scope. Receives immediate supervision
in assignments designed to provide training in the applica­
tion of established methods and techniques of job analysis.
Studies the least difficult jobs and prepares reports for re­
view by a job analyst of higher level.2

D IRECTOR OF PERSONNEL

Directs a personnel management program for a company
or a segment of a company. Serves top management offi­
cials of the organization as the source of advice and assis­
tance on personnel management matters and problems gen­
erally; is typically consulted on the personnel implications
of planned changes in management policy or program, the
effects on the organization of economic or market trends,
product or production method changes, etc.; represents
management in contacts with other companies, trade asso­
ciations, government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with
personnel management matters.
Typically the director of personnel for a company re­
ports to a company officer in charge of industrial relations
and personnel management activities or an officer of similar
level. Below the company level the director of personnel
typically reports to a company officer or a high manage­
ment official who has responsibility for the operation of a
plant, establishment, or other segment of the company.

Job Analyst II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance with
established procedures. Is usually assigned to the simpler
kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the establishment.
Works independently on such assignments but is limited by
defined area of assignment and instructions of superior.
Job Analyst III

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and
procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality



47

For a job to be covered by this definition, the personnel
management program must include responsibility for all
three of the following functions:

overseeing cafeteria operations, recreational programs,
industrial health and safety programs, e tc .).
In ad d ition , p osition s covered b y this d efin ition m ay,
but do n o t necessarily, include responsibilities in the fo l­
low ing areas:

1. A d m in isterin g a jo b evaluation sy s te m : i.e., a sys­
tem in w hich there are established procedures by w hich
job s are analyzed and evaluated on the basis o f their
duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirem ents in
order to provide a fou n d ation for equitable com pensa­
tion . T ypically, such a system includes the use o f one or
m ore sets o f job evaluation factors and the preparation
o f form al job descriptions. It m a y also include such re­
lated functions as wage and salary surveys or m erit rating
system adm inistration. The job evaluation system (s)
does n o t necessarily cover all job s in the organization,
but does cover a substantial portion o f the organization.
2. E m p l o y m e n t and p la cem en t fu n ctio n : i.e ., recruit­
ing actively for at least som e kinds o f workers through a
variety o f sources (e.g., sch ools or colleges, em p loym en t
agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating appli­
cants against dem ands o f particular job s by use o f such
techniques as job analysis to determ ine requirem ents,
interview s, w ritten tests o f aptitude, k n ow led ge, or skill,
reference checks, experience evaluations, etc.; recom ­
m ending selections and job placem ents to m anagem ent,
etc.
3. E m p lo y e e relations and services fu n ctio n : i.e.,
fu n ction s designed to m aintain em p lo y ees’ m orale and
productivity at a high level (for exam ple, adm inistering a
form al or inform al grievance procedure; id en tifyin g and
recom m ending solu tion s for personnel problem s such as
absenteeism , high turnover, low p roductivity, etc.; ad­
m inistration o f beneficial suggestions system , retirem ent,
pension, or insurance plans, m erit rating system , etc.;
Table C-3.

E m p l o y e e training and d e v e lo p m e n t;
L abo r relations activities w hich are confined m ainly
to the adm inistration, interpretation, and application o f
th ose aspects o f labor union contracts that are essential­
ly o f the ty p e described under (3 ) above. May also parti­
cipate in bargaining o f a subordinate nature, e.g., to ne­
gotiate detailed settlem en t o f such m atters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or la y o ff pro­
cedures, etc., w ithin the broad term s o f a general agree­
m ent reached at higher levels, or to supply advice and
inform ation on technical p oin ts to the co m p a n y ’s princi­
pal representative.
Equal e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n it y (EEO);
R e p o rtin g under the O ccupational S a fety an d Health
A c t (OSHA).
E x c lu d e d are p osition s in w hich responsibility for actual
contract negotiation w ith labor u nions as the principal c o m ­
pany representative is a significant aspect o f the jo b , i.e ., a
responsibility w hich serves as a primary basis for qualifica­
tion requirem ents and com p en sation .
D irector o f personnel job s w hich m eet the above d efin i­
tion are classified b y level o f w ork 3 in accordance w ith the
criteria sh ow n in table C-3.
3 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level
"Development level"
personnel program1
2
3

"Operations level"
personnel program1
Number of employees in
work force serviced

250-750 .........................................
1 000-5 000 .................................
6 000-12 000
...............................
15,000-25,000 .............................

"Type A"
organization
serviced3
I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

Number of employees in
work force serviced

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

250-750 ...........................................
1,000-5,000 ....................................
6 ,000-12,000 ..................................
15,000-25,000 ...............................

1 " O p e r a t i o n s l e v e l " p e r s o n n e l p r o g r a m — director of personnel
servicing an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company,
where the basic personnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc.,
are established at company headquarters or at some other higher
level between the plant and the company headquarters level. The
personnel director's responsibility is to put these into operation at
the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively serve the
local management needs.
3 " D e v e l o p m e n t l e v e l " p e r s o n n e l p r o g r a m — e ither:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with
or without subordinate establishments) where the personnel di­
rector plays an important role in establishment oi basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., for the company subject
to policy direction and control from company officers, or (b)
director of personnel servicing an intermediate organization be­
low the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary, to which a
relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and development responsibility is made. In this situation only
basic policy direction is given by the parent company and local
officers. The director of personnel has essentially the same de­
gree of latitude and responsibility for establishment of basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., as described above in (a).
3 " T y p e A " o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i c e d — most jobs serviced do not
present particularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job evaluation.




"Type A"
organization
serviced3

o r tr a in in g

p r o b le m s

u n d e rs ta n d

w o rk

because

p ro c e s s e s ,

t h e jo b s c o n s is t o f r e la t iv e ly

and

an

a d e q u a te

a b le . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e m o s t l i k e l y
in

w h ic h

th e

w o rk

fo rc e

to

la b o r s u p p ly

be fo u n d

e a s y - to is a v a i l ­

in o r g a n i z a t i o n s

a n d o r g a n iz a tio n a l s t r u c tu r e

a re r e la t iv e ly

s t a b le .

