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U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Kathleen P. Utgoff, Commissioner
The Monthly Labor Review (usps 987-800) is published
monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S.
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occupational safety and health, demographic trends, and
other economic developments. Papers should be factual
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Cover designed by Melvin B. Moxley


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MONTHLY LABOR

REVIEW_______________________
Volume 125, Number 10
October 2002

Informatiion technology and economic growth: Canada and U.S.

3

In both countries, information and communication technology
was the largest contributor to growth within capital services
T Harchaoui, F. Tarkhani, C. Jackson, and P. Armstrong

Preventive care and other benefits in plandocuments

13

Although many preventive care benefits are not specifically mentioned
in health care plans, they are usually covered under a more general clause
Allan P. Blostin

Using the EmploymentCost Index to adjustMedicare payments

20

Increases in this index resulted in more than a $2 billion
increase per year in Medicare payments to hospitals
Albert E. Schwenk and William J. Wiatrowski

Departments
Labor month in review
Précis
Book reviews
Current labor statistics

2
28
29
33

Editor-in-Chief: Deborah P. Klein • Executive Editor: Richard M. Devens • Managing Editor: Anna Huffman Hill • Editors: Brian
I. Baker, Richard Hamilton, Leslie Brown Joyner, Lawrence H. Leith • Book Reviews: Roger A. Comer, Richard Hamilton • Design and
Layout: Catherine D. Bowman, Edith W. Peters • Contributors: Bonita Louise Boles, Marisa DiNatale, Mary Kokoski, Robert Jordan


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Labor Month in Review

The October Review
Economic growth, productivity, and the
contribution o f inform ation, com ­
m unications, and other new te c h ­
n ologies to them continue to be
important questions. The lead article
in v estig ates new technology and
growth (leaving productivity questions
to the P récis section). Tarek M.
Harchaoui, Faouzi Tarkhani, Chris
Jackson, and Philip Armstrong from
Statistics Canada carefully analyze the
resu rg en ce o f output grow th and
multifactor productivity in their country
and the United States. These trends
reflect, they conclude, the impact of
both increasing capital formation and a
shift within that category toward hightech assets such as information and
communication technologies.
The two remaining articles discuss
medical care-related topics from rather
different perspectives. Allan P. Blostin
looks at how often and to what specific
extent health care benefit plans cover
individuals for preventive care ex­
penses. His primary finding is that while
such measures as cancer screening,
m am m ogram s, sm oking cessation
program s, and other preventive
measures are often paid for by health
care plans, they are relatively rarely
included specifically in plan docu­
mentations and provision summaries.
Thus, these tests are often covered
under the m ore flexible general
categories as “physical exams” and
“diagnostic procedures.”
Albert E. Schwenk and William J.
Wiatrowski describe the methods by
which the Employer Cost Index (ECl) is
used to adjust payments to health care
providers under 6 out of 15 categories
o f Medicare coverage. Used in con­
junction with Producer Price Index data,
and other input costs, the ECI affects
more than $ 140 billion dollars in annual
reimbursements.

2 Monthly Labor Review

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Fatal Injurie s at work
raised by 9/11 attacks

See “Employee Tenure in 2002,” news
release USDL 02-531.

A total of 8,786 fatal work injuries were
reported in 2001, including fatalities
related to the September 11th terrorist
attacks. A total of 2,886 work-related
fatalities resulted from the events of
September 11th. The events of that day
killed persons from a wide range of
backgrounds—janitors to managers,
native and foreign-bom workers, and the
young and the old—who were at work
in the World Trade C enter or the
Pentagon, were on business travel or
were crew aboard the com m ercial
airliners that crashed in Pennsylvania,
New York City, and Virginia, or were
involved in rescue duties.
Excluding the fatalities on September
11th, the overall workplace fatality count
of 5,900 in 2001 was down slightly (less
than 1 percent) from 2000. Total
employment also declined slightly in 2001.
As a result, the occupational fatality rate,
4.3 fatalities per 100,000 employed, was the
same as it had been in 2000. See “National
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries,
2001,” news release USDL 02-541.

Plant closings up in 2001

Tenure gap narrows
The median number of years that wage
and salary workers had been with their
current em ployer was 3.7 years in
January 2002. Employee tenure was
somewhat higher for men than for
women, but the gap was smaller than it
was in the 1980s. Median tenure (the
point at which half of the workers had
more tenure and half had less tenure)
was 3.9 years for men and 3.4 years for
women in January 2002. Median tenure
has been about one-half year higher for
men than for women since 1996,
compared with a difference of about one
full year in prior survey years. The
survey measures how long workers had
been with their current employer, not
how long they will stay with their employer.

October 2002

Of the 8,352 extended mass layoff events
in 2001,15 percent resulted in permanent
closure o f the worksite. A total o f
379,790 workers were affected by these
permanent worksite closures. Compared
with the experience in 2000, layoff
events in which the worksite closed
increased by 61 percent, and the number
of workers involved more than doubled.
M anufacturing accounted for 52
percent of permanent closures in 2001.
These closures occurred m ostly in
com puter and electronic products
manufacturing, apparel, and primary
metals m anufacturing. Retail trade
accounted for 15 percent of closures,
largely in general merchandise stores
and in building materials and garden
supply stores. Extended mass layoffs
last more than 30 days and involve 50 or
m ore individuals from a single
establishment filing initial claims for
unem ploym ent insurance during a
consecutive 5-week period. Additional
information is available in “Extended
Mass Layoffs in 2001,” BLS Report 963.

Average annual pay
up 2.5 percent
The average annual pay of U.S. workers
rose by 2.5 percent in 2001. This
compares with a 5.9-percent rise in 2000.
The level of average annual pay for U.S.
workers was $36,214 in 2001, up from
$35,320 in 2000. The 2.5-percent pay
hike was the third lowest in the 1991 to
2001 period, and was below 3 percent
for the first time since 1994. These data
are for all workers covered by State and
F ederal unem ploym ent insurance
programs. Data for 2001 are preliminary
and subject to revision. See “Average
Annual Pay by State and Industry,
2001,” news release USDL 02-540. □

Canada-U.S. Economic Growth

Information technology and economic
growth in Canada and the U.S.
Information and communication technology
was the largest contributor to growth within capital services
fo r both Canada and the United States during the late 1990s,
but the contribution o f this capital asset in Canada
was lower than that in the United States

Tarek M. Harchaoui,
FaouziTarkhani,
Chris Jackson,
and
Philip Armstrong

Tarek M. Harchaoui
is chief of Statistics
C anada m ultifactor
productivity program,
Micro-Economic
Analysis Division
Statistics C anada,
O ttaw a, C anada,
harctar@ statcan.ca
and Faouzi Tarkhani,
Chris Jackson, and
Philip Armstrong
are economists in
various areas at
Statistics Canada.
The opinions
expressed herein are
those of the authors
and do not
necessarily reflect
the opinions of
Statistics Canada.


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nformation and communication technology
( ict) equipm ent appears to be alm ost
everywhere— in the office, on the factory
floor, in the classroom, at home, and, even in
people’s pockets. By all accounts, ict appears to
be rapidly changing the way many enterprises
conduct business and com m unicate. The
proliferation of ict has made the world seem much
smaller, as computer-related innovations, such
as the Internet, let individuals on opposite sides
of the world interact in ways that were unimagined
20 years ago.
The explosion of ict spending over the last
few decades has sparked renewed interest in the
role of investment and capital accumulation as
sources of economic growth. While productivity
growth, capital accumulation, and the impact of
technology were topics once reserved for
academic debates, the success o f the U.S.
economy during the late 1990s has moved such
issues into the popular domain.1
Using revised data on output and capital
input, this article sheds some new light on the
changing composition of investment and the
growth of capital services in Canada during the
1990s and makes comparisons to the 1980s.2 It
discusses the data sources and the historical
trends of investment and capital formation and
then analyzes the effect of these trends on labor
productivity and m ultifactor productivity
performance.

I

In particular, this article employs well-tested
and familiar methods to estimate annual indexes
of capital services for the Canadian business
sector from 1981 to 2000 and introduces a
decom position into quantity and quality
components for broad asset classes, including
ict equipm ent. W hile much o f the recent
Canadian economic literature has documented
the growing importance of computers, this article
examines and compares the extent to which ict
and other types of capital have contributed to
economic growth in Canada. Finally, it examines
the underpinnings of the productivity perform­
ance of the Canadian and U.S. business sectors
over the last two decades, using comparable
methodologies.
Our approach distinguishes between capital
quantity grow th due to investm ent, and
compositional change of asset types (sometimes
referred to as capital quality growth) due to
substitution between different types of capital
assets. Much of the investment boom during the
1990s reflects substitution towards high-tech
assets as their relative price steadily fell. We also
introduce quantity and quality decompositions
for broad asset classes, such as ICT, other
machinery and equipment (made of low-tech
equipment), and various types of structures.
Our primary conclusion is that the Canadian
business sector has experienced a steady and
pervasive increase in the growth rate of capital
Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

3

Comparison of Canada-U.S, Economic Growth

Exhibit 1. C lassification of to ta l c a p ita l
b y asset class_______________
Information and communication technology
Computers and office equipment
Communication equipment
Software-own account
Software-pre-packaged
Software-custom design

Other machinery and equipment
Office furniture, furnishing
Household and services machinery and equipment
Electrical industrial machinery and equipment
Nonelectrical industrial machinery and equipment
Industrial containers
Conveyors and industrial trucks
Automobiles and buses
Trucks (excluding Industrial trucks) and trailers
Locomotives, ships and boats, and major replacement
parts
Aircraft, aircraft engines, and other major replacement
parts
Other equipment

Structures
Nonresidential building construction
Road, highway and airport runway construction
Gas and oil facility construction
Electric power, dams, and irrigation construction
Railway and telecommunications construction
Other engineering construction
Cottages
Mobile homes
Multiple dwellings
Single dwellings
Inventories
Land

services during the second half of the 1990s. The growth of
capital services— including fixed reproducible capital, land,
and inventories—has increased from an average annual
growth rate of 3.5 percent over the 1981-88 period to 4.2
percent over the 1995-2000 period.
Data on Canadian economic growth in output from 1995 to
2000 show that capital and labor continue to make important
contributions to overall growth. One primary source of
growth is in investment. The increase in the growth of
investment, from 1.7 percent per year over 1981-88 to 11.9
percent over 1995-2000, has led to an increase in the

4

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O ctober 2002

contribution of capital services from 1.4 percent to 1.7 percent
per year betw een these two periods. Due to strong
investm ent and an increasing input share, high-tech
equipment is the only class of fixed reproducible assets that
is making a significantly larger contribution to output growth
in the second half of the 1990s relative to the 1980s.
Labor input, another primary source of growth, has
advanced during the post-1995 period mainly as a result of
the increase in hours worked. The contribution of labor
quality declined, a reflection of a falling unemployment rate,
as more workers with relatively lower marginal products were
drawn into the workforce during this period.
Still another source of growth, multifactor productivity or
the famous Solow residual, grew at 0.2 percent per year on
average during the last two decades in Canada, compared
with 0.9 percent per year for the United States.3 The
acceleration of multifactor productivity in Canada from -0.3
percent per year over the 1988-95 period to 1.0 percent per
year during the post-1995 period (0.5 percent to 1.3 percent in
the United States) suggests considerable improvements in
technology and increases in the efficiency of production.
While the resurgence in multifactor productivity growth in
the p o st-1995 period has yet to surpass the pre-1973
performance, more rapid multifactor productivity growth is
critical for sustained growth at higher rates.
During the post-1995 period, multifactor productivity
contributed 21 percent of the output growth in Canada (27
percent for the United States), up from 6.1 percent in the
1981-88 period (26 percent for the United States). Although
the recent resurgence in multifactor productivity in both
countries does not surpass the pre-1973 performance, it is
certainly one of the most important stylized facts of the end
of the twentieth century.

Description of the data
This article is based on methodologies recently implemented
by the productivity program at Statistics Canada.4 This
program constructs new Fisher indexes of output and inputs
for the Canadian business sector that are then used to
construct multifactor productivity estimates.
The Fisher output indexes use the expenditure based GDP5
estimates, but exclude out-of-scope components such as the
government sector, nonprofit institutions, and the rental on
owner-occupied dwellings. Corresponding adjustments are
also made to capital stock and hours worked. The GDP
estim ates incorporate the capitalization o f softw are
expenditures, making the Canada-U.S. estimates of economic
growth comparable for the first time since October 1999, when
the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis introduced this change
during a comprehensive historical revision to their National
Income and Product Accounts.

E s tim a te s o f c a p i t a l s t o c k

b y a s s e t c la s s , C a n a d ia n

b u s in e s s s e c t o r ,

1981

a n d

2000

1981 c a p it a l s to c k
A s s e t c la s s

Total c a p ita l s t o c k ...................................................................................
F ixe d re p ro d u c ib le c a p i t a l ...................................................................
In fo rm a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , a nd te c h n o lo g y ........................
C o m p u te rs a n d s o f t w a r e ...........................................................
C o m m u n ic a tio n ...............................................................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t..................................................
S tr u c tu r e s ..............................................................................................
In v e n to rie s a nd la n d ..............................................................................
S tru c tu re s , lan d , a n d in v e n to r ie s ....................................................

F ix e d c a p i t a l

T o ta l c a p i t a l

V a lu e

F ix e d c a p i t a l

( m illio n s o f

s h a re

s h a re

( m illio n s o f

s h a re

s h a re

c u r r e n t d o lla r s )

(p e rc e n t)

(p e rc e n t)

c u r r e n t d o lla r s )

(p e rc e n t)

(p e rc e n t)

4 9 2 ,5 8 8
2 9 0 ,46 5
1 1,363
4 ,4 4 4
6 ,9 2 0
8 0,9 48
198 ,15 3
2 0 2 ,1 2 3
4 0 0 ,2 7 6

For this analysis, the wide number of assets used in the
productivity program (28 classes) are grouped into three
distinct classes. Exhibit 1 shows the concordance that
produces three broad asset classes—ICT, other machinery
and equipment, and structures (which includes inventories
and land).6 This taxonomy not only distinguishes long-lived
structures from short-lived equipment, but also ict from other
machinery and equipment.
This article also uses estimates of labor growth that take
into account differences in marginal productivity across labor
types.7 Contrary to the method that just sums all hours
worked across all workers, the method used in this analysis
considers differences across labor types and sums the
growth in hours worked of different classes of labor weighted
by th eir relativ e wage rates or their share o f labor
compensation. Much like the estimates of capital input that
capture substitution across asset classes, the approach for
aggregate labor input allows for substitution between various
types of labor, for example, workers cross-classified by
education, experience, and other characteristics.8 This
approach allows for a breakdown of the growth of labor input
into growth of labor hours and a labor composition or labor
quality effect that is similar to the breakdown in capital growth
between the straight sum of all capital and changes in its
composition.

C apital stock estimate in current price
Table 1 contains a breakdown of assets into major groupings
and the 1981 and 2000 value of capital stock by asset class. The
perpetual inventory calculations result in a net stock of fixed
reproducible assets of $929 billion in current dollars in 2000, up
from $290 billion in 1981. Adding in the estimated value of land
and inventories yields a total capital stock of $ 1.3 trillion in 2000.
The investment in iCTin constant prices has grown at an
average annual rate of 16.2 percent during the 1981-2000
period, much faster than the other two classes of assets. (See
table 2.) Despite this rapid growth, however, ict equipment


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2 0 0 0 c a p ita l s to c k

V a lu e

100.0
100.0
3.9
1.5
2.4
27.9
6 8.2

2.3
.9
1.4
16.4
4 0.2
4 1 .0
81.3

1 ,2 7 8 ,2 3 7
9 2 9 ,40 9
5 9 ,9 0 0
3 7 ,4 9 3
2 2 ,4 0 7
2 3 8 ,5 0 5
6 3 1 ,0 0 8
3 4 8 ,8 2 8
9 7 9 ,83 2

T o ta l c a p it a l

1 0 0 .0
100.0
6 .4
4 .0
2.4
2 5.7
6 7.9

4 .7
2 .9
1 .8
1 8 .7
4 9 .4
2 7 .3
7 6 .7

remains a small share of the business sector’s aggregate
capital. In 2000, ICT capital stock in nominal terms accounted
for 6.4 percent of fixed reproducible capital, which includes
equipment and structures, up from 3.9 percent in 1981. (See
table 1.) In our broader definition of capital stock that
includes residential assets, land and inventories, ict assets
account for an even smaller share (4.7 percent in 2000,
compared with 2.3 percent in 1981).

Investment in capital growth
The growth in Canada’s use of capital can be traced through
an examination of three related data series—an index of the
growth in investment, an index of the growth in capital stock
(a straight sum of the different assets), and an index of the
growth in capital services—from 1981 to 2000. Furthermore,
each of these can be decomposed into three components:
that arising from investments in ICT, other machinery and
equipm ent, and structures (which include land and
inventories).9
For a clear view of aggregate trends, average annual
growth rates (in terms of both quantities and prices) are
presented in table 2 for each series for the major asset classes
and for the entire period 1981-2000, and for three subperiods:
1981-88,1988-95, and 1995-2000. Growth rates for business
sector GDP for the same periods are also reported.
The dominant feature of the average annual growth rates
is the significant drop of output growth during the early 1990s
recession. After rising around 3.3 percent per year during
1981-88, Canada’s real GDP growth fell to 1.5 percent per year
for 1988-95 and recovered remarkably during the second half
of the 1990s to reach an average 4.9 percent per year.
Investment, capital stock, and capital services all show similar
growth patterns.
Investment. Although investment showed a similar growth
pattern to that in output, growth in investment showed more
sensitivity to the business cycle. It slowed dramatically from

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

5

Comparison of Canada-U,S. Economic Growth

1 0 2 ^ ^ 8

A verage annual growth rate‘S of investment, c a p ita l stock, c a p ita l services, a nd output, C an a dia n Business
sector, 1981-2000

(In p e rc e n t)
In v e stm e n t in d e x

C a p ita l sto c k in d e x

C a p ita l s e rv ic e s in d e x

GDP

Ite m
Pric e

Q u a n tity

P ric e

Q u a n tity

P ric e

Q u a n tity

Pric e

Q u a n tity

1 9 8 1 -2 0 0 0
GDP .........................................................................................
A ll a s s e t s ..............................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ......
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t............................
S tr u c tu r e s ........................................................................

2.9
1.0
- 9 .3
2.5
1.5

3.6
16.2
2.0
.8

1.0
9.3
2 .5
1.5

2.0
12.7
2.1
1.7

4 .2
1.5
5.6
6.8

3.4
2 1.0
3.4
2.1

3.0

1 9 8 1 -8 8
GDP ..........................................................................................
A ll a s s e t s ............................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ......
O th e r m a c h in e ry a nd e q u ip m e n t............................
S tr u c tu r e s ........................................................................

.5

1.7

.5

1.8

6 .4

4 .5
3.5

3.3

-1 4 .5
2.9
1.7

11.5
2 .2
.4

-1 4 .5
2 .9
1.7

8.0
1.7
1.9

- 1 .4
7 .8
8.5

2 1.5
3.7
2.4

2.4
2.6
17.5
1.6
1.6

1.5

3.7
- 2 .8
2 .2
7 .2

2.4
4 .2
25.1
5.5
2.5

1.5

1.7
.3
7 .5
4.1

1 9 8 8 -8 5
GDP ...........................................................................................
A ll a s s e t s ............................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ......
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t............................
S tr u c tu r e s ........................................................................

1.8
- 8 .0
2.4
2.0

-.2
13.2
-2 .1
-1 .9

1.8
- 8 .0
2 .4
2 .0

1.3
11.5
1.2
1.3
1 9 9 5 -2 0 0 0

GDP .............................................................................
A ll a s s e t s ............................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ......
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t............................
S tr u c tu r e s ........................................................................

.7
-3 .2
2.0
.3

11.9
2 7.6
7 .7
5.6

1.7 percent per year during 1981-88 to -0.2 percent for 1988—
95. However, it surged to 11.9 percent for 1995-2000, helping
to boost gdp growth during this period.
There is substantial variation in the growth rates across
asset classes and an accelerating trend toward equipment
investment, particularly ICT. Real ICT investment growth was
high and rising throughout the last two decades. Despite the
gdp slowdown, it was 13.2 percent per year even during the
slow growth in the early 1990s. In contrast, real investment in
nonresidential structures dropped to -1.9 percent and other
machinery and equipment fell to -2.1 percent per year, during
the 1988-95 period. Investment in all of the asset classes
grew at a much higher pace during the 1995-2000 period than
that during the 1981-88 period.
The more rapid growth of iCTcan be understood by
examining the behavior of relative prices. The rate of inflation
of the GDP deflator declined from 4.5 percent per year (1981—
88) to 2.4 percent per year (1988-95) and then to 1.4 percent
per year (1995-2000). The quality-adjusted price of ICT
investment goods fell during the same three post-1981
periods (-14.5 percent to -8.0 percent to -3.2 percent per
year). Relative to the GDP deflator, iCTprices fell at an average
of 12.2 percent per year over the 1981-2000 period. The other
categories of investment experienced price increases, but in
general, they were still lower than those of the GDP deflator.

6

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October 2002

.7
- 3 .2
2.0
.3

3.5
2 1.3
4.1
2.1

Investment patterns directly determine the growth of the
capital stock. For example, relatively fast growth in ICT
equipment investment leads to faster capital stock growth
rates and an increase in the capital stock share of equipment.
The long-lived nature of structures, however, means this
occurs slowly. The index o f real capital stock o f ICT
equipment, for example, has grown 12.7 percent per year over
the last two decades, compared with structures, which grew
only 1.7 percent per year. The share of ICT equipment in the
stock of fixed reproducible capital in current dollar terms has
increased from 3.9 percent in 1981 to 6.4 percent in 2000. This
important increase in the value share is due to the large
increase in the quantity of iCTcapital that more than offset
the fall in the price of such capital.
Capital formation. The indexes of the growth of Canadian
capital stock and capital services show that the post-1995
period has been one of relatively rapid growth in capital stock.
The rate of growth of capital fell from 1.8 percent per year
over the 1981-88 period to 1.3 percent per year over the 198895 period, and rebounded sharply to 3.5 percent per year
over 1995-2000. At the asset level, however, while ict
equipment maintained a sustained growth across all periods,
both machinery and equipment and structures experienced a
significant slowdown during the 1988-95 period, followed

by a marked recovery in recent years.
Trends in the growth of the capital stock are major
determinants o f the growth of capital services. The growth
of capital services is, however, higher than the growth of
capital stock, reflecting the ongoing substitution of short­
lived equipment for long-lived structures. This shift in
composition is sometimes referred to as changes in capital
quality— in the sense that it results from changes in
composition that are associated with changes in marginal
productivity. All else being equal, a short-lived asset has a
higher depreciation rate, relatively higher service price and,
therefore, a higher relative marginal productivity because
competitive markets equate user capital cost to marginal
productivity. As a consequence, the fast growing short-lived
assets receive a higher weight in the capital service aggregation,
compared with their weight for the capital stock.10 For
individual asset classes, the results in table 2 show that
capital-service growth always exceeds the growth of the
capital stock, which implies asset substitution also occurs
within asset classes.
These data document an important recovery in the growth
rate o f Canadian capital services across all asset classes in
the post-1995 period. This reflects, in large part, the rapid
growth of investment in the second half of the 1990s for all
asset classes. This is an important development because it is
the growth of capital services and not the level of capital or
investment growth that ultimately affects economic growth
in output.
It is useful to compare Canada’s capital services growth
with the U.S. measure of capital services.11For the U.S. private
business sector, which most closely matches Statistics
Canada’s estimates, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports
capital services growth of 3.8 percent for all assets in the
1981-99 period, slightly more than Canada’s estimate of 3.3
percent for the same period. This may reflect structural
differences between the two countries.
For both countries, the trends are quite similar during
the various subperiods. BLS reports a decrease in the growth
of capital services from 3.9 percent for 1981-88 to 2.8 percent
for 1988-95 and then a recovery to 5.3 percent for 1995-99.
(For Canada, the estimates are 3.5 percent, 1981-88; 2.6
percent, 1988-95; and4.2 percent, 1995-99). However, there
are marked cross-country differences in the growth of capital
services at the asset level. The U.S. iCTequipment capital
services grew 17.5 percent during the 1995-99 period, up
from 14.5 percent over the 1981-88 period and 8.5 percent
over the 1988-95 period This is far below the performance
experienced by its Canadian counterpart (25.7 percent, 1995—
99; 21.5 percent, 1981-88 period; and 17.5 percent, 1988-95).
Although in the U nited States, other m achinery and
equipment and structures recovered in the 1995-99 period
in comparison with the 1988-95 period, this performance


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remains below that posted in the previous decade. In
contrast, during the 1995-99 period, C anada’s other
machinery and equipment and structures experienced their
fastest growth since 1981.
Decomposing the growth in capital services. To identify
and quantify the sources of the increase in capital services, in
terms of changes in composition of investment within asset
classes and between asset classes, we provide a framework
that decomposes the growth in capital services into three
major components. In this framework, capital services increase
for three reasons— substitution towards short-lived, high
marginal product assets within asset classes (within quality
effect), substitution between asset classes (between quality
effect), and accum ulation o f capital stock (capital
accumulation effect).
The growth o f aggregate capital services (the log
represents the growth rate) is decomposable as follows12:
( 1)
In

K,
K ._

=

Z v>

jr

+

Z <v/ - w'j n

K!
^ _J ( Kj "
W T +£ w' ln\ W
K;i

where K t = aggregate capital services

AJt= quality change of the asset class j = ICT,
= other machinery and structures and the capital stock
of the asset class j at period t
v Jt = average rental cost share for the asset class j at
period t and
= average value share of capital stock for the asset
class j at period t

Each of these three components has a specific economic
interpretation. The first term on the right-hand side will be
referred to as the “within quality effect,” which measures
substitution and capital quality growth within distinct asset
classes. The second term represents the “between quality
effect,” which measures substitution between distinct asset
classes. The last term is the “capital accumulation effect,”
which measures capital stock accumulation.
Table 3 presents the contribution to the growth in total
fixed capital services from each component for 1981-2000 and
subperiods. The decomposition allows us to identify the
sources of increase of capital services growth by comparing
each component across asset classes and over time. Table 3
should be read in the following manner. Consider the 3.4percent per year growth of capital services for the 1981-2000
period (last column, first row). This is made up of a 1.2-percent

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

7

Comparison of Canada-U.S, Economic Growth

D e c o m p o s it io n

o f th e

g ro w th

in

c a p i t a l s e r v ic e s

A s s e t c la s s

b y

a s s e t c la s s , C a n a d ia n

b u s in e s s

s e c to r,

198 1 -2 0 0 0

W ith in

B e tw e e n

W e ig h te d

C a p ita l

q u a lity

q u a lity

c a p ita l

s e r v ic e s

e ffe c t'

e ffe c t1

a c c u m u la tio n '

g ro w th 2

1 9 8 1 -2 0 0 0

F ix e d c a p i t a l ...........................................................................................................

0.9

In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ...........................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t.................................................................

.4

0.3
.3

2.1
.5

.3
.2

.1
- .1

.4
1.2

S tr u c tu r e s .............................................................................................................

3.4
1.2
.8
1.4

1 9 8 1 -8 8

F ixe d c a p ita l ...........................................................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ...........................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t.................................................................
S tr u c tu r e s .............................................................................................................

1.4
.6
.5
.3

2.0
.2
.3

.1

.2
.1
- .1

1 .4

3.5
1.0
.9
1.6

1 9 8 8 -9 5

F ix e d c a p i t a l ...........................................................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ...........................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a nd e q u ip m e n t.................................................................
S tr u c tu r e s .............................................................................................................

.3
.3

1 .7

.4
.1
.2

.1

- .1

.3
1.0

.7

.4

2.6
1.1
.4
1.1

1 9 9 5 -2 0 0 0

F ix e d c a p i t a l ...........................................................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ..........................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a nd e q u ip m e n t................................................................
S tr u c tu r e s .............................................................................................................

.6
.6
.1
- .1

.7

.2
.3
.2

2.9
.8

4.2
1.6
1.2

1.3

1.4

.8

1 A v e ra g e a n n u a l p e rc e n ta g e p o in t c o n trib u tio n .
2 A v e ra g e a n n u a l g ro w th rate.

contribution from ict, 0.8 percent from other machinery and
equipment and 1.4 percent from structures. Looked at from
the decomposition outlined in equation 1, this 3.4 percent
comes from 0.9 percent of a within-class effect (substitution
across assets within an asset class), 0.3 percent from a
between-class effect (substitution across asset classes), and
2.1 percent of a capital-accumulation effect (general growth
across all asset classes).
The estimates show that at the aggregate level, the capitalaccumulation effect is the primary source behind the growth
of total capital services for all periods. However, this varies
across asset classes: the total quality effect (the sum of the
within and between quality effect) constitutes the major
source behind the growth of ICT capital services for all
periods, whereas the capital-accumulation effect tends to
dominate for other machinery and equipment and structures.
Substitution across asset groups within an asset class
becomes increasingly important over time, particularly for
ICT.

For all periods and all asset classes, the total quality
effect is prim arily driven by the within quality effect.
However, the 0.7-percentage point annual increase of capital
services between 1981-88 and 1995-2000, which is mainly
attributable to ict and other machinery and equipment, is
mostly driven by the between-effect, which increased by 0.5
percentage points per year and the capital-accumulation

8

Monthly Labor Review


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O ctober 2002

effect, by 0.9 percentage points per year.

Sources of econom ic growth
Framework. The growth of capital services along with the
growth in labor input and multifactor productivity are the
three primary determinants of the economic growth in output.
This type of growth accounting exercise has a rich history
beginning with the seminal work of Robert M. Solow, who
integrated the aggregate production function with national
income data to produce an estimate of productivity growth
that captured disembodied technical change.13 Aggregate
output <
y t is considered to be produced from capital services
K t and labor services L t . Representing productivity as a
‘Hicks-neutral’ augmentation FLt of aggregate input, output
can be written as:

(2)

Y,=A,F(K„L,)

Under the assumptions of competitive product and factor
markets, and constant returns to scale, growth accounting
gives the growth of output as the sum of the share-weighted
growth of inputs and growth in multifactor productivity:

(3)

A lnYt = sk tAlnKl + sL tAlnLt + A lnAt

where
= capital’s average share of nominal value-added
SL,t labor average share of nominal value-added
s %i,t + sL,t = 1
\ the augmentation factor, captures multifactor
productivity
A refers to a first difference.
Equation (3) has several attractive features. It facilitates
the decom position o f the growth in output into the
contributions made by labor and capital inputs on one hand,
and a residual that is called multifactor productivity growth,
on the other hand. It also allows for the quantification of the
contributions of different types of capital, such as ICT, to the
growth of output.
In addition, rearranging equation (3) enables us to present
results in terms of labor productivity growth as:

with higher marginal products, labor quality improvement (also
called the labor composition effect) raises average labor
productivity growth in proportion to labor’s share. The third
term is multifactor productivity growth, which increases labor
productivity growth on a point-for-point basis. Long-term labor
productivity growth arises from three sources: multifactor
productivity growth, the contribution of increased capital
intensity, and the contribution of shifts in labor composition.
As shown in equation (4), labor productivity (output per
hour) can differ from multifactor productivity (output per unit
of combined capital and labor inputs) if capital deepening
occurs or if labor quality improves.
The results associated with equations (3) and (4) provide
two different, but related, perspectives on the sources of
growth: the latter decom poses the sources o f labor
productivity growth and the former identifies the sources of
economic growth of real GNP.

(4)
= sK tAln

Ain
VH ‘ J

+ sLt (AInH t ) + AlnAt
f ' J

where

yt
<

~7jf~ = output per hour worked

= the ratio of capital services to hours worked
n t
This gives the familiar formula that allocates labor
productivity growth among three factors. The first is capital
deepening, the growth in capital services per hour. Capital
deepening (also called capital intensity) makes workers more
productive by providing more capital for each hour of work
and raises the growth of labor productivity in proportion to
the share of capital. The second term is the improvement in
labor quality, defined as the difference between the weighted
growth rates of each category of labor and the growth in the
simple sum of hours worked across all worker categories.
Reflecting the rising proportion of hours supplied by workers

|

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

p e rc e n ta g e

p o in t c o n t r ib u tio n

to

Item

L a b o r p ro d u c tiv ity g ro w th (a n n u a l a v e ra g e g ro w th r a t e ) ................................................
C a p ita l d e e p e n in g .......................................................................................................................
In fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ....................................................................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a nd e q u ip m e n t..........................................................................................
S tr u c tu r e s ......................................................................................................................................
L a b o r q u a lit y .....................................................................................................................................
M u ltifa c to r p r o d u c t iv it y ...............................................................................................................


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Sources o f labor productivity growth. The contribution of
capital intensity to labor productivity growth equals the
growth in the capital-hours ratio multiplied by capital’s share
o f nom inal value-added. The contribution o f labor
composition equals the difference between the growth rates
of labor input and of hours worked multiplied by labor’s share
of nominal value-added. Historically, capital’s share has been
slightly more than one-third of nominal value-added in the
business sector.
Table 4 indicates that from 1981 to 2000, Canada’s labor
productivity grew at an annual rate of 1.4 percent in the business
sector. Of the 1.4 percent growth in labor productivity, 0.2 percent
can be attributed to increases in multifactor productivity, 0.6
percent to the contribution of capital intensity, and 0.5 percent
to changes in labor composition. Table 4 displays a moderate
labor productivity increase during the 1980s and early 1990s,
and an acceleration of labor productivity growth in the late 1990s.
This acceleration reflects the remarkable pickup in multifactor
productivity growth in recent years.
During the 1988-95 period, multifactor productivity
decreased -0.3 percent per year in the business sector. At the
same time, the average annual contribution of capital intensity
to labor productivity growth increased to 0.9 percent, and

la b o r p r o d u c tiv ity ,

1 9 8 1 -2 0 0 0

C a n a d ia n

1 9 8 1 -8 8

1.4
.6
.4
.1
.1

1.3
.6
.3
.1
.1

.5
.2

.5
.2

b u s in e s s

s e c to r,

1 9 8 8 -9 5

1.2
.9
.4
.1
.3
.6
-.3

Monthly Labor Review

1981-2000

1 9 9 5 -2 0 0 0

1.7
.4
.4
.1
-.1
.3
1.0

O ctober 2002

9

Comparison of Canada-U.S. Economic Growth

labor composition made a 0.6-percentage point contribution.
Labor productivity, therefore, increased 1.2 percent per year
from 1988 to 1995. ic t capital began to play an increasingly
important role during this period, contributing 0.4 percent
per year, or more than two-fifths of the contribution of capital
deepening to labor productivity growth.
During 1995-2000, labor productivity grew 1.7 percent per
year in the business sector, 0.5 percentage points faster than
during the 1988-95 period. This acceleration is attributed
entirely to the rem arkable resurgence o f m ultifactor
productivity growth, which increased by more than one
percentage point. Continuing the trend in substitution of
ICT for other forms of capital, iCTcapital accounted for the
whole contribution of capital deepening to labor productivity
growth. Growth in labor quality slowed relative to the growth
in hours in the 1995-2000 period.
Sources o f economic growth.
Using the framework
previously explained, we combine the capital and labor inputs
with output data to estimate the components of equation (3)
to quantify the sources of economic growth in output from
1981-2000. In addition to the standard contribution of
aggregate capital services, the analysis also examines the
contribution of each broad asset class to total growth.
Table 5 illustrates in the second column, for the period
1981-88, that output grew at 3.3 percent per year, of which
aggregate capital services contributed 1.4 percent, labor input
1.7 percent, and multifactor productivity 0.2 percent. The 1.4
percent capital contribution is from the growth rate of capital
services m ultiplied by the share \ t and may also be
decomposed into an 0.8-percent contribution of capital
accumulation and 0.6 percent of quality change. Similarly,
the 1.7-percent labor input contribution can be decomposed
into a 1.2-percent contribution from increased hours worked
and a 0.5-percent contribution from quality change due to
substitution toward more highly educated workers.
For 1995-2000, output grew 4.9 percent per year, capital
services contributed 1.7 percentage points, labor input
I

contributed 2.2 percentage points, and multifactor productivity
contributed 1.0 percentage points.
As reported earlier, there has been an increase in the
contribution of capital services during 1995-2000 as the
growth contribution increased to 1.7 percent from 1.4 percent
per year over the 1981-88 period. iCTshows the largest
increase in the contribution of capital services between the
two periods, nearly doubling from 0.4 percent to 0.7 percent.
In addition, the most recent estimates show an increase in
the growth of multifactor productivity that is more than any
rate since 1981.
Multifactor productivity growth. Canada’s multifactor
productivity grew at an average 0.2-percent per year,
compared with 0.9 percent per year for the United States
during 1981-99, the most recent period for which U.S.
multifactor productivity estimates are available. (See table 6.)
This productivity gap between the two countries is largely
attributable to Canada’s relatively modest m ultifactor
productivity performance from 1981 to 1995. The lack of
multifactor productivity gain in Canada from 1981 to 1995 (0.0
percent, compared with 0.7 percent in the United States)
reflects a 2.4-percent increase in output (3.3 percent in the
United States) and a 2.4-percent increase in combined inputs
of capital and labor (2.5 percent in the United States).
In the late 1990s, output grew at an average annual rate of
4.8 percent in Canada (4.9 percent for the United States), a
3.2-percentage point increase relative to the early 1990s (2.7
percentage points for the United States). M ultifactor
productivity growth makes an important recovery to 1.0
percent in Canada (1.3 percent for the United States as well),
while capital services’ contribution to growth recovered to
1.7 percent in Canada (1.8 percent in the United States), and
labor’s contribution rebounded to 2.1 percent points (1.8
percent for the United States).
Multifactor productivity growth is the source of 21 percent
of output growth in Canada (27 percent in the United States),
up from 6.1 percent in the 1981-88 period (26 percent for the

Sources of e c o n o m ic grow th, C a n a d ia n business sector, 1981-2000

(A n n u a l a v e ra g e p e rc e n ta g e p o in t c o n trib u tio n )
S o u rc e

O u tp u t g ro w th (a n n u a l a v e ra g e g ro w th r a t e ) ...................
C o n trib u tio n o f c a p ita l s e r v ic e s ............................................
In fo rm a tio n c o m m u n ic a tio n te c h n o lo g y ...........................
O th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t ........................................
S tr u c t u r e s ................................................................................

1 9 8 1 -2 0 0 0

1 9 8 1 -8 8

1 9 8 8 -9 5

3.0
1.3
.5
.3
.5

3.3
1.4
.4
.4

1.5
1.0
.4

M u ltifa c to r p ro d u c tiv ity (a n n u a l a v e ra g e g ro w th ra te ) ..

1.5
.2

.6
1.7
.2

C o n trib u tio n o f c a p ita l s t o c k ..............................................
C o n trib u tio n o f c a p ita l q u a lit y .................................................
C o n trib u tio n o f la b o r h o u r s .........................................

.9
.5
1.0

.8
.6
1.2

C o n trib u tio n o f la b o r I n p u t ..............................

10

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 2002

.2
.4
.8
-.3
.6
.4
.1

1 9 9 5 -2 0 0 0

4 .9
1.7
.7
.5
.5
2 .2
1.0
1.4
.3
1.9

■

S o u rc e s

o f e c o n o m ic

g ro w th , C a n a d a

a n d

U .S . b u s i n e s s

C anada

U .S .

s e c t o r 5,

C anada

1 9 8 1 -9 9

U .S .

C anada

U .S .

C anada

U .S .

S o u rc e
1 9 8 1 -9 9

1 9 8 1 -8 8

1 9 8 8 -9 5

1 9 9 5 -9 9

O u tp u t (a n n u a l a v e ra g e g ro w th r a t e ) .......................................
C o n trib u tio n o f la b o r I n p u t ...........................................................
C o n trib u tio n o f c a p ita l s e r v ic e s .................................................
C o n trib u tio n o f in fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n

2 .9
1.4
1.3

3.6
1.5
1.2

3.3
1.7
1.4

3.9
1.6
1.3

1.5
.8
1.0

2 .2
.9
.8

4 .8
2.1
1.7

4 .9
1.8
1.8

te c h n o lo g y ...................................................................................
C o n trib u tio n o f o th e r m a c h in e ry a n d e q u ip m e n t..............
C o n trib u tio n o f s tr u c tu r e s .........................................................
M u ltifa c to r p ro d u c tiv ity (a n n u a l a v e ra g e g ro w th r a t e ) ......

.5
.3
.5
.2

.5
.3
.4
.9

.4
.4
.6
.2

.4
.4
.4
1.0

.4
.2
.4
-.3

.3
.2
.2
.5

.7
.5
.6
1.0

1.1
.4
.4
1.3

Note:

N u m b e rs m a y n o t a d d d u e to ro u n d in g .

United States). The acceleration in multifactor productivity
growth in Canada and the United States is perhaps the most
remarkable feature of the data. Its acceleration in Canada
from -0.3 percent per year to 1.0 percent per year (0.5 percent
to 1.3 percent in the United States) between 1988-95 and
1995-99 suggests considerable improvements in technology
and increases in the efficiency of production. While the
resurgence in multifactor productivity growth in the post1995 period has yet to surpass the pre-1973 performance,
more rapid multifactor productivity growth occurred in the
last part of the 1990s.

C onclusion
In both Canada and the United States, the growth in output
in the post-1995 period has been substantially above that in
the earlier part of the decade and of the previous decade. In
addition, after almost two decades of lackluster performance,
the productivity statistics, beginning in 1995, have begun to
reveal the impact of increasing capital formation in ic t
technologies. Progress in ic t is driving down relative prices
of computers, software, and communication equipment and
inducing firms to invest in these assets (16.2-percent per
year growth on average during the 1981-2000 period).
The article also examines the pattern of growth in capital
services in terms of both quantity and quality components.
It distinguishes between capital quantity growth due to

investment, and capital quality growth due to substitution
between different types o f capital assets. Much o f the
recen t investm ent boom has been asso c ia te d w ith
substitution across assets as the relative price o f hightech assets steadily fell. Capital quality grew in Canada
over the 1981-2000 period at 1.2 percent per year on
average, of which 75 percent was due to changes within
asset classes.
For Canada, in terms of the sources of the 3.3-percent
annual average growth over the 1981 -88 period, capital input
contributed 1.4 percent per year (0.6 percent for quality and
0.8 percent for capital quantity) and labor input contributed
1.7 percent per year (1.2 percent for hours and 0.5 percent for
labor quality). This is somewhat similar to the 1995-2000
period, when capital input, at 1.7 percent, contributed less
than labor input, at 2.2 percent per year to output growth.
In both Canada and the United States, ICT is the largest
contributor to growth within capital services, during the
late 1990s, followed closely by structures in Canada. But
the contribution of ICT in Canada is lower than that in the
United States.
What is even more remarkable about the post-1995 period,
compared with the previous periods, is the recovery in the
multifactor productivity performance, posted at 1.0 percent
per year in Canada and 1.3 percent in the United States
(compared with 0.2 percent in Canada and 1.0 percent in the
United States, for the 1981-88 period).
□

N otes
A cknowledgment: The authors appreciate the comments that were
made by John R. Baldwin and Wulong Gu.

1
See D. W. Jorgenson, and
limit: U.S. econom ic growth in
Papers on Economic Activity, vol.
U.S. comparison, see H. Khan and


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to Output and L abour-P rodu ctivity Growth in Canada, Bank o f
Canada Discussion Paper, 2002.

K. J. Stiroh, 2000, “Raising the speed
2
The data used in this study are those available in March 2002.
Therefore, they do not reflect the recent revisions that both Statistics
the information age,” Brookings
Canada and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics have incorporated in
1, pp. 125-211; and for a Canadatheir estimates. A more recent Canada-U.S. comparison based on the
M. Santos, Contribution o f ict Use

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

11

Comparison of Canada-U.S. Economic Growth

last productivity figures can be found in The Daily o f July 12, 2002,
Statistics Canada’s news release, on the Internet at: www.statcan.ca,
3 R. M, Solow, “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production
Function,” Review o f Economics and Statistics, 1957, vol. 39 pp
3 1 2 -2 0 .
4 Statistics Canada’s new methodology for estimating the growth o f
capital services that is appropriate for an aggregate production function
analysis is outlined in T. M. Harchaoui, and F. Tarkhani, “A
Com prehensive R evision o f the Capital Input M ethodology for
Statistics Canada Multifactor Productivity Program, ” in J. R. Baldwin
and T. M. Harchaoui, eds., Productivity Growth in Canada, ch. 4,
Statistics Canada, 15-204XPE, 2002, forthcoming.
The estimation procedure begins with estimates o f real investment
flows by detailed asset class, then calculates capital stock for each asset
class by industry using the perpetual inventory technique. It then
estimates the user cost o f capital for each industry using input-output
tables to derive rates o f return at the industry level, micro-economic
price data on more than 30,000 sales o f used assets to obtain
depreciation rates and detailed information on tax rates. The growth
rates o f the stock o f capital by asset type o f individual industries are
then aggregated using the user cost o f capital to derive an estimate of
the growth in the flow o f capital services by industry. See also G.
Gellatly, M. Tanguay, and B. Yan, “An Alternative Methodology for
Estimating Economic Depreciation: New Results Using a Survival
M odel,” in Baldwin and Harchaoui, eds., P roductivity Growth in
Canada, ch. 2, 2002, forthcoming.
5 Note that preliminary g d p data from 1998 onward are used in this
analysis. These data were released in the Income and Expenditure
Accounts, May 31, 2001.
6 The definition o f information and communications technologies
assets, which includes computer hardware, software, and
telecommunication equipment, is chosen to permit comparisons with
(ic t )

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October 2002

the United States. See “Multifactor Productivity Trends, 1999,” u s d l
00-267 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics Sept. 21, 2000), on the Internet
at: http://www.bIs.gov/mprhome.htm, There are currently efforts
underway within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development ( o e c d ) to define a broader set o f i c t commodities which
include not only the investment assets used in our definition, but also
intermediate goods and services, and final demand categories.
7 W. Gu, M. Kaci, J. P. Maynard, and M. Sillamaa, “The Changing
Com position o f the Canadian Workforce and Its Impact on
Productivity Growth,” in Baldwin and Harchaoui, eds., Productivity
Growth in Canada, ch. 3, 2002, forthcoming.
8 D. W. Jorgenson, F. M. Gollop, and B. M. Fraumeni, Productivity
and U.S. Economic Growth (Cambridge, Harvard University Press
1987).
9 See the appendix to Harchaoui and Tarkhani, “A Comprehensive
R evision o f the Capital Input M eth od ology,” in Baldwin and
Harchaoui, eds., Productivity Growth in Canada, 2002, forthcoming,
for the differences between these various concepts.
10 Harchaoui, and Tarkhani, “A Comprehensive Revision o f the
Capital Input M ethodology, ” in Baldwin and Harchaoui, eds.,
Productivity Growth in Canada, ch. 4, 2002, forthcoming.
11 “Multifactor Productivity Trends, 1999,” 2000.
12 M. S. Ho, D. W. Jorgenson, and K. J. Stiroh, U.S. High-Tech
Investment and the Pervasive Slowdown in the Growth o f Capital
Services, 1999 on the Internet at:

http://ww w.p ost.econ om ics.h arvard .ed u /facu lty/jorgen son /
papers/hitech.pdf.
13 Solow, “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Func­
tion,” 1957.

Preventive care, other benefits

Preventive care provisions, other benefits:
are they described in plan documents?
It is not very common fo r preventive care provisions,
such as cancer screening tests,
to be specifically mentioned in plan documents;
these benefits are usually covered under a more general clause

Allan P. Blostin

Allan P. Blostin is an
economist in the
Division of
Compensation Data
Analysis and Planning,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics,
Email:
Blostin_A@bls.gov


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

rovisions in medical care plans that em­
phasize coverage for preventive care tests
have risen sharply in recent years.1 The
attention generated by such preventive care
measures as cancer screening and cholesterol
tests led the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and
the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
(hereafter, called Healthcare Research) to con­
duct a joint study to determine if employer health
insurance documents specifically describe cer­
tain medical provisions. The study was con­
ducted under the auspices of the Interagency
Committee on Employment-Related Health Insur­
ance Surveys. The primary motivation behind
the test was the need for more information on
preventive care services, as expressed by the U.S.
Preventive Services Task Force.2
The Committee was formed as a means for
Government agencies to coordinate statistical
survey data related to health insurance, share
information, and identify and fill data gaps.3 Since
its inception in 1998, the Committee’s coordina­
tion efforts have focused on collection, analysis,
and dissemination of statistical estimates. In ad­
dition to the Government agencies that produce
health insurance statistics, the Committee’s ef­
forts are geared toward the wider data-user com­
munity and health policymakers.

P

How the test was conducted
The Agency fo r Healthcare Research and Qual­
ity role. The joint study by Healthcare Research

and BLS was undertaken in several steps. Ini­
tially, Healthcare Research identified medical
care provisions that it was interested in study­
ing, data for which BLS does not presently col­
lect. These provisions include various cancer
screening and other preventive care tests, and
medical procedures, such as laser eye surgery,
that have become more prominent in recent
years. Next, Healthcare Research conducted
three separate studies to collect preliminary in­
formation on these provisions from plan docu­
ments collected as part of its 1996 household
and establishment surveys.4 The main purpose
was to provide feedback on information avail­
able from booklets to assist with additional study
and to develop a data collection form for use by
BLS. As a result of this study, definitions of terms
and the design of the collection form were re­
fined, and the list of provisions to be included in
the BLS study was expanded.
The first study consisted of 31 booklets ran­
domly selected from those collected during the
Healthcare Research 1996 health survey, book­
lets that described medical care provisions. The
second study included 100 booklets; however,
about half were eliminated because of limited in­
formation on benefit provisions. In order to be
used in the Healthcare Research study, plan
booklets had to describe the benefits in some
detail. The third and final study used a sample of
75 plans. The requirements to be included in this
study were not as stringent as in the second

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13

Preventive Care, Other Benefits

study. For example, if a summary sheet was provided that
gave limited details of the benefits, it would be included in the
third study (but not included in the second). After Healthcare
Research completed its preliminary studies, BLS conducted
the official study using the final version of the collection form,
which included definitions of each of the provisions.
The BLS role. The BLS study was conducted during its 2000
survey of private employee benefits.5 The study consisted of
a sample of 100 medical care plans; they were randomly se­
lected using only the booklets that described the plans in the
most detail. Summary plan descriptions (SPDs) furnished by
the employer are the main source used in the benefits survey.
Healthcare plan sponsors are required by law to provide SPDs
to plan participants, giving the employees a detailed descrip­
tion of their benefits under a particular plan. (More details on
SPDs are discussed later.) Documents with only limited infor­
mation— such as one-page summaries—were excluded from
the study. One problem that surfaced during the test was that
many plan documents only had limited information. This was
especially true for health maintenance organizations.6 Thus,
the overwhelming amount of plans in the test came from con­
ventional indemnity plans and preferred provider organiza­
tions.7 The minimal information found in many plan docu­
ments made it difficult to accurately assess the frequency
with which the company booklets included in the study de­
scribed a particular medical provision.
The medical care provisions studied included various can­
cer screening tests, other preventive care measures, and sev­
eral other provisions currently of interest in the health arena.8
Specifically, the study included plan features such as screen­
ing or testing for both colorectal and prostate cancer,
mammograms, acupuncture, chiropractic care, formulary
drugs, and smoking cessation programs. BLS tabulated the
percentage of plans for which provisions were covered, ex­
cluded, or not mentioned in the plan booklets, and also tabu­
lated details on how the provisions are covered, such as
whether they are subject to special limits. Estimates in the
study have not been weighted. The sample of companies
used in the study was not intended to be statistically repre­
sentative of the economy. Therefore, the results can only
been seen as a rough indication of how plan documents de­
scribe certain medical provisions; they should not be viewed
as a true statistical measure of the incidence of certain medical
provisions.

Study results
The main finding revealed from the study was that only a few
provisions were described in the majority of company plan
booklets. Note that the study only measured whether the

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provisions were described in the plan documents, not whether
they were covered under the plan. The following are the key
results from the study:
•

Screening or testing for both colorectal and pros­
tate cancer is not commonly described in the plan
documents. Barium enema, colonoscopy, sigmoi­
doscopy, and digital rectal exam for prostate can­
cer are rarely specifically mentioned in the sum­
mary plan descriptions. (See table 1.) The pros­
tate specific antigen (PSA) test is more frequently
mentioned in the plan documents than are other
screening tests. While most of the cancer screen­
ing tests are not commonly described in the plan
documents, they are often covered as part of the
coverage for physical examinations and/or diag­
nostic x-ray procedures.

•

Mammograms and pap smears, two other cancer
screening tests, were the most commonly described
provisions in the study. Plans commonly provide
for one baseline mammogram between ages 35 and
39 and some age-related schedule for ages 40 and
older. Pap smears are usually limited to once a year,
and occasionally are associated with a dollar limit.

•

For other preventive care measures, the results were
mixed on the frequency with which they were de­
scribed in the plan documents. Well-child care was
among the most commonly described provisions
in the study. Well-child care is an extension of
well-baby care, which usually covers babies up to
age 2 years. Sometimes, this provision is also
grouped under wellness or preventive care, with
age limits of 6 years, 12 years, or 18 years. On the
other hand, bone mass measurements— sometimes
referred in plan documents under osteoporosis—
was rarely specifically mentioned in the summary
plan descriptions (SPDs). It is often covered under
well-woman examinations. Finally, cholesterol
blood tests, another rarely mentioned provision, is
almost always included as part of an annual physi­
cal examination.

•

The test also included other provisions of current
interest in the health field. Laser eye surgery—
often referred to in the plan documents as radial
keratotomy and related surgical procedures— is the
provision that is most commonly found in the plans’
exclusions section.9 It was also only rarely specifi­
cally mentioned as a covered benefit in the plans.

T a b le 1.

M e d ic a l plans w ith p re ve n tive c a re a n d oth e r provisions in sum m ary p lan descriptions, 2000

[In p e rc e n t]
M e n tio n e d
S p e c ific d e ta ils p ro v id e d

N o t m e n tio n e d
C o v e ra g e

E x c lu s io n

A c u p u n c tu re .......................................

16

25

59

U s u a lly m e n tio n s a lim it o n v is its .

B o n e m a s s m e a s u r e m e n ts ...........

5

0

95

R a re ly m e n tio n e d , b u t n e v e r s p e c ific a lly e x c lu d e d . A c o u p le o f tim e s ,

C h o le s te ro l b lo o d t e s t ....................

13

0

87

N e v e r m e n tio n e d a s a n e x c lu s io n . N o te d a s p a rt o f a d u lt p h y s ic a l, o r
a lim it o f o n c e e v e ry 5 y e a rs a fte r a ce rta in a g e .

C h iro p ra c tic c a r e ..............................

63

9

28

L im it on d o lla r a m o u n ts o r on v is its . R e fe rre d to q u ite o fte n a s s p in a l
m anipulation, adjustm ent, o r subluxation.

C o lo re c ta l c a n c e r-s c re e n in g
o r t e s t in g ........................................

13

0

87

N e v e r m e n tio n e d a s an e x c lu s io n . T h e v a rio u s c a n c e r te s ts a re u n d e r
p re v e n tiv e c a re b e n e fits . In a d d itio n , th e re is u s u a lly a m in im u m
a g e fo r w h ic h th e te s ts b e c o m e c o v e re d . T h e re is a ls o u s u a lly a
lim it o f o n e s c re e n in g e v e ry 1 to 5 y e a rs . S o m e tim e s th e re is a
limit on the dollar am ount.

F e c a l o c c u lt b lo o d te s t
(o r h e m o c c u lt t e s t ) .....................

16

0

84
91
95

o s te o p o ro s is is m e n tio n e d .

S ig m o id o s c o p y ..................................

9

0

C o lo n o s c o p y ......................................

5

0

B arium e n e m a ...................................

2

0

98

1

83

F o rm u la ry d r u g s ...............................

16

W h e n m e n tio n e d , it is u s u a lly u n d e r H M O s .

S o m e lis t o u tp a tie n t

d r u g s fo r s p e c ific illn e s s e s ; a c o u p le o f p la n s m e n tio n e d
c o p a y m e n ts . O n e plan m e ntio n e d “v o lu n ta ry o r o pen fo rm u la ry.”
L a s e r e y e s u r g e r y ...........................

4

38

58

E x c lu s io n s u s u a lly m e n tio n “ ra d ia l k e ra to to m y ” a n d re la te d s u rg ic a l
p ro c e d u re s . A c o u p le o f p la n s lis te d c o v e ra g e o n ly b e y o n d a
c e rta in level o f m y o p ia a n d /o r c o in s u ra n c e up to a d o lla r a m o u n t.
S o m e re fe rre d to p h o to re fra c tiv e k e ra to to m y , k e ra to p la s ty , a n d
L A S IK .

O ffic e v is it fo r p re n a ta l c a r e .......

49

0

51

O fte n n o te d c o v e ra g e u n d e r p re v e n tiv e c a re o r w e lln e s s c a re , lik e
a ny other office visit, o r 100 percent co vera g e after initial copaym ent.

P ro s ta te c a n c e r s c r e e n in g ..........

33

0

67

P S A is th e m o s t c o m m o n ly m e n tio n e d p ro s ta te te s t. T e sts u s u a lly
b e g in a t a g e 4 0 o r la te r. C o v e ra g e is o fte n lim ite d to o n e v is it
annually. S o m e p la n s n ote d co in s u ra n c e o r 100 p e rc e n t co ve ra g e
a fte r c o p a y m e n t. O n e p la n note d c o v e ra g e fo r “ d e te c tio n e x a m .”

D ig ita l re c ta l e x a m ..........................

11

0

89

P ro s ta te s p e c ific a n tig e n
(P S A ) t e s t .......................................

34

1

65

R outine m a m m o g ra m s ....................

84

2

14

M o s t co m m o n ly m e n tio n e d b e n e fit. M o s t p la n s h a v e an a g e sch e d u le ,
s ta rtin g at a g e 35. T yp ical s c h e d u le : 3 5 - 3 9 , o n e b a s e lin e ; 4 0 - 4 9
e very 2 ye ars; 50 a nd o ld e r annually. S everal p lans n oted co vera g e
under norm al coinsurance o r 100 percent c overage after copaym ent.

R o u tin e p a p s m e a r s .......................

80

5

15

A ls o v e ry c o m m o n . L im ite d to o n c e e v e ry 1 to 3 y e a rs . S o m e p la n s
m e n tio n e d a d o lla r a m o u n t lim it.

S m o k in g c e s s a tio n p r o g r a m ........

8

32

60

O fte n m e n tio n e d in e x c lu s io n s . S o m e p la n s d is tin g u is h b e tw e e n
p ro g ra m s a n d d ru g s fo r sm o k in g c e s s a tio n . O n e p la n re fe rre d to
n ic o tin e a d d ic tio n a n d a n o th e r to “ g o a l o r ie n te d b e h a v io r
m o d ific a tio n .” O n e p la n c o v e re d th is p ro v is io n u n d e r “w e lln e s s

W e ll- c h ild c a r e ..................................

71

3

26

V ery c o m m o n ly m e n tio n e d . C o in s u ra n c e o r 1 0 0 p e rc e n t c o v e ra g e
a fte r c o p a y m e n t is o fte n n o te d . S o m e tim e s c o v e ra g e is u n d e r
p e d ia tric c a re . A g e lim its m a y b e 6 , 7 , 1 2 , 1 8 , o r 19. A fe w p la n s
n o te d “w e lln e s s ” o r “ p re v e n tiv e c a re ” c o v e ra g e . O n e p la n n o te d
c o v e ra g e o f v is its a t s p e c ific a g e s (in m o n th s ).

S o m e p la n s n oted c o v e ra g e up to a d o lla r a m o u n t lim it.

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Preventive Care, Other Benefits

•

Smoking cessation programs also were frequently
specifically excluded from the plan booklets. Smok­
ing cessation is sometimes covered under an em­
ployee assistance program, instead of the medical
plan.10

p r o v isio n s su ch as h o sp ita liz a tio n and p h y sic ia n care, that

Another provision of current interest to health us­
ers is formulary drugs, which is not commonly de­
scribed in the booklet. Formulary drugs are a group
of medications approved by a third-party organiza­
tion, such as a managed care company. These
drugs are covered by the health plan on a costeffective basis. Formularies are also established
for clinical reasons. When formulary drugs were
mentioned, they were often at a lower cost to the
plan participant than were nonformulary drugs. In
some cases, nonformulary drugs were not covered
in the plan.

Requirements. Before addressing why the plan documents
do not specifically mention certain preventive care provisions,
it is important to understand the purpose of the documents.
Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
of 1974, employers are required to provide their employees
with SPDs of their pension and welfare benefit plans. The
descriptions must be written in a fashion that the plan partici­
pants are able to clearly understand and must be detailed enough
to reflect accurately the benefits provided to the employees.
In November 2000, the Department o f Labor issued new
regulations on what must be described in SPDs for pen­
sion and welfare benefit plans.11 The main focus of the
new rules revolves around what information must be in­
cluded in the SPDs for group health plans. The SPDs must
include the following:

With few exceptions, it was not common for the plan docu­
ments to mention the provisions from the BLS study—only
four provisions were described in at least 50 percent of the
plan booklets. As stated earlier, this does not mean that
these provisions are not covered by the plan— it merely
means that the provisions are not specifically described in
the plan booklets.
Comparing the results of the BLS study with the second
study of the Healthcare Research revealed that 6 percent of
the plans in the Healthcare Research test specifically de­
scribed acupuncture as a covered benefit, while 16 percent
did so in the BLS study. Chiropractor care was mentioned for
35 percent of the plans in the Healthcare Research test and 63
percent in the BLS study. Another provision for which the
results differed between Healthcare Research and BLS was
office visits for prenatal care. Under this provision, the doc­
tor monitors a pregnancy. Prenatal care may also include
counseling for nutrition and substance abuse problems. In
the Healthcare Research study, 67 percent of the plans spe­
cifically mentioned office visits for prenatal care, compared
with 49 percent for the BLS study. For the remainder of the
provisions, the percentages generally were similar between
Healthcare Research and the BLS. Because both studies had
small and different samples and were not weighted, some dif­
ferences in results were expected.
Why do plan documents commonly not mention most of
the provisions by name? Are these provisions not covered
by the plan, or is there another explanation? For example,
provisions for cancer screening tests such as sigmoidoscopy
and colonoscopy are rarely described in the plan booklets,
but commonly are covered by the plan. Are SPDs the best
source of obtaining information on medical provisions? While
plan documents always describe the most important medical

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d o e s n o t app ear to b e th e c a se for certain o f th e p r e v e n tiv e
care p r o v isio n s that w e re part o f the BLS study.

Summary plan descriptions

•

Any cost sharing provisions, including premi­
ums, deductibles, coinsurance, and copayment
amounts;

•

Any annual or lifetime maximums or other limits
on benefits under the plan;

•

The extent to which preventive services are cov­
ered by the plan;

•

Whether and under what circumstance, existing
and new drugs are covered by the plan;

•

Whether, and under what circumstance, cov­
erage is provided for medical tests, devices or
procedures;

•

Any provisions requiring preauthorization or uti­
lization review as a condition to obtaining a ben­
efit or service under the plan.

