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Monthly
Labor
S E P T E M B E R 1 9 6 6 VOL. 89 NO.

Minority Groups in California
Changing Structure of Compensation
Labor Force Projections by Color
Overtime Hours and Premium Pay

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS


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OCT 23. iSGS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz , Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
A rth u r M . R oss , Commissioner of Labor Statistics
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Monthly Labor Review
U N ITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR

•

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Lawrence R. K lein , Editor- in-Chief

CONTENTS

Special Articles and Summaries
953
959
965
973
978
984
990
994

The Changing Structure of Compensation
Coordination of Manpower Programs
Labor Force Projections, by Color, 1970-80
Overtime Hours and Premium Pay, May 1965
Minority Groups in California
Earnings and Hours in Southern Metropolitan Areas, June 1965
Reducing Seasonal Unemployment
Wages in Industrial Chemicals and Petroleum Refining

Departments
The Labor Month in Review
999
Errata
1000 Foreign Labor Briefs
1002 Significant Decisions in Labor Cases
1005 Chronology of Recent Labor Events
1006 Developments in Industrial Relations
1014 Book Reviews and Notes
1024 Current Labor Statistics
hi


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September 1966 • Vol. 89 • No. 9

A Memo to Readers
The Monthly Labor Review is interested in receiving, for pos­
sible publication, article manuscripts with subject matter relating
to the general field of labor, industrial relations, and labor
economics.
The Review circulates widely among top management and labor
executives, in academic circles, and to public officials.
Manuscripts should not exceed 3,000 words and must be objec­
tive, well-documented, and of general appeal to subscribers who
have broad interests in labor and related subjects.


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Manuscripts will be read promptly and authors will receive
notice immediately thereafter.
Address manuscripts to—
The Editor-in-Chief
Monthly Labor Review
Bureau of Labor Statistics
U.S. Department of Labor
Washington, D.C. 20212

The Labor Month
in Review
The Prevalence of Escalator Clauses
and Experience With Them in the
Past 20 Years . . .

T h e escalator clause is one of the devices used
to maintain purchasing power of negotiated wages.
At a time of rising prices, the clause comes under
scrutiny as part of the discussion of wage-price
policy.
In recent months, bargaining demands for the
escalator clause have come into the limelight twice.
On July 19, President Johnson vetoed a bill tying
pay raises for Star Route mail carriers to rises in
the CPI. In June the emergency board ap­
pointed in the Machinists’ dispute with five air­
lines recommended against an escalator clause, but
proposed a wage reopener contingent upon a 2.9percent rise in the Index. Some observers put this
issue second only to wages and profits in the dis­
agreement, and the absence of a cost-of-living
adjustment figured to some extent in the rank-andfile rejection of the agreement negotiated at the
end of July.
So far in 1966, the number of contracts in which
escalator clauses were established is only slightly
higher than during the same period in recent years.
Except for the contract airline machinists ap­
proved in mid-August, none of the new clauses is
in an agreement covering a significant number of
workers.

Ups and Downs. Price movements have long in­
fluenced collective bargaining demands, yet few
large contracts contained escalator clauses until
1948, when the General Motors-IJAW agreement
established wage rises geared to an annual im­
provement factor and to periodic cost-of-living
reviews.
Few companies followed the General Motors
lead until the Korean conflict aroused fears of in­
flation and wage controls. In the 9 months follow­


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ing June 1950, the number of workers covered by
escalator clauses increased from 500,000 to 2.5 mil­
lion, and by September 1952 the wages of approxi­
mately a fifth of the workers covered by collective
bargaining agreements were subject to automatic
cost-of-living adjustment.
Many escalator clauses were eliminated during
the 1954 recession, only to be reestablished when
the economy picked up and prices rose in 1956.
The high point was 1958, when 4 million workers
under major collective bargaining agreements were
covered by escalator clauses (1958 was the last
year in which prices rose as much as they have so
far in 1966). Relative price stability, an economic
climate that caused unions to emphasize job secu­
rity, and employer opposition resulted in the elimi­
nation of many escalator clauses in the early 1960’s.
By the beginning of 1966, the number of workers
covered was down to 2 million—half the number
of 8 years earlier.
Escalator clauses have been particularly prev­
alent in industries with strong, centralized
bargaining structures, since these are the indus­
tries which customarily sign the long-term con­
tracts that make automatic cost-of-living adjust­
ment relevant. In 1958, escalator clauses were in
effect in automobiles, farm and construction equip­
ment, aerospace, trucking, meatpacking, steel,
aluminum, containers (cans), electrical equipment,
and railroads.
Regardless of the ups and downs of the economy,
HAW contracts generally have retained the esca­
lator clauses, even when they have resulted in wage
decreases, as they did in 1949. Other unions have
not been so steadfast in their adherence to escalator
clauses, or so fortunate. The International Asso­
ciation of Machinists dropped the clauses from its
aerospace contracts at the end of 1954, but picked
them up again at Douglas and Lockheed in 1956
and at Boeing in 1963. The United Steelworkers
agreed to modify its clause at the end of the long
1959 strike, and to drop it in the 1962 negotiations.
The General Electric Co.’s opposition to the esca­
lator clause resulted in its abandonment in electri­
cal equipment manufacturing in 1960. Probably
the most sensitive response to changing economic
conditions has been that of the railroad unions.
They incorporated escalator clauses into their con­
tracts at the beginning of the 1950’s, dropped them
iii

IV

along with many other unions in 1954—55, picked
them up again in 1956-57, and dropped them again
in 1960.
Some Drawbacks. Arguments as to the merits
of the escalator technique for maintaining pur­
chasing power and for wage-price policy in general
are outside the scope of this piece. However,
there are some other points that bear on the rela­
tively limited use of this device in collective
bargaining.
Employers rarely favor escalator clauses. In
industries where prices are set at the time manu­
facturing commitments are made, the need for an
accurate estimate of future costs makes such clauses
extremely undesirable to management. The Steel­
workers’ 1956 escalator clause raised wage costs
more than had been anticipated, and the union
credits this experience with fueling the companies’
opposition to continuing the cost-of-living
adjustments.
Unions also have reasons to be chary in the use
of escalator clauses. One factor that delayed de­
mands for escalator clauses until 1950 was that
union leaders feared that automatic cost-of-living
adjustments would come to substitute for wage
increases—thus stabilizing the workers’ share of
total income. Then, too, they were reluctant to
provide for downward adjustments. Experience
has allayed the first fear, but many union leaders,
with the Depression years in mind, still feel they
must guard against wage decreases.
Moreover, even though the longer contracts now
common make it impossible to insure that benefits
negotiated one year will have the same value the
next (spendable income for a factory worker with
three dependents went from $96.99 a week in June
1965 to $99.22 in June of this year, but real spend­
able earnings declined from $88.09 to $87.88),
many bargainers would rather use price changes as
a lever to win an impressive package next time
round. Bargainers may feel that the 2 or 3 cents
an hour that accrue every few months when prices
are rising aren’t necessarily visible to a worker who
is likely to be earning a lot in overtime pay. (The
totals may be impressive, though; tlieUAW claims
that the typical autoworker has received $14,429


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

from the escalator provision over the 18 years it
has been in effect, and cost-of-living increases often
exceeded scheduled wage increases—during 195859, for example.)
Another reason that makes unions wary of es­
calator clauses is that cost-of-living allowances
float until they are negotiated into a more perma­
nent form. Commonly, after the allowance has
become large, it is incorporated into the base wage
rate (except for an amount sufficient to permit
downward adjustments should prices fall). Many
times, too, the parties agree to use the allowance to
fund additional fringe benefits—paying the work­
ers’ share of the insurance program, for example.
But, unless some such permanent arrangement is
made, the allowance is occasionally discontinued.
The Steelworkers and Erie Forge and Steel Co.
suspended their 17-cent-an-hour allowance in 1963
to reduce labor costs, and in a similar situation a
year later the same union and Blaw-Knox elimi­
nated an 18i/^-cent allowance accrued before they
discontinued the escalator clause in 1962.
Current Status. The Ladies’ Garment Workers’
Union has probably been most successful in incor­
porating cost-of-living as a factor in 1966 agree­
ments. Its new contract covering 5,000 workers
at the 27 plants of Jonathan Logan, Inc., requires
a 2-percent wage increase whenever the CPI rises
by 2 percent ; other recent ILGWU contracts pro­
vide for reopening when the CPI goes up 2y2
percent (instead of the 5 percent specified in pre­
vious agreements).
Restoration of the escalator clause is in the cur­
rent demands of unions that negotiate with rail­
roads and with electrical equipment manufac­
turers. Keeping in mind the membership’s strong
stand for automatic cost-of-living adjustment in
previous contracts, restoration of the escalator will
probably figure prominently in the formulation of
the Steelworkers next year’s bargaining program
with the steel companies. However, the vigor
with which the Steelworkers and other unions will
press for escalator agreements or other devices to
maintain purchasing power will depend on wageprice policy and the extent of price rises as well
as on the other factors mentioned earlier.

The Changing
Structure of
Compensation
A rnold Strasser*

Compensation for American labor has evolved
from a relatively simple system of direct payments
to workers for time worked or units produced to
a highly complex structure. This evolution is an
outgrowth of the workers" continuing search for
economic security for themselves and their depend­
ents and the interaction of many other variables.
The attitudes of the workers toward the form of
achievement of this security have gone through a
series of changes; 1the underlying legal and insti­
tutional basis propelling payments into supple­
mentary pay channels have modified over time,
and shifts in national economic policy have pro­
vided incentives toward deferment of compensa­
tion. In addition, as this article suggests, levels
and rates of change of pay supplements have
tended to be associated (though not necessarily
causally related) with high levels of money wages
and unionization. The forces behind these asso­
ciations indicate that the continuing growth of
supplements will be most marked in such sectors
of the economy as trade and services.
The desire and need for economic security is cer­
tainly not new, nevertheless the attainment—at
least for large groups of workers—is. The forms
through which this newly achieved security has
been acquired range from the collective purchase
of various types of health and welfare benefits to
the use of paid vacations to extend the workyear
and foster employment opportunities. Regard­
less of the form through which protection against


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economic insecurity is achieved, that part of the
package which is paid for by employers is, in
economic terms, the return to the production factor
labor. This return is the compensation2 for
labor—the major component of labor cost.
Behind the Change

The development of the various programs and
plans that provide American workers with some
degree of protection against economic insecurity
can be traced back for more than a century. How­
ever, few American workers had any real protec­
tion against economic insecurity until the enact­
ment of the Social Security Act of 1935 which
was passed in direct response to the depression of
the 1930’s.
The passage of the act represented a complete
break with the past attitudes. Even organized
labor, previously preferring to provide economic
security to workers through the medium of the
labor movement and collective bargaining, had
widely opposed legally required social welfare
programs. This opposition was predicated on the
belief that governmental action in this area re­
duced the reasons for unorganized workers'to join
a union. However, the inadequacy of union pen­
sion funds and the depression of the 1930’s caused
labor to reappraise and reverse this position.3
Since the passage of the act, much of labor’s efforts
in the legal arena have been expended towards
expanding the coverage of the various social wel­
fare laws and improving the benefits provided; in
the private arena, labor has striven to supplement
these legally required programs through collective
bargaining.
*Of th e D iv isio n of N a tio n a l W age and S alary Incom e, Bureau
o f Labor S ta tis tic s.
1 A rnold S trasser, “W ages, W age S u pplem ents and Labor
C om pensation ,” L a b o r L a w J o u rn a l, J u ly 1966, pp. 3 8 7 -3 9 2 .
2 T he term com pensation , as used in th is article, is defined as
g ross m oney w a g es paid to em ployees before ded u ction s of any
typ e and cash d isbu rsem ents (ex p e n d itu r e s) by em ployers for
so cia l and p r iv a te w e lfa r e p lan s fo r th e benefit o f em ployees.
T he fa c t th a t m uch of th is com p en sation is in th e form of deferred
or p o ten tia l incom e does n ot at all change its basic ren um era­
tion ch a ra cteristic.
3 C arroll R. D au gh erty, L a b o r P ro b le m s in A m e ric a n I n d u s tr y
(N ew York, H ou gh ton Mifflin Co., 1 9 4 1 ).

953

954
Impetus to Change

Even before the passage of the Social Security
Act, some impetus to the supplement movement
was given by the Revenue Act of 1921, which
exempted the income of pension and profit sharing
trusts from income taxes and relieved employees
from the tax on current contributions made for
their benefit by employers, and the Revenue Act
of 1928, which provided for the exemption of con­
tributions for past service liabilities.4 Amended
by more recent legislation, these acts permit em­
ployers to deduct their expeditures for wage sup­
plements, qualified under Treasury regulations,
from gross income in the same manner as they
deduct other business expenses.
During the 1940’s, some new ingredients were
added to the mixture of factors affecting the struc­
ture of labor compensation. These were years of
high profits, and high taxes. While wages and
prices were controlled, supplementary wage prac­
tices were not controlled to the same extent that
wage rates were. In fact, the War Labor Board
recommended the adoption of supplementary pay
practices in lieu of wage increases5 and organized
labor seized upon this device as the only major
means of gaining increases in compensation. Anx­
ious to attract and retain labor, and in many
instances being able to write off the cost of wage
supplements as business expenses and add them to
the base on which their profits under cost-plus
contracts were determined, employers abetted the
labor demands.
During this period, as in current and past years,
employers had other reasons for agreeing to or
unilaterally adopting supplementary pay prac­
tices. Some looked upon pension plans and other
retirement provisions as a humanitarian way of
solving the problem of the older worker; some
adopted supplementary pay practices to forestall
impending unionization; others, because of the
economies inherent in large-scale purchases of such
welfare plans as life, accident, and health insur­
ance used them as a means of granting or provid­
ing workers with increased compensation at lower
cost levels than if the economic value of the plan
had been added to the workers’ pay check. Some
employers attempted to establish and maintain
model compensation programs hoping thereby to
attract and retain the highest caliber workers with


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

the requisite skills. From a more pragmatic view­
point, employer expenditures for private health
and welfare plans have a decided advantage over
the same dollar expenditure built into the wage
rate—being in addition to payroll, such expendi­
tures do not enter into the computation of overtime
premiums nor do they boost those expenditures
(like social security or unemployment compensa­
tion) that are based on the application of a rate
to a maximum earnings base per employee.
The 3 years following the cessation of hostilities
saw fairly substantial increases in wage rates and
little emphasis on wage supplements. This tempo­
rary shift in attention to money wages resulted in
part because of rapidly advancing prices, and in
part from labor’s desire to share immediately in
increased productivity and to make up for the
years of stabilized wages that attended the previ­
ous emergency period.
By 1948, basic wage rates had advanced sub­
stantially, the upward movement in prices had
abated, and some recessionary tendencies were
appearing in the economy. While no single rea­
son can be indicated, the fact is clear: In 1948,
organized labor refocused its attention on wage
supplements and since then the upward march of
employer expenditures for pay practices in addi­
tion to wages paid for time worked or units pro­
duced has continued without abatement.
The Dimensions of the Change

Since 1935, the increasingly large employer ex­
penditures for wage supplements have purchased
an amazingly wide assortment of new and liberal­
ized benefit programs—some of them the result of
private action, others of legislative mandate. Sav­
ings and thrift plans, for example, have only be­
come important since 1950,6 the first supplemental
unemployment benefit plan was adopted in 1955,'
and Medicare was introduced in the 1965 amend­
ments to the Social Security Act. In fact, not until
1948 and 1949 did private pensions and other weli p or d eta iled in fo rm a tio n on th e se and related p oin ts, see
P a u l P . H arbrech t, P e n sio n F u n ds an d E con om ic P o w e r (N ew
York, T he T w en tie th C entury F u nd, 1 9 5 9 ).
s D u rin g th e K orean conflict, th e W age S ta b iliz a tio n B oard
took m uch th e sam e approach.
« H arlan d F ox, “E m p loyee S avin gs P la n T ren d s,” C onferen ce
B oard R eco rd , N ovem ber 1965.
7
T he plan w as con tain ed in th e c o n tr a c t betw een th e Ford
M otor Co. and th e U n ited A uto W orkers.

THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF COMPENSATION

fare plans become legally subject to collective
bargaining.8
Within the first half of this decade, the propor­
tion of production and nonproduction workers
covered or entitled to such high expenditure items
as life, accident, and health insurance, private pen­
sions, and long vacations increased markedly.9
As a result of the introduction and proliferation
of new plans and the liberalization of existing
ones, wage and salary supplements are now esti­
mated to be about 20 to 25 percent of the total
compensation paid by employers for labor. Thus,
the sheer growth—much of it recent and most of
it occurring within the span of a single genera­
tion—of supplementary compensation plans and
expenditures is an outstanding feature in the
changing structure of compensation.
Estimates of total compensation payments in
1935, separated into wages and wage supplements,
indicate that employer payments in addition to
those made for time worked or units produced by
8 In la n d S te e l Co. v. N L R B , 170 F ed era l R eports 2d series 247
(1 9 4 8 ), 251 (1 9 4 9 ). C ross & Co. v. N L R B (U .S . Ct. o f App.
(1st),, 1 9 4 9 ).
9 W ages and R e la te d B en efits: P a r t I I : M e tr o p o lita n A rea s,
U n ite d S ta te s an d R eg io n a l S u m m a ries, 1 9 6 4 -6 5 (B L S B u lletin
1 4 3 0 -8 3 , 1 9 6 6 ). A lso see “M ajor C ollectiv e B a rg a in in g S e ttle ­
m ents, 1 9 6 5 ,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , A pril 1966, pp. 3 7 2 -3 7 6 .
10 A lb ert R ees, N e w M ea su res o f W a g e-E a rn e r C o m p e n sa tio n in
M a n u fa c tu rin g , 1 9 1 4 -5 7 (N ew York, N a tio n a l B ureau o f E conom ic
R esearch , 1 9 6 0 ) (o c c a sio n a l paper 7 5 ). Som e le g isla tio n pro­
v id in g w orkers w ith a m easure o f p ro tectio n a g a in s t variou s
c o n tin g en cies had been p assed before 1935. F or e x a m p le : in
1908, C ongress en a cted a w orkm en’s co m p en sa tio n a c t coverin g
c iv il e m p lo y e e s ; in 1911 W isco n sin en a cted th e first general
coverage com p en sation la w in th e cou n try and in 1 932 adop ted
th e N a tio n ’s first un em p loym en t in su ra n ce la w .
11 F o r d e ta il see : E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c te d S u p p le ­
m e n ta r y C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c tic e s fo r P r o d u c tio n and R e la te d
W o r k e r s ; C o m p o sitio n o f P a y r o ll H o u rs, M a n u fa c tu rin g I n d u s ­
tr ie s , 1962 (B L S B u lle tin 1428, 1 9 6 5 ) and S u p p le m e n ta ry C om ­
p e n s a tio n f o r N o n p ro d u c tio n W o rk e rs, 1963 (B L S B u lle tin 1470,
1 9 6 5 ). In both stu d ies, com p en sation w a s defined to exclude
stock bonuses and stock o p tion s. T he n on production w orker
stu d y excluded em ployees in p o sitio n s a t th e sen ior v ice p resid en t
lev el and above.
13 Inclu d ed in th is ca teg o ry are a ll le g a lly required insu ran ce
p rogram s and a ll p r iv a te ly fu nded or insured plan s such as life,
accid en t, and h e a lth insurance, pen sio n and retirem en t plan s, and
su p p lem en ta l un em p lo y m en t benefits plans.
13 S u pplem entary pay p ra ctices fo r w h ich th e em ployers m ake
d irect paym en ts to w orkers, as p a rt o f th eir m oney w ages, inclu de
paid lea v e p la n s ; non production b o n u s e s ; overtim e, w eekend,
h olid ay, and s h ift work p r e m iu m s; and term in a l p aym en ts. F or
illu str a tio n s o f th ese p o in ts, see th e B L S stu d ies o f em ployer
exp en d itu res fo r su p p lem en tary com pensation in th e M in in g I n ­
d u s tr ie s , 1960 (B L S B u lle tin 1332, 1 9 6 3 ), M ea tp a c k in g and
P ro c essin g I n d u s tr ie s , 1962 (B L S B u lle tin 1413, 1 9 6 4 ), M a n u fa c­
tu r in g I n d u s tr ie s , 1962 (B L S B u lle tin 1428, 1 9 6 5 ), and M a n u ­
fa c tu r in g I n d u s tr ie s , 1959 (B L S B u lle tin 1308, 1 9 6 2 ).


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

955
manufacturing industry wage earners amounted to
only about one-half cent, less than 1 percent, above
that actually paid for each hour spent on the job.10
By 1962, supplementary payments to and for the
benefit of manufacturing industry production
workers had increased to 57 cents per plant hour—
more than 17 percent of total compensation pay­
ments made by employers. In 1963, expenditures
for pay supplements for professional, administra­
tive, technical, clerical and executive employees in
the private nonfarm sector were estimated to con­
stitute about 24 percent of their total compensa­
tion. In each case, employer payments for social
and private welfare plans which provided some
protection against such contingencies and eventu­
alities as unemployment, retirement, medical ex­
penses, and death accounted for a significant and
substantial part of total compensation payments—
approximately 9 percent for production workers,
and 11 percent for nonproduction workers.11
The expenditures made by private nonagricultural employers for social and private welfare
plans 12 alone have leaped from about 1.4 percent
of wages and total labor compensation paid in
1935 to just under 10 percent of wages and 9 per­
cent of total compensation payments made by em­
ployers during 1964. This increase in social and
private welfare expenditures in the total private
nonfarm sector, though dramatic, is somewhat
lower than that which occurred in the manufactur­
ing division as a whole, mostly because of the low
overall levels of expenditures in the trade and
service industries. The comparatively low levels
of supplementary compensation in these industries
result from a number of factors. Nevertheless,
average money wages in the trade and service in­
dustries are substantially lower than in other in­
dustries and studies of employer expenditures for
pay supplements have consistently led to the con­
clusion that employer expenditures for social and
private welfare plans, as well as expenditures for
those pay supplements which are paid as part of
money wages, tend to be higher in industries and
plants with higher average wages and salaries than
in those with lower average wages and salaries.13
An examination of the distributive shares of na­
tional income by industry supports this conclusion.
(See chart.)

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

956
Wage Rates and Supplements

Wage supplements are proxies for wage rates
in that they provide deferred or prospective in­
come to employees in lieu of immediate increases
in current payments for time worked or units pro­
duced. This other-side-of-the-coin characteristic
was recognized as far back as 1913, when pay sup­
plements were noticeable because of their sparsity.
In that year, Albert DeRoode writing about “Pen­
sions as Wages,” 14 observed that “the growing
demand on the part of employees for pensions is
really a demand for higher wages.” DeRoode
continued to argue that, by forgoing increased
money wages in favor of a pension plan, the em­
ployees were actually paying for the plan even
though the employer made the cash disbursement.
14 A m erica n E co n o m ic R e v ie w , Jun e 1913.

This argument, with minor variations, has been
carried forward by academicians, practicing econ­
omists, and organized labor.
A succinct statement of labor’s support for this
view was made by Arthur Goldberg, testifying, as
a representative of the Steelworkers and the CIO,
at a special hearing of the New York State De­
partment of Insurance on November 21, 1955:
The union and the management come to the bargain­
ing table with some appraisal as to how much money
there is in the ‘kitty’ for an increase . . . it is the total
cost of improvements which provide the framework
within which the union and the management bargain
. . . The choice of one approach—level of 'benefits, or
cents per hour, or perhaps percentage of payroll—does
not at all diminish the importance to the beneficiarie,,
or to the union of how the money is being spent.

While employer expenditures for all types of
supplementary compensation are a form of wages,

Changing Compensation Patterns 1

A verage w ages and

sa la rie s

E x p e n d it u re s tor s o c ia l a n d

per e m p lo y e e

T h o u s a n d s o f d o lla r s

P e rce n t

7

14

6 h—

/

M a n u fa c tu r in g x
X
T o ta l p riv a te
non fa rm

/

/

/ /

///
/

12

/

o°

•*

—

M a n u fa c tu r in g x

X

/
/
.•*

/

/
/

_

/

10
T o ta l p riv a te
n o n fa rm

0o°°
8

,*

p la n s

sa la rie s

/

/

4

and

/
—

/

/
5 _

/

p riv a te w e lf a r e

a p ercen t of w a g e s

as

f

/

/ x

/

o°

/

/

-

/

/

/

/
/

y

/

/
/

.•

6

3
/

^

'

^

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

T ra d e and
s e r v ic e

2

_

4

o°
2

1

/

00oo00o<>°°0000

\

0°

f /

1

0
1935

1
1940

l
1945

1
1950

1
1955

1
1960

0
1965

\ T r a d e and
s e r v ic e

—

l __________ 1___________ 1____________1___________ 1___________ 1____________
1935

1940

1945

1 See text footnotes 12, 13, and 19 for descriptions of the techniques and sources used in deriving these data.


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' X N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

1950

1955

1960

1965

957

THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF COMPENSATION

they are, nevertheless, independently affected by
each change in wage rates. For example, an in­
crease in hourly wage rates or weekly salaries re­
sults in higher dollar expenditures (although in
the same relationship to total money wages) for
paid leave, overtime and similar premiums, and
occasions higher levels of expenditures per unit
of time for these social and private welfare plans
funded on the basis of a rate applied against a
base. Similarly, an increase in the number of
compensated hours, even at the same wage rate,
will result in both higher levels of expenditures for
those private welfare plans that are funded on the
basis of a fixed monetary contribution per hour
worked and increases in other plan expenditures
because the total payment has increased.
The major legally required welfare programs
are funded by applying fixed contribution rates to
a maximum money wage base per employee. As a
result, the lower wage industries—like trade and
services—have substantially greater relative ex­
penditures for these programs than do industries
with higher levels of money wages. This is true
even though most of the establishments excluded
from coverage under the various legally required
programs are in the trade and service industries.
Every improvement in private or social welfare
programs is eventually reflected in increased em­
ployer expenditures, but the converse is not true.
Expenditures for private and social welfare plans
can increase both absolutely and relatively with­
out a corresponding liberalization of the plan.15
15 A s a m a tter o f fa c t, ex p en d itu res fo r w age su p p lem en ts and
p articu larly som e p riv a te w e lfa r e p la n s are con sid erab ly more
rigid th an w a g e ra tes.
F o r e x a m p le : s h iftin g te ch n o lo g y or
em p loym en t p a tte rn s can, am ong oth er fa cto rs, r esu lt in an em ­
p lo y er’s p a y in g low er a v era g e hou rly w age rates. H ow ever,
ex p en d itu res for sup p lem en tary com p en sation p la n s fu nded on th e
b asis of fixed m on etary a m ou nts per hou r rem ain c o n sta n t in
d o lla r term s, but in crea se in rela tio n to average hou rly w age
rates.
18 F or an in te r e stin g d iscu ssio n o f th is p o in t see V ictor ,T.
S h eifer, “ W hite-C ollar P a y S u p p lem en ts,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w , M ay 1966, pp. 4 9 6 -5 0 2 .
17 T he d ata u tiliz ed fo r th ese a n a ly se s have been draw n from
stu d ies condu cted by th e B L S of em ployer ex p en d itu res for
selected com pensation p ra ctices, m o n th ly em ploym en t s ta tis tic s ,
and union m em bership, and from th e n a tio n a l incom e accou n ts
com piled by th e Office o f B u sin e ss E con om ics, U .S . D ep a rtm en t of
C om m erce.
(S ee fo o tn o te s 18 and 19 fo r d e ta il.)
18 T he B L S stu d ies conducted to date, in w h ich un ion s ta tu s in
rela tio n to ex p en d itu res h ave been exam ined, h ave been restricted
to produ ction and rela ted o ccu p a tio n s in th e m a n u fa ctu rin g and
m in in g in d u str ies.
(S ee th e B L S B u lle tin s cited in fo o tn o te 13
fo r d e ta il.) O ther B ureau stu d ies in th is series w ere n o t designed
to p erm it a n a ly s is o f th e r ela tio n sh ip o f u n io n iza tio n and
exp en d itu res.


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At any given point in time, expenditures and bene­
fit levels do not necessarily bear any relationship
to each other.16
Discussion and quantification of total compensa­
tion payments to and for the benefit of American
workers held to more fully understand our chang­
ing economy and labor’s relative standing in the
economy. There is a huge difference, however,
between total compensation in the abstract or in
macroeconomic terms and total compensation as it
relates to the individual worker.
Even in establishments with expenditures for a
particular program some workers are not covered
and some of those who are covered will never re­
ceive any of the plan benefits. Further, if all
workers were given completely free choice to elect
between being covered under the benefit plan or
receiving an increase in wage rates, some of them,
particularly the younger single workers, might
elect the wage increase.
On the other hand, because of the economies of
scale inherent in group purchasing and the effect
of the various tax laws, each dollar expended by
an employer purchases considerably greater bene­
fits than would be acquired if the same amount
were distributed to employees wdio then purchased
or attempted to purchase individual benefit plans
comparable with those provided under group
p ro gram s.

Unions and Compensation Levels

The impact of union activity on the level and
structure of compensation cannot be assessed with
certainty since data about such effects have not
been gathered in specific empirical investigations.
Some generalizations based on collateral data, pri­
marily collected for other purposes however, can
be made.17 These data indicate that there is a pos­
itive association between compensation levels and
unionization. They do not, however, substantiate
a finding of cause and effect.
In every Bureau of Labor Statistics study of
employer expenditures for supplementary compen­
sation practices in which the union variable has
been examined, the highest levels of expenditures
were found in establishments where the majority
of employees (in the selected broad occupational
groups studied) were covered by union contracts.18
Moreover, when these expenditures are examined
as a percent of payroll and in cents per hour they

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

958
are higher in union plants than in nonunion plants.
It is reasonable to assume that total compensation
expenditures follow a similar pattern.
A comparison of compensation expenditures per
employee in various private sector industry group­
ings with estimates of the extent of unionization
in these groupings19 also suggests the positive
association of these variable. This can most
easily be seen in the case of the fractionally
organized trade and service industries, which have
lower levels of money wages and expenditures for
social and private welfare plans per employee than
any other grouping of industries in the private
nonfarm sector of the economy.
There seems to be little doubt that the high
incidence of part-time employment and the large
proportion of secondary workers in the trade and
service industries are in large measure responsible
for these low averages. Nonetheless, it is signifi­
cant that the trade and service industries as a
whole have one of the lowest levels of unionization
in the private nonfarm sector of the economy.
The trade and service industries are becoming
substantially more important in our economy and

the labor movement has been increasingly active
in trying to organize the workers in these indus­
tries. The organizing attempt has seen limited
but nevertheless, some success in the last few
years—particularly in retail and wholesale trade.
Both trends can be expected to accelerate. Thus,
the stage is set for significant advances in average
annual compensation per employee in these indus­
tries. Following the patterns of other industries,
greater proportions of these compensation pay­
ments will undoubtedly consist of pay supple­
ments—both as part of and in addition to money
wages.
19 E x p en d itu res by in d u stry and ty p e of com p en sation paym en t
w ere derived from un publish ed n a tio n a l incom e ag g reg a tes and
ad ju sted to a v era g es per em ployee th rou gh th e a p p licatio n of
average a n n u a l em ploym en t obtained from th e B L S m on th ly em ­
p loym en t s ta tis tic s program . U n ion m em bership d ata presented
in th e D ir e c to r y of N a tio n a l ancl I n te r n a tio n a l L a b o r U nions in
th e U n ite d S ta te s , 1965 (B L S B u lle tin 1493, 1 9 6 6 ) w ere com ­
pared w ith em ploym en t in broad in d u stry grou p in gs to obtain
e stim a te s o f u n io n iza tio n in th e groups. T h is approach is u n ­
doubtedly deficien t and su b ject to error, but th e r ela tio n sh ip
betw een un ion m em bership a ttrib u ted to in d u stry groups and
em ploym en t a t broad le v e ls o f a g gregation seem s reason ab ly con ­
s iste n t w ith oth er a v a ila b le data. F or a d d itio n a l d iscu ssio n on
th is p o in t see A rnold S trasser, “F a c to r y W orkers U nder B a rg a in ­
in g A greem en ts,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 19(65, pp.
1 6 4 -1 6 7 .

The data [on industry change within a year by multiemployer workers]
indicate that, for a large majority of workers, an employer change also in­
volves a change in industry attachment. Of multiemployer workers in 1961,
80 percent of the men and 70 percent of the women were also multi-industry
workers. Furthermore, the data indicate that, as expected, the proportion of
the workers who made industry changes varied inversely with age, ranging
from 89 percent of the men age 20-24 to 62 percent of those age 6 and
over. The range for women was from 84 percent among those under age 20 to
45 percent among those age 65 and over.
When the multiemployer wage earners are classified by industry division of
major job in 1962, the data show that in every industry division most workers
who changed employers also changed industry but that there were significant
interindustry differences in the amount of shifting by workers from one in­
dustry group to another. Among the multiemployer workers in 1962, the
proportion of men who worked in more than one industry during the year was
largest (87 percent) for workers whose major job was in manufacturing and
smallest (69 percent) for those whose major job was in mining. For women,
the proportion who worked in more than one industry group was largest (90
percent) among those whose major job was in transportation, communication,
and public utilities, and it was smallest (62 percent) for those whose major job
was in services.


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—Sebastia Svolos, “Measures of Labor Mobility and OASDHI Data,” S ocial
S e c u rity B u lle tin , April 1966.

Coordination
of Manpower
Programs
H arold C. Taylor*

N o t e .— The following is taken from
Dimensions of Manpower Policy: Programs
and Research, a compilation of papers pre­
pared by the W. E. Upjohn Institute for
Employment Research, to commemorate its
20th anniversary. The volume , edited by Sar
A. Levitan and Irving II. Siegel, is to be pub­
lished in mid-N ovember by The Johns H op­
kins Press, Baltimore , Md. (267 pp., $6.95).
A portion of the author’s paper , “Perspective
for Public Understanding of Federal Manpower Programs” , the article describes by
analogy some of the coordinating problems
that may arise and some of the solutions
proposed.

E d i t o r ’s

t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l , it is certain that the need
for coordination of manpower programs is recog­
nized and that efforts to improve coordination will
have a high priority. In these efforts, we can take
for granted there will be, or there have been, inter­
agency committees, corresponding reasonably well
to the operating committee in the electronics firm
used as an illustration. These will, however, be
interagency committees on manpower programs,
rather than one over-all operating committee.
In the light of our discussion of how to cope
with the problems of functional organizations, it
is natural to wonder whether there might be a
Federal “product manager” for manpower devel­
opment programs. Would he be in the Executive
Office of the President, assigned full time to worry
about the various manpower programs, to act by
information and persuasion, and, where necessary,

At


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to seek directives from the President or new legis­
lation from the Congress? A Presidential assist­
ant could, of course, perform these functions with­
out having any title designating him as the product
manager, though there might be some advantage
in his being acknowledged by all as the man as­
signed to these functions.
Following the first Watts incident in Los
Angeles, the Federal Government carried on an
expediter operation that deserves serious consider­
ation as a coordinating device. A high-level inter­
agency team went to Los Angeles to determine
what programs were needed to cope as effectively
as possible with the adverse conditions that pre­
ceded the outbreak of violence. This team used
information and persuasion to improve the pro­
gram efforts of the State and local agencies in­
volved in the Watts area. They determined also,
in some detail, the financing efforts needed from all
relevant Federal agencies and returned to Wash­
ington with tangible recommendations. Program
financing for the Watts area was made available
very promptly. If these same programs had been
developed solely by the Los Angeles people and
had been sent to Washington through the usual
channels, they would necessarily have been subject
to a delay of several months or more.
The great potential of this type of expediter
team approach is almost self-evident. The ap­
proach has been continued, but only within the
Department of Labor itself, in a “selected cities”
program, and is regarded as quite successful. One
is forced to assume, however, that the device would
be rated even more successful if it could be ex­
tended to include other Federal agencies, especially
the Department of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare, and the Office of Economic Opportunity. At
this moment of writing, such interagency coordi­
nating teams are being established in a number of
metropolitan areas.
In our discussion of functional structures at the
Federal level, we must observe that the Office of
Economic Opportunity (OEO), in several re­
spects, does not fit, the usual mold. It is in part a
product shop or problem-oriented organization.
Thus, it operates Job Corps centers directly, with
its own funds and under its own supervision, al­
though most training and educational functions of
*Of th e W. E. U pjohn I n s titu te fo r E m p loym en t R esearch.

959

960
the Federal Government are channeled through
the Office of Education or through parts of the
Labor Department. On the other hand, for the
recruitment and referral of Job Corps applicants,
the OEO relies substantially on existing public
employment offices. There is nothing inherently
irrational about this. For instance, the electronics
firm [a hypothetical industrial analogue set up
previously by the author] could decide that, al­
though its functional shops are good for most pur­
poses, the whole hearing aid business is really
something special and should be set up almost
entirely as a separate business. Even so, a single
employment office could refer applicants to all
parts of the company, including the hearing aid
division.
The Office of Economic Opportunity departs
from the usual Federal pattern also in that its
activities cut directly from the Federal level to
the local level (thus essentially bypassing State
governments). Furthermore, at the local level, it
deals with private nongovernmental agencies as
well as with public agencies.
Are these differences desirable or not? Perhaps
the attitude of the electronics company will help
us decide. Certainly, with an already established
and generally excellent series of functional shops,
the company would be very reluctant to jerk out
the hearing aid business and set it up elsewhere.
There would be duplication. For example, more
punch presses would be needed, and more people
to run them; and “duplication” is a bad word in
business just as it is in Government, Even so, if
the company is forced to conclude that the hearingaid business is really something special, not readily
meshed with the other parts of the business, it must
set up this activity separately or give up the hear­
ing aid business.
The structure of OEO is neither to be criticized
nor to be lauded just because it is different. The
issue is simply whether it works better this way.
This point of view doesn’t carry us far toward an
answer, but at least it poses the right question.
Another observation should be made with re­
gard to the separateness of the OEO from the de­
partments previously carrying on the Federal
manpower programs. Being new, and having no
long-standing commitments in terms of objectives
and established procedures, the OEO might be ex­
pected to come up more readily with some fresh
thinking and innovative ideas. Some observers


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

believe that such new thinking is already evident
and that it is beginning to permeate the thinking
of the “old-line” and perhaps somewhat rigid
agencies. If so, this is a plus mark of consider­
able importance.
State Level

Let us turn now from Federal organizational
problems and possible devices for coping with
them to the State level. The multiplicity of func­
tions being carried on at the State level seems
even more confusing, if possible, than at the Federal level. If, for example, an agency official in
some community wants to understand everything
going on in his State in the new field of manpower
development, there will be a half-dozen to a dozen
persons whom he will have to contact before his
information is complete. These will include of­
ficers of the State government, State officers of
Federal agencies, regional officers of Federal agen­
cies, and, in some cases, persons in the Washington
headquarters of agencies.
Manifestly, the sheer problem of ascertaining
where to go and whom to see is very nearly insur­
mountable. A few devices for coping with this
difficulty come easily to mind. First, in each State
there could be a manpower programs information
office. In this one office, an agency official from a
community should be able to obtain all the infor­
mation he needs to answer any specific question he
may have in mind.
Second, the Governor of each State could
appoint a manpower coordinator or product man­
ager to worry about the conduct and coordina­
tion of manpower programs in the State. This
coordinator or manager, it must be noted, would
have an even more troubled existence than his
counterpart in industry because some of the mat­
ters with which he must concern himself (OEO
programs, for example) are not under the man­
agement of his boss, the Governor. The State
manpower coordinator could, as a part of his job,
operate the manpower programs information of­
fice referred to above.
An innovation now being tried in West Vir­
ginia and Hawaii is the manpower authority set
up by statute and having defined powers. This
legislative charter distinguishes it sharply from
the product manager role. The “authority” de­
vice is too new to evaluate at this time.

COORDINATION OF MANPOWER PROGRAMS

All these devices illustrate, but surely do not
exhaust, the list of possible procedures by which
functionally diverse programs at the State level
may be encompassed and coordinated. Let us
turn now to local problems and instrumentalities
for handling them.
Local Level

It is at the community level, of course, that all
programs are actually being conducted. Fed­
eral and State roles are largely those of establish­
ing requirements, of financing, and, to some degree,
of monitoring performance.
The manifold character and complexity of
functions performed therefore become most
sharply apparent in the community. Some of
these functions—notably in OEO programs—are
based largely on directives from Washington.
Some agencies are instruments of the State—the
employment office, categorical aids, and others.
Some functions are administered by counties,
some by municipal governments, some by inde­
pendent school districts, and many by private
nongovernmental agencies. The diversity is stag­
gering. Let us note a number of community ex­
periences and devices, largely to make clear how
greatly the problems stem from the inescapable
fact that organizational structures are mostly
functional.
At the local level, the device of the product
manager, a person designated to worry about all
of the community’s manpower problems, has some
definite merits. However, the device does not
seem promising, because there is no boss who has
adminstrative control over any sizable proportion
of the total range of programs.
There is in most communities a community
services council, which, year in and year out, has
the job of bringing about voluntary coordination
among all the agencies, both public and private.
On the other hand, citizens who have worked on
council committees are painfully aware of the
modest success that usually attends their efforts
to direct “functional shops” toward the solution
1 B rad ley B u e ll an d A sso c ia te s, C o m m u n ity P la n n in g fo r
H u m an S e rv ic e s (N ew Y ork; C olum bia U n iv e r sity P ress, 1 9 5 2 ),
p. 9.
2 H arold L. Sheppard, C losin g o f th e S tu d e h a k e r P la n t, S o u th
B en d , In d . (U .S . D e p a rtm en t o f Commerce, A rea R edevelop m ent
A d m in istra tio n , 1 9 6 4 ), AR A Case B ook No. 5.


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961
of multifunctional problems or multiproblem
groups. A few of the community experiences may
offer some useful insights into what works and
what doesn’t.
In St. Paul, Minn., a fairly large-scale project
was initiated in 1948 to focus the efforts of the
functional shops in that city on the problems of
the hard-core poverty families. This followed
the discovery that about 6 percent of the city’s
families “were suffering from such a compound­
ing of serious problems that they were absorbing
well over half of the combined services of the
community’s dependency, health, and adjustment
agencies.” 1 The procedure, basically, was that
each of the major functional agencies loaned a
staff member to a task force, which directed its
attention entirely to the 6,600 hard-core poverty
families. This cadre of workers thus represented
in part a little product shop, devoted to the hard­
core poverty family. In part, also, this cadre had
some of the advantages of an operating committee,
since each member of the cadre could carry back
to his own functional shop some good ideas whose
conception was beyond his own limitations of time
and scope.
The St. Paul voluntary cadre of functional
agencies has long been regarded as a successful
experiment and a useful pattern. Now, how­
ever, nearly two decades later, the procedure
seems not to have inspired as much imitation as
had been anticipated in 1950.
In December 1963, following the Studebaker
shutdown in South Bend, Dr. Harold L. Sheppard
of the Upjohn Institute staff was asked by the
Area Kedevelopment Administration to go to
South Bend to act as Federal coordinator. The
task was twofold: (1) to assist the people and
agencies in South Bend to do all they could to
cope with the emergency, and (2) to bring to bear
quickly every pertinent Federal aid program.
This role of Dr. Sheppard’s will be seen im­
mediately as analogous to that of the expediter in
dealing with a large group of functional shops in
South Bend, in regional offices of Federal agencies,
and in Washington. Dr. Sheppard’s report of his
experiences displays considerable enthusiasm for
the success of efforts within the South Bend com­
munity itself and considerable frustration and
exasperation in moving the Federal agencies to
action.2

962
In view of our earlier observation that com­
munity coordinating efforts usually meet with
only modest success, why was the South Bend com­
munity successful in banding together? I t has
long been observed that communities do respond
well to a crisis. The closing of the Studebaker
plant certainly posed a crisis. While the crisis
situation itself is not difficult, what is difficult is
the slogging, year-in and year-out effort of induc­
ing functional organizations to devote coordinated
attention to hard problems when these problems
do not involve a clear and present danger.
Why did Dr. Sheppard meet with frustration in
his efforts to get prompt action from the Federal
agencies? There are many reasons, no doubt.
The process of getting things done in vast and
ramified agencies is slow and tortuous at best.
But, in terms of our analysis of organizational
characteristics, we must note that a considerable
amount of frustration is the inescapable lot of the
expediter. In the electronics firm, the expediter of
an order for hearing aids may have to go to the
plastics molding department and try to persuade
that department to drop whatever it is doing and
put through a run of hearing aid cases. He be­
lieves that this is more important than the products
being worked on at the moment, and, as we listen
to the tribulations of the hearing aid expediter, we
are inclined to sympathize with his point of view.
But, if we could know the whole story, we might be
forced to conclude that the order for hearing aid
cases will just have to take its turn in the schedule.
It is the expediter’s job to push his order, but he
will not always get, what he wants.
The Neighborhood Center Approach

A coordinating device that offers perhaps more
hope than any other at the community level is the
neighborhood center. In the new manpower de­
velopment and antipoverty programs, which ex­
press our present national concern for the seriously
disadvantaged members of the population, such
a center would be located in a geographic area
characterized by high unemployment, poor hous­
ing, low incomes, low education, and so on. Its
basic purpose is to consider all the problems of any
particular client, and then to refer that client to
whatever community service may exist to help him
with eacli and every one of his problems. The


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

client may, for example, need welfare payments,
legal aid, medical attention, vocational counseling,
vocational or other training, a job, or whatnot.
Whatever his problem, the neighborhood center
can “expedite” directing the client to the proper
place for help.
The culturally deprived, and often suspicious,
persons who compose the clientele of this neigh­
borhood center require the expediter’s duties to
extend far beyond his physical office. He must
seek out the clientele in “the field,” often by ring­
ing doorbells in the neighborhood. And he must
go beyond referring the client to, for example, the
public employment service. He may need to take
the client to the employment office, take him to a
job interview in a company, and take him to and
from work for a few days. To return to our in­
dustrial analogy for a moment: this expediter is
not dealing with the hearing aids that go through
the factory in fine shape and come out as salable
products. He is concerned with the ones that
don’t go routinely through the line—the ones that,
except for his efforts, would wind up in the scrap
pile and the reject bin.
The neighborhood center can operate exactly as
just described—that is, as a fully client-centered
agency, performing nothing but the expediter
function we have set forth. On the other hand,
it can go, step by step, beyond that minimum func­
tion if local attitudes permit such extensions.
Let us illustrate. The public employment office
can voluntarily send one or more of its own coun­
selors or placement people to work in the neighbor­
hood center 1 day a week, or oftener if the load
requires. The welfare department can do the
same, and so can the marital counseling bureau,
the legal aid bureau, and other agencies too. The
basic neighborhood center—the expediter service—
can gratefully utilize whatever functional services
are brought to it, and it can get along too when
functional services are not or can’t be brought
close to the disadvantaged clientele in that
neighborhood.
The important word characterizing these exten­
sions, of course, is “voluntary.” If the public em­
ployment service voluntarily assigns a man to work
in the office of the neighborhood center and at the
same time maintains its full complement of em­
ployees, its full budget, its flexibility, and its re­
sponsibility for the uniform conduct of public em-

COORDINATION OF MANPOWER PROGRAMS

ployment functions, its public image is undiluted
and unconfused. Performance of all these is im­
portant not only to the manager of the public em­
ployment office but also to the community as a
whole. Where community attitudes and agency
interrelationships are favorable, the voluntary as­
sembly of services operating in conjunction with a
neighborhood expediter service has much to
commend it.
Let us consider now a markedly different pat­
tern for a local neighborhood center. This is one
in which all the necessary functional services are
under the management of the neighborhood center.
The center runs its own employment service, its
own family counseling, legal aid, and child guid­
ance services, its own medical clinic, and so on. It
is a little product shop. Perhaps this procedure is
better than letting the whole job go undone; but,
clearly, such a pattern would encourage much local
criticism. It involves duplication, certainly. It
breeds confusion since, for example, two local out­
fits would be running employment offices. It
would stimulate interagency conflict since the two
employment offices (or the two-family counseling
services) would have somewhat different view­
points and even engage in competition for clientele.
The two sets of services would also be in com­
petition for some of their funds, whether from
Federal or from local sources.
Syracuse, N.Y., has had experience that may
offer useful lessons to other communities.3
Among many efforts in that city to give attention
to the problems of youth, one was an organization
called Crusade for Opportunity. This organiza­
tion was set up [not only] to provide expediter
services to youth (intake, counseling, and referral)
but also to initiate and administer training pro­
grams, both institutional and on-the-job, for dis­
advantaged youth. The Crusade for Opportu­
nity was, therefore, to some degree a product
shop—that is, an operating organization devoted
to the specific service of helping disadvantaged
youth through the performance of various func3
Sar A. L ev ita n , “ S yracu se F a c e s I ts Y outh U nem ploym ent
P rob lem s,” in U .S. C ongress, 1965 M a n p o w er R e p o r t o f th e
P r e s id e n t; J o in t H e a rin g s b e fo re S e n a te C o m m itte e on L a b o r a n d
P u b lic W e lfa re an d H o u se C o m m itte e on E d u c a tio n a n d L a b o r
(8 9 th Cong., 1 s t s e s s .), pp. 3 8 1 -3 9 3 . C onclusions draw n in th e
p resen t rep ort a re based on Dr. L e v ita n ’s d escrip tio n o f con­
d itio n s in ea rly 1965, and do n o t ta k e a cco u n t o f an y d evelopm ents
th a t m ay h a v e occurred in S yracu se sin ce th en .


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963
lions. Without detailing the woes of the Crusade
for Opportunity directly, let us consider them
in the context of our illustrative electronics
company.
This company, largely organized as a series of
functional shops, has concluded reluctantly
through its leadership that the hearing aid busi­
ness is so special as to require a separate establish­
ment as a product shop; moreover, it has effectu­
ated that decision. Within the hearing aid di­
vision, there is a training department devoted to
selection, training, and placement of employees for
that division. The head of the training depart­
ment is responsible for carrying out these functions
for the division. Down the street, however, is the
big factory making everything else but hearing
aids, and it has a big training department that is
selecting, training, and placing people for every
part of the business except the hearing aid di­
vision. The training department head in the hear­
ing aid division now finds his ability to carry out
his own plans severely limited. He cannot even
get any money to run his programs without the
approval of the big training department. He can­
not select his own trainees: the management of the
big training department thinks that it can do the
job better. He cannot set his own personnel
policies: for example, he cannot decide to dock his
trainees for absenteeism unless the big training
department agrees—and for several months it
doesn’t agree. He cannot pay his own trainees;
the big training department insists that it must
pay his trainees, that his trainees must even go to
the office of the big department to get their money.
The above list of tribulations is, of course, de­
rived entirely from experience of the Syracuse
Crusade for Opportunity. But let us continue for
a moment with the electronics company. The big
decision for the company, obviously, was the de­
cision to set up a separate hearing aid division.
We have already noted that the company would
arrive at that decision only with great reluctance.
The company would prefer to cope with the hear­
ing aid problems simply with such devices as ex­
pediter services and a product manager. But if
the company should decide to set up a hearing aid
division, then it would certainly have to give that
division autonomous decisionmaking powers and
explicit funds.

964

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

Contracting Authority

We must go one step farther. A hearing aid
company, or division, could operate successfully if
it possessed nothing but its own decisionmaking
powers and its own money. It could contract to
an engineering firm the design of its hearing aid
device. It could contract all of its production to a
job shop, all of its transportation to a trucking
organization, and all of its selling to a commercial
merchandising organization. Similarly, a disad­
vantaged-youth-oriented product shop (such as the
Crusade for Opportunity was, in part) could
operate successfully with not much else but its own
decisionmaking powers and its own money. It
could contract, for example, with a local school
administration to provide desired courses for dis­
advantaged youth. The important point is that
the youth agency would make such contracts on its
own terms (that is, without divided decision­
making powers) and would pay the school for serv­
ices rendered. The youth agency would not have
to own school buildings or hire teachers on its own
payroll. Similarly, it could contract for family
counseling services, or testing and vocational guid­
ance services, or on-the-job training courses in
industry.
The disadvantaged-youth agency, as a product
shop, would have to run its own client-centered

expediter service, search for its hard-to-reach
clientele, ascertain what help the clients needed,
persuade them to accept help, and lead them
through the process of getting help. The actual
help—psychiatric counseling, vocational counsel­
ing, medical aid, vocational training, basic educa­
tion, job finding, and so on—would be provided
by existing agencies either as part of their already
available services or by special contract, as re­
quested, and paid for, by the youth agency.
One more qualification is needed before our dis­
cussion of organizational schemes and their in­
escapable problems is concluded. In discussing
why some programs don’t work very well, we have
said nothing about government red tape, bureau­
cratic hardening of the arteries, and interagency
jealousies. We have no thought of denying that
such things exist. When programs run into dif­
ficulties, such explanations as these are always
forthcoming, and often with the implication that
they are sufficient to explain the trouble. Our
point in this discourse is that these factors are not
sufficient to explain the problems of running pro­
grams expeditiously. Organizational frameworks
and their inescapable difficulties are in the picture
too; and one might even make a case that these
difficulties are more important sources of trouble
than are the frailties of human nature.

Four hundred beneficiaries on the Social Security Administration rolls
are 100 years of age or older. More than 300 are getting benefits based on
work they did after they were at least 75 years old. A dozen of these people
are still employed or self-employed, and the oldest is 120. One of them
retired last year as sling man on a longshore gang in Seattle-—at age 105.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

—Eleanor Fait.

Special Labor Force Reports
I. Labor Force Projections,
by Color, 1970-80
S ophia Cooper and Denis F. J ohnston *
B e tw e e n 1965 and 1980, the relative increase in
the number of nonwliite workers is expected to be
much greater than that of the white labor force.
By 1980, the total nonwhite labor force will have
risen by 41 percent compared with only a 28-percent increase in white workers.1 This projected
difference in growth rates is primarily attributable
to the expected greater rate of population growth
among non white youth. Judgments as to the
probable effects of changing social and economic
conditions in reducing present differences between
white and non white labor force participation rates
were also included in these estimations.
The number of nonwhite workers is expected to
increase from 8.7 million in 1965 to 12.3 million
during the next 15 years; the number of white
workers may increase from 69.7 million to 89.1
million by 1980. (See table 1.)
The expected growth of the total population ac­
counts for 86 percent of the projected 1965-80 in­
crease in the labor force. Changes in the labor
force participation rates of white men and non­
white women over the projected period will be
minor; for non white men, the assumed changes
are expected to contribute about 7 percent to their
projected labor force growth. The remaining
group—white women—is the only one in which
the projection is substantially affected by assumed
changes in labor force participation rates. They
account for about 38 percent.
Before examining these projections further, a
few precautions should be noted. In the first
place, recent legislation aimed at providing equal­
ity of opportunity and reducing the effects of past
disparities in education will, in the long run, have
more effect on the social and economic Status of
nonwhites than whites. But it is not easy to esti­
2 2 8 -6 5 5


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

mate this effect on future labor force activity of
nonwhite men and women.
Second, the reported rates of labor force partici­
pation for most of the age and sex groups of the
nonwhite population show greater changes than
those of the whites. Much of this fluctuation can
be attributed to the greater sampling variability
associated with the smaller numbers of nonwhites,
but it is also likely that sensitivity to changes in the
economic situation may be disproportionately
strong among non white workers.
Third, these projections have not been developed
in the same detail as the overall National projec­
tions issued in 1965. A breakdown by color of
past trends and projections of school enrollment
of persons under 25 years of age, and of marriage
and fertility of women in the child-bearing ages,
was not available in a form useful in developing
detailed projections of labor force participation
rates.
Fourth, the size and age distributions of the projected n on w h ite p o p u la tio n are su b ject to g rea ter

uncertainty than those of the whites, in view of the
evidence of serious undercounting, especially of
adult nonwhite males. Also, any bias which may
exist in age reporting is carried forward in the
projection and is therefore reflected in the
projected nonwhite labor force.2
*Of th e D iv isio n of L abor F orce S tu d ies, B ureau of L abor
S ta tis tic s.
1 The p ro jectio n s are based upon un publish ed p op u lation p rojec­
tio n s by color w h ich are c o n siste n t w ith S eries B in “P ro jectio n s
o f th e P o p u la tio n o f th e U n ited S ta te s, by A ge and Sex : 1964
to 1 9 8 5 ,” C u rre n t P o p u la tio n R e p o r ts , S eries P - 2 5 , No. 286 (U .S .
B ureau o f th e C ensus, 1 9 6 4 ).
M aterial p resen ted here is c o n siste n t w ith th e p rojection s for
a ll c la ss e s pu blished in 1965. (S ee Sop hia Cooper and D en is F.
Joh n ston , “Labor F orce P r o je c tio n s fo r 1970—8 0 ,” M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w , F eb ru ary 1965i, pp. 1 2 9 -1 4 0 , rep rinted as S p ecial Labor
F orce R eport No. 49.)
2 T he m agn itu d e of th e u n dercoun t o f th e n o n w h ite p op u lation
in th e 1960 C ensus is its e lf u n certain . One e stim a te y ie ld s an
un dercoun t o f 8 p ercen t fo r n o n w h ite m ales and abou t 4 percen t
fo r n on w h ite fem ales.
A ccordin g to th is e stim a te , th e m ale
un dercoun t w a s as high a s 14 percen t in th e 20- to 44-year-old
group.
See D onald J. B ogue e t al, “A N ew E stim a te o f th e
N egro P o p u la tio n and N egro V ita l R a te s in th e U n ited S ta te s,
1 9 3 0 -6 0 ,” D em o g ra p h y Vol. 1, No. 1, 1964, pp. 339—358. F or
a critiq u e of th is e stim a tin g procedure, see M elvin Z elnik, “An
E v a lu a tio n of N ew E stim a te s o f th e N egro P o p u la tio n ,”
D e m o g ra p h y, V ol. 2, 1965, pp. 630—639.

965

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

966
T a ble 1.

P o p u la tio n , T otal L a bor F orce , and L abor F orce P a rt ic ipat io n R a t e s ,
A ctual 1960 and 1965, and P rojected 1970, 1975, and 1980

by

T o t a l la b o r force, a n n u a l a v e r a g e s ( th o u sa n d s )

T o t a l p o p u la t io n , J u ly 1 (th o u sa n d s )

A ge , S e x ,

and

C olor ,

L a b o r fo r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s
a n n u a l a v e r a g es (p ercen t)

A g e , s e x , a n d c o lo r

T

A ctu a l

P r o jec te d

A c tu a l

P ro jected

A c tu a l

P ro jected

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1 2 7 ,3 2 7

1 3 8 ,2 6 1

1 4 9 ,6 9 1

1 6 2 ,0 4 6

1 7 3 ,9 0 8

7 3 ,0 8 1

7 8 ,3 5 7

8 5 ,9 9 9

9 3 ,6 4 6

1 0 1 ,4 0 8

5 7 .4

5 6 .7

5 7 .4

5 7 .8

5 8 .3

6 2 ,2 1 6
8 ,1 9 4
5 ,5 5 3
1 1 ,3 4 7
1 1 ,8 7 8
1 0 ,1 4 8
7 ,5 6 4
7, 530

6 7 ,2 0 5
1 0 ,4 7 8
6 ,8 7 2
1 1 ,0 9 1
1 1 ,9 6 1
1 0 ,7 4 1
8 ,1 3 1
7 ,9 3 1

7 2 ,5 3 9
1 1 ,6 4 1
8 ,6 2 1
1 2 ,5 4 0
1 1 ,3 0 3
1 1 ,2 8 9
8 ,7 5 9
8 ,3 8 5

7 8 ,4 0 8
12, 583
9 ,6 0 9
1 5 ,5 5 7
1 1 ,0 6 8
1 1 ,3 7 9
9 ,2 8 7
8 ,9 2 3

8 4 ,1 2 3
1 2 ,8 0 9
1 0 ,3 9 4
1 8 ,2 8 5
1 2 ,4 9 6
1 0 ,7 5 7
9 ,7 7 6
9 ,6 0 6

49, 563
3 ,7 9 2
4 ,9 3 9
1 0 ,9 4 0
1 1 ,4 5 4
9 ,5 6 8
6 ,4 4 5
2 ,4 2 5

5 1 ,7 0 5
4 ,5 9 1
5 ,9 2 6
1 0 ,6 5 3
1 1 ,5 0 4
1 0 ,1 3 1
6 ,7 6 8
2 ,1 3 1

5 5 ,8 4 4
5 ,1 6 4
7 ,4 6 6
1 2 ,0 6 2
1 0 ,9 2 9
1 0 ,7 2 4
7 ,3 8 8
2 ,1 0 8

6 0 ,2 8 1
5 ,5 8 9
8 ,3 3 1
1 4 ,9 6 6
1 0 ,7 0 3
1 0 ,8 0 9
7 ,7 9 5
2 ,0 8 7

6 4 ,9 8 1
5 ,7 4 4
9 ,0 6 5
17, 590
1 2 ,0 8 4
1 0 ,2 1 9
8 ,1 8 5
2 ,0 9 6

7 9 .7
4 6 .3
8 8 .9
9 6 .4
9 6 .4
9 4 .3
8 5 .2
3 2 .2

7 6 .9
4 3 .8
8 6 .2
9 6 .0
9 6 .2
9 4 .3
8 3 .2
2 6 .9

7 7 .0
4 4 .4
8 6 .6
9 6 .2
9 6 .7
9 5 .0
8 4 .3
2 5 .1

7 6 .9
44. 4
8 6 .7
9 6 .2
9 6 .7
9 5 .0
8 3 .9
2 3 .4

7 7 .2
4 4 .8
8 7 .2
9 6 .2
9 6 .7
9 5 .0
8 3 .7
2 1 .8

6 5 ,1 1 1
7 ,9 8 9
5 ,5 4 7
1 1 ,6 0 5
1 2 ,3 4 8
1 0 ,4 3 8
8 ,0 7 0
9 ,1 1 5

7 1 ,0 5 6
1 0 ,1 5 9
6 ,7 9 5
1 1 ,2 6 7
1 2 ,4 7 0
1 1 ,3 0 3
8 ,8 3 5
1 0 ,2 2 5

7 7 ,1 5 2
1 1 ,2 9 9
8 ,4 8 3
1 2 ,6 8 0
11, 694
1 2 ,0 7 1
9 ,7 4 1
1 1 ,1 8 6

8 3 ,6 3 8
1 2 ,2 1 9
9 ,4 4 6
1 5 ,5 8 2
1 1 ,3 9 1
1 2 ,1 9 5
1 0 ,5 5 8
1 2 ,2 4 8

8 9 ,7 8 5
1 2 ,3 5 7
1 0 ,2 3 0
1 8 ,2 3 2
1 2 ,7 7 1
1 1 ,4 3 7
1 1 ,2 7 9
1 3 ,4 8 1

2 3 ,5 1 8
2 ,4 0 8
2 ,5 5 8
4 ,1 5 9
5 ,3 2 5
5 ,1 5 0
2 ,9 6 4
954

2 6 ,6 5 3
2 ,9 4 0
3 ,3 7 5
4 ,3 3 6
5 ,7 2 4
5 ,7 1 4
3 ,5 8 7
976

3 0 ,1 5 5
3 ,4 0 8
4 ,2 6 7
4 ,8 9 3
5 ,5 5 5
6 ,6 7 5
4 ,2 6 7
1 ,0 9 1

3 3 ,3 6 5
3 ,7 3 9
4 ,8 6 5
6 ,1 2 4
5 ,5 8 2
7 ,0 2 4
4 ,8 2 6
1 ,2 0 5

3 6 ,4 2 7
3 ,8 3 2
5 ,3 8 0
7 ,3 4 7
6 ,3 8 6
6 ,8 0 5
5 ,3 3 7
1 ,3 4 0

3 6 .1
3 0 .1
4 6 .1
3 5 .8
4 3 .1
4 9 .3
3 6 .7
1 0 .5

3 7 .5
2 8 .9
4 9 .7
3 8 .5
4 5 .9
5 0 .6
4 0 .6
9 .5

3 9 .1
3 0 .2
5 0 .3
3 8 .6
4 7 .5
5 5 .3
4 3 .8
9 .8

3 9 .9
3 0 .6
5 1 .5
3 9 .3
4 9 .0
5 7 .6
4 5 .7

4 0 .6
3 1 .0
5 2 .6
4 0 .3
5 0 .0
5 9 .5
4 7 .3

9 .8

9.9

114,088

123,508

133,252

143, 574

153,216

65,057

69,678

76,272

82,714

89,137

57.0

56.4

57.2

57.6

58.2

55,854
7,209
4,905
10,092
10,675
9,166
6,874
6,933

60,150
9,151
6,062
9, 833
10,723
9,709
7,382
7,290

64,713
10,081
7,599
11,074
1 0 ,111
10,194
7,965
7,689

69,625
10,814
8,370
13,720
9,843
10,252
8,450
8,176

74,275
10,856
8,998
16,000
11,082
9,662
8,882
8,795

44,666
3,348
4,370
9,777
10,346
8,690
5,892
2,243

46,531
4,067
5,223
9,503
10,379
9,209
6,192
1,958

50,027
4,492
6, 592
10,711
9,821
9,725
6, 749
1,937

53,737
4,824
7,278
13,269
9,561
9,772
7,116
1,917

57,596
4,896
7,876
15,474
10,763
9,205
7,455
1,927

80.0
46.4
89.1
96.9
96.9
94.8
85.7
32.4

77.4
44.4
86.2
96.6
96.8
94.8
83.9
26.9

77.3
44.6
86.7
96.7
97.1
95.4
84.7
25.2

77.2
44. 6
87.0
96.7
97.1
95.3
84.2
23.4

77.5
45.1
87.5
96.7
97.1
95.3
83.9
21.9

58,234
6,993
4,842
10,172
11,017
9,404
7,357
8,449

63,358
8,830
5,964
9,850
11,047
10,163
8,040
9,465

68,539
9,703
7,402
11,131
10,285
10,824
8,856
10,338

73,949
10,408
8,133
13,664
9,996
10,865
9,577
11,306

78,941
10,377
8,750
15,835
11,249
10,114
10,200
12,416

20,391
2,153
2,215
3,451
4,537
4, 532
2,633
870

23,147
2,655
2,920
3, 575
4,880
5,034
3,203
879

26,245
3,004
3,695
4,084
4,744
5,891
3,833
994

28,977
3,254
4,174
5,148
4,779
6,178
4,342
1,102

31, 541
3,283
4,604
6,155
5,510
5,960
4,802
1,227

35.0
30.8
45.7
33.9
41.2
48.2
35.8
10.3

36.5
30.1
49.0
36.3
44.2
49.5
39.8
9.3

38.3
31.0
49.9
36.7
46.1
54.4
43.3
9.6

39.2
31.3
51.3
37.7
47.8
56.9
45.3
9.7

40.0
31.6
52.6
38.9
49.0
58.9
47.1
9.9

13,239

14,753

16,440

18,472

20,694

8,024

8,680

9, 725

10,931

12,273

60.6

58.8

59.2

59.2

59.3

6,361
985
648
1,255
1,203
982
690
598

7,056
1,328
810
1,258
1,239
1,031
749
641

7,825
1,560
1,022
1,466
1,192
1,095
794
696

8,782
1,770
1,239
1,837
1,225
1,127
837
747

9,848
1,953
1,396
2,285
1,414
1,095
894
811

4,897
569
1,163
1,108
878
553
182

5,174
525
702
1,150
1,126
923
575
173

5,815
672
874
1,351
1,109

6,543
765
1,053
1,697
1,142
1,037
679
170

7,387
848
1,189
2,116
1,321
1,014
730
169

77.0
45.1
87.8
92.7
92.1
89.4
80.1
30.4

73.3
39.5
86.7
91.4
90.9
89.5
76.8
27.0

74.3
43.1
85.5
92.2
93.0
91.2
80.5
24.6

74.5
43.2
85.0
92.4
93.2
92.0
81.1
22.8

75.0
43.4
85.2
92.6
93.4
92.6
81.7
20.8

6,878
996
705
1,433
1,331
1,034
713

7,698
1,329
832
1,418
1,423
1,141
795
760

8,615
1,596
1,081
1,549
1,409
1,247
885
848

9,690
1,811
1,313
1,918
1,395
1,330
981
942

10,846
1,980
1,480
2,397
1,522
1,323
1,079
1,065

3,127
255
343
708
788
618
331
84

3,506
286
455
762
844
680
383
96

3,910
402
572
810
811
784
434
97

4,388
485
691
976
803
846

4,886
549
776
1,192
876
845
535
113

45.5
25.6
48.7
49.4
59.2
59.8
46.4
12.6

45.6
21.5
54.7
53.7
59.3
59.6
48.2
12.6

45.4
25.2
52.9
52.3
57.6
62.9
49.0
11.4

45.3
26.8
52.6
50.9
57.6
63.6
49.3
10.9

45.0
27.7
52.4
49.7
57. 6
63.9
49. 6
10.6

otal

Both sexes
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r

. ___ _

Male
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r . _ _
14 t o 19 y e a r s ________ _ _ _
2 0 t o 24 y e a r s ___ __ _____
25 t o 34 y e a r s ____ . . . __
35 t o 44 y e a r s ____ _ . . .
45 t o 54 y e a r s ____ ______
55 t o 64 y e a r s _____________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r ________

Female
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r _________ __
14 t o 19 y e a r s ___
..
_
2 0 t o 24 y e a r s ____ . . . _
25 t o 3 4 y e a r s _______ .
.
35 t o 44 y e a r s ____________
45 t o 54 y e a r s ____ . . . .
55 t o 64 y e a r s _____________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r
_ ..

W

h it e

Both sexes
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r __________

Male
14 y ea r s an d o v e r .
14 to 19 y e a r s ____________
20 to 24 y e a r s _____ . . .
25 to 34 y e a r s ____ _______
35 t o 44 y e a r s _____
45 to 54 y e a r s ____ __ _ ._
55 to 64 y e a r s ____________
65 y e a r s an d o v e r _____ __

Female
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r ____. . .
14 to 19 y e a r s __________
20 to 24 y e a r s ______
25 to 34 y e a r s ____________
35 to 44 y e a r s _____ . .
45 to 54 y e a r s ______ __
55 to 64 y e a r s ___
_ .
65 y ea r s a n d o v e r ____
N

o n w h it e

Both sexes
14 y ea r s a n d o v e r ________ _.

Male
14 y ea r s a n d o v e r _____ __ __
14 to 19 y e a r s _____ ____
20 to 24 y e a r s ________ __
25 t o 34 y e a r s . . . _____
35 to 44 y e a r s ____________
45 t o 54 y e a r s ____ ____
55 to 64 y e a r s ___
... .
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r _______

444

999

639
171

Female
14 y e a r s a n d o v e r ___________
14 to 19 y e a r s ___
_ _
20 to 24 y e a r s ___
____
25 to 34 y e a r s . .
35 t o 44 y e a r s ___
. .
45 to 54 y e a r s _____ ____
55 to 64 y e a r s . .
65 y ea r s a n d o v e r . . .


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666

484

103

967

LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS, BY COLOR

Finally, the projection of labor force by color is
subject to the same uncertainties as the projection
of total labor force,3 the primary one being that
they are based on judgments as to future changes
in labor force participation rates. These judg­
ments are that past trends will continue, that there
will be no significant change in the size of the
Armed Forces, and that the economy will operate
at relatively high levels consistent with an unem­
ployment rate of about 4 percent.
In view of the lack of precision that is necessarily
introduced into the projections by the above fac­
tors, neither a mathematical nor a judgmental ap­
proach can be relied upon to yield a definitive
picture of the future growth of the nonwhite labor
force. Consequently, divergencies of actual labor
force from these projected levels should not be in­
terpreted as a deficiency in the performance of the
economy.
Younger Workers

Nearly half of the projected increase in the entire
labor force between 1965 and 1970 (3.5 out of 7.6
million) will occur among workers 14 to 24 years
old (table 2 ). Young non white workers are ex­
pected to add a disproportionate share to this rise,
with an increase of nearly 30 percent compared
with a 20 -percent increase in young white workers
(chart 1 ).
After 1970, the increase among young workers
will not be as great as it is at present. Between
1970 and 1980, about 3.7 out of the 15.4 million in
total labor force increase will occur among work­
ers under 25 years of age, which means that youngworkers will maintain their share of the labor
force in 1970, or about one-fourth of the total
(table 3).
Younger non white workers (14 to 24 years) may
show about twice the rate of increase of white
youths during the 1970 decade. Their number is
projected to increase by nearly a third between 1970
and 1980, while the number of white workers 14
to 24 may increase by only 16 percent.
3 Sop hia Cooper and D en is Jo h n sto n , op cit., p. 134.
4 P o stw a r tren d s in a n n u a l a verage c iv ilia n labor force p a r tic i­
p ation rates o f selected p o p u la tio n groups are show n on ch a rt 2.
3 T he fe r tility d ifferen tia ls betw een w h ite s and n o n w h ite s sin ce
1920 are sum m arized in A nders S. L unde, “W h ite-N o n w h ite F e r ­
tility D ifferen tia ls in th e U n ited S ta te s,” U .S. D epartm ent o f
H ea lth , E d u ca tio n and W elfare, I n d ic a to r s , Septem ber 1965,
pp. 2 3 -3 8 .


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These projected differences in labor force
growth among younger whites and nonwhites are
explained by the interaction of several factors.
Among these, the most important are the differen­
tial rates of fertility during the period since World
War II, trends in school enrollment, and differ­
ences between the tw-o color groups in labor force
participation rates.4 The fertility rate of non­
whites has been at least one-third higher than that
of the whites during most of the years since World
War II. This difference implies that a relatively
greater number of nonwhite persons will be mov­
ing into the labor force during the rest of the
1960’s.5 In recent years, the actual labor force
rates of nonwhite teenagers, particularly the girls,
have been considerably lower than those of white
teenagers, and have been declining much more
rapidly. The expected increases in school enroll­
ment of nonwhite teenagers will serve as a damp­
ener to this group’s labor force participation rates.
On the other hand, part of the recent declines in
the rates can be explained by the failure of some
nonwhite teenagers to find entry-level jobs, a con­
dition which should not persist under the assump­
tions of a high level of aggregate demand. On
balance, therefore, labor force growth is expected
to be greater proportionally among young non­
white workers than among white workers. By
1980, nonwhite youths are expected to account for
14 percent of the total labor force under 25 years
of age, up from 12.3 percent in 1960.
Among both white and nonwhite groups nearly
2 out of every 5 young workers are women, and
this proportion is expected to remain fairly con­
stant to 1980.
Adult Women

Between 1965 and 1980, the number of white
working women 25 to 54 years old may increase by
about 31 percent, compared with an increase of 27
percent among nonwhite women in this age group.
The expectation is that rates of these two groups
will tend to converge. For example, the projected
increase in the labor force rate of white women
45 to 54 years old is from 50 percent in 1965 to 59
percent in 1980, while the rate for nonwhite women
rises from 60 percent to 64 percent during the next
15 years (chart 2).
One reason for assuming this convergence is that
the labor force rates for adult nonwhite women

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

968
T a b l e 2.

C hanges

in

T o ta l L a b o r F o r c e ,

by

A g e, Se x ,

and

C o lo r , A c tu a l 1965

to

P r o je c t e d 1970, 1975,

and

1980

[Numbers in thousands]
Change

Total labor force
Age, sex, and color

Actual
1965

1970

1975

1980

Number

1975 to 1980

1970 to 1975

1965 to 1970

Projected

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

T otal

Both sexes
14 years and over_________ . .
14 to 24 years______- _
25 to 44 years_____________
45 years and over. _
45 to 64 years_________
65 years and o v e r .._

78,357
16,832
32, 217
29,307
26, 200
3,107

85,999
20,305
33,439
32, 253
29, 054
3,199

93, 646
22, 524
37,375
33,747
30,454
3,293

101,408
24,021
43,407
33,982
30, 546
3,436

7,642
3,473
1,222
2,946
2,854
92

9.8
20.6
3.8
10.1
10.9
3.0

7,647
2,219
3,936
1,494
1,400
94

8.9
10.9
11.8
4.6
4.8
2.9

7,762
1,497
6,032
235
92
143

8.3
6.6
16.1
.7
.3
4.3

51,705
10,517
22,157
19, 030
16,899
2,131

55,844
12, 630
22,991
20,220
18,112
2,108

60,281
13,920
25,669
20, 692
18, 604
2,088

64,981
14,809
29, 674
20, 500
18,404
2,096

4,139
2,113
834
1,190
1,213
-2 3

8.0
20.1
3.8
6.3
7.2
- 1 .1

4,437
1,290
2, 678
472
492
-2 0

7.9
10.2
11.6
2.3
2.7
-.9

4,700
889
4, 005
-1 9 2
-200
8

7.8
6.4
15.6
- .9
- 1 .1
.4

26, 653
6,315
10, 060
10, 277
9,301
976

30,155
7, 675
10,448
12, 033
10,942
1,091

33,365
8, 604
11,706
13,055
11,850
1,205

36,427
9,212
13,733
13,482
12,142
1,340

3,502
1,360
388
1,756
1,641
115

13.1
21.5
3.9
17.1
17.6
11.8

3,210
929
1,258
1,022
908
114

10.6
12.1
12.0
8.5
8.3
10.4

3, 062
608
2,027
427
292
135

9.2
7.1
17.3
3.3
2.5
11.2

69,678
14,865
28,337
26,475
23,638
2,837

76,272
17, 783
29,360
29,129
26,198
2,837

82, 714
19, 530
32,757
30,427
27,408
3, 019

89,137
20, 659
37,902
30, 576
27,422
3,154

6,594
2,918
1,023
2,654
2, 560
94

9.5
19.6
3.6
10.0
10.8
3.3

6,442
1,747
3,397
1,298
1,210
88

8.4
9.8
11.6
4.5
4. 6
3.0

6,423
1,129
5,145
149
14
135

7.8
5.8
15.7
.5
.1
4. 5

46, 531
9,290
19,882
17, 359
15, 401
1,958

50,027
11,804
20, 532
18,411
16, 474
1,937

53, 737
12,102
22,830
18, 805
16,888
1,917

57, 596
12, 772
26,237
18, 587
16,660
1,927

3,496
1,794
650
1,052
1,073
-2 1

7.5
19.3
3.3
6.1
7.0
- 1 .1

3,710
1,018
2,298
394
414
-2 0

7.4
9.2
11.2
2.1
2.5
- 1 .0

3,859
670
3,407
-218
-228
10

7.2
5. 5
14.9
-1 .2
- 1 .4
.5

23,147
5, 575
8,455
9,116
8,237
879

26,245
6, 699
8,828
10, 718
9, 724
994

28,977
7,428
9,927
11,622
10, 520
1,102

31, 541
7,887
11, 665
11,989
10,762
1,227

3,098
1,124
373
1,602
1,487
115

13.4
20.2
4.4
17.6
18.1
13.1

2,732
729
1,099
904
796
108

10.4
10.9
12.4
8.4
8.2
10.9

2,564
459
1,738
367
242
125

8.8
6.2
17.5
3.2
2.3
11.3

Male
14 years and over___
_ ----14 to 24 years . . . _____
25 to 44 years_____________
45 years and over____ ____
45 to 64 years_________
65 years and o v er...
Female
14 years and over------- . . . . . .
14 to 24 years. . . . .
25 to 44 y ea rs...
..
. .
45 years and over____ .
45 to 64 years.
65 years and o v er...
W

h it e

Both sexes
14 years and o v e r...
. . . .
14 to 24 years___
25 to 44 years_____ . . . .
45 years and over. .
45 to 64 years___
65 years and over____
Male
14 years and over______ __ .
14 to 24 years___. . . _ _
25 to 44 years . . .
-- ---- 45 years and over . . . ____
45 to 64 years____ __ _
65 years and over. . . .
Female
14 years and o v e r .. _ _____ _
14 to 24 years_____ - - ---25 to 44 years...
45 years and o v er.. . . . . . . .
45 to 64 years___ ____
65 years and o v e r ..

!

N onwhite
Both sexes
14 years and over___ _ . . . .
14 to 24 years_____ ______
25 to 44 years... .
45 years and over. . . . . . . . .
45 to 64 years___- .
65 years and o v e r ..

8, 680
1,968
3,882
2, 830
2,561
269

9, 725
2, 520
4, 081
3,124
2,856
268

10, 931
2, 994
4,618
3, 319
3,046
273

12, 273
3,362
5, 505
3,406
3,124
282

1,045
552
199
294
295
-1

12.0
28.0
5.1
10.4
11.5
-.4

1,206
474
537
195
190
5

12.4
18.8
13.2
6.2
6.7
1.9

1,342
368
887
87
78
9

12.3
12.3
19.2
2.6
2.6
3.3

5,174
1,227
2, 276
1,671
1,498
173

5,815
1,546
2, 460
1,809
1,638
171

6,543
1,818
2,839
1,886
1,716
170

7,387
2,037
3,437
1,913
1,744
169

641
319
184
138
140
-2

12.4
26.0
8.1
8.3
9.3
-1 .2

728
272
379
77
78
-1

12.5
17.6
15.4
4.3
4.8
- .6

844
219
598
27
28
-1

12.9
12.0
21.1
1.4
1.6
-.6

3,506
741
1,606
1,159
1,063
96

3, 910
974
1,621
1,315
1,218
97

4, 388
1,176
1,779
1,433
1,330
103

4,886
1,325
2,068
1,493
1,380
113

404
233
15
156
155
1

11.5
31.4
.9
13.5
14.6
1.0

478
202
158
118
112
6

12.2
20.7
9.7
9.0
9.2
6.2

498
149
289
60
50
10

11.3
12.7
16.2
4.2
3.8
9.7

Male
14 years and over_____ . . . . . . .
14 to 24 years____
25 to 44 years_____ _
45 years and over . . _ __ . .
45 to 64 years_______ .
65 years and over. - . . .
Female
14 years and over_____________
14 to 24 years... . . _____
25 to 44 years___ - - - - - - - - 45 years and over, _____
45 to 64 years____ _ _
65 years and over. - .


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969

LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS, BY COLOR

are already very high, mostly because of their need
to improve family income. If the expected im­
provement in employment prospects of nonwhite
men is realized, some of the economic reasons for
the higher labor force rates of nonwhite women
may be removed. A more general assumption
which underlies this projection is that existing
social and economic differences between whites and
nonwhites will be reduced somewhat during the
next 15 years, and thus bring about a leveling off
of labor force participation of non white women.
Adult Men

Male workers in the central age group (25 to
54 years) will continue to be the most stable part
of the Nation’s labor force, about 40 percent of it
in both 1965 and 1980. In projecting to 1980, the
worker rates for white men in this central age
group were held constant at or near the levels ob­
served during the 1955-57 period, about 96 percent,
when the overall unemployment rate was close to
4 percent. The rates for nonwhite men in this
Chart 1.

age group were assumed to come nearer to the
white rates, moving from 90 to 93 percent between
1965 and 1980.
There are several factors which help to explain
the differing labor force participation rates be­
tween white and nonwhite males. For example,
there is a greater incidence of disability among
nonwhites. Also, a higher proportion of nonwhite
workers have irregular employment and therefore
tend to withdraw from the labor force during
periods of seasonal slack work or prolonged un­
employment. A third factor is the number of
inmates in institutions who are by definition ex­
cluded from the labor force. In the 1960 Census,
3.7 percent of the nonwhite males 25 to 54 were
reported in institutions, compared with 1.1 percent
of the corresponding group of white males.
In assuming a gradual convergence in these
rates, with nonwhite rates increasing to meet the
fairly constant rates for white workers, we
recognize that the factors mentioned above are not
easily susceptible to sudden or drastic change.
Nevertheless, if the general trend toward greater

Percent Change in Total Labor Fo.rce, by A ge, Sex, and Color,

1965-70 and 1975-80

Percent cha ng e

Percent cha n ge

40

40

1965-70

1975-80

30

V//Ä

White

sa

Nonwhite

30

20

20

10

10

I
tzF 1
-5

-5
Both sexes
14-24

Men
25-44


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Women
25-44

Men
45 and
over

Women
45 and
over

Both sexes
14-24

Men
25-44

Women
25-44

Men
45 and
over

Women
45 and
over

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

970
equality of opportunity continues, it should
eventually produce some reduction in the present
differences between the two color groups with
respect to all of these factors.
Older Workers

The projection for men 55 to 64 years old repre­
sents the net effect of three assumptions : Labor
force participation rates for men 55 to 59 years
old will remain approximately constant at or near
the levels observed during the 1955-57 period,
when overall unemployment was about 4 percent ;
labor force participation rates for men 60 to 64
years old will decline only moderately, as the trend
toward early retirement begins to slightly out­
weigh the assumed continuing demand for the
skills and experience of working men in this age
group; and worker rates for non white men age
55 to 64 years will move upward to converge with
those of the whites, since the lower non white rates
of labor force participation throughout the post­
war period may have been associated with lack of
equal employment opportunities, or limited educa­
tion and training. The assumed gradual improve­
ment in the relative status of nonwhites implies a
reduction in the white-nonwhite differentials in
labor force participation rates.
T a b l e 3.

P e r c e n t D is t r ib u t io n

of the

On balance, the projections yield little change
in the labor force participation rate of white males
55 to 64 years old. It is assumed to remain close to
85 percent during the next 15 years. However,
the rate for non white men in this age group is ex­
pected to rise from about 77 percent in 1965 to
about 82 percent by 1980.
The projections for men 65 and over assume a
continuation of the steady declines in labor force
participation which have been observed through­
out the postwar period, but at a reduced rate.
Since the worker rates of men in this age group
have generally tended to move downward in
periods of economic recovery as well as in reces­
sions, it is assumed that these declines are essen­
tially a manifestation of long-term secular
t r e n d s , s i m i l a r to those which have been observed
in other industrial nations. It is expected that
rates for white and nonwhite men 65 and over
will move in a nearly parallel manner, the white
rate declining from 27 percent in 1965 to 22 per­
cent in 1980, the nonwhite from 27 to about 21
percent.
Projections for women workers 55 to 64 years
old, however, indicate a quite different trend than
that expected for men. The participation rate
for white women in this age group increased from
33 to 40 percent between 1960 and 1965, and is pro-

T o ta l L a b o r F o r c e , by A g e , S e x ,
1970, 1975, a n d i9 8 0

and

C o l o r , A c t u a l 1960

and

1965,

and

P r o je c t e d
1960

1980

1975

1970

1965

Age and sex

N on­
white

Total

White

N on­
white

Total

White

N on­
white

Total

White

Non­
white

Total

White

N on­
white

Total

White

14 years and over
Number in thousands.. 73, 081
Percent distribution. _ _ 100.0
14 to 24 years______
18.7
25 to 44 years______
43.6
45 to 64 years______
33.0
65 years and over__
4.6

65, 057
100. 0
18.6
43.2
33.4
4.8

8,024
100. 0
20.1
46.9
29.7
3.3

78,357
100.0
21.5
41.1
33.4
4.0

69, 678
100. 0
21.3
40.7
33.9
4.1

8, 680
100.0
22.7
44.7
29.5
3.1

85,999
100.0
23.6
38.9
33.8
3.7

76, 272
100. 0
23.3
38.5
34.3
3.8

9, 725
100.0
25.9
42.0
29.4
2.8

93,646
100.0
24.1
39.9
32.5
3.5

82,714
100.0
23.6
39.6
33.1
3.6

10, 931 101,408
100.0
100.0
27.4
23.7
42.2
42.8
30.1
27.9
3.4
2.5

89,137
100.0
23.2
42.5
30.8
3.5

12,273
100.0
27.4
44.9
25.5
2.3

44,666
100. 0
17.3
45.1
32.6
5.0

4,897
100.0
20.7
46.4
29.2
3.7

51, 705
100.0
20.3
42.9
32.7
4.1

46, 531
100.0
20.0
42.7
33.1
4.2

5,174
100.0
23.7
44.0
29.0
3.3

55,844
100.0
22.6
41.2
32.4
3.8

50,027
100.0
22.2
41.0
32.9
3.9

5,815
100. 0
26.6
42.3
28.2
2.9

60, 281
100.0
23.1
42.6
30.9
3.5

53,737
100.0
22.5
42.5
31.4
3.6

6, 543
100.0
27.8
43.4
26.2
2.6

64,981
100.0
22.8
45.7
28.3
3.2

57,596
100.0
22.2
45.6
28.9
3.3

7,387
100.0
27.6
46. 5
23.6
2.3

20,391

3,127

26,653

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

19.1
47.8
30.3
2.7

23.7
37.7
34.9
3.7

30,155
1Ò0. 0
25.4
34.6
36.3
3.6

33,365

100. 0

3, 506
100.0
21.1
45.8
30.3
2.7

3,910

100. 0

23,147
100.0
24.1
36.5
35.6
3.8

26,245

100. 0

25.5
33.6
37.0
3.8

24.9
41.5
31.2
2.5

25.8
35.1
35.5
3.6

28,977
100.0
25.6
34.3
36.3
3.8

4,388
100.0
26.8
40.5
30.3
2.3

36,427
100.0
25.3
37.7
33.3
3.7

31, 541
100.0
25.0
37.0
34.1
3.9

4,886
100.0
27.1
42.3
28.2
2.3

B oth S e x e s

Ma le

14 years and over
Number in thousands . 49, 563
Percent distribution. _ _ 100. 0
14 to 24 years______
17.6
25 to 44 years______
45.2
45 to 64 years______
32.3
65 years and o v e r.. .
4.9
F em ale

14 years and over
Number in thousands.. 23,518
Percent distribution___
100. 0
14 to 24 years______
21.1
25 to 44 years______
40.3
45 to 64 years______
34.5
65 years and over__
4.1


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21.4
39.2
35.1
4.3

LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS, BY COLOR

Chart 2.