4 " T y p e B " o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i c e d — a substantial proportion of
the jobs present difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training
problems because the jobs: Consist of hard-to-understand work pro­
cesses (e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or technical);
have hard-to-match skill requirements; are in new or emerging occu­
pations; or are extremely hard to fill. These conditions are most
likely to be found in organizations in which the work force, organi­
zational structure, work processes or functions, etc., are compli­
cated or unstable.
NOTE: There are gaps between different degrees of all three
elements used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been
provided purposely to allow room for judgment in getting the best
overall job level match for each job. Thus, a job which services a
work force of 850 employees should be matched with level II if it is
a personnel program operations level job where the nature of the
organization serviced seems to fall slightly below the definition for
type B. However, the same job should be matched with level I if the
nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well within the defi­
nition for type A.

48

Chemists and Engineers
D irectio n received. Supervisor establishes the nature and

CHEMIST

extent of analysis required, specifies methods and criteria
on new types of assignments, and reviews work for thor­
oughness of application of methods and accuracy of results.

Performs professional work in research, development, in­
terpretation, and analysis to determine the composition,
molecular structure, and properties of substances; to devel­
op or investigate new materials and processes; and to inves­
tigate the transformations which substances undergo. Work
typically requires a B.S. degree in chemistry or the equiva­
lent in appropriate and substantial college level study of
chemistry plus experience.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. Carries out a wide vari­

ety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures. In ac­
cordance with specific instructions may carry out proposed
and less common ones. Is expected to detect problems in
using standardized procedures because of the condition of
the sample, difficulties with the equipment, etc. Recom­
mends modifications of procedures, e.g., extending or cur­
tailing the analysis or using alternate procedures, based on
knowledge of the problem and pertinent available litera­
ture. Conducts specified phases of research projects as an
assistant to an experienced chemist.

Chemist I
G eneral characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­

sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide experi­
ence in the application of training in chemistry as it relates
to the company’s programs. May also receive formal class­
room or seminar type training. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. May be assisted

by a few aids or technicians.

Chemist III

D irectio n received. Works under close supervision. Receives

G eneral ch aracteristics. Performs a broad range of chemical
tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory, using judg­
ment in the independent evaluation, selection, and adapta­
tion of standard methods and techniques. May carry
through a complete series of tests on a product in its differ­
ent process stages. Some assignments require a specialized
knowledge of one or two common categories of related
substances. Performance at this level requires developmen­
tal experience in a professional position, or equivalent grad­
uate level education.

specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress, and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.
T ypical d u ties a n d respon sibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods, practices,
and programs of the company. The work includes a variety
of routine qualitative and quantitative analyses; physical
tests to determine properties such as viscosity, tensile
strength, and melting point; and assisting more experienced
chemists to gain additional knowledge through personal ob­
servation and discussion.

D irectio n received. On routine work, supervision is very

general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application of sound professional judg­
ment.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. Usually none.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature of the problem, selects standard
methods, tests or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternate or modified methods with supervisor’s
concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing samples or
testing new procedures that require specialized training be­
cause (a) standard methods are inapplicable, (b) analytical
findings must be interpreted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) specialized and advanced
equipment and techniques must be adapted.

Chemist 1
1
G eneral characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine chemical work requiring selection
and application of general and specialized methods, tech­
niques, and instruments commonly used in the laboratory,
and the ability to carry out instructions when less common
or proposed methods or procedures are necessary. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or ap­
propriate graduate level study. For training and develop­
mental purposes, assignments may include some work that
is typical of a higher level. (Terminal positions are exclud­
ed.)



R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. May supervise or

coordinate the work of a few technicians or aids, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.
49

supervised is comparable to that described for chemist IV.
(2) As individual researcher or worker, carries out projects
requiring development of new or highly modified scientific
techniques and procedures, extensive knowledge of special­
ty, and knowledge of related scientific fields.

Chemist IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
(a) mastery of specialized techniques or ingenuity in select­
ing and evaluating approaches to unforeseen or novel prob­
lems, and (b) ability to apply a research approach to the
solution of a wide variety of problems and to assimilate the
details and significance of chemical and physical analyses,
procedures, and tests. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises, co­
ordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of chemists
and technicians engaged in varied research and development
projects, or a larger group performing routine analytical
work. Estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns
work to meet completion date. Or, as individual researcher
or worker, may be assisted on projects by other chemists or
technicians.
Chemist V I

Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for pro­
jects.

General characteristics. Performs work requiring leadership
and expert knowledge in a specialized field, product, or
process. Formulates and conducts a systematic attack on a
problem area of considerable scope and complexity which
must be approached through a series of complete and con­
ceptually related studies, or a number of projects of lesser
scope. The problems are complex because they are difficult
to define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with indi­
viduals and units within and outside the organization, with
responsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory as­
signments requiring the determination and evaluation of al­
ternative procedures and the sequence of performing them.
Performs complex, exacting, unusual analytical assignments
requiring specialized knowledge of techniques or products.
Interprets results, prepares reports, and may provide techni­
cal advice in specialized area.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.

C hem ist V

General characteristics. Participates in planning laboratory
programs on the basis of specialized knowledge of problems
and methods and probable value of results. May serve as an
expert in a narrow specialty (e.g., class of chemical com­
pounds, or a class of products), making recommendations
and conclusions which serve as the basis for undertaking or
rejecting important projects. Development of the knowl­
edge and expertise required for this level of work usually
reflects progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire chemical program of a com­
pany, when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Activities supervised are of such a scope that they
require a few (3 to 5) subordinate supervisors or team lead­
ers with at least one in a position comparable to level V.
(2) As individual researcher or worker determines, con­
ceives, plans, and conducts projects of major importance to
the company. Applies a high degree of originality and inge­
nuity in adapting, extending, and synthesizing existing the­
ory, principles, and techniques into original combinations
and configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, organizes, and
directs assigned laboratory programs. Independently defines
scope and critical elements of the projects and selects ap­
proaches to be taken. A substantial portion of the work



Responsibility for the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
50

and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual worker or researcher, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other chemists and technicians.