The regulations were effective in January 2001. The SPDs,
however, are not required to specifically mention these provi­
sions until January 2003. The new regulations are intended to
provide a clearer and more accurate reflection in the SPDs of
the benefits provided to the employees.
Employers must provide an SPD to their employees, but are
no longer required to file the plan with the U.S. Department of
Labor. Under amendments to the Taxpayers ReliefAct of 1997
( t r a 97), plan administrators are no longer required under

Definitions of Provisions
Acupuncture: A technique of inserting hair-like, fine needles into acupoints on the body’s surface in order to affect the
physiological functioning of the body. Acupuncture is usually used as an anesthesia for surgical procedures.
Bone mass measurements: (also referred to as Bone Densiometry) A non-invasive test to detect weakness of the
bones due to osteoporosis.

Cholesterol blood test: A test that can detect an elevated blood cholesterol level - one of the major modifiable risk
factors for coronary heart disease.
Chiropractic care: Manual manipulation of the bones and associated muscles and joints (particularly of the spine and
extremities) in order to relieve acute pain.
Colorectal cancer—screening or testing: Includes the four major types of screening or testing for colorectal cancer.
1)

Fecal occult blood test—A stool sample is taken to test for the presence of fecal occult blood.

2)

Sigmoidoscopy—A tube is inserted into the rectum and the lower two feet of the colon. Doctors inspect the lining of
the colon for bowel disease, cancer, or polyps that may increase the risk of colon cancer.

3)

Colonoscopy— Similar to sigmoidoscopy, but the flexible viewing tube is long enough to reach the entire colon.
During the colonoscopy, doctors can also treat or remove polyps.

4)

Barium enema—An x-ray study in which a tube is inserted into the rectum and the large intestine is filled with barium,
allowing the radiologist to diagnose many conditions including colorectal cancer.

Formulary drugs: Drugs approved by the health provider. Drugs not approved by the health provider are non­
formulary—enrollees receive limited or no reimbursement.
Laser eye surgery: Performed for correcting common eye disorders—near sightedness, far sightedness, and distorted
vision—not for specific eye diseases. There are two types of laser surgery: PRK and LASIK. In PRK, the surgery
reshapes the cornea with an ultraviolet beam of light. LASIK is used for all types of nearsightedness. The surgeon cuts
a flap of corneal tissue, removes the targeted tissue beneath it with the laser, and then replaces the flap.
Office visit for prenatal care: Detects and manages the complications of pregnancy, rather than the prevention of low
birth weight. Doctor checks the mother for infectious diseases, gestational diabetes, and vital signs, and assesses the
baby’s condition. Prenatal care may also include counseling for nutrition and substance abuse problems. Follow-up
visits are provided to minimize pregnancy risks.
Prostate cancer screening (digital rectal exam and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) test): The two primary tests for
prostate cancer. In the digital exam, the doctor palpates the prostate gland, examining it for irregularities. The prostatespecific antigen blood test measures the level of PSA in men. A high reading signals the possibility of prostate cancer.
Routine mammograms: An x-ray image of the breast to detect for the existence of breast cancer.
Routine pap smears: A precancer or cancer screening test of the cervix.
Smoking cessation program: An organized effort to break the habit of smoking. The program includes classes,
counseling, poster campaigns, employee incentive programs, anti-smoking literature, and products such as nicotine
patches. Programs were excluded if the plan only provided literature or a video, but was not part of an organized program.
Smoking cessation programs may be in-house or from outside organizations.
Well-child care: A program to provide preventive care for children. This should not be confused with well-baby
care— usually provided up to age 2. Services for well-child care include routine physical exams, laboratory tests, immuni­
zations, vision and hearing tests, and related office visits.


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Preventive Care, Other Benefits

ERISA to file SPDs and summaries of material modifications
with the Department.12 Prior to the amendments to TRA 97,
plan administrators were required under ERISA to file SPDs
with the Department every 10 years, or after 5 years if there
were any changes. They were also required to file information
about plan modifications at the end of each year during which
there was a change.

Expert views. To better understand why many of the preven­
tive care measures that were part of the BLS study were not
commonly mentioned by name in the SPDs, BLS contacted
health benefits experts from the following: Government, re­
search organizations, consulting firms, trade associations from
the insurance industry, and insurance companies.13
Different reasons were given among the experts as to why
SPDs often do not specifically mention such provisions as
cancer screening and certain other preventive care tests, but
a common thread was generally seen among the responses.
Most respondents agreed that preventive care provisions,
such as cancer screening tests, were usually covered under
the plan. There was a general consensus that, when specifi­
cally not mentioned, most of these preventive care features
often would fall under some “umbrella” provision. Such gen­
eral “umbrella” provisions include physical exams, health ap­
praisals, health assessments, health screening tests, diagnos­
tic procedures, and X-ray and laboratory services.
Most respondents agreed that the plan documents cannot
list every procedure, as there are too many procedures that
can be classified under preventive care. Preventive care ben­
efits can vary based on age, sex, and personal history of the
individual. By using an overall category (for example, health
screening tests), the insurers can be flexible as to what they
can provide in the plan. While specifically mentioning a pro­
cedure and giving specific guidelines in the plan document
will tell the enrollee exactly what is covered, it also has the
opposite effect of saying what is not covered. For example, if
the plan document specifically says colonoscopies are cov­
ered for ages 50 and older, it does not allow for clinical judge­
ment based on the personal history of the individual to cover
that cancer screening test at a younger age.
Regulations issued by the Department of Labor governing
the content of SPDs are consistent with the views of benefits
experts contacted. It was not the intent of the Department of
Labor to have the SPDs specifically describe every single ben­
efit provision under the health plan.14 According to Depart­
ment regulations, if the health plan covered an extensive
schedule of benefits, the SPDs only had to describe them in
general terms, as long as, upon request, the participant in the
plan was informed about all benefits.
The continuing introduction of new covered medical care
measures is another reason it is not feasible to specifically list
all procedures. It is more practical to cover these procedures

18

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O ctober 2002

under some general category. The other reason given for
certain procedures that are not specifically stated in the plan
documents is that they are so well known that it is not neces­
sary to describe them. In this case, a procedure such as cho­
lesterol blood testing would fall under some overall category
of preventive care—physical exams, for instance.
As stated, the general consensus of the respondents was
that if not specifically mentioned, many of the preventive care
procedures from the BLS study were covered under the plan.
Specifically, the procedures that fall into this category included
all of the cancer screening tests, cholesterol blood testing,
and bone mass measurements. (There was, however, one dis­
senting view: one of the individuals contacted believed that if
the plan did not specifically mention a procedure, it was un­
likely that the insurer covers that benefit.)
Are there other sources that will give an individual more
information about whether specific procedures are covered?
An SPD is designed to provide a “summary” rather than a
detailed description of the benefits the employers provide to
their employees. More detailed information may be found
from such sources as the complete company plan documents,
insurance contracts, evidence of coverage, and third-party
administrator contracts. There was general consensus among
the respondents that a written document existed within the
company that described all of the covered benefits in detail.

What’s next?
As in past surveys, one of the goals of future benefits sur­
veys is to capture data on the most current trends in health
insurance. In recent years, cancer screening tests— espe­
cially colonoscopy—have gotten much publicity. This is one
of the reasons these various screenings were included in the
BLS test. The problem with attempting to capture data for the
various cancer screening procedures—along with certain
other preventive care provisions—as was demonstrated from
the results of the study, is that those procedures are not men­
tioned very often in the SPDs. They are, instead, quite often
included under a more global medical category. Assuming
that the SPDs continue to be the main source used in the
benefits survey, it does not seem that this source will provide
an accurate measure on how often various cancer screening
provisions are covered. Thus, it does not seem wise in the
future to try to capture data on cancer screening tests.
As far as other provisions in the BLS study, the benefits
survey has begun to capture data on formulary drugs, due in
large part to the widespread publicity of the high cost of pre­
scription drugs. Capturing data on other provisions studied
in the BLS study is currently under discussion.
Summary plan descriptions often do not mention cancer
screening tests and certain other preventive care provisions

as covered benefits. Therefore, SPDs are not the best source
for describing these provisions. These summary documents
are most likely to specifically mention major health benefits
such as hospitalization, surgery, and physician visits, rather
than most preventive care provisions. Research conducted
for this article showed that generally preventive care provi­
sions were covered by the plan. Discussions with experts in
the medical care industry and those involved with SPDs re­
vealed that when cancer screening tests and certain other

preventive care provisions are not described in the plan docu­
ments, they almost universally fall under a more general cat­
egory, such as physical exams and diagnostic procedures.
By including cancer screening tests and other preventive
care provisions under some all-inclusive provision, it allows
the insurer more flexibility in providing the benefits. With the
constant growth of new preventive care provisions, it makes
sense for the plans to include these benefits under some
“umbrella” category.
□

Notes
1 Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Private Establishments,
1997, Bulletin 2517, (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1999), table 7, p. 11.
1 See the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force on the Internet at http:/

/www.ahrq.gov/clinic/prevenix.htm.
3 Since its formation, the Committee has undertaken many projects to
achieve its goals. One example was the development of a standard set
o f health insurance definitions that will be used by many Government
agencies for survey collection and dissemination of data. Additionally,
these definitions will be distributed to the broader health community.
The health definitions are currently available from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/home.htm (vis­
ited October 15, 2002), and from the Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality on the Internet at http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsdata/
ic/icdefinitions.htm (visited October 10, 2002). For more informa­
tion on the work o f the Committee, see Holly Harvey, Katharine R.
Levit, and William J. Wiatrowski, “Employment-Related Health In­
surance: Federal Agencies’ Roles in Meeting Data Needs,” Health Care
Financing Review, Spring 2002, Volume 23, Number 3, pp. 115-130.
4 The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) is conducted by the
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in conjunction with the
National Center for Health Statistics. The MEPS is a nationally repre­
sentative survey that collects detailed information on health status,
access to care, healthcare use and expenses, and health insurance cov­
erage o f the civilian noninstitutionalized population o f the United
States.
5 The 2000 BLS private survey contains data from all sizes of establish­
ments for both full-time and part-time workers. Prior to 1999, surveys
o f different size classes were conducted in alternating years; medium
and large private establishments— those establishments of 100 workers
or more— were studied during odd years and small private establish­
ments—those establishments with less than 100 workers— during even
years. The BLS private benefits survey provides data on the incidence
and detailed characteristics o f medical, dental, and vision care, private
retirement plans, and other benefits.

6A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a healthcare system that
assumes both the financial risks associated with providing comprehen­
sive medical services (insurance and service risk) and the responsibility


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for healthcare delivery in a particular geographic area to HMO mem­
bers, usually in return for a fixed prepaid fee. Financial risk may be
shared with the providers participating in the HMO.
7 A conventional indemnity plan is a type o f medical plan that allows
the participant the choice of any provider without effect on reimburse­
ment. These plans reimburse the patient and/or provider as expenses
are incurred. A preferred provider organization is an indemnity plan
where coverage is provided to participants through a network o f se­
lected healthcare providers (such as hospitals and physicians). The
enrollee may go outside the network, but would incur larger costs.
8 The appendix to this article lists each medical provision in the BLS
test and a corresponding description o f that provision. The main
source used for the definition of the medical provisions in the test was
Guide To Clinical Preventive Services: A Report o f The U. S. Preventive
Task Force, U. S. Department o f Health and Human Services, Office o f
Public Health and Science, and Office o f Disease, Prevention, and
Health Promotion, 2nd edition, 1996. In addition, a variety o f other
sources were used in defining the medical provisions, including the
summary plan descriptions used in the test.
9 Radial Keratotomy is rarely, if ever, performed in this country any­
more.
The m ost com m on laser procedures perform ed are
photorefractive keratotomy (PRK), keratoplasty, and lasik.
10 An employee assistance program (EAP) is an employment-based plan
that assists individuals and their dependents for both personal and workrelated problems. EAPs provide assistance for such issues as substance
abuse, family/marital problems, and legal and family concerns. In 1999,
the last time data on EAPs were published by BLS, 33 percent o f private
industry employees had access to such plans.

11 65 Fed Reg 70226 (November 21, 2000).
12 The Taxpayers Relief Act was signed into law on August 5, 1997.
13 Individuals contacted for this article are from organizations that
included the following: U.S. Department of Labor’s Pension and Wel­
fare Benefits Administration, Employee Benefit Research Institute,
Health Insurance Association o f America, R.H. Wohl and Associates
Inc, and insurance companies.
14 65 Fed Reg 70228.

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19

ECl and Medicare

Using the Employment Cost Index
to adjust Medicare payments
Increases in the Employment Cost Index
resulted in increased Medicare payments
o f more than $2 billion per year to hospitals;
payments to other medical providers
were also influenced by this index
Albert E. Schwenk
and
William J. Wiatrowski

Albert E. Schwenk
and
William J. Wiatrowski
are economists in the
Office of Compensa­
tion Levels and Trends,
Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
Email:
Schwenk_A@bls.gov
Wiatrowski_W@bls.gov

20

t first glance, a Federal Government sta­
tistic designed to measure the rate at
which employers’ wage and benefit pay­
ments are rising may appear to have very little to
do with Medicare, the $200 billion-per-year pro­
gram of health insurance benefits that covers 40
million mostly older Americans. But such rela­
tionships often occur in the world of Federal sta­
tistics and Federal benefit programs. For in­
stance, the U.S. Congress has established that
Bureau of Labor Statistics data on consumer
prices be used to determine annual increases in
Social Security payments. Similarly, Bureau data
on employee wages are used to determine salary
increases for a variety of government employ­
ees— including judges and members of Con­
gress—and, since the mid-1980s, the Bureau’s
Employment Cost Index ( E C l) , a quarterly mea­
sure of the rate of change in employer costs for
wages and benefits, has been used as an input
to annual adjustments in Medicare payments to
service providers.
E C l data are used as part of a process to deter­
mine allowable increases in payments to hospi­
tals, skilled nursing facilities, home healthcare or­
ganizations, physicians, and other healthcare
providers under Medicare’s Prospective Payment
Systems (PPS). The PPS designates the level of
payment for Medicare-covered services, based
on the diagnosis and geographic location of care.
Such payments are adjusted annually based on a
number of factors, including changes in compen­

A

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O ctober 2002

sation for medical and related personnel. E C l data
are used for many o f these com pensation
changes. For example,1
•

data account for about 71 percent
of the input price index used to deter­
mine allowable increases in payments
for hospital charges. Thus, a 1-percent
increase in the E C l would result in a
0.71-percent increase in hospital pay­
ments. In 1999, Medicare inpatient hos­
pital payments totaled more than $85
billion. A 1-percent increase in the E C l
would result in an increase of about
$600 million in annual hospital pay­
ments; a 3.5-percent annual increase in
the E C l (typical of the late 1990s) would
result in an increase of about $2.1 bil­
lion in annual hospital paym ents.

•

ECl data account for about 69 percent
o f the input price index used to deter­
mine allowable increases in payments
for charges for skilled nursing facili­
ties. Medicare reimbursed more than
$12 billion in skilled nursing facility
charges in 1999.

•

E C l data account for about 78 percent of
the input price index used to determine
allowable increases in payments for
charges for home healthcare services.
Medicare reimbursed nearly $ 10 billion
in home healthcare charges in 1999.

ECl

•

ECI data account for about 27 percent of the Medical
Economic Index used to determine increases in Medi­
care payments for physician’s services. Medicare
reimbursed more than $33 billion in physician ser­
vice charges in 1999.

This article looks at two Federal programs—the Bureau of
Labor Statistics Employment Cost Index and the payment pro­
cess of the Department of Health and Human Services Medi­
care program— and explains how they work together. Each
program is looked at separately. What is the Employment
Cost Index and what is the Medicare payment process? How
was each developed? From the answers to these questions,
the discussion will consider how the two work together.
One purpose of this article is to provide a better under­
standing of the relationship between the ECI and Medicare.
For example, it is important that data providers, particularly
those in the health services industry, understand the relation­
ship between the data they provide on wages and benefits
and the payments they receive from Medicare. This article
first describes the Employment Cost Index and Medicare and
its payment system. Then it provides details on adjustments
to the Medicare payment system, including some examples of
payment calculations. Finally, it discusses future changes
that are being considered for both the ECI and the Medicare
payment process.

for the private nonfarm economy and for a selected number of
sub-indexes. In 1981, wage and compensation indexes for State
and local governments were added, as well as indexes for the
combined private nonfarm and State and local government work
force. Since then, a number of more detailed industries have
been added, such as health services and hospitals.2
Since its inception in 1975, the ECI for wages of private
industry workers has increased 247.3 percent, or 4.8 percent
per year. Benefit costs for private industry workers have
increased 222.6 percent since first surveyed in 1979, an aver­
age of 5.3 percent per year. Except for the mid-1980s, when
wage and benefit increases were very similar, benefit cost
increases exceeded wage increases throughout the 1980s and
early 1990s. That trend reversed in the mid-1990s, when wage
increases dominated, only to reverse again around the turn
of the century. Chart 1 compares wage and benefit costs
over the past two decades; chart 2 compares changes in
health insurance costs to those of all benefits. The rapid
increase in employer health insurance costs during the late
1980s and early 1990s, which mirrors large increases in Medi­
care costs during the same period, is discussed later.
One advantage of the ECI for analyzing compensation cost
change is that it permits comparisons across industries and
occupational categories. For example, the following tabula­
tion compares average annual percent changes in wages and
compensation costs for all civilian workers with those for
workers in health services over selected time periods.3

The Employment Cost Index
Wages an d salaries

The ECI was developed in the early 1970s to provide a mea­
sure of change in the cost of labor as a factor of production.
The ECI was designed:
•

•

•

to be a timely and comprehensive measure covering all ele­
ments of employee compensation (wages, salaries, and ben­
efit costs) and all employees in the U.S. civilian economy;
to be a fixed-weight index free from the influence of
employment shifts among occupations, industries,
and establishments with different wage and compen­
sation levels;
to include internally consistent sub-series (for example,
occupational and industry groups) that describe the forces
contributing to aggregate wage and compensation change.

The ECI is a quarterly series that relates to payroll periods in­
cluding the 12th day of March, June, September, and December.
ECI estimates, first published for the period September-December 1975, initially covered only wage and salary change for the
private nonfarm economy including changes for broad occupa­
tional and industrial groups, as well as changes by union status,
geographic region, and area size. In 1980, rates of compensation
change (wages plus employer-provided benefits) were added


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All
Workers in
civilian
health
workers
services

Com pensation costs

All
civilian
workers

Workers in
health
services

June 1986December 1990 4.0

5.6

4.5

5.9

December 1990December 1993

3.7

3.8

4.2

2.4

3.1

2.1

4.1

3.9

4.4

3.1

December 1993—
December 1998 3.3
December 1998June 2002
3.6

The different time periods show very different patterns.
For the June 1986-December 1990 period, both wages and
salaries and compensation rose nearly 2 percentage points
faster for health service workers than for all civilian work­
ers.4 The health service advantage over civilian workers
declined to less than 1 percentage point during the De­
cember 1990-93 period and was negative during the De­
cember 1993-98 period. Since the end of 1998, wage and
compensation costs in health services are once again ris­
ing faster than for all civilian workers.

Monthly Labor Review

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21

ECI and Medicare

22

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Uses of eci
In addition to Medicare payment escalation, the ECI is used
for a variety of purposes. It is used to forecast wage trends
and to facilitate wage and benefit cost planning and is a guide
in collective bargaining negotiations. Increasingly, it is used
as a labor cost escalator in long-term purchasing and service
contracts in both the private and public sectors in the United
States as well as in other countries.
The ECI is used in the Federal pay-setting process. The
Ethics Reform Act of 1989 specifies that the pay of Congress,
Federal judges, and top Government officials will be increased
each year by the percent change in wages and salaries for
private industry workers (an ECI measure), less 0.5 percent­
age points.5 The Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of
1990 specifies that the ECI will be used in the process to ad­
just pay for General Schedule employees.6
The ECI also is used to develop measures of national eco­
nomic performance and welfare. For example, the ECI is used
to update the income side of the National Income and Product
Accounts of the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Economic Analysis. Also, the Centers for Medicare & Medic­
aid Services (formerly HCFA—Health Care Financing Admin­
istration) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser­
vices uses the ECI to estimate aggregate expenditures for
healthcare.

Medicare and the
Prospective Payment System
Medicare, established in 1965, provides health insurance ben­
efits to Americans aged 65 and older, and those who suffer
permanent disabilities. In 1970, Medicare expenditures to­
taled $7.7 billion annually; such expenditures rose rapidly
during the late 1980s and early 1990s, and first exceeded $200
billion in 1997. (See table 1.) Medicare provides insurance for
hospital, surgical, and medical services in one of two ways:
(1) payment of charges after services are rendered or (2) pre­
payment of providers for future services. The latter method,
known as Medicare+Choice, allows Medicare beneficiaries to
choose to receive services from a private plan, typically a
health maintenance organization (HMO). Implemented in 1998,
Medicare+Choice may provide beneficiaries with additional
services not available under traditional Medicare coverage.
Plans may charge additional premiums for such additional
services. In 2000,14 percent of beneficiaries were enrolled in
Medicare+Choice; payments to these plans accounted for 16
percent of Medicare spending.7
Most employed persons in the United States contribute
to the Medicare program. The current Medicare contribution
rate is 1.45 percent of earnings, paid by both the employer


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T a b le 1.

M e d ica re expenditures, 1965-present
(expenditures in millions of dollars)
E x p e n d itu r e s
(m illio n s )

Year

1 9 6 5 ..................................
1 9 6 6 ..................................
1 9 6 7 ..................................
1 9 6 8 ..................................
1 9 6 9 ..................................
1 9 7 0 ..................................
1 9 7 1 ..................................
1 9 7 2 ..................................
1 9 7 3 ..................................
1 9 7 4 ..................................
1 9 7 5 ..................................
1 9 7 6 ..................................
1 9 7 7 ..................................
1 9 7 8 ..................................
1 9 7 9 ..................................
1 9 8 0 ..................................
1 9 8 1 ..................................
1 9 8 2 ..................................
1 9 8 3 ..................................
1 9 8 4 ..................................
1 9 8 5 ..................................
1 9 8 6 ..................................
1 9 8 7 ..................................
1 9 8 8 ..................................
1 9 8 9 ..................................
1 9 9 0 ..................................

$

P e rc e n t o f to ta l
U.S. h e a lt h
e x p e n d it u r e s

0
1,842
4 ,9 2 4
6 ,2 1 8

0 .0
4.1
9 .7
1 0 .8

7 ,0 4 5
7 ,6 7 3

1 0.9
1 0 .5

8 ,4 4 3
9 ,3 2 5

1 0 .4

1 0 ,7 3 0
1 3 ,4 2 8
1 6 ,3 3 6
1 9 ,6 9 4
2 2,8 91
2 6 ,6 6 8
3 0 ,9 2 2
3 7 ,3 8 7
4 4 ,7 7 0
52,3 51
5 9 ,5 5 9
6 6 ,2 0 7
7 1 ,8 2 9
7 6 ,8 2 9
8 3 ,0 8 1
8 8 ,9 6 5
1 0 1 ,1 3 7
1 1 0 ,1 8 2

1 0 .3
1 0 .7
1 1 .8
1 2 .6
1 3 .2
1 3 .5
14.1
1 4 .5
1 5.2
1 5 .7
1 6 .3
1 6 .8
1 7 .0
1 6 .8
1 6 .8
1 6 .7
1 5.9
1 6.2
1 5 .8

1 9 9 1 ..................................
1 9 9 2 ..................................
1 9 9 3 ..................................
1 9 9 4 ..................................
1 9 9 5 ..................................
1 9 9 6 ..................................
1 9 9 7 ..................................

1 4 8 ,3 3 6
1 6 5 ,8 4 0
1 8 2 ,6 7 4
1 9 7 ,4 5 6
2 0 8 ,1 5 1

1 5 .9
1 6 .5
1 6 .7
1 7 .7
1 8 .4
1 9 .0
19.1

1 9 9 8 ..................................
1 9 9 9 ..................................

2 0 9 ,4 5 9
2 1 2 ,5 6 7

1 8 .2
1 7 .5

2 0 0 0 ..................................

2 2 4 ,3 6 6

1 7 .3

1 2 0 ,9 1 3
1 3 6 ,2 9 8

SOURCE:
C e n te rs fo r M e d ic a re & M e d ic a id S e rv ic e s , U .S . D e p a rtm e n t
o f H e a lth a n d H u m a n S e rv ic e s , on th e In te rn e t a t w w w .h cfa .g o v/sta ts/n h e -

oact/tables/nheO O .csv.

and the employee. Medicare benefits begin at age 65; dis­
abled individuals begin receiving coverage 2 years after the
onset of their disability. Individuals not covered by Medi­
care may buy into the system by contributing toward the
cost of coverage at the time they become eligible for plan
benefits.
Medicare is administered by the Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services (CMS). The Medicare Payment Advisory
Commission (MedPAC) was established by Congress to re­
view Medicare payment policies and make recommendations
regarding payment policies.
When Medicare began, providers of medical services re­
ceived payments for services rendered on a “cost basis,” that
is, they were reimbursed for the “usual, customary, and rea­
sonable charges” for the services provided. According to the

Monthly Labor Review

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23

ECl and Medicare

MedPAC, this payment method “provided no incentive for
efficiency, and costs and payments rose as a result.”8
Changes to the system began in the early 1980s, when Con­
gress enacted the Prospective Payment Systems, which sets
payment rates based on the service and the location; the pay­
ments are typically less than what the healthcare provider
charged.
MedPAC describes the current payment system as follows:
Medicare’s 40 million beneficiaries use
thousands of different health care products
and services furnished by over 1 million
providers in hundreds of markets nation­
wide; Medicare pays for these services us­
ing 15 payment systems that are generally
organized by delivery setting. These pay­
ment systems share common goals and
most have similar design elements that are
tailored to accommodate the products
Medicare is buying in each setting, the
characteristics of the providers that pro­
duce them, the extent to which the same
product may be furnished in different set­
tings, and the market circumstances that
affect providers’ costs.9
Prospective payments are defined as predetermined rates
paid to providers, unaffected by the actual incurred cost or
posted charges.10 Table 2 lists the 15 payment systems cur­
rently used in the Medicare system, and the percent of Medi­
care spending in each category. Prospective payments for
1 0 2 ^ ^ 8

M e d ic a r e p a y m e n t s y s te m s a n d
o r s p e n a in g , z u u u

d is t r ib u t io n

P e rc e n t o f M e d ic a r e
s p e n d in g

P a y m e n t s y s te m
H o s p ita l in p a tie n t a n d a c u te c a r e .........
In p a tie n t p s y c h ia t r ic ....................................
P h y s ic ia n ........................................
H o s p ita l o u t p a t ie n t ......................................
A m b u la to r y s u rg ic a l c e n t e r ......................

34
1
20
7
0 .5

O u tp a tie n t la b o r a to r y ...................................
S k ille d n u rs in g f a c i li t y .............................
H o m e h e a lt h ...............................................
In p a tie n t r e h a b ilita tio n ............................
L o n g -te rm c a re h o s p i t a l .............................
O u tp a tie n t d i a l y s i s ......................................
H o s p ic e ..............................................
A m b u la n c e a n d s u p p lie s .............................
D u ra b le m e d ic a l e q u ip m e n t......................
M e d ic a r e + C h o ic e ........................................

2
1
3
2
16

C e n t e r s f o r M e d ic a r e .& M e d ic a id
D e p a rtm e n t o f H e a lth a n d H u m a n S e rv ic e s .

24

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M edicare adjustm ent calculations
The PPS Hospital Input Price Index is used to determine allow­
able increases in hospital charges and, along with other fac­
tors, feeds into the process of updating payment rates.15 The
index has the following ECl components:

2
5
4
2
1

S o u r c e :

hospital stays are determined by classifying each hospital
discharge into one of 492 diagnostic-related groups, deter­
mined by the principal diagnosis, additional diagnoses, pro­
cedures performed, and demographic characteristics such as
age of the patient." Under this system, Medicare payment
amounts were first based on 1981 hospital costs incurred by
Medicare, and have been adjusted annually based on an
update factor. The update factor is tied to the rate of increase
in provider labor costs and medical commodity costs. In
determining the allowable increase, the labor and commodity
cost changes are combined using a set of weights that reflect
the importance of the labor, including specific occupations,
and commodities for the given medical service. The Centers
for Medicare & Medicaid Services and MedPAC make rec­
ommendations on the update of the Prospective Payment
Systems (PPS) payment rates, based on these factors. Con­
gress considers these recommendations when legislating the
actual update amounts. According to MedPAC, “The Con­
gress has legislated the PPS update annually since fiscal year
1986 and has generally stated the update in relation to the
forecasted change in the market basket.”12
Payments under the Medicare+Choice program work
slightly differently. Medicare pays plans enrolled in this pro­
gram a monthly rate per beneficiary, without regard to the
services received. This is similar to the “capitation” payment
received by health maintenance organizations for non-Medicare beneficiaries.13 In turn, such plans provide beneficiaries
with all care. Payments to plans are based on a formula that
begins with a floor rate per covered individual per month, an
amount that varies by location. These floor rates can be ad­
justed upward based on historic medical spending patterns in
the locality. Floor rates are updated annually by the national
average growth in per-capita spending in the traditional Medi­
care program.14

S e r v ic e s , U .S .

O ctober 2002

P rice/w age variable

1996 weight (percent)

Total ECI-related...................................
Occupational wage index......................
Occupational benefits index..................
ECl wages and salaries for
professional specialty and
technical workers..............................
ECl compensation for
service workers....................................

70.798
50.244
11.146
2.127
7.277

The occupational wage and occupational benefits indexes are
in turn constructed from ECi wage indexes for major occupa­
tional groups, each with its weight dependent on the impor­
tance of the occupation in hospitals. The remaining 29.202
percent of the weight is accounted for mainly by various BLS
Producer Price Indexes for drugs and hospital supplies.16
Consider the following example of how a 1-percent annual
change in the ECI would affect Medicare payment rates for
hospital inpatient and acute care:
•

Medicare reimbursed approximately $85.1 billion for
hospital inpatient and acute care services.

•

Approximately 71 percent of the Medicare payment
update will be based on the ECI (see weights from
the preceding tabulation).

•

Applying this 71-percent weight to the 1-percent
change in the ECI results in a 0.71-percent increase
in hospital inpatient and acute care payments: 0.71
percent of $85.1 billion equals $600 million.

•

The result is a $600 million increase in Medicare pay­
ments for hospital inpatient and acute care.

While the various ECI components making up the weight for
hospital payments have differing rates of change, the overall
index rose about 3.5 percent in 1999. If a 1-percent increase in
the ECI results in a $600 million increase in payments, then the
3.5-percent increase in the ECI resulted in an increase of about
$2.1 billion in hospital payments in 1999.
The ECI is used in payment adjustment formulas such as
this for 6 of the 15 Medicare payment components: hospital
inpatient and acute care, skilled nursing facility, home
healthcare, hospital outpatient departments, hospice care, and
physicians payments. In total, these six components ac­
counted for about 71 percent of Medicare expenditures. Other
Medicare payment components use different methods of ad­
justing payment formulas, some of which may indirectly relate
to the ECI. The following tabulation indicates the approxi­
mate annual adjustment in Medicare payments in 1999—to­
taling more than $3.2 billion—that was due to increases in the
ECi:
Type o f paym ent

1999 increase in paym ent
resulting from the ECI

Hospital inpatient and acute c a r e .................$2.1 billion
Skilled nursing fa c ility ......................................$290 million
Home healthcare................................................ $273 million
H ospital outpatient departm ents.................$211 million
P h ysician s.............................................................$310 million
H o sp ic e ................................................................. $62 million


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Change on the horizon
Both the ECI and Medicare will undergo changes, or are
considering changes, that will affect the Medicare pay­
ment process.
In 2005, the ECI is scheduled to switch to new methods of
classifying industries and occupations. Industries will be clas­
sified according to the North American Industry Classifica­
tion System (NAICS), rather than the Standard Industrial Clas­
sification (SIC) System currently used. Occupations will be
classified according to the Standard Occupational Classifica­
tion system (SOC), rather than the 1990 Census of Population
classification system. These changes are being made to reflect
more accurately the structure of the American economy and
to provide consistency among the United States, Canada, and
Mexico in their industry and occupational classifications.17
NAICS has advantages over the SIC system for classifying
industries. It includes new and emerging industries that did
not exist when the SIC system was developed. Also, NAICS
groups together more homogeneous industries, because they
are categorized based on a single concept—their production
or supply function. That is, NAICS groups establishments
with similar raw material inputs, capital equipment, and labor.
The SOC will be used by all Federal statistical agencies
collecting occupational information. By providing consis­
tency in occupational definitions and structure, it will maxi­
mize the usefulness of the occupational information collected.
An important consequence of the switch to SOC is the titles
and occupational composition o f occupational categories
used in the Prospective Payment System will change. It is not
known at this time which, if any, ECI occupational categories
the Prospective Payment System will use after the ECI changes
to the SOC categories. Table 3 shows how the titles will change
as well as the extent of overlap (in terms of employment, ob­
tained from the Bureau’s National Compensation Survey) be­
tween the two classification systems.
The overlap between the two classification systems is
greatest for sales, clerical, and service occupations. In the
case of sales occupations, for example, 95.6 percent of all
workers considered sales workers in the current system will
be in Sales and Related category in the new system, while 98.2
percent of all workers considered Sales and Related in the
new system would be considered Sales in the existing system.
The biggest discrepancies between the new and old sys­
tems are for what are considered blue-collar occupations. For
example, even though there is a category “transportation and
material moving” in both the new and old systems, that cat­
egory will approximately double in size in the SOC system; this
is true even though nearly all the workers in that category in
the new system also were in it in the old system. (The expla­
nation for this apparent anomaly is that a number of occupa­
tions have been moved into the category.)

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

25

ECl and Medicare

T a b le 3. C hanges in o c c u p a tio n a l ca te g o rie s a n d p e rc e n t of e m p lo ym e n t, E m ploym ent Cost Index (ECl)
P ro p o s e d o c c u p a tio n a l

P e rc e n t o f

C u rre n t E C l o c c u p a tio n a l

c a te g o r ie s (b a s e d o n th e

c u rre n t c a te g o ry

p ro p o s e d

c a te g o r ie s

S ta n d a rd O c c u p a tio n a l

in p r o p o s e d

c a t e g o r y in

C la s s i f i c a t io n s y s t e m )

c a te g o ry

P ro fe s s io n a l s p e c ia lty
a n d te c h n ic a l
E x e c u tiv e , a d m in is tra tiv e ,
a n d m a n a g e ria l

P e rc e n t o f

c u rre n t c a te g o ry

P ro fe s s io n a l a n d re la te d

9 6 .4

91.1

M a n a g e m e n t, b u s in e s s ,

8 8 .6

8 4.9

a n d fin a n c ia l

S a le s

S a le s a n d re la te d

9 5 .6

9 8 .2

A d m in is tr a tiv e s u p p o rt,
in c lu d in g c le ric a l

O ffic e a n d a d m in is tra tiv e
s u p p o rt

8 1 .6

9 5 .0

P re c is io n p ro d u c tio n ,
c ra ft, a n d re p a ir

C o n s tru c tio n a n d e x tr a c tio n 1

6 7.0

6 8 .4

In s ta lla tio n , m a in te n a n c e ,
a n d re p a ir

9 3 .5

M a c h in e o p e ra to rs ,
a s s e m b le rs , a n d in s p e c to rs

P ro d u c tio n

9 9 .3

7 5 .8

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d
m a te ria l m o v in g

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d
m a te ria l m o v in g

9 6.9

5 0 .7

H a n d le rs , e q u ip m e n t
c le a n e rs , h e lp e rs ,
a n d la b o re rs

S e r v ic e

6 6.3

S e rv ic e

9 6 .3

9 7 .7

In c lu d e s fa rm a n d fo re s try .

T a b le 4. | A nnual p e rc e n t c h a n g e in the E m ploym ent Cost Index for w ages a n d salaries for s e le cte d series, 1990-2001

Year

1 990
1991
1992
1993
1 994

....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................

1995 ....................................................
1996 ....................................................
1 997 ....................................................
1998
1999
2000
2001

....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................

A ll c iv ilia n

C i v i l i a n p r o f e s s io n a l

C iv i l ia n h e a l t h

C iv ilia n h o s p ita l

w o rk e rs

s p e c ia lty a n d t e c h n ic a l

s e r v ic e s i n d u s t r ie s

in d u s try

5 .3
3 .9
3 .3
2 .8
2 .9
2 .8
3 .0
3 .3

6 .0
4 .4
3 .6
3 .0
2 .6
2 .4
2 .3
3 .0

6.1
4.1
3 .2
3.1
2 .6
2 .3
2.1
2 .4

3 .3
3 .3
3 .9
3 .7

1.6
3 .6
4.1

2 .6
3 .3
4 .0

4 .9

5 .6

4 .3
3 .6
2 .7
3.1
2 .8
2 .9
3 .3
3 .8
3 .7
3 .5
3 .8
3 .7

W h ic h SO C-based o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r ie s to p u b lish in

. .. w a g e a n d b e n e f i t p r o x ie s th a t m o s t

th e ECl h a v e n o t y e t b e e n d eterm in ed . It is lik ely, h o w ev e r,

c lo s e ly m atch th e train in g a nd sk ill req u ire­

that the w h ite -c o lla r and se r v ic e o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r ie s—

m en ts o f h ea lth care o c c u p a tio n s in a ll in ­

th o s e g iv e n the h e a v ie s t w e ig h t in th e PPS form u la— w ill be

put p rice in d e x e s u se d for u p d a tin g p a y ­

c o n sid e r e d c o n tin u o u s.

m en ts. In d eterm in in g in d ex w e ig h ts, m e a ­

MedPAC makes regular recommendations for changes to
the Medicare payment procedure. In early 2002, the group
recommended the use of:

o c c u p a tio n c a te g o r ie s in w h ic h h ea lth care

26

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O ctober 2002

su res s p e c ific to th e h ealth se c to r and to
p la y s a m ajor r o le sh o u ld b e e m p h a s iz e d .18

The discussion accompanying the recommendation compares
increases in the ECI for the categories currently used in the
update process to more specific health-related categories for
which ECI data are also available. For example, MedPAC con­
siders using the ECI series for health services workers and for
hospital workers, rather than the series for all workers or for all
professional and technical workers. Table 4 on page 9 com­
pares ECI data for various series, including those currently
used in the Medicare payment process and those specifically
covering healthcare workers.
Recent legislation requires the Centers for Medicare & Med­
icaid Services to develop new prospective payment systems for
various categories of healthcare goods and services, including
Medicare+Choice.19 In addition, MedPAC has recommended

that the rate of increase in hospital payments vary for hospitals
in large urban areas versus those in other areas. MedPAC would
also change the payment process for physician services to look
more like that used for hospitals, with payments based on pro­
jected changes in input prices, with a productivity adjustment.20
As healthcare costs continue to escalate, it is likely that efforts
to change Medicare payment methods will continue.
The aging of the large baby-boom generation, the con­
stant new advances in healthcare technology, and the rising
cost of healthcare goods and services all combine to keep
healthcare cost issues in the news. Changes to both the
Employment Cost Index and the Medicare payment system
will no doubt be closely watched by those interested in
healthcare issues.
□

Notes
1 These statistics on Medicare payments are for fiscal 1999. For more
information, see 2001 HCFA Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services.
2 Employment Cost Index data may be found on the Internet at

http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/hom e.htm .
3 Recommendations have been made to use more health-specific data
for future updates o f Medicare payment amounts.
4 No data for health services workers are available prior to June 1986.
5 See Public Law 101-154—November 30, 1989.
6 See Public Law 101-509—November 5, 1990.
7 Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy, (Medicare Pay­
ment Advisory Commission, March 2002), p. 31.
8 Report to the Congress: Blood Safety in Hospitals and Medicare
Inpatient Payment (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, Decem­
ber 2001), p. 9.
9 Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Pay­
ment Advisory Commission, March 2002), p. 3.
10 Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Pay­
ment Advisory Commission, March 1999), p. 4.
11 Federal Register, August 29, 1997, pp. 45966-71.
12 A good description o f the Medicare payment update process may be
found in Report to Congress - Blood Safety in Hospitals and Medicare
Inpatient Payment (Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, Decem­
ber 2001), p. 9.


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13 For a discussion of how Health Maintenance Organizations operate,
see Dennis F. Mahoney, “Health Plan Designs and Strategies,” in Jerry
S. Rosenbloom, ed., The Handbook o f Employee Benefits, 4lh edition,
(New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996), pp. 110-120.
14 For information on issues surrounding Medicare+Choice, see Report
to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Payment Advi­
sory Commission, March 2002), pp. 31-32, 124.
15 The input price index (so called market basket) is one factor among
several that is used by CMS, MedPAC, and Congress to recommend or
make updates to payment rates. Other factors include productivity
increases, cost-increasing health-enhancing technology changes,
changes in site o f service, and forecast error corrections.
16 More information on the BLS Producer Price Index is found on the
Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ppi/home.htm. For specific details
on the Producer Price Index in the hospital industry, see Brian Catron
and Bonnie Murphy, “Hospital price inflation: what does the new PPI
tell us?,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1996, pp. 24-31.
17 A more detailed discussion of these new classification systems for
industries and occupations is found on the Internet at http://
www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm and http://www.bls.gov/soc/home.htm,
18 Report to Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, March 2002), p. 52.
19 Report to Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, March 2002), p. 4.
20 Report to Congress: Medicare Payment Policy (Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, March 2002), pp. 63, 74.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

27

Productivity issue

were significant at the 10-percent level,
but the effects were not large.

The impact of technological change on
the econom y continues to attract
research attention. A recent issue of the
Federal R eserve Bank o f A tlanta
Economic Review was largely dedicated
to a short summary of and the text of
four papers from a Bank-sponsored
conference on “Technology, Growth,
and the L abor M ark et.” D ale W.
Jorgenson, Mun S. Ho, and Kevin Stiroh
and Stephen D. Oliner and Daniel E.
Sichel refine and extend the growth
accounting framework to project growth
in labor productivity. Both papers
suggest that labor productivity will
sustain a growth rate of 2 percent or a
bit more depending on the rate o f
progress in the semiconductor industry
and, according to conference discussant
John Fernald, the extent to which the
costs of adjustment to new technologies
have been paid.
David Card and John E. DiNardo
examine the evidence on the skill-biased
technological change explanation for
the rise in wage inequality over the past
two decades. They find that the bulk of
the rise in overall wage inequality had
occurred by the mid-1980s, the time
personal computers first became widely
distributed. Also, they show that the
most rapid rise in the premium to a
college education occurred in the 1980s.
They conclude that, while skill-biased
change has some im pact on wage
inequality, other explanations have to be
considered.
Edward N. W olff’s article, “Pro­
ductivity, Computerization, and Skill
C h an g e,” reaches some thoughtprovoking conclusions. He finds that
in explaining rising rates o f labor
productivity by regression analysis,
“the coefficient o f the growth of the
mean education of the workforce, while
positive, is not statistically significant.”
On the other hand, coefficients on
measures of the substantive complexity
of and composite skills required by the
industry-occupation distribution of jobs
28 Monthly Labor Review

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Productivity
conference
In October 2002, the U.S. Department of
Labor hosted the Productivity in the 21st
Century Conference at the American
Enterprise Institute. Secretary of Labor
Elaine L. Chao’s opening remarks outlined
several issues that the conference would
address:
the factors that drive
productivity, the relationship between
productivity growth and jobs, and the
prospects for future productivity growth.
Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Chairman Alan Greenspan’s keynote
address touched mainly on the first and
third themes. In his analysis, producers
have had little ability to maintain profit
margins by increasing price, so have been
concentrating on cost reduction as the
means of achieving increased profitability.
To reduce costs, firms have reorganized
work processes and reallocated resources
more productively. In that context, it may
be difficult to disentangle how much of
the growth in labor productivity output
per hour was a transitory result of cutting
o f fat—reorganizing operations, and
exploiting technologies already embedded
in the existing capital stock—and how
much was a real increase in multifactor
productivity.
With respect to the prospects for
productivity growth, Chairman Green­
span noted that in previous episodes of
technological innovation, business
practices only slowly adapted to the
new technologies. As a result, increases
in productivity were spread over a
couple of decades. He also warned,
however, that while a substantial part of
the recent increases in productivity
growth rates may be sustainable, “ ...
history does raise some warning flags
concerning the length o f time that
productivity growth continues elevated.
Gains in productivity remained quite
rapid for years after the innovations that
followed the surge o f inventions a

October 2002

century ago. But in other episodes, the
period o f elevated growth o f p ro ­
ductivity was shorter. Regrettably,
examples are too few to generalize.
Hence, policymakers have no substitute
for continued close surveillance of the
evolution o f this current period o f
significant innovation.”

Productivity essay
The Conference Board’s 2002 Annual
Essay, written by Dale W. Jorgenson and
published as part o f the business
research group’s annual report, also
addressed productivity growth and is a
good general starting point for persons
developing an interest in the issue.
Jorgenson first outlines the rapid
evolution o f sem iconductor-based
technologies. B ecause logic chips
actually tracked M oore’s “law ” o f
exponential growth in capacity over the
29 years ended with the introduction of
the Pentium 4 in November 2000, com­
puting and communications capacity
have become faster, better, and far
cheaper over time.
The implications of this have been
evident as declining prices for tech­
nology have led to the accumulation of
computers, software, and communi­
cations equipment at faster rates than
other forms o f capital. As a result,
according to Jorgenson, both the quantity
and quality of capital available to workers
have increased and average labor
productivity growth has accelerated.
Jorgenson expects that the growth in
capital quality will continue at its recent
high rate for as long as the sem i­
conductor product cycle continues at a
2-year interval. Industry sources expect
this to be the case at least through 2005,
but expect a return to somewhat longer
product cycles after that. S till,
Jorgenson concludes that while the 4plus percent growth rates of the late
1990s would be difficult to sustain as
product cycles stretch, rates in a range
with a central tendency of 3.4 percent
are likely over the intermediate term. □

Book Reviews

With a song in his heart
Labor’s Troubadour. By Joe Glazer.
Urbana and Chicago, University of
Illinois Press, 2001,299 pp. $27.95/
hardcover.
The notion of music as a force for social
change is an old one, dating back to an­
tiquity. Songs can evoke emotions, and
those emotions, in turn, can push people
to make a change in their lives, includ­
ing their worklives. It takes a strong
voice to evoke those emotions, and the
labor singer Joe Glazer is possessed of
just such a voice. He has spent his life
devoting himself to the causes of work­
ing people, composing and singing
songs on their behalf. How might a
singer improve a worker’s lot? He tells
his tale simply and directly in Labor’s
Troubadour, published in 2001, by the
University of Illinois Press, as part of
its series “Music in American Life.” The
book is both a memoir and a chronicle
of Glazer’s life’s work in the American
Labor Movement from the 1940s up to
the present day, and it also presents,
quite keenly, the struggles of the labor
force in the United States and abroad
during the last half of the 20th century.
A bit of history will provide some
background. Labor union power in the
United States has waned, as U.S. com­
panies have shifted their manufactur­
ing to foreign shores. The most recent
Bureau of Labor Statistics data show
that in 2001, the share of wage and sal­
ary workers who were union members
was, on average, more than 13 percent.
In contrast, at its peak, that figure was
approximately 27 percent, in 1953. (Data
for 1953 are from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics Directory o f National Unions
and E m ployee A sso cia tio n s.) As
unions won more concessions from
employers and the working lot improved
for the U.S. labor force, thus did entire
generations grow to adulthood, never
hearing about the battles of the U.S.
working class (for example, how many
workers toiled 10 hours a day in squalid


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conditions for bosses who cared nearly
nothing for their employees’ health and
well-being). Or of the notion of an em­
ployee being compelled to shop at the
“company store,” which could and did
charge exorbitant rates for necessary
and sundry items. Those concessions
were not always won easily, however,
and many people advocated long and
loudly for improved working conditions
across a host of industries. This list of
advocates included singers and musi­
cians, such as Joe Glazer. This is his
story.
Glazer began his work as labor’s trou­
badour (an apt moniker, at that) in 1944,
assuming the position of assistant edu­
cation director for the CIO Textile Work­
ers Union of America in New York City.
In 1950, he went to work for the United
Rubber Workers (URW), headquartered
in Akron, Ohio. While working for the
URW, he also sang for and met the work­
ers of an allied group, the United Auto
Workers (UAW). Around that time, he
also formed an important association
with miners. It was through that asso­
ciation that Glazer met Merle Travis, a
popular singer-songwriter of the day
and composer o f the song, “Sixteen
Tons,” which was a big hit in the 1950s,
as recorded by Tennessee Ernie Ford.
Travis was bom into a family of coal
miners— thus, his work is made personal
by that association—and he was gifted
w ith the ability to convey that
hardscrabble world to the listening pub­
lic. Glazer stresses that it was Travis’s
down-home lyric that really resonated
in the hearts of the labor force at large:
“You load sixteen tons and what do you
get? / Another day older and deeper in
debt. / Saint Peter, don’t you call me
‘cause I can’t go. / 1 owe my soul to the
company store.” The song was trans­
lated into numerous languages, and
Glazer received repeated requests to
sing it for labor unions both at home,
and later, abroad. He sang it willingly,
and frequently was able to cleverly
adapt the lyric to suit the appropriate
trade or labor union membership. With

so many requests over the years, it be­
came clear that there were many work­
ers throughout the world’s labor force
who must have identified with “selling
their souls to the company store.”
When he attended a labor meeting
convened to generate support for a
union campaign or a strike for better con­
ditions, Glazer enjoined the workers to
sing along with him. Teaching songs on
the spot to people could have been dif­
ficult, but many of the tunes that were
used for labor music would have been
familiar to most U.S. workers. For ex­
ample, the well-known labor song, “Soli­
darity Forever” is sung to the same tune
as “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.”
(And in fact, “The Battle Hymn of the
Republic” is actually sung to the tune
o f “John B row n's Body (lies a
moulderin' in the grave),” a Civil War
era tune, that many of that period would
have known; thus, there exists a long
tradition of this type of tuneful borrow­
ing in music.) Other tunes employed
were simple enough that a reasonably
musical person could pick up the cho­
rus after it was repeated once or twice,
and then be able to sing along. Glazer
understood this, which was part of the
reason he was so successful. His music
unified the workers in both spirit and
goal. Moreover, he composed much of
his own material; one example is his
lovely labor ballad, “The Mill was Made
of Marble.” Written in waltz tempo, it is
performed in a gentle, yet upbeat style,
with a good hook in its chorus, and a
well-crafted melodic line. As is common
in folk music, both the verse and the
chorus are substantially the same
melody, so that the repetition is strongly
reinforced. The words to the chorus are
written: “The mill was made of marble /
The machines were made out of gold. /
And nobody ever got tired / And no­
body ever grew old.” Glazer writes that
the song had a universal appeal, and “it
became an immediate favorite with
autoworkers, steelworkers, rubber work­
ers, school teachers, and others as soon
as they heard it.” No doubt, too, because

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

29

Book Reviews

it so well expressed the sentiments which
workers often feel about their tasks, es­
pecially hungry, frightened, striking
workers.
It was a most interesting period in
American history, and exciting events
were being played out across the world’s
stage. One of them was the presidential
election won by the young John F.
Kennedy. Even today, many people of a
certain age remember the cultural legacy
left by the young president; they remem­
ber how his speeches bestirred them to
join the ranks of public service. Glazer,
too, heard the call, and in 1961, he left
the union labor movement and joined
the foreign service staff of the United
States Information Agency (USIA), an
ambassadorial arm of the State Depart­
ment. After a stint of government train­
ing, he was assigned to work as a labor
information officer in Mexico, where he
promoted the Alliance for Progress, a
program to aid Latin American countries,
using a variety of economic and social
means. He worked in Mexico in this ca­
pacity for more than 3 years, telling
“America’s story to the world,” in the
words of the agency’s mission state­
ment. Glazer enjoyed his work in Mexico,
where he was able to provide its citi­
zens with a more balanced view of union­
ization, but also, he learned the ways in
which unions operated in other parts of
the world—an international knowledge
that would serve him well in the years
to come.
His musical work continued through­
out the rest of the 1960s and on through
the 1970s. After leaving Mexico in 1965,
he was tran sferred to the State
Department’s headquarters in Washing­
ton, DC, where he assumed the post of
labor advisor. In addition to his work in
the States, some countries in which he
sang include France, England, Israel,
Scandinavia, and India. As he noted,
through the medium of music, his chief
goals were to help union members by
bringing them “information, ideas, and
techniques to build a more effective or­
ganization and to help create a more re­

30

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

alistic understanding” of the foreign
unions, compared with the American la­
bor movement, and also bring them a
more comprehensive view of America it­
self. He notes that he traveled and sang
in dozens of countries and on every
continent except Australia. Often he
would translate or otherwise adapt
songs that had special meaning for
Americans into the language of the
country he was touring—for example,
adapting the geographic boundaries of
“This Land is Your Land” to those of
the host country. (The late Woody
Guthrie composed the song during the
Great Depression of the 1930s, when
sometimes it seemed as if the whole
world had lost its job. It expressed, at
its core, a love for labor and laborers.)
In this way, the labor-based music of
the United States has traveled around
the world, playing a part in similar move­
ments in many countries.
Other singers continue to carry the
torch, and Glazer is generous with his
praise, naming the composers and mu­
sicians who are following in his foot­
steps of singing for labor. He includes
the lyrics o f several o f these “new
voices” who are writing about issues
with which today’s workers are grap­
pling. Many men and women still work
in assembly line production- or manu­
facturing-type jobs, but things have
changed somewhat. Now, instead of
standing on a line and assembling nuts
and bolts to car frames, a worker sits
and types programming code at a com­
puter terminal. Yet, some of yesterday’s
issues still exist in today’s workplace,
for even a task as seemingly innocuous
as programming computer code can be
tedious and physically harmful, and as
people perform repetitive tasks day in
and day out, a toll is taken. Some of the
new songs address these types of con­
cerns, and Glazer accurately points out
that there is still work to be done on
behalf of laborers. Singers must con­
tinue to raise their voices in support of
the world’s labor force, must speak out
about what is happening to workers, and

O ctober 2002

help them to organize, so that working
conditions can be further improved. La­
bor continues to need a voice, and
Glazer continues to inspire new voices
to support labor’s cause.
I won’t reveal his age here, but suf­
fice it to say, Joe Glazer has been sing­
ing on behalf of workers for a good long
time, and has witnessed many move­
ments, of both the labor and political
variety. He continues to perform regu­
larly throughout the Washington, DC
metropolitan area, and I, personally,
have been fortunate enough to hear him
sing and lecture twice in recent months.
Joe G lazer’s name should be listed
among those in the top echelons of folk
music, singers such as Pete Seeger,
Woody Guthrie, Joan Baez, and others,
far too numerous to list here. For the
folksinger, as many have said, is a voice
of the people, one who sings about that
which is most dear to their hearts. The
music of labor’s troubadour, Joe Glazer,
qualifies him more than amply, for with
his work, he has touched the multitudes.
—Bonita Louise Boles
formerly of the
Office of Publications,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

U.S. e c o n o m ic m o b ility
Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility
in the New American Labor Market.
By Annette Bernhardt, Martina Mor­
ris, Mark S. Handcock, and Marc A.
Scott. Russell Sage Foundation, New
York, 2001,244 pp.
Labor economists and public policy
analysts have noticed a disturbing trend
over the past 2 decades—the decline in
real earnings of certain demographic
groups. Specifically, cross-sectional
data from the Current Population Sur­
vey show that the inflation-adjusted
earnings of males have declined since
the early 1970s, while the earnings of
women have risen. The authors of Di-

vergent Paths seek to explain the para­
dox of declining real earnings coincid­
ing with a nearly three-decades-long
economic expansion by using data from
the BLS National Longitudinal Surveys
(NLS). They compare two cohorts from
the NLS. The first cohort entered the
labor market in the mid-1960s on the tail
end of the economic expansion, and the
second entered the labor market during
the late 1970s and early 1980s. By
choosing these two cohorts, the authors
hoped to capture the effects of the “old”
employment landscape and the “new”
employment landscape upon the sub­
jects’ labor market activities and ultimate
earnings level. The more recent cohort
represents the first entrants into the re­
structured labor market of the early
1980s th at was ch aracterized by
downsizing, firm restructuring, and the
outsourcing of labor to contract com­
panies and temporary help agencies.
The authors do an exceptional job of
writing in lay terms and avoiding tech­
nical jargon when possible. They also
clearly present their hypotheses, data,
and conclusions to their findings in an
easy-to-understand and logical manner.
They clearly explain both the advan­
tages and limitations of using the NLS
data sets. Their analysis is limited to
white males during the first 15 years of
their labor market activity. The authors
state that the majority of a worker’s wage
growth is realized in his first 10 years of
working, and that this initial period sets
the worker on a “wage trajectory” that
is relatively unalterable after this point.
The focus of their analysis is to see how
or if the wage trajectories of the most
recent cohort differ from those of the
initial cohort and what is causing these
changes if they exist.
The analysis in Divergent Paths is
based on multivariate regression analy­
ses of the NLS data sets. Overall, the
authors find that these young men, re­
gardless of education level or occupa­
tion, experienced declines in their real
earnings by 21 percent on average. The
declines were most severe for workers


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with lower levels of education—particu­
larly for those with a high school di­
ploma but no college, and those with
some college but no 4-year degree. Even
the workers with college degrees barely
managed to just about “break even” in
terms of their earnings. The authors
draw attention to the fact that most work­
ers fall into the lower education group
so that returns to higher educational at­
tainment are due not to gains at the top,
but to losses at the bottom.
The authors give a number of rea­
sons for the trend in falling wages, but
the biggest factors appear to be in­
creased job instability between the first
and second cohort, declining returns to
experience and the increasing abun­
dance o f low-paying, service-sector
jobs where career mobility is virtually
nonexistent. Workers in the more re­
cent cohort changed jobs more often
and, instead of being financially re­
warded for “job shopping” in the early
years of their careers as were their coun­
terparts in the first cohort, they were
penalized. The book points out that
several factors, including internal labor
market and external labor market factors,
led to this increased instability. Declin­
ing marriage rates, lower unionization
rates, a migration of workers to the
Southern States that have lower rates
of unionization than other parts of the
country, and occupational and indus­
trial shifts all contributed to young men
in the recent cohort changing jobs more
frequently. Even among those workers
who did stay with one employer for 3
years or longer, the reward for staying
was apparently less than it was for the
men in the first cohort.
At the end of the book, the authors
propose possible solutions to the prob­
lem of declining wages and the policy
implications for these solutions. They
conclude that because most of the rea­
sons for declining wages are problems
with changes in the employment relation­
ship, the solutions to these problems
must be “demand-side solutions” rather
than solutions that focus on equipping

workers with the necessary training and
tools for the new jobs. Solutions that
ensure long-term wage growth and up­
ward mobility, the authors write, are re­
quired here. Some of the solutions pro­
posed include the enactment of living
wage laws and a minimum wage that is
indexed annually to inflation; laws that
require the portability of health insur­
ance and pension benefits across differ­
ent employers; and reform of the Unem­
ployment Insurance system whereby eli­
gibility for benefits is not linked to ten­
ure with a single employer. Among the
vaguer and harder-to-implement solu­
tions, the authors suggest corporatecommunity partnerships that would fos­
terjob training and career growth within
a particular industry or occupation, and
a wide-scale union membership strategy
to organize labor in the service sector
where workers suffer the most from the
restructured economy. The authors are
realistic about their policy prescriptions
and note that the latter two suggestions
are hard to implement.
The authors do a great job of pre­
senting their research in a way that in­
corporates alternative points of view and
addresses these other opinions, while
at the same time clearly presenting the
results of their analysis and its implica­
tions for policy and legislation. The
topic is one that is often debated and
researched by those interested in the
well-being of workers, and this is an in­
formative, thorough, and fresh perspec­
tive on the subject.
—Marisa DiNatale
Division of Labor Force Statistics,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

New c o p y rig h t e c o n o m y
Creativity, Incentive, and Reward: An
Economic Analysis o f Copyright and
Culture in the Information Age. By
RuthTowse. Cheltenham, UK, Edward
Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2001,192 pp.,
$80/hardcover.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

31

Book Reviews

As digital technology and the Internet
have changed the geography of the cul­
tural landscape, issues o f property
rights and remuneration to those who
supply the creative content have be­
come ever more important. The author,
who is joint editor of the Journal o f
Cultural Economics, brings together in
this book a collection of essays on copy­
right law; the unusual and seemingly
perverse economic aspects of supply
and demand for creative output and per­
formance; and how the former affects
the latter. Although she focuses her
empirical studies specifically on the
United Kingdom, most of the same gen­
eral issues and analytical questions ap­
ply to the U.S. environment. Indeed, as
the creative arts and entertainment in­
dustries have become global in scope,
copyright law and its effect on the cre­
ative industries have been dictated by
both national law and international
policy such as those of the World Trade
Organization (WTO) and the World In­
tellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
She presents her material in a nontech­
nical manner that is accessible to a wide
audience, with ample references to the
more technical literature for the inter­
ested economics researcher.
The first chapter provides a brief his­
tory of the relatively new field of cul­
tural economics, which she traces to a
book by William Baumol and William
Bowen on the performing arts in 1966.
The thesis of their work is a model of
why arts performances, such as sym­
phonies, are resistant to productivity im­
provements, and therefore require pub­
lic subsidy. The author points out that
artists’ earnings remain “one central
theme of cultural economics,” but that
the blending of “high” and popular cul­
ture has provided commercial sources
of remuneration to artists, singers, and
other suppliers of cultural output. Thus,
she stresses the importance of the copy­
right in providing both an income to art­
ists as well as an incentive for artists to
produce new creative work. New cre­
ative works are, she argues, the cultural

32

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

industry’s equivalent of technological
innovation in other kinds of industry.
The second part of the book com­
prises two essays on the labor supply
of visual artists and singers. These sum­
mary descriptions of the economics of
these particular labor markets provide
fascinating reading for those new to the
peculiarities of these areas of economic
endeavor. It may be no surprise that
most visual artists, despite having a
higher average education level than the
overall labor market (in the United King­
dom), consider themselves underem­
ployed and require other jobs to sup­
port themselves. The empirical studies
by the author and others show, that,
contrary to a priori expectations, an
increase in the wage from that other job
will cause the artist to shift more labor
out of that job and into their artistic work.
Also, for both visual artists and singers
there can be a seemingly perverse rela­
tionship between price and demand for
their output. Having established a repu­
tation and degree of success in their ar­
tistic genres, the artist or singer will find
that reducing their price will reduce the
demand for their product because price
signals quality in this market.
The third and fourth parts of the book
focus more specifically on the economic
implications of copyright law for the re­
wards to cultural labor supply and the
incentives to produce more creative out­
put, and whether the value of these
rights is economically efficient relative
to other means of compensating artists
and performers. Chapter 5 comprises an
essay (with Millie Taylor) that attempts
to empirically measure the value of such
property rights to performers, such as
musicians, under specific statutory
changes implemented in the United King­
dom. The authors in this essay incorpo­
rate the transactions costs of collecting
and distributing the payments to these
rights, and conclude that copyright law
may “correct for market failure when
property rights are not properly estab­
lished,” but may not have the desired
efficiency outcome as markets and dis-

O ctober 2002

tribution technology change. In the fol­
lowing two chapters, Towse questions
whether royalty payments or simple flat
payments to musicians, artists, and writ­
ers would provide the more economically
efficient means of increasing artists’
earnings and providing an incentive to
supply more new creative output and
innovation to society. She argues that
remuneration of any kind encourages
artists and other creative labor to devote
more effort toward their creative en­
deavor. Royalties provided by commer­
cial enterprise could lead to overproduc­
tion of the few commercially successful
kinds of a few kinds of cultural output
and underproduction of more risky new
creative output.
In the eighth chapter, Towse presents
the only economic analysis devoted spe­
cifically to copyright laws in the context
of the new digital technology. In the
absence of good empirical data, she of­
fers tantalizing suggestions for research
into the economic value of “fair use” and
“fair dealing” (exceptions and limitations
to copyright); the transactions costs of
collecting copyright paym ents for
Internet access and photocopying; and
the potential income loss to copyrightholders. Her empirical investigation fo­
cuses on photocopying, which will dis­
appoint readers expecting insight into
Internet audio, Internet video, digital
imaging, and other new media technolo­
gies. The latter are the cutting edge for
economic analysis of creativity and cul­
tural output, but, as appears through­
out the book, there is a dearth of good
empirical data to guide analysis and
policy. This is not because of a lack of
interest, but because of substantial mea­
surement problems in this fascinating
field of economic inquiry.
Overall, this is a most interesting trea­
tise on a very topical subject of economic
and legal policy. Despite the specific
focus on these issues in the context of
the United Kingdom and the somewhat
broad collection of topics it attempts to
cover in one small volume, this book of­
fers a wealth of intriguing research ideas

and some interesting, if not highly rigor­
ous, analyses of an important area of
public policy.
—Mary Kokoski
Office of Prices and Living Conditions,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

U n e m p lo ym e n t stress
Stress and Distress among the Unem­
ployed: Hard Times and Vulnerable
People. By Clifford L. Broman, V. Lee
Hamilton, and William S. Hoffman.
New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Publishers, 2001,226 pp., $49.95/hardcover.
“The workingman has but one thing to
sell, his labor. Once he loses control of
that, he loses everything.” This is a
quote from an automobile worker in
Studs TerkeTs book, Working. Loss of
work and how it impacts workers and
their families is also at the heart of the
book, Stress and Distress among the Un­
employed.
The authors studied automobile work­
ers employed by the General Motors
Corporation (GM) in Detroit and Flint,
Michigan, over a 3-year period (198789). Workers from 4 closing GM auto
plants were compared with workers in
12 GM plants that remained open. The
workers were primarily male, white, and
married. In terms of percentages, how­
ever, workers in the closing plants were
disproportionately female, nonwhite,
single, and younger than workers em­
ployed in the nonclosing plants.
The workers were asked questions
that assessed the financial and psycho­
logical impact of unemployment. The
GM jobs lost had provided a comfort­
able, well-compensated way of life for
generations of blue-collar families. Work­
ers in the closing plants were pessimis­
tic regarding their job opportunities af­


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ter being laid off, and their low expecta­
tions were realized in the tough Rust Belt
labor market of the industrial Midwest.
The financial hardship created by the
plant closings harmed family life for work­
ers in both the closing and nonclosing
plants. Interestingly, the distress suf­
fered by closing plant households did
not change significantly with unemploy­
ment and even dropped as time passed,
while distress increased for nonclosing
plant households over the course of the
study. The authors concluded that the
reality of unemployment in the closing
plants brought families closer together.
The authors studied mental health
effects for individual workers and found
that those who were female, unmarried,
young, less educated, and of lower in­
come experienced more depression in
general, regardless of whether they
worked in closing or nonclosing plants.
The group most significantly affected by
being laid off, however, was men, par­
ticularly married men, a finding attributed
to their role of family “provider” being
undercut by job loss.
While gender was a stress determi­
nant, race was not. The distress level in
African-Americans was more sensitive
to educational level than for white plant
workers. African-Americans with higher
education levels experienced signifi­
cantly less distress relative to those with
less education. African-Americans felt
more protected by educational achieve­
ment than whites.
Workers viewed unemployment as
another life challenge to be overcome.
No relationship was found to exist be­
tween previous stressful life events and
the workers’ vulnerability to stress cre­
ated by unemployment. An interesting
exception: the significant increase in
anxiety and hostility experienced by laid
off Vietnam combat veterans. Unfortu­
nately, the authors do not satisfactorily
explore the potential reasons for this
finding.