971

Civilian Labor Force Participation Rates for Selècted Groups by Color, Actual 1948-65
and Projected 1970, 1975, and 1980


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[Annual Averages]

972

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

T a b l e 4. A p p r o x im a t e S ta n d a r d E r r o r s of E s t im a t e s
and P e r c e n t a g e s A sso c ia t e d W it h A n n u a l A v e r a g e
L a b o r F o rce P a r t ic ip a t io n R a t e s , b y A g e , S e x , and
C o lo r 1948-65
[In percentage points]
Age groups
65
14 to 20 to 25 to 35 to 45 to 55 to
24
34
44
54
64 years
19
years years years years years years and
over

Color and sex

W h it e M

ales

Standard error of estimate L_
Standard error of percen­
tage 2_____ - - - - - - - - N

o n w h it e

M

h it e

0.3

0.3

0.5

1.3

1.3

.3

.1

.1

.1

.3

.4

3.0

2.0

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.8

2.2

1.2

.9

.4

.4

.6

1.1

1.4

1.1

1.0

.8

.7

1.1

.9

.6

.4

.5

.3

.3

.4

.4

.3

2.0

2.3

1.5

1.3

1.8

1.9

1.2

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.4

1.1

F em ales

Standard error of estimate L .
Standard error of percen­
tage 2 ______
N

1.2

.5

ales

Standard error of estimate L _
Standard error of percen­
tage 2_____
___
W

1.2

o n w h it e

F em ales

Standard error of estimate L_
Standard error of percen­
tage 2______________
___

1 See text for explanation.
2 From Employment and Earnings, Technical Note on Labor Force Data,
table D , adjusted to reflect annual average data.

jected at 47 percent in 1980. Among non white
women in this age group, the rate rose from 41 to
48 percent between 1960 and 1965, and is projected
to rise only slightly to just below 50 percent by
1980.
Worker rates among all women 65 years old and
over have displayed no clear-cut trend since the
late 1950's. The rate for white women in this age
group has fluctuated around 10 percent, 2 to 3
percentage points below the nonwhite rate. The
projected rate for white women shows a slight in­
crease (from 9.3 percent in 1965 to 9.9 percent by
1980) while the rate for nonwhite women indicates
a gradual decline from 12.6 percent in 1965 to 10.6
percent by 1980. Both of these projections appear
to be consistent with trends observed over the post­
war period.
6 S e e f o o t n o t e 1.

‘N

3

p lo y e d in

w as

u sed

in

m o st

cases

d e t e r m in in g a t r e n d

b ecau se

lin e u s u a lly

th e

f it te d

h a d th e

s o r t o f c u r v a tu r e a s a s e c o n d -d e g r e e p o ly n o m ia l.

curves

em ­

sam e g en era l
In so m e ca ses,

t h e f it te d c u r v e h a d a m o r e c o m p le x k in d o f c u r v a tu r e , n e c e s s i t a t ­
in g a f u r t h e r r e d u c tio n in


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t h is d e n o m in a to r .

Reliability of the Projections

As stated above, certain judgments regarding
the anticipated longrun impact of current eco­
nomic programs and manpower policies were con­
sidered in making projections of labor force
participation rates. These projections are also
tied to those published in 1965, which were them­
selves developed on the basis of a judgmental
model roughly consistent with an overall unem­
ployment rate of 4 percent.6 For these reasons,
it is impossible to provide a measure of the stand­
ard error of estimate that might be associated with
the projected rates. However, some idea of the
reliability of the rates projected for a particular
age-sex-color group can be gained by considering
the variability of the observed annual average
labor force participation rates for that group over
the postwar period, 1948-65. A standard error
was estimated by fitting a judgmental trend line
to the observed rates, and measuring the deviations
of the actual values from that trend. The stand­
ard error of estimate was then calculated by the
following formula:
Se

\

l2 ( Y - Y ' ) 2
N -S

Where :
se is the standard error of estimate;
Y is the actual annual average labor force
participation rate;
Y' is the “expected” or trend value of the
annual average rate;
Ar is the number of observations.7
The standard errors of estimate of the labor
force participation rates obtained by this proce­
dure (in percentage points) are shown in table 4.
Also shown are the estimated standard errors
(sampling variability) of the annual average
labor force rates which are derived from the
monthly CPS sample.
It is apparent from these results that the relia­
bility of the projected labor force participation
rates varies considerably among the several groups.
As might be expected, the rates of both the younger
and the older non white groups are the least
reliable, while the greatest stability is found in the
rates of white males in the 25 to 54 age groups.

OVERTIME HOURS AND PREMIUM PAY

II. Overtime Hours and
Premium Pay, May 1965
Jam es

R.

W etzel*

E ditor 's N ote .— Part

of a continuing series of
studies on the use of overtime hours and 'pre­
mium pay. this article presents and analyzes
data collected in a 1965 survey. For a discus­
sion of related findings in other recent studies,
see “Leisure and the Long W orkweek”
Monthly Lahor Review , July 1966. pp. 721727.

T h e m a jo r ity of the Nation's workers who re­
ported workweeks in excess of 40 hours in a May
1965 study 1 of the work force were single job­
holders. The number of workers earning their
livelihood from a single wage or salary job and
reporting extended workweeks had increased by
three-quarters of a million since May 1964 (table
l ).2 The expansion reflects both the continued
growth of employment and a slight upturn in the
proportion of workers on overtime.3 The majority
of the additional workers on overtime were factory
production workers who worked 41 to 48 hours.

Premium Pay for Extra Hours

One-third of the Nation’s workers reported
workweeks in excess of 40 hours in May 1965
(table 1 ). Although a significant proportion of
these workers were multiple jobholders or self-em­
ployed, the majority (I 6 V2 million) earned their
livelihood from a single wage or salary job. Of
the I6 I/2 million, 35 percent received premium pay
for their overtime, a significantly greater propor­
tion than in the 1963 and 1964 surveys. The in­
creased ratio is partially attributable to more
overtime work in occupations and industries where
premium pay is common and to an increase in the
receipt of premium pay in other occupations and
industries. The majority (84 percent) of the wage
and salary workers who received premium pay
were employed in the blue-collar or clerical
occupations.
There were 15.9 million nonfarm and 700,000
farm workers on extended workweeks in May 1965.
Nearly 27 percent of all nonfarm jobholders


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973
worked 41 hours or more; 36y2 percent received
premium pay for their extra hours. In contrast,
43 percent of all farm workers reported extended
workweeks, but less than 3 percent received
premium pay.
Nearly 12 million of the 16^ million who worked
more than 40 hours reported that they usually
worked extra hours; these workers probably con­
stitute the nucleus of a fluctuating overtime work
force. Nearly 3y2 million received premium pay
for their extra hours; they were primarily crafts­
men in operatives employed in manufacturing in­
dustries. In all industries, white-collar and service
occupations accounted for most of those who
usually worked long hours but did not receive
premium pay.
Among the persons working extra hours in May
1965, 3.3 million reported that they usually did not
work overtime. Over two-thirds of these workers
put in 48 hours or less, and more than 60 percent
received premium pay for their extra hours.
Though the survey does not reveal the specific rea­
sons for overtime work, some of these workers put
in overtime because of nonrecurring production
problems or seasonal demand.
The 1965 survey reaffirmed an earlier finding that
overtime work is literally a way of life for some
workers. Managers, officials, foremen, and profes­
sional workers are frequently expected to work ex­
tended workweeks and often do so voluntarily.
For these workers, the likelihood of receiving
* Of th e D iv isio n of E m p loym en t and U n em p loym en t A n a ly sis,
B ureau o f L abor S ta tis tic s.
1 T he prevalen ce o f lon g w orkw eeks even in periods of high
un em ploym ent h as stim u la ted an in te r e st in th e colle ctio n of
d eta iled in fo rm a tio n on th e e x te n t to w h ich p erson s w ith w ork­
w eeks of more th a n 4 0 hou rs receive prem ium pay, and th e ex te n t
to w h ich th ey regu larly w ork long hours. Such in fo rm a tio n is
c ollected each y ea r in th e M ay su rvey of th e labor force, conducted
fo r th e B ureau of Labor S ta tis tic s by th e B ureau of th e C ensus
th rou gh it s C urrent P o p u la tio n Survey. T he d a ta apply to w age
and sala ry w orkers w ith one job w ho w orked 41 hours or more
du rin g th e w eek. The q u estio n s are (1 ) D id (th is p erson ) g e t
a h igh er rate of pay, lik e tim e and a h a lf or double tim e, fo r th e
hours he w orked over 40? and (2 ) D oes (h e) u su a lly w ork more
th a n 40 hou rs a w eek ?
2 T he fin dings o f th e M ay 1964 su rvey w ere pu blished in th e
Septem ber 1965 M o n th ly L ab o r R e v ie w , pp. 1 0 8 3 -1 0 8 8 .
3 F or convenience, a ll hou rs in e x ce ss o f 40 are treated as
“lo n g ,” “exten d ed ,” or “o v e rtim e ” hou rs in th is article.
A lth ou gh m ore d etailed c rite ria are specified in le g is la tio n or
union c o n tra cts govern in g the p aym en t of prem ium rates, th is
arb itrary 40-hour stan d ard should not in fluence th e overall
rela tio n sh ip s discu ssed . T h is su rvey w as n o t designed to m ea s­
ure e x te n t o f com pliance w ith la w s or un ion agreem en ts ; th e
coverage of in d iv id u a l w orkers under specific le g isla tio n or union
agreem en ts ca n n o t be d eterm ined from th e survey and, in ad d i­
tion, th e figures are affected by sam p lin g v a r ia b ility and response
error.

974

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

T a b l e 1.

S elected D ata on P er so n s at W ork and
P e r s o n s W o r k in g O v e r t im e
[In thousands]
Characteristics

Total at work___________________________

May
1965

May
1964

May
1963

70,005

68, 706

66,888

Working full time (35 hours or more)_________ __ 56, 482
Working overtime (41 hours or more)___ ______
24,152

54,956
23,226

53,872
22,688

Wage or salary single jobholders:
Working overtime___
______ - ------ 16, 538
23.6
Percent of total at work . . - - - - _
Percent of full-time workers - . _ _____ _ _
29.3

15, 730
22.9
28.6

15, 244
22.8
28.3

5, 810

4,849

4, 479

35.1

30.8

29.4

Number receiving premium p a y .. ______ _
Percent of wage and salary working overt i m e . . - ____ - _____________ _____ _

premium pay is small, while the likelihood of
usually working extra hours is relatively large.
Extended workweeks were less likely to be usual
for the blue-collar workers though these workers
were far more likely to be compensated at premium
rates. These occupational differences go a long
way toward explaining why persons who usually
worked long hours were only half as likely to re­
ceive premium pay as those who usually did not
put in extra hours (29 percent as compared with
62 percent).
Though personal motivation plays a major role
in the determination of working hours, extensive
and recurring overtime tends to be concentrated
among workers whose occupation or industry is
exempt from legislative or contractual regulations
governing the payment of premiums.
The May 1965 survey also showed th a t: Within
each occupation and industry, those persons who
usually worked overtime and those who worked
very long hours were the least likely to receive
premium pay; workers in manufacturing indus­
tries were most likely, and farm and service work­
ers least likely, to receive premium pay for
overtime hours; and, even among the occupations
and industries (other than manufacturing) where
greater proportions of workers received premium
pay, the overall proportion thus compensated was
seldom over half of the total number working long
hours.
Industry Variations

The likelihood of receiving premium pay for
overtime varied by industry dramatically. In
manufacturing, 67 percent of all persons on ex­
tended workweeks received premium pay for their


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extra hours. However, in the service and finance
industries, only 11 percent of workers were so com­
pensated. Rates of 43 percent existed in both
transportation and construction, and 20 percent in
both trade and public administration. In each
instance, the percentage was higher than corre­
sponding figures from earlier surveys. The in­
creases were partially attributable to the steppedup pace of economic activity in some sectors of the
economy and the subsequent need for additional
inducements to maintain high output levels. The
wide diffusion of the increases also suggests that
the payment of premiums is becoming more com­
mon in all sectors of the economy.
The inverse relationship between the number of
extra hours worked and the likelihood of receiving
premium pay was evident in the industry data.
Persons working 41 to 48 hours were more than
twice as likely to receive premium pay as those
who worked 60 hours or more. Though there were
sharp differences in the proportions receiving
premium pay, this relationship was consistent for
all of the large industry and occupation groups.
In manufacturing, for example, 75 percent of the
persons who worked from 1 to 8 extra hours re­
ceived premium pay, while only 39 percent of those
working 20 extra hours or more were so
compensated.
Nearly one-third of all persons on long work­
weeks were employed in manufacturing; almost
half were in either service or trade. Of all per­
sons receiving premium pay, however, nearly
three-fifths were in manufacturing, only one-fifth
in trade and service. These patterns indicate that
an increase in penalty rates would exert its great­
est impact on manufacturing. On the other hand,
measures to extend the coverage of legislation
governing overtime pay would probably have
more effect in the service industries, where over­
time is extensive but frequently uncompensated.
Occupational Variations

The proportions of white-collar and blue-collar
workers who received premium pay for hours over
40 were strikingly different, though nearly the
same number and the same percentage reported
extended workweeks in May 1965. Only 18 per­
cent of the white-collar workers received premium
pay for overtime, while 60 percent of the bluecollar workers received extra compensation.

975

OVERTIME HOURS AND PREMIUM PAY

The premium pay experience of clerical workers
was quite different from the pattern for most other
white-collar workers. A comparatively small
proportion of clerical workers (13 percent) re­
ported long workweeks, but those who did work
extra hours were far more likely to receive pre­
mium pay (45 percent) than were other whitecollar workers, presumably because clerical
workers are more likely to be covered by legisla­
tion or by union contracts governing the payment
of premium rates. When clerical workers were
excluded from the white-collar group, only 1 in 10
workers in the remaining white-collar occupations
received premium pay.
In May 1965, managers and officials were the
nonfarm workers most likely to put in long work­
weeks, and among the least likely to receive pre­
mium pay for their overtime hours. A similar
situation existed for sales workers. In both occu­
pation groups, approximately 9 out of 10 workers
on long workweeks reported that their usual work­
week exceeded 40 hours. The importance of pre­
mium pay to these workers is difficult to assess.
Managers and officials tend to be concentrated in
higher than average income brackets,4 and their
overtime work may be motivated by nonmonetary
goals which are related to the responsibility they
exercise and the satisfaction they derive from their
work. Sales workers are frequently on a salary or
wage plus commission basis. In such cases, the
payment of premiums for extra hours could easily
be of secondary importance to the worker.
In the heterogeneous professional and technical
worker group (the group includes such occupa­
tions as accountants, musicians, teachers, and doc­
tors) more than 1 in 4 persons reported long
workweeks. One-third of these were primary and
secondary teachers. Only 13 percent of all pro­
fessional and technical workers, and less than 1
percent of the teachers, received premium pay for
their extra hours.
Almost 9.9 million of the 15.9 million persons
who worked extended hours in nonagricultural in­
dustries were blue-collar workers, clerical workers,
and service workers. The largest concentration of
workers (4.1 million) was in manufacturing,
4
In 1963. th e m edian ann ual incom e o f sa la ried m ale m anagers
and officials, $8,300, w as second o n ly to th e incom e o f selfem ployed m ale p r o fe ssio n a l w orkers. C u rre n t P o p u la tio n R e ­
p o r ts , S eries P - 6 0 , No. 43 (U .S. B ureau o f th e C ensus, 1 9 6 4 ).


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where almost 79 percent were compensated for
overtime at premium rates. Another sizable
group (2 million) were employed in trade; there
the proportion receiving premium pay was only 24
percent.
The exclusion of white-collar occupations, ex­
cept clerical, does little to alter the pattern of in­
dustry variation in the proportion receiving
premium pay. While the exclusion of these
occupations does increase the proportions receiv­
ing premium pay in each industry, it is by a smaller
amount than might have been anticipated. For
example, the proportion of all nonagricultural em­
ployees working long hours who received premium
pay was 35 percent ; when the specified occupations
are excluded the proportion rises to 52 percent.
While this increase is significant, the fact remains
that only about half of those working long hours
receive overtime pay at premium rates.
Because the rates seemed surprisingly low even
for operatives and craftsmen (64 and 56 percent,
respectively), the occupation data were examined
at a more detailed level. While practically all of
the operatives in the durable goods industries re­
ceived premium pay for their extra hours, less than
one-third of all drivers and delivery men received
extra compensation; a large proportion of all
drivers and deliverymen are exempt from coverage
under overtime legislation, or work in establish­
ments that are not covered.
Chart 1. Percent of Workers Who Received Premium
Pay for Overtime Work, M ay 1964 and 1965
Percent receiving premium pay
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

976
Chart 2. Rates of Receipt of Premium Pay and Per­
sons Working Overtime, by Occupation, M ay 1964
and 1965

intrastate activities, approximately one-half of the
laborers did not receive premium pay for overtime,
and in the other nonmanufacturing industries, al­
most 61 percent of the laborers did not.
Workers in the service occupations are generally
not organized, and these workers are less likely to
be covered by Federal minimum wage legislation
and most likely to be employed in small establish­
ments. As might be expected, 80 percent of these
workers did not receive premium pay for their
extra hours.
Personal Characteristics

Percentage who
did not receive
:p remium pay
Operatives___ _________________________________________
Operatives in:
Durable goods manufacturing____________________
Nondurable goods manufacturing________________
Nonmanufacturing industries____________________
All drivers and deliverymen_________________________

32.3
6. 5
10. 5
56.7
61. 0

A similar situation exists among craftsmen and
foremen; however, within this group there were
sharp differences. Machinists and other metal
craftsmen, who are likely to be union members or
covered by legislation, have a very high rate of re­
ceipt; auto mechanics and repairmen, who are less
likely to be in a union or covered under legislation,
were the least likely of all craftsmen to receive
premium pay in May 1965.

Craftsmen and foremen________________________________
M achinists________________________________________
M etal craftsmen___________________________________
Construction craftsmen____________________________
Other craftsmen_____________________________ _____
Mechanics and repairmen, other than auto__________
Foremen_________________________________________
Carpenters________________________________________
Mechanics and repairmen, auto_____________________

Percentage who
did not receive
premium pay
44.6
4.3
3.5
33.1
32.3
31.1
56.8
64. 5
71.6

An additional illustration of the relationship of
payment of premium to industry group is the ex­
perience of laborers. In manufacturing, only
16.7 percent of the laborers did not receive pre­
mium pay. In construction, where there are nu­
merous small nonunion establishments engaged in


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Men were more than twice as likely as women
to work extra hours in May 1965. Of the 16.5
million persons working overtime in May 1965,
13.3 million were men. The vast majority were
married (10.7 million) and in their prime work­
ing years (25 to 54 years). Variations in the like­
lihood of receiving premium pay are the result of
differences between the jobs held by women and
those held by men and not of outright discrimina­
tion against women.
The educational commitment of teenagers com­
bines with legal restrictions to prevent extensive
overtime on their part. In all other age groups,
the likelihood of working extra hours tended to
vary within a comparatively small range for men
(31 to 38 percent) as well as for women (14 to 17
percent). As table 2 shows, the proportions re­
ceiving premium pay were higher for younger
T a b l e 2. P e r c e n t a g e o f W a g e and S a la r y W o r k e r s
on E x t e n d e d W o r k w e e k s a n d P e r c e n t a g e R e c e iv ­
in g P r e m iu m P a y , B y S e x , A g e , C o l o r , and M a r it a l
S t a t u s , M ay 1965
Percent working
overtime 1

Percent receiving
premium pay

Characteristic
Male
T otal______ _ ____

_

Agricultural
Nonagricultural industries. ___
B y age:
14 to 19________________
20 to 24________________
25 to 44________________
45 to 54________________
55 and over____ _____ . .
B y color:
W hite_________________
Non w hite__ _
B y marital status:
Married, spouse present. _
Single . . . .
Other. _______________

Female

Male

Female

34.9

15.2

37.4

48. 5
34.4

18.6
15.1

3.0
39.1

25.7
26.1

11.9
34.9
37.5
35.5
30.6

7.8
14.1
15.1
17.0
17.2

46.0
53.0
37.9
38.0
33.0

34.4
34.8
30.5
23.4
12.8

35.3
27.2

14.8
17.0

39.0
40.4

27.3
18.6

37.4
20.4
36.3

13.0
17.9
17.7

39.1
39.5
39.3

29.6
22.0
23.5

1
Wage or salary single jobholders as a percent of wage or salary employees
at work.

OVERTIME HOURS AND PREMIUM PAY

workers who tended to be concentrated in those
occupations where the likelihood of receiving
premium pay for overtime is highest. Nearly 70
percent were in the four occupation groups within
the highest rate of receipt. On the other hand,
nearly half the employed men age 45 to 54 were
in the five occupation groups where the proportion
receiving premium pay was smallest.
The proportion of married men working extra
hours was greater than that of single men in May
1965; however, the proportions receiving premium

977
pay were the same. Color was not a significant
factor in the receipt of premium pay for men,
but white men were slightly more likely to put in
extended workweeks. Among women, the propor­
tions of whites and nonwhites working long hours
were the same, yet white women were more likely
to receive premium pay. This difference was pre­
sumably due to the heavy concentration of non­
white women in private household work, where
long workweeks are common and the payment of
premiums is almost nonexistent.

Economists have made room for economic stability and for growth. But
poverty for want of a theory is lost in economics notwithstanding all of
the statistics that show the size distributions of personal income and the
age, sex, and family composition of people with low income and with con­
sumption below some standard. A vast catalogue of the attributes of poor
people is at hand. But for all that, there is no integrated body of economic
knowledge and no agenda of economic hypothesis to get at important
economic questions about poverty. . . .
Meanwhile poverty has been placed on the political agenda, oddly enough
in spite of the fact that poor people are poor voters. To add to the per­
plexity, although the legislative approach is cast in terms of economic
opportunity which should appeal to economists, few have responded to this
appeal. Data showing the personal distribution of income were never more
abundant and as good as they are presently, and yet anyone who examines
them critically is convinced that they are far from satisfactory in identifying
the people who are really poor.


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-Theodore W. Schultz.

978

Minority Groups
in California
“S o u th a n d E ast L os A ngeles are literal islands
of poverty and deprivation that have grown more
depressed over the past 5 years.” So said C. L.
Dellums, chairman of the California Fair Em­
ployment Practices Commission, in introducing
an analysis of a special survey of Negroes and
Mexican Americans in ghetto areas of Los An­
geles. The study,1 comparing 1960 census data
with that of a special census taken in November
1965, is the latest in a series of reports issued by
the FEPC, and summarized here.

Two Communities

South Los Angeles, which includes Watts, is a
predominantly Negro area (in 1965,81 out of every
100 residents). Between 1960 and 1965, the total
population of the area fell almost 10 percent; the
Negro population expanded by 5 percent. In East
Los Angeles, 76 out of every 100 residents in 1965
were Mexican American; here the total population
declined by 8 percent from 1960 to 1965, while the
Mexican American population increased by 6
percent.
In both South and East Los Angeles, population
was relatively stable; 87 and 85 percent, respec­
tively, of the residents in 1965 had lived in the area
for at least 5 years. In both districts, the popula­
tion was young; more than a third of the residents
were age 14 or younger. The Federal Government
estimates, Mr. Dellums noted, that by 1975 one-half
of the U.S. population will be under age 25. These
minority communities have already reached that
proportion: in November 1965, 50 percent of the
residents of South Los Angeles and 53 percent in
East Los Angeles were less than 25 years old.
In both districts, too, the quality of housing de­
teriorated sharply while rental costs rose and the
number of owner-occupied dwellings fell. In
1960, 82 percent of the dwellings in South Los
Angeles had been declared “sound” by the census
takers; in 1965, only 67 percent were “sound.”
Purchasing power or “real” income of the aver­
age family in both areas dropped nearly $400 over
the 5-year period. One reason for this, Mr. Del­


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

lums suggested, is that “Those families who man­
age to get ahead—and whose breadwinners are able
to advance educationally, economically or social­
ly—those are the families that move out. They
leave behind the subpoverty-level group—the un­
educated, the unemployed, those most discrimi­
nated against.”
“But the fact that men employed in good jobs
leave the South or East Los Angeles areas in no
way alleviates the serious problem for those who re­
main,” he continued. “Many of these remaining
men, who have given up hope of finding a job, have
in a sense been dropped from the labor force.” Al­
though some of the marked decrease in labor force
participation rates (chart 1) can be attributed
to increased enrollment in school, the core of the
problem appears to lie in the increasing proportion
of “labor force dropouts.”
These persons—probably the least able to become
fully participating members in an urban econ­
omy—are likely to be left behind in the ghetto areas
as families with rising incomes move out. Another
indication of this is seen in the continuation of high
unemployment rates. As the following tabula­
tion shows, in South Los Angeles the rate for men
fell only slightly, and the rate for women rose:
Unemployed persons as a percent
of the civilian labor force
Men
1965
South Los A ngeles_______________________
E ast Los A ngeles_________________________
Los A ngeles-L ong B each m etropolitan area.
C alifornia________________________________

10.1
7.7
1 5.2
------

Women
I960
11.3
8 .5
5.6
5.8

1965

1960

11.5
6.8
>5.2

10.4
7.3
6 .0
6.6

1
M en and w om en com bined (rate com piled b y th e California D epartm en
of E m p lo y m en t).

In East Los Angeles, although the situation im­
proved somewhat, unemployment rates were still
higher than in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
as a whole—this in spite of the increasing propor­
tion who had simply taken themselves out of the
labor force.
The proportion of women in South Los Angeles
who were married and living with their husbands
fell from 53 to 48 percent during the 5 years.
1 N egroes a n d M exican A m e ric a n s in S o u th an d E a s t L os
A n geles (S a n F ran cisco, C alif., S ta te D ep artm en t o f In d u str ia l
R elation s, D iv isio n of F air E m p loym en t P r a c tic e s, 1 9 6 6 ). T his
and earlier rep orts in th e series w ere prepared fo r th e F E P C by
th e D iv isio n of Labor S ta tis tic s and R esearch . S in g le copies of
th e rep ort are ava ila b le from th e F a ir E m p loym en t P ra ctices
C om m ission, B ox 603, San F ran cisco, C alif. 94101.

MINORITY GROUPS IN CALIFORNIA

979

Chart 1. Decline in Labor Force Participation Rates
of Men A ge 14 and Over, South and East Los
Angeles, 1960-65

Earlier reports in the FE PC ’s ethnic series dealt
with the population, employment, income, and
education of the several minority groups, as por­
trayed in statistics from the 1960 Census of Popu­
lation. The following summary presents high­
lights from the four reports.2
A Kaleidoscope of Racial Patterns

The makeup of California’s minority popula­
tion (chart 2) differs considerably from that
of other States. Its largest minority consists of
“Californians of Spanish surname,” most of them
of Mexican ancestry; 3 it also has the largest Chi­
nese population of any State, and is second only
to Hawaii in the number of Japanese and
Filipinos.

In both districts, in 1965, almost a fifth of the men
were neither in school nor in the labor force.

Among East Eos Angeles women, the drop was
from 55 to 51 percent. The number of households
headed by women increased, so that in 1965, 26
percent of all persons in South Los Angeles fam­
ilies were in households headed by women (up from
19 percent in 1960). In East Los Angeles, the
proportion in 1965 (17 percent) was only slightly
higher than in 1960 (16 percent). Largely because
of the lower earning power of women, more than
half of these households headed by women had
incomes below the poverty level (59 percent in
South and 50 percent in East Los Angeles).
In both districts young families—those with
heads under 25 years—were in grave economic dif­
ficulties. Almost half of such families in South
Los Angeles, and a third in East Los Angeles, had
incomes in 1965 below the poverty level:

2 N egro C a lifo rn ia n s, J u n e 1 9 6 3 ; C a lifo rn ia n s of S p a n ish S u r­
nam e, M ay 1964 ; C alifo rn ia n s o f J a p a n e se, C hinese, an d F ilip in o
A n c e s tr y , Jun e 1965 ; and A m e ric a n In d ia n s in C a lifo rn ia , N ovem ­
ber 1965. C harts and ta b les used w ith th is sum m ary w ere con­
str u c te d in B L S from th e tab u lar m a teria l in th e reports.
3 The term s “M exican A m erican ” and “p op u lation of Sp anish
su rn am e” are used in terch an geab ly in th is sum m ary, alth ou gh th e
d ata does inclu de r e la tiv e ly sm all num bers o f p erson s o f oth er
n a tio n a l origin or an cestry : Cuban, P u erto R ican, C entral and
Sou th A m erican, S p anish. T he d ata relate on ly to w h ite p erson s
o f S p anish surnam e ; non w h ite p erson s o f Sp an ish surnam e w ere
excluded.

Chart 2.

Principal

Ethnic Minority Groups, C ali­
fornia, 1960

Percent of families with income below poverty level
South Los Angeles

East Los Angeles

Age of family head

1965

I960

1965

A ll fam ilies-------------U nder 25 years-----------------25-54 years-----------------------55-64 years-----------------------65 years or over-----------------

26.8
46. 3
26.4
18.7
26.3

23.9
39. 9
22. 7
17.5
28.8

23.6
32.1
23.4
16.8
27. 5

1960
21.7
32. 3
20. 5
16.1
29.8

The Los Angeles report, summarized above,
measured changes that have taken place between
1960 and 1965 in two particularly depressed areas.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In 1960, California’s non-Anglo population numbered
2.7 million (out of 15.7 million). More than half were
Mexican Americans.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

980
Before the coming of the first Europeans, it is
estimated, from 130,000 to 150,000 Indians lived
in what is now California. By 1900, only 15,000
remained. During the next half century, the In ­
dian population in the State grew slowly, reach­
ing 20,000 by 1950. In the next decade, however,
an upsurge in population growth and resettlement
in California of Indians from other States
brought the figure to 39,000.
Although tribal and allotted lands in the 83
Indian reservations and rancherias in the State
total more than a half million acres, only 19 per­
cent of the Indians live on or adjacent to the reser­
vations. The majority reside on private property
among the general population. During the
1950’s, accompanying the rapid increase in Indian
population, there was a decided shift from rural
to urban living, so that by 1960 more than half of
California’s Indians lived in urban areas. The
proportion living in rural areas was still greater
among Indians, however, than among persons of
any other ethnic group. (See table 1.)
The Spanish surname population also grew
rapidly during the 1950’s (by 88.1 percent) and
continued as California’s largest minority group.
A very large proportion (80 percent) were native
born, and 46 percent were also of native parentage.
Among the 20 percent foreign born, 16 percent
had been born in Mexico.
The Mexican American population was not as
highly urbanized as some of the other ethnic
T able

1.

4 D a t a n o t a v a ila b le f o r C a lif o r n ia a lo n e .
S t a t e s in c lu d e d
w e r e : A la s k a , A r iz o n a , C a lifo r n ia , C o lo ra d o , H a w a ii, I d a h o ,
M o n ta n a , N e v a d a , N e w M e x ico , O reg o n , U t a h , W a s h in g to n , a n d
W y o m in g .

P o p u l a t io n a n d S iz e o f F a m il y , b y E t h n ic

Characteristic

. .

White (except
Spanish
surname)

Total

P opulation
1960____________________________________
As percent of total population____ ______
As percent of white population
As percent of nonwhite population
1950
_________________4 . 1 __________
Percent change, 1950-60 ________
_ .
Percent residing in urban areas
In-migration since 1955: 1
From other States. _
From other countries

groups, a fact probably related to the higherthan-average proportion employed as farm labor­
ers. Persons of Spanish surname made up a
larger proportion of the total population than did
Negroes in all areas except the San FranciscoOakland metropolitan area, where 8.6 percent of
the total population in 1960 was Negro, compared
with 6.4 percent of Spanish surname.
In 1960, more than one-third of all U.S. resi­
dents of Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino ancestry
lived in California. Of all Japanese Americans
in 13 Western States in I960,4 82 percent were
native born. The proportion of native-born Chi­
nese was considerably 1 o w e r—69 percent.
Among Filipinos, 52 percent were American
born. Between 1950 and 1960, the three Oriental
groups participated in the general movement of
population from rural to urban areas. The pro­
portion of Japanese living in urban areas rose
from 70 to 87 percent. The Chinese, already
overwhelmingly concentrated in cities and towms
(94 percent in 1950), made a further shift, to 96
percent in 1960. The shift was greater, however,
among Filipinos—from 60 to 80 percent.
The Negro population, which in 1960 consti­
tuted 70 percent of the State’s non white popula­
tion, is predominantly urban. In 1960, only 5.6
percent lived in rural areas. In the two largest

. _

Spanish
surname

G r o u p , C a l if o r n ia ,

Negro

Japanese

1960

Chinese

Filipino

American
Indian

15, 717, 024
100.0

13, 028,692
82.9
90.1

1,426,538
9.1
9.9

883,861
5.6

157,317
1.0

95,600
0.6

65, 459
0.4

39, 014
0.2

10, 586,223
48. 5
86. 4

9,156, 773
42.3
86.0

758,400
88. 1
85. 4

70.0
462,172
91.2
94.4

12.7
84, 956
85.2
86.5

7.6
58,324
63.9
96.4

5.2
40, 424
61.9
79.6

3.1
19,947
95.6
52.9

14.8

14.6

7.1
5.1

15.2
1.0

10.3
10.3

5.2
7.4

7.1
13.8

17.5

35. 4
21.1
20.3
12.6
6.0
4.5

37.2
21.3
20. 5
12.2
5.5
3.3

21.1
18.6
20.0
16.2
10.6
13.5

32.1
21.0
16.2
11.6
7.8
11.3

20.5
20.5
23.1
17.6
10.3
8.0

19.1
20.1
22.1
17.8
11.4
9.5

21.2
17.2
17.5
14.6
12.0
17.5

17.5
16.2
15.4
14.0
11.5
25.4

Size of F amily 2
Percent of families numbering—
2 persons ___ _ _
_
.
___
3 persons. . . ______
. .. .. .
4 persons______ . . . . .
. . . .
5 persons
6 persons
. . .
7 persons or m ore.. . . .

1 In-migrants 5 years old and over, as percent of I960 population.
2 For total, white (except Spanish surname), and Spanish surname populations, data relate to California. For nonwhite populations, data relate to
13 Western States; data on size of family not available for California alone.


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N ote : Dashes indicate data not available or not applicable. Detail
may not add to totals, due to rounding,

981

MINORITY GROUPS IN CALIFORNIA

metropolitan areas (Los Angeles-Long Beach
and San Francisco-0akland), Negroes in 1960
constituted respectively 6.9 percent and 8.6 per­
cent of the total population.

Chart 3.

Median Annual Income in 1959, by Ethnic
Group and Sex, California
[Persons 14 Y ears Old and Over, W ith Incom e]

Thousands of dollars

0

Age and Size of Family

Indians exceeded all other ethnic groups in size
of family in 1960, followed by those of Spanish
surname and Filipinos. More than a fourth of the
Indian families numbered seven persons or more.
Indians were younger, on the whole, than mem­
bers of other minority groups in California; 45
percent of both Indian men and women were under
20 years of age in 1960. However, the Spanish
surname and Negro populations were also concen­
trated in the younger age brackets. In 1960, 70.4
percent of the Mexican Americans and 65.2 percent
of the Negroes were less than 35 years old. The
senior citizens of California, on the other hand,
were predominantly Anglo.5
In all three Oriental groups, the men were older,
on the whole, than the women. The difference
was greatest among Filipinos: 48 percent of the
men were 45 or older, compared with 10 percent of
the women. The age disparity, as well as the
larger number of men, reflects the immigration of
single Filipino men following World War I.
Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino women were com­
paratively young. The under-35 age group ac­
counted for 78 percent of Filipino women, 70 per­
cent of Chinese women, and 65 percent of Japanese
women.
Education

There were striking differences in the educa­
tional attainment of the three Oriental groups in
1960. Japanese, both men and women, were well
ahead of the white population in the level of edu­
cation achieved. For the Chinese, the picture was
one of extremes; a relatively high proportion of
both men and women had completed at least some
college education, but approximately 40 percent
had not gone beyond the eighth grade, and many
5 T here is no p recise defin ition fo r th is term a s used in th e
S o u th w est.
G enerally speaking, a ll w h ite, E n g lish -sp ea k in g
p erson s are included.


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All white persons

TOTAL POPULATION

5

6

1---------1-----------1-----------1-----------1-----------1

1

2

3

4

I

\Y /////////////A

\V /////////////A

Japanese

Spanish surname

Chinese

Negro

W///////////Ä

\Y ///////////////A
V ////////////A

All nonwhite persons

Filipino
11
American Indian

Male
Female

of these were reported as having had no schooling
at all. More than half the Filipino men and
almost one-third of the Filipino women had not
gone beyond the eighth grade. Filipino women
achieved a higher education at all levels than did
Filipino men, and had the highest proportion
among women of all racial groups with at least
1 year of college.
For other nonwhite groups, educational levels
were low. Only 3.3 percent of Negro men had
completed 4 years of college, compared with 10.2
percent of all men in the State. Among the In ­
dians, 43 percent of both men and women had not
gone beyond the eighth grade, and less than 2 per­
cent had completed college.
Educational attainment of the Spanish surname
population was considerably belowT that of the
total population, and of the nonwhite population
as well. In all metropolitan areas for which 1960
figures were available, the median number of
school years completed was lower for the Spanish
surname population, male and female, than for
either the total population or the nonwhite
population.

982

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T a b l e 2.

S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r is t ic s

of

P o p u l a t io n ,

E t h n ic G r o u p

by

and

S e x , C a l if o r n ia , 1960

[ P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n ]

W hite (ex­
cept Spanish
surnam e)

T otal

Spanish
surnam e

Japanese

N egro

C hinese

F ilip in o

Am erican
Indian

Characteristic

A ge
U nder 5 years _
5-9 years.
...
. . . ___ . . . . . . . .
10-14 years___ ___________ ______________________ _
15-19 years _____
______________________________
20-24 years . . . _____ _ ____ ____ _ ___ _ _
25-34 years. __ . . .
_______ _________________ _
35-44 y e a r s .. - - . . . ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ ____
45-54 years.
_ _ _ _ _
55-64 years_________ ________
______________ _ _
_____
65 years and o v er . _ _ _
_

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

Male

F e­
m ale

11.4
10.4
9. 2
7.3
6.4
13.7
14.4
11.5
8.1
7.6

10.9
9.9
8.9
6.7
6. 1
13.4
14.6
11.4
8.6
9.6

10.7
10.0
9.1
7.3
6. 2
13.2
14.6
12.2
8.5
8.3

10.1
9.4
8.6
6.5
5.9
12.9
14.8
11.9
9. 1
10.7

15.0
12.6
10.3
8.0
7.6
16.4
12.7
7.8
5.6
4.0

15.4
13.3
10.7
8.5
7.6
15.4
12.0
7.8
5.2
4.1

14.9
12.3
9.4
6.8
7.3
15.1
14.8
10. 2
5.6
3.6

14.4
11.9
9.3
6.6
7. 2
15.3
14,9
10.1
5.8
4.5

12.8
10. 2
7.6
6.3
6.2
18.6
18. 2
6.9
5.7
7.5

11.7
9.8
7.6
5.9
7. 1
22.9
17. 7
5.8
6.3
5 .2

11.2
11.6
9 .2
4.5
6.0
16.3
14.6
11.6
8.8
6.2

13.5
13.3
10.7
4.8
7.3
20.1
13.6
8.9
4.9
2.9

10.3
8.9
8.0
4.7
4.5
9.6
6.4
24.9
17.9
4.8

18.0
15.3
13.3
7.6
6.7
17.1
11.9
6.4
2.9
.8

15.2
11.4
9.4
8.5
10.3
14. 1
9.9
8.0
8.1
5.1

15.9
11.8
8.7
8 .2
8.4
12.9
10.5
8.3
9.8
5.5

1. 8
26.1
24.4
24.3
13. 2
10.2

1. 4
23.6
24.6
31.0
12.9
6.5

8. 3
43. 2
24.8
14.9
6. 0
2.8

6. 3
41. 7
26. 6
19.2
4. 6
1.6

1. 8
36.1
28.8
20.6
9. 4
3.3

1. 4
32.6
29.3
23.1
10.3
3.3

2. 6
16.9
17. 4
34.3
16.9
11.9

2. 9
17.2
16. 0
43.3
14. 9
5.7

15.8
25. 0
13. 9
16.1
15.9
13.3

18. 7
20. 0
13. 2
24.9
14.3
8.9

7.8
45.3
18.1
15.4
9. 5

2.3
28.3
23. 2
21.9
15.1

9. 2

4.8
38.5
29. 0
20. 4
5.3

3.9

4. 4
38.9
30. 0
19. 1
5.8
1. 8

13.5
2.0
11.9
7.0
7.7
20.2
16.5
.1
6.4

4.4
.5
2.3
7.8
1.8
13.3
21.9
.6
16.4
1.9
17.8
11.3

15.0
21.4
7.9
6.8
5.9
10.4
9.1
1.1
3 .5
9.2
5.9
3.8

10.1
3 .2
2.8
32.3
4.4
.9
16.4
11.6
6.8
7.0
.9
3.6

16.9
1.2
14.3
9.2
9.0
6.6
12.1
1.4
20.6
.8
1.9
6.0

3.6
2.9
2.0
4.5
1.0
6.7
10.8
1.0
26.2
27.5
5.0
8.8

12.8
.6
1.7
30.9
3.6

3.8
1.5
2.0
3.1
1.1
16.2
23.1

5.8

5.2
.1
2.3
24.3
6.0
1.5
32.4
5.2
11.6
3.1
1.2
7.1

11.1
.3
4.5
33.5
8.5
.8
25.8
1.6
6.8
.8

6.2
5.1

4.5
1.9
4.2
4.7
3 .2
16.3
24.0
.1
6.4
15.7
12.8
6.2

7.6
(3)
1.3
14.1
1.7
1.0
14.6
27.2
20.7

3.3

14.0
.3
4.9
35.0
8.0
1.2
11.6
6.1
12.0
.7

5.8
.1
2.8
14.3
3 .0
.5
15.3
14.9
16.9
2.4
.9
23.1

E ducational A ttainment 1
N o sch oolin g. _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
1 to 8 grades___
___ _
H igh school: 1 to 3 years. _
_ __
_______
4 years________ _ . . . ____ _
College:
1 to 3 y e a r s. _ ___ ________
_
__
4 years or m ore___ __.

2. 0

Occupation 2
Professional, technical, and kindred workers __ __
Farmers and farm m anagers
_ ___ _ _ _
Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm ___
Clerical and kindred w orkers_____________________
Sales workers _______ __
_ __ ___
Craftsm en, foremen, and kindred w o r k e r s ___ _
O peratives and kindred w orkers___________________
P rivate household w orkers________________________
Service workers, except p rivate h ousehold. _
Farm laborers and forem en______________________
Laborers, except farm and m in e ___________________
O ccupation n ot reported ........... ................. _ _______

I ndustry

.4

15.0
1.9
13.3
7.2
8.5
21.4
15. 5
.1
5. 7
1.8
4.9
4.7

15.2
.3
5.4
37.4
8.7
1.2
9.6
4.6
11.5

.4
.3
5.3

1.1
10.3

.3
6.0

.4
5. 2
10.2
17.3
16.1

24

A griculture, forestry, and fisheries____ _
__
M ining_____ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ ________ _ _ _ _ ___
C onstruction. _ ___
___
_ _ _ _ ____
M anufacturing. _ __
_ _ _ _
_ __
T ransportation, com m unication, and other public
u tilities___
..
______
_ _________ _
Wholesale and retail trade___ ____ _ ______ _ _ _
Finance, insurance, and real estate_____________
B usiness and repair services _ __ _
Personal serv ices.__ ___
____
_
.__ _. _
E n tertainm ent and recreation services_________ _
Professional and related services..
_ _
P u b lic adm inistration _
_
. . . _ __ __
__ _ ___________
In d u stry not reported __ _____

4 6
5
6 3
24 1

3 4
5
6 4
24 0

14 9
2
6 8
29 8

6 8
18 8
5 1

3 4
5 7
1 4

7 0
19 4
5.5
3.6
4.9
1 7

12 5
6 1

13 2
6 1

6 3
15 9
2 6
2.6
5.2
1.1
5.4

4 7

4.2

1 School level completed by persons 14 years old and over.
2 Of employed persons 14 years old and over.
3 Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
4 Data not available by sex.

Income

Men in all the minority groups had median in­
comes in 1959 below that of men in the white popu­
lation. Filipinos and American Indians were
well below those of other minority groups.
Among women, the 1959 median income of both
Japanese and Chinese women exceeded that of
women in the white population. (See chart 3.)
To exclude students and inexperienced workers,
income figures were also compiled separately for
men 25 years and over. Only among the white
population did more than half these men earn


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.4

.4
16.4
3.4
16.8
4.9
.2
8.3

6 1
17.5

1. 7
15.7

(3)

1.9
(3)
2. 0
16.0

28.5
1
1. 0
13.0

10.7
5
5. 6
24.6

6 7
11. 1
1.9
3.5
17.6

2. 9
18.8
3 .9
3.1
9.7

3. 4
38.9
4.4
1.8
8.0

4. 4
15.8
2.7
1.0
8. 1

6. 6
9.1
1.1
1.7

2.0

(3)

25.1

9

5

8

2.2

9.4
9

3 7

12.0
10.7

10.2
5. 1

5.7

9.9

3.3

10.1
7.4
5.3

8.3
6.8
8.1

7.3
4.8
17.7

N ote: Dashes indicate data not available.

$5,000 or more in 1959. Three-fourths of the In ­
dians, and an even higher proportion of Filipinos,
earned less than that amount.
Unemployment

In 1960, the unemployment rate was higher
among Indian men than among men of any other
ethnic group. Among women, Filipinos had the
highest unemployment rate. As the tabulation
shows, unemployment rates for both Japanese and
Chinese men and women were considerably below
those for white men and women:

983

MINORITY GROUPS IN CALIFORNIA
Unemployment rates,
California, 1960
Ethnic group
American Indian_____ .-------------------------------Negro_____________________________________
Filipino________________________________________
Spanish su rn a m e..--------------------------------------------White (including Spanish surname)_______________
Chinese__________________________
Japanese__________________________________

Men
15.1
12.7

Women
11.4
11.4
7.8
13.6
7.7
11.2
5.5
6.3

2.6

3.1

Unemployment rates were higher among Filipinos
than other Oriental groups, perhaps in part be­
cause the Census count was taken during April,
outside the peak employment period for farm
workers, a sizable occupation group for Filipino
men. (Seetable 2.)
The unemployment rate for non white men was
approximately twice that for white men. More
than one-fifth of the. nonwhite male teenagers in
the labor force were jobless, as were 16.1 percent of
the nonwhites age 20-24.
Occupation

An analysis was made of the racial composition
of various occupational groups. Spanish surname
men (8.7 percent of all employed men in the State)
were 41.9 percent, of all men employed as farm
laborers and foremen. Spanish surname women
(6.5 percent of all employed women) were 28.6
percent of all female farm laborers. Nonfarm
laborers also included relatively high proportions
of Mexican Americans—18.1 percent of the men
and 18.8 percent of the women.
Of all employed males in the State in 1960, 9
percent of the whites and 10.1 percent of the
Negroes worked in the construction industry;
Negroes represented 5.1 percent of all males work­
ing in the industry.

Thirteen percent of the State’s employed male
laborers (other than farm or mine) were Negroes;
this represented 17.8 percent of the Negroes.
Only 5.6 percent of the white male workers were in
this category.
4.9 5.1 Among the men employed as craftsmen, fore­
men, and kindred workers, 3 percent were Negroes.
This represented 13.3 percent of employed Ne­
groes; 20.9 percent of employed white men were in
this occupational group.
The agricultural background of Japanese and
Filipino workers in California was evident in their
1960 occupational distributions. In each case,
close to a third were in farm occupations. Among
the Japanese, farmers and farm managers predom­
inated ; of the Filipino men, most were farm labor­
ers and foremen. More than half of all Filipino
men were either farm laborers or service workers.
Professional and technical occupations ac­
counted for a sizable proportion of both Chinese
and Japanese men, reflecting their higher levels of
educational attainment. The concentration of
Chinese workers in urban centers was also reflected
in their occupations.
Because of limited employment opportunities
(particularly on reservations), low educational
attainment, and lack of job skills, labor force par­
ticipation rates among Indians are lower than
among other ethnic groups (in 1960, only 68 per­
cent of the Indian men and 31 percent of the
women were at work or seeking work). Of the
Indian men who were employed, a fourth worked
in manufacturing industries, a proportion ex­
ceeded only by the Mexican American group.

The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of
those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have
too little.


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—Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

984

Earnings and Hours in Southern
Metropolitan Areas, June 1965
hourly earnings of nonsupervisory employees in eight selected metropoli­
tan areas in the South ranged from $1.66 to $2.22
in June 1965. The average number of hours
worked by these employees during a week ranged
from 38 to 42. These are some of the data pro­
duced by a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey 1 of
employee earnings and hours of work in the eight
areas, whose population ranged from 100,000 to
150,000 (1960 Census). This summary of the sur­
vey’s results includes an analysis of the factors
influencing earnings and hours in the areas, and
a description of changes in earnings levels since
1961.
A v er a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e

Area Characteristics

Some of the characteristics of the eight areas
studied are shown in table 1. Industries not
within the scope of the survey play important
economic roles in some of the areas. For example,
Amarillo is a major rail center; Asheville, Dur­
ham, and Lexington are important tobacco mar­
kets. The latter two cities and Tuscaloosa are the
homes of universities (Duke University, the Uni­
versity of Kentucky, and the University of Ala­
bama, respectively). The extraction of natural gas
contributes to the economy of Monroe, and the
production of crude oil is important to Wichita
Falls.
These areas, all standard metropolitan statistical
areas,2 have certain common characteristics other
than population size and geographic location.
Each serves as a place of residence or work for
large numbers of people concentrated in it, has a
labor force that is basically nonagricultural, and
provides a somewhat limited variety of goods and
services for outside markets but a wide variety for
local residents. In addition, services for indus­
try such as transportation, public utilities, whole­
sale trade, and banking are also provided in each
area.
Many factors influence the wage level and work­
week, among them the industrial composition, oc­
cupational mix, supply of and demand for labor,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

the skill level of the labor force, Federal and State
minimum wage and maximum hours legislation,
and the degree of union organization. The vary­
ing pressures exerted by these factors are reflected
in the structures of earnings and hours in each of
the metropolitan areas studied.
Earnings and Hours

Average earnings of nonsupervisory employees
in the eight areas ranged from $1.66 an hour in
Asheville to $2.22 an hour in Lake Charles (table
2). An examination of the distribution of em­
ployees by average hourly earnings reveals that,
despite the disparity in the earnings, there was a
striking similarity among the areas in the pro­
portions of the work force at the lower end of the
pay scale. For example, 8 to 14 percent of the
employees earned less than $1 an hour and 15 to
23 percent, less than $1.25. In each area, more
employees earned between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour
than within any other 5-cent range. The differ­
ences among the area averages, therefore, reflected
differences in the proportions of higher paid em­
ployees. In Asheville, fewer than a fourth of the
employees earned as much as $2 an hour, whereas
in Lake Charles roughly half the employees had
such earnings. Similarly, the proportions of em­
ployees earning $2.50 or more were fewer than a
tenth and more than two-fifths in the two respec­
tive areas. In the other six areas, however, wage
levels were spread over a relatively narrow band
($1.74 to $2), and there was less variation in the
proportions of higher paid employees: from threetenths to slightly more than two-fifths of the em­
ployees earned $2 or more, and from a sixth to
about a fourth, $2.50 or more.
Manufacturing industries employed at least
three-tenths of the work force in 6 of the 8 areas
(Wichita Falls and Amarillo being the excep­
tions), thus noticeably influencing the level and
distribution of earnings in these areas. Overall,
average hourly earnings for manufacturing em­
ployees extended from $1.79 in Asheville to $2.93
1 T he su rvey w as m ade a t th e req uest o f th e U .S . D ep artm en t
o f L abor’s W age and H our and P u b lic C on tracts D iv isio n s in
con n ection w ith th eir stu d ies o f m inim um w age and m axim um
hours stan d ard s. D a ta from th e su rvey w ere pu blished in th e
Secretary of Labor’s R e p o r t S u b m itte d to th e C ongress in A cc o rd ­
ance w ith th e R eq u ire m e n ts of S e c tio n b ( d ) of th e F a ir L a b o r
S ta n d a rd s A c t, J a n u a ry 1966.
2 For defin ition see fo o tn o te 1, tab le 1.

EARNINGS AND HOURS : SOUTHERN METROPOLITAN AREAS
T a b l e 1.

S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r is t ic s

M etropolitan area 1

Population 2

985

E ig h t M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a s

of

Estimated number of
employees within
scope of su rvey3

of t h e

S o u t h , J u n e 1965

Percent of employees
in manufacturing

Major manufacturing
industries

Food and kindred
products.
Chemicals and allied
products.
Tobacco products____
Petroleum refining. _
Nonelectrical
machinery.
Paper and allied
products.
Primary m etals______
Food and kindred
products.

A m a r il l o , T e x _____

149,493

21,700

15

A s h e v i l l e , N . C ____

130,074

29, 600

52

D u r h a m , N . C _____
L a k e C h a r l e s , L a ._
L e x i n g t o n , K y _____

111, 995
145, 475
131,906

23,100
15,400
28,800

44
38
34

M o n r o e , L a ________

101, 663

14,400

32

T u s c a l o o s a , A l a ___
W ic h it a F a lls , T e x

109, 047
129, 638

15,500
14,800

47
20

Percent of nonmanu­
facturing employees
in retail trade
34
42
36
39
37
39
43
41

1
Metropolitan areas used in this study are city and county areas defined
by the Bureau of the Budget as Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
Included are the central city and county, as well as those adjacent counties
that are found to be metropolitan in character and economically and socially
integrated with the county containing the central city.
Following are the central cities and counties which the metropolitan areas
studied comprise: Amarillo, Tex. (Potter and Randall Counties); Asheville,
N .C . (Buncombe County); Durham, N .C . (Durham County); Lake Charles,

La. (Calcasieu Parish); Lexington, Ky. (Fayette County); Monroe, La. (Qua"
chita Parish); Tuscaloosa, Ala. (Tuscaloosa County); and Wichita Falls,
Tex. (Archer and Wichita Counties).
2 1960 Census of Population.
3 Industries excluded from the survey were: agriculture, governm ent,
petroleum and natural gas production, railroad transportation, and nonprofit
religious, charitable, educational, and humanitarian organizations.

in Lake Charles. Exclusion of Lake Charles from
the comparison, however, cuts the range in half,
the next highest area being Lexington with an
average of $2.35 an hour. Tuscaloosa was the only
other area in which the manufacturing pay level
exceeded the average of $2.17 an hour recorded by
a BLS survey in March 1964 for manufacturing
employees in all metropolitan areas of the South.

The manufacturing pay levels reflected the in­
fluence of the wage structure in the industries em­
ploying large proportions of the manufacturing
work force. For example, nearly a fourth of the
manufacturing employees in Asheville worked in
either food processing or apparel manufacturing,
where they averaged little more than $1.50 an hour.
Employees in these industries represented about

T a b l e 2. A v e r a g e S t r a ig h t - T im e H o u r l y E a r n in g s 1 o f N o n s u p e r v is o r y E m p l o y e e s and P e r c e n t o f T h o s e
E a r n in g L e s s T h a n S p e c if ie d A m o u n t s , M a n u f a c t u r in g and S e l e c t e d N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r ie s ,2
S e l e c t e d M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a s o f t h e S o u t h ,3 J u n e 1965

Metropolitan area 3

Number of
employees
(in hundreds)

Average
hourly
earnings 1

Percent of employees earning less than—
$0.75 $1.00 $1.05 $1.15 $1.20 $1.25 $1.30 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00

A m arillo, T ex _________
M anufacturing____
N onm anufacturing.
R etail trad e___
A sh ev ille, N .C ________
M anufacturing____
N onm anufacturing.
R etail trad e___
D urham , N .C _________
M anufacturing____
N onm anufacturing.
R etail trad e___
L ake Charles, L a ______
M anufacturing____
N onm anufacturing.
R etail trad e___
L exington, K y ________
M anufacturing____
N onm an u factu rin g.
R etail trad e___
M onroe, L a ___________
M anufacturing____
N onm anufacturingR etail trad e___
T uscaloosa, A la _______
M anufacturing____
N onm anu factoring.
R etail trad e___
W ichita Falls, T e x ____
M anufacturing____
N onm an u factu rin g.
R etail trad e___

217
32
185
64
296
155
141
59
231
102
130
46
154
59
95
37
288
97
191
71
144
46
98
39
155
74
82
36
148
29
119
49

1Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
2 See footnote 3, table 1.
3 See footnote 1, table 1.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$1.85
2. 05
1.81
1.55
1.66
1.79
1.51
1.32
1.83
2.16
1.58
1.36
2.22
2. 93
1.79
1.35
2.00
2. 35
1.83
1. 59
1.76
2. 16
1.57
1.35
1.83
2.21
1.48
1.20
1.74
1.83
1.72
1.50

2
—

3
4
3
—
6
9
2
—

3
5
5
—

9
13
1
—

1
1
9
—

13
17
7
1
12
16
5

10
(*>
11
19
8
(*)
16
22
8
1
14
21
10

13
(*)
15
25
10
(*)
21
29
11
1
19
28
12

—

—

17
23
8
(*)
12
14
14
C)
20
31
13
1
23
34
12

20
29
11
C)
16
21
16
1
23
35
16
2
29
43
' 15
(*)
18
28

—

—

6
11

15
23

14
<*>
17
28
12
(*)
24
35
12
1
21
31
14
n
22
32
12
(*)
18
24
18
1
26
39
18
2
32
47
17
1
21
31

18
(*)
21
40
14
1
29
46
15
2
26
43
17
(*>
28
44
14
1
21
29
21
2
29
46
22
2
40
61
20
1
24
38

19
(*>
22
41
16
1
32
50
16
2
28
46
19
C)
30
48
15
1
22
32
22
2
31
50
23
3
41
64
21
2
26
40

28
4
32
52
27
9
46
60
26
8
41
59
25
7
37
55
23
6
32
40
34
11
45
59
34
15
52
73
33
16
37
51

40
18
43
63
43
26
61
72
38
17
54
71
34
9
49
68
33
13
44
55
46
21
58
72
43
21
63
82
46
36
48
62

65
55
67
82
77
73
81
91
60
29
77
86
49
17
68
88
57
37
66
78
65
41
77
87
60
36
82
92
70
67
70
81

81
75
82
90
93
93
92
96
83
73
90
95
58
24
79
95
74
61
80
89
80
68
86
92
78
67
88
96
83
84
83
89

90
93
89
94
97
99
96
98
93
91
95
98
69
42
86
97
85
76
90
96
91
87
92
96
87
82
92
98
92
97
90
94

N ote: B e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g , s u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .
D a s h (— ) i n d i c a t e s n o e m p lo y e e s ; a s t e r i s k (*) i n d i c a t e s l e s s t h a n 0.5 p e r c e n t .

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

986
half of the manufacturing employees receiving less
than $1.50 an hour. About three-tenths of the em­
ployees worked in the textiles and machinery in­
dustries and averaged about $1.70 an hour. On
the other hand, approximately a third of the manu­
facturing employees were in the chemicals and
allied products industry, and their earnings, which
averaged roughly $2 an hour, filled out the higher
end of the distribution. In Lake Charles and
Lexington, where manufacturing employees had
the highest earnings averages, the wage structure
was dominated by high-paying industries. In
Lake Charles, 3 out of 4 manufacturing employees
worked in petroleum refining or chemical manu­
facturing and averaged about $3.25 an hour, while
the remaining manufacturing employees in the
area averaged approximately $2 an hour. Sim­
ilarly, half the manufacturing employees in Lex­
ington worked in the machinery industries where
they averaged about $2.70 an hour, roughly 75 cents
an hour more than other manufacturing
employees.
There was less difference among the eight areas
in nonmanufacturing pay levels, which ranged
from $1.48 an hour in Tuscaloosa to $1.83 an hour
T a b l e 3.
and

in Lexington. This was a reflection of the sim­
ilarity generally existing among the areas in both
the proportions of employees in the various non­
manufacturing industries and the pay levels in
these industries. For example, in each area, retail
trade employed the largest proportion of nonmanufacturing employees within the scope of the
survey—from a third to about two-fifths. The
average hourly pay levels in retail trade among the
areas were within a spread of 39 cents. Similarly,
the proportions of employees in each of the other
nonmanufacturing industries did not differ very
much among the areas (the greatest difference was
in transportation, communications, and public
utilities, where the proportions ranged from 8 to
16 percent), and the difference in average pay
levels for an industry exceeded 45 cents an hour
only in contract construction.
The length of the average workweek was be­
tween 40 and 42 hours among seven of the areas; in
Durham, it was 38 hours (table 3). In each area,
manufacturing employees worked an average of 1
to 4 hours a week more than those in nonmanu­
facturing industries. This resulted from the more
widespread use of part-time employees (those

P e r c e n t D is t r ib u t io n o f N o n s u p e r v is o r y E m p l o y e e s by W e e k l y H o u r s o f W o r k ,1 M a n u f a c t u r in g
S e l e c t e d N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r ie s ,2 S e l e c t e d M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a s o f t h e S o u t h ,3 J u n e 1965
Percent o employees vorking—
Metropolitan area 3

Amarillo, Tex.
- - Manufacturing. . _ _ . . . . . . .
_
Nonmanufacturing . . .
.
. . .
Retail tr a d e _____ _ _ _ _ __________ _ _ . . . .
Asheville, N.C .
. . ___ __ _ _ _ _
_
.
.
Manufacturing___________________________________ . . .
Nonmanufacturing___________________________________
Retail trade
___. . .
...
_ _____ _
Durham, N .C . .
. .
. ___
. . ..
Manufacturing.. . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. . . ___. ______
Nonmanufacturing___
_ _
_ .
Retail trade _ . .
_
_ _
_ _____
Lake Charles, L a. __ _____________ _______________ ____ _
Manufacturing ___ ___________ . _ .
_ ____ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing...
Retail trade___ _ __ __ _ _______
_ ______ . . .
Lexington, K y __________________________________________
Manufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________ _ _
Nonmanufacturing_ _
__
. . .
Retail trade ___ _ . _ . _
. __ --------- --------- _ _
Monroe, La____
__ _
______ _ ______ _ ______ _ _
Manufacturing__ _
... .
Nonmanufacturing- _
_
_ ____ _ _
_
Retail trade ______ _ _____ . ___ ______ ______
Tuscaloosa, Ala_________________________________________
M anufacturing____ _ _ _ _
_ __ ___ _ ___
Nonmanufacturing___________________________________
Retail rade . .
. __
__ _
Wichita Falls, Tex_____ _____ ___
. _ . . . _ _ _ _ ..
Manufacturing-.
_________
.
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _____________ _ _ _ ______ ._
Retail trade.._ ............
.

Number of
employees
(in hundreds)

217
32
185
64
296
155
141
59
231
102
130
46
154
59
95
37
288
97
191
71
144
46
98
39
155
74
82
35
148
29
119
49

1 Weekly hours of work are for a 1-week period and include hours paid for
sick leave, holidays, vacations, and other types of leave.
2 See footnote 3, table 1.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Average
weekly
hours 1

Under 35
hours

41
42
40
40
40
41
40
40
38
39
38
38
41
42
40
40
41
43
39
40
42
44
42
41
40
42
39
39
42
44
41
41

18
13
19
21
15
12
19
19
28
33
24
28
14
6
19
18
17
7
22
20
13
9
15
20
18
12
24
24
16
7
18
18

35 and
under 40
hours
7
8
7
9
13
16
10
9
12
7
16
13
7
5
8
8
10
6
13
11
6
5
6
7
8
6
10
8
6
7
6
5

40 hours

29
32
29
19
33
41
25
16
24
30
20
11
40
54
32
25
27
36
22
18
29
35
27
17
27
34
20
16
27
30
26
20

Over 40
and under
48 hours
23
22
23
26
18
13
23
27
18
14
21
19
17
20
15
18
20
18
20
26
23
17
25
26
23
19
27
32
22
25
21
18

48 hours
and over

23
25
22
25
21
18
24
29
18
17
19
28
22
16
26
30
26
33
23
25
29
35
27
30
24
30
19
19
30
30
30

3 See footnote 1, table 1.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

EARNINGS AND HOURS : SOUTHERN METROPOLITAN AREAS

w o rk in g less th a n 35 h o u rs a w eek) in n o n m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g esta b lish m e n ts in 7 o f th e 8 areas, r a th e r
th a n fro m g re a te r p ro p o rtio n s o f m a n u fa c tu rin g
em ployees w o rk in g lo n g h o u rs. I n D u rh a m , th e
p ro p o rtio n o f m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees w o rk in g
p a r t tim e exceeded t h a t o f n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g em ­
ployees (a t h i r d c o m p ared w ith fe w er th a n a
f o u r th ) , even th o u g h th is a re a h a d a g re a te r p ro ­
p o rtio n o f p a r t- tim e n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees
th a n an y o th er. T h e m ost com m on w orkw eek (40
h o u rs) w as m o re p re v a le n t in m a n u fa c tu rin g th a n
in n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g a c tiv itie s in ev ery area.
S u b s ta n tia l p ro p o rtio n s o f b o th m a n u fa c tu rin g
a n d n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees w o rk e d 48 h o u rs
a w eek o r m ore. I n h a lf th e areas, a la rg e r
p ro p o rtio n o f m a n u fa c tu rin g th a n o f n o n m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g em ployees w o rk e d such h o u rs ; in one
a re a (W ic h ita F a l l s ) , th e p ro p o rtio n s w ere th e
sam e.

Wage Changes
N o n su p e rv iso ry em ployees ex p erien ced increases
in av e rag e h o u rly e a rn in g s in each o f th e eig h t
areas betw een J u n e 1961, w hen th is series o f s tu d ­
ies b eg an ,3 a n d th e d a te o f th e p re s e n t survey.
T h e p a y level rises am o n g a re a s ra n g e d fro m 11
cents an h o u r in T u scalo o sa to 23 cen ts an h o u r in
L e x in g to n . E m p lo y e e s in A sh ev ille ex p erien ced
th e g re a te s t a n n u a l ra te o f in crease— 3.3 p e r ­
cent— w h ile th e p a y level o f em ployees in T u s c a ­
loosa rose a t th e low est ra te , o n ly 1.6 p e rc e n t a
y ea r.
In c rea se s in m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees’ a v e ra g e
h o u rly e a rn in g s ra n g e d fro m 6 cen ts in W ic h ita
F a lls to 31 cen ts in D u rh a m . T u scalo o sa, w ith an
1 1 -cen t-an -h o u r increase, w as th e o n ly o th e r a re a in
w h ich av e ra g e e a rn in g s fo r m a n u fa c tu rin g em ­
ployees ad v a n ced b y less th a n 20 cen ts an h o u r.
T h e d is trib u tio n o f a v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
ch a n g ed m a rk e d ly in each area, as th e fo llo w in g
ta b u la tio n show s.
Percent of manufacturing employees earning—
Less than $1 .¡¡5
Amarillo----- ------------------Asheville-----------------------Durham------------------------Lake Charles-----------------Lexington----------------------Monroe--------------------------Tuscaloosa---------------------Wichita Falls------------------

1961
13
23
12
7
9
17
17
25


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1962

11
19
13
8
8
14
16
16

1965
(i)
1
2
(>)
1
2
2
2

$1.50 or more
1961
65
48
73
87
82
78
78
58

1962
57
52
73
88
81
78
77
58

1965
82
74
83
91
87
79
79
64

987
Percent of manufacturing employees earning—
$2 or more

Amarillo___ ____________
Asheville________________
Durham________________
Lake Charles____________
Lexington_______________
Monroe_________________
Tuscaloosa______________
Wichita Falls_____. . . . . . . .

1961
33
10
42
81
54
43
57
36

1962
31
14
49
84
56
46
59
31

$2.50 or more
1965
45
27
61
83
63
59
64
33

1961
9
4
8
67
34
19
34
15

1962
12
2
11
69
35
19
34
10

1965
25
7
27
76
39
32
33
16

1 Less than 0.5 percent.

A lm o st a ll th e em ployees w ho received less th a n
$1.25 an h o u r in J u n e 1961 w ere e a rn in g a t least
th a t am o u n t in J u n e 1965. M uch o f th is ch an g e
reflected th e influence o f changes in th e F e d e ra l
m in im u m w age a p p lica b le to m ost m a n u fa c tu rin g
estab lish m en ts. T h e 1961 am en d m en ts to th e F a i r
L a b o r S ta n d a rd s A c t ra ise d th e m in im u m w age
fro m $1 a n h o u r to $1.15 a n h o u r b eg in n in g S e p ­
tem b er 1961 a n d to $1.25 a n h o u r b eg in n in g S e p ­
tem b er 1963.
A t th e tim e o f each surv ey , th e
p ro p o rtio n o f m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees e a rn in g
less th a n th e ex istin g m in im u m was n eg lig ib le in
every area. (S om e em ployees an d estab lish m en ts
in m a n u fa c tu rin g are n o t su b ject to th e p ro v isio n s
o f th e F a i r L a b o r S ta n d a rd s A c t.) T h e re ten d ed
to be a n o ticeable clu ste r o f em ployees a t o r ju s t
above th e e x istin g m in im u m , especially in areas
w ith re la tiv e ly la rg e n u m b ers o f em ployees in low
p a y in g m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u strie s (e.g., in T u sc a ­
loosa a n d W ic h ita F a l l s ) . T h is c lu ste r m oved u p ,
m ore o r less in ta c t, as th e m in im u m rose, as in d i­
cated in th e ta b u la tio n below .
Percent of manufacturing employees
earning at least the Federal
minimum wage but less than 5
cents above the minimum in—

A m arillo__________________
A sh ev ille__________________ ___________
D urham _____ ____________ ________
____________
Lake C harles. . .
L e x in g to n .._ ...............
..
M onroe.. _ . ___________ ___________
T u sc a lo o s a _______________ _____________
W ichita Falls
- . . .... ______

June 1961
4
9
4
3
2

6
10

11

June 1962
5
13

8
3

5
8
12
13

June 1965
4

8
6
7
5
9
13

14

O f course, chan g es in th e d is trib u tio n w ere n o t
lim ite d to th e low er en d o f th e p a y scale. In d e ed ,
in five areas even g re a te r changes to o k p lace in th e
m id d le a n d u p p e r reaches o f th e p a y scale, an d
fre q u e n tly occurred in in d u strie s o th e r th a n those
in w h ich th e low est p a id em ployees w orked. T h is
in d icates th e g re a te r influence o f fa c to rs o th e r th a n
3 See M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , Jan u ary 1963, p. 55.

988
F e d e ra l m in im u m w age le g isla tio n on w age s tru c ­
tu re s in th ese areas. I n D u rh a m , f o r ex am ple, an
e ig h th o f th e m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees e a rn e d less
th a n $1.25 an h o u r in J u n e 1961, b u t b y J u n e 1965
o n ly 1 o u t o f 50 h a d such ea rn in g s. H o w ev er, th e
increases o v er th e 4 y e a rs in th e p ro p o rtio n s o f
em ployees p a id $2 o r m o re a n d $2.50 o r m o re w ere
s h a r p e r— fro m a b o u t tw o -fifth s to th re e -fifth s a t
th e fo rm e r level, a n d fro m fe w er th a n a te n th to
so m ew h at m o re th a n a f o u r th a t th e la tte r. E v e n
in A sh ev ille, w h e re one o f th e la rg e s t ch anges in
th e p ro p o rtio n s o f em ployees p a id less th a n $1.25
a n h o u r to o k p lace, th e in crease in th e p ro p o rtio n
e a rn in g a t le a st $1.50 a n h o u r w as g re a te r.
W h ile ch an g es in th e p ro p o rtio n s o f m a n u fa c tu r­
in g em ployees e a rn in g less th a n $1.25 a n h o u r are
la rg e ly a ttrib u ta b le to th e o p e ra tio n o f F e d e ra l
m in im u m w ag e le g isla tio n , ch an g es in th e su p p ly
o f o r d em an d f o r la b o r, as w ell as ch anges in
in d u s tria l co m p o sitio n o r o cc u p a tio n a l m ix o f th e
w o rk fo rce also a lte r th e level a n d d is trib u tio n
o f ea rn in g s. So do ch an g es in th e w age s tru c tu re
in in d iv id u a l in d u s trie s b ro u g h t a b o u t b y g en e ral
w ag e changes. P a r t o f th e ch a n g e in th e w age
s tru c tu re in D u rh a m , f o r ex am p le, is a ttrib u ta b le
to tw o g e n e ra l w age in creases w h ich to o k p lace in
th e tobacco in d u s try , one o f 7y 2 p e rc e n t in O cto b er
1961 a n d one o f S1/^ p e rc e n t in O c to b e r 1964. S im ­
ila rly , “ across th e b o a r d ” ty p e o f p a y in creases in
A sh e v ille ’s chem ical a n d te x tile in d u s trie s a re re ­
flected in th e a lte re d s tru c tu re o f w ages in m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g .4
O v e r th e 4 y e a rs betw een th e first a n d c u rre n t
su rv ey s, em ployees in n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g d id n o t
fa re as w ell, on th e av e rag e , as th o se in m a n u fa c ­
tu r in g in d u s trie s in five areas. I n one a re a th e ir
e a rn in g s a d v a n ced b y 1 ce n t a n h o u r m o re th a n
th o se o f m a n u fa c tu rin g em ployees; in a n o th e r, by
11 cents an h o u r m o re ; a n d in one, th e increases
w ere equal.
T h e g re a te s t ch a n g e in th e n o n ­
m a n u fa c tu rin g p a y level to o k p lace betw een 1962
a n d 1965 in 5 o f th e 8 areas, a lth o u g h in all b u t 1
o f th e 8 th e m o st n o ticeab le ch an g es in th e d is tr i­
b u tio n to o k p lace d u rin g t h a t p erio d .

Unlike the changes in the distribution noted in
manufacturing, those in nonmanufacturing took
place mostly at the lower end of the pay scale. In
each of the areas there were some declines in the
proportion of nonmanufacturing employees paid


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

less th a n $1 an h o u r, b u t th e increases in th e p r o ­
p o rtio n p a id a t least $1.25 an h o u r a n d th e changes
in th e d is trib u tio n betw een $1 a n d $1.25 are m ore
n o te w o rth y , as can be seen in th e acco m p an y in g
ta b u la tio n .
Percent of nonmanufacturing employees earning—
Less than $1
Amarillo________________
Asheville_______
Durham________________
Lake Charles____________
Lexington_______________
Monroe_________________
Tuscaloosa______________
Wichita Falls____________

1961
12
27
18
18
16
25
31
18

Amarillo________________
Asheville________________
Durham________________
Lake Charles____________
Lexington_______________
Monroe_________________
Tuscaloosa______________
Wichita Falls____________

1961
71
48
59
64
64
55
45
63

1962
12
21
15
13
15
20
29
16

Less than $1.15
1965
11
16
14
17
12
20
23
15

$1.25 or more
1962
70
49
58
69
63
54
45
66

1965
78
68
72
70
78
69
59
74

1961
23
46
35
31
30
41
49
32

1962
22
37
31
23
29
32
43
27

1965
17
24
21
22
18
26
32
21

$2 or more
1961
28
19
18
34
25
24
16
23

1962
30
16
21
37
26
22
16
25

1965
33
19
23
32
34
23
18
30

F u r th e r u p th e p ay scale, th e re w ere g e n e ra lly only
m odest changes in th e d is trib u tio n d u rin g th e 4y e a r sp an . M an y o f th e changes in th e d is trib u ­
tio n betw een $1 a n d $1.25 an h o u r m ay be a t ­
trib u te d to changes in F e d e ra l m in im u m w ages.
A m o n g th e e ig h t areas, fro m a fo u r th to tw o -fifth s
of th e em ployees 5 in n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ac tiv ities
in J u n e 1965 w ere in estab lish m en ts w hich were
subject to th e $1.25 m in im u m h o u rly w age w hich
becam e a p p lic a b le in S ep te m b e r 1963, a n d th u s
p ro b a b ly w ere su b ject to th e $ l-a n -h o u r F e d e ra l
m in im u m in o p e ra tio n in J u n e 1961 a n d to th e
$1.15 m in im u m w h ich w as a p p lie d in S ep tem b er
1961. F ro m a n e ig h th to a fifth of th e n o n m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g em ployees w ere in re ta il tra d e e sta b lish ­
m en ts w hich becam e su b ject to a $ l-a n -h o u r F e d ­
e ra l m in im u m w age in S ep tem b er 1961 a n d to a
$1.15 m in im u m in S ep tem b er 1964.
T h e m ost
no ticeab le changes in th e n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g d is­
trib u tio n w ere th e in crease betw een J u n e 1961 an d
1962 in th e p ro p o rtio n s o f em ployees e a rn in g a t
least $1.15 an h o u r, a n d th e in crease betw een J u n e
1962 an d 1965 in th e p ro p o rtio n s o f those e a rn in g
a t least $1.25 an h o u r.

4 See C u rre n t W age D e v e lo p m e n ts, N os. 204 (D ecem ber 1964)
and 210 (Ju n e 1 9 6 5 ).
5 E x clu d in g th ose in c o n tra ct con stru ction .

EARNINGS AND HOURS : SOUTHERN METROPOLITAN AREAS

T h e ch a n g es in th e o v e ra ll n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
d is trib u tio n obscure th o se w h ich to o k p lace in r e ­
ta il tra d e . A s show n below , th is d is trib u tio n w as
a lte re d s u b s ta n tia lly in m a n y o f th e areas, p r i ­
m a rily in th e p ro p o rtio n s o f em ployees e a rn in g
less th a n $1 an h o u r betw een th e m o n th s o f J u n e
o f 1961 a n d 1962, a n d th o se e a rn in g less th a n $1.15
a n d $1.25 o r m ore betw een J u n e o f 1962 a n d of
1965.
Percent of retail trade employees earning—
Less than $1
Amarillo___________ ____
A sh eville-.. _ _
____
Durham___ _______ ____
Lake C h arles______ ____
Lexington_______ . . . ____
Monroe____________ ____
Tuscaloosa__________ ____
Wichita Falls. _____ ____

1961
21
35
28
34
25
43
50
29

1962
20
28
23
23
16
33
42
27

Less than $1.15
1965
19
22
21
23
14
31
34
23

1961
40
52
42
55
43
59
70
51

1962
41
57
51
42
44
58
66
45

1965
28
35
31
32
24
39
47
31

989
Percent of retail trade
employees earning—
$1.25 or more

A m arillo____ _ _ . . . .
_______________
Asheville______________________ _______________
D urham ... . . .
_______________
Lake Charles__________________ _______________
Lexington____ . _____ _
_ _________________
M onroe...
. . .
. . .
_______________
T uscaloosa... ____________ . . . _______________
Wichita Falls___ . . . . . . . . ___ _______________

1961
52
39
53
40
50
38
26
43

1965
59
50
54
52
68
50
36
60

These changes can, at least partially, be at­
tributed to the influence of Federal minimum wage
legislation, especially since they followed the move­
ment of the minimum wage. The fact that
changes took place throughout the distribution,
however, reflects the effect of other forces on the
area wage structures in nonmanufacturing
industries.
—A l v in B a u m a n
Division of National Wage and Salary Income

W h ile m ore m en g ain e d in w eekly e a rn in g s by m o v in g th a n lost, still th e
source o f th ese g a in s w as n o t th e sam e in a ll cases, it b ein g influenced by th e
class o f m ill fro m w hich th e w o rk ers cam e a n d th e class o f m ill th e y en tered .
T h u s m en w ho le f t h ig h -w a g e m ills a n d en tered o th e r h ig h -w a g e m ills im ­
p ro v ed chiefly th e ir w o rk in g tim e, w h ile m en fro m m edium an d low -w age
m ills in creased p rin c ip a lly th e ir h o u rly ra te s. . . .
I n sh o rt, w hile a ll m en w ho ch an g ed th e ir places o f em p lo y m en t d id n o t im ­
p ro v e th e ir econom ic s ta tu s a n d w h ile n o t a ll w ho g a in e d in w eekly e a rn in g s
d id so in th e sam e w ay, it still a p p e a rs t h a t to an a p p re c ia b le degree ro llin g
stones d id g a th e r m oss in th e sense o f im p ro v in g w eekly ea rn in g s.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1962
51
33
42
54
48
37
27
48

—“Do Workers Gain by Labor Turnover?” Monthly Labor Review, June 1929.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

990

Reducing Seasonal
Unemployment
E ditor ’s N ote .— Negotiations

for a new agree­
ment between Local 825, International Union
of Operating Engineers, and the Associated
General Contractors of New Jersey have
become the subject of extensive public com­
ment. In March 1966 the parties agreed, on
their own initiative, to submit the controversy
to the Secretary of Labor of the United States
and the Commissioner of Labor and Industry
of the State of New Jersey for “determination,
resolution and disposition.”
On July 13, 1966, Secretary Wirtz and
Commissioner Male issued their determina­
tion, which placed particular emphasis on uthe
desirability of developing some method of
meeting or at least reducing the problem of
seasonality in the construction industry, with
its adverse effects on contractors, workers, and
the publicN The major portion of this deter­
mination is given beloiv. The proposals are
significant, of course, not only for the parties
in this case but also for the construction in­
dustry throughout the country and for other
industries with seasonal work patterns.

T h e independent local settlem en ts com m on in th e
co n stru c tio n in d u s try a re h e a v ily affected by th e
lo n g -estab lish ed a n d p essim istic h a b it o f v iew ing
th e in d u s try as h ig h ly seasonal a n d c h a ra c te riz e d
by g re a t u n c e rta in tie s w h ic h h o v e r o v er co n tra cts,
business fo rtu n e s, a n d job assig n m en ts. T h is has
led to th e view t h a t g a in s m u st be ta k e n w h erev er
a n d w h en ev er th e y can be o b ta in e d to b alan ce
p erio d s in w h ich g a in s a re n o t feasib le, a n d to th e
dev elo p m en t o f an h is to ric process o f ju s tify in g
re la tiv e ly h ig h h o u rly ra te s as b ein g n ecessary to
p ro v id e reaso n ab le a n n u a l ea rn in g s.
Y e t sea so n ality a n d in te rm itte n t w o rk m ean
h ig h costs a n d w a ste d resources. I f th ese root
p ro b lem s can be m et, th e re su lt w ill be s u b s ta n tia l
sav in g s in costs a n d a t th e sam e tim e th e e lim in a ­
tio n o f som e o f th e h u m a n u n c e rta in tie s th a t cast
a cloud o ver b a rg a in in g . F ro m th e v iew p o in t of
sta b iliz a tio n , th e r ig h t answ ers in th e c o n stru c tio n
in d u s try d ep e n d on m e etin g th ese problem s.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T h e costs associated w ith in te rm itte n t a n d sea­
sonal w o rk are n o t o nly reflected in n eg o tia te d
w a g e s ; th e y develop in o th e r w a y s :
S u b s ta n tia l am o u n ts in o v ertim e p re m iu m s are
p a id d u rin g p ea k p erio d s o f seasonal a n d ru sh
w ork. P e n a lty p re m iu m s ru n a t le a st $2 to $3 m il­
lion a y e a r fo r th e c o n tra c to rs in v olved in th is
p ro ceed in g , a n d ab o u t $1 b illio n a y e a r fo r th e con­
stru c tio n in d u s try in th e N a tio n as a w hole.
T h e costs o f sea so n ality a n d in te rm itte n t w ork
im pose a s u b sta n tia l b u rd e n on th e u n em p lo y m en t
in su ran c e system . O n ly h a lf th e costs o f u n em ­
plo y m en t benefits fo r co n stru c tio n w o rk e rs are
s u p p o rte d by th e tax es p a id by c o n stru c tio n em ­
p lo y ers a n d c o n stru c tio n em ployees, d esp ite m e rit
r a tin g pro v isio n s. O th e r N ew Je rse y em ployers
an d w orkers, th ro u g h th e ir u n em p lo y m en t in s u r­
ance tax es, subsidize h a lf th e benefits p a id to
u n em p lo y ed w o rk ers o f N ew Je rse y A ssociated
G en eral C o n tra c to rs m em b ers; th is su b sid y is at
least $1 m illio n a year. T h is figure fo r th e e n tire
co n stru c tio n in d u s try in N ew Je rse y is close to $10
m illion. I n th e N a tio n , u n em p lo y m en t in su ran c e
benefits in th is in d u s try ru n close to tw o -th ird s o f
a b illio n d o lla rs a y ea r, o f w h ich only h a lf is cov­
ered by ta x e s on co n stru c tio n p a y ro lls a n d w ages.
T h e cost o f seasonal u n em p lo y m en t in g en e ral is
one o f th e im p o rta n t n a tio n a l problem s. O nefifth o f to ta l u n em p lo y m en t in th e U n ite d S ta te s is
seasonal, a n d u n em p lo y m en t in th e co n stru c tio n
in d u s try alone is h a lf o f th is.
A sig n ifican t p ro p o rtio n o f all these costs are
costs to th e g en e ral ta x p a y e r. T h e F e d e ra l G o v ­
ern m e n t alone p ro v id es $180 m illio n a y e a r fo r
co n stru c tio n w o rk in N ew J e rs e y — fin an cin g
w hich covers a t least a q u a rte r o f th e w o rk o f th e
o p e ra tin g en g in eers a n d th e ir em ployers.

The Causes of Seasonality
O p e ra tin g en g in eers u su ally w o rk o u td o o rs, an d
th e ir em p lo y m en t is th e re fo re affected by w eath er.
B u t it is also affected by h a b it a n d by o p e ra tin g
p ra ctices w hich ca n be changed.
T ech n o lo g y h as opened th e w ay fo r sta b iliz a tio n
o f n o n ro a d b u ild in g o p e ra tio n s w h ich are c a rrie d
on u n d e r cover a n d even some ty p e s o f b u ild in g
ex cav atio n w ork. T ask s w hich inv o lv e th e h a n ­
d lin g o f soil (g ra d in g , co m p actin g , etc.) at g ro u n d

REDUCING SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

level c a n n o t n o rm a lly be done u n d e r m u d d y o r w et
co n ditio n s. T h e p h y sic a l o p e ra tio n s associated
w ith e a rth m o v in g (d e sp ite im p ro v e m e n ts in size
o f eq u ip m en t, use o f p u m p s, m o istu re b a rrie rs , etc.)
— w h ich c o n stitu te th e sin g le la rg e s t elem ent in th e
o p e ra tin g e n g in e e r’s w o rk a n d a k ey elem ent in th e
s ta rtin g o f w o rk f o r a new season— a re re s tric te d in
th e N ew J e rs e y are a , a n d in sim ila r clim a tic areas
o f th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d E u ro p e , fro m a b o u t D e­
cem ber 1 to M a rc h 31. I n N ew J e rse y , g o v e rn ­
m e n ta l specifications g e n e ra lly p ro h ib it ro a d w o rk
in th is p e rio d , in som e cases u n n ecessarily .
S easo n a lity also affects p a v in g o p eratio n s.
G o v e rn m e n t (F e d e ra l a n d S ta te ) s ta n d a rd s p r e ­
v en t p o u rin g o f concrete w hen th e te m p e ra tu re is
below 32-40 d e g re e s ; how ever, u n d e r som e circ u m ­
stances co n crete is p o u re d in N ew J e r s e y th r o u g h ­
o u t th e yea r.
T h e o rg a n iz a tio n a n d sch e d u lin g o f w o rk , p a r ­
tic u la rly th e le ttin g o f c o n tra c ts, is also an im p o r­
ta n t fa c to r le a d in g to seasonal b u n c h in g o f w ork.
I n 1965, fo r ex am p le, th e la rg e s t volum e o f h ig h ­
w ay c o n tra c t a w a rd s m ad e by th e S ta te H ig h w a y
D e p a rtm e n t o cc u rre d in J u l y a n d A u g u st. N ew
J e rs e y h a s been f a r b e h in d o th e r S ta te s in u sin g its
allo ca tio n o f F e d e r a l fu n d s fo r h ig h w a y w ork.

Effects on Earnings Opportunity
T h e seasonal p a tte r n o f w o rk affects th e em p lo y ­
m en t o r e a rn in g s o f m em bers o f F o c a l 825 in
d iffe re n t w a y s:
Som e o p e ra tin g e n g in ee rs are em p lo y ed th e y e a r
ro u n d by th e sam e em p lo y ers. O th e rs receive th e
eq u iv ale n t o f a fu ll y e a r ’s em p lo y m en t, o r m ore,
fro m sev eral em p lo y ers, d u rin g th e m o n th s o f p e a k
a c tiv ity . F o r ty p e rc e n t o f th e m em b ersh ip o f th e
L ocal a t w o rk in 1964 h a d a t le a st 1,800 h o u rs o f
w o rk ; alm o st 30 p e rc e n t h a d 2,000 h o u rs o r m ore.
S ig n ific a n t p ro p o rtio n s o f th ese h o u rs w ere p a id
a t o v ertim e rates.
A t th e o th e r ex tre m e w ere e n g in ee rs w ho w o rk ed
no h o u rs at all, o r less th a n a few h u n d re d h o u rs
d u rin g th e y ea r. M ost o f th is g ro u p received
su b s ta n tia l e a rn in g s fro m o th e r ac tiv ities.
T h e m a jo r im p act o f se a so n ality a n d in te r m it­
te n t em p lo y m en t is fe lt by a b o u t o n e -th ird to tw ofifth s o f th e m em bers o f th e L o cal w ho a re a tta c h e d
to th e in d u s try a n d re ly on it as th e ir m a jo r o r sole
source o f w ork.