Chemist V II

Chemist V III

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive chemical activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented chemical problems, determining program ob­
jectives and requirements, organizing programs and pro­
jects, and developing standards and guides for diverse chem­
ical activities.

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are authoritative and have a far-reaching impact
on extensive chemical and related activities of the com­
pany. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top
level chemists and officers of other organizations and com­
panies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a high
degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in
planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical pro­
grams and activities of outstanding novelty and importance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: ( l) I n a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) the entire chemical program of a company which is of
moderate scope, or (b) an important segment of a chemical
program of a company with very extensive and highly diver­
sified scientific requirements, where programs are of such
complexity and scope that they are of critical importance
to overall operations and include problems of extraordinary
difficulty that have resisted solution. Decides the kind and
extent of chemical programs needed to accomplish the ob­
jectives of the company, for choosing the scientific ap­
proaches, for planning and organizing facilities and pro­
grams, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual re­
searcher and consultant formulates and guides the attack on
problems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance
to the company and/or industry. Problems are character­
ized by the lack of scientific precedents and source materi­
als, or the lack of success of prior research and analysis so
that their solution would represent an advance of great sig­
nificance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting
work for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as major
advances in the field.

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a chemical program of a com­
pany with extensive and diversified scientific requirements,
or (b) the entire chemical program of a company where the
program is more limited in scope. The overall chemical pro­
gram contains critical problems the solution of which re­
quires major technological advances and opens the way for
extensive related development. Makes authoritative techni­
cal recommendations concerning the scientific objectives
and levels of work which will be most profitable in light of
company requirements and scientific and industrial trends
and developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consultant,
selects problems for research to further the company’s ob­
jectives. Conceives and plans investigations in which the
phenomena and principles are not adequately understood,
and where few or contradictory scientific precedents or re­
sults are available for reference. Outstanding creativity and
mature judgment are required to devise hypotheses and
techniques of experimentation and to interpret results. As a
leader and authority in the company, in a broad area of
specialization, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one,
advises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important pro­
grams. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and jus­
tifying proposed and current programs and projects and
furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel problems
in the specialty field. Typically will have contributed inno­
vations (e.g., techniques, products, procedures) which are
regarded as significant advances in the field.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual re­
searchers some of whose positions are comparable to chem­
ist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an individual re­
searcher and consultant may be assisted on individual proj­
ects by other chemists or technicians.
NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical
program may match any of several of the survey job levels,
depending on the size and complexity of chemical pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Chemists in

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are



51

rying out a sequence of related engineering tasks. Limited
exercise of judgment is required on details of work and in
making preliminary selections and adaptations of engineer­
ing alternatives. Requires work experience acquired in an
entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study.
For training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical of a higher level. (Termi­
nal positions are excluded.)

charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing of highly diversified or unusually novel products and
procedures) that one or more subordinate supervisory
chemists are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose
decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy
for the organization (included, however, are supervisors de­
ciding the “kind and extent of chemical programs” within
broad guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as national
and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in
very broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for unus­
ual or difficult problems and selects techniques and proce­
dures to b& applied on nonroutine work. Receives close
supervision on new aspects of assignments.

ENG INEER

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed meth­
ods, performs specific and limited portions of a broader
assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies standard
practices and techniques in specific situations, adjusts and
correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in results, and fol­
lows operations through a series of related detailed steps or
processes.

Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction, maint­
enance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application,
or standardization of engineering facilities, systems, struc­
tures, processes, equipment devices, or materials requiring
knowledge of the science and art by which materials, natu­
ral resources, and power are made useful. Work typically
requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in
combined education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control engineers,
sales engineers, and engineers whose primary responsibility
is to be in charge of nonprofessional maintenance work.)

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.
Engineer III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects,
and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures,
and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations
and modifications. Assignments have clear and specified ob­
jectives and require the investigation of a limited number of
variables. Performance at this level requires developmental
experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate
level education.

Engineer I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional work knowledges and abilities. May
also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training.
(Terminalj>ositions are excluded.)

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific assign­
ment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions.
Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is
reviewed for application of sound professional judgment.

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives
specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Engineer II

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work which
involves conventional types of plans, investigations, surveys,
structures, or equipment with relatively few complex fea­
tures for which there are precedents. Assignments usually
include one or more of the following: Equipment design
and development, test of materials, preparation of specifica­
tions, process study, research investigations, report prepara­
tion, and other activities of limited scope requiring knowl­
edge of principles and techniques commonly employed in
the specific narrow area of assignments.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine engineering work requiring applica­
tion of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in car­

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, prac­
tices,.and programs of the company.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none.




52

dinates, and directs a large and important engineering pro­
ject or a number of small projects with many complex fea­
tures. A substantial portion of the work supervised is com­
parable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As individual
•researcher or worker carries out complex or novel assign­
ments requiring the development of new o r improved tech­
niques and procedures. Work is expected to result in the
development of new or refined equipment, materials, pro­
cesses, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff
specialist develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a
variety of projects and activities to be carried out by others.
Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed engineer­
ing evaluation tests, products, or equipment when necessary
data are insufficient or confirmation by testing is advisable.
Usually performs as a staff advisor and consultant as to a
technical specialty, a type of facility or equipment, or a
program function.

Engineer IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and sub­
stantial adaptation and modification of standard tech­
niques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to
problems encountered. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for pro­
jects.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as individual
researcher or staff specialist may be assisted on projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules, con­
ducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the engineering
work in a part of a major project or in a total project of
moderate scope. Performs work which involves convention­
al engineering practice but may include a variety of com­
plex features such as conflicting design requirements, un­
suitability of standard materials, and difficult coordination
requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge of prece­
dents in the specialty area and a good knowledge of princi­
ples and practices of related specialties.