Workers did not blame themselves
for their predicament. They blamed
other factors, including GM manage­
ment, then-GM chairman Roger Smith,
and inexpensive imports. Although selfblaming tendencies are often associated
with depression, many of the workers
who blamed themselves actually suf­
fered less distress.
Surprisingly, the study found that
worker distress was not alleviated by
mental health services. In fact, depres­
sion and self-blaming actually increased.
The authors speculate that those who
sought mental health services were more
distressed in general. This does not ex­
plain, however, why distress increased
for workers who obtained mental health
services. The authors did not adequately
explore this paradoxical finding.
One organization that the authors
tout is the International Union, United
Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America, or the
u a w . While the union undoubtedly as­
sisted laid-off workers, it must be noted
that the study was funded partly by the
UAW; one of co-authors is a retired UAW
official; and the book is described in the
preface as “a tribute to the men and
women of the UAW.”
The book is well documented, with
many tables and footnotes. Its conclu­
sions rest on the results of the 1980s
study, although other related studies are
cited throughout. It is disappointing that
the book, published in 2001, provides
no update on where these workers have
gone or what their lives are like now. It
would also be interesting to compare the
blue-collar worker unemployment of the
1980s with the recent dot.com bust. But
perhaps that is the grist for another book.
—Robert Jordan
Office of Employment
and Unemployment Statistics,
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

33

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND CIRCULATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Title of Publication: Monthly Labor Review
Publication Number: 987-800
Date of Filing: October 1,2002
Frequency of Issue: Monthly
Number of Issues Published Annually: 12
Annual Subscription Price: $45
Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: U.S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20212 Attention:
Richard M. Devens (202) 691-7911
8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters of General Business Office of Publisher: U.S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20212
9. Names and Complete Addresses of Publishers, Editor, and Executive Editor: Publisher: U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Publications, 2 Massachusetts
Avenue, N.E., Washington, DC 20212; Editor: Deborah P. Klein, same address; Executive Editor:
Richard M. Devens, same address
10. Owner: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E.,
Washington, DC 20212
11. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More
of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None
12. Purpose, Function and Nonprofit Status: Not applicable
13. Publication Title: Monthly Labor Review
14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: July 2002
15. Extent and Nature of Circulation:
Average number
of copies of each
issue during
preceding 12 months
A. Total number of copies (net press run)...........................
B. Paid and/or requested circulation:
1. Paid/requested outside-county mail subscriptions
(includes advertiser’s proof and exchange copies)....
2. Paid-in-county subscriptions
(includes advertiser’s proof and exchange copies).....
3. Sales through dealers and carriers, street vendors,
counter sales, and other non-USPS paid distribution
4. Other classes mailed through the U SPS.......................
C. Total paid and/or requested circulation
(sum o fB )........................................................................
D. Free distribution by mail:
1. Outside-county...............................................................
2. In-county.........................................................................
3. Other classes mailed through the U SPS.......................
E. Free distribution outside the m ail.....................................
F. Total free distribution (sum of D and E ) ..........................
G. Total distribution (sum of C and F )...................................
H. Copies not distributed......................................................
I. Total (sum of G and H ) ......................................................
J. Percent paid and/or requested circulation......................

Number of copies
of single issue
published nearest
to filing date

8,529

8,482

5,649

5,589

—

2,104
—

—

2,164
—

7,753

7,753

627

600

—
—

100
727
8,480
49
8,529
91.4

—
—

100
700
8,453
29
8,482
91.7

I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

[signed] Richard M. Devens, Executive Editor

Current Labor Statistics

Notes on labor statistics

36

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data—continued

Comparative indicators
1. Labor market in d icators.................................
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity
3. Alternative measures o f w ages and
compensation ch an ges................................

48
49
49

Labor force data

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

75
76
77
78

Price data

4. Employment status o f the population,
seasonally a d ju sted ................................................................. 50
5. Selected em ployment indicators,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 51
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 52
7. Duration o f unemployment,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 52
8. Unem ployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 53
9. Unem ploym ent rates by sex and age,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 53
10. Unem ploym ent rates by States,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 54
11. Employment o f workers by States,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 54
12. Employment o f workers by industry,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 55
13. Average w eekly hours by industry,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 57
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
.. seasonally a d ju sted ................................................................. 58
15. Average hourly earnings by industry..................................... 59
16. Average w eekly earnings by ind ustry.................................... 60
17. D iffusion indexes o f employment change,
seasonally ad ju sted ................................................................. 61
18. Establishment size and employment covered under ui,
private ownership, by major industry.............................. 62
19. Annual data establishment, employment, and wages,
covered unless ui and ucfe , by ow n ersh ip ...................... 63
20. Annual data: Establishments, employment,
and w ages covered under ui and UCFE, by S ta te ............ 64
21. Annual data: Employment and average annual pay o f
ui- and ucFE-covered workers, by largest c o u n tie s....... 65
22. Annual data: Employment status o f the p o p u la tio n ......... 69
23. Annual data: Employment levels by ind ustry..................... 70
24. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by in d u stry ............................................................................... 70

25. Employment Cost Index, compensation,
by occupation and industry group......................................
26. Employment Cost Index, w ages and salaries,
by occupation and industry group .....................................
27. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry
workers, by occupation and industry grou p ...................

28. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area s i z e .......................
29. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large fir m s......
30. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and governm ent..............................................................................
31. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or m o r e ............

32. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and com modity and service g r o u p s..................
33. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all ite m s...................................................................
34. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and maj or g roups......................................................................
35. Producer Price Indexes by stage o f p r o c essin g ....................
36. Producer Price Indexes for the net output o f major
industry grou p s.........................................................................
37. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage o f processing.............................................................
38. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade C lassification ................................................................
39. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade C lassification ................................................................
40. U .S. export price indexes by end-use category....................
41. U.S. import price indexes by end-use c a teg o r y ..................
42. U.S.international price indexes for selected
categories o f services...............................................................

79
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
89
89

Productivity data
43. Indexes o f productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally ad ju sted ...........................
44. Annual indexes o f multifactor productivity..........................
45. Annual indexes o f productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and p r ic e s ..............................................................
46. Annual indexes o f output per hour for selected
industries.....................................................................................

90
91
92
93

International comparisons data
47. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
data seasonally adjusted.........................................................
48. Annual data: Employment status o f the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries................................
49. Annual indexes o f productivity and related measures,
12 cou n tries................................................................................

96
97
98

Injury and illness data
71
73

50. Annual data: Occupational injuiy and illness
incidence ra tes...........................................................................

99

51. Fatal occupational injuries by event
74

or exposure......................................................................................101

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

35

Notes on Current Labor Statistics

This section o f the R eview presents the prin­
cipal statistical series collected and calcu­
lated by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unem­
ploym ent; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; produc­
tivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow,
the data in each group o f tables are briefly
described; key definitions are given; notes
on the data are set forth; and sources o f addi­
tional information are cited.

General notes
The follow ing notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data o f such factors as cli­
matic conditions, industry production sched­
ules, opening and closing o f schools, holi­
day buying periods, and vacation practices,
which might prevent short-term evaluation
o f the statistical series. Tables containing
data that have been adjusted are identified as
“seasonally adjusted.” (All other data are not
seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are es­
tim ated on the basis o f past experience.
When new seasonal factors are computed
each year, revisions may affect seasonally
adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1 - 1 4 ,1 6 -1 7 ,4 3 , and 47. Seasonally adjusted
labor force data in tables 1 and 4 - 9 were re­
vised in the February 2002 issue o f the Re­
view. Seasonally adjusted establishment sur­
vey data shown in tables 1 ,1 2 -1 4 and 16-17
were revised in the July 2002 R eview and
reflect the experience through March 2002. A
brief explanation o f the seasonal adjustment
m ethodology appears in “N otes on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in table
49 are usually introduced in the September
issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and per­
cent ch an ges from m onth -to-m onth and
quarter-to-quarter are published for numer­
ous Consumer and Producer Price Index se­
ries. However, seasonally adjusted indexes
are not published for the U.S. average A llItems CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent
changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data— such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14— are adjusted to eliminate the ef­
fect o f changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appro­
priate component o f the index, then multi­
plying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate o f $3 and a current price
index number o f 150, where 1982 = 100, the

36

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hourly rate expressed
($3/150 x 100 = $2).
resulting values) are
“constant,” or “ 1982”

in 1982 dollars is $2
The $2 (or any other
described as “real,”
dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this sec­
tion are published by the Bureau in a variety
o f sources. D efinitions o f each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sec­
tions o f these N otes describing each set o f
data. For detailed descriptions o f each data
series, see BLS H andbook o f M ethods, Bul­
letin 2490. Users also may wish to consult
M ajor P rogram s o f the Bureau ofL a b o r Sta­
tistics, Report 919. N ew s releases provide
the latest statistical information published by
the Bureau; the major recurring releases are
published according to the schedule appear­
ing on the back cover o f this issue.
More information about labor force, em­
ployment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys under­
lying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Em ploym ent an d Earn­
ings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally
adjusted data from the household survey are
available on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and sea­
sonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are pro­
vided in the BLS annual report, G eographic
P rofde o f Em ploym ent an d Unemployment.
For a com prehensive discussion o f the
Employment Cost Index, see Em ploym ent
C ost Indexes a n d Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bul­
letin 2466. The m ost recent data from the
Em ployee Benefits Survey appear in the fol­
low ing Bureau o f Labor Statistics bulletins:
E m ployee B enefits in M edium a n d Large
Firms; Em ployee Benefits in Sm all P rivate
E stablishm ents; and Em ployee Benefits in
State a n d Local Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and pro­
ducer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI D e ta ile d R eport and
P roducer P rice Indexes. For an overview o f
the 1998 revision o f the CPI, see the D ecem ­
ber 1996 issue o f the M onthly L abor Review.
Additional data on international prices ap­
pear in monthly news releases.
Listings o f industries for which produc­
tivity indexes are available may be found on
the Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on interna­
tional comparisons data, see International

O ctober 2002

C om parisons o f Unemployment, BLS B ulle­
tin 1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in O ccupa­
tion al Injuries an d Illnesses in the United
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the M onthly L abor R eview car­
ries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developm ents in labor force, em ploy­
ment, and unemployment; em ployee com ­
pensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons; and
injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. =
n.e.s. =
p =

not elsew here classified,
not elsewhere specified.
preliminary. To increase the tim e­
liness o f som e series, preliminary
figures are issued based on repre­
sentative but incom plete returns,
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availab ility o f later
data, but also may reflect other ad­
justments.

C o m p a ra tiv e Ind icato rs
(Tables 1 -3 )
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison o f major bls sta­
tistical series. Consequently, although many
o f the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include em ­
ployment measures from tw o major surveys
and information on rates o f change in com ­
pensation provided by the Employment Cost
Index (ECI) program. The labor force partici­
pation rate, the em ploym ent-to-population
ratio, and unemployment rates for major de­
m ographic groups based on the Current
Population (“household”) Survey are pre­
sented, w hile measures o f em ploym ent and
average w eekly hours by major industry sec­
tor are given using nonfarm payroll data. The
Employment Cost Index (compensation), by
major sector and by bargaining status, is cho­
sen from a variety o f bls compensation and
wage measures because it provides a com ­
prehensive measure o f em ployer costs for
hiring labor, not just outlays for w ages, and
it is not affected by employment shifts among
occupations and industries.
Data on changes in compensation, prices,
and productivity are presented in table 2.
M easures o f rates o f change o f com pensa-

tion and w ages from the E m ploym ent C ost
Index program are provided for all c iv i l ­
ian non farm w o rk ers (e x c lu d in g Federal
and h ou seh old w orkers) and for all private
nonfarm w orkers. M easures o f changes in
consum er prices for all urban consum ers;
producer p rices by stage o f p rocessin g;
overall p rices by stage o f processing; and
overall export and import price ind exes are
given. M easures o f productivity (output per
hour o f all persons) are provided for major
sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and com­
pensation rates o f change, which reflect the
overall trend in labor costs, are summarized
in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope,
related to the specific purposes o f the series,
contribute to the variation in changes among
the individual measures.

Notes on the data
Definitions o f each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections o f these
notes describing each set o f data.

E m plo ym en t a n d
U n e m p lo ym e n t D ata
(Tables 1; 4 -2 4 )

Household survey data
Description of the series
Employment data in this section are ob­
tained from the Current Population Survey,
a program o f personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau o f the Census for the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics. The sample con­
sists o f about 60,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years o f age
and older. H ouseholds are interviewed on a
rotating basis, so that three-fourths o f the
sam ple is the same for any 2 consecutive
months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those who
worked for pay any time during the week
which includes the 12th day o f the month or
who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in
a family-operated enterprise and (2) those
who were temporarily absent from their regu­
lar job s because o f illness, vacation, indus­
trial dispute, or similar reasons. A person
working at more than one job is counted only
in the job at which he or she worked the
greatest number o f hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did
not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary ill­
ness and had looked for jobs within the pre­
ceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look


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for work because they were on la y o ff are
also counted among the unemployed. The
unem ploym ent rate represents the num­
ber unem ployed as a percent o f the civilian
labor force.
The civilian labor force consists o f all
em ployed or unem ployed persons in the
civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified
as em ployed or unem ployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a job
and who have looked for work sometime in
the past 12 months (or since the end o f their
last job if they held one within the past 12
m onth s), but are not currently look in g,
b eca u se they b e lie v e there are no jo b s
available or there are none for which they
w ou ld qualify. The civilian non in stitu ­
tional population comprises all persons 16
years o f age and older who are not inmates
o f penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is the
proportion o f the civilian noninstitutional
population that is in the labor force. The
employment-population ratio is em ploy­
ment as a percent o f the civilian non in­
stitutional population.

Notes on the data
From time to time, and especially after a
decennial census, adjustments are made in
the Current Population Survey figures to
correct for estim atin g errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability o f historical data. A de­
scription o f these adjustments and their ef­
fect on the various data series appears in the
E xplan atory N o te s o f E m p lo y m en t a n d
Earnings.
Labor force data in tables 1 and 4 - 9 are
seasonally adjusted. Since January 1980,
national labor force data have been season­
ally adjusted with a procedure called X - 11
arima which w as developed at Statistics
Canada as an extension o f the standard X11 method previously used by bls. A de­
tailed description o f the procedure appears
in the X - 11 a r im a S e a so n a l A d ju stm en t
M ethod, by Estela B ee Dagum (Statistics
Canada, Catalogue N o. 12-564E, January
1983).
At the beginning o f each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjust­
ment factors are calculated for use during
the January-June period. The historical sea­
sonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the m ost recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorpo­
rate the experience through June, are pro­
duced for the July-D ecem ber period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.

For additional information on na­
tional household survey data, contact the
D ivision o f Labor Force Statistics: (202)
6 9 1 -6 3 7 8 .

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data
in this section are com piled from payroll
records reported m onthly on a voluntary ba­
sis to the Bureau o f Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about 300,000
establishm ents representing all industries
except agriculture. Industries are classified
in accordance with the 1987 S ta n d a rd In­
dustrial C lassification (SIC) Manual. In most
industries, the sam pling probabilities are
based on the size o f the establishment; most
large establishm ents are therefore in the
sample. (An establishm ent is not necessar­
ily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for e x ­
ample, or w arehouse.) Self-em p loyed per­
son s and others not on a regular civilian
payroll are outsid e the scop e o f the sur­
vey because they are exclud ed from estab­
lishm ent records. This largely accounts for
the d ifference in em ploym en t figures b e­
tw een the h o u seh o ld and estab lish m en t
su rveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an econom ic unit which
produces goods or services (such as a fac­
tory or store) at a single location and is en­
gaged in one type o f econom ic activity.
Employed persons are all persons w ho
received pay (in clu d in g h olid ay and sick
pay) for any part o f the payroll period in­
clu ding the 12th day o f the m onth. Per­
son s hold in g m ore than one jo b (about 5
percent o f all persons in the labor force)
are counted in each establishm ent w hich
reports them.
Production workers in manufacturing
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers closely associated with pro­
duction operations. T hose w orkers m en­
tioned in tables 1 1 -1 6 include production
workers in manufacturing and mining; con­
stru ction w ork ers in co n str u c tio n ; and
nonsupervisory workers in the follow in g in­
dustries: transportation and public utilities;
w holesale and retail trade; finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; and services. These
groups account for about four-fifths o f the
total em ploym ent on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but exclud-

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

37

Current Labor Statistics
ing irregular b on u ses and other sp ecial
p aym en ts. Real earn in gs are earn in gs
adjusted to reflect the effects o f changes in
consum er prices. The deflator for this series
is derived from the Consumer Price Index
for U rban W age Earners and C le rica l
Workers (CPI-W).
H ours represent the average w eek ly
hours o f production or nonsupervisory work­
ers for which pay was received, and are dif­
ferent from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtim e hours represent the portion o f av­
erage w eekly hours which was in excess o f
regular hours and for which overtime premi­
ums were paid.
T he D iffu sion Index rep resents the
percent o f industries in which em ployment
was rising over the indicated period, plus
on e-h alf o f the industries with unchanged
employment; 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing
and decreasing employment. In line with Bu­
reau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month
spans are seasonally adjusted, w hile those
for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Data
are centered within the span. Table 17 pro­
vides an index on private nonfarm em ploy­
ment based on 356 industries, and a manu­
facturing index based on 139 industries.
These indexes are useful for measuring the
dispersion o f econom ic gains or losses and
are also econom ic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishm ent survey data are annually ad­
justed to com prehensive counts o f em ploy­
ment (called “benchmarks”). The latest ad­
justment, which incorporated March 2001
benchmarks, was made with the release o f
M ay 2002 data, published in the July issue
o f the Review. C oincident with the bench­
mark adjustment, historical seasonally ad­
justed data were revised to reflect updated
seasonal factors. Unadjusted data from April
20 0 0 forward and seasonally adjusted data
from January 1997 forward were revised
with the release o f the May 2002 data.
In addition to the routine benchmark re­
vision s and updated seasonal factors intro­
duced with the release o f the May 2 002 data,
the first estimates for the transportation and
public utilities; retail trade; and finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries were pub­
lished from a new probability-based sample
design. These industries are the third group
to convert to a probability-based sample
under a 4-year phase-in plan o f a sample
redesign project. The com pletion o f the
phase-in for the redesign, in June 2003 for
the services industry, w ill coincide with the
conversion o f national establishment survey
series from industry coding based on the
1987 Standard Industrial Classification ( S I C )
system to the N orth A m erican Industry
Classification System (N A ics). For additional

38

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information, see the the June 2002 issue o f
Em ploym ent an d Earnings.
Revisions in State data (table 11 ) occurred
with the publication o f January 2002 data.
Beginning in June 1996, the bls uses the
X-12-arima m ethodology to seasonally ad­
just establishm ent survey data. This proce­
dure, developed by the Bureau o f the Cen­
sus, controls for the effect o f varying sur­
vey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-w eek effect), thereby providing improved
measurement o f over-the-month changes and
underlying econom ic trends. R evisions o f
data, usually for the m ost recent 5-year pe­
riod, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishm ent survey, estim ates
for the m ost recent 2 months are based on
incom plete returns and are published as pre­
liminary in the tables ( 1 2 -1 7 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the es­
timates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the
third month o f their appearance. Thus, D e­
cember data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establish­
ment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months o f publication and final in the
third month. Thus, fourth-quarter data are
published as prelim inary in January and
February and as final in March.
For additional information on estab­
lishment survey data, contact the D ivision
o f Current Em ploym ent Statistics: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -6 5 5 5 .

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Focal Area Unem ploym ent Statis­
tics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State em ploym ent secu­
rity agencies.
M onthly estim ates o f the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator o f lo­
cal econom ic conditions, and form the basis
for determining the eligibility o f an area for
benefits under Federal econom ic assistance
programs such as the Job Training Partner­
ship Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment
rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as
possible, the concepts and definitions under­
lying these data are those used in the national
estimates obtained from the CPS.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State o f residence. Monthly data
for all States and the District o f Columbia are
d erived u sin g stan d ard ized proced u res

O ctober 2002

established by bls. Once a year, estimates are
revised to new population controls, usually
with publication o f January estimates, and
benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
For additional information on data in
this series, call (202) 6 9 1 -6 3 9 2 (table 10) or
(202) 6 9 1 -6 5 5 9 (table 11).

C o ve red e m p lo y m e n t and
wage data (ES-202)
Description of the series
E m p l o y m e n t , w a g e , a n d e s t a b l is h m e n t d a t a

in this section are derived from the quar­
terly tax reports subm itted to State em ­
ploym ent security a gen cies by private and
State and local governm ent em ployers sub­
je c t to State unem ploym ent insurance (ui)
law s and from Federal, agen cies subject to
the U n e m p lo y m e n t C o m p e n sa tio n for
Federal E m p loyees ( u c f e ) program. Each
quarter, State agencies edit and process the
data and send the inform ation to the B u ­
reau o f Tabor Statistics.
The C overed E m ploym ent and W ages
data, a lso referred as E S -2 0 2 data, are
the m ost c o m p le te en u m eration o f e m ­
p lo y m e n t and w a g e in fo r m a tio n by in ­
du stry at the n a tio n a l, State, m e tr o p o li­
tan area, and c o u n ty le v e ls . T h ey have
broad e co n o m ic sig n ific a n c e in e v a lu a t­
in g labor m arket tren ds and m ajor in ­
du stry d e v e lo p m e n ts.

Definitions
In general, e s - 2 0 2 m onth ly em ploym en t
data rep resen t the num ber o f co vered
w orkers w ho worked during, or received
pay for, the pay period that inclu ded the
12th day o f the m onth. C overed private
industry em ploym ent in clu d es m ost cor­
porate o ffic ia ls, e x ec u tiv es, su pervisory
personnel, p rofessionals, clerical workers,
w age earners, p iece workers, and part-time
workers. It exclu d es proprietors, the un­
incorporated self-em p lo y ed , unpaid fam ­
ily m em bers, and certain farm and d o m es­
tic w orkers. Certain types o f non profit
em ployers, such as religious organizations,
are given a choice o f coverage or exclusion
in a number o f States. Workers in these
organizations are, therefore, reported to a
lim ited degree.
P erso n s on paid sick lea v e, paid h o li­
day, paid v a c a tio n , and the lik e, are in ­
clu d ed . P er so n s on the p a y ro ll o f m ore
than o n e firm d u r in g th e p e r io d are
c o u n te d by each u i-su b je c t e m p lo y e r i f
th e y m e et th e e m p lo y m e n t d e fin itio n

n oted earlier. The em p loym en t cou n t e x ­
c lu d e s w o rk ers w h o earn ed no w a g e s
d u rin g the en tire a p p lic a b le pay p eriod
b e c a u se o f w ork sto p p a g e s, tem porary
la y o ffs , illn e s s , or u n paid v a c a tio n s.
Federal em ploym ent data are based
on reports o f m on th ly em p loym en t and
quarterly w a g es subm itted each quarter to
State a gen cies for all Federal installations
w ith e m p lo y e e s co v er ed by the U n em ­
p lo y m e n t C o m p e n s a t io n fo r F e d e r a l
E m p lo y e e s ( ucfe) p r o g r a m , e x c e p t fo r
c e r t a in n a t i o n a l s e c u r it y a g e n c i e s ,
w h ic h are o m itte d fo r s e c u r ity reason s.
E m ploym ent for all Federal ag en cies for
any g iven m onth is based on the number
o f persons w h o worked during or received
pay for the pay period that inclu ded the
12th o f the m onth.
An establishm ent is an econ om ic unit,
such as a farm, m ine, factory, or store, that
produces g o o d s or provides services. It is
typ ically at a sin g le ph ysical location and
engaged in one, or predom inantly one, type
o f eco n o m ic activity for w hich a sin gle in­
dustrial classification may be applied. O c­
casion ally, a sin g le ph ysical location en ­
com p asses tw o or m ore distin ct and sig ­
nificant activities. Each activity should be
reported as a separate esta b lish m en t i f
separate records are kept and the various
activities are classified under different four­
digit sic codes.
M ost em ployers have only one estab­
lishm ent; thus, the estab lish m en t is the
predom inant reporting unit or statistical
entity for reporting em ploym ent and w ages
data. M ost em ployers, inclu ding State and
local govern m en ts w ho operate more than
one establishm ent in a State, file a M ul­
tiple W orksite Report each quarter, in ad­
d itio n to their quarterly ui report. The
M ultip le W orksite Report is used to c o l­
lect separate em ploym en t and w age data
for each o f the em p lo y er’s establishm ents,
w h ich are not detailed on the ui report.
Som e very sm all m u lti-estab lish m en t em ­
p loyers do not file a M u ltip le W orksite
Report. W hen the total em ploym ent in an
e m p lo y er ’s secondary establishm ents (all
establishm ents other than the largest) is
10 or few er, the em ployer generally w ill
file a co n solid ated report for all estab lish ­
m ents. A lso , som e em ployers either can­
not or w ill not report at the establishm ent
level and thus aggregate establishm ents into
one co n solid ated unit, or p o ssib ly several
units, though not at the establishm ent level.
For the Federal G overnm ent, the re­
porting unit is the installation: a sin gle
location at w hich a department, agency, or
other govern m en t body has civilian em ­


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p lo y ees. Federal ag en cies fo llo w sligh tly
different criteria than do private em p loy­
ers w hen breaking dow n their reports by
installation. They are permitted to combine as
a single statewide unit: 1) all installations with
10 or fewer workers, and 2) all installations
that have a combined total in the State o f fewer
than 50 workers. Also, when there are fewer
than 25 workers in all secondary installations
in a State, the secondary installations may be
combined and reported with the major instal­
lation. Last, if a Federal agency has fewer than
five em ployees in a State, the agency head­
quarters office (regional office, district of­
fice) serving each State may consolidate the
employment and wages data for that State
with the data reported to the State in which
the headquarters is located. A s a result o f
these reporting rules, the number o f report­
ing units is always larger than the number o f
em ployers (or governm ent agencies) but
smaller than the number o f actual establish­
ments (or installations).
Data reported for the first quarter are tabulated into size categ o ries ranging from
worksites o f very small size to those with
1,000 em ployees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
em ploym ent level. It is important to note
that each establishment o f a multi-establish­
ment firm is tabulated separately into the
appropriate size category. The total em ploy­
ment level o f the reporting multi-establish­
ment firm is not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter,
regardless o f when the services were per­
formed. A few State laws, however, specify
that w ages be reported for, or based on the
period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compen­
sation is paid. Under most State laws or regu­
lations, wages include bonuses, stock options,
the cash value o f meals and lodging, tips and
other gratuities, and, in some States, employer
contributions to certain deferred compensa­
tion plans such as 401(k) plans.
Covered employer contributions for oldage, survivors, and d isab ility insurance
( o a s d i ) , health insurance, unemployment in­
surance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported
as wages. Em ployee contributions for the
same purposes, however, as well as money
withheld for income taxes, union dues, and
so forth, are reported even though they are
deducted from the worker’s gross pay.
Wages o f covered Federal workers rep­
resent the gross amount o f all payrolls for all
pay periods ending within the quarter. This
includes cash allowances, the cash equiva­
lent o f any type o f remuneration, seveiance

pay, withholding taxes, and retirement de­
ductions. Federal em ployee remuneration
generally covers the same types o f services
as for workers in private industry.
Average annual wages per em ployee for
any given industry are computed by dividing
total annual wages by annual average employ­
ment. A further division by 52 yields average
weekly wages per employee. Annual pay data
only approximate annual earnings because an
individual may not be em ployed by the same
employer all year or may work for more than
one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual pay is af­
fected by the ratio o f full-tim e to part-time
workers as well as the number o f individuals
in high-paying and low-paying occupations.
When average pay levels between States and
industries are compared, these factors should
be taken into consideration. For example, in­
dustries characterized by high proportions
o f part-time workers will show average wage
levels appreciably less than the weekly pay
levels o f regular full-time em ployees in these
industries. The opposite effect characterizes
industries with low proportions o f part-time
workers, or industries that typically sched­
ule heavy weekend and overtime work. Aver­
age wage data also may be influenced by work
stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive
payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments,
and so on.

Notes on the data
To insure the highest possible quality o f data,
State em ploym ent security agencies verily
with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry, location, and ownership classifica­
tion o f all establishments on a 3-year cycle.
Changes in establishment classification codes
resulting from the verification process are in­
troduced with the data reported for the first
quarter o f the year. Changes resulting from
improved employer reporting also are intro­
duced in the first quarter. For these reasons,
some data, especially at more detailed geo­
graphic levels, may not be strictly com pa­
rable with earlier years.
The 1999 county data used to calculate
the 1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 changes were adjusted for
changes in industry and county classification
to make them comparable to data for 2000.
A s a result, the adjusted 1999 data differ to
som e extent from the data available on the
Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/cew/home.htm.
County definitions are assigned accord­
ing to Federal Information Processing Stan­
dards Publications as issued by the National
Institute o f Standards and Technology. Areas
shown as counties include those designated

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

39

Current Labor Statistics

as independent cities in some jurisdictions
and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the
Census Bureau where counties have not been
created. County data also are presented for
the N ew England States for comparative pur­
poses, even though townships are the more
common designation used in N ew England
(and N ew Jersey).
For additional information on the cov­
ered em ployment and wage data, contact the
D ivision o f Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202) 691 -6 5 6 7 ,__________

C o m p e n sa tio n a n d
W age D ata
(Tables 1-3; 2 5 -3 1 )

Compensation and wage data are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file with
the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a quar­
terly measure o f the rate o f change in com­
pensation per hour worked and inclu des
w ages, salaries, and em ployer costs o f em ­
p lo y e e b e n e fits. It u ses a fix ed market
basket o f labor— similar in concept to the Con­
sumer Price Index’s fixed market basket o f
goods and services— to measure change over
time in employer costs o f employing labor.
Statistical series on total compensation
costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit
costs are available for private nonfarm work­
ers excluding proprietors, the self-employed,
and household workers. The total compensa­
tion costs and wages and salaries series are
also available for State and local government
workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy,
which consists o f private industry and State
and local government workers combined. Fed­
eral workers are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists o f about 4,400 private non­
farm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State and
local government establishments providing
6,000 occupational observations selected to
represent total employment in each sector. On
average, each reporting unit provides wage and
compensation information on five w ell-speci­
fied occupations. Data are collected each quar­
ter for the pay period including the 12th day
o f March, June, September, and December.

40

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Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed em­
ploym ent w eights from the 1980 Census o f
P o p u la tio n are u sed ea ch qu arter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes and
the index for State and local governments.
(P rio r to June 1 9 8 6 , th e e m p lo y m e n t
w eights are from the 1970 Census o f Popu­
lation.) These fixed w eights, also used to
derive all o f the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in com pensa­
tion, not em ploym ent shifts among indus­
tries or occupations with different levels o f
w ages and compensation. For the bargaining
status, region, and metropolitan/non-metropolitan area series, how ever, em ploym ent
data by industry and occu pation are not
available from the census. Instead, the 1980
em ploym ent w eights are reallocated within
these series each quarter based on the cur­
rent sample. Therefore, these indexes are not
strictly comparable to those for the aggre­
gate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the em ployer’s costs for em ­
ployee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist o f earnings
before payroll deductions, including produc­
tion bonuses, incentive earnings, com m is­
sions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (includ­
ing nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retire­
ment and savings plans, and legally required
benefits (such as Social Security, workers’ com­
pensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and em­
ployee benefits are such items as payment-in­
kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
w ages and salaries in the private nonfarm
econom y was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost— wages
and salaries and benefits combined— were
published beginning in 1980. The series o f
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local govern­
m ent sector and in the c ivilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees) were
published beginning in 1981. Historical in­
dexes (June 1981=100) are available on the
Internet:

http://www.bls.gov/ect/

For additional information on the
Employment Cost Index, contact the O ffice
o f Compensation L evels and Trends: (202)

O ctober 2002

6 9 1 -6 1 9 9 .

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the E m ployee B enefits Survey, an annual
survey o f the incidence and provisions o f
selected benefits provided by em ployers.
The survey collects data from a sam ple o f
app roxim ately 9 ,0 0 0 private sector and
State and local governm ent establishm ents.
The data are presented as a percentage o f em­
ployees who participate in a certain benefit, or
as an average benefit provision (for example,
the average number o f paid holidays provided
to employees per year). Selected data from the
survey are presented in table 25 for medium
and large private establishments and in table
26 for small private establishments and State
and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term dis­
ability, and life insurance; m edical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
fam ily leave.
A lso , data are tabu lated on the in c i­
den ce o f several other b e n e fits, su ch as
severance pay, child-care assistance, w e ll­
n ess program s, and em p lo y ee assistan ce
programs.

Definitions
Em ployer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either w h olly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
som e employer financing. H owever, som e
benefits that are fully paid for by the em ­
ployee also are included. For example, long­
term care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the em ployee are
included because the guarantee o f insurabil­
ity and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered
by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit.
If the benefit plan is financed w h olly by
employers and requires employees to complete
a minimum length o f service for eligibility, the
workers are considered participants whether or
not they have met the requirement. If workers
are required to contribute towards the cost o f
a plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use pre-

determined formulas to calculate a retirement
benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to
provide those benefits. Benefits are generally
based on salary, years o f service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
sp ecify the level o f em ployer and em ployee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determ ining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for partici­
pants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type o f
defined contribution plan that allow par­
ticipants to contribute a portion o f their sal­
ary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer
income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose am ong several benefits, such as
life insurance, m edical care, and vacation
days, and am ong several levels o f coverage
within a given benefit.

Notes on the data
Surveys o f em ployees in medium and large
establishm ents conducted over the 1 9 7 9 -8 6
p e r io d in c lu d e d e s ta b lis h m e n ts that
em ployed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
d epend ing on the industry (m ost service
in d u str ie s w ere e x c lu d e d ). T he su rvey
conducted in 1987 covered only State and
lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts w ith 5 0 or m ore
em ployees. The surveys conducted in 1988
and 1 9 8 9 in c lu d e d m ed iu m and large
establishm ents with 100 workers or more in
private industries. A ll surveys conducted
o v e r th e 1 9 7 9 - 8 9 p e r io d e x c lu d e d
establishments in Alaska and Hawaii, as well
as part-time em ployees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys o f State and
lo c a l g o v e rn m en ts and sm all private
esta b lish m en ts w ere con d u cted in even numbered years, and surveys o f medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishm ent
su rvey in c lu d e s all p rivate nonfarm
establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey
includes all governments, regardless o f the
number o f workers. All three surveys include
full- and part-time workers, and workers in all
50 States and the District o f Columbia.
For additional information on the
Em ployee B enefits Survey, contact the Of­
fice o f Com pensation L evels and Trends on
the Internet: http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

Work stoppages
Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the num­
ber and duration o f major strikes or lockouts


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(involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring
during the month (or year), the number o f
workers involved, and the amount o f work
time lost because o f stoppage. These data are
presented in table 27.
Data are largely from a variety o f pub­
lished sources and cover only establishments
directly involved in a stoppage. They do
not measure the indirect or secondary effect
o f stoppages on other establishm ents w hose
em ployees are idle ow ing to material short­
ages or lack o f service.

Definitions
N um ber o f stoppages:

The num ber o f
strikes and lockouts in volvin g 1,000 work­
ers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
W orkers involved: The num ber o f
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number o f days idle: The aggregate
number o f workdays lost by workers in­
volved in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a
percent o f the aggregate number o f standard
workdays in the period m ultiplied by total
employment in the period.

Notes on the data
This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes in­
volving six workers or more.
For additional information on work
stoppages data, contact the O ffice o f Com ­
pensation and Working Conditions: (202)
6 9 1 -6 2 8 2 , or the Internet:

http:/www.bls.gov/cba/

Price D ata
(Tables 2; 32^12)

w hose primary source o f incom e is derived
from the em ploym ent o f w age earners and
clerical workers, and the other consisting o f
all urban households. The wage earner index
(CPi-W) is a continuation o f the historic in­
dex that was introduced w ell over a halfcentury ago for use in w age negotiations. A s
new uses were developed for the CPI in re­
cent years, the need for a broader and more
representative index becam e apparent. The
all-urban consumer index (CPI-U), introduced
in 1978, is representative o f the 1 9 9 3 -9 5
buying habits o f about 87 percent o f the
noninstitutional population o f the United
States at that time, compared with 32 per­
cent represented in the cpi-w. In addition to
w age earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U
covers professional, managerial, and techni­
cal workers, the self-em ployed, short-term
workers, the unem ployed, retirees, and oth­
ers not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices o f food, cloth­
ing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality o f these
items are kept essentially unchanged between
major revisions so that only price changes
will be measured. A ll taxes directly associ­
ated with the purchase and use o f items are
included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 re­
tail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are pre­
sented in table 33. The areas listed are as
indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period, and
do not indicate differences in the level o f
prices among cities.

Notes on the data

Price data are gathered by the Bureau
o f Labor S ta tistics from retail and pri­
mary markets in the United States. Price in­
dexes are given in relation to a base period—
1982 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes,
1982-84 = 100 for many Consumer Price In­
dexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990 =
100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes
Description of the series
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a mea­
sure o f the average change in the prices paid
by urban consum ers for a fixed market bas­
ket o f goods and services. The CPI is calcu­
lated monthly for two population groups,
one con sistin g only o f urban hou seholds

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
w ay in w h ich h om eow n ersh ip c o sts are
meaured for the CPi-u. A rental equivalence
m ethod replaced the asset-price approach
to hom eownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change w as made in
the cpi-w. The central purpose o f the change
was to separate shelter costs from the in­
vestment com ponent o f hom e-ownership so
that the index would reflect only the cost o f
shelter services provided by ow n er-occu­
pied homes. An updated CPi-U and cpi-w
were introduced with release o f the January
1987 and January 1998 data.
For additional information on co n ­
sumer p rices, contact the D iv isio n o f C on ­
sum er P rice s and P rice In d exes: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -7 0 0 0 .

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Current Labor Statistics

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPi) measure av­
erage changes in prices received by domestic
producers o f com m odities in all stages o f
processing. The sample used for calculating
these indexes currently contains about 3,200
com m odities and about 80,000 quotations
per month, selected to represent the m ove­
ment o f prices o f all com m odities produced
in the m anufacturing; agriculture, forestry,
and fishing; m ining; and gas and electricity
and public u tilities sectors. The stage-ofp r o c e s s in g stru ctu re o f PPi o r g a n iz e s
products by class o f buyer and degree o f
fabrication (that is, fin ish ed good s, inter­
m ediate good s, and crude m aterials). The
traditional com m od ity structure o f ppi or­
g a n izes products by sim ilarity o f end use
or material com p osition . The industry and
product structure o f ppi organizes data in
accordan ce w ith the Standard Industrial
C la ssifica tio n (SIC) and the product code
exten sion o f the Sic developed by the U.S.
Bureau o f the Census.
To the extent p ossib le, prices used in
calcu latin g Producer Price In dexes apply
to the first significan t com m ercial transac­
tion in the U n ited States from the produc­
tion or central m arketing point. P rice data
are generally c o lle cte d m onthly, prim arily
by mail questionnaire. M ost prices are ob­
tained directly from producing com panies
on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices
gen erally are reported for the Tuesday o f
the w eek containing the 13th day o f the
m onth.
Since January 1992, price changes for the
various com m odities have been averaged
to g eth er w ith im p lic it quantity w eig h ts
representing their importance in the total net
selling value o f all commodities as o f 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product
groupings, and a number o f special composite
groups. A ll Producer Price Index data are
subject to revision 4 months after original
publication.
For additional information on pro­
ducer prices, contact the D iv isio n o f In­
dustrial P rices and P rice Indexes: (2 0 2 )
6 9 1 -7 7 0 5 .

international Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
m onthly and quarterly export and import

42

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price indexes for nonmilitary goods and ser­
vices traded between the United States and
the rest o f the world. The export price index
provides a measure o f price change for all
products sold by U.S. residents to foreign
buyers. (“Residents” is defined as in the na­
tional income accounts; it includes corpora­
tions, businesses, and individuals, but does
not require the organizations to be U .S.
owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citi­
zenship.) The import price index provides a
measure o f price change for goods purchased
from other countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufac­
tures, and finished manufactures, including
both capital and consumer goods. Price data
for these items are collected primarily by mail
questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are
collected directly from the exporter or im­
porter, although in a few cases, prices are
obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
border for imports. For nearly all products,
the prices refer to transactions completed dur­
ing the first week o f the month. Survey re­
spondents are asked to indicate all discounts,
allowances, and rebates applicable to the re­
ported prices, so that the price used in the
calculation o f the indexes is the actual price for
which the product was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes o f prices for
U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories o f
exports and imports. These categories are
defined according to the five-digit level o f
detail for the Bureau o f Econom ic Analysis
End-use Classification, the three-digit level
for the Standard Industrial C lassification
(SITC), and the four-digit level o f detail for the
H arm on ized System . A g g reg a te im port
indexes by coun-try or region o f origin are
also available.
bls publishes indexes for selected catego­

ries of internationally traded services, calcu­
lated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price ind exes are
weighted indexes o f the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute both
indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the same
items being priced from period to period, it is
necessary to recognize when a product’s
specifications or terms o f transaction have
been modified. For this reason, the Bureau’s

O ctober 2002

questionnaire requests detailed descriptions o f
the physical and functional characteristics o f
the products being priced, as well as informa­
tion on the number o f units bought or sold,
discounts, credit terms, packaging, class o f
buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are
changes in either the specifications or terms o f
transaction o f a product, the dollar value o f
each change is deleted from the total price
change to obtain the “pure” change. Once this
value is determined, a linking procedure is em­
ployed which allows for the continued repric­
ing o f the item.
For additional information on inter­
national prices, contact the D ivision o f Inter­
national Prices: (202) 6 9 1 -7 1 5 5 .

P roductivity D ata
(Tables 2; 4 3 -4 6 )

Business sector and m ajor
sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real output
to real input. As such, they encom pass a fam­
ily o f measures which include single-factor
input measures, such as output per hour, out­
put per unit o f labor input, or output per
unit o f capital input, as well as measures o f
multifactor productivity (output per unit o f
combined labor and capital inputs). The Bu­
reau indexes show the change in output rela­
tive to changes in the various inputs. The
measures cover the business, nonfarm busi­
ness, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corpo­
rate sectors.
Corresponding indexes o f hourly compen­
sation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor pay­
ments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour o f all persons (labor pro­
ductivity) is the quantity o f goods and ser­
vices produced per hour o f labor input. Out­
put per unit o f capital services (capital
productivity) is the quantity o f goods and
services produced per unit o f capital ser­
vices input. M ultifactor productivity is the
quantity o f goods and services produced per
combined inputs. For private business and pri­
vate nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, non-energy ma­
terials, and purchased business ser-vices.
Compensation per hour is total com ­
pensation divided by hours at work. Total

com pensation equals the w ages and salaries
o f em ployees plus em ployers’ contributions
for social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estim ate o f these payments for the
self-em ployed (except for nonfinancial cor­
porations in w hich there are no self-em ­
ployed). Real compensation per hour is
c om p en sation per hour d efla ted by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor com pen­
sation costs expended in the production o f a
unit o f output and are derived by dividing
com pensation by output. U nit nonlabor
paym ents in clu d e profits, depreciation ,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit o f out­
put. They are computed by subtracting com­
pensation o f all persons from current-dollar
value o f output and dividing by output.
U nit nonlabor costs contain all the
c o m p o n e n ts o f unit n on lab or paym ents
excep t unit profits.
U nit profits inclu de corporate profits
w ith inventory valuation and capital c o n ­
sum ption adjustm ents per unit o f output.
H ou rs o f all p erso n s are th e total
hours at w ork o f payroll w orkers, se lfe m p lo y e d p e r so n s, and u n p aid fa m ily
w orkers.
Labor inputs are hours o f all persons
adjusted for the effe c ts o f changes in the
education and experience o f the labor force.
C apital services are the flo w o f ser­
v ic e s from the capital stock used in pro­
duction. It is d evelop ed from m easures o f
the net stock o f physical assets-—eq u ip ­
m ent, structures, land, and inventories—
w eigh ted by rental prices for each type o f
asset.

C om bined units o f labor and capital
inputs are derived by com b in in g changes
in labor and capital input w ith w eigh ts
w h ich represent each com p on en t’s share
o f total cost. C om bined units o f labor,
capital, energy, m aterials, and purchased
b u sin ess serv ices are sim ilarly derived by
c o m b in in g c h a n g e s in each input w ith
w eig h ts that represent each input’s share
o f total costs. The in d exes for each input
and for c o m b in e d u n its are b a sed on
changing w eights w hich are averages o f the
shares in the current and preceding year
(the Tornquist index-num ber formula).

Notes on the data
B u s in e ss se c to r outp ut is an an n u allyw eigh ted index constructed by exclu d in g
from real gross dom estic product ( g d p ) the
fo llo w in g outputs: general govern m en t,
nonprofit institution s, paid em p loyees o f
private h ou seh old s, and the rental value


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o f ow n er-occu p ied d w ellin gs. Nonfarm
b u sin ess also exclu d es farming. Private
b u sin e ss and private nonfarm b u sin e ss
further exclu d e govern m en t enterprises.
The m easures are supplied by the U .S. D e­
partment o f C om m erce’s Bureau o f E co­
nom ic A nalysis. Annual estim ates o f manu­
facturing sectoral output are produced by
the Bureau o f Labor Statistics. Quarterly
m anufacturing output in d ex es from the
Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these
annual output m easures by the bls. C om ­
pensation data are d evelop ed from data o f
the Bureau o f E conom ic A n alysis and the
Bureau o f Labor S tatistics. H ours data
are develop ed from data o f the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
m easures in tables 4 3 - 4 6 describe the re­
lation sh ip b etw een output in real terms
and the labor and capital inputs in volved
in its production. They sh ow the changes
from period to period in the am ount o f
g o o d s and services produced per unit o f
input.
A lthough these m easures relate output
to hours and capital services, they do not
measure the contributions o f labor, cap i­
tal, or any other sp ec ific factor o f produc­
tion. Rather, they reflect the jo in t effect
o f many in flu en ces, inclu d in g changes in
tech nology; sh ifts in the com p osition o f
the labor force; capital investm ent; level
o f output; ch an ges in the u tiliza tio n o f
capacity, energy, m aterial, and research
and developm ent; the organization o f pro­
duction; managerial skill; and characteris­
tics and efforts o f the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the D iv isio n
o f P r o d u c tiv ity R esearch : ( 2 0 2 ) 691 —
5606.

Industry p ro d u c tiv ity
m easures
Description of the series
T h e BLS in d u s tr y p r o d u c t iv it y d a ta
supplem ent the m easures for the bu sin ess
econ om y and major sectors w ith annual
measures o f labor productivity for selected
industries at the three- and four-digit levels
o f the Standard Industrial C lassification
system . In addition to labor productivity,
the in d u stry data a lso in c lu d e annual
m easures o f com pensation and unit labor
c o s t s fo r t h r e e - d ig it in d u s t r ie s and
m easures o f m ultifactor productivity for
three-digit m anufacturing industries and
ra ilr o a d tr a n sp o r ta tio n . T he in d u stry

m easures differ in m eth o d o lo g y and data
sou rces from the p rod u ctivity m easures
for the major sectors because the industry
m easures are d evelop ed ind ep en dently o f
the N ational Incom e and Product A ccounts
fra m ew o rk u se d for th e m ajor s e c to r
m easures.

Definitions
O utput per hour is derived by dividing
an ind ex o f industry output by an index o f
labor input. For m ost industries, output
ind exes are derived from data on the value
o f in d u str y o u tp u t a d ju ste d fo r p rice
change. For the rem aining industries, out­
put in d exes are derived from data on the
ph ysical quantity o f production.
The labor input series con sist o f the
hours o f all em ployees (production w orkers
and nonproduction workers), the hours o f all
persons (paid em ployees, partners, propri­
etors, and unpaid fam ily workers), or the
number o f em ployees, depending upon the
industry.
U nit labor costs represent the labor
c o m p e n sa tio n c o sts per un it o f outp ut
produced, and are derived by d iv id in g an
index o f labor com pensation by an index
o f output. Labor com pensation inclu des
p a y r o ll as w e ll as su p p le m e n ta l p a y ­
m ents, inclu ding both legally required e x ­
pen d itu res and p aym en ts for volu n tary
programs.
M u ltifactor p rod u ctivity is derived
by d ivid in g an index o f industry output
by an index o f the com bined inputs c o n ­
sum ed in producing that output. C om ­
bined inputs inclu de capital, labor, and
interm ediate purchases. The m easure o f
capital input used represents the flo w o f
se r v ic es from the capital stock u sed in
production. It is d evelop ed from m easures
o f th e n et sto c k o f p h y s ic a l a s s e ts —
equipm ent, structures, land, and in ven to­
ries. The m easure o f interm ediate pur­
chases is a com bination o f purchased m a­
terials, services, fu els, and electricity.

Notes on the data
The industry m easures are com p iled from
data produced by the Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics and the Bureau o f the C ensus,w ith
additional data supplied by other govern ­
m ent a g e n c ie s, trade a ss o c ia tio n s, and
other sources.
For m ost industries, the p rodu ctivity
in d exes refer to the output per hour o f all
em p loyees. For som e trade and services
industries, in d exes o f output per hour o f
all persons (in clu d in g self-em p lo y ed ) are

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

43

Current Labor Statistics

constructed. For som e transportation in ­
dustries, on ly in d exes o f output per em ­
p lo y e e are prepared.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
series, con tact the D iv isio n o f Industry
P ro d u c tiv ity Studies: (2 0 2 ) 6 9 1 -5 6 1 8 .

In te rn a tio n a l
C o m p a ris o n s
(Tables 4 7 - 4 9 )

Labor force and
u n e m p lo ym e n t
Description of the series
Tables 47 and 48 present comparative meas­
ures o f the labor force, employment, and un­
e m p lo y m en t— app roxim atin g U .S . c o n ­
cepts— for the United States, Canada, A us­
tralia, Japan, and several European countries.
The u n em p loym en t sta tistics (and, to a
lesser extent, em ploym ent statistics) pub­
lished by other industrial countries are not,
in m ost cases, comparable to U.S. unemploy­
ment statistics. Therefore, the Bureau ad­
justs the figures for selected countries, where
necessary, for all known major definitional
differences. Although precise comparability
may not be achieved, these adjusted figures
provide a better basis for international com ­
parisons than the figures regularly published
by each country. For further information on
adjustments and comparability issues, see
Constance Sorrentino, “International unem­
ploym ent rates: how comparable are they?”
M onthly L abor Review, June 2000, pp. 3-20.

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions o f the labor
force, employment, and unemployment, see
the N otes section on Employment and Unem­
ployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data
The adjusted statistics have been adapted to
the age at which compulsory schooling ends
in each country, rather than to the U.S. stan­
dard o f 16 years o f age and older. Therefore,
the adjusted statistics relate to the popula­
tion aged 16 and older in France, Sweden, and
the United Kingdom; 15 and older in Austra­
lia, Japan, Germany, Italy from 1993 onward,
and the Netherlands; and 14 and older in Italy
prior to 1993. An exception to this rule is
that the Canadian statistics for 1976 onward
are adjusted to cover ages 16 and older,

44

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whereas the age at which compulsory school­
ing ends remains at 15. The institutional
population is included in the denominator o f
the labor force participation rates and em ­
ploym ent-population ratios for Japan and
Germany; it is excluded for the United States
and the other countries.
In the U.S. labor force survey, persons on
layoff who are awaiting recall to their jobs
are classified as unemployed. European and
Japanese layoff practices are quite different
in nature from those in the United States;
therefore, strict application o f the U.S. defi­
nition has not been made on this point. For
further information, see M onthly L abor Re­
view , December 1981, pp. 8-11.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
and the United Kingdom are calculated using
adjustment factors based on labor force sur­
veys for earlier years and are considered pre­
liminary. The recent-year measures for these
countries, therefore, are subject to revision
whenever data from more current labor force
surveys becom e available.
There are breaks in the data series for the
United States (1 9 9 0 ,1 9 9 4 ,1 9 9 7 ,1 9 9 8 ,1 9 9 9 ,
2000), Canada (1976) France (1992), Ger­
many (1991), Italy (1991, 1993), the N eth­
erlands (1988), and Sweden (1987).
For the United States, the break in series
reflects a major redesign o f the labor force
survey questionnaire and collection method­
ology introduced in January 1994. Revised
population estimates based on the 1990 cen­
sus, adjusted for the estimated undercount,
also were incorporated. In 1996, previously
published data for the 1990-93 period were
revised to reflect the 1990 cen sus-based
population controls, adjusted for the un­
dercount. In 1997, revised population con­
trols were introduced into the household sur­
vey. T herefore, the data are not strictly
conparable with prior years. In 1998, new
com posite estimation procedures and minor
revisions in population controls were intro­
duced into the household survey. Therefore,
the data are not strictly comparable with data
for 1997 and earlier years. See the N otes sec­
tion on Em ploym ent and U nem ploym ent
Data o f this Review.
bls recently introduced a new adjusted
series for Canada. Beginning with the data
for 1976, Canadian data are adjusted to more
closely approximate U.S. concepts. Adjust­
ments are made to the unemployed and labor
force to exclude: (1) 15-year-olds; (2) pas­
sive jobseekers (persons only reading new s­
paper ads as their method o f job search); (3)
persons waiting to start a new job who did
not seek work in the past 4 weeks; and (4)
persons unavailable for work due to personal
or family responsibilities. An adjustment is

O ctober 2002

made to include full-tine students looking for
full-tim e work. The impact o f the adjust­
ments was to lower the annual average unem­
ployment rate by 0 .1 -0 .4 percentage point
in the 1980s and 0 .4 -1 .0 percentage point in
the 1990s.
For France, the 1992 break reflects the
substitution o f standardized European Union
Statistical O ffice (eurostat) unemployment
statistics for the unem ploym ent data esti­
mated according to the International Labor
O ffice (ilo) definition and published in the
Organization for Econom ic Cooperation and
D evelopm ent (oecd) annual yearbook and
quarterly update. This change was made be­
cause the EUROSTAT data are more up-to-date
than the oecd figures. A lso, since 1992, the
EUROSTAT definitions are closer to the U.S.
definitions than they were in prior years. The
impact o f this revision was to lower the un­
employment rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1992 and 1993, by 0.4 percentage point in
1994, and 0.5 percentage point in 1995.
For Germany, the data for 1991 onward
refer to unified Germany. Data prior to 1991
relate to the former West Germany. The im­
pact o f including the former East Germany
was to increase the unemployment rate from
4.3 to 5.6 percent in 1991.
For Italy, the 1991 break reflects a revi­
sion in the method o f weighting sample data.
The impact was to increase the unem ploy­
ment rate by approximately 0.3 percentage
point, from 6.6 to 6.9 percent in 1991.
In October 1992, the survey m ethodol­
ogy was revised and the definition o f unem­
ployment was changed to include only those
who were actively looking for a job within
the 30 days preceding the survey and who
were available for work. In addition, the
lower age limit for the labor force was raised
from 14 to 15 years. (Prior to these changes,
bls adjusted Italy’s published unem ploy­
ment rate downward by excluding from the
un em p loyed th ose persons w h o had not
actively sought work in the past 30 days.)
The break in the series also reflects the incor­
poration o f the 1991 population census re­
sults. The impact o f these changes was to
raise Italy’s adjusted unemployment rate by
approximately 1.2 percentage points, from
8.3 to 9.5 percent in fourth-quarter 1992.
These changes did not affect em ploym ent
significantly, except in 1993. Estimates by
the Italian Statistical O ffice indicate that em ­
ploym ent declined by about 3 percent in
1993, rather than the nearly 4 percent indi­
cated by the data shown in table 44. This
difference is attributable mainly to the incor­
poration o f the 1991 population benchmarks
in the 1993 data. Data for earlier years have
not been adjusted to incorporate the 1991
census results.

For the Netherlands, a new survey ques­
tionnaire was introduced in 1992 that allowed
for a closer application o f ilo guidelines.
eurostat has revised the Dutch series back
to 1988 based on the 1992 changes. The 1988
revised unem ploym ent rate is 7.6 percent;
the previous estimate for the same year was
9.3 percent.
There have been two breaks in series in
the Sw edish labor force survey, in 1987 and
1993. Adjustments have been made for the
1993 break back to 1987. In 1987, a new
questionnaire w as introduced. Q uestions
regarding current availab ility were added
and the period o f active w orkseeking w as
reduced from 60 days to 4 w eek s. T hese
ch an ges low ered S w e d e n ’s 1987 un em ­
p lo y m en t rate by 0 .4 percen tage point,
from 2.3 to 1.9 percent. In 1993, the m ea­
surem ent period for the labor force sur­
vey w as changed to represent all 52 w eek s
o f the year rather than on e w e ek each
m onth and a n ew adjustm ent for pop ula­
tion to ta ls w as introduced. The im pact
w as to raise the un em p loym en t rate by
approxim ately 0.5 percentage point, from
7.6 to 8.1 percent. Statistics Sw ed en re­
v ised its labor force survey data for 1987—
92 to take into account the break in 1993.
The adjustm ent raised the Sw ed ish unem ­
ploym ent rate by 0.2 percentage poin t in
1987 and gradually rose to 0.5 percentage
point in 1992.
Beginning with 1987, BLS has adjusted the
Sw edish data to classify students who also
sought work as unemployed. The impact o f
this change was to increase the adjusted un­
em ploym ent rate by 0.1 percentage point in
1987 and by 1.8 percentage points in 1994,
when unem ploym ent was higher. In 1998,
the adjusted unemployment rate had risen
from 6.5 to 8.4 percent due to the adjustment
to include students.
The net effect o f the 1987 and 1993
changes and the bls adjustm ent for stu­
d en ts se e k in g w ork lo w e re d S w e d e n ’s
1987 unem ploym ent rate from 2.3 to 2.2
percent.
FORADDITIONALINFORMATION on this se­
ries, contact the D ivision o f Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 5 4 .