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991
T h is is an im p o rta n t m a tte r. C oncern over
seaso n ality a n d irre g u la rity o f w o rk h a s in v a ria ­
b ly re su lte d in g e n e ra l increases in w age ra te s t h a t
h ave gone to a ll w orkers, w h e th e r em p lo y ed th e
y e a r ro u n d or n o t. T h e re is little ju stific a tio n fo r
c o n tin u in g a b a rg a in in g h a b it w h ich p ro v id es d o u ­
ble benefits fo r th o se w ho receive b o th th e h ig h e r
ra te s a n d fu ll a n n u a l em ploym ent.
I t w ill ta k e a new a p p ro a c h to deal w ith th e
pro b lem s o f th e in te rm e d ia te h o u rs g ro u p —th o se
w ho re ly u p o n o p e ra tin g en g in ee r em p lo y m en t fo r
th e ir livelihood, a n d w ho h av e to ta l a n n u a l
em p lo y m en t o f 700 to 1,600 h ours.

The Practical Possibilities
T h e re h as n o t been a th o ro u g h review o f sea­
so n ality a n d its costs since th e 1920’s. T h e fa c ts
t h a t ex ist to d a y show little im p ro v em en t o v er
those w h ich existed w hen H e rb e rt H o o v e r, th e n
S e c re ta ry o f C om m erce, su m m arize d th e 1924 re ­
p o rt o f a la b o r-m a n ag em e n t com m ittee o f th e
P re s id e n t’s C o n feren ce on U n e m p lo y m en t in th e
fo llo w in g w o r d s : “ . . . th e com m ittee h a s w ell
d em o n strate d th e m ost im p o rta n t fa c t th a t th e
seasonal c h a ra c te r o f th e c o n stru c tio n in d u strie s
is to a con sid erab le e x te n t a m a tte r o f custom an d
h a b it, n o t o f clim atic necessity .”
W eeks o f a d d itio n a l w o rk each y e a r a re feasib le
if th e re is a conscious effort to achieve it. A few
w eeks’ in ro a d in to th e p re se n t 4 -m o n th “off­
season” can g re a tly red u ce th e em p lo y m en t
pro b lem o f th e g re a t b u lk o f tho se affected.
T h e ro le o f g o v ern m e n t w ill be p a rtic u la rly
im p o rta n t. T h e F e d e ra l a n d S ta te G o v ern m en ts
a n d th e p u b lic a u th o ritie s finance a volum e of
w o rk sufficient in size to create o r e lim in a te sea­
sonal p a tte rn s.
C h an g es in G o v ern m en t con­
tra c tin g p ra ctices can also influence p ractices
th ro u g h o u t in d u stry .
A n u m b er o f p ra c tic a l steps can be t a k e n :
F ir s t, th e b u n c h in g th a t ex ists in th e a w a rd in g
o f c o n tra c ts fo r d iffe ren t ty p es o f co n stru c tio n by
th e S ta te o f N ew J e rse y (a n d in a d d itio n by p u b lic
a u th o ritie s an d local g ro u p s) can be d im in ish ed
by conscious p la n n in g a t all levels o f g o v ern m en t
by th e p u b lic agencies resp o n sib le fo r co n stru ctio n .
S ta b iliz in g em p lo y m en t h as n o t, in th e p a st, been
an assigned m ission o f these agencies; such an
assig n m en t w ould y ield resu lts.

992
M a n y la rg e c o n tra c to rs use m o d ern m a n a g e ­
m en t system s, in c lu d in g co m p u te r-b a se d m ethods,
in th e ir ow n a d m in is tra tio n . S u ch system s can be
in s ta lle d by th e p u b lic agencies, w ith th e a d d i­
tio n a l specific o b jectiv e o f s c h e d u lin g w o rk fo r
tim e t h a t is now u n u sed , in p e rio d s w h en con­
s tru c tio n is possible.
S econd, th e p re s e n t te ch n ic al s ta n d a r d s u sed in
g o v e rn m e n t specifications can be u p d a te d to reflect
m o d e rn ad v an ces in tech n o lo g y .
T h ir d , th e re a re a g re a t m a n y ta sk s in N ew
J e rs e y w h ich need to be done, w h ic h ca n be done
in slack p e rio d s, a n d w h ic h call f o r th e sk ill o f
o p e ra tin g e n g in e e rs : S tre a m c h a n n e l im p ro v em en t
a n d b a n k p ro te c tio n , w in d b re a k s, sew age a n d flood
co n tro l p ro je c ts, a n d w o rk on p a rk s , p onds,
beaches a n d o th e r re c re a tio n a l fa c ilitie s a ll o v er
th e S ta te ; m a jo r new d ev elo p m en ts re sp e c tin g th e
m ead o w la n d s in N o rth e rn N ew J e rs e y , a n d w o rk
in th e D e la w a re W a te r G a p a r e a ; w o rk on F e d e ra l
fa c ilitie s ; a n d w o rk f o r w h ich F e d e r a l m a tc h in g
fu n d s a re a v a ila b le (o th e r th a n ro a d s) a n d fo r
w h ich th e a v a ila b ility o f o p e ra tin g e n g in e e rs’ tim e
m ig h t be c a lc u la te d in d ev e lo p in g a local m a tc h in g
co n trib u tio n .
M a n y o f th ese a re ta sk s fo r w h ich p u b lic fin an c­
in g is n o t now fu lly a v a ila b le , b u t w h ich c o u ld be
o rg a n iz e d to p ro v id e off-season em p lo y m en t.
F o u r th , ch an g es a re n eed ed in th e p re se n t w eekly
g u a ra n te e fo r w o rk e rs called in a n y tim e d u rin g
th e w eek a n d in tr a d itio n a l eq u ip m e n t re n ta l p ra c ­
tices. T h ese a rra n g e m e n ts in h ib it e a rly s ta rts on
p ro je c ts w h ich m ig h t b eg in in la te w in te r o r ea rly
sp rin g , w h en severe w e a th e r ch a n g es m ig h t be u n ­
u su a lly u n p re d ic ta b le .
F if t h , th e re is a s u b s ta n tia l need f o r th e t r a i n ­
in g a n d r e tr a in in g o f w o rk e rs in th e o p e ra tio n o f
new ty p e s o f e q u ip m en t a n d in th e m ain te n a n c e of
eq u ip m en t, d u r in g off-seasons.
E q u ip m e n t h as
becom e in c re a sin g ly com plex in a tr a d e in w h ich
th e re h a s been no fo rm a l tr a in in g o r a p p re n tic e ­
sh ip , a n d w h ere ac cid en t ra te s a re h ig h .
T h e volum e o f c o n stru c tio n a c tiv ity in th e
U n ite d S ta te s h a s been g ro w in g , a n d h ea v y con­
s tru c tio n h as been in c re a sin g at a f a s te r pace in
N ew J e rs e y th a n in th e U n ite d S ta te s as a w hole.
P re d ic tio n s co n c e rn in g f u tu r e v o lu m e a n d em p lo y ­
m en t o p p o rtu n ity show a c o n tin u in g in crease, a n d
v a r y o n ly re sp e c tin g th e deg ree o f u p w a rd clim b.
T h e n a tio n a l co m m itm e n t to m a in ta in a n econom y
w h ich g ro w s w ith o u t p erio d ic setbacks, a n d th e


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

d e m o n stra tio n now t h a t th is is possible, sh o u ld
reduce th e u n c e rta in ty w h ich h as d o m in ated
b a rg a in in g .
T h e o p e ra tin g en g in eers, w ho m an som e o f th e
m ost sp e c ta c u la r m ach in es o f a new era, a re g ro w ­
in g in n u m b er. T h e p a rtie s a re in a u n iq u e p o si­
tio n to b eg in a lo n g -o v erd u e job.
A n a tta c k u p o n sea so n ality a n d interm itten tw o rk w ill re q u ire n o t o nly new a ttitu d e s b u t new
in s titu tio n a l a rra n g e m e n ts a n d fin an cial in v e st­
m ent. B u t it sh o u ld h av e lo n g -ra n g e effects w h ich
su b s ta n tia lly d im in ish u n it costs w h ile p ro v id in g
se c u rity a n d y e a r-ro u n d e a rn in g s fo r in d iv id u a ls.
T h e re is h a rd ly a W e ste rn n a tio n — o th e r th a n th e
U n ite d S ta te s— w h ich h as n o t em b ark ed u p o n a
d e lib e ra te effort to red u ce seaso n ality a n d th e e f­
fects o f in te rm itte n t w o rk assig n m en ts.
B ey o n d th e m a tte rs a t issue in th is case, it is
clea r t h a t a sizable effo rt sh o u ld be d ire c te d a t
th e p ro b lem s o f seasonal u n em p lo y m en t in th e in ­
d u s try as a whole.

Five Steps to a Better Answer
T h e p a rtie s to th is case, b y th e ir u n p re ced e n te d
actio n in re fe rr in g it fo r d e te rm in a tio n a n d d isp o ­
sitio n to offices o f th e S ta te a n d th e F e d e ra l G o v ­
ern m en ts, recognized th e co m b in atio n h ere o f b o th
th e ir ow n a n d th e p u b lic ’s in te re sts— a n d also th e ir
ow n a n d th e p u b lic ’s resp o n sib ilities. T h e y in d i­
ca te d th e ir w illin g n ess an d th e ir d esire to m ake
th is a case w h ich te sts th e p o ssib ility o f fin d in g a
b e tte r an sw er, in a p ro sp e ro u s econom y— p ro p e rly
concerned w ith m a in ta in in g b o th its g ro w th an d
its s ta b ility — to th e p ro b lem o f sea so n ality an d
in te rm itte n t w o rk in a key in d u s try . T h e y h av e
reco g n ized t h a t th e re is b o th a case to be settled
a n d an in d u s try a n d an econom y to be served.
T h ese a re th e five step s w hich a p p e a r to us a p ­
p ro p r ia te in response to th e p a r tie s ’ decision to
fo llo w th is course:
1. Every effort should be made to ensure the

establishment by public contracting authorities of
practices and procedures in the awarding of con­
struction contracts lohich will reduce seasonal un­
employment to a■minimum.
2. Active attempts should, be made to extend the
efforts to reduce the seasonality and intermittent
work factors in this particular situation to other
parts of the construction industry in this area and.
so far as is practicable. in the industry in general.

REDUCING SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

T h e u n d e rsig n e d , as F e d e r a l a n d S ta te officers,
u n d e rta k e to e x te n d th e stu d y w h ich h a s been m ad e
in th is case to in clu d e a co m p reh en siv e review o f
sea so n a lity a n d in te rm itte n t w o rk th ro u g h o u t th e
c o n stru c tio n in d u s try , o r a t le a st so f a r as it affects,
d ire c tly o r in d ire c tly , th e in te re sts o f th ese p a rtie s.
T h is rev iew w ill in clu d e th e effects o f seaso n ality
on h o u rs o f w ork, a n n u a l ea rn in g s, a n d th e cost o f
co n stru c tio n , th e te c h n ic a l p ro b le m s w h ich m u st
be solved, a n d th e p ra c tic a l step s t h a t can be ta k e n
b y g o v e rn m e n t, lab o r, m an ag e m en t, a n d tech n ic al
g ro u p s to re d u ce se a so n a lity a n d its h ig h costs.
I t is reco g n ized th a t th is b ro a d e r a p p ro a c h w ill
depend, fo r its effectiveness, on th e p a r tic ip a tio n
of la b o r a n d m a n a g e m e n t g ro u p s in th e c o n stru c ­
tio n in d u s try . S u ch p a r tic ip a tio n w ill be ac tiv e ly
so u g h t.

3. The new contract should include effective
provisions for the assurance of extended earnings
opportunities to all covered operating engineers
with a substantial attachment to the industry.
a. A reasonable schedule of such extended earn­
ings opportunities should provide that journey­
men operating engineers who were employed 700
hours or more as operating engineers during the
12-month period from April 1 of one year to April
1 of the following year, and who are substantially
attached to the industry as evidenced by eligibility
for participation in the Pension Fund, will re­
ceive at least 1,600 hours of total earnings oppor­
tunities during the succeeding 12-month period,
with supplemental opportunities to begin Decem­
ber 15. In determining whether 1,600 hours of
earnings opportunities have been reached, the
hourly equivalent of outside earnings shall be ad­
justed to reflect differences in rates of pay.
b. T hese e a rn in g s o p p o rtu n itie s w ill be s u p ­
p lied , in th e m ain , th ro u g h re g u la r em p lo y m en t
by th e c o n tra c to rs w ho a re p a rtie s to th is a g re e ­
m ent. I t is reco g n ized , how ever, th a t th e re w ill
n o t in all cases be such em p lo y m en t o p p o rtu n ity .
I t is in te n d e d t h a t th e assu re d o p p o rtu n itie s be
earnings o p p o rtu n itie s w hich arise fro m w o rk o r
tra in in g .

4. The parties should establish a Develojrment
Authority for the purpose of assuring earnings
opportunities where they are not available through
regular employment.
I t is an essen tial elem ent in th is D e te rm in a tio n
t h a t th e D e v elo p m e n t A u th o r ity w ill be a u th o r ­
ized to co n d u ct such o p e ra tio n s a n d a c tiv itie s as


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

993
w ill p ro v id e co n stru c tiv e use o f th e tim e o f a ll o p ­
e ra tin g en g in eers w ho p a r tic ip a te in its activ ities.
T h e A u th o rity sh o u ld be a u th o riz e d to en g ag e in
activ ities fo r p ro fit w h ere th is is in th e in tere sts
o f th e p a rtie s to th is a g re e m e n t; o r in n o t-fo rp ro fit a c tiv itie s w h ere th is b e tte r serves th e in te r ­
ests involved. T h e id ea is th a t p eo p le a re e n title d
to a chance to p ro d u ce, to serve, to ea rn , a n d to
le a rn ; an d th a t it doesn’t m ake sense to w aste e ith e r
m en o r m an p o w er.
T h e c h a rte r a n d p ro g ra m o f th e D evelopm ent
A u th o rity sh o u ld be w o rk ed o u t by th e p a rtie s a n d
sh o u ld in clu d e th e fo llo w in g :
E s ta b lis h m e n t o f u p g ra d in g an d re tr a in in g p r o ­
g ra m s in v o lv in g new m eth o d s a n d eq u ip m en t ;
D ev elo p m en t o f an a p p re n tic e sh ip p ro g ra m
w hich w ill en su re t h a t new e n tra n ts a re tra in e d
fo r a v a rie ty o f assig n m en ts, th u s m a k in g th em in ­
creasin g ly v a lu a b le fo r y e a r-ro u n d w o rk ; it
sh o u ld estab lish a n d a d m in is te r objective s ta n d ­
a rd s fo r re c ru itin g a n d selectin g a p p re n tic e s ;
P o w e r to n e g o tia te special a rra n g e m e n ts, a t sp e­
cial p rices o r on a n u n re im b u rse d basis, fo r d o in g
n o n b u d g eted a n d n o n co m p etitiv e p u b lic w o rk
w hile p a y in g th o se em ployed estab lish ed ra te s of

pay;
A ssistin g m a n ag e m en t in d ev e lo p in g new m e th ­
ods a n d sea so n -ex ten d in g tech n iq u es ;
E n lis tin g th e co o p eratio n o f a c tiv itie s such as
th e N eig h b o rh o o d Y o u th C o rp s in its w o rk ;
U n d e rta k in g , sp o n so rin g , o r en c o u ra g in g new
research to solve w e a th e r-re la te d te ch n ic al p ro b ­
lem s ;
U n d e rta k in g th e tra in in g o f fo re ig n train ees,
h ere a n d ab ro ad , an d u n d e rta k in g special p ro jec ts
overseas ;
D ev elo p in g p ro g ra m s o f a d u lt ed u c atio n an d
sab b aticals, p a rtic u la rly fo r m em bers whose lack
o f ed u c atio n im pedes e a rn in g s o p p o rtu n ity ;
A u th o rity to in v e stig a te th e fa c to rs w hich p ro ­
duce seaso n ality an d in te rm itte n t w ork, in c lu d in g
those w hich m ay arise fro m th e p ro v isio n s o r a d ­
m in is tra tio n o f collective b a rg a in in g agreem en ts
betw een th e p artie s.
T h e p o in t o f th is D e te rm in a tio n is th a t “em ­
p lo y m e n t” in th is in d u s try sh o u ld in clu d e some o f
th e assu ran ce of co n tin u ed e a rn in g s o p p o rtu n ity
w hich it inclu d es in m ost o th e r in d u s trie s ; an d
th a t th e an sw er to th e sta b iliz a tio n issues w hich
b av e developed is to p ro v id e th is assu ran ce in stead
o f p a y in g fo r th e u n c e rta in ty w hich now exists.

994

W ages in Industrial Chemicals
and Petroleum Refining
T h e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e su m m arize s su rv ey s of
w ages a n d re la te d benefits co n d u c te d b y th e B u ­
re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s in tw o in d u s trie s la te in
1965. E a c h su rv e y d eveloped in fo rm a tio n on th e
av e rag e , a n d th e d is trib u tio n o f, s tra ig h t-tim e
e a rn in g s o f a ll p ro d u c tio n a n d re la te d w o rk e rs;
s e p a ra te d a ta f o r w o rk e rs in selected o c c u p a tio n s ;
a n d in fo rm a tio n on such e s ta b lish m e n t p ra c tic e s
as p a id h o lid ay s, p a id v ac atio n s, a n d h e a lth , in ­
su ran ce, a n d p en sio n p la n s.1 D a ta w ere ta b u la te d
b y lo catio n , e sta b lish m e n t size, a n d o th e r fa c to rs
w h ich influence w ages a n d w o rk in g co n d itions.

Industrial Chemicals
S tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s o f p ro d u c tio n
a n d re la te d w o rk e rs in p la n ts m a n u fa c tu rin g in ­
d u s tria l ch em icals (in c lu d in g p la stic s m a te ria ls
an d elasto m ers) a v e ra g e d $3.04 a n h o u r in N ovem ­
b e r 1965.2 N e a rly all o f th e 168,515 w o rk e rs cov­
ered by th e su rv e y w ere m en. T h re e -fo u rth s of
th e w o rk e rs w ere in p la n ts p r im a rily e n g a g ed in
m a n u fa c tu rin g b asic in o rg a n ic a n d o rg a n ic chem i­
cals a n d a v e ra g e d $3.10 a n h o u r. T h e re m a in d e r
o f th e w o rk e rs w ere in p la n ts p rim a rily m a n u fa c ­
tu r in g p la stic s m a te ria ls , sy n th e tic resin s, o r nonv u lcan izab le ela sto m e rs; th e y av e ra g e d $2.84 an
h our.
1 E a rn in g s in fo rm a tio n developed by th ese stu d ies excludes
prem ium pay for overtim e and fo r work on w eekends, holid ays,
and la te sh ifts, and, th u s, is n o t com parable w ith th e gross
average hou rly ea rn in g s pu blished in th e B u rea u ’s m o n th ly hours
and ea rn in g s series. More com prehensive a cco u n ts of th e su rveys
w ill be presented in fo rth co m in g B L S b u lletin s. T he b u lletin s
w ill con tain an ex p la n a tio n o f th e differences betw een th e earn ­
in g s and em ploym en t e stim a te s provided by th e tw o series.
2 T he su rv ey inclu ded esta b lish m e n ts em ploying 50 w orkers or
more and prim arily engaged in m a n u fa ctu rin g basic in d u str ia l
inorganic and o rg a n ic ch em icals, ex cep t in d u str ia l g a ses (in d u stry
group 281, ex cep t 2 8 1 3 ), or p la stic s m a teria ls, s y n th e tic resins,
and n o n v u lca n iza b le e la sto m ers (in d u stry 2 8 2 1 ) as defined in th e
1957 ed itio n and 1963 supp lem en t o f th e S ta n d a rd I n d u s tr ia l
C la ssifica tio n M a n u a l (U .S . B ureau of th e B u d g e t). P la n ts
m ak ing fissionable m a ter ia ls and sep a ra te a u x ilia ry u n its such
as cen tra l offices and research la b o ra to ries w ere excluded. T h is
sum m ary w as prepared by C harles M. O’C onnor, D iv isio n of
O ccupational Pay.
3 F or defin ition o f reg io n s used in th is study, see fo o tn o te 2,
table 1.
4 M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , Jun e 1956, pp. 6 7 1 -6 7 7 .
5 S ep a ra te relea ses w ere issu ed e a rlier fo r each and are a v a il­
able upon req uest from th e B ureau o f Labor S ta tis tic s.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

A m o n g th e seven reg io n s 3 stu d ie d se p a ra te ly
a n d acco u n tin g fo r n in e -te n th s o f th e su rv ey em ­
p lo y m en t, av e rag e h o u rly e a rn in g s o f p ro d u c tio n
a n d re la te d w o rk e rs ra n g e d fro m $2.66 in N ew
E n g la n d to $3.28 in th e S o u th w e st; av erag es in
th e o th e r five re g io n s w ere closely g ro u p e d a ro u n d
$3 an h o u r.
I n each reg io n , e a rn in g s av e rag e d
betw een 40 an d 50 p e rc e n t m o re th a n in A u g u st
1955, w hen a s im ila r su rv e y w as co n d u cted by th e
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .4
In f o rm a tio n w as also developed se p a ra te ly fo r
sev eral areas o f in d u s try c o n c e n tra tio n .5
The
n u m b er a n d s tra ig h t-tim e av e rag e h o u rly e a rn in g s
o f p ro d u c tio n a n d re la te d w o rk e rs in each are
liste d b e lo w :
Number Average
of
hourly
workers earnings
B uffalo, N . Y _____________________________________________
Charleston, W. V a .-O h io _________________________________
C leveland, O hio_________________________________________
D etroit, M ich_____________________________________________
Los A ngeles-L on g Beach and A naheim -Santa A na-G arden
Grove, Calif____________________________________________
L ouisiana________________________________________________
N ew ark and Jersey C ity , N .J ____________________________
P hiladelphia, P a .- N .J ___________________________________
San Francisco-O akland, C alif____________________________
T exas G u lf C oast_________________________________________

8,422
9,647
5,848
3,407

$2.96
3.29
3.12
3.31

2,390
8,108
4,380
10, 093
1,986
18,229

2.86
3.19
2.96
2.96
3. 24
3.46

A s in d ic a te d in ta b le 1, e a rn in g s o f w o rk ers in
m e tro p o lita n areas av e rag e d m ore th a n those o f
w o rk e rs in th e sm aller com m unities, in fo u r o f
th e five reg io n s fo r w h ich co m p ariso n s could be
m ade. S im ila rly , re g io n a l av erag es fo r w o rk ers
in p la n ts em p lo y in g 500 o r m ore w ere h ig h e r th a n
in sm aller p la n ts. R eg io n al e a rn in g s re la tio n ­
sh ip s betw een u n io n a n d n o n u n io n p la n ts , h o w ­
ever, were m ixed. I n th e M id d le A tla n tic , G re a t
L ak es, a n d M id d le W e st reg io n s, e a rn in g s in
p la n ts h a v in g u n io n c o n tra c ts co v e rin g a m a jo rity
o f th e ir p ro d u c tio n w o rk ers a v e rag e d m o re th a n
th e e a rn in g s o f w o rk ers in p la n ts n o t h a v in g such
c o n tra c ts; th e reverse re la tio n sh ip w as reco rd ed
in th e B o rd e r S ta te s, S o u th w est, a n d P acific re ­
gions. E sta b lish m e n ts o p e ra tin g u n d e r collective
b a rg a in in g ag reem en ts em ployed fo u r-fifth s o f th e
w o rk ers covered by th e survey.
E a r n in g s o f th e m id d le h a lf of th e w o rk e rs cov­
ered by th e stu d y fell betw een $2.75 a n d $3.38 an
h o u r. T w o p e rc e n t o f th e w o rk ers e a rn e d less
th a n $2 an h o u r, 12 p e rcen t e a rn e d less th a n $2.50,
a n d 18 p ercen t e a rn e d $3.50 o r m ore. O n ly 5
p e rcen t w ere p a id in cen tiv e ra te s. S ev en -te n th s

WAGES IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AND PETROLEUM REFINING

o f th e tim e -ra te d w o rk e rs w ere p a id acco rd in g to
fo rm a l ra te p la n s p ro v id in g sin g le ra te s fo r sp e ­
cific jo b c a te g o rie s; ra te ra n g e p la n s a p p lie d to
n e a rly all o f th e re m a in d e r o f th e w orkers.
C h em ical o p e ra to rs a n d h elp ers, as a g ro u p ,
c o n stitu te d n e a rly o n e -th ird o f th e in d u s tr y ’s w ork

995

force. C lass A o p e ra to rs a v e rag e d $3.27 an h o u r,
20 cents m ore th a n th e av e rag e fo r class B o p ­
e ra to rs w ho u su a lly w o rk a t an assig n ed p o sitio n
an d re q u ire some g u id an ce in th e ir w ork. C h em i­
cal o p e ra to rs ’ h elp ers a v e rag e d $2.71 an h o u r.
S k ille d m ain ten an c e m en accounted f o r o n e-fifth

T a b l e 1. N u m b e r a nd A v e r a g e S t r a i g h t - T i m e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s 1 o f P r o d u c t i o n W o r k e r s i n I n d u s t r i a l
C h e m i c a l s E s t a b l i s h m e n t s , by S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s an d S e l e c t e d R e g i o n s ,2 N o v e m b e r 1965
United
States 3

Item

New England

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southwest

Great Lakes

Middle
West

Pacific

N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn N um ­ Earn­ N um ­ Earn­
in gs1
ber
ings 1 ber in gs1 ber ings 1 ber ings 1 ber ings1 ber ings 1 ber ings 1
ber
All establishments_____ _ ___

168,515

$3.04

6,931

$2.97

22,314

$3.05

31,800 $3.28

30,150

$3.04

7,529

$3.03

6,383

128, 220
40,295

$ 3 .1 0
2. 84

2, 510 $2. 81 31, 293 $ 3 .0 0
16, 033
2. 90

17,207
5,107

$3.07
2. 95

29,286

$3. 30

23, 707
6,443

$3.10
2.8 2

6,125

$3.05

4, 915 $ 3 .1 5

110,959
57, 556

3 .0 8
2 .9 6

4, 290

2.61

36, 523
10,803

2. 99
2. 90

13,792
8, 522

3.1 6
2.8 5

22,409
9,391

3.3 9
3 02

15, 986
14,164

3 .0 2 5,482
3. 07 2,047

3.1 3
2.7 8

6,115

3.0 7

62,605
105,910

2.81
3 .1 7

3,198

2. 39

18,751
28, 575

2. 78
3. 09

7,193
15,121

2.8 7
7,047
3 13 24, 753

3 .0 9
3 34

10,884
19,266

2 .8 0
3 .1 8

2,359
5,170

2.8 3
3 .1 2

5, 781

3 .0 7

Establishments with—
Majority of workers covered. . .
136,625
None or minority of workers covered. . 31,890

3 .0 4
3 .0 2

5,866

2. 72 43,142
4,184

2. 97
2. 92

16,261
6,053

2.9 8
3. 23

29,431
2,369

3 .2 8

3. 33

25,779
4,371

3 .0 7
2. 86

5,498
2,031

3 .1 2 4, 742
2. 79 1,641

3 .0 4
3.1 8

3. 32

5,147
536
421
419
1,105
746
156

3. 40
3 .3 8
3.4 6
3 .3 5
3 .2 4
3. 52
2. 55

8, 015
863
758
972
1,230
1, 228
388

3. 57
3. 61
3 .6 7
3 .6 4
3. 42
3. 62
2. 75

5,691
650
364
436
1,318
803
537

3. 39
3. 40
3. 46
3. 51
3 .2 6
3 .4 2
2. 90

1,375

3. 41
3. 40
3 .4 2
3. 36

1,121

3.4 6
3 .4 8
3 .4 2

4,090
1,923
1,350
134
418

3. 34
3 .0 2
2.7 7
3 20
2. 71

4, 222

3. 54
3 .4 3
2.8 9
3. 29
2. 60
2 .8 2

3, 888
3, 528
1,997
207
572

3 .1 9
3 .0 0
2. 80
3. 26
2 .8 4

945
1,343
459

60
115

2 46
3 .0 3

678

3 .2 6

226

3. 04

P r in c ip a l T

y p e of

P

Basic inorganic and organic chemicals
Plastics materials and elastomers. . .
S iz e

of

of

47,326

$3.0 8

C o m m u n it y

Metropolitan areas 5___
Nonmetropolitan areas. _ _ .
S iz e

$2.66

roduct *

E s t a b l is h m e n t

50-499 workers______ . . .
500 workers or more__ . . . .
L a b o r -M a n a g e m e n t C o n t r a c t S t a t u s

S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t io n s

Maintenance:
Maintenance men, skilled 6____
Electricians, maintenance
Instrument repairmen.
Machinists, maintenance
Mechanics, general
Pipefitters, maintenance.
Helpers, trades, maintenance

33, 250
3,405
2,416
2, 700
7, 678
5, 012
2, 339

3. 41
3.4 3
3. 51
3. 49
3. 27
3. 46
2 .7 9

875

Processing:
Chemical operators, class A
Chemical operators, class B
Chemical operators’ helpers
Compressor operators
Fillers___ __ .
M illers... ______
Mixers____ _______
Pum pm en___ _____

22, 670
21, 708
10, 228
567
2, 639
1, 018
1, 275
L 439

Material movement and handling:
Laborers, material handling
Stock clerks..
Truckdrivers 7
Semi- or trailer. _
Other than semi- or trailer
Truckers, power (forklift)
Truckers, power (other than forklift) .
Custodial:
G uards___
Janitors
Watchmen

3.08
3 .0 9

88
55

3. 14

69
158
154
70

3 .0 2
2 .9 6
3.11
2 .3 7

8,263
786
493
513
1, 807
1,561
621

3. 27
3. 07
2. 71
3. 24
2. 76
2. 76
2. 74
3.11

783
938
691

2. 95
2.6 3
2. 43

6,169
4, 940
2,842

163
119
163

2. 69
2. 53
2. 52

805
433
655
244

3 .1 9
2. 94
2. 71
3 .1 5
2.7 8
2 79
2. 71
2. 88

5,597
1,275
1,972
440
1,066
2,245
368

2.61
3. 01
2. 97
3. 02
2 .9 3
2 .8 3
2. 64

236

1, 580
318
547
232
206
751
138

2. 66
2. 97
3 .0 3
3. 23
2. 85
2 .9 7
2. 72

681
171
265
27
105
294
54

2. 50
3 .0 9
2.91
3 .1 6
2 .6 2
2.6 3
2. 74

1,077
351
421
42
297
220
39

2.4 9
3.1 6
3. 02
2. 64
3. 04
2.8 0
2 42

895
156
328

2 .7 4
3. 08
2 .9 9

264
67

22

2.8 2
2.9 6
2. 95

238
374
25

3. 05
2. 87

22
212

2. 95
2. 87

2. 52

1,455
3,317
354

3. 00
2 .6 0
2. 64

20
139

279
894
92

2. 79
2. 52
2.4 4

195
367
35

2. 89
2.4 3
2.4 4

431
526
18

3 .1 8
2. 64
2. 71

263
832
83

3. 07
2. 74
2. 94

108
148

2 .8 7
2 .7 6

22

119

2 .5 0
2. 56
2. 66

37
144

2. 62
2. 72

41

51

2.6 9
2. 36
2. 39

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
2 The regions used in this study include: New England—Connecticut,
Maine, Massachusetts, N ew Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle
Atlantic—N ew Jersey, N ew York, and Pennsylvania; Border States—Dela­
ware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and West Vir­
ginia; Southeast—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Tennessee; Southwest—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma,
and Texas; Great Lakes—Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and
Wisconsin; Middle West—Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
and South Dakota; and Pacific—California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washing­
ton. Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the survey.
* Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
4 Establishments within scope of the survey were classified into two groups


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3.33
3. 45
3. 36
3 .1 4
3. 36
2. 76

inn

2 53

5,906
1, 712
182
366
149

141
251

2 86
3 nn

100
147
73
312
195

3. 31
3. 40

74
27
753
59

111

85

3. 45
3 .5 6
2 .9 2

3 .1 5
3. 09
2. 55

1,000
803
479

3. 27
3 .1 4
2. 65

2 .8 5

73

2. 94

53

3 .1 0

349
42
68

2 .7 7
3 .0 8
3 .1 0

19

100
7

2 .8 8
2.9 0
3. 03

24
69

3. 05
2. 64

20

2 82

32

2 .9 8

by predominant type of product: (1) Basic inorganic and organic chemicals
(industry group 281, except 2813 and plants) making fissionable materials
and (2) plastics materials and elastomers (industry 2821) as defined by the
1957 edition and 1963 supplement of the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget.
s Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. Bureau of
the Budget through March 1965.
8 Includes data for workers in the occupations listed separately and for all
others who have achieved the skills normally associated with fully qualified
maintenance trades workers.
7 Includes all drivers regardless of type of truck operated.
N ote: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publica­
tion criteria.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

996

received d iffe re n tia l p a y over estab lish ed day
ra te s w hen on th e ev en in g o r n ig h t sh ifts, b u t
u su a lly n o t w hen on th e d ay sh ift. T h e am o u n t
o f th e s h ift d iffe re n tia ls v a rie d co n sid erab ly
am o n g estab lish m en ts, b u t m ost com m only w as 8
to 10 cen ts an h o u r fo r ev en in g schedules an d 15
to 18 cen ts an h o u r fo r n ig h t schedules. O n ly
ab o u t 6 p e rcen t o f th e w o rk ers w ere em ployed on
fixed e x tra s h ifts ; m an y o f th ese w ere m a in te ­
nance w o rkers.

o f th e w o rk fo rce a n d a v e ra g e d $3.41 a n h o u r.
W ith in th is g ro u p , in s tru m e n t re p a irm e n w ere th e
h ig h e st p a id o f th e o cc u p atio n s stu d ie d s e p a rately ,
a v e ra g in g $3.51.
W o rk schedules o f 40 h o u rs a w eek w ere p r e ­
d o m in a n t in p la n ts em p lo y in g 85 p e rc e n t o f th e
w o rk ers. N e a rly o n e -h a lf o f th e w o rk e rs w ere
assig n ed to r o ta tin g s h ifts , u su a lly w o rk in g on
d a y , ev en in g , a n d n ig h t schedules d u rin g succes­
sive w eeks. A lm o st all r o ta tin g s h if t w o rk ers
T a b l e 2.

N umber

a nd

A v e r a g e St r a ig h t - T im e H ourly E a r n i n g s 1

United States

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

East Coast

of

P roduction

M idwest I

Department and occupation
N um ­
ber
All production workers3------ --

_ _

- - ----

- ----------

Earn­
ings i

N um ­
ber

Earn­
ings i

N um ­
ber

Earn­
ings i

N um ­
ber

Earn­
ings i

73,318

$3.45

11,066

$3.58

1,983

$2.60

12,641

$3.52

958
1,419
2,141
1,623
2,115
1,143
3, 569
1,722

$3.64
3.65
3.07
3.69
3.67
3.59
3.62
3.64

100
178
203
167
199
285
341
210

$3.72
3. 77
3.14
3.92
3.75
3.75
3. 74
3.84

12
18
73

$2.68
2. 77
2. 50

17
18
48
41

2.80
2.68
2.67
2. 72

167
294
442
312
294
223
835
283

$3.63
3.61
3.12
3.63
3.62
3.64
3. 56
3.68

307
119
659
3,729
1,065
367
35
1,699
641
996
1,281
1,493
687
2,090

3. 52
3.14
3.46
2.74
3.23
3.00
2. 68
3. 60
3.39
3.86
3.85
3.91
3.83
3.57

62
14

3. 70
3.87

459
83
65

2.81
3.44
3.03

35
68
8
240
57
28
31
71

2.64
2. 72
2. 50
2.38
2. 46
2. 51
2. 63
2. 66

2,531
2,432
1,249
' 659
513

S elected O ccupations 4

Maintenance:
Carpenters____________ ------------------ -----Electricians- - - - - - - - - - - -------------- - - --------- ----------------- - - - Helpers, trades ---- - .
M achinists___-- - - ---------------------- -M echanics.
------------------------- --------Pipefitters-- __ —
-------------------------------------------------------Welders, hand. _
-------------------------- -- Processing:
Compounders-------- -.
-----------"Filtermen
- __
Gagers
_______ __ _
___ _ ____ _
Laborers.. -------------- - - - - - _
. ------Loaders, tank cars or trucks-------- -- ------Package fillers, machine____
- ------------ -P u m pm en .. _ _

---------- --

- ---------

Stillmen (chief operators), cracking, other than catalytic__
Stillmen (chief operators), straight-run. _ - - - - - - - - - - -

---..

Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), cracking, other than
------- -----------catalytic-.
. _________ _
Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), straight-run.- . . . . . .
S tillm en 's helpers (operators' helpers) catalytic cracking

Stillmen’s helpers (operators’ helpers), cracking, other than catalytic.
Stillm en's helpers (operators' helpers), straight-run

Treaters, light o ils ..- _
_
___ ____
.
___ ___
Treaters' helpers, light oils
Inspection and testing:
Routine testers, laboratory... - _ __ _
__________ _ _ - . . . —
Recording and control:
Stock c le rk s____ _ _
_
_______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - Material movement:
Truck drivers 5_______ ___ ___________ ____ _ _ ---------- . ---M edium (1t£ to and including 4 tons)

Truckers, power (forklift)
Custodial:
Guards
Janitors_______ ______ __________________
Watchmen

_ _
_ _
___
_________ _ ----------

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
2 The regions used in this study include: East Coast— Connecticut, Dela­
ware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachu­
setts, New Hampshire, N ew Jersey, N ew York, North Carolina, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and the following counties in
Pennsylvania: Bradford, Columbia, Dauphin, Montour, Northumberland,
Sullivan, York, and all counties east thereof; Western Pennsylvania-West
Virginia—West Virginia and those counties in Pennsylvania not included


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56

3.78

90
545
289
37

3.48
2.92
3. 42
3.29

382
151
187
375
173
102
490

3. 76
3.43
3.92
3.91
3.88
3. 99
3.62

906
213
73
145
253

3. 55
3. 60
3. 77
3.48
3.49

246

3.80

163
236
245
86
235

4. 02
4.07
4. 08
4.10
3. 76

18
29

2.90
2. 88

3.55
3.62
3. 57
3.38
3.42

289
419

3.73
3.73

12
20

2.70
2. 71

59
73

3. 50
3.59

649
671
513
228

3.40
3.37
3.63
3. 52

89

3.45

80
22

3.79
3. 47

26

2. 72

155
127
135
70

3. 47
3.55
3. 76
3.71

2,963

3. 48

529

3. 60

89

2.58

416

3.39

713

3.46

99

3.34

8

2.52

154

3.47

1,397
124
326
96
244

3.24
3.07
3.14
3. 20
3. 05

206

3.25

39

2.56

176

3. 27

10

2.45

57

3. 08

632
762
96

3.05
2. 74
2.79

135
88

3. 05
2.86

14
16

2.11
2. 36

84

3.23

21

3.18

142
179
30

3.13
2.80
3.01

in the East Coast region; Midwest 7—Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan,
Ohio, and Tennessee; M idwest II—Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota. Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; TexasLouisiana Gulf Coast—the following counties in Texas: Aransas, Brazoria,
Calhoun, Cameron, Chambers, Fort Bend, Galveston, Hardin, Harris,
Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Kenedy, Kleberg, Liberty, Matagorda,Mont­
gomery, Newton, Nueces, Orange, Polk, Refugio, San Jacinto, San Patricio,
Tyler, Victoria, Waller, Wharton, and Willacy; the following parishes in
Louisiana: Avoyelles, East Feliciana, Pointe Coupee, Rapides, Tangipahoa,

997

WAGES IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AND PETROLEUM REFINING

Paid holidays, most usually 8 or 9 annually, were
provided by all plants. Paid vacations were also
nearly universal. Typical vacation provisions
were: 1 week’s pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks’
after 2 years, 3 weeks’ after 10 years, and 4 weeks’
after 20 years of service.
Nearly all of the workers were in plants pro­
viding at least part of the cost of various types
of insurance benefits. Life, hospitalization, and
surgical insurance benefits were available to al­

most all workers; medical insurance and sickness
and accident insurance plans, to nearly ninetenths; and accidental death and dismemberment
insurance plans, to slightly more than one-half.
Pension plans, providing regular payments for
the remainder of the retiree’s life (in addition to
Federal social security benefits), were in effect in
plants employing 94 percent of the workers.
Such plans were usually financed entirely by the
employer.

W orkers

R e g io n s ,2 D e c e m ber 1965

in

M idwest II

P etroleum R e f in e r ie s , U n it e d S tates
TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisi­
ana-Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

and

West Coast
Department and occupation

Number

Earnings 1

Number

Earnings 1

Number

Earnings 1

Number

Earnings 1

Number

Earnings 1

7,468

$3. 26

24,481

$3. 52

3,847

$3.26

2,066

$3.39

9,766

$3.44

All production workers.3

Selected Occupations 4
60
105
212
105
122

27
46
96
44
33
86
84
70

$3.38
3. 48
2.85
3. 50
3. 46
3 34
3.29
3.38

3 50

39

1,540
143
107

2. 72
3.38
3. 06

131

112

3 35
2. 72
3. 04

567
236
263
220

3. 70
3. 47
3. 97
3. 91

91

3.29

116
694

3.98
3. 63

$3. 45
3.47
3. 01
3.45
3.49
3 3R
3! 46
3.48

430
576
808
659
1,004
9Q3
1,398
689

29
13
43
623
226
48

3.35
3 45
3 15

350

2.74
3.10

215
67
125
233
111
99
221

3.39
3.34
3.70
3. 68
3. 58
3.68
3.43

219
170

3. 06

91
16

$3. 69
3. 72
3.12
3. 77
3.70
3 03
3! 70
3.69
3. 70
3 69

105
52
120

3. 66
3. 51
3.65

19
39
52
54
29
55
107
78

$3. 55
3. 51
3.16
3.54
3. 60
3. 51
3.53
3.58

143
163
255
274
417

$3.64
3. 69
3. 00
3.63
3.68

537
181

3.64
3. 65

8

3.38

9

3.39

115
72

2. 73
3.30

95
64
59

2. 78
3.15
2.99

73

3.43

49

3.79

27
110

3. 66
3. 50

54
87
43
60
31
121
117

3.31
3.18
3.85
3.83
3.81
3.82
3.49

3.49
3. 55

144
125
457

3. 40
3. 47
3. 52

28
205
47

3.28
3. 33
3. 55
3.29

355
151
172
98

3. 41
3.35
3.42
3.13

662

3. 61

121
54

3.39
3.38

158
208
32

3. 68
3 52

49

3. 02

60

3.14

258

3.50

62
24

3.48
3. 27

103
59

3. 80
3. 60

85
48

3.20
3.41

319

3. 27

1,142

3. 70

150

3.13

112

3.18

206

56

3.13

330

3.63

27

3.16

14

3.16

25

3.24

85
18
51

3. 05
3. 00
3. 03

445
83
69

3.44
3 11

92
6
38
17

3. 04
2. 64
2.99
3.12

30
9
20

3.15
3.00
3.18

324

3.12

35

3. 00

69

3.14

50
49
50

3.19
3.29
3. 01

34
79
26

2 93
2. 60
2. 90

266
290

3 12
2. 75

33
27

2. 76
2.50

17

2.54

68

2.81

3 43

3.22

112
39

Vernon, Washington, and West Feliciana, and all parishes south thereof; the
following counties in Mississippi: George, Hancock, Harrison, Jackson,
Pearl River, and Stone; and the following counties in Alabama: Baldwin
and Mobile; Texas Inland-North Louisiana-Arkansas—Arkansas and New
Mexico and those parts of the States of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi,
and Texas not included in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast; Rocky M oun­
tain—Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming; and West Coast—
Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. Alaska and Hawaii
are excluded from the survey.

228-655 0 - 6 6 — 4


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Maintenance:
Carpenters.
Electricians.
Helpers, trades.
Instrument repairmen.
Machinists.
Mechanics.
Pipefitters.
Welders, hand.
Processing:
Compounders.
Filtermen.
Gagers.
Laborers.
Loaders, tank cars or trucks.
Package fillers, machine.
Pressmen, paraffin.
Pumpmen.
Pumpm en’s helpers.
Stillmen (chief operators), catalytic cracking.
Stillmen (chief operators), cracking, other than catalytic.
Stillmen (chief operators), straight-run.
S tillm e n (c h ie f o p e r a to r s), c o m b in a tio n u n it s .

Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), catalytic cracking.
Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), cracking, other than
catalytic
Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), straight-run.
Stillmen, assistant (assistant operators), combination units.
Stillmen’s helpers (operators’ helpers), catalytic cracking.
Stillmen’s helpers (operators’ helpers), cracking, other tnan
catalytic.
s
Stillmen’s helpers (operators’ helpers), straight-run.
Stillmen’s helpers (operators’ helpers), combination units.
Treaters, light oils.
Treaters’ helpers, light oils.
Inspection and testing:
Routine testers, laboratory.
Recording and control:
Stock clerks.
Material movement:
Truck drivers A
Light (under 1J4 tons).
Medium (VA to and including 4 tons).
H eavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer typ e).
Truckers, power (forklift).
Custodial:
Guards.
Janitors.
Watchmen.

3 All but 0.3 percent of the production workers were men. Totals include
data for occupations in addition to those shown separately.
4 Occupational classification was based on a uniform set of job descriptions
designed to take account of variations in duties that may occur among in­
dividual establishments. These descriptions are available upon request
as long as the lim ited supply lasts.
5 Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of tiuck operated.
N o t e : D a s h e s in d ic a te n o d a ta r e p o r te d or d a ta t h a t d o n o t m e e t
p u b lic a tio n cr iteria .

998
Plants employing slightly more than ninetenths of the workers had formal provisions for
paid funeral leave and paid jury duty leave.
Nearly one-half of the workers were in plants
either providing or giving monetary allowances
for work clothing. Two-fifths of the workers
were in plants providing severance pay to employ­
ees permanently separated from the company
through no fault of their own. Provisions for
cost-of-living pay adjustments applied to an
eighth of the workers; supplemental unemploy­
ment benefits, to less than a tenth.
Petroleum Refining

Straight-time earnings of production and re­
lated workers in the Nation’s petroleum refineries
averaged $3.45 an hour in December 1965.6 All
but 4 percent of the 73,318 workers (almost all
men) covered by the survey earned between $2.50
and $4 an hour; the middle half of the workers’
earnings ranged from $3.22 to $3.72. Refineries
having labor-management contracts covering a
majority of their production workers accounted
for slightly more than nine-tenths of the indus­
try’s work force in December 1965—about the same
proportion as in July 1959, when the Bureau con­
ducted a similar study.7
Regionally, the highest average hourly earnings
were recorded in the East Coast ($3.58).8 Work­
ers in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region, ac­
counting for one-third of the industry’s work force,
averaged $3.52 an hour—the same as workers in
Midwest I, where one-sixth of the workers were
employed. Averages in all but one of the remain­
ing regions were between $3.26 and $3.44 an hour.
Earnings of workers in the Western PennsylvaniaWest Virginia region, accounting for less than 3
percent of the work force, averaged $2.60 an hour.
Nearly three-fifths of the workers in this region
were in establishments primarily refining products
other than gasoline (most usually lubricating oils).
Nine-tenths or more of the workers in all other re­
gions were in refineries whose primary product was
gasoline (including naphtha).
As indicated in the following tabulation, nearly
all of the workers in the Western PennsylvaniaWest Virginia region earned less than $3 an hour,
whereas in each of the other regions a large propor­
tion of the workers earned more than this amount:


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
Percent of production workers with
straight-time hourly earnings of—
$2.50 $3.00 $3.50
and
and
and $4.00
Under under under under and
$2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $J,. 00 over
U nited S ta tes___________________
E ast C oast___ _______________
______
W estern P enn sylvan ia-W est V irginia- M idw est I _____________________________
M idw est I I ____________________________
Texas-L ouisiana G ulf C oast- _
T exas Inlan d-N orth Louisiana-Arkansa s______________________________ ___
R ock y M o u n t a in ____
W est C oast_______ __________ _______

(')
26.9
.4
.6
.4

1.1

12.9
8.9
72.9
6.2
21.6
11.0

30.9
23.7
.1
28.8
54.4
22.8

52.5
58.1
.1
63.1
23.0
63.1

1.5
1. 2
(>)

18.2
10.2
10.3

51.6
46.9
38.6

28.2
41.8
50.9

2.6
9.3
1.5
.4
2.7
.5
.
.2

i Less than 0.05 percent.

N ote: Because of rounding, sum s of in d ivid u al item s m a y not equal 100.

Occupational classifications for which average
straight-time hourly earnings are presented in
table 2 accounted for slightly more than threefifths of the production workers covered by the
study. Stillmen on various types of equipment
averaged from $3.83 to $3.91 an hour and were the
highest paid workers studied separately. They
averaged approximately 30 cents an hour more
than assistant stillmen and about 40 to 50 cents an
hour more than stillmen helpers. Earnings of the
seven journeymen maintenance jobs studied sepa­
rately ranged from $3.59 for mechanics to $3.69 for
instrument repairmen. Maintenance trades help­
ers averaged $3.07 an hour. Laborers, numerically
the most important job, averaged $2.74—the same
as janitors. Paraffin pressmen (found almost ex­
clusively in the Western Pennsylvania-West
Virginia region) had the lowest average earnings
($ 2 .68 ).

Individual earnings of the workers in the select­
ed occupations were generally concentrated within
comparatively narrow limits, even when considered
on a nationwide basis. For example, more than
three-fourths of the 3,729 laborers had earnings
within a 30-cent, range ($2.60 to $2.90) ; four-fifths
of the 3,569 pipefitters and more than nine-tenths
of the 2,115 machinists earned between $3.50 and
$3.80 an hour. The concentrations were more ap­
parent in the selected regions, where the earnings
6 T he su rvey covered esta b lish m e n ts em p loyin g 100 w orkers or
more, prim arily engaged in produ cin g g a solin e, kerosene, d is tilla te
fu el oils, resid u al fu e l oils, lu b rican ts, and oth er refinery produ cts
(in d u str y 2911 as defined in th e 1957 ed ition o f th e S ta n d a rd
I n d u s tr ia l C la ssifica tio n M an u al and 1963 Su pplem ent, U .S.
B ureau of th e B u d g e t). T h is sum m ary w as prepared by E dw ard
J. C aram ela, D iv isio n of O ccupational P ay.
7 F or an a ccou n t of th e earlier survey, see M o n th ly L a b o r R e ­
v ie w , A pril 1960, pp. SSl-.SiSe.
8 F or d efin ition o f regions used in th is survey, see fo o tn o te 2,
tab le 2.

WAGES IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AND PETROLEUM REFINING

of a majority of the workers in most jobs for which
data are shown were clustered within ranges of 20
cents an hour or less. The widespread use of single
rate wage systems contributes in part to the comparatively narrow range of earnings for workers
performing similar tasks.9
Work schedules of 40 hours a week were in effect
in establishments employing almost all the produc­
tion workers. Approximately half of the in­
dustry’s production workers were assigned to
rotating shifts, almost always under arrangements
whereby individuals worked day, evening, and
night schedules during successive weeks. Work­
ers on evening schedules typically received 8 cents
an hour and those on night schedules 16 cents an
hour above day rates. Workers on fixed extra
shifts accounted for less than 2 percent of the pro­
duction workers.
Paid holidays were provided to workers in all
refineries visited. The most common provision in
all regions was 8 days annually.
Paid vacations (after qualifying periods of serv­
ice) were provided by all establishments in the
survey. In all but one region, typical provisions
for paid vacations were 2 weeks’ pay after 1 year
9
A ll of th e w orkers covered by th is stu d y w ere paid tim e rates,
n early a lw a y s under form al sy ste m s p ro v id in g a sin g le rate for
specific o ccu p a tio n s.

of service, 3 weeks’ after 5 years, 4 weeks’ after 10
years, and 5 weeks’ after 20 years. Vacation pro­
visions were somewhat less liberal in the Western
Pennsylvania-West Virginia region.
Life, hospitalization, surgical, and medical in­
surance, for which employers paid at least part of
the cost, were available to more than nine-tenths of
the production workers. A similar proportion
were provided paid sick leave (mostly full pay,
no waiting period). Accidental death and dis­
memberment insurance was provided to about half
of the workers, and catastrophe (major medical)
insurance to seven-tenths.
Retirement pension plans (other than Social
Security), which provide regular payments for the
remainder of the retiree’s life, were in effect in
refineries employing nearly all of the production
workers.
Thrift or savings plans, for which the employer
made monetary contributions beyond administra­
tive costs, were provided in establishments with
nearly four-fifths of the workers. Plants employ­
ing seven-tenths of the workers had provisions
for severance pay (i.e., pay to employees perma­
nently separated from work through no fault of
their own). Formal plans providing pay for
funeral leave and jury duty were available to
almost all production workers.

Errata
In the Technical Note on “Seasonally Adjusted CPI Components” in the
August issue (pp. 887-889), the last sentence should have read:
However, the net seasonal is less than one-tenth of 1 percent in 8 of the 12
months and no higher than 0.2 percent—the July figure.
The West Coast Longshoremen’s 5-year contract with the Pacific Maritime
Association provided for retirement at age 63 and not 65 as reported on page
898 of the same issue.


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999

Canada— R i g h t t o P i c k e t

Foreign Labor Briefs*
Arab States — I n te r n a t i o n a l D is c u s s io n s

The Arab States functioned as a bloc at the June
1966 Conference of the International Labor Orga­
nization (ILO) at Geneva. The Iraqi Minister of
Labor and Social Affairs disclosed that the bloc
had formed a “liaison committee for lobbying pur­
poses” at the Conference and expressed the view
that the Arab States are “among the effective con­
trollers of the ILO.” The bloc supported the
Polish candidate for the Presidency of the Confer­
ence,1 and gained recognition of Arabic as the
sixth language at plenary sessions of ILO Con­
ferences (the other languages being English,
French, German, Russian, and Spanish). Repre­
sentatives of two Arab countries (Iraq and the
United Arab Republic) were elected to the ILO
Governing Body.
Argentina — N e w S e v e r a n c e P a y L a w

The maximum severance pay of many Argentine
workers was raised to more than nine times its
former amount, more than double the amount
which would compensate for the effects of inflation
and the diminished purchasing power of the peso.
The May 19th law (No. 16,881, revising No.
11,729) set maximum severance pay at 1 month’s
pay for each year of service, with a maximum
monthly figure of 47,250 pesos (US$251.32) ; the
new rates were retroactive to September 1965. Set
inl960 when the purchasing power of the peso was
roughly three times what it became in 1966, the
previous monthly figure was 5,000 pesos (US$26
in 1966). The extent to which the new military
regime in Argentina (which assumed power on
June 27, 1966) will consider this new law binding
remains to be seen. The observance or the nullifi­
cation of this law may give an early indication of
how the future relations of the new political re­
gime with Argentine organized labor will develop.
1000


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The distinction between picketing for purposes
of information—legal under the Ontario Labor
Relations Act—and picketing designed to cripple
the operation of a business enterprise—illegal—
was clarified in a recent decision of the Ontario
Supreme Court. Under the act, the courts deter­
mine whether or not the size of the picket line con­
stitutes unlawful mass picketing. On June 7, the
Chief Justice found 26 of the 400 persons who had
picketed a plastics plant in connection with a strike
by 35 employees, guilty of criminal contempt in
defiance of a court injunction. Finding the dem­
onstrations the result of a “calculated scheme,” the
Chief Justice stated: “. . . certain leaders and
members of trade unions seem to think that once a
strike is called the employer must close his doors
to await the outcome. At present, that is not the
case. Employees have the right to strike, but by
the same token, employers have a right to continue
their operations and to protect their property.”
Criticizing the decision, Canadian labor leaders
continue to demand that the law be changed.
France — I n c o m e s P o l i c y

A Center for the Study of Incomes and Costs
(Centre pour l’Étude des Revenues et des Coûts)
was opened on April 24. Operating under the
auspices of the Planning Commission, the Center
consists of a president, five or seven additional
members chosen from the planning field, a rap­
porteur, and two assistants. Working within the
framework of the Fifth Plan for Economic and
Social Development (1966-70), the mission of the
Center is to obtain information on incomes, income
distribution, and components of production costs.
The Center’s president requested the cooperation
of labor and management organizations and stated
that the Center will deal with all types of income ;
and, therefore, widespread opposition to an income
policy on the ground that it is generally limited
to wages and salaries without also restraining nonwage incomes does not apply to its activities.
♦P repared in th e Office o f F oreign Labor and Trade, B ureau of
Labor S ta tis tic s, on th e b asis o f m a teria l ava ila b le in early
A u gu st.
1
See “T he I n te r n a tio n a l L abor C onference of 1 9 6 6 ,” M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , A u gu st 1966, pp. 8 4 1 -8 4 6 .

1001

FOREIGN LABOR BRIEFS

Germany— T r a d e U n io n C o n g r e s s

The central issue under discussion at the seventh
regular congress of the West German Trade Union
Federation (DGB) in Berlin on May 9 was the
proposed emergency legislation conferring upon
the Government the power to bypass normal civil­
ian rights in a national crisis. The congress rein­
forced its stand of 1962 and rejected all legislation
which would limit basic constitutional rights.
Representing the DGB’s 6.5 million members, the
delegates paid tribute to the contributions of for­
eign workers in Germany, called for disarmament
and a peaceful solution to the war in Viet Nam,
and declared itself in favor of mutual informa­
tional visits of German and East bloc unions.
Japan — W a g e D i s p u te s

The trade unions’ annual “spring struggle”
against the employers resulted in wage increases
averaging ¥3,196 ($8.88) a month this year com­
pared to ¥2,938 ($8.16) in 1965, according to the
Japan Federation of Employers’ Associations
(Nikkeiren). Average contract wages (exclusive
of bonuses and other nonrecurrent payments) in
December 1965 were ¥30,147 ($83.74) a month in
firms employing 30 or more regular employees.
Industries in which wage gains were proportion­
ally larger than last year include telecommunica­
tions equipment (12.5 percent higher than last
year), heavy electric equipment (11.9 percent),
private railways (11.5 percent), chemicals (11 per­
cent), electric wire (11 percent), rolling stock
(10.8 percent), and automobiles (10.4 percent).
The largest absolute increases were obtained in the
petroleum industry, ¥3,536 ($9.82) a month s h ip ­
building, ¥3,337 ($9.27); and rolling stock, ¥3,293
($9.14). The employers’ group attributed the in­
creased amount of this year’s raise to pressure
from consumers’ prices and the desire of business­
men to avoid work disruptions at a time when the
economy is recovering from a recession.
Liberia— C o n t r o l o f L a b o r U n io n s

The already sweeping powTers over labor unions
exercised by the President of the Republic were in­
creased in early 1966 by a 1-year reenactment of the


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Emergency Powers Act of 1962. Although this
act states that nothing in the measure shall be con­
strued as forbidding legal strikes, the leaders of
any “illegal strike” are to be judged guilty of at­
tempting to overthrow the Government. The
President is now empowered to suspend the writ of
habeas corpus and to try violators summarily be­
fore a special commission. Labor unions may not
receive financial aid from any foreign source, ex­
cept through the Government. No industrial
union may exercise any function in behalf of agri­
cultural workers nor may agricultural unions exer­
cise any function in behalf of industrial workers.
This required separation not only halts the efforts
of existing industrial unions to organize rubber
plantation workers (at present almost wholly un­
organized), but also precludes the formation of a
single, all-embracing labor federation. In 1966,
as in 1962, the Emergency Powers Act was adopted
after a wave of strikes. At the later date, how­
ever, the Union Control Act, promulgated in 1965,
had already granted to the Executive extensive
powers over labor unions. The recent act was
adopted by the legislature and promulgated by
the Executive on the same day (February 9,1966),
although a lengthy interval between legislative
and executive action is customary in Liberia.
Turkey—S e l f - H e l p

“Turksan” or “Worker-Supported Turkish In ­
dustry and Trade Company” was set up under Ger­
man law for the purpose of fostering Turkish selfhelp in economic development. The company is to
raise funds from Turkish workers employed in
West Germany for use in setting up chemical, con­
struction, and machine building companies in Tur­
key. The two Turkish engineers who founded
the company intend to funnel part of the $175
million accumulated in German banks and savings
institutions by 150,000 Turks into a common proj­
ect that would benefit both the homeland and the
participants. (More than 1,000 workers have be­
come stockholders of the new company since its
initiation in January 1966.) Qualified Turkish
worker-stockholders in Germany have a right to
employment in plants to be built in Turkey for
which the Turkish Government reportedly has of­
fered sites.

Significant Decisions
in Labor Cases*

Reporting and Disclosure

Unlawful Expulsion. A U.S. court of appeals
ruled 1 that, as applied in this case, a union con­
stitution’s ban on resort to courts prior to exhaus­
tion of union remedies was “of no force and effect,”
because it was “inconsistent” with the Bill of
Rights of the Labor-Management Reporting and
Disclosure Act in that it limited the rights of
members to sue the union in courts and did not
provide for relief within the statutory 4-month
period. The expulsion of local leaders for suing
to prevent arbitration ordered by the international
but allegedly not called for by the existing agree­
ment violated the act, the court held.
The constitution of the international union pro­
vided that “any member resorting to the courts
for redress for any injustice which he may believe
has been done him by the [International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers] (IBEW) or any of
its [local unions] must first make use of the process
available to him, including any appeal or appeals
from any decision against him, which may be open
to him within the IBEW and, failing to do so,
lie shall stand automatically expelled without
rights of any kind.” The clause was binding on
the members of all its locals.
The plaintiff and his copetitioners were members
and officers of a parimutuel clerks unit of one of
the locals. When negotiations for a new collective
bargaining agreement reached an impasse, the unit
sought the international’s permission to strike.
Permission was denied and the local was directed
to submit the dispute to compulsory arbitration
under the current agreement. The plaintiffs ob­
jected and filed suit to enjoin the arbitration
which, they maintained, was not required by the
contract. The suit was dismissed.
The plaintiffs were subsequently charged with
the violation of the union constitution and, after
1002


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a hearing before the local’s executive board, were
expelled from membership.
They instituted a
court action, contending that the union’s ban on
resort to courts was inconsistent with section
101(a) (4) of the LMRDA 2 and that their expul­
sion was, therefore, unlawful.
Specifically, the plaintiffs contended that since
exhaustion of all union appeal procedures could
take 4 years, possibly terminating at the union’s
convention (required to meet every 4 years), auto­
matic expulsion for failure to exhaust these rem­
edies was unreasonable and in violation of the
4-month limitation set on such appeals by the act.
The district court held that the union’s ban was
offensive to the statutory provision, because it
called for expulsion even if a member brought suit
to determine an issue not subject to the require­
ment for exhaustion of internal remedies.
In appealing, the union admitted that the court
may determine whether an issue of a suit is exempt
from the requirement to exhaust union remedies,
but maintained that when the court ruling is un­
favorable to the suing member, the union has the
right to expel him. The appeals court rejected the
union’s conclusion. It pointed out that the right
to expel a member did not depend upon the court’s
exercise of discretion in favor of exhaustion of
remedies. The court said:
This claim of the union, it seems to us, makes a
member’s bringing of a suit against a union or its
officers too chancy a gamble for the member and
effectually blocks access to the courts by placing the
♦P repared in th e U .S. D ep artm en t o f Labor, Office of th e S o lic ­
itor. T he cases covered in th is a r tic le rep resen t a sele c tio n of
th e sign ifican t d ecision s believed to be o f sp ecia l in ter e st. No
attem p t h as been m ade to reflect a ll recen t ju d icia l and ad m in is­
tr a tiv e d evelop m en ts in th e field of labor la w or to in d ic a te the
effect of p a r tic u la r d ecision s in ju risd ic tio n s in w h ich con trary
r esu lts m ay be reached based upon local sta tu to r y p rovision s, th e
e x isten ce of local precedents, or a different approach by th e courts
to th e issu e presented.
1 R y a n v. I n te r n a tio n a l B ro th e rh o o d of E le c tr ic a l W o rk ers
(C.A. 7, Jun e 10, 1 9 6 6 ).
2 S ection 1 0 1 ( a ) ( 4 ) o f th e LM RDA provides in p a r t:
“P ro te c tio n of th e r ig h t to sue.— N o labor orga n iza tio n sh a ll
lim it th e r ig h t of an y m em ber th er e o f to in s tit u te an a c tio n in
an y court, or in a proceeding before an y a d m in istr a tiv e agency,
irresp ectiv e of w h eth er or n o t th e labor organ ization or its officers
are nam ed as d efen d a n ts or resp on d en ts in such a c tio n or pro­
ceeding, or th e r ig h t of any m em ber of a labor o rgan ization to
app ear as a w itn ess in any ju d icia l, a d m in istr a tiv e , or le g is la tiv e
proceeding, or to p e titio n any le g isla tu r e or to com m u nicate w ith
an y le g is la t o r : P r o v id e d , T h a t any such m em ber m ay be re q u ire d
to e x h a u st reasonab le h earin g procedures (b u t n o t to exceed a
4-m onth la p se o f tim e) w ith in such organ ization , b efore in s tit u t­
in g le g a l or a d m in istr a tiv e proceedings a g a in s t such org a n iza tio n s
or a n y officer th ereo f . . .”

1003

DECISIONS IN LABOR CASES
member in the dilemma of swallowing the grievance
about which he wishes to sue (and against which the
court might grant immediate and necessary relief),
or suing upon the speculation that he will be safe from
expulsion by the court’s discretion being exercised
in his favor.
Congress cannot have intended to burden the pro­
tection it gave union members, in their right to sue
in the ‘Bill of Rights’ of the LMRDA, with the hazard
that is clear in defendants’ claim. The right of free
access to our courts is too precious a right to be
curbed by the risky prediction that the judge’s discre­
tion may, like a lucky roll of dice, turn up in favor of
the suitor.

The court affirmed the lower court’s judgment,
but nevertheless issued a warning that “ [a] differ­
ent conclusion could result where a member resorts
to suit for purposes of harassment” of his union.
Labor Relations

Antitrust Laws. In upholding a U.S. district
court, a Federal court of appeals decided 3 that a
union did not violate the antitrust laws when, by
threatening to distribute leaflets at retail stores
urging the public to demand union-made hats, it
induced the retailers to buy only such hats and to
stop purchasing from manufacturers who had
resisted unionization.
The court said that the
union merely promoted its members’ interests and
did not conspire or enter into an agreement with
retailers to create a monopoly; and that a threat
to distribute leaflets did not constitute a secondary
boycott because a labor dispute did exist between
the union and the manufacturers.
After unsuccessful attempts to organize milli­
nery workers in Dallas, Tex., a union commenced
a nationwide campaign to persuade the hatwearing public to buy only hats bearing union
labels, so as to force all hat manufacturers to
unionize. It told a number of hat retailers that
if they continued to buy and sell other than unionmade goods, it would distribute leaflets in front
of their stores urging customers to buy only unionmade hats. One retailer acceded to the union’s
demands. Some nonunion manufacturers in
Dallas filed suit in a district court for an injunc­
tion and damages against the union. They
3C e d a r C r e s t H a t s , I n c . v. U n ite d
1966).
4325 U.S. 809, 89 L.Ed. 1948.


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H a tte r s

(C.A. 5, June 16.

alleged conspiracy of the union with the retailers
to restrain interstate trade or commerce in viola­
tion of sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, and a
common law conspiracy to damage the manufac­
turers’ businesses without justification and with
malice; and a secondary boycott by the union in
violation of section 8(b)(4)(ii)(B) of the Labor
Management Relations Act, as wTell as a violation
of common law by an unlawful and malicious
interference with the manufacturers’ relations
with their customers.
The district court denied the manufacturer’s re­
quest to submit to the jury the question of whether
a labor dispute existed between the union and the
manufacturers. The jury found the union guilty
under the Sherman Act but absolved it of the
other charges, and the court ruled wholly in the
union’s favor, the one-count finding against it
notwithstanding.
Relying upon the reasoning of the U.S. Su­
preme Court in the AMen-Bradley decision,4 the
appeals court said: “For appellants to have pre­
vailed under [the anti-Sherman Act charge] it
would have been necessary for them to prove facts
showing that the union conspired with certain
business interests to create a monopoly for such
business interests. We have diligently searched
the record and conclude that no such facts wTere
proved.”
As for the jury finding that the union had vio­
lated the Sherman Act, the appeals court held that
by disregarding the verdict, the district court only
corrected a “harmless error” it had committed
when it gave the jury an improper charge on the
alleged violation. The charge, the court said, was
“inadequate to describe a labor union antitrust
violation [because it did not give] any considera­
tion to special exemptions which labor unions
enjoy under the law.” The court went on to say
that “While there is substantial evidence to sus­
tain the verdict of the jury under the erroneous
charge [the anti-Sherman Act charge] should not
have been submitted to the jury in the first place if
the issue had been properly stated”—obviously in
view of the fact that the union action did not
satisfy a full definition of a union’s violative con­
duct under the antitrust law.
With respect to the alleged violation of the sec­
ondary boycott provisions of the LMRA, the court

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1004
cited the statutory definition of a labor dispute 5
and held that it was quite clear from the evidence
that a dispute existed because the union had been
trying to organize the manufacturers’ employees
for over 25 years. Since there was a labor dispute
between the union and the manufacturers there
was no secondary boycott in violation of the act,
the court held.
In rejecting the manufacturer’s contention that
the union is not protected by the publicity proviso
of section 8(b) of the LMRA because the motive
of the union was to effect a secondary boycott, the
court said: “As the Supreme Court pointed out in
NLRB v. Fruit and Vegetable Packers,6 . . . the
lawfful purpose of leafletting a secondary distrib­
utor is to encourage the public to cease purchasing
nonunion goods and thus discourage the distrib­
utor from buying them.” The only distinction be­
tween that case and the present one is that here the
retailers acquiesced before the distribution of leaf­
lets commenced, the court said.
A Federal court of appeals
held 7 that the National Labor Relations Board’s
refusal to exercise jurisdiction over racetracks in
Nevada does not obligate it also to decline author­
ity over the State’s gambling casinos. The race­
tracks are essentially local businesses subject to de­
tailed State regulations that may be extended to
labor relations, whereas the casinos’ business is in­
terstate in character and their regulation by the
Board, in the absence of a similar regulation of
racetracks, would not result in prejudicial discrim­
ination against the casinos, the court said.
The employer, an operator of a Nevada club and
gambling casino, was found by the NLRB to be
guilty of an unfair labor practice (harassment and
discharge of employees for union activities). In
challenging the Board’s decision, he contended that
the Board’s assertion of jurisdiction in this matter
N L R B J u r is d i c t i o n .

was arbitrary and an abuse of discretion, because
it had not asserted jurisdiction of labor relations in
the racetrack industry for reasons equally appli­
cable to the gambling industry. The employer
further contended that the Board’s findings were
not supported by substantial evidence.
In declining to assume jurisdiction over the racetr ick industry, pursuant to its authority under sec­
tion 14(c) (1) of the LMRA, the Board has distin­
guished between the racetracks and the gambling
industry because the latter is not local in character
since it attracts more than 20 million tourists each
year, utilizing a vast amount of interstate trans­
portation facilities. As for the fact that the
gambling industry, like the racetracks, is subject
to strict State regulations, this does not prevent it
from asserting its jurisdiction, the Board has
maintained.
In holding that the Board did not act arbitrarily
nor abuse its discretion in asserting jurisdiction in
this case, the court said, “Assuming that the criteria
applied by the Board in determining to exempt
racetracks from regulation are equally applicable
to gambling casinos in Nevada, this alone is not
sufficient to establish that regulation of the gam­
bling industry will result in unjust discrimination.
It must be also be shown that the gambling indus­
try will be substantially prejudiced by Board
regulation because racetracks are not similarly
regulated.” No evidence was introduced to show
that the casinos were so prejudiced, the court
added.
5 S ection 2 ( 9 ) (D e fin itio n s) o f th e LM RA r e a d s: “T he term
‘labor d isp u te ’ in clu d es an y con troversy co n cern in g term s or con­
d itio n s of em ploym en t, or concerning th e a sso c ia tio n or repre­
sen ta tio n of p erson s in n e g o tia tin g , fixing, m a in ta in in g , changin g,
or seek in g to arran ge term s or c on d ition s of em ploym en t, regard­
le ss of w h eth er or not th e d isp u ta n ts sta n d in th e proxim ate
rela tio n of em ployer and em p loyee.”
6 12 L. Ed. 2d 129 ; see also M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , Jun e 1964,
pp. 6 8 7 -6 8 8 .
7 N L R B v. H u rra h ’s C lub (C.A. 9, Ju n e 14, 1 9 6 6 ).

[Abraham] Demoivre’s reputation as a mathematician was exceptional
. . . . A legend has it that, shortly before his death, Demoivre declared that
it was necessary for him to sleep each day 10 to 20 minutes longer than on
the preceding day. The day after the one on which he slept 23 hours and
40 minutes, he died—in his sleep.


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—Robert W. Marks.

Chronology of
Recent Labor Events

August 4, 1966
The Second Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a NLRB
ruling that the New York Typographical Union may
withdraw from its multiemployer bargaining relationship
with the Publishers’ Association of New York City, stating
th a t: “While the question is not wholly free from doubt,
we conclude that the Board was correct in determining
that Congress did not intend to instruct it to require an
unwilling union to continue in the consensual relationship
if it unequivocally withdrew its consent.”

August 16
P l a n t , in sta lla tio n , a nd accounting workers at the
Bell Telephone Co. of Pennsylvania voted 7,964 to 2,251
against linking the nonaffiliated Federation of Telephone
Workers of Pennsylvania with the Teamsters.

August 23
A t it s quarterly meeting in Chicago, the Executive
Council of the AFL-CIO approved the merger of the
independent National Farm Workers Association and the
AFL-CIO Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee.
The Council also issued a nine-point economic policy
program which calls for a restoration of balance between
wages, prices, and profits. The Council added that the
AFL-CIO would support any mandatory controls adopted
by the President a,s long as they were equally applied to
all segments of the economy.

August 27
T reasury S ecretary H enry H. F owler announced that
nearly 14,000 banks will be brought under regulations
prohibiting discrimination in hiring under an existing
executive order which bars discrimination because of
race, creed, or national origin by firms holding Govern­
ment contracts. The order will become effective for firms
holding Federal deposits after November 30.

August 30
T he W aterfront Com m ission of New York Harbor
opened the Longshoremen’s register to receive 2,500 ap­
plications to permit the entry of 2,006 additional men
into the industry. The register has been closed since
April 7 under the authority given the Commission by the
New Jersey and New York State legislatures to open and
close it as manpower needs required.

August 31
N u rses in three San Francisco City hospitals were granted

August 18
A F ederal D istrict Court in New York ordered the
General Electric Co. to bargain with the Electrical
Workers in the presence of representatives of seven other
unions. The Electrical Workers’ charge that the com­
pany’s refusal to meet and bargain with the eight-union
committee violates sections 8(a) (5) and 8 (a )(1 ) of the
Taft-Hartley Act is pending before the NLRB. On Sep­
tember 8, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals vacated
the injunction until the NLRB reaches a decision. (See
p. 1010, this issue.)

August 19
Over 35,000 members of the Machinists Union returned
to work after ratifying a 3-year contract with Eastern,
National, Northwest, Trans World, and United Airlines,
ending a strike that had affected an estimated 60 percent
of the Nation’s air passenger volume since July 8. (See
pp. 1006-1007, this issue.)


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immediate pay raises of $113 to $138 a month after staging
a 1-day “sick leave” walkout. On August 23, southern
California hospitals gave a 25-percent wage increase and
other benefits to 14,000 registered nurses, 1 day after the
California Nurses Association abandoned the antistrike
policy adopted by the American Nurses Association in
1950. This increase is 7.5 percent higher than the interim
raise given to nurses in the San Francisco Bay area on
August 3, narrowly averting the resignation of 4,000
nurses in 33 private hospitals. Also during August, 4,600
nurses in New York State hospitals and institutions
received wage increases of $399 to $735 a year.
T h e Equal Employment Opportunity Commission upheld

discrimination charges filed by five workers and the Inter­
national Chemical Workers Union against the Planters
Manufacturing Co., Clarksdale, Miss., under the equal
employment provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Last May the Commission reversed its earlier position
and ruled that labor unions as well as individuals may
file discrimination charges; this was the first complaint
of this type ever filed by a union. (See MLR, June 1966,
p. 662.)
1005

Developments in
Industrial Relations*
60 percent of trunk airline passenger serv­
ice in the Nation was terminated by a strike by
Machinists during most of July and part of
August. The White House had intervened and
Congress was considering legislation to end the
strike when the maintenance personnel, on August
19, accepted the new 3-year contract. Elsewhere
in July, proposals of the Presidential Committee
trying to settle the dispute between the Associated
General Contractors of New Jersey and Local 825
of the Operating Engineers were made public; the
proposals were designed to reduce the seasonality
of work and the size of wage increases. Efforts
by nurses in various parts of the country to in­
crease their pay continued to receive publicity;
mass resignations involving approximately 4,000
nurses in the San Francisco Bay Area were averted
when the parties agreed to establish a factfinding
committee to make recommendations regarding
salaries. Legislation granting pay increases to
members of the Armed Forces and to Federal
classified and postal employees was signed by the
President on July 13.
A bout

Transportation

On August 19, members of the Machinists rati­
fied an agreement with five airlines,1 thus ending
a strike that had begun in early July and had led to
congressional consideration of legislation to send
the 35,400 strikers back to their jobs. The agree­
ment provided three 5-percent wage increases, the
first retroactive to January 1, 1966, the second on
January 1, 1967, and the third on May 1, 1968.
Two steps of the rate range were eliminated—the
next to the highest on January 1, 1967, and the
lowest a year later—and a 5-cent premium for
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

mechanics working on the line was established
beginning in 1967.2
The carriers agreed to assume the employees’ cost
of dependents’ health insurance (to a maximum of
5 cents an hour) ,3 and to establish an eighth paid
holiday—Good Friday—beginning in 1967, as well
as to pay double time and a half rather than double
time for work on all holidays, effective immedi­
ately. Four weeks of vacation were to be provided
after 15 rather than 20 years of service, effective
in 1967, and 3 weeks of vacation after 8 rather than
10 years of service beginning in 1968.
Two semiannual cost-of-living escalator adjust­
ments were agreed to, one on January 1, 1968,
based on the increase in the CPI during the pre­
ceding 6 months, and the second on September 1,
1968, based on the increase since March 1968. The
escalator adjustments were to consist of 1 cent for
each 0.4 point change in the index, subject to a
3-cent maximum for each semiannual adjustment.
Negotiations between the five struck airlines and
the Machinists started in August 1965, when the
five carriers and the Union signed an agreement to
bargain jointly on the renewal of contracts which
were subject to renegotiation December 31, 1965.
Proposals were exchanged on October 1,1965, and
negotiations continued until March 1966 when
mediation was broken off. On April 21, President
Johnson set up an emergency board under pro­
visions of the Railway Labor Act,4 and in early
June, the board released its proposals: Wage in­
creases totaling 48 cents an hour for mechanics and
higher skilled employees and 34 cents for other
employees over a 31/o-year period; elimination of
two steps of the rate progression; an additional
paid holiday; improved vacation provisions, and
proposals regarding a variety of local issues. The
airlines accepted the board’s proposals on all issues
and agreed to negotiate within the framework of
the report; the Machinists rejected the report.
*Prepared in th e D iv isio n of W age E con om ics, B ureau o f Labor
S ta tis tic s, on th e basis o f pu blished m a ter ia l ava ila b le in early
A ugust.
1E astern , N a tio n a l, N o rth w est, TW A, and U nited .
2 E a stern p reviou sly p aid a 3-cent prem ium .
3E a ster n p reviou sly p aid th e fu ll co st of d ep en d en ts’ insurance.
4See M o n th ly L ah or R e v ie w , J u n e 1966, p. 666.

1007

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Negotiations were continued under the auspices
of Assistant Secretary of Labor James J. Reyn­
olds, but on July 8 the Machinists went out on
strike. On July 25, Senator Wayne D. Morse,
who had served as Chairman of the Presidential
Committee, introduced legislation to stop the
strike, and the Senate Labor and Public Welfare
Committee scheduled hearings on the bill. Two
days later, Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz
asked the Senate to delay passage of legislation
and to give collective bargaining another chance.
Negotiations were resumed, this time at the re­
quest of Secretary Wirtz, and a tentative settle­
ment was reached at the White House on July
29. On July 31, however, the strikers rejected the
3-year contract by a vote of 17,251 to 6,587. The
pact provided 5-percent wage increases on Janu­
ary 1, 1966, July 1, 1967, and July 1, 1968: a line
premium of 5 cents an hour on July 1, 1967, for
about. 8,000 mechanics; an additional paid holi­
day in 1967, and double time and one-half (instead
of double time) for work on holidays effective
after July 1, 1967; vacations of 3 weeks after 8
instead of 10 years, in 1968; and 4 weeks after 15
instead of 20 years, in 1967; elimination of two
progression steps; and an increase in contributions
for group insurance by a maximum of 5 cents an
hour.
On August 4, the U.S. Senate passed and sent
to the House a bill ordering the striking employees
back to work for as long as 180 days. Agreement
came while the House was considering this
legislation.
Public Utilities

A 2-year agreement was reached on June 28 be­
tween the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation
and the Electrical Workers (IBEW ). The con­
tract provided a 3.75-percent wage increase retro­
active to June 1, and an additional 3.75-percent
increase effective in June of 1967, for some 7,000
employees in upstate New York. Improvements
were made in the medical and insurance programs
and in the pension plan.
Later in the week, the Ohio Edison Co. con­
cluded 2-year agreements with the Utility Work­
ers Union (UWU), representing 1,600 employees,
and the Electrical Workers (IBEW ), represent5 E x ce r p ts from th e te x t o f th e p roposals appear on pp. 9 9 0 -9 9 8
o f th is issu e.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ing 600. Wages were increased 8 to 13 cents an
hour in July of 1966 and 1967 under the UWU
contract, and 9 to 13 cents under the IBEW agree­
ment. Both settlements provided for an eighth
paid holiday and made improvements in hospital
and medical plans.
Construction

Secretary Wirtz and New Jersey Commissioner
of Labor and Industry Raymond F. Male made
public on July 13 their proposed plan to settle the
protracted dispute between the Associated General
Contractors of New Jersey and Local 825 of the
Operating Engineers. In January, it had been
announced that a 3-year agreement providing
package increases ranging from $1.09 to $1.93 an
hour or from 7.6 to 9 percent a year (depending
on the skill level) had been negotiated; the agree­
ment was not signed by the union which alleged
that some of the provisions the contractors had
agreed to were not included in the contract.
After the package was announced, the Council
of Economic Advisers asked the parties to Wash­
ington for discussions. Meetings were held with
contractors in February, but not until mid-March
did representatives of the union arrive in Wash­
ington, and on March 21 the engineers struck some
projects in the State to enforce their demands.
However, on March 25 the AGC and the IUOE
agreed to an initial 35-cent-an-hour wage increase,
and to submit to Secretary Wirtz and Commis­
sioner Male “for determination, resolution, and
disposition, the present controversy, arising from
the collective bargaining agreement under negoti­
ation between the parties, relating to alleged ex­
cessive wage and fringe benefit increases.” 5
In other developments in the construction in­
dustry :
The Tri-State General Contractors and the Carpenters’
Union signed a 2-year 81-cent-an-hour agreement for
1,600 workers throughout southern Ohio and some West
Virginia and Kentucky counties. The $4.27 scale was to
be raised 41 cents the first year and 40 cents the second
year. Further details of the contract were not reported.
Early in June, construction contractors signed a $1.45an-hour pact with the Carpenters who represent 2,000
workers in nine North Central Ohio counties. The 3-year
contract gave workers an immediate 10-cent-an-hour wage
increase with increases of 20 cents an hour effective Oc­
tober 1066, June and November 1967, and June and
December 1968. The employers’ health and welfare fund

1008
contributions were to increase 35 cents an hour at the
time of the first pay raise. The existing wage differen­
tial among the counties continued.
The Chicago Bridge and Iron Workers and the Associ­
ated Steel Erectors signed a 3-year $1.22%-an-hour agree­
ment for 2,500 workers. The Iron Workers received a
pay raise of 20 cents an hour on June 1, 1966, with
additional increases of 20 cents in June 1967, and 25 cents
in June 1968. The Contractors were to increase benefit
contributions by 17y2 cents an hour on October 1, 1966,
and 20 cents an hour on June 1 of 1967 and 1968. The
total package increase was 21.6 percent, or 6.7 percent
a year.
On July 18, the Bricklayers and the Allied Construction
Employers Association of Milwaukee signed a 2-year
agreement. The $1.18 pact ended a 7-week strike. Some
1,200 workers received an immediate 51-cent-an-hour pay
raise, with additional increases of 12 cents to be effective
on December 1, 30 cents on June 1, 1967, and 12 cents on
December 1, 1967. Employers were to increase benefit
contributions by 13 cents an hour during the 2-year
period. The total increase was 23.69 percent, or 11.2 per­
cent annually, compared to a total package increase of
8.77 percent or 4.3 percent annually in the previous 2-year
contract.
The Minneapolis-St. Paul Local of the Laborers and the
Associated General Contractors signed a 3-year 80-centan-hour wage increase June 1, for 8,300 workers. The
Laborers received an immediate 10-cent-an-hour wage
increase with additional increases of 10 cents to be effec­
tive on October 1, 1966, 15 cents on January 1, 1967,
20 cents on May 1, 1967, and 25 cents on May 1, 1968.
The total was 22.22 percent, or 6.9 percent annually.
The Mechanical Contractors Association, Inc. of north­
ern California and the Steamfitters of Alameda and
Contra Costa counties signed a 3-year agreement that
included a reduction in the workweek to 36 from 40 hours.
The $1.95 package amounted to a 28.89-percent increase
over the term of the contract—an 8.8-percent annual rate
of increase. The 1965 agreement had provided an 8-per­
cent increase, including benefits.
The 1,000 Steamfitters received a 56yj-cent-an-hour
wage increase on July 1, 1966; additional increases of
55 cents and 57 cents become effective on July 1, 1967, and
July 1, 1968, respectively. The employers were to in­
crease the pension fund contribution to 30 from 25 cents
an hour on July 1, 1966, with additional increases of
7 cents on July 1, 1967, and 6 cents on July 1, 1968.
Health and welfare contributions were to increase to
25 from 20 cents an hour on July 1, 1966, with additional
increases of 3 cents on July 1, 1967, and 2 cents the
following year. The employers had been contributing
2% cents an hour to the apprenticeship fund, but begin­
ning on July 1, 1966, 2 cents an hour was diverted to one
of the other funds ; the contribution to the apprenticeship
fund was to increase % cent to 1 cent on July 1, 1967. The
previous scale was $6,275 an hour plus $.475 in fringe
benefits.
Several unions and construction contractors in the
New York City area signed separate 3-year agreements


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
covering a total of 15,000 workers. The following tabula­
tion gives total package increases provided in agreements
reached by 11 craft unions in early July.
Craft

Sheet metal workers___________________
Cement masons_______________________
Elevator constructors__________________
Elevator maintainers___________________
Glazers_______________________________
Metallic lathers_______________________
Composition roofers___________________
Ornamental ironworkers_______________
Riggers and machinery movers_________
Terrazzo workers______________________
House wreckers_______________________

Total package
increases

$1. 08
. 91
. 586
.37
.6 0
. 91
.9 6
1. 02
1. 00
. 75
. 45 plus
2 percent.

Apparel and Textiles

A 3-year contract between four associations 6 in
the undergarment and negligee industry and the
Ladies’ Garment Workers contained precedentsetting job and earnings security provisions.
Ratified by union members on June 29, the agree­
ment affected some 15,000 workers in New York
City. For the first time, employers introducing
new machinery or equipment are required to nego­
tiate with the union regarding the earnings and
employment of affected workers, and to establish
rates for work performed on such new machinery.
Another provision guarantees full employment to
inside shopworkers and protects the volume of
work for employees in contract shops.
The agreement provided a 6-percent general
wage increase, with a $5-a-week minimum increase
to shipping clerks and a $3.50-a-week minimum
increase for all other workers. An additional
4-percent wage increase ($3-a-week minimum to
shipping clerks and $2.50 to other groups) will be
effective on the date of the second step increase in
the Federal minimum wage, but in no case later
than July 1, 1968. Increases in craft minimums
ranged from 10 cents an hour for operators and
floor girls to 30 cents for shipping clerks and
samplemakers. All minimums are to maintain the
new cents per hour differential above the Federal
minimum, with the lowest rate to be 20 instead of
15 cents above the legally required rate. A seventh
0A llied U n d erw ater A sso cia tio n , I n c .: T he L ingerie M anu­
fa ctu rers A sso c ia tio n of N ew York, Inc. ; T he N egligee M anu­
fa c tu re r s A sso cia tio n o f N ew York, Inc. ; and U ndergarm ent
A ccessories A sso cia tio n , Inc.