Engineer VI

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for
interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating assign­
ments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned
with unique or controversial problems which have an im­
portant effect on major company programs. This involves
exploration of subject area, definition of scope and selec­
tion of problems for investigation, and development of nov­
el concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with individu­
als and units within or outside the organization, with re­
sponsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to own field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to engineer V.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineer V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversified
knowledge of engineering principles and practices in broad
areas of assignments and related fields. Makes decisions in­
dependently on engineering problems and methods, and
represents the organization in conferences to resolve impor­
tant questions and to plan and coordinate work. Requires
the use of advanced techniques and the modification and
extension of theories, precepts, and practices of own field
and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually result from
progressive experience, including work comparable to engi­
neer IV.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire engineering program of a
company when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Extent of responsibilities generally requires a few (3
to 5) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least
one in a position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker conceives, plans, and conducts re­
search in problem areas of considerable scope and com­

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops, coor­



53

plexity. The problems must be approached through a series
of complete and conceptually related studies, are difficult
to define, require unconventional or novel approaches, and
require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides
and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially relat­
ed to the problem, or may be largely lacking due to the
novel character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance in
the solution of important problems. (3) As*a staff specialist
serves as the technical specialist for the organization (divi­
sion or company) in the application of advanced theories,
concepts, principles, and processes for an assigned area of
responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility
or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization for
the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis of pro­
grams or new programs warranted by such developments.

funds required to carry out programs which are directly
related with and directed toward fulfillment of overall com­
pany objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further the
company’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations of
broad areas of considerable novelty and importance for
which engineering precedents are lacking in areas critical to
the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by
associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed
on the incumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice.
Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or
techniques which are regarded as major advances in the
field.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are
in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist may be
assisted on individual projects by other engineers or techni­
cians.

Engineer V III

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive engineering and related activi­
ties of the company. Negotiates critical and controversial
issues with top level engineers and officers of other organi­
zations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate
a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive engineering
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and impor­
tance.

Engineer V II

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive engineering activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and
solving unprecedented engineering problems, determining
program objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects and developing standards and guides for di­
verse engineering activities.

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a very extensive and highly
diversified engineering program of a company, or (b) the
entire engineering program of a company when the program
is of moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity
and scope that they are of critical importance to overall
objectives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty
that often have resisted solution, and consist of several
segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible
for deciding the kind and extent of engineering and related
programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the com­
pany, for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning
and organizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting
results. (2) As individual researcher and consultant formu­
lates and guides the attack on problems of exceptional diffi­
culty and marked importance to the company or industry.
Problems are characterized by their lack of scientific prece­

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of the engineering program of a
company with extensive and diversified engineering require­
ments, or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when it is more limited in scope. The overall engineering
program contains critical problems the solution of which
requires major technological advances and opens the way
for extensive related development. Extent of responsibili­
ties generally requires several subordinate organizational
segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and



54

NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s engineering
program may match any of several of the survey job levels
depending on the size and complexity of engineering pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers in
charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consis­
ting of research and development on a variety of complex
products or systems with numerous novel components) that
one or more subordinate supervisory engineers are perform­
ing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “kind and
extent of engineering and related programs” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual researchers
and consultants who are recognized as national and/or in­
ternational authorities and scientific leaders in very broad
areas of scientific interest and investigation.

dents and source material, or lack of success of prior re­
search and analysis so that their solution would represent
an advance of great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a recog­
nized authority for broad program areas or in an intensely
specialized area of considerable novelty and importance.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual research­
ers some of whose positions are comparable to engineer VII
and sometimes engineer VIII. As an individual researcher
and consultant may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Technical Support
also be reviewed in process. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria: (1) Provides semiprofes­
sional technical support for engineers working in such areas
as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement. (2) Work pertains to electrical, elec­
tronic, or mechanical components or equipment. (3) Re­
quired to have some knowledge of science or engineering.
(Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality con­
trol testers, craft workers, drafters, designers, and engi­
neers.)

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equip­
ment or parts. May service or repair simple instruments
or equipment;
Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare
test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equip­
ment; records test data;
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed
sources; processes the data following well-defined meth­
ods; presents the data in prescribed form.
Engineering Technician III

Performs assignments that are not completely standard­
ized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard procedures or
equipment. Receives initial instructions, equipment require­
ments, and advice from supervisor or engineer; technical
adequacy of completed work is checked. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Engineering Technician I

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process or on
completion. Performs, at this level, one or a combination of
such typical duties as:
Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring
simple wiring, soldering, or connecting;
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as ten­
sile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test
equipment; records test data;
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineer­
ing data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computa­
tions by substituting numbers in specified formulas;
plots data and draws simple curves and graphs.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models
or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and
correct malfunctions;
Conducts various tests or experiments which may re­
quire minor modifications in test setups or procedures;
selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment
and records test data;
Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures. Performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness of data.

Engineering Technician II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments involv­
ing a sequence of related operations. Follows standard work
methods or explicit instructions; technical adequacy of rou­
tine work is reviewed on completion; nonroutine work may



Engineering Technician IV

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial variety
and complexity. Receives objectives and technical advice
55

Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized
items. Work is closely supervised during progress.

from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed for technical
adequacy. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Drafter I

Works on limited segment of development project;
constructs experimental or prototype models to meet
engineering requirements; conducts tests or experiments;
records and evaluates data and reports findings;
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of test equipment and test
procedures; records data; analyzes data and prepares test
reports;
Compiles and computes a variety of engineering data;
may analyze test and design data; develops or prepares
schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review de­
signs or specifications for adequacy.

Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engi­
neering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes.
Types of drawings prepared include isometric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional
views to clarify positioning of components and convey
needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggest­
ed methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice
on source materials are given with initial assignments. In­
structions are less complete when assignments recur. Work
may be spot checked during progress.