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 49 presents comparative indexes o f
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the United
States, Canada, Japan, and nine European


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countries. These measures are trend compari­
sons— that is, series that measure changes
over time— rather than level comparisons.
There are greater technical problems in com ­
paring the levels o f manufacturing output
among countries.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures— output,
total labor hours, and total compensation.
The hours and compensation measures refer
to all em ployed persons (w age and salary
earners plus self-em ployed persons and un­
paid family workers) in the United States,
Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Norway,
and Sweden, and to all em ployees (wage and
salary earners) in the other countries.

Definitions
O utput, in general, refers to value added
in m anufacturing from the national ac­
cou n ts o f each country. H ow ever, the
output series for Japan prior to 1970 is
an index o f industrial production, and the
national accounts m easures for the U nited
K ingdom are essen tia lly identical to their
ind exes o f industrial production.
T h e 1 9 7 7 - 9 7 o u tp u t data fo r th e
U nited States are the gross product o rig i­
nating (value added) m easures prepared
by the Bureau o f E conom ic A n alysis o f
the U .S. Departm ent o f C om m erce. C om ­
parable m anufacturing output data cur­
rently are not availab le prior to 1977.
U.S. gross product originating is a chaintype annual-w eighted series. (For more in­
form ation on the U .S . m easure, see Robert
E. Y u sk avage, “Im proved E stim ates o f
G ross P rod u ct by Industry, 1 9 5 9 - 9 4 ,”
S u rvey o f C u rren t B u sin ess, A ugust 1996,
pp. 1 3 3 -5 5 .) The Japanese value added
series is based upon one set o f fixed price
w eights for the years 1970 through 1997.
Output series for the other foreign e c o n o ­
m ies also em ploy fixed price w eigh ts, but
the w eigh ts are updated p eriod ically (for
exam ple, every 5 or 10 years).
To preserve the comparability o f the U.S.
measures with those for other economies, bls
uses gross product originating in manufac­
turing for the United States for these com ­
parative measures. The gross product origi­
nating series differs from the manufacturing
output series that bls publishes in its news
releases on quarterly measures o f U.S. pro­
ductivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 43 and 45 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked

in all countries. The measures are developed
from statistics o f manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for France
(from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden
are official series published with the national
accounts. Where official total hours series are
not available, the measures are developed by
bls using employment figures published with
the national accounts, or other comprehen­
sive employment series, and estimates o f an­
nual hours worked. For Germany, bls uses
estimates o f average hours worked developed
by a research institute connected to the M in­
istry o f Labor for use with the national ac­
counts em ploym ent figures. For the other
countries, bls constructs its own estimates
o f average hours.
Denmark has not published estimates o f
average hours for 1994-97; therefore, the BLS
measure o f labor input for Denmark ends in
1993.
Total compensation (labor cost) includes
all payments in cash or in-kind made directly
to employees plus employer expenditures for
legally required insurance programs and con­
tractual and private benefit plans. The mea­
sures are from the national accounts o f each
country, except those for Belgium, which are
developed by bls using statistics on employ­
ment, average hours, and hourly compensa­
tion. For Canada, France, and Sweden, com­
pensation is increased to account for other sig­
nificant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced
between 1967 and 1991 to account for em­
ployment-related subsidies. Self-em ployed
workers are included in the all-employed-per­
sons measures by assuming that their hourly
compensation is equal to the average for wage
and salary em ployees.

Notes on the data
In general, the measures relate to total manu­
facturing as defined by the International Stan­
dard Industrial Classification. However, the
measures for France (for all years) and Italy
(beginning 1970) refer to mining and manu­
facturing less energy-related products, and
the measures for Denmark include mining and
exclude manufacturing handicrafts from 1960
to 1966.
The m easures for recent years may be
based on current indicators o f manufacturing
output (such as industrial production in­
d exes), em ploym ent, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
For additional information on this se­
ries, contact the D ivision o f Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 6 9 1 -5 6 5 4 .________________

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

45

Current Labor Statistics

con tin u ed b eg in n in g w ith the 1993 sur­
v e y . T h e n u m b er o f d a y s aw a y from
w ork or days o f restricted w ork a c tiv ity
d o e s n ot in c lu d e the day o f injury or
o n set o f illn e s s or any d ays on w h ich
the e m p lo y e e w o u ld not have w orked,
su ch as a Federal holid ay, even thou gh
ab le to work.
In cid en ce rates are com p u ted as the
num ber o f in ju ries and /or illn e s s e s or
lo st w ork d ays per 100 fu ll-tim e w o r k ­
ers.

O c c u p a tio n a l Injury
a n d Illness Data
(Tables 5 0 -5 1 )

Survey of O ccupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey o f Occupational Injuries and Ill­
nesses collects data from employers about their
workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and ill­
nesses. The information that employers pro­
vide is based on records that they maintain un­
der the Occupational Safety and Health Act o f
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State coopera­
tive program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A strati­
fied random sample with a Neym an alloca­
tion is selected to represent all private in­
dustries in the State. The survey is stratified
by Standard Industrial C lassification and
size o f em ploym ent.

Definitions
Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records o f nonfatal
work-related injuries and illnesses that in­
volve one or more o f the following: loss o f
consciousness, restriction o f work or motion,
transfer to another job, or medical treatment
other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such as
a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that re­
sults from a work-related event or a single, in­
stantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal con­
dition or disorder, other than one resulting from
an occupational injury, caused by exposure to
factors associated with employment. It in­
cludes acute and chronic illnesses or disease
which may be caused by inhalation, absorp­
tion, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days o f restricted work activity, or both.

Lost w orkdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which
the employee was either away from work
or at work in some restricted capacity, or
both, because of an occupational injury or
illness. 3LS measures of the number and
incidence rate of lost workdays were dis­

46

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Notes on the data
The definitions o f occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines
f o r O ccupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S.
Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and em­
ployment size classes for total recordable cases,
lost workday cases, days away from work
cases, and nonfatal cases without lost work­
days. These data also are shown separately for
injuries. Illness data are available for seven cat­
egories: occupational skin diseases or disorders,
dust diseases o f the lungs, respiratory condi­
tions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic
effects o f toxic agents), disorders due to physi­
cal agents (other than toxic materials), disor­
ders associated with repeated trauma, and all
other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the num­
ber o f new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during
the year. Some conditions, for example, long­
term latent illnesses caused by exposure to
carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the
workplace and are not adequately recognized
and reported. These long-term latent illnesses
are believed to be understated in the survey’s
illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming
majority o f the reported new illnesses are
those which are easier to directly relate to
workplace activity (for example, contact der­
matitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
M ost o f the estimates are in the form o f
incidence rates, defined as the number o f inju­
ries and illnesses per 100 equivalent full-time
workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee
hours represent 100 employee years (2,000
hours per employee). Full detail on the avail­
able measures is presented in the annual bulle­
tin, O ccu p a tio n a l In ju ries a n d Illnesses:
Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the bls Of­
fice o f Safety, Health and Working Condi­
tions. Many o f these States publish data on
State and local government em ployees in ad­
dition to private industry data.

O ctober 2002

M ining and railroad data are furnished to
bls by the M ine Safety and Health A dm inis­
tration and the Federal Railroad Administra­
tion. Data from these organizations are in­
cluded in both the national and State data
published annually.
With the 1992 survey, bls began publish­
ing details on serious, nonfatal incidents re­
sulting in days away from work. Included are
som e major characteristics o f the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length o f service, as well as the cir­
cumstances o f their injuries and illnesses (na­
ture o f the disabling condition, part o f body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,
these data are available nationwide for de­
tailed industries and for individual States at
more aggregated industry levels.
For additional information on occu­
pational injuries and illnesses, contact the Of­
fice o f Occupational Safety, Health and Work­
ing Conditions at (202) 6 9 1 -6 1 8 0 , or access
the Internet at:

http://www.bls.gov/iip/

Census of Fatal
O ccup atio nal Injuries
The Census o f Fatal Occupational Injuries
com piles a com plete roster o f fatal job-re­
lated injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured w orkers and the fatal
even ts. The program c o lle c ts and cross
checks fatality information from m ultiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administra­
tion and M ine Safety and Health A dm inis­
tration records, medical examiner and au­
topsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow -up ques­
tionnaires to employers.
In addition to private w age and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members,
and Federal, State, and local governm ent
workers are covered by the program. To be
included in the fatality census, the decedent
must have been employed (that is working
for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time
o f the event, engaged in a legal work activity,
or present at the site o f the incident as a re­
quirement o f his or her job.

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or un­
intentional wound or damage to the body re­
sulting in death from acute exposure to energy,

such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy
from a crash, or from the absence o f such es­
sentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific
event or incident or series o f events within a
single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur
during a person’s commute to or from work
are excluded from the census, as well as workrelated illn e ss e s , w h ich can be d ifficu lt
to identify due to long latency periods.


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Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elem ents are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally in­
jured worker, the fatal incident, and the ma­
chinery or equipment involved. Summary
worker demographic data and event charac­
teristics are included in a national news re­
lease that is available about 8 months after

the end o f the reference year. The Census o f
Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. M ost
States issue summary information at the time
o f the national new s release.
For additional information on the
Census o f Fatal Occupational Injuries con­
tact the BLS O ffice o f Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 6 9 1 -6 1 7 5 , or
the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iip/

Where to find additional data
Current and historical statistics from Bureau of Labor Statistics surveys are
available at the addresses listed on the inside back cover of this Review, or on
the Internet at

http://www.bls.gov

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

47

Current Labor Statistics:

1.

Comparative Indicators

L a b o r m a r k e t in d ic a to r s

S elected indicators

2000

2000

2001

2001

III

II

IV

II

I

2002
III

IV

1

II

E m p lo y m e n t d a ta

Employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized
population (household survey):1
Labor force participation rate.........................................................

67.2
64 5

66.9
63 fi

67.3
64 6

67.0

67.1

67.2

66.9

66.8

66.9
G3 1

66.5

4.8
4.8
11.4

4.0
3.9

4.1
3.9

4.0
4.0

4.2
4.2

4.5
4.6

4.8
4.9

5.6
5.7

5.6
5.7

5.9
6.0

16 to 24 years.......................................................................

4.0
3.9
9.7

9.6

3.6
4.7

2.8

2.9

11.2
3.4

11.5
3.7

12.7
4.4

12.8
4.9

4.1

9.7
3.7

9.0
3.2

4.0
8.4

4.3
9.2
3.4

4.8

8.9
3.2

4.2
8.5
3.3

10.6
3.1
4.1

12.9

2.8
4.1

9.7
2.8

9.8

25 years and over.....................................................................
Women......................................................................

10.0
3.7

5.5
10.6
4.4

Employment-population ratio........................................................
Unemployment rate.....................................................................
Men..............................................................................

16 to 24 years.............................................................................
25 years and over....................................................................

8.7
3.3

3.0

66.7
«« «

4.5
5.5
11.0
4.4

5.8
11.2
4.8

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:1
Total...............................................................................................
Private sector................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................

131,720
111,018
25,649
18,473
106,051

131,922
110,989
24,949
17,695
106,978

131,819
110,860
25,690
18,510

131,876
111,219
25,681
18,494

132,185
111,551
25,626
18,400

106,129

106,195

106,559

132,559
111,687

132,193
111,332

25,493
18,196
106,941

25,136
17,872
107,057

131,943
110,939
24,786
17,538
107,157

131,130
110,035
24,375
17,174
106,755

130,759
109,594
24,049
16,883
106,711

130,706
109,505
23,879
16,776
106,827

Average hours:
Private sector........................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Overtime..................................................................................

34.5
41.6
4.6

34.2
40.7

4.1

4.1

4.4

4.2

3.9

34.4

34.4

41.8
4.7

41.5
4.5

34.3
41.1
4.4

1.0
1.2

1.0

.7

.9

.7

34.3

34.2

41.0
4.1

40.8
3.9

1.3
1.4

34.1
40.7

34.1

34.2

40.5

3.9

3.8

40.8
4.0

34.2
41.0
4.2

.9

1.2

1.0

.9

.8
.8

1.0
1.1

.9
1.1

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x 2

Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers).....
Private industry workers...............................................................
Goods-producing3....................................................................

4.4

3.8

1.2

.9

.6

1.3

.9

.7

.8

1.2

.9

Service-producing3...............................................................
State and local government workers...........................................

4.4
3.0

4.3
4.2

1.2
.3

1.0
1.3

.7
.7

1.4
.9

1.0
.6

1.0
2.1

.8
.6

1.1
.6

1.2
.4

Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union.........................................................................................
Nonunion..........................................................................................

4.0
4.4

4.2
4.1

1.0
1.2

1.2
1.0

.5
.7

.7
1.5

1.1
1.0

1.0
.9

1.4
.7

1.1
1.1

1.0
1.1

1 Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
2 Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.
3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-producing industries include all other private sector industries.

48

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 2002

2.

A n n u a l a n d

q u a r t e r l y p e r c e n t c h a n g e s in c o m p e n s a t i o n , p r ic e s , a n d

p r o d u c tiv ity

2000
S e le c te d m e a s u re s

2000

2002

2001

2001
II

IV

III

I

II

III

IV

I

II

Compensation data1,2
Employment Cost Index— compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm.........................................................................

4.1

4.1

1.0

1.0

0.7

1.3

0.9

1.2

0.8

1.0

0.9

Private nonfarm....................................................................

4.4

4.2

1.2

.9

.7

1.4

1.0

.9

.8

1.1

1.1

Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm......................................................................

3.8

3.7

1.0

1.1

.6

1.1

.9

1.0

.7

.9

.8

Private nonfarm....................................................................

3.9

3.8

1.0

1.0

.6

1,2

1.0

.8

.8

.9

1.0

1.6

3.4

.7

.8

.2

1.3

1.0

.2

- .9

.7

.5

Price data1
Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods...........................................................................

3.5

-1 .8

1.8

.6

.4

.9

.8

-.3

-3 .2

1.1

.2

Finished consumer goods.....................................................

4.3

-2 .4

1.3

.8

.1

1.2

1.0

-.3

-4 .3

1.5

.4
-.3

Capital equipment...................................................................

1.2

1.0

.1

-7 .2

1.1

-.1

-7.1

-.1

.1

2.9

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components...............

4.0

-.2

1.4

1.0

-.3

.2

.6

-1 .0

-3 .6

.9

1.1

Crude materials...........................................................................

31.1

-8 .8

-6 .0

2.1

9.4

-3 .5

-6 .6

-12.0

-12.2

8.0

37.1

1.7

Productivity data3
Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector...........................................................................

3.0

1.1

6.7

.4

2.1

-1 .5

-.2

1.8

7.6

8.3

Nonfarm business sector...........................................................

2.9

1.1

6.0

.6

1.7

-1 .5

-.1

2.1

7.3

8.6

1.5

Nonfinancial corporations4........................................................

2.1

1.0

.3

2.6

-.7

-2 .6

2.3

3.2

10.8

5.1

5.0

1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

Quarterly changes are

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not

cent changes reflect annual rates ot change in quarterly indexes,
The data are seasonally adjusted,

seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

4 Output per hour of all employees.

2 Excludes Federal and private household workers.
3 Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages. Quarterly per-

3.

A lt e r n a t iv e m e a s u r e s o f w a g e a n d c o m p e n s a t io n c h a n g e s

Q u a r te rly a v e ra g e
2001

C o m p o n e n ts
II

III

F o u r q u a r te rs e n d in g
2 00 2

IV

I

2001
II

I

II

2002
III

IV

1

II

Average hourly compensation:1
All persons, business sector..............................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector..............................................

0.5
.1

0.9
1.0

1.4
1.5

3.8
3.6

4.0
3.7

4.5
4.2

3.9
3.6

2.0
1.8

1.5
1.4

1.6
1.6

2.5
2.4

.9
1.0
1.1
1.0
.6

1.2
.9
1.0
.9
2.1

.8
.8
1.4
.7
.6

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
.6

.9
1.1
1.0
1.1
.4

4.1
4.2
3.4
4.3
3.3

3.9
4.0
3.5
4.2
3.6

4.1
4.0
3.4
4.1
4.4

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.2

3.9
3.9
4.7
3.8
3.9

4.0
4.0
4.5
3.9
3.6

.9
1.0
1.1
.9
.5

1.0
.8
1.0
.8
1.9

.7
.8
1.6
.7
.5

.9
.9
.7
1.0
.5

.8
1.0
.9
1.0
.3

3.8
3.8
3.6
3.9
3.5

3.7
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7

3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.9

3.7
3.8
4.4
3.6
3.6

3.5
3.5
4.4
3.4
3.4

3.5
3.6
4.2
3.5
3.2

Employment Cost Index— compensation:
Civilian nonfarm2..................................................................................
Private nonfarm.................................................................................
Union.................................................................................................
Nonunion...........................................................................................
State and local governments...........................................................
Employment Cost Index— wages and salaries:
Civilian norifarm2..................................................................................
Private nonfarm.................................................................................
Union.................................................................................................
Nonunion...........................................................................................
State and local governments..........................................................

1 Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average” is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.
2 Excludes Federal and household workers.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

49

Current Labor Statistics:

4.

Labor Force Data

E m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s o f t h e p o p u la t io n , b y s e x , a g e , r a c e , a n d H is p a n ic o r ig in , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[N u m be rs in thousands]
E m p lo ym e n t statu s

A nnu al ave ra g e
2000

2002

2001

2001

A ug.

S ept

O ct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

M ar.

Apr.

M ay

June

July

A ug.

211,864

212,135
141,380
66.6
134,408

212,357

212,581

212,927
142,314
66.8
134,055

213,089
141,390
66.4
133,468

213,206
142,211
66.7
134,319

213,492

142,005
66.6
133,894

142,570
66.8
133,976

213,658
142,769
66.8
134,417

213,842

142,280
66.9
134,615

212,767
142,279
66.9
134,253

213,334

142,068
66.9
135,004

214,023
142,390
66.5
134,045

214,225
142,616
66.6
134,474

TO TAL

Civilian noninstitutional
population .......................... 209,699
Civilian labor force.............. 140,863
Participation rate.........
67.2
Employed........................ 135,208
Employment-pop64.5
ulation ratio2..............
5,665
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
4.0
Not in the labor force........ 68,836

141,815
66.9
135,073

142,476
66.6
134,053

63.8

63.4

63.1

63.0

62.6

63.0

62.8

62.7

62.6

62.8

7,665
5.4
70,301

8,026
5.6
70,488

8,259
5.8
70,613

7,922
5.6
71,699

7,891
5.5
70,995

8,111
5.7
71,329

62.8
8,594
6.0
70,922

62.9

6,972
4.9
70,755

63.6
7,064
5.0
70,289

63.3

6,742
4.8
70,050

8,351
5.8
70,889

8,424
5.9
71,366

8,345
5.9
71,633

8,142
5.7
71,609

92,580

93,659

93,810

93,917

94,015

94,077

94,161

94,228

94,262

94,315

94,414

94,479

94,622

94,694

94,756

70,930
76.6
68,580

71,590
76.4
68,587

71,523
76.2
68,388

71,805
76.5
68,696

71,940
76.5
68,486

71,935
76.5
68,204

71,988
76.5
68,276

71,534
75.9
67,818

71,718
76.1
68,157

71,723
76.0
68,013

72,098
76.4
68,193

72,428
76.7
68,647

72,288
76.4
68,390

72,172
76.2
68,405

72,203
76.2
68,447

M en, 20 yea rs a n d o ver

Civilian noninstitutional
population1..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employed........................
Employment-pop-

74.1

73.2

72.9

73.1

72.3

72.7

72.3

72.2

72.2

2,138

2,141

2,207

2,185

72.1
2,084

72.2

2,129

72.5
2,082

72.0

2,102

72.8
2,132

72.5

2,252

2,213

2,125

2,138

2,256

2 ,2 2 1

66,328
2,350
3.3

66,485
3,003
4.2

66,259
3,135
4.4

66,558
3,109
4.3

66,354
3,454
4.8

66,122
3,731
5.2

66,135
3,712
5.2

65,611
3,716
5.2

65,973
3,560
5.0

65,929
3,710
5.2

65,980
3,905
5.4

66,522
3,781
5.2

66,251
3,899
5.4

66,149
3,767
5.2

66,226
3,757
5.2

population1.......................... 101,078
Civilian labor force..............
61,565
Participation rate.........
60.9
59,352
Employed........................
Employment-pop58.7
ulation ratio2.............
Agriculture...................
818
Nonagricultural
industries..................
58,535
2,212
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
3.6

102,060
62,148
60.9
59,596

102,165
62,142
60.8
59,526

102,277

102,371

102,651
62,703
61.1
59,588

102,936
62,597
60.8
59,337

103,127

103,256

62,320
60.7
59,227

102,847
62,724
61.0
59,333

103,038

62,481
61.0
59,205

102,550
62,056
60.5
59,102

102,728

62,269
60.8
59,302

102,438
62,321
60.8
59,288

102,492

62,222
60.8
59,463

62,481
60.6
59,316

62,590
60.7
59,364

62,783
60.8
59,710

58.4
817

58.3
781

58.1
823

57.9
842

57.9
852

57.8
859

57.6
824

58.0
829

57.7
804

57.7
732

57.6
760

57.6
749

57.6
814

57.8
772

58,779
2,551
4.1

58,745
2,616
4.2

58,640
2,759
4.4

58,460
2,967
4.8

58,436
3,033
4.9

58,346
3,276
5.2

58,277
2,954
4.8

58,759
3,116
5.0

58,423
3,093
5.0

58,602
3,391
5.4

58,577
3,260
5.2

58,567
3,165
5.1

58,550
3,226
5.2

58,938
3,073
4.9

16,042

16,146

16,161

16,252

16,275

16,310

16,293

16,292

16,231

16,202

16,212

7,715
47.7
6,494

8,071
49.8
6,827

8,023
49.4
6,761

7,845
48.2
6,574

7,800
47.8
6,548

7,790
47.8
6,575

7,962
48.9
6,655

7,748
47.7
6,450

16,243
7,744
47.7
6,434

16,182

8,077
50.0
6,889

16,163
8,041
49.7
6,845

16,195

8,369
52.2
7,276

7,707
47.6
6,347

7,629
47.1
6,276

7,630
47.1
6,318

45.4

42.7
225

40.2
216

42.3
220

42.2
229

41.6
220

40.4
246

40.1
241

40.4
233

40.8
239

39.7

235

209

39.6
213

39.2
223

38.7
213

39.0
196

7,041
1,093
13.1

6,664
1,187
14.7

6,278
1,221
15.8

6,625
1,196
14.9

6,598
1,244
15.4

6,541
1,262
15.7

6,328
1,271
16.2

6,307
1,252
16.1

6,342
1,215
15.6

6,416
1,308
16.4

6,240
1,298
16.8

6,221
1,310
16.9

6,124
1,360
17.6

6,064
1,352
17.7

6,122
1,312
17.2

174,428
117,574
67.4
113,475

175,888
118,144
67.2
113,220

176,069

176,220
118,274
67.1
113,147

176,372

176,500

176,607

176,713

176,972

177,087

177,217

177,345

177,486

118,506
67.2
112,878

118,566
67.2
112,652

118,403
67.0
112,388

117,759
66.6
111,876

176,783
118,472
67.0
112,632

176,866

117,813
66.9
112,740

118,159
66.8
112,286

118,661
67.1
112,426

118,742
67.1
112,563

118,530
66.9
112,382

118,678
66.9
112,446

118,919
67.0
112,844

65.1
4,099
3.5

4,923
4.2

64.0
5,073
4.3

64.2
5,127
4.3

64.0
5,628
4.7

63.8
5,914
5.0

63.6
6,015
5.1

63.3
5,883
5.0

63.7
5,840
4.9

63.5
5,873
5.0

63.5
6,236
5.3

63.6
6,179
5.2

63.4
6,148
5.2

63.4
6,233
5.3

63.6
6,075
5.1

25,218

25,559

25,604
16,720
65.3
15,210

25,686
16,748
65.2
15,144

25,720
16,687
64.9
15,040

25,752
16,833
65.4
15,122

25,785
16,769
65.0
15,119

25,813
16,747
64.9
15,131

25,839
16,758
64.9
14,969

25,868
16,941
65.5
15,045

25,898
16,887
65.2
15,168

25,930
16,822
64.9
15,027

26,000

16,719
65.4
15,270

25,644
16,827
65.6
15,339

25,961

16,603
65.8
15,334

16,618
64.0
14,976

16,753
64.4
15,142

60.8
1,269
7.6

59.7
1,450
8.7

59.4
1,510
9.0

59.8
1,488
8.8

59.0
1,604
9.6

58.5
1,647
9.9

58.7
1,711
10.2

58.6
1,650
9.8

58.6
1,616
9.6

57.9
1,789
10.7

58.2
1,896
11.2

58.6
1,718
10.2

58.0
1,794
10.7

57.7
1,642
9.9

58.2
1,611
9.6

ulation ratio2.............
Agriculture...................
Nonagricultural
industries..................
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
W o m e n , 20 yea rs a n d o v er

Civilian noninstitutional

B o th s e x e s , 1 6 to 1 9 y e a r s

Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force.............

Employment-popAgriculture...................
Nonagricultural
industries..................
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
W h ite

Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force.............
Employed........................
Employment-population ratio2.............
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate...

64.4

B la c k

Civilian noninstitutional
Civilian labor force.............

Employment-popUnemployed..................
Unemployment rate...
See footnotes at end of table.

50

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

4.

C o n t in u e d — E m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s o f t h e p o p u la t io n , b y s e x , a g e , r a c e , a n d H is p a n ic o r ig in , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[N u m be rs in thousands]
A n n u al a v e ra g e

2002

2001

E m p lo y m e n t s tatu s
2000

2001

A ug.

Sept.

O ct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

M ar.

A pr.

M ay

Ju n e

J u ly

A ug.

22,393

23,122

23,222

23,288

23,351

23,417

23,478

23,542

23,604

23,664

23,732

23,797

23,867

23,935

23,999

15,368
68.6
14,492

15,751
68.1
14,714

15,788
68.0
14,771

15,811
67.9
14,785

15,956
68.3
14,824

15,932
68.0
14,751

16,013
68.2
14,753

15,988
67.9
14,700

16,011
67.8
14,867

15,908
67.2
14,743

16,156
68.1
14,877

16,085
67.6
14,963

16,146
67.6
14,959

16,304
68.1
15,066

16,240
67.7
15,014

64.7

63.6
1,037
6.6

63.6
1,017
6.4

63.5

63.5
1,132
7.1

63.0
1,181
7.4

62.8

62.4

62.6

1,279
7.9

62.9
1,122
7.0

62.9

1,288
8.1

62.3
1,165
7.3

62.7

1,260
7.9

63.0
1,143
7.1

62.7

1,026
6.5

1,187
7.4

1,238
7.6

1,225
7.5

Hispanic origin
Civilian noninstitutional
population1..........................
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate.........
Employment-popUnemployed...................
Unemployment rate....

876
5.7

1 The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hlspanic-origin groups will not sum to totals

2 Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

5.

becausedata for the "other races" groups are not presented and Híspanles are included in
both the white and black population groups.

S e le c t e d e m p l o y m e n t in d ic a t o r s , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[In thousands]
A nnu al average

2001

2002

S e lected categ o ries
2000

2001

A ug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

Ju n e

July

A ug.

Employed, 16 years and over..
Men.......................................
Women..................................

135,208
72,293
62,915

135,073
72,080
62,992

134,408
71,705
62,703

135,004
72,177
62,827

134,615
71,871
62,744

134,253
71,570
62,683

134,055
71,577
62,478

133,468
71,114
62,354

134,319
71,457
62,862

133,894
71,299
62,595

133,976
71,397
62,579

134,417
71,894
62,524

134,053
71,524
62,528

134,045
71,509
62,536

134,474
71,552
62,922

Married men, spouse
present................................

43,368

43,243

43,143

43,099

42,983

42,861

42,772

42,823

43,275

43,317

43,167

43,548

43,140

43,273

43,371

Married women, spouse
present................................

33,708

33,613

33,685

33,604

33,227

33,330

33,209

33,174

33,703

33,552

33,446

33,371

33,362

33,361

33,723

Women who maintain
families................................

8,387

8,364

8,328

8,274

8,256

8,331

8,458

8,396

8,417

8,320

8,266

8,397

8,465

8,521

8,419

2,034
1,233
38

1,884
1,233
27

1,852
1,239
29

1,882
1,278
24

1,898
1,290
26

1,865
1,276
12

1,879
1,313
27

1,917
1,311
49

1,930
1,293
21

1,825
1,264
29

1,896
1,216
34

1,911
1,156
40

1,909
1,158
29

2,031
1,227
27

1,927
1,231
24

123,128
19,053
104,076
890
103,186
8,674
101

123,235
19,127
104,108
803
103,305
8,594
101

122,685
19,150
103,535
814
102,721
8,503
111

123,186
19,290
103,896
804
103,092
8,556
101

122,710
19,223
103,487
867
102,620
8,505
95

122,507
19,172
103,335
790
102,545
8,507
77

122,196
19,183
103,013
736
102,277
8,524
92

122,145
19,047
103,098
725
102,373
8,213
97

122,770
19,286
103,485
709
102,775
8,257
86

122,545
19,218
103,327
677
102,650
8,200
89

122,366
19,347
103,019
791
102,228
8,234
103

123,071
19,811
103,260
775
102,485
8,305
105

122,627
19,630
102,997
810
102,187
8,208
95

122,196
19,709
102,486
855
101,631
8,268
99

122,885
19,596
103,289
887
102,402
8,368
87

3,190

3,672

3,389

4,148

4,329

4,206

4,267

3,973

4,228

3,997

4,151

3,996

3,899

4,177

4,325

1,927

2,355

2,115

2,796

2,983

2,796

2,809

2,549

2,755

2,721

2,690

2,626

2,588

2,723

2,880

944

1,007

952

1,064

1,108

1,121

1,161

1,089

1,120

1,021

1,131

1,064

1,031

1,096

1,159

18,722

18,707

19,011

18,798

18,644

18,587

18,540

18,291

18,395

18,530

18,793

18,887

19,170

19,138

19,120

3,045

3,529

3,246

4,015

4,222

4,017

4,119

3,781

3,998

3,848

4,009

3,818

3,758

3,949

4,060

1,835

2,266

2,025

2,704

2,898

2,679

2,717

2,448

2,615

2,605

2,587

2,515

2,472

2,609

2,715

924

989

927

1,045

1,082

1,096

1,138

1,068

1,089

1,001

1,122

1,033

1,022

1,074

1,131

18,165

18,177

18,485

18,232

18,065

18,007

17,960

17,717

17,886

18,004

18,274

18,350

18,739

18,572

18,609

C h a r a c te r is t ic

C la s s o f w o r k e r

Agriculture:
Wage and salary workers.....
Self-employed workers.......
Unpaid family workers.........
Nonagrlcultural Industries:
Wage and salary workers.....
Government..........................
Private industries.................
Private households.......
Othc-...............................
Self-employed workers......
Unpaid family workers........
P e r s o n s a t w o r k p a rt t im e 1

All Industries:
Part time for economic
reasons...............................
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
work................................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons.............................
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
Could only find part-time
work................................
Part time for noneconomic
reasons..............................

1 Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

51

Current Labor Statistics:

6.

Labor Force Data

S e le c t e d u n e m p lo y m e n t in d ic a to r s , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[U n e m p lo y m e n t rates]
A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2001

2002

S e le c te d c a te g o rie s
2000

2001

A ug.

S e p t.

O ct.

N ov.

D ec.

J an .

Feb.

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and over..............................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and over...........................
Women, 20 years and over.....................

4.0
13.1
3.3
3.6

4.8
14.7
4.2
4.1

4.9
15.8
4.4
4.2

5.0
14.9
4.3
4.4

5.4
15.4
4.8
4.8

5.6
15.7
5.2
4.9

5.8
16.2
5.2
5.2

5.6
16.1
5.2
4.8

5.5
15.6
5.0
5.0

5.7
16.4
5.2
5.0

6.0
16.8
5.4
5.4

5.8
16.9
5.2
5.2

5.9
17.6
5.4
5.1

5.9
17.7
5.2
5.2

5.7
17.2
5.2
4.9

White, total................................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and over.....................
Women, 20 years and over...............

3.5
11.4
12.3
10.4
2.8
3.1

4.2
12.7
13.8
11.4
3.7
3.6

4.3
13.8
15.1
12.4
3.8
3.6

4.3
12.7
13.6
11.7
3.8
3.8

4.7
13.1
14.7
11.5
4.4
4.1

5.0
13.5
15.8
11.1
4.7
4.2

5.1
13.7
14.6
12.8
4.6
4.5

5.0
14.2
13.7
14.6
4.7
4.2

4.9
14.0
15.4
12.6
4.4
4.4

5.0
14.5
16.3
12.7
4.5
4.3

5.3
14.0
15.4
12.5
4.8
4.6

5.2
14.8
15.4
14.2
4.8
4.5

5.2
15.6
17.7
13.4
4.7
4.4

5.3
16.4
19.1
13.6
4.8
4.4

5.1
14.8
17.5
12.1
4.7
4.3

Black, total................................................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years........................
Women, 16 to 19 years...................
Men, 20 years and over.....................
Women, 20 years and over................

7.6
24.7
26.4
23.0
7.0
6.3

8.7
29.0
30.5
27.5
8.0
7.0

9.0
30.1
31.4
28.7
8.8
7.0

8.8
28.5
30.8
26.1
7.8
7.7

9.6
30.2
31.2
29.1
8.2
8.5

9.9
32.1
31.6
32.6
8.7
8.4

10.2
33.4
32.0
34.8
9.1
8.7

9.8
30.7
32.1
29.0
8.9
8.4

9.6
27.9
30.0
25.6
8.7
8.5

10.7
31.0
36.9
24.7
10.1
9.0

11.2
35.4
37.3
33.5
9.3
10.2

10.2
30.2
36.8
22.3
8.6
9.5

10.7
30.2
30.0
30.4
10.4
8.8

9.9
28.0
20.5
34.8
9.0
8.9

9.6
30.5
30.5
30.4
8.8
8.3

Hispanic origin, total.............................

5.7

6.6

6.4

6.5

7.1

7.4

7.9

8.1

7.1

7.3

7.9

7.0

7.4

7.6

7.5

Married men, spouse present.............
Married women, spouse present........
Women who maintain families............
Full-time workers..................................
Part-time workers...................................

2.0
2.7
5.9
3.9
4.8

2.7
3.1
6.6
4.7
5.1

2.8
3.1
6.8
4.8
5.4

2.8
3.3
7.1
5.0
4.6

3.1
3.6
6.8
5.4
5.5

3.3
3.6
8.0
5.6
5.6

3.4
3.7
8.0
5.8
5.6

3.5
3.4
7.9
5.7
5.2

3.4
3.8
8.0
5.7
4.8

3.4
3.7
7.3
5.8
5.2

3.9
3.9
8.6
6.2
5.2

3.6
3.9
8.1
5.9
5.6

4.1
3.8
8.2
6.1
5.0

3.5
3.7
8.4
5.9
5.4

3.4
3.5
7.3
5.7
5.6

4.1
3.9
6.4
3.6
3.4
4.0
3.1
5.0
2.3
3.8
2.1
7.5

5.0
4.7
7.3
5.2
5.3
5.1
4.1
5.6
2.8
4.6
2.2
9.7

5.2
4.7
7.6
5.7
5.8
5.4
3.6
5.6
2.7
4.9
2.1
10.0

5.2
5.0
7.8
5.6
5.8
5.4
3.9
5.9
2.8
4.8
2.2
7.6

5.8
5.8
8.3
6.0
6.5
5.3
6.0
6.1
2.8
5.5
2.3
9.0

6.0
5.3
8.9
6.4
6.9
5.5
6.1
6.4
3.5
5.4
2.4
9.3

6.2
6.1
8.9
6.8
7.2
6.1
6.1
7.1
3.0
5.5
2.4
9.6

5.9
5.9
9.4
6.6
7.0
5.9
6.2
6.3
2.2
5.4
2.3
10.3

6.0
4.5
7.9
6.7
7.5
5.5
5.8
6.5
2.8
5.5
2.7
9.5

6.1
6.3
8.8
7.0
7.5
6.3
5.4
6.5
3.1
5.4
2.8
12.4

6.5
6.0
9.3
7.2
7.6
6.6
6.1
7.2
3.2
5.8
2.5
9.0

6.3
4.4
8.9
6.7
6.3
7.5
5.7
7.0
4.0
5.6
2.6
9.1

6.3
7.9
9.1
6.8
7.3
6.1
5.9
6.6
4.1
5.9
2.3
8.3

6.2
3.8
10.3
6.3
6.8
5.6
5.3
6.8
3.7
5.8
2.5
9.7

6.0
6.0
9.5
6.3
6.5
5.9
4.8
6.8
3.1
5.4
2.4
9.8

6.4
3.5

7.3
4.2

7.3
4.3

7.7
4.3

7.8
4.6

8.1
5.0

8.8
4.9

8.1
5.2

8.3
5.3

8.0
5.4

9.0
5.7

8.5
5.6

7.9
5.6

8.7
5.1

8.4
5.1

2.7
1.7

3.3
2.3

3.3
2.2

3.5
2.5

3.9
2.7

4.2
2.9

4.3
3.1

4.2
2.9

4.1
2.9

4.3
2.7

4.7
3.0

4.9
2.9

4.7
2.9

4.4
2.9

4.3
2.7

Industry
Nonagricultural wage and salary
workers.........................................................
Mining........................................................
Construction..............................................
Manufacturing..........................................
Durable goods......................................
Nondurable goods...............................
Transportation and public utilities.........
Wholesale and retail trade.....................
Finance, insurance, and real estate......
Services....................................................
Government workers..................................
Agricultural wage and salary workers.......
Educational attainment1
Less than a high school diploma................
High school graduates, no college.............
Some college, less than a bachelor’s
degree..........................................................
College graduates........................................
1 Data refer to persons 25 years and over.

7.

D u r a tio n o f u n e m p lo y m e n t , m o n t h ly d a t a

s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[N u m b e rs in th o u s a n d s ]
W e e ks of
u n e m p lo y m e n t

52

A n n u a l a v e ra g e
2000

2001

2001
Aug.

S e p t.

2002

O ct.

N ov.

D ec.

J an .

Feb.

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

3,084
2,522
2,042
1,136

3,090
2,573
2,317
1,207

3,024
2,724
2,410
1,295

2,828
2,515
2,561
1,383

3,078
2,411
2,688
1,355

2,876
2,531
2,952

1,178

1,333

2,793
2,818
2,854
1,360
1,494

15.0
8.1

15.4

16.6
8.9

17.1

Less than 5 weeks............................
5 to 14 weeks.....................................

2,543
1,803

2,833
2,163

2,953
2,152

15 weeks and over............................
15 to 26 weeks...............................
27 weeks and over........................

1,309
665
644

1,746
949
797

1,798
980

2,807
2,366
1,907
1,084

818

823

906

1,110

1,115

2,978
2,586
2,546
1,418
1,127

Mean duration, in weeks..................
Median duration, in weeks...............

12.6
5.9

13.2
6.8

13.2
6.6

13.3
7.3

13.0
7.4

14.4

14.5
8.2

14.6
8.8

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

7.6

8.1

1,316
1,636

9.8

June

J u ly

Aug.

2,729
2,784

2,896
2,464

3,103
1,434
1,669

2,883
1,349
1,533

2,431
2,783
1,309
1,474

2,880

17.3
11.7

16.4
8.6

16.2
8.4

8.

U n e m p lo y e d

p e r s o n s b y r e a s o n fo r u n e m p lo y m e n t , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[N u m b e rs in th o u s a n d s ]
R e a s o n fo r
u n e m p lo y m e n t

Job losers1.........................................

New entrants......................................

2001

2000
2,492
842
1,650
775
1,957
431

A ug.

3,428
1,049
2,379
832
2,029
453

2002

2001

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

3,438
1,071
2,367
877
2,162
488

S e p t.
3,595
1,114
2,481
819
2,102
466

O ct.

N ov.

D ec.

Jan .

Feb.

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

4,297
1,288
3,009
880
2,113
466

4,501
1,157
3,344
848
2,197
497

4,492
1,107
3,385
908
2,361
495

4,354
1,124
3,231
879
2,191
479

4,326
1,106
3,220
877
2,268
485

4,270
1,066
3,204
862
2,471
557

4,525
1,095
3,430
1,017
2,450
519

4,598
1,091
3,506
902
2,433
499

June
4,579
1,061
3,518
836
2,360
584

J u ly
4,580
1,224
3,356
818
2,375
571

Aug.
4,560
1,151
3,410
824
2,270
619

Percent of unemployed
Job losers1.........................................

44.1

50.8

49.4

51.5

55.4

56.0

54.4

55.1

54.4

52.3

53.2

54.5

54.8

54.9

55.1

New entrants......................................

14.9
29.2
13.7
34.6
7.6

15.6
35.3
12.3
30.1
6.7

15.4
34.0
12.6
31.0
7.0

16.0
35.5
11.7
30.1
6.7

16.6
38.8
11.3
27.2
6.0

14.4
41.6
10.5
27.3
6.2

13.4
41.0
11.0
28.6
6.0

14.2
40.9
11.1
27.7
6.1

13.9
40.5
11.0
28.5
6.1

13.1
39.3
10.6
30.3
6.8

12.9
40.3
12.0
28.8
6.1

12.9
41.6
10.7
28.9
5.9

12.7
42.1
10.0
28.2
7.0

14.7
40.2
9.8
28.5
6.8

13.9
41.2
10.0
27.4
7.5

1.8

2.4

2.4

2.5

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

.6
1.4
.3

.6
1.4
.3

.6
1.5
.3

.6
1.5
.3

.6
1.5
.3

.6
1.5
.3

.6
1.7
.3

.6
1.5
.3

.6
1.6
.3

.6
1.7
.4

.7
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.3

.6
1.7
.4

.6
1.7
.4

.6
1.6
.4

Percent of civilian
labor force
Job losers1.........................................

1 Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

9.

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te s b y s e x a n d a g e , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[C iv ilia n w o rk e rs ]
2002

2001

A n n u a l a v e ra g e
Sex and age
2000

55 years and over.................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2001

A ug.

S e p t.

O ct.

N ov.

D ec.

Jan .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

A ug.

4.0
9.3
13.1
15.4
11.5
7.1
3.0
3.1
2.6

4.8
10.6
14.7
17.1
13.2
8.3
3,7
3.8
3.0

4.9
11.3
15.8
18.6
14.4
8.9
3.8
3.9
3.1

5.0
10.8
14.9
16.6
13.9
8.6
3.8
3.9
3.2

5.4
11.5
15.4
17.4
14.2
9.3
4.2
4.4
3.4

5.6
11.7
15.7
17.5
14.8
9.5
4.4
4.6
3.5

5.8
11.9
16.2
18.8
14.8
9.6
4.5
4.7
4.0

5.6
11.9
16.1
17.0
15.2
9.7
4.4
4.7
3.5

5.5
11.6
15.6
16.5
14.7
9.5
4.5
4.6
3.8

5.7
12.5
16.4
18.0
15.1
10.3
4.5
4.7
3.5

6.0
12.3
16.8
19.4
15.1
10.0
4.9
5.0
4.0

5.8
11.6
16.9
20.7
14.8
8.9
4.8
5.0
4.2

5.9
12.2
17.6
20.8
15.6
9.3
4.8
4.9
4.2

5.9
12.3
17.7
20.9
16.1
9.5
4.6
4.8
3.7

5.7
12.2
17.2
19.7
16.0
9.6
4.5
4.6
4.0

3.9
9.7
14.0
16.8
12.2
7.3
2.8
2.9
2.7

4.8
11.4
15.9
18.8
14.1
8.9
3.6
3.7
3.3

5.1
12.3
17.4
21.9
15.0
9.5
3.8
3.9
3.3

5.0
11.5
16.0
18.7
14.5
9.1
3.7
3.8
3.3

5.5
12.4
17.2
20.3
15.1
9.8
4.2
4.3
3.7

5.9
13.0
17.7
20.4
16.2
10.5
4.5
4.6
4.1

5.8
12.8
17.2
20.0
15.6
10.5
4.5
4.5
4.2

5.8
12.5
16.3
17.6
15.1
10.6
4.5
4.7
3.8

5.6
12.4
16.8
19.6
15.4
10.2
4.4
4.5
4.1

5.9
13.7
18.5
20.8
16.7
11.1
4.5
4.7
3.6

6.1
13.0
18.1
19.6
17.2
10.3
4.8
4.9
4.3

5.9
12.5
18.6
23.7
15.6
9.4
4.8
4.9
4.5

6.1
12.9
19.6
23.2
17.4
9.5
4.9
5.0
4.6

6.0
13.0
19.8
23.9
17.4
9.6
4.7
4.8
4.0

6.0
13.7
20.1
24.5
17.8
10.5
4.6
4.7
4.1

4.1
8.9
12.1
14.0
10.8
7.0
3.2
3.3

4.7
9.7
13.4
15.3
12.2
7.5
3.7
3.8
2.7

4.8
10.3
14.1
15.4
13.7
8.2
3.8
3.9
2.8

5.0
10.1
13.6
14.3
13.3
8.1
4.0
4.0
3.2

5.3
10.5
13.6
14.5
13.3
8.7
4.2
4.4
3.2

5.4
10.3
13.7
14.5
13.3
8.3
4.4
4.7

5.8
11.0
15.1
17.6
14.0
8.7
4.6
4.8
3.7

5.4
11.3
15.8
16.4
15.2
8.7
4.3
4.6

5.5
10.7
14.3
13.6
13.9
8.7
4.6
4.7

3.0

3.5

5.5
11.2
14.3
15.3
13.4
9.4
4.4
4.6
3.4

6.0
11.6
15.4
19.2
12.9
9.6
5.0
5.1
3.7

5.8
10.7
15.2
17.4
14.1
8.3
4.8
5.1
3.7

5.7
11.4
15.6
18.3
13.7
9.1
4.6
4.8
3.8

5.7
11.6
15.6
17.9
14.8
9.4
4.6
4.8
3.4

5.4
10.6
14.2
15.1
14.1
8.7
4.5
4.6
3.8

2.6

2.8

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

53

Current Labor Statistics:

10.

Labor Force Data

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te s b y S ta te , s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

S ta te

J u ly

June

J u ly

2001

2002p

2002p

5.3
6.3
4.5
5.2
5.3

5.4
6.7
6.0
5.2
6.5

5.7
67
6.0
52
6.3

3.7
3.5
3.3
6.7
4.8

5.0
3.6
4.2
6.3
5.3

4.0
4.5
4.9
5.4
4.5

M a in e ...........................................................................

3.4
4.3
5.8
5.7
4.1

M a r y la n d ....................................................................
M a s s a c h u s e tts .......................................................

A la b a m a ....................................................................
A la s k a ........................................................................
A r iz o n a .....................................................................
A r k a n s a s ...................................................................
C a lifo rn ia ..................................................................
C o lo r a d o ...................................................................
C o n n e c tic u t..............................................................
D e la w a r e ...................................................................
D istrict o f C o lu m b ia ..............................................
F lo rid a .........................................................................
G e o r g ia ......................................................................
H a w a ii.........................................................................
Id a h o ...........................................................................
Illin o is..........................................................................
In d ia n a .......................................................................
Io w a ............................................................................
K a n s a s .......................................................................
K e n tu c k y ....................................................................
L o u is ia n a ...................................................................

M ic h ig a n ....................................................................
M in n e s o ta .................................................................
M is s is s ip p i...............................................................

S ta te

iy

June

J u ly

01

2002p

2002p

4.7
4.5
3.1
5.1
3.7

5.4
4.6
3.6
5.5
4.5

5.2
4.5
3.6
5.4
4.2

52
3.8
3.9
6.0
5.3

4.2
4.8
4.8
5.7
2.7

5.6
6.3
6.1
6.7
3.2

5.4
6.3
6.0
6.8
3.4

4.7
4.0
5.2
6.3
5.1

4.6
4.3
5.4
6.7
5.1

4.3
3.9
6.4
4.8
4.9

5.7
4.3
7.2
5.4
4.1

5.7
4.2
7.3
5.4
4.2

3.6
4.5
5.2
6.1
4.0

40
4.6
5.3
56
4.2

5.6
3.4
4.5
5.0
4.3

5.5
2.9
4.8
5.8
4.7

5.2
2.9
4.9
6.0
5.1

4.1

4.2

3.8
5.3
3.7
5.3

4.8
6.6
4.0
6.6

4.2
4.9
6.6
4.3
6.5

3.6
3.6
6.3
5.0
4.6
4.0

3.9
3.8
6.8
6.4
4.9
4.3

3.9
4.0
7.1
6.2
4.7
3.7

M issouri

W y o m in g ...................................................................

p = preliminary
Dash indicates data not available.

11.

E m p lo y m e n t o f w o r k e r s o n n o n f a r m

p a y r o lls b y S ta te , s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[In th o u s a n d s ]
S ta te

J u ly

June

J u ly

2001

2002p

2002p

J u ly
S ta te

2001

Alabama...................
Alaska.......................
Arizona.....................
Arkansas..................
California..................

1,911.6
291.5
2,269.9
1,154.9
14,701.9

1,896.9
292.4
2,251.4
1,152.3
14,658.9

1,892.3
293.5
2,245.0
1,150.3
14,666.4

Missouri..........................................
Montana.........................................
Nebraska.........................................

Colorado..................
Connecticut..............
Delaware..................
District of Columbia.
Florida.......................

2,234.5
1,681.1
418.6
653.6
7,200.5

2,194.7
1,675.6
416.9
650.2
7,143.4

2,184.7
1,673.7
415.9
650.9
7,220.5

New Jersey.....................................
New Mexico...................................
New York........................................
North Carolina...............................

Georgia....................

3,961.4
556.7
570.2
6,016.9
2,938.9

3,882.1

Hawaii.......................
Idaho.........................
Illinois........................
Indiana......................

554.8
567.7
5,937.4
2,891.4

3,877.9
550.2
567.6
5,933.1
2,905.4

Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon.............................................
Pennsylvania.................................
Rhode Island..................................

1,508.5
1,592.3
5,719.2
479.8

Iowa...........................
Kansas......................
Kentucky..................
Louisiana..................
Maine........................

1,464.9
1,357.9
1,809.2
1,936.4
610.8

1,457.5
1,367.7
1,824.1
1,924.7
610.6

1,462.6
1,366.6
1,827.9
1,923.3
611.8

South Carolina...............................
South Dakota.................................
Tennessee......................................
Texas...............................................
Utah................................................

1,833.3
379.7
2,705.8
9,518.0
1,083.4

Maryland..................
Massachusetts........
Michigan...................
Minnesota.................
Mississippi................

2,461.0
3,330.1
4,585.2
2,673.6
1,137.4

2,452.5
3,290.6
4,548.5
2,653.7
1,130.9

2,429.0
3,284.9
4,545.7
2,655.9
1,132.2

Vermont..........................................
Virginia.............................................
Washington.....................................
West Virginia..................................
W isconsin.......................................
W yoming.........................................

298.2
3,528.9
2,702.1
731.9
2,822.4
245.5

New Hampshire.............................

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

2002p
2,685.8
398.9
910.3
1,070.2
624.5

2,687.1
395.9
908.0
1,070.4
625.3

4,020.5
756.5
8,637.9
3,893.5
329 0

4,004.4
762.1
8,541.6
3,862.6
331 2

4,003.0
759.2
8,558.7
3,900.3
329.1

5,564.7

5,507.7
1,520.2
1,583.3
5,655.8
483.7

5,513.4

1,823.1
382.2
2,696.7
9,462.0
1,065.4

1,820.5
382.3
2,702.9
9,410.7
1,066.5

297.2
3,506.3
2,648.0
727.2
2,831.6
247.4

297.0
3,495.9
2,646.6
722.9
2,834.3
252.6

p = preliminary. Dash indicates data not available.

54

J u ly
2002p

2,730.6
392.5
912.0
1,056.3
625.6

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

June

1,519.1
1,580.7
5,658.1
483.2

12.

E m p lo y m e n t o f w o r k e r s o n n o n f a r m

[In thousands]

p a y r o lls b y in d u s tr y , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

__________________________________________

In dustry

A nnual average

2001

2002

2000

2001

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

June

Ju lyp

A ug.p

P R IV A T E S E C T O R .....................

131,739
111,079

131,922
110,989

131,966
110,968

131,819
110,776

131,414
110,349

131,087
109,987

130,890
109,768

130,871
109,734

130,706
109,544

130,701
109,505

130,680
109,495

130,702
109,496

130,736
109,525

130,790
109,562

130,897
109,616

G O O D S - P R O D U C IN G ......................

25,709

24,944

24,675
571
35
343

24,353
566
34
340

24,261
565
33
339

24,130

24,041

23,975

564
32
339

560
32
336

23,870
558
32
334

23,812

568
33
342

23,905
564
32
339

23,861

565
36
338

24,776
571
35
343

24,511

543
41
311

555
32
333

551
33
329

23,787
555
32
333

T O T A L .......................................

M in in g ..............................................

Metal mining..............................
Oil and gas extraction...............
Nonmetallic minerals,
except fuels............................
C o n s tr u c tio n .....................................

General building contractors....
Heavy construction, except
building....................................
Special trades contractors.........
M a n u fa c tu r in g .................................

Production workers.............
D u ra b le g o o d s ..............................

Production workers.............
Lumber and wood products....
Furniture and fixtures..............
Stone, clay, and glass
products................................
Primary metal Industries.........
Fabricated metal products......
Industrial machinery and
equipment............................
Computer and office
equipment..........................
Electronic and other electrical
equipment..............................
Electronic components and
accessories.........................
Transportation equipment......
Motor vehicles and
equipment............................
Aircraft and parts...................
Instruments and related
products................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries................................
N o n d u ra b le g o o d s .......................

Production workers..............

566
34
340

114

111

111

111

110

110

111

111

111

111

112

112

110

110

111

6,698
1,528

6,685
1,462

6,679
1,461

6,674
1,462

6,643
1,456

6,629
1,454

6,634
1,459

6,615
1,459

6,597
1,458

6,593
1,462

6,541
1,452

6,541
1,454

6,549
1,454

6,519
1,334

6,553
1,464

901
4,269

922
4,300

925
4,293

924
4,288

922
4,265

925
4,250

924
4,251

919
4,237

914
4,225

908
4,223

901
4,188

908
4,179

910
4,185

899
4,175

898
4,191

18,469
12,628

17,695
11,933

17,526
11,797

17,430
11,719

17,302
11,620

17,158
11,513

17,062
11,437

16,947
11,362

16,880
11,305

16,822
11,264

16,800
11,250

16,758
11,245

16,757
11,236

16,742
11,237

16,679
11,198

11,138
7,591

10,636
7,126

10,516
6,026

10,445
6,971

10,343
6,889

10,237
6,809

10,166
6,753

10,070
6,690

10,023
6,653

9,976
6,625

9,976
6,620

9,963
6,619

9,944
6,603

9,922
6,609

9,876
6,578

832
558

786
519

783
513

784
507

777
500

772
495

770
494

771
492

771
491

769
491

767
497

770
494

767
495

766
495

767
495

579
698
1,537

571
656
1,483

568
649
1,471

566
643
1,465

564
637
1,455

561
625
1,438

558
617
1,437

555
607
1,427

551
601
1,425

550
596
1,422

551
598
1,425

549
597
1,428

552
593
1,425

554
589
1,425

556
589
1,416

2,120

2,010

1,976

1,957

1,935

1,909

1,887

1,868

1,855

1,846

1,842

1,826

1,829

1,826

1,810

361

343

336

331

328

325

322

317

315

315

313

308

304

301

296

1,719

1,631

1,586

1,565

1,542

1,520

1,499

1,478

1,459

1,445

1,443

1,437

1,428

1,426

1,407

682
1,849

661
1,760

635
1,760

628
1,750

616
1,729

605
1,720

595
1,709

582
1,680

571
1,682

566
1,674

566
1,671

567
1,675

566
1,679

563
1,661

555
1,668

1,013
465

947
461

945
463

937
463

921
458

921
452

920
449

902
437

913
427

915
419

912
416

914
416

920
411

905
409

914
404

852

830

837

832

829

825

822

818

816

813

811

807

805

803

798

394

380

373

376

375

372

373

374

372

370

371

372

371

374

370

7,331
5,038

7,059
4,808

5,010
4,771

6,985
4,748

6,959
4,731

6,921
4,704

6,896
4,684

6,877
4,672

6,857
4,652

6,846
4,639

6,824
4,630

6,808
4,626

6,813
4,633

6,820
4,638

6,903
4,620

1,684
34
528

1,691
34
478

1,685
35
469

1,690
34
464

1,690
34
459

1,690
34
451

1,685
34
448

1,686
34
444

1,686
33
441

1,685
34
440

1,689
33
436

1,687
34
434

1,691
34
432

1,687
35
429

1,683
38
427

Food and kindred products.....
Tobacco products....................
Textile mill products.................
Apparel and other textile
products.................................
Paper and allied products.......
Printing and publishing............
Chemicals and allied products.
Petroleum and coal products...
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products....................
Leather and leather products...

633
657
1,547
1,038
127

566
834
1,490
1,022
126

555
630
1,480
1,022
126

551
628
1,471
1,019
126

546
627
1,463
1,018
127

537
626
1,453
1,015
127

537
624
1,444
1,012
126

536
622
1,437
1,008
126

531
621
1,428
1,011
126

527
620
1,419
1,010
126

523
615
1,413
1,008
125

520
612
1,407
1,006
125

522
612
1,405
1,008
125

525
612
1,406
1,008
126

523
613
1,401
1,007
126

1,011
71

958
60

950
58

945
57

939
56

932
56

930
56

928
56

924
56

929
56

927
55

928
55

929
55

936
56

930
57

S E R V IC E -P R O D U C IN G ...................

106,050

106,978

107,190

107,144

106,903

106,734

106,629

106,741

106,665

106,726

106,775

106,832

106,875

106,978

107,110

7,019
4,529
236

7,065
4,497
234

7,088
4,522
233

7,044
4,487
232

6,974
4,427
232

6,907
4,367
232

6,856
4,332
233

6,850
4,343
235

6,837
4,341
234

6,814
4,330
233

6,799
4,330
230

6,793
4,328
228

6,790
4,334
229

6,780
4,328
227

6,763
4,320
226

476
1,856
196
1,281
14
471

480
1,848
192
1,266
15
462

480
1,845
194
1,291
15
463

477
1,841
192
1,268
15
462

478
1,831
193
1,236
15
442

480
1,831
189
1,187
15
433

481
1,827
188
1,159
15
429

481
1,824
188
1,171
15
429

479
1,826
187
1,171
15
429

478
1,819
186
1,172
15
427

476
1,830
190
1,162
15
427

475
1,827
193
1,165
15
425

472
1,829
193
1,172
15
424

471
1,834
192
1,167
15
422

464
1,829
190
1,175
15
421

2,490
1,639

2,570
1,716

2,566
1,714

2,557
1,706

2,547
1,696

2,540
1,689

2,524
1,679

2,507
1,660

2,496
1,652

2,484
1,643

2,469
1,628

2,465
1,626

2,456
1,615

2,452
1,608

2,443
1,598

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic
u tilitie s ...........................................

Transportation............................
Railroad transportation............
Local and interurban
passenger transit...................
Trucking and warehousing......
Water transportation................
Transportation by air................
Pipelines, except natural gas...
Transportation services.........
Communications and public
utilities......................................
Communications......................
Electric, gas, and sanitary
services.................................

851

852

852

851

851

851

845

847

844

841

841

839

841

844

845

W h o le s a le tr a d e ..............................

7,024

6,776

6,762

6,747

6,728

6,693

6,702

6,702

6,689

6,681

6,678

6,681

6,681

6,679

6,672

R e ta il tr a d e .........................................

23,307

23,522

23,553

23,509

23,470

23,449

23,318

23,396

23,331

23,332

23,345

23,327

23,308

23,339

23,295

1,044
2,897
2,559

1,049
2,901
2,566

1,051
2,902
2,567

1,052
2,888
2,552

1,049
2,877
2,540

1,050
2,853
2,520

1,049
2,856
2,520

1,048
2,892
2,550

1,053
2,901
2,560

1,061
2,915
2,575

1,068
2,897
2,560

1,066
2,884
2,542

1,067
2,885
2,544

1,065
2,851
2,613

Building materials and garden
supplies...................................
General merchandise stores.....
Department stores...................

1,016
2,837
2,491 |

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

55

Current Labor Statistics:

12.

Labor Force Data

C o n t in u e d — E m p lo y m e n t o f w o r k e r s o n n o n f a r m

p a y r o lls b y in d u s tr y , m o n t h ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[In thousands]_________________________
In dustry

A nnu al average
2000

Food stores...............................
Automotive dealers and
service stations......................
New and used car dealers.....
Apparel and accessory stores...
Furniture and home furnishings
stores......................................
Eating and drinking places.......
Miscellaneous retail
establishments.......................

2001

2001
Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

2002
Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

June

Julyp

A ug.p

3,521

3,541

3,432

3,438

3,442

3,448

3,430

3,421

3,402

3,392

3,392

3,397

3,394

3,388

3,392

2,412
1,114
1,193

2,425
1,121
1,189

2,438
1,123
1,196

2,434
1,123
1,188

2,426
1,123
1,177

2,434
1,126
1,173

2,438
1,131
1,163

2,436
1,133
1,187

2,430
1,134
1,172

2,426
1,131
1,175

2,429
1,129
1,170

2,434
1,133
1,169

2,432
1,128
1,173

1,437
1,127
1,178

2,444
1,130
1,177

1,134
8,114

1,141
8,256

1,137
8,272

1,141
8,234

1,136
8,239

1,156
8,224

1,156
8,190

1,138
8,238

1,143
8,161

1,143
8,154

1,141
8,152

1,146
8,130

1,148
8,121

1,153
8,144

1,153
8,125

3,080

317

3,128

3,121

3,110

3,086

3,038

3,069

3,083

3,088

3,085

3,086

3,090

3,087

3,088

7,560
3,710
2,029
1,430
253
681

7,712
3,800
2,053
1,434
256
720

7,728
3,809
2,059
1,435
256
728

7,739
3,813
2,061
1,437
258
733

7,743
3,812
2,061
1,439
257
740

7,751
3,821
2,068
1,442
260
747

7,748
3,818
2,070
1,444
261
752

7,748
3,819
2,070
1,450
262
755

7,745
3,812
2,072
1,446
263
754

7,740
3,809
2,074
1,447
264
753

7,743
3,813
2,075
1,446
264
756

7,732
3,813
2,073
1,446
264
756

7,733
3,819
2,071
1,444
264
762

7,737
3,819
2,073
1,445
263
767

7,747
3,823
2,076
1,449
263
774

F in a n c e , In s u ra n c e , a n d
re a l e s t a t e ......................................

Finance......................................
Depository institutions.............
Commercial banks................
Savings institutions...............
Nondepository institutions......
Security and commodity
brokers...................................
Holding and other investment
offices.....................................
Insurance...................................
Insurance carriers...................
Insurance agents, brokers,
and service............................
Real estate................................
S e r v i c e s ...........................................