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

paid holiday, Good Friday, was added for all
workers (previously, cutters received 7 and others
6 paid holidays), holiday payments to piece­
workers were improved, and a holiday fund was
established to insure payments to workers in con­
tracting shops. The second week of vacation pay
was increased to 2 percent of total annual earnings,
including overtime, effective January 1,1967 (pre­
viously, workers received 2 percent of total earn­
ings, limited to a maximum of 35 times the
straight-time hourly rate for weekworkers, and to
35 times the hourly rate for their craft, plus 15 per­
cent of such rate, for pieceworkers). Also included
in the contract were provisions for a cost-of-living
wage reopener, an improvement in the learners’
wage scale, and employer payments to the union
for violation of that section of the agreement
which prohibits farming out work to nonunion
contractors.
In late June, the Knitted Outerwear Manufac­
turers Association and the Ladies’ Garment Work­
ers agreed to a 3-year contract for some 8,500 work­
ers in Philadelphia, Pa. On July 1, pieceworkers
received a 5-percent wage increase, cutters and
knitters 15 cents an hour, and other timeworkers 10
cents, with additional increases of 3 percent, 10
cents, and 5 cents to these respective classifications,
to be effective July 1, 1968. New minimum rates
ranged from $1.45 instead of $1.40 for g en eral
help, to $3 instead of $2.35 for cutters. Vacation
payments were liberalized, and a 2-step increase
boosted company contributions to the health and
welfare fund from 4 to 5y2 percent.
Under a reopener provision, the Rock Hill
Printing and Finishing Company and the Textile
Workers (TWUA) agreed in mid-June to a 9y2cent-an-hour wage increase and other benefits for
some 2,500 workers in Rock Hill, S.C. The
minimum wage was increased to $1.50 from $1.40
an hour; time and one-half pay for Saturday work
was extended to yard crew workers (previously,
they received time and one-half pay for work on
the sixth day of their scheduled workweek) ; and
$5-a-day jury-duty pay was established.
In other June negotiations with the TWUA,
("one Mills Corp. reached agreement on contracts
at several plants in North Carolina. Affected were
some 2,000 workers at the White Oak plant in
Greensboro, 450 at the Salisbury plant, and 300 at
the Mineola plant at Gibsonville. Wages were in­
creased 5 percent for operating personnel, 7y2 per­


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1009
cent for maintenance workers, and 10 percent for
shop personnel. At the print works’ plants in
Greensboro, some 600 workers received a 5-percent
wage increase, with an additional 5 percent going
to skilled trades employees.
Metalworking

On July 16, at the end of a 6-week strike by
5,300 Electrical Workers (IUE) against the
Columbus, Ohio, appliance plant of Westinghouse
Electric Corp., the union ratified an amendment
of the local wage schedule. The method of pay­
ment for production employees, foremost of the
strike issues, was changed from an incentive sys­
tem to daywork; the change resulted in immediate
scale increases of 19 to 27 cents an hour for all
labor grades. Former incentive employees will
receive an add-on allowance of up to 70 cents an
hour, which will be gradually reduced until elim­
inated by July 5,1971. These employees will also
receive two cash payments in the interim, the first
up to a maximum of $1,050 payable in July 1970
and the second up to a maximum of $975 in July
1971. In addition, all hourly employees will re­
ceive a 5-cent-an-hour increase effective July 5,
1970, plus any wage increases forthcoming in na­
tional negotiations on the master contract. The
national union has been proposing the elimination
of geographical differentials among plants
throughout the country.
Some 2,000 Auto Workers were covered by a 3year agreement reached in late June with the Bell
Aerosystems Co., a Division of Bell Aerospace
Corp. in Wheatfield (Buffalo), N.Y. Earlier in
the month, about 6,200 Auto Workers were also
included in a 3-year agreement with the corpora­
tion’s Bell Helicopter Co., division in the Fort
Worth, Tex., area. The Fort Worth settlement
had been “conditional” upon the conclusion of an
agreement at the Wheatfield plant. Terms in­
cluded an 8y2-cent -an-hour wage increase the first
year, with additional 8-cent increases effective the
second and third years. (Salaried workers at
Fort Worth received wage increases of 2.9 per­
cent, followed by 2.8-percent increases in 1967 and
1968.) The escalator clauses were continued.
Other benefits included a ninth paid holiday, and
improved vacation and insurance provisions.
Pensions were increased to $4.50 (from $2.50) a
month for each year of past service, with $5 a

1010

month for future service, and $4 a month for pres­
ent retirees. A 35-year service limitation was re­
moved as was the age 40 requirement for vesting
and disability retirement. Additional benefits
negotiated at Fort Worth included the establish­
ment of up to 3 days’ funeral leave and a stock
purchase plan to which employees can contribute
up to 10 percent of their salary, with the company
matching the contribution on a 50-percent basis.
The company’s contribution is 25 percent vested
after 3 years, 50 percent after 4 years, 75 percent
after 5 years, and fully vested after 6 years,
A 3-year settlement affecting more than 4,000
workers was concluded by District 70 of the
Machinists and the Beech Aircraft Corp., Wichita,
Kans. The contract provided an immediate 12cent-an-hour wage increase with an additional 8
cents effective in July 1967, and 8 cents in July
1968. Starting rates were to be increased up to
30 cents an hour. Other provisions included in­
creases in shift differentials to 15 cents (from 12
cents) ; establishment of longevity pay of 5 cents
per hour after 5 years and 10 cents after 10 years;
and continuation of the cost-of-living escalator
clause.
Supplementary benefit increases were high­
lighted by a doubling of monthly pension contri­
butions to $4 per year of service. Daily hospital
room and board allowances were increased to $21
(from $12) and the surgical expense benefit was
increased to $400 (from $300). Other provisions
included improvement of the sick leave program;
the establishment of a fourth week of vacation
after 20 years of service; and the addition of 2
paid holidays (total 9)—the employee’s birthday
and, effective in 1968, a floating holiday.
The Maryland Shipbuilding and Drydock Co.
of Baltimore and the Marine and Shipbuilding
Workers agreed July 26 on a 3-year contract cov­
ering 2,100 workers. Reportedly costing 34 cents
an hour, the settlement included an average of 27
cents an hour in wages, varying by job classifica­
tion from 23 to 29 cents. Company payments for
Blue Cross and Blue Shield were increased to 65
percent from 55 percent of premiums, and insur­
ance benefits were improved. An additional half
week of paid vacation after 20 years was provided.
The previous maximum was 3 weeks after 15 years.
Manufacturers of Illumination Products, Inc.,
a New York City employer association, agreed on
a 2-year contract with the Electrical Workers


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

(IBEW ), effective July 1 for 2,500 plant and
office workers. The contract provides for a reduc­
tion in the workweek by half-hour steps each year
until 36 hours is reached. Other terms included
10-cent-an-hour rate increases each year, resulting
initially in journeymen mechanics’ rates of $3.77
an hour, and establishment of 2 days of paid fu­
neral leave. Company payment of the employees’
social security payroll tax was continued, and a 1percent-of-payroll contribution by employers to an
educational and cultural trust fund was
established.
General Electric Co. was ordered to appear in
Federal court to show cause why it should not bar­
gain with the Electrical Workers (IITE) in the
presence of negotiators from other unions which
also represent GE employees.7 The court action
was instituted by the National Labor Relations
Board (NLRB), as a result of unfair labor prac­
tices charges filed by the IU E after GE represent­
atives walked out of a prenegotiation meeting in
May.
Saying that the IUE is the only union certified
to bargain with GE nationally and that the other
unions are not part of the bargaining team, GE
filed charges that the “coordinated bargaining”
coalition was unlawful. The NLRB dismissed
this complaint, but formally charged GE with
failure to bargain and appointed a trial examiner
to hold a hearing on August 16. At that time GE
must show cause why it should not bargain with
the coalition on a national contract.
In Worthington, Ohio, the Scioto Metals Divi­
sion of Worthington Steel Co. announced the
institution of a new plan to provide a guar­
anteed annual wage to hourly workers. Each
permanent employee is to be paid a salary,
with provisions for overtime pay, profit sharing,
and a program of company-paid supplementary
benefits. New hourly employees who satisfac­
torily complete a 6-month probationary period are
to be paid a salary based on a 40-hour week; work
missed because of illness or injury would not result
in a decreased paycheck. Incentive pay was re­
placed by a profit-sharing plan with disburse­
ments to be made in June and December of each
7 The A uto W orkers, M ach in ists, E le c tr ic a l W orkers (IB E W ),
T ech n ica l E n gin eers, S h eet M etal W orkers, A llied In d u str ia l
W orkers, and F lin t G lass W orkers form th e A F L -C IO C om m ittee
on c o lle ctiv e b argain in g to coord in ate b argain in g w ith GE on
c o n tra cts coverin g 120,000 w orkers (an d w ith W estin gh ou se
coverin g 60,000 w orkers) ex p irin g in th e fa ll of 1966.

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

year, to help defray vacation and Christmas ex­
penses. The entire cost of hospitalization and
major medical expense was to be paid by the
company.
Chemicals

In late June, agreement was reached between
the Monsanto Co. and the Chemical Workers at
the company’s plant in St. Louis, Mo. Affecting
1,350 employees, the 40.7-cent package included an
11-cent-an-hour wage increase retroactive to April
15, an additional 10 cents in the second year, and
14 cents in the third year. The day after Thanks­
giving was made a ninth paid holiday. Vacations
were improved in 1966 to 4 weeks after 20 years,
instead of 15, with a fifth week after 20 years, and
a sixth week after 35 years; in 1968, eligibility for
vacations was reduced to 5 (instead of 10) years
for 3 weeks, 10 years for 4 weeks, and 30 years for
6 weeks.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. and the Mar­
tinsville Employees’ Council (Ind.) reached
agreement in late May on a contract covering
4,000 workers at its nylon plant in Martinsville,
Va. Increases ranging from 5 to 15 cents an hour
were provided for hourly employees effective May
29; comparable increases were provided for
salaried employees on June 1.
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. and the Ma­
chinists agreed July 17 on a 3-year contract
covering the New Haven, Conn., facilities which
mainly produce small arms and small arms am­
munition. The agreement provided an initial 4percent wage increase for the almost 2,800 workers
affected, another 4-percent (minimum 9-cents-anhour) wage increase the second year, and a 5-per­
cent increase the last year. The 4 highest of 12
labor grades were to receive an extra 10 cents an
hour this year and next. Other changes effec­
tive immediately were increased shift differentials,
liberalized vacation elegibility, and revised pen­
sion and insurance plans.
Other Manufacturing

The Carborundum Co. signed a 3-year 38-centan-hour agreement with the Oil, Chemical, and
Atomic Workers, representing 2,300 workers.
The contract included wage increases of 8 cents an
hour in the first and second years and 9 cents in


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1011

the third year, an extra holiday (the day after
Thanksgiving), and beginning in 1967 vacations of
5 weeks after 25 years of service and 6 weeks after
30 years. Insurance benefit contributions and
shift differentials were increased; sickness and
accident benefits were liberalized.
Trade

On July 14, agreements were reached on 26month contracts between the Food Employers
Labor Relations Association, representing six
major grocery chains,8 and Local 593 of the Meatcutters, representing 2,500 workers in the Wash­
ington, D.C., area. (On January 1, 1966, former
Locals 393, representing Giant employees, and
555, representing employees at the other five
chains, merged to form Local 593. The total
package in this settlement, was the same for the
two groups, though allocation of money to wages
and funds differed in order to ‘bring pension and
health and welfare fund payments to the same
levels by the end of the contract.) Wages were
increased $5 to $8 a week for full-time employees,
and 12y 2 cents an hour for part-time workers,
effective in both July 1966 and October 1967; an
additional 2y2-cent -an -hou r wage increase was
provided workers at Giant; first meatcutters were
to receive an additional $5.50 a week, instead of $5
at all stores with three cutters or more. The night
differential was increased to l7y 2 from 15 cents an
hour. Four weeks of vacation were provided after
17 rather than 18 years of service, and a fifth week
after 25 years of service was established. Com­
pany payments to the health and welfare and
pension funds were also increased. The settle­
ment covered some 325 stores in the metropolitan
area.
In mid-July, agreement was reached on a 3-year
contract between the Washington State Restau­
rant Association and the Seattle Hotel Association
and five locals 9 of the Hotel and Restaurant Em­
ployees representing 10,000 workers in the Seattle
area. The contract provided wage increases,
retroactive to June 1, of 8 cents an hour to tipped
workers and 10 cents to nontipped workers, except
bartenders who received a $1.05-per-day increase,
and dinner cooks who received a $2.05-a-day
8A. & P ., Acme, Food F a ir, G iant, Grand U nion, and Safew ay.
9L ocal 33, Cooks and A s s is t a n t s ; L ocal 240, W a itr e s s e s ;
L ocal 239, W aiters ; L ocal 487, B arten d ers ; and L ocal 551, H otel,
M otel and Club S ervice E m ployees.

1012

increase; other cooks and assistants received in­
creases commensurate with their skill. A 7-centan-hour across-the-board increase is to be afforded
in 1968.
Other terms include 8 cents instead of 5 cents an
hour in employer contributions to the pension fund
in 1967, and a $l-a-month increase to raise the
health and welfare contributions to $12 this year.
Services and Insurance

Represented by the Massachusetts Nurses’ Asso­
ciation, more than 500 nurses in three Boston City
hospitals negotiated their first union contract in
mid-July. Wage increases ranging from $8 to
$10 a week, to be effective September 1, raised
nurses’ salaries to a minimum of $104 and a maxi­
mum of $124 a week. Other terms included a $20a-week premium for night work, an additional $5 a
week for nurses with bachelor’s degrees and $10
for those with master’s. The contract also pro­
vided the nurses with up to $200 a year toward
tuition for advanced degrees.
Nonmedical employees 10 of the Drug and Hos­
pital Employees Union Local 1199, affiliated with
the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store
Union, were benefited by agreements reached in 19
privately owned nonprofit hospitals in New York
City.11 The 2-year pact provided a 10-percent
wage increase retroactive to July 4 with an addi­
tional 7.5 percent on July 4,1967, and an additional
21/2 percent in 1968 presumably to guarantee an
hourly minimum wage of $1.90. Other terms in­
cluded a provision for hospitals to contribute 4 per­
cent of employees’ earnings to a union welfare
fund. The union represents 9,000 employees at the
19 hospitals and estimates the package at 24 percent
over 2 years.
A walkout affecting approximately 4,000 nurses
in 33 San Francisco Bay area hospitals scheduled
for August 3 was averted when after a 12-hour ne­
gotiating session, hospital administrators and
nurses agreed to submit salary differences to a fact­
finding committee. This committee—to be ap­
pointed by Governor Edmund G. Brown, Secretary
Wirtz, and Secretary of Health, Education, and
Welfare John W. Gardiner—is to make binding
recommendations in December with agreed-upon
increases to be retroactive to July 16; the nurses
were to be paid an interim raise ranging from
$65 to $70 per month until the final agreement


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

is made. The nurses were demanding increases of
$236 to $311 per month, while hospital negotiators
were offering $45 per month immediately and $105
over the next 3 years. The interim agreement was
narrowly accepted at a ratification meeting attend­
ed by only 1,500 nurses, many of whom declined to
vote.
Most of the nurses were represented by the Cali­
fornia Nurses Association which had unified iso­
lated efforts for wage increases by nurses in small
Kaiser Hospitals in the San Francisco area. The
protests spread to hospitals in San Francisco, Oak­
land, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz where nurses
submitted letters of resignation to be effective Au­
gust 3, if wage demands were not met. The status
of nurses laid off in preparation for the walkout
was still unsettled; the association asserted that the
hospitals had violated the agreement provision
which f orbids reprisals against nurses who threaten
to resign.
On July 5, agreement was reached between the
John Hancock Insurance Co. and the Insurance
Workers. Covering 6,000 agents throughout the
United States, the agreement provided a $12-aweek package increase over 3 years.
The Insurance Employees Local 35 of the Associ­
ated Unions reached agreement on a contract cover­
ing 1,445 office, maintenance, and restaurant
employees of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insur­
ance Co. in Milwaukee, Wis. The 2-year contract
provided pay increases averaging 9.6 cents an hour
retroactive to May 1,1966, and an additional 6 cents
on May 1,1967.
Other terms included continuation of an escala­
tor clause, the exchange of Washington’s Birthday
and Veterans Day for 2 floating holidays, an addi­
tional day of vacation for each year of service after
25 (a maximum 5 weeks of vacation after 30 years)
and extension of company-paid insurance for
employees between the ages of 18 and 25.
Minimum Wage

The first New Jersey minimum wage law was
signed by Governor Hughes in mid-June. Un10M ain ten an ce w orkers, lau n d ry w orkers, n u rses aides, te c h n i­
cal em ployees, k itch en and cle ric a l help.
11M ount Sinai, M ontefiore, Queens G eneral, Coney Islan d ,
G ouverneur, Green P o in t, M orrisania, B eth Israel, J ew ish
M em orial, M aim onides, Jew ish of B rook lyn, L ong Islan d Jew ish
h o sp ita ls, K nickerbocker, Je w ish H om e and H o sp ita l fo r the
A ged, T ra fa lg a r, H oly C om forter, L u th eran M edical, C om m unity
of B rook lyn, and St. J o h n ’s E piscop al.

1013

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

der the law, the minimum will be $1.25 an hour
effective in August and will increase to $1.40
an hour on January 1, 1968, and to $1.50 on Janu­
ary 1,1969. Designed to cover some 100,000 work­
ers not within the scope of Federal minimum wage
regulations, the law established time-and-a-half
pay for hours in excess of 40 hours a week. How­
ever, hotel, farm, and motorbus company employ­
ees and persons in administrative, executive, and
professional capacities were exempted from the
overtime provisions.
Government

On July 13, President Johnson signed a bill
giving the members of the Armed Forces a 3.2percent. pay raise, and on July 19 a bill giving 1.8
million Federal classified and postal employees an
immediate 3.2-percent wage and fringe increase.
The bill for classified, postal, Foreign Service,
YA medical, and District of Columbia government
employees provided a 2.9-percent pay increase
retroactive to the first July payroll except for em­
ployees in the highest three grades whose increases
averaged about 1.5 percent. Provisions were made
for employees to choose to retire on full annuities
at age 55 after 30 years of service, and at age 60
after 20 years.
Other improvements in benefits, to become ef­
fective at the beginning of the first pay period
after the bill was enacted, included:
The maximum rate for white-collar workers’ overtime
was to be increased from the minimum rate of Grade 9
(now $7,696) to the minimum rate of Grade 10 ($8,421).
Government contributions to the high-option health
benefits program were raised from $1.30 to $1.68 each 2week pay period for single employees and from $3.12 to
$4.10 for family coverage.
A 25-percent differential for Sunday work was estab­
lished for classified and wage board employees.
Allowances for employees required to wear uniforms
were raised. Those formerly receiving $100 a year were to
get $125; $75 to $100 payments were raised 30 percent;
those getting from $50 to $75 received a 35-percent in­
crease, and those getting less than $50 a year received a 40percent increase.
The House agreed to a Senate amendment giving a 10percent increase to 330,000 widows and widowers of em­
ployees who retired before the 1962 act was passed.

About 22,000 Georgia State employees got a 5percent pay raise July 1,1966, at a cost to the State
of $3 to $4 million a year.
2 2 8 - 6 5 5 0 — 6 6 ---------5


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Other Developments

In June, the New York State Legislature re­
pealed part of the 53-year-old Full Crew Law
which had provided for three brakemen on each
train crew. Railroads are now required to carry
only two brakemen; the third man will be elimi­
nated through attrition. The railroads had esti­
mated that eventually 600 jobs could be eliminated,
enabling them to save about $4.5 million a year.
The Railroad Trainmen have since charged some
railroads with violating provisions of the partial
repeal.
After 60 years of open-shop rule at the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, S. Dak., the miners voted
in a National Labor Relations Board election to
recognize the Steelworkers (USWA) as their bar­
gaining agent. Nearly half of the gold mined in
the United States comes from Lead.
The Musicians ended their 69th annual conven­
tion in Las Yegas urging early Senate ratification
of a pending international convention to protect
performers, record producers, and broadcasters on
a worldwide basis. A bylaw to eliminate dif­
ferences in pay and dues schedules among locals in
closely related geographical areas was approved,
as were proposals to raise initiation fees on a slid­
ing scale and to continue to hold annual conven­
tions. All incumbent officers were reelected.
Delegates to the Elevator Constructors 21st Con­
vention, held in Los Angeles in July, elected new
officers and discussed new bargaining goals.
Elected for 5-year terms were Richard W. Wil­
liams, president ; Thomas E. Fitzgerald, secretarytreasurer; George W. Koch, Jr., vice president;
and J. D. Peoples, vice president. Edward R.
Smith was reelected to the post of assistant to the
president.
The need to strengthen union defenses against
job losses caused by automation and préfabrication
of building materials was recognized and dele­
gates named a committee to negotiate on the
nationwide contract which expires later this year.
Perry S. Heath was elected to his first 4-year
term as Grand Chief Engineer of the Locomotive
Engineers at the quadrennial convention of divi­
sion chiefs in Cleveland during the week of July
25. He had been first assistant grand chief and
became chief after the death of Roy E. Davidson
in July of 1964.

Book Reviews
and Notes

A Great Theme

The Nature of Economic Thought. By G. L. S.
Shackle. Cambridge, England, University
Printing House, 1966. 322 pp., bibliography.
$9.50.
Professor Shackle has organized into six sections
a series of essays, articles, and reviews which dem­
onstrate his theoretical interests in economics from
1955 to 1964. The first section, “Meaning and
Method of Economics,” presents the author’s views
with regard to the nature and purpose of economic
theory. Professor Shackle first pays appropriate
tribute to the great economic thinkers of history,
but goes on to argue that the body of economic
thought which evolved from their theories in what
he terms the “Great Theory” (general equilibrium
theory) presented a “cavernous gulf” between “the
wTorld of academic economics and the world of po­
litical action and business enterprise.” The author
suggests that “John Maynard Keynes bridged this
gulf with a strange and unparalleled book, The
General Theory of Employment, Interest, and
Money, and across this bridge the academic econo­
mists have ever since been pouring into the world
of administrative power and political influence.”
He goes on to point out, however, that “ [sjurely
the attitude of aloof self-sufficiency with which
economics has in the past avoided contact with
psychology, anthropology, sociology, and political
theory must now end. . . . Much recent work in
economics has treated man as a computer. Let us
also study him as an artist, a poet, a mystic, a
dreamer, in some degree, even in his economic
activity.”
The next four sections of the book treat theoreti­
cal topics that are of great interest to the author.
In part II, he presents his views on the nature of
economic uncertainty and the theoretical prob­
lems of decisionmaking in the face of uncertainty,
1014


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while in part III, “Business and Psychology,” he
relates this theoretical framework to the decision­
making activities of the businessman, and elabo­
rates even further on this analysis in the next sec­
tion. Part V, “Interest and Investment,” contains
a careful discussion of the nature and role of in­
terest rates in stimulating investment. In his con­
cluding section, the author offers three reviews in
which he reiterates his position that in the study of
man all of the social sciences must be blended into
a single “Great Theme” for fruitful analysis.
The author is well known for his works on the
theory of business decisionmaking under condi­
tions of uncertainty and his contributions to the
theory of interest rates. But this book is more
than that; it is a brief but stimulating review of
the history of economic thought. Parts of this
book can be interesting and thought provoking for
the noneconomist while other sections present a
rigorous analysis satisfying to the most demand­
ing theoretician.
— J am es W . B e n n e t t , J r .
Chairman, Department of Transportation
University of Tennessee

Two for One

Regional Development Policy: A Case Study of
Venezuela. By John Friedmann. Cam­
bridge, Mass., The M.I.T. Press, 1966. 279
pp. $8.50.
Lest the potential reader of this volume be mis­
led, it should be noted that this is really two books
contained in one. The first, about 100 pages in
length, is a carefully developed general statement
of a model for regional economic development.
The second is the case study referred to in the title.
While it is not unusual to find case studies pre­
faced by statements relating the particular case to
a broader frame of reference, seldom does the
exercise come off so well. For many readers then,
this first section will be a real bonus and may well
be of greater interest and value.
Friedmann builds his regional development
model on the center-periphery structure analyzed
by such authors as Baldwin and Meier, Singer,
Prebisch, and Myrdal. From this he concludes
that the process of development in a regional con­
text is not likely to result in a workable equilib-

1015

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

rium, thus making development in the peripheral
economies a matter of deliberate planning. Friedmann examines problems and approaches to the
development for five types of development regions:
core, upward transitional, resource frontier, down­
ward transitional, and special problem regions.
Appalachia would be classed as a “downward
transitional,” and the author’s remarks about these
areas should be of particular interest to those con­
cerned with the development of backwater econ­
omies in the United States.
The Venezuelan case study is excellently done,
and the discussion here fits well into the frame­
work established earlier. If there is any short­
coming, it is the lack of specificity as to how certain
planning tools are to be applied. The author, for
example, suggests the use of a “development map”
as a control device for private investment in a core
development area, but there is no indication of the
decision rules which emerge from such an ap­
proach. Judged as a whole, however, this is a
valuable addition to the literature of regional
economics and regional planning.
— J ohn

R. M oore

Professor of Economics
University of Tennessee

Equal Time

Life Styles of Educated Women. By Eli Ginzberg and associates. New York, Columbia
University Press, 1966. 216 pp., bibli­
ography. $5.95.
Dr. Ginzberg and his associates, with their Con­
servation of Human Resources Project at Colum­
bia University in 1960, attempted to find out how
a group of fellowship winners were planning their
lives. They discovered, however, that the ques­
tionnaire they used was not suitable for gathering
information about women. Therefore, the origi­
nal study, Talent and Performance, published in
1964, was limited to men, and the research group
began a new study to analyze the career develop­
ment of women.
The present volume concerns women of high
intellectual attainment who did graduate work at
Columbia University between 1945 and 1951.
They came from all the graduate faculties and
from every professional school, except engineering


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and dentistry. Their willingness to reveal the de­
tails of their lives beginning with their parents’
background through their own education and cur­
rent (1963) status is evidenced by the 75-percent
return received on a questionnaire that required
several hours to complete. Present plans call for
publication later this year of a volume of life
histories of some of the respondents.
This slim volume presents in direct, wellorganized form, an evaluation of the interrelation­
ships between the various roles of women—homemaker, employee, and community member.
Tabulations and cross tabulations are kept simple
and unobtrusive and the many quotations from
completed questionnaires add variety and interest
to the exposition. Not surprisingly, the career
and life patterns of women tend to be much more
complex than those of men since men grow up with
the goal of becoming self-supporting, while women
tend to be interested in home and family, a career
outside the home, or some combination of these.
The popular concept that most educated women
lead frustrated lives because our society places
them in situations where they are unable to find
adequate outlets for their capabilities was not
borne out by this group. Labor force participation
among them was high—three-fourths were work­
ing full- or part-time when the study was made;
more than half had wmrked between 80 and 100 per­
cent of their adult lives, excluding time at school ;
and almost one-third earned at least $10,000 a year.
The women, of course, expressed varying degrees
of satisfaction with their lives. A social scientist
commented, “I have two children, one husband, a
large house, a full-time professional job, and I
turn out an average of three scientific articles a
year . . . On the other hand, I am a lot happier
(in my own estimation) than women who play
bridge, belong to the PTA, and bake bread.”
In the concluding chapter the authors suggest
possible ways of allowing more women to gain
education and achieve successful careers without
sacrificing marriage or family life. Such recom­
mendations are pertinent to the times and the study
is a valuable contribution to the list of works on
educated women.
— J e a n n e G riest
Division of Wage Economics
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1016
Progress Report

The Church and Social Progress: Background
Readings for Pope John’s Mater et Magistra.
Edited by Benjamin L. Masse, S.J., Milwau­
kee, Wis., Bruce Publishing Co., 1966. 248
pp. $5.50.
This book is primarily addressed to the Catholic
laity. It contains three themes.
The first deals with the secular problems facing
man today. This concern by the Church is not
new, although Pope John’s Mater et Magistra is
the explicit reason for this collection of articles.
Many of the authors relate their subject matter to
the works of earlier Popes, particularly Rerum
Novarum of Leo X III and Quadragesimono Anno
of Pius XI.
The second basic problem discussed is the ageold relationship of man to his environment, human
and nonhuman. In this context, the essays Father
Masse has selected for inclusion focus on both the
application of Catholic principles to some of the
social problems of our times and the relevance of
these problems for Catholics. The fundamental
question in nontheological terms is how to meet the
changing conditions of man’s existence, while at
the same time maintaining the dignity of persons.
As the editor suggests in his preface, the principles
to be applied in this effort are not unique to
Catholicism and can be accepted by adherents to
all major religious traditions. Certainly, the
ethical principles expounded are held by people
with a wide variety of backgrounds.
Catholic principles positively enjoin Catholics
to engage in solving the specific problems rising
out of the changed historical circumstances of
man, and this is the third and final theme covered.
The book spells out the Church’s embracement of
the secular city. Its specific conclusion is that the
social apostolate is a vocation which belongs to
the Catholic laity.
There are 50 articles and nearly all are taken
from Catholic periodicals. The authors appear to
be, without exception, Catholics, both religious and
lay. Although the editor does provide some intro­
duction for each of the 10 sections, no attempt is
made to relate the articles to one another. The
result is confusion about the relevance of some
papers and about their order of presentation.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

Although half of the papers were published
prior to Mater et Magistra, only one was published
during the years 1959 and 1960, the first 2 years of
Pope John’s reign. One wonders whether there
was nothing of relevance published during the
unrepresented years. And if so, why was that
time period so sterile ?
As mentioned at the beginning of the review, the
book is primarily for the Catholic laity. It might
be of some interest to non-Catholics who are inter­
ested in how Catholic intellectuals relate 'the prin­
ciples of their Church to the modern-day world.
— M yron

J.

L efcowitz

Institute for Research on Poverty
University of Wisconsin

Steelworkers World

Made in USA. By Alfred Kern. Boston, Mass.,
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1966. 369 pp. $4.95.
Experience alone is not sufficient equipment for
a novelist. Literary fluency, a sense for character
development, conflict, and ability to achieve pro­
gression of plot leading to a resolution of conflict
are also requisites.
Mr. Kern’s novel is based on his own obviously
rich experience with the United Steelworkers
Union. Personalities from that organization,
past and present, living and dead, can in many in­
stances be identified.
The plot concerns Steve Hamner, a headquarters
staffer who is sent back to his home district to take
over for a dying district director. He runs into a
succession of complicated problems—political
struggles and intrigues within the union, racket­
eering, collective bargaining negotiations, and an
inconclusive affair with a lady professor, to men­
tion a few.
At the end, we find him almost indistinguish­
able from the person presented at the outset ; and
so it is with each of the other characters. It is
only when Mr. Kern interrupts the narrative to
write brief commentaries on the story situation
based on his experiences that the reader can bene­
fit from his perceptive insight to trade union in­
stitutions. The characters, their dialogue, and
their antics in support of the story do not do as
well.

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

Rise or Fall of Insecurity

The Changing Faces of Economic Insecurity. By
John G. Turnbull. Minneapolis, University
of Minnesota Press, 1966. 157 pp. $5.
The twofold task undertaken in this book is a
difficult one: to appraise the degree of economic
insecurity today compared with 50 years ago and
to adjudge the adequacy of society’s response to
economic insecurity then and now.
The author defines economic insecurity as in­
come insufficiency and lists the major causes as:
premature death, old age, unemployment, occu­
pational illness and accidents, and nonoccupational
illness. A model for determining the degree of
risk and the extent of protection against that risk
is applied for the years 1910 and 1960. The model
has essentially three parts: measurement of the
frequency and severity of the risk and the costs
involved; an “ideal” standard for judging the
adequacy of preventive and alleviatory measures;
and estimates of the extent to which the ideal,
standard is met through programs of income
replacement.
While the approach is logical, a number of
methodological problems make the task difficult.
One problem is the use of averages for assessing
the degree of insecurity and the ad eq u acy of
ameliorative programs. For example, unemploy­
ment insurance is judged inadequate because the
average benefit replaces only about 40 percent of
the budgetary requirements of an urban family of
four. While the conclusion is undoubtedly cor­
rect, the use of averages in the analysis masks
certain situations (for example, breadwinners
versus secondary earners).
A second problem arises from the fact that social
conditions were different 50 years ago. It becomes
difficult to measure whether an older couple in 1960
living on retirement benefits under OASDI is
more secure economically than a 1910 couple with­
out money income but living with and supported
by their children. A third methodological prob­
lem is that of determining what should be included
as replacement income. Professor Turnbull gen­
erally considered only income available as a right
(from private or public sources), not income pro­
vided on the basis of a needs test. Thus, the 1910
older couple referred to above is considered to have
no income; yet they appear to be economically


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1017
secure, which seems to confuse the concept of view­
ing economic insecurity as income insufficiency.
The general conclusion is that in the aggregate
there has been a decrease in the frequency of eco­
nomic insecurity and that advances have been
made in the last half century in accommodating
to hazards of economic insecurity. In large part,
the decrease in insecurity has resulted from pre­
ventive approaches, and improved adjustment
to hazards of economic insecurity. In large part,
nature of economic security programs (for exam­
ple, explicit income as against service programs)
as well as in improvement in the level of benefits
provided.
Poverty is judged the major persistent economic
security problem, but elimination of it is consid­
ered beyond the limits of existing social insurance
programs.
Students of economic and social security (and
policymakers as well) will find this book of much
interest and use. The large quantity of facts
brought together is effectively and usefully or­
ganized and analyzed by Mr. Turnbull. Major
policy issues are raised and, in many instances,
recommendations are made. A new perspective
on how well our society has adjusted to both per­
sistent and changing problems of economic secu­
rity is provided. This book should provide
stimulus to further work on the important gaps
that still exist in our approaches to meeting the
ravages of economic insecurity and poverty.
— W alter H . F r a n k e
Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations
University of Illinois

Success Story

Growth and Structure in the Economy of Modem
Italy. By George H. Hildebrand. Cam­
bridge, Mass., Harvard University Press,
1965. 475 pp. $11.95.
Probably no other country can claim such stag­
gering economic advances as those made by Italy in
the decade and a half following the Second World
War. Sustaining an annual growth rate just un­
der 6 percent and avoiding any serious inflation,
she rebuilt most of her industry, introduced agri­
cultural improvements, reduced unemployment,
and raised the standard of living. Internation­
ally, her accomplishments were equally impres­
sive : she recouped her exchange reserve and

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1018
established an orderly balance of payments, then
proceeded to become an important international
trader. These accomplishments are all the more
remarkable, the author emphasizes, since they
were “erected upon the ruins of an economy bank­
rupted and ravaged by war, and forever ham­
pered by a poor resource endowment.”
Professor Hildebrand’s fascinating analysis
probes much deeper into Italy’s achievements
than the usual studies of economic development.
He discusses the Italian workers’ alienation from
politics and industry; the investment stimulus af­
forded by the immediate postwar reconstruction
and the subsequent rise in consumer aspirations;
the vigor of Italian entrepreneurship which
flourished under a governmental emphasis on free
markets. In explaining the reversal of Italy’s
economic fortunes since 1961, he stresses three ma­
jor problems: inflation, southern development,
and an enfeebled government. As in 1941, the
nation faces critical issues and as before the reso­
lution of them depends on the quality of political
leadership.
A careful chronicle of the economic growth of
a nation is unusual; clarity of style is, alas,
equally rare, but Professor Hildebrand’s book
offers both.
— J u a n it a

M. K eeps

Director of Undergraduate Studies
Duke University

Summaries of Recent Books
Democracy and Economic Change in India. By
George Rosen. Berkeley and Los Angeles,
Calif., University of California Press, 1966.
326 pp. $6.75.
This book relates the political, economic, and
social changes that have occurred in India since
her independence. The author believes that
changes in the power structure are originally
wrought by external forces but then by the inter­
actions of these three equivalent forces. In India,
the character of political power was changed in
1947, both by the departure from colonial status
and by shifts within the Congress Party. Thence
came economic changes and a new role for govern­
ment.


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Private Power and American Democracy. By
Grant McConnell. New York, Alfred A.
Knopf, Inc., 1966. 397 pp. $4.85.
The first section of this book deals with the in­
fluence of the constituency on their representa­
tives. It also explains the development of lob­
bies. In the second section, the author discusses
the lobbying goals of such groups as labor and
business, and land and water interests.

Discipline or Disaster: Management's Only
Choice. By Paul M. Magoon and John B.
Richards. New York, Exposition Press,
1966. 159 pp. $5.
This book prescribes a method for management
to meet the emotional needs of employees in the
plant. The authors discuss ways to implement
work rules without hurting morale, and to con­
duct discussions with workers.

Prosperity and Unemployment. Edited by Rob­
ert A. Gordon and Margaret S. Gordon.
New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1966.
353 pp. $3.95.
Composed of papers and formal comments de­
livered at the third annual University of Cali­
fornia conference on unemployment, this book is
organized into the discussion outline. Papers de­
livered by academic and Government experts
cover the current business expansion, the re­
sponse of the labor supply to the demand for la­
bor, the changing level and pattern of employ­
ment, and the relationship of unemployment to
the structure of wages.

Problems in Social Psychology. Edited by Carl
W. Backman and Paul F. Secord. NewT
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966. 481 pp.
$4.95.
The processes of social psychological research
were the basis for the selection of this book of
readings. It includes reports on methods of study,
social influence processes, group influence, and the
process of socialization, each introduced by exten­
sive editorial notes.

1019

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

Readings in International Economic Relations.
Edited by Finn B. Jensen and Ingo Walter.
New York, Ronald Press Co., 1966. 528 pp.,
bibliography. $6.50.
This textbook consists of articles contributed by
a variety of authors on such subjects as the inter­
national trade system, the balance of payments,
the flow of international payments, the interna­
tional monetary system, and Fund, and the future
of international trade. Several chapters are de­
voted to discussions of various trade areas and
their interaction with each other.
Nationalism and Ideology. By Barbara Ward.
New York, W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1966.
125 pp. $1.25, paperback.
The author’s eighth book traces the rise of na­
tionalism from community spirit to tribalism,
empires, and finally the nation-state. She exam­
ines the survival of Jewish and Hellenic cultures
under suppression and captivity. The author
claims that although today’s ideology speaks
against nationalism, the latter continues to exist
very strongly in different forms from its earlier
manifestations.
Soviet Economic Power: Its Organization.
Growth, and Challenge. By Robert W. Camp­
bell. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1966.
184 pp., bibliography. 2d ed. $5.95; paper­
back, $2.75.
The part Marxism plays in the Soviet economy
and the struggle between the Stalinists and Trotskyites after Lenin’s death are described in this
second edition of a 1960 volume. The author ap­
praises decisionmaking and planning in the Soviet
Union and the amount of economic growth that
has been achieved, and suggests future
possibilities.
Social Change: The Colonial Situation. Edited
by Immanuel Wallerstein. New York, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1966. 674 pp. $9.50.
This set of readings discusses the process of
change in colonial societies within the modern
world. It includes selections on the migration of
the labor force and the beginnings of urbaniza­
tion in these countries or colonies. The book also
discusses the changing power structure, the de­
clining importance of the traditional authorities,
and the emerging class system and increasing edu­


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cation. A discussion of religion and its relation­
ship to the rise of nationalism, along with the in­
crease of Westernization, is included.
Occupational Data Requirements for Education
Planning: Proceedings of a Conference.
Prepared and edited by Georgianna B.
March. Madison, Wis., University of Wis­
consin, Center for Studies in Vocational and
Technical Education, 1966. 165 pp.
A conference held in Tune 1965 under the aus­
pices of the U.S. Office of Education and the
Center for Studies in Vocational and Technical
Education drew economists, educators, and lay­
men from universities, government, and private
institutions. As these proceedings indicate, some
participants felt that more information was needed
for educational and training programs, while
another group of conferees considered such studies
wasteful. The report includes papers on the ex­
perience of foreign countries on the usage of data
and the role of technology in future manpower
problems.
Public Relations in Health and Welfare. Edited
by Frances Schmidt and Harold N. Weiner.
New York, Columbia University Press, 1966.
278 p p .

$6.50.

Based on material presented at a summer work­
shop of the Columbia University School of Social
Work, this collection of articles argues for obtain­
ing public understanding and support in the fields
of health and welfare through a public relations
program. The articles range through the rela­
tionships involved in public relations: with the
client, the staff, the Board of Directors; and in­
cludes a discussion of the functions of the welfare
administrator.
Managerial Economics—Text and Cases. By
Chester R. Wasson. New York, Appleton Century-Crofts, Division of Meredith Pub­
lishing Co., 1966. 472 pp., bibliography.
$6.50.
Decisionmaking is explained in this book by cit­
ing actual examples of times when vital decisions
have to be made. Cases included are problems
which involve prices, competition, and plans for
capital investment. The tools used to compare
effects of decisions that could be made are also
discussed.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1020

Toward Full Employment in Our Free Enterprise
Economy. By Morris A. Copeland. New
York, Fordliam University Press, 1966. 80
pp.

$3.

Seventh in a series of lectures given at Fordliam
University on various economic fields, these three
talks discuss the extent and type of unemployment
and the necessity of a minimal amount of it. The
role of the business cycle in determining the
amount of unemployment is also included. In
the third lecture the author proposed a program
for boosting aggregate employment, involving
Pierson’s proposal that the level of GNP be ad­
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day. Half-titled A Nonmathematical Introduc­
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Current Labor Statistics
TABLES
A.
1025
1025
1026
1026
1027
1027

1028
1033
1037
1037
1038

A -l.
A-2.
A-3.
A-4.
A-5.
A-6.
A-7.
A-8.
A-9.
A-10.
A - ll.
A-12.
A-13.

B.
1039

B -l.

—Labor Force and Employment1
Summary employment and unemployment estimates, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
Seasonally adjusted rates of unemployment
Rates of unemployment, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
Employed persons, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
Unemployed persons, by duration of unemployment, seasonally adjusted
Full- and part-time status of the civilian labor force, not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, by color, sex, and age, seasonally adjusted 2
Total employment and unemployment rates, by occupation, seasonally adjusted 2
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry
Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry division and selected groups, seasonally adjusted
Production workers in manufacturing industries, by major industry group, seasonally adjusted
Unemployment insurance and employment service program operations

—Labor Turnover
Labor turnover rates, by major industry group

C.—Earnings and Hours
1042
1055
1055

C -l.
C-2.
C-3.

1056
1058
1058

C-4.
C-5.
C-6.

D.
1059

D -l.

1060

D -2.

1061

D-3.

1062
1064
1065

D-4.
D -5.
D -6.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by industry
Average weekly hours, seasonally adjusted, of production workers in selected industries
Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers in manufacturing, by major industry
group
Average weekly overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by industry
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and construction activities
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in manufacturing

—Consumer and Wholesale Prices
Consumer Price Index'—U.S. city average for urban wage earners and clerical workers (including single
workers) all items, groups, subgroups, and special groups of items
Consumer Price Index'—U.S. city average for urban wage earners and clerical workers, selected groups,
subgroups, and special groups of items, seasonally adjusted
Consumer Price Index—U.S. and selected areas for urban wage earners and clerical workers (including
single workers)
Indexes of wholesale prices, by group and subgroup of commodities
Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings
Indexes of wholesale prices, by stage of processing and durability of product

E. —Work Stoppages
1066

E - l.

Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes

F. —Work Injuries
F -l.

Injury-frequency rates for selected manufacturing industries 2

1 Tables A -l through A-6 are new monthly tables; A-7 and A-8 will appear quarterly, January, April, July, and October issues of the Review.
A-9 through A-13 were formerly numbered A-2 through A-6. Old table A -l has been discontinued.
2 This table is included in the January, April, July, and October issues of the Review.

Tables

N ote ; With the exceptions noted, the statistical series here from the Bureau of Labor Statistics are described in Techniques of Preparing Major B L S Statisti­
cal Series (BLS Bulletin 1168,1954), and cover the United States without Alaska and Hawaii.

1024


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A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT

1025

A.—Labor Force and Management
T able

A -l.

Summary employment and unemployment estimates, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

Aug.
1966

Employment status

July
1966

June
1966

M ay
1966

Apr.
1966

Mar.
1966

Feb.
1966

Jan.
1966

Dec.
1965

N ov.
1965

Oct.
1965

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1965

An nual
ave rage
1965

1964

T otal
Total labor force.
. __
Civilian labor force.
Em ployed___
. .
_ __
Agriculture_____________________
Nonagricultural industries.. . . .
Unemployed

80, 549
77, 371
74,338
4,158
70,180
3,033

80, 233
77, 098
74, 072
4,144
69, 928
3, 026

80,185
77, 086
73, 997
4,238
69, 759
3,089

79, 313
76, 268
73, 231
4,076
69,155
3, 037

79, 674
76, 666
73, 799
4, 482
69, 317
2, 867

79, 315
76, 341
73, 435
4,363
69, 072
2, 906

79, 279
76,355
73. 521
4,442
69, 079
2, 834

79, 644
76, 754
73, 715
4, 429
69, 286
3, 039

79. 408
76, 567
73, 441
4,486
68, 955
3,126

78,906
76, 111
72, 914
4, 273
68, 641
3,197

78, 606
75,846
72, 561
4, 551
68, 010
3,285

78,334
75, 611
72, 297
4, 418
67; 879
3, 314

78, 465
75, 772
72. 387
4 572
67, 815
3, 385

78, 357
75, 635
72,179
4 585
67, 594
3,456

76 971
74, 233
70 357
4 761
65 596
3, 876

Civilian labor force__ ____
44,833 44, 744 44, 780 44, 661 44,836 44,822 44,823 44,788 44, 751 44, 565 44, 539 44, 646 44,865 44, 857
Employed______ . . . _____
43,691 43, 585 43, 621 43, 597 43, 772 43, 664 43, 680 43, 604 43, 579 43,330 43, 234 43. 285 43, 453 43, 422
A griculture... .
. . . .
2, 855 2, 854 2, 860 2, 861 3, 035 2, 980 2, 990 2,936 3, 035 2, 933 3,131 3.120 3,171 3Ì174
Nonagricultural industries______ . 40, 836 40, 731 40, 761 40, 736 40, 737 40, 684 40, 690 40,668 40, 544 40,397 40,103 40,165 40,282 40, 248
Unemployed______
1,142 1,159 1,159 1,064 1,064 1,158 1,143 1,184 1,172 1, 235 1,305 1,361 i; 412 1. 435
W omen , 20 Y ears and Over

44, 604
42; 886
3 303
39 583
1.718

Civilian labor force__ _ . . .
24, 481 24,313 24, 226 24, 082 24, 000 23, 899 24, 016 24,145 24,121 23, 967 23, 779 23, 774 23, 779 23, 687
Employed___________________
23, 527 23, 425 23, 286 23,121 23,133 23, 045 23,145 23, 228 23,157 22, 937 22. 790 22, 771 22, 726 22, 630
Agriculture.
. _
. ...
_.
647
687
682
632
728
732
754
765
769
684
749
697
752
748
Nonagricultural industries. . _.
22,880 22, 738 22, 604 22, 489 22, 405 22,313 22,391 22, 463 22,388 22, 253 22, 041 22, 074 21, 974 21,882
U nem ployed... ____
954
888
940
961
867
854
871
917
964 1,030
989 1, 003 1, 053 1, 056
B oth S exes , 14-19 Y ears

23, 098
2i; 903
' 757
21,146
1.195

M e n , 20 Y ears and Over

Civilian labor force_____ _
Employed. _ . .
_ . . . ___
Agriculture___ _
Nonagricultural industries ___ _ _
Unemployed_____ ._

8,057
7,120
656
6, 464
937

T able

Selected unemployment rates

8, 041
7, 062
603
6, 459
979

A-2.

Aug.
1966

8, 080
7, 090
696
6,394
990

7, 525
6,513
583
5,930
1, 012

7,830
6,894
719
6,175
936

7, 620
6, 726
651
6,075
894

7, 516
6,696
698
5, 998
820

7,821
6,883
728
6,155
938

7, 695
6, 705
682
6,023
990

7, 579
6,647
656
5, 991
932

7,528
6, 537
671
5, 866
991

7,191
6,241
601
5, 640
950

7,128
6; 208
649
5, 559
920

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1965

7, 091
6; 127
663
5, 464
964

6, 531
5, 568
702
4, 867
963

Seasonally adjusted rates of unemployment

July
1966

June
1966

M ay
1966

Apr.
1966

M ar.
1966

Feb.
1966

Jan.
1966

Dec.
1965

Nov.
1965

O ct.
1965

Amm al
a v e ra ge

1965

1964

Total (all civilian workers)___
Men, 20 years and over___
20-24 years__________
25 years and over____
Women, 20 years and over.
Both sexes, 14-19 years___

3.9
2.5
4.8
2.3
3.9
1 1 .6

3.9
2.6
3.6
2.5
3.7
12.2

4.0
2.6
5.0
2.3
3.9
12.3

4.0
2.4
4.9
2.1
4.0
1 3 .4

3.7
2.4
4.3
2.1
3.6
12.0

3.8
2.6
5.0
2.3
3.6
11.7

3.7
2.6
4.4
2.3
3.6
10.9

4.0
2.6
4.2
2.5
3.8
12.0

4.1
2.6
5.1
2.3
4.0
12.9

4.2
2.8
5.7
2.5
4.3
12.3

4.3
2.9
5.5
2.6
4.2
13.2

4.4
3.0
5.9
2.7
4.2
13.2

4.5
3 .1
5.8
2.8
4.4
12.9

4.6
3.2
6.3
2.8
4.5
13.6

5. 2
3.9
8.1
3.3
5.2
14.7

White workers___________
Non white workers____ ....

3.4
8.2

3.4
7.9

3.5
7.9

3.5
7.6

3.4
7.0

3.4
7.2

3.3
7.0

3.5
7.0

3.7
7.5

3.7
8 .1

3.9
7.9

3.9
8 .1

4.1
7.7

4 .1
8.3

4.6
9.8

2.0
3.5
4. 5
3.7
4.3

2.0
3.7
4. 6
3.5
4. 6

1.9
3.8
4.4
3.7
4.8

1.8
3.7
4.2
3.7
4.4

1.8
3.4
4.0
3.4
4.1

1.9
3.4
4.2
3.5
4 .1

1.9
3.3
4.0
3.3
4.0

1.9
3.5
4.2
3.5
4.3

1.8
3.7
4.4
3.7
4.4

2.0
3.8
4.6
3.8
4.5

2.1
3.8
4.8
4.0
4.6

2.2
4.0
5.1
4.0
4.7

2.6
4.2
5.0
4.2
5.1

2.4
4.3
5.3
4.2
5.0

2.8
4.9
6.3
5.0
5.8

Married m en__________________ ______
Full-time workers 1___________________
Blue-collar workers___________________
Experienced wage and salary workers__
Labor force time lost__________________
1 Adjusted by provisional seasonal factors.

Beginning in the September 1966 issue, the statistics on the labor force have been expanded.
Former table A -l has been replaced by tables A -l through A-8 in order to present more detail
on age and sex, duration of unemployment, full- and part-time status, color, and occupation
of the labor force.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1026

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able

A-3.

Rates of unemployment, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
Aug.
1966

Age and sex

July
1966

June
1966

M ay
1966

Apr.
1966

Mar,
1966

Feb.
1966

Jan.
1966

Dec.
1965

N ov.
1965

Oct.
1965

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1965

Anrlual
avei age
1965

1964

3.9

3.9

4.0

4.0

3.7

3.8

3.7

4.0

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

5.2

14 to 17 y e a r s ..._____ ___ _ ___ .
14 and 15 years .. _. . _________
16 and 17 years _ ----------- . . . . . .

11.9
7.3
14.1

12.6
7.8
14.9

12.6
7.8
15.0

14.7
9.5
17.2

12.5
6.4
15.6

13.1
6.7
16.3

11.7
7.8
13.5

12.7
8.7
14.7

14.7
12.4
15.8

13.2
9.0
15.4

13.0
6.7
16.0

13.5
5. 5
17.3

13.2
7.5
15.8

13.7
7.6
16.5

14.7
7.9
17.8

18 years and over
18 and 19 years .. . . . __ . . . . _.
20 to 24 years-----------------------------25 years and over____ . . . _______
25 to 54 years____
_____
55 vears and over
. __ __ .

3.5
11.1
5. 5
2.7
2.8
2.6

3.5
12.1
4.6
2.8
2.7
2.8

3.5
12.3
5.8
2.6
2.7
2.4

3.4
11.9
5. 5
2.6
2.6
2.8

3.3
11.8
5.2
2.5
2.5
2.5

3.3
10.4
5.2
2.6
2.6
2.7

3.3
10.3
5. 0
2.6
2.6
2.8

3. 5
11.2
5.4
2.7
2.7
2.8

3.5
11.6
5.6
2.7
2.8
2.8

3.7
11.3
6.6
2.9
2.9
3.0

3.9
13. 5
5.9
3.0
3.1
3.0

3.9
12.5
5.9
3.1
3.2
3.0

4.0
12.4
6.5
3.2
3.2
3.3

4.1
13.5
6.7
3.2
3.2
3.2

4.7
14.9
8.3
3.8
3.8
3.8

Males, 18 years and over. ----------- . . . .
18 and 19 years---- --------------------------20 to 24 years___ __________________
25 years and over . ___ ___________ .
25 to 54 years______ . . . .
_ . .
55 years and over_______________

2.9
9.5
4.8
2.3
2.2
2.8

3.0
10.9
3.6
2.5
2.3
3.1

3.0
11. 5
5.0
2.3
2.2
2.6

2.8
10.8
4.9
2.1
1.9
3.0

2.7
10.3
4.3
2.1
2.0
2.7

2.9
9.9
5.0
2.3
2.1
2.9

2.9
9.3
4.4
2.3
2.2
3.0

2.9
9.7
4.2
2.5
2.3
3.0

3.0
9.9
5.1
2.3
2.2
2.7

3.0
8.7
5.7
2.5
2.3
3.1

3.4
12.9
5.5
2.6
2.4
3.4

3.3
10.2
5.9
2.7
2.5
3.4

3.6
12.4
5.8
2.8
2.6
3.6

3.6
12.4
6.3
2.8
2.7
3.3

4.2
14.6
8.1
3.3
3.2
3.9

Females, 18 years and over
18 and 19 years____ . . . . . -----. . .
20 to 24 years----- ------------ ---------------25 years and over
25 to 54 years___ . . . .
. .. .
55 years and o v er.. _____________

4.6
12.8
6. 5
3. 5
3.9
2.3

4. 4
13.5
5.9
3.3
3.5
2.3

4. 5
13.1
6.8
3.3
3.6
2.1

4.6
13.3
6. 4
3. 5
3.9
2.6

4.3
13.5
6. 4
3.2
3.4
2.0

4.1
11.1
5. 5
3.3
3.5
2.5

4.1
11.5
5.9
3.2
3.4
2.4

4. 4
13.1
7. 1
3.3
3. 5
2.4

4.7
13.6
6.3
3.6
3.9
2.9

5.0
14.3
7.7
3.7
4.1
2.9

4.8
14.1
6. 5
3.8
4.5
2.1

4.9
15.1
5.7
3.9
4.6
2.3

4. 9
12.5
7. 5
3.9
4.4
2.8

5.1
14.8
7.3
4.0
4.3
2.8

5. 7
15.1
8. 6
4.6
5.0
3.5

Total, 14 years and over . . .

---------- . .

T able

A-4.

Employed persons, by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

Aug.
1966

Age and sex

July
1966

June
1966

M ay
1966

Apr.
1966

Mar.
1966

Feb.
1966

Jan.
1966

Dec.
1965

N ov.
1965

Oct.
1965

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1965

All!iual
ave rage
1965

Total, 14 years and over____

-

..

74,338 74, 072 73, 997 73, 231 73, 799 73, 435 73, 521 73, 715 73, 441 72, 914 72, 561 72, 297 72,387 72,179

1964
70,357

14 to 17 years____ . . . . . . ---- . ----- 3, 539
1,214
14 and 15 years---------. . . . .
16 and 17 years . . .
. - - - - - - - - - 2,325

3, 412
1,139
2,273

3, 438
1,198
2,240

3, 231
1,107
2,124

3, 489
1, 258
2. 231

3,382
1,223
2,159

3,397
1,142
2, 255

3, 546
1, 221
2, 325

3,406
1,155
2, 251

3, 401
1,198
2,203

3,392
1.167
2, 225

3,201
1, 115
2, 086

3,175
1, 076
2, 099

3,165
1, 091
2, 074

3,065
1,052
2, 013

70, 805
18 years and over _
18 and 19 years_______________ -_ 3, 595
20 to 24 years__________ . . _
7,948
25 years and over___
59,262
25 to 44 years_____ _____ _ - _ 30,139
45 years and over______ _ __ 29,059

70, 616
3, 586
7,989
59, 041
30, 028
28, 904

70,440
3, 542
8, 010
58,888
30, 086
28, 798

70,057
3,294
7, 997
58, 766
30,175
28, 588

70,304
3, 418
7, 979
58, 907
30, 211
28, 715

70,017
3, 392
7,850
58, 775
30, 244
28, 615

70,100
3,347
7, 792
58, 961
30, 392
28, 641

70,212
3, 424
7, 759
59, 029
30, 397
28, 676

70,069
3,370
7, 739
58, 960
30, 410
28, 587

69, 521
3,226
7, 738
58, 557
30,118
28, 411

69,230
3,120
7,684
58,426
29, 971
28, 369

69,189
3, 014
7, 767
58,408
29, 954
28,335

69,261
3, 044
7, 811
58,406
30, 016
28, 352

69, 015
2, 962
7, 702
58, 351
29, 998
28, 353

67, 292
2, 503
7, 304
57, 485
29, 616
29, 870

45, 572
1,946
4, 624
39, 002
20, 363
18, 576

45, 548
1,897
4, 605
39,046
20, 444
18, 583

45,397
1,783
4,594
39,020
20, 565
18, 439

45,634
1,874
4, 623
39,137
20, 578
18, 571

45, 467
1,874
4, 595
38, 998
20, 576
18, 493

45,487
1,850
4, 549
39,088
20, 633
18, 498

45, 474
1,897
4, 553
39,024
20, 530
18, 521

45,420
1,839
4, 543
39, 038
20, 546
18, 490

45,137
1,780
4, 569
38, 788
20, 445
18,316

44, 953
1,689
4, 469
38, 795
20, 408
18, 357

44, 947
1, 654
4, 498
38, 795
20, 438
18.349

45,172
1,696
4, 668
38, 808
20, 430
18,355

Males, 18 years and over_18 and 19 years____ _
_ _ _
20 to 24 years
_.
_ ______ . 25 years and over . _
25 to 44 years ___ . _ . . . . .
45 years and over________________

45,614
1,942
4,615
39,057
20,382
18, 647

45, 056
1,634
4,583
38, 839
20, 448
18, 391

44, 231
1,345
4, 370
38, 516
20, 363
18,153

Females, 18 years and over_______________
18 and 19 years.— ___ ______
20 to 24 years___ ___ ______ - 25 years and over_________________ _
25 to 44 years___
_ _
45 years and over___ .. _

25,191 25, 044 24,892 24,660 24,670 24, 550 24,613 24, 738 24,649 24,384 24,277 24,242 24,089 23, 959
1,653 1, 640 1, 645 1, 511 1, 544 1, 518 1, 497 1,527 1,531 1, 446 1, 431 1,360 1,348 1,328
3,333 3, 365 3. 405 3, 403 3,356 3, 255 3, 243 3, 206 3,196 3,169 3, 215 3, 269 3.143 3,119
20,205 20, 039 19, 842 19, 746 19, 770 19, 777 19,873 20,005 19, 922 19, 769 19,631 19,613 19, 598 19, 512
9, 757 9,665 9, 642 9, 610 9,633 9, 668 9, 759 9, 867 9, 864 9, 673 9, 563 9, 516 9,586 9,550
10,412 10, 328 10, 215 10,149 10,144 10,122 10,143 10,155 10, 097 10, 095 10, 012 9, 986 9, 997 9, 962

23, 061
1,158
2,934
18,969
9, 253
9,717

N ote : Due to the independent seasonal adjustment of several of the series,
detail will not necessarily add to totals.


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A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT
T able

A-5.

1027

Unemployed persons, by duration of unemployment, seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

Aug.
1966

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks __
_ ___ _____
1,666
5 to 14 weeks .
927
5 weeks and o v e r ___ . _ _
___ ___
451
15-26 w e e k s . __ _ _______ _ _
249
27 weeks and over __
_________ _
202
5 weeks and over as a percent of civilian
labor force_______________
_____
.6

T able

A-6.

July
1966

June
1966

M ay
1966

Apr.
1966

Mar.
1966

Feb.
1966

Jan.
1966

Dec.
1965

Nov.
1965

Oct.
1965

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1965

Annual
average
1965

1964

1,710
912
435
220
215

1,816
815
476
251
225

1,789
856
536
261
275

1,625
670
603
343
260

1, 543
787
588
319
269

1, 514
721
579
315
264

1, 548
738
661
354
307

1, 532
869
660
355
305

1, 618
903
644
334
310

1, 562
992
697
350
347

1, 703
858
728
384
344

1, 722
980
717
397
320

1, 718
983
755
404
351

1, 787
1,117
973
490
482

.6

.6

.7

.8

.8

.8

.9

.9

.8

.9

1.0

.9

1.0

1.3

Full- and part-time status of the civilian labor force, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]

Full- and part-time employment status

August

August

August

1966

1965

1964

Annual average
1965

1964

F u l l T im e

Civilian labor force,.
, ,
Employed:
Full-time schedules1 ,
Part time for economic reasons...
Unemployed, looking for full-time work
Unemployment rate_______ ____ . . .

70, 542

69,371

65, 924
2,327
2,291
3 .2

63,956
2,696
2,7 1 9
3 .9

8, 749
8,1 1 7
632
7 .2

7,5 6 0
539
6 .7

66,135

65, 008

61,981
2,8 2 8
3,036

61,109
2,209
2,817

59,353
2,4 5 5
3,2 0 0
4 .9

7,9 1 4
7,296
618

9,5 0 0
8,861

9,225
8, 549
676
7 .3

P a r t T im e

Civilian labor force. _ . _ ___
Employed (voluntary part tim e)1___
Unemployed, looking for part-time work________
Unemployment rate. „ . . .
. . .

'
1 Employed persons with a job but not at work are distributed proportionately
among the full- and part-time employed categories.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

uoy

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1028
T able

A-9.

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[I n th o u sa n d s]

Annual
average

1965

1966
Industry
J u ly 2 June2 M ay
Total employees-

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

617
M ining_______
83.4
Metal mining.
24.7
Iron ores___
31.2
Copper ores.
143.0
143.1 141.4
Coal m in ing..
132.8
134.1 132.2
Bituminous.
277.3
280.8 274.1
Crude petroleum and natural gas_______
150.3
152.7 149.4
Crude petroleum and natural gas fields.
127.0
128.1 124.7
Oil and gas field services-------------------110.6 113.2
129.2 124.6
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining.
38.8
36.9
43.8
45.4
Crushed and broken stone______
35.8
34.9
41.1
42.7
Sand and gravel...............................
3,645 3,550 3,310 3,191 3,015 2,851 2,974
Contract construction_______________
1,153.9 1,068. 7 1,044. 5 993.9 940.0 988.1
General building contractors--------745.7 669.3 608.9 513.7 467.9 500.6
H eavy construction---------------------391.1 340.
292.9 221.5 197.3 217.4
Highway and street construction.
354.6 328.7 316.0 292.2 270.6 283.2
Other heavy construction----------I, 650.1 I ,
0 1, 485.7
I , 571.9
4
1, 507.537.
6 1,443.
Special trade contractors___________ ___
Plumbing, heating, and air condition­
383.9 372.9 370.1 367.1 360.2 369.5
ing—
Painting, paperhanging, and deco­
144.6 134.0 127.2 121.6 116.3 117.6
rating____________________________
258.6 249.0 246.0 241.5 237.6 239.1
Electrical work_____________________
Masonry, plastering, stone, and tile
255.4 242.7 237.5 237.0 214.1 215.1
work_____________________________
98.5 106.6
116.3 109.0 108.2 106.0
Roofing and sheet metal w o r k ..............
19,066 19,171 18,839 18,709 18,588 18,457 18,274
Manufacturing_______________________
027 10,812 10,697
I I , 295 I I , 118 10,910
11,200 I I,
Durable goods____________________
7,866 7, 876 7,721 7,682 7, 678 7,645 7,577
Nondurable goods________________
640
87.0
26.8
32.2

625
84.9
26.1
31.6

585
84.1
25.0
31.7
104.8
95.7
274.5
149.7
124.8
121.9
42.7
39.8

615
83.5
24.3
31.7
141.8
132.1
275.3
149.8
125.5
114.2
38.9
36.3

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

61,041 62, 660 62,029 61,786 61,515 60,960 60,694 60,444 58,156

63,830 64,078 63,023 62,500 61, 826
642

Dec.

613
83.8
24.7
31.5
142.9
132.8
275.3
149.8
125.5

628
83.9
25.4
31.1
143.9
133.3
280.9
151.5
129.4
119.2
41.8
38.7

631
84.3
26.2
30.9
144.6
133.8
279.0
151.4
127.6
123.1
43.4
41.0

3,203 3,375
1, 058. 7 1, 083.1
582.0 681.2
271.8 349.1
310. 2 332.1
1, 562.3 1,610. 7

633
628
641
627
640
79.4
84.3
83.3
83.6
85.2
24.7
26.1
26.5
26.7
26.7
27.1
29.9
30.1
29.4
30.8
136.0 139.7 138.7 142.4 147.5
125.4 129.4 127.5 131.9 136.0
281.1 287.8 290.5 282.4 289.4
154.6 158.0 158.2 154.4 159.6
126.5 129.8 132.3 128.1 129.8
126.6 127.4 127.1 119.8 116.7
42.1
40.8
45.4
45.1
44.7
39.8
39.5
43.1
43.3
43.1
3,465 3,495 3,575 3,476 3,211 3,056
,098.6 1,111.5 1,140. 3 1,105. 3 1, 024.9 956.6
730.9 740.9 768.8 737.8 634.1 610.5
393.1 414.2 396.4 319.7 312.4
390
340. 5 347.8 354.6 341.4 314. 4 298. 1
1,642. 7 1,665. 5 1,633.1 1,552. 3 1,488. 4
629
82.9
26.4
29.3
143.4
132. 7
278.2
151.9
126.3
124.5
44.4
42.3

377.9

381.7

385.7

382.9

387.8

383.4

371.5

355.8

132.3
246.1

142.9
246.8

151.8
245.4

157.3
247.6

161.0
251.9

151.4
247.5

139.2
239.4

220.6

139.3

234.1 244.2 252.3 257.2 255.9 253.4 241. 4 241.6
116.2 118.5 120.1 117.9 120.2 116.8 111. 8 108. 0
18,415 18,443 18,412 18,428 18,211 18,016 17,984 17,259
10, 718 10,686 10,623 10,608 10,410 10,416 10,379 9,813
7,697 7,757 7,789 7,820 7,801 7,600 7. 604 7,446

D u ra b le goods

255.1 250.8 244.8 246.4 243.8 241.7 237.4 235.4 236.1 247.1
271.9 267.9 264.6 260.3 257.
Ordnance and accessories____________
199.8 197.2 196.2 195.0 193.1 191.9 189.3 187.6 186.3 183.9 181.7 179.2 178.3 178.8 186.9
Ammunition, except for small arms.
14.2
12.8
12.5
12.3
12.8
12.4
12.7
12.6
13.0
13.2
13.4
13.7
13.8
14.2
Sighting and fire control equipment46.0
47.3
44.4
47.2
44.9
44.8
47.4
45.8
48.5
50.0
50.9
51.6
54.6
56.5
other ordnance and accessories____
Lumber and wood products, except
624.5 633.3 628. 6 606.1 602.5
646.3 645.1 620.1 611.8 604.1 597.4 597.7 608.5 614.8 617.8
furniture_________________________
86.8
91.0
85. 6
94.1
94.1
80.6
86. 7 89.9
92.9
81.9
82.7
83.7
89.5
99.8
Logging camps and logging contractors. 102.0
253.4 256.9 260. 4 258. 8 251.0 253.3
247.4
250.
3
252.8
244.7
248.9
251.4
251.4
258.5
259.2
Sawmills and planing mills___________
Millwork, plywood, and related prod­
170.6 170.7 165.3 164.1 161.4 160.6 160.4 161.6 162.3 163.4 164.2 167.5 165.4 160.4 157.4
ucts._____ ________ _______________
34.2
34.9
34.5
34.1
33.7
35.0
35.2
34.7
33.9
34.2
33.8
35.9
35.1
36.6
35.9
Wooden containers_________ _________
75.8
76.1
75.8
70.1
74.7
75.3
75.4
76.1
75.8
76.4
76.9
77.5
78.0
79.5
78.6
Miscellaneous wood products________
441.4
405.9
443.2
439.8
429.1
425.6
432.8
442.0
437.6
Furniture and fixtures_________________ 453.8 457.5 450.1 446.7 447.3 443.3
Household furniture_________________ 330.2 331.8 327.8 327.7 326.8 325.1 322.1 323.3 321.6 319.0 315.9 313.2 306.0 311.2 293.1
29.6
29.3
29.3
28.8
27.8
28.4
29.9
29.4
29.1
30.1
30.3
28.6
30.9
Office furniture_____________________
30.6
45.4
44.8
44.9
40.3
43.5
44.3
45.4
44.9
45.6
43.1
44.8
45.0
45.3
47.6
Partitions; office and store fixtures____
46.1
45.4
45.7
45.7
44.8
46.9
45.1
45.1
45.0
46.7
45.4
45.
46.1
47.5
Other furniture and fixtures.___ _____
45.5
611.7 622.6 631.4 635.5 642.9 641.6 636.0 620.9 611.8
Stone, clay, and glass products________
618.6 609
656.6 650.9 639.9 633.
30.8
32.2
32.5
33.2
32.8
33.2
33.2
33.6
33.0
32.7
33.0
32.8
Flat glass__________________________
33.0
32.8
113. 5 111.5
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown
122.2 122.3 119.9 117.3 115.7 115.0 113.6 113.8 114.7 115.4 115.8 115.9 114.6
38.7
38.3
39.7
38.9
39.6
37.9
38.9
39.4
36.5
35.9
36.1
37.6
Cement, hydraulic_____ ____ _______
38.3
39.9
40.2
69.7
70.8
72.5
73.5
72.8
71.2
72.0
73.3
70.1
69.2
71.9
69.8
Structural clay products____________
73.2
75.1
75.0
42.8
42.4
44.1
41.2
43.0
42.3
43.3
44.3
41.4
42.0
43.0
42.7
Pottery and related products_________
42
42.7
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster prod­
174.2
172.1
179.9
172.5
177.0
181.9
184.3
182.5
163.5 166.2
ucts______________________________
186.4 184.3 179.3 176.6 168.
Other stone and mineral products____
131.5 132.3 130.4 129.0 128.9 129.6 129.7 129.6 132.6 132.2 131.7 128.8 126.4
136.2 131
1,308.
7 1,317.1 1,319. 8 1, 291. 7 1, 231. 2
1,270.
2
1,263.
7
1,255.1
Primary metal industries______________ 1,355.2 1,350. 5 1.325.2 1,317.1 1,299.2 1, 286.9 1,272.7
629.4
Blast furnace and basic steel products.. 681.8 677.4 660.0 652.6 638.4 626.8 618.9 615.1 613.4 631.2 666.9 686.3 687.4 660.2
228.3
224.8 225.8 225.3 212.0
225.2
230.7
225.1
237.7 234.9 234.8 232.7 233.2 231.5
Iron and steel foundries______________ 235
69.2
72.1
73.0
73.5
73.3
72.3
72.6
73.7
76.4
74.1
74.8
73.8
Nonferrous smelting and refining_____
77.1
73.9
74.4
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and ex­
191.6
185.2
195.0 191.2 191.5
truding___________________________ 206.6 203.8 202.9 202.8 202.1 201.2 198.9 195.8 196.5 195
77.8
74.3
76.8
77.9
79.0
79.2
81.3
80.4
81.2
83.3
82.6
84.9
83.7
N onferrous foundries________________
82.8
83.3
Miscellaneous primary metal indus­
64.8
61.0
65.3
63.4
66.2
66.4
67.1
67.1
69.0
69.3
70.3
70.5
69.3
69.2
tries______________________________
5 1,187.3
Fabricated metal products_____________ 1,344. 5 1,351.9 1.330.3 1,326 1, 317. 0 1, 310.1 1,301.2 1,304.3 1,304.3 1, 292. 2 1,285.8 1,266.9 1,261. 2 1, 260.
61.2
62.4
65.3
65.8
65. '
61.5
60.4
62.0
61.5
60.5
62.2
62.9
Metal cans_______ ______ ___________
64.4
67.5
66.1
Cutlery, hand tools, and general hard­
154.9
143.9
150.0
152.6
155.1
156.3
158.5
159.3
161.2
160.6
ware_____________________________
156.2 161.2 160.3 163.0 163.0
Heating equipment and plumbing
79.3
80.4
79.2
78.8
80.6
80.3
79.6
80.7
79.7
80.6
80.8
80.0
fixtures___________________________
80.8
82.
82.2
388.8 389.5 386.6 376.4 354. 8
385.2 385.5 389.9 391.3 388.
385
Fabricated structural metal products.. 409.2 407.
395.1 391.
93. 1
89.0
92.9
93.5
94.4
96.4
94.5
95.3
96.8
97.7
99.0
99.5
99.6
Screw machine products, bolts, etc___
99.4 101.
198.5
237.5 236.2 234.8 235.6 234.1 231.2 225.5 211.6 214.1 221.4
Metal stampings____________________
233.3 235.1 236.3 237.
73.5
70.6
72.1
73.1
74.1
76.2
75.5
75.8
77.6
75.6
78.2
77.
77.9
Coating, engraving, and allied services.
80.1
79.2
62.1
57.7
62.3
62.3
62.7
63.2
64.8
64.1
65.0
64.7
65.7
65.
65.8
67.0
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products.
67.6
Miscellaneous fabricated metal prod­
138.
7
138.
61
130.
2
149.9 151.4 150.1 149.6 144.9 145.1 143.0 142. 2 141. 7 141. 5 138. S 139. 7
ucts______________________________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT
T able

A-9.

1029

Employees in non agricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[in thousands]

1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 June 2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Manufacturing—Continued
D u ra b le goods — Continued

Machinery___________
1 , 868.6 1,862. 0 1,837.4 1,824. 6 1 , 812. 8 1,798.1 1, 778. 7 1,766. 3 1, 749. 4 1,730.9 1, 730. 6 1, 719. 7 1 727 5 1 713 9 1 606 1
Engines and turbines. _. ____
98.5
94.3
96.6
95. 5
93.5
93.4
94.0
94.8
92.8
91.8
90 9
91.1
90 4
90 7
87 0
Farm machinery and equipment__
_____
148.7 147. 5 147.8 147.9 145.8 142.1 138.9 135.0 131.9 134.0 133 1 134 3 135 1 126
5
Construction and related m achin ery... 271.0 270.1 265.4 262. ; 260.3 257.7 253.6 252.3 253.8 251.9 253.2 249.3 253 4 249 5 234 7
Metalworking machinery and equipm ent______ ____ _
328.0 327.0 321.5 320.4 317.8 316.0 310.8 309.0 304.1 300.6 301. 4 298. 4 299 7 298 Q 981 4
202.5 201.9 198.2 196.9 197.9 197.2 197.2 195.5 194.1 192.8 192.9 192. 0 191 6 190 9 ISO 9
Special industry machinery. ___ _
279.0 278.7 274.0 271. 8 271.5 269.6 267.5 266.4 263.1 261.7 259.3 262. 2 261 0 257 7 243 0
General industrial machinery________
Office, computing, and accounting
machines . _____
223.8 222.4 220.3 218.4 215.8 212.9 211.2 210.3 208.9 205.2 202.5 200. 7 197 n 196 6 I74 6
Service industry machines________ _
117.1 116.6 114.9 113.; 110.4 110.8 110.7 109.2 108.4 108.9 109.2 109 2 115 8 111 1 105 9
Miscellaneous machinery_____________ 203.2 202.3 199.0 198.2 196.4 194.1 191.8 191.3 189.2 186.1 187.0 184.1 183.8 183.7 172! 2
1,923.2 1,919.4 1,878.3 1,862. 5 1,829.7 1,818.8 1, 796. 2 1, 786. 6 1, 762. 4 1,740.8 1,714. 3 1,679. 5 1 660 6 1, 672 3 1 548 4
Electrical equipment and su p p lies...
198.3 195.9 189.6 188. ( 186.2 184.3 183.5 181.7 180.1 178.1 176. 7 ' 175.3 173 5 172 6 ’ 169 4
Electric distribution equipment_____
218.1 217.3 207.5 209. 3 207.2 204.8 202.7 201.2 197.4 196.6 195.0 194.3 194 9 192 5 178 1
Electrical industrial apparatus_______
186.9 182.0 185.0 182. 6 169.3 178.9 173.8 174.4 170.6 168.8 166.9 161.0 165 2 167 4 161 1
Household appliances.. ____
Electric lighting and wiring equipment. 182.5 186.2 183.4 181. 6 179.8 177.8 175.4 175. 1 173.9 171.6 170.4 165.3 164.3 166. 7 156 4
167.7 169.8 161. 4 159. 7 158.9 158.4 158.6 159. € 157.6 155.2 151.4 145. 5 138 1 139 9 190 0
Radio and TV receiving sets . . .
488.7 481.6 475.0 470. g 465.3 458.9 455.1 450. 6 444.6 439.1 433.9 428. 4 425. 4 428 0 411 6
Communication equipment_______
Electronic components and accessories. 376.7 380.4 370.5 366. C 359.4 353.3 344.9 338.5 332.6 325.0 315. 0 308.1 301 1 304 4 964 9
Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies____________ ______
104.3 106.2 105.9 104. 5 103.6 102.4 102.2 105.2 105.6 106.4 105.0 101.6
98.1 100.9
94.0
Transportation equipment___
1,816.6 1,912.3 1,911.4 1,896. 0 1,887. 6 1,868. 9 1,840.4 1,839. 0 1,823. 9 1,795.3 1, 777. 6 1, 650. 7 1, 721.1 1 , 739.7 1 604 8
Motor vehicles and equipment . . .
894.0 895.4 888. 9 892 1 888.2 878.8 896 5 896
Aircraft and parts.
744.5 728.3 726.6 717.7 706.7 694.1 680.5 666.8 65L8 637! 0 632.2 622.9 615. 7 617. 8 603 7
Ship and boat building and repairing.. 171.6 171.2 172.4 173. 7 177.5 177.1 173.3 165. 0 163.3 163.4 160.0 156.1 143.1 159. 0 145.1
Railroad equipm ent.. _____
57.0
56.5
59.1
59.0
58. 5
57 2
66 6
56 7
Other transportation eq u ip m e n t_____
53.0
50.8
65 7
59.7
58.0
57. 2
54 0
54 1
Instruments and related products
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control
devices__ . . .
Optical and ophthalmic goods . . . .
Ophthalmic goods.
Surgical, medical, and dental equipm ent________
Photographic equipment and supplies.
Watches and clocks

426.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w a re...
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods.
Pens, pencils, office and art m aterials..
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries
Musical instruments and parts.

426.5
72.0

419.2
72.4

414.3
71. 4

411.8
71. 8

407.6
71.6

402.5
70.8

400.0
70 6

397.2
69.9

394.0
70.4

392.8
70.0

389.8
69.8

387.1
69.4

385. 0
69. 2

107.9
49.2
34.1

104.9
49.4
34.1

104. 4
49. 4
34. 2

103.2
48.9
33.9

102.3
48.5
33.6

101.4
47.7
32.9

101.0
47. 6
32 9

100.5
47.3
32.7

99.0
47.0
32.5

100.2
46.7
32.2

99.9
45.5
31.2

100. 3
45. 4
31.2

99. 4
46.1
31.7

29.5

65.2

65.6
94.8
37.0

64.2
92.3
36.0

63.5
90.9
34. 7

62.8
89.8
35 3

61.9
88.7
34.6

60.8
87.3
34 5

60.2
86.2
34 4

59.8
85.6

58.9
85.1

58.4
84.3

57.8
84.8

57. 5
83. 7

57. 6
81. 5

54 6
75 9

436.7
45.5

450.8
47.5
130.9
35.9
56.3
180.2
27.1

441.0
47.2
125.6
35.3
55.3
177.6
26.8

432.7
47. 2
118. 8
35. 2
54. 8
176. 7
26 6

424.7
46.8
112.9
35.0
54.6
175.4
26.7

416.6
46.2
108.1
34.4
54.0
173.9
26.4

403.0
44.8
102.4
32.9
51.4
171.5
26.4

438.9
46.2
128.4
35.4
55.1
173.8
26 4

459.7
46.2
146.1
35.5
56.3
175.6
26.2

462.2
46.2
149.0
34.8
56.1
176.1
25.8

451.2
45.6
141.5
34.3
54.8
175.0
25.3

440.7
44.8
134.9
34.0
55.0
172.0
24.7

412.8
41. 8
122. 5
33. 0
51 4
164.1

424.1
44.6
122.4
33.4
53.9
169. 8
24. 7

398. 5
43 4
106. 5
31 9
54 8
161. 9

108.0
48.8

___
___

175.2

369. 3
96 4

43 5

N o n d u ra b le goods

1,777.0 1,725.8 1, 664. 4 1, 658. 0 1, 656.8 1,654.8 1, 670.1 1, 721. 9 1,779.8 1,822.6 1,859.1 1,854. 4 1, 776. 5 1,737.2 1 745.8
Food and kindred products.
312.1 305.8 299.2 295.8 296.2 298.3 299.7 311.3 316.1 315.7 312.9 313.4 309. 9 308.3 313. 6
Meat products. . . .
286.6 286.4 278.2 276. 6 274.3 273.6 274.0 277.1 277.9 281.3 287.1 294.5 295. 4 284.7 288. 6
Dairy products________
Canned and preserved food, except
meats . . . ___
253.1 228.3 231 4 224 5 226.1
242_1
127.0 125.9 121.6 120.3 12L3 121.2 120 . 9 121.7 122! 7 126.4 126.6 126.9 126.5 124. 6 127. 4
Grain mill products___ .
273.4 281.9 276.3 276. 0 277.2 276.0 277.2 279.2 282.2 283.2 282.9 284.8 288.1 283.6 289. 9
Bakery products_____
Sugar. . . . ___
29. 5
30.3
33.3
30 7
47 4
0
72.7
72.3
70.7
75.9
Confectionery and related products.._
82.6
7 6 .1
70.3
7 6 .0
83.9
83.3
81.1
77.3
77.1
77.4
69. 9
241.0 233.8 224.0 220.6 217.3 211.5 212.4 218.1 222.1 224.6 225.2 227.2 228.
Beverages_____________
0 220.1 216.1
Miscellaneous food and kindred products__________
136.8 137.1 135.8 136.3 138.1 138.9 139.7 142.4 144.2 143.6 141.1 139.6 140.0 140.2 141.0
Tobacco manufactures- . . .
Cigarettes__________
Cigars______
Textile mill products
Cotton broad woven fabrics
Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics.
Weaving and finishing broad w oolens..
Narrow fabrics and smallwares
K nittin g...
k inishing textiles, except wool and knit.
Floor covering
Yarn and thread
Miscellaneous textile goods..
See footnotes at end of table.

228-655 0 - 6 6 — 6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

71.6

72.5
38.5
2 1 .8

948.3
239.8
94.7
44.9
29.3
237.9
75.7
115.6
70.6

961.9
241.0
94.7
44.7
31.1
242.8
76.4
40 9
116.9
73.4

71.5
37.8
21. 7

73.3
37 7
21 7

75.8
37 4
21 5

79.2
37.2
2 1 .8

81.6
36 8
21 5

88.1
37.8
23. 5

949.7
237.4
93.5

945.3
236.7
93.4
44. 0
30.6
237.2
75. 5
41 0
114. 0
72.9

941.1
236.4
93.5
44.1
30.4
232.9
75.1
41 2
114.0
73.5

933.9
235.8
92.9
43.7
30.2
228.1
74.8
41.5
113.6
73.3

927.0
235.5
92.6
43.3
29.8
223.5
74.5
41 7
113! 4
72.7

933.5
235.3
92. 7
43. 1
29.8
230. 0
74.9
42.1
113.2
72.4

44.4

30.7
239.7
75.9
41 0
114.8
72.3

86.7

98.2

37 R

937.6

42 n

935.0
232.0
91.6
43.1
29.6
240.4
74.2
41 7

112.1

111.0

233.5
92.3
43.0
29.5
238.5
74.3
72.4

71.4

97.8
3« 6

89.3

931.8
231.0
90.9
43.8
29.6
239.6
74.4
41 9
no! 3
71.0

929.3
231.1
90.8
43.9
29.3
239.1
74.7
110. 0
70.2

73.9
37.6

83.7
37 7

89.1
37 3

914.4
230.4
89.7
43.5
27.9
231.7
74.5
30 3
108.1
69.3

919.5
230.7
90. 6
43.5
29.1
230.1
75.6
40 6
109.1
70.2

891.1
226.8
90.1
44.8
27.8
215.1
76.1
38 5
104! 6
67.4

23 3

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1030

T able A-9.

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[in thousands]

1965

1966

Annual
average

Industry
J u ly 2 Jun e2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Manufacturing—C ontinued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Apparel and related products—
----- 1,368.0 1, 413.5 1,393.6 1, 376.9 1, 398. 0 1, 388. 6 1,329.4 1,371.1 1,380. 5 1,380. 3 1,380.3 1,374.1 1,311.6 1,351.2 1,302. 0
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats---------- 117.2 123.5 122.4 120.4 121.2 120.8 119.7 121.2 119.5 118.0 120.5 120.1 112.3 118. 6 114.7
M en’s and boys’ furnishings ________
364.1 374.2 368.3 365.4 364.3 360.9 357.0 357.7 359.5 359.3 358.6 358.6 347.8 350.7 327.7
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outerwear _ _ __ ---- ---------- ------------ 410.9 424.9 421.0 412.3 428.5 428.8 396.7 416. 5 414.8 415.6 419.1 420.9 399.3 412.3 404.3
Women’s and children’s undergar124.8 130.8 128.7 128.6 128.3 126.8 121.7 127.0 129.6 129.2 128. 3 127.0 118.5 124.5 121.4
ments
- - - ___________ ____
28.9
30.3
29. 6
32.0
32.2
28.9
31.4
30.1
27.1
30.0
29.7
30.7
25.9
Hats, caps, and millinery _ ________
27.7
78.3
75.9
77.2
79.0
81.6
79.4
78.8
81.8
79.0
80.0
77.8
78.7
81.3
Girls’ and children’s outerwear___ —_
84.8
82.9
79.2
75. 2
75. 0
75.7
68.9
79.3
72.1
76.7
73.8
79.1
77.5
72.8
76.7
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel__
78.8
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products____ -- --- ________________ - 162.6 168.8 169.3 167.6 166.4 163.5 159.3 168. 0 170. 7 169.8 165.0 158.6 152.2 160.9 154.0
670.6
219.9
69.5

672.9
218.6
69.4

656.6
212.5
68.6

654.9
211.7
68.2

651.5
210.8
68.7

649.0
210.2
68.8

647.6
210.1
68.5

651.3
211. 0
68. 0

649.1
210.1
67.9

647.0
210.3
68.2

646.9
211.9
68.6

644.4
215.1
66.5

640.6
215.2
67.9

637.5
211. 0
67.5

625.2
213.0
66.6

167.2
214.0

168.5
216.4

164.2
211.3

165. 0
210.0

163. 2
208.8

162.0
208.0

161.1
207.8

161. 6
210.7

160. 9
210.2

159.8
208.7

160.0
206.4

160.2
202.6

157.3
200.2

156.8
202.2

151. 7
193.9

Printing, publishing and allied industries. 1,025.8 1,022.4 1,010.3 1, 009. 6 1, 001.2
355.0 354.4 350.8 352.5 347.0
Newspaper publishing and printing . .
70.9
70.7
71.1
71.3
Periodical publishing and printing
84.2
84.7
84.9
86.1
Rooks
320.1
320.9
322.4
324.7 325.2
Commercial printing .. . . .
______
53.8
53. 4
53.7
56.5
55.9
Bookbinding"and related industries----Other publishing and printing indus130.7 129.5 127.4 127.0 125. 6
tries___________ ______ __________
Chemicals and allied products__________ 960.7 956.8 941.7 937.6 929.8
Industrial chemicals _ __ ____ _______ 305.5 301.5 295.4 294.8 293. 5
219.0 216.1 210.9 210.3 209.7
Plastics materials and synthetics
124.4 122.8 120.4 119.8 119. 7
Drugs
108.4 108.5 106.0 101.8 101. 0
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods.. . ___
65. 0
65.4
66.0
68.3
67.5
Paints, varnishes, and allied products..
61. 3
ò*7. t)
57.6
47.6
52.3
Agricultural chemicals_______________
84.
2
83. 3
85.4
87.5
88.1
Other chemical products________ ____

999.4
350.6
70.9
82.9
316.1
52. 4

993.0
349.2
70.2
81.6
315.1
51.8

999.1
352. 6
70. 5
81. 0
317. 0
Ò2. ò

995.4
350.9
70. 5
80.1
315.8
52. 2

989.6
350.6
70. 0
79.6
313.2
51. 4

984.1
347.6
70.1
79.7
311.5
51.6

981.4
347.6
69.6
80.2
307.5
53.2

978.8
348.7
68.5
79.6
306.5
52.7

977.3
345.9
69. 0
79.6
309. 0
51.3

950.5
336.0
68.3
76.6
301.9
49.1

Paper and allied products__________
Paper and pulp____
________ _____
Paperboard________________________
Converted paper and paperboard
products
__________ ___ - -- Paperboard containers and boxes-------

12b. 5

125.1

125. 7

125.9

124.8

123.6

123.3

122.8

122.4

118.6

918.9
292.0
207.8
119.2
102.5
64. 4
52.1
80.9

912.7
290.2
206.7
118.6
103.0
63.8
50.1
80.3

912.3
291. 8
206. 0
118. 8
103. 0
64. 3
48. 9
79. 5

909.4
289.8
205.1
118.0
104.5
64.8
48.2
79.0

907.2
288.7
203.4
117.4
105.6
64.8
48.5
78.8

912.5
290.1
204.7
117.6
106.2
65.9
48.8
79.2

918.0
293.6
204.5
118.6
106.3
67.3
48.3
79.4

913.9
292.6
202.3
118.2
105.1
67.2
48.4
80.1

902.3
288. 6
199.1
115. 3
104. 0
65.3
51.5
78. 6

877.4
288.0
183.1
112.1
101.1
64.0
51.0
78.1

182.0
143.2
38.8

180.6
142.3
38.3

177.5
140.8
36.7

175.3
140. 2
35.1

173.3
139.9
33. 4

173.0
139. 9
33.1

172.8
139.8
33.0

174.7
140. 8
33. 9

176.6
141.3
35.3

178.4
141.4
37. 0

180.6
143.1
37.5

182.5
144.7
37.8

182.4
145.1
37.3

178.0
143.2
34.9

182.7
148.4
34.4

500.5
109.2
179.7
211.6

503.3
108.2
180.2
214.9

495.4
106.9
179.2
209.3

492.1
105.4
i /7. 4
209.3

487.9
105.1
A/ /. Ö
¿00, y

484.3
104.8
1 / /. 1
202. 4

484.3
106.0
177.8
200. 5

485. 0
106.1
177. 9
201. 0

482.6
106.0
176.3
200.3

476.4
104.9
174.5
197.0

471. 7
103.9
172.6
195.2

466. 7
103.3
170.3
193.1

456. 8
100.0
168.7
188.1

463.7
102.1
171. 6
190. 0

433.6
99.0
163.7
170.9

Leather and leather products__________
Leather tanning and finishing________
Footwear, except rubber____ . . . _____
Other leather products____________ . .
Handbags and personal leather goods.