Engineering Technician V
Drafter 1
1

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete pro­
ject of relatively limited scope or a portion of a larger and
more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques,
designs, or layouts. May coordinate portions of overall as­
signments; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical
work of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines
objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed
work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of
requirements. May be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized
drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve
such work as: Prepares working drawings of subassemblies
with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise posi­
tional relationships between components; prepares architec­
tural drawings for construction of a building including de­
tail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and
roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making neces­
sary computations to determine quantities of materials to
be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervi­
sor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, de­
vices, or equipment; conducts tests or experiments; ana­
lyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to im­
prove performance; reports results;
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equip­
ment performance. Determines test requirements, equip­
ment modification, and test procedures; conducts tests,
analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on
findings and recommendations;
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives;
may calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May
check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine
adequacy of drawings and design.

Drafter III

Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from es­
tablished drafting precedents. Works in close support with
the design originator, and may recommend minor design
changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details
of form, function, and positional relationships of compo­
nents and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory as­
sistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator
for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by low­
er level drafters.

D R A FTE R S

Drafter-tracer
COMPUTER OPERATOR

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or
pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring
close delineation.)




Monitors and operates the control console of a digital
computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:
Studies operating instructions to determine equip­
ment setup needed;

AND/OR
56

structions or error conditions, applies standard operating or
corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not re­
spond to preplanned procedures.

Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates computer;
Responds to operating instructions and computer
output instructions;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems;
Maintains operating record.

Computer Operator IV

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­
troduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. Selects
from a variety of standard setup and operating procedures.
In response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, deviates from standard procedures if standard proce­
dures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems or
aborts program.
OR
Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­
troduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by multiprocessing. In re­
sponse to computer output instructions or error conditions,
applies standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers
problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure.
OR
Work assignments are established production runs, (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety of standard setup
and operating procedures. In response to computer output
instructions or error conditions, deviates from standard pro­
cedures if standard procedures do not provide a solution.
Then refers problems or aborts program.

May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope
of this definition are fully qualified computer operators,
trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and
lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level
operators.
Computer Operator I

Work assignments consist of on-the-job training (some­
times augmented by classroom training). Operator is provid­
ed detailed written or oral guidance before and during as­
signments and is under close personal supervision.
Computer Operator II

Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing (i.e., one program is processed
at a time). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective
procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to pre­
planned procedure.
Computer Operator III

Computer Operator V

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­
troduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. In re­
sponse to computer output instructions or error conditions,
applies standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers
problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure.

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent test­
ing and introduction of new programs, applications, and
procedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems). In responding to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss of
information or to conserve computer time, operator devi­
ates from standard procedures or aborts program. Such ac­
tions may materially alter the computer unit’s production
plans. Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on
setup techniques.

OR
Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing. Selects from a variety of stan­
dard setup and operating procedures. In response to com­
puter output instructions or error conditions, deviates from
standard procedures if standard procedures do not provide
a solution. Then refers or aborts program.
OR
Work assignments are established production runs (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing of two or
more programs). In response to computer output in­




Computer Operator V I

In addition to level V characteristics, assignments at this
level require a knowledge of program language, computer
features, and software systems to a m srin : (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or programs;
(2) developing operating instructions and techniques to cov­
er problem situations; (3) switching to emergency backup
procedures.

57

Clerical
CLERK, ACC O U NTIN G

Clerk, File I

Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as
posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts;
verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and math­
ematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning pre­
scribed accounting distribution codes; examining and veri­
fying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists,
calculations, postings, etc.; or preparing simple (or assisting
in preparing more complicated) journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and
office practices and procedures which relates to the clerical
processing and recording of transactions and accounting in­
formation. With experience, the worker typically becomes
familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms and
procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to
have a knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping
and accounting.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Performs routine filing of material that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numeri­
cal). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; may fill out withdrawal charge. May
perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to main­
tain and service files.
Clerk, File II

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and crossreference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified ma­
terial in files and forwards material. May perform related
clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.
Clerk, File III

Classifies and indexes file material such as correspon­
dence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established
filing system containing a number of varied subject matter
files. May also "file this material. May keep records of vari­
ous types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small
group of lower level file clerks.

Clerk, Accounting I

Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine
accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers,
cards, or worksheets where identification of items and loca­
tions of postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy
and completeness of standardized and repetitive records or
accounting documents; and coding documents using a few
prescribed accounting codes.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alpha­
betic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Clerk, Accounting II

Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and
judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or
nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a
substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes and clas­
sifications, or tracing transactions through previous ac­
counting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May
be assisted by one or more accounting clerks I.

Keypunch Operator I

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or instructions, works from
various standardized source documents which have been
coded, and follows specified procedures which have been
prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, cod­
ing, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to super­
visor problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or miss­
ing information.

C LER K, FILE

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established
filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks re­
quired to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels
on the basis of the following definitions.




Keypunch Operator II

Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in search­

58

ing for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be key­
punched from a variety of source documents. On occasion
may also perform some routine keypunch work. May train
inexperienced keypunch operators.

Table C-4.

Criteria for matching secretaries by level

Level of secretary's
supervisor

Level of secretary's
responsibility
LR-1

LS-1 ..................................................
L S -2 ..................................................
L S -3 ..................................................
L S - 4 ..................................................

MESSENGER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers,
opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical
work. Excluded are positions that require operation of a
motor vehicle as a significant duty.

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

tant, skilled technician, or expert. {NOTE: Many
companies assign stenographers, rather than secre­
taries as described above, to this level of supervi­
sory or nonsupervisory worker.)

SEC R ETA RY

LS-2 a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person

whose responsibility is not equivalent to one of
the specific level situations in the definition for
LS-3, but whose organizational unit normally
numbers at least several dozen employees and is
usually divided into organizational segments which
are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some
companies, this level includes a wide range of orga­
nizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official)
that employes, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons.

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one indi­
vidual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship
to the day-to-day activities of the supervisor. Works fairly
independently, receiving a minimum of detailed supervision
and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties
requiring a knowledge of office routine and understanding
of the organization, programs, and procedures related to
the work of the supervisor.