Agricultural services..................
Hotels and other lodging places
Personal services......................
Business services......................
Services to buildings................
Personnel supply services......
Help supply services..............
Computer and data
processing services...............
Auto repair services
and parking.............................
Miscellaneous repair services....
Motion pictures..........................
Amusement and recreation
services...................................

748

769

763

758

750

745

734

729

726

722

723

723

723

718

714

251
2,346
1,589

257
2,369
1,595

259
2,371
1,599

261
2,375
1,598

261
2,379
1,600

261
2,377
1,597

262
2,372
1,594

259
2,372
1,594

260
2,376
1,593

260
2,375
1,591

259
2,374
1,989

261
2,369
1,583

263
2,366
1,579

261
2,365
1,576

259
2,367
1,574

757
1,504

773
1,544

772
1,548

777
1,551

779
1,552

780
1,553

778
1,558

778
1,557

783
1,557

784
1,556

785
1,556

786
1,550

787
1,548

789
1,553

793
1,557

40,460
832
1,914
1,251
9,858
994
3,887
3,487

40,970
849
1,870
1,269
9,572
1,016
3,446
3,084

41,061
854
1,866
1,273
9,537
1,018
3,412
3,050

41,062
857
1,852
1,274
9,522
1,020
3,383
3,029

40,923
859
1,814
1,272
9,393
1,022
3,249
2,906

40,834
860
1,810
1,266
9,277
1,025
3,126
2,799

40,883
865
1,805
1,284
9,265
1,025
3,107
2,782

10,908
865
1,811
1,290
9,231
1,022
3,080
2,761

40,901
868
1,811
1,282
9,207
1,018
3,070
2,758

40,963
872
1,811
1,289
9,237
121
3,107
2,795

41,025
857
1,796
1,286
9,312
1,027
3,175
2,857

41,093
856
1,789
1,279
9,330
1,023
3,198
2,888

41,152
862
1,801
1,285
9,332
1,023
3,205
2,902

41,215
862
1,795
1,282
9,325
1,034
3,196
2,875

41,352
862
1,788
1,286
9,397
1,039
3,256
2,926

2,095

2,225

2,230

2,233

2,232

2,221

2,219

2,213

2,208

2,198

2,190

2,190

2,191

2,193

2,193

1,248
366
594

1,257
374
583

1,262
374
583

1,261
375
580

1,253
375
575

1,259
375
577

1,259
376
574

1,262
376
581

1,262
379
574

1,260
377
572

1,261
377
574

1,262
375
578

1,265
378
581

1,266
379
584

1,265
377
592

1,728

1,721

1,714

1,700

1,702

1,685

1,680

1,699

1,649

1,635

1,611

1,621

1,631

1,649

1,664

Health services..........................
Offices and clinics of medical
doctors....................................
Nursing and personal care
facilities...................................
Hospitals...................................
Home health care services.....
Legal services............................
Educational services..................
Social services...........................
Child day care services...........
Residential care.......................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens..................
Membership organizations........
Engineering and management
services....................................
Engineering and architectural
services...................................
Management and public
relations.................................

10,197

10,381

10,424

10,452

10,476

10,502

10,530

10,551

10,575

10,602

10,611

10,626

10,660

10,687

10,713

1,924

2,002

2,012

2,016

3,018

2,025

2,029

2,033

3,041

2,046

2,044

2,050

2,061

2,067

2,075

1,795
3,990
643
1,010
2,325
2,903
712
806

1,847
4,096
636
1,037
2,433
307
716
864

1,852
4,117
637
1,041
2,449
3,094
727
873

1,858
4,129
639
1,046
2,452
3,097
722
878

1,862
4,141
639
1,047
2,454
3,110
721
884

1,866
4,153
640
1,049
2,458
3,121
721
888

1,871
4,164
641
1,051
2,463
3,135
723
891

1,876
4,174
643
1,053
2,473
3,149
723
896

1,875
4,184
642
1,054
2,485
3,155
722
899

1,879
4,193
643
1,056
2,489
3,162
723
902

1,883
4,199
643
1,059
2,501
3,167
925
903

1,886
4,207
644
1,066
2,518
3,164
722
901

1,887
4,221
643
1,065
2,511
3,165
726
904

1,888
4,233
646
1,065
2,529
3,181
726
904

1,893
4,243
647
1,066
2,535
3,203
734
907

106
2,475

110
2,468

111
2,473

111
2,479

110
2,474

109
2,473

110
2,473

110
2,471

109
2,471

109
2,470

109
2,477

108
2,480

109
2,484

109
2,476

108
2,472

3,419

3,593

3,612

3,610

3,616

3,620

3,621

3,624

3,629

3,631

3,636

3,649

3,636

3,634

3,633

1,017

1,053

1,058

1,057

1,056

1,051

1,048

1,047

1,044

1,044

1,041

1,042

1,034

1,032

1,031

1,090

1,166

1,171

1,175

1,178

1,182

1,184

1,192

1,193

1,191

1,202

1,209

1,204

1,214

1,210

G o v e r n m e n t.......................................

20,681
2,777

20,933
2,616

20,998
2,624

21,043
2,622

21,065
2,622

21,100
2,622

21,122
2,616

21,137
2,615

21,162
2,609

21,196
2,608

21,185
2,611

21,206
2,600

21,211
2,601

21,228
2,607

21,281
2,616

1,917
4,785
2,032
2,753
13,119
7,440
5,679

1,767
4,885
2,096
2,789
13,432
7,646
5,786

1,771
4,910
2,116
2,794
13,437
7,668
5,796

1,774
4,938
2,140
2,798
13,464
7,679
5,804

1,778
4,925
2,118
2,807
13,483
7,693
5,825

1,776
4,925
2,121
2,804
13,518
7,710
5,849

1,776
4,932
2,124
2,808
13,559
7,723
5,852

1,776
4,935
2,127
2,808
13,575
7,732
5,861

1,777
4,937
2,130
2,807
13,593
7,746
5,871

1,782
4,940
2,133
2,807
13,617
7,767
5,878

1,784
4,942
2,135
2,807
13,645
7,754
5,879

1,777
4,945
2,141
2,804
13,661
7,770
5,891

1,783
4,935
2,135
2,800
13,675
7,755
5,920

1,790
4,950
2,155
2,795
13,671
7,788
5,883

1,799
4,944
2,143
2,801
13,721
7,832
5,889

Federal........................................
Federal, except Postal
Service...................................
State...........................................
Education..................................
Other State government..........
Local...........................................
Education..................................
Other local government..........

1 Includes other industries not shown separately.
p = preliminary.

NOTE:

5Ó

See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

13.

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s o f p r o d u c t io n o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s o n p r iv a te

n o n fa rm

p a y r o lls , b y in d u s tr y , m o n t h ly

d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d

In d u s try

2000
PRIVATE SECTOR..................................
GOODS-PRODUCING..................................
MINING..........................................................

34.5
41.0
43.1

2001
34.2
40.4
43.5

2002

2001

A n n u a l a v e ra g e
Aug.

S e p t.

34.1

34.1

40.3
43.5

40.3
43.6

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly ”

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.2

34.3

34.0

34.1

40.4

40.5

40.4

40.3

40.5

40.0

40.3

43.4

43.3

42.4

43.0

43.3

42.7

43.3

40.7
4.0

40.9
4.2

N ov.

D ec.

Jan .

F eb .

34.0

34.1

34.1

34.1

40.1

40.2

40.2

40.3
43.0

O ct.

43.0

43.5

43.8

A u g .p

MANUFACTURING.....................................
Overtime hours.....................................

41.6
4.6

40.7
3.9

40.7
4.0

40.6
3.9

40.5
3.8

40.4
3.8

40.8
3.8

40.6
3.9

40.7
3.9

41.0
4.1

40.9
4.2

40.9
4.2

41.1
4.3

Durable g o o d s ...........................................
Overtime hours....................................
Lumber and wood products.................
Furniture and fixtures............................
Stone, clay, and glass products..........
Primary metal industries......................
Blast furnaces and basic steel

42.1
4.7
41.0
40.0
43.1
44.9

41.0
3.9
40.6
39.0
43.6
43.6

41.0
3.9
40.8
39.7
43.7
43.6

40.9
3.8
41.2
39.1
43.9
43.7

40.7
3.7
30.7
38.6
43.6
43.4

40.6
3.7
40.7
38.8
43.6
43.0

40.9
3.8
41.0
39.2
43.4
43.7

41.0
3.9
40.5
40.1
43.8
43.6

41.1
3.9
40.9
40.3
44.1
43.8

41.3
4.1
41.1
40.6
43.6
44.4

41.4
4.1
40.8
40.8
43.8
44.3

41.3
4.1
40.8
40.4
43.4
44.1

41.5
4.2
41.0
40.2
43.7
44.6

41.0
3.9
41.2
40.1
43.2
44.1

41.2
4.1
41.0
40.3
43.3
44.3

products..............................................
Fabricated metal products...................

46.0
42.6

44.6
41.4

44.6
41.4

45.3
41.2

44.5
41.1

43.9
41.0

44.4
41.3

44.5
41.3

44.8
41.6

45.5
41.7

45.1
41.6

45.6
41.9

46.1
42.0

45.5
41.7

45.8
41.7

Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment............................................
Transportation equipment...................
Motor vehicles and equipment..........
Instruments and related products.......
Miscellaneous manufacturing.............

42.2

40.6

40.3

40.3

40.2

39.9

40.1

40.1

40.1

40.5

40.6

40.7

40.9

40.3

40.8

41.1
43.4
44.4
41.3
39.0

39.4
41.9
42.7
40.9
37.9

39.1
42.2
43.6
40.6
38.1

39.1
41.5
42.4
41.1
37.7

39.0
41.5
42.4
40.7
37.3

39.0
41.6
42.5
40.6
37.4

39.4
41.9
43.2
40.6
38.0

38.7
42.7
44.3
40.5
38.2

38.9
42.3
43.7
40.4
38.4

39.4
42.4
43.9
40.6
38.8

39.5
42.6
44.4
40.4
38.8

39.4
42.3
44.2
40.4
38.8

39.4
43.5
44.1
40.9
39.6

38.7
41.7
42.9
40.4
38.4

38.7
42.1
43.7
40.8
38.5

N ondurable g o o d s ...................................
Overtime hours....................................
Food and kindred products..................
Textile mill products..............................
Apparel and other textile products......
Paper and allied products...................

40.8
4.4
41.7
41.2
37.8
42.5

40.3
4.0
41.1
39.9
37.3
41.6

40.2
4.1
41.1
39.8
37.1
41.3

40.2
4.1
41.0
39.8
36.9
41.7

40.1
4.0
41.2
39.4
36.6
41.4

40.1
3.9
41.0
39.3
36.9
41.3

40.1
3.9
40.9
40.0
36.9
41.3

40.0
4.0
41.0
40.2
36.7
41.1

40.2
3.9
41.0
40.9
36.7
41.5

40.4
4.2
41.4
41.4
37.4
41.5

40.3
4.3
41.2
41.5
37.1
41.6

40.4
4.3
41.2
41.4
37.0
41.9

40.6
4.3
41.6
41.5
37.0
41.6

40.2
4.2
41.0
41.6
36.8
41.2

40.5
4.2
41.3
41.8
36.7
41.7

38.3
42.5

38.1
42.3

38.0
42.2

38.0
42.1

37.9
42.0

37.8
41.9

37.8
41.9

37.3
41.9

37.4
41.9

37.5
42.0

37.2
41.8

37.5
42.3

37.7
42.5

37.3
42.1

37.7
42.6

41.4
37.5

40.7
36.3

40.6
36.3

40.8
36.4

40.5
36.2

40.7
36.6

40.8
36.9

40.5
37.0

40.9
37.2

41.1
37.3

41.6
37.5

41.2
36.7

41.3
36.8

41.0
36.7

41.2
35.7

32.8

32.7

32.7

32.7

32.6

32.6

32.7

32.7

32.7

32.8

32.7

32.8

32.8

32.6

32.7

Chemicals and allied products...........
Rubber and miscellaneous

SERVICE-PRODUCING..............................
TRANSPORTATION AND
PU R I 1C U T IL IT IE S ...................................

38.6

38.2

38.1

37.9

38.0

38.9

38.2

38.1

38.2

38.2

38.3

38.4

38.3

38.3

38.4

W HOLESALE TR ADE................................

38.5

38.2

38.3

38.3

38.0

38.2

38.3

38.2

38.3

38.4

38.3

38.3

38.6

38.4

38.4

RETAIL TRADE..........................................

28.9

28.9

28.8

28.8

28.8

28.8

28.9

28.9

29.0

29.1

29.0

29.1

29.1

28.8

28.9

p = preliminary.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data” for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

57

Current Labor Statistics:

14.

A v e ra g e

Labor Force Data

h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f p r o d u c t io n o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s o n p r iv a te

n o n fa rm

p a y r o lls , b y in d u s tr y ,

s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

A n n u a l a v e ra g e

2001

2002

2001

Aug.

S e p t.

O ct.

N ov.

D ec .

Jan .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

Junep

J u ly p

PRIVATE SECTOR (in c u rre n t dollars)..

$13.75

$14.32

$14.38

$14.43

$14.46

$14.52

$14.56

$14.59

$14.62

$14.65

$14.68

$14.70

$14.75

$14.78

$14.82

G o o d s-p ro d u cin g ....................................

15.40

15.92

15.99

16.02

16.05

16.11

16.18

16.24

16.28

16.29

16.32

16.35

16.39

16.38

16.43

M in in g .................................................................

17.24

17.56

17.62

17.62

17,70

17.68

17.51

17.69

17.66

17.72

17.63

17.87

17.70

17.78

17.88

n

2000

>
c
-O

In d u s try

C o n s tru c tio n ....................................................

17.88

18.34

18.37

18.39

18.40

18.47

18.60

18.65

18.68

18.74

18.83

18.77

18.81

18.87

18.89

M a n u fa c tu rin g .................................................

14.38

14.83

14.91

14.95

14.99

15.03

15.08

15.13

15.17

15.19

15.19

15.27

15.31

15.28

15.33

E xc lu d in g o v e r tim e ...................................

13.62

14.15

14.22

14.28

14.31

14.36

14.39

14.42

14.46

14.45

14.43

14.53

14.56

14.57

14.59

S e rvice -p ro d u cin g ...................................

13.24

13.85

13.91

13.97

14.00

14.06

14.10

14.11

14.14

14.18

14.21

14.24

14.29

14.33

14.37

T ra n s p o rta tio n a n d p u b lic utilities ........

16.22

16.79

16.81

16.87

16.96

17.03

17.09

17.13

17.16

17.26

17.26

17.31

17.37

17.33

17.34

W h o le s a le tr a d e ............................................

15.20

15.86

15.88

15.99

15.97

15.98

16.07

16.10

16.19

16.23

16.11

16.12

16.14

16.14

16.27

R e ta il tr a d e .......................................................

9.46

9.77

9.79

9.81

9.84

9.90

9.89

9.90

9.92

9.95

9.97

9.99

10.06

10.05

10.09

F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te ....

15.07

15.80

15.88

15.93

15.97

16.00

16.00

16.06

16.08

16.14

16.18

16.17

16.27

16.38

16.43

S e r v ic e s .............................................................

13.91

14.67

14.76

14.83

14.88

14.94

14.98

15.01

15.04

15.08

15.13

15.16

15.19

15.26

15.29

7.86

8.00

8.02

8.01

8.06

8.10

8.14

8.14

8.14

8.13

8.10

8.12

8.14

8.14

8.14

PRIVATE SECTOR (In co n s ta n t (1982)
d o lla rs )........................................................

p = p re lim in a ry . D a s h in d ic a te s d a ta not a v a ila b le .
NO TE: S e e "N o te s o n th e d a ta " fo r a de sc rip tio n o f th e m o s t re c e n t b e n c h m a rk revision.

58

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

15.

A v e ra g e

h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f p r o d u c t io n o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s o n p r iv a te

n o n fa rm

In d u s try

P R IV A T E S E C T O R .............................................

p a y r o lls , b y in d u s tr y

2002

2001

A n n u a l a v e ra g e
2000

2001

Aug.

S e p t.

O ct.

N o v.

D ec.

J an .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly p

A u g .p

$13.76

$14.32

$14.26

$14.50

$14.49

$14.54

$14.62

$14.65

$14.67

$14.67

$14.69

$14.67

$14.68

$14.65

$14.70

17.76

17.73

17.70

17.74

17.65

17.76

17.72

M I N I N G ......................................................................

17.22

17.56

17.47

17.61

17.72

17.61

17.58

17.89

C O N S T R U C T I O N .................................................

17.88

18.34

18.44

18.51

18.57

18.54

18.69

18.56

18.62

18.66

18.70

18.67

18.74

18.90

18.96

M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................

14.37

14.83

14.89

15.01

14.97

15.07

15.17

15.15

15.16

15.16

15.20

15.23

15.28

15.26

15.31

15.55
12.40
12.45
15.13
17.24

15.66
12.42
12.56
15.10
17.19

15.61
12.38
12.61
15.12
17.15

15.63
12.39
12.59
15.17
17.15

15.63
12.35
12.57
15.12
17.20

15.66
12.33
12.54
15.35
17.25

15.68
12.43
12.59
15.43
17.36

15.74
12.53
12.62
15.48
17.46

15.66
12.58
12.55
15.62
17.60

15.79
12.57
12.72
15.52
17.46

14.82
11.94
11.74
14.53
16.41

15.28
12.26
12.24
15.00
16.92

15.38
12.37
12.33
15.16
17.02

15.49
12.44
12.39
15.21
17.23

15.46
12.37
12.42
15.09
17.08

19.82
13.87

20.41
14.25

20.62
14.34

20.90
14.42

20.52
14.33

20.66
14.42

20.53
14.56

20.53
14.57

20.63
14.51

20.66
14.60

20.69
14.66

20.81
14.64

20.92
14.71

21.07
14.61

20.90
14.72

15.55

15.89

15.93

16.01

16.07

16.16

16.23

16.31

16.33

16.31

16.30

16.35

16.36

16.47

16.55

13.79
18.46
18.80
14.41
11.63

14.51
19.06
19.40
14.81
12.16

14.70
19.13
19.43
14.93
12.23

14.82
19.36
19.73
15.00
12.38

14.78
19.41
19.83
14.97
12.24

14.88
19.54
19.96
14.98
12.35

14.97
19.71
20.19
15.09
12.39

14.86
19.57
19.99
15.09
12.46

14.90
19.69
20.05
15.10
12.42

14.93
19.65
20.09
15.12
12.39

14.87
19.68
20.22
15.11
12.36

14.91
19.65
20.17
15.11
12.37

15.04
19.75
20.36
15.14
12.28

15.05
19.37
19.76
15.24
12.30

15.04
19.80
20.54
15.28
12.36

13.68
12.51
21.34
11.16
9.29
16.25

14.16
12.89
21.50
11.35
9.43
16.87

14.16
12.89
20.97
11.39
9.41
16.87

14.30
12.97
20.71
11.40
9.54
17.11

14.26
12.89
20.71
11.34
9.44
17.14

14.36
13.10
21.46
11.40
9.49
17.19

14.45
13.17
31.37
11.53
9.60
17.26

14.47
13.14
21.21
11.66
9.72
17.19

14.47
13.08
21.71
11.64
9.77
17.17

14.46
13.10
22.47
11.65
9.82
17.25

14.53
13.18
22.80
11.65
9.93
17.33

14.55
13.25
23.09
11.73
9.93
17.51

14.60
13.29
23.26
11.69
9.95
17.53

14.69
13.34
23.34
11.74
9.91
17.73

14.61
13.25
20.98
11.75
9.95
17.56

14.40
18.15
21.99

14.82
18.61
22.08

14.88
18.54
22.19

15.01
18.85
22.24

14.93
18.74
22.23

14.91
18.83
22.38

15.04
18.88
22.19

15.01
18.87
22.10

15.06
18.95
22.45

15.12
18.93
22.39

15.11
19.01
22.39

15.05
18.96
22.02

15.11
19.14
22.15

15.15
19.32
22.22

15.18
19.31
22.08

12.85
10.17

13.39
10.31

13.43
10.33

13.50
10.24

13.53
10.24

13.57
10.20

13.69
10.29

13.71
10.31

13.65
10.35

13.61
10.40

13.68
10.39

13.69
10.43

13.66
10.27

13.76
10.37

13.71
10.27

P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S .........................................

16.21

16.79

16.78

16.91

16.98

17.05

17.11

17.18

17.18

17.24

17.31

17.24

17.29

17.33

17.30

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ......................................

15.22

15.86

15.80

16.08

15.95

15.96

16.21

16.11

16.21

16.13

16.11

16.12

16.13

16.18

16.18

R E T A IL T R A D E ................................................

9.46

9.77

9.71

9.86

9.87

9.91

9.89

9.96

9.95

9.98

10.00

9.98

10.00

9.98

10.01

A N D R E A L F S T A T E ..................................

15.14

15,80

15.77

15.96

15.91

15.97

16.14

16.07

16.13

16.17

16.23

16.18

16.27

16.25

16.31

S E R V IC E S ..............................................................

13.93

14.67

14.52

14.85

14.87

14.99

15.15

15.14

15.17

15.16

15.16

15.12

15.08

15.02

15.04

D u r a b le g o o d s ...................................................

Lumber and wood products.................
Furniture and fixtures............................
Stone, clay, and glass products..........
Primary metal industries......................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products..............................................
Fabricated metal products...................
Industrial machinery and equipment...
Electronic and other electrical
equipment............................................
Transportation equipment....................
Motor vehicles and equipment..........
Instruments and related products.......
Miscellaneous manufacturing.............
N o n d u r a b le g o o d s ..........................................

Food and kindred products..................
Tobacco products..................................
Textile mill products..............................
Apparel and other textile products......
Paper and allied products....................

Chemicals and allied products............
Petroleum and coal products...............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products..................................
Leather and leather products...............
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D

F IN A N C E , I N S U R A N C E ,

p = preliminary.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

59

Current Labor Statistics:

16.

Labor Force Data

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f p r o d u c t io n o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s o n p r iv a t e n o n f o r m

Industry

Annual average

p a y r o lls , b y in d u s tr y

2001

2002

2000

2001

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

$474.38
272.16

$489.74
273.45

$491.97
490.36
274.23

$498.80
492.06
276.50

$492.66
491.64
274.31

$494.36
495.13
275.72

$502.93
496.50
281.91

$492.24
497.52
275.46

$497.31
500.00
277.36

$497.31
501.03
275.82

$497.99
502.06
274.53

May

June

Julyp

A ug.p

$509.40
505.93
280.66

$501.03
502.52
275.75

$505.68
505.36
277.54

P R IV A T E S E C T O R

Current dollars............................
Seasonally adjusted...............
Constant (1982) dollars...........

$500.25
502.74
275.77

M IN IN G ....................................................

743.04

763.86

761.69

774.84

772.59

.764.27

771.76

754.96

761.90

757.07

750.48.

766.37

767.78

763.68

769.05

C O N S T R U C T IO N ................................

702.68

720.76

741.29

738.55

737.23

724.91

719.57

714.56

716.87

716.54

723.69

728.13

740.23

740.88

748.92

598.21
343.21

603.58
337.01

609.00
338.46

616.91
341.97

607.78
338.41

613.35
342.08

625.00
350.34

612.06
342.51

610.95
340.74

620.04
343.89

620.16
341.87

622.91
343.39

631.06
347.69

614.98
338.46

629.24
338.46

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

Current dollars...........................
Constant (1982) dollars............
D u ra b le g o o d s .....................................

623.92

626.48

633.66

639.74

632.31

636.00

651.46

636.89

637.70

645.52

646.76

649.15

656.36

634.23

653.71

Lumber and wood products.....
Furniture and fixtures...............
Stone, clay, and glass
products.................................
Primary metal industries..........
Blast furnaces and basic
steel products.......................
Fabricated metal products.......
Industrial machinery and
equipment.............................
Electronic and other electrical
equipment..............................
Transportation equipment........
Motor vehicles and
equipment............................
Instruments and related
products.................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing....

489.13
469.20

497.76
477.36

509.64
494.43

517.50
491.88

507.17
481.90

507.16
485.55

507.98
501.14

493.96
504.40

495.60
501.08

503.88
504.30
509.09 506 31/50

510.87
504.86

520.00
508.59

517.04
449.49

519.14
516.43

626.24
737.26

654.00
737.71

676.14
740.37

685.97
763.29

666.98
739.56

662.69
748.22

649.30
763.24

645.62
746.03

646.24
746.03

645.62
758.52

667.73
762.45

675.83
767.31

687.31
782.21

682.59
769.12

684.43
773.48

911.72
590.86

910.29
589.95

919.65
595.11

959.31
598.43

906.98
591.83

915.24
596.99

909.48
614.43

907.43
600.28

915.97
597.81

933.83
607.36

937.26
606.92

951.02
611.95

972.78
619.29

965.01
599.01

957.22
615.30

656.21

645.13

638.79

646.80

646.01

648.02

667.49

657.29

658.10

663.82

660.15

665.45

669.12

658.80

671.93

567.18
800.73

571.69
798.61

576.24
816.85

583.91
811.18

580.85
809.40

587.76
818.73

603.29
841.62

573.60
827.81

576.63
825.01

588.24
835.13

581.42
844.27

582.98
842.99

592.58
847.28

571.90
780.61

583.55
843.48

834.28

828.38

860.75

846.42

844.76

856.28

892.40

871.56

868.17

883.96

907.88

905.63

910.09

810.16

911.98

595.96
453.57

605.73
460.86

604.67
468.41

618.00
467.96

607.78
457.78

611.18
461.89

623.22
477.02

612.65
469.74

611.55
473.20

616.90
483.21

607.42
479.57

607.42
479.96

620.74
485.06

609.60
468.63

621.90
478.33

N o n d u ra b le g o o d s ..........................

558.55

570.65

572.06

580.14

588.12

575.91

574.46

586.37

592.76

587.60

593.17

529.78
851.40
452.87

536.22
832.51
456.74

538.80
834.61
445.66

544.96
862.69
450.30

546.56
880.44
465.87

533.48
854.76
465.23

523.20
881.43
471.41

581.29
533.17
912.28
483.48

582.65

521.25
877.90
459.79

582.01
546.04
836.68
458.28

574.68

Food and kindred products......
Tobacco products.....................
Textile mill products..................
Apparel and other textile
products.................................
Paper and allied products........

533.79
932.52
485.81

543.25
962.85
486.80

550.21
983.90
489.81

546.94
982.61
480.17

553.85
845.49
494.68

351.54
690.63

351.74
701.79

349.11
695.04

350.12
722.04

344.56
714.74

351.13
718.54

358.08
724.92

350.89
709.95

357.58
705.69

368.25
713.43

369.40
717.46

369.40
728.42

373.13
727.50

362.71
728.70

365.17
730.50

Printing and publishing.............
Chemicals and allied products..
Petroleum and coal products....
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products.....................
Leather and leather products....

551.52
771.38
932.80

564.64
787.20
945.02

568.42
780.53
954.17

577.89
797.36
954.10

568.83
787.08
926.99

572.54
793.74
939.96

576.02
800.51
934.20

555.37
790.65
932.78

558.73
790.22
938.41

568.51
793.17
920.23

560.58
794.62
900.23

559.86
800.11
887.41

563.60
815.36
917.01

562.07
809.51
928.80

573.80
820.68
907.49

531.99
381.75

544.97
374.25

543.92
379.11

556.20
376.83

549.32
372.74

553.66
376.38

568.14
380.73

555.26
378.38

556.92
380.88

559.37
386.88

564.98
388.59

564.03
382.78

569.62
384.10

554.53
373.32

563.48
369.72

670.85

665.47

669.51

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D
P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S ..........................

626.09

641.38

644.35

645.96

645.24

646.20

660.45

647.69

751.12

655.12

657.78

660.29

W H O L E S A L E T R A D E ........................

585.20

605.85

605.14

620.69

606.10

611.27

627.33

608.96

615.98

614.55

615.40

615.86

630.63

616.63

621.31

R E T A IL T R A D E ....................................

273.39

282.35

285.47

284.95

282.28

282.44

289.78

279.88

284.57

286.43

287.00

289.42

297.00

295.41

295.30

F IN A N C E , IN S U R A N C E ,
A N D R E A L E S T A T E .......................

547.04

570.38

567.72

585.73

569.58

573.32

592.34

575.31

582.29

580.50

581.03

577.63

597.11

581.75

588.79

S E R V IC E S ..............................................

454.86

479.71

477.71

487.08

483.28

487.18

498.44

487.51

493.03

492.70

491.18

489.89

497.64

489.65

493.31

p = preliminary.
Note: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision. Dash indicates data not available.

60

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October 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17.

D if f u s io n

in d e x e s o f e m p lo y m e n t c h a n g e , s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d

[In percent]
T im e s p a n a n d y e a r

_____ _____
J an .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

June

S e p t.

Aug.

J u ly

Nov

O c t.

D ec .

P riv a te n o n fa rm p a y ro lls , 3 5 6 in d u s trie s
Over 1-month span:
1998 .................................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001 .................................................
2002..................................................

62.4
55.3
55.9
49.4
47.3

57.5
58.6
57.5
45.7
41.4

59.1
53.6
57.9
50.3
49.7

60.2
58.4
51.2
42.4
47.8

57.5
55.5
50.1
47.3
50.9

56.8
57.8
55.8
43.2
49.4

54.6
57.1
57.8
44.5
48.6

59.1
54.8
51.4
42.5
46.7

57.2
57.1
52.4
42.4
_

53.0
57.2
52.4
40.5
_

57.9
60.4
53.2
39.3
_

56.8
58.1
52.7
44.1
-

Over 3-month span:
1998 ................................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001..................................................
2002..................................................

65.3
59.2
60.4
45.5
40.1

66.3
57.6
61.4
46.1
43.2

65.3
59.5
59.4
40.8
42.5

65.9
55.2
53.2
43.4
46.5

62.7
60.2
52.4
37.8
48.0

58.2
57.2
55.5
43.2
50.1

58.9
59.4
56.6
39.3
46.0

59.1
59.2
56.2
38.0
_

59.8
59.7
51.2
35.3
_

57.9
58.9
51.0
33.7
_

57.1
61.2
53.2
36.3
_

58.8
60.7
51.6
38.9

2000..................................................
2001..................................................
2002..................................................

70.2
60.2
61.1
44.7
37.0

67.4
58.9
59.4
42.7
41.6

64.7
58.5
58.1
39.5
43.4

61.5
59.7
57.9
40.1
44.4

64.1
57.2
54.2
40.8
46.3

62.1
60.8
52.4
35.8

59.1
61.2
52.9
37.0

58.8
62.5
54.2
32.4

_

57.5
62.7
52.4
34.3
_

60.2
61.8
48.7
33.1
_

59.2
61.2
45.7
34.1
_

58.4
62.8
46.5
35.6
_

Over 12-month span:
1998..................................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001..................................................
2002..................................................

69.9
61.2
61.4
41.5
35.2

67.9
60.1
59.9
41.5
36.5

67.6
58.2
58.8
38.9

65.6
61.0
56.2
37.5

64.1
60.7
55.3
37.3

62.7
61.6
53.6
36.2

61.7
62.2
53.0
34.1
-

62.2
61.1
51.0
33.6
-

60.8
63.8
47.7
34.4
-

59.4
62.2
45.2
33.9
-

60.8
59.7
44.5
33.3
-

58.9
60.5
42.9
34.4
-

Over 6-month span:
1998..................................................
1999..................................................

_

-

M a n u fa c tu rin g p a y ro lls , 139 in d u s trie s
Over 1-month span:
1998 ...............................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001..................................................
2002..................................................

57.0
47.4
44.9
34.9
35.3

52.6
41.2
52.2
26.8
37.9

52.2
42.6
49.3
38.2
40.4

52.9
46.0
46.0
29.0
47.4

44.9
46.3
49.3
28.3
47.1

47.4
43.4
50.7
30.5
40.4

38.2
50.0
57.4

Over 3-month span:
1998..................................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001..................................................
2002..................................................

59.2
39.3
48.2
21.3
24.6

57.0
39.3
48.9
21.3
30.1

54.8
39.7
48.9
18.4
37.1

51.8
40.1
44.5
23.5
38.6

48.2
41.2
46.7
19.9
40.1

38.2
43.8
52.2
23.2
41.2

Over 6-month span:
1998..................................................
1999..................................................
2000..................................................
2001.................................................
2002.................................................

60.7
36.4
47.8
20.2
19.9

54.4
36.0
45.2
16.9
26.8

49.3
37.5
44.5
14.0
29.8

40.1
40.4
50.0
16.2
38.2

45.2
37.5
41.9
16.5
36.0

42.6
42.3
37.9
13.2

Over 12-month span:
1998.................................................
1999.................................................
2000.................................................
2001.................................................
2002.................................................

54.8
38.6
49.3
13.6
18.0

52.2
34.6
44.1
13.6
18.0

51.8
32.4
39.3
13.6

46.7
36.0
36.8
15.4

40.4
37.9
35.3
12.1

40.1
39.0
34.2
11.0

38.2
40.1
33.8
11.0

37.5
40.4
28.7
11.0

36.4
44.5
22.1
12.9

34.6
44.5
19.1
12.9

35.7
43.4
17.6
14.0

34.2
44.5
14.0
14.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with inceasing and decreasing employment.

_

52.9
42.6
36.8
25.7
_

44.9
46.0
39.0
31.6
_

38.6
45.6
42.3
31.3
_

42.3
51.5
47.1
25.0
_

41.5
49.3
40.8
30.9
_

41.9
44.1
46.0
17.3

_

43.0
46.3
38.6
19.1
_

43.0
42.3
29.0
16.2
_

38.2
44.1
34.2
18.0
_

32.7
47.8
39.0
18.4
_

40.4
45.2
36.0
18.0
_

39.0
43.0
36.0
14.7

38.2
44.5
35.3
11.8

34.6
48.2
32.4

41.2
43.0
26.1
13.2

35.7
44.5
21.3
17.6

33.1
47.4
21.7
16.5

_

_

34.9
48.9

_

_

14.0

_

_

Data for the 2 most recent months shown in each span are
preliminary. See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on
the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark
revision.

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

61

Current Labor Statistics:

18.

Labor Force Data

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s i z e a n d e m p l o y m e n t c o v e r e d u n d e r U l, p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p , b y m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , f i r s t q u a r t e r 2 0 0 0

S iz e o f e s t a b lis h m e n ts
In d u s t r y , e s t a b lis h m e n ts , a n d

T o ta l

e m p lo y m e n t

F e w e r th a n

5 to 9

1 0 to 19

2 0 to 4 9

5 0 to 9 9

1 0 0 to 2 4 9

2 5 0 to 4 9 9

5 0 0 to 9 9 9

5 w o rk e rs '

w o rk e rs

w o rke rs

w o rk e rs

w o rke rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

1 ,0 0 0 o r
m o re
w o rk e rs

T o t a l, a ll in d u s t r i e s 2

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................

7,531,330
108,195,174

4,413,181
6,831,146

1,302,488
8,615,974

850,411
11,471,927

590,662
17,878,154

206,415
14,212,796

119,172
17,895,603

31,311
10,658,780

11,713
7,965,372

5,977
12,665,422

200,289
1,702,493

123,880
179,158

37,646
248,989

22,736
302,599

11,179
326,510

2,875
196,681

1,473
216,628

370
126,181

106
69,476

24
36,271

27,284
524,514

14,102
22,082

4,323
28,959

3,728
51,183

3,202
97,241

1,023
69,762

591
89,714

214
74,836

76
52,916

25
37,821

747,563
6,310,456

477,549
703,310

126,844
831,405

76,253
1,024,819

46,543
1,389,870

13,242
898,785

5,748
846,893

1,053
347,400

272
182,357

59
85,617

405,838
18,433,795

147,029
251,154

67,385
453,397

61,150
842,691

61,487
1,922,360

30,568
2,144,676

24,264
3,739,308

8,646
2,977,743

3,598
2,446,323

1,711
3,656,143

315,413
6,678,516

174,645
272,380

49,173
325,334

36,475
498,572

30,720
945,800

12,952
895,012

7,913
1,190,459

2,127
726,615

892
618,630

516
1,205,714

664,094
6,947,770

400,335
621,924

110,091
729,753

77,321
1,046,983

52,153
1,565,359

15,187
1,035,060

7,019
1,035,170

1,478
496,350

414
274,988

96
142,183

1,458,626
22,807,395

623,529
1,154,942

329,260
2,204,569

235,941
3,190,042

179,053
5,437,335

57,988
3,943,391

26,380
3,880,016

4,982
1,659,975

1,169
764,056

324
573,069

671,294
7,379,831

438,402
714,292

114,349
751,197

62,141
826,817

35,549
1,065,116

11,618
797,168

6,025
912,396

1,799
621,570

898
615,246

513
1,076,029

2,890,313
37,110,557

1,879,338
2,772,133

451,715
2,967,673

271,168
3,643,823

169,867
5,102,854

60,864
4,225,937

39,727
5,980,102

10,640
3,627,319

4,286
2,939,641

2,708
5,851,075

A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , a n d fis h in g

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
M in in g

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
C o n s t r u c t io n

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
M a n u f a c t u r in g

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic u tilitie s

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
W h o le s a le tr a d e

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
R e ta il tr a d e

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a te

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................
S e r v ic e s

Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ................................

1 Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2000.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
2 Includes data for nonclassifiable establishments, not shown separately.

62

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

19.

A n n u a l d a ta : e s ta b lis h m e n ts , e m p lo y m e n t , a n d w a g e s c o v e r e d

Year

A v e ra g e
e s t a b lis h m e n ts

A v era g e

under Ul and UCFE

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s

annual

(in th o u s a n d s )

e m p lo y m e n t

b y o w n e r s h ip

A v e ra g e a n n u al

A v era g e

w ages

w e e k ly

p e r e m p lo y e e

w age

T o ta l c o v e r e d (U l a n d U C F E )

1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

6,382,523
6,532,608
6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116

106,884,831
107,413,728
109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063

$2,626,972,030
2,781,676,477
2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584

$24,578
25,897
26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323

$473
498
507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679

$24,335
25,622
26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077

$468
493
501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675

$24,178
25,547
25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337

$465
491
499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680

$27,132
27,789
28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296

$522
534
551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698

$24,595
25,434
26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387

$473
489
502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623

$32,609
35,066
36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228

$627
674
710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889

U l c o v e re d

1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

6,336,151
6,485,473
6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861

103,755,832
104,288,324
106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574

$2,524,937,018
2,672,081,827
2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824

Private industry covered
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

6,162,684
6,308,719
6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274

89,007,096
89,349,803
91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333

$2,152,021,705
2,282,598,431
2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769

State government covered
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

58,499
58,801
59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096

4,005,321
4,044,914
4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160

$108,672,127
112,405,340
117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365

Local government covered
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

114,936
117,923
118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491

10,742,558
10,892,697
11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081

$264,215,610
277,045,557
288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d (U C F E )

1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................
......................................................

NOTE:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

46,372
47,136
47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256

3,128,999
3,125,404
3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489

$102,035,012
109,594,650
113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760

Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

63

Current Labor Statistics:

20.

Labor Force Data

A n n u a l d a ta : e s ta b lis h m e n ts , e m p lo y m e n t , a n d w a g e s c o v e r e d u n d e r U l a n d

A v e ra g e

A v e ra g e an n u al

T o ta l a n n u a l w a g e s

A v e r a g e w e e k ly

e s t a b lis h m e n ts

e m p lo y m e n t

(in t h o u s a n d s )

w age

S ta te

19992000

2000

19992000

change

2000

19992000

change

2000

19992000

change

2000
change

Total United States ..........................................

7,879,116

58,256

129,877,063

2,834,781

$4,587,708,584

$352,129,380

$679

$38

A la b a m a ..............................................................
Alaska .................................................................
A rizo n a ................................................................
A rka n sa s.............................................................
C a lifo rn ia .............................................................

112,328
18,820
115,171
72,240
1,026,568

454
32
2,589
406
-33,271

1,877,963
275,607
2,220,712
1,130,891
14,867,006

6,911
6,674
70,174
17,750
472,932

54,538,027
9,685,341
72,417,033
29,761,939
612,318,313

1,970,401
532,709
6,772,271
1,520,062
71,430,084

558
676
627
506
792

18
22
40
18
69

Colorado .............................................................
C o nnecticut.........................................................
D e law are.............................................................
District of C o lum bia...........................................
F lo rid a .................................................................

148,479
107,787
24,751
28,409
444,731

6,278
1,696
584
1,474
9,134

2,186,656
1,674,728
406,350
637,292
7,060,986

81,404
22,363
4,210
21,588
216,337

81,273,035
76,176,856
14,845,185
33,753,742
215,780,400

9,292,033
5,650,414
707,255
2,423,907
17,731,492

715
875
703
1,019
588

57
54
27
40
32

G e o rg ia ...............................................................
Hawaii ..................................................................
Id a h o ....................................................................
Illin o is ..................................................................
In d ia n a ................................................................

225,040
34,027
45,399
322,324
152,846

6,628
1,564
1,128
2,721
-1,089

3,883,005
553,185
563,193
5,940,772
2,936,634

88,250
15,440
20,785
90,253
29,778

132,853,189
16,942,944
15,600,825
226,012,936
91,086,141

10,161,751
921,218
1,474,196
13,664,320
3,800,930

658
589
533
732
596

36
16
32
34
19

Iowa .....................................................................
Kansas ................................................................
K e n tu c k y .............................................................
Louisiana.............................................................
Maine ..................................................................

97,091
80,477
107,740
118,216
44,865

2,479
1,036
2,403
1,549
956

1,443,394
1,313,742
1,762,949
1,869,219
590,818

12,412
14,945
31,482
21,317
17,005

40,312,331
38,571,763
50,774,667
52,131,235
16,344,365

1,743,623
2,164,568
2,669,580
1,838,194
916,386

537
565
554
536
532

19
26
20
13
15

Maryland .............................................................
M assachusetts...................................................
M ichigan..............................................................
Minnesota ...........................................................
M ississippi...........................................................

146,559
187,391
260,885
155,711
63,970

1,117
344
2,244
4,932
229

2,405,510
3,275,135
4,585,211
2,608,543
1,137,304

58,631
83,493
82,445
57,751
-1,880

87,548,876
145,184,150
169,702,272
92,377,120
28,665,889

6,606,334
16,396,342
8,726,750
6,959,859
879,567

700
852
712
681
485

37
76
24
37
16

M issouri...............................................................
M o n ta n a ..............................................................
N ebraska.............................................................
Nevada ................................................................
New Hampshire .................................................

163,080
38,349
51,838
48,126
45,924

2,303
1,585
4
194
494

2,677,110
379,094
882,918
1,017,902
606,543

31,687
7,855
16,308
41,975
15,318

84,020,093
9,202,211
24,449,709
32,853,744
21,069,920

4,745,993
567,364
1,370,028
2,392,271
2,067,493

604
467
533
621
668

28
20
21
21
50

New J e rs e y .........................................................
New Mexico .......................................................
New York ............................................................
North C a ro lin a ....................................................
North D a k o ta ......................................................

270,384
47,987
529,103
222,234
23,297

-15,337
693
4,797
7,270
240

3,877,572
717,243
8,471,416
3,862,782
309,223

85,195
16,339
178,874
58,413
3,263

169,355,641
19,722,105
384,241,451
120,007,446
7,632,602

13,725,235
1,311,285
34,472,229
7,922,007
365,713

840
529
872
597
475

51
24
61
30
18

Ohio .....................................................................
O klaho m a............................................................
O re g o n ................................................................
Pennsylvania......................................................
Rhode Is la n d ......................................................

280,988
89,298
109,050
315,284
33,327

1,073
1,368
-1,296
13,267
621

5,513,217
1,452,166
1,608,069
5,558,076
467,602

62,090
29,357
32,067
98,602
10,766

179,218,763
39,191,626
52,703,467
189,058,210
15,250,760

8,080,924
2,464,854
4,049,166
10,557,733
1,011,495

625
519
630
654
627

21
23
36
25
28

South C a ro lin a ...................................................
South D a k o ta .....................................................
Tennessee ..........................................................
Texas ..................................................................
Utah .....................................................................

109,370
27,145
125,247
489,795
66,144

-1,993
437
-51
8,425
2,282

1,820,138
364,119
2,667,230
9,289,286
1,044,143

27,993
8,334
40,186
272,645
26,519

51,289,516
9,030,727
81,495,110
324,579,638
30,518,822

2,664,765
574,920
4,055,765
27,952,132
2,131,853

542
477
588
672
562

20
20
21
39
26

Vermont ..............................................................
V irg in ia ................................................................
W ashington.........................................................
West V irg in ia ......................................................
W isconsin............................................................
W y o m in g .............................................................

23,870
192,745
221,150
46,830
145,871
20,861

805
3,212
9,010
21
977
238

296,462
3,427,954
2,706,462
686,622
2,736,054
230,857

8,473
100,832
62,732
6,014
44,603
5,892

8,571,976
120,567,926
100,381,521
18,461,154
83,980,263
6,195,607

624,326
10,689,950
5,904,038
752,890
4,294,806
425,897

556
676
713
517
590
516

25
41
26
17
21
23

Puerto R ic o .........................................................
Virgin Islands .....................................................

52,371
3,255

202
32

1,026,175
42,349

23,785
1,411

19,306,364
1,173,955

709,126
104,996

362
533

5
31

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

64

U C F E , b y S ta te

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21.

A n n u a l d a t a : E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e a n n u a l p a y f o r a ll w o r k e r s
c o v e re d u n d e r U l a n d U C F E

in t h e 3 1 6 la r g e s t U .S . c o u n t ie s

E m ploym ent
C o u n ty 1
2000

Percent
change,
1999-20002

Average annual pay
Ranked by
percent
change,
1999-20003

2000

Percent
change,
1999-20002

United States4 .................... 129,877,063

2.2

-

35,323

5.9

Jefferson, A L .....................
Madison, A L .......................
Mobile, A L ..........................
Montgomery, AL ...............
Tuscaloosa, A L ..................
Anchorage, AK ..................
Maricopa, A Z .....................
Pima, A Z .............................
Pulaski, AR ........................
Sebastian, A R ....................

384,662
154,356
169,469
131,988
76,499
129,700
1,544,971
328,426
243,157
75,197

.6
1.7
-.1
.2
.8
2.0
3.6
3.1
.4
1.1

256
186
291
285
244
164
48
77
272
228

34,026
35,837
28,623
28,894
29,064
36,659
35,110
29,194
30,799
27,011

3.9
5.0
2.4
3.2
2.5
2.7
7.8
3.5
3.8
4.8

Washington, A R .................
Alameda, CA .....................
Contra Costa, CA .............
Fresno, CA ........................
Kern, C A .............................
Los Angeles, C A ...............
Marin, C A ............................
Monterey, C A .....................
Orange, C A ........................
Placer, CA .........................

80,045
696,242
336,691
322,759
238,250
4,098,154
111,645
164,646
1,394,414
107,182

3.3
3.0
3.1
1.9
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.5
3.6
8.9

61
84
78
169
153
187
154
118
49
3

26,408
45,091
42,318
26,162
28,572
39,651
42,600
29,962
39,247
33,386

3.8
9.8
3.7
4.8
5.7
4.9
8.5
5.1
4.8
5.3

Riverside, C A .....................
Sacramento, C A ...............
San Bernardino, C A ..........
San Diego, C A ...................
San Francisco, C A ............
San Joaquin, C A ...............
San Luis Obispo, CA ........
San Mateo, C A ..................
Santa Barbara, CA ...........
Santa Clara, C A .................

469,467
573,942
528,437
1,195,116
609,138
201,070
94,883
378,494
176,901
1,030,633

5.3
2.6
3.0
3.0
3.7
3.1
3.6
5.3
3.0
6.1

12
107
85
86
43
79
50
13
87
9

29,136
37,732
29,901
37,535
57,532
29,237
28,096
67,051
32,566
76,213

4.7
7.2
3.8
8.1
12.0
4.7
6.2
30.4
8.2
24.7

Santa Cruz, C A ..................
Solano, CA ........................
Sonoma, C A ......................
Stanislaus, C A ...................
Tulare, CA .........................
Ventura, C A .......................
Yolo, CA .............................
Adams, C O ........................
Arapahoe, C O ....................
Boulder, C O .......................

101,833
117,217
190,946
160,948
132,986
287,611
84,565
144,806
284,236
179,719

3.3
3.7
3.1
1.7
3.6
3.4
1.5
3.6
3.9
8.2

62
44
80
188
51
57
201
52
38
4

35,819
31,670
35,715
28,201
23,750
37,069
33,438
33,428
46,254
45,564

15.5
8.4
11.3
4.4
4.6
9.1
3.3
4.8
7.8
13.9

Denver, C O ........................
El Paso, C O .......................
Jefferson, CO ....................
Larimer, C O .......................
Fairfield, C T .......................
Hartford, C T .......................
New Haven, CT .................
New London, C T ...............
New Castle, DE .................
Washington, DC ...............

469,137
237,739
210,519
119,155
427,557
501,562
367,343
123,039
281,920
637,292

3.2
3.4
2.6
5.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
.6
-.7
3.5

69
58
108
16
229
230
231
257
301
54

44,343
33,039
36,195
32,394
61,156
43,656
38,355
36,757
40,491
52,964

11.6
7.7
5.2
7.9
8.5
6.2
5.4
3.8
4.5
4.1

Alachua, FL .......................
Brevard, F L ........................
Broward, F L .......................
Collier, FL ...........................
Duval, FL ............................
Escambia, F L .....................
Hillsborough, FL ...............
Lee, FL ...............................
Leon, FL .............................
Manatee, F L ......................

117,658
181,314
644,192
103,264
434,219
125,666
588,792
162,304
141,978
( 6)

2.5
3.3
3.3
6.9
4.1
1.0
2.5
4.4
2.2
( 5)

119
63
64
6
32
235
120
25
142
( 6)

26,155
32,101
33,234
29,962
32,777
26,709
31,707
28,148
29,249
( è)

3.9
7.2
6.5
6.9
4.6
4.5
4.8
6.4
4.1
( 5)

Marion, FL .........................
Miami-Dade, F L .................
Orange, FL ........................
Palm Beach, F L .................
Pinellas, F L ........................
Polk, FL ..............................
Sarasota, F L ......................
Seminole, FL .....................
Volusia, F L .........................
Bibb, GA ...........................

83,319
980,394
611,469
481,395
436,390
183,222
<5 )
139,610
141,652
88,790

1.7
2.3
3.2
4.1
4.2
2.6
( 6)
4.6
1.4
-1.2

189
135
70
33
29
109
( 5)
23
207
308

24,953
33,333
31,123
35,233
31,263
27,881
( è)
30,835
25,079
29,299

3.3
3.9
4.6
7.3
5.4
3.5
( 5)
6.9
5.5
3.2

Chatham, G A ....................
Clayton, G A ......................
Cobb, G A ..........................

122,785
116,368
301,183

1.3
-.6
1.3

214
296
215

29,650
36,774
38,792

1.9
6.7
5.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

65

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21.

C o n tin u e d — A n n u a l d a ta : E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e a n n u a l p a y f o r
a ll w o r k e r s c o v e r e d u n d e r U l a n d U C F E

in t h e 3 1 6 la r g e s t U .S .

c o u n t ie s
A v e ra g e an n u al pay

E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty 1
2000

P erc en t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 3

2000

P erc en t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

Dekalb, G A ........................
Fulton, GA .........................
Gwinnett, GA .....................
Muscogee, G A ...................
Richmond, GA ...................
Honolulu, H I .......................
Ada, I D ................................

310,659
754,368
281,654
98,315
106,260
407,935
177,741

-.6
2.7
4.1
-.1
-.6
2.6
6.5

297
103
34
292
298
110
8

38,614
47,060
39,051
27,744
28,592
31,874
34,460

4.9
8.5
6.0
3.7
3.6
2.8
10.0

Champaign, I L ...................
Cook, I L ..............................
Du Page, I L ........................
Kane, I L ..............................
Lake, I L ...............................
McHenry, I L .......................
McLean, I L .........................
Madison, I L ........................
Peoria, I L ............................
Rock Island, I L ...................

90,429
2,687,795
582,352
193,410
310,689
87,258
84,324
94,550
102,801
80,273

2.8
1.3
1.7
2.9
3.1
1.9
.6
.4
.1
.8

96
216
190
91
81
170
258
273
287
245

29,183
42,898
42,570
32,173
42,620
32,007
34,254
28,974
31,387
33,525

4.2
5.8
3.6
.1
6.7
2.0
4.1
2.9
1.6
4.5

St. Clair, I L .........................
Sangamon, IL ....................
Will, I L .................................
Winnebago, IL ...................
Allen, IN ..............................
Elkhart, IN ...........................
Hamilton, I N .......................
Lake,IN ..............................
Marion, IN ..........................
St. Joseph, I N ....................

89,963
144,286
142,355
143,760
189,425
122,468
77,452
199,421
605,903
129,558

2.2
4.4
3.5
.5
.3
.6
3.0
-.6
1.6
.5

143
26
55
265
281
259
88
299
194
266

26,878
34,764
32,313
31,499
32,279
30,339
37,931
31,564
36,473
29,657

2.6
1.7
2.1
2.0
3.0
2.3
7.9
4.0
3.2
3.5

Tippecanoe, IN ..................
Vanderburgh, IN ...............
Linn, IA ...............................
Polk, IA ...............................
Scott, I A ..............................
Johnson, K S ......................
Sedgwick, KS ....................
Shawnee, K S .....................
Wyandotte, K S ...................
Fayette, K Y ........................

77,377
109,904
121,968
263,940
87,113
287,797
249,846
100,223
79,746
172,031

1.1
.7
2.1
1.3
-.4
2.8
.0
2.4
1.8
1.8

232
251
155
217
295
97
289
130
177
178

31,083
29,569
34,097
33,666
29,067
37,247
32,696
29,375
34,592
30,713

4.0
3.2
4.9
2.5
3.9
6.7
2.9
3.2
2.9
3.8

Jefferson, K Y .....................
Caddo, L A ...........................
Calcasieu, LA ....................
East Baton Rouge, L A ......
Jefferson, LA .....................
Lafayette, LA .....................
Orleans, L A ........................
Cumberland, M E ...............
Anne Arundel, MD ............
Baltimore, M D ....................

439,103
119,449
83,976
246,434
214,680
114,059
263,551
166,757
194,018
358,117

1.4
.3
.1
2.7
-.7
2.3
1.9
3.7
5.3
1.2

208
282
288
104
302
136
171
45
14
222

33,334
28,767
28,226
29,257
28,051
29,911
31,694
30,752
35,461
34,119

3.9
3.2
.9
1.6
2.1
5.5
1.3
1.1
7.3
4.7

Frederick, M D ....................
Howard, M D .......................
Montgomery, M D ..............
Prince Georges, M D .........
Baltimore City, M D ............
Barnstable, M A ..................
Bristol, MA .........................
Essex, MA .........................
Hampden, M A ....................
Middlesex, M A ...................

77,323
128,678
447,314
303,262
386,411
88,589
221,539
305,382
204,303
846,931

4.9
3.2
5.0
3.3
.8
3.7
1.3
2.5
1.9
3.1

22
71
20
65
246
46
218
121
172
82

30,847
37,897
43,708
37,060
38,579
29,726
30,785
39,154
32,220
52,091

5.9
5.1
5.8
6.9
4.5
.0
4.6
8.8
4.8
11.8

Norfolk, M A ........................
Plymouth, MA ....................
Suffolk, MA ........................
Worcester, M A ...................
Genesee, Ml ......................
Ingham, M l.........................
Kalamazoo, M l...................
Kent, Ml ..............................
Macomb, M l .......................
Oakland, Ml .......................

325,018
166,482
608,285
321,131
165,297
174,315
118,342
347,707
337,504
768,629

2.4
1.3
3.3
2.5
-1.4
2.0
-.1
1.6
.3
1.0

131
219
66
122
313
165
293
195
283
236

43,368
33,931
56,699
37,657
36,324
34,963
32,675
33,996
40,904
44,500

10.4
6.3
11.6
10.8
1.4
5.6
2.3
2.6
3.5
4.2

Ottawa, Ml .........................
Saginaw, M l .......................
Washtenaw, M l ..................
Wayne, Ml .........................
Anoka, M N .........................
Dakota, M N ........................
Hennepin, M N ....................
Olmsted, M N ......................

118,711
95,474
195,624
866,282
108,989
153,364
874,693
82,670

1.8
-.8
.5
1.2
3.8
2.6
2.1
3.9

179
304
267
223
40
111
156
39

31,947
34,672
40,182
42,440
33,928
34,362
43,816
36,104

3.5
2.5
5.3
3.5
4.5
4.7
7.1
3.1

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review
66

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

21.

C o n tin u e d — A n n u a l d a ta : E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e a n n u a l p a y f o r
a ll w o r k e r s c o v e r e d

under Ul and UCFE

in t h e 3 1 6 la r g e s t U .S .

c o u n t ie s
E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty 1
2000

P e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

A v e ra g e an n u al pay
R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 3

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

Ramsey, M N ......................
St. Louis, M N .....................

332,929
94,926

1.6
1.4

196
209

39,069
28,903

5.8
4.6

Stearns, M N .......................
Harrison, M S ......................
Hinds, M S ...........................
Boone, MO ........................
Clay, M O .............................
Greene, M O .......................
Jackson, M O ......................
St. Charles, MO ................
St. Louis, M O .....................
St. Louis City, M O .............

76,292
89,745
136,949
75,785
84,159
142,508
393,761
95,799
646,858
250,878

3.1
.4
-1.2
2.8
.0
2.4
.4
3.2
.8
.4

83
274
309
98
290
132
275
72
247
276

27,584
25,442
30,578
27,361
32,207
26,971
36,056
29,515
38,145
38,612

4.2
4.8
4.6
3.1
6.4
3.2
6.2
3.8
5.6
4.1

Douglas, NE ......................
Lancaster, N E ....................
Clark, NV ............................
Washoe, NV ......................
Hillsborough, NH ..............
Rockingham, NH ..............
Atlantic, NJ ........................
Bergen, N J .........................
Burlington, NJ ....................
Camden, N J .......................

330,128
146,433
697,575
189,102
193,796
129,494
140,141
448,513
180,165
199,768

2.1
1.8
5.3
3.2
2.7
4.1
-.2
.5
.8
-1.1

157
180
15
73
105
35
294
268
248
307

32,356
28,511
32,131
32,748
39,212
35,823
31,068
46,306
37,597
35,130

4.1
3.9
3.4
4.4
9.1
9.8
3.4
7.0
4.7
3.2

Essex, NJ ...........................
Gloucester, N J ...................
Hudson, N J ........................
Mercer, NJ .........................
Middlesex, N J ....................
Monmouth, NJ ...................
Morris, NJ ...........................
Ocean, N J ...........................
Passaic, N J ........................
Somerset, N J .....................

363,942
86,667
238,388
210,031
392,427
233,285
275,499
129,093
177,364
173,571

1.6
.7
3.4
3.3
.6
2.5
2.8
2.5
.6
4.1

197
252
59
67
260
123
99
124
261
36

44,653
32,055
47,427
44,658
46,487
39,695
60,487
30,447
37,759
54,781

3.5
2.8
10.2
5.2
5.8
5.4
19.0
4.6
2.0
5.1

Union, N J ............................
Bernalillo, NM ....................
Albany, N Y .........................
Bronx, NY ..........................
Broome, N Y .......................
Dutchess, N Y .....................
Erie, NY ..............................
Kings, N Y ............................
Monroe, NY .......................
Nassau, N Y .......................

237,176
307,705
230,962
212,982
99,613
109,949
459,828
441,916
399,602
598,538

2.2
2.6
1.4
2.2
1.2
1.9
1.0
2.3
.9
1.6

144
112
210
145
224
173
237
137
242
198

45,282
30,184
35,795
32,850
29,658
36,065
31,489
30,760
35,423
40,023

4.9
4.1
6.1
2.7
3.6
2.2
3.0
3.7
1.8
4.4

New York, N Y ....................
Niagara, N Y .......................
Oneida, N Y ........................
Onondaga, N Y ...................
Orange, N Y ........................
Queens, N Y .......................
Richmond, NY ...................
Rockland, N Y .....................
Suffolk, N Y .........................
Westchester, N Y ...............

2,382,175
78,186
110,684
252,476
119,571
480,676
88,245
106,361
578,401
405,440

3.2
.2
1.4
.7
1.6
1.3
1.9
1.4
2.3
2.3

74
286
211
253
199
220
174
212
138
139

72,572
31,112
27,300
32,499
29,357
34,986
32,149
37,264
37,862
47,066

10.3
3.7
3.4
3.4
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.3
6.6
8.3

Buncombe, NC ..................
Catawba, NC .....................
Cumberland, N C ...............
Durham, N C .......................
Forsyth, NC .......................
Gaston, N C ........................
Guilford, N C .......................
Mecklenburg, N C ..............
New Hanover, N C .............
Wake, NC ...........................

106,036
101,321
109,858
167,191
181,619
77,176
279,889
514,223
87,019
383,705

.5
2.6
1.2
2.9
1.8
-3.6
.6
3.8
.4
3.3

269
113
225
92
181
314
262
41
277
68

27,652
28,210
26,112
49,359
34,011
28,335
32,216
40,538
28,560
35,377

3.8
4.0
3.9
12.6
6.3
4.0
2.5
5.4
4.3
7.4

Cass, ND ............................
Butler, O H ...........................
Cuyahoga, O H ...................
Franklin, OH ......................
Hamilton, O H .....................
Lake, OH ............................
Lorain, OH .........................
Lucas, O H ...........................
Mahoning, OH ...................
Montgomery, OH ..............

81,823
126,189
817,572
701,913
566,965
102,320
105,988
238,450
112,531
303,352

2.2
2.6
.9
2.2
.8
1.5
2.3
.6
-.6
.4

146
114
243
147
249
202
140
263
300
278

27,801
31,502
36,520
34,970
37,598
30,735
32,013
32,255
25,966
34,532

4.1
1.7
4.2
4.6
3.9
2.1
1.9
2.3
3.0
2.6

Stark, O H ............................
Summit, OH .......................

175,535
266,001

1.7
.4

191
279

28,505
32,735

2.1
4.2

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

67

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

21.

C o n tin u e d — A n n u a l d a ta : E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e a n n u a l p a y f o r
a ll w o r k e r s c o v e r e d u n d e r U l a n d U C F E

in t h e 3 1 6 la r g e s t U .S .

c o u n t ie s
E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty 1
2000

68

Monthly Labor Review

P e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

R an ked by
p e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 3

2000

P erc en t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

Trumbull, OH .....................
Oklahoma, O K ...................
Tulsa, O K ............................
Clackamas, OR .................
Lane, OR ............................
Marlon, OR ........................
Multnomah, OR .................
Washington, OR ...............