361.3
31.5
238.5
91.3

366.2
31.9
240.2
94.1
39.2

360.3
31.6
236.8
91.9
37.5

359.0
31. 7
235.3
92.0
38.0

362.8
32.0
238.7
92.1
39.3

363.7
32.1
240.3
91.3
38.7

358.1
32.4
237.6
88.1
36.5

360.0
32. 6
236. 6
90. 8
37. 6

359.3
32. 4
234.0
92.9
39. 5

354.2
32.1
230.1
92.0
39.1

355.5
32.1
231.6
91.8
38.8

360.7
31.7
237.0
92.0
38.5

351.2
31.2
233.0
87.0
35.4

353.8
31.7
233.3
88.8
37.4

348.4
31.4
230. 5
86.5
37.8

Transportation and public utilities . . . . .
Railroad transportation_____
____ ___
Class I railroads 3
Local and interurban passenger tra n sit.
Local and suburban transportation. .
Taxicabs
Intercity and rural bus lines
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Public warehousing_____ _______ ____
Air transportation______________ ______
Air transportation, common carriers___
Pipeline transportation. ____ ____ ___
Other transportation_________ ________
Communication.. _____________________
Telephone communication___________
Telegraph communication. . ________
Radio and television broadcasting____
Electric, gas, and sanitary services. ___
Electric companies and" systems______
Gas companies and systems__________
Combined utility systems____________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems___

4,149

4,175
729.6
635.2
255.3
81.2
104.7
39.3
1,025. 8
80.0
259.8
232.5
19.2
317 5
931.2
779 7
32 5
112.6
637.0
259. 7
159. 5
178 7
39.1

4,113
717.7
623.6
266.6
81.5
104.2
42.0
991.1
77.1
255.1
228.4
18.6
328 3
913.5
763 2
32 6
111.3
621. 8
253.2
154.8
175.4
38.4

4, 075
714.3
619.6
268.4
81.9
107.6
41.4
974.6
75.7
251.8
225.2
18.6
317.4
908.8
759.3
32.1
111.0
621.3
253.0
155.1
175.0
38.2

4,054
710.7
615.3
271.9
82.7
109.6
40.9
970.5
78. C
247.6
221.4
18.6
314. 3
901.4
753. 0
31. 9
110. 1
619. 0
251.9
154. 9
174. 6
37.6

4,034
710.5
614.6
272.4
82.6
110.7
40.7
961.7
77.6
246.3
220. 5
18.7
311. 4
895.9
747.9
31. 8
109.8
617.5
251.1
154.6
174.4
37.4

4,025
717.6
623.7
273.0
82.7
110.4
41.4
954.1
78.8
242.1
216.2
18.8
308.3
891.6
744.6
31.2
109.4
619.1
251.4
154.9
175.0
37.8

4,087
732.6
632.4
272.8
83. 0

4,091 4,104 4,112
730.5 738. C 741.3
633.6 640.2 643.6
270.0 270.9 269.7
83.2
83.2
83.7
no. i
107.8 107. Í 106. 5
41. 1
41.7
42.0
43.3
992.7 1, 000. 7 1,005.4 1, 000. 6
84.5
89. i
81.6
87.8
243.2 240. 5 237.6 236.0
216.6 214.8 212.7 211.4
18.9
18.9
19.0
19.5
312. 5 320. 8 321.1 322. 1
893. 6 891.8 889.9 892.8
745. C 743. 6 741. 7 744.5
31.0
31.2
31. 0
31. 6
110. 6 110. 6 n o . 8 110.9
620. 6 617.9 621.6 629.8
251.9 248.8 251.8 255.2
155. 6 155.6 155. 8 157.9
175.3 175.6 176.1 178.4
38.3
37.8
37.9
37.9

4,098
749. 6
652. 2
251.6
82.8
105.1
43.7
984.8
76.2
234.4
210.5
19.9
316.1
902.9
755. S
31.1
109.5
638.7
258.4
160.8
180.8
38.7

4,083
749.3
652. 5
247.9
82.9
100. 7
43.6
986.1
77.6
233.0
209.4
20.0
311.8
901.2
755. C
31.3
108.5
633.7
258.2
156.8
179.8
38.9

4,031

3,947
756.1
865. 0
266.8
83.9
109.2
42. 0
919.8
82.2
212.7
190.8
20.0
310.4
848.0
706.1
32.4
103.1
613.6
248.6
153.2
174. 1
37.7

Petroleum refining and related industries.
Petroleum refining
.
.
_______
Other petroleum and coal products___
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prodTires and inner tubes
Other rubber products
Miscellaneous plastic products......... .

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

___

737 n
03Q g

83. 2
108 0
41 8

964.6
80 5
230. 7
207.1
19. 4
309.8
882.2
736.6
31.2
108.1
620.5
251.8
155.1
175.7
37.8

A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT
T able A-9.

1031

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[In thousands]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry

July2

June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Wholesale and retail t r a d e ...------- ---------- 13,073 13,102 12,923 12,883 12,700 12,617 12,716 13,638 12.960 12,736 12,639 12,574 12,583 12,588 12,132
Wholesale trade______________________ 3,423 3,391 3,324 3,314 3, 305 3,299 3,303 3,345 3, 326 3,321 3,307 3,312 3,301 3, 263 3,173
Motor vehicles and automotive equip­
m ent_____ _______________________
258.0 255.5 254.4 254.1 253.2 254.2 254.6 253.6 252.5 252.7 254.0 253.2 250.8 244.2
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products..
204.5 201.0 200.1 199.8 199.0 198.8 201.9 199.6 198.3 197.6 197.6 196.4 196.1 191.4
Dry goods and apparel______________
145.3 143.6 142.8 143.2 142.3 140.0 142.1 141.8 141.2 140.1 141. 1 139.8 138.5 133.8
Groceries and related products----------509.8 487.9 482.4 483.1 482.5 492.1 502.5 504.5 506.6 502.6 494.8 509.7 494.6 492.5
Electrical goods_____________________
274.7 270.8 269.9 267.8 266.2 263.1 265.7 262.2 260.4 261.9 264.0 261.8 257.2 242.7
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
goods___ _____ ___________________
157.4 154.9 154.7 154.2 154.1 153.2 153.9 153.6 152. 5 152.1 152.7 152.3 150.2 145.9
Machinery, equipment, and supplies..
604.5 593.2 591.6 586.6 581.9 578.7 577.1 574.5 573.4 573.8 574.2 573.9 565. 6 544.9
Miscellaneous wholesalers___________
1,158.8 1,140.9 1,139. 5 1,135. 2 1,132.9 1,128. 7 1,142.9 1,137.9 1,135.6 1,131. 0 1,136. 2 1,128.1 1,117.7 1, 076. 6
Retail trade___ ______________________ 9,650 9,711 9,599 9,569 9, 395 9,318 9, 413 10,293 9,634 9,415 9,332 9,262 9,282 9,325 8,959
General merchandise stores__________
1,894.2 1,882.3 1,879.6 1, 838. 7 1, 817.1 1,908.0 2,483. 2 2, 060.4 1,905.0 1,838. 3 1, 786. 4 1,778. 8 1,869. 2 1, 761. 5
Department stores---------------------------1,192.3 1,183.2 1,177.1 1,152. 7 1,138. 5 1. 200.1 1,579.7 1, 289.5 1,186.3 1,139. 7 1,110.2 1,108. 3 1,164.9 1, 086. 2
Mail order houses___________________
113.7 112.7 114.4 116.0 118.4 130.1 162. 9 148, 5 129.7 118.3 112.0 109.4 119.5 108.3
311.3 314.4 318.2 308.8 300.3 313.5 413.4 341.2 314.1 306.9 296.0 293.9 314.5 309.2
Limited price variety stores__________
Food stores____________________ ______
1, 548. 0 1,541.6 1,532.9 1, 533. 5 1, 527.1 1, 518.0 1,537. 9 1,509. 6 1, 492. 6 1, 469. 7 1, 450.1 1,464. 7 1,473.4 1, 419. 9
1,376.3 1,371.1 1,360.9 1, 364. 1 1, 356. 6 1,351.8 1,359.4 1,338.5 1,324.9 1,302. 8 1,285. 6 1,297. 3 1,303.9 1, 251. 7
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores...
Apparel and accessories stores--------------642.7 635.3 652.2 616. 1 607.7 628.6 762.4 648.9 629.9 621.7 ' 598. 7 595.2 630. 9 614.3
112.3 108.4 109.1 106.3 109.3 114.0 140.4 110. 6 105.4 103.5 101.3 101.6 106.5 100.1
M en’s and boys’ apparel stores_______
229.4 229.9 229.5 222.6 218.5 226.2 271. 0 236.3 231.1 226.5 220.9 217.0 229.8 228.3
Women’s ready-to-wear stores_______
98.3
103.7 100.0 100.3
99.3
98.2 102.2 131.4 105. 5 100.8
Family clothing stores.______________
96.6
97.4 104.2 103.2
124.7 124.6 139.8 118.0 113.4 117.3 138.3 121. 6 119.8 122.5 115.0 115.0 120.7 116. 5
Shoe stores............. ................................... .
4ü7.
3
423.0
418.0
418.5
418.3
422.8
417.9
411.8
Furniture and appliance stores_________
418.5
409.5 407.4 410.1 394.4
417.3
274.6 271.1 270.1 269.5 269.3 270.0 283.8 273.9 270.0 266.7 265.6 263.9 266.0 255.1
Furniture and home furnishings..........
2,029.9 1,981.1 1,949.7 1, 899. 8 1, 871. 5 1,858.2 1,898. 5 1,900.2 1,910.8 1,938. 3 1,955. 3 1,964. 7 1,898.4 1,836. 7
Eating and drinking places____________
3,173. 8 3,139.9 3,136.2 3, 088. 7 3, 076. 7 3,081.5 3,173. 5 3,091. 4 3, 059. 2 3, 052. 5 3, 062.1 3, 071. 0 3, 042.6 2,932. 6
Other retail trade________________ _____
568.1 552.9 549.6 537.5 528.4 533.4 548.1 548. 8 547. 0 551.2 562.0 562.3 541.0 532.7
Building materials and hardware_____
1,475.7 1,458. 7 1, 450.2 1, 441. 4 1,439.1 1,443.5 1,451. 6 1, 442. 6 1,433.5 1, 432. 7 1,437. 2 1,442. 6 1,424.0 1,366. 0
Auto dealers and service stations-------748.6
744.6 745.9 746.2 744.0 743.0 /41. 0 / ¿8. 2 734.9 730.1 731.3 733.3 725.6 692.0
Motor vehicle dealers______________
190.1 185.8 182.3 176.7 175.0 178.3 189. 0 184. 1 178.4 175.4 178.6 179.2 176.8 166.8
Other vehicle and accessory dealers..
537.0
528.3 522.0 518.5 520.1 522.2 521. 6 520. 3 520.2 527.2 527.3 530.1 521.6 507.1
Gasoline service stations___________
1,130. 0 1,128.3 1,136. 4 1,109. 8 1,109. 2 1,104.6 l, 173.8 1,100. 0 1, 078. 7 1, 068. 6 1, 062.9 1, 066.1 1, 077. 6 1,033. 9
Miscellaneous retail stores___________
422.8
418.6 419.2 415.3 414.9 417.3 437.7 416.3 409.6 404.6 401.6 404.0 406.0 389.3
Drug stores_____ ______ _______ ____
92. 6
93.2
102.5 106.4 108.9 102.3
93.5
96.7
95.8
93.0
Farm and garden supply stores____
92.8
93.7
94.1
93.5
103.5
105.0 108.6 113.5 117.5 118.9 115. 5 110.8 107.8 103.1 101.5 101.3 108.3 108.3
Fuel and ice dealers.................... ..........
Finance, insurance, and real estate_______
3,178
Banking____________________________________
Credit agencies other than banks____ _________
Savings and loan associations__________ ____ Personal credit institutions_________________
Security dealers and exchanges_________ ______
Insurance carriers_____________________ ______
Life insurance________ _____ _______________
Accident and health insurance_______ _______
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.. . --------Insurance agents, brokers, and se r v ic e s..--------Real estate___________________ _______________
Operative builders_________________________
Other finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e .---------

3,144
813. 0
337.2
92.1
188.1
142.2
929.9
483.7
62.9
338.0
241.2
597.3
45.5
82.9

3,103
799.7
335.3
92.4
186.2
139.2
921.5
481.7
60.7
333.9
238.7
585.1
45.7
83.1

3,089
798.4
335.5
93.7
185.4
137.9
921.3
483.0
59.7
333.3
238.1
574.6
45.8
82.8

Services and miscellaneous .......................... 9,554 9,471 9,348 9,242
Hotels and lodging places__________ _____ ____
756.4 713.5 684.2
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels____________ 688.6 655.7 631.5
Personal services___________________________ _
997.2 984.4 978.4
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants_______
558.3 546.7 541.3
Miscellaneous business services______________... 1,178. 4 1,157.2 1,146.1
Advertising________________________________ 115.6 114.1 114.6
68.3
67.1
Credit reporting and collecting agencies.--------67.6
192.6 180.5 179.7
Motion p ic tu r e s ...------ ---------------------- ---------Motion picture filming and distrib­
uting_____________________________ ______
52.4
48.0
46.7
Motion picture theaters and services_________
140.2 133.8 131.7
Medical and other health services_______ ______ 2,283.7 2,252.1 2,248.9
Hospitals__________________________________ 1,511.6 1,494. 8 1, 491.7
Legal services________________________________
191.5 184.3 184.0
Educational services_________________________
979.3 1,042.7 1,039.4
Elementary and secondary schools___________ 330.3 346.8 345.9
Higher educational institutions..........................
580.0 625.0 621.6
Miscellaneous services_____________ __________
487.4 475.5 476.0
Engineering and architectural services_______
271.9 264.4 261.8
Nonprofit research organizations_____________
64.2
63.2
63.3
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3,075
795.8
336.2
93.8
185.6
136. 7
920.5
482.7
59.3
333.0
237. 1
566.2
44.9
82.5

3,054
792.3
334.7
93.9
184.0
133.8
918.5
483.2
58.2
331.6
235.3
557.5
43.1
82.0

3,049
790.2
336.3
95.0
184.6
131.0
917.1
483.6
57.8
329.9
233.7
559.0
43.5
81.6

3,064
791.6
336.4
94.5
184.5
131. 0
919.0
484.1
57.6
330.9
234.8
568.8
45.7
81.9

3,062
788.8
334.7
94.0
183.2
129.8
919.3
485.1
57. 2
330.7
234.2
573.5
46.4
81.5

3,066
787.5
334.3
94.6
182.8
129. C
918.7
485.0
57.1
330.2
234.2
580.3
48.1
81.6

3,073
788.9
333.2
94.4
182.0
128. 6
921.6
486.4
57.4
330.9
234.3
584.1
50.1
81.8

3,102
798.0
335.0
95.6
182.4
130. 5
927.9
489.2
57.8
333.6
236.5
592.1
50.8
82.1

3,098
794.6
335.2
96.8
181.4
131.1
923.6
486.5
57.6
332.4
236.0
595.7
50.7
82.1

3,044
783.1
330.5
94.6
179.4
128.7
913.6
482.8
56.8
328.0
232.7
573.9
46.9
81.4

2,964
764.4
316.0
93.8
166.6
125.8
895.2
475.1
55.9
319.4
225.6
557.8
46.2
79.4

9,112 9,030 8,959 9,046 9,054 9,073 9,039 9,062 9,081 8,907 8,569
657. 2 651.1 636.9 645.2 648.4 666.7 708.6 799.9 793.3 678.0 639.9
608.9 603.6 589.5 595. 9 598.1 613.3 643.3 679.4 674.6 613.1 575.0
971.7 966.4 967.6 973.1 976.1 977.2 973.3 973.0 977.9 968.3 947.1
535.7 531.4 534.1 538.3 541.2 543.4 542.1 543.3 549.9 539.9 531.0
1,138.1 1,128.4 1,113.1 1,127.9 1,110.4 1,105.3 1, 097. 5 1, 090. 0 1, 084. 9 1, 074. 9 1, 001. 6
114.5 114.4 113.7 113.6 113.9 114.2 114.0 113.9 115.2 113.7 110.9
66.6
66.2
67.7
67.1
67.1
66.7
65.4
63.0
66.2
66.3
66.1
173.4 171.6 178.3 183.8 181.4 185.5 192.3 198.3 198.4 183.0 177.4
52.0
48.5
57.9
52.5
51.0
52.5
42.7
47.9
50.2
51.7
53.8
125.5 121.4 124.5 125.9 128.9 133.8 141.3 145.8 146.4 134.5 134.6
2,163.
5
2,202.
3
2,184.
2
2,189.
0
2,
061.4
2,
203.
9
2,188.
4
2,192.
9
2,
225.3
2,237.0
2,210. 5
1, 488. 7 1, 480. 4 1,471.2 1,469.1 1, 470. 2 1, 466. 5 1, 460.1 1, 461.1 1, 463. 9 1,449. 9 1, 395. 0
184. 5 182.9 181.7 184.5 182.8 182.4 183.6 188.0 188.0 180. 6 173.8
1, 044. 4 1, 034. 5 1, 022.2 1,023.8 1, 026.1 1, 005. 9 919.7 825.3 840.5 942.5 892.3
346.0 345.0 343.8 344.3 344.0 337.0 318.8 273.4 275.0 319.3 301.6
626.8 618.3 609.8 610.8 612. 6 599.8 535.6 489.1 501.1 556.9 527.9
477.7 472.9 467.1 460.8 457.6 454. 5 458.5 459.7 457.5 448.6 425.3
260.2 257.2 255.2 252.6 250.7 248. 2 250.4 251.7 250.0 242.6 225.9
62.2
63.9
62.4
62.9
63.9
62.7
62.7
62.6
63.2
63.1
62.8

1032

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able A-9.

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry ’—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[in thousands]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
J u ly 2 June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Government___ - _ ______ ____ ______ _ 10,523 108,25 10,762 10,726 10,667 10,556 10,427
Federal Governm ent4________________ 2,638 2,592 2,513 2,493 2,460 2,431 2,406
Executive______________________ . . .
2.559.8 2.481.5 2,461. 5 2,428. 8 2,399. 7 2,375.4
Department of Defense______ _ _ _
1.034.8 1.001.5 991.9 980.0 964.8 956.2
Post Office Department____________
673.6 660.2 652.8 639.5 632.4 624.4
Other agencies__________________ . .
851.4 819.8 816.8 809.3 802.5 794.8
Legislative____________________ _____
25.4
25.2
24.9
25.4
26.6
25.4
Judicial____________________________
6.0
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.0
5.9
State and local governm ent5___________ 7,885 8,233 8,249 8,233 8,207 8,125 8, 021
State government___________________
2.134.8 2,118. 6 2.111.9 2,109. 6 2, 092.9 2.064.6
State education_______________ ____
763.8 793.3 794.0 793.2 779.5 761.9
Other state government____________
1.371.0 1,325.3 1.317.9 1, 316. 4 1. 313. 4 1.302.7
Local government_____________ . . .
6.097.8 6,130. 0 6,120.8 6, 097.8 6,032. 3 5.956.7
Local education___________________
3,388. 7 3.514.0 3, 517. 5 3, 504. 7 3,451.0 3,388.6
Other local government____________
2.709.1 2.616.0 2,603. 3 2, 593.1 2, 581.3 2, 568.1
1 Beginning with the January 1966 issue, figures differ from those previously
published. The industry series have been adjusted to March 1964 bench­
marks (comprehensive counts of employment). Bor comparable back data,
see Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-65 (BLS
Bulletin 1312—
3). Statistics from April 1964 forward are subject to further
revision when new benchmarks become available.
These series are based upon establishment reports which cover all fulland part-time employees in nonagricultural establishments who worked
during, or received pay for any part of the pay period which includes the 12th
of the month. Therefore, persons who worked in more than 1 establishment
during the reporting period are counted more than once. Proprietors, selfemployed persons, unpaid family workers, and domestic servants are
excluded.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

10,579 10,413 10,301 10,102 9,698 9,716 10,051 9,595
2,543 2,402 2,384 2,377 2,408 2,407 2,378 2,348
2, 511.8 2,370. 4 2,352. 7 2,345.2 2,376.1 2,375.1 2,347. 0 2,317. 5
951. 6 955.7 949.4 947.3 954.9 951.3 938.8 933.7
771.5 617.8 608.0 602.8 608.5 604.1 614.2 599.9
788.7 796.9 795.3 795.1 812.7 819.7 793.9 783.9
25.0
25.6
25.8
26.2
26.4
25.4
25.6
24.5
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.8
8,036 8, Oil 7,917 7,725 7,290 7,309 7,673 7,248
2, 066. 2 2,065.9 2, 045.9 1,990. 5 1,932. 8 1,935. 4 1,981. 5 1,855.6
764. 0 765.9 745.3 662.5 582.8 590.5 683.1 608.9
1,302. 2 1,300.0 1, 300. 6 1,328. 0 1,350. 0 1,344.9 1, 298. 5 1, 246. 7
5.969.8 5,944. 6 5, 871.2 5, 734. 3 5,357.0 5,373. 9 5,690.8 5,391.8
3.394.9 3,369. 7 3.301.1 3,124. 7 2, 681.1 2,694. 7 3,125. 5 2, 906. 5
2,574. 9 2,574. 9 2.570.1 2,609.6 2, 675.9 2, 679. 2 2, 565.3 2,485.3

2 Preliminary.
3 Beginning January 1965, data relate to railroads with operating revenues
of $5,000,000 or more.
4 Data relate to civilian employees who worked on, or received pay for
the last day of the month.
5 State and local government data exclude, as nominal employees, elected
officials of small local units and paid volunteer firemen.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics for all
series except those for the Federal Government, which is prepared by the
U.S. Civil Service Commission, and that for Class I railroads, which is
prepared by the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission.

A —LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT

T able

A-10.

1033

Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1
[in thousands]

Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
J u ly 2 June2 M ay
M ining________
Metal mining.
Iron ores___
Copper ores.

500

Coal m in in g ..
Bitum inous.

Oil and gas field services.

Manufacturing_______
Durable goods____
Nondurable goods.
Durable goods
Ordnance and accessories..
Sighting and fire control equipment .
Other ordnance and accessories.........
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_________________________
Sawmills and planing mills____ ______
M illw ork, p lyw ood, and related prod­
u cts______________________________

Wooden containers__________________
Miscellaneous wood products________
Furniture and fixtures___ ____ ________
Household furniture_________________
Office furniture_____________________
Partitions; office and store fixtures____
Other furniture and fixtures__________
Stone, clay, and glass products___
Flat glass___________________________
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown.
Cement, hydraulic_________________
Structural clay products____________
Pottery and related products________
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster prod
ucts___________________________
Other stone and mineral products___
Primary metal industries______________
Blast furnace and basic steel products..
Iron and steel foundries_____________
Nonferrous smelting and refining_____
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and ex­
truding________________________
Nonferrous foundries________________
Miscellaneous primary metal indus­
tries_____ ___________
Fabricated metal products_____________
Metal cans________________________~I
Cutlery, hand tools, and general hard­
ware___________________________
Heating equipment and plumbing
fixtures_________________________
Fabricated structural metal products..
Screw machine products, bolts, etc___
Metal stampings____________________
Coating, engraving, and allied services.
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products.
Miscellaneous fabricated metal prod­
ucts___________
See fo o tn o te s a t end o f tab le.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 ,1 3 9

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

471
6 9 .;
2 0 ."
26.

482
6 9 .!
20.
25.

49
6 9 .'
21.
25.

495
7 0 .2

494
6 8 .9

49(
69. -

501

502

7 0 .8

22. :

22.:

22.-

26.

47«
69. C
2 0 .3
26.

22.

2 5 .4

24. C

2 4 .2

2 5 .3

6 9 .9
2 2 .7
2 4 .6

123. C
1 1 4 .8

8 7 .3
7 9 .2

124. Ü
1 1 5 .4

1 2 5 .1
116. C

1 2 5 .1
1 1 5 .S

126.1
1 1 6 .;

1 2 6 .6
1 1 6 .9

1 2 5 .5
1 1 5 .9

118 .3
1 0 8 .8

112.6

110.8

1 9 0 .9
8 3 .0
1 0 7 .9

1 9 0 .8
8 3 .0
1 0 7 .8

1 9 1 .7
83. <
1 0 8 .3

1 9 1 .7
8 3 .5
1 0 8 .2

1 9 4 .3
8 4 .2

197.
85.1

1 9 5 .7
84. Î

110.1

112.

110.8

1 9 5 .2
85. ‘
1 0 9 .8

1 9 6 .9
8 7 .1
1 0 9 .8

1 0 7 .5
3 8 .8

1 0 3 .3
3 7 .3

101.1

93. 5
3 2 .6

9 0 .1
3 0 .6

9 2 .8
3 2 .5

1 0 2 .5
3 7 .1

1 0 3 .9
3 8 .1

1 0 5 .8
3 8 .3

488
7 0 .6

22.

2 6 .4

1 1 6 .6

-------

Mar.

449
6 9 .8
2 0 .9
2 6 .1

7 2 .;

22.
124. e

Quarrying and nonmetallic mining.
‘ Crushed and broken stone______
Contract construction____ _________
General building contractors_____
H eavy construction______________
Highway and street construction.
Other heavy construction______
Special trade contractors_________
Plumbing, heating, and air condition­
ing—
Painting, paperhanging, and deco­
rating____ _____ _______________
Electrical work_____________________
Masonry, plastering, stone and tile
work___________________________
Roofing and sheet metal work________

501

Apr.

1 9 6 .5
8 5 .7

3 6 .2

3 ,0 4 7
2 ,8 1 4
1 ,0 0 3 .1
9 1 9 .3
655. 8
5 8 0 .9
3 5 4 .2
3 0 4 .4
301. b
2 7 6 .5
1 ,3 8 8 .3 1 ,3 1 4 .0 1,

9 8 .4
3 5 .5

1965

492
69.

22.1

1964

496
6 5 .8

24.6

21.1
22.0

1 2 0 .7
1 1 0 .7

124.6
115.

1 2 9 .9
1 1 9 .7

2 0 2 .3
8 9 .9
1 1 2 .4

2 0 5 .1
9 0 .0
1 1 5 .1

198 .4
87.
111 .3

2 0 4 .2
9 1 .5
1 1 2 .7

106. 6
3 8 .8

1 0 6 .3
3 9 .0

9 9 .4
3 5 .8

9 6 .3
3 4 .5

1 2 1 .7

2 ,7 0 0
8 9 5 .8
5 2 1 .5
2 5 6 .7
2 6 4 .8
282. 5 1,

2,525 2 ,3 6 5 2 ,4 8 9 2 ,7 1 7 2 ,8 8 4 2 ,9 7 5 3,008 3,085 2 ,9 8 7 2 ,7 3 1 2 ,6 0 2
7 9 3 .7
846.3
8 4 1 .7
9 1 2 .6
9 3 6 .6
9 5 2 .5
9 6 5 .1
9 9 2 .4
9 5 7 .3
8 8 0 .6
8 2 3 .9
3 8 2 .5
4 2 6 .9
642.2
4 1 5 .6
4 9 5 .7
593. 8
6 5 2 .2
6 7 9 .5
6 5 0 .0
5 4 7 .6
5 2 6 .5
1 6 3 .2
1 8 6 .8
1 8 3 .7
237. (
3 1 4 .0
3 5 4 .6
3 5 8 .3
3 7 8 .3
2 8 5 .1
3 6 1 .2
2 7 8 .4
2 1 9 .3
2 4 0 .1
231. £
2 5 8 .7
2 8 7 .7
2 7 9 .8
2 9 3 .9
3 0 1 .2
2
6
2
.5
2 8 8 .8
2 4 8 .1
252. 2 1 ,1 8 8 . 5 1 ,2 3 1 .6 1 ,3 0 8 .4 1 ,3 5 3 . 4 1 ,3 8 0 .3 1 ,3 9 1 .1 1 ,4 1 2 .9 1 ,3 7 9 .9 1 ,3 0 2 . 9 1 ,2 5 1 . 2

3 1 1 .7

3 0 1 .1

2 9 9 .1

2 9 6 .3

2 8 9 .3

2 9 8 .9

3 0 7 .5

3 1 1 .4

3 1 4 .9

3 1 3 .5

3 1 7 .2

3 1 2 .9

3 0 1 .9

2 8 7 .3

1 2 9 .8
207. 6

1 1 9 .9
1 9 9 .0

1 1 3 .5
1 9 6 .2

1 0 7 .1
1 9 1 .9

1 0 1 .4
1 8 7 .9

1 0 2 .7
1 8 9 .8

1 1 7 .4
19 7 .1

1 2 8 .0
1 9 8 .2

1 3 7 .3
1 9 7 .1

1 4 3 .3
1 9 9 .9

1 4 6 .7
2 0 3 .9

1 3 7 .5
1 9 8 .6

1 2 5 .0
1 9 1 .7

1 2 5 .6
1 7 5 .6

2 3 3 .4
9 5 .1

2 2 0 .9
8 7 .7

2 1 5 .8
8 7 .0

2 1 5 .4
8 4 .9

1 9 2 .8
7 7 .5

1 9 3 .8
8 5 .5

2 1 2 .9
9 5 .1

222.6

2 3 0 .7
9 9 .0

2 3 5 .6
9 6 .6

2 3 4 .5
9 8 .9

2 3 1 .6
9 5 .2

220.0

2 2 0 .7
8 7 .5

9 7 .2

9 0 .9

1 4 ,1 4 7 1 4 ,2 9 5 1 4 ,0 2 0 1 3 ,9 1 7 1 3 ,8 2 8 1 3 ,7 2 7 1 3 ,5 7 1 1 3 ,7 2 4 1 3 ,7 7 0 1 3 ,7 5 4 1 3 ,7 7 3 1 3 ,5 4 0 1 3 ,3 6 1 1 3 ,3 7 6 1 2 ,7 6 9
8 ,2 8 6
8 ,4 0 6
8 ,2 6 0
8 ,0 2 4
8 ,1 9 1
8, 098
7 ,9 2 9
7 , 9Ö0
7 ,9 6 8
7 ,9 4 9
7 ,6 9 3
7 ,8 8 7
7 ,6 8 3
7 , 7Ö1
7 ,2 0 9
5 ,8 6 1
5 ,8 8 9
5 ,7 6 0
5, 703
5, 726
5, 730
5 ,8 5 4
5 ,6 4 2
5 ,7 5 6
5 ,8 2 1
5 ,8 8 6
5 ,6 8 4
5 ,8 5 7
5 ,6 6 0
5, 560

1 3 1 .5
8 4 .9

1 2 7 .9
8 2 .1

1 2 1 .7
8 0 .3
5 .7
3 5 .7

120.2

1 1 7 .8
7 7 .7
5 .5
3 4 .6

1 1 4 .3
7 5 .6
5 .3
3 3 .4

1 0 8 .0
7 3 .6
5 .2
2 9 .2

1 0 9 .9
7 2 .3
5 .3
3 2 .3

1 0 8 .2
7 0 .7
5 .1
3 2 .4

1 0 6 .4
6 9 .0
5 .0
3 2 .4

1 0 2 .3
6 6 .5
4 .9
3 0 .9

1 0 0 .5
6 5 .8
4 .8
2 9 .9

102.2

7 9 .2
5 .6
3 5 .4

5 4 3 .1

5 5 3 .4

5 3 2 .2

40. 4

3 9 .8

1 2 5 .8
8 1 .4
5 .9
3 8 .5

5 6 7 .1
2 3 7 .1

5 6 6 .1
236. 5

5 4 2 .7
2 2 9 .6

5 3 4 .5
2 2 9 .7

5 2 7 .4
227. 2

5 2 1 .9
2 2 2 .7

5 2 1 .6
2 2 5 .4

5 3 3 .1
2 2 8 .7

5 4 0 .0
2 3 1 .1

231.9

5 4 9 .5
2 3 5 .4

5 5 8 .1
2 3 8 .6

236.7

229. 5

5 3 0 .2
2 3 1 .0

1 4 3 .8
3 2 .3
6 7 .2

1 4 4 .0
3 2 .9
6 8 .3

1 3 9 .0
3 2 .3
6 7 .0

1 3 7 .7
3 1 .5
6 6 .5

1 3 5 .2
3 0 .6
6 5 .9

1 3 4 .9
3 0 .5
6 5 .6

1 3 4 .4
3 0 .6
6 4 .4

1 3 6 .0
3 0 .6
6 4 .8

1 3 6 .9
3 0 .4
6 5 .3

1 3 7 .8
3 0 .8
6 5 .0

1 3 8 .7
3 1 .2
6 4 .7

1 4 1 .7
3 1 .8
6 5 .2

1 3 9 .9
3 1 .6
6 4 .0

1 3 5 .2
3 1 .1
6 3 .9

1 3 3 .4
3 1 .7
6 0 .2

3 7 6 .6
2 8 2 .7

3 8 0 .0
283. 9
2 3 .7
35. 6
3 6 .8

3 7 3 .0
2 8 0 .4
2 4 .0
3 3 .4
3 5 .2

3 7 0 .6
2 8 0 .1
2 2 .5
3 3 .2
3 4 .8

3 7 0 .8
2 7 9 .7
2 3 .6
3 2 .9
3 4 .6

3 6 6 .9
2 7 8 .0
2 3 .4
3 1 .2
3 4 .3

3 6 6 .2
2 7 5 .6
2 3 .3
3 2 .9
3 4 .4

3 6 8 .5
2 7 7 .4
2 3 .1
3 3 .1
3 4 .9

3 6 7 .2
2 7 6 .2

3 6 4 .0
2 7 0 .7
2 3 .1
3 4 .3
3 5 .9

3 5 9 .9
2 6 8 .5
2 2 .7
3 4 .1
3 4 .6

3 5 3 .1
2 6 1 .6

3 3 .1
3 5 .1

3 6 6 .0
2 7 3 .5
2 3 .0
3 4 .0
3 5 .5

3 5 6 .3
2 6 6 .5
2 2 .4
3 2 .3
3 5 .1

3 3 7 .1
2 5 1 .1
2 1 .7
2 9 .7
3 4 .5

5 2 4 .0
2 5 .8
1 0 7 .0
3 0 .8
64. 0
3 6 .4

5 1 4 .8
2 6 .2
1 0 4 .8
2 9 .7
6 2 .2
3 6 .0

5 0 9 .7
2 6 .4
1 0 2 .4
2 9 .0
6 1 .0
3 6 .6

4 9 5 .7
2 6 .1

4 8 7 .7
2 6 .1

4 8 9 .2
2 6 .4
9 8 .8
2 8 .0
5 9 .2
3 5 .3

4 9 9 .6
2 6 .8
9 9 .1
29. 2
6 0 .0
3 6 .4

5 0 7 .8
2 7 .0
9 9 .9
3 0 .0
6 1 .0
3 7 .2

5 1 1 .3
2 6 .9
9 9 .9
3 0 .2
6 1 .5
3 7 .7

5 1 8 .9
2 6 .8

5 1 6 .4
2 6 .3
1 0 1 .3
3 0 .9
6 1 .7
3 6 .6

5 1 1 .7
2 5 .9

4 9 8 .7
2 5 .9
9 9 .0
2 9 .7
5 9 .9
3 6 .1

4 9 2 .2
2 4 .8
9 7 .2
3 0 .3
5 9 .2
3 6 .2

6. 0

34. 7
5 2 7 .9
1 0 6 .5
3 0 .8
64. 0

1 4 4 .9

100.8

100.2

2 7 .6
5 8 .8
3 6 .8

2 7 .4
5 8 .1
3 5 .9

22.8

101.1
3 0 .7
6 2 .3
3 8 .1

22.1
3 3 .2
3 6 .2

100.0
3 1 .0
6 2 .6
3 5 .0

6 7 .2
5 .0
3 0 .0

1 0 6 .1
6 9 .3
5 .9
3 0 .9

102.8

1 4 2 .5
9 9 .1

1 6 0 .0
7 0 .4

1 5 7 .7
7 1 .7

1 5 7 .2
7 0 .1

1 5 7 .4
7 0 .5

1 5 6 .9
70. 1

1 5 6 .2
6 9 .8

1 5 3 .8
6 8 .4

1 5 1 .1

68.6

1 5 2 .1
6 7 .9

1 5 1 .6
6 6 .7

5 7 .0

5 6 .8

5 6 .0

5 6 .1

5 6 .2

5 5 .9

5 5 .5

5 4 .4

5 4 .3

5 3 .6

5 3 .4

5 1 .0

5 2 .6

5 2 .2

4 8 .5

1 ,0 4 3 . 8 1 ,0 5 4 .6 1, 0 3 7 .0 1, 0 3 3 .1 1, 023. 4 1 ,0 1 8 .5 1 ,0 1 1 .5 1 ,0 1 6 .3 1, 016. 7 1, 004. 5
5 7 .8
5 6 .3
5 4 .8
5 3 .4
5 1 .8
5 0 .9
5 2 .6
5 0 .8
5 2 .3
5 1 .8

9 9 8 .8
5 5 .9

9 7 8 .6
5 6 .0

9 7 3 .5
5 5 .2

9 7 6 .0
5 1 .4

9 1 2 .5
5 2 .6

1 3 8 .0
1 3 5 .7
1 2 8 .9
1 2 4 .7
1 2 6 .6
1 3 7 .2
1 3 2 .6
1 3 9 .5
1 3 4 .3
1 4 1 .9
1 4 1 .1
1 4 2 .9
1 3 3 .4
9 9 .3
100.0
98. 1
9 6 .8
9 6 .7
9 7 .2
9 7 .1
9 7 .5
100.0
9 6 .7
9 9 .5
9 8 .9
9 4 .8
1 ,1 0 6 .0 1 ,1 0 4 .1 1 ,0 8 1 . 9 1, 076. 7 1. 060. 3 1, 049. 2 1 ,0 3 5 .3 1, 025. 9 1 ,0 1 7 .3 1 ,0 3 1 .6 1, 068. 9 1, 075. 8 1 ,0 7 9 .6 1 ,0 5 5 .0 1 ,0 0 1 .9
557. 6
5 5 5 .2
5 4 0 .1
5 3 3 .8
5 0 9 .6
5 0 1 .3
5 2 0 .6
4 9 4 .4
511. 0
4 9 6 .7
5 4 5 .3
5 4 0 .8
5 6 5 .4
5 6 3 .6
5 1 5 .8
2 0 1 .5
2 0 3 .6
2 0 0 .4
201.2 199. 1 200.0 1 9 8 .9 1 9 7 .7 1 9 2 .3 1 9 2 .5 1 9 5 .6 1 9 2 .1 1 9 3 .4 1 9 3 .2 1 8 1 .7
5 9 .5
5 9 .1
5 8 .1
5 7 .7
5 7 .4
5 7 .7
5 7 .4
5 7 .4
5 6 .3
5 6 .2
5 6 .1
5 7 .5
5 7 .1
5 3 .3
5 6 .9
1 5 0 .6
6 6 .5

1 4 6 .5
6 5 .5

1 4 6 .8
6 4 .5

1 4 7 .4
6 5 .3

1 4 0 .9
6 1 .7

122.0

1 2 8 .0

1 2 7 .1

1 2 9 .9

1 2 9 .4

1 2 8 .1

1 2 7 .7

1 2 5 .7

1 2 6 .8

123. 8

122.6

1 1 9 .7

1 1 7 .6

122.6

1 1 3 .1

6 2 .8
2 9 8 .8
7 8 .8
1 8 9 .0
6 6 .5
5 4 .8

6 2 .7
2 9 8 .3
8 0 .5
1 9 1 .4
6 7 .8
54. 5

6 1 .3
2 8 8 .2
7 8 .8
1 9 3 .1
6 5 .7
5 3 .4

6 0 .7
2 8 4 .0
7 8 .6
1 9 3 .6
6 5 .5
5 3 .4

6 1 .2
279. 1
7 8 .2
1 9 4 .2
6 5 .9
5 3 .3

6 1 .0
2 7 9 .2
7 7 .3
1 9 3 .3
6 5 .2
5 2 .7

6 0 .2
2 7 9 .9
7 6 .7
1 9 2 .4
6 3 .3
5 2 .5

6 0 .6
2 8 4 .2
7 6 .4
1 9 3 .8
6 4 .3
5 2 .8

6 0 .9
2 8 6 .0
7 5 .5
1 9 2 .3
6 3 .9
5 2 .2

6 0 .0
2 8 2 .8
74. 8
1 9 0 .0
6 3 .3
51. 2

6 0 .8
2 8 3 .3
7 4 .7
1 8 4 .0
6 2 .4
5 0 .8

5 9 .4
2 8 3 .9
7 3 .6
1 7 0 .3
6 1 .0
5 0 .3

5 9 .5
2 8 1 .1
7 2 .8
1 7 3 .4
5 9 .9
5 0 .2

5 9 .7
2 7 1 .9
7 3 .4
1 8 0 .9
6 1 .7
5 0 .2

6 0 .6
2 5 2 .7
6 9 .6
1 6 1 .1
5 9 .5
4 6 .3

1 1 3 .3

1 1 5 .1 '

1 1 4 .6

1 1 4 .0

1 0 9 .5

1 0 9 .9

1 0 7 .9

1 0 7 .7

1 0 6 .8

1 0 6 .8

1 0 4 .3

104. 4l

1 0 3 .8

1 0 4 .2

9 7 .0

1034

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able

A-10.

Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry 1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[in thousands]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 J u n e2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
M achinery... . .
.................................. 1,315.7 1,310.9 1,294.7 1, 285.3 1,276.8 1,266. 3 1,250. 5 1, 242.1 1,226. 0 1,211.5 1,211.5 1,195.6 1,203. 6 1,199. 2 1,117.8
Eneines and turbines. . . . . . _______
65.0
64.6
61.6
68.6
67.1
66.2
65.7
64.4
63.8
63.0
61.4
58.4
65.0
62.0
61.7
Farm machinery and equipment_____
110.4 108.7 105.1 102. 0
95.7
98. 6
110.1 109.7 110.1
98.2
95. 8
92. 0
97.3
97. 2
Construction and related machinery__
187.2 187.2 183.0 181.1 178.9 177.4 173.9 172.9 174.6 172.8 173.6 170.4 173.8 171.2 159.5
Metalworking machinery and equipm ent...........
. . . __ _ ________
246.7 247.1 244.2 243.3 241.1 240.3 235.9 234. 3 229.4 226.8 227.5 223.3 224.6 225.3 211.4
Special industry machinery_______
140.6 140.1 137.3 136.0 137.2 136.4 137.0 135.6 134.6 133.4 133. 5 132.0 131.8 132.1 124.2
General industrial m achinery...
_
187.3 188.1 185.0 183.9 184.4 182.5 181.0 180.5 177.6 176.6 175.3 176.6 176. 1 173.9 163. 1
Office, computing, and accounting
.
... . . . .
machines___
135.4 131.7 131.0 128.9 127.8 126.2 125.9 126.2 124.9 122.6 120.9 117.8 114.5 116.0 103.0
Service industry machines..
76.6
77.0
76.1
77.4
82.0
82.2
80.8
79.5
75.7
74.8
75.2
72.8
75.5
75.3
81.3
Miscellaneous m achinery.. .
160.2 159.4 156.6 156.3 154.7 152.8 151.0 150.5 148.1 145.4 145.9 143.0 142.6 143.1 133.4
Electrical equipment and supplies______ 1,332.6 1,333.9 1,300.2 1, 289. 6 1,265.3 1, 261. 2 1, 244.7 1,240.6 1,221. 3 1,202.9 1,180. 2 1,147. 8 1,131.9 1,146.1 1,038.5
Electric distribution equip m ent_____
137.3 135.6 130.2 129.3 127.9 126.2 125.7 125.0 123.7 121.9 120.9 119.4 117.5 117.5 109.0
Electrical industrial apparatus .
155.9 156.1 147.3 149.2 147.6 145.6 144.1 142.6 139.4 138.2 136.7 136.2 136.7 134.8 122.7
Household appliances. ___
147.5 143.0 146.1 144.5 131.7 141.7 137.3 137. 6 134.1 132.6 131.0 124.6 129. 0 131.3 124. 7
Electric lighting and wiring equipm ent. .
142.7 146.3 144.3 142.8 140.8 139.3 137.0 137.1 136.3 134.1 133.2 128.1 127.3 130.0 121.9
Radio and TV receiving s e t s . . ____ . 130.2 135.0 127.0 125.6 126.1 126.4 127.4 129.2 127.6 125.1 121.5 116.2 109.6 110.9
92.7
Communication equip m ent... . . . . . . . . 248.8 242.1 240.2 237.3 235.1 232.0 229.7 228.1 224.0 220.2 216.6 212.7 210.2 214.1 202.8
Electronic components and accessories.. 291.3 294.1 283.2 280.3 276.1 271.4 264.7 259.7 254.1 248.0 238.7 232.4 226.9 230. 0 193.8
Miscellaneous electrical equipment
78.8
and supplies _. . . . .
81.7
80.0
78.6
77.5
78.9
81.9
80.6
82.1
81.3
81.6
78.2
70.9
82.8
74.7
Transportation equipment. . . . ____ . 1,264.4 1,366. 7 1,367.3 1,357. 3 1,354.6 1, 340. 5 1, 318.4 1,323.8 1,313.8 1,290. 6 1,270. 2 1,144. 0 1,217.9 1,241.0 1,120.3
Motor vehicles and equipment .
696.3 700.0 694.7 698.8 696.1 687.5 706. 0 706. 4 696. 6 681. 6 567.7 659. 5 667.3 581. 1
Aircraft and parts___ _ . . . _____ 442.0 432.0 429.5 424.7 417.2 408.4 400.2 391.4 381.2 369.0 364.4 355.6 350.1 352. 9 337.7
Ship and boat building and repairing... 142.5 141.9 143.1 144.3 149.3 148.3 145.1 137.4 135.6 136.6 133.8 130.9 118.8 133.1 121. 1
44.3
Railroad equipment- . . .
43.1
46.6
46.1
44.9
44.3
44.1
42.4
38. 7
46.6
44.7
44. 5
41.9
42. 8
41.3
44. 4
43.4
44.6
Other transportation equipment.
49.9
47.4
46. 7
48.1
47. 5
41.7
44.3
46.1
46.5
46.3
Instruments and related products. _____
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control de___ _
_______
vices.
Optical and ophthalmic goods
___
Ophthalmic goods___
.
_____
Surgical, medical, and dental equipmentPhotographic equipment and supplies .
Watches and clocks . . . . .

273.7

276.0
37.8

269.9
37.3

266.5
36.9

266.0
37.5

263.2
37.4

259.6
37.0

258.2
36.8

256.5
36.6

254.3
36.9

254.1
36.6

249.5
35.7

247.2
35.8

246.4
36.6

233.8
35.9

71.3
35.0

71.2
35.4
26.1
45.8
55.6
30.2

68.9
35.8
26.2
44.8
53.8
29.3

68.5
35.8
26.3
44.1
53.1
28.1

67.9
35.5
26.1
44.0
52.3
28.8

67.2
35.2
25.9
43.3
51.9
28.2

66.6
34.4
25.1
42.4
51.1
28.1

66.4
34.5
25. 2
41.9
50.6
28. 0

65.9
34.3
25.1
41.4
50.3
28. 0

64.5
34.0
24.9
40.8
50.3
27.8

66.0
33.7
24. 6
40.6
49.8
27.4

65. 1
32.7
23. 7
40.2
49.8
26. 0

65.6
32.6
23. 6
39.6
48.8
24.8

65.1
33.1
24.1
39.9
47.4
25.4

63. 1
31.0
22. 4
37.5
42.8
23.4

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w a re...
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods .
Pens, pencils, office and art materials
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries __ . .
Musical instruments and parts

347.0
35.0

361.7
37.1
109.9
26.6
46.6
141.5
22.5

352.8
37.1
105.5
25.9
45.7
138.6
22.2

345.5
37.0
98.8
26.0
45.3
138.4
22.2

337.8
36.7
92.8
25.9
45.1
137.3
22.3

330.3
36.3
88.4
25.3
44.3
136.0
22.1

317.6
35.1
82.8
23.9
42.1
133.7
21.9

352.0
36.4
107.5
26. 3
45.6
136.2
22.1

372.7
36.3
125.0
26. 4
46.7
138.3
22.1

375.5
36.4
127.9
25.8
46.5
138.9
21.5

364.9
35.9
121.1
25. 5
45.3
137.1
21.1

354. 7
35.2
114.4
25. 2
45.4
134.5
20.5

328.6
32.5
102.4
24. 3
42. 1
127.3
19. 9

339. 5
35.0
102.4
24.7
44.3
133.0
20. 6

318.7
34. 1
88.3
23.6
45. 1
127.6
18.2

45.1

136.3

Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products____ ______ 1,180. 5 1,132.9 1,080.9 1,074. 7 1, 075.3 1, 073. 6 1,088.3 1,135. 9 1,193.9 1,232.5 1,265.9 1.255. 7 1,175. 2 1,146.4 1,154.3
Meat products. . .
. .
. . . . .
249.0 243.2 237.1 233.8 234.4 236.3 237.4 248.7 253.5 252.9 249.7 249.6 245. 7 244.6 250.4
Dairy products____ ___ _
. . . . . 133.4 133.4 128.0 126.2 124.4 123.3 122.7 125.1 125.7 127.5 131.6 137.1 138.3 130.7 134. 7
Canned and preserved food, except
meats
210.3 186 7 189.8 182. 9 184.4 188.0 200. 8 238 6 273.8 329. 3 318. 8 247. 0 221.8 215. 1
84.1
87.7
Grain mill products.. __ . . .
_____
90.3
90.1
88.9
82.9
84.5
84.3
85.1
89.9
89.2
84.7
89.8
89.9
85.9
Bakery products. . .................
159.3 164.4 160.1 159.5 160.4 159.3 160.1 162.1 165.3 165.4 165.1 166.5 167.8 164.5 166.5
34.4
29.1
30.6
Sugar . .
. .
_ . . . . . . . .
22.6
26.6
23.5
23.9
25. 0
40.6
24. 1
23. 4
22.6
44. 2
41.7
62.7
62.5
62.5
62.2
59.3
58.7
57.3
56.8
Confectionery and related products___
62.5
67.7
66.3
62.3
55.3
68.8
68.3
Beverages__________
______ _ __
125. 5 122.5 115.8 113.4 110.9 105.9 107.1 111.3 115.5 117.2 116.5 116.8 117.5 113.1 111. 7
Miscellaneous food and kindred prod91.8
92.3
92.8
u c ts... . . .
_______
. .
88.9
88.4
91.0
93.4
88.3
87.7
90.3
94.5
91.3
91.8
96.4
95.9
Tobacco manufactures . .
Cigarettes___. . . . .
Cigars........................
...

_

Textile mill products___ _______ . . . .
Cotton broad woven fabrics... . . . . .
Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics.
Weaving and finishing broad w oolens..
Narrow fabrics and smallwares. .
K nitting.. ______ _ . . . ____ _. __ _
Finishing textiles, except wool and knit.
Floor covering..
Yarn and thread_____ . . . _________
Miscellaneous textile goods________ . .
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

60.2

60.8
31.5
20.2

59.8
30.9
20.1

61.6
30.8
20.1

64.0
30.5
19.9

67.2
30.5
20.2

69.7
30. 2
19.9

76.1
31.3
21.8

74.8
31. 4
22.1

86.0
31.5
22.1

85.7
32. 2
21. 7

77.6
32. 0
21. 4

62.8
31.4
20. 7

72.1
31.4
21.7

77.4
31. 1
23.7

845.2
220.3
85.2
38.8
26.0
213.1
63.7

859.4
221.6
85.4
39.2
27.7
218.2
64.7
33.3
108.7
60.6

848.0
218.3
84.3
38.9
27.4
215.1
64.1
33.3
106. /
59.9

843.9
217.3
84.3
38.6
27.3
212.7
64.0
33.4
105.9
60.4

840.0
217.2
84.4
38.7
27.1
208.5
63.6
33.6
105.9
61.0

833.5
216.4
83.9
38.4
26.8
204.0
63.4
34.2
105.6
60.8

827.6
216.3
83.7
37.9
26. 5
199.8
63.4
34.4
105.2
60.4

833.9
216.2
83.8
37.8
26.6
20o. 7
63.6
34.8
105.2
60.2

837.8
214.2
83.6
37.6
26.3
214.3
63.1
34.6
103.9
60.2

835.3
212.8
82.8
37.7
26.4
216.4
63.0
34.3
102.7
59.2

832.0
211.5
82. 1
38.4
26.4
215.7
63.2
33.8
102.2
58.7

830.1
211.9
82.0
38.5
26.0
215.4
63.6
32. 7
102.0
58.0

816.0
211.4
80.8
38.2
24.8
208.3
63.3
32.0
99.9
57.3

821.4
211.9
81.8
38.1
25.9
206.8
64.2
33.3
101.1
58.2

797.5
209.0
81.3
39.2
24.6
193.4
65.3
31.9
96.8
56.1

107.4
58.4

A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT
T able

A-40.

1035

Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry 1—Continued
[in th o u s a n d s ]

Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

1966

Annual
average

1965

Industry
July 2 June2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Manufacturing—Continued
N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s — Continued

Apparel and related products__________ 1,211.3 1,256.5 1,238.5 1, 223.0 1, 244.1 1, 236. 2 1,178.6 1,219.5 1,228. 4 1,229.3 1,229. 4 1, 223. 6 1,164. 9 1, 202 9 1 157 8
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats______
104.6 110. 7 109.4 107.5 108.1 108.2 107.0 108.7 107.2 105.8 108.3 108. 0 100 3 106 4 10? 6
M en’s and boys’ furnishings. ________ 328.3 338.7 333.2 330.6 329.1 326.1 322.9 323.6 325.3 325.5 325.2 325.6 315.1 318. 2 207 3
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outerwear_______
____
365.9 379.3 376.6 367.7 384.0 384.7 353.8 373.2 371.8 372.2 375.7 377.2 357 5 369 6 •361 5
Women’s and children’s undergarments__________ ________ _________
109.8 115.8 113.8 113.8 113.1 111.9 107.1 111.9 114.5 114.1 113.3 111.9 104 0 109.8 107 5
Hats, caps, and m illinery.. _________
28. S
26.4
24 6
22 Q 24. C 28. 6
25. 7
26. 5
25 6
26 9
26.9
26! 7
Girls’ and children’s outerwear_______
70.7
73.5
73.7
71.3
69.1
74.2
70.0
67.8
76.0
72.8
706
70 5
71. 7
70.7
6Q 5
66.6
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel . .
69.1
65.6
63.7
64. 8
66 4
58.6
68 7
68.6
65.0
68.9
67.3
62! 8
62.
7
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products______________________________
136.5 142.8 143.4 142.1 141.2 138.7 134.4 143.0 145.3 144.9 140.0 133.8 127.8 136.4 129.9
Paper and allied products______________ 523.3 526.1 511.7 510.9 506.9 504.3 504.4 508.6 507.1 504. 7 506.1 502.9 498. 6
9 488 7
Paper and pulp"_____________________
173.9 173.3 168.1 167.6 166.7 166.2 166.6 167.4 166.4 166.7 168.8 171.5 171.2 497
167 5 169 8
53.8
Paperboard... _________
_______
53. 5
55.1
53.5
54.0
55.1
53.9
53.7
53.9
54. 7
53. 8
52. 5
53 0
54. 2
53 6
Converted paper and paperboard products______________________________
123.3 124.5 121.1 121.8 120.3 118.8 118.2 119.1 118.7 117.5 117.7 117.7 114 7 115 9 111 0
171.0 173.2 168.6 167.7 166.4 165.8 165.9 168.2 168.0 166.7 164.9 161.2 158.5 161.0 154! 0
Paperboard containers and boxes_____
Printing, publishing, and allied indus650.6 650.7 643.1 642.0 ' 637. 6 635.3 630.4 635.3 634.0 630. 4 625.7 621. 7 617 9
tries_______________________ ___
001 4
Newspaper publishing and printing___ 178.2 178.7 178.2 179.0 175. 7 177.7 176.9 179. 8 179.3 179.9 177.6 176. 3 176 4 619. t> 10Q Q
175. 8
25.1
25. 5
24.9
Periodical publishing and printing____
25.0
25.6
25.6
25.4
25.3
25.2
25.4
94
g
25.0
24.1
25 9
52.9
Books..
53.7
52 0
53 1
49.1
48.7
47.1
49.1
Commercial printing________ ______ 254.5 255.4 253.1 251.7 251.6 248.0 247.3 24a 8 24a 1 245.7 244.1 240. 3 238 9
935 8
44.
4
44.
0
46.9
46.3
Bookbinding and related industries___
44.3
42.9
42.7
42.2
42.8
42.3
42.1
39 0
43.7
43 2
Other publishing and printing indus88.9
92.0
87.8
91.7
89.4
tries. ____________________________
89.1
88.6
88.4
98.1
87.9
87.5
87.3
86.6
83.2
86.2
571.3 574.6 565.6 563.5 556.5 548.9 544.3 543.4 542.9 542.6 546.8 550. 8 548 3
Chemicals and allied products________
528 0
542
4
166.6
172.0
166.
2
170.1
166.6
Industrial chemicals_________________
165.3 164.4 165.2 164.2 163.6
167. 5 167 1 165 0 105 1
145.1 144. 5 140.5 140.5 139. 4 138.6 138.4 137.7 137.7 ' 136.1 164.8
Plastics materials and synthetics_____
138.1 137.6 136 2 134 5 123 1
63.1
65. 5
63. 0
65.2
63.3
Drugs______________________________
61.4
61.8
62.6
62.2
62.2
61.4
02 1
59 4
61. 9
60 1
60.8
65.9
60. 4
66.7
65.0
Soap, cleaners, and toilet g o o d s ._____
62.1
63.4
65.1
61.9
61.7
65. 2
64 0
02 1
65. 5
63 6
36.3
38. 4
36.1
38.1
36.8
Paints, varnishes, and allied products..
36.2
36.2
35.8
35.4
35.8
38
0
36
2
36.
9
38
1
36
6
42.6
29. 6
38. 5
33.7
38.9
Agricultural chem icals... _________
30.1
30.7
33.7
30.8
31.9
30 0
33 7
30. 6
30 3
33 5
53.6
52. 9
54.8
56.3
54.5
Other chemical products_____________
49.5
49.5
50.8
49.8
50.3
49.9
49.8
50.3
49.2
49! 0
Petroleum refining and related industries _____________________________ 114.3 113.6 110.4 108.8 107.2 106.7 106.7 108.0 109.3 111.0 112.8 113. 6 113 6 110 0 113 6
84.2
86.2
84. 1
85.9
84.4
84.6
Petroleum r e fin in g ..__ ___ . . .
84.9
84.0
84.1
84.9
85. 9
87 1
85 7
89 6
86. 6
24.6
28.1
23.1
27.7
Other petroleum and coal products
23.4
24.4
26.0
22.7
22.6
26.1
26.9
27.0
26.5
24.3
24! 0
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______________________________
Tires and inner tubes___ _______
Other rubber products_______________
Miscellaneous plastic products......... ..
Leather and leather products _______
Leather tanning and finishing________
Footwear, except rubber___ . .
____
Other leather products_______ .
Handbags and personal leather goods.
Transportation and public utilities :
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation___
Intercity and rural bus lin e s _________
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Public w arehousing... ______ _ . .
Pipeline transportation______
Communication. ______
Telephone communication.. _
Telegraph communication 3___ .
Radio and television broadcasting

388.7
77.7
141.7
169.3
316.0
27.4
211.2
77.4

383.3
74.4
140.8
168.1

380.3
74.3
141. 1
164.9

321.4
27.8
213.4
80.2
34.3

315.8
27.6
210.2
78.0
32.5

314.2
27.6
208.8
77.8
32.9

318. 5
27.9
212. 5
78.1
34.2

221.6

138.3
159.8
34.3

11,663 11,690
2,874

W h o le s a le t r a d e . . .
2,902
M o to r v e h ic le s a n d a u t o m o ti v e e q u i p m e n t ______________
D r u g s , c h e m ic a ls , a n d a llie d p r o d u c t s . .
D r y g o o d s a n d a p p a r e l____________
G ro c e rie s a n d r e l a te d p r o d u c t s
E le c t r i c a l g o o d s . . .
H a r d w a r e , p lu m b in g , a n d h e a tin g g o o d s .
M a c h i n e r y , e q u i p m e n t , a n d s u p p lie s
M is c e lla n e o u s w h o le s a le rs
See f o o tn o te s a t e n d of ta b le .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

386.0
75.8
142.1
168.1

76.8
36 1
935.7
70 1
16.2
736. 6
621.2
22.2
91.1
554.0

E l e c t r i c , g a s, a n d s a n i t a r y s e r v ic e s . . . .
E l e c t r i c c o m p a n ie s a n d s y s t e m s . . .
G a s c o m p a n ie s a n d s y s t e m s . .
C o m b i n e d u t i l i t y s y s t e m s ______
W a te r , s te a m , a n d s a n i t a r y s y s t e m s .

Wholesale and retail trade

392.5
77.0
142.9
172.6

168 9
118 6
449 3
225 7
134.1
512 8
983.0

377.3
74.1
140.8
162.4
319.6
28.1
214.0
77.5
33.6

378.0
75.2
141.7
161.1
313.8
28.3
211.1
74.4
31.6

379.8
75.7
141.8
162.3
315.9
28. 5
210. 6
76.8
32. 5

377.5
75.5
140.7
161.3
315.5
28.1
208.1
79.3
34.4

371.9
74. 7
138.5
158.7
310. 7
27.9
204. 6
78. 2
34.1

368.7
74.4
136.9
157.4
312.4
28.0
206.1
78.3
33.8

363.0
73. 7
134.2
155.1.
317.9
27.6
211.6
78. 7
33.5

354.0
71.3
132. 9
149.8
308.3
27.2
207. 4
73.7
30.5

300 0
72 Q
135 8
152.1
310. 8
27.6
207. 7
75.5
32.5

334.7

70.9
128. 3
135.4
306.3
27.5
204.8
74.0
32.8

78.2
78.3
78.8
79.2
78.3
79.7
78.5
78.6
78. 9
78. 9
40 0
37 8
40 4
37.1
37.9
40 3
38 7
38.4
38.7
874.8 866.3 905.6 913! 0 917. 0 914.2 899! 2 900! 9 879. 3 837.' 3
67 2
66 1
69 0
79 2
67. 8
72 4
77.9
16 6
16' 5
15 5
15 7
15 8
15. 6
16 0
722 1 718 0 712 4 707. 3 704 1
705 4 704.9
699.6 674 5
608 0 604 9 599 7 595. 0 592 4
592 8
56^ 0
22 1
21.9
21. 7
21 6
22 3
22. 0
2? 7
89 6
84 1
89 6
87.9
89 2
88. 6 88.3
88 9
88 7
87 7
87 6
539.8 539 7 537.4 535.8 536.9 539 0 536 3
54Q 1
558 5
65? 7 539 Q 534 9
215.3 215 1 213. 8 212.9 212.9 213 4 210 4
217 0 91Q Q 91 q q 913 g 911 4
133. 8 134 1 134. 0 134.1 134.6 135 5 135 7
14? 0
135 8 134 5
157.2 157 2 156. 6 156.2 156.4 157, 0 157 1
100 8
109 0
101 3
157 5
155 5
32.6
33 5
39 8
33.5
33.0
33 1
33 3
33. 0
33 1
33 0
34 0
34 1
11,519 11,476 11,306 11,231 11,325 12,251 11,580 11,364 11,278 11,220 11,227 11,240 10,845
2,810 2, 802 2,795 2, 793 2,797 2,841 2, 825 2,821 2,809 2,818 2,807 2, 771 2, 705
77.2
38 6

77.6
37 8

902! 3

886.9

166 7
116 8
427 3

166 9
116 6
492 9

78.2
37 2
883.0
68 1

165 4
116 5
422 9

212 6
164 9
115. 5

423.2

229 7

221 8

220 8

131.4
501 9
965.8

130.5
500 6 495 9
965. Ó 961.3

130.6
491. 7
959.8

131! 1

164 8
11.8 n
432 0
218 f>
130.2
488 2
956.4

168
114
443
219

1
9
8
5

13l! 0

487 4
971.0

165 8
115 0
445 4

130.8
485 9
967! 0

129.9
485 0
964! 2

103 8
113 3
443 5

214
103
114
430

2
5
3
4

129.6
480 2
960! 6

130.2
487 5
966! 5

213 1
102 8

113 3
440 0
91 q 3

129! 7

487 4

959.5

I 69 0
112 9

205 5
158! 6
109. 7

914 1
127.8
47Q 0
949.8

203 5
125.1
462.4
918.3

435 7

435 0

1036

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T a b l e A -1 0 .

P ro d u c tio n o r n o n su p e rv iso ry w o rk ers in n o n a g ric u ltu ra l e sta b lish m e n ts, b y
in d u s try 1— C o n tin u e d
Revised series; see box below.

[inthousands]
1966

Annual
average

1965

Industry
July 2 Jun e2 May
Wholesale and retail trade—Continued
Retail trade4—
8,761
General merchandise stores____________
Department stores.___
M ail order houses. . .
.
Limited price variety stores.. ______
Food stores..
______
. . . . ___
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores..
Apparel and accessories stores__________
M en’s and boys’ apparel stores____
W omen’s ready-to-wear stores...
Fam ily clothing stores__ .
...
Shoe stores .
____
Furniture and appliance stores . .
Furniture and home furnishings______
Eating and drinking p la c e s___ _______
______
Other retail trade____
Building materials and hardware___
Motor vehicle dealers.
Other vehicle and accessory dealers___
Drug stores.
. . . __ _______ ____
Fuel and ice dealers .
__ _____
Finance, insurance, real estate 5._ ___ .
Banking__
..
. _
Credit agencies other than banks ._ . .
Savings and loan associations___
Security dealers and exchanges__
__
Insurance carriers .
___ ____
Life insurance__
Accident and health insurance.
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance
Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels. _
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants 6.
Motion pictures:
Motion picture filming and distributio n .. _____ _________
_ ...

2,544

Apr.

8, 816

8,709 8,674
1, 737.0 1, 724.8 1,721.6
1,092. 0 1,083.3 1, 077.6
106.2 105.3 106.9
290.8 293.5 297.3
1,438.8 1,431.2 1,423.8
1,278.6 1,272.0 1,263.5
577.5 571.2 587.7
101.5
97.8
97.8
208.3 208.4 208.3
96.3
92.4
92.9
107.4 108.9 124.2
371.4 367.7 367.0
240.9 237.8 236.6
1.898.0 1,853.5 1,820.9
2.793.1 2,761.0 2,753.2
490.4 ' 476.1 473.2
639.7 635.9 637.9
165.4 161. 4 158.3
384.5 380.5 380.5
89.4
91.0
94.6
2,511
677.9
268.9
74.4
125.3
653.3
276.6
53.9
284.8

2,472
665.2
267.2
74.7
123.0
644.9
274.1
51.8
281.3

2,458
664.5
267.5
75.9
121.4
645.0
275.4
50.8
281.1

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1964

8,511 8, 438 8,528 9,410 8, 755 8, 543 8,469 8,402 8,420 8,468 8,140
1, 683. 0 1, 663. 0 1, 751.1 2,321. 6 1,901. 0 1,749.8 1,683. 0 1,634. 4 1,626.0 1,715.6 1,611.6
1, 055. 3 1, 042.1 1,102.4 1,478.9 1,189.2 1,089.3 1,042.2 1,016.0 1,013.3 1,070. 0 996.5
108. 7 110.9 122.7 155.5 140.9 122.5 111.0 105.0 102.1 112.2 101.3
287. 8 279.6 291.8 391.7 320.5 293.7 286.8 275.7 273.5 293.9 285.4
1, 424. 4 1,417. 5 1,409.1 1,431.0 1,400. 5 1,385.7 1.362.3 1,343.8 1,359.3 1,368.5 1,321. 4
1,266. 4 1, 257.2 1,253.0 1,262. 7 1,239.9 1,227.9 1.205.4 1,189.1 1,201. 4 1,208. 7 1,162.1
551. 5 543.7 565.1 697. 7 584.9 566.9 559.3 537.6 534.3 568.7 555.2
94. 7
91.2
95. 7
98.7 103.3 129.1
99.6
93.1
95.9
90.5
91.0
201.4 197.2 204.7 248.9 214.2 209.8 205.3 200.1 196.0 208.5 207.6
90.5
89.4
96.1
90. 4
95.1 124.5
98.3
91.9
90.3
97.0
93.8
102.0 97.7 101.6 122.3 106.2 104.1 107.3 100.0 100.0 105. 4 101.8
367.6 366.9 368.2 387.1 373.3 367.7 363.5 360.9 359.5 362.6 349.8
236. 5 236.1 237.3 251.3 241.6 237.4 235.4 233.8 232.8 234.9 226.0
1, 772. 8 1, 744. 6 1, 728.3 1, 765.8 1,768.1 1,777.5 1,809. 7 1,824. 4 1,830.2 1,769. 0 1,711.3
2, 712. 0 2, 702.1 2, 706.1 2,806. 7 2, 727.2 2, 695. 8 2,691. 5 2,701.0 2,711. 0 2,684. 0 2, 590.6
461. 0 452.1 457.5 472.3 473.2 471.7 474.9 486. 5 486.8 466.4 460.2
638.9 637.5 637.4 637.0 634. 6 631.8 628.4 630.7 632.7 625.2 596.3
152. 8 151. 0 154.3 164. 9 160.4 154.7 151. 2 155. 5 156. 5 153. 6 144.1
377.3 376. 5 379.4 400.2 379.8 373. 2 369.6 365.6 369.0 370. 7 356.1
94.4
99.4 103.7 103.4 101.8 97.4
88.6 95.4 95.5
90.1
89.0
2,448
662.3
268. 5
76. 0
120.4
645. 5
275.4
50.2
282.2

2,429
659.5
267.6
76.2
117.7
643.0
275.2
49.4
280.5

2,425
658.6
269.2
77.3
115.0
642.0
275.1
48.9
279.9

2,446
662.1
269. 8
77.2
115.6
645.8
277.0
48.8
281.1

2,445
660.0
268.3
76.8
114.6
645.3
276.7
48.5
281.3

2,451
658.9
268.6
77.4
113.8
645.5
277.3
48.5
280.8

2,457
660.9
267.6
77.2
113.3
649.0
278.7
48.8
281.9

2,490
669.6 .
269.7
78.5
115.1
656.7
282.4
49. 2
284.9

2,488
668.0
270.5
79.7
115.9
652.2
279.4
49.0
283.8

2,437
656.0
266.1
77.6
113.6
644.2
277.6
48. 2
279.6

2,390
644.2
255.0
77.6

111.6

641.5
282.0
47.5
274.1

645.7

613.5

590.6

568.5

564.2

550.5

556. 2

558.7

574.4

602.7

637.7

632.5

573.8

539.1

505.-4

493.6

488.2

483.0

478.7

480.7

484.2

486.8

488.7

486.7

488.1

494.4

484.4

472.7

32.3

28.2

28.0

29.0

29.2

31.7

34.6

31.8

31.7

31.4

32.1

32.0

29.8

27.0

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to January
1966, and coverage of these series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
For mining and manufacturing data, refer to production and related
workers; for contract construction, to construction workers; and for all other
industries, to nonsupervisory workers.
P r o d u c t i o n a n d r e la te d w o r k e r s include working foremen and all nonsuper­
visory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in fabricating,
processing, assembling, inspection, receiving, storage, handling, packing,
warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial, and watchmen
services, product development, auxiliary production for plant’s own use
(e.g., powerplant), and recordkeeping and other services closely associated
with the above production operations.
C o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s include working foremen, journeymen, mechanics,
apprentices, laborers, etc., engaged in new work, alterations, demolition,

repair, and maintenance, etc., at the site of construction or w orking in shop
or yards at jobs (such as precutting and preassembling) ordinarily performed
by members of the construction trades.
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s include employees (not above the working super­
visory level) such as office and clerical workers, repairmen, salespersons,
operators, drivers, attendants, service employees, linemen, laborers, janitors,
watchmen, and similar occupational levels, and other employees whose
services are closely associated with those of the employees listed.
2Preliminary.
3Data relate to nonsupervisory employees except messengers.
4Beginning January 1964, data include eating and drinking places.
5Beginning January 1964, nonoffice salesmen excluded from nonsuper­
visory count for all series in this division.
6Beginning January 1964, data relate to nonsupervisory workers and are
not comparable with the production worker levels of prior years.

Caution
The revised series on employment, hours, and earnings, and labor turnover in non­
agricultural establishments should not be compared with those published in issues prior
to January 1966. (See footnote 1, table A-9, and “BLS Establishment Employment
Estimates Revised to March 1964 Benchmark Levels” appearing in the December 1965
issue of E m p lo y m e n t a n d E arnings. Moreover, when the figures are again adjusted
to new benchmarks, the data presented in this issue should not be compared with those
in later issues which reflect the adjustments.
Comparable data for earlier periods are published in E m p lo y m e n t an d Earnings
S ta tis tic s for th e U n ited S ta te s , 1909-65 (BLS Bulletin 1312-3), which is available at
depository libraries or which may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents
for $4.25 a copy. For an individual industry, earlier data may be obtained upon request
to the Bureau.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1965

1037

A.—LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT
T able

A -ll.

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry division and selected groups,
seasonally adjusted 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[Inthousands]

1965

1966
Industry division and group
Apr.

July 2 Jun e2 May
T otal. _ ----------------- ------------------------------------------------ 63,646 63,496
M ining—

.. ..

.

...

Contract construction _

...

...

634

626

. ------------- _ 3,308

3,324

---------- ------

---- -- .

M anufacturing... . . . --------------------------------------- -------- 19,088 19,083
Durable goods. _ ---------. . . . . ------------- . . .
Ordnance and accessories---------- . ------- ------ ----------Lumber and wood products, except furniture . . .
Furniture and fixtures..
. . .
_____________ _
Stone, clay, and glass products.. .
. _________ _
-------- ------Primary metal industries------Fabricated metal products. . . . . . . . --------- —
Machinery
---- --------- . . . ------ . . . . _ -- --------Electrical equipment and supplies__ ______________
.
.
..............
Transportation equipm ent__
........
Instruments and related products_____ _
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.
.
. . .

11,212 11,200
270
273
617
619
458
458
633
638
1,352 1,334
1,353 1,340
1,869 1,845
1,942 1,927
1,837 1,904
428
426
443
446

Nondurable goods______________ ___________________ 7,876
1,734
Food and kindred products. . . . . .
............
84
....
Tobacco manufactures ______ ___. . . .
955
Textile mill products____ ________ ______ _ _____
Apparel and related products.
________ . . . _____ 1,400
671
Paper and allied products. . . .
.
________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__
___ 1,028
955
Chemicals and allied products___ . . .
179
Petroleum refining and related industries___
. . .
509
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products...
. _
361
Leather and leather products.. . _ _ _ _ _ _ _

7,883
1,731
85
953
1,425
668
1,022
953
178
504
364

4,096

4,138

Transportation and public u t ilit ie s .___. ______________

Wholesale and retail trade . . .
. _ __ 13,111 13,086
Wholesale trade.. . _______ __ .
. . . . . . . ___ _ 3,403 3,394
Retail trade.. ____________ ________________________ 9,708 9,692

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

63,050 62,935 62, 918 62,501 62,148 61,884 61,472 61,001 60, 756 60,621 60, 501
591

632

631

632

630

627

622

617

627

633

3,274 3,370

3,462

3,374

3,383

3,386

3,267

3,202

3,186

3,189

3,154

623

18,930 18,860 18,780 18,691 18, 522 18,429 18,321 18,163 18,098 18, 072 18,032
11,103
266
618
457
634
1,309
1,330
1,826
1,895
1,901
422
445

11, 056 10, 996 10,919 10,805 10,707 10,615 10,523 10,494 10, 476 10,424
255
243
243
242
239
236
261
250
244
257
602
630
623
605
601
603
628
636
633
613
442
432
448
447
430
427
430
451
451
435
644
622
640
640
636
624
643
627
618
618
1,303 1,294 1,288 1,283 1,274 1,269 1,284 1,308 1, 318 1,317
1,335 1,334 1,327 1,314 1,300 1,294 1,274 1, 269 1,263 1,269
1,809 1,800 1,798 1,783 1,771 1,768 1,745 1,736 1, 728 1,728
1,880 1,843 1,826 1,794 1,769 1,741 1,722 1,697 1,683 1,677
1,890 1,884 1,860 1,822 1,805 1,790 1,767 1,771 1,781 1,740
410
398
394
392
416
414
405
390
389
388
446
437
430
435
443
440
440
428
428
418
7,804
1,738
84
947
1,392
659
1, 013
931
176
496
368

7,784
1,748
84
946
1,384
659
1,003
931
175
491
363

7,772
1,749
82
943
1,383
658
1,004
927
176
487
363

7,717
1,743
83
939
1,355
654
998
922
177
485
361

7,722
1,745
84
937
1,377
650
992
918
178
483
358

7,706
1,761
81
933
1,369
646
990
914
178
477
357

7,640
1,733
81
928
1,362
643
984
909
177
469
354

7,604
1, 717
79
924
1,356
640
980
910
179
465
354

7,596
1,723
80
921
1,345
637
981
911
179
466
353

7,608
1,733
87
921
1, 343
641
981
908
179
464
351

4,125 4,112

4,107

4,104

4,090

4,079

4,079

4,071

4,067

4,049

4,031

7,827
1,728
84
950
1,410
661
1,014
937
178
498
367

13,021 13,004 13, 015 12,942 12, 909 12,822 12,754 12,684 12, 641 12, 600 12, 619
3,364 3,358 3,349 3,336 3,323 3,309 3,300 3,288 3,281 3, 273 3,281
9,657 9,646 9,666 9,606 9,586 9,513 9,454 9,396 9,360 9,327 9,338

Finance, insurance, and real estate_______________ _ . „

3,128

3,122

3,106 3,101

3,100

3,082

3,080

3,082

3,074

3,069

3,061

3,053

3,049

Service and m iscellaneous...

9,394

9,313

9,283 9, 261

9,251

9,205

9,142

9,128

9,081

9,019

8, 967

8,946

8,929

. ...

. ____ _________

Government . . .
. . . . ____ ___. .
. . . . . 10,887 10,804
Federal. _______ ____ ______ ___ ____ _ . _________ 2,604 2,571
State and local___ __________________ ______ _______ 8,283 8,233

10,688 10,636 10, 571 10,472 10,390 10,328 10,269 10,171 10,119 10, 085 10,054
2,521 2, 501 2,477 2,451 2,425 2,395 2,400 2,386 2,379 2,379 2, 376
8,167 8,135 8, 094 8,021 7,965 7,933 7,869 7,785 7,740 7,706 7,678

1 For coverage of the series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
1 Preliminary.

T able

A-12.

N o t e : The seasonal adjustment method used is described in “ New Seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components,” Monthly Labor
Review, August 1960, pp. 822-827.

Production workers in manufacturing industries, by major industry group, seasonally
adjusted 1
Revised series; see box,

[in thousands]

Manufacturing . . . ____ ________

______

July 2 Jun e2 M ay
. ______

_ 14,202 14,220

Apr.

1036.

1965

1966
Major industry group

p.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

14,095 14, 054 14,003 13,937 13,801

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

13,731 13,647 13,507 13, 457 13, 440 13,405

8,314
134
541
381
511
1,104
1,055
1,321
1,353
1,285
277
352

8,315
129
540
380
507
1,087
1,042
1,297
1,342
1,359
275
357

8,240
127
541
380
509
1,066
1,037
1,282
1,316
1,353
272
357

8, 214
123
550
374
516
1,062
1,041
1,270
1,306
1,348
269
355

8,177
121
558
375
518
1,055
1,040
1,264
1,278
1,348
267
353

8,122
118
553
373
516
1,050
1,036
1,262
1,260
1,330
265
350

8,027
113
556
370
520
1,045
1,024
1,252
1,244
1,297
261
345

7,955
107
547
368
512
1,035
1,012
1,244
1,225
1,290
256
359

7,878
108
538
362
503
1,031
1,006
1,242
1,199
1,282
254
353

7, 798
107
530
358
500
1,046
987
1,224
1,182
1,263
252
349

7,781
105
527
357
500
1,068
983
1,218
1,163
1,267
251
342

7,769
104
530
354
495
1,079
977
1,208
1,152
1,280
248
342

7,721
102
528
357
495
1,077
983
1,208
1,149
1,238
250
334

Nondurable goods___________________________________ 5,888
Food and kindred products _______________________ 1,147
72
Tobacco manufactures _ _ _ ___ _ _________ .
Textile mill products_____________________ _______
851
Apparel and related products. _
. . . _____ 1,243
Paper and allied products_______ _______ ._ _ _ .
525
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
655
570
Chemicals and allied products _______ _ _ _ _ _.
Petroleum refining and related industries___________
112
397
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products__________
Leather and leather products__________________ __
316

5,905
1,143
72
850
1,271
521
651
572
112
394
319

5,855 5,840
1,141 1,150
72
71
846
848
1,254 1,238
515
515
643
645
556
560
110
110
387
388
323
323

5,826
1,161
72
844
1,229
513
640
556
109
383
319

5,815
1,161
70
842
1,229
512
639
554
110
379
319

5,774
1,155
71
840
1,203
510
637
551
110
380
317

5,776
1,156
72
837
1,225
507
629
548
110
378
314

5,769
1,174
69
834
1,216
503
630
547
110
372
314

5, 709
1,144
70
828
1,212
500
625
544
110
365
311

5,676
1,129
68
825
1,205
499
621
546
111
362
310

5, 671
1,135
68
823
1,195
497
622
548
110
363
310

5,684
1,141
75
822
1,196
500
62?
548
111
361
308

Durable goods______________________________________
Ordnance and accessories ________ _____
_ _ ...
Lumber and wood products, except furniture________
Furniture and fixtures.
. . ...
_____ _____
Stone, clay, and glass products______ _ _____ _ . _.
Primary metal industries__________________________
Fabricated metal products. . . . . . .
_____
Machinery______________________________________ .
Electrical equipment and supplies__ _____ _ _____
Transportation equipm ent___ _________________ . . .
Instruments and related products__________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries----------- . . . _

1 For definition of production workers, see footnote 1, table A -3.
2 Preliminary.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N o t e : The seasonal adjustment method used is described in “ N e w Seasonai Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components.” Monthly Labor
Review, August 1960, pp. 822-827.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1038
T able

A-13.

Unemployment insurance and employment service program operations 1
[All items except average benefit amounts are in thousands]
1965

1966
Item
June
Employment service:2
New applications for work____ _______
N onfarm placements --------------------

M ay

1,314
622

Mar.

Apr.

906
568

Feb.

850
547

806
533

Dec.

Jan.

852
460

905
452

Oct.

Nov.

707
462

795
531

Sept.

806
611

Aug.

857
644

June

July

883
603

945
554

1,410
610

State unemployment insurance programs:
665
769
985
1, 285
690
1,004
760
976
693
791
1,078
870
1,399
Initial claims 3 L ___
Insured unem ploym ent5 (average weekly
862
1,307
1,132
793
1,044
1,301
1,590
1,033
959
1,102
1,059
1,644
916
volume) 6_____ - _ ------------------3.0
1.9
2.9
3.6
2.3
2.2
1.8
2.0
2.5
2.6
2.3
3.7
2.4
Rate of insured unem ploym ent7____ _
3,385
5,852
5,653
4, 555
3,495
3,965
4,101
3,087
4,098
5,587
3,129
3,669
4,142
Weeks of unemployment compensated__
Average weekly benefit amount for total
$38. 72 $38.86 $39.38 $39. 83 $39.66 $39. 36 $38.81 $38. 08 $37.32 $37. 23 , $36. 58 $36.40 $36.07
unem ployment________ __
---------Total benefits paid____________________ $114, 358 $126,149 $155,494 $225,472 $217,171 $212,659 $172,110 $132,158 $117, 784 $138,580 $148,021 $149,495 $156,276
Unemployment compensation for ex-service­
men: 8 9
Initial claims 3 L
---- --------------Insured unem ploym ent8 (average weekly
volum e)___ . _ _
---------- -------Weeks of unemployment com pensated...
Total benefits paid________________ . .

14

12

13

17

18

20

20

18

16

19

25

26

22

17
72
$2,872

18
76
$2,936

22
92
$3, 558

27
121
$4,620

31
120
$4,572

32
126
$4,816

29
111
$4, 278

25
94
$3,654

24
95
$3,712

28
120
$4, 637

33
135
$5,197

33
119
$4,461

30
134
$5,241

Unemployment compensation for Federal
civilian em ployees:910
Initial claims 3______
....
...
Insured unem ploym ent5 (average weekly
volum e)______ _ _____ . . . . . . . . ..
Weeks of unemployment com pensated.. .
Total benefits paid____ . . . . ____ ___

9

7

7

8

11

19

12

10

10

9

9

12

10

18
79
$3,255

18
78
$3,217

21
92
$3, 718

26
118
$4,717

29
109
$4,319

29
100
$3,973

23
94
$3, 740

21
82
$3,336

20
74
$3,141

19
79
$3,338

21
87
$3, 691

22
79
$3,182

20
91
$4,008

Railroad unemployment insurance:
Applications 11_______
. -----------------Insured unemployment (average weekly
----------volume) . . . . ---------Number of payments 12______ ________ .
Average amount of benefit p a y m en tI3. . .
Total benefits paid 14__________________

25

42

6

5

4

11

14

9

7

11

10

30

19

15
54
$60. 07
$2,913

18
77
$50.55
$3,750

23
53
$69. 79
$3, 606

26
69
$77.68
$5,154

28
54
$79.10
$4,148

30
68
$77.32
$5, 092

28
66
$71.04
$4, 587

25
52
$75.89
$3,840

22
50
$74.20
$3,550

24
52
$74. 03
$3,746

22
52
$76.09
$3, 793

24
48
$75.15
$3,494

21
53
$73.39
$3,794

All programs: 18
Insured unem ploym ent8________ _____

841

916

1,112

1,381

1,679

1,739

1,394

1,123

1,013

1,067

1,218

1,255

1,182

1 Includes data for Puerto Rico beginning January 1961 when the Common­
wealth’s program became part of the Federal-State UI system.
2 Includes Guam and the Virgin Islands.
1 Initial claims are notices filed by workers to indicate they are starting
periods of unemployment. Excludes transitions claims under State programs.
* Includes interstate claims for the Virgin Islands.
5 Number of workers reporting the completion of at least 1 week of unem­
ployment.
8 Initial claims and State insured unemployment include data under the
program for Puerto Rican sugarcane workers
7 The rate is the number of insured unemployed expressed as a percent of
the average covered employment in a 12-month period.
8 Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with other programs.
9 Includes the Virgin Islands.
10 Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with State programs.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11 An application for benefits is filed by a railroad worker at the beginning
of his first period of unemployment in a benefit year; no application is re­
quired for subsequent periods in the same year.
12 Payments are for unemployment in 14-day registration periods.
13 The average amount is an average for all compensable periods, not ad­
justed for recovery of overpayments or settlement of underpayments.
14Adjusted for recovery of overpayments and settlement of underpayments,
is Represents an unduplicated count of insured unemployment under the
State, Ex-servicemen and U C FE programs and the Railroad Unemployment
Insurance Act.
S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security for
all items except railroad unemployment insurance which is prepared by the
U.S. Railroad Retirement Board.

1039

B.—LABOR TURNOVER

B.—Labor Turnover
T able

B -l.

Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1
[P er

100e m p lo y e e s ]

Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1965

1966

Annual
average

Major industry group
June 2 1 M ay
1

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1965

1964

Accessions: Total
Manufacturing:
Actual-- ______
_______
Seasonally adjusted.. _

-

______

Durable goods__
_____ __
______
Ordnance and accessories__ __ _ _ _ _
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_______________- ________
Furniture and fixtures___
________
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary metal industries - _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Fabricated metal products.
M achinery__ _
__ _
_____
Electrical equipment and sup p lies.__ _
Transportation equipment __ _ _______
Instruments and related products____
Miscellaneous manufacturing industr ie s._. .
___ ______________
Nondurable goods________ ___
Food and kindred products__________
Tobacco manufactures.. _ _ _ _____
Textile mill p ro d u cts___ _ _ _____
Apparel and related products. _ ______
Paper and allied products___ _______
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
__ _ ______
Chemicals and allied products________
Petroleum refining and related industries____ ______ _____
_ _ ___
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
_____________
___
products.. _
Leather and leather products_________
N onmanufacturing:
M etal m in ing..
____________________
C oalm in ing_____ _ __
___________

6.5
fi 2

5.1
5 0

4.6
4 8

4.9
5. 2

4.2
4. 8

4.6
4.9

3.1
4. 9

3.9
5.0

4.5
4.5

5.5
4.5

5.4
4.2

4.5
4. 1

5.6
4.5

4.3

4.0

6.1
4.3

4.9
3.8

4.6
3.7

4.9
3.9

4.2
3.5

4.7
3.5

3.1
2.1

3.9
2.9

4.2
3.5

5.3
3.7

5.1
4.2

4.0
3.6

5.3
4.1

4.1
3.0

3.7
2.0

10.0
7.7
6.4
5.2
6.8
5.6
6.1
4.9
6.0

8.6
6.8
5.3
3.8
5.5
3.9
4.6
4.8
3.9

8.8
6.3
5.5
3.4
5.0
3.6
4.3
4.2
3.4

7.2
6.5
5.7
3.9
5.2
3.8
4.7
5.4
3.8

5.9
5.6
3.8
3.5
4.6
3.5
4.2
4.3
3.5

6.0
5.7
4.0
4.0
5.0
3.9
4.6
5.4
3.6

3.7
3.7
2.4
2.7
3.2
2.7
3.4
3.5
2.5

4.8
5.3
2.8
3.0
4.3
3.4
4.2
4.1
2.9

5.4
6.2
3.4
2.5
4.9
3.3
4.6
4.7
3.2

6.7
6.9
4.2
2.9
6.0
3.8
5.1
7.9
3.8

6.1
7.3
3.9
3.0
5.7
3.5
4.8
7.2
4.1

5.9
5.5
4.1
2.7
4.4
3.1
3.4
4.2
3.5

8.4
5.8
5.7
4.5
5.9
4.6
4.6
5.3
4.6

6.0
5.4
4.0
2.9
4.6
3.3
3.9
4.7
3.2

5.3
4.8
3.8
3.0
4.2
3.0
3.3
4.1
2.8

7.4

7.1

6.9

6.9

6.5

6.9

3.3

4.7

6.3

8.1

8.5

7.7

7.3

6.4

5.7

6.9
9.6
4.7
6.1
7.3
6.7

5.3
6.8
3.6
5.5
6.9
4.3

4.7
5.7
3.0
5.5
5.6
3.7

4.8
5.5
4.2
5.3
5.8
3.9

4.2
4.6
4.4
4.4
5.8
3.2

4.4
4.4
4.9
4.6
6.4
3.2

3.0
3.4
7.4
3.1
3.7
2.3

4.0
5.1
4.1
4.0
4.9
2.9

4.8
6.8
4.7
4.6
5.7
3.4

5.8
9.0
9.1
5.3
6.1
4.0

5.9
9.4
18.1
5.2
6.6
3.7

5.4
8.1
7.9
4.4
7.5
3.1

6.1
8.6
4.4
5.0
7.0
5.3

4.6
6.2
5.9
4.4
5.8
3.2

4.3
6.1
6.7
3.8
5.5
2.8

5.2
4.8

3.8
3.0

3.4
2.8

3.5
3.4

3.2
2.6

3.2
2.5

2.5
1.7

3.0
2.0

3.4
2.1

4.2
2.6

3.5
2.3

3.2
2.2

4.5
4.0

3.2
2.4

3.1
2.1

4.5

2.3

2.4

1.9

1.5

1.9

1.3

1.3

1.6

1.9

1.8

1.9

3.7

1.8

1.6

7.6
7.1

5.4
6.5

4.9
5.5

5.2
6.0

4.4
6.1

4.7
7.1

3.1
4.4

4.4
5.5

4.9
5.5

5.4
5.7

5.2
6.0

4.6
6.7

5.6
6.4

4.4
5.4

3.9
5.1

5.9
1.8

3.9
1.7

3.4
1.7

2.9
1.7

2.9
1.4

3.4
1.8

2.5
1.1

2.8
1.5

2.6
1.8

3.2
1.8

4.0
2.1

3.1
2.3

5.8
2.0

3.2
1.7

3.2
1.7

Accessions: N ew hires
Manufacturing:
Actual_____ _ ___________________
Seasonally adjusted
Durable goods________
__
_____
Ordnance and accessories______ ____
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture___ . . . _ _ _ ___
__ __
Furniture and fixtures____ __ ______
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary metal industries _ _ _ ______ _
Fabricated metal products.
_
_ _
M achinery__
__ _ _ _____
Electrical equipment and supplies. __ _
Transportation equip m ent...
Instruments and related products____
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries________ _ _________________
Nondurable goods_____ . . . . . _ . . . _
Food and kindred produ cts...
_____
Tobacco manufactures_____ . . . _____
Textile mill products___
Apparel and related products..
____
Paper and allied products___ . . .
Printing, publishing, and allied industries____ ____ . . . . _
__
Chemicals and allied products________
Petroleum refining and related industries___ _ . . . _ ____. . _____ _
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
products.
______ . . . _ _
___
Leather and leather produ cts.. . ____
N onmanufacturing:
Metal mining________ __ . . . ________
C o a lm in in g ... . . . ______ ________ _
S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b le .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5.4
3 9

4.0
3 9

3.6
39

3.7
4.3

3.1
3. 9

3.2
3. 9

2.2
4.0

2.9
3.7

3.5
3.3

4.0
3.1

3.9
2.9

3.2
2.8

4.3
3.1

3.1

2.6

5.3
3.4

4.0
3.1

3.7
2.9

3.8
3.0

3.2
2.8

3.3
2.8

2.2
1.3

2.9
1.8

3.4
2.1

3.8
2.3

3.5
2.8

2.8
2.3

4.2
2.7

3.0
1.8

2.4
1.1

8.8
7.0
5.5
4.5
6.0
5.1
5.3
3.7
5.4

7.4
6.2
4.3
3.1
4.5
3.3
3.8
3.4
3.4

7.0
5.6
4.1
2.7
4.1
3.1
3.5
3.0
3.1

6.0
5.8
3.8
2.7
4.2
3.2
3.9
3.3
3.3

4.5
4.9
2.6
2.1
3.6
3.0
3.4
3.0
3.0

4.4
4.9
2.5
2.0
3.7
3.3
3.6
3.2
3.1

3.0
3.3
1.5
1.3
2.4
2.1
2.7
2.2
2.1

4.2
4.6
2.1
1.6
3.4
2.6
3.3
2.8
2.5

4.8
5.4
2.8
1.6
4.0
2.7
3.7
3.5
2.8

5.9
6.3
3.4
2.0
4.7
3.0
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.4
6.5
3.1
2.0
4.1
2.6
3.5
3.0
3.3

4.9
4.7
3.1
1.9
3.2
2.2
2.5
2.6
2.6

7.3
5.0
4.5
3.7
4.7
3.8
3.5
3.6
3.9

4.7
4.7
2.7
2.0
3.5
2.6
2.9
2.8
2.6

4.1
3.9
2.4
1.8
2.9
2.2
2.1
2.2
1.9

5.8

5.5

5.3

5.0

4.3

4.1

2.5

3.9

5.3

6.8

7.0

4.5

5.3

4. 5

3.8
2.8
3.8
3.7
2.7
3.3
2.0
2. 4
1.6

5.6
7.3
3.1
5.1
5.3
5.9

4.1
4.8
2.3
4.6
4.6
3.8

3.6
3.9
1.8
4.5
4.1
3.2

3.6
3.4
1.9
4.2
4.4
3.3

3.0
2.8
1.8
3.4
3.7
2.6

3.0
2.7
1.9
3.4
4.0
2.6

2.1
2.1
4.3
2.4
2.2
1.8

2.9
3.3
1.2
3.2
3.3
2.5

3.6
4.8
3.1
3.8
4.0
3.0

4.3
6.2
5.4
4.3
4.4
3.4

4.4
7.0
11.9
4.1
4.5
3.1

3.6
5.6
3.1
3.2
4.1
2.4

4.4
5.9
2.5
4.1
4.3
4.4

3.2
4.1
3.2
3.4
3.7
2. 5

4.4
4.2

3.2
2.6

2.9
2.4

2.8
2.7

2.6
2.0

2.5
1.9

1.9
1.2

2.4
1.5

2.9
1.7

3.6
2.1

2.9
1.8

2.6
1.7

3.6
3.4

2.6
1.9

3.9

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.2

1.2

.8

1.1

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.7

3.1

1. 4

1. 1

3.3
3.9

2.6
3.4

2.2
.9

2.1
.9

6.7
6.0

4.5
5.1

4.0
4.3

4.2
4.7

3.5
4.4

3.5
5.1

2.4
3.3

3.6
4.2

4.0
4.3

4.4
4.4

3.8
4.6

3.1
4.3

4.5
4.8

4.9
1.2

2.6
1.0

2.1
1.0

2.1
1.1

2.0
.9

1.9
1.0

1.8
.7

1.9
.9

2.0
1.1

2.6
1.0

2.2
1.0

2.4
.9

4.9
1.1

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1040
T able

B -l.

Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[Per loo employees]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Major industry group
June 2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1965

1964

Separations: Total
Manufacturing:
Actual________________ _______ ______
Seasonally adjusted----------------------------

4.1
16

4.3
4.7

4.3
4-7

4.1
4.<?

3.6
4-S

4.0
10

4.0
i-1

3.9
S.9

4.4
4.1

5.7
4-4

5.1
4-7

4.3
4.0

3.6
4.0

4.0

3.9

Durable goods________________________
Ordnance and accessories------------------Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_______ - ----------------------Furniture and fix tu r e s --------------------Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary metal industries------------------Fabricated metal products----------------Machinery__________________________
Electrical equipment and supplies-----Transportation equipment----------------Instruments and related products------Miscellaneous manufacturing industries__________ ____ _______ _______

3.9
2.0

4.1
2.7

3.9
2.8

3.8
2.4

3.5
2.1

3.7
2.1

3.6
1.6

3.6
2.1

4.1
2.4

5.2
3.3

5.1
2.8

4.1
2.7

3.3
2.4

3.8
2.5

3.6
3.3

6.5
5.6
4.0
2.5
4.3
3.2
3.4
4.4
3.2

7.0
6.1
4.2
2.9
5.1
3.2
3.6
4.1
2.8

7.1
6.2
4.1
2.6
4.7
3.3
3.4
3.9
3.0

7.2
6.1
3.7
2.6
4.5
3.1
3.5
3.8
2.8

5.3
5.2
3.7
2.3
4.1
2.6
3.0
4.2
2.5

6.2
5.0
4.5
2.6
4.2
2.9
3.2
3.9
2.7

6.6
4.3
4.3
2.9
3.9
2.3
2.9
3.2
2.2

6.2
4.7
4.0
3.5
3.9
2.5
2.8
3.4
2.2

6.1
5.6
4.1
4.8
4.8
3.0
3.2
4.0
3.1

8.4
6.9
5.4
5.5
5.8
4.3
4.3
4.8
3.6

6.7
6.2
4.2
3.7
5.5
3.6
3.6
8.8
3.2

5.5
5.6
3.5
2.6
4.5
3.0
3.3
6.2
3.0

5.2
4.7
3.5
2.3
4.0
2.7
3.0
3.4
2.5

6.0
5.1
3.9
3.0
4.2
2.8
3.1
4.2
2.7

5.5
4.6
3.7
2.3
4.1
2.6
3.2
4.1
2.7

4.9

5.8

5.4

5.0

4.7

5.6

11.3

7.0

5.7

7.0

5.9

5.9

5.2

6.0

5.7

Nondurable goods___________ _____ ___
Food and kindred products__________
Tobacco m anufactures______________
Textile mill products_____ ____ ______
Apparel and related products________
Paper and allied products_____ _____
Printing, publishing, and allied industries______________________________
Chemicals and allied products_______
Petroleum refining and related industries. ____________________________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______________________________
Leather and leather products_________

4.5
5.7
3.4
4.6
5.9
3.5

4.5
5.6
3.9
5.0
5.9
3.4

4.7
5.7
6.6
5.0
6.7
3.5

4.4
5.6
6.0
4.7
5.6
3.3

3.8
5.1
5.4
3.9
4.5
2.9

4.5
5.9
9.1
4.4
5.7
3.3

4.6
6.9
6.9
4.0
5.8
3.1

4.4
6.9
10.6
3.8
5.2
2.9

4.9
7.9
8.1
4.2
5. 5
3.2

6.3
9.9
5.5
5.2
6.2
5.3

5.1
6.7
8.4
4.8
6.1
4.1

4.7
5.4
5.6
4.4
7.9
2.8

3.9
4.9
2.7
3.7
5.3
2.7

4.4
6.1
6.2
4.1
5.8
3.1

4.3
6.0
6.8
3.8
5.6
2.8

3.3
2.6

3.1
2.6

3.2
2.4

2.9
2.3

2.8
1.8

3.3
2.1

3.1
1.9

2.9
1.8

3.2
2.2

4.3
3.6

3.7
2.6

2.7
1.9

3.1
2.3

3.1
2.2

3.0
2.0

1.9

1.8

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.0

2.1

3.2

2.4

1.7

1.6

1.9

1.8

4.5
5.5

4.8
5.6

4.7
6.3

4.6
6.2

3.9
5.1

4.0
6.1

3.9
5.6

4.1
4.6

4. 5
5.2

5.9
6.9

4.8
6.2

4.8
6.5

3.9
4.6

4.2
5.3

3.8
5.0

2.5
1.2

3.1
1.8

3.1
2.2

3.2
1.9

2.4
1.5

2.4
1.7

3.3
1.7

3.2
1.9

3.1
1.7

5.3
1.8

3.6
1.9

3.7
1.7

2.8
1.6

3.1
1.9

2.9
1.8

N onmanufacturing:
M etal mining_______________________
Coal mining _______________________

Separations: Quits
Manufacturing:
Actual. - - __________ _______ ____

2.4
2. Í

2.5
2.6

2.5
2.7

2.3
2.7

1.8
2. It

1.9
2. It

1.4
2.2

1.7
2.2

2.2
2.0

3.5
2.0

2.6
1.8

1.8
1.8

1.7
1.7

1.9

1.5

Durable goods.. -------------------- - ----Ordnance and accessories---------------- -Lumber and wood products, except
____ ----- - - - - - furniture.Furniture and fixtures. ---- -- ------ -

2.3
1.3

2.3
1.4

2.3
1.4

2.2
1.4

1.7
1.2

1.7
1.2

1.3
.8

1.5
1.0

2.0
1.2

3.2
1.9

2.4
1.5

1.5
1.0

1.6
1.1

1.7
1.1

1.3
.9

4.5
3.7

5.3
4.4

5.2
4.5

4.3
4.3

3.2
3.3

2.8
3.1

2.5
2.4

3.1
3.0

3.9
3.6

6.3
5.0

4.5

3.4

3.3

3.4

2.8

2 .7

3 .1

2 .4
1 .5
2 .7

2 .4
1 .5
2 .7
1.9

2 .4
1 .5
2 .7

1 .5
.9

1 .9

3 .3
2 .9
3 .5

4 .3
2 .4
1 .9

3 .0

-----S t o n e , c l a y , a n d g la s s p r o d u c t s —.
P r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s __________ - F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s . ------ -----------M a c h in e r y —
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E le c tr ic a l e q u ip m e n t a n d s u p p lie s .- . .
T r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t . - - . . I n s t r u m e n t s a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s --------M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r in g in d u s t r i e s _____________________________ ______

2 .4
1 .3
.9
1 .5

N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s _______________
.
.
.
F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ...
T o b a cco m a n u fa ctu res. - - - - - - - - - - - T e x t i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s _____________ ______
A p p a r e l a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s -------- --- . .
P a p e r a n d a l li e d p r o d u c t s . . . . . . . . . .
P r i n t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g , a n d a l li e d i n d u s t r i e s _____________ _______________________
C h e m i c a l s a n d a l li e d p r o d u c t s - ____
P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g a n d r e la t e d i n d u s t r i e s __________ __
----------- ----R ubber
and
m is c e l l a n e o u s
p la s tic
p r o d u c t s _______________________ ________
L e a t h e r a n d l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s _________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g :
M e t a l m i n i n g . . ----------------- . ___________

Coal mining________________________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.0
2.1
1 .7
2.1

2.1
1.8

1.6
1.1
2.0

1.6
1.1
2.0
1.6
1.8

2.8

1.2
.8
1 .5
1.1
1 .4
1.0
1.2
2.0
1.6
1 .7
1.0
2.0
2.0

1 .7

1 .3

1 .7
.9

1.8
1.0

1 .4
.7

1 .5

.7

.5

.5

.5

2 .9
4 .0

2 .7
3 .9

2.2

2.1

3 .2

3 .3

1 .7
2 .7

2.0

1.6

1.3
.6

1. 2
.5

1.2
.4

2.0
2.1

2.0
1 .4
2 .5

1.8
2.1
1 .7
1.8

1. 4
1 .7
1 .4
1 .5

1 .4
1 .5

1 .7

1 .7
1 .9

2 .7

3 .4

3 .2

3 .1

2 .5

2 .5

2.6

2 .7

2 .7
2 .7

2 .4
2 .4
1 .7
3 .3
2 .9

2.0
2.0
1 .3
2.6
2 .5
1.6

2.1
2.0

2 .9
1 .4
3 .3
3 .2
2 .3

2.8
1.6
3 .6
3 .3

1.6

3 .7
3 .2

2.2

2.2
2.0

2.2
2.0

1 .3

1 .3

1 .3

.9

.9

4 .1

2 .9
3 .9

1.6

1 .9

1.0
2.8

.6

.7

.8

2.1
1.8
1.2

.8

1 .5
2 .7

2.6
2.8

2.8
1. 9
2.0

1 .3

1.8
1 .5
2.0

2 .4
2 .5

1 .7
1 .9

1.6
1.0
1.8
1.2
1 .4
1.2
1.2

2 .5

3 .3

4 .9

3 .7

2 .4

1 .9

2.2

2 .5
3 .2

2.6

2 .9
3 .6

1 .3
2 .4
2 .4
1 .5

1.6

3 .9
5 .4

2.8

2.0
2 .3
1.2

2.1
1.1

2 .9
2 .9
1 .9

3 .9
3 .6
3 .8

3 .4
3 .5
2 .4

2 .5
2 .9
1 .4

2 .3
2 .4
1 .5

1.8
1.2
1.1
1 .5

1.2

2 .3
1.5

.8

1.8
1.0

2 .9
2 .5

2 .3
1 .5

1 .5
.9

.5

.9

1.8

1 .3

2 .9

2 .5
3 .5

3 .6
4 .6

1.3
.6

1.5
.7

4.2
.8

2.2

1.6
1.0
1.8
1. 3
1 .5

1.2
1 .3

1.6
1.2
1 .9
1. 4

1.6

1 .3
1 .4

2 .4

2 .7

1 .9

2.1

1.8

1 .7

2 .4
1 .5
2 .5

2.6

2.0
1 .3
2.1
2.2

1 .7

1 .3

1 .7

1 .5

.9

1.0

.7

.6

.7

2 .7
4 .0

1 .9
3 .2

2.8

2.3
.6

1.6
.6

1.5
.5

1 .9

1.1
1.2
1.0
1.2
2.0

2.1

.8
.6

3 .0

1 .5
2 .4

1.7
.6

1.5
.5

B — LABOR TURNOVER
T able

B -l.

1041
Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[Per 100 em ployees]

1966

1965

Annual
average

M ajor in d u stry group

June 2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1965

1964

1.4

1. 7

Separations: Layoffs
M a n u fa c tu r in g :
A c t u a l ______________________________________
S e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d _______ ______ ________
D u r a b l e g o o d s ............................................ ..................
O r d n a n c e a n d a c c e s s o r ie s ________________
L u m b er a n d w o o d p ro d u cts, ex cep t
f u r n i t u r e _______________ _________________
F u r n i t u r e a n d f ix t u r e s ___________________
S t o n e , c l a y , a n d g l a s s p r o d u c t s _________
P r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s _____ _____ ____
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s ______________
M a c h i n e r y ___________________________ _____
E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t a n d s u p p l i e s _____
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t ______________
I n s t r u m e n t s a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s ............
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r in g in d u s ­
t r i e s _______________________________________
N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s ___________________________
F o o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s _____________
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ___________________
T e x t i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s _____________ _____
A p p a r e l a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s ___________
P a p e r a n d a l li e d p r o d u c t s ............ ...................
P r i n t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g , a n d a l li e d i n d u s ­
t r i e s ___________________________ ___________
C h e m i c a l s a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s . ..................
P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g a n d r e la t e d i n d u s ­
t r i e s _______________________________________
R u bber
and
m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic
p r o d u c t s __________________________________
L e a t h e r a n d l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s __________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g :
M e t a l m i n i n g ______________________________
C o a l m i n i n g ____ _________________________ _

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.8

1.1

1.1

1.5

1.2

1.1

1.4

1.1

1.3

1.3

1.6

1.3

1.3

1.8

1.3

1.1

1.7

1.6

1.4

.7
.3

.8
.5

.7
.6

.7
.4

.9
.3

1.1
.4

1.5
.3

1.2
.5

1.2
.6

1.0
0.4

1.8
.6

1.8
.8

1.0
.7

1.2
.8

1.5
1.8

.8
.9
.7
.2
.6
.3
.4
1.7
.3

.6
.5
.9
.4
1.3
.4
.4
1.3
.3

.8
.6
.8
.3
1.0
.4
.4
1.3
.4

1.8
.6
.8
.4
1.1
.4
.4
1.2
.4

1.3
.8
1.4
.4
1.1
.3
.4
2.0
.3

2.5
.9
2.1.
.7
1.3
.4
.5
1.6
.4

3.3
1.0
2.4
1.3
1.5
.4
.6
1.4
.3

2.1
.7
1.8
1.8
1.2
.5
.5
1.4
.3

1.2
.9
1.4
2.6
1.4
.7
.4
1.4
.4

1.0
.7
1.2
1.7
1.2
.8
.6
1.3
.4

1.0
.7
.9
.9
1.8
1.0
.7
6.1
.6

1.2
1.7
1.1
.8
1.9
1.1
1.2
4.2
1.2

.8
1.1
.9
.5
1.3
.6
.7
1.5
.6

1.7
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.4
.6
.8
2.1
.6

1. 9
1.3
1. 7
.8
1. 8
.8
1.2
2.3
.9
2.9

1.2

1.4

1.2

.9

1.3

3.0

8.5

3.3

1.2

.9

1.1

2.6

1.9

2.4

1.1
2.1
1.5
.5
2.0
.4

1.1
2.1
1.7
.4
1.9
.4

1.4
2.2
4.4
.4
2.6
.5

1.3
2.5
3.8
.5
2.0
.5

1.1
2.4
3.6
.6
1.3
.5

1.7
3.1
7.0
.9
2.1
.8

2.3
4.5
5.5
1.3
3.3
1.0

1.8
3.9
8.9
.8
2.1
.7

1.7
3.9
6.0
.5
1.9
.6

1.6
3.5
2.3
.5
1.8
.7

1.3
2.3
4.8
.6
1.7
.9

1. 9
2.5
3.9
1.1
4.1
.8

1.3
2.1
1.0
.6
2.2
.5

1.6
3.0
4.3
.8
2.4
.8

1.1
2.6
.9

.6
.7

.6
.7

.6
.5

.6
.6

.6
.4

.9
.6

1.3
.7

.9
.6

.8
.6

.8
.5

.9
.5

.7
.6

.7
.9

.9
.7

1.0
.8

.2

.4

.4

.5

.5

.8

1.0

1.0

.7

.8

.5

.5

.5

.6

.7

.6

.8

.7

.7

1.3

.8
.9

.9

.9

.7
1.4

1.9

1.3
2.2

1.0
.9

1.0
1.0

1.1

1.1

1.4

1.1
1.0

1.2

1.3

1.9
2.5

1.5

1.5
1.8

.4
.3

.3
.7

.3
1.1

.9
.6

.4
.6

.5
.4

1.3

1.2

.8

1.0

.8
.5

.2
.4

.5
.9

1.4

.5
.6

.7
.9

.7
.9

1 For com parability of data w ith those published in issues prior to January
1966, see footnote 1, table A -2.

Month-to-month changes in total employment in manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries as indicated by labor turnover rates are not
comparable with the changes shown by the Bureau’s employment series
for the following reasons: (1) the labor turnover series measures changes


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.9
3.4
4.9

.6

during the calendar m on th , w hile the em p loym en t series m easures changes
from m id m on th to m id m on th and (2) the turnover series excludes personnel
changes caused b y strikes, b u t the em p loym en t series reflects th e influence
of such stoppages.
2 Prelim inary.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1042

C.—Earnings and Hours
T able

C -l.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 b y industry
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

Annual
average

1965

Industry
J u ly 2 June2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Feb.

Dec.

Oct.

Nov.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average w eekly earnings
M ining_________________________ _______ $132.80 $132.68 $130. 85 $121. 72^$127.37 $126.30 $126.18 $127.12 $123. 73 $126.26 $124. 66 $126.14 $122.96 $123. 52 $117.74
134.62 132.51 133.88 129.79 130.94 132.19 131.67 128.96 130.31 131. 57 127. 71 128. 21 127. 71 122. 54
M etal mining------------------------------------138.09 136.27 139. 63 133. 74 133. 74 136.36 133.50 129. 52 129.36 133. 54 130. 71 133. 22 129.24 125.83
Iron ores___________________________
141.44 137.26 138.97 135.99 137.49 139.64 140.60 139.64 143.11 143. 44 136. 32 134.90 136. 71 130. 42
Copper ores_________________________
152.99 152.31 111.52 143. 44 142.45 142.04 142. 96 129. 78 143.24 135. 29 141.98 134.46 137. 38 126.82
Coal mining__________________________
156. 56 155.12 112. 85 146.08 144.79 144. 73 146.02 131.98 146. 30 137. 90 144. 67 137.11 140.23 128. 91
B itum inous.________________________
121.98 121. 84 122.41 121.69 120.13 121.27 119. 69 117. 87 115.92 116.47 117.12 116.03 115.90 113.05
Crude petroleum and natural gas---------127.39 127.70 129.15 126.36 127.39 128. 84 127.20 127.10 123.42 125. 55 123. 41 123.71 123. 62 120.95
Crude petroleum and natural gas fields.
117.93 117.04 117.13 118.09 115.10 115. 28 114.11 110.93 109.91 109. 65 112.33 110. 06 110. 31 106.19
Oil and gas field services_____________
127.17 122.29 120. 31 116. 22 113.70 112.05 117. 78 123. 02 123.87 122. 62 122. 25 119.97 117. 45 111. 85
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining_____
129.13 121.47 119.20 114.29 109.03 107. 65 117.00 121. 64 124.71 122. 98 123. 50 123. 25 116. 58 110. 62
Crushed and broken stone___________
Contract construction___________________ 149.76 146.31 141.72 140. 22 142. 88 138.30 137. 97 139. 50 136.14
135.06 132.09 131.74 134.32 129.93 129. 23 132.13 126.71
General building contractors----------------H eavy construction___________________
150.03 136.67 137.54 138. 65 130.68 132.44 131. 87 135.83
Highway and street construction-------150.95 . 133.67 134.64 133. 95 123. 00 126. 96 125.06 133.87
148.32 139.94 140.26 142.61 136. 04 137. 28 138. 38 137. 32
Other heavy construction____________
152.63 150. 55 147.42 149. 92 146.65 145. 89 148. 00 142. 52
Special trade contractors_______________
Plumbing, heating, and air condition­
ing-------------------------------- ------------160.33 159.49 155. 07 155.96 154.77 154. 79 156.00 150. 07
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating
140.12 138. 84 135. 84 134. 82 132.83 131. 67 135.10 132. 59
Electrical work--------------------------------176.28 175.38 171. 97 173.38 171.38 173.16 174. 49 166.94
Masonry, plastering, stone, and tile
141. 05 139.15 139.04 142.40 134. 52 125. 58 136.11 130. 26
work_____________________ _____
Roofing and sheet metal work-----------123.90 118.27 116. 90 122. 50 119.06 118. 41 118.19 113.19
Average weekly hours

144. 01
132.49
149.45
151.70
146. 01
150.00

138. 75
128. 52
138. 63
138.84
139.12
145. 27

143.15
131. 33
148.43
149. 52
147. 00
148.96

140.50
129.15
143. 38
145. 86
140. 90
147.04

137.11 134.98 140. 50 138. 22 133. 21 127.31
127.41 122. 50 122. 30 123. 65 117.30 112. 49

42.5
41.1
43.5
46.5
49.3

42.3
41.6
40.9
43.4
39.9
40.2
42.3
40.8
43.6
45.7
47.2

41.9
41.4
40.2
42.9
39.0
39.2
42.5
41.0
43.7
45.1
45.9

38.9
37.1
43.4
44.5
42. C
38.0

38.6
36.9
42.8
44.2
41.2
37.8

37.4
36.1
40.8
41.7
39.9
36.9

37.2
35.8
40.8
41.4
40.1
36.6

38.1
35.7
37.4

39.1
36.2
39.4

39.0
36.9
38.9

38.6
35.7
38.6

38. 1
35.7
38.5

34.8
36.3

34.7
35.1

36.4
36.4

35.9
36.8

34.6
34.5

34.5
34.4

$2.96
3.13
3. 23
3. 21
3. 47
3. 51
2. 78
3.10
2. 55
2. 64
2.55

$2.95
3.14
3.21
3.26
3.46
3.50
2.76
3.04
2.55
2.63
2.54

$2.94
3.14
3.21
3.26
3. 46
3.50
2.76
3. 04
2.55
2.62
2.52

$2.92
3.07
3.09
3.20
3.48
3.52
2. 73
3. 01
2.53
2.59
2.49

$2.90
3.06
3.12
3.13

$2.81
2.96
3.13
3.04
3.26
3.30

2.73
3.01
2.53
2.58
2.50

$2.92
3. 07
3.16
3.15
3.45
3.49
2. 74
3.03
2. 53
2. 57
2. 47

3. 76
3.63
3.39
3.24
3. 53
4.00

3. 74
3. 61
3.43
3.33
3.53
3.97

3.76
3.62
3. 50
3.44
3. 57
4.00

3.74
3.61
3.44
3.37
3.54
3.98

3.68
3. 54
3.42
3.36
3.50
3.92

3.64
3. 50
3.35
3.30
3.42
3. 89

3.69
3. 55
3. 37
3.27
3. 47
3. 92

3. 55
3.43
3.23
3.13
3.34
3.78

4. 01
3.85
4.44

4.00
3.86
4. 44

3. 97
3.81
4. 44

3.99
3.84
4.46

3.97
3.88
4.41

3.92
3.80
4.35

3.90
3.67
4.33

3.92
3.74
4.37

3.78
3.59
4.29

3.90
3. 61

3. 90
3. 56

3.90
3. 43

3.94
3.51

3.89
3.49

3.86
3.36

3. 85
3.36

3.85
3. 40

3.69
3.27

42.9
42.2
41.8
43.3
41.5
41.7
42.6
40.8
44.0
45.8
46.9

41.4
42.5
42.7
43.7
32.8
32.9
42.8
41.0
44.2
45.4
46.2

42.6
41.6
40.9
42.9
41.1
41.5
43.0
40.5
44.9
44.7
45.9

42.1
41.7
40.9
43.1
40.7
40.9
42.3
40.7
43.6
43.9
44.5

42.2
42.1
41.7
43.5
40.7
41.0
42.7
40.9
44.0
43.6
44.3

42.8
41.8
40.7
43.8
41.2
41.6
42.9
40.9
44.4
45.3
46.8

41.8
41.2
40.1
43.5
37.4
37.6
42.4
41.0
43.5
46.6
47.7

42.8
41.5
40.3
43.9
41.4
41.8
42.0
40.6
43.1
47.1
49.1

42.4
41.9
41.6
44.0
39.1
39.4
42.2
41.3
43.0
46.8
48.8

43.2
41.6
42.3
42.6
40.8
41.1
42.9
41.0
44.4
47.2
49.6

42.4
41.9
42.7
43.1

38.3
36.7
42.5
43.5
41.2
37.5

37.1
35.7
39.5
39.9
39.2
36.9

36.9
35.8
40.1
40.8
39.4
36.4

37.7
36.8
40.9
41.6
40.4
37.2

36.3
35.5
38.1
38.2
38.0
36.3

36.5
35.6
39.3
39.8
39.0
36.2

37.1
36.4
38.9
38.6
39.2
37.0

36.4
35.1
39.6
40.2
38.9
35.9

38.3
36.6
42.7
44.1
40.9
37.5

37.1
35.6
40.3
41.2
39.3
36.5

39.2
36.3
39.0

38.9
35.6
38.8

38.1
35.1
38.3

38.7
35.2
38.7

38.5
34.5
38.6

38.6
34.2
39.0

39.0
35.0
39.3

37.8
34.8
37.6

39.1
36.6
39.1

35.0
35.3

34.7
33.6

34.5
33.4

35.6
34.9

33.8
32.2
33.4
34.9
32.8
32.8
33.2
33.0
Average hourly earnings

M i n i n g __________________________________________
$ 3 .0 6
M e t a l m i n i n g _________________________________________
I r o n o r e s _____________________________________________
C o p p e r o r e s ________________________________ _________
C o a l m i n i n g _____ _____ _______________________________
B i t u m i n o u s _________________________________________
C r u d e p e t r o l e u m a n d n a t u r a l g a s _____ ______ _____
C r u d e p e t r o l e u m a n d n a t u r a l g a s f i e l d s . _______
O il a n d g a s f ie l d s e r v i c e s __________________________
Q u a r r y i n g a n d n o n m e t a l l i c m i n i n g ________________
C r u s h e d a n d b r o k e n s t o n e ________________________

$3.05
3.16
3.28
3.20
3.66
3. 71
2.85
3.13
2.65
2.70
2.63

$3.05
3.14
3.26
3.17
3.67
3.72
2.86
3.13
2.66
2.67
2.59

$2.94
3.15
3.27
3.18
3.40
3.43
2. 86
3.15
2. 65
2. 65
2. 58

$2.99
3.12
3.27
3.17
3.49
3. 52
2. 83
3.12
2.63
2.60
2.49

$3.00
3.14
3.27
3.19
3.50
3.54
2.84
3.13
2.64
2.59
2.45

$2.99
3.14
3.27
3.21
3. 49
3. 53
2.84
3.15
2.62
2. 57
2. 43

$2.97
3.15
3.28
3. 21
3. 47
3. 51
2. 79
3.11
2.57
2.60
2.50

C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n _________________________
3 .8 4
G e n e r a l b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s ________________________
H e a v y c o n s t r u c t i o n __________________________________
H i g h w a y a n d s t r e e t c o n s t r u c t i o n ________________
O t h e r h e a v y c o n s t r u c t i o n _________________________
S p e c i a l t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r s _______ _____________________
P l u m b i n g , h e a t i n g , a n d a ir c o n d i t i o n ­
i n g -------------------- ------------ ---------------- ------------ ------------P a i n t i n g , p a p e r h a n g i n g a n d d e c o r a t i n g _________
E l e c t r i c a l w o r k . ______ _____________________________
M a s o n r y , p la s te r in g , s t o n e , a n d t ile
w o r k _______________________________________________
R o o f i n g a n d s h e e t m e t a l w o r k ____________________

3.82
3.68
3.53
3.47
3.60
4.07

3.82
3.70
3.46
3.35
3.57
4.08

3. 80
3. 68
3.43
3. 30
3. 56
4. 05

3.79
3. 65
3.39
3.22
3.53
4.03

3.81
3.66
3.43
3.22
3. 58
4.04

3. 78
3. 63
3.37
3.19
3. 52
4.03

4.09
3.86
4.52

4.10
3.90
4.52

4. 07
3. 87
4.49

4.03
3.83
4.48

4.02
3. 85
4. 44

4.03
3.51

4.01
3.52

4. 03
3. 50

4.00
3. 51

3.98
3.63

43.4

Contract construction.....................................
General building contractors...... ...............
H eavy construction___________________
Highway and street construction_____
Other heavy construction__________ _
Special trade contractors______________
Plumbing, heating, and air condition-

39.0

Painting, paperhanging and decorating.
Electrical work_____________________
Masonry, plastering, stone, and tile
work_____________________ ____ ___
Roofing and sheet metal work________

See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

132.06
122.79
131.78
129. 58
133. 93
138. 35

156. 01 151.26 153. 27 152.10 151.31 144.02
140.54 138. 52 137. 56 135. 42 133. 52 128.16
174.39 164. 93 171. 39 168. 44 168.68 165.17

43.5
42.6
42.1
44.2
41.8
42.2
42.8
40.7
44.5
47.1
49.1

M ining____________________ ____ _______
M etal mining_________________________
Iron ores___________________________
Copper ores________________________
Coal mining....................... .............................
Bitum inous________________________
Crude petroleum and natural gas_______
Crude petroleum and natural gas fields.
Oil and gas field services_____________
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining_____
Crushed and broken stone___________

138. 01
128.16
137. 50
136. 36
138. 45
144.65

2 . 66

2.95
2.43
2. 48
2.41

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able C -l.

1043

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 Jun e2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing_________
Durable goods____
Nondurable goods.

$111.24 $112.74 $112.05 $111.24 $110. 95 $110.27 $110. 00 $110. 92 $109. 71 $108.62 $107.83
120.38 122.25 121.82 121. 54 120. 69 120.41 119. 99 120. 98 119. 43 118. 72 117.18
98.74 98.82 97.69 96.96 96.88 96.48 95.52 96. 96 96.32 95.68 95.68
Ordnance and accessories_____________
131.67 133.35 133.67 132.62 131. 67 132.93 135.36 136. 85 133. 56 133. 56 131.15
Ammunition, except for small arms__ 130. 97 132,75 134. 46 132.99 132. 75 135.43 138. 88 139. 40 138. 22 138.13 134.27
Sighting and fire control equip m ent...
132.80 131.55 130.42 134. 51 136.20 135. 79 137. 78 127. 39 124. 40 126.36
Other ordnance and accessories______
133.15 135. 73 132.44 132.00 129.03 127.58 126.98 130. 82 123. 97 124.10 125.24

Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_________________________
Sawmills and planing m ills__________
Millwork, plywood, and related
products_________________________
Wooden containers__________________
Miscellaneous wood products-. . _____
Furniture and fixtures_____________

Household furniture_________

Office furniture__________________
Partitions; office and store fixtures.
Other furniture and fixtures______

93.48
86.07

94.16
86. 51

$106. 45 $107. 01 $107. 53 $102 97
115.51 116. 06 117. IS 112 Ip
95.11 94. 87 94.64 90. 91
131.15
136.21
127.89
120. 77

131 66
136.53
126 05
121. 51

130 73 122 31

134 50 124 43
127 OS 12Q 34
121. 93 116. 40

94.24
86.94

92.06
84.86

88. 51
82. 62

88.48
81.59

88.75
81. 81

89. 40
82. 42

89. 76
82. 42

91.49
84.26

90.61
84.25

91. 08
84. 46

88. 94
82.22

88 64
81.81

85 24

99.12 100. 74 102.18
77. 59 77. 04 77.71
88.40 87.98 88.19

99.66
76.08
87.35

97.47
73. 98
87.14

97.06
73.62
85.90

97.76
72.98
85.90

98. 28
75. 36
86.11

98.23
74. 46
86.32

98.47
75.96
86.32

97.94
73.44
86.53

98. 94
73.93
86.32

97.16
73 10
85.90

96 51
72 9?
84.67

Q3 11
68 63

79. 60

8L79
91.54 90. 67 88. 75 89.64 88.58 88.15 92.02 90. 30 90.73 89.24 89. 04
84 46
87
98
86
51
85.70 84.87 83.84 84. 67 83.64 82. 82 87. 96 86. 10 85.88 84.25
80 60 8^. 80 7Q Q3
111. 54 111.46 108.20 108.97 109.62 108. 54 108.11 106. 68 106. 75 107. 63 83. 42 105.
50 104. 48 97 88
120.37 116.60 113. 58 113.02 110.83 110.43 114. 36 113. 42 115. 87 115. 75 108.50
120.22
113.
79 112. 86 105 85
98.24 98.41 96.60 94.39 94. 43 92.06 91.43 95.85 94.08 93.68 92.35
91.38 91.56 92.18 87. 54
90.23
83. 43

Average weekly hours
Manufacturing___ _____
Durable goods____
Nondurable goods.
Ordnance and accessories.____ ______
Ammunition, except for small arms.
Sighting and fire control equipment.
Other ordnance and accessories.........

41.2
41.8
40.3

41.6
42.3
40.5

41.5
42.3
40.2

41.2
42.2
39.9

41.4
42.2
40.2

41.3
42.1
40.2

41.2
42.1
39.8

41.7
42.6
40.4

41.4
42.2
40.3

41.3
42.1
40.2

41.0
41.7
40.2

41.1
41.7
40.3

41. 0
41.6
40.2

41.2
42.0
40.1

40 7
41 4
39.7

41.8
40. 8

42.3
41. 5
42.3
44.0

42.1
41.3
41.8
44.0

41.8
41.1
42.7
43.3

42.2
41.8
43.1
43.1

42.7
42.6
42.7
42.9

42.9
42.5
43.6
43.9

42.4
42.4
40.7
42.6

42.4
42.5
40.0
42.5

41.9
41.7
40.5
42.6

41.9
42.3
40.6
41.5

42.2
42.4
40.4
41.9

41.9
41.9
40. 6
41.9

40 5
40 4
40 8
40.7

43.8

42.2
41.1
42. 7
44. 5

Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_________________________
Sawmills and planing mills__________
Millwork, plywood, and related

41.0
40.6

41.3
41.0

41.7
41.4

41.1
40.8

40.6
40.5

40.4
39.8

40.9
40.5

41.2
40.8

40.8
40.4

41.4
41.1

41.0
40.9

41.4
41.2

40.8
40.5

40.8
40.5

40 4
40.2

Wooden containers__________________
Miscellaneous wood products________

41.3
42. 4
41. 5

41.8
42.1
41.5

42.4
42.7
41. 6

41.7
41.8
41,4

41.3
41.1
41.3

41.3
40.9
41.1

41.6
41.0
41.1

42.0
42.1
41.6

41.8
41.6
41.5

41.9
42.2
41.7

41.5
40.8
41.4

42.1
41.3
41.5

41 7
41.3
41.3

41. 6
41.2
41.3

41 9
39 9
41.1

41.2
40. 5

41.8
41.4
43.4
43.3
42.6

41.4
41.0
43. 2
42.4
42.0

40.9
40.7
42.6
41.3
41.4

41.5
41.3
42.9
41.4
41.6

41.2
41.0
43.5
41.2
41.1

41.0
40.8
42.9
40.9
41.0

42.6
42.7
42.9
42.2
42.6

42.0
42.0
42.5
41.7
42.0

42.2
42.1
42.7
42.6
42.2

41.7
41.5
43. 4
42.4
41.6

42.0
41.5
43.4
44.2
42.5

41. 0
40.5
42.2
42.3
42.0

41.5
41.4
42.3
41.8
41.9

41 2
41.2
41 3
40 4
41.1

products____________________________

Furniture and fixtures_____________
Household furniture____ _________
Office furniture__________________
Partitions; office and store fixtures.
Other furniture and fixtures______

42.9

Average hourly earnings
Manufacturing_________
Durable goods___
Nondurable goods.
Ordnance and accessories____________
Ammunition, except for small arms.
Sighting and fire control equipment.
Other ordnance and accessories____
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_________________________
Sawmills and planing mills__________
Millwork, plywood, and related
products___ ____ __________________
Wooden containers__________________
Miscellaneous wood p ro d u cts..______
Furniture and fixtures_____________
Household furniture_____________
Office furniture__________________
Partitions; office and store fixtures.
Other furniture and fixtures______
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.70
2.88
2.45

$2.71
2.89
2.44

$2.70
2.88
2.43

$2.70
2.88
2.43

$2.68
2. 86
2. 41

$2.67
2.86
2.40

$2.67
2.85
2.40

$2. 66
2. 84
2. 40

$2. 65
2.83
2. 39

$2.63
2.82
2.38

$2.63
2.81
2.38

$2.59
2.77
2.36

$2.61
2.79
2.36

$2. 61
2. 79
2.36

$2.53
2.71
2.29

3.15
3.21
3. 04

3.16
3.23
3.11
3. 05

3.16
3.24
3.11
3. 01

3.15
3.22
3.12
3.00

3.15
3.23
3.15
2. 98

3.15
3.24
3.16
2.96

3.17
3. 26
3.18
2.96

3.19
3.28
3.16
2.98

3.15
3. 26
3. 13
2. 91

3.15
3.25
3.11
2.92

3.13
3.22
3.12
2.94

3.13
3.22
3.15
2.91

3.12
3.22
3.12
2.90

3.12
3.21
3.13
2. 91

3 02
3. 08
3 17
2.86

2.28
2.12

2.28
2.11

2.26
2.10

2.24
2.08

2.18
2.04

2.19
2. 05

2.17
2.02

2.17
2. 02

2.20
2. 04

2.21
2.05

2.21
2.06

2.20
2.05

2.18
2.03

2.17
2.02

2.11
1.98

2.40
1.83
2.13

2.41
1. 83
2.12

2.41
1.82
2.12

2.39
1.82
2.11

2.36
1.80
2.11

2.35
1.80
2.09

2.35
1. 78
2.09

2. 34
1.79
2. 07

2. 35
1.79
2.08

2.35
1.80
2. 07

2.36
1.80
2.09

2.35
1.79
2.08

2.33
1.77
2.08

2. 39
1.77
2.05

2.26
1.72
1.99

2.19
2. 06

2.19
2. 07
2. 57
2.78
2.31

2.19
2.07
2.58
2.75
2.30

2.17
2.06
2.54
2.75
2.28

2.16
2.05
2.54
2.73
2.27

2.15
2.04
2.52
2.69
2.24

2.15
2.03
2.53
2.70
2. 23

2.16
2.06
2. 52
2. 71
2. 25

2.15
2. 05
2. 51
2.72
2. 24

2.15
2.04
2.50
2.72
2.22

2.14
2.03
2. 48
2.73
2.22

2.12
2. 01
2.50
2.72
2.15

2.11
1.99
2.50
2. 69
2.18

2.12
2.00
2. 47
2.70
2. 20

2. 05
1. 94
2.37
2. 62
2.13

2.29

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1044
T able C -l.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1965

1966

Annual
average

Industry
J u ly 2 June2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—C ontinue d
Durable

Continued

Stone, clay, and glass products-----------pi^t, glass
_
__ __ __
rpqcTand glassware, pressed or blown .
Cement, hydraulic-.- _
- - Structural clay products . . .
Pottery and related p r o d u cts.__
Concrete, gypsum and, plaster products.
Other stone and mineral products------Primary metal industries .. . .
Blast furnace and basic steel products.
Iron and steel foundries . . ------- -Nonferrous smelting and refining __
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and extrading. . . .
__ _
Nonferrous foundries... _ . . .
Miscellaneous primary metal industries_________ . . . - ------- --

$114.09 $115.60 $115.06 $114. 09
151.73 152.34 155.86
111.79 111.79 109.34
135. 56 132.61 132.19 132. 51
96.88 97.76 97.29 98.00
97.32 98. 55 98.00
118.19 121.59 118.55 117.13
115.35 116. 05 116.60 115.63
137. 76
145.49
127.71
128.33

139.83
148. 04
128.30
129.13

139. 07
146.97
127.15
128.83

138.74
146. 56
128. 46
129.32

$112. 56 $110. 54 $110.66 $112. 25 $112. 94 $112.94
154. 51 152.08 151. 30 146. 91 155.88 152.76
111.92 110. 70 111.37 111.78 109. 61 108.00
130.94 126.98 129. 79 127. 82 131. 67 126.79
95.87 93.61 93.66 94.62 95.08 95.72
96.87 96.62 97.11 97.69 96.48 96.32
114. 06 109. 04 110. 50 114.06 115. 72 118.46
113. 82 113. 55 111.22 113.63 113.25 113.10
137.25
143. 56
128.60
126.96

136. 08
141.69
128.03
125.93

135.34
140. 24
126. 28
125.82

132. 48
134. 21
128.63
126.00

129.83
130. 64
125. 85
125. 70

130. 06
132. 01
125.86
125. 58

$112.10
154. 66
106.13
132. 29
95.72
95.36
117.11
111.19
133. 44
138. 29
126.15
128. 78

$111.78 $110.83
145.39 147. 63
106.13 106.25
123. 52 123. 90
95. 60 95.34
94.16 91.96
119.28 118. 04
111.14 109. 52
132. 51
139. 67
121.13
124. 27

135.68
144. 40
123. 27
124. 68

$109. 78 $105. 50
149. 60 144.14
106. 25 102. 21
124. 42 121.30
94.02 89.82
94. 72 93.13
113.26 108.32
110. 20 107. 01
133.88
140. 90
124. 99
124. 44

130.00
138. 43
119.41
120. 22

135. 52 136.75 136.14 134. 47 134.20 134. 81 135. 86 134. 98 131. 67 131.67 133. 32 130. 20 129.47 130. 07 112. 26
118.02 119.14 118.44 117. 74 117.17 116. 75 118.15 118. 40 115. 50 115. 08 112. 47 111.64 110.02 113. 55 110.12
145.86 147.06 149.64 146. 46 150.23 150.82 148. 24 150.48 149.60 148. 72 144.86 138. 60 141.53 143. 09 133. 77
Average weekly hours
42.5
42.5
41.1
41.7
41.6
39.4

42.3
42.2
41.1
41.7
41.4
39.9

42.1
42.7
40.2
41.8
41.7
40.0

42.0
42.8
41.3
41.7
41.5
39.7

41.4
42.6
41.0
40.7
40.7
39.6

41.6
42.5
41.4
41.6
40.9
39.8

42.2
41.5
41.4
41.1
41.5
40.2

42.3
43.3
40.9
41.8
41.7
40.2

42.3
42.2
40.6
40.9
41.8
40.3

42.3
43.2
40.2
42.4
41.8
39.9

42.5
41.9
40.2
40.9
42.3
39.9

42.3
42.3
40.4
41.3
42.0
38.8

41.9
42.5
40.4
41.2
41.6
39.8

41.7
41.9
40.4
41.4
41.2
39.8

44.1
42.1

45.2
42.2

44.4
42.4

44.2
42.2

43.7
42.0

42.1
41.9

42.5
41.5

43.7
42.4

44.0
42.1

44.7
42.2

44.7
41.8

45. 7
42.1

45. 4
41.8

43.9
41.9

43. 5
41.8

42.0
41.1
43.0
41.8

42.5
41.7
43.2
42.2

42.4
41.4
43.1
42.1

42.3
41.4
43.4
42.4

42.1
40.9
43.3
41.9

42.0
40.6
43.4
41.7

41.9
40.3
43.1
41.8

41.4
38.9
43.9
42.0

40.7
38.2
43.1
41.9

40.9
38.6
43.4
42.0

41.7
40.2
43.5
42.5

41.8
41.2
42.5
41.7

42.4
42.1
43.1
41.7

42.1
41.2
43.4
41.9

41.8
41.2
42.8
41.6

44.0
42.0

44.4
42.4

44.2
42.3

43.8
42.2

44.0
42.3

44.2
42.3

44.4
42.5

44.4
42.9

43.6
42.0

43.6
42.0

44.0
41.5

43.4
41.5

43.3
40.9

43. 5
41.9

42.6
41.4

42.4

43.0

43.5

42.7

43.8

44.1

43.6

44.0

44.0

44.0

43.5

42.0

42.5

43.1

42.2

Stone, clay, and glass products----------- .
Flat glass
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown _
Cement, h y d ra u lic____ . . . - - - - - Structural clay products - - - - - - - - Pottery and related products
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
. _ Other stone and mineral products-------

42.1

Primary metal industries. _ .
Blast furnace and basic steel products.
Iron and steel foundries .
- ------- Nonferrous smelting and refining-------Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and extrading_______ ___ _
- -Nonferrous foundries_________ Miscellaneous primary metal industries_______________________ - -

42.1
41.4

Average hourly earnings
$2.72
3 57
2.72
3.18
2.35
2.47

$2.72
3.61
2.72
3.17
2.35
2.47

$2.71
3.65
2.72
3.17
2.35
2. 45

$2.68
3.61
2.71
3.14
2.31
2.44

$2.67
3. 57
2. 70
3.12
2.30
2.44

$2.66
3.56
2. 69
3.12
2.29
2.44

$2.66
3.54
2.70
3.11
2.28
2. 43

$2.67
3.60
2.68
3.15
2.28
2.40

$2.67
3.62
2.66
3.10
2.29
2.39

$2.65
3. 58
2.64
3.12
2. 29
2.39

$2.63
3.47
2. 64
3.02
2. 26
2.36

$2.62
3.49
2.63
3.00
2. 27
2.37

$2.62
3. 52
2. 63
3.02
2. 26
2.38

$2.53
3.44
2. 53
2.93
2.18
2. 34

2.68
2.74

2.69
2.75

2.67
2.75

2.65
2.74

2.61
2.71

2.59
2. 71

2. 6C
2.68

2. 61
2.68

2.63
2.69

2.65
2.68

2. 62
2. 66

2.61
2.64

2. 60
2.62

2.58
2.63

2. 49
2. 56

3.28
3.54
2.97
3.07

3.29
3. 55
2.97
3.06

3.28
3.55
2.95
3.06

3.28
3. 54
2.96
3.05

3.26
3.51
2.97
3.03

3.24
3.49
2.95
3.02

3.23
3.48
2.93
3.01

3.20
3.45
2.93
3.00

3.19
3. 42
2. 92
3.00

3.18
3.42
2.90
2.99

3.20
3. 44
2.90
3.03

3.17
3. 39
2.85
2.98

3.20
3.43
2.86
2.99

3.18
3.42
2.88
2.97

3.11
3.36
2.79
2.89

3. OS
2.81

3.08
2.81

3. OS
2.80

3.07
2. 79

3. 05
2.77

3.05
2.76

3.06
2.78

3.04
2. 76

3.02
2.75

3.02
2.74

3. 03
2. 71

3.00
2. 69

2.99
2. 69

2.99
2.71

2. 87
2. 66

3.44

3.42

3.44

3.43

3. 43

3.42

3.40

3.42

3.40

3.38

3.33

3.30

3.33

3.32

3.17

Stone, clay, and glass products____- —
Flat, glass
Glassand glassware, pressed or blow n.
Cement, hydraulic... ____ _ _. .
Structural clay products.
. _ _. ..
Pottery and related products . . .
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products______________________________
Other stone and mineral products___

$2.71

Primary metal industries
_ __________
Blast furnace and basic steel products
Iron and steel foundries...
Nonferrous smelting and refining
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and ex______________
trading_________
Nonferrous foundries___ -- --Miscellaneous primary metal industries ___ . _
- .
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3.22
2.34

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

1045

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 b y industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

A nnual
average

1965

In d u stry
J u ly 2 J u n e 2

M ay

A p r.

M ar.

M a n u fa c tu r in g — C o n tin u e d
JL/U/TUiUlG y u u u s

Jan.

F eb.

D ec.

N ov.

O ct.

S ep t.

A ug.

J u ly

1965

1964

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s

OUIitlllUtJU

F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s _________________
M e t a l c a n s , - - - ___________________________
C u t l e r y , h a n d t o o ls , a n d g e n e r a l h a r d w a r e ..
__________ __
___________
H e a t i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d p l u m b i n g fix t u r e s ______________________________________
F a b r ic a te d s tr u c tu r a l m e t a l p r o d u c t s ..
S c r e w m a c h i n e p r o d u c t s , b o l t s , e t c _____
M e ta l s t a m p i n g s ________. . . ______________
C o a t i n g , e n g r a v i n g , a n d a l li e d s e r v i c e s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d w i r e p r o d u c t s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s _________________ _____________________
M a c h i n e r y ____________________________________
E n g i n e s a n d t u r b i n e s _____________________
F a r m m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t . . . . .
C o n s t r u c t i o n a r id r e la t e d i r i a c h i n e r y ___
M e ta lw o r k in g m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t __________________
________________
S p e c i a l i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e r y _____________
G e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e r y ___________
O ffic e , c o m p u t i n g a n d a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s _____________________________________
S e r v ic e i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e s _______________
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a c h i n e r y _________________

$119.42 $121.41 $121.84 $119.99 $119. 85 $119. 00 $118. 02 $119. 71 $118.72 $118.30 $116. 48 $115. 08 $114. 68 $116. 20 $111. 34
145.30 142. 03 142. 03 138.14 135.36 135.14 133.66 135. 68 136.32 134. 4C 133. 22 140. 92 141. 36 137. 49 131. 82
110.57 112.74 113.97 113.16 113. 57 113.15 112. 47 114. 51 114.93 112. 71 111.22 108. 09 107.33 110. 81 107. 23
108.27
118.85
125.40
129. 63
104.92
108. 58

110.3C
121.13
128.25
131. 58
106.34
111.25

110. 7C
120.27
128.99
132.93
106.85
111.51

108.67
117.73
127.11
132. 75
104. 58
108. 58

108. 0C
117. oa
128.82
131.89
105. 42
108. 52

108.27
116. 76
127. 63
129.99
104.25
109. 56

105. 6C
116.48
126. 62
129. 68
102.18
107. 01

109.08
118. 3C
126. 34
132. 41
103. 49
108. 8C

108.4C
116.62
124.32
132.41
103.00
108.54

109.59
117.45
123.20
130.20
102. 58
106. 85

106. 53
116. 06
121.21
125. 38
102. 51
105. 75

105. 06
115. 90
120. 01
122. 96
99. 46
104. 00

104. 66
113. 98
117. 39
125.38
98.98
102. 50

105. 06
114. 26
121.16
128. 60
100. 02
104. 92

102.91
110. 27
113.85
123. 41
95. 58
99. 46

116.75 120.13 120.28 117.46 117.87 116. 06 114. 95 114. 95 114.26 115.23 113. 42 113.15 111. 37 113.15 108. 65
133.24 135. 52
141.19 143. 09
129. 78
133.18 135.16

135.83
146. 06
131.21
133. 67

134. 03 134. 51
144. 86 141.57
131. 52 132 62
132. 50 133. 42

133. 76
138.32
130 11
131.94

132. 41
135. 85
128. 5S
129. 73

133. 48
140. 71
127.14
131. 24

130.20 129.47 127.12 124. 95 125. 83 127.15 121. 69
135. 76 136. 08 135. 43 132. 57 131. 43 133. 44 127. 30
125. 22
122 SO
128.40 . 130.33 126. 65 124. 66 125! 97 125. 97 120. 25

150. 02 154.25 156.37 153.12 153.64 152. 06 150. 29 151. 45 146.19 144.00 140. 75 139. 10 141. 75 144. 05 137.06
125.28 128. 03 126. 72 124. 55 125.24 124. 80 124. 24 126. 05 122.64 121.52 120. 37 117. 85 118. 28 120. 22 114. 86
133.42 135.39 134.64 132.24 132. 54 132. 71 131.67 132. 88 129.60 129.17 127. 41 125. 83 124. 82 126. 56 120. 83
129. 05 129.98 130.17 128. 52 132.13 132. 62 133. 06 133. 24 130.42 129.38 126. 60 123.85 126. 95 126. 78 120. 60
118.85 118.02 115.23 115. 79 115. 92 115.51 113.44 114. 93 113.30 112.61 109. 62 110.15 111. 78 112.19 107.16
126. 44 128.32 128. 32 127. 30 127. 87 127.43 125. 97 126. 66 124.36 123.36 119. 56 119.11 119. 66 120. 93 115.83
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u rs

F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s _________________
M e ta l c a n s _______________ _________________
C u t l e r y , h a n d t o o ls , a n d g e n e r a l h a r d w a r e ______________________________________
H e a t i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d p l u m b i n g fix tu res. .
—
____
________________
F a b r ic a te d str u c tu r a l m e ta l p r o d u c t s ..
S c r e w m a c h i n e p r o d u c t s , b o l t s , e t c _____
M e ta l s t a m p i n g s ____ __ . . _______________
C o a t i n g , e n g r a v i n g , a n d a l li e d s e r v i c e s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d w i r e p r o d u c t s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s .
M a c h in e r y ___________________ __ __________
E n g i n e s a n d t u r b i n e s _____________________
F a r m m a c h i n e r y a n d e q u i p m e n t _______
C o n s t r u c t i o n a r id r e la t e d i r i a c h i n e r y ____
M e ta lw o r k in g m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t ___________________ . . . . . ______
S p e c i a l i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e r y . ___________
G e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e r y _____ _____
O ffic e , c o m p u t i n g a n d a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s _____________________ _ . .
... ..
S e r v ic e i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e s _______________
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a c h i n e r y _________________

41.9
44.3

42.6
43.7

42.6
43.7

42.1
42.9

40.8

41.6

41.9

41.3

41.6

41.6

40.1
41.7
44.0
42.5
41.8
41.6
41.4

40.7
42.5
45.0
43.0
42.2
42.3
42.6

40.7
42.2
45.1
43.3
41.9
42.4
42.5

40.1
41.6
44.6
43.1
41.5
41.6
42.1

40.0
41.5
45.2
43.1
42.0
41.9
42.4

40.1
41.7
45.1
42.9
41.7
42.3
41.9

43.4
42.4
43.1

44.0
43.1
42.0
43.6

44.1
43.6
42 6
43.4

43.8
43.5
42. 7
43.3

44.1
42.9
43 2
43.6

44.0
42.3
42. 8
43.4

45.6
43.5
43.6

46.6
44.3
44.1

47.1
44.0
44.0

46.4
43.7
43.5

46.7
44.1
43.6

41.9
42.6
43.6

42.2
42.3
44.4

42.4
41.6
44.4

42.0
41.8
44.2

42.9
42.0
44.4

42.2
42.3

42.2
42.1

42.6
42.8

42.4
42.6

42.4
42.0

41.9
41.5

41.5

42.1

42.1

41.9

39.7
41.6
44.9
42.8
41.2
41.8
41.8

40. 7
42.4
44.8
43.7
41.9
42.5
41.8

40.6
42.1
44.4
43.7
41.7
42.4
41.7

41.2
42.4
44.0
43.4
41.7
41.9
41.9

43.7
41.8
42 3
43.1

44.2
42.9
42 1
43.6

43.4
41.9
41.6
42.8

46.5
44. 1
43.8

46.1
43.9
43.6

46.6
44.7
44. 0

43.2
41.7
44.4

43.2
41.4
44.2

43.4
42. 1
44.6

42.0
41.9

42.1
43.1

42.0
43.9

41.7
43.9

41.5

41.1

40.5

41.5

41.4

40.2
41.9
43.6
42.5
41.5
41.8
41.7

40.1
42.3
43.8
42.4
41.1
41.6
41.6

40.1
41.6
43.0
42.5
40.9
41.0
41.4

40.1
41.7
43.9
43.3
41. 5
41.8
41.6

40.2
41.3
42.8
43.0
41.2
41.1
41.0

43.3
42.0
41 4
43.3

42.8
41.8
41 6
42.5

42.5
41.3
40 4
42.4

42.8
41.2
40 5
42.7

43.1
41. 7
41. 4
42.7

42.4
40.8
41 4
41.9

45.4
43.8
43.2

45.0
43.4
43.2

44.4
43.3
42.9

44.3
42.7
42.8

45.0
42.7
42.6

45.3
43.4
42.9

44.5
42.7
42.1

42.9
41.5
44.1

42.7
41.4
43.9

42.2
40.6
42.7

41.7
41.1
43.0

42.6
41.4
43.2

42.4
41.4
43.5

41.3
40.9
42.9

$2.78
3.21

$2. 74
3.21

$2. 75
3.22

$2. 76
3.19

$2.67
3.08

41.7
42.8

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s . _______________
M e ta l c a n s ___________ .
_________________
C u t l e r y , h a n d t o o ls , a n d g e n e r a l h a r d w a r e ______ ___________
_ __ _
__
H e a t i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d p l u m b i n g fix t u r e s _____
_
___________
F a b r ic a te d str u c tu r a l m e t a l p r o d u c t s .—
S c r e w m a c h i n e p r o d u c t s , b o l t s , e t c _____
M e ta l s t a m p i n g s _____ . . . _______________
C o a t i n g , e n g r a v i n g , a n d a l li e d s e r v i c e s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d w i r e p r o d u c t s .
M is c e ll a n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s .

$2.85
3.28

$2.85
3.25

$2.86
3.25

$2. 85
3.22

2.71

2.71

2.72

2.70
2.85
2.85
3.05
2.51
2.61
2.82

2.71
2.85
2.85
3.06
2.52
2.63
2.82

2.72
2.85
2.86
3.07
2.55
2.63
2.83

M a c h in e r y __________ __________________ .
E n g i n e s a n d t u r b i n e s __________________
F a r m m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t . .
.
C o n s t r u c t io n a r id r e la t e d i r i a c h i n e r y . . .
M e ta lw o r k in g m a c h in e r y a n d e q u i p m e n t .
S p e c i a l i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e r y ___________ .
G e n e r a l in d u s t r ia l m a c h in e r y
_ ____
O ff ic e , c o m p u t i n g a n d a c c o u n t in g m a c h i n e s _______ _________ _____ __ __________
S e r v ic e i n d u s t r y m a c h i n e s ______ __
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a c h i n e r y ________________

3.07
3.33
3.09
3.29
2.88
3.06
3.08

3.08
3.32
3.09
3.10
3.31
2.89
3.07
3.08

2.79
2.90

2.79
2.89

See footnotes at end of table.

228-6,55 0—66---- -7


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.84
3.20

$2.82
3.21

$2. 81
3.19

$2. 81
3.17

$2.80
3.20

$2.79
3. 20

2. 74

2.73

2. 72

2. 71

2. 72

2. 73

2.69

2.68

2. 63

2. 65

2. 67

2. 59

2. 71
2.83
2.85
3. 08
2. 52
2.61
2. 79

2.70
2.82
2.85
3.06
2.51
2.59
2.78

2. 70
2.80
2.83
3.03
2.50
2.59
2. 77

2. 66
2. 80
2.82
3.03
2. 48
2. 56
2. 75

2. 68
2. 79
2. 82
3.03
2. 47
2. 56
2. 75

2.67
2.77
2.80
3.03
2.47
2.56
2.74

2.66
2. 77
2.80
3.00
2.46
2. 55
2.75

2. 65
2. 77
2. 78
2.95
2. 47
2. 53
2. 72

2.62
2.74
2. 74
2.90
2. 42
2. 50
2. 72

2. 61
2. 74
2. 73
2. 95
2. 42
2. 50
2. 69

2. 62
2. 74
2. 76
2. 97
2.41
2. 51
2. 72

2. 56
2. 67
2. 66
2. 87
2.32
2.42
2. 65

3.08
3.35
3.08
3.08
3.32
2.88
3.06
3.07

3. 06
3. 33
3. 08
3.06
3. 30
2. 85
3. 04

3.05
3.30
3. 07
3.06
3.29
2.84
3. 04

3.04
3.27
3.04
3.04
3.27
2.83
3.03

3.03
3.25
3. 04
3. 01
3. 26
2.83
3.02

3. 02
3.28
3. 02
3. 01
3. 25
2. 82
3. 02

3.00
3.24
3.01
3.00
3.22
2.80
3.00

2.99
3.24
2. 99
3. 01
3.20
2. 80
2.99

2.97
3. 24
2. 94
2. 98
3.17
2. 78
2. 97

2.94
3.21
2. 91
2. 94
3.14
2. 76
2.94

2. 94
3.19
2. 92
2. 95
3.15
2. 77
2. 93

2. 95
3. 20
2. 93
2. 95
3.18
2. 77
2. 95

2.87
3.12
2. 87
2.87
3.08
2.69
2. 87

2.77
2.89

3. 06
2. 77
2.88

3.08
2.76
2.88

3.07
2. 77
2. 87

3.08
2. 74
2. 85

3. 07
2.73
2. 84

3.04
2.73
2.82

3.03
2.72
2.81

3.00
2. 70
2. 80

2.97
2. 68
2. 77

2. 98
2.70
2. 77

2. 99
2. 71
2. 78

2. 92
2. 62
2.70

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1046
T able C -l.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1955

1966

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 June2 M ay

Apr.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Dec.

Oct.

Sept.

$107.12
114.68
114.68
119.28

$106. 08
113.58
113.98
115. 34

Nov.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

$105. 78
113. 02
113. 70
114. 95

$101.66
110.83
109. 56
107.33

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Electrical equipment and supplies
Electric distribution equipment ------Electrical industrial apparatus----------Household appliances-----------------------Electric lighting and wiring equipnient __________ ___ ______ _____
Radio and TV receiving sets _ ______
Communication equipment . ---------Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment
and supplies-------------- -------------------

$107.98
117.46
120.27
117. 67

$109.03
118.43
118.44
119.11

5108.62
116.33
118.56
120.80

$108. 09
113.98
118.15
119.39

$107.79
115.50
118.71
114.77

$108.21 $110.04 $108.32
113.98 116. 75 115. 23
115. 78 117. 58 114. 81
119. 83 123. 26 119. 70

$108.47
113.57
118.00
118.69

$104. 60 $103. 97
113. 44 113.85
112.19 113. 70
113.83 111.60

100. 40 102.82 101.84 101.09 101.43 100. 78 100. 28 102. 42 101. 68 101.27 100. 37 98.01 97.93 99.14 95. 04
91.48 89.17 91.80 91.87 93.43 92.66 95. 24 93. 50 93.03 92. 50 91.43 89.67 90. 91 87. 47
118.32 120.35 120.93 119.23 120. 67 121.67 121. 54 122. 98 120. 25 119.26 118. 53 117. 29 113. 65 116. 88 112. 07
91.03 93.89 92.84 91.98 92.43 92.25 92.03 92. 51 91.21 89.91 88. 62 87. 34 86. 24 89.28 86.18
115. 54 116. 97 117. 38 117.62 117.10 119.81 118.12 120. 98 119. 28 116.06 112. 74 111.38 110.95 114. 95 108.67

Transportation equipm ent.. -------------- 138.27 140.25 139.07 141. 47
143. 48 141.54 149. 02
Motor vp hi el ps and equipm ent_____
Aircraft and p a r ts ______ ___ ______ 142. 89 143. 99 143.55 139. 43
Ship and boat building and repairing.. 131.04 132.40 128.86 128. 75
133.32 137.94 138.20
Railroad equipment
_ ____________
95.27 96.96 95.60
Other transportation equipm ent-..........

140. 06
144. 57
141.48
130.10
132.44
95.60

141.14
146.45
142.14
130.00
133.82
91.80

142. 46
148. 58
143.00
129. 27
135.71
89.86

144. 87
156.18
138. 35
123. 22
133. 32
94.13

145. 53
155. 38
141.15
126. 07
135. 96
94. 87

141.48
151. 53
134. 51
125.86
129.03
97.11

135. 01
142.13
130. 73
123. 32
130. 25
97.58

130.82
136. 45
130. 52
120. 50
125.19
96. 05

133. 46
141.14
130. 31
119. 50
126. 72
90.68

137. 71
147. 63
131. 88
121.91
129. 44
93. 09

130. 09
138. 03
125.03
121.10
127. 39
93.89

Average weekly hours
Electrical equipment and supplies--------Electric distribution equipm ent--------Electrical industrial apparatus----------Household appliances-------- ------ -------Electric lighting and wiring equipm en t. ____________________ ^-------Radio purl TV receiving sets _______
Communication equipm ent----------- -Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies.................... ............................--Transportation equipm ent------------ -----Motor vehicles and equipment ______
Aircraft and parts------------------- -----Ship and boat building and repairing..
Railroad equipment
______ ____ ___
Other transportation equipm ent______

40.9
42.1
42.8
41.0

41.3
42.6
42.3
41.5

41.3
42.3
42.8
41.8

41.1
41.6
42.5
41.6

41.3
42.0
42.7
40.7

41.4
41.6
42.6
41.5

41.3
41.6
42.1
41.9

42.0
42.3
42.6
42.8

41.5
41.9
41.9
42.0

41.2
41.7
41.7
42.0

40.8
41. 3
41.6
40.9

40.7
41.4
41.4
40.8

40.3
41.4
41.8
40. 0

41.0
41. 4
41.8
41. 2

40. 5
41. 2
41. 5
40. 5

40.0
40.8
40.1

40.8
39.6
41.5
41.0

40.9
38.6
41.7
40.9

40.6
39.4
41.4
40.7

40.9
39.6
41.9
40.9

40.8
40.1
42.1
41.0

40.6
39.6
42.2
40.9

41.3
40.7
42.7
41.3

41.0
40.3
41.9
40.9

41.0
40.1
41.7
40.5

40.8
39.7
41.3
40.1

40. 5
40.1
41.3
39.7

40. 3
39.5
40.3
39. 2

40. 8
39.7
41.3
40. 4

40.1
39.4
40.9
39.9

40.4

40.9

40.9

40,7

40.8

41.6

41.3

42.3

42.0

41.6

40.7

40. 5

40. 2

41. 2

40.7

42.5
42.2
43.5
41.9
40.4
40.2

42.4
42.0
43.6
41.3
41.3
40.4

43.0
43.7
42.9
41.4
41.5
40.0

42.7
42. S
43.4
41.7
40.5
40.0

42.9
43.2
43.6
41.4
40.8
38.9

43.3
43.7
44,0
41.3
41. C
38.9

44.1
45.3
43.7
40.8
41.2
40.2

43.9
45.4
43.1
40.4
40.4
40.4

43.4
44.7
42.3
41.4
39.7
41.5

41.8
42.3
41.5
40.7
40.2
41.7

41.4
41. 6
41.7
40. 3
39. C
41.4

42.1
42. 9
41.9
40.1
39. 6
39.6

42.9
44. 2
42.0
40. 5
40. 2
40.3

42.1
43.
41.4
40. 5
40. 7
41.0

41.9
43.3
41.6

Average hourly earnings
Electrical equipment and supplies______
Electric distribution equipm ent______
Electrical industrial a p p a r a tu s..-----Household appliances_______________
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.
Radio and TV receiving s e t s ________
Communication equipm ent_____ ____
Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies__________________________
Transportation equip m ent... . --------Motor vehicles and equipment
____
Aircraft and parts . . .
. . . . ...
Ship and boat building and repairing.
Railroad equipment
. . ___________
Other transportation equipm ent_____

2.90
2.27

$2.64
2.78
2.80
2.87
2.52
2.31
2.90
2.29

$2.63
2.75
2.77
2. 8£
2.49
2.31
2.90
2.27

$2.63
2.74
2. 78
2.87
2.49
2.33
2.88
2.26

$2.61
2.75
2.7S
2.82
2.48
2.32
2.88
2.26

$2.62
2.73
2.77
2.86
2.47
2.3S
2.89
2.25

$2.62
2.74
2. 75
2. 86
2.47
2.34
2.88
2.25

$2. 62
2. 76
2. 76
2.88
2. 48
2.34
2.88
2. 24

$2.61
2.75
2.74
2.85
2.48
2. 32
2.87
2.23

$2.60
2.75
2. 75
2.84
2.47
2. 32
2.86
2.22

$2.60
2. 75
2.74
2.82
2. 46
2. 33
2.87
2. 21

$2.57
2. 74
2. 71
2. 79
2. 42
2. 28
2.84
2. 20

$2.58
2.75
2. 72
2. 79
2. 43
2. 27
2.82
2. 20

$2.58
2. 73
2. 72
2. 79
2. 43
2. 29
2. 83
2. 21

$2.51
2. 69
2. 64
2. 65
2. 37
2. 22
2. 74
2.16

2.86

2.86

2.87

2.89

2.87

2.88

2.86

2.86

2.84

2.79

2.77

2. 75

2. 76

2. 79

2. 67

3.26
3 .3f
3.18
3.04
3.25
2.34

3. 23
3. 36
3.15
3. 03
3. 24
2. 34

3.16
3. 28
3.13
2. 99
3. 21
2. 32

3.17
3. 29
3.11
2.98
3. 20
2. 29

3. 21
3.34
3.14
3. 01
3. 22
2.31

3.09
3. 21
3. 02
2. 99
3.13
2.29

$2.64
2.7Í
2.81
2.87
2.51

3.30
3.30
3.15

3.30
3.40
3.31
3.16
3.30
2.37

3.28
3.37
3.29
3.12
3.34
2.40

3.29
3.41
3.25
3.11
3.33
2.39

3.28
3.37
3.26
3.12
3.27
2.39

3.29
3.3Í
3.26
3.14
3.25
2.36

3.29
3. 4(
3.25
3.13
3.31
2.31

3. 30
3.4Í
3.23
3.09
3. 3(
2. 36

3. 30
3. 44
3. 21
3. 05
3. 3(
2.33
!

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

0.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

1047

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 June 2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
M anufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Instruments and related products______ $111.90 $113.67 $113.52 $112. 02 $112. 67
Engineering and scientific instruments.
131.52 131. 4C 129. 55 133.IS
Mechanical measuring and control
devices______________________
112.71 114. 63 115.75 114.36 113. 79
Optical and ophthalmic goods__ _____ 101. 57 101.99 101.64 96.87 101.46
Ophthalmic goods_________________
92.25 92. 06 88. 26 91. 24
Surgical, medical, and dental equipm ent____ _ _
_ _ _ _ ......
92.23 96. 0C 94.89 93. 79 93.89
Photographic equipment and supplies..
134 66 134 33 134.60 131 63
Watches and clocks__________________
90 90 89 91 90. 50 91. 62
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware—Toys, amusement, and sporting goods..
Pens, pencils, office and art m aterials..
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries______
Musical instruments and parts_____

$112.25 $111. 72 $111.30 $110.88 $109.78 $108. 58 $108. 05 $107. 53 $108. 05 $103. 63
131. 7C 132. 25 133. 8C 129.13 124. 80 125.10 125. 63 124. 42 124. 92 119.66
114.06 114. 06 109. 06 111.34 110.92 109.93 109.15 109. 41 108. 62 103. 79
100.38 99.42 100. 44 99.83 98.70 99.12 97. 86 98.88 98.23 94.81
91 05 89.35 90.23 89.84 89.40 89.84 87.76 89.60 88.99 85. 67
92.57 93.20 94. 3C 93.43 91.94 90.80 89. 95 87.58 90.63
133.29 130 29 131 97 129 63 131 26 127 87 125 24 124 95 128 14
87 85
91 02 89 35 91 27 89 76

86.46 88.22 88.62 87.74 88.88 88.44
96.00 100. 94 100.28 100.21 100.60 97. 68
78. 41 78.40 78. 20 78.99 78 00
87.48 86. 05 84.42 85. 44 84.80
82.21 81.81 79.97 82.42 82.21
93 . 46 94. 64 95.75 94. 56 95.47 95.47
99. 87 99.39 98. 25 99.53 102.18

87.12 87. 48 86.46 86.46
96. 63 103. 39 102.67 100.14
77 00 76 05 76 62 77 39
82 29 85 70 85 49 85 49
80. 38 80. 80 78.01 77.03
94.24 94. 60 94.19 94.60
96. 80 99. 77 101.22 101.22

85.20
97.06
76 24
84 46
77.62
92.23
99.29 ’

84.80
94. 53
75 85
8.3 84
77.81
92. 69
97.58

83. 71
90.91

88.22

82.37
91.58

81 16
75.85
91.94
93.85

84.99
95. 53
76 05
82 82
77. 62
92.23
97. 34

73.90
88.98
94.66

Average weekly hours
Instruments and related products.
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control
devices___________________________
Optical and ophthalmic goods________
Ophthalmic goods____________
Surgical, medical, and dental equipment_____________________________
Photographic equipment and supplies.
Watches and clocks___ ___ . . __ ._
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware—
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods.
Pens, pencils, office and art materials.
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries______
Musical instruments and parts_____

41.6

42.1
42.7

42.2
42.8

41.8
42.2

42.2
43.1

42.2
42.9

42.0
42.8

42.0
43.3

42.0
42.2

41.9
41.6

41.6
41.7

41.4
41.6

41.2
41.2

41.4
41.5

40.8
40.7

41.9
41.8

42.3
41.8
41 0

42.4
42.0
41 1

42.2
40.7
40.3

42.3
42.1
41.1

42.4
42.0
41. 2

42.4
41.6
40 8

41. 0
42.2
41.2

41.7
42.3
41.4

41.7
42.0
41.2

41.8
42.0
41.4

41.5
42.0
41.2

41.6
41.9
41.1

41.3
41.8
41.2

40.7
41.4
40.6

40.1

41.2
43.3
40 4

40.9
43.9
40. 5

40.6
43.7
40.4

41.0
43.3
40 9

40.6
43.7
41 0

40.7
43.0
40 8

41. 0
43.7
41 3

40.8
43.5
40 8

40.5
43.9
40 8

40.0
43.2
39 7

39.8
42.6
40 2

39.1
42.5
40 1

40.1
43.0
40 8

8Q 8

40.1
41.2
39.4
40.5
40.3
40.1
41.1

40.1
41.1
39.2
40.4
40.3
40.4
40.9

39.7
40.9
39.1
40.2
39.2
39.9
40.6

40.4
41.4
39.3
40.3
40.4
40.8
41.3

40.2
40.7
39.0
40.0
40.3
40.8
42.4

39.6
40.6
38.5
39. 0
39.4
40.1
40.5

40.5
42.9
39.2
41. 6
40. 4
40. 6
41.4

40.4
42.6
39.7
41.3
39.6
40.6
42.0

40.4
41.9
40.1
41.3
39.3
40.6
42.0

40.0
41.3
39.5
40.8
39.6
40.1
41.2

40.0
41.1
39.3
40.7
39.9
40.3
41.0

39.3
39.7
38.6
39.4
39.3
39.8
39.6

39.9
41.0
39.2
40. 4
39. 6
40.1
40.9

39.6
40.7
38.9
39.4
39.1
39.9
40.8

39.3
40.0

39.6

40.1
41.8

Average hourly earnings
Instruments and related products______
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control
devices___________. . . . . ________
Optical and ophthalmic goods______
Ophthalmic goods.
_
... ...
Surgical, medical, and dental equipm ent_____________________________
Photographic equipment and supplies.
Watches and clocks_________ _

$2.69

$2.70
3.08

$2.69
3.07

$2.68
3.07

$2.67
3.09

$2.66
3.07

$2. 66
3.09

$2.65
3. 09

$2.64
3.06

$2.62
3.00

$2.61
3.00

$2.61
3.02

$2.61
3.02

$2. 61
3. 01

$2.54
2.94

2.69
2.43

2.71
2.44
2 25

2.73
2.42
2 24

2.71
2.38
2.19

2.69
2.41
2.22

2.69
2.39
2.21

2.69
2. 39
2.19

2. 66
2. 38
2.19

2.67
2.36
2.17

2.66
2.35
2.17

2.63
2.36
2.17

2.63
2.33
2.13

2.63
2. 36
2.18

2.63
2.35
2.16

2.55
2.29
2.11

2.30

2.33
3.11
2 25

2.32
3.06
2,22

2.31
3.08
2. 24

2.29
3.04
2 24

2.28
3.05
2 22

2.29
3.03
2 19

2. 30
3.02

2.29
2.98

2.27
2.99

2. 27
2. 96

2.26
2.94

2.24
2.94

2. 26
2. 98

2.20
2.88
2 15

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w are..
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods.
Pens, pencils, office and art materials._
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries______
Musical instruments and parts_____

2.20
2.40

2.20
2.45
1.99
2.16
2.04
2.36
2.43

2.21
2.44
2.00
2 13
2.03
2.37
2.43

2.21
2.45
2. 00
2.10
2.04
2.37
2.42

2.20
2. 43
2. 01
2.12
2. 04
2.34
2.41

2.20
2.40
2.00
2 12
2.04
2.34
2.41

2. 20
2.38
2. 00
2.11
2.04
2.35
2.39

2.16
2.41
1.94
2 06
2. 00
2. 33
2. 41

2.14
2.41
1.93
2 07
1.97
2.32
2.41

2.14
2.39
1.93

2.13
2.35
1.93
2 07
1.96
2.30
2.41

2.12
2.30
1.93
2 06
1.95
2.30
2.38

2.13
2.29
1.96
2 06
1.93
2.31
2.37

2.13
2.33
1.94
2 05
1.96
2.30
2. 38

2.08
2.25
1.91
2 00
1.89
2.23
2.32

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.36

1.96
2.33
2.41

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1048
T able C - l .

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
Annual
average

1965

1966
Industry
July 2 1June2 j May

Apr. | Mar. | Feb.

Jan.