LS-3 a. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chair­

Exclusions. Not all positions that are titled “secretary” pos­
sess the above characteristics. Examples of positions which
are excluded from the definition are as follows:

man of the board or president) of a company that
employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000
persons; or
b. Secretary to the head (immediately below the offi­
cer level) of either a major corporatewide func­
tional activity (e.g., marketing, research, opera­
tions, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geo­
graphic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional
headquarters; a major division) of a company that
employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
persons; or
c. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official)
that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
d. Secretary to the head of a large and important
organizational segment (e.g., a middle management
supervisor of an organizational segment often in­
volving as many as several hundred persons) of a
company that employs, in all, over 25,000 per­
sons.

a. Positions which do not meet the “personal” secretary
concept described above;
b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type du­
ties;
c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group
of professional, technical, or managerial persons;
d. 'Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or
more responsible technical, administrative, or super­
visory duties which are not typical of secretarial
work, e.g., administrative assistant, or executive assis­
tant;
e. Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed
in the section below titled “Level of Secretary’s Su­
pervisor,” e.g., secretary to the president of a com­
pany that employes, in all, over 5,000 persons;
f. Trainees.
Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of the five levels according to (a) the
level of the secretary’s supervisor within the company’s or­
ganizational structure and (b) the level of the secretary’s
responsibility. Table C-4 indicates the level of the secretary
for each combination of the factors.

LS-4 a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or presi­

dent of a company that employs, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the
chairman of the board or president) of a company
that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than
25,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the cor­
porate officer level, of a major segment or subsidi­
ary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000
persons.

Leval of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)
LS-1 a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small or­

ganizational unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30
persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, pro­
fessional employee, administrative officer or assis


LR-2

NOTE: The term “corporate officer” used in the above
LS definitions refers to those officials who have a signifi­
cant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major
59

NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary
in that a secretary normally works in a confidential rela­
tionship with only one manager or executive and performs
more responsible and discretionary tasks.

company activities. The title “vice president,” though nor­
mally indicative of this role, does not in all cases identify
such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibili­
ty is to act personally on individual cases or transactions
(e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; ad­
minister individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cleri­
cal staff) are not considered to be “corporate officers” for
purposes of applying the definition.

Stenographer, General

Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May
maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks.

Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR)

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship
between the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to
which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative and
judgment. Secretaries should be matched at LR-1 or LR-2
described below according to their level of responsibility.

Stenographer, Senior

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vo­
cabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search. May also set up and maintain files, keep records,
etc.
OR
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly
greater independence and responsibility than stenographer,
general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office proce­
dure and of the specific business operations, organizations,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowl­
edge in performing stenographic duties and responsible cler­
ical tasks such as maintaining follow-up files; assembling
material for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing
simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing
incoming mail; answering routine questions, etc.

LR-1. Performs varied secretarial duties including or com­
parable to most of the following:
a. Answers telephone, greets personal callers, and opens
incoming mail.
b. Answers telephone requests which have standard an­
swers. May reply to requests by sending a form letter.
c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports
prepared by others for the supervisor’s signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy.
d. Maintains supervisor’s calendar and makes appoint­
ments as instructed.
e. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.
LR-2. Performs duties under LR-1 and, in addition, per­
forms tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and
knowledge of office functions including or comparable to
most of the following:

TYPIST

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or
to make out bills after calculations have been made by
another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining
which can be handled by the supervisor’s subordi­
nates or other offices.
b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge
of office procedures or collection of information
from files or other offices. M ay sign routine corre­
spondence in own or supervisor’s name.
c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on
the basis of general instructions.
d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clear­
ance. Assembles necessary background material for
scheduled meetings. Makes arrangements for meetings
and conferences.
e. Explains supervisor’s requirements to other employ­
ees in supervisor’s unit. (Also types, takes dictation,
and files.)

Typist I

Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, in­
surance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard tabula­
tions; or copying more complex tables already set up and
spaced properly.

STENOGRAPHER

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to
transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally
transcribe from voice recordings.




Typist II

Performs one or more o f the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from sev-

60

complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying
details to suit circumstances.

e ra l so u rc e s ; o r r e s p o n s ib ility f o r c o rr e c t s p e llin g , s y lla b ic a ­
t io n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c ., o f te c h n ic a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r
fo r e ig n la n g u a g e m a te r ia l; o r p la n n in g la y o u t a n d t y p in g o f

NOTE: The occupational titles and definitions for drafter-tracer, messenger, and stenographer are the
same as those used in the Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas. The
occupations listed below have the same definition in both the national and area surveys; however, the level
designations differ as shown:
National Survey of
Professional, Admini­
strative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay

Occupation

Drafter ....................................................................................................

Occupational
Wage Surveys in
Metropolitan
Areas

I

C

II
Clerk, a ccou nting .................................................................................
Clerk, file ...............................................................................................

Keypunch o perator...............................................................................
Secretary1 ...............................................................................................

T y p is t.......................................................................................................

B

III
I
II
I
II
III
I
II
I
II
III
IV
V
I
II

A
B
A
C
B
A
B
A
E
D
C
B
A
B
A

1 T h is 5 - le v e l d e f i n i t i o n f o r s e c r e t a r y w i l l b e u s e d in t h e f u l l a re a s u r v e y s b e g in n in g in c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 7 7 .




61

A p p e n d ix D. C o m p a ris o n o f A v e r a g e A n n u a l S a la rie s in P riv a te
In d u s try w ith C o rre s p o n d in g S a la ry R a te s fo r F e d e ra l E m p lo y e e s
U n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le
The survey was designed to provide a basis for compar­
ing salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure
collection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the
General Schedule grade levels, the Civil Service Commis­
sion, in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics,




prepared the occupational work level definitions used in the
survey. Definitions were graded by the Commission accord­
ing to standards established for each grade level. Table D-l
shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work levels equivalent
to General Schedule grade levels.

62

Table D-1.

Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salaries
in private Grade4
industry,2
March 1977

Clerks, file 1 ...................................................
Messengers.....................................................

$6,068
7,166

Clerks, file II ................................................
Keypunch operators 1..................................
Typists 1 ..........................................................

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1977 and October 19773
Annual rates and steps6

Average5
Mar. 1977
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

$5,917

$5,810
(6,219)

$6,004
(6,426)

$6,198
(6,633)

$6,392
(6,840)

$6,586
(7,047)

$6,780
(7,254)

$6,974
(7,461)

$7,168
(7,668)

$7,362
(7,875)

$7,556
(8,082)

7,168
8,045
7,202

GS 2

6,775

6,572
(7,035)

6,791
(7,270)

7,010
(7,505)

7,229
(7,740)

7,448
(7,975)

7,667
(8,210)

7,886
(8,445)

8,105
(8,680)

8,324
(8,915)

8,543
(9,150)

Clerks, accounting 1 ....................................
Clerks, file I I I ................................................
Drafter-tracers ..............................................
Engineering technicians 1 ...........................
Keypunch operators I I ...............................
Stenographers, g e n e ra l...............................
Typists II ........................................................

8,138
9,082
9,214
9,727
9,337
9,086
8,585

GS 3

7,955

7,408
(7,930)

7,655
(8,194)

7,902
(8,458)

8,149
(8,722)

8,396
(8,986)

8,643
(9,250)

8,890
(9,514)

9,137
(9,778)

9,384
(10,042)

9,631
(10,306)

Clerks, accounting II ..................................
Computer operators 1 ..................................
Drafters 1 ........................................................
Engineering technicians II ........................
Secretaries 1 ...................................................
Stenographers, s e n io r..................................

10,388
7,979
10,354
11,355
9,329
10,178

GS 4

9,259

8,316
(8,902)

8,593
(9,199)

8,870
(9,496)

9,147
(9,793)

9,424
(10,090)

9,701
(10,387)

9,978
(10,684)

10,255
(10,981)

10,532
(11,278)

10,809
(11,575)

Accountants 1 ................................................
Auditors 1 ........................................................
Buyers 1 ..........................................................
Chemists 1 .....................................................
Computer operators II ...............................
Drafters II .....................................................
Engineers 1 .....................................................
Engineering technicians 1I I ........................
Secretaries II ................................................

12,155
12,570
12,346
12,872
9,463
12,833
14,613
13,151
10,100

GS 5

10,567

9,303
(9,959)

9,613
(10,291)

9,923
(10,623)

10,233
(10,955)

10,543
(11,287)

10,853
(11,619)

11,163
(11,951)

11,473
(12,283)

11,783
(12,615)

12,093
(12,947)

Computer operators III .............................
Secretaries I I I ................................................

10,529
11,159

GS 6

11,928

10,370
(11,101)

10,716
(11,471)

11,062
(11,841)

11,408
(12,211)

11,754
(12,581)

12,100
(12,951)

12,446
(13,321)

12,792
(13,691)

13,138
(14,061)

13,484
(14,431)

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b le .




GS

Tabic D-1.

Comparison of average artmtai salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule — Continued

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salaries
in private
Grade4
industry,2
March 1977

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1977 and October 19773
Annual rates and steps6
Mar. 1977

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

GS 7

$12,993

$11,523
(12,336)

$11,907
(12,747)

$12,291
(13,158)

$12,675
(13,569)

$13,059
(13,980)

$13,443
(14,391)

$13,827
(14,802)

$14,211
(15,213)

$14,595
(15,624)

$14,979
(1*6,035)

Buyers II ........................................................
Chemists I I .....................................................
Computer operators IV .............................
Drafters I I I .....................................................
Engineers II ...................................................
Engineering technicians I V ........................
Job analysts II ..............................................
Secretaries I V ................................................

$14,624
14,503
15,09©
14,438
12,557
15,828
16,221
15,221
13,572
12,138

Computer operators V ...............................
Secretaries V ................................................

14,099
13,407

GS 8

14,812

12,763
(13,662)

13,188
(14,117)

13,613
(14,572)

14,036
(15,027)

14,463
(15,482)

14,888
(15,937)

15,313
(16,392)

15,738
(16,847)

16,163
(17,302)

16,588
(17,757)

Accountants 1II ............................................
Attorneys 1 .....................................................
Auditors III ...................................................
Buyers I I I ........................................................
Chemists III ...................................................
Computer operators V I .............................
Engineers I I I ...................................................
Engineering technicians V ........................
Job analysts I I I ..............................................

16,545
16,033
17,108
18,021
17,600
16,423
18,696
17,237
17,016

GS 9

15,761

14,097
(15,090)

14,567
(15,593)

15,037
(16,096)

15,507
(16,599)

15,977
(17,102)

16,447
(17,605)

16,917
(18,108)

17,387
(18,611)

17,857
(19,114)

18,327
(19,617)

Accountants IV ............................................
Attorneys I I ...................................................
Auditors IV ...................................................
Buyers I V .......................................................
Chemists I V ...................................................
Chief accountants 1 ....................................
Directors of personnel 1 .............................
Engineers I V ...................................................
Job analysts I V ..............................................

$20,367
19,938
21,526
21,907
21,674
22,558
19,062
22,072
20,908

GS 11

$19,205

$17,056
(18,258)

$17,625
(18,867)

$18,194
(19,476)

$18,763
(20,085)

$19,332
(20,694)

$19,901
(21,303)

$20,470
(21,912)

$21,039
(22,521)

$21,608
(23,130)

$22,177
(23,739)

Accountants V ..............................................
Attorneys III ................................................
Chemists V .....................................................
Chief accountants I I ....................................
Director of personnel II .............................
Engineers V ...................................................

25,042
25,460
26,214
25,320
23,755
25,620

GS 12

23,088

20,442
(21,883)

21,123
(22,612)

21,804
(23,341)

22,485
(24,070)

23,166
(24,799)

23,847
(25,528)

24,528
26,257

25,209
(26,986)

25,890
(27,715)

26,571
(28,444)

Accountants I I ..............................................