94,382
414,239
340,671
133,065
139,710
127,558
453,274
224,033

-1.3
2.9
2.5
2.2
1.1
2.0
2.1
4.3

311
93
125
148
233
166
158
27

32,785
29,216
31,157
32,482
27,877
28,116
36,796
44,459

1.0
4.6
3.7
4.0
3.5
2.9
6.2
13.4

Allegheny, P A ....................
Berks, P A ............................
Bucks, P A ...........................
Chester, PA .......................
Cumberland, PA ...............
Dauphin, PA ......................
Delaware, P A .....................
Erie, PA ..............................
Lackawanna, P A ...............
Lancaster, P A ....................

711,068
168,068
244,317
216,777
123,998
172,465
212,540
131,700
98,383
218,280

1.2
1.8
2.5
2.5
-1.3
2.1
1.0
2.5
-.7
1.8

226
182
126
127
312
159
238
128
303
183

36,727
32,007
34,059
43,762
32,811
33,680
36,828
28,368
27,663
30,809

2.5
3.3
3.4
6.9
3.2
2.2
5.5
1.8
7.5
4.6

Lehigh, P A .........................
Luzerne, P A .......................
Montgomery, P A ...............
Northampton, P A ..............
Philadelphia, PA ...............
Westmoreland, P A ............
York, PA .............................
Providence, Rl ...................
Charleston, SC ..................
Greenville, SC ...................

171,175
143,066
481,011
87,846
668,793
134,436
167,757
290,809
182,793
233,062

2.0
2.2
2.3
3.0
1.5
1.0
2.2
1.7
1.3
2.6

167
149
141
89
203
239
150
192
221
115

35,274
27,855
43,810
30,767
39,700
27,992
30,926
33,410
27,680
31,281

2.5
2.7
6.5
3.1
4.5
1.3
3.3
4.0
4.8
4.0

Horry, S C ............................
Lexington, S C ....................
Richland, S C ......................
Spartanburg, S C ...............
Minnehaha, S D ..................
Davidson, T N .....................
Hamilton, T N ......................
Knox, T N .............................
Rutherford, T N ...................
Shelby, T N .........................

99,124
81,341
207,508
119,791
105,837
434,901
188,161
202,688
76,993
500,255

1.7
2.0
.6
.5
3.2
1.5
1.8
3.4
2.5
1.0

193
168
264
270
75
204
184
60
129
240

22,883
27,505
29,627
30,596
28,212
34,863
30,574
30,090
31,132
34,357

5.4
3.5
4.1
3.4
3.7
5.4
4.0
4.1
3.6
2.5

Bell, T X ...............................
Bexar, T X ............................
Brazoria, T X .......................
Cameron, TX .....................
Collin, T X ............................
Dallas, T X ...........................
Denton, TX ........................
El Paso, T X ........................
Fort Bend, TX ....................
Galveston, T X ....................

87,850
648,942
75,417
109,115
167,956
1,567,626
119,722
251,557
87,763
86,844

2.1
2.2
2.8
5.4
5.9
4.2
3.7
1.5
2.4
-1.0

160
151
100
11
10
30
47
205
133
306

25,193
29,923
34,367
21,553
40,509
44,381
29,298
25,069
35,801
29,518

4.1
5.2
3.3
2.6
5.8
7.7
4.0
3.2
5.1
4.0

Harris, TX ..........................
Hidalgo, T X ........................
Jefferson, TX .....................
Lubbock, TX ......................
Me Lennan, TX ..................
Montgomery, T X ...............
Nueces, T X ........................
Potter, TX ...........................
Smith, T X ............................
Tarrant, TX ........................

1,840,442
163,443
120,815
115,422
98,076
76,865
142,309
75,572
83,353
703,025

2.8
7.1
1.1
1.9
1.0
5.0
.8
.7
2.8
3.5

101
5
234
175
241
21
250
254
102
56

41,869
21,671
31,277
26,297
27,034
32,119
28,187
26,552
29,509
35,438

7.7
2.7
.8
6.3
2.1
9.7
4.7
2.8
3.6
5.0

Travis, TX ...........................
Williamson, T X ...................
Davis, L IT ............................
Salt Lake, U T .....................
Utah, U T .............................
Weber, U T .........................
Chittenden, V T ...................
Arlington, V A ......................
Chesterfield, V A .................
Fairfax, V A .........................

538,193
76,588
84,640
531,240
142,369
86,404
95,343
157,906
107,932
537,647

5.1
9.5
3.2
2.6
4.5
.4
5.1
4.1
2.1
6.7

17
2
76
116
24
280
18
37
161
7

41,332
50,415
27,711
32,192
27,891
26,644
34,288
52,846
31,880
51,576

7.0
-4.5
7.2
5.0
5.0
2.5
4.2
7.1
3.5
10.3

Henrico, VA .......................
Loudoun, V A ......................
Prince William, V A ............
Alexandria, V A ...................
Chesapeake, V A ...............
Newport News, VA ...........
Norfolk, VA ........................

165,617
87,265
78,209
91,818
81,294
93,607
145,197

2.4
11.9
4.3
5.1
2.1
1.8
.3

134
1
28
19
162
185
284

36,138
54,141
28,986
42,101
26,069
30,261
32,179

5.8
3.6
5.5
6.1
4.2
5.4
4.9

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A v e ra g e a n n u a l pay

October 2002

21.

C o n tin u e d — A n n u a l d a ta : E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e a n n u a l p a y f o r
a ll w o r k e r s c o v e r e d

under Ul and UCFE

in t h e 3 1 6 la r g e s t U .S .

c o u n t ie s
E m p lo y m e n t

C o u n ty 1
2000

A v e ra g e a n n u a l pay

P e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

R anked by
p e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 3

2000

P e rc e n t
change,
1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0 2

Richmond, V A ....................
Roanoke City, VA .............
Virginia Beach, V A ............

166,923
75,894
165,610

1.4
3.0
3.6

213
90
53

38,635
29,487
25,414

5.1
4.6
4.4

Clark, WA ...........................
King, W A .............................
Pierce, W A .........................
Snohomish, W A .................
Spokane, W A .....................
Thurston, W A .....................
Yakima, W A .......................
Kanawha, W V ....................
Brown, W l ...........................
Dane, W l.............................

113,910
1,162,290
241,654
209,557
188,843
84,277
94,233
112,920
142,359
274,353

1.5
2.7
4.2
-1.2
2.9
1.6
1.9
.7
2.1
2.6

206
106
31
310
94
200
176
255
163
117

32,163
47,459
29,854
35,091
29,760
31,745
23,237
30,156
31,538
32,817

6.0
3.0
4.2
3.6
7.9
6.9
3.7
3.1
2.9
5.5

Milwaukee, W l ...................
Outagamie, W l...................
Racine, Wl .........................
Waukesha, Wl ...................
Winnebago, W l ..................

528,837
94,364
79,160
222,877
90,256

.5
2.9
-.9
1.2
2.2

271
95
305
227
152

34,744
30,769
32,536
35,767
33,622

3.1
4.4
-.6
5.2
2.7

San Juan, PR ....................

327,187

3.8

42

21,312

3.5

1 Includes areas not officially designated as
counties.
See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.

4 Totals for the United States do not include
data for Puerto Rico.
5 Data are not available for release.

2 Percent changes were computed from
annual employment and pay data adjusted for
noneconomic county reclassifications.
See
Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

Note: Data pertain to workers covered by
Unemployment
Insurance
(Ul)
and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE) programs. The 315 U.S.
counties comprise 70.8 percent of the total
covered workers in the United States

3 Rankings
for
percent
change
in
employment are based on the 314 counties that
are comparable over the year.

22.

A nnual d a ta : Em ploym ent status o f the p o p u la tio n

[N u m b e rs in th o u s a n d s ]
1 992

1 993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 99 9

2000

2001

Civilian noninstitutional population...........

192,805

194,838

196,814

198,584

200,591

203,133

205,220

207,753

209,699

211,864

Civilian labor force....................................

128,105

129,200

131,056

132,304

133,943

136,297

137,673

139,368

140,863

141,815

Labor force participation rate...............

66.4

66.3

66.6

66.6

66.8

67.1

67.1

67.1

67.2

66.9

Employed.............................................

118,492

120,259

123,060

124,900

126,708

129,558

131,463

133,488

135,208

135,073

Employment-population ratio..........

61.5

61.7

62.5

62.9

63.2

63.8

64.1

64.3

64.5

63.8

Agriculture......................................

3,247

3,115

3,409

3,440

3,443

3,399

3,378

3,281

3,305

3,144

Nonagricultural industries............

115,245

117,144

119,651

121,460

123,264

126,159

128,085

130,207

131,903

131,929

Unemployed.......................................

9,613

8,940

7,996

7,404

7,236

6,739

6,210

5,880

5,655

6,742

Unemployment rate..........................

7.5

6.9

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.2

4.0

4.8

Not in the labor force...............................

64,700

65,638

65,758

66,280

66,647

66,837

67,547

68,385

68,836

70,050

E m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

69

Current Labor Statistics:

23.

Labor Force Data

A nnual d a ta : E m ploym ent levels by industry

[In th o u s a n d s ]
In d u s try
Total em ployment...........................................
Private sector.................................................
Goods-producing......................................

1 99 2

1 993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 99 9

2000

2001

108,601

110,713
91,872

114,163

117,191

119,608

122,690

125,865

128,916

131,922

23,352

95,036
23,908

97,885
24,265

103,133
24,962

106,042
25,414

108,709
25,507

610
4,668

601
4,986

581
5,160

100,189
24,493
580

131,720
111,018
25,669

596
5,691

590
6,020

539
6,415

543
6,653

Mining......................................................

89,956
23,231
635

Construction...........................................

4,492

5,418

110,989
24,944
565
6,685

Manufacturing.........................................

18,104

18,075

18,321

18,524

18,495

18,675

18,805

18,552

18,473

17,695

Service-producing.....................................

85,370

87,361

90,256

92,925

97,727

Transportation and public utilities........
Wholesale trade.....................................

5,718
5,997

5,811

5,984
6,162

100,451
6,611

103,409
6,834

106,051
7,031

106,978
7,065

5,981

6,648

6,800

6,911

6,947

Retail trade.............................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....

19,356
6,602
29,052

19,773
6,757
30,197

20,507

6,378
21,187

95,115
6,253
6,482
21,597
6,911
34,454

22,295
7,389

22,848
7,555

36,040

37,533

39,055

23,337
7,578
40,457

6,776
23,522
7,712

31,579

6,806
33,117

21,966
7,109

18,841
2,915

19,128
2,870

19,305
2,822

19,419
2,757

19,557

Federal.................................................

18,645
2,969

19,823
2,686

20,206
2,669

20,702
2,777

State.....................................................
Local.....................................................

4,408
11,267

4,488
11,438

4,576
11,682

4,635
11,849

4,606
12,056

4,612
12,525

4,709
12,829

4,786
13,139

Services..................................................
Government...........................................

6,896

6,132

6,408

2,699
4,582
12,276

40,970
20,933
2,616
4,885
13,432

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

24.

A nnual d a ta : A v e ra g e hours a n d earnings o f p ro d u ctio n or nonsupervisory w orkers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
In d u s try

19 9 2

Private sector:
Average weekly hours...................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).........................

199 3

19 9 4

199 5

199 6

1 99 7

1998

19 9 9

2000

200 1

34.4
10.57
363.61

34.5
10.83
373.64

34.7
11.12
385.86

34.5
11.43
394.34

34.4
11.82
406.61

34.6
12.28
424.89

34.6
12.78
442.19

34.5
13.24
456.78

34.5
13.76
474.72

34.2
14.32
489.74

43.9
14.54
638.31

44.3
14.60
646.78

44.8
14.88
666.62

44.7
15.30
683.91

45.3
15.62
707.59

45.4
16.15
733.21

43.9
16.91
742.35

43.2
17.05
736.56

43.1
17.22
742.18

43.5
17.56
763.86

38.0
14.15
537.70

38.5
14.38
553.63

38.9
14.73
573.00

38.9
15.09
587.00

39.0
15.47
603.33

39.0
16.04
625.56

38.9
16.61
646.13

39.1
17.19
672.13

39.3
17.88
702.68

39.3
18.34
720.76

41.0
11.46
469.86

41.4
11.74
486.04

42.0
12.07
506.94

41.6
12.37
514.59

41.6
12.77
531.23

42.0
13.17
553.14

41.7
13.49
562.53

41.7
13.90
579.63

41.6
14.37
597.79

14.83
603.58

38.3
13.43
514.37

39.3
13.55
532.52

39.7
13.78
547.07

39.4
14.13
556.72

39.6
14.45
572.22

39.7
14.92
592.32

39.5
15.31
604.75

38.7
15.69
607.20

38.4
16.21
622.46

38.2
16.79
641.38

38.2
11.39
435.10

38.2
11.74
448.47

38.4
12.06
463.10

38.3
12.43
476.07

38.3
12.87
492.92

38.4
13.45
516.48

38.3
14.07
538.88

38.3
14.59
558.80

38.5
15.22
585.97

38.2
15.86
605.85

28.8
7.12

28.9
7.49
216.46

28.8
7.69
221.47

28.8
7.99
230.11

28.9
8.33
240.74

29.0
8.74

205.06

28.8
7.29
209.95

253.46

29.0
9.09
263.61

28.9
9.46
273.39

28.9
9.77
282.82

35.8
10.82
387.36

35.8
11.35
406.33

35.8
11.83
423.51

35.9
12.32
442.29

35.9
12.80
459.52

36.1
13.34
481.57

36.4
14.07
512.15

36.2
14.62
529.24

36.4
15.14
551.10

36.1
15.80
570.38

32.5
10.54
342.55

32.5
10.78
350.35

32.5
11.04
358.80

32.4
11.39
369.04

32.4
11.79
382.00

32.6
12.28
400.33

32.6
12.84
418.58

32.6
13.37
435.86

32.7
13.93
455.51

32.7
14.67
479.71

Mining:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................

Construction:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Manufacturing:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

40.7

Transportation and public utilities:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Retail trade:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Services:
Average weekly hours................................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

70

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

25.

E m ploym ent Cost Index, c o m p e n sa tio n ,1 b y o c c u p a tio n a n d industry group

[J u n e 1 98 9 = 100]
2000

2001

2002

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
June

S e p t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

S e p t.

D ec .

M a r.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

ended

ended

June 2002
Civilian workers2..........................................................................

148.0

149.5

150.6

152.5

153.8

155.6

156.8

158.4

159.9

0.9

4.0

149.9
148.3
151.9
150.1
144.1
147.1

151.5
150.0
153.7
151.8
145.6
148.5

152.5
151.3
154.6
152.8
146.5
150.0

154.4
153.2
156.6
155.3
148.2
152.0

156.0
154.3
158.6
156.8
149.3
153.3

157.7
156.7
159.6
158.8
151.1
155.0

158.9
157.5
161.2
160.0
152.0
156.9

160.5
158.5
163.7
162.0
153.7
158.4

162.1
159.3
165.6
163.3
155.1
159.4

1.0
.5
1.2
.8
.9
.6

3.9
3.2
4.4
4.1
3.9
4.0

Goods-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services............................................................

146.6
147.5
148.4
149.3
147.5
147.7
146.8

148.0
148.7
150.1
151.2
149.0
149.5
149.7

148.8
149.3
151.1
152.4
150.7
151.3
150.6

150.7
151.3
153.0
154.3
152.5
153.2
151.7

152.2
152.6
154.4
155.4
154.6
155.6
152.2

153.2
153.3
156.4
158.1
156.7
158.2
156.1

154.4
154.6
157.6
159.0
158.3
160.0
156.6

156.3
156.6
159.1
160.2
160.5
162.3
157.1

157.7
158.1
160.7
161.1
161.8
163.8
157.4

.9
1.0
1.0
.6
.8
.9
.2

3.6
3.6
4.1
3.7
4.7
5.3
3.4

Public administration3.............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

146.1

146.9

148.3

150.6

151.9

153.8

155.2

156.5

157.5

.6

3.7

148.0

149.6

150.7

152.6

154.0

156.0

157.2

158.7

160.2

.9

4.0

148.5
148.2

149.9
149.8

150.9
150.9

153.0
153.0

154.5
154.4

155.9
156.0

157.2
157.2

158.9
159.0

160.7
160.5

1.1
.9

4.0
4.0

151.1
151.3
150.7
152.7
150.3
150.6
144.1
144.1
145.0
138.6
148.1

152.6
152.9
152.2
154.4
151.2
152.3
145.5
145.8
146.0
139.9
149.4

153.6
154.1
153.7
155.3
151.4
153.4
146.4
146.7
146.8
141.1
150.4

155.7
156.5
156.3
157.3
152.3
156.1
148.2
148.7

158.7
159.6
159.2
160.2
155.0
159.5
151.0
151.8
150.4
145.6
154.9

160.1
160.9
160.3
161.8
156.7
160.8
151.9
152.5
151.5
146.3
156.5

161.9
162.8
161.5
164.4
157.7
162.8
153.6
153.7

148.3
142.6
152.2

157.4
158.1
157.5
159.4
154.5
157.7
149.3
149.7
149.1
143.9
153.4

163.8
164.3
162.5
166.6
161.6
164.2
155.1
155.7
154.7
149.6
159.9

1.2
.9
.6
1.3
2.5
.9
1.0
1.3
.7
.6
.8

4.1
3.9
3.2
4.5
4.6
4.1
3.9
4.0
3.8
4.0
4.2

Workers, by occupational group:
W hite-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial..........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar w orkers...................................................................
Service occupations.................................................................
Workers, by industry division:

Private industry w orkers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..............................................
Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

153.6
148.7
158.7

Service occupations...............................................................

145.4

146.6

148.1

150.0

151.3

152.6

154.8

156.4

157.4

.6

4.0

Production and nonsupervisory occupations4..................

146.9

148.4

149.5

151.4

152.7

154.3

155.5

157.1

158.7

1.0

3.9

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Construction..........................................................................
M anufacturing.......................................................................
W hite-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Durables................................................................................
Nondurables.........................................................................

146.6
145.9
150.1
148.4
144.4
143.2
147.5
150.2
148.2
145.6
148.3
146.0

147.9
147.2
151.3
149.6
145.8
145.1
148.7
151.4
149.3
146.7
149.4
147.5

148.8
148.2
151.9
150.5
146.8
146.7
149.3
151.5
149.7
147.8
150.1
147.7

150.7
150.1
154.5
153.0
148.2
148.2
151.3
154.2
152.2
149.1
151.8
150.4

152.1
151.5
156.5
155.0
149.3
150.3
152.6
156.0
154.0
150.0
153.1
151.6

153.1
152.5
156.8
155.3
150.8
151.7
153.3
156.0
153.8
151.3
154.0
152.0

154.4
153.7
158.1
156.5
151.9
153.0
154.6
156.9
154.7
152.7
155.3
153.2

156.2
155.5
160.1
158.4
153.6
154.1
156.6
159.1
156.7
154.6
156.9
156.0

157.6
156.9
161.9
160.2
154.8
155.2
158.1
161.1
158.6
155.8
158.3
157.5

.9
.9
1.1
1.1
.8
.7
1.0
1.3
1.2
.8
.9
1.0

3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.7
3.3
3.6
3.3
3.0
3.9
3.4
3.9

Service-producing...................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
W hite-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................
Transportation and public utilities.....................................
Transportation....................................................................
Public utilities......................................................................
Communications.............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Retail trade.........................................................................
General merchandise stores..........................................
Food stores.......................................................................

149.1
149.4
151.0
152.1
143.1
145.1
145.7
141.8
150.9
150.9
151.0
147.3
148.1
151.8
151.1
144.8
141.0
142.5

150.6
151.1
152.6
153.9
144.5
146.3
147.4
142.8
153.5
153.9
152.9
148.3
149.6
152.1
152.7
146.2
142.2
143.4

151.7
152.2
153.7
155.1
145.3
147.9
148.3
143.9
154.1
154.7
153.4
149.4
150.6
154.4
154.9
146.6
144.4
144.5

153.8
154.6
155.8
157.5
147.7
149.6
150.5
145.4
157.3
158.3
156.0
151.0
152.6
155.1
156.9
148.7
147.3
146.1

155.3
156.0
157.4
159.1
148.7
150.8
152.4
146.9
159.8
161.1
158.1
152.6
153.9
157.8
158.5
149.7

156.9
157.8
159.0
160.9
150.9
152.2
153.5
148.2
160.7
162.8
158.1
153.7
155.4
158.6
160.0
150.9
149.7
149.7

158.2
159.0
160.3
162.2
151.4
154.2
155.5
151.1
161.5
163.4
159.1
155.5
157.1
159.5
160.6
153.2
150.9
151.7

159.9
160.9
162.1
164.1
153.2
155.9
157.3
152.5
163.9
166.0
161.3
156.5
157.5
161.9
162.3
153.5
152.4
152.9

161.8
162.4
164.0
165.6
155.2
157.0
158.9
153.9
165.5
166.1
164.8
159.5
160.0
166.3
164.4
155.6
154.2
154.5

1.2
.9
1.2
.9
1.3
.7
1.0
.9
1.0
.1
2.2
1.9
1.6
2.7
1.3
1.4
1.2
1.0

4.2
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.4
4.1
4.3
4.8
3.6
3.1
4.2
4.5
4.0
5.4
3.7
3.9
3.2

149.4
148.2

4.3

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

71

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

25. C on tin ue d — Em ploym ent Cost Index, co m p e n s a tio n ,1 b y o c c u p a tio n a nd industry group
[J u n e 1 98 9 = 100]
2000

2001

2002

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
June

S e p t.

D ec .

M ar.

June

S e p t.

D ec .

M ar.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

ended

ended

June 2002
Finance, insurance, and real estate.................................

153.1

155.2

155.7

157.9

159.5

160.9

161,3

165.2

167.3

1.3

4.9

Excluding sales occupations........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance......................................................
Services....................................................................
Business services...................................................
Health services.............................................
Hospitals..........................................................
Educational services.............................................
Colleges and universities......................................

155.5
164.2
151.3
151.2
156.3
147.5
147.5
154.9
155.5

157.4
165.8
154.8
152.9
157.5
149.0
149.2
158.8
158.6

158.4
166.5
155.2
154.1
158.4
150.6
151.1
159.9
159.2

161.2
170.8
157.6
156.5
160.5
152.7
153.5
162.3
162.2

163.1
172.7
159.3
157.8
163.0
154.7
155.9
162.6
162.6

164.7
175.4
159.9
160.0
165.2
156.8
158.4
166.4
166.2

165.0
174.5
161.3
161.0
166.2
158.4
160.3
167.6
167.5

169.8
182.1
164.0
162.6
166.3
160.6
162.8
168.5
168.1

171.3
184.2
166.1
163.7
166.6
162.0
164.5
169.0
168.4

.9
1.2
1.3
.7
.2
.9
1.0
.3
.2

5.0
6.7
4.3
3.7
2.2
4.7
5.5
3.9
3.6

Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

148.4

150.0

151.1

153.1

154.7

156.3

157.6

159.3

161.1

1.1

4.1

White-collar workers.........................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations.......................................................

151.0
152.0
142.3
145.1

152.6
153.8
143.9
146.3

153.7
155.1
144.8
147.8

155.8
157.5
146.9
149.5

157.5
159.1
148.1
150.7

159.0
160.9
150.2
152.1

160.5
162.3
150.6
154.1

162.2
164.2
152.2
155.9

164.1
165.7
154.0
156.9

1.2
.9
1.2
.6

4.2
4.1
4.0
4.1

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s ..............................................

145.9

147.8

148.9

150.3

151.2

154.3

155.2

156.1

156.7

.4

3.6

145.3
144.5
147.2
146.5
144.2

147.3
146.6
149.2
148.3
145.9

148.3
147.4
150.7
149.4
147.2

149.5
148.4
152.4
150.7
148.6

150.4
149.2
153.7
151.6
149.0

153.7
152.8
156.4
154.2
151.5

154.4
153.2
157.6
155.6
153.2

155.2
153.6
159.5
156.9
154.0

155.7
154.1
159.6
158.0
154.7

.3
.3
.2
.7
.5

3.5
3.3
4.0
4.2
3.8

Workers, by occupational group:
W hite-collar workers.............................................................
Professional specialty and technical.................................
Executive, administrative, and m anagerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical............................
Blue-collar workers...................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Services..............................................................

145.5

148.0

148.9

149.9

150.6

154.4

154.9

155.5

155.9

.3

3.5

Services excluding schools5........................................
Health services..................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.......................................................
Schools...................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

145.8

147.6

148.8

150.1

151.9

154.5

156.1

157.9

158.7

.5

4.5

147.9
148.4
145.2
145.5
144.7
147.6

150.0
150.7
147.9
148.2
147.3
150.5

151.6
152.0
148.7
149.0
148.1
151.7

152.1
152.2
149.6
149.9
148.5
153.7

154.4
154.7
150.1
150.5
149.0
154.3

157.1
157.4
154.1
154.4
152.8
153.8

158.5
159.1
154.5
154.8
153.1
159.6

160.4
160.7
154.8
155.1
153.4
160.0

161.4
161.8
155.1
155.4
153.6
160.4

.6
.7
.2
.2
.1
.3

4.5
4.6
3.3
3.3
3.1
4.0

146.1

146.9

148.3

150.6

151.9

151.9

155.2

156.5

157.9

.6

3.7

Public administration3...................................................

Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2 Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

72

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

3 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.
This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

26.

E m ploym ent Cost Index, w ages a nd salaries, by o c c u p a tio n a n d industry group

[J u n e 1 989 = 100]
2000

2002

2001

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
June

S ep t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

S e p t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

ended

ended

June 2002
Civilian workers1..........................................................................

145.4

147.0

147.9

149.5

150.8

152.3

153.4

154.8

156.1

0.8

3.5

White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial..........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................
Blue-collar workers..................................................................
Service occupations.................................................................

147.6
146.4
149.9
146.9
140.6
144.0

149.2
148.3
151.6
148.5
142.0
145.7

150.2
149.6
152.4
149.6
142.9
147.1

151.7
151.1
154.0
151.6
144.7
148.6

153.1
152.155.8
152,7
146.0
149.7

154.5
154.2
156.7
154.6
147.6
151.2

155.6
155.1
158.1
155.7
148.5
153.0

157.0
155.6
160.7
157.3
149.7
154.2

158.4
156.2
162.6
158.4
151.0
155.1

.9
.4
1.2
.7
.9
.6

3.5
2.8
4.4
3.7
3.4
3.6

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
M anufacturing.........................................................................
Service-producing....................................................................
Services...................................................................................
Health services.....................................................................
Hospitals..............................................................................
Educational services...........................................................

143.0
144.4
146.3
147.9
145.3
143.8
145.6

144.3
145.7
148.0
149.9
146.7
145.6
148.9

145.3
146.5
148.9
151.0
148.3
147.3
149.6

147.0
148.5
150.5
152.6
149.8
148.8
150.5

147,6
150.0
151.7
153.6
151.8
151.2
151.0

149.5
150.7
153.4
156.2
153.7
15.5
154.6

150.5
151.7
154.5
157.1
155.5
155.5
155.1

151.8
153.1
155.9
158.1
157.3
157.2
155.3

153.1
154.5
157.2
158.8
158.5
158.6
155.6

.9
.9
.8
.4
.8
.9
.2

3.0
3.0
3.6
3.4
4.4
4.9
3.0

142.9
145.5

144.6
147.2

146.1
148.1

147.6
149.7

148.7
149.7

150.3
152.6

151.6
153.8

152.5
155.0

153.4
156.4

.6
.9

3.2
3.6

145.4
145.1

146.8
146.5

147.7
147.6

149.4
149.5

150.9
150.8

152.1
152.2

153.3
153.3

154.7
154.9

156.3
156.1

1.0
.8

3.6
3.5

White-collar workers..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations............................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations...........
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations..
Sales occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...
Blue-collar workers................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.......
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

148.3
148.5
147.3
150.7
147.9
147.5
140.5
140.6
141.6
135.2
143.6

149.7
149.9
148.6
152.3
149.0
149.1
141.9
142.0
142.9
136.5
145.0

150.6
151.1
150.2
153.0
148.7
150.1
142.8
142.8
143.7
137.6
146.2

152.3
153.0
152.1
154.7
149.2
152.3
144.6
144.6
145.6
139.5
148.0

153.8
154.4
153.2
156.5
151.5
153.6
145.9
145.7
146.9
140.7
149.8

154.8
155.7
154.8
157.2
151.2
155.3
147.5
147.7
148.1
142.1
151.0

156.1
156.9
155.9
158.6
152.6
156.5
148.3
148,4
149.0
142.8
152.4

157.7
158.6
156.7
161.3
153.6
158.2
149.6
149.2
150.5
144.8
154.2

159.4
160.0
157.4
163.6
157.0
159.2
150.9
151.0
151.6
145.2
155.1

1.1
.9
.4
1.4
2.2
.6
.9
1.2
,7
.3
.6

3.6
3.6
2.7
4.5
3.6
3.6
3.4
3.6
3.2
3.2
3.5

Service occupations...............................................................

142.5

143.5

144.9

146.4

147.5

148.7

150.6

152.0

152.8

.5

3.6

Production and nonsupervisory occupations3..................

143.7

145.0

146.0

147.7

149.0

150.3

151.5

152.7

154.0

.9

3.4

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing....................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations....................................................
Construction..........................................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations....................................................
Durables................................................................................
Nondurables.........................................................................

143.0
142.1
146.8
144.9
140.5
138.0
144.4
147.7
145.6
142.0
144.7
143.9

144.3
143.4
147.9
146.0
142.0
139.4
145.7
148.7
146.6
143.4
146.1
145.0

145.2
144.6
148.7
147.2
143.1
140.7
146.5
149.2
147.5
144.6
147.3
145.4

147.0
146.3
150.5
148.9
144.7
142.1
148.5
151.1
149.9
146.4
149.0
147.5

148.6
147.8
152.3
150.5
146.1
143.9
150.0
152.7
150.5
147.8
150.5
149.0

149.5
148.7
152.6
150.8
147.4
145.1
150.7
152.8
150.5
149.1
151.5
149.3

150.5
149.7
153.6
151.7
148.4
146.3
151.7
153.3
151.0
150.3
151.7
153.9

151.7
150.9
155.0
152.9
149.6
147.0
153.1
154.9
152.3
151.7
153.9
151.9

153.1
152.2
156.6
154.4
150.7
148.2
154.4
156.6
153.9
152.8
155.3
153.1

.9
.9
1.0
1.0
.7
.8
.9
1.1
1.1
.7
.9
.8

3.0
3.0
2.8
2.7
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.6
2.3
3.4
3.2
2.8

Service-producing...................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
White-collar occupations..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................
Transportation and public utilities.....................................
Transportation....................................................................
Public utilities......................................................................
Communications.............................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.............................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Wholesale trade.................................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Retail trade.........................................................................
General merchandise stores..........................................
Food stores.......................................................................

146.5
146.9
148.5
149.6
140.3
142.5
140.0
136.2
144.9
145.0
144.7
145.5
146.8
149.4
149.7
143.5
138.5
139.5

147.9
148.3
150.0
151.2
141.6
143.5
141.3
137.4
146.4
146.7
145.9
146.4
148.2
149.6
151.3
144.8
139.7
140.2

148.9
149.4
150.9
152.3
142.2
144.8
142.3
138.6
147.1
147.4
146.6
147.4
149.0
151.6
153.2
145.2
142.2
141.6

150.5
151.3
152.5
154.3
144.3
146.1
143.7
139.8
148.7
149.2
148.1
148.4
150.7
151.6
154.9
146.9
143.8
143.3

151.9
152.6
154.0
155.6
145.3
147.2
145.7
141.6
151.0
151.8
149.9
150.1
151.9
154.5
156.5
147.8
145.5
144.5

153.2
154.2
155.2
157.2
147.5
148.4
146.7
142.6
152.0
153.3
150.4
150.6
153.1
154.1
157.4
148.8
145.7
145.7

151.9
156.1
157.2
158.2
148.1
149.4
149.2
145.7
153.6
155.2
151.7
152.1
154.8
157.9
150.7
146.5
146.7

156.1
157.2
158.2
160.4
149.4
151.6
150.5
147.4
154.3
155.3
153.0
153.0
157.2
159.4
150.9
147.9
148.0

157.7
158.5
159.9
161.6
151.1
152.4
152.1
148.6
156.4
157.1
155.5
155.7
161.3
161.2
152.7
148.9
148.9

1.0
.8
1.1
.7
1.1
.5
1.1
.8
1.4
1.2
1.6
1.8
2.6
1.1
1.2
.7
.6

3.8
3.9
3.8
3.9
4.0
3.5
4.4
4.9
3.6
3.5
3.7
3.7
4.4
3.0
3.3
2.3
3.0

Workers, by occupational group:

Public administration .............................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................
Private industry workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations..............................................
Workers, by occupational group:

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

26. C ontinued— Em ploym ent Cost Index, w ages a n d salaries, by o c c u p a tio n a nd industry group
[J u n e 1 989 = 100]

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2000

2001

2002

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
M ar.

S e p t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

S e p t.

D ec .

M a r.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

en d e d

ended

June 2002
Finance, insurance, and real estate..................................
Excluding sales occupations.........................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies.
Insurance............................................................................
Services.................................................................................

151.7
153.3
165.0
150.7
150.6
155.3
146.6
144.9
153.4
152.5

151.7
154.1
165.7
150.8
151.8
156.0
148.1
146.8
154.3
152.9

153.9
156.6
169.4
152.4
153.8
158.2
149.8
148.5
155.4
154.1

154.6
157.6
170.8
153.3
155.0
160.8
151.8
151.0
156.1
155.0

155.8
159.1
173.2
153.6
157.1

Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.........................................................
Colleges and universities...............................................

148.7
150.2
162.0
145.5
147.4
152.0
143.5
141.8
148.9
148.9

Nonmanufacturing...............................................................
White-collar workers..........................................................
Excluding sales occupations........................................
Blue-collar occupations.....................................................
Service occupations..........................................................

143.9
146.5
147.4
137.4
140.9

146.9
149.6
150.7
140.3
143.4

147.9
150.6
151.9
140.9
144.7

149.5
152.3
153.9
142.8
146.0

S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s .............................................

144.3

147.2

148.3

144.1
144.3
144.9
142.4
141.5

147.1
147.4
147.3
145.0
143.9

148.0
148.2
148.8
146.2
145.1

162.8
153.6
153.3
159.6
158.4

156.0
159.1
171.7
155.0
158.2
163.7
155.4
155.4
160.5
159.6

160.3
164.5
181.2
157.1
159.5
164.0
157.3
157.1
161.2
159.9

162.0
165.7
182.8
158.6
160.3
164 0
158.4
158.6
161.2
159.9

1.1
.7
.9
1.0
.5
0
.7
1.0
.0
.0

4.8
5.1
7.0
3.5
3.4
20
4.3
5.0
3.3
3.2

150.9
153.8
155.3
143.9
147.1

152.2
155.0
156.9
145.8
148.2

153.5
156.4
158.3
146.4
150.1

155.0
158.0
160.1
147.5
151.4

156.5
159.6
161.3
149.0
152.3

1.0
1.0
.7
1.0
.6

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.5
3.5

150.2

151.2

154.3

155.2

156.1

156.7

.3

3.2

149.0
149.1
150.1
147.0
146.0

149.8
149.8
151.5
147.6
146.5

152.7
153.0
153.9
149.8
149.1

153.3
153.4
155.1
150.9
150.8

153.9
153.6
156.6
151.9
151.6

154.4
154.1
156.8
152.8
152.1

.3
.3
.1
.6
.3

3.1
2.9
3.5
3.5
38

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................
Professional specialty and technical...................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.........................
Administrative support, including clerical...........................

Workers, by industry division:
Services....................................................................................

144.6

147.9

148.7

149.5

150.2

153.7

154.2

154.6

155.0

.3

3.2

Health services...................................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Schools.............................................................................
Elementary and secondary.........................................
Colleges and universities............................................

144.3
145.3
145.3
144.5
144.7
144.5
144.9

146.7
147.7
147.7
148.0
148.1
147.9
148.3

147.9
149.3
149.2
148.7
148.9
148.5
149.5

149.1
149.9
149.5
149.5
149.7
149.0
151.4

150.7
151.9
151.8
150.0
150.2
149.5
151.8

153.2
154.2
154.2
153.6
153.8
152.8
156.5

154.9
155.8
155.7
154.0
154.1
153.1
156.7

156.7
157.8
157.7
154.2
154.3
153.4
156.8

157.3
158.6
158.8
154.5
154.6
153.6
157.3

.4
.6
.7
.2
.2
.1
.3

4.4
4.5
4.6
3.0
2.9
2.7
3.6

Public administration .............................................................

142.5

144.6

146.1

147.6

148.7

150.3

151.6

152.5

153.4

.6

3.2

Services excluding schools4................................................

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.

2 Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

27.

This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
4 Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

E m ploym ent Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by o c c u p a tio n a n d industry group

[J u n e 1 989 = 100]_________________________________________________
2000

2001

2002

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
June

S e p t.

D ec .

M ar.

June

S e p t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

ended

ended

June 2002
Private industry workers...........................................................

155.7

157.5

158.6

161.5

163.2

165.2

166.7

169.3

171.6

1.4

5.1

158.5
151.6

160.4
153.1

161.5
154.1

165.2
155.7

167.4
156.7

169.5
158.3

171.2
159.2

173.5
162.2

176.1
164.0

1.5
1.1

5.2
5.0

154.2
156.0
153.9
156.1

155.7
157.9
154.9
158.1

156.2
159.4
154.8
159.7

158.5
162.6
157.1
162.9

159.6
164.6
157.9
164.9

160.8
167.1
158.5
167.4

162.6
168.4
160.4
168.6

165.8
170.7
163.7
171.1

167.4
173.3
165.5
173.5

1.0
1.5
1.1
1.4

4.9
5.3
4.8
5.2

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.................................................................

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing......................................................................
Service-producing.....................................................................
Manufacturing...........................................................................
Nonmanufacturing....................................................................

74

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

28.

Em ploym ent Cost Index, p rivate nonfarm workers b y b argaining status, region, a nd a rea size

[J u n e 1 98 9 = 100]
2002

2001

2000

P e rc e n t c h a n g e

S e rie s
June

S e p t.

D ec .

M a r.

June

S e p t.

D ec.

M ar.

June

3

12

m o n th s

m o n th s

ended

ended

June 2002
C O M P E N S A T IO N
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1

Union................................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
M anufacturing.............................................................................

144.4
144.8
143.9
145.4
143.4

146.1
146.8
145.2
147.1
145.0

146.9
147.3
146.4
147.4
146.2

147.9
147.9
147.6
147.9
147.3

149.5
149.3
149.5
148.8
149.4

151.0
150.6
151.2
149.9
151.1

153.1
151.6
154.2
151.4

154.8
153.4
156.0
153.4

153.5

Nonunion.........................................................................................
Goods-producing........................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
M anufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

149.1
147.2
149.6
148.2
149.1

150.6
148.4
151.2
149.2
150.7

151.6
149.3
152.3
149.9
151.8

153.8
151.6
154.4
152.4
153.9

155.3
153.1
155.9
153.7
155.4

156.7
154.0
157.5
154.4
157.0

157.8
155.3
158.6
155.5
158.2

147.6
146.7
150.7
148.8

149.3
147.6
152.2
150.8

150.3
148.6
153.3
151.8

151.6
151.1
154.8
154.3

153.7
152.3
156.0
156.0

155.2
153.5
157.4
157.6

148.6
147.7

150.1
148.8

151.0
150.3

153.1
152.1

154.6
153.7

Union................................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................
Nonmanufacturing.....................................................................

138.5
138.4
138.9
139.7
137.8

140.0
140.2
140.1
141.4
139.2

141.2
141.3
141.5
142.6
140.4

142.1
142.4
142.2
143.9
141.1

Nonunion.........................................................................................
Goods-producing.......................................................................
Service-producing......................................................................
Manufacturing.............................................................................

146.7
144.7
147.3
146.1
146.6

148.1
145.8
148.7
147.2
148.0

149.0
146.8
149.6
148.0
148.9

143.7
144.6
147.1
146.3

145.3
145.3
148.6
148.2

145.7
143.7

147.1
144.7

155.0

156.3
154.7
157.6
154.6
156.6

1.0
.8
1.0
.8
1.0

4.5
3.6
5.4
3.9
4.8

159.6
157.2
160.3
157.6
159.9

161.4
158.6
162.2
159.1
161.7

1.1
.9
1.2
1.0
1.1

3.9
3.6
4.0
3.5
4.1

156.3
154.6
158.6
159.4

158.3
156.2
161.1
160.4

159.9
157.6
162.2
162.9

1.0
.9
.9
1.6

4.0
3.5
4.2
4.4

156.0
154.8

157.4
155.6

159.1
157.5

160.9
158.5

1.1
.6

4.1
3.1

143.7
144.2
143.7
145.5
142.7

145.1
145.3
145.4
146.7
144.3

147.4
146.3
148.9
148.0
147.1

148.4
147.2
150.0
149.0
148.1

149.8
158.6
151.4
150.2
149.6

.9
1.0
.9
.8
1.0

4.2
3.1
5.4
3.2
4.8

150.8
148.8
151.4
150.1
150.7

152.2
150.3
152.7
151.6
152.0

153.4
151.1
154.1
152.2
153.3

154.4
152.1
155.1
153.1
154.4

155.9
153.5
156.7
154.7
155.9

157.5
154.8
158.3
156.1
157.5

1.0
.8
1.0
.9
1.0

3.5
3.0
3.7
3.0
3.6

146.0
146.3
149.6
149.2

147.3
148.3
150.9
151.3

149.2
149.3
152.3
152.9

150.6
150.2
153.6
154.3

151.7
151.2
154.7
156.0

153.5
152.5
157.1
156.4

154.9
153.6
158.5
158.7

.9
.7
.9
1.5

3.8
2.9
4.1
3.8

148.0
146.0

149.8
147.4

151.2
148.8

152.4
149.7

153.7
150.5

155.1
151.7

156.7
152.6

1.0
.6

3.6
2.6

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)...............................................

W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas.........................................................................
Other areas....................................................................................
W A G E S A N D S A L A R IE S
W o r k e r s , b y b a r g a in in g s t a t u s 1

W o r k e r s , b y r e g io n 1

Northeast........................................................................................
South...............................................................................................

W o r k e r s , b y a r e a s iz e 1

Metropolitan areas........................................................................
Other areas....................................................................................

1 The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.


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O ctober 2002

75

Current Labor Statistics:

29.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

P e r c e n t o f f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in e m p l o y e r - p r o v i d e d b e n e f i t p la n s , a n d in s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s w it h i n p la n s ,

m e d iu m

a n d la r g e p r iv a t e e s t a b lis h m e n t s , s e le c t e d y e a r s , 1 9 8 0 - 9 7
Ite m

1980

1982

1984

1983

1988

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

Participants with:
Paid lunch time............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid rest time..............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................

10
75
-

9
25
76
25

9
26
73
26

Average days per occurrence.................................
Paid holidays...............................................................
Average days per year.............................................

99
10.1

99
10.0

99
9.8

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4

80
3.3
89
9.1

81
3.7
89
9.3

Paid personal leave....................................................

20

24
3.8

23
3.6

25
3.7

24
33

21
33

21
31

22
33

20
35

Paid vacations.............................................................

100

99

99

100

98

22
31
97

96

97

96

95

Paid sick leave 1..........................................................

62

67

67

70

69
33
16

68
37
18

67
37
26

65
60
53

58

56

84

93

Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care......................................................
With life insurance.....................................................

T im e - o f f p la n s

Unpaid family le a ve ...................................................

_

-

-

_

—

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans...............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care.....................................................
Extended care facilities...........................................
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage............................................................
Average monthly contribution................................

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

-

-

58

62

26
46

27
51

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69

72

74

64

64

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5

_

72
10
59

41

77
7
37

74
6
33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44
53

55

Average monthly contribution................................

Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance..................................................................
Retiree protection available......................................
Participants in long-term disability
Participants in sickness and accident
Participants in short-term disability plans 1.................
R e tir e m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined benefit pension plans...........

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Early retirement available........................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years................

55
98
53
45

58
97
52
45

63
97
47
54
56

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26
55
62

62
97
22
64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

-

-

-

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

-

-

-

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

Benefit coordinated with Social Security.................
Participants in defined contribution plans...................
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements.............................................................

-

O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:

Premium conversion plans.........................................
The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and
accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only
plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Shortterms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available
on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as
sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene­

76

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O ctober 2002

2

5

9

10

12

12

13

5

12

23

36

52

38
5

32
7

fits at less than full pay.
2 Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which
specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax
dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were
tabulated separately.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.


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30.

P e r c e n t o f f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in e m p l o y e r - p r o v i d e d b e n e f i t p la n s , a n d in s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s

w it h in p la n s , s m a ll p r iv a t e e s t a b lis h m e n t s a n d S ta te a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 , a n d

S ta te a n d lo cal g o ve rn m e n ts

S m all p riv a te esta b lis h m e n ts

Item

1994

1992

1990

1996

1987

1996

1992

1990

1994

Scope of survey (in 000's)............................................

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

Number of employees (in 000’s):
With medical care......................................................
With life insurance.....................................................
With defined benefit plan..........................................

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

Participants with:
Paid lunch tim e............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid rest time..............................................................
Average minutes per day.........................................
Paid funeral leave.......................................................
Average days per occurrence.................................
Paid holidays...............................................................

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

50
3.1
82

51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

62
3.7
73

Average days per year1...........................................
Paid personal leave....................................................
Average days per year.............................................
Paid vacations.............................................................

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

Paid sick leave 2.........................................................

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

Unpaid leave...............................................................
Unpaid paternity leave...............................................
Unpaid family leave....................................................

17
8

18
7

47

48

57
30

51
33

59
44

93

T im e -o ff p la n s

In s u ra n c e p la n s

Participants in medical care plans...............................
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care.....................................................
Extended care facilities...........................................
Physical exam..........................................................

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

-

-

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage............................................................
Average monthly contribution................................
Family coverage.......................................................

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

Average monthly contribution................................

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

Participants in life insurance plans.............................
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance..................................................................
Survivor income benefits..........................................
Retiree protection available......................................
Participants In long-term disability
insurance plans.........................................................
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans..........................................................

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1

19

13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

21

22

21

-

-

-

_
29

14

Participants In short-term disability plans 2.................

-

-

-

-

Participants in defined benefit pension plans............

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65...........................
Early retirement available.......................................
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years................
Terminal earnings formula......................................
Benefit coordinated with Social Security...............

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

-

47
92
53
44

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

R e tire m e n t p la n s

Participants in defined contribution plans..................
Participants In plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements............................................................
O th e r b e n e fits

Employees eligible for:
Reimbursement accounts3.......................................
Premium conversion plans ......................................

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

7
Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,

1 Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised
in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are
not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-

2 The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously

3 Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,

sickness and accident Insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick
leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days
per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, self-

which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan
premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of

disabillty benefits at less than full pay.

flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.

insured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disabllity plans previously reported as sick leave.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

77

Current Labor Statistics:

31.

Compensation & Industrial Relations

W o r k s t o p p a g e s in v o lv in g

1 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s o r m o r e

A n n u al to tals

2001

2 00 2 p

M e a s u re
2000

2001

A ug.

S ept.

O ct.

Nov.

Jan

Dec.

Feb

M ar

Apr

M ay

June

J u ly

A ug.

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period..............................

39

29

40

30

3
4

2
3

1
4

0
1

2
2

0
1

1
2

1
1

2
3

3
5

1
3

3

3
3

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)....

394

99

5.8

3.0

6.0

.0

1.5

2.9

4.1

5.1

1.5

6.7

397

102

6.9

4.1

24.9
29.0

.0

In effect during period (in thousands).

1.6

6.0

1.0

2.5

2.9

7.0

9.2

5.3

8.2

3.5
6.2

20,419

1,151

71.5

55.7

316.4

11.2

55.0

21.0

9.0

43.5

80.7

138.2

36.0

54.0

50.6

.06

.00

Û

ft

Days idle:
Number (in thousands).......................

.01 _____ £
,00
,00
.00
,00
.00
.00
.00
.00
(2)
1 Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An explanation of
the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked is found in " ’Total economy' measures of strike idleness," Monthly Labor Review , October 1968, pp. 54— 56.
Percent of estimated workina time1....

2 Less than 0.005

p = preliminary.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

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3 2 . C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x e s f o r A ll U r b a n C o n s u m e r s a n d f o r U r b a n W a g e E a rn e rs a n d C le r ic a l W o r k e r s :

U .S . c i t y a v e r a g e ,

b y e x p e n d it u r e c a t e g o r y a n d c o m m o d it y o r s e r v ic e g r o u p

[1 982-84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Series

_________________________________
Annual average
2000

2001

2002

2 00 1
Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X
FOR A LL U RB AN CO N SU M ER S

All items....................................................
All items (1967 = 100).............................................

172.2
515.6

177.1
530.4

177.5
531.8

178.3
534.0

177.7
532.5

177.4
531.:

176.7
5292.C

177.1
530.e

177.8
532.7

178.8
535.5

179.8
538.6

179.6
538.6

179.S
538.S

180.1
539.6

180.7
541.2

Food and beverages..............................................

168.4
167.8
167.9
188.3
154.5

173.6
173.1
173.4
193.8
161.3

174.4
173.9
174.2
195.9
162.4

174.6
174.1
174.3
195.1
162.4

175.C
174.C

175.2
174 7
174 7
195.3
162.0

176.2

176.4

176.6

176.7

176.4

176.4

176.6

176.6

175.2
195.5
163.6

175.2
174
174.7
194.9
162.7

176*2
196.7
162

197
161

16? fl

160.7
204.6

167.1
212.2

168.9
208.8

169.4
212.1

170.8
213.5

171.2
212.9

170.8
214 4

169.9
224.8

170.1
223.3

169 4
225.8

168 7
223.4

221.0

217.4

217.4

217.0

137.8
155.6
154.0
147.4
172.2

139.2
159.6
155.7
155.7
176.0

140.0
161.0
156.1
158.5
177.6

139.2
160.2
156.6
158.5
176.2

139.9
160.9
156.4
159.5
177.0

139.5
160.3
154.9
155.6
177 6

18.5
160 9
156.1
156 9
177 9

139.5
161 3
158 4

140.0

140.1

140.1

138.0

137.5

138.3

137.6
160.6

107.5

108.9

109.5

108.9

108.9

110.6

108.5

108.9

108.0

107.8

108.0

108.9

109.0

110.1

109.3

169.0
109.0
174.7

173.9
113.4
179.3

174.7
114.3
180.0

175.1
115.3
180.4

175.6
115.4
180.8

175.8

176.0

176.4

177.1

177.2

115.5
180.9

115.5
181.8

116.3
182.5

116.9
182.9

177.6
117.1
183.3

178.2

115.5
181.2

177.0
115.8
182.6

117.6
183.5

1787.5
117.7
183.8

178.8
118.1
184.2

169.6
193.4

176.4
200.6

178.0
202.4

177.4
202.0

176.7
202.4

176.9
202.9

176.9
203.2

177.6
204.5

178.5
206.1

179.1
207.0

179.5
207.5

179.7
207.5

208.1

181.2
208.8

209.6
200.2

197.0
113.1

197.7

198.2
121.9
212.8

198.5
122.1

199.8
121.7

200.2

Food at home......................................................
Cereals and bakery products.............................
Dairy and related products'...............................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials.........................................................
Sugar and sweets............................................

Other miscellaneous foods1,2.......................
Food away from home'........................................
Other food away from home1,2.........................
Alcoholic beverages..............................................
Housing...................................................................
Shelter.......................................................
Rent of primary residence..................................
Lodging away from home...................................

183.9

192.1

193.1

195.5

196.4

125.2
207.3

193.9
116.8
208.1

194.7

118.6
206.3

114.5
209.0

111.6
210.1

108.0
210.9

Fuel oil and other fuels...................................
Gas (piped) and electricity..............................
Household furnishings and operations...............
Apparel....................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel.....................................
Women's and girls' apparel................................

103.7
137.9
122.8
129.7
128.0
128.2

106.2
150.2
135.4
129.3
142.4
129.1

106.6
152.7
138.0
122.1
146.0
129.1

106.7
150.6
135.7
125.3
143.1
129.4

106.9
144.6
129.1
121.5
135.9
129.0

106.9
143.5
127.8
118.3
134.7
129.1

106.3
142.2
126.2
112.7
133.5
128.9

129.6
129.7
121.5

127.3
125.7
119.3

122.6
121.4
112.1

126.8
123.7
120.3

129.5
127.5
122.1

128.0
127.4
119.4

Infants’ and toddlers’ apparel1............................
Footwear.............................................................
Transportation..........................................................
Private transportation...........................................

130.6
123.8
153.3
149.1

129.2
123.0
154.3
150.0

126.3
121.9
153.3
148.8

129.3
122.9
155.5
151.2

131.5
124.9
152.3
148.1

Used cars and trucks'......................................
Motor fuel................................................
Gasoline (all types)...........................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment.....................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair................
Public transportation.............................................

100.8
142.8
155.8
129.3
128.6
101.5
177.3
209.6

101.3
142.1
158.7
124.7
124.0
104.8
183.5
210.6

100.5
140.3
158.0
121.9
121.2
104.9
184.0
213.7

100.2
140.2
157.3
131.4
130.7
105.2
185.1
212.7

100.6
141.0
157.8
116.3
115.6
105.5
186.0
209.1

Medical care.....................................................
Medical care commodities....................................
Medical care services..........................................
Professional services..........................................
Hospital and related services..............................

260.8
238.1
266.0
237.7
317.3

272.8
247.6
278.8
246.5
338.3

274.4
249.1
280.5
247.7
341.2

275.9
250.2
282.0
248.4
344.8

Recreation2............................................................

103.3

104.9

105.1

275.0
249.6
281.0
247.9
342.6
105.2

105.3

Video and audio1'2...............................................

101.0

101.5

101.7

101.3

101.3

Education and communication2..............................
Education2...........................................................
Educational books and supplies.......................

102.5

105.2

105.8

106.6

107.1

107.0

106.9

112.5
279.9

118.5
295.9

119.5
298.0

121.7
305.4

122.2
307.2

122.3
304.7

122.0
294.7

324.0
93.6

341.1
93.3

343.9
93.5

350.0
93.1

351.5
93.6

352.0
93.3

352.2
93.4

353.2
93.4

92.8

92.3

92.4

92.0

92.5

92.2

92.3

92.2

98.5

99.3

99.6

99.2

99.9

99.6

99.6

100.3

25.9

21.3

20.7

20.3

20.2

20.0

19.8

19.4

25.8
289.2
446.7

25.3
286.4
431.7

Tenants’ and household insurance1,2................
Fuels and utilities...............................................
Fuels.................................................................

New and used motor vehicles2...........................
New vehicles...................................................

Tuition, other school fees, and child care.........
Communication1,2................................................
Information and information processinq1,2.......
Telephone services1,2...................................
Information and information processing
other than teleDhone services1,4..................
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment1'2...........................................
Other goods and services.......................................
Tobacco and smoking products............................

41.1

29.5

27.8

26.7

26.4

271.1
394.9

282.6
425.2

283.3
424.6

287.8
444.0

285.6
429.9

160.2
l" 3

117.5
198.7

Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3...

169 n

180.7

198.8

199.3

213.3

120.1
213.7

120.9
214.3

211.6

119.3
212.2

106.4
141.5
125.3
112 9

106.8
140.0
123.7
11? 3

106.8
140.2
123.8

107.2
140.3
123.8

107.6
141.5
125.1

107.8
146.2
130.3

132.4
128.7

130.6
128.6

130.7
128.7

130.6
128.9

132.1
128.9

123.7
122.8
114.8

120.4
120.8
109.7

123.5
122.0
115.3

128.2
125.2
121.3

128.8
125.6
122.2

127.1
124.3
229.4

132.4

128.5

127.4

119.5
148.4
144.1

129.9
123.5
150.5
146.3

198.9

120.6
148.5
144.3

125.0
117.1
148.6
144.4

127.2

123.7
150.2
146.1

124.5
153.7
149.6

124.5
153.8
149.5

101.3
142.6
157.4
104.5
103.8
105.8
186.4
205.1

101.6
143.5
157.2
96.1
95.4
105.8
186.4
204.8

101.0
142.7
155.6
97.9
97.2
106.2
187.1
205.8

99.3
140.4
152.8
121.4
120.8
106.8
189.0
209.7

99.1

153.9
98.2
97.6
106.1
188.0
207.3

99.6
140.7
152.1
107.7
107.1
106.5
188.5
207.9

139.8
151.8
121.4
120.8
106.8
189.9
211.3

276.7
250.6
283.0
248.8
347.1

277.3
251.6
283.5
248.9
348.3

279.6
252.6
286.2
250.6
353.1

281.0
253.7
287.7
251.4
356.4

282.0
254.1
288.9
251.9
359.4

283.2
254.8
290.2
252.5
362.4

105.5

105.3

105.7

105.9

106.1

101.4

101.2

102.1

102.9

102.9

107.2

107.3

122.6
303.0

123.2
314.4
353.9
93.1

214.9

123.6
215.4

138.0
128.7

108.6
146.8
130.8
111 G
138.6
128.6

109.6
146.8
130.7
14ÍM
138.5
128.1

122.7
120.8
113.7

118.7
118.4
107.6

120.5
118.3
111.0

124.9

122.9

121.2
153.4
149.1

118.5
153.7
149.5

124.3
119.7
153.9
149.7

98.8
139.2
152.2
120.1
119.5
106.7
190.0
211.3

98.8
138.7
152.7
120.8
120.3
107.4
189.8
209.7

138.1
153.4
121.5
120.9
107.7
191.0
209.4

284.7
256.4
291.7
253.2
365.3
106.2

286.6
257.5
293.8
255.0
367.6
106.2

287.3
257.7
294.7
254.9
371.3

106.5

284.1
255.4
291.2
252.9
364.5
106.4

102.9

103.1

103.0

102.6

102.4

106.6

106.2

106.6

106.9

107.6

108.9

123.3
314.2

123.3
314.4

123.5
315.6

124.3
317.4

124.8
318.3

127.1
319.6

354.1
92.0

354.1
91.2

354.6
91.9

356.8
91.8

358.3
92.6

365.6
93.2

92.0

90.8

90.0

90.7

90.6

90.8

91.5

100.3

99.1

98.2

99.3

99.2

99.5

100.6

19.0

18.8

18.6

18.5

18.4

18.4

18.3

24.6
287.2
432.8

23.8
290.2
449.3

23.1
288.5
433.4

22.9

23.0
291.5
449.0

22.6
294.4
467.4

22.3

292.9
461.4

294.5
467.2

22.0
295.9
478.2

175.0

174.9

154.6
188.7

189.1

100.1
141 2

165.6

170.5

171.2

171.9

172.6

173.2

173.7

174.1

174.4

174.7

153.7

155.1

154.7

155.5

172.3
155.4

172.6

Personal care products1....................................

155.4

155.4

155.2

155.1

174.9
155.4

178.1

184.3

185.2

185.5

185.9

186.8

186.4

186.3

155.4
187.9

154.8

Personal care services1.....................................

155.5
186.4

188.3

188.3

Personal care1.................................................

17C0

187.3

98.7

106.3

154.3

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

79

Current Labor Statistics:

32.

Price Data

C o n t in u e d — C o n s u m e r P r ic e In d e x e s fo r A ll U r b a n C o n s u m e r s a n d fo r U r b a n W a g e E a rn e rs a n d C le r ic a l W o r k e r s :

U .S . c i t y

a v e r a g e , b y e x p e n d it u r e c a t e g o r y a n d c o m m o d it y o r s e r v ic e g r o u p

[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]_______________
Annual average

2001

Series
2000
Miscellaneous personal services...................

2001

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

2002
Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

252.3

263.1

265.5

266.4

267.3

268.0

268.5

270.4

271.8

272.9

273.2

274.2

274.6

275.1

275.4

150.7
173.6
137.2
147.1

149.8
174.4
135.4
144.8

151.5
174.6

150.5
175.3
136.1
146.0

149.8
176.4

143.6
128.2

151.0
176.7
136.0
148.4
128.8

150.5
176.4

131.6
137.9
120.4

148.1
176.4
132.1
139.6
123.5

149.4
176.6
133.7

135.4
147.4
127.1

134.4
145.7
122.7

149.3
176.6
133.6
144.4

149.6
176.6
134.0
145.4

127.3

147.9
175.2
132.3
138.4
123.7

147.8
176.2

Nondurables less food and beverages...........
Apparel..........................................................

149.2
168.4
137.7
147.4
129.6

118.7

120.5

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel..................................................
Durables...........................................................

162.5
125.4

163.4

151.6

124.6

Services................................................................

195.3

Rent of shelter3.....................................
Transporatation services..................................
Other services...................................................

201.3
196.1
229.9

All items less food.............................................
All items less shelter.........................................

173.0
165.7

All Items less medical care................................
Commodities less food......................................
Nondurables less food......................................

167.3
139.2
149.1

Nondurables less food and apparel.................
Nondurables......................................................
Services less rent of shelter3............................
Services less medical care services................
Energy...............................................................

Commodity and service group:
Commodities.............................................
Food and beverages...................................

122.6

138.0
149.6
126.8

129.5

149.5
175.2
134.6
142.8
128.0

162.1
123.6

167.5
123.4

160.4
123.6

156.2
124.2

152.6
123.6

153.6
122.7

157.3
122.1

164.7
121.9

164.1

124.3

121.7

164.0
121.3

164.3
121.1

164.8
120.7

203.4

205.2

204.9

204.7

205.1

205.3

206.3

207.3

208.0

208.4

208.8

209.8

210.7

211.5

208.9
201.9
238.0

210.8
202.7
239.4

210.3
202.8

210.8
203.4
241.4

211.3
204.2
241.9

211.7
204.5
241.9

213.0
205.2
242.9

214.7
206.5
243.5

215.6
207.3
243.6

216.1
207.9
243.8

216.1
208.9
244.5

216.8
209.0
245.1

217.4
209.6
246.4

218.3
210.1
248.2

178.2
169.7

178.2
169.9
172.4
137.8

177.8
169.3

177.4
168.4
171.7

178.2
168.7

180.4
170.9
174.3

146.9
163.0
159.7

145.1
157.7

140.9
153.4
156.8

136.3
148.0
164.9
161.2

180.8
170.9
174.5
135.5
146.7

159.1

180.4
170.9
1/4.2
137.3
149.5
165.0
162.1

180.6
170.9
174.4

133.5
140.5
154.5
157.0

179.2
169.7
173.3
135.6

181.5
171.3

172.0
136.4

177.0
168.2
171.3
134.1

162.9
158.2

177.8
169.7
171.9
138.9
149.1
164.1
160.6

202.9
188.9
124.6
178.6
181.3
144.9
129.5
202.1

212.3
196.6
129.3
183.5
186.1
145.3
125.2
209.6

214.0
198.4
129.4
184.1
186.6
143.8
122.0
211.2

213.9

198.3
111.4
185.2

145.2
131.0
211.2

213.3
198.2
116.0
185.4
188.1
146.0
105.8
212.3

213.2

197.8
122.1
185.1
187.6
145.6
116.9
211.7

97.6
212.6

199.2
111.7
185.7
188.2
143.7
99.3
213.8

214.3
200.2
111.0
186.5
189.2
144.2
99.5
215.1

All items...........................................................
All Items (1967 = 100).............................................