Dec. | Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products------------------ $105. 00 $104.49 $103.48 $102. 21 $101. 25 $101. 59 $100.94 $101.84 $100. 77 $100.19 $100.19
Meat products,--------- ------ -------------- 110.15 110.12 108. 94 106. 27 105.73 106. 00 108.94 109.03 109.82 108. 05 110.46
Dairy products-------------------------------- 111.89 110.00 108.20 107. 52 106.85 106. 59 106.59 106.68 105. 59 105.59 106.60
Canned and preserved food, except
81.41 84.93 83. 33 81.30 82. 80 79.36 79. 58 77.42 80.20 80. 59
meats____________________________
Grain mill products_________________ 121. 51 118. 56 114.22 113. 97 114.84 115.88 115.54 119. 21 116.15 117.76 118. 78
Bakery products------------------------------ 106.86 105.67 103.83 102. 26 101.35 101.85 101.20 102. 36 102.77 104.39 102. 06
122.84 120.83 117. 83 119.97 117. 07 105. 73 109.04 106.00 97.14 120.28
Sugar______________________________
86.52 89.15 87.25 84. 75 86.18 84. 89 84.50 84.80 83.53 85.20 87. 74
Confectionery and related products---120.83 116.93 117. 33 114.97 113. 60 112. 75 116. 28 116.52 114.62 114.09
Beverages____________________ _____
Miscellaneous food and kindred prod­
102.
06 101. 64 100.08 99. 54 101.44 99.17 100.42 101.12 99. 56 99.92
101.57
ucts-------------------------------------------88.32 89.01 87.32 86. 87 84.80 88.31 82.30 83.07 80.35 77.62 78.41
Tobacco manufactures________________
106.92 103.45 105. 57 . 102.80 111.25 101.38 103.09 100. 73 97.99 96.10
Cigarettes__________________________
66.55 66.33 65.28 66.15 66.15 64. 05 64.90 67.30 66.13 65.11
Cigars_____________________________
82.54 84.15 81.45 79.90 81.22 81.22 79. 84 80. 79 80. 79 79.99 78.62
Textile mill products--------------------------87.80 89.85 83.38 82. 64 84.15 84.97 84.39 83. 57 83.96 83.18 81.60
Cotton broad woven fabrics__________
Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics. 90.82 87.67 87.71 85.14 86.68 86. 24 84.83 86. 63 86.24 85.22 85.06
89.23 91.33 89.76 87. 03 87.23 87. 44 85.80 85.80 83.38 83. 78 84. 58
Weaving and finishing broad woolens,.
81.06 81.25 79.27 78. 47 79. 52 79.10 77.38 79.48 77.56 77.19 75.85
Narrow fabrics and smallwares_______
71.94 72.89 72.31 68.63 70.98 69. 69 68.02 68.71 70.53 70.31 69. 42
Knitting___________________________
Finishing textiles, except wool and
88. 41 93.08 91.54 91. 54 91.94 90. 87 87.96 90.25 89.63 87. 74 85.68
knit_______________________ ______
83.60 80.93 79.95 81.60 82.22 81.25 86.58 85.31 83.96 84. 78
Floor covering______________________
77.10 78.94 76.68 76. 50 76.79 76. 72 76. 72 76.46 76.46 76.11 74.87
Yarn and thread____________________
89.86 95.46 93.96 91.16 91.38 92.02 90. 74 93. 52 91.59 90.95 89.25
Miscellaneous textile goods__________

$99.19 $100. 98 $99.87 $97.17
105. 63 108. 94 107. 27 105. 98
104. 48 106. 70 105. 08 102.12
79.00 75.86
113. 85 109. 07
101. 00 97.12
110. 50 106.32
83. 53 80.38
113. 68 109.89

81.41
116.46
101. 50
121.24
87.08
114.12

79.37
115.82
102. 00
122. 54
82. 78
116.90

98. 75
78. 07
97. 38
65.32
79.19
81.60
85.61
85.34
75.85
69.92

98. 75
82.72
98.02
63.92
77.64
79.80
83. 76
85.34
74.48
68.29

98.37
79. 59
97.27
63. 95
77.98
80. 28
83.90
83. 69
75. 99
68.29

96.25
76. 05
93.45
64.24
73. 39
74. 34
79.24
76. 86
73.03
65.45

86.09
86.14
75.68
87.36

84.04
80.60
74.12
85.90

85.85
81.51
73.70
88. 20

81.90
76.44
66.99
83.63

Average weekly hours
41.3
41.4
42.8

40.9
40.8
42.1

40. 4
40.1
42. 0

40.5
39.6
41.9

40.8
40.0
41.8

40.7
40.8
41.8

41.4
41.3
42.0

41.3
41.6
41.9

41.4
41.4
41.9

41.4
42.0
42.3

41.5
41.1
42.3

41.9
41.9
43.2

41.1
41.1
42. 2

41.0
41.4
42.2

38.4
45.6
40.8
43.1
39.8
42.1

39.5
44.1
40.4
42.1
39.3
40.6

38.4
43.5
40.1
41. 2
38. 7
40.6

38.9
44.0
39.9
43.0
39.9
40.2

40.0
44.4
40.1
43.2
39.3
40. C

38.9
44.1
40.0
41.3
39.3
39.7

39.2
45.5
40.3
46.4
40. C
40.8

39.7
44.5
40.3
45.3
39.4
40.6

40.3
46.0
41.1
38.7
40.0
40.5

39.7
46.4
40.5
42.5
41.0
40.6

40.5
46.4
40.6
43.3
40.5
41.2

40.7
46.7
40.8
43.3
38.5
41.9

39.5
45.0
40.4
42. 5
39.4
40. 6

38.9
44.7
40.3
42.7
39.4
40.4

41.9
41.6

42.0
38.7
39.6
37.6
42.5
44.7
43.4
43.7
42.1
39.4
43.7
41.8
42.9
43.0

42.0
38.3
38.6
37.9
42.2
43.2
44.3
44.0
41.5
39.3
43.8
41.5
42.6
43.3

41. 7
38. 1
39. 1
37. 3
41. 4
42. 6
43.0
43.3
41.3
37.5
43.8
41. 0
42.5
42.6

42.0
38.2
38.5
37.8
42.3
43.6
44.0
43.4
42.3
39.0
44.2
42.5
42.9
42.9

42.8
39.6
40.9
37.8
42.3
43.8
44.0
43.5
42.3
38.5
43.9
42.6
43.1
43.0

42.2
38.1
38.4
36.6
41.8
43.5
43.5
42.9
41.6
38.0
42.7
42.1
43.1
42.6

43.1
39.0
38. f
37.2
42.3
43. i
44.2
42. f
42.5
38.6
43.6
44.4
43.2
43.7

43.4
37.9
38.3
38.9
42.3
43.5
44. C
41.9
41.7
39.4
43.3
44.2
43.2
43.0

43.1
39.2
37.4
38.9
42.1
43.1
43.7
42.1
41.5
39.5
42.8
43.5
43.0
42.9

42.7
39.4
36.4
38.3
41.6
42.5
43.4
42.5
41. C
39.0
42. C
43.7
42.3
42.3

42.2
37.9
37.6
38.2
41.9
42.5
43.9
43.1
41.0
39.5
42.2
44.4
43.0
41.8

42.2
37.6
37.7
37.6
41.3
42.0
43.4
43.1
40.7
38.8
41.4
42.2
42.6
41. 1

42.4
37.9
37.7
37.4
41.7
42.7
43.7
42.7
41.3
38.8
42. 5
42.9
42.6
42.2

42.4
38.8
39.1
38.7
41.0
42.0
43.3
41.1
40.8
¿8. 5
42.0
42.0
41.1
41.4

$ 2 .5 3
2 .6 8
2 .5 9

$ 2 .5 3
2 .6 6
2 .5 7

$2. 53
2 .6 7
2 .5 7

$2. 53
2. 65
2. 56

$2. 50
2. 67
2. 55

$ 2 .4 9
2 .6 5
2. 55

$ 2 .4 8
2 .6 7
2 .5 5

$ 2 .4 6
2 .6 4
2 .5 4

$ 2 .4 4
2 .6 4
2 .5 2

$ 2 .4 2
2 .6 1
2 .5 2

$ 2 .4 2
2 .6 3
2 .5 2

$ 2 .3 9
2 .5 7
2 .4 7

$ 2 .4 1
2 .6 0
2 .4 7

$ 2 .4 3
2. 61
2 .4 9

$2.37
2. 56
2.42

2 .1 2
2 .6 0
2 .5 9
2 .8 5
2 .2 4
2 .8 7

2 .1 5
2 .5 9
2 .5 7
2 .8 7
2 .2 2
2 .8 8

2 .1 7
2. 62
2. 55
2. 86
2 .1 9
2. 89

2 .0 9
2 .6 1
2. 54
2. 79
2 .1 6
2 .8 6

2. 07
2. 61
2. 54
2 .7 1
2 .1 6
2 .8 4

2 .0 4
2 .6 2
2 .5 3
2 .5 6
2 .1 5
2 .8 4

2 .0 3
2. 62
2. 54
2 .3 5
2 .1 2
2 .8 5

1 .9 5
2 .6 1
2 .5 5
2 .3 4
2 .1 2
2 .8 7

1 .9 9
2 .5 6
2 .5 4
2 .5 1
2 .1 3
2 .8 3

2 .0 3
2. 56
2 .5 2
2 .8 3
2 .1 4
2 .8 1

2 .0 1
2. 51
2. 50
2 .8 0
2 .1 5
2. 77

1 .9 5
2 .4 8
2 .5 0
2 .8 3
2 .1 5
2 .7 9

2. 00
2. 53
2. 50
2. 60
2 .1 2
2 .8 0

1.95
2.44
2.41
2. 49
2.04
2.72
2.27
1.96
2.39

Food and kindred products____________
Meat products_____ — --------------Dairy products--------- ------ ---------------Canned and preserved food, except
meats____________________________
Grain mill products_________________
Bakery products____________________
Sugar______________________________
Confectionery and related products---Beverages__________________________
Miscellaneous food and kindred prod­
ucts______________________________
Tobacco manufactures,
Cigarettes__________
Cigars_____________
Textile mill products__________________
Cotton broad woven fabrics_________
Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics.
Weaving and finishing broad woolens.
Narrow fabrics and small wares______
Knitting___________________________
Finishing textiles, except wool and knit.
Floor covering________________
Yarn and thread______________
Miscellaneous textile goods....... ..

41.5
41.1
43.2

F o o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s ________________
M e a t p r o d u c t s . . ------------- ---------------------Dairy p r o d u c t s ____________________________
C a n n e d a n d p r e s e r v e d fo o d , e x c e p t
m ea ts . ,
,
G r a in m i l l p r o d u c t s _________ ,
B a k e r y p r o d u c t s . _ . . . ____________ _ . .
Sugar
C o n f e c t io n e r y a n d r e la t e d p r o d u c t s
B ev era g es, ,
...........
.
,
_
M i s c e ll a n e o u s fo o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s _____ ______ ___________________ . .

46.2
41.1
38.8
41.8
38.4
41.9
43.9
44.3
42.9
42.0
39.1
41.9

Average hourly earnings

2 .6 3
2 .6 0
2 .2 3

2 .4 3

2 .4 3

2 .4 2

2 .4 0

2 .3 7

2. 37

2 .3 5

2 .3 3

2 .3 3

2 .3 1

2 .3 4

2 .3 4

2 .3 4

2. 32

T o b a cc o m a n u fa ctu r e s
C i g a r e t t e s ,,
C ig a r s ,
_____
________

2 .3 0

2 .3 0
2 .7 0
1 .7 7

2 .2 8
2 .6 8
1 .7 5

2. 28
2. 70
1. 75

2.22
2. 67
1 .7 5

2. 23
2. 72
1 .7 5

2 .1 6
2 .6 4
1 .7 5

2 .1 3
2. 65
1 .7 4

2 .1 2
2 .6 3
1 .7 3

1 .9 8
2 .6 2
1 .7 0

1 .9 9
2. 64
1 .7 0

2 .0 6
2. 59
1 .7 1

2 .2 0
2. 60
1 .7 0

2 .1 0
2. 58
1. 71

T e x t i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s ________ _ _____ ,
C o tto n b r o a d w o v e n f a b r ic s ,., _
,
S i lk a n d s y n t h e t i c b r o a d w o v e n f a b r ic s .
W e a v i n g a n d f in i s h in g b r o a d w o o l e n s
N a r r o w f a b r ic s a n d s m a l l w a r e s , ..
K n i t t i n g , . , ____________________ _____ __
F in is h in g te x t ile s , e x c e p t w o o l a n d k n it
F lo o r c o v e r i n g .
. _______ . .
Y a r n a n d t h r e a d ____
,
____ _ _ _
M i s c e l l a n e o u s t e x t i l e g o o d s __________

1 .9 7
2 .0 0
2 .0 5
2 .0 8
1 .9 3
1 .8 4
2 .1 1

1 .9 8
2 .0 1
2 .0 2
2 .0 9
1 .9 3
1 .8 5
2 .1 3
2 .0 0
1 .8 4

1 .9 3
1 .9 3
1 .9 8
2 .0 4
1 .9 1
1 .8 4
2 .0 9
1 .9 5
1 .8 0
2 .1 7

1 .9 3
1 .9 4
1 .9 8
2. 01
1 .9 0
1 .8 3
2. 09
1. 95
1 .8 0
2 .1 4

1 .9 2
1 .9 3
1 .9 7
2. 01
1 .8 8
1 .8 2
2. 08
1 .9 2
1 .7 9
2 .1 3

1 .9 2
1 .9 4
1 .9 6
2. 01
1 .8 7
1 .8 1
2. 07
1 .9 3
1 .7 8
2 .1 4

1 .9 1
1 .9 4
1 .9 5
2 .0 0
1 .8 6
1 .7 9
2 .0 6
1 .9 3
1 .7 8
2 .1 3

1 .9 1
1 .9 3
1 .9 6
2. 00
1 .8 7
1 .7 8
2 .0 7
1 .9 5
1 .7 7
2 .1 4

1 .9 1
1 .9 3
1 .9 6
1 .9 9
1 .8 6
1 .7 9
2 .0 7
1 .9 3
1 .7 7
2 .1 3

1 .9 0
1 .9 3
1 .9 5
1 .9 9
1 .8 6
1 .7 8
2 .0 5
1 .9 3
1 .7 7
2 .1 2

1 .8 9
1 .9 2
1 .9 6
1 .9 9
1 .8 5
1 .7 8
2 .0 4
1 .9 4
1 .7 7
2 .1 1

1 .8 9
1 .9 2
1 .9 5
1 .9 8
1 .8 5
1 .7 7
2 .0 4
1 .9 4
1 .7 6
2 .0 9

1 .8 8
1 .9 0
1. 93
1. 98
1 .8 3
1. 76
2 .0 3
1. 91
1 .7 4
2. 09

1 .8 7
1 .8 8
1 .9 2
1. 96
1. 84
1 .7 6
2. 02
1. 90
1 .7 3
2. 09

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 .8 4
2 .1 6

2.22

1.66

1.79
1.77
1.83
1.87
1.79
1.70
1.95
1.82
1.63
2.02

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

C -l.

1049

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1966

Industry

Annual
average

1965

J u ly 2 j June2 1 M ay | Apr. | Mar. | Feb. | Jan.

Dec. | N ov. | Oct.

Sept. | Aug. | July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Apparel and related products_________
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats_____
M en’s and boys’ furnishings_________
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear_____________________________
Women’s and children’s undergar­
m ents___________________________
Hats, caps, and millinery___________
Girls’ and children’s outerwear______
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel—
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prod­
u c ts.______ ______________________

$67. 52 $68. 63 $68.26 $67. If $69. 37 $68. 81 $66. 05 $67. 35 $67. 7C $67. 52 $67.35 $67. 55 $66.45 $6fi fil $64 96
83.38 86.08 85. 6Ç 83. 54 85. 2
85.69 83. 71 84. 2C 83.98 84.3f 83.54 83.44
OS 81 8f 76 23
58. 0Í 59.25 58.3C 57. 67 59. 09 59. 31 58. 4Í 58. 56 59.03 58.81 58. 6( 58.14 82
57. 0( 58. 28 56! 09
72.04 70.99 71.34 70.99 73.28 72.38 66.73 68. 68 68. 21 68.27 69.14 70. 7f 69.85
68. 54 66.78
62.16 62.53 62.59 61.39 63.07 62. 73 59. 45 60.96 62.33 62.2S 61.92 61. 5C 59.15
60 5f 68 97
69.36 67.71 66.40 73.66 74. 05 68.42 69. 36 66.18 68.95 71.57
72. 8S 70 0£ 69 33
63. 15 64. 55 63.51 62.47 64.38 64.94 61.40 60.16 61. 01 61.01 60.16 72.76
61.96 62. 53 61 i f
68 19
74. 54 74.74 71.91 71.57 72. 50 70. 76 72. 60 73. 57 75.68 73.60 73.30 71. 2C
71. IS 67! 87
69.92 74.10 74.10 73.71 73.92 73.34 72.35 75.08 77. 42 75.66 74.31 71.25 73.15
73. 73 70.47
Paper and allied products_____________ 120.77 119.74 119.03 117. 50 116.91 115.94 115.13 117. 82 116. 58 117.12 116.48 115.18 114.65 114 29 109 67
Paper and p u lp .____________________ 139. 54 135.75 134.25 132. 76 131.72 131. 28 130. 69 131. 87 131.12 131. 56 132.16 129. 20 130. 08 128 16 121 88
Paperboard_________________________ 138. 62 138.93 139. 54 141.22 136.96 133.95 136. 05 138.16 136.80 136.64 134.85 134. 52 134. 06
132.14 124.32
Converted paper and paperboard prod­
ucts______________________________ 104.16 104.66 103.57 102.34 101.99 101. 09 100. 85 102. 55 100. 91 100. 74 99. 77 98.95 98. 53 99 49 96 98
Paperboard containers and boxes_____ 108. OS 109.40 108. 46 105. 59 107.10 105. 50 103. 58 108. 07 107. 57 107.32 106.75 105.72 102. 58
103. 81 loo! 56
Printing, publishing and allied industries 121. 52 122.15 122.22 120. 51 121. 06 119. 74 117. 73 121. 60 118. 97 119.66 120.28 118.81 117.12 118 12 114 36
Newspaper publishing and printing... 123.82 125.20 124. 87 122.40 119. 60 119. 26 118. 22 125. 06 122. 33 122.33 121. 94 119.13 118.80
119 49 116 84
Periodical publishing and printing___
130. 73 125.58 124. 74 126. 00 125. 22 124. 50 121. 06 122.15 128.47 131.14 129. 60 126. 63 126
23 122 01
Books______________________________
117.15 116.84 112. 59 114.36 111.22 111.22 114. 51 111.11 111. 51 114. 93 115.18 111.64
110
68 106 90
Commercial printing_______________
125. 06 126. 08 125.45 124. 03 125. 77 124. 03 120. 59 124. 8C 122.14 122.14 123. 07 121. 75 120. 04 120 96
116 42
Bookbinding and related industries__
92.79 94.38 95. 01 94.14 94.95 94.17 90. 58 93. 93 91.48 92.11 92.19 90.40 89.32 91. 57 89.40
Other publishing and printing indus­
tries_____________________________
121.98 122. 05 122. 56 123.13 125. 05 124.41 122.92 124. 82 120. 51 121.99 121. 60 121. 29 118.42 120. 51 116. in
Average weekly hours

Apparel and related products__________
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats______
M en’s and boys’ furnishings_________
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear_____________________________
Women’s and children’s undergar­
m ents____________________________
Hats, caps, and millinery____________
Girls’ and children’s outerwear_______
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel...
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prod­
ucts______________________________

36.3
37. 9
37. 0

36.7
38. 6
37. 5

36.5
38.6
36.9

36.1
37.8
36.5

36.9
38.4
37.4

36.6
38.6
37.3

35.7
37.9
37.0

36.2
38. 1
37.3

36.4
38.0
37.6

36.3
38.0
37.7

36.2
37.8
37.6

36.9
38.1
38.0

36.5
38. 0
37.5

36. 4
37.9
37. 6

35 9
36.3
36.9

34.8

34.8

34.8

34.8

35.4

34.8

33.2

33.5

33.6

33.3

33.4

34.7

34.4

34.1

33.9

37.0

37.0
36.7
37.1
36.9

36.6
36.6
36.5
37.0

35.9
35.7
35.9
36.5

37.1
37.2
37.0
36.7

36.9
37.4
36.9
36.8

35.6
36.2
35.7
36.1

36.5
36. 7
35. 6
36.3

37.1
35.2
36.1
36.6

37.3
36.1
36.1
37.1

37.3
36.7
35.6
36.8

37.5
37.7
37.1
37.4

36. 5
36. 6
37.0
36.7

36.7
36. 5
36. 4
36.5

36.4
36.3
35.7
36.1

36. 5
36.8

38.0

38.0

37.8

38.3

38.0

37.1

38.7

39.1

39.0

38.5

37.9

38.5

38.4

38.3

43.6
45. 6
45.6

43.7
45.1
45. 7

43.6
44.9
45.9

43.2
44.7
46.3

43.3
44.5
45.5

43.1
44.5
44.5

42.8
44.3
45.2

43.8
44.7
45.9

43.5
44.6
45.6

43.7
44.9
45.7

43.3
44.8
44.8

43.3
44.4
45.6

43.1
44.7
45.6

43.1
44. 5
45.1

42.8
44.0
44.4

42.0
42.2

42.2
42.9

42.1
42.7

41.6
41.9

41.8
42.5

41.6
42.2

41. 5
41.6

42.2
43.4

41.7
43.2

41.8
43.1

41.4
42.7

41.4
42.8

41.4
41.7

41. 6
42. 2

41. 5
41.9

38.7
36.1
39.7
38. 5

38.9
36. 5
40.1
42.6
39.9
39.0

38.8
36.3
39.0
42.8
39.7
39.1

38.5
36.0
39.6
41.7
39.5
38.9

38.8
35.7
40.0
42.2
39.8
39.4

38.5
35.6
39.5
41.5
39.5
39.4

38.1
35.5
39.4
41.5
38.9
37.9

39.1
37. 0
38.8
42.1
40. 0
39.3

38.5
36.3
38.9
41.0
39.4
38.6

38.6
36.3
40.4
41.3
39.4
38.7

38.8
36.4
40.6
42.1
39.7
38.9

38.7
36.1
40.5
42.5
39.4
38.8

38.4
36.0
40. 2
41. 5
39.1
38.5

38. 6
36.1
40. 2
41.3
39. 4
38.8

38.5
36.4
40.4
40.8
39. 2
38.7

38.6

38.5

38.3

38.6

39.2

38.9
39.0
39. 5
39.0
Average hourly earnings

39.1

39.1

39.0

38.7

39. 0

38.7

Apparel and related products__________
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats______
M en’s and boys’ furnishings_________
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear_____________________________
Women’s and children’s undergarments.
Hats, caps, and m illinery____________
Girls’ and children’s outerwear_______
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel...
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prod­
ucts______________________________

$1.86
2.20
1.57

$1.87
2.23
1. 58

$1.87
2.22
1.58

$1.86
2.21
1.58

$1.88
2. 22
1.58

$1.88
2. 22
1.59

$1.85
2. 21
1.58

$1.86
2. 21
1.57

$1.86
2.21
1. 57

$1.86
2.22
1.56

$1.86
2. 21
1.56

$1.83
2.19
1.53

$1.82
2.16
1.52

$1.83
2.16
1.55

$1.79
2.10
1.52

2.07
1.68

2.04
1.69
1.89
1.74
2.02

2.05
1.71
1.85
1.74
2.02

2.04
1.71
1.86
1.74
1.97

2. 07
1.70
1.98
1.74
1.95

2. 08
1. 70
1.98
1.76
1.97

2. 01
1.67
1.89
1. 72
1.96

2. 05
1.67
1.89
1. 69
2. 00

2.03
1.68
1.88
1.69
2.01

2.05
1.67
1.91
1.69
2.04

2.07
1.66
1.95
1.69
2. 00

2.04
1.64
1.93
1.67
1.96

2. 03
1.62
1.99
1.69
1.94

2. 01
1.65
1.92
1. 68
1.95

1.97
1.62
1.91
1.63
1.88

1.90

1.95

1.95

1.95

1.93

1.93

1.95

1.94

1.98

1.94

1.93

1.88

1.90

1.92

1.84

Paper and allied products______________
Paper and p u lp .____________________
Paperboard_________________________
Converted paper and paperboard prod­
ucts______________________________
Paperboard containers and boxes_____

2.77
3.06
3.04

2.74
3.01
3.04

2.73
2.99
3.04

2. 72
2.97
3. 05

2. 70
2. 96
3. 01

2. 69
2.95
3. 01

2. 69
2.95
3. 01

2.69
2. 95
3. 01

2. 68
2. 94
3. 00

2.68
2.93
2.99

2. 69
2. 95
3. 01

2. 66
2.91
2. 95

2.66
2.91
2.94

2. 65
2. 88
2. 93

2. 56
2. 77
2.80

2.48
2.56

2.48
2.55

2.46
2.54

2.46
2. 52

2.44
2. 52

2.43
2. 50

2. 43
2. 49

2. 43
2. 49

2. 42
2.49

2.41
2.49

2.41
2. 50

2.39
2.47

2.38
2.46

2. 39
2. 46

2.32
2.40

3.14
3.43
3.15
2.41

3.14
3.43
3.26
2.75
3.16
2.42

3.15
3.44
3.22
2.73
3.16
2.43

3.13
3. 40
3.15
2. 70
3. 14
2.42

3.12
3.35
3.15
2.71
3.16
2.41

3.11
3. 35
3.17
2. 68
3.14
2. 39

3.09
3.33
3.16
2.68
3.10
2. 39

3. 11
3. 38
3.12
2. 72
3. 12
2. 39

3. 09
3. 37
3.14
2.71
3.10
2. 37

3.10
3.37
3.18
2.70
3.10
2.38

3.10
3.35
3.23
2. 73
3.10
2.37

3. 07
3.30
3.20
2.71
3.09
2.33

3. 05
3.30
3.15
2. 69
3. 07
2.32

3. 06
3.31
3.14
2.68
3. 07
2. 36

2. 97
3. 21
3. 02
2. 62
2. 97
2.31

3.16

3.17

3.20

3.19

3.19

3.19

3.16

3. 16

3.09

3.12

3.11

3.11

3. 06

3. 09

3.00

Paper and allied products_____________
Paper and pulp_____________________
Paperboard_________ _______________
Converted paper and paperboard prod­
ucts______________________________
Paperboard containers and boxes_____
Printing, publishing and allied industries.
Newspaper publishing and printing__
Periodical publishing and printing___
Books____ , ________________________
Commercial printing____________ ;____
Bookbinding and related industries___
Other publishing and printing indus­
tries___________________ __________

Printing, publishing and allied industries.
Newspaper publishing and printing__
Periodical publishing and printing____
Books_____ ______________ _________
Commercial printing_____ ___________
Bookbinding and related industries___
Other publishing and printing indus­
tries_______________________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.73

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1050
T able

C -l.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, 1036.
Annual
average

1965

1966
Industry
July 2 J u n e2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Dec.

Jan.

Nov.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

$123. 65
140.15
123. 69
107.59
116.20
114.26
101.76
118.72

$121.35
136.18
121.11
105.73
113. 96
113.82
99. 72
117.74

$120.22
135. 43
120. 69
105. 99
111.63
113.13
100. 06
117. 46

$121.09
136. 08
120. 70
107.30
112. 74
112. 88
100. 69
116. 48

$116. 48
131. 04
116.89
102.77
108.27
109. 03
97.63
112.56

Oct.

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods— Continued
Chemicals and allied products------------- $126. 60 $126. 48 $124.49 $124.66 $122. 64 $123.19 $122.18
Industrial chemicals------------------------- 140. 34 140. 77 139. 26 139.68 137. 76 137.34 136.27
Plastics materials and synthetics------- 126. 69 125. 97 124. 68 125.99 122. 09 123. 54 121.25
112. 61 112. 20 112. 34 111.93 111. 79 111.79
Drugs________________ ____________
122.13 122.35 117. 71 116.47 116. 20 115.90 115.62
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods--------119. 99 120. 28 118.02 115. 23 113. 99 112.75
118.16
Paints, varnishes, and allied products.
100. 67 101.34 105.94 108. 35 106. 48 103.49 102.53
Agricultural chemicals--------------------119. 28 118.43 115. 62 116. 72 117.03
121.41
121.55
Other chemical products------------------Petroleum refining and related industries.
Petroleum refining-------------------------Other petroleum and coal products—
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts________________________
Tires and inner tubes-------------Other rubber products------------Miscellaneous plastic products..
Leather and leather products------Leather tanning and finishing...
Footwear, except rubber---------Other leather products------------Handbags and personal leather goods

$123. 35 $123. 06 $122.06
138. 32 138. 65 137.34
122.98 122. 40 120.69
110.56 no. 15 109.20
117.18 115.92 115.49
113. 85 113. 30 113.44
102. 67 100. 44 100. 01
116. 90 118. 86 118.86

145. 61 145. 61 145.18 145. 69 141. 62 140.95 140.87 140. 53 142.97 141.10 142. 68 138. 35 139.10 138. 42 133. 66
152. 82 152. 82 154.15 154. 21 149. 58 148.10 148. 39 148. 87 150. 78 147.49 148. 94 143. 03 144.21 145. 05 139. 52
123.54 124.10 116. 42 115. 87 111.87 113.13 113.82 110.77 114. 65 119.97 123.66 123. 47 122. 43 115. 90 112.75
111.07 111. 45 111.57 110. 35 110. 46 110. 88 111. 14 113.42 111. 94 112.10 110. 46 109. 88 109.25 109. 62 104.90
163. 47 161. 55 163. 44 162. 79 159. 56 161. 01 162. 62 167.17 161. 73 165. 62 162. 62 163. 08 161.19 158. 06 142.54
104. 81 107. 07 106. 24 104. 65 105. 57 105. 83 106. 08 108. 03 106. 59 104.39 102.82 102.75 101.75 103.41 99.96
91.58 92. 96 92.93 92. 48 92. 96 93.15 91.91 93.02 92. 80 93.44 92.35 91. 08 90. 61 91.72 89. 64
75. 08 75. 46 74. 88 72. 95 73. 92 75.26 74.11 74. 87 72. 58 71.82 71.82 72.19 71.80 71.82 68.98
100 90 102. 66 103.16 102. 09 101. 52 100. 61 99. 31 101.02 101. 50 101.02 98. 40 97.75 94. 96 97.99 94.19
72. 91 73.30 71.62 69.94 71.05 72.34 71.39 71.94 68. 82 67.53 68.63 69. 34 69. 30 68.80 66.55
71. 06 72. 39 72. 96 71.63 72. 77 73.33 71.44 74. 11 72.93 72.56 70.68 70. 67 70. 09 70. 49 66. 73
68. 22 68.63 67. 89 69.91 70. 09 65.88 68. 22 71.34 70.80 67.69 68.04 69.45 67. 8f 64.88
Average weekly hours

41. 4
41.9
41. 6
42.5

42.3
42.4
42. 7
40.8
41.9
42. 4
42. 4
42.6

42.2
42.2
42.7
40.8
41.3
42.5
44. 7
42.0

42.4
42.2
43.0
41.0
41.3
42.0
46.5
41.7

42.0
42.0
42.1
41.0
41.5
41.6
45.7
41.0

41.9
42.0
42.6
41.1
41.1
41.3
43.3
41.1

41.7
41.8
42.1
41.1
41.0
41.0
42.9
41.5

42.1
42.3
42.7
4L 1
41.7
41.4
42.6
41.6

42.0
42.4
42.5
41.1
41.4
41.2
42.2
42.0

41.8
42.0
42.2
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.2
42.0

42.2
42.6
42.8
40.6
41.5
41.7
42.4
42.1

41.7
41.9
42.2
40.2
40.7
42.0
41.9
42.2

4L 6
41.8
42.2
40.3
40.3
41.9
42.4
42.1

41.9
42.0
42.5
40.8
40.7
41.5
43.4
41.9

41.6
41.6
42.2
40.3
40.4
41.3
43.2
42.0

Petroleum refining and related industries.
Petroleum refining---------------------------Other petroleum and coal products-----

42. 7
42.1
44.6

42. 7
42.1
44.8

42.7
42.7
42.8

42.6
42.6
42.6

41.9
41.9
41.9

41.7
41.6
41.9

41.8
41.8
42.0

41.7
41.7
41.8

42.3
42.0
43.1

42.5
41.9
44.6

43.5
42.8
45.8

42.7
41.7
45.9

42.8
41.8
46.2

42.2
41.8
43.9

41.9
41.4
43.7

Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts______________________________
Tires and inner tubes-----------------------Other rubber products----------------------Miscellaneous plastic products------------

41. 6
44.3
41.1
40.7

41. 9
43.9
41. 5
41.5

42.1
44.9
41.5
41.3

41.8
44.6
41.2
41.1

42.0
44.2
41.4
41.5

42.0
44.6
41.5
41.4

42.1
44.8
41.6
41.4

42.8
45.8
42 2
41.9

42.4
44.8
41.8
41.8

42.3
45.5
41.1
41.9

42.0
44.8
40.8
41.6

42.1
45.3
41.1
41.4

41.7
44.9
40.7
41.0

42.0
44. 4
41.2
41. 5

41.3
41.8
40.8
4L 5

38. 9
40 2
39.2
37.6

39.1
40.9
39. 2
38.3
37.9

38.6
41.1
38.3
38. 4
37.5

37.8
41.0
37.4
37.9
37.1

38.5
41.1
38.2
38.5
38.2

39.2
40.9
39.1
38.8
38.3

38.8
40.7
38.8
38. C
36.6

39.2
41.4
39.1
38.8
37.9

38.2
41.6
37.4
39.0
39.2

37.8
41.4
36.9
38.8
38.9

37.8
41.0
37.3
38.0
37.4

38.4
40.9
38. 1
38.2
37.8

38.6
39.9
38.5
38.3
38.8

38.2
41.0
37. 8
38.1
37. 7

37.9
40.6
37.6
37.7
37.5

Chemicals and allied products-------------Industrial chemicals-------------------------Plastics materials and synthetics -------Drugs_____________________________ Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods----------Paints, varnishes, and allied products..
Agricultural chemicals-------------------- Other chemical products--------------------

42.2
42.4
42.8

Leather and leather products---------------Leather tanning and finishing-----------Footwear, except rubber-------------------Other leather products---------- -----------Handbags and personal leather goods.

Average hourly earnings
Chemicals and allied products--------------Industrial chemicals_________________
Plastics materials and synthetics-------Drugs______________________________
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods_______
Paints, varnishes, and allied products..
Agricultural chemicals----------------------Other chemical products_____________

$3. 00
3.31
2. 96
"~2~95
2. 82

$2.99
3. 32
2. 95
2. 76
2.92
2.83
2.39
2. 85

$2. 95
3.30
2.92
2. 75
2. 85
2. 83
2. 37
2.84

$2.94
3. 31
2.93
2.74
2.82
2. 81
2. 33
2.84

$2.92
3.28
2.90
2. 73
2. 80
2. 77
2. 33
2. 82

$2.94
3.27
2.90
2. 72
2.82
2. 76
2.39
2.84

$2.93
3.26
2.88
2. 72
2.82
2.75
2. 39
2.82

$2.93
3.27
2.88
2. 69
2.81
2.75
2.41
2.81

$2.93
3. 27
2.88
2.68
2. 80
2. 75
2. 38
2.83

$2.92
3.27
2.86
2.67
2.81
2.74
2.37
2.83

$2.93
3.29
2.89
2.65
2.80
2.74
2.40
2.82

$2.91
3.25
2.87
2.63
2.80
2.71
2.38
2.79

$2.89
3.24
2.86
2.63
2.77
2.70
2.36
2.79

$2.89
3. 24
2. $4
2. 63
2. 77
2.72
2. 32
2. 78

$2.80
3.15
2.77
2.55

3. 38
3. 57
2. 67

3.38
3.56
2. 70

3. 37
3. 55
2. 71

3. 37
3. 57
2. 65

3.38
3. 59
2. 66

3.32
3.52
2.69

3.28
3. 48
2.70

3.24
3. 43
2.69

3.25
3. 45
2.65

3. 28
3. 47
2. 64

3.19
3. 37
2.58

2.68

2.64
2.26
2.68

Petroleum refining and related industries.
Petroleum refining__________________
Other petroleum and coal products___

3. 41
3. 63
2. 77

3. 40
3. 61
2. 72

3.42
3. 62
2. 72

Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts______________________________
Tires and inner tubes________________
Other rubber products_______________
Miscellaneous plastic products_______

2. 66
3.68
2. 58
2.24

2. 65
3.64
2. 56
2.25

2.64
3.65
2.54
2.25

2. 63
3.61
2. 55
2. 24

2.64
3.61
2. 55
2.25

2.64
3.63
2. 55
2.22

2.65
3. 65
2. 56
2.22

2.64
3.61
2. 55
2.22

2.65
3.64
2.54
2.23

2.63
3.63
2.52
2.22

2.61
3. 60
2.50
2.20

2.62
3. 59
2.50
2.21

2. 61
3.50
2. 51
2. 21

2.54
3.41
2.45
2.16

Leather and leather products___________
Leather tanning and finishing________
Footwear, except rubber_____________
Other leather products___________ —
Handbags and personal leather goods.

1 93
2 51
1. 87
1 89
1.80

1.94
2. 51
1.87
1.90
1.83

1.93
2. 49
1.87
1.89
1.83

1.92
2.47
1.86
1.89
1.83

1.92
2.46
1.85
1.81
1.83

1.91
2.41
1.81
1.88
1.80

1.91
2.41
1.81
1.91
1.80

1.90
2.44
1.84
1.87
1.82

1.90
2.44
1.83
1.87
1.82

1.90
2.40
1.84
1.86
1.81

1.88
2.39
1.82
1.85
1.80

1.86
2.38
1.80
1.83
1.79

1.88
2. 39
1. 82
1.85
1. 80

1.82
2.32
1.77
1.77
1.73

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

C -l.

1051

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Annual
average

IndustryJ u ly 2 June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation:
Class I railroads3------------------------------Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation___
Intercity and rural bus lines_____ ____
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Public warehousing_______ __________
Pipeline transportation________________
Communication____ _ __ .______________
Telephone communication___________
Telegraph communication4__________
Radio and television broadcasting____
Electric, gas, and sanitary services______
Electric companies and system s___
Gas companies and system s_______
Combined utility system s_________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems.

$131.94 $132. 76 $133. 04 $128. 23 $131. 54 $129. 77 $131.10 $130.80 $121.80
$111.78
140. 94
136. 20
95.20
148. 60
118.15
112.87
131.20
151,24
134. 31
136.62
122. 61
147. 33
108.26

$113.35
142. 78
132. 72
95.04
151. 00
116. 47
111.63
127.17
148.13
135.14
137. 78
124.14
147. 03
108.26

$111.41 $109. 62 $109.10
144. 05 131. 77 138. 60
131. 36 131. 88 132.40
92.82 92.98 95.34
153.18 150.75 151. 00
116. 29 116. 47 117. 74
111.08 111.63 112. 87
124.99 124. 26 123. 54
148. 92 148.45 150.42
134. 40 133.25 135.62
136. 29 136.29 136. 54
122. 61 121.58 124. 92
146. 26 144.89 149. 29
110. 42 107.83 110.51

108.00
141. 32
128. 54
93.26
150. 32
115. 20
110.12

123.97
148.45
135. 20
137.03
124.31
148.19
108. 99

108.88
135. 72
132. 37
94.13
148.88
117. 45
112. 59
124. 99
150. 75
134. 05
135.38
123.30
147. 42
106. 55

109.04
137.02
131.44
94.76
149.19
119. 97
115. 50
126. 44
149. 60
135.43
134.96
124. 50
150.88
107. 90

110. 08
135.91
133.18
93. 06
147. 50
116.97
124. 56
151.93
134.69
134.96
125.52
147. 77
106. 50

109.56
139.29
133. 92
94. 58
147.84
118.12
112.75
126.15
153. 03
133. 86
136. 69
123. 07
145. 05
107. 43

110.17
143. 04
132. 62
96. 46
145. 73
113. 52
108.27
126. 00
146. 43
130. 60
133. 31
119. 36
141.59
106.85

108. 97
140. 67
131.27
94. 87
144. 55
113.27
108. 40
125. 43
144. 54
130. 51
133. 31
119. 43
140. 76
106.34

107. 78
133.42
130. 48
93. 26
145. 85
114. 62
109. 08
122. 55
147.63
131. 24
133. 31
120. 83
143. 79
105.16

111.66

104.16
125.83
124. 02
91.53
142.55
110.15
105.32
116.05
140.66
125.25
127.62
116. 03
135. 55
101.19

Average weekly hours
Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation :
Class I railroads3________ _________
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation...
Intercity and rural bus lines________
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Public warehousing_______________
Pipeline transportation_____________
Communication____ _______________
Telephone communication________
Telegraph communication4_______
Radio and television broadcasting...
Electric, gas, and sanitary services___
Electric companies and systems____
Gas companies and systems_______
Combined utility system s_________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems.

42.5
43.5
43.1
39.5
40.6
40.6
40.6
43.3
39.8
41.2
41.4
40.6
41.5
40.7

43.1
44.9
42.0
39.6
40.7
40.3
40.3
43.7
39.5
41.2
41. 5
40.7
41.3
40.7

42.2
45.3
41.7
39.0
41.4
40.1
40.1
43.1
39.5
41.1
41.3
40.6
41.2
41.2

42.0
42.1
42.0
39.4
41.3
40.3
40.3
42.7
39.8
41.0
41.3
40.8
40.7
41.0

41.8
44.0
42.3
40.4
40.7
40.6
40.6
42.6
39.9
41.6
41.5
41.5
41.7
41.7

42.7

44.4

44.2

42.6

43.7

43.4

43.7

43.6

43.5

41.7
44.3
41.6
40.2
40.3
40.0
39.9
42.6
39.8
41.6
41.4
41.3
42.1
41.6

42.2
43.5
42.7
40.4
40.9
40. 5
40.5
43.1
40.2
41.5
41.4
41.1
42.0
41.3

42.1
44.2
42.4
41.2
41.1
41.8
42.0
43.3
40.0
41.8
41.4
41.5
42.5
41.5

42.5
43.7
43.1
42.3
41.2
40.9
40.9
43.1
40.3
41.7
41.4
41.7
42.1
41.6

42.3
44.5
43.2
41.3
42.0
41.3
41.3
43.5
40.7
41.7
41.8
41.3
41.8
41.8

42.7
45.7
43.2
40.7
41.4
40.4
40.4
43.6
39.9
41.2
41.4
40.6
41.4
41.9

42. 4
44.8
42. 9
40.2
41.3
40.6
40.6
43. 4
39.6
41.3
41.4
40.9
41.4
41.7

42.1
43.6
42.5
40.2
41.2
40.5
40.4
43.0
39.9
41.4
41.4
41.1
41.8
41.4

42 0
42 8
41 9
40 5
41 2
40 2
40 2
42 2
39 4
41 2
41 3
41 0
41 2
41.3

Average hourly earnings
Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation:
Class I railroads3____________________
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation___
Intercity and rural bus lines__________
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Public w arehousing.._______ ________
Pipeline transportation________________
Communication_______________________
Telephone communication___________
Telegraph communication 4__________
Radio and television broadcasting.........
Electric, gas, and sanitary services______
Electric companies and systems______
Gas companies and systems__________
Combined utility system s____________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems___
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.63
3.24
3.16
2.41
3.66
2.91
2.78
3.03
3.80
3.26
3.30
3.02
3. 55
2.66

$2. 63
3.18
3.16
2.40
3.71
2.89
2.77
2.91
3. 75
3.28
3.32
3.05
3.56
2.66

$2. 64
3.18
3.15
2.38
3. 70
2. 90
2. 77
2.90
3. 77
3. 27
3. 30
3.02
3. 55
2. 68

$2.61
3.13
3.14
2.36
3. 65
2.89
2.77
2.91
3.73
3.25
3.30
2.98
3. 56
2.63

$2.61
3.15
3.13
2.36
3.71
2.90
2. 78
2.90
3.77
3.26
3.29
3.01
3.58
2.65

$3.09

$2.99

$3.01

$3.01

$3.01

$2.99

$3.00

$3.00

$2.80

2. 59
3.19
3.09
2.32
3.73
2.88
2. 76
2.91
3. 73
3.25
3.31
3.01
3.52
2.62

2.58
3.12
3.10
2.33
3.64
2. 90
2.78
2. 90
3. 75
3.23
3.27
3.00
3.51
2.58

2. 59
3.10
3.10
2.30
3. 63
2. 87
2. 75
2. 92
3. 74
3. 24
3. 26
3.00
3. 55
2.60

2.59
3.11
3. 09
2.20
3.58
2.86
2.73
2.89
3.77
3.23
3.26
3. 01
3.51
2.56

2.59
3.13
3.10
2.29
3.52
2.86
2.73
2. 90
3. 76
3.21
3.27
2.98
3. 47
2.57

2.58
3.13
3. 07
2.37
3.52
2.81
2.68
2.89
3. 67
3.17
3.22
2.94
3.42
2.55

2.57
3.14
3.06
2.36
3.50
2.79
2.67
2.89
3. 65
3.16
3.22
2.92
3.40
2.55

2. 56
3. 06
3.07
2.32
3.54
2.83
2. 70
2.85
3.70
3.17
3.22
2. 94
3.44
2.54

2.48
2. 94
2.96
2.26
3.46
2.74
2.62
2.75
3.57
3.04
3. 09
2.83
3.29
2.45

1052

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able

C -l.

Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Feb.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Wholesale and retail trade 5______________ $80. 73
111.93
Wholesale trade___
Motor vehicles and automotive equip­
ment
_
______ _
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products,.
D ry goods and apparel_______________
Groceries and related produ cts_____
Electrical g o o d s ..._____ . . . ___ . . .
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
. . . _______ _____
g o o d s __ . . .
Machinery, equipment, and supplies.
Miscellaneous wholesalers__
Retail trade s._ . .
__ _______________
70. 48
General merchandise stores
Department stores.. . ____________
Mail order houses..
___
Limited price variety stores. . . . .
Food stores..
____
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores..
Apparel and accessories stores________
M en’s and boys’ apparel stores.
Women ’s read y-to-wear stores
Fam ily clothing stores___ _ _____ _
Shoe stores ..
____ _ . . .

$79. 45 $78. 38 $78. 23 $77. 49 $77. 70 $77. 54 $77.29 $76. 80 $77.42 $77. 25 $77. 75 $77.95 $76. 53 $74. 28
110. 98 111. 11 110.43 109. 48 109.08 108. 94 109. 59 108 12 107. 57 106.90 106.60 106 60 106 49 102. 56
103. 42
113. 20
106. 58
101. 02
125. 38

103. 83
113.88
107. 54
101.34
127.15

103. 00
113.88
105. 75
100.04
126. 85

102.66
112. 00
105. 08
99.72
125.85

101. 33
111.08
105.18
99. 31
126.58

101. 09
112. 44
103.32
98.33
124. 84

102. 06
112. 06
105. 26
98. 77
130. 24

101. 82
111. 24
104. 98
96. 80
128. 63

100.91
110 84
105 46
97 10
127. 02

101. 40 99. 54 100. 20 99 72 96. 79
110.16 108.27 108. 54 108 68 105. 04
104. 23 104. 23 101. 79 103.19 99. 94
98.16 98. 53 98. 70 97. 00 94.16
123. 55 121.41 120. 27 122. 84 111. 79

106. 97 106. 34 106.49 105. 67 106. 37 105. 41 105. 67 104. 04 104.19 103. 53 103.32 101.91 101. 91 98. 01
121. 25 120.83 120.01 117.96 117. 55 117. 01 117. 99 116. 88 116.75 115.23 116. 06 115. 92 115. 23 111.52
110. 42 110. 68 110.28 109. 07 109. 34 109. 89 111. 11 108. 81 107 74 107.33 107. 06 107. 06 107. 20 104.38
69.14 67. 64 67. 47 67.47 67.30 67. 49 67. 90 67.13 67.33 67.53 68. 07 68.25 66. 61 64. 75
60. 97 59.88 59. 73 59. 40 59. 22 58. 53 60. 55 58. 74 59.79 60.16 60.19 60. 72 58. 81 56. 77
65.33 63. 83 63.69 63.17 62.98 62. 08 63.30 61. 88 63.69 64. 51 64.22 64.98 62. 98 61.18
71. 81 70. 64 68. 61 68. 94 67.40 66. 78 79. 80 68. 61 69.81 72. 67 70. 56 71. 08 71. 00 70. 12
45. 72 44. 54 44. 97 44. 82 44. 53 44. 53 46. 53 44. 64 44.62 44. 47 44.98 45. 30 44.10 41.53
73.14 70.81 70. 26 70.26 70. 56 70. 56 70. 17 71.19 70. 51 71. 76 72.78 72.42 70. 32 68. 51
74. 39 72. 03 71.26 71.26 71.69 71.57 71. 53 72. 21 71.87 73.01 74.05 74. 05 71. 69 69. 55
59. 25 58. 03 58. 35 56.90 57. 55 58. 38 60. 38 57. 23 57.93 57.78 57. 97 58.82 57. 46 55.26
73. 08 70.90 69.65 68.56 69. 40 71. 20 70. 42 69. 05 69.89 69. 06 70. 64 72.67 69. 84 67.53
53.14 52. 49 52.33 51.36 51.04 52. 49 54. 54 51. 52 51.99 51.65 51.10 52.48 51. 46 49. 73
57. 53 57. 55 57. 73 57.40 56. 57 58. 71 60. 53 56. 90 57.61 56.95 58.31 59. 00 56. 45 54.27
57. 85 56.36 59. 67 55.67 56. 52 56.65 59. 40 56.03 57.33 59.33 58.65 57. 75 56. 64 55.21
Average weekly hours

Wholesale and retail trade 5 .
. . . ___
Wholesale trade..
Motor vehicles and automotive equip­
ment
.
.
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products..
______
D ry goods and apparel.. . . .
Groceries and related products_______
Electrical goods.. . . . ______ ____
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
goods. __________ _____ _ . _____
Machinery, equipment, and su p p lies.._
Miscellaneous wholesalers. _. . _
Retail trade 5__
_ ...
General merchandise stores__________
Department stores... . ___________
Mail order houses____ . . . ..................
Limited price variety stores______ _
Food stores.. . ______ . . . _____
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores..
Apparel and accessories stores..____ .
Men’s and boys’ apparel stores. . . .
Women’s ready-to-wear stores. _
Fam ily clothing stores . . . . _____
Shoe sto res_____ .
________ . .

37. 9
41.0

31.9

37. 3
40 8

36. 8
40 7

36.9
40. 6

36.9
40. 7

37.0
40. 7

37.1
40. 8

37. 7
41. 2

37.1
40. 8

37.4
40 9

37.5
40.8

38.3
41. 0

38.4
41.0

37. 7
40. 8

37.9
40.7

41. 7
40. 0
38. 2
40. 9
42. 5

41. 7
40.1
38. 0
40. 7
43.1

41. 7
40.1
37.5
40. 5
43.0

41. 9
40.0
37.8
40.7
43.1

41. 7
40.1
37. 7
40.7
43.2

41. 6
40.3
37.3
40.8
42.9

42. 0
40. 6
38. 0
41. 5
44.3

41.9
40. 6
37.9
40. 5
43.9

41.7
40.6
37.8
40.8
43.5

41.9
40. 5
37.9
40.9
42.9

42. 0
40.4
37.9
41.4
42.6

42.1
40.5
37.7
42.0
42.2

41.9
40.4
37.8
41.1
42.8

41.9
40.4
38.0
41.3
41.1

41. 3
41.1
40 3
36.2
33. 5
33. 5
35:2
31 1
34 5
34. 6
33.1
36. 0
32 8
32. 5
31.1

40. 9
41.1
40 1
35 6
32 9
32.9
34 8
30. 3
33. 4
33. 5
32 6
35.1
32 4
32. 7
30.3

40.8
41.1
40.1
35. 7
33.0
33.0
33.8
30.8
33.3
33.3
32.6
35.0
32.5
32.8
30.6

40.8
41.1
40.1
35. 7
33. 0
32.9
34.3
30.7
33.3
33.3
32.7
34.8
32.3
32.8
31.1

40.6
41.1
40.2
35. 8
32.9
32.8
33. 7
30. 5
33.6
33.5
32. 7
34.7
32.1
32.7
31.4

40. 7
41.2
40. 4
35. 9
32.7
32. 5
33.9
30.5
33. 6
33.6
32.8
34.9
32.4
32.8
31.3

40. 8
41. 4
40. 7
36. 7
35. 0
34. 4
42. 0
33. 0
33.9
33.9
34. 5
36.3
34. 3
34.2
33.0

40.8
41.3
40.3
35. 9
33. 0
32. 4
36.3
31. 0
33.9
33.9
32. 7
34. 7
32. 4
32. 7
31.3

40.7
41.4
40.2
36.2
33.4
33.0
35.8
31.2
33.9
33.9
33.1
35.3
32.7
33.3
31.5

40.6
41.3
40.2
36. 5
33.8
33.6
36.7
31.1
34.5
34.6
33.4
35.6
32.9
33.5
31.9

41.0
41.6
40.4
37.4
34.2
33.8
36.0
31.9
35.5
35.6
34.3
36.6
33.4
34.3
34.1

40.6
41.4
40.4
37.5
34.5
34.2
35.9
31.9
35.5
35.6
34.6
36.7
34.3
34.5
33.0

40. 6
41.3
40.3
36.6
33.8
33.5
36.6
31.5
34.3
34.3
33.6
36.0
33.2
33.4
32.0

40.5
41.0
40.3
37.0
34.2
33.8
37.7
31.7
34.6
34.6
33.9
36.7
33.6
33.5
32.1

Average hourly earnings
Wholesale and retail trade 5 _ ___________
Wholesale tr a d e ...
. . . . . __ _ . ___
Motor vehicles and automotive equipm ent___
___ _
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products..
Dry goods and apparel___ . . . . . .
Groceries and related products_______
Electrical goods..
______ _ . . .
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
g o o d s... _______ . . . . .
_ ...
Machinery, equipment, and supplies . .
Miscellaneous wholesalers___ _ . . . .
Retail trade e_____________ .
General merchandise stores.. .
Department stores.. . . . ___ ____
Mail order houses
. .. ..
Limited price variety stores_____ . .
Food sto res... . . . . .
_ ______
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores
Apparel and accessories stores
Men’s and boys’ apparel stores_____
Women’s ready-to-wear stores_____
Fam ily clothing stores__ ________
Shoe stores__________ _______
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.13
2. 73

1.91

$2.13
2. 72

$2.13
2. 73

$2.12
2. 72

$2.10
2.69

$2.10
2.68

$2.09
2. 67

$2.05
2. 66

$2.07
2. 65

$2.07
2.63

$2.06
2.62

$2.03
2. 60

$2.03
2.60

$2.03
2. 61

$1.96
2. 52

2 48
2.83
2. 79
2. 48
2. 95

2 49
2. 84
2. 83
2. 49
2. 95

2.47
2. 84
2. 82
2.47
2. 95

2. 45
2.80
2. 78
2. 45
2.92

2. 43
2. 77
2. 79
2. 44
2.93

2. 43
2. 79
2. 77
2.41
2.91

2. 43
2. 76
2. 77
2. 38
2. 94

2.43
2. 74
2. 77
2. 39
2.93

2 42
2.73
2.79
2.38
2.92

2. 42
2. 72
2.75
2.40
2.88

2.37
2.68
2. 75
2.38
2.85

2.38
2. 68
2. 70
2. 35
2.85

2. 38
2.69
2. 73
2.36
2. 87

2.31
2.60
2.63
2. 28
2.72

2 59
2. 95
2. 74
1.91
1 82
1 95
2 04
1.47
2.12
2.15
1.79
2. 03
1. 62
1. 77
1.86

2. 60
2. 94
2. 76
1.90
1. 82
1 94
2 03
1.47
2.12
2.15
1.78
2. 02
1. 62
1. 76
1.86

2. 61
2.92
2.75
1.89
1.81
1.93
2.03
1.46
2.11
2.14
1.79
1.99
1.61
1.76
1.95

2. 59
2.87
2. 72
1.89
1.80
1.92
2. 01
1.46
2.11
2.14
1.74
1.97
1. 59
1.75
1.79

2. 62
2. 86
2. 72
1.88
1.80
1.92
2.00
1.46
2.10
2.14
1.76
2.00
1.59
1. 73
1.80

2. 59
2.84
2. 72
1.88
1. 79
1.91
1.97
1.46
2.10
2.13
1.78
2. 04
1.62
1.79
1.81

2. 59
3. 85
2. 73
1. 85
1. 73
1.84
1. 90
1.41
2. 07
2.11
1. 75
1.94
1.59
1. 77
1.80

2. 55
2.83
2. 70
1.87
1.78
1.91
1. 89
1. 44
2. 10
2.13
1.75
1.99
1. 59
1. 74
1.79

2.56
2.82
2.68
1.86
1.79
1.93
1.95
1.43
2.08
2.12
1.75
1.98
1.59
1.73
1.82

2. 55
2.79
2.67
1.85
1.78
1.92
1.98
1.43
2. 08
2.11
1.73
1.94
1. 57
1.70
1.86

2.52
2.79
2.65
1.82
1.76
1.90
1.96
1.41
2. 05
2.08
1.69
1. 93
1.53
1.7C
1.72

2. 51
2. 80
2. 65
1.82
1.76
1.90
1.98
1.42
2. 04
2. 08
1.70
1.98
1.53
1.71
1.75

2. 51
2. 79
2. 66
1.82
1.74
1.88
1.94
1.40
2. 05
2. 09
1. 71
1.94
1.55
1. 69
1.77

2.42
2. 72
2.59
1.75
1.66
1.81
1.86
1.31
1.98
2.01
1.63
1.84
1.48
1.62
1.72

1053

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS

T able C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

Annual
average

Industry
July 2 June2 M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Wholesale and retail trade—Continued
Retail trade—Continued
Furniture and appliance stores-----Furniture and home furnishings _
Eating and drinking places 6-----------Other retail trade__________________
Building materials and hardware - Motor vehicle dealers____________
Other vehicle and accessory dealers
Drug stores_____________________
Fuel and ice dealers----------------Finance, insurance, and real estate7------Banking___________________________
Credit agencies other than banks-------Savings and loan associations_______
Security dealers and exchanges-------Insurance carriers----------------------------Life insurance------------------ -----------Accident and health insurance-------Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.

$89.67 $88.20 $87.81 $88.09 $87.47 $88.82 $92. 75 $89.10 $89.15 $88. 75 $88. 80 $89. 02 $88.18 $85.
89. 89 88.65 87.47 87.30 86.24 88.03 91.98 88.13 88.18 87. 56 87. 78 87. 82 86. 58 83.
47.40 46.51 46.31 46.31 46.38 46.17 46.23 45.49 46.02 45.46 46. 70 46. 70 45. 76 44.
86.05 84. 99 84.61 84.00 83.41 83.82 84. 46 84.03 83.84 83.03 84. 46 85. 08 83.23 80.
92.64 90.91 90.49 88. 81 88.38 89.02 90.10 89. 25 90.52 89.89 89.67 90. 73 88.41 85.
109.40 108.03 107.86 106.64 104.49 104. 54 106. 09 106. 33 105.22 102. 62 104. 88 107. 31 104.88 100.'
88.97 88.54 87.03 86.76 86.76 87.16 86. 24 85. 93 86.17 85.41 88. 20 87.16 85.89 85.9
63.14 61.70 61.54 61.02 61.58 61.23 63. 55 61.93 61.94 62.65 63. 53 62.80 61. 42 59.'
97. 53 98.59 98.83 99.54 102.58 104. 40 101. 05 99. 49 98.21 94.47 92. 77 93.02 96. 05 93.
$92.13

91.88 92.88 92.50 91.76 92.00 91.63 90.88 90. 27 89.65 89.04 88. 91 89.01 88. 77 85.'
81.77 82.21 82.21 81.84 81.47 82.28 80.35 80.35 80.35 79.18 79.24 79.24 79. 24 76.
84.98 86.56 86.03 85. 50 86.26 87.32 85. 28 84. 67 84.67 84. 52 85.50 84. 36 84.29 80.
85. 74 86.81 86.54 85. 56 86.16 87. 70 84. 67 84. 22 84.82 84.44 85.27 85.96 84. 67 82.'
137. 63 149. 71 148.93 145.16 144. 02 139.13 138. 28 135. 72 131. 89 124.21 120.11 123. 33 127. 43 120.1
97.94 98.21 98.10 98.47 98. 74 97. 73 96. 87 96. 49 95.86 95. 86 95.86 95. 74 95.12 92.
97.82 97.19 96.99 97.72 97.99 97.15 96. 05 95. 31 94.79 94. 54 94. 79 94. 79 94. 79 91.
88.06 87.82 87.45 87.22 87.32 85.41 85. 38 85.24 84.50 83. 68 84. 64 84. 41 84.41 81.'
100.28 100.93 100.81 100. 70 101.08 100.17 100. 20 99.44 99.18 99.06 99.06 98. 94 97. 92 94.'
Average weekly hours

Wholesale and retail trade— Continued
Retail trade—Continued
Furniture and appliance stores____
Furniture and home furnishings - .
Eating and drinking places9________
Other retail trade______________ ___
Building materials and hardw are..
Motor vehicle dealers_____________
Other vehicle and accessory dealers.
Drug stores______________________
Fuel and ice dealers______________
Finance, insurance, and real estate7____
Banking_________ __________________
Credit agencies other than banks_____
Savings and loan associations______
Security dealers and exchanges----------Insurance carriers___________________
Life insurance_____________________
Accident and health insurance_____
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.

37.3

39.5
39.6
34.1
40.4
42.3
42.9
43.4
34.5
41.5

39.2
39.4
33.7
39.9
41.7
42.7
43.4
33.9
41.6

39.2
39.4
33.8
40.1
41.7
42.8
43.3
34.0
41.7

39.5
39.5
33.8
40.0
41.5
43.0
43.6
33.9
42.0

39.4
39.2
34.1
40.1
41.3
43.0
43.6
34.4
43.1

39.3
39.3
34.2
40.3
41.6
43.2
43.8
34.4
43. 5

40.5
40.7
34.5
40.8
42.3
43.3
44.0
35.7
43. 0

39.6
39.7
34.2
40.4
41.9
43.4
43.4
34.6
42.7

39.8
39.9
34.6
40.5
42.3
43.3
43.3
34.8
42.7

39.8
39.8
34.7
40.5
42.2
43.3
43.8
35.0
41.8

40.0
39.9
36.2
41.4
42.7
43. 7
44.1
36.3
41.6

40.1
40.1
36.2
41.5
43.0
43.8
43.8
36.3
41.9

39.9
39.9
35.2
40.8
42.1
43.7
43.6
35.3
42.5

40.3
40.3
35.
41.2
42.:
44. C
43.
36.
42. S

37.2
37.0
37.6
36.8
37.4
37.1
36.5
37.0
37.7

37.3
37.2
37.8
37.1
37.9
37.2
36.4
36.9
37.8

37.3
37.2
37.9
37.3
37.8
37.3
36.6
36.9
37.9

37.3
37.2
38.0
37.2
38.0
37.3
36.6
36.8
38.0

37.4
37.2
38.0
37.3
37.8
37.4
36.7
37.0
38.0

37.4
37.4
38.3
37.8
37.1
37.3
36.8
36.6
37.8

37.4
37.2
37.9
37.3
38.2
37.4
36.8
36.8
38.1

37.3
37.2
37.8
37.1
37.7
37.4
36.8
36.9
38.1

37.2
37.2
37.8
37.2
37.9
37.3
36.6
36.9
38.0

37.1
37.0
37.9
37.2
37.3
37.3
36.5
36.7
38.1

37.2
37.2
38.0
37.4
37.3
37.3
36.6
36.8
38.1

37.4
37.2
38.0
37.7
37.6
37.4
36.6
36.7
38.2

37.3
37.2
37.8
37.3
37.7
37.3
36.6
36.7
38.1

37.3
37.37.
37.
37.
37.:
36.
36.
37. S

Average hourly earnings
Wholesale and retail trade—Continued
Retail trade—Continued
Furniture and appliance stores-----Furniture and home furnishings .
Eating and drinking places 9________
Other retail trade________________
Building materials and hardware,.
Motor vehicle dealers____________
Other vehicle and accessory dealers
Drug stores_____________________
Fuel and ice dealers______________
Finance, insurance, and real estate 7____
Banking____________________________
Credit agencies other than banks_____
Savings and loan associations_______
Security dealers and exchanges_______
Insurance carriers___________________
Life insurance_____________________
Accident and health insurance_____
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.47

$2.27
2.27
1.39
2.13
2.19
2.55
2.05
1.83
2.35

$2.25
2.25
1.38
2.13
2.18
2.53
2.04
1.82
2.37

$2.24
2.22
1.37
2.11
2.17
2.52
2.01
1.81
2.37

$2.23
2. 21
1.37
2.10
2.14
2.48
1.99
1.80
2.37

$2.22
2.20
1.36
2.08
2.14
2.43
1.99
1.79
2.38

$2.26
2.24
1.35
2.08
2.14
2.42
1.99
1.78
2.40

$2.29
2. 26
1.34
2.07
2.13
2. 45
1.96
1.78
2.35

$2. 25
2. 22
1.33
2.08
2.13
2. 45
1.98
1.79
2. 33

$2.24
2.21
1.33
2.07
2.14
2.43
1.99
1.78
2.30

$2. 23
2.20
1.31
2.05
2.13
2.37
1.95
1.79
2.26

$2.22
2.20
1.29
2.04
2.10
2. 40
2.00
1.75
2.23

$2. 22
2.19
1.29
2.05
2.11
2.45
1.99
1.73
2. 22

$2. 21
2.17
1.30
2. 04
2.10
2. 40
1.97
1. 74
2. 26

$2.12
2.08
1.25
1.95
2.03
2.29
1.95
1.66
2.17

2.47
2.21
2.26
2.33
3.68
2.64
2.68
2.38
2.66

2.49
2.21
2.29
2.34
3.95
2.64
2.67
2.38
2.67

2.48
2.21
2.27
2.32
3.94
2.63
2.65
2.37
2.66

2.46
2.20
2.25
2.30
3.82
2.64
2.67
2.37
2.65

2.46
2.19
2.27
2.31
3.81
2.64
2.67
2.36
2.66

2. 45
2.20
2.28
2. 32
3.75
2. 62
2.64
2: 34
2. 65

2. 43
2.16
2. 25
2.27
3.62
2. 59
2. 61
2. 32
2.63

2. 42
2.16
2. 24
2. 27
3. 60
2. 58
2.59
2.31
2. 61

2.41
2.16
2.24
2.28
3.48
2.57
2.59
2.29
2.61

2.40
2.14
2.23
2.27
3.33
2.57
2. 59
2.28
2. 60

2. 39
2.13
2.25
2. 28
3.22
2.57
2.59
2.30
2.60

2.38
2.13
2.22
2.28
3.28
2. 56
2.59
2.30
2.59

2. 38
2.13
2.23
2. 27
3. 38
2. 55
2. 59
2. 30
2. 57

2. 30
2.05
2.14
2.20
3.27
2.48
2.51
2.22
2. 50

1054

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Annual
average

Industry
J u ly 2 Jun e2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Feb.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Average weekly earnings
Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels 6 ___
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants 8Motion pictures:
Motion picture filming and distributing.

$52. 82 $52. 97 $52. 36 $51.99 $52. 08 $51. 99 $52. 36 $51. 99 $52.30 $51. 65 $51. 74 $52.13 $51.17 $49. 54
62.15

61.44

60.04

59.82

59.06

59.44

59.68

58.83

60.14

59.06

58. 67

59. 28

58. 98

55. 73

165. 53 152. 69 151. 60 150. 00 152. 74 157. 56 160. 37 155. 63 161.18 152. 88 157. 58 157.12 151. 64 136. 97
Average weekly hours

Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels 6____
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plan ts8.
Motion pictures:
Motion picture filming and distributing.

37.2

37.3

37.4

37.4

37.2

37.4

37.4

37.4

37.9

37.7

38.9

38.9

37.9

38.4

38.6

38.4

38.0

38.1

38.1

38.1

38.5

38.2

38.8

38.6

38.6

39.0

38.8

38.7

41.8

40. 5

40.0

40.0

40.3

40.4

40. 6

39.4

40.6

39. 2

40.2

40.6

39.8

39.7

$1.29

Average hourly earnings
Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels 6. __
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plan ts8.
Motion pictures:
Motion picture filming and distributing.

—

$1.42

$1.42

$1.40

$1.39

$1.40

$1.39

$1.40

$1.39

$1.38

$1.37

$1.33

$1.34

$1.35

1.61

1.60

1.58

1.57

1.55

1.56

1. 55

1.54

1.55

1.53

1.52

1.52

1. 52

1.44

3. 96

3. 77

3. 79

3.75

3.79

3.90

3. 95

3. 95

3.97

3.90

3. 92

3.87

3. 81

3.45

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to January
1966, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1, table
A-3.
2 Preliminary.
3 Based upon m onthly data summarized in the M-300 report by the Inter­
state Commerce Commission, which relate to all employees who received
pay during the month, except executives, officials, and staff assistants (ICC
Group I). Beginning January 1965, data relate to railroads with operating
revenues of $5,000,000 or more.
4 Data relate to nonsupervisory employees except messengers.


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8 Beginning January 1964, data include eating and drinking places.
« Money payments only, tips not included.
7 Beginning January 1964, data on non-office salesmen excluded from all
series in this division.
8 Beginning January 1964, data relate to nonsupervisory workers and are
not comparable with production worker levels of prior years.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics for all
series except that for Class I railroads. (See footnote 3.)

1055

C — EARNINGS AND HOURS
T a b l e C -2 .

Average weekly hours, seasonally adjusted, of production workers in selected industries 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

1965

Industry division and group
J u ly 2 June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

M ining------ ---------------------------------------------------------------

43.6

42.8

42.6

41.7

43.2

42.7

42.5

43.0

41.9

42.2

42.2

42.7

42.6

Contract construction------- ---------

- -------------------------

37.8

37.4

36.2

37.2

38.5

38.2

37.8

39.2

37.1

37.0

36.2

37.3

37.4

----------------------------

41.2

41.3

41.4

41.5

41.5

41.6

41.5

41.4

41.4

41.2

40.9

41.0

41.0

Durable goods----- -------------- -------- -Ordnance and accessories---------- ---------------Lumber and wood products, except furniture_______
Furniture and fixtures------------------------ - -Stone, clay, and glass products------ -- - ----------------Primary metal industries_____ __
--------------------Fabricated metal products.. . . . ------------- ----M achinery.
. ..
----... ..
-----------Electrical equipment and supplies___________ . . . . . .
Transportation equipm ent.
. . .
. . _
Instruments and related products.
------------------ . .
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries--------------------

41.9
42.3
40.7
41.5
41.5
42.0
42.0
43.5
41.2
42.1
41.7
39.7

41.9
42.2
40.5
41.8
41.8
42.0
42.2
43.6
41.2
42.3
41.9
40.0

42.2
42.4
41.3
42.1
41.8
42. 2
42.4
43.8
41.4
42.2
42.3
40.2

42.4
42.3
41.3
41.6
42.1
41.9
42.4
43.7
41.4
43.4
42.1
40.0

42.3
41.9
41.1
42.0
42.7
41.9
42.5
43.9
41.4
42.9
42.5
40.3

42.4
42.3
41.1
41.7
42.4
42.0
42.6
44.0
41.6
43.4
42.5
40.3

42.4
42.4
41.5
41.7
42.7
41.9
42.6
43.9
41.5
43.5
42.2
40.0

42.2
42.4
41.8
41.8
43.0
41.2
42.3
43.9
41.5
42.9
41.7
40.2

42.2
42.2
41.3
41.7
42.2
41.1
42.4
43.7
41.3
43.4
41.7
40.2

42.0
42.3
41.1
41.5
41.8
41.4
42.3
43.5
41.0
43.0
41.7
40.0

41.6
41.9
40.5
40.9
41.9
41.8
41.6
43.0
40.5
41.8
41.5
39.8

41.7
42.1
40.7
41.3
41.8
42.1
41.7
42.7
40.8
42.2
41.3
40.0

41.7
42.7
40. 5
41.3
41.7
42.4
41.8
42.9
40.6
42.3
41.3
39.7

Nondurable goods... . . .
.
---------Food and kindred products_________. .
Tobacco manufactures........ .
. . . . . ------------Textile mill products... . . --------------------------Apparel and related products____ . . .
...
Paper and allied products. . . .
.
. . . ------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries____ .
Chemicals and allied products----- ------------Petroleum refining and related industries____ . . . ___
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products.. . . . . .
Leather and leather products____ .
.
------ . . .

40.1
41.0
38.9
42.0
36.1
43.4
38.9
42.2
42.0
41.7
38.3

40.2
41.1
38.1
42.0
36.6
43.4
38.9
42.0
42.2
41.6
38.5

40.2
40.9
38.5
42.1
36.5
43.7
38.8
42.0
42.5
42.1
39.0

40.4
41.1
39.2
41.9
36.5
43.7
38.7
42.2
42.6
42.1
39.1

40.4
41.1
39.3
42.4
36.5
43.5
38.7
42.1
42.5
42.2
38.5

40.6
41.6
41.4
42.5
36.6
43.5
38.7
42.2
42.8
42.3
38.9

40.2
41.2
39.1
42.4
36.3
43.2
38.5
42.0
42.0
42.4
38.2

40.2
41.2
37.7
42.0
36.5
43.6
38.7
42.0
42.0
42.3
38.4

40.3
41.1
38.0
41.9
36.5
43.6
38.6
42.0
42.4
42.5
38.6

40.1
41.0
37.7
41.8
36.4
43.4
38.4
41.9
42.5
42.3
38.6

40.1
40.7
37.8
41.7
36.0
43.0
38.6
42.2
42.7
41.6
38.4

40.0
41.1
37.4
41.8
36.2
42.9
38.6
41.8
42.7
41.9
37.9

40.0
41.4
38.1
41.4
36.3
42.9
38.6
41.6
42.1
41.8
37.9

37.3
40.7
36.2

37.1
40.7
35.9

37.0
40.7
35.9

37.1
40.7
35.9

37.2
■40.9
36.0

37.3
41.0
36.1

37.4
41.0
36.2

37.5
40.9
36.4

37.4
40.8
36.3

37.5
40.9
36.4

37.5
40.8
36.5

37.8
41.0
36.7

37.8
40.7
36.8

Manufacturing_______ ______

-

Wholesale and retail trade 3____ ____ _ .
.
----------Wholesale trade--------------------Retail trade 3---------- ----------- --

N o te : The seasonal adjustment method used is described in “ New
Seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components,” Monthly
Labor Review, August 1960, pp. 822-827.

1 For employees covered, see footnote 1, table A-3.
2 Preliminary.
3 Beginning January 1964, data include eating and drinking places.

T a b l e C -3 .

Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers in manufacturing, by
major industry group 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
Annual
average

1965

1966
Major industry group
J u ly 2 Jun e2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

$2. 59

$2. 58

$2 58

$2 58

$2 56

$2 56

$2 56

$2. 54

$2.53

$2.52

$2.51

$2.49

$2.50

$2. 50

$2.44

Durable goods.
. ...
. ___
Ordnance and accessories
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture..
__ _
. . .
Furniture and fixtures. _
Stone, clay, and glass products
Primary metal industries
__.
Fabricated metal products
" . . .
Machinery__
Electrical equipment and supplies____
Transportation equipment.
Instruments and related products
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries... .
. . . . . .

2. 75

2. 74
3.03

2.74
3.03

2.74
3.02

2.72
3.03

2.72
3.02

2. 72
3.03

2. 70
3. 05

2.69
3.02

2.68
3.02

2.68
3.00

2.65
3.01

2. 67
3.01

2. 67
3.01

2.60
2.95

2.17
2. 09
2 57
3.14
2. 70
2. 89
2.53
3.14
2 59

2.15
2.09
2. 57
3.13
2. 71
2. 89
2. 53
3.12
2 57

2.12
2.08
2. 57
3.13
2.71
2.88
2.53
3.11
2. 58

2. 08
2.07
2. 55
3.11
2.70
2. 87
2. 51
3.11
2. 56

2. 09
2.06
2. 55
3.09
2.68
2. 86
2.52
3.11
2. 55

2. 07
2. 06
2. 54
3.10
2.68
2.86
2. 52
3.11
2.55

2. 08
2. 05
2. 54
3. 08
2. 67
2.84
2. 51
3.10
2. 54

2.10
2. 05
2. 54
3. 06
2. 66
2. 84
2. 51
3.09
2.53

2.10
2.05
2.53
3.06
2.65
2.83
2.50
3.07
2.52

2.11
2.05
2.51
3.06
2. 64
2.82
2. 50
3.07
2. 51

2.10
2.03
2.49
3.03
2. 62
2.79
2.49
3.01
2. 52

2. 09
2.03
2. 49
3.05
2.63
2. 79
2. 50
3.02
2. 52

2. 07
2. 03
2. 49
3. 04
2. 63
2. 80
2. 50
3. 04
2. 52

2.03
1.97
2.42
2.99
2.57
2. 75
2. 44
2.96
2.47

Nondurable goods._ . . .
__
__ _ __
Food and kindred products____
Tobacco manufactures___
_.
...
Textile mill products___
Apparel and related products..
. ..
Paper arid allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________ . _____ _ _ __ . . .
Chemicals and allied products. . ___
Petroleum refining and related industries...
_________ .
_______
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
products___
______ _ _____
Leather and leather products. ____ _

2. 35

M anufactur mg

(3)

2 13

2.13

2.13

2.12

2.13

2.13

2. 08

2. 06

2.05

2.05

2. 05

2.08

2.06

2. 02

2. 34
2 41
2 26
1 88
1 83

2.33
2 42
2 24
1 83
1. 83
2. 57

2.33
2.42
2.24
1.83
1.83
2.56

2.31
2.40
2.19
1.82
1.84
2. 55

2. 31
2. 38
2.17
1.82
1.84
2. 54

2.31
2.38
2.14
1.82
1.82
2. 54

2.30
2.36
2.09
1.81
1.82
2.53

2.29
2. 33
2.09
1. 81
1.82
2. 52

2.28
2.31
1.95
1.80
1.82
2.51

2. 28
2.31
1.95
1.80
1.82
2.52

2.26
2.29
2. 03
1.80
1.79
2. 51

2. 27
2.30
2.17
1.79
1.79
2.51

2. 27
2.32
2.07
1.78
1.79
2. 50

2.21
2. 27
1.92
1.71
1.76
2.43

c3)

(3)
2 84

(3)
2.82

(3)
2. 81

(3)
2.83

(3)
2. 83

0

2. 83

(3)
2. 83

(3)
2.82

(3)
2. 82

(3)
2.80

0

2 87

2. 80

(3)
2. 79

(3)
2. 72

3. 27

3.26

3.29

3.27

3.28

3.28

3. 27

3.27

3.20

3.16

3.12

3.13

3.17

3.10

2 53
1.88

2 52
1.88

2.52
1.89

2.51
1.87

2. 51
1.86

2. 51
1.86

2. 51
1.86

2. 50
1.85

2.51
1.85

2.50
1.85

2. 49
1.83

2.51
1.82

2. 49
1. 84

2. 44
1. 78

1 For com parability of data with those published in issues prior to January
1966, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1, table
A-3. Average hourly earnings excluding overtime are derived by assuming
that overtime hours are paid for at the rate of time and one-half.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 Preliminary.
^
._
,,
,
3 N ot available because average overtime rates are significantly above
time and one-half. Inclusion of data for the group in the nondurable goods
total has little effect.

1056
T able

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

C-4. Average weekly overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by industry 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
1966

Annual
average

1965

Industry
July 2 June2 May
Manufacturing___ . -------------------- - -_
-----Durable goods-_ ---Nondurable goods-----------------------Durable goods
Ordnance and accessories
_ __
Ammunition, except for small arms
Sighting and fire control equipment —
Other ordnance and accessories__ _
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture .
Sawmills and planing mills . .
Millwork, plywood, and related prodnets
_ - _____
_
Wooden containers
_ _
Miscellaneous wood products-----------Furniture and fixtures __
Household furniture
Office fu rn itu re__
_____
Partitions; office and store fixtures __ Other furniture and fixtures__ _
Stone, clay, and glass products . . . - Flat glass
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown _
Cement, hydraulic
Structural clay products _
Pottery and related products___
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Other stone and mineral products._
Primary metal industries
Blast furnace and basic steel products
Iron and steel foundries
Nonferrous smelting and refining __
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and extruding ____
__
Nonferrous foundries _
Miscellaneous primary metal industries
_
- - - - Fabricated metal products . _ _
M etal cans
Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware.
Heating equipment and plumbing fixtu res...
Fabricated structural metal products
Screw machine products, bolts, etc
Metal stampings . .
Coating, engraving, and allied services.
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products.
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products . . .
Machinerv___
. . .
Engines and turbines
Farm machinerv and equipment__
Construction and related m achin ery...
Metalworking machinery and equipment
___ _ _ ____
_
Special industry machinery
General industrial machinery..
Office, computing, and accounting machines___
_
_
Service industry machines
Miscellaneous machinery____ _ _ __
Electrical equipment and supplies
Electric distribution equipment
Electrical industrial apparatus
Household appliances!.'.
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.
Radio and TV receiving sets
Communication equipment
Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment
and supplies. . . .
Transportation equipment. _.
Motor vehicles and equipm ent...
Aircraft and parts______
Ship and boat building and repairing..
Railroad equipment
Other transportation equipment
Instruments and related products..
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control devices____ _____________
Optical and ophthalmic goods
Ophthalmic goods.. . .
Surgical, medical, and dental equipm ent_________
Photographic equipment and supplies.
Watches and clocks
. ..
See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3.7
3.9
3.4

___
___

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

4.0
4.3
3.5

4.0
4.3
3.4

3.9
4.3
3.3

3.8
4.2
3.3

3.8
4.2
3.3

3.7
4.1
3.1

4.0
4.4
3.4

3.9
4.3
3.4

3.9
4.2
3.4

3.8
4.0
3.5

3.5
3.8
3.2

3.4
3.7
3.1

3.6
3.9
3.1

3.1
3.3
2.9

3.8
2.9
4.1

3.7
3.1
3.6

3.6
3.0
3.5
5.2

3.3
2.8
3.4
4. 5

3. 5
3.2
3.7
4.4

3.8
3.8
3.4
4.0

3 8
4.0
4.4

3.7
3.6
2.5
4.1

3 4
3 3
1.8
3.9

3 3
3 5
2.0
3.1

3 3
3 5
l.i
3.2

9 Q
3 0

18
18

2.6
3.9

1.6
2.9

1.3
2.0

4.2
4.3

4.4
4.5

4.3
4.4

4.0
4.0

3.7
3.7

3.8
3.8

3 Q
3.8

3 Q
3.7

4.1
4.0

4.0
4.0

4.2
4. 2

3 8
3.8

3. 8
3 7

3.4

4.2
4.5
4.0
4.0
3.7
4.8
5.0
4.5
4.8
3.8
4.6
2.8
3.9
2.6

4.7
4.8
3.9
3.7
3.5
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.7
4.1
4. 5
2.8
3.9
2.3

4.4
4.2
3.9
3.4
3.3
4.5
3.6
3.4
4.6
4.8
4.0
2.7
3.7
2.5

4.1
3.5
3.8
3.7
3.6
4.4
4.0
3.4
4.4
4. 4
4. 4
2.7
3.6
2.3

3.9
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
4.5
3.6
3.2
4.0
4.3
4.3
2.3
3.1
2.4

3.9
3.6
3.6
3.4
3. 3
4.1
3.5
3.0
3.9
4.3
4. 0
2.5
3.3
2.3

4 2
4 2
3.7
4 4
4 4
4 9
4 7
4 ?
4 2
3 4
4 2
1Q
3 fi
2.4

4 4
3 8
3.8
4 1
4 1
3 7
4 5
3 7
4 5
f) 6
4. 4
2 2
3 7
2, 6

4.3
4.5
3.9
4.2
4.2
4.0
4. 9
3.9
4.6
4.9
4.2
1. 9
3.8
2.6

4 1
3 7
3.9
3 9
3 7
4 2
4 8
3 9
4 6
5 0
4. 6
2.9
4.2
2 7

4.6
3 7
3.7
3.8
3 5
4 6
5.4
4 3
4 7
3.3
4.1
2.4
4.0
2.2

4 1
3 7
3.3
3. 0
27
4 1
3 9
3 6
4 5
3 5
4.1
2. 5
3.9
1. 9

4. 0
3 6

7.2
4.1
4.2
3.0
5.2
4.0

7.0
4.3
4.0
2.8
5.1
3.8

6.8
4.3
4.1
2.8
5.6
3.9

6.3
4.0
3.9
2. 4
5. 6
3. 6

5.0
4.0
3.9
2.3
5. 6
3.5

5.3
3.4
3.6
1.8
5.1
3. 2

fi 0
3 8
3 5
1a
ft
3. 5

6
3
3
1
5
3

3
9
4
4
6
6

6.8
4. 0
3. 4
1.6
5. 7
3.5

63
3 7
3.8
2 5
5 7
4 1

7.4
3.8
3.7
2.8
5 1
3.3

7
3
3
3
5
3

0
6
9
2
2
3

3. 8
2. 7
5. 5
3. 5

59
33
3.2
24
47
31

6.3
4.7

6. 2
4.5

6.0
4.6

5. 8
4. 5

5.9
4.5

6. 0
4.7

59
4.7

5. 4
4. 2

5.4
4.0

5.8
3.4

5.1
3. 5

4.8
3 2

5.0
3.9

3.9
3.2

5.6
4.6
4.4

6.0
4.6
4.8

5.4
4.3
4.4

6.2
4.2
3.8

6.3
4.2
4.0

6. 2
4.1
3.4

6 1
4 4
2.9

6.1
4. 4
3. 5

6. 0
4.5
3.6

5.6
42
4.3

4.9
4 0
5. 0

5. 3
3 8
5. 0

5.2
4.0
4.5

4.0
3.4
3.8

3. 5

3. 7

3.6

3.4

3.3

3.4

3.8

4. 0

3.8

3. 3

3 0

2.8

3.4

3.1

2.9
4.4
7.0
5.1
5.2
4.5

3. 0
4.1
6.9
5.3
5.1
4. 6

2.6
3.6
6.7
5.3
4.8
4.0

2. 4
3. 5
6.8
6. 3
4.8
4.1

2.5
3.4
6.9
5.1
4.7
4.4

2.1
3.4
6.6
5.3
4.3
4.0

2. 7
4 0
6 8
5 fi
4.8
4.1

2.7
4. 0
6.1
5.8
4.7
4.4

3.2
4.4
5.9
5.5
4.7
4.4

2.9
4 1
5. 4
5. 0
4.6
3.7

2.5
4 0
5.1
4 7
4.0
3.9

2. 4
3 7
48
49
3.8
3.4

2.3

3. 6
5.4
5. 2
4.3
3.8

2.2
3.0
4.3
4.5
3.8
3.1

4.8
5.7
5.7
3.7
5.2

4. 6
5.8
6.0
4.2
5. ¿5

3.9
5.6
5.8
4.4
5.1

4 3
5. 7
5. 4
4.3
5.1

4.1
5.6
4.4
4.0
5.0

3.7
5.3
3.9
3.7
4.5

3 8
5. 5
4 9
3.7
4.7

3. 8
5. 0
4. 0
2.8
4. 4

3. 8
4.9
4.4
2.9
4. 7

3 7
4. 5
4 5
3.0
4.2

3 4
4 4
4 1
2.5
4.1

3 0
4 5
4 0
2.6
4.4

3.4
4. 6
4.1
2.9
4.2

27
3.9
3.1
2.6
3.5

8.0
5.7
5.9

8.3
5.5
5.7

8.0
5.3
5.1

8. 2
5. 6
5. 2

8.0
5.6
5.3

7.6
5.4
5.1

7. 6
5. 8
5. 4

7. 0
5.3
5. 0

6.4
5.1
4.8

6.1
4 8
4.7

6. 0
4 4
4 4

6. 3
4.3
4. 2

6. 7
4. 8
4. 4

5.9
4.1
3.5

3.8
3.5
6.3
3.4
4.2
4.6
3.6
3.2
2.2
3.2
3.4

4. 0
3.3
6.3
3.5
3.9
4.7
3.8
3.1
1.9
3.4
3.4

3.7
3.2
6.3
3.3
3. 5
4.5
3.7
2.8
2.4
3.0
3.3

4.2
3 5
6 3
3 3
3 7
4. 4
2 9
2.7
2. 3
3 3
3.4

4.6
3.3
6.2
3.4
3.4
4.3
3.6
2.9
2.3
3.4
3.5

4.9
3.0
6.1
3. 2
3.3
4.1
3.3
2.8
2. 3
3. 6
2.9

5. 0
3^2
6.1
3 6
3 8
4. 2
4. 4
3.1
3. 0
3 9
3.1

4.3
3.0
5. 8
3 4
3 4
3 7
3 8
3.2
3 n
3 4
3. 0

4.0
3 2
5.6
3.2
3.5
3.5
3. 9
3.1
3.1
3.3
2.6

3.6
2 9
4.8
3 1
3 1
3 6
3 2
2.9
3.1
3 3
2.8

2.9
3 0
5. 2
2 7
2 8
3 1
2. 6
2.6
2. 6
2.9
2.3

3.5
3 0
ô! 2

23
31
3.4
2.2
2.2
1.9
1.9
1.9

3.4
2 9
5.3
2. 8
3.0
3. 5
3. 0
2.7
2.3
2. 7
2.4

2.3
23
4.7
2.3
2.6
3.0
2.2
2.1
1.7
2.2
2.1

2.7
4.4
4.2
5.1
4.3
3.1
2.6
3.7
4.1

3.0
4.4
4.1
5.2
4.0
3.6
3.2
3.8
4.5

3.0
5.1
5.8
4.6
4.2
3.7
2.9
3.5
3.7

3. 0
4 7
4.7
4. 4
3 0
2. 8
3. 6
3.9

3.5
4.8
5.3
5.0
3.8
2.9
2.0
3.7
4.2

3. 2
5.1
5.5
5.6
3.8
3. 0
2. 0
3. 5
3.9

4. 1
5. 7
6. 9
4. 9
3.6
3. 2
2. 6
3. 6
4. 5

4 0
6 0
7 4
4 9
3. 8
2 5
29
3. 5
4. 0

3.6
5.4
6.6
4.0
4.1
2.2
3. 7
3.5
3.8

2 9
4.4
5. 0
3. 7
3.9
2. 6
3. 8
3.4
3.9

2.6
4.1
4.8
3.6
3.0
2. 4
3.5
2.9
3.2

2.3
4.2
5.3
3.2
2.9
1.9
3.1
2.8
3.3

3.2
4.8
6. 2
3.3
3.4
2.6
2.9
3.0
3.3

2.6
3.9
5.0
2.5
3.1
2.8
3.2
2.4
2.3

4.2
3.3
2.9

4.3
3.1
2.7

4.0
2.2
2.1

3. 7
3. 3
2. 9

4.0
3.2
2. 7

4. 0
2. 8
2.5

3.3
2. 9
2. 5

3 4
28
2. 5

3. 5
2. 9
2.4

3. 4
2. 9
2.6

3.1
2.3
1.8

3.0
2.5
2.2

2.9
2.7
2.4

2.5
2.4
2.1

3.1
4. 5
2.3

2.9
4.9
2.4

2.7
4.9
2.5

2 7
4.7
2.8

2. 4
5.0
2.6

2. 5
4.3
2.5

3. 0
4.6
3. 2

2 7
4.8
3. 1

2.5
4.8
3.0

2.3
4.5
2.7

2.2
3.5
2.9

1.7
3.4
2.4

2.1
4.0
2. 4

2.0
3.2
1.6

5.1

3 4
3 6
2 8

3.6

3.4

3. 6
3 8
3 6
3 7

3 2
3 4
2 5
2 4
3 1
3 9
3.7
3. 6

3 7

4. 2
4.1
4. 0
2. 2
3. 6
2. 2
6. 2

3.5

2.1
3.3
2.0

1057

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T a b l e C -4 .