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b le .




Table D-1.

Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule — Continued

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salaries
Grade4
in private
industry,1
2
4
3
March 1977

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1977 and October 19773
Annual rates and steps6
Average5
Mar. 1977

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Attorneys IV ................................................
Chemists V I ...................................................
Chief accountants I I I ..................................
Directors of personnel I I I ...........................
Engineers V I ...................................................

$30,9 7 3
30,526
31,324
29,188
29,376

GS 13

$27,7 1 7

$ 2 4 ,3 0 8
(26,022)

$25,1 1 8
(26,889)

$ 2 5 ,9 2 8
(27,756)

$26,7 3 8
(28,623)

$27,548
(29,490)

$28,358
(30,357)

$29,1 6 8
(31,224)

$ 2 9 ,9 7 8
(32,091)

$30,788
(32,958)

$31,598
(33,825)

Attorneys V ...................................................
Chemists V II ................................................
Chief accountants I V ..................................
Directors of personnel I V ...........................
Engineers V I I .................................................

38,828
36,329
36,789
37,785
32,999

GS 14

32,677

28,725
(30,750)

29,683
(31,775)

30,641
(32,800)

31,599
(33,825)

32,557
(34,850)

33,515
(35,875)

34,473
(36,900)

35,431
(37,925)

36,389
(38,950)

37,347
(39,975)

Attorneys V I ................................................
Chemists V I I I ................................................
Engineers V I I I ..............................................

46,509
44,642
38,063

GS 15

38,956

33,789
(36,171)

34,915
(37,377)

36,041
(38,583)

37,167
(39,789)

38,293
(40,995)

39,419
42,201

40,545
(43,407)

41,671
(44,613)

42,797
(45,819)

43,923
(47,025)

05

cn

1 F o r d e f i n i t i o n s , see a p p e n d ix C .
2 S u r v e y f in d i n g s , as s u m m a r iz e d in t a b le 1 o f t h is b u l le t in . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y , see
a p p e n d ix A .
3 T h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le r a te s t h a t w e r e in e f f e c t in M a r c h 1 9 7 7 , t h e r e fe r e n c e d a t a o f t h e
B L S P A T C s u r v e y , a r e s h o w n o n t h e f i r s t lin e f o r e a c h g r a d e . T h e n e w r a te s , as a d ju s t e d in
O c t o b e r 1 9 7 7 , a r e s h o w n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
4 C o r r e s p o n d in g g r a d e s in t h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le w e r e s u p p lie d b y t h e U .S . C i v il S e r v ic e
C o m m is s io n .
s M e a n s a la r y o f a ll G e n e r a l S c h e d u le e m p lo y e e s in e a c h g ra d e as o f M a r c h 3 1 , 1 9 7 7 . N o t




li m i t e d t o F e d e r a l e m p lo y e e s in o c c u p a t i o n s s u r v e y e d b y B L S .
6 S e c t io n 5 3 3 5 o f t i t l e 5 o f t h e U .S . C o d e p r o v id e s f o r w i t h in - g r a d e in c re a s e s o n c o n d it io n
t h a t t h e e m p lo y e e 's w o r k is o f a n a c c e p ta b le le v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e as d e f in e d b y t h e h e a d o f
t h e a g e n c y . F o r e m p lo y e e s w h o m e e t t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h e s e r v ic e r e q u ir e m e n t s a re 5 2 c a le n d e r
w e e k s e a c h f o r a d v a n c e m e n t t o s a la r y r a te s 2 , 3 , a n d 4 ; 1 0 4 w e e k s e a c h f o r a d v a n c e m e n t t o
s a la r y r a te s 5 , 6 , a n d 7 ; a n d 1 5 6 w e e k s e a c h f o r a d v a n c e m e n t t o s a la r y r a te s 8 , 9 , a n d 1 0 .
S e c t io n 5 3 3 6 p r o v id e s t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l w i t h in - g r a d e in c re a s e m a y b e g r a n t e d w i t h i n a n y
p e r io d o f 5 2 w e e k s in r e c o g n i t i o n o f h ig h q u a l i t y p e r f o r m a n c e a b o v e t h a t o r d i n a r i l y f o u n d in
th e ty p e o f p o s itio n c o n c e rn e d .

U n d e r S e c tio n 5 3 0 3 o f t i t l e 5 o f t h e U n it e d S ta te s C o d e , h ig h e r m in i m u m r a te s ( b u t n o t
e x c e e d in g t h e m a x im u m s a la r y r a t e p r e s c r ib e d in t h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le f o r t h e g r a d e o r
le v e l) a n d a c o r r e s p o n d in g n e w s a la r y ra n g e m a y b e e s t a b lis h e d f o r p o s i t i o n s o r o c c u p a t i o n s
u n d e r c e r t a in
c o n d it io n s .
T h e c o n d i t i o n s in c lu d e a f i n d i n g t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t 's
r e c r u i t m e n t o r r e t e n t i o n o f w e ll- q u a li f i e d p e r s o n s ie s i g n i f i c a n t l y h a n d ic a p p e d b e c a u s e t h e
s a la r y r a te s in p r iv a t e i n d u s t r y a re s u b s t a n t ia l ly a b o v e t h e s a la r y r a te s o f t h e s t a t u t o r y p a y
s c h e d u le s . A s o f M a r c h 1 9 7 7 , s p e c ia l, h ig h e r s a la r y ra n g e s w e r e a u t h o r iz e d f o r p r o f e s s io n a l
e n g in e e r s , a c c o u n ta n ts , a n d a u d it o r s a t t h e e n t r y g r a d e s ( G S -5 a n d G S - 7 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n o n
s p e c ia l s a la ry ra te s , i n c lu d i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d t h e a re a s t o w h ic h t h e y a p p ly , m a y b e
o b t a in e d f r o m t h e U .S . C i v il S e r v ic e C o m m is s io n , W a s h in g t o n , D .C . 2 0 4 1 5 , o r it s r e g io n a l
o f f ic e s .

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