163.2
486.2

173.5
516.8

173.8
517.6

174.8
520.6

174.0
518.3

173.7
517.3

172.9
515.0

173.2
515.0

Food and beverages..............................................

163.8
163.4
163.0
184.7
147.6

173.0
172.5
172.4

174.0
173.5
173.4
194.8
162.3

174.8
174.3
174.3
195.1
163.2

174.5
174.1
173.7
194.7
162.6

174.6
174.1

193.6
161.2

173.8
173.4
173.3
195.6
162.0

Dairy and related products1.............................
Fruits and vegetables.......................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials.........................................................
Other foods at home.........................................
Sugar and sweets...........................................
Fats and oils...................................................
Other foods.....................................................

159.4
201.8

167.1
210.8

168.9
208.0

169.4
211.0

170.8
212.2

133.2
152.8
152.2
147.9
168.8

138.4

159.8
156.2
158.1

176.3

139.3
160.5
156.1
158.0
177.9

138.4

159.1
155.6
155.4

176.5

139.2
160.4
156.2
159.1
177.3

Other miscellaneous foods1,2......................
Food away from home1...................................

104.6

109.1

109.7

109.2

165.0
105.1
168.8

173.8

174.7

113.6
178.8

114.4
179.7

175.0
115.6
180.1

Commodities less food and beverages.............

240.6

Special Indexes:

All Items less energy.........................................
All items less food and energy.......................
Commodities less food and energy..............
Energy commodities...................................
Services less energy.....................................

172.3
137.2

179.0
170.9
173.0
139.7
151.5
168.0
162.3
213.9
198.1
132.5
184.5
187.1

148.1
161.5
160.8
213.0

172.4
133.9
142.2
155.4
158.0

145.9
158.7
160.2

137.8
150.4
165.5
162.7

165.2
160.6

175.0
135.9
147.7
165.8
161.2

214.8

215.1

200.8
115.6
187.1
189.8
144.6
108.6
215.9

201.2
122.2
187.5
190.3
145.1
121.6
216.3

216.0
201.6
122.9
187.4
190.2
144.4
121.6
216.6

202.6
124.9
187.3
190.1
143.4
120.3
217.2

218.6
203.2
125.5
187.5
190.3
142.5
120.9
218.0

191.0
142.6
121.5
219.0

173.7
517.5

174.7
520.2

175.8
523.7

175.8
523.6

175.9
524.0

176.0
524.5

176.6
526.0

173.7
195.1
161.8

175.7
175.2
175.3
196.7
162.0

175.8
175.3
175.1
197.5
161.6

176.1
175.6
175.5
197.0
162.7

176.1
175.5
175.3
197.9
162.1

175.7
175.1
174.4
198.2
162.1

175.7
175.2
174.1
198.6
161.8

176.0
175.4
174.3
198.7
162.2

175.9
175.3
174.0
198.5
162.0

171.2
211.5

170.6
212.8

169.7
223.2

170.0
222.2

169.2
224.9

168.7
222.0

168.7
219.1

167.8
216.4

167.4
216.4

167.0
216.2

138.7
159.7
154.7
155.1
177.8

137.7
160.5
155.9
156.5
178.3

138.8
161.0
158.5
158.0
177.9

139.5
160.1
158.5
157.0
176.8

137.3
159.7
157.6
155.7
176.7

136.9
160.4
158.8
154.3
177.9

137.6
160.5
159.9
154.7
177.6

136.9
160.1
159.6
154.0
177.3

109.5

110.8

109.0

109.3

108.5

108.3

108.5

109.5

109.6

110.8

109.9

175.6
115.7
180.5

175.8

176.4

176.9

177.5
117.7
183.1

178.7

116.0
182.1

177.1
117.4
182.8

178.4

115.8
181.4

177.0
116.8
182.2

178.0

115.8
180.8

176.0
115.8
180.5

118.1
183.2

118.2
183.6

118.9
183.8

172.8
197.2

173.4
198.7

173.9
199.8

174.4

197.7

200.6

174.8
201.0

175.1
201.2

176.1
20.7

176.5
202.3

176.9
202.9

197.8

199.6
122.9

187.8
144.7

217.5

219.5
204.2
125.8
188.1

C O N S U M E R P R IC E IN D E X F O R U R B A N
W A G E E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S

Food......................................................................
Food at home.....................................................
Cereals and bakery products...........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs.........................

Other food away from home1,2........................
Alcoholic beverages............................................
Housing..............................................................

160.0

172.1

173.5

173.2

172.5

Shelter.................................................................

181.6

194.5

195.9

196.0

196.6

Rent of primary residence................................

177.1

191.5

192.4

Lodqinq away from home2...............................

122.2

118.4

124.4

193.3
116.8

Owners’ equivalent rent of primary residence3

175.7

187.6

188.5

189.2

Tenants’ and household Insurance1,2..............
Fuels and utilities.............................................
Fuels................................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels.................................

106.4
149.5
134.2
129.2

106.8
152.2

Men's and boys' apparel...................................
Women's and girls' apparel..............................

101.6
128.7
113.0
91.7
120.4
124.7
130.1
131.2
121.3

141.5
125.8
126.1
125.8
117.3

121.6
110.1

106.8
150.1
134.7
125.3
142.2
126.0
125.6
123.7
118.3

127.3
120.2

107.1
142.8
126.7
118.5
133.7
125.6
127.2
127.3
118.0

Infants’ and toddlers' aooarel1..........................
Footwear...........................................................
Transportation........................................................
Private transportation..........................................

130.3
126.2
143.4
140.7

130.9
123.1
153.6
150.8

128.3
122.0
152.5
149.5

131.1
123.0
155.1
152.3

133.5
124.9
151.4
148.6

134.3
124.2
149.2
146.4

130.3
121.0
147.4

New and used motor vehicles2.........................

100.4

101.9

101.0

100.7

101.1

101.7

Gas (piped) and electricity...........................
Household furnishings and operations............
Apparel...............................................................

See footnotes at end of table.

80

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

137.0
121.5
145.2
125.7
121.6

172.9

139.7

139.4

159.6
157.1

161.0
153.4

156.3
176.5

156.2
178.2

194.0

194.9

195.7

196.3

197.0

108.8
191.7

113.2

119.4

122.0

98.1
120.7

199.2

111.8

197.5
122.2

198.7

114.8
190.0

120.4

192.3

192.9

193.3

193.9

194.2

194.7

121.3
195.2

106.4
140.8
124.2
113.0
131.4

106.8
139.4
122.7
112.4
129.7
124.9
122.4

106.9
139.6

107.5
139.6
122.7
114.7

107.6
140.7
123.9
114.0

107.9
145.6
129.1
112.2

129.6
125.1
127.9
125.8
120.9

131.0
125.0
126.2
124.6
118.2

107.0
144.0
127.9
121.4
135.0
125.5
128.3

190.9

106.3
141.5
125.2
112.7
132.5
125.4
123.0
122.7
113.5

122.8
112.7

195.7

136.9
124.8
122.0
121.1
112.7

108.7
146.1
129.6
110.9
137.5
124.7
118.0
118.6
106.5

111.3
137.4
124.2
119.6
118.2
109.6

125.3
118.2
152.7
149.9

126.8
119.6
153.0
150.2

99.1

99.1

125.0
119.6
121.0
108.5

122.2
113.8

129.8
124.9
126.9
125.2
119.7

128.4
119.3
147.1
144.2

131.7
122.8
149.2
146.4

131.7
124.4
152.7

129.9
124.4
152.7

144.5

126.7
117.7
147.5
144.6

149.8

149.8

127.5
121.0
152.4
149.5

102.0

101.3

100.3

99.7

99.5

99.3

99.1

109.7
146.2
129.6

32.

C o n t in u e d — C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x e s fo r A ll U r b a n C o n s u m e r s a n d fo r U r b a n W a g e E a r n e r s a n d C le r ic a l W o r k e r s :

U .S . c i t y

a v e r a g e , b y e x p e n d it u r e c a t e g o r y a n d c o m m o d i t y o r s e r v ic e g r o u p

[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100, unless otherw ise indicated]_________________________________________________
A nnual average

2001

2002

S eries
2000

2001

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

June

July

Aug.

New vehicles...................................................

143.9

143.2

141.4

141.3

142.1

143.8

144.7

143.8

142.3

141.8

141.5

140.9

140.3

139.8

139.1

Used cars and trucks1....................................

157.1

159.8

159.0

158.2

158.7

158.3

158.1

156.5

154.8

153.0

152.6

152.7

153.0

153.6

154.2

Motor fuel..........................................................

129.5

124.9

122.0

132.4

116.2

104.4

98.2

98.5

108.0

121.7

121.2

121.8

128.8
100.9

124.2
104.0

121.3
104.1

131.7
104.4

115.5
104.7

103.8
105.0

97.6
105.3

97.9
105.3

107.5
105.7

121.2

121.8
121.2

120.4

Gasoline (all types).........................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment.................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair............

96.3
95.7
104.9

185.6
207.7

186.7

187.8
200.4

187.9
200.1

188.6
201.0

189.5
202.5

189.9

207.0

187.5
203.7

203.0

204.5

206.3

205.9

191.4
204.7

121.3
107.0
192.5

Public transportation............................................

185.1
204.9

106.0
191.4

120.6
106.7

178.8
203.4

106.0
190.5

119.9
105.9
191.5

204.5

Medical care............................................................
Medical care commodities..................................
Medical care services..........................................

259.9
233.6
265.9

271.8
242.7

273.4
244.1
280.2

273.9
244.6
280.7

274.9
245.2
281.7

275.6
245.6

276.2
246.7

280.9
249.0
288.4

282.9
250.3

283.6
251.3

285.5
252.3

286.3
252.3

283.0

279.8
248.5
287.2

281.9
249.6

282.6

278.5
247.6
285.7

291.3

250.5
340.5

250.9
342.7

251.0
343.6

252.8
348.2

253.6
351.4

254.0

289.6
254.6

290.6

249.9

255.3
360.6

293.5
257.2

294.5
256.9

Professional services.......................................

278.5
248.7

Hospital and related services...........................

239.6
313.2

333.8

337.0

250.1
338.3

354.3

357.1

255.3
359.4

363.2

367.1

Recreation2............................................................

102.4

103.6

103.9

103.8

103.8

104.0

103.8

104.2

104.5

104.6

105.0

104.9

104.6

104.6

104.7

100.7

100.9

101.0

100.6

100.6

100.7

100.5

101.4

102.2

102.1

102.2

102.3

102.2

101.8

101.6

Education and communication2...........................

102.7

105.3

105.8

106.5

107.1

106.9

106.9

107.1

107.2

106.5

106.0

106.5

106.7

107.4

108.6

Education2..........................................................
Educational books and supplies....................

112.8
283.3

118.7
299.9

119.6
302.2

121.7
309.8

122.3
311.7

122.3
308.9

122.1
297.3

122.7
305.2

123.3
315.2

123.3
315.1

123.3
315.3

123.5
316.3

124.4
318.2

124.8
319.1

126.9
320.4

Tuition, other school fees, and child care......
Communication1,2..............................................

318.2
94.6

334.7
94.5

337.3
94.7

342.9
94.3

344.4
94.9

344.9
94.5

345.2
94.6

346.2
94.7

347.0
94.5

347.2
93.3

347.2
92.6

347.7
93.3

350.3
93.1

351.4
93.9

357.7
94.6

Information and information processing1,2....

94.1

93.8

94.0

93.6

94.2

93.8

93.9

94.0

93.7

92.6

91.7

92.5

92.4

92.7

93.4

T elephone services1'2.................................
Information and information processing

98.7

99.4

99.8

99.4

100.1

99.7

99.9

100.4

100.5

99.3

98.4

99.4

99.3

99.7

100.8

other than teleohone services1,4..............
Personal computers and peripheral
12
equipment ’ .........................................
Other goods and services......................................
Tobacco and smoking products.........................

26.8

22.1

21.5

21.2

21.0

20.8

20.6

20.1

19.7

19.5

19.3

19.2

19.1

19.1

18.9

40.5

29.1

27.4

26.6

26.1

25.5

25.0

24.3

23.5

22.8

22.5

22.7

22.3

22.1

21.7

276.5
395.2

289.5
426.1

290.0
425.6

295.5
444.7

292.4
430.9

297.3
448.3

293.3
432.9

294.0
433.5

298.3
450.7

295.2
434.1

301.7
462.7

299.1
450.1

303.5
468.7

303.5
468.8

306.0
480.7

165.5

170.3

170.9

171.4

171.9

172.3

172.3

172.7

173.2

173.7

173.9

174.0

174.4

174.4

174.3

Personal care products1...................................

154.2

155.7

155.5

156.1

156.1

156.1

156.0

155.9

156.3

156.0

156.2

155.4

156.2

155.3

155.1

178.6

184.9

185.9

186.1

186.5

187.4

187.1

187.0

187.1

188.0

188.7

189.1

189.0

189.4

189.8

Miscellaneous personal services....................
Commodity and service group:

251.9

262.8

264.9

265.6

266.8

267.5

268.0

269.8

271.4

272.5

272.6

273.6

274.1

274.7

275.2

Commodities.........................................................

149.8
167.7

151.4

150.5

152.5

151.2

150.1

148.4

149.8

151.7

151.2

174.0
139.8
152.0

174.8
137.4
147.4

174.5
135.9
144.2

174.6
133.4
139.4

176.1
134.7

175.7

150.5
175.7

150.1
275.7

137.5

136.8

135.9

135.2

175.9
135.6

128.3

126.1

121.6

125.6

128.3

127.2

123.0

138.9
119.6

175.8
133.1
140.7

176.1

139.0
149.1

173.8
136.9
146.5

148.3
175.7
132.7

148.6

173.0
138.7
149.0

122.4

144.8
126.9

150.5
127.9

149.3
126.2

147.8
122.0

146.5
118.0

147.7
119.6

and apparel...................................................
Durables............................................................

165.3
125.8

166.3
125.3

164.8
124.3

171.4
124.1

162.7
124.3

158.2
124.8

153.1
124.9

154.2
124.1

155.4
123.1

159.4
122.3

168.1
122.1

167.2
122.0

167.3
121.6

167.6
121.5

168.5
121.3

Services..................................................................

191.6

199.6

201.2

201.1

201.0

201.4

201.7

202.5

203.3

203.9

204.2

204.8

205.8

206.6

207.3

Rent of shelter3..................................................
Transporatation services...................................

180.5
192.9
225.9

187.3
199.1
233.7

188.7
199.8
235.1

188.7
200.1
235.9

189.3
200.9
236.8

189.9
202.3
237.2

190.4
202.6
237.3

191.4
203.4
238.3

192.5
204.7
239.0

193.2
205.6
238.8

193.7
206.2
238.9

193.9
207.1
239.7

194.3
207.3
240.4

194.8
208.0
241.6

195.5
208.6
243.4

169.1
163.8
164.7
140.4
150.7
165.4
158.9

173.6
167.6

173.7

174.9

172.5
165.7

172.7
165.8
168.5
134.5

173.3
166.1
169.0
134.8

174.3
167.1

175.8
168.4
171.0

175.9
168.4
171.2

176.7
168.9

170.0
136.5

175.7
168.5
171.1
139.1

176.1
168.4

169.1
140.2
150.8
166.7
161.4

168.8
170.3
141.3
153.8
171.5
163.5

173.8
167.6
169.5
139.0
149.4
163.5
161.5

173.4

167.5
169.3
138.5
148.5
165.4
160.5

143.1
157.0

147.0
160.7

171.3
136.9
148.7

158.5

160.8

162.9

137.6
150.0
168.0
162.2

171.8
137.4

141.8
154.7
157.5

138.5
151.4
167.9

180.1

188.5

190.1

189.9

189.0

189.3

189.2

189.8

190.1

190.7

181.6

193.2

194.1

194.9

185.4
124.8
175.1
177.1
145.4

193.1
128.7
179.8
181.7

194.7
128.6
180.1

194.6
132.6
180.7

195.0
110.0
181.5
183.5
145.6

195.7
110.5
181.6
183.6
144.4

196.5
109.8
182.5
184.4

199.6
124.7
183.3
185.4

200.4
125.0
183.8

185.5

197.9
122.2
183.3
185.4

198.9
124.1
183.2

129.7
198.7

125.3
206.0

182.6
146.0
132.1
207.6

194.8
114.8
181.8
183.8
146.9

197.4
121.6
183.4

181.9
144.6
122.1
207.3

194.4
121.2
181.3
183.2

190.5
197.0
114.7
182.9
184.9

105.5
209.0

97.5
209.4

99.2
210.4

144.8
99.5
211.5

145.0
108.7
212.1

145.8
121.9
212.6

145.0
121.9
213.0

Personal care1....................................................

Food and beverages..........................................
Commodities less food and beverages.............
Nondurables less food and beverages............
Apparel...........................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,

Other services....................................................
Special indexes:
All items less food..............................................
All items less shelter..........................................
All items less medical care................................
Commodities less food......................................
Nondurables less food.......................................
Nondurables less food and apparel..................
Nondurables.......................................................
Services less rent of shelter3............................
Services less medical care services.................
Energy.................................................................
All items less energy.........................................
All items less food and energy........................
Commodities less food and energy..............
Energy commodities....................................
Services less energy.....................................
’ Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.
3 Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

146.1

146.3
116.7
208.3

166.9
169.1
137.6
146.4
159.5
159.7

168.3
135.1
141.8
154.7
157.3

152.5
168.7
163.7

185.3
144.2
120.5
213.3

168.3
161.6

143.2
121.2
214.3

150.4

149.8
169.2
162.2

186.0
143.7
121.8
215.1

4 Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
Note : Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

81

Current Labor Statistics:

33.

Price Data

C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x :

U .S . c i t y a v e r a g e a n d a v a i l a b l e

lo c a l a r e a d a ta :

a ll ite m s

[1 9 8 2 - 8 4 = 100, u n le s s o th e rw is e in d ic a te d ]_______________________________________________________________________
P ric in g

A ll U rb a n C o n s u m e rs

sched­

2002

u le 1
M

M ar.

Feb.
177.8

178.8

Apr

M ay

179.9

2002
June

179.8

U rb a n W a g e E a rn e rs

179.9

J u ly

Aug.

180.1

Feb.

180.7

M a r.

A p r.

M ay

173.7

174.7

175.8

June

J u ly

Aug.

175.8

175.9

176.1

176.6

185.7

R egion and area size2
Northeast urban.........................................................................

M

186.1

187.0

187.8

187.7

187.8

188.3

189.3

182.3

183.1

184.2

184.1

184.2

184.7

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

187.8

188.6

189.3

189.2

189.5

190.1

191.3

182.8

183.6

184.5

184.3

184.6

185.2

186.4

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003.........................................

M

110.5

111.2

111.9

112.0

111.6

111.8

112.0

110.1

110.8

111.7

111.7

111.4

111.7

112.0

Midwest urban4..........................................................................
Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

172.5

173.6

174.7

174.8

175.3

175.3

175.8

168.1

169.1

170.3

170.3

170.7

170.8

171.3

M

174.7

176.0

177.3

177.2

177.7

177.5

178.2

169.4

170.6

172.2

172.0

172.3

172.1

172.8

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003.........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

109.6

110.2

110.7

110.8

111.2

111.3

111.4

109.2

109.7

110.2

110.7

110.7

110.9

111.0

M

166.6

167.1

168.1

168.2

168.9

169.4

169.7

164.3

164.8

166.0

166.1

166.7

167.3

167.6

South urban................................................................................

M

171.0

172.1

173.1

173.2

173.5

173.6

173.8

168.6

169.6

170.8

170.8

171.1

171.1

171.3

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

172.4

173.3

172.4

174.6

174.9

174.8

175.4

169.5

170.5

171.7

171.9

172.3

172.2

172.7

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1.500.0003.........................................
Size D— Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)....................

M

109.3

110.0

110.8

110.7

110.9

111.0

110.9

108.7

109.3

110.2

110.1

110.2

110.2

110.2

M

168.6

169.9

170.5

170.6

171.6

172.2

172.7

168.9

170.2

171.2

171.1

171.8

172.1

172.8

West urban.................................................................................

M

183.2

184.0

185.1

184.8

184.5

184.7

185.3

178.1

179.0

180.0

180.0

179.7

179.8

180.3

Size A— More than 1,500,000..............................................

M

185.4

186.2

187.2

187.5

187.2

187.4

187.9

178.6

179.5

180.5

181.0

180.7

180.8

181.3

Size B/C— 50,000 to 1,500,0003.........................................

M

112.4

112.8

113.7

112.5

112.2

112.5

113.0

111.8

112.2

112.9

112.3

112.0

112.2

112.5

M
M
M

162.5
110.1
170.7

163.4
110.7
171.5

164.2
111.4
172.4

164.3
111.2
172.4

164.5
111.3
173.0

164.6
111.4
173.3

165.3
111.5
173.9

160.5
109.5
169.3

161.3
110.1
170.2

162.4
110.9
171.3

162.5
110.7
171.1

162.6
110.7
171.7

162.7
110.9
172.0

163.4
111.0
172.5
175.5

Size classes:
A6..............................................................................................
B/C3..........................................................................................
D...............................................................................................
Selected local areas6
Chicago-G ary-Kenosha, IL -IN -W I........................................
Los Angeles-Riverside-O range County, CA.........................

M

178.7

179.8

180.9

181.4

182.1

181.2

181.6

172.4

173.5

174.8

175.3

175.9

175.1

175.5

M

180.1

181.1

182.2

182.6

181.9

182.2

183.0

172.8

173.8

174.8

175.4

174.7

175.0

175.6
188.1

New York, NY-Northern NJ-Long Island, N Y -N J-C T -P A ..

M

189.9

191.1

191.8

191.4

191.5

192.0

192.1

184.7

185.6

186.6

186.4

186.5

187.1

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, M A -N H -M E -C T ........................

1

-

194.7

-

194.8

-

195.7

-

-

193.2

-

193.3

-

194.1

-

Cleveland-Akron, OH................................................................

1

-

173.7

-

173.0

-

173.4

-

-

164.1

-

164.0

-

164.5

-

D allas-Ft Worth, TX ..................................................................

1

-

172.1

-

172.9

-

172.9

-

-

171.4

-

172.5

-

172.6

-

Washinqton-Baltimore, D C -M D -V A -W V 7............................

1

-

111.9

-

112.8

-

113.4

-

-

111.4

-

112.4

-

113.1

-

Atlanta, G A..................................................................................

2

176.1

-

178.6

-

179.1

-

179.7

173.2

-

175.5

-

176.5

-

176.8

Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, M l......................................................

2

176.2

179.0

179.0

180.9

170.5

173.4

173.2

175.0

2

156.6

158.8

158.3

160.1

154.3

156 8

156 7

158 0

2

175.0

Phlladelphia-W ilmington-Atlantlc City, P A -N J -D E -M D .....

2

182.0

-

183.1

San Francisco-O akland-San Jose, CA.................................

2

191.3

-

193.0

-

Seattle-Tacom a-Brem erton, W A...........................................

2

187.6

-

188.8

-

1

174.4

175.0

Foods, fuels, and several other Items priced every month in all areas; most other

-

172 3

188.3

181.4

193.2

-

193.5

186.8

-

188.8

-

189.1

-

189.3

189.4

-

190.3

182.5

-

183.6

-

184.1

-

184.8

-

182.3

172 0
-

184.7

M O-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, Wl; Minneapolis-St. Paul, M N-W I; Pittsburgh, PA;
Port-land-Salem,

goods and services priced as Indicated:

172.5

OR-W A;

M— Every month.

Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.

1—

January, March, May, July, September, and November.

7

2—

February, April, June, August, October, and December.

St

Louis,

M O-IL;

San

Diego,

CA; Tam pa-St.

Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

Dash indicates data not available.

2 Regions defined as the four Census regions.
3 Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.
4 The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the Census
Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entitles.

NOTE: Local area CPI Indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each
local Index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially
more sampling and other measurement error. As a result, local area Indexes

5 Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.

show greater volatility than the national index, although their long-term trends are
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in
tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the cpi Detailed Report : Anchorage,

82

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

172 8

175 2
-

186.3

similar. Therefore, the Bureau of Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider
adoDtina the national averaae CPI for use in their escalator clauses. Index aDDlles

_

186.7

34.

A n n u a l d a ta :

C o n s u m e r P r i c e I n d e x , U .S . c i t y a v e r a g e , a l l i t e m s a n d

m a jo r g r o u p s

[1 9 8 2 -8 4 = 100]
S e rie s
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change............................................................
Food and beverages:
Index..............................................................................
Percent change............................................................
Housing:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change............................................................
Apparel:
Index................................................................................
Percent change............................................................
Transportation:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Medical care:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change............................................................
Other goods and services:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change.............................................................
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index...............................................................................
Percent change............................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 992

1993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 99 9

2000

2001

140.3
3.0

144.5
3.0

148.2
2.6

152.4
2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

138.7
1.4

141.6
2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9
2.8

153.7
3.2

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

137.5
2.9

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5
2.6

152.8
2.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

131.9
2.5

133.7
1.4

133.4
-.2

132.0
-1 .0

131.7
-.2

132.9
.9

133.0

131.3
-1 .3

129.6
-1 .3

127.3
-1 .8

126.5
2.2

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3
0.9

141.6
-1 .9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

190.1
7.4

201.4
5.9

211.0
4.8

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

183.3
6.8

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

138.2
2.9

142.1
2.8

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

83

Current Labor Statistics:

35.

Price Data

P r o d u c e r P r ic e In d e x e s , b y s t a g e o f p r o c e s s in g

[1982

=

100]______________________
G ro u pin g

A nnu al average
2000

Finished goo ds..............................
Finished consumer goods.............
Finished consumer foods..................

2001

2001
A ug.

Sept.

2 002

Oct.

Nov.

D ec.

Jan.

Feb.

M ar.

A pr.

M ay

June

July

A ug.

138.0
138.2
137.2

140.7
141.5
141.3

141.1
142.0
142.6

141.7
142.9
142.9

139.6
139.9
141.8

139.7
138.4
140.5

137.2
136.8
140.4

137.4
137.2
141.1

137.7
137.5
142.3

138.7
138.9
143.4

138.8
139.2
139.4

138.8
139.2
139.4

139.2
139.8
139.6

138 9
139 6
139.6

138 7
139 5
139.2

138.4
138.7
133.9
138.8

141.4
142.8
133.9
139.7

141.6
143.5
133.0
139.5

142.7
145.1
133.2
139.4

139.0
139.2
134.4
139.8

137.3
136.8
134.5
139.9

135.1
134.0
133.9
139.7

135.4
134.4
133.9
139.7

135.4
134.3
134.1
139.8

136.9
136.7
133.6
139.5

138.9
139.8
133.5
139.3

138.8
139.7
133.1
139.2

139.6
140.9
133.0
139.1

139 3
140 9
132.0
138.6

139 3
141 3
131 3
138.2

supplies, and com ponents......................

129.2

128.7

129.8

130.1

127.6

126.7

125.4

125.5

125.2

126.1

127.2

Materials and components
for manufacturing................................
Materials for food manufacturing............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing..
Materials for durable manufacturing........
Components for manufacturing..............

127.2

127.9

128.1

128.5

128.1
119.2
132.6
129.0
126.2

127.4
124.3
131.8
125.2
126.3

126.9
128.1
130.1
124.6
126.2

126.6
127.5
129.9
124.2
125.9

125.9
126.1
128.7
123.4
125.9

125.2
123.9
127.4
122.8
125.9

124.7
122.5
126.2
122.5
126.0

124.5
122.1
125.4
122.5
126.3

124.6
122.6
125.4
122.6
126.3

125.1
122.9
126.5
123.5
126.4

125.5
121.8
128.0
123.7
126.3

135.7
121.4
128.3
124.2
126.4

126.0
122.1
128 8
124 9
126.3

126 3
122.8
129 5
125.2
126.2

128 7

126.2

150.7
102.0
151.6
136.9

150.6
104.5
153.1
138.6

151.0
106.0
153.2
138.7

150.8
108.4
153.0
138.6

150.4
97.4
152.4
138.3

150.3
94.7
152.2
138.3

149.0
89.3
152.2
138.1

150.2
90.0
152.6
138.2

150.2
88.8
151.9
138.1

150.7
91.3
151.7
138.3

151.1
95.3
151.2
138.5

151.3
95.2
151.1
138.4

151 3
97.3
151.2
138.7

151 7
97.1
151.4
139.1

97 3
151.7
139.4

120.6
100.2
130.4

121.3
106.2
127.3

113.4
108.9
112.4

108.0
108.5
103.8

97.7
104.7
89.4

104.8
98.3
105.5

94.8
96.4
90.2

98.9
99.6
95.0

98.0
102.0
91.4

103.7
102.8
100.9

108.3
96.5
114.0

110.5
98.4
116.5

106.4
97 1
110.3

97 8
110.1

111.5

Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods.................
Finished goods less energy......................
Finished consumer goods less energy....
Finished goods less food and energy........

138.1
94.1
144.9
147.4
148.0

140.4
96.8
147.5
150.8
150.0

140.5
97.8
147.7
151.1
149.7

141.3
100.1
147.9
151.4
149.8

138.8
90.1
147.9
151.3
150.4

137.7
85.5
147.7
151.0
150.6

136.1
80.7
147.6
150.9
150.4

136.3
81.3
147.7
151.1
150.4

136.3
81.3
148.1
151.6
150.4

137.2
85.0
148.2
151.9
150.2

138.5
88.8
147.3
150.6
150.4

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy.............................

138.4
88.9
147.2
150.5
150.2

138.9
90.3
147.3
150.7
150.3

138.5
90 6
146.8
150 3
149.7

138 4
91 n
146 5
150 0
149.4

154.0

156.9

156.6

156.8

157.5

157.8

158.0

157.6

157.6

157.4

157.9

157.7

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy................................

157.9

157.2

157.0

169.8

175.1

175.3

175.6

175.8

176.4

176.4

176.4

176.2

176.3

177.6

177.4

178.0

177.7

177.9

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds...........................................
Intermediate foods and feeds................
Intermediate energy goods..................
Intermediate goods less energy...........

130.1
111.7
101.7
135.0

130.5
115.9
104.1
135.1

130.4
119.4
105.6
134.9

130.7
118.7
107.9
134.7

128.2
117.3
97.1
134.2

127.3
115.5
94.3
133.7

126.0
114.3
89.0
133.4

126.1
113.6
89.6
133.3

125.9
113.6
88.4
133.3

126.8
114.3
90.9
133.8

127.9
113.6
94.9
134.0

128.0
113.0
94.9
134.1

128.7
113.8
97.1
134.4

128 8
115 6
96 5
134.8

129 2
116 5
96 7
135 2

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods...............................
Nondurable goods less food................
Durable goods..............................
Capital equipment.............................
Intermediate materials,

123.1

Materials and components
for construction......................................
Processed fuels and lubricants..................
Containers.......................................
Supplies.......................................
Crude m aterials fo r further
processing.................................................
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs......................
Crude nonfood materials...........................

99 6

Special groupings:

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy..........................

136.6

136.4

136.0

135.8

135.3

134.9

134.6

134.6

134.6

135.0

135.4

135.5

135.7

136.1

136.5

Crude energy materials..........................
Crude materials less energy...................
Crude nonfood materials less energy........

122.1
111.7
145.2

122.8
112.2
130.6

104.2
113.6
128.4

93.1
113.3
128.5

75.2
109.8
125.8

96.5
104.8
124.5

76.7
103.4
124.2

82.8
106.2
126.1

76.9
108.5
128.1

89.9
109.3
129.0

107.3
105.5
131.8

109.1
107.9
136.1

99.4
107.5
138.2

98 5
108.6
140.0

100 1

84

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

110.0
140.5

36.

P r o d u c e r P r ic e I n d e x e s fo r t h e n e t o u t p u t o f m a jo r in d u s tr y g r o u p s

[D ecem ber 1984 = 100, unless otherw ise indicated]
A nnual average

2001

Industry

SIC

2000
-

10
12
13
14

-

20
21
22
23
24
25
26

2001

A ug.

Sept.

Oct.

2002

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

June

July

A ug.

T o ta l m in in g in d u s trie s ............................................

113.5

114.3

98.9

90.8

78.3

88.3

77.6

81.9

78.0

87.5

99.8

101.7

94.6

92.6

93.6

Metal mining.....................................................
Coal mining (12/85 - 100)..............................
Oil and gas extraction (12/85 = 100)..............
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels....................................

73.8
84.8
126.8

70.8
91.3
127.5

69.8
92 0
107.0

71.7
92.1
95.9

69.8
92 9
79.1

68.9
95 4
92.0

68 9
92 5
78.3

71 0
95 3
84.0

72 3
94 5
77.9

72 9
94 6
92.7

73 4

73 9
94 3
111.4

103.6

100.4

102.1

T o ta l m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s trie s ...........................

Food and kindred products.............................
Tobacco manufactures....................................
Textile mill products.........................................
Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar materials......
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture..............................................
Furniture and fixtures......................................
Paper and allied products................................

111.9

137.0

141.0

141.4

141.5

141.8

141.6

141.5

142.5

143.4

143.5

143.4

143.5

143.6

143.6

143.7

133.5
128.5
345.8
116.7

134.6
132.8
386.1
116.9

134.6
134.6
391.0
116.8

135.6
134.5
391.1
116.4

133.7
134.1
391.1
116.5

132.7
132.4
398.3
116.3

131.6
131.7
398.2
116.1

131.7
131.5
391.7
116.3

132.0
132.0
391.7
115.8

132.8
132.0
392.2
115.8

133.8
131.5
407.8
115.8

133.6
131.0
408.0
115.5

133.6
131.2
408.2
115.8

133.6
131.4
408.6
115.8

133.7
131.3
408.6
115.6

125.7

125.8

125.9

125.9

125.9

125.6

125.3

125.2

125.1

125.2

125.0

125.1

125.3

125.1

125.4

158.1
143.3
145.8

156.2
145.1
146.2

158.1
145.2
145.6

157.3
145.4
145.5

154.6
145.5
145.1

154.0
145.5
144.6

153.4
145.5
144.8

154.0
145.6
144.1

154.8
145.8
143.2

156.7
145.7
142.9

156.8
145.7
143.3

156.2
145.9
142.4

155.0
146.0
142.7

155.5
146.1
143.0

155.7
146.2
143.9

27

Printing, publishing, and allied industries.......

182.9

188.7

189.1

189.4

189.7

190.2

192.0

192.0

192.1

192.1

192.6

192.6

192.6

193.1

193.0

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Chemicals and allied products........................
Petroleum refining and related products........
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products..........................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products.....
Primary metal industries..................................
Fabricated metal products,
except machinery and transportation
equipment.............................

156.7
112.8
124.6
137.9
134.6
119.8

158.4
105.3
125.9
141.3
136.0
116.1

156.3
104.7
125.7
142.3
136.0
115.6

156.6
114.9
125.6
141.5
136.4
115.3

155.7
94.6
125.5
141.2
136.6
114.6

155.4
86.3
125.6
140.9
136.9
114.2

154.3
75.9
125.2
140.3
136.7
114.0

154.0
77.7
125.1
140.2
136.9
113.7

154.3
79.5
124.4
139.8
136.4
113.7

155.1
89.2
124.6
140.0
136.3
114.4

155.9
100.5
124.8
140.1
136.6
114.7

156.6
99.4
125.4
140.8
136.9
115.4

156.9
98.9
125.9
140.9
136.7
116.7

158.1
100.7
125.7
140.9
136.9
116.9

158.5
103.1
126.4
141.7
137.3
117.5

1,310.3

131.0

131.1

131.1

131.0

131.1

131.2

131.2

131.2

131.2

131.3

131.4

131.6

131.8

132.0

35

Machinery, except electrical...........................

117.5

118.0

117.9

117.9

117.9

117.9

117.8

117.7

117.6

117.7

117.6

117.6

117.5

117.2

116.8

36

Electrical and electronic machinery,
equipment, and supplies...............................
Transportation.................................................
Measuring and controlling instruments;
photographic, medical, and optical
goods; watches and clocks...........................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
industries (12/85 = 100).................................

108.3
136.8

107.0
137.9

106.4
137.4

106.5
137.3

106.4
138.5

106.5
138.3

106.6
138.6

106.7
138.0

106.6
138.5

106.6
137.9

106.1
137.7

106.3
137.1

106.0
136.9

105.7
136.0

105.7
135.4

126.2

127.3

127.4

127.5

127.6

127.8

127.7

128.3

128.6

128.9

128.2

128.2

128.4

128.3

128.4

130.9

132.4

132.7

132.8

132.7

132.6

132.4

132.7

133.4

132.9

133.3

134.0

133.6

133.3

133.2

119.4
135.2
122.6
147.7
102.3

123.1
143.4
129.8
157.2
110.3

123.5
145.4
133.2
159.0
111.2

123.8
145.4
133.9
158.5
111.7

123.6
145.4
133.5
158.9
111.8

123.4
145.4
130.2
156.8
112.0

123.1
145.4
129.7
157.1
112.0

123.2
145.4
129.3
157.1
111.1

123.4
145.4
128.9
157.1
111.3

123.5
145.4
128.7
156.8
111.6

123.7
145.4
127.9
156.3
111.5

123.8
145.4
131.5
156.4
111.3

124.3
145.4
134.6
156.6
111.3

124.2
155.0
135.5
157.4
112.3

124.6
155.0
135.4
158.9
112.5

37
38

39

S e r v ic e in d u s trie s :

42
43
44
45
46

Motor freight transportation
and warehousing (06/93 = 100).....................
U.S. Postal Service (06/89 = 100)....................
Water transportation (12/92 = 100)..................
Transportation by air (12/92 = 100).................
Pipelines, except natural qas (12/92 = 100)....


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

85

Current Labor Statistics:

37.

A n n u a l d a ta :

[ 1982 =

Price Data

P r o d u c e r P r ic e I n d e x e s , b y s t a g e o f p r o c e s s in g

100]
In d e x

1 992

1 993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 999

2000

2001

Finished goods
Total........................................................
Foods.................................................
Energy......................................
Other................................................

123.2
123.3
77.8
134.2

124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
Total..................................................
Foods.............................................................
Energy..........................................
Other............................................

114.7
113.9
84.3
122.0

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

100.4
105.1
78.8
94.2

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

126.8

-,
i i y.o

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

123.2
120.8
84.3
133.1

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

96.8
103.9
68.6
84.5

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

120.6
100.2
122.1
118.0

121.3
106.2
122.8
101.8

138.0
137.2
94.1

Crude materials for further processing
Total..........................................................
Foods.........................................................
Energy.........................................................
Other............................................

86

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

112.2

1UD.O

72.1
97.0

105.8

105.7

87.3
103.5

38.

U .S . e x p o r t p r i c e

in d e x e s b y S ta n d a r d I n t e r n a tio n a l T r a d e C la s s ific a t io n

[2000 = 100]
2001

S IT C

2002

In d u s try

R ev. 3

A ug.

S e p t.

O ct.

N ov.

D ec.

Jan .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

101.2
97.8
107.2
100.6

102.7
93.1
108.4
110.5

100.0
91.3
106.0
102.4

100.3
93.2
105.4
102.5

100.6
92.0
105.2
103.7

99.7
91.6
103.8
103.8

99.8
90.0
106.5
99.0

101.0
87.9
112.7
97.8

103.7
88.8
119.1
98.6

95.1
87.4

102.9
87.1

117.0
88.1

113.6
99.8

95.8

90.2

87.9

91.6

92.0

100.3
97.5
90.5
95.3
97.4

100.2
97.1
92.2
95.6
97.4

100.4
97.3
92.5
96.0
97.5

100.8
97.1

101.3
97.5
92.8
96.6
98.0

0 F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ......................................................................
01
Meat and meat preparations...............................................
04
Cereals and cereal preparations........................................
05
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry..........

102.6
106.4
104.5
102.4

103.3
107.8
106.4
100.8

102.7
107.8
103.9
102.1

100.9
99.2
105.2
99.7

2 C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t f u e ls ..................................
22
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits............................................
24
Cork and wood......................................................................
25
Pulp and waste paper..........................................................
26
Textile fibers and their w aste..............................................
28
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap....................................

91.1
104.3
92.9
76 6
89.3
86.2

89 5
99.0
90.2
77 3
87 7
85.1

87 1
89.8
89.7
77 7
84 5
82 7

88 3

87 1

87 1

88 9

89.1
88.7
77 4
82 0
81 4

90.9
88.0
77 2

89.4
87.6

92.0
87.2

93.8
87.3

84 0
81 3

91.6
88.1
78 8
88 3
84 9

88 8
87 0

88 2
87 3

91 7

3 M in e r a l fu e ls , l u b r ic a n ts , a n d r e la te d p r o d u c t s ................
32
Coal, coke, and briquettes..................................................
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...

97 5
107 9
95.2

103 3
108 8
103.6

93 4
108 9

88 3
108 9

8? 4
108 8

87 1
109 8

84 3
109 7

89 8

88.4

80.9

74.6

80.1

76.5

83.6

5 C h e m ic a ls a n d r e la te d p r o d u c ts , n .e .s ...................................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products............................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
57
Plastics in primary fo rm s ....................................................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms...............................................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s............................

94.1
100.8
99.0
90.0
96.9
98.7

93 8
101.1
99.1
88.6
97.2
99.0

93 8
100.9
99.0
89.2
95.9
98.6

93 6
100.9
98.9
88.5
95.8
98.7

92 8

92 2

92 3

93 2

100.9
98.8
86.5
95.8
97.6

101.1
97.5
85.4
95.9
98.1

100.8
97.1
85.8
95.7
97.6

100.5
97.6
87.6
95.8
98.0

6 M a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te r ia ls .....

June

J u ly

93.0
96.4
97.3

Aug.

98.4

98.2

97.3

96.6

96.7

97.3

97.2

96.7

97.4

97.4

98.0

98.5

98.6

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s................................................
PaDer. DaDerboard. and articles of DaDer. du Id .
and DaDerboard...................................................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s..........................
Nonferrous metals.................................................................

101.0

101.0

100.6

100.5

100.9

100.4

100.4

100.8

101.1

101.5

101.5

101.5

101.5

95.1
101.0
93.0

95.6
101.1
90.2

95.1
101.1
86.9

95.2
101.4

95.2
102.1
83.1

95.3
101.7
85.3

94.1
101.4
85.9

92.5
102.1
85.1

92.9
101.9
86.5

93.1
102.0
86.5

94.8
102.2
85.3

95.7
102.1
85.2

96.3
102.2
84.9

7 M a c h in e r y a n d t r a n s p o r t e q u ip m e n t ........................................

100.0

100.0

99.7

99.7

99.6

99.3

99.3

99.5

99.5

99.3

98.9

98.7

98.7

102.8
99.5

103.0
99.5

103.1
100.6

104.1
100.5

104.0
100.5

104.6
100.7

104.4
100.8

104.6
101.1

104.6
101.4

104.6
102.0

104.5
101.8

104.5
102.1

104.6
101.9

101.8
94.8

101.9
94.8

101.8
94.6

101.9
94.2

101.7
92.9

102.1
92.5

102.0
92.9

102.2
93.1

102.1
92.5

102.3
91.7

102.3
90.3

102.1
90.5

102.2
89.6

98.7
97.7
100.2

98.5
97.6
100.2

98.0
95.9
100.3

98.0
95.9
100.2

97.7
95.9
100.3

97.9
94.8
100.1

97.5
94.6
100.2

97.5
94.7
100.3

97.8
94.8
100.3

97.8
94.6
100.4

97.7
93.8
100.3

96.1
93.2
100.4

95.9
93.4
100.6

100.8

100.9

101.0

100.9

100.9

100.8

101.1

101.2

101.3

101.3

101.3

101.4

101.4

62
64
66
68

71
72
74
75
76
77
78

Power generating machinery and equipment...................
Machinery specialized for particular industries.................
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts..............................................................
Computer equipment and office machines.......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment............................
Electrical machinery and equipment..................................
Road vehicles........................................................................

81.8

87 P r o f e s s io n a l, s c ie n tific , a n d c o n tr o llin g
i n s t r u m e n t s a n d a p p a r a t u s ..........................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

87

Current Labor Statistics:

39.

Price Data

U .S . i m p o r t p r i c e i n d e x e s b y S t a n d a r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n

[2000 = 100]
S IT C

0
01
03
05
07

1
11
2
24
25
28
29
3
33
34
5
52
53
54
55
57
58
59

F o o d a n d liv e a n im a ls ........................................

Meat and meat preparations.....................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates......................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry..........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof........................................

2002

Aug.

Sept.

9 4 .9

95.1

9 4 .7

95.1

9 4 .8

9 5 .8

9 4 .3

9 6 .4

9 7 .0

9 6 .4

9 4 .5

9 6 .4

9 6 .0

1 08 .9

1 1 3 .5

1 14.8

1 18 .0

109 .8

1 05 .5

1 07 .4

1 09.8

110.1

1 0 5 .4

104 .0

105 9

1 05 4

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

M ay

June

July

Aug.

8 6 .8

8 6 .3

8 4.6

8 2 .8

8 2 .9

8 2 .3

8 2 .0

8 0 .4

80.1

8 0 .0

7 9 .8

82 1

RR 1

9 8.2

9 8 .5

99.1

1 0 1 .5

9 9 .3

1 06 .8

98.1

1 04.0

104 .9

108.1

1 02 .2

1 04 .9

1 02 5

7 8 .8

80.1

7 7 .3

7 7 .2

7 8 .5

7 7 .5

7 8 .8

8 3 .3

8 8 .5

8 3 .8

8 4 .6

8 4 .2

8 4 .2

102.1

1 -2 .0

1 02 .7

1 02 .6

1 03.0

1 02.9

1 02 .9

102.1

1 02.0

1 02 .7

1 03 .0

102 .6

1 0 2 .6

1 02 .4

1 02 .4

102 .6

1 02 .6

103.1

1 03.2

1 03 .2

1 02 .5

1 02 .3

1 02.4

1 02 .8

1 0 2 .4

1 0 2 .4

9 5 .8

9 6 .6

9 4 .5

9 1 .3

8 9 .9

90.1

9 2 .7

9 5 .8

9 6 .3

9 7 .0

9 6 .4

Cork and wood.........................
Pulp and waste paper......................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap.................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s..................

9 6 .8

9 7 .2

1 09 .6

1 12 .2

105.1

9 7 .5

9 1 .7

9 2 .6

9 8 .6

1 06.6

108.1

1 05 .2

103.1

1 0 3 .4

101 9

7 9 .3

7 7 .3

7 6 .8

7 8 .0

7 7 .7

78.1

7 7 .2

7 4 .9

77.1

80 2

82 R

93.1

9 2 .8

91.6

8 9 .8

9 1 .2

9 1 .4

9 2 .7

9 3 .7

9 5 .0

9 5 .6

9 5 .9

96 4

95 2

8 1 .0

8 3 .8

9 3 .4

93.1

9 6 .0

9 2 .2

9 1 .7

9 2 .3

9 0 .5

1 0 3 .8

9 2 .8

91.1

1 0 0 .2

M in e ra l fu e ls , lu b r ic a n ts , a n d re la te d p r o d u c ts ...............

8 5 .6

8 5 .8

7 2 .3

6 5 .0

6 1 .2

6 4.0

6 5 .2

Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials...
Gas, natural and manufactured..................

7 6 .4

87.1

8 9 .0

86 0

RR fi

86.1

8 6 .8

7 3 .0

6 3 .0

5 9 .8

6 2 .6

6 5 .6

7 7 .4

8 6 .8

89.1

85 8

89 4

8 0 .9

7 7 .8

6 5 .7

7 5 .9

6 8 .7

7 0 .8

5 8 .2

6 4 .8

8 6 .0

8 4 .3

8 3 .6

7 8 .3

7 5 .2

C h e m ic a ls a n d re la te d p ro d u c ts , n .e .s .................................

9 8 .4

9 8 .3

9 8 .8

9 7 .8

9 7 .5

9 7 .7

9 6 .7

Inorganic chemicals...............................
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials................
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.............
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations........
Plastics in primary forms............................
Plastics in nonprimary forms........................
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s..........................

9 6 .3

9 7 .3

9 7 .5

9 7 .0

98 5

98 7

9 8 .0

98.1

9 9 .4

9 8 .9

9 7 .6

97.1

9 7 .8

9 8 .5

9 8 .5

9 8 .6

1 00 0

99 R

9 5 .7

9 6 .3

97.1

9 6 .8

97.1

9 7 .8

9 7 .4

9 7 .2

9 5 .6

9 5 .6

96 2

96 4

97 2

9 7 .3

9 7 .0

9 7 .5

9 7 .3

9 7 .0

97.1

9 6 .3

B e v e r a g e s a n d t o b a c c o ...................................

Beveraqes.........................................
C r u d e m a te r ia ls , in e d ib le , e x c e p t fu e ls ...................

9 7 .0

9 6 .0

7 3 .4

9 6 .6

7 4 .7

9 6 .7

9 8 .0

98 8

1 00 1

98.1

9 9 .7

9 9 .8

9 9 .7

100.1

100.1

9 9 .9

9 9 .8

98.9

99.1

9 9 .9

1 0 0 .4

101 2

1 0 0 .5

9 9 .7

9 9 .8

9 9 .8

9 9 .8

98.6

97.1

9 1 .5

9 1 .4

91.1

9 1 .8

9 5 .9

9 5 .7

1 0 0 .7

9 9 .3

1 01.6

101.1

100 .9

1 00.8

1 00 .6

1 00.6

1 01 .8

101 .8

1 00 .3

99 7

99 5

9 9 .0

9 9 .0

9 9 .2

9 8 .6

9 7 .8

96.1

9 5 .2

9 3 .6

9 4 .5

9 4 .3

9 3 .6

9 3 .5

9 3 .5

6

M a n u fa c tu r e d g o o d s c la s s ifie d c h ie fly b y m a te ria ls .....

9 5 .0

9 4 .8

9 3 .8

9 2 .4

9 2 .0

9 2 .4

9 2 .3

9 2 .2

9 2 .6

9 2 .3

9 2 .8

62

9 3 .0

9 3 .3

9 8 .7

9 8 .7

9 8 .5

9 7 .8

9 7 .9

9 7 .3

9 7 .6

9 7 .6

9 7 .9

98.1

98.1

9 8 .0

98 1

69

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s............................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard............................................
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s........................
Nonferrous metals.............................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s...................

7

M a c h in e r y a n d t r a n s p o rt e q u ip m e n t......................................

64
66
68

72
74
75
76
77
78

88

2001

In dustry

R e v. 3

Machinery specialized for particular industries................
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts..................................
Computer equipment and office machines....................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................
Electrical machinery and equipment.................
Road vehicles.....................................

85

Footwear..........................................

88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical qoods, n.e.s.............................

Monthly Labor Review


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 2002

9 9 .9

9 9 .3

9 8.6

9 7 .6

96.1

9 5 .0

9 3 .7

9 3 .4

9 2 .5

9 1 .9

9 1 .7

91 7

9R 1

99.1

9 9 .3

9 7 .5

9 7 .2

9 7 .5

9 7 .2

9 7 .0

9 6 .9

9 6 .9

9 7 .0

9 7 .0

9 7 .2

97 4

8 3 .4

8 2 .2

7 8 .7

7 3 .7

7 3 .8

7 6 .4

7 7 .2

7 6 .9

7 9 .2

7 9 .7

7 9 .7

79 2

78 4

9 9 .3

9 9 .3

9 9 .7

9 9 .5

9 9 .0

9 9.0

9 8 .5

9 8 .5

9 8.2

9 8 .3

9 8 .3

98.1

9 8 .5

98.1

9 8 .0

9 8 .0

9 7 .9

9 7 .7

9 7 .4

9 7 .2

97.1

9 7 .2

9 7 .0

97.1

9 6 .9

9 7 .0

9 8 .5

9 8 .5

98.6

9 8 .8

99 0

99 5

100 0
98 4

9 8 .6

99.1

9 9 .2

9 9 .0

9 8 .7

9 8 .5

9 7 .8

9 8 .0

9 8 .7

98.1

9 7 .8

98.1

9 7 .5

9 7 .5

9 7.6

9 7 .4

9 7 .8

98 1

9 1 .7

9 0 .0

89.1

8 9 .0

8 8 .8

8 8 .6

8 8 .2

88.1

8 8.2

8 8 .0

8 7 .9

87 4

87 R

97.1

9 6 .8

9 6 .5

9 6 .4

9 6 .3

9 5 .7

95.1

9 4 .8

9 4 .8

9 4 .5

9 4 .4

9 4 .0

9R R

9 8 .7

9 8 .6

9 8 .7

9 8 .6

9 7 .0

9 6.9

9 7 .0

9 6 .8

9 7.0

97.1

97.1

96 6

96 7

8 8 .7

1 00.0

1 00 .3

1 00 .2

1 00 .3

1 ,0 0 1 .0

1 00 .2

100.1

1 00.2

1 00 .0

1 00 .2

1 00 .2

1 0 0 .3

1 0 0 .5

1 00 .4

9 9 .9

9 9 .9

1 00 .3

9 9 .3

9 9 .6

9 9 .5

9 9.0

99.1

99.1

9 9 .3

9 9 .4

9 7 .9

9 8 .2

9 8 .6

9 8 .5

9 8 .4

9 7 .7

9 7 .3

9 7 .2 I

9 7.2

9 7 .4

9 7 .8

9 8 .5

9 8 .9

40.

U .S . e x p o r t p r i c e

in d e x e s b y e n d - u s e c a t e g o r y

[2000 = 100]________________________________________________
2001

C a te g o ry
A ug.

S e p t.

O ct.

2002
N ov.

D ec.

Jan .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ......................................................................

98.8

99.0

98.3

97.8

97.6

97.5

97.3

97.6

98.0

98.0

98.0

98.3

98.4

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

102.6
104.0
90.2

102.6
103.6
92.9

101.2
102.2
91.9

99.7
100.7
90.9

100.6
101.6
90.4

102.0
102.6
96.3

98.9
99.4
94.5

99.7
100.0
98.3

100.3
100.8
96.2

100.4
100.9
96.1

101.5
101.7
100.7

104.0
104.5
100.0

106.3
106.9
101.2

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

94.8

95.2

93.6

92.3

91.4

91.5

91.4

91.9

93.4

93.8

94.6

95.6

95.4

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials...........

97.2

96.8

93.8

92.1

93.3

92.3

92.9

93.6

93.6

93.0

95.8

97.9

97.8

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials......................
Selected building materials.........................................

97.6

103.2

93.6

88.5

83.5

85.6

83.8

85.6

90.3

87.9

86.7

88.3

87.9

94.0
96.8

93.8
95.5

93.4
95.1

92.8
94.4

92.3
94.1

92.3
94.4

92.2
94.4

92.6
94.2

94.0
94.3

94.8
94.1

95.7
94.1

96.6
94.8

96.4
95.3

Capital goods...................................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery.............................................

100.0
101.5
98.6

100.0
101.6
98.6

99.7
101.6
98.2

99.7
101.6
98.1

99.4
101.5
97.7

99.1
102.1
97.2

99.2
102.0
97.3

99.4
102.1
97.5

99.5
101.8
97.6

99.2
101.8
97.3

98.7
102.0
96.5

98.4
101.8
96.2

98.4
101.9
6.1

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

100.5

100.4

100.5

100.4

100.5

100.7

100.8

100.9

100.7

100.9

100.9

100.8

100.9

Consumer goods, excluding automotive.....................
Nondurables, manufactured......................................
Durables, manufactured.............................................

99.5
98.9
100.2

99.7
99.1
100.4

99.7
99.0
100.6

99.8
99.1
100.5

99.9
99.1
100.5

99.5
98.2
100.6

99.1
98.2
99.9

99.1
98.1
99.7

98.9
98.2
99.3

99.0
98.3
99.2

99.1
98.5
99.3

99.2
98.6
99.4

99.3
98.8
99.5

Agricultural commodities................................................
Nonagricultural com modities..........................................

102.8
98.5

102.5
98.6

100.7
98.1

99.2
97.7

100.2
97.3

100.9
97.2

98.3
97.2

98.9
97.5

99.6
97.8

99.5
97.8

100.7
97.7

103.3
97.8

105.3
97.8

41.

U .S . i m p o r t p r i c e

in d e x e s b y e n d - u s e c a t e g o r y

[2000 = 100]________________________________________________
2001

C a te g o ry
Aug.

S e p t.

O ct.

2002
N ov.

A L L C O M M O D IT I E S ......................................................................

96.0

95.9

93.7

Foods, feeds, and beverages.......................................
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages.................
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products.....

94.5
96.9
89.5

95.0
97.8
89.2

94.5
97.8
87.8

Industrial supplies and materials...................................

91.0

91.0

84.3

79.9

Fuels and lubricants.....................................................
Petroleum and petroleum products.......................

86.0
86.1

86.1
86.7

72.9
73.4

65.7
63.6

Paper and paper base stocks....................................
Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials...............................................
Selected building materials.........................................
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods..
Nonmetals associated with durable goods...............

95.1

93.9

93.1

92.3

98.0
102.9
87.4
100.2

97.9
103.7
87.1
100.4

98.0
99.9
85.1
99.9

Capital goods...................................................................
Electric and electrical generating equipment...........
Nonelectrical machinery.............................................

97.1
101.3
96.0

96.8
101.4
95.6

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines.....................

99.6

Consumer goods, excluding automotive......................
Nondurables, m anufactured.......................................
Durables, manufactured..............................................
Nonmanufactured consumer goods..........................

99.2
100.0
98.6
97.4

42.

U .S . i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i c e

D ec .

Jan .

Feb.

M ar.

A p r.

M ay

June

J u ly

Aug.

92.3

91.4

91.6

91.6

92.8

94.3

94.4

94.1

94.5

94.8

95.2
99.5
86.4

94.6
98.3
86.8

95.7
99.9
87.0

93.8
97.2
86.8

95.0
99.5
85.5

96.0
100.9
85.5

97.2
102.7
85.2

96.2
101.3
85.2

97.0
102.4
85.2

97.2
102.4
86.1

77.6

79.1

79.8

84.9

90.3

90.8

89.8

91.5

92.3

61.6
59.9

64.5
63.0

65.9
65.7

76.4
76.9

87.1
86.7

88.5
88.4

85.8
85.3

88.6
89.0

90.0
90.9

90.7

90.0

88.8

88.0

87.0

86.7

87.1

88.0

89.9

96.7
96.1
82.1
98.9

96.2
92.9
82.1
99.0

96.3
93.1
83.2
98.4

96.0
96.1
83.8
97.6

95.9
100.7
83.8
97.2

97.4
101.0
86.2
97.6

97.4
99.6
86.6
96.8

97.2
99.1
88.6
96.9

98.1
99.9
89.6
97.3

89.9
99.1
89.1
97.3

96.7
101.4
95.4

96.5
101.2
95.3

96.2
100.6
94.9

95.7
97.3
94.8

95.4
96.7
94.5

95.2
95.5
94.4

95.2
95.3
94.5

95.1
95.0
94.4

95.1
95.0
94.4

94.9
95.4
94.0

95.1
96.5
94.1

99.9

100.1

100.0

100.1

99.8

100.1

99.9

100.1

99.9

100.1

100.1

100.1

99.1
99.6
98.7
97.9

98.9
99.6
98.4
95.8

98.8
99.6
98.3
95.7

98.7
99.7
98.0
96.4

98.7
99.8
97.8
95.8

98.4
99.7
97.4
95.7

98.2
99.2
97.3
96.1

98.1
99.1
97.2
95.8

98.2
99.1
97.2
97.6

98.1
99.1
97.2
95.6

98.2
99.3
97.2
95.3

98.2
99.5
97.1
95.7

in d e x e s f o r s e le c t e d c a t e g o r ie s o f s e r v ic e s

[2000 = 100]
2000

C a te g o ry
June

S e p t.

2001
D ec.

M a r.

June

2002
S e p t.

Air freight (inbound)............................................................
Air freight (outbound)..........................................................

100.1
100.3

100.2
100.2

99.0
100.2

97.9
100.1

95.1
98.0

94.9

Air passenger fares (U.S. carriers)..................................
Air passenger fares (foreign carriers).............................
Ocean liner freight (inbound).............................................

101.2
102.1
101.3

103.1
103.2
101.1

99.9
97.6
101.0

101.9
100.7
102.8

106.4
103.8
100.8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D ec .

M ar.

June

97.6

95.2
97.9

93.9
95.9

98.1
98.4

107.6
110.2
98.1

103.5
100.8
93.6

103.3
99.4
91.7

110.7
110.0
90.3

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

89

Current Labor Statistics:

43.

Productivity Data

In d e x e s o f p r o d u c t iv it y , h o u r ly c o m p e n s a t io n , a n d u n it c o s ts , q u a r t e r ly d a t a s e a s o n a lly a d ju s t e d

[1 9 9 2 = 100]

Item

1 999
II

III

2 00 0
IV

I

II

2001
III

IV

2002

I

II

III

IV

1

II

Business
Output per hour ot all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator..........................................................

112.5
124.3
107.1
110.5
113.2
111.5

113.6
123.4
107.3
110.4
114.1
111.8

115.2
127.0
107.8
110.2
115.3
112.1

115.3
131.4
110.5
114.0
110.7
112.8

117.2
132.4
110.5
113.0
114.1
113.4

117.3
135.0
111.7
115.1
111.2
113.7

117.9
136.8
111.9
115.6
112.0
114.3

117.5
137.3
111.8
116.9
112.3
115.2

117.4
137.5
111.0
117.1
113.6
115.8

117.9
137.8
111.1
116.8
115.5
116.4

120.1
138.3
111.6
115.1
117.2
115.9

122.5
139.6
112.2
113.9
119.6
116.0

123.0
140.9
112.4
114.9
118.9
116.1

111.9
123.4
106.3
“ 0.3
113.8
111.9

112.9
124.5
106.6
110.3
115.8
112.3

114.7
126.3
107.2
110.1
117.0
112.6

114.7
130.8
110.2
113.0
112.3
223.4

116.4
131.5
109.8
113.0
115.6
113.9

116.6
134.5
111.1
115.2
112.8
114.3

117.1
135.3
111.2
115.6
113.4
114.8

116.7
136.3
110.9
116.8
113.8
115.7

116.6
136.3
110.1
116.9
115.3
116.3

117.2
136.7
110.2
116.6
117.2
116.8

119.3
137.2
110.7
115.0
119.2
116.5

121.8
138.4
111.3
113.6
121.3
116.4

122.3
139.7
111.3
114.2
121.3
116.8

114.5
120.4
103.8
104.5
105.2
102.6
135.5
111.0
107.1

114.6
121.2
103.7
105.4
105.7
104.6
127.8
110.5
107.3

115.2
122.7
104.1
106.1
106.5
105.1
126.5
110.6
107.8

116.7
126.9
106.7
107.8
108.7
105.4
120.5
109.3
108.9

116.8
127.8
106.6
108.9
109.4
107.7
120.4
110.9
209.9

117.6
130.4
107.9
110.4
110.9
108.9
111.4
109.5
110.5

117.3
‘ 2‘ .7
108.2
111.9
112.2
111.0
110.4
108.3
110.9

116.6
131.3
106.9
112.9
112.6
113.7
94.9
108.9
111.4

117.3
131.9
106.5
113.3
12.5
115.6
97.2
110.9
112.0

118.2
132.7
107.0
113.7
112.3
117.6
99.7
113.1
112.5

121.3
133.6
107.8
111.8
110.2
116.2
109.6
114.5
111.6

122.8
134.9
108.5
111.6
109.9
116.0
109.4
114.3
111.4

124.3
136.3
108.7
111.5
109.7
116.5
108.4
114.4
111.3

128.8
120.9
104.2
93.9

129.8
122.6
104.9
94.4

132.1
124.2
105.4
94.0

133.6
131.4
110.5
98.4

134.9
129.3
107.9
95.9

135.4
132.2
109.4
97.7

135.9
131.5
108.0
96.7

135.4
132.0
107.4
97.5

135.4
133.0
107.4
98.2

136.4
133.3
107.5
97.8

137.6
134.3
108.3
97.6

140.9
136.5
109.8
96.9

142.3
137.5
109.7
96.6

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator..........................................................
N o n f in a n c ia l c o r p o r a t io n s

Output per hour of all employees.....................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Total unit costs....................................................................
Unit labor costs..................................................................
Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................
Unit profits............................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator..........................................................
M a n u f a c t u r in g

Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................