Average weekly overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by
industry 1—Continued

Revised series; see box, p. 1036.
Annual
average

1965

1966
Industry
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.
Jewelry silverware and plated ware.
Toys arnnse.me.nt and sporting goods
Pens pencil*5 offioe and art materials
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions,
other manufacturing industries
Musical instruments and parts_
Nondurable goods
Pood and kindred products
Meat products
___
Dairy products
Canned and preserved food, except
meats
Grain mill products
Bakery products
Sugar
Confectionery and related products___
Beverages
_
Miscellaneous food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures
Cigarettes
_
__
Cigars
Textile mill products
_______
Cotton broad woven fabrics__
Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics.
Weaving and finishing broad woolens
Narrow fabrics and smallwares
Knitting
Finishing textiles, except wool and knit.
Floor covering
Varn and thread
Miseel 1arieons textile goods
Apparel and related products
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats
M en’s and boys’ furnishings
Women’s misses* juniors* outerwear
Women’s and children’s undergarments
_
Gats caps and millinery
Girls’ and children’s outerwear
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prodnets
Paper and allied products.. .
Paper and pulp
Paperboard
Converted paper and paperboard
products
_
Paperboard containers and boxes___
Printing, publishing, and allied indus­
tries
Newspaper publishing and printing
Periodical publishing and printing
Books
Commercial printing
Bookbinding and related industries
Other publishing and printing industries
Chemicals and allied products
Industrial chemicals
Plastics materials and svnthetics
Drugs
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods
Paints varnishes, and allied products
Agricultural chemicals
Other chemical products
Petroleum refining and related indus­
tries . .
__
Petroleum refining.
Other petroleum and coal products
Rubber, miscellaneous plastic products.
Tires and inner tubes
Other rubber products.. _____
Miscellaneous plastic products.. . . . _.
Leather and leather products__________
Leather tanning and finishing.._
Footwear, except rubber _
Other leather products
Handbags and personal leather goods.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

3.3
4.9
3.3
3.0
2.7
3.1
4.0

3.0
3.8
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.9
3.2

2.7
3.4
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.7

2.1
2.2
2.0
1.7
2.1
2.2
2.2

2.7
3.6
2.6
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0

2.4
3.3
2.1
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.1

3.9
4.9
3.3

4.0
4.4
3.5

4.2
5.0
3.9

3.8
4.1
3.6

4.1
4.4
4.1

3.8
4.2
3.6

3.6
4.2
3.5

2.7
6.9
3.3
3.7
2.7
3.2
4.5

2.8
6.2
3.4
4.1
2.7
3.3
4.9

2.9
7.5
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.5
4.7

3.2
8.0
3.6
5.2
3.4
3.4
4. 5

3.0
7.5
3.4
4. 6
2.9
3.6
4. 2

2.9
8.1
3.6
4. 5
1.9
4.3
4. 2

2.9
6.5
3.3
4.0
2.4
3.3
4.3

2.8
6.3
3.1
3.7
2.2
3.1
4. 0

.9
.6
1.2
4.3
5.4
4.8
4.7
4.1
2.1
5.1
4.0
5.2
4.8
1.3
1.5
1.1
1.2

1.3
.9
1.2
4.6
5.3
5. 5
4.6
4.2
2.4
5.6
6.3
5.1
5.3
1.4
1.6
1.2
1.2

1.1
.6
2. 0
4.6
5.4
5.5
4.1
4.1
2.7
5.4
6.2
5.2
5.1
1.7
1.7
1.4
1.3

1.3
1.0
1.7
4.5
5.0
5.3
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.8
5.6
5.0
5.1
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.3

1.5
.7
1.3
4.5
5.3
5.7
4.7
3.5
2.9
4.5
5.7
4.9
4.8
1.5
1.7
1.3
1.2

1.2
.7
1.4
4.3
4.7
5.4
4.5
3.4
2.8
4.5
6.3
5.0
4.1
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.4

i.i
i.i
1.1
3.8
4.1
5.0
4.7
3.2
2.5
3.9
4.4
4.6
3.4
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.4

1.1
.8
1.3
4.2
4.8
5.3
4.4
3.6
2.5
4.6
5.1
4.7
4.3
1.4
1.5
1.2
1.3

1.6
1.6
2.1
3.6
4.3
5.0
3.4
3.1
2.1
4.2
4.4
3.6
3.6
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.3

1.6
1.9
1.8
1.3

1.1
1.3
1.4
1.2

1.4
1.1
1.1
1.6

1.9
.8
1.6
2.0

1.9
1.3
1.4
1.9

1.9
1.2
1.3
1.7

1.6
1.7
1.8
1.5

1.2
1.2
1.7
1.2

1.4
1.3
1.4
1.4

1.4
1. 4
1.3
1.2

2.0
5.3
6.2
7.5

1.8
5.1
6.2
7.0

1.7
5.0
6.1
7.5

2.2
5.5
6.2
7.7

2.9
5.6
6.3
7.6

2.6
5.7
6.4
7.9

2.1
5.7
6.6
8.4

1.6
5.2
5.9
7.7

2.1
5.0
6.0
7.2

2.1
5.0
6.0
7.0

1.9
4.7
5.7
6.3

3.8
4.5

3.9
4.8

3.7
4.5

3.5
4. 2

4.0
5.2

4.0
5.4

4.0
5.6

3.7
5.2

3.6
4.8

3.5
4.2

3.5
4.5

3.3
4.1

3.5
3.0
3.4
5.4
3.8
3. 0

3.3
2.6
3.7
5.1
3.6
2.8

3.5
2.3
4.1
5.1
3.9
3.0

3.0
2.0
3.7
4.4
3.5
2.4

2.8
1.9
3.4
4.3
3.1
2.2

3.6
3.2
3.1
4.6
3.9
2.5

3.2
2. 7
3.4
4.2
3.5
2.5

3.4
2.8
4.4
4.3
3.6
2.6

3.4
2.6
4.8
4.9
3.8
2.6

3.2
2.3
3.4
5.6
3.3
2.5

2.8
2.3
3.2
3.9
3.1
2.2

3.1
2.4
3.8
4.2
3.4
2.5

2.9
2.4
4.0
3.8
3.1
2.4

3.1
3.4
3.4
3.5
2.7
3.4
3.7
4.1
3.7

2.6
3. 4
3.2
3.3
2.8
2.9
3.8
6. 5
3. 4

2.8
3.7
3.4
3.6
2.8
3.0
3.4
8.8
3.1

3.6
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.6
7.3
2.8

3.1
3.1
3.0
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.5
4.7
3.0

3.0
2.9
2.9
2.8
3.2
2.8
2.2
4. 1
2.9

3.5
3. C
3.0
2.9
3.2
3.2
2.3
4. 1
2.9

2.9
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
3.1
2.4
3.5
3.2

3.4
3.0
3.1
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.6
3.6
2.9

3.4
3.4
3.6
3.6
2.5
3.0
3.1
3.8
3.3

3.5
3.0
3.1
3.1
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.5
3.1

2.7
2.9
3.1
2.9
2.4
2.3
3.0
3.6
3.3

3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.5
2. 7
4.9
3.0

2.7
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.0
2. 5
2. 5
4. 6
3.0

3.6
2.6
6.7
4.2
5.5
3.7
4.1
2.2
3.8
2.1
1. 9
1.8

3.6
3.1
5.0
4.4
6.5
3.7
4.1
2.1
4.0
1.9
2.1
2.0

3.4
3.0
4. 6
4.2
6.6
3.4
3.8
1.9
3.5
1.6
2.1
1.9

2.6
2.3
3.9
4.2
5.8
3.5
4.1
2.1
3.5
1.9
2.2
2.5

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

2.8
4.2
2.3
2.8
3.4
2.7
3.2

2.9
4.1
2.5
2.2
3.1
2.9
3.2

2.8
4.1
2.6
2.0
2.7
2.8
2.8

3.1
4.3
2.7
2.4
3.0
3.1
3.2

2.8
3.7
2.5
2.1
3.0
2.9
3.5

2.7
3.6
2.4
1.8
2.7
2.8
2.6

3.1
5.2
2.8
3.2
2.9
2.9
3.5

3.2
4.8
3.0
3.1
2.9
3.1
4.2

4.2
4.4
4.3

3.8
3.9
3.8

3.4
3.5
3.4

3.4
3.4
3.4

3.6
3.5
3.4

3.5
4.2
3.2

3.8
4.3
3.3

3.1
7.1
3.9
4.0
2.8
4.5
4.3
1.5
1.9
1.0
4.6
5.3
4.8
5.3
4.2
2.9
6. 0
4. 5
5.0
5.1
1.5
1.7
1.3
1. 6

3.1
6.4
3.5
3.7
2.3
3.5
4 1
1.2
1.2
1.3
4.6
5.3
6. 0
5.5
4.0
2.8
5.6
4.1
5.0
5.2
1.5
1.7
1.3
1. 5

2.8
5.5
3.3
3.5
2.0
3.6
3.8

2.8
5.6
3.1
4.6
2.6
3.1
3.9
1.0
.9
1.1
4.6
5.5
5.7
5.1
4.4
2.5
5.8
4.4
5.2
4.8
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.8

3.4
6.3
3.2
4.5
2.4
2.8
4.4

2.6
6.0
3.1
3.4
2.5
2.7
4.0

1.9
2.9
1.2
4.6
5.6
5.5
5.2
4.5
2.3
5.5
4.7
5.4
4.9
1.5
1.8
1.2
1.5

1. 5
1.1
1.8
1. 5

1.5
1.0
1.6
1.6

1.4
1.2

1.7
1.9
1.5
1.3

1.7
5.7
6.7
7.8

1.9
5.6
6.7
7.8

5.3
6.2
8.2

4.1
5.1

3.9
5.0

3. 5
2.9
3.4
5.3
3.8
2.8

—

_________

1.3
1.6
1.1
4.5
5.3
5.5
5.3
3.9
2.2
5.7
4.2
5.2
5.0
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.0

1.9

1
For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to J anuary
1966, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1, table
A-3.
These series cover premium overtime hours of production and related
workers during the pay period which includes the 12th of the month. Over­
time hours are those paid for at premium rates because (1) they exceeded


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Dec.

Nov.

J u ly 2 June2 M ay

Oct.

2.5
2.8
2.4
3.4
3.2
3.3
2.6
2.9
3.1
2.4
1.8
2.1
2.1
2.4
2.1
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.0
5.0
5.5
7.3
6.9
4.2
6.7
4.0
5.2
6.1
3. 8
3.4
4.1
4.1
4.4
3.7
4.3
4.7
4.6
4.8
4.4
4.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.8
6.7
7.4
6.5
6.7
2.7
3.2
2.7
3.2
3.7
3.2
4.
1
3.8
4.0
3.6
3.7
3.9
3.4
3.9
4.2
3.9
4.4
4.3
4.2
3.9
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.1
1.9
1.9
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.9
3.3
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.6
4. 0
3.5
1. 5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.7
1.6
1.5
2.0
2.2
2.0
1.9
2. 2
2.0
2.1
2.4
1-7
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.0
1. 7
2.6
1.9
2.4
1.8
2.8
either the straight-time workday or workweek or (2) they occurred on week
ends or holidays or outside regularly scheduled hours. Hours for which
only shift differential, hazard, incentive, or other similar types of premiums
were paid are excluded.
2 Preliminary.

1058

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

T able

C-5.

Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and construction
activities 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[1957-59=100]
1966

1965

Annual
average

A ctivity
J u ly 2 June2 May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

Man-hours
T otal__________________________________
M ining_____ __________ _ _ ___ _ ___
Contract construction_________ ________
Manufacturing_________________________
Durable g o o d s... .
_
Ordnance and accessories.. __
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture______ ______ ________
Furniture and fixtures____ ____ _
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primarv metal industries________- Fabricated metal products _
_____
Machinery________________ _______
Electrical equipment and supplies____
Transportation equipment___ Instruments and related products.. __
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries_____ ________ _ _ ___ _ .
Nondurable goods . . .
.
...
Food and kindred products___ . . .
_ _ .
Tobacco manufactures. ____
Textile mill products___
Apparel and related products. . . . . . _
Paper and allied products. ____
Printing, publishing, and allied industries . . . .
_ .
.....
Chemicals and allied products.. . . _
Petroleum refining arid related industries.
_ _ . . . .
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
products. _____
_
Leather and leather products . __

117.6
86.1
133. 2
116.3

118.6
86.4
127.1
118.6

114.3
83.2
113.5
116.0

111.9
73.8
108.5
114.5

111.3 109.0
81.0 79.6
103.5 93.6
114.2 113.3

108.4
80.8
98.9
111.5

112.3
83.5
109.8
114.2

112.5
82.2
114.2
113.7

113.8
83.9
124.1
113.5

112.9
82.6
121.4
112.8

112.9
85.9
130. 5
111.0

110.8
84.6
125.5
109.4

109. 0
82. 5
111.3
109.9

103.1
82.6
105.4
103.8

122.2
154.8

125.6
151.9

123.3
149.7

121.9
144.2

120.6 119.4
141.5 140.0

117.9
137.2

119.8
130. 5

118.4
131.0

117.5
129.1

116.0
125.5

112.9
120.7

113.2
119.2

114.0
120. 4

105.5
120.9

103.7
124.7
113. 6
117.8
124.0
134.7
146.5
106.6
124.6

104.2
127.9
114.0
119.0
127.3
136.1
148.1
116.8
127.3

101.0
124.1
111.4
116.1
125.1
134.7
144.3
116.6
124.9

98.0
122.0
109.7
115.4
123.2
132.9
142.5
117.4
122.2

95.6
123.7
106.6
113.1
122.3
132.9
140.4
116.5
123.0

95.2
120.7
104.1
109.8
120.2
129.0
138.3
114.9
119.5

98.0
126.4
107.7
107.6
122.7
129.5
140.0
117.4
119.0

98.3
124.0
109.7
105.0
122.1
125.5
136.2
115.9
118.0

100.3
124.2
110.7
106.9
120.8
123.8
133.4
112.7
116.7

100.5
122.1
112.1
113.0
118.6
122.3
129.5
106 9
115.7

103.1
121.6
112.3
114.0
116.5
120.0
125.5
95.2
113.2

100.7
116.3
110.7
115.8
115.0
121.6
122.6
103.2
111.6

97. 0
119. 0
107. 0
112.5
116.4
122.0
126.3
107.1
111.8

95.5
111.6
105.0
106.0
107.8
111.9
113.2
94.9
104.4

94.0
121.6
103.3
111.7
121.6
131.4
140.
115.7
121.8

111.4

118.3

115.5

112.0

111.3 108.5

102.7

116.3

123.0

124.0

119.2

116.0

105.5

110.6

103.0

108.6
96.9
70.4
104.7
115.4
116.6

109.6
92.8
71.7
108.0
121.0
117.4

106.6
87.6
69.8
105.7
118.6
113.9

104.9
86.0
71.6
103.1
115.9
112.6

105.8
86.2
74.6
105.0
120.4
112.1

105.3
86.8
81.1
104.1
118.7
110.9

103.2
87.6
80.9
102.3
110.3
110.3

106.9
93.1
90.4
104.1
115.6
113.7

107.7
97.7
86.4
104.7
117.2
112.7

108.2
101.0
102.8
103.8
117.2
112.5

108.7
103.9
103.0
102.2
116.8
111.8

108.5
103.2
89.8
102.8
118.2
111.2

104.5
97.5
72.1
99.5
111.6
109.7

104.6
93.4
83.3
101.3
114.8
109.5

101.5
93.8
91.6
96.7
109.1
106.7

115.7
116.2

116.4
117.0

114.6
115.1

113.7
115.2

113.7 112. 5
112.5 110.7

110.4
109.3

114.3
110.1

112.3
109.9

111.9
109.2

111.7
111.1

110.5
110.6

108.9
109.9

109.8
109. 5

106.4
105.9

80.6

80.2

77.9

76.5

142.1
100.5

144.8
102.9

142.9
99.6

141.0
97.3

74.2

73.4

73.7

74.4

76.3

78.0

81.1

80.1

80.3

76.7

78.5

140.4 139.5
100.4 102.5

140.1
99.6

142.9
101.4

140.7
98.6

138.4
96.0

136.0
96.7

134.3
99.8

129.8
97.3

133.2
97.1

121.5
94.9

97.4 99.4
151.2 165.3
142.4 141.4

97.2
160.7
140.3

100.5
170.2
136.1

98.3
162.0
135.1

96.5
145.3
135.9

93.0
132.5
124. 2

Payrolls
M ining_______________
Contract construction____ _
Manufacturing___

105.7
181.1
148.8

105.8
171.8
151.9

101.8
153.6
148.3

86.9
146.2
146.1

97.1 95.9
139.0 126.4
144.7 143.2

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to January
1966, see footnote 1, table A-2.
For mining and manufacturing, data refer to production and related

T able

C-6.

96.9
132.5
140.8

99.4
146.5
143.8

workers and for contract construction, to construction workers, as defined
in footnote 1, table A-3.
2 Preliminary.

Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in manufacturing
Revised series; see box, p. 1036.

[In current and 1957-59 dollars]1
1966

Annual
average

1965

Item
June2

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1965

1964

Manufacturing
Cross average weekly earnings:
Current dollars_________ _
1957-59 dollars.
Spendable average weekly earnings:
Worker with no dependents:
Current dollars___ _
1957-59 dollars
____
Worker with 3 dependents:
Current dollars __
1957-59 dollars__ _

$112. 74 $112. 05 $111.24 $110.95 $110. 27 $110. 00 $110.92 $109. 71 $108.62 $107.83 $106.45 $107.01 $107. 79 $107. 53 $102.97
99. 86 99. 51 98.88 99.06 98. 81 99.10 99. 93 99. 20 98.39 97.85 96.77 97.11 97.90 97.84 95.25
91.87
81.37

91.35
81.13

90.73
80.65

90. 51
80. 81

90. 00
80.65

89. 79
80.89

91.80
82. 70

90.83
82.12

89.95
81.48

89.32
81.05

88.21
80.19

88. 66
80.45

89.29
81.10

89.08
81.06

84.40
78.08

99. 77
88. 37

99.22
88.12

98.57
87.62

98.34
87.80

97. 80
87. 63

97.58
87. 91

99.62
89. 75

98. 61
89.16

97.69
88.49

97.03
88.05

95.87
87.15

96.34
87.42

96.99
88.09

96.78
88. 06

92.18
85.27

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to January
1966, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1, table
A-3.
Spendable average weekly earnings are based on gross average weekly
earnings as published in table C -l less the estimated amount of the workers’
Federal social security and income tax liability. Since the amount of tax
liability depends on the number of dependents supported by the worker as
well as on the level of his gross income, spendable earnings have been com­


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

puted for 2 types of income receivers: (1) A worker with no dependents,
and (2) a worker with 3 dependents.
The earnings expressed in 1957-59 dollars have been adjusted for changes
in purchasing power as measured by the Bureau’s Consumer Price Index.
2 Preliminary.
N ote : These series are described in “ The Calculation and Uses of the
Spendable Earnings Series,” Monthly Labor Review, April 1966, pp. 406-410.

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

1059

D.—Consumer and Wholesale Prices
T a b l e D -L .

Consumer Price Index 1—U.S. city average for urban wage earners and clerical workers,
all items, groups, subgroups, and special groups of items
[1957-59=100 unless otherwise specified]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Group
July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

All items _______ _ ______ ____________
All items (1947-49=100)__________________

113.3
139.0

112.9
138.5

112.6
138.2

112.5
138.0

112.0
137.4

111.6
136.9

111.0
136.2

111.0
136.2

110.6
135.7

110.4
135.5

110.2
135.2

110.0
135.0

110.2
135.2

109.9
134.8

108.1
132.6

Food___________ _ ______ ___________
Food at hom e... _ _ ___ _______ ___ _
Cereals and bakery p r o d u c ts..___. . .
Meats, poultry, and fish_____________
Dairy products_____________________
Fruits and vegetables._ _____________
Other foods at home 2_______________
Food away from home__________ ____

114.3
112.7
114.8
114.3
111.0
121.5
102.1
123.5

113.9
112.3
114.7
114.2
109.6
121.7
101.3
122.8

113.5
112.0
114.3
113.9
109.3
119.2
102.8
122.2

114.0
112.7
114.1
115.6
108.9
119.8
103.6
121.6

113.9
112.6
113.6
116.9
108.1
117.4
103.7
121.2

113.1
111.8
113.2
115. 7
107.0
116. 5
103.5
120.8

111.4
109.8
113.0
112.9
106.6
111.3
102.9
120.4

110.6
108.9
112.2
110.1
106.1
111.0
103.8
119.9

109.7
107.8
111.4
108.5
105.8
109.9
102.9
119.6

109.7
107.8
111.3
108.9
105.5
108.5
103.5
119.2

109.7
108.0
111.3
109.8
105.3
108.5
103.0
118.8

110.1
108.6
111. 1
109.8
105.0
114.6
101.9
118.2

110.9
109.7
111.1
109.2
104.3
124.3
101.2
117.6

108.8
107.2
111.2
105.1
105.0
115.2
101.8
117.8

106.4
104.7
109.6
98.6
104.7
115.3
101.6
115.2

Housing__________ _________________ __
Shelter2. . . . . . --------__ _________
R ent___
. . . . .
. ...
Homeownership4 . . . . ___
... _
Fuel and u tilitie s5____ . . . ____ ______ _
Fuel oil and co a l6___ ____________ _
Gas and electricity___. . . . . . _______
Household furnishings and operation 7__

111.3
114.4
110.3
116.2
107.9
107. 0
108.1
105.1

111.1
114.1
110.2
115.8
108.0
107.0
108.1
104.8

110. 7
113.5
110.2
115.0
108.2
108.0
108.2
104.6

110.3
113.0
110.1
114.3
108.3
108.5
108.3
104.4

109.6
112.3
109.9
113.5
106.6
108.9
108.2
104.0

109.4
112.1
109.8
113.3
106.5
109.0
108.2
103.8

109.2
112.0
109.7
113.1
106.4
108.9
107.9
103.6

109.4
111.8
109.5
112.9
108.1
108.6
108.0
103.6

109.2
111.5
109.3
112.5
107.9
107.2
108.0
103.3

109.0
111.2
109.2
112.1
107.7
106.9
107.9
103.3

108.6
110.8
109.1
111.6
107.4
104.3
107.9
103.1

108.2
110.7
109.0
111.4
105.3
103.5
107.7
102.9

108.3
110.6
108.9
111.2
106.6
103.2
106.9
102,9

108.5
110.6
108.9
111.4
107.2
105.6
107.8
103.1

107.2
108.7
107.8
109.1
107.3
103.5
107.9
102.8

Apparel and upkeep 8........... ._
_ _____
___ __ _ _
M en’s and boys’ .
.
Women’s and girls’________ _ ______
Footwear______ _____ _______________

109.2
109. 6
104.6
119.8

109.4
110.1
104.7
119.8

109.3
109.9
105.0
119.0

108.7
109.6
104.2
118.1

108.2
109.0
103.9
116.9

107.6
108.6
103.1
116.2

107.3
108.6
102.6
115.6

108.1
109.3
104.3
115.6

108.1
109.2
104.6
115.1

107.8
108.7
104.3
114.4

107.2
107.9
103.8
113.4

106.4
107.2
102.6
112.7

106.1
106.8
102.5
112.0

106.8
107.4
103.1
112.9

105.7
106.1
102.3
111.0

Transportation____ _____________________
P rivate.. . __________ _______________
Public_______ ______ . . . __________

113.5
111.5
129.1

112.2
110.7
122.8

112.0
110.5
122.1

112.0
110.5
122.1

111.4
109.9
122.1

111. 1
109.6
122.0

111.2
109.6
122.0

111.6
110.1
122.0

111.5
110.1
121.6

111.2
109.7
121.6

111.0
109.5
121.6

111.0
109.5
121.5

111.5
110.0
121.4

111.1
109.7
121.4

109.3
107.9
119.0

Health and recreation.. _ ___ __________ .
Medical care______ ____ __________ _
Personal care__ _ ______ ____ ____ . .
Reading and recreation______ _______ _
Other goods and services 8— ____
..

119.1
127.7
112.5
117.2
115.3

118.7
127.0
112.2
117.0
114.9

118.4
126.3
112. 0
116.8
114.7

118.1
125.8
111.6
116.8
114.3

117.6
125.3
111.0
116.6
113.8

117.1
124.5
110.8
115.9
113.6

116.9
124.2
110.4
115.7
113.4

116.6
123.7
110.0
115.4
113.4

116.4
123.4
109.6
115.4
113.3

116.2
123.0
109.2
115.2
113.3

115.8
122.8
109.2
114.8
112.7

115.6
122.8
109.0
114.3
112.6

115.3
122.7
108.7
114.6
111.5

115.6
122.3
109.9
115.2
111.4

113.6
119.4
109.2
114.1
108.8

Special groups:
All items less shelter .
. . .
113.1
All items less food__ . . . __________ _ 113.2

112.6
112.8

112.4
112.5

112.4
112.2

111.9
111.6

111.4
111.3

110.8
111. 1

110.8
111.3

110.4
111.2

110.2
110.9

110.0
110.6

109.8
110.2

110.1
110.2

109.6
110.4

108.0
108.9

__
Commodities 10___ _____ _____ . . . .
Nondurables 11_________ ___________
Durables 10 42 ______ ____ _____________
Services 40 42 44__________ . . ______ ______

109.3
111.8
103.0
122.6

109.0
111.5
102.6
122.0

108.8
111.3
102.5
121.5

108.8
111.4
102.3
121.1

108.4
111.1
102.0
120.1

108.0
110.6
101.8
119.7

107.4
109.6
101.9
119.5

107.4
109.4
102.4
119.3

107.1
108.9
102.4
119.0

106.9
108.7
102.1
118.7

106.6
108.6
101.7
118.5

106.6
108.5
101.8
117.9

106.9
108.7
102.3
117.8

106.4
107.9
102.6
117.8

105.2
106.0
103.0
115.2

Commodities less food 40
_
. ... .
Nondurables less food ...
.. . . . ...
Apparel commodities . . .
..........
Apparel commodities less footw ear...
Nondurables less food and apparel___
New c a r s __
. . ...
_ _
Used cars . . . . . . . .
...
Household durables 1S. . .
. . . . ___
Housefurnishings____ _____ . ______ . .

106.7
109.7
108.1
105.8
110.6
96.7
120.3
96.9
98.8

106.4
109.5
108.3
106.0
110.1
96.8
118.2
96.7
98.6

106.3
109.3
108.3
106.1
110.0
97.0
117.5
96.7
98.5

106.0
109.0
107.6
105.6
109.8
97.4
117.4
96.4
98.3

105.6
108.6
107.1
105.2
109.4
97.1
115.4
96.2
98.0

105. 4
108.3
106.5
104.6
109.3
97.2
114.0
96.1
97.8

105.3
108.0
106.2
104.3
109.1
97.4
114.8
96.1
97.6

105.7
108.4
107.2
105.5
109.1
98.7
118.2
96.1
97.8

105.6
108.3
107.2
105.7
108.9
98.7
118.7
96.0
97.6

105.3
108.0
106.9
105.4
108.7
97.7
119.4
96.0
97.6

104.9
107.7
106.2
104.8
108.5
96.5
118.9
96.0
97. 5

104.7
107.1
105.3
103.8
108.2
97.1
120.3
95.8
97.3

104.7
106.9
105.0
103.6
108.0
97.2
123.0
96.3
97.6

105.1
107.2
105.8
104.4
108.0
99.0
120.8
96.9
97.9

104.4
105.7
104.9
103.6
106.2
101.2
121.6
98.4
98.4

Services less rent 40 42________ . . . . .
Household services less rent 4°.. .
Transportation services.. .
....
Medical care services___
. _.
Other services 40 46

125.5
122.1
125.0
133.9
126.7

124.8
121.7
123. 2
133.0
126.4

124.1
120.9
123. 0
132.1
125.9

123.6
120.2
123.0
131.4
125.5

122.5
118.5
122.6
130.8
125.0

122.0
118.1
122.6
129.9
124.1

121.8
117.9
122.5
129.5
123.8

121.6
118.4
121.3
128.9
123.2

121.3
118.1
121.0
128.5
123.0

121.0
117.9
120.7
128.1
122.8

120.7
117.6
120.2
127.8
122.6

120.0
116.6
119.6
127.7
122.1

120.0
116.9
119.1
127.5
121.9

120.0
117.0
119.3
127.1
121.8

117.0
114.8
115.0
123.2
118.5

1 The C PI measures the average change in prices of goods and services
purchased by urban wage-earner and clerical-worker families. Beginning
January 1964, theindex structurehasbeen revised to reflect buying patterns of
wage earners and clerical workers in the 1960’s. The indexes shown here are
based on expenditures of all urban wage-earner and clerical-worker consumers,
including single workers living alone, as well as families of two or more
persons.
2 Includes eggs, fats and oils, sugar and sweets, nonalcoholic beverages, and
prepared and partially prepared foods.
2 Also includes hotel and motel room rates not shown separately.
4 Includes home purchase, mortgage interest, taxes, insurance, and main­
tenance and repairs.
5 Also includes telephone, water, and sewerage service not shown separately.
6 Called “ Solid and petroleum fuels” prior to 1964.
7 Includes housefurnishings and housekeeping supplies and services.
8 Includes dry cleaning and laundry of apparel, infants’ wear, sewing
materials, jewelry, and miscellaneous apparel, not shown separately.
9 Includes tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and funeral, legal, and bank
service charges.
10 Recalculated group—indexes prior to January 1964 have been recomputed.
11 Includes foods, paint, furnace filters, shrubbery, fuel oil, coal, household
textiles, housekeeping supplies, apparel, gasoline and motor oil, drugs and


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

pharmaceuticals, toilet goods, nondurable recreational goods, newspapers,
magazines, books, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages.
42Includes home purchase, which was classified under services prior to
1964, building materials, furniture and bedding, floor coverings, household
appliances, dinnerware, tableware, cleaning equipment, power tools, lamps,
Venetian blinds, hardware, automobiles, tires, radios, television sets, tape
recorders, durable toys, and sports equipment.
12 Excludes home purchase costs which were classified under this heading
prior to 1964.
14 Includes rent, mortgage interest, taxes and insurance on real property,
home maintenance and repair services, gas, electricity, telephone, water,
sewerage service, household help, postage, laundry and dry cleaning, furni­
ture and apparel repair and upkeep, moving, auto repairs, auto insurance,
registration and license fees, parking and garage rent, local transit, taxicab,
airplane, train, and bus fares, professional medical services, hospital services,
health insurance, barber and beauty shop services, movies, fees for sports,
television repairs, and funeral, bank, and legal services.
18 Called “ Durables less cars” prior to 1964. Does not include auto parts,
durable toys, and sports equipment.
16 Includes the services components of apparel, personal care, reading and
recreation, and other goods and services. Not comparable with series pub­
lished prior to 1964.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1060
T able D -2 .

Consumer Price Index K—U.S. city average for urban wage earners and clerical workers,
selected groups, subgroups, and special groups of items, seasonally adjusted 2
[1957-59 = 100 unless otherwise specified]
1966

1965

Group
July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

113.2
111.3
114.1
111.6
113.9
102.9

114.0
112. 4
115.9
110.7
115. 8
102. 9

114.0
112.6
116.0
110.2
115.3
104.0

114.3
113.2
117.1
109.4
117.7
104.5

114.2
112.9
117.7
108.0
117.4
104.4

113.1
111.8
115.7
106.7
117.7
103.3

111.6
110.0
112.9
105.9
113.9
102.1

110.8
109.2
110.3
105.4
114.1
103.3

110.0
108.2
108.1
105.2
114.4
102.1

109.7
107.8
107.6
104.9
113.3
101.7

109.4
107.7
107.5
105.1
112.6
101.6

109.8
108.2
108.3
105.1
113.8
102.1

109.8
108.3
109.0
104.8
116.5
102.0

108.4
109.3

108.4
109. 2

108. 5
109.5

108.2
107.7

106.3
106.9

106.3
106.5

106.0
106.6

107.7
107.3

107.7
106.6

107.7
107.1

107.6
105.7

105.8
105.6

107.1
105.4

Apparel and upkeep 5 _ _ ____ _
______ ____
Men's and boys’
_ ___
___
_
___
Women’s and eirls’__
__
_ ______
Footwear
_ _
_ _

109.6
109.9
105.1
120. 2

109.5
110.2
105.0
119.9

109.4
109.9
105.4
119.0

108.8
109.7
104.5
118.1

108.5
109.4
104.4
117.0

108.0
109.0
103. 8
116.3

107. 8
109.0
103.6
115.6

107.6
108.8
103.3
115.4

107.5
108.5
103.4
114.9

107.2
108.3
102.9
114.3

107.0
107.7
103.3
113.4

106.8
107.5
103.3
112.9

106. 5
107.1
103.0
112.3

Transportation
Private _

113.4
111.4

112.3
110.8

112.0
110.5

112.3
110.8

111.8
110.5

111.4
110.0

110.8
109.2

111.3
109.8

110.9
109.4

110.8
109.2

111.2
109.7

111.0
109.5

111.4
109.9

109.1
111.4
103.1

108.9
111.5
102.6

109.0
111.6
102.5

109.0
111.6
102.3

108.6
111.4
102.1

108.1
110.7
101.9

107.5
109.8
101.9

107.4
109.5
102.2

107.0
108.9
102.0

106.7
108.5
101.9

106.5
108.5
101.9

106.6
108.4
102.0

106.7
108.3
102.4

106.8
109.9
108.3
106.1
97.9
118.6
98.9

106. 5
109.6
108.4
106.2
97.4
116.8
98.4

106.4
109.4
108.4
106.3
97.4
117.6
98.4

106.0
109.1
107.8
105.9
97.4
118.2
98.0

105.7
108.8
107.4
105.6
96.9
117.6
97.8

105.6
108.6
107.0
105.2
96.8
117.3
97.9

105.4
108.1
106.8
104.9
96.6
116.5
97.9

105.4
108.1
106.5
104.8
97.6
118.4
97.8

105.2
108.0
106.3
104.8
96.9
117.4
97.5

105.0
107.6
105.9
104.5
96.8
118.0
97.6

104.9
107.5
106.0
104.5
98.4
117. 5
97.5

105.0
107.3
105.8
104.3
98.4
119.0
97.6

104.8
107.1
105.2
103.9
98.4
121.3
97.7

Food
__.
__
_
Food at home
_
_ _
Meats, poultry, and fish___
__
Dairy products__
___
___
Fruits and vegetables
_
Other foods at home_____
Fuel and u tilities3
Fuel oil and c o a l4

_

Special groups:
Com m odities6
Nondurables
D urables67
____

_ _
_

_

____
__ _
__ _____
_

______
___ - __

______

--

_
_
____________
_ ______
_________
__

Commodities less food 6
Nondurables less food
_
_ _ ___
Apparel commodities __
Apparel commodities less footwear, , - - - - New cars__
Used cars___
- - -- - ___
_
___
_ _
Housefurnishings__

1 See footnote 1, table D -l.
2 Beginning January 1966, seasonally adjusted national indexes were com­
puted for selected groups, subgroups, and special groups where there is a
significant seasonal pattern of price change. Previously published indexes
for the year 1965 have been adjusted. N o seasonally adjusted indexes w ill be
shown for any of the individual metropolitan areas for which separate indexes
are published. Previously, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has made
available only seasonal factors, rather than seasonally adjusted indexes le.g.,
Department of Labor Bulletin 1366, Seasonal Factors, Consumer Price Index:
Selected Series). The factors currently used were derived by the BLS


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Seasonal Factor Method using data for 1956-65. These factors w ill be up­
dated at the end of each calendar year, but the revised factors w ill be used only
for future seasonal adjustments and not for revision of previously published
indexes. A detailed description of the BLS Seasonal Factor Method is
available upon request.
3 See footnote 5, table D -l.
4 See footnote 6, table D -l.
5 See footnote 8, table D -l.
6 See footnote 10, table D -l.
i See footnote 12, table D -l.

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES
T able

D-3.

1061

Consumer Price Index—U.S. and selected areas for urban wage earners and clerical
workers 1
[1957-59=100 unless otherwise specified]
1966

1965

Annual
average

Area 2
July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

194749 = 100
July
1966

All items
113.3

112.9

112.6

112.5

112.0

111.6

111.0

111.0

110.6

110.4

110.2

110.0

110.2

109.9

108.1

139.0

Atlanta, Qa --------(4)
Baltimore, M d_______ ____ . - (4)
Boston, M a s s ... ____________ . . . 117.1
Buffalo, N .Y . (Nov. 1963 = 100)____
(4)
Chicago, Ill.-Northwestem Ind___ 110.5
Cincinnati, O hio-Kentucky.. __
«

111.1
113.4
(4)
(4)
110.6
110.2

(4)
(4)
(4)
106.6
110.2
(4)

(4)
(4)
116.8
(4)
109.9
(4)

110.3
112.5
(4)
(4)
109.9
109.1

(4)
(4)
<4)
105.8
109.3
(4)

(4)
(4)
113.9
(4)
108.6
(4)

109.2
110.9
(4)
(4)
108.8
107.9

l4)
(4)
(4)
104.6
108.4
(4)

(4)
(4)
113.6
(4)
108.3
(4)

108.2
110.0
(4)
(4)
108.0
107.1

(4)
(4)
(4)
104.0
107.7
(4)

(4)
(4)
113.5
(4)
107.7
(4)

108.1
109.6
113.2
103.5
107.6
107.2

106.7
107.9
111. 1
101.1
106.1
106.3

(4)
(4)
145.1

Cleveland, Ohio_________________
(4)
Dallas, Tex. (Nov. 1963=100)___ (4)
lii.i
Detroit, M ich. ___________ ____ .
Honolulu, Hawaii (Dec. 1963 = 100).
(4)
Houston, Tex___________________ 111.6
Kansas City, M o.-K ansas... ------(4)

(4)
(4)
111.0
104.6
(4)
116.5

109.7
104.6
110.4
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
(4)
110.0
(4)
110.9
(4)

(4)
(4)
109.4
104.4
(4)
115.3

108.1
103.4
108.8
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
(4)
108.4
(4)
no. 0
(4)

(4)
(4)
108.0
103.9
(4)
114.6

107.8
102.7
107.6
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
(4)
107.4
(4)
109.3
(4)

(4)
(4)
106.9
102.3
(4)
114.3

107.1
101.7
106. 8
(4)
(b
(4)

(4)
(4)
106.9
(4)
108.5
(4)

106.9
101. 4
106.4
102.1
108.5
113.3

105.2
100.1
104.0
100.3
107.2
109.8

137.5
(4)

Los Angeles-Long Beach, C alif... .
Milwaukee, Wis_________ .. .
Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn______
NewYork,N .Y .-N ortheastern N .J.
Philadelphia, P a .-N .J ___ . ____
Pittsburgh, P a___ . . . . . . . . . . .
Portland, Oreg.-Wash.5__________

115.0
(4)
112.0
116.3
113.7
112.8
115.5

114.5
(4)
(4)
115.3
113.4
(4)
(4)

114.2
110.1
(4)
115.2
113.1
(4)
(4)

114.3
(4)
111.8
115.2
113.2
113.0
II 4.7

113. 7
(4)
(4)
114.8
112.7
(4)
(4)

113.4
109.5
(4)
114.2
112.4
(4)
(4)

112.8
113.4
111.6
111.0
112.9

113.2
(4)
(4)
113.5
111.8
(4)
(4)

112.8
108.7
(4)
113.2
111.4
(4)
(4)

112.7
(4)
110.1
113.0
111.1
110.7
112.9

112.8
(4)
(4)
112.9
110.8
(4)
(4)

111. 5
108.9
(4)
112. 6
110.6
(4)
(4)

112.7
(4)
109.7
112.4
111.0
110.8
II 2.4

112.5
108.2
109.5
112.2
110.6
110.2
111.8

110.2
106.0
108.0
110.4
108.8
108.5
109.0

143.4
(4)
138.5
140.1
139.6
139.0
I 43.I

St. Louis, M o .-Ill_______________
San Diego, Calif. (Feb. 1965=100)...
San Fraficisco-Oakland, Calif____
Scranton, Pa.5________________ _
Seattle, W ash____ . . . . ____ . .
Washington, D .C .-M d .-V a ...

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
U)

113.6
(4)
115.2
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
101.6
(4)
II 4.I
113.7
112.8

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

112.1
(4)
114.9
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
101.2
(4)
113.9
112.6
111.9

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

111.5
(4)
113.6
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
100.3
(4)
111.7
111.8
110.5

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

109.9
(4)
112.7
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)
99 6
(4)
111.6
111.5
109.6

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(«)
(4)

109.9
100.1
112.7
111.0
111.0
109.6

108.1

(4)

110.6
109.3
109.7
108.1

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

106.4

U.S. city average 3 ------------------

(4)

110.5

139.3
(4)
(4)
137.0

Food
U.S. city average3 _________ ___

114.3

113.9

113.5

114.0

113.9

113.1

111.4

110.6

109.7

109.7

109.7

110.1

110.9

108.8

Atlanta, Q a..
. . __ _ . . . .
Baltimore, M d.
Boston, Mass
. .
Buffalo, N .Y . (Nov. 1963=100)____
Chicago, 111.-Northwestern In d ___
Cincinnati, O h io -K en tu ck y ...___

112.5
116.2
117.0
108.8
114.1
112.1

112.4
115.9
115.7
108.5
114.3
111.6

112. 0
115.3
115.3
108.0
113.6
110.7

112.8
116.3
116.6
109.2
114.2
111.2

112.4
115. 5
116. 0
108.0
115.1
110.9

111.9
115. 5
115.4
108.2
114.2
110. 9

110.5
112.7
113.6
106.0
112.0
108. 9

109.8
111. 5
112.5
105.2
111.2
107.8

108. 4
110. 0
112.6
104.8
110.4
106.8

108.8
110.7
112.8
104.2
110.0
106.9

108.4
110.8
113.2
104.5
109.8
106.6

108.1
111.2
114. 5
105.3
110.3
107. 0

108.8
111.9
114.9
106.9
110.6
108.5

107. 4 104.8
109 3 5106. 6
112 5 109.8
104.1 101.5
108.8 106.1
106. 2 IO4.5

Cleveland, Ohio___ .
. .. 111.1
Dallas, Tex. (N ov. 1963 = 100)_____ 110.1
Detroit, M ich. _
. . . . ___ 112.8
Honolulu, Hawaii (Dec. 1963=100) 106.5
115.8
Houston, T e x ..
117.1
Kansas City, M o.-Kansas. .

111.1
109.4
112.0
106.6
114.4
116.9

110.0
109.4
111.5
106.2
114.1
116.0

110.3
110.2
111.6
106.6
114.8
116.5

110.1
109.0
111.3
106.7
114.3
116.7

109.8
108. 6
110.0
106.4
113.6
116.4

106.9
107.6
108.9
106.2
113. 2
115.3

107.2
106.2
107.9
105.9
112.4
114.4

106.7
105. 5
106.5
104.6
110.5
114.3

106.8
105.1
106.2
103.9
111.0
113.0

106.2
105.1
105. 8
103.3
111. 1
112.6

106.6
105.5
106. 6
103.2
111. 1
112.6

106.8
105.3
108.0
103.9
110.4
112.2

104.8
103.9
105.0
103.5
109. 2
111.3

102.1
100. 5
101.9
100.8
105.7
107.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif.. .. 112.8
Milwaukee, Wis .
112.3
M inneapolis-St. Paul, Minn
N ew York, N .Y .-Northeastern N J . 115.1
113.2
Philadelphia, Pa.-N .J _ .
111.6
Pittsburgh, P a .. .
. . .
114.7
Portland, Oreg.-WTash.5 .

112.4

113.0
113.5
111.7
114.4
112.5
111.5
II 4.7

113.5

113.4

111.1

111.7

110.3
112.1
109. 5
109.7
111. 8

109.3
111.5
109.5
109.3
111.2

108.2
110.0
107.9
108.2
110.5

108.0
110.8
108.2
108.2
110.2

111.7
109.6
108.4
110.8
107.9
108.2
110.5

111.8

112.7
115.1
112.8
111.9
113. 4

110.4
109.3
108. 3
110.5
108.1
108.5
109.9

112.2

112.4
115.0
113.4
112.8
II 4.O

112.9
112.6
111.3
114.2
111.9
111.7
113.0

112.1

111. 6
114.5
112.9
111. 4
115.5

108.9
111.6
109.6
110. 5
110.8

110.7
107. 7
107.1
109.8
107.2
107.5
109.5

108.2
105.0
IO4. 6
108.4
105.2
104.8
107.1

118.1

117.2

117.1

116.7

114.0

112.4

112. 0

114.7
113.1
114.0
114.2

114.6
112. 8
113.7
113.8

112.9
110.8
111.5
110.6

111.8
109.5
110.3
110.4

111.4
108.3
111.0
109 3

111. 1
108.2
111.1
109.5

111. 5
102. 7
110. 2
107.7
110.3
108.4

107.6

113.6
112.5
114.3
114.1

116.3
106.6
113. 8
112.1
112.9
113.2

114. 4

113.6
112.6
114.1
114.3

St. Louis, M o.-Ill
San Diego, Calif. (Feb. 1965 = 100) . .
San Francisco-Oakland, Calif
Scranton, Pa.5___ _
Seattle, W ash ..
. . .......
Washington, D .C .-M d.-V a______

117.0
106.3
113.9
112.1
114.4
113.6

1 See footnote 1, table D -l. Indexes measure time-to-time changes in
prices. They do not indicate whether it costs more to live in one area than in
another.
2 The areas listed include not only the central city but the entire urban
portion of the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined for the 1960
Census of Population; except that the Standard Consolidated Area is used
for New York and Chicago.

228-655 0 - 6 6 — 8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

112.7
103.7
110.7
107.7
109.2
109.3

112.8
104.7
111.2
108.2
111. 1
109.3

113.4
112.0
110.5
111.9
110.5

107.7
105.6
108.7
106.0

3 Average of 56 “cities” (metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan urban
places) beginning January 1966.
4 All items indexes are computed monthly for 5 areas and once every 3
months on a rotating cycle for other areas.
5 Old series.
610-month average.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1062
T a b l e D ^ l.

Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by group and subgroup of commodities
[1957-59 = 100, unless otherwise specified]3
1965

1966

Annual
average

Commodity group
J u ly 3

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

All commodities________________________

106.4

105.7

105.6

105.5

105.4

105.4

104.6

104.1

103. 5

103.1

103.0

102.9

Farm products and processed foods. -------

109.8

107.7

107.9

108.7

109.4

109.8

107.7

106.5

104.3

103.6

103.5

103.3

Farm products_______________________
Fresh and dried fruits and vegetables..
____________________
Grains____
Livestock and live poultry___________
Plant and animal fibers______________
Fluid m ilk_________________________
Eggs_______________________________
Hay, hayseeds, and oilseeds-------------Other farm products------------------------Processed foods_______________________
Cereal and bakery products--------------Meats, poultry, and fish_____________
Dairy products and ice cream.. _____
Canned and frozen fruits and vege­
tables____________________________
Sugar and confectionery_____________
Packaged beverage materials---------- Animal fats and oils. _ _ ___ . . . ____
Crude vegetable oils. ------ -- ---------Refined vegetable oils_______________
Vegetable oil end products_______ . . .
Miscellaneous processed foods________
All commodities except farm products
All commodities except farm and foods___
Textile products and app arel__________
Cotton products____________________
Wool products._ ___ . _____ ______
Manmade fiber textile products______
Silk products_______________________
Apparel____________________________
Miscellaneous textile products_______
Hides, skins, leather, and leather prod­
......
ucts _____ . ..
Hides and skins___________________ .
Leather ___________________________
Footwear___________________________
Other leather products______________
Fuel and related products, and pow er...
C oal.. _ ______________________ _ ..
Coke_______________________________
Gas fuels 8__________________ ____ ._
Electric power
_ .
Petroleum products, refined__________
Chemicals and allied products________
Industrial chemicals__
Prepared paint__
. . .
Paint materials_______ . _
....
Drugs and pharmaceuticals..
Fats and oils inedible. . _____ . .
Mixed fertilizer...
. . .
Fertilizer materials____
...
.....
Other chemicals and allied products__
Rubber and rubber products___________
Crude rubber . . . . .
_ _
Tires and tu bes..
_ _ _ _
Miscellaneous rubber products_______
Lumber and wood products____________
Lumber_________ _ _ ______________
M illw o rk ... ____ __________ . ____
Plywood___ _______ ______ ____ .
Pulp, paper, and allied products_______
W oodpulp____________ . . . . _____
W astepaper... ._
____________
Paper.. ______ __ __ __ ______
Paperboard. _
_.
_
__ ____
Converted paper and paperboard prod­
u c ts...
_____
Building paper and board____________

107.6
107.0
103.1
107.1
90.5
117.7
98.5
135.2
101.3
111.7
115.3
110.0
120.3

4104. 2
99.7
94.9
108.5
90.3
4112. 6
90.9
122.6
101.1
4110. 6
4114. 0
109.9
117.0

104.5
103.3
93.6
110.4
90.3
111.0
86.9
120.2
101.4
110.5
113.0
110.9
114.9

106.4 106.8
111.0 101.7
91.2
90.8
112.4 114.2
89.9
89.7
111.9 <112.7
101.8 118.5
116.9 115.6
102.5 102.1
110.6 111.5
112.6 112.2
110.9 113.3
114.8 115. 0

107.4
98.0
92.9
116.7
89.5
111.5
116.3
116.6
102.3
111.8
112.1
114.9
113.0

104.5
97.5
92.4
112.6
89.6
108.4
99.8
113.5
102.5
110.3
111.8
112.7
110.9

103.0
92.2
90.1
109.0
89.6
108.0
118.2
110.8
103.5
109.4
111.2
110.5
111.3

100.3
94.2
87.4
104.0
89.8
107.3
114.0
107.2
99.9
107.6
110.6
105.5
110.4

99.4
95.6
88.6
103.2
89.9
105.9
105.1
102.6
100.1
106.9
109.4
104.9
109.4

99.5
96.1
89.3
102.6
90.0
104.8
105.9
105.4
100.8
106.7
109.1
105.3
109.1

99.1
85.5
88.3
106.4
90.5
103.9
100.0
106.6
98.3
106.7
108.8
106.3
108.5

104 6 4104.9
109.8 109.4
93.5
93.5
105. 5 4105. 8
113.0 105.6
109.8 104.7
103.8 101.9
114.0 112. 5
106.2 105.8
105.1 104.9
102.4 102.2
103.0 102.8
106.7 106.5
90.1 4 90. 0
152.1 143.8
105.0 104.8
123.3 124 1

105.4
109.3
93.5
107.7
105.6
108.5
101.9
113.1
105.7
104.7
102.2
102.6
106.4
89.9
140. 9
104.9
124.7

104.8
109.3
93.5
115.2
106.7
111.3
102.5
114.0
105.3
104.3
102.2
102.3
106.3
90.5
151.6
104.7
125.1

105.2
110.1
93. 5
126.2
107.6
116.0
102.5
114.1
105.1
103.8
102.0
101.5
105.8
91.0
155.3
104.7
124.2

104.7
109.4
93.5
125.8
106.5
116.1
99.5
114.0
104.6
103.5
101.9
101.0
105.9
91.3
147.6
104.6
124.7

105.1
108.8
93.4
116.4
100.3
1C9.1
98.4
114.1
104.2
103.2
102.0
101.2
105.4
91.9
143.6
104.3
130.0

105.4
109.2
93.4
115.8
100.9
105 0
101.2
114.2
103.9
103.2
101.9
101.0
105.4
92.5
142.2
104.2
127.0

104.7
109.4
93.4
122.1
101.3
94.6
101.2
114.1
103.5
102.8
102.0
100.8
105.4
93.3
140.3
104.3
127.1

101.8
108.8
93.4
119.7
100.3
91.0
101.2
114.3
103.4
102.7
102.1
100.6
105.2
94.2
134.9
104.2
127.7

123.1 122.9 120.8 118.7 117.8 116.0
161.0 163.0 148.8 147.8 152.8 140.0
4126. 6 125.1 122.4 123.3 118.0 116.6
4119.3 4119. 3 4118. 6 <115.4 4115. 0 <114.6
4115. 7 115.4 114.4 112.5 111.6 110.3
101.5 100.4 100.0
99.9 100.3 100.5
4 97. 2
98.1
96.9
94.9
97.5
98.2
109.4 107.3 107.3 107.3 107.3 107.3
4128.5 128.3 129.2 128.2 128.9 128.2
100.2 100.2 100.3 100.4 100.4 100.4
100.2
98.4
97.2
98.3
97.7
97.8
<97.6
97.6
97.7
97.6
97.6
97.6
95.8
95.1
96.0
95.6
95.2
95.2
106.8 106.2 106.2 105.9 105.9 105.9
89.9
90.2
90.4
89.5
89.8
89.5
4 94.3
94.1
94.1
94.4
94.4
94.5
4101. 6 102.5 104.0 106.4 110.0 113.1
105.5 105.5 105.8 105.4 105.3 105.4
104.8 106.6 105.5 104.7 104.7 103.8
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.2 100.2 100.2
95.4
95.4
95.4
94.3
93.7
94.1
89.5
90.0
90.0
91.2
91.0
90.0
94.4
94.4
91.1
94.4
91.1
91.1
98.9
97.9
98.7
98.7
98.7
98.5
4107. 7 109.6 108.4 105.6 103.7 102.8
4111.8 113.1 110.9 107.4 105.6 104.3
110.6 110.4 109.6 109.3 108.4 107.9
4 92. 7 100.3 102.4
93.9
97.7
94.0
103.0 102.7 102.3 101.8 101.3 101.2
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
112.7 112.0 110.3 108.7 105.5 105.8
108.0 107.1 106.0 105.4 105.4 105.2
97.2
97.2
97.0
96.7
96.7
97.1

114.6
132.3
114.2
113.8
110.2
ICO. 6
97.6
107.3
128.6
100.7
98.4
97.6
95.5
105.9
89.0
94.6
110.1
105. 5
103.8
99.8
93.5
89.6
91.1
97.7
101.9
103.4
107.9
92.1
100.9
98.1
104.6
104.9
96.5

113.6
126.5
113.3
113.7
109.0
100.3
97.5
107.3
126.8
100.8
98.1
97.5
95.5
105.9
89.0
94.7
106.7
105.2
103.8
100.1
93.5
89.3
91.1
97.7
101.6
103.0
107.8
91.7
100.8
98.1
107.0
104.8
96.5

113.3
125.6
111.9
113.6
109.0
99.4
97.3
107.3
125.8
100.8
96.6
97.6
95.4
105.9
89.7
94.1
110.1
105.9
103.4
100.0
93.4
89.0
91.1
97.6
101.6
103.0
107.8
91.6
100.5
98.1
104.5
104.5
96.5

100.4
92.7

100.1
93.3

99.8
93.8

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

122.8
156.4
126.0
119.4
116.0
101.4
97. 4
112.0
128. 5
100.2
99.9
97.8
95.9
106.8
90.4
94.3
106.6
105.5
104.2
100.1
95.1
89.2
93.9
98.9
106.7
110.4
110.7
92.0
103.2
98.0
113.2
108.2
97.2
102.6
92.9

102.4
92.6

102.2
92.6

102.2
92.6

104.8
109.7
93.5
121.8
104.3
112.0
103.0
114.4
105.2
104.0
102.1
101.8
106.0
90.8
151.4
104.7
126.3

101.6
92.7

100.9
92.7

100.8
92.7

Oct.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

102.9

102.5

100.5

103.7

102.1

98.0

100.0
103. 9
88.4
105.0
91.8
102.4
84.7
113.8
95.4
106.6
109.3
106.3
107.8

98.4
101.8
89.6
98.9
91.1
103.5
93.5
112.9
97.6
105.1
109.0
101.0
108.5

94.3
103.2
94.1
84.7
98.3
102.0
90.8
110.1
98.6
101.0
107.8
90.8
107.8

100.4
108.9
93.4
114.1
93.2
90.0
101.2
114.8
103.3
102.7
101.9
100.4
105.0
94.7
132.8
104.1
122.8

101.8
109.1
93. 5
115.9
91.3
89.4
101.2
113.4
103.2
102.5
101.9
100.3
104.4
95.7
127.6
103.8
120.7

102.1
109.0
93.8
113.4
100.9
97.0
101.2
113.6
102.9
102.5
101.8
100.2
104.3
95.0
134.3
103.7
123.0

104.8
111.8
96.9
95.4
84.5
82.2
89.7
108.9
101.2
101.2
101.2
99.6
103.0
95.8
117.3
102.8
117.9

111.3
124.9
110.9
110.3
109.3
99.2
96.6
107.3
125.3
100.8
96.4
97.2
95.0
105.7
89.2
93.9
108.4
105.9
102.5
99.9
93.3
88.7
91.1
97.5
102.0
103.1
107.8
93.3
100.0
98.1
97.3
104.1
96.4

112.2
133.4
112.5
110.2
108.8
99.0
95.8
107.3
123.9
100.8
96.4
97.1
95.0
105.7
89.2
93.9
104.4
105.7
102.1
99.8
93.2
88.6
91.1
97.4
101.8
102.5
107.8
94.6
99.9
98.1
97.5
104.1
96.3

108.8
117.4
105.9
110.0
105.2
98.7
95.2
107 3
122.5
100.7
96.0
97.4
95.0
105.7
89.6
94.0
110.3
104.8
103.3
99.8
93.0
89.1
90.2
97.4
100.5
101.2
107.8
91.0
99.9
98.1
98.3
104.1
96.3

109.2
111.2
108.1
110.7
106.1
98.9
96.5
107.3
124.1
100.8
95.9
97.4
95.0
105.4
89.8
94.4
112.7
105.1
103.5
99.8
92.9
90.0
90.0
97.1
101.1
101.9
107.7
92.3
99.9
98.1
99.4
104.1
96.4

104.6
87.5
102.9
108.5
103.1
97.1
96.9
106.3
121.3
101.1
92.7
96.7
94.2
104.7
91.0
95.0
96.8
103.9
100.1
99.4
92.5
90.6
89.0
96.9
100.6
100.7
108.5
92.3
99.0
96.1
92.4
103.6
96.4

99.6
93.4

99.4
93.3

99.3
93.2

99.3
92.9

98.3
94.2

Sept.

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES
T able

D-4.

1063

Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by group and subgroup of commodities—Continued
[1957-59=100, unless otherwise specified] 2
1966

1965

Annual
average

Commodity group
J u ly 3 June
All commodities except farm and foods—
Continued
M etals and metal products____________
Iron and steel-,- - - ----------- Nonferrous m etals.. . ---- -- . . --------M etal containers---- ---------- 1 . --------Hardware
.............
Plumbing fixtures and brass fittings-. .
Heating equipment . _ ---- - Fabricated structural metal products Fabricated nonstructural metal prod­
ucts - - - - - - --------Machinery and motive products________
Agricultural machinery and equipment.
Construction machinery and equip­
ment - .
-Metalworking machinery and equip­
-------------------------------m ent----General purpose machinery and equip­
m ent_____________________________
Miscellaneous machinery__________
Special industry machinery and equip­
ment 8___ ____ - - _ ----- -------------Electrical machinery and equipm ent._
Motor vehicles... Transportation equipment, railroad
rolling stock8 .
_ ------- . . .
Furniture and other household durables. _
Household furniture.. . _ ----------------Commercial furniture_____________
Floor coverings_____________________
Household appliances... -----------------Television, radio receivers, and phono­
graphs_______________________ ____
Other household durable goods...........
Nonmetallic mineral products__________
Flat g la ss... _________________ _____
_____
Concrete ingredients______
Concrete products_____ _ . . . . . . . . .
Structural clay products_____________
Gypsum products___
.....
-----Asphalt roofing 2 . __________
. .
Other nonmetallic m inerals__ .
Tobacco products and bottled beverages._
Tobacco products_____ _________ __
Alcoholic beverages___ _
______
Nonalcoholic beverages__
Miscellaneous products__
_ - ...
Toys, sporting goods, small arms, am­
munition
_ _______
Manufactured animal feeds.. _ _
Notions and accessories... . . . . ------Jewelry, watches, and photographic
equipment_____ _ . . . . __________
Other miscellaneous products.. _____

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

1965

1964

108.4
101.8
122.5
110.1
109.6
107.9
92.1
103.8

108.2
102.0
122.1
110.0
108.4
107.1
92.1
103.4

108.0
102.3
120.8
109.8
108.3
105.7
91.8
103.1

107.5
102.2
119.5
109.8
107.4
104.9
91.7
102.6

107.0
102.0
118.3
109.8
107.3
104.8
91.5
102.3

106.6
101.7
117.2
109.8
107.2
104.9
91.6
102.0

106.7
101.3
118.7
108.3
107.0
103.6
91.6
102.0

106.3
101.2
117.4
108.3
106.7
103.4
91.9
101.8

106.2
101.2
117.0
108.3
106.5
103.4
91.9
101.8

106.2
101.4
116.5
108.3
106.4
103.5
91.9
101.7

105.8
101.5
115.5
108.3
106.1
102.6
91.7
101.4

105.7
101.4
115.2
107.6
106.0
103.1
91.7
101.2

102.8
100.5
105.9
105.5
104.8
100.9
92.0
99.3

111.0 111.2 110.9
106.0 105. 9 105.8
118.4 4 118. 4 118.2

110.9
105.2
118.1

110.9
105.0
118.0

110.5
104.7
117.8

110.0
104.4
117.3

109.7
104.2
117.0

109.8
104.1
116.8

109.8
103.9
114.9

109.9
103.8
115.0

109.9
103.8
114.8

109.1
103.7
114.9

109.4
103.7
115.1

108.5
102.9
112.9
112.4

108.7 108.7
102.2 102.0
122.9 123.2
110.1 110.1
109.8 109.8
110.0 108.5
92.9
92.5
104.3 4 104.1

118.9

118.9 118.9

118.5

117.9

117.5

116.9

116.5

116.4

115.8

115.6

115.6

115.3

115.3

123. 5

123.5 122.5

121.2

121.1

121.0

119.8

118.9

118.6

118.3

117.9

117.4

116.5

116.9

112.6

110.0
106.1

109.8 109.3
106.0 105.9

108.5
105.7

107.3
105.8

106.8
105.6

106.8
105.4

106.5
105.4

106.5
105.3

106.3
105.1

105.7
104.9

105.3
105.1

104.7
105.2

105.1
105.2

104.4
104.5

112.2 4 111. 8 110.8
98.9 4 98.8 98.7
100.7 100.7 100.9

110.0
98.4
100.2

109.9
98.2
100.3

109.4
97.8
100.4

109.1
97.0
100.5

109.0
96.6
100.5

108.9
96.5
100.5

108.2
96.6
100.5

108.2
96.6
100.5

108.0
96.7
100.7

107.9
97.0
100.7

108.0
96.8
100.7

105.9
96.8
100.5

101.0
99.1
109. 0
105.9
96.9
89.4

101.0
98.6
108.3
104.1
97.5
89.3

101.0
98.4
107.2
104.1
97.5
89.1

101.0
98.4
107.2
104.1
97.7
89.0

101.0
98.3
107.0
104.1
97.7
89.0

101.0
98.2
106.7
104.0
97.5
88.8

101.0
98.0
106.6
104.0
97.4
88.6

101.0
97.8
106.4
103.7
97.3
88.6

101.0
97.7
106.2
103.7
97.5
88.6

101.0
97.7
106.1
103.7
97.5
88.6

101.0
97.8
105.9
103.7
97.7
89.2

100.9
98.0
106.2
103.7
97.7
89.2

100.5
98.5
105.3
103.2
99.4
91.3

83.5
106.7
102.4
100.2
103.7
102.7
106.3
102.2
94.4
102.2
109.4
110.3
101.0
128.5
115.1

83.5
106.7
102.3
99.5
103.8
102.7
106.0
101.4
94.8
102.0
109.4
110.2
101.0
128.5
113.0

83.5
106.9
102.1
99.2
103.8
102.2
105.9
101.4
94.8
102.1
109.2
109.8
101.0
128.5
113.1

83.8
107.1
102.1
99.9'
103. 7
102.1
105.8
101.4
94.8
101.7
108.0
106.6
101.0
128.5
116.0

83.9
106.8
102.0
99.9
103.6
102.0
105.6
101.4
94.6
101.8
108.1
106.6
101.1
128.5
114.3

84.5
106.2
101.6
99.9
103.4
101.8
105.6
97.4
94. 6
100.9
107.9
106.0
101.3
128.5
112.5

84.5
106.2
101.6
99.9
103.4
101.8
105.4
98.6
94.6
101.0
107.7
106.1
100.9
128.5
113.2

84.5
105.5
101.6
99.9
103.4
101.6
105.4
99.1
94.6
101.1
107.7
106.1
100.9
128.5
111.2

84.4
105.4
101.6
99.9
103.2
101.6
105.4
99.9
95.0
101.3
107.7
106.1
100.9
128.5
111.5

84.4
105.3
101.6
100.2
103.2
101.5
105.3
100.6
92.1
101.4
107.6
106.1
100.7
128.5
111.5

84.6
105.2
101.7
100.2
103.1
101.7
104.9
105.7
92.1
101.4
107.6
106.1
100.7
128.1
112.6

85.2
105.4
101.7
100.9
103.2
101.5
105.1
104.0
92.8
101.3
107.7
106.2
100.8
128.3
111.0

87.2
104.2
101.5
102.4
102.8
100.9
104.2
108.2
88.8
101.5
107.4
106.0
100.7
127.0
109.2

104. 5 103.7 103.7
132.6 4 124.1 123.1
101.1 101.1 100.6

103.7
119.2
99.8

103.3
119.6
99.8

103.3
124.8
99.8

103.2
121.8
99.1

103.1
118.6
99.1

103.0
119.9
99.1

103.1
116.2
99.1

103.2
116.8
99.1

102.7
116.9
99.1

102.9
118.8
99.1

102.7
116.3
99.1

101.0
113.9
99.1

105.2 105.1
105.2 105.2

105.1
105.0

105.1
104.7

105.1
104.9

105.0
105.0

105.1
104.9

105.1
104.7

105.1
104.0

105.1
104.6

105.1
104.4

105.1
104.6

104.4
103.7

103.5
102.5

83.5
107.4
102.7
100. 2
103.6
103.0
106. 5
102.7
98.0
102.2
110. 0
110.3
101. 0
131.8
120.5

105.3
105.4

101.0 101.0
98.9 98.9
108.9 108.9
105.3 105.3
97.1 97.5
89.4 89.4
83.5
106.7
4 102. 5
100.2
103. 6
4 103. 0
106. 5
4 102. 7
94.4
101.8
109. 8
110.3
101. 0
4 131.0
4 115.7

' As of January 1961, new weights reflecting 1958 values were introduced
into the index. See “ Weight Revisions in the Wholesale Price Index 18901960,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1962, pp. 175-182.
2 As of January 1962, the indexes were converted from the former base of
1947-49=100 to the new base of 1957-59=100. Technical details and earlier
data on the 1957-59 base furnished upon request to the Bureau.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 Preliminary.
4 Revised.
5 January 1958=100.
6 January 1961 = 100.
1 Formerly titled “prepared asphalt roofing.”

1064

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966
T able

D-5.

Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings 1
[1957-59=100, unless otherwise specified]2
1965

1966

Commodity group
July 3 June M ay Apr. Mar.
All foods_____ __________________________________
All fish___________________________________________
All commodities except farm products----- ------- - Textile products, excluding hard and bast fiber products5.
Bituminous coal—domestic sizes____________________
Refined petroleum products____
________ . . ___
East Coast markets____________________________
M idcontinent markets.
. . . . ____ _
... .
Gulf Coast markets_________ __________________
Pacific Coast markets___ ____ __________ .
M idwest markets «____ _______________________
Soaps____________________________________________
Synthetic detergents______________________________
Pharmaceutical preparations_____ _ ______ . . . ___
Ethical preparations «___
. . .
...
Anti-infectives6 .
_ _ ____ _ . . .
Anti-arthritics6___________________________
Sedatives and hypnotics «__________________
Ataractics « _ __ _____ _ ______ __________ .
Anti-spasmodics and anti-cholinergics 6 .
Cardiovasculars and anti-hypertensives «...
Diabetics «____________ _______ ____
Hormones«. __ .
. . . . . _____________ . .
D iuretics».. . . ____________________ . . .
Dermatologicals « . _ _ „ _ _________ .
Hematinics «_________________________ . . .
Analgesics 8_______________________ . . .
Anti-obesity preparations 8_____________
Cough and cold preparations »________ .
Vitamins 6..
.
_ ___ _
Proprietary preparations *______________________
_______
__ ______
Vitamins »______ .
Cough and cold preparations «______________
Laxatives and elimination aids 6______ . . . _
Internal analgesics 8 . . .
. . .
_.
_
Tonics and alteratives 6____ _ __________ _
External analgesics ».
Antiseptics 8.
.
. ...
...
___
A ntacids6___ _
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _
Lumber and wood products (excluding mill work)____
Softwood lumber__
.
. . .
Pulp, paper, and allied products (excluding building
_______
paper and board). . . . . . . . _ . . . .
Special metals and metal products 7_____________
Steel mill products___ _____ . . . . ____
... ...
Machinery and equipment____ _ . . .
_____ _____
Agricultural machinery (including tractors)_________
Metalworking machinery
_ __ . . . . . . . ___
All tractors.. . ______
.
_ ...
Industrial valves________ . _ _____ _ ______ . _ _
Industrial fittings... _ ____
Anti-friction bearings and components______________
Abrasive grinding w heels.. _______
____
. ____ .
Construction materials__
1 See footnote 1, table D-4.
2 See footnote 2, table D-4.
3 Preliminary.
4 Revised.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

110.9 109.0
129.7 127.2
106.2 105.8
99.1 98.8
95.1 4 94. 5
99.9 100.2
96.4 96.3
100.2 100.2
102.4 104.1
90.4 87.8
93. a 93. a
113.7 113.7
99.8 99.3
96.6 96.6
93.8 93.8
77.2 77.2
100.6 100.6
118.3 118.3
101.4 101.4
102.3 102.3
94.9 94.9
103.8 103.8
104.1 104.1
100.0 100.0
108.7 108.7
110.6 110.6
105.8 105.8
100.0 100.0
104.9 104.9
88.1 88.1
105.0 105.2
100.3 100.3
102.3 103.9
108.0 108.0
104.4 104.4
103.2 100.2
107.9 107.9
111.0 111.0
103.0 103.0
106.4 4107. 7
105.6 4107. 3
103.6
107.0
104.5
108.2
120.2
124.5
120.0
117.4
94.8
83.1
94.1
104.6

103.4
106.9
104.5
108.1
<120.1
4124. 5
4120. 0
116.7
93.9
83.1
93.3
104.8

Annual average

Feb.

Jan.

Dec. Nov.

Oct.

Sept. Aug.

July

1965

1964

109.1
126.9
105.7
98.7
93.6
98.4
96. a
97.1
100.7
89.4
92. C
113.7
99. a
96.2
94.1
78. a
100.6
118.3
101.4
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.9
88.1
103.0
100.3
101.2
107.0
104.4
92.8
105.8
101.8
103.0
110.3
109.0

110.2
126.5
105.3
98.8
92. c
97.7
96. a
97.7
100.2
89.4
89. C
113.7
99. a
96.2
94.1
78. a
100.6
118.3
101.4
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100. C
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.9
88.1
103.0
100.3
101.2
107.0
104.4
92.8
105.8
101.8
103.0
109.0
106.7

110.9
126.7
105.2
98.6
97.7
97.2
98.2
93.7
98.6
89.4
93.3
113.7
99.7
96.5
95. C
82.3
100.6
118.3
100. C
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.4
88.1
102.2
100.3
100.5
107.0
104.4
92.8
105.8
96.4
102.8
105.3
102.8

110.8
123.2
105.1
98.5
100. C
97.8
98.2
98.9
98.6
86.8
93.9
113.7
99.7
96.5
95. C
82. a
100.6
118. a
100. C
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100. C
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.4
88.1
102.1
100.3
99.9
107.0
102.1
92.8
105.8
101.8
102.8
103.0
100.9

108.9
124.5
104.6
98. a
100.0
98. a
98.2
98.5
99.7
88. a
93.8
113.7
99.7
96.5
94. £
82. a
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103. 8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
102.1
88.1
102.1
100.3
99.9
107.0
102.1
92.8
105.8
101.8
102.8
102.0
99.9

108.3
119.3
104.2
98.6
99. 7
98.4
98.2
98.6
99.7
88.3
93.8
113.1
99.7
96.8
95.0
82.3
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.4
88.1
103.0
100.3
102.4
106.9
102.1
98.2
107.3
102.9
102.8
100.9
99. 1

106.7
119.4
103.9
98.7
99.5
98.1
96.6
98.6
99.5
89. C
93.2
113.1
100.8
97.0
95.0
82.3
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
104.4
88.1
103.7
100.3
102.4
106.9
102.1
98.2
107.3
108.3
102.8
100.5
99.1

106.0
118.0
103.5
98.9
98.9
96.6
96.6
98.0
96.5
89.0
92.8
112.4
100.8
96.3
94.8
82.3
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
110.6
105.8
100.0
100.7
88.1
101.6
100.3
100.0
106.1
102.1
89.2
105.4
100.1
102.8
100.5
99.8

105.8
116.2
103.4
99.1
97.7
96.4
95.2
97.9
96.5
89.0
92.2
112.3
100.6
95.9
94.7
81.8
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
109.7
105.8
100.0
100.7
88.1
100.9
100.3
98.6
104.9
102.1
87.3
103.4
98.7
102.8
100.9
100.0

104.8
114.3
103.3
99.1
95.6
96.4
93.8
97.3
96.5
91.5
91.6
112.3
100.6
95.9
94.7
81.8
100.6
118.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
104.1
100.0
108.7
109.7
105.8
100.0
100.7
88.1
100.9
100.3
98.6
104.9
102.1
87.3
103.4
98.7
102.8
100.8
99.7

105.6
109.8
103.2
99.4
93.6
96.0
93.8
96.7
95.9
91.5
91.6
112.3
100.6
96.0
94.7
81.9
100.6
113.2
100.0
102.3
94.9
103. 8
104.1
100.0
108.7
109.7
105. 8
100.0
104.4
88.1
101.1
100.3
99.2
104.9
102.1
89.4
103.8
98.7
103.0
99.0
98.4

104.5
112.8
102.9
99.1
96.6
95.9
95.3
97.6
95.1
90.6
91.7
112.3
100.5
96.5
94.7
82. 0
100.6
115.3
100.0
102.3
94.9
103.8
102.3
100.0
108.7
110.0
105. 5
100.0
102.9
88.1
102.7
100.3
100.9
106. 0
102.3
95.0
105.2
104.9
102.9
99.8
99.1

100.8
107.4
101.2
98.9
96. 7
92.7
93.6
89.7
94.0
87.4
88.0
107.1
99.6
97.1
95.4
85.4
100.6
113.3
100.0
100.2
97.6
103. 8
100.6
100.0
108.7
108.8
101.8
100.0
103.5
87.7
103.1
100.3
101.0
105.4
102. 2
100.2
103.1
108.6
103.0
98.9
99.3

103.1
106.8
104.3
107.8
119.9
122.8
119.8
115.7
93.9
83.0
93.3
105.1

102.7
106.5
104.3
107.2
119.9
121.1
119.4
114.0
92.9
83.0
93.3
104.3

102.2
106.3
104.3
106.9
119.8
120.9
119.4
110.5
92.9
83.0
93.3
103.2

101.7
106.0
1012
106.5
119.6
120.7
119.1
109.4
92.9
83.0
93.3
102.4

101.5
105.7
104.1
106.0
119.1
120.0
118.8
109.3
91.9
84.0
93.3
101.9

101.2
105.4
103.9
105.7
118.7
119. 5
118.6
108.9
91.9
83.7
93.3
101.4

101.1
105.4
103.6
105.5
118. 5
119.3
118.4
109.4
91.9
83.7
93.4
101.3

100.8
105.1
103.7
105.2
116.4
119.1
116.9
108.6
91.9
83.7
93.4
101.2

100.3
105.1
103.5
105.1
116.5
118.8
116.8
106.6
91.4
83.7
93.9
101.2

100.2
105.1
103.5
105.0
116.4
118.2
116.8
105.1
91.4
83.7
93.9
101.2

100.2
104.8
103. 4
104.9
116.5
117.0
116.8
105.2
89.3
83.7
93.9
100.8

100.2
104.7
103.3
105.0
116.6
117.4
116.8
105.7
90.8
84.1
94.2
100.8

99.3
102.6
102.8
103.8
114.3
112.6
114.4
107.2
92.7
89.0
98.1
99.6

5 Formerly titled “textile products, excluding hard fiber products.”
«N ew series. January 1961=100.
7
Metals and metal products, agricultural machinery and equipment, and
motor vehicles.

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES
T able

D-6.

1065

Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by stage of processing and durability of product
[1957-59=100] *
1966

1965

Commodity group
J u ly 3 June
All commodities____ - - - - - - - - - - .

--

May

Apr. Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec. Nov.

Oct. S ep t

Annual average
Aug.

July

-------- - 106.4 105.7 <105.6 105.5 105.4 105.4 104.6 104.1 103.5 103.1 103.0 102.9 102.9

1965

1964

102.5

100.5

98.9
98.3
99.8

94 1
91 9
97.8

Stage of processing
Crude materials for further processing___ ____ . . . Crude foodstuffs and feedstuffs-------------------------Crude nonfood materials except fuel. _____
Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for
manufacturing. _______ ________ _______
Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for
construction _____ . . ______________ .
Crude fuel_________________ _________________
Crude fuel for manufacturing_______________
Crude fuel for nonmanufacturing. _________

107.6 <105.6 105.7 106.3 106.9 107.5 105.2 103.2 100.8 100.1 100.0 100.8 100.5
108.8 <106.0 106.5 107.5 108.3 109.6 106.8 104. 1 100.7 100.1 100.0 101.1 100.9
105.7 105.1 104.5 104.5 104.6 103.8 102.2 101.3 100.7 100.1 99.9 100.0 99.6

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components___
Intermediate materials and components for manufacturing____ __ ------- ---------------- ___ ------Intermediate materials for food manufacturing.
Intermediate materials for nondurable manufacturing......
..................
_
........
Intermediate materials for durable manufacturing.._
................................
Components for manufacturing . .
----Materials and components for construction. ____
Processed fuels and lubricants_________________
Processed fuels and lubricants for manufacturing. ________ ____ _________ . _ . _
Processed fuels and lubricants for nonmanufacturing___ ______ _____ ______ _____
Containers, nonreturnable_____________________
Supplies_____________ _ _________ ________ .
Supplies for manufacturing________________
Supplies for nonmanufacturing_____________
Manufactured animal feeds_____________
Other s u p p l i e s . ___
—
___
Finished goods (goods to users, including raw foods
and fu els).-. _________________________ ____ ___
Consumer finished g o o d s________ ___ -- Consumer foods...
----- _
Consumer crude foods. _
.
Consumer processed foods.
Consumer other nondurable goods_____ ____
Consumer durable goods______________ ___
Producer finished goods____ .
Producer finished goods for manufacturing-.Producer finished goods for nonmanufacturing-

105.4 104.9 104.8 104.3 103.9 103.8 103.4 103.0 103.0 102.6 102.5 102.4 102. 3

102.2

100.9

104.4 <104.1 104.1 103.7 103.4 103.2 102.8 102.6 102.5 102.4 102.2 102.1 102.0
111.9 <110.0 109.8 110.1 110.8 111. 1 109.7 108.8 108.1 107.5 106.9 106. 5 106.2

102. 0
106.6

100 4
104.0

106.0 105.4 104.7 104.7 104.8 104.0 102.2 101.2 100.6
103.7
105.4
105.4
105.6

103.6
<105.3
<105.3
<105.5

100.2 100.0

103.7
105.0
105.0
105.2

99.7

103.9
104.0
103.9
104.2

99.4

103.8
105.2
105.1
105.5

99.2

103.8
105.9
105.8
106.2

99.0

103.6
105.6
105.5
105.9

98.9

103.4
105.4
105.3
105.7

98.9

103.4
104.8
104.7
105.0

98.8

99.8

99.7

99.8

99.3

99.5

97.4

103.4
104.3
104.3
104.6

103.2
103.7
103.7
103.9

103.2
102.7
102.7
103.0

103.1
101.9
101.8
102.1

103. 2
103. 3
103. 2
103.5

102 8
102 5
102 4
102.8

98.9

98.7

98.7

98.7

98.7

97.8

105.3 105.1 105.1 105.0 104.8
102.2 101.9 101.6 101.6 101.4
101.8 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.3
100.8 99.9 99.8 99.9 99.7

104. 6
101.3
101.4
99.5

102.5
99 7
100 6
98.1

102.8 102.8 101.9 101.7 101.2 101.5 101.9 102.1 102.0 101.3 101.2 101.2 101.0

101.0

99.8

99.9
105.1
112.7
109.5
113.3
125.0
104.1

100.2
105.1
<110.0
109.2
<109.7
<116.9
103.4

98.7
105.1
109.5
108.9
109.2
116.0
103.0

97.9
105.1
108.3
108.3
107.6
112.4
102.8

97.4
104.8
108.0
108.0
107.4
112.7
102.3

97.9
104.3
109.3
107.7
109.3
117.7
102.1

98.7
104.2
108.2
107.3
108.0
114.8
101.9

98.8
104.1
107.0
106.6
106.6
111.7
101.6

98.7
103.3
107.2
106.5
106.9
113.1
101.2

97.5
102.9
106.3
106.6
105.5
109.6
101.1

97.5
102.8
106.3
106.4
105.6
110.1
101.0

97.6
102.4
106.2
106.3
105.5
110.1
100.8

97.5
102,2
106.5
106.2
106.1
111.9
100.7

97.1
102.1
106.0
106.1
105.4
109. 7
100.9

95.2
100. 2
105.0
105 5
104 2
107 4
100.4

106.9
106.4
111.2
106.0
112.0
105.0
100.2
108.1
111.4
104.7

106.4
105.7
109.5
99.3
111. 1
104.9
100.1
107.9
111.2
<104.6

106.2
105.6
109.6
99.9
111. 1
104.5
100.2
107.6
110.8
104. 4

106.3
105.9
110.7
107.8
111.2
104.3
99.8
107.0
110.0
103.8

106.4
106.1
111.5
107.6
112.1
104.1
99.7
106.8
109.8
103.7

106.3
106.0
111.5
105.6
112.4
104.0
99.7
106.6
109.6
103.5

105. 6
105. 2
109.5
101.0
110.8
103.9
99.7
106.2
109.1
103.3

105.3
104.9
108.9
102.6
109.9
103.7
99.6
106.0
108.8
103.2

104.7
104.2
107.2
102.7
107.8
103.6
99.6
105.9
108.7
103.1

104.3
103.7
106.3
101.0
107.1
103.3
99.5
105. 6
108.4
102.8

104.1
103.5
106.1
101.2
106.9
103.0
99.5
105.5
108.3
102.8

103.8
103.1
105.3
94.4
107.0
102.8
99.5
105.5
108.1
102.8

104.0
103.4
106.0
98.8
107.1
102.7
99.6
105. 4
107.9
102.9

103.6
102.8
104.5
100.2
105.2
102.8
99. 6
105.4
108.0
102.9

101.8
100 9
100.6
99.8
100. 7
101.6
99.9
104.1
106.2
102.0

106.2
106.3
106.0
106.1
105. 8
108.1
112.4
107.8

106.2
105.2
105.6
106.1
105.1
<105.8
112.4
<105.4

106.1
105.0
105.5
106.1
104.8
105.8
110.1
105.6

105.7
105.1
105.1
105.6
104.6
107.0
113.9
106.6

105.3
105.3
105.0
105.1
104.7
107.3
114.7
106.9

104.9
105.5
104.9
104.8
104.8
107.5
111.4
107.3

104.6
104.5
104.4
104.5
104.3
105.3
108.2
105.1

104.2
103.9
104.1
104.2
103.8
104.0
105.4
104.0

104.2
102.9
103.7
104.2
103.2
102.4
106.5
102.2

104.0
102.4
103.4
104.0
102.7
101.7
105.3
101.5

103.9
102.2
103.2
103.9
102.5
101.6
104.6
101.4

103.9
102.0
103.2
103.9
102.4
101.3
105.7
101.1

103.7
102.2
103.1
103.7
102.5
101.5
103.6
101.4

103. 7
101.5
102.8
103.7
101.9
100.7
104.7
ICO. 5

102.4
99.1
101.1
102.5
99.7
97.5
98.0
97.5

106.5
105.1
104.5
101.7

106.7
105.0
104.5
101.8

106.8
104.8
104.8
100.7

106.6 106.1 105. 8 105.5 105.2
104.1 103.3 102.9 102.5 102.3
104.3 103.4 102.7 102.3 101.9
100.3 99.8 100.2 100.7 100.9

Durability of product
Total durable goods___ - _ _____________ _______ .
Total nondurable goods____ _______ ____________
Total manufactures. _
...................
Durable manufactures..
.
.
________
Nondurable manufactures_____________________
Total raw or slightly processed goods - ______ . . .
Durable raw or slightly processed goods_____
Nondurable raw or slightly processed goods.
1 See footnote 1, table D-4.
2 See footnote 2, table D-4.
s Preliminary.
4 Revised.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N ote : For description of the series by stage of processing, see “ N ew BLS
Economic Sector Indexes of Wholesale Prices,” Monthly Labor Review,
December 1955, pp. 144g-1453; and by durability of product and data begin­
ning with 1947, see Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes, 1957 (BLS Bulletin
1235, 1958).

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, SEPTEMBER 1966

1066

E.—Work Stoppages
T able E - l.

Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes 1
Number of stoppages

M onth and year

1Q4-/S
1Q4fi
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
IQ52
1953
1954
I955
1956

1957

1958

1959

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964

'

° ,

- ____________________ ____
_ _ _________ _ ______ __
__ ___ __ ______ _____ _
-- - _ _ ______
___
_ __ _ _ _ _ _
____ _
______
___ _
__
__
__
_
___
___ ___
_ _ _______ _ __________ _
. . . ___ ________ __ ___ _ _ _
_ _ _____ __ ___ _ ___ _ _________
_ _ ______ __ _ __ _ _____
___ __ _____
_ _ _ __
___ _______ _
______
_
_ _ _ _ ___ ______
_ _ _ _ _______ _____
_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _____
______ _ _
___
_ _ _ _ _
__
- - -- - ____
_
_ ___ __________ _ ___________
..
_______
_ _______ _ __
January______________________________ ________
February____ ___
_ __ _ ___ _ ___ __ -----March___
____
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A pril..
_
__
- - - - M a y . . . --------------___
. . . _ ----June------- ----------------------- _ ------- . . .
---------July----- -------- ---------------------------------------------------August______________ ________ ____________
September____ ______ _ . . . - -----------------------October_____________ __ _ ........ ... ..................... _ _
November. . . . ------- ---------------- - . -------------- . .
December. ________ _
------------ ---------------------

Beginning in
month or year

Workers involved in stoppages

In effect dur­
ing month

2,862
3,573
4,750
4,985
3,693
3,419
3,606
4,843
4,737
5,117
5,091
3,468
4,320
3,825
3,673
3,694
3,708
3,333
3,367
3,614
3,362
3,655

’ 211

233
241
364
442
376
416
306
336
346
238
146

375
375
399
529
651
586
639
556
574
584
469
346

1965: January_____ ___
___ _ ___ _ ------February. _ _ _ _ _ _
---------- _
.
___ ------March. _ ------- -- -------------------------- -- _ ---------April___
_
------------M a y ... ---- ------_ _
------__ __ _
June.
_______ _ _ ____
_ . _ _ _ ------- _
July___________________________________________
A u g u s t__ _
----September. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
--------- ___ _ _ -----October... _ _ _ _ ------ ------ ------- -- _ ___ ----November.
. .
_
December_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ ___

244
208
329
390
450
425
416
388
345
321
289
158

404
393
511
603
669
677
702
685
631
570
505
371

1966: January 2_____ ___ _ ___ _ ______ _ _ _ ____
February2. . _____ _______ ___ __ __ _ ------- _ ___
March 2___ _____ _
_ _
__ __ -----A pril2. .
_ ___ _______
M ay 2_ ----------- ------ ---------- ------------------ ----June 2------------------ ------------------------------------------July <__________________________________________

205
240
310
350
480
430
420

335
380
450
500
640
660
660

i The data include all known strikes or lockouts involving 6 workers or
more and lasting a full day or shift or longer. Figures on workers involved
and man-days idle cover all workers made idle for as long as 1 shift in estab­
lishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure the indirect


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Beginning in
month or year

1,130, 000
2,380,000
3,470, 000
4,600, 000
2,170,000
1,960,000
3,030,000
2,410,000
2,220, 000
3,540, 000
2,400,000
1,530,000
2,650, 000
1,900, 000
1,390.000
2,060, 000
1,880,000
1,320, 000
1,450,000
1,230, 000
941,000
1,640, 000
53,300
80, 600
79, 300
140, 000
192, 000
124, 000
126, 000
73,100
374,000
214,000
141,000
42, 000
98, 800
45,100
180,000
141, 000
127, 000
268,000
156, 000
109, 000
155, 000

101,000

140,000
24, 300
101, 000

107, 000
198, 000
228, 000
208,000
150, 000
235,000

In effect dur­
ing month

Man-days idle during month
or year
Percent of
estimated
working time

Number

16,900,000
39,700,000
38,000,000
116,000,000
34,600,000
34,100,000
50,500,000
38,800,000
22,900,000
59,100,000
28,300,000
22,600,000
28,200,000
33.100,000
16,500,000
23,900,000
69, 000. 000
19,100,000
16,300,000
18,600, 000
16,100, 000
22,900,000
898,000
1, 040, 000
816, 000
1,170, 000
2,400,000
1, 900, 000
1, 740,000
1 , 200,000
2, 390, 000
6, 590,000
1, 730, 000
1 , 060,000

0 27
46

354, 000
334, 000
229,000
250, 000
209, 000
192, 000
75, 800

1,740, 000
1,440, 000
1, 770,000
1,840,000
1,850,000
2, 590, 000
3, 670, 000
2, 230,000
2, 110 , 000
1, 770,000
1, 380,000
907, 000

.18
. 15
.16
.17
.19
.23
.34

127, 000
142, 000
236, 000
379, 000
294, 000
243, 000
299,000

1 , 000, 000
865, 000
1,350, 000
2, 450, 000
2,870, 000
1, 950, 000
2,980,000

91,400
116,000
123,000
187, 000
249, 000

222,000

195, 000
133,000
432, 000
549. 000
274, 000
149,000
183, 000
149, 000
274,000
194,000

201,000

.47
1.43

. 41
.37
.59
.44
.23
. 57
.26

.21

.26
.29
. 14
. 22
61
. 17
.14
. 16
. 13
.18
.09

.11

.08
. 11
.24
.18
. 15

.12

.23
.61
.17

.10

.20
.20

. 16
.13
.08

.09
.09
. 11
.23
.26
. 17
.28

or secondary effect on other establishments or industries whose employees
are made idle as a result of material or service shortages.
2 Preliminary.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1966

O — 228 -6 55


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