90

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

44.

A n n u a l in d e x e s o f m u lt if a c t o r p r o d u c t iv it y a n d r e la t e d

m e a s u re s , s e le c te d y e a r s

[1 9 9 6 = 100, u n le s s o th e rw is e in d ic a te d ]
Ite m

1 960

1 97 0

1 980

1 990

1991

1 992

1 993

1 99 4

1 99 5

1 99 6

1997

1998

1 99 9

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multitactor productivity.....................................................
O utput...................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons..........................................

45.6
110.4
65.2
27.5

63.0
111.1
80.0
42.0

75.8
101.5
88.3
59.4

90.2
99 3
95.3
83.6

91.3
96 1
94.4
82.6

94.8
97 7
96.6
85.7

95.4
Qfi fi

96.6
m n fi

97.3
QQ 7

100.0

102.0

104.8

104.8

97.1
88.5

98.1
92.8

98.4
95.8

100.0
100.0

101.1
105.2

102.6
110.6

102.6
110.6

54.0
24.9
42.3
41.3

61.0
37.8
52.4
56.7

71.9
58.6
67.3
74.7

89.4
84.2
87.7
90.8

88.3
86.0
87.5
95.0

89.3
87.7
88.8
97.0

91.8
89.8
91.1
96.8

95.6
92.6
94.6
96.3

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.7
104.7
104.0
101.5

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

106.4
110.4
107.7
104.7

48.7
120.1
69.1
27.2

64.9
118.3
82.6
41.9

77.3
105.7
90.5
59.6

90.3
100.0
95.6
83.5

91.4
96.6
94.7
82.5

94.8
97.9
96.6
85.5

95.3
98.8
97.1
88.4

96.5
100.3
98.1
92.6

97.5
99.9
98.6
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
100.2
100.9
105.1

104.5
99.8
102.4
110.6

104.5
99.8
102.4
110.6

50.1
22.6
39.3
40.5

59.3
35.5
50.7
54.8

70.7
56.4
65.9
73.1

89.2
83.5
87.3
90.3

88.0
85.4
87.1
94.7

89.0
87.3
88.4
96.8

91.8
89.5
91.0
96.5

95.4
92.3
94.4
96.3

97.8
95.9
97.2
97.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.8
104.9
104.2
101.5

106.6
110.8
108.0
104.7

106.6
110.8
108.0
104.7

41.8
124.3
72.7
38.5

54.2
116.5
84.4
56.5

70.1
100.9
86.6
75.3

92.8
101.6
99.3
97.3

95.0
97.5
98.3
95.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.9
101.1
100.4
103.3

105.0
104.0
102.6
108.7

109.0
105.0
105.0
113.4

112.8
104.5
106.1
116.9

117.1
105.6
109.8
123.5

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

124.3
106.5
113.2
130.7

92.0
30.9
51.3
38.2
28.2
52.9

104.2
48.5
85.4
44.8
48.8
67.0

107.5
74.7
92.5
75.0
73.7
87.0

104.8
95.8
99.9
92.5
92.5
98.0

100.4
97.9
100.1
93.6
92.1
97.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.4
102.2
103.7
105.7
103.0
102.9

103.6
104.5
107.3
111.3
105.1
106.0

104.0
108.0
109.5
112.8
110.0
107.9

103.7
111.9
107.0
120.4
108.9
110.2

105.5
116.9
103.9
120.4
114.2
112.5

105.2
122.8
109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

105.2
122.8
109.2
127.2
116.8
115.5

Private nontarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
O utput....................................................................................
Inputs:
Labor input.........................................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Combined units of labor and capital input....................
Capital per hour of all persons..........................................
M a n u f a c t u r in g (1 9 9 2 = 1 0 0 )

Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........................................
Output per unit of capital services.................................
Multifactor productivity.....................................................
Output....................................................................................
Inputs:
Hours of all persons..........................................................
Capital services.................................................................
Energy.................................................................................
Nonenergy materials.........................................................
Purchased business services.........................................
Combined units of all factor inputs.................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

91

Current Labor Statistics:

45.

Productivity Data

A n n u a l in d e x e s o f p r o d u c t iv it y , h o u r ly c o m p e n s a t io n , u n it c o s ts , a n d p r ic e s , s e le c t e d y e a r s

[1 9 9 2 = 100]
Item

1 96 0

1 97 0

1 980

1 990

1 993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 999

2 00 0

2001

Business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................

48.8
13.7
59.8
28.0
25.2
27.0

67.0
23.5
78.6
35.1
31.6
33.9

80.4
54.2
89.2
67.4
61.5
65.2

95.2
90.7
96.3
95.3
93.9
94.8

100.5
102.5
100.0
101.9
102.5
102.2

101.9
104.5
99.9
102.6
106.4
104.0

102.6
106.7
99.6
104.1
109.4
106.0

105.4
110.1
100.1
104.5
113.3
107.7

107.8
113.5
101.0
105.3
117.1
109.7

110.6
119.7
105.0
108.2

51.9
14.3
62.6
27.5
24.6
26.5

68.9
23.7
79.2
34.4
31.3
33.3

82.0
54.6
89.8
66.5
60.5
64.3

95.3
90.5
96.2
95.0
93.6
94.5

100.5
102.2
99.7
101.7
103.0
102.2

101.8
104.3
99.7
102.5
106.9
104.1

102.8
106.6
99.4
103.7
110.4
106.1

105.4
109.8
99.8
104.2
113.5
107.6

55.4
15.6
68.1
26.8
28.1
23.3
50.2
30.2
28.8

70.4
25.3
84.4
34.8
35.9
31.9
44.4
35.1
35.6

81.1
56.4
92.9
68.4
69.6
65.1
68.8
66.0
68.4

95.4
90.8
96.5
95.9
95.2
98.0
94.3
97.1
95.8

100.7
102.0
99.6
101.0
101.3
100.2
113.2
103.5
102.1

103.1
104.2
99.6
101.1
101.0
101.3
131.7
109.0
103.7

104.2
106.2
99.0
102.0
101.9
102.2
139.0
111.6
105.1

41.8
14.9
65.0
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.2
43.8
29.3
35.0

70.1
55.6
91.4
79.3
80.2
79.9

92.9
90.8
96.4
97.8
99.8
99.0

101.9
102.7
100.2
100.8
100.9
100.9

105.0
105.6
101.0
100.7
102.8
102.0

109.0
107.9
100.6
99.0
106.9
103.9

114.5
110.6

113.5
125.2
107.6
110.3
113.9
111.8

116.9
133.8
111.2
114.4
112.0
1113.5

118.2
137.7
111.4
116.5
114.7
115.8

107.5
113.1
100.6
105.2
118.0
109.8

110.3
119.1
104.5
108.0
115.7
110.8

112.9
124.3
106.8
110.1
115.5
112.1

116.2
133.0
110.6
114.4
113.5
114.1

117.5
136.6
110.5
116.3
116.4
116.3

107.5
109.0
99.0
101.2
101.4
100.6
152.2
113.8
105.5

108.4
110.3
98.1
101.5
101.8
100.9
156.9
115.2
106.2

111.7
116.0
101.7
103.3
103.8
102.2
141.7
112.3
106.6

114.7
121.1
104.1
105.1
105.6
103.5
131.7
110.7
107.3

117.1
129.2
107.4
109.8
110.3
108.3
113.2
109.5
110.0

118.3
132.4
107.0
112.9
111.9
115.8
100.5
111.8
111.9

112.8
109.4
99.4
96.9
109.9
104.8

117.6
111.5
99.1
94.8
110.0
104.1

123.3
117.4
103.0
95.2
103.7
100.4

129.7
122.1
104.9
94.1
104.9
100.7

134.9
131.1
109.0
97.2
107.0
103.2

136.2
133.1
107.7
97.8

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor paym ents.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................
Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees.....................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Total unit costs....................................................................
Unit labor costs..................................................................
Unit nonlabor costs...........................................................
Unit profits............................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................
Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons..........................................
Compensation per hour.....................................................
Real compensation per hour.............................................
Unit labor costs....................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments.....................................................
Implicit price deflator...........................................................
Dash indicates data not available.

92

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

-

-

4 6 . A n n u a l in d e x e s o f o u t p u t p e r h o u r f o r s e le c t e d 3 - d ig it S IC in d u s t r ie s

[1 9 8 7 = 1 0 0 ]
In d u s try

M in in g
Copper ores.................................................................
Gold and silver ores...................................................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining...........................
Crude petroleum and natural gas............................
Crushed and broken stone........................................

S IC

1990

1991

1 992

1993

1 994

1 995

1 996

1 99 7

1 99 8

1 999

2000

102
104
122
131
142

102.7
122.3
118.7
97.0
102.2

100.5
127.4
122.4
97.9
99.8

115.2
141.6
133.0
102.1
105.0

118.1
159.8
141.2
105.9
103.6

126.0
160.8
148.1
112.4
108.7

117.2
144.2
155.9
119.4
105.4

116.5
138.3
168.0
123.9
107.2

118.9
158.5
176.6
125.2
112.6

118.3
187.6
188.0
127.5
110.2

110.0
197.5
194.9
134.5
105.0

122.6
239.9
207.0
142.5
101.9

201
202
203
204

99.6
108.3
99.2
104.9
90.6

104.6
111.4
100.5
107.8
93.8

104.3
109.6
106.8
109.2
94.4

101.2
111.8
107.6
108.4
96.4

102.3
116.4
109.1
115.4
97.3

97.4
116.0
109.2
108.0
95.6

102.5
119.3
110.7
118.2
99.1

102.3
119.3
117.8
126.2
100.9

101.8
112.7
120.4
129.3
106.4

102.9
113.5
123.5
127.5
107.6

127.0
154.4
129.7

M a n u fa c tu rin g
Meat products.............................................................
Dairy products.............................................................
Preserved fruits and vegetables...............................
Grain mill products.....................................................
Bakery products...........................................................

205

97.1
107.3
95.6
105.4
92.7

Sugar and confectionery products............................
Fats and oils................................................................
Beverages....................................................................
Miscellaneous food and kindred products...............
Cigarettes.....................................................................

206
207
208
209
211

103.2
118.1
117.0
99.2
113.2

102.0
120.1
120.0
101.7
107.6

99.8
114.1
127.1
101.5
111.6

104.5
112.6
126.4
105.2
106.5

106.2
111.8
130.1
100.9
126.6

108.3
120.3
133.5
102.9
142.9

113.7
110.1
135.0
109.1
147.2

116.7
120.2
135.5
104.0
147.2

123.0
137.3
136.4
112.4
152.2

113.9
137.7

130.5
151.4
128.6
116.3
139.1

Broadwoven fabric mills, cotton................................
Broadwoven fabric mills, manmade.........................
Narrow fabric m ills......................................................
Knitting mills.................................................................
Textile finishing, except w ool....................................

221
222
224
225
226

103.1
111.3
96.5
107.5
83.4

111.2
116.2
99.6
114.0
79.9

110.3
126.2
112.9
119.3
78.6

117.8
131.7
111.4
127.9
79.3

122.1
142.5
120.1
134.1
81.2

134.0
145.3
118.9
138.3
78.5

137.3
147.6
126.3
150.3
79.2

131.2
162.2
110.8
138.0
94.3

136.2
168.6
117.7
135.9
93.7

139.3
175.3
124.9
146.6
94.4

140.2
167.4
117.1
155.6
97.2

Carpets and rugs.........................................................
Yarn and thread m ills.................................................
Miscellaneous textile goods.......................................
Men's and boys' furnishings.......................................
W omen's and misses' outerwear..............................

227
228
229
232
233

93.2
110.2
109.2
102.1
104.1

89.2
111.4
104.6
108.4
104.3

96.1
119.6
106.5
109.1
109.4

97.1
126.6
110.4
108.4
121.8

93.3
130.7
118.5
111.7
127.4

95.8
137.4
123.7
123.4
135.5

100.2
147.4
123.1
134.7
141.6

100.3
150.4
118.7
162.1
149.9

102.3
153.0
120.1
174.8
151.9

96.0
157.6
128.0
190.9
173.9

103.0
155.4
134.4
200.3
189.9

W omen's and children's undergarments.................
Hats, caps, and m illinery............................................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories.................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
Sawmills and planing mills.........................................

234
235
238
239
242

102.1
89.2
90.6
99.9
99.8

113.7
91.1
91.8
100.7
102.6

117.4
93.6
91.3
107.5
108.1

124.5
87.2
94.0
108.5
101.9

138.0
77.7
105.5
107.8
103.3

161.3
84.3
116.8
109.2
110.2

174.5
82.2
120.1
105.6
115.6

208.9
87.1
101.5
119.2
116.9

216.4
98.7
108.0
117.3
118.7

294.7
99.3
105.8
128.8
125.4

352.3
106.1
111.3
132.5
124.4

Mlllwork, plywood, and structural members............
W ood containers.........................................................
W ood buildings and mobile homes..........................
Miscellaneous wood products...................................
Household furniture................................................

243
244
245
249
251

98.0
111.2
103.1
107.7
104.5

98.0
113.1
103.0
110.5
107.1

99.9
109.4
103.1
114.2
110.5

97.0
100.1
103.8
115.3
110.6

94.5
100.9
98.3
111.8
112.5

92.7
106.1
97.0
115.4
116.9

92.4
106.7
96.7
114.4
121.6

89.1
106.2
100.3
123.4
121.3

91.3
106.5
99.2
131.2
125.7

89.2
103.9
100.3
140.7
128.9

91.4
104.6
94.6
146.5
128.4

Office furniture.............................................................
Public building and related furniture........................
Partitions and fixtures.................................................
Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures.........................
Pulp mills.......................................................................

252
253
254
259
261

95.0
119.8
95.6
103.5
116.7

94.1
120.2
93.0
102.1
128.3

102.5
140.6
102.7
99.5
137.3

103.2
161.0
107.4
103.6
122.5

100.5
157.4
98.9
104.7
128.9

101.1
173.3
101.2
110.0
131.9

106.4
181.5
97.5
113.2
132.6

118.3
214.9
121.1
110.7
82.3

113.1
207.6
125.6
121.9
86.6

108.9
222.4
125.9
119.1
84.8

111.2
202.0
131.9
110.5
78.8

Paper mills....................................................................
Paperboard m ills.........................................................
Paperboard containers and boxes............................
Miscellaneous converted paper products................
Newspapers.................................................................

262
263
265
267
271

102.3
100.6
101.3
101.4
90.6

99.2
101.4
103.4
105.3
85.8

103.3
104.4
105.2
105.5
81.5

102.4
108.4
107.9
107.9
79.4

110.2
114.9
108.4
110.6
79.9

118.6
119.5
105.1
113.3
79.0

111.6
118.0
106.3
113.6
77.4

112.0
126.7
109.7
119.5
79.0

114.8
127.8
113.5
123.0
83.6

126.2
134.9
111.9
126.0
86.0

133.5
135.3
112.9
128.3
88.3

Periodicals....................................................................
Books.............................................................................
Miscellaneous publishing..........................................
Commercial printing....................................................
Manifold business forms............................................

272
273
274
275
276

93.9
96.6
92.2
102.5
93.0

89.5
100.8
95.9
102.0
89.1

92.9
97.7
105.8
108.0
94.5

89.5
103.5
104.5
106.9
91.1

81.9
103.0
97.5
106.5
82.0

87.8
101.6
94.8
107.2
76.9

89.1
99.3
93.6
108.3
75.2

100.1
102.6
114.5
108.8
77.9

112.2
100.9
119.4
109.9
76.7

111.2
106.1
127.2
115.0
70.6

109.9
106.1
127.8
118.7
69.4

Greeting cards.............................................................
Blankbooks and bookbinding....................................
Printing trade services................................................
Industrial inorganic chemicals...................................
Plastics materials and synthetics..............................

277
278
279
281
282

100.6
99.4
99.3
106.8
100.9

92.7
96.1
100.6
109.7
100.0

96.7
103.6
112.0
109.7
107.5

91.4
98.7
115.3
105.6
112.0

89.0
105.4
111.0
102.3
125.3

92.5
108.7
116.7
109.3
128.3

90.8
114.5
126.2
110.1
125.3

92.2
114.2
123.3
116.8
135.4

104.1
116.5
126.7
145.8
142.2

109.3
123.8
121.5
148.5
148.6

105.1
126.2
119.6
141.3
151.0

Drugs.............................................................................
Soaps, cleaners, and toilet goods............................
Paints and allied products.........................................
Industrial organic chemicals.......................................
Agricultural chemicals.................................................

283
284
285
286
287

103.8
103.8
106.3
101.4
104.7

104.5
105.3
104.3
95.8
99.5

99.5
104.4
102.9
94.6
99.5

99.7
108.7
108.8
92.2
103.8

104.6
111.2
116.7
99.9
105.0

108.7
118.6
118.0
98.6
108.5

112.5
120.9
125.6
99.0
110.0

112.4
126.4
126.4
111.3
119.8

104.3
122.7
126.8
105.7
118.0

105.6
114.8
122.7
120.6
104.6

106.2
124.8
124.6
127.8
112.0

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

93

Current Labor Statistics:

46.

Productivity Data

C o n tin u e d - A n n u a l in d e x e s o f o u t p u t p e r h o u r f o r s e le c te d 3 - d ig it S IC in d u s t r ie s

[1 9 8 7 = 1 0 0 ]
In d u s try

S IC

1 990

Asphalt paving and roofing materials.....................
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products.........
Tires and Inner tubes....................................

289
291
295
299
301

97.3
109.2
98.0
94.8
103.0

96.1
106.6
94.1
90.6
102.4

101.8
111.3
100.4
101.5
107.8

107.1
120.1
108.0
104.2
116.5

105.7
123.8
104.9
96.3
124.1

107.8
132.3
111.2
87.4
131.1

110.1
142.0
113.1
87.1
138.8

120.3
149.2
123.1
96.5
149.1

120.8
155.8
124.7
98.5
144.1

123.3
170.2
123.4
86.5
142.1

125.6
180.2
126.1
82.9
145.9

Hose and belting and gaskets and packing...........
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c............................
Miscellaneous plastics products, n.e.c....................
Footwear, except rubber...........................
Flat glass.....................................................

305
306
308
314
321

96.1
109.0
105.7
101.1
84.5

92.4
109.9
108.3
94.4
83.6

97.8
115.2
114.4
104.2
92.7

99.7
123.1
116.7
105.2
97.7

102.7
119.1
120.8
113.0
97.6

104.6
121.5
121.0
117.1
99.6

107.4
121.0
124.7
126.1
101.5

113.5
125.3
129.9
121.4
107.6

112.7
132.3
133.8
110.9
114.0

110.6
136.9
140.9
132.6
129.4

115.4
144.7
145.4
146.2
140.4

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown.................
Products of purchased glass............................
Cement, hydraulic...............................
Structural clay products...............................
Pottery and related products.....................................

322
323
324
325
326

104.8
92.6
112.4
109.6
98.7

102.3
97.7
108.3
109.8
95.9

108.9
101.5
115.1
111.4
99.5

108.7
106.2
119.9
106.8
100.3

112.9
105.9
125.6
114.0
108.5

115.7
106.1
124.3
112.6
109.4

121.4
122.0
128.7
119.6
119.4

128.3
125.1
133.1
111.9
124.2

135.2
122.0
134.1
114.8
127.4

139.3
130.2
138.6
123.5
122.0

135.8
137.2
136.9
124.8
121.2

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products................
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products.........
Blast furnace and basic steel products....................
Iron and steel foundries........................................
Primary nonferrous metals.................................

327
329
331
332
333

102.3
95.4
109.7
106.1
102.3

101.2
94.0
107.8
104.5
110.7

102.5
104.3
117.0
107.2
101.9

104.6
104.5
133.6
112.1
107.9

101.5
106.3
142.4
113.0
105.3

104.5
107.8
142.6
112.7
111.0

107.3
110.4
147.5
116.2
110.8

107.6
114.7
155.0
120.8
112.0

112.8
114.9
151.0
121.1
118.9

111.1
113.3
155.6
128.9
117.7

105.1
116.1
160.1
132.1
111.9

Nonferrous rolling and drawing........................
Nonferrous foundries (castings).............................
Miscellaneous primary metal products...............
Metal cans and shipping containers........................
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware............................

335
336
339
341
342

92.7
104.0
113.7
117.6
97.3

91.0
103.6
109.1
122.9
96.8

96.0
103.6
114.5
127.8
100.1

98.3
108.5
111.3
132.3
104.0

101.2
112.1
134.5
140.9
109.2

99.2
117.8
152.2
144.2
111.3

104.0
122.3
149.6
155.2
118.2

111.3
127.0
136.2
160.3
114.6

115.7
131.5
140.0
163.8
115.7

121.4
129.8
149.0
157.9
121.9

118.0
129.7
154.3
159.5
125.4

Plumbing and heating, except electric....................
Fabricated structural metal products....................
Metal forgings and stampings....................................
Metal services, n.e.c....................................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c.............................

343
344
346
347
348

102.6
98.8
95.6
104.7
82.1

102.0
100.0
92.9
99.4
81.5

98.4
103.9
103.7
111.6
88.6

102.0
104.8
108.7
120.6
84.6

109.1
107.7
108.5
123.0
83.6

109.2
105.8
109.3
127.7
87.6

118.6
106.5
113.6
128.4
87.5

127.3
111.9
120.2
124.4
93.7

130.5
112.7
125.9
127.3
96.6

125.7
112.8
128.3
126.1
91.0

132.2
112.8
129.8
135.7
92.8

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products................
Engines and turbines..................................................
Farm and garden machinery...................................
Construction and related machinery........................
Metalworking machinery.....................................

349
351
352
353
354

97.5
106.5
116.5
107.0
101.1

97.4
105.8
112.9
99.1
96.4

101.1
103.3
113.9
102.0
104.3

102.0
109.2
118.6
108.2
107.4

103.2
122.3
125.0
117.7
109.9

106.6
122.7
134.7
122.1
114.8

108.3
136.6
137.2
123.3
114.9

107.7
136.9
141.2
132.5
119.2

111.6
146.1
148.5
137.6
119.8

109.3
151.5
128.6
133.6
123.0

109.2
164.5
139.6
139.8
129.8

Special industry machinery.......................................
General industrial machinery.....................................
Computer and office equipment.............................
Refrigeration and service machinery....................
Industrial machinery, n.e.c................................

355
356
357
358
359

107.5
101.5
138.1
103.6
107.3

108.3
101.6
149.6
100.7
109.0

106.0
101.6
195.7
104.9
117.0

113.6
104.8
258.6
108.6
118.5

121.2
106.7
328.6
110.7
127.4

132.3
109.0
469.4
112.7
138.8

134.0
109.4
681.3
114.7
141.4

131.7
110.0
960.2
115.0
129.3

124.5
111.2
1356.6
121.4
127.5

138.6
113.1
1862.5
124.0
135.8

172.2
118.7
2172.0
122.3
141.8

Electric distribution equipment..................................
Electrical industrial apparatus.........................
Household appliances...............................
Electric lighting and wiring equipment................
Communications equipment....................................

361
362
363
364
366

106.3
107.7
105.8
99.9
123.8

106.5
107.1
106.5
97.5
129.1

119.6
117.1
115.0
105.7
154.9

122.2
132.9
123.4
107.8
163.1

131.8
134.9
131.4
113.4
186.4

143.0
150.8
127.3
113.7
200.7

143.9
154.3
127.4
116.9
229.5

142.8
164.2
142.9
121.8
275.4

147.5
162.3
150.2
129.2
284.5

148.9
158.3
149.5
132.4
371.9

155.4
157.0
162.4
134.8
448.8

Electronic components and accessories.................
Miscellaneous electrical equipment & supplies...
Motor vehicles and equipment...................................
Aircraft and parts................................................
Ship and boat building and repairing.......................

367
369
371
372
373

133.4
90.6
102.4
98.9
103.7

154.7
98.6
96.6
108.2
96.3

189.3
101.3
104.2
112.3
102.7

217.9
108.2
106.2
115.2
105.9

274.0
110.5
108.8
109.5
103.8

401.5
114.1
106.7
107.8
98.1

515.0
123.1
107.2
113.1
99.3

613.4
128.3
116.3
114.7
105.5

768.6
135.3
125.2
140.1
102.5

1062.6
147.2
136.7
138.1
113.1

1440.1
156.0
127.1
132.2
121.6

Railroad equipment....................................................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.............................
Guided missiles, space vehicles, parts....................
Search and navigation equipment.......................
Measuring and controlling devices...................

374
375
376
381
382

141.1
93.8
116.5
112.7
106.4

146.9
99.8
110.5
118.9
113.1

147.9
108.4
110.5
122.1
119.9

151.0
130.9
119.4
129.1
124.0

152.5
125.1
114.9
132.1
133.8

150.0
120.3
116.9
149.5
146.4

148.3
125.5
125.1
142.2
150.5

184.2
120.4
133.6
149.5
142.4

189.1
127.7
138.9
149.1
143.5

212.8
122.4
156.1
149.6
152.4

218.4
119.4
113.3
163.7
158.5

Medical instruments and supplies....................
Ophthalmic goods........................................

384
385
386
391
393

116.9
121.2
107.8
99.3
97.1

118.7
125.1
110.2
95.8
96.9

123.5
144.5
116.4
96.7
96.0

127.3
157.8
126.9
96.7
95.6

126.7
160.6
132.7
99.5
88.7

131.5
167.2
129.5
100.2
86.9

139.8
188.2
128.7
102.6
78.8

147.4
196.3
121.5
114.2
82.9

158.6
199.0
128.0
113.1
81.4

160.4
235.2
160.6
134.3
97.1

167.0
250.2
169.4
144.9
105.3

Miscellaneous chemical products.................
Petroleum refining............................................

Photographic equipment & supplies.........................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware........................
Musical instruments............................................
See footnotes at end of table.

94

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

O ctober 2002

1991

1992

1 993

1 994

1 995

1996

1997

1 99 8

1999

2000

4 6 . C o n t in u e d - A n n u a l in d e x e s o f o u t p u t p e r h o u r f o r s e le c t e d 3 - d ig it S IC in d u s t r ie s

[1 9 8 7 = 1 0 0 ]
1 990

1991

1 992

1 993

1 994

1 99 5

1 996

1 99 7

1998

1 999

2000

In d u s try

S IC

Toys and sporting goods............................................
Pens, pencils, office, and art supplies.....................
Costume jewelry and notions....................................
Miscellaneous manufactures.....................................
T r a n s p o r ta tio n

394
395
396
399

108.1
118.2
105.3
106.5

109.7
116.8
106.7
109.2

104.9
111.3
110.8
109.5

114.2
111.6
115.8
107.7

109.7
129.9
129.0
106.1

113.6
135.2
143.7
108.1

119.9
144.1
142.2
112.8

125.7
127.5
118.0
109.4

131.6
132.5
131.2
108.5

126.6
123.4
130.8
114.9

140.4
124.9
145.3
115.9

Railroad transportation...............................................

4011

118.5

127.8

139.6

145.4

150.3

156.2

167.0

169.8

173.3

182.5

195.8

130.9
104.7
111.1

132.4

131.6
110.9
109.1

131.2

108.3
111.6

129.9
109.8
108.4

111.1
104.0
92.9

116.9
103.7
92.5

123.4
104.5
96.9

126.6
107.1
100.2

129.5
106.6
105.7

125.4
106.5
108.6

113.3
104.9
92.6
110.1
105.8

119.8
106.1
87.6
113.4
109.6

127.7
108.3
88.5
115.2
111.1

135.5
106.7
85.3
24.1
121.8

142.2
110.1
83.4
50.5
125.6

148.1
109.6
84.5
80.8
137.1

159.5
105.8
81.9
116.8
145.9

160.9
101.7
84.7
150.0
158.6

170.1
104.5
86.1
159.6
144.4

186.3
108.4
85.0
162.0
147.2

201.3
109.9
87.6
169.6
160.6

Department stores.......................................................

521
523
525
526
531

104.3
106.8
115.3
84.7
96.8

102.3
100.4
108.7
89.3
102.0

106.4
107.6
115.2
101.2
105.4

111.4
114.2
113.9
107.1
110.4

118.9
127.8
121.2
117.0
113.5

117.8
130.9
115.6
117.4
116.1

121.6
133.5
119.5
136.4
123.8

121.8
134.8
119.0
127.5
129.1

134.2
163.5
137.9
133.7
135.8

143.0
165.1
147.6
150.4
146.0

144.2
170.1
145.7
154.5
160.4

Variety stores................................................................
Miscellaneous general merchandise stores............
Grocery stores.............................................................
Meat and fish (seafood) markets...............................
Retail bakeries.............................................................

533
539
541
542
546

154.6
118.6
96.6
98.9
91.2

159.0
124.8
96.3
90.8
96.7

173.9
140.4
96.5
99.2
96.5

191.9
164.3
96.0
97.7
86.5

197.9
164.8
95.4
95.7
85.3

212.4
167.4
93.9
94.4
83.0

240.4
167.7
92.1
86.4
75.9

260.1
170.4
91.7
90.8
67.6

271.2
185.9
92.2
95.7
68.1

315.0
199.6
95.3
97.4
83.1

330.9
224.3
96.1
110.0
88.4

New and used car dealers.........................................
Auto and home supply stores....................................
Gasoline service stations...........................................
Men's and boy's wear stores.....................................
W omen's clothing stores............................................

551
553
554
561
562

106.7
103.7
103.0
115.6
106.6

104.9
100.2
104.8
121.9
111.2

107.4
101.6
110.2
122.3
123.6

108.6
100.8
115.9
119.5
130.0

109.7
105.3
121.1
121.7
130.4

108.1
109.1
127.2
121.4
139.9

109.1
108.2
126.1
129.8
154.2

108.8
108.1
126.1
136.3
157.3

108.7
113.1
133.9
145.2
176.0

111.6
115.5
141.7
154.5
190.2

112.5
119.3
139.0
165.0
205.7

Family clothing stores.................................................
Shoe stores...................................................................
Furniture and homefurnishings stores.....................
Household appliance stores.....................................
Radio, television, computer, and music stores.......

565
566
571
572
573

107.8
107.9
104.6
104.6
120.8

111.5
107.8
105.4
107.2
129.3

118.6
115.5
113.9
116.1
139.3

121.5
117.3
113.3
118.7
153.8

127.7
130.7
114.7
122.4
178.2

141.8
139.2
117.4
139.6
198.1

146.9
151.9
123.6
142.2
206.6

150.2
148.4
124.2
155.2
216.8

153.1
145.0
127.3
184.2
258.3

155.9
152.9
134.5
186.4
309.1

160.4
160.2
141.1
209.3
359.4

Eating and drinking places.........................................
Drug and proprietary stores.......................................

581
591
592
593
594

104.5
106.3
105.9
103.0
107.4

103.8
108.0
106.9
102.3
109.3

103.4
107.6
109.6
115.7
107.9

103.8
109.6
101.8
116.7
111.7

102.1
109.9
100.1
119.5
117.3

102.0
111.1
104.7
120.6
123.2

100.6
113.9
113.8
132.6
125.3

101.6
119.8
109.9
140.3
129.4

102.0
125.7
116.5
163.6
138.7

104.0
129.8
114.5
183.2
143.7

107.3
136.9
127.7
216.7
150.6

596
598
599

111.1
84.6
114.5

112.5
85.3
104.0

126.5
84.3
112.5

132.2
91.9
118.1

149.0
99.0
125.8

152.5
111.4
127.0

173.5
112.5
140.2

186.8
109.1
147.8

208.3
105.8
157.4

220.6
115.2
162.5

263.2
117.3
168.1

602
701
721
722
723

107.7
96.2
102.3
98.2
97.5

110.1
99.3
99.9
92.1
95.8

111.0
108.0
99.3
95.8
100.9

118.5
106.5
99.9
101.8
97.0

121.7
109.9
105.0
108.3
101.1

126.4
110.5
106.6
116.2
104.8

129.7
110.0
109.8
110.7
107.6

133.0
108.2
109.0
114.1
108.5

132.6
108.2
116.0
121.6
110.5

135.9
109.9
120.8
107.7
113.4

143.2
114.1
123.6
112.0
114.5

724
726
753
783

100.7
91.2
107.9
118.1

94.9
89.9
100.1
118.2

113.2
103.8
105.1
114.8

121.9
98.7
105.7
113.8

118.8
104.3
114.3
110.4

115.7
100.2
121.6
105.0

128.8
97.6
116.1
104.1

150.4
101.9
117.2
103.4

157.4
104.2
124.9
106.1

132.8
100.2
126.4
108.7

129.9
93.9
128.5
112.3

Trucking, except local ’ ...............................................
unitea states postal se rvice - ....................................

4213
431
Air transportation......................................................... 4512,13,22(pts.)
u tilitie s
481
Telephone communications.......................................
483
Radio and television broadcasting............................
484
Cable and other pay TV services.............................
491,3(pts.)
Electric utilities.............................................................
492,3(pts.)
Gas utilities...................................................................
T ra d e
Lumber and other building materials dealers.........
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores............................
Hardware stores...........................................................
Retail nurseries, lawn and garden supply stores...

Used merchandise stores.........................................
Miscellaneous shopping goods stores....................
Nonstore retailers........................................................
Fuel dealers.................................................................
Retail stores, n.e.c.....................................................
F in a n c e a n d s e rv ic e s

Laundry, cleaning, and garment services...............
Photographic studios, portrait...................................

Barber shops...............................................................
Funeral services and crematories...........................
Automotive repair shops............................................
Motion picture theaters.............................................

Heters to output per employee.
- Heters to output per tun-time equivalent employee year on tiscai Dasis.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

113.6
110.7

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

95

Current Labor Statistics:

47.

International Comparison

U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te s , a p p r o x im a t in g

U .S . c o n c e p t s , i n n i n e c o u n t r i e s , q u a r t e r l y d a t a

s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d

A n n u a l a v e ra g e
C o u n try

2000

2000

2001

1

II

2001
III

IV

I

II

III

IV

United States........

4.0

4.8

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.0

4.2

4.5

4.8

5.6

Canada..................
Australia................

6.1

6.1
6.5
4.8
9.9

6.1
6.4
4.7
9.5

6.1
6.1
4.7
9.3

6.1
6.2
4.8
9.0

6.2
6.5
4.8
8.6

6.3

6.4

6.3
4.8
9.4

6.4
6.7
5.1
8.7

6.9
4.9
8.5

6.8
5.2
8.7

6.8
6.8
5.5
8.9

Germ any1.............

8.1

8.0

8.3

8.1

8.0

7.8

7.9

8.0

8.0

8.1

Italy1,2....................

10.7

9.6

11.2

10.9

10.5

10.1

10.0

9.7

9.5

9.3

Sweden1................
United Kingdom1

5.8
5.5

5.0

6.6
5.8

6.0
5.5

5.6
5.4

5.2
5.3

5.1
5.1

5.0
5.0

5.0
5.1

5.1

Japan1...................
France1..................

-

' Preliminary for 2001 for Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom.
NOTE: Quarterly figures for France and Germany are calculated
by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data,
and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of
unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures.

96

Monthly Labor Review

See "Notes on the data" tor information on breaks in series. For
further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian

2 Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

O ctober 2002

Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2001 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Mar. 25, 2002), on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm
Monthly and quarterly unemployment rates, updated monthly, are
also on this site. Dash indicates data not available.

48.

A n n u a l d a ta :

E m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s o f t h e w o r k i n g - a g e p o p u l a t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t i n g U .S . c o n c e p t s , 1 0 c o u n t r i e s

[N u m be rs in thousands]
E m p lo ym e n t statu s and c o u n try

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

128,105
14,177
8,557

129,200
14,308
8,613

131,056
14,400
8,771

132,304
14,517
8,995

133,943
14,669
9,115

136,297
14,958
9,204

137,673
15,237
9,339

139,368
15,536
9,466

140,863
15,789
9,678

141,815
16,027
9,817

65,040

65,470

65,780

65,990

66,450

67,200

67,240

67,090

66,990

66,870

24,570
39,010

24,640
39,100

24,780
39,070

24,830
38,980

25,090
39,140

25,210
39,420

25,520
39,750

25,830
39,800

25,980
39,750

-

22,910

22,570

22,450

22,460

22,570

22,680

22,960

23,130

23,340

23,540

6,950
4,520
28,410

7,100
4,443
28,430

7,190
4,418
28,440

7,260
4,460
28,560

7,370
4,459
28,720

7,530
4,418
28,910

7,690
4,402
29,040

7,900
4,430
29,300

8,050
4,489
29,450

4,537

66.4
65.9
63.9
63.4
55.9
58.2

66.3
65.5
63.5
63.3
55.8
57.7

66.6
65.2
63.9
63.1
55.8
57.4

66.6
64.9
64.6
62.9
55.6
57.1

66.8
64.7
64.6
63.0
55.8
57.1

67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8
56.1
57.7

67.1
65.8
64.2
62.4
56.4
57.6

67.2
65.9
64.7
62.0
56.4
57.5

66.9
66.0
64.7
61.6

47.5

47.9

47.3

47.1

47.1

67.1
65.0
64.3
63.2
55.7
57.3
47.2

47.6

47.8

48.1

_

57.8
65.7
63.1

58.6
64.5
62.8

59.0
63.7
62.7

59.2
64.1
62.7

59.8
64.0
62.8

60.8
63.3
62.9

61.7
62.8
62.9

62.8
62.8
63.2

63.5
63.8
63.3

C iv ilia n la b o r fo rc e

_

_

-

P a rtic ip a tio n r a te 1

_

_

64.2
-

E m p lo y e d

118,492
12,672
7,660
63,620

120,259
12,770
7,699
63,810

123,060
13,027
7,942
63,860

124,900
13,271
8,256
63,890

126,708
13,380
8,364
64,200

129,558
13,705
8,444
64,900

131,463
14,068
8,618
64,450

133,488
14,456
8,808
63,920

135,208
14,827
9,068
63,790

22,020
36,390

21,740
35,990

21,910
35,780

21,960
35,640

22,090
35,510

22,510
36,060

20,270

19,820

19,920

19,990

20,210

22,940
36,360
20,460

23,530
36,540

21,230

21,720
35,760
19,940

6,560
4,265
25,530

6,630
4,028
25,450

6,670
3,992
25,720

6,760
4,056
26,070

6,900
4,019
26,380

7,130
3,973
26,880

7,380
4,034
27,210

7,640
4,117
27,530

20,840
7,810
4,229
27,830

135,073
14,997
9,157
63,470

_

_

21,280
4,309

E m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio 2

41.6

64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2
49.5
52.3
41.9

57.5
56.9
58.5

59.2
57.6
58.9

62.9
59.4
59.2
60.9
49.0
52.4

63.2
59.1
59.3
60.9
48.8
52.0

63.8
59.7
59.0
61.0
48.8
51.6

42.0

41.5

41.6

54.7
57.6
56.7

55.1
58.3
57.2

56.0
57.7
57.6

63.8
61.9
60.3
58.4

42.3

64.5
62.1
60.6
59.0
51.1
52.8
42.9

60.8
58.4
59.4

61.6
60.1
59.4

_

64.3
61.3
59.8
59.4
50.1
52.6

61.5
58.9
57.2
62.0
50.1
54.2

61.7
58.5
56.8
61.7
49.2
53.2

62.5
59.0
57.8
61.3
48.9
52.6

44.0

43.0

54.5
62.0
56.7

54.7
58.5
56.2

9,613
1,505
897
1,420

8,940
1,539
914
1,660

7,996
1,373
829
1,920

7,404
1,246
739
2,100

7,236
1,289
751
2,250

6,739
1,252
760
2,300

6,210
1,169
721
2,790

5,880
1,080
658
3,170

5,655
962
611
3,200

6,742
1,031
661
3,400

2,550
2,620
1,680

2,900
3,110

3,060
3,320

2,920
3,200

3,130
3,510

3,020
3,690

2,890
3,440

2,510

2,640

2,650

2,750

2,670

2,450
3,210
2,500

_

2,300

3,120
3,910
2,690

390
255
2,880

470
415
2,980

520
426
2,720

500
404
2,490

470
440
2,340

400
445
2,030

310
368
1,830

270
313
1,770

240
260
1,620

_
_
_

61.0
_

U n e m p lo y e d

_

2,270

_

228
_

U n e m p lo y m e n t ra te

United Kingdom...............................................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3.0
5.8
5.5

5.0

5.3
10.1
7.0

4.0
8.4
6.3

5.4
8.8
8.2
3.4
12.5
9.0

4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4
12.4
9.9

7.3

11.8

11.7

5.6
5.6
10.1

6.6
9.3
10.5

7.2
9.6
9.6

6.9
9.1
8.7

6.4
9.9
8.1

NOTE: See notes on the data for information on breaks in series.

3.4
7.1
6.0

11.9

5.6
8.6
8.2
3.2
11.8
8.2

2 Employment as a percent of the working-age population.

4.8
6.4
6.7
5.1
8.7
8.0
9.6

4.2
7.0
7.0
4.7
11.2
8.6

6.1
9.5
9.4
2.9
12.3
8.5
11.2

1 Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

11.5

4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8
9.4
8.1
10.7

4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1
11.8
9.3
12.0

6.9
10.8
10.6
2.5
11.8
8.0
10.2

7.5
10.6
10.5
2.2
10.4
6.7

_
-

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force
Statistics , Ten Countries, 1959-2001 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Mar. 25,2002),
on the Internet at h ttp ://w w w .b ls .g o v /fls /h o m e .h tm
Dash indicates data are not available.

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

97

Current Labor Statistics:

49.

International Comparison

A n n u a l in d e x e s o f m a n u fa c tu rin g p ro d u c tiv ity a n d re la te d m e a s u re s , 12 c o u n trie s

[1992 = 100]
Item and country

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Output per hour
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan...................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany..............................................................
Italy........................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Sweden................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

-

37.8
13.8
18.0
29.9
22.0
29.2
23.6
18.5
37.4
27.3
30.0

54.9
37.5
32.9
52.7
43.1
52.0
44.3
37.9
58.8
52.2
43.2

70.5
72.9
63.2
65.4
90.4
66.8
77.2
74.2
68.8
77.5
73.1
54.3

96.9
93.4
94.4
96.8
99.1
93.8
99.0
95.8
98.5
97.6
94.6
89.2

97.9
95.3
99.0
99 1
99.4
97.0
98.3
95.9
99.6
98.2
95.5
93.8

102.1
105.8
101.7
102 5
100.8
100.6
101.8
101.4
101.6
99 6
107.3
103.9

107.3
110.8
103.3
108 4

113.8
112.4
111.0
113 2

117.0
109.7
116.1
117 0

121.3
113.5
121.0
127 0

126.5
113.1
121.2
129 2

135.3
116.0
126.9

142.9
118.4
134.1

145.6
116.1
128.1

108.2
109.5
104.9
113.2
99 6
119.4
107.1

113.9
112.2
108.0
118.2
100 7
121.9
104.9

114.6
113.9
108.1
120.2
102 5
124.5
103.8

121.9
119.4
109.9
122.3
102 0
132.3
105.2

127.7
120.3
110.0
125.0
99 9
139.5
107.0

132.7
120.4
109.9
128.5
103 fi
149.7
111.6

142.5
127.9
113.0
133.8

146.3
128.2
115.0

158.0
118.0

160.4
119.8

-

Output
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

33.4
10.7
30.7
40.8
31.0
41.5
23.0
31.5
57.4
45.9
67.3

58.9
39.2
57.6
68.0
64.1
70.9
48.1
59.1
90.6
80.7
90.2

75.8
83.6
60.4
78.2
91.4
88.7
85.3
84.4
76.8
104.4
90.7
87.2

101.6
106.0
97.1
101.0
102.8
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.9
100.9
110.1
105.4

98.3
99.0
102.0
100.7
101.5
99.8
102.3
99.3
100.4
99.0
104.1
100.0

103.5
105.9
96.3
97.0
95.6
95.7
92.4
96.5
98.4
101.7
101.9
101.4

111.1
114.1
94.9
101.4
105.6
100.3
95.1
102.4
104.6
104.6
117.1
106.1

118.4
119.6
98.9
104.2
111.6
104.9
95.2
107.2
108.1
107.3
128.4
107.8

121.3
119.6
103.0
106.6
106.7
104.6
92.5
105.4
108.7
110.3
131.1
108.5

127.9
127.7
106.5
113.8
115.2
109.7
95.7
108.8
111.5
114.2
138.0
109.9

133.1
132.8
100.2
116.4
115.7
115.0
97.2
110.7
114.8
113.7
147.6
110.8

141.2
141.0
101.9
118.0
115.1
118.7
95.8
110.5
118.1
113.6
157.8
111.1

147.0
148.8
107.6
122.2
122.9
124.1
101.7
113.9
123.7
110.2
168.7
113.3

141.3
143.9
99.1
121.7
126.7
126.3
101.8
114.6

92.1
88.3
77.8
170.7
136.5
140.8
142.3
97.6
170.5
153.6
168.3
224.6

104.4
107.1
104.4
174.7
129.0
148.5
136.3
108.5
156.1
153.9
154.7
208.8

107.5
114.6
95.6
119.7
101.1
132.9
110.5
113.8
111.7
134.7
124.0
160.5

104.8
113.5
102.9
104.3
103.7
105.6
100.1
103.7
101.4
103.4
116.4
118.1

100.4
103.9
103.1
101.5
102.1
102.9
104.1
103.6
100.9
100.8
109.0
106.6

101.4
100.1
94.7
94.7
94.8
95.1
90.8
95.2
96.8
102.1
94.9
97.6

103.6
103.0
91.9
93.6

103.6
109.0
88.7
91.1
91.3
81.2
97.5
90.4
107.6
105.3
104.5

105.4
112.4
88.0
89.6
90.0
80.1
99.0
91.1
112.0
104.3
104.5

105.2
117.5
82.7
90.1

104.4
121.5
80.3
91.1

102.8
125.6
80.2
91.7

92.7
86.8
97.6
92.4
105.0
98.1
99.1

104.0
106.4
89.1
92.0
92.1
84.9
99.3
91.5
106.6
105.3
102.7

90.0
80.7
100.6
91.8
113.7
105.8
103.6

89.4
79.6
100.5
92.0
109.6
105.4
99.6

87.1
79.5
100.7
92.5
105.4
106.8
96.0

97.1
123.9
77.4
90.7
86.3
78.8
99.7
103.4
104.3
92.4

14.9
10.0
4.3
5.4
4.6
4.3
8.1
1.8
6.4
4.7
4.1
3.0

23.7
17.1
16.4
13.7
13.3
10.4
20.7
5.3
20.2
11.8
10.7
6.1

55.6
47.6
58.5
52.5
49.6
40.9
53.6
30.4
64.4
39.0
37.3
32.1

90.8
88.3
90.5
90.1
92.7
90.9
89.4
87.6
90.9
92.3
87.8
82.9

95.6
95.0
96.4
97.3
95.9
96.4
91.5
94.2
95.3
97.5
95.5
93.8

102.7
102.0
102.8
104.8
104.6
102.6
106.4
105.7
103.8
101.5
97.4
104.6

105.6
103.7
104.9
106.1
106.0
111.7
106.8
108.2
104.4
100.0
106.7

107.9
106.0
108.3
109.2
110.0
117.5
111.3
110.7
109.2
106.5
107.9

109.4
107.0
109.2
110.9
112.1
122.3
119.0
113.0
113.6
114.4
109.5

111.5
109.3
112.9
114.9
112.0
124.7
123.0
115.8
118.7
119.4
113.9

117.4
110.5
115.8
116.6
112.6
126.5
122.2
120.6
125.7
124.4
120.5

122.1
112.3
115.2
118.3
116.3
129.3
124.6
124.0
133.0
129.3
129.6

131.1
113.9
114.5
121.1
120.8
133.5
127.8
131.0
140.0
131.8
135.2

133.1
117.8
115.0
125.9
126.6
137.7
132.6
147.6
137.2
140.4

26.4
31.3
30.1
15.4
19.4
27.8
7.5
34.6
12.7
15.0
9.8

31.1
43.8
41.7
25.2
24.0
39.8
11.9
53.3
20.1
20.6
14.1

78.8
65.2
92.5
80.3
54.9
61.3
69.4
41.0
93.7
50.3
51.0
59.0

93.7
94.6
95.9
93.0
93.5
96.9
90.3
91.5
92.3
94.6
92.9
92.9

97.6
99.6
97.4
98.1
96.5
99.3
93.1
98.2
95.6
99.2
100.0
100.1

100.6
96.4
101.1
102.3
103.7
101.9
104.5
104.3
102.1
101.9
90.8
100.8

98.5
93.6
101.5
97.9
96.2
97.9
102.0
101.9
95.6
104.8
83.8
99.7

94.8
94.3
97.6
96.4
96.4
96.6
104.7
103.0
93.7
108.4
87.4
102.9

93.5
97.5
94.0
94.7
103.7
97.8
107.4
110.0
94.0
110.8
91.9
105.5

91.9
96.2
93.3
90.5
99.7
91.9
104.4
111.9
94.7
116.4
90.2
108.2

92.8
97.7
95.5
90.2
102.9
88.2
105.2
111.1
96.5
125.7
89.2
112.7

90.2
96.8
90.8
91.4
105.4
87.7
107.4
113.4
96.6
128.4
86.3
116.2

91.7
96.1
85.4
90.8
101.8
84.8
104.4
113.1
97.9
134.0
83.4
114.5

91.4
101.5
89.8
93.9
101.7
86.5
106.6
115.4
-

32.9
11.0
19.4
13.4
21.0
10.4
15.0
16.1
11.1
16.9
15.6

36.0
15.5
27.0
20.2
23.0
17.1
23.3
25.9
17.5
23.1
19.1

78.8
67.4
51.8
88.3
58.8
76.8
59.6
59.0
82.9
63.3
70.2
77.7

93.7
98.0
83.8
89.5
91.2
94.1
87.3
94.1
89.1
94.0
91.3
93.9

97.6
105.1
91.7
92.3
91.0
93.1
87.5
97.5
89.9
95.0
96.3
100.1

100.6
90.3
115.4
95.1
96.5
95.2
98.7
81.6
96.6
89.2
67.8
85.6

98.5
82.8
125.9
94.2
91.4
93.4
98.2
77.9
92.4
92.3
63.2
86.4

94.8
83.0
131.7
105.2
104.0
103.5
114.2
77.9
102.7
106.4
71.3
91.9

93.5
86.4
109.6
98.4
108.0
101.2
111.5
87.9
98.1
106.6
79.8
93.2

91.9
84.0
97.7
81.2
91.0
83.3
94.0
80.9
85.3
102.1
68.8
100.4

92.8
79.6
92.4
79.9
92.7
79.1
93.3
78.8
85.5
103.5
65.3
105.7

90.2
78.8
101.2
77.6
91.0
75.4
91.4
76.9
82.1
102.2
60.8
106.4

91.7
78.2
100.4
66.8
75.9
63.2
76.9
66.4
72.1
94.5
53.0
98.3

-

-

-

108.9
167.4
110.7

Total hours
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom...................... ..............................

-

-

-

-

Compensation per hour
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................
Unit labor costs: National currency basis
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France..................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway.................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

140.1
85.5
117.2

Unit labor costs: U.S. dollar basis
United States........................................................
Canada.................................................................
Japan....................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
Denmark...............................................................
France...................................................................
Germany...............................................................
Italy.......................................................................
Netherlands..........................................................
Norway..................................................................
Sweden.................................................................
United Kingdom....................................................

NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1991 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1991 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available.

98

Monthly Labor Review


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 2002

91.4
79.2
93.6
67.0
73.7
62.5
76.2
65.7
-

96.8
48.2
95.5

50.

O c c u p a t i o n a l i n j u r y a n d i ll n e s s r a t e s b y i n d u s t r y , 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s

In d u stry and typ e of case2

1989 1

1991

1990

1992

1 9 9 8 4 I 1999 4 2000 4

19934

19944

19954

19964

19974

8.4
3.8

8.1
3.6

7.4
3.4

7.1
3.3

6.7
3.1

6.3
3.0

6.1
3.0

“

“

“

“

“

“

8.7
3.9

8.4
4.1

7.3
3.4

7.1
3.6

“

7.9
3.9
“

4.4
2.7

4.7
3.0

8.6
4.2

8.3
4.1

PRIVATE SECTOR5
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing5
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4
108.3

11.6
5.4
126.9

11.2
5.0

10.0
4.7

9.7
4.3

-

-

-

Mining
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8
3.9

6.3
3.9

6.2
3.9

5.4
3.2

5.9
3.7

4.9
2.9

-

-

-

-

-

“

Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1
148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

12.2
5.5

11.8
5.5

10.6
4.9

9.9
4.5

9.5
4.4

8.8
4.0

-

-

-

-

~

“

~

General building contractors:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5
132.0

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1

10.9
5.1

9.8
4.4

9.0
4.0

8.5
3.7

8.4
3.9

8.0
3.7

7.8
3.9

Heavy construction, except buildlnq:
Total c ases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

12.8
6.0
160.1

12.1
5.4
165.8

11.1
5.1

9.9
4.8

9.0
4.3

8.7
4.3

8.2
4.1

/.6
3.8

7.6
3.7

-

10.2
5.0
-

-

-

“

”

Special trades contractors:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8

12.5
5.8

10.4
4.8

10.0
4.7

9.1
4.1

8.9
4.4

-

-

11.1
5.0
-

“

“

-

“

8.6
4.3
“

M anufacturing
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

13.1
5.8
113.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6
121.5

12.5
5.4
124.6

12.1
5.3

12.2
5.5

11.6
5.3

10.6
4.9

10.3
4.8

9.7
4.7

9.2
4.6

9.0
4.5

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126.7

13.1
5.4

13.5
5.7

12.8
5.6

11.6
5.1

11.3
5.1

10.7
5.0

10.1
4.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6

15.7
7.7

14.9
7.0

14.2
6.8

13.2
6.8

13.0
6.7

-

13.5
6.5
-

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

16.1
7.2

16.9
7.8

15.9
7.2

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5

15.0
7.0

13.9
6.4

12.2
5.4

12.0
5.8

11.4
5.7

11.5
5.9

11.2
5.9

Stone, clay, and qlass products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8
156.0

13.6
6.1
152.2

13.8
6.3

13.2
6.5

12.3
5.7

12.4
6.0

11.8
5.7

11.8
6.0

10.7
5.4

10.4
5.5

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

17.0
7.3

16.8
7.2
-

16.5
7.2

15.0
6.8
-

15.0
7.2
—

14.0
7.0
-

12.9
6.3
-

12.6
6.3
—

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7

16.4
6.7

15.8
6.9

14.4
6.2

14.2
6.4

13.9
6.5

12.6
6.0

11.9
5.5

Lost workdays..............................................................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

”

“

“

“

“

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2

11.6
4.4

11.2
4.4

9.9
4.0

10.0
4.1

9.5
4.0

8.5
3.7

-

-

~

-

“

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5

8.3
3.6

7.6
3.3

6.8
3.1

6.6
3.1

5.9
2.8

5.7
2.8

5.7
2.9

“

“

-

16.3
7.0

15.4
6.6
-

14.6
6.6

13.7
6.4
-

13.7
6.3
-

5.1

4.8
2.;

4.0
1.9

4.0
1.8

4.5
2.2

“

“

8.1
3.9

8.^
4.0

7.2
3.6

-

“

Construction

'

Durable goods:
Total c ases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................
Lumber and wood products:

Primary metal industries:
Total cases.................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Fabricated metal products:
T otal cases.................................................................................

-

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................
Transportation equipment:
Total cases.................................................................................

Instruments and related products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

~

“

-

-

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1

19.6
7.8

18.6
7.9
_

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5

5.9
2.7

5.3
2.4
-

-

-

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.;
5.1
113.1

11.;
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.C
4.6

9.£
4.5

9.1
4.3

9.5
4.4

8.£
4.2

Miscellaneous manufacturinq industries:
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays.............................................................................. I

-

12.1
6.1

2 .;

8.2
3.6

_

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review

October 2002

99

Current Labor Statistics:

50.

Injury and Illness

Continued—O ccupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
in d ustry and type of case
1989 1

1990

1991

1992

1993 4

1994 4

1995 4

1996 4

1997 4

1998 4

1999 4

2000 4

9.9
4.9
-

9.2
4.6
-

8.8
4.4
-

8.2
4.3
-

7.8
4.2
-

_
_
-

Nondurable goods:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases........................................................................
Lost workdays.................................................................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0

-

10.5
5.1
-

Food and kindred products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9
-

17.1
9.2
-

16.3
8.7
-

15.0
8.0
-

14.5
8.0
-

13.6
7.5
-

12.7
7.3
-

12.4
7.3
-

Tobacco products:
Total cases.................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
-

5.3
2.4
-

5.6
2.6
-

6.7
2.8
-

5.9
2.7
-

6.4
3.4
-

5.5
2.2
-

6.2
3.1
-

Textile mill products:
Total cases..................................................................................
Lost workday cases.....................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
-

8.7
4.0
-

8.2
4.1
-

7.8
3.6
-

6.7
3.1
-

7.4
3.4
-

6.4
3.2
-

6.0
3.2
-

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
-

8.9
3.9
-

8.2
3.6
-

7.4
3.3
-

7.0
3.1
-

6.2
2.6
-

5.8
2.8
-

6.1
3.0
-

Paper and allied products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
-

9.6
4.5
-

8.5
4.2
-

7.9
3.8
-

7.3
3.7
-

7.1
3.7
-

7.0
3.7
-

6.5
3.4
-

Printing and publishing:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays..............................................................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.4
3.0
-

6.0
2.8
-

5.7
2.7
-

5.4
2.8
-

5.0
2.6
-

5.1
2.6
-

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7
-

5.7
2.8
-

5.5
2.7
-

4.8
2.4
-

4.8
2.3
-

4.2
2.1
-

4.4
2.3
-

4.2
2.2
-

Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

5.2
2.5

-

4.7
2.3
-

4.8
2.4
-

4.6
2.5
-

4.3
2.2
-

3.9
1.8
-

4.1
1.8
-

3.7
1.9
-

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
-

14.0
6.7
-

12.9
6.5
-

12.3
6.3
-

11.9
5.8

-

11.2
5.8
-

10.1
5.5
-

10.7
5.8
-

Leather and leather products:
Total cases...................................................................................
Lost workday cases......................................................................
Lost workdays...............................................................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5
-

12.0
5.3
-

11.4
4.8
-

10.7
4.5
-

10.6
4.3
-

9.8
4.5
-

10.3
5.0
-

9.0
4.3
-

Transportation and public utilities
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

9.2
5.3
121.5

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4

-

9.3
5.5
-

9.1
5.2
-

8.7
5.1
-

8.2
4.8
-

7.3
4.3
-

7.3
4.4
-

4.3
-

Wholesale and retail trade
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4
-

7.9
3.4
-

7.5
3.2
-

6.8
2.9
-

6.7
3.0
-

6.5
2.8
-

6.1
2.7
-

_
_
-

Wholesale trade:
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
-

7.7
3.8

-

7.5
3.6
-

6.6
3.4
-

6.5
3.2
-

6.5
3.3
-

6.3
3.3
-

5.8
_
_

Retail trade:
Total c ases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3
-

7.9
3.3
-

7.5
3.0
-

6.9
2.8
-

6.8
2.9
-

6.5
2.7
-

6.1
2.5
-

_
_
-

Finance, insurance, and real estate
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays...................................................................................

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2
-

2.7
1.1
-

2.6
1.0
-

2.4
.9
-

2.2
.9
-

.7
.5
-

1.8
.8
-

1.9
.8
-

Services
Total cases.....................................................................................
Lost workday cases.........................................................................
Lost workdays..................................................................................

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8

6.5
2.8

6.4
2.8

6.0
2.6

5.6
2.5

5.2
2.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.9
2.2
-

4.9
2.2
-

1 D a ta fo r 1 9 8 9 a n d s u b s e q u e n t y e a rs a re b a s e d on th e S ta n d a rd In d u s tria l C la s s ­

-

N = n u m b e r o f in ju rie s a n d illn e s s e s o r lost w o rk d a y s ;

ific a tio n M a n u a l, 1 9 8 7 E d itio n . F o r th is re a s o n , th e y a re n o t s tric tly c o m p a ra b le w ith d a ta

EH = to ta l h o u rs w o rk e d b y a ll e m p lo y e e s d u rin g th e c a le n d a r y e a r; and

fo r th e y e a rs 1 9 8 5 - 8 8 , w h ic h w e re b a s e d o n th e S ta n d a rd In d u s tria l C la s s ific a tio n

2 0 0 ,0 0 0 = b a s e fo r 1 0 0 fu ll-tim e e q u iv a le n t w o rk e rs (w o rk in g 4 0 h o u rs p e r w e e k , 50

M a n u a l, 1 9 7 2 E d itio n , 1 9 7 7 S u p p le m e n t.

w e e k s p e r y e a r).

2 B e g in n in g w ith th e 1 9 9 2 s u rv e y , th e a n n u a l s u rv e y m e a s u re s o n ly n o n fa ta l in ju rie s a n d

4 B e g in n in g w ith th e 1993 su rv e y , lo st w o rk d a y e s tim a te s w ill not be g e n e ra te d . A s of

illn e s s e s , w h ile p a s t s u rv e y s c o v e re d b o th fa ta l a n d n o n fa ta l in c id e n ts . T o b e tte r a d d re s s

1992, B LS b e g a n g e n e ra tin g p e rc e n t d is trib u tio n s a n d th e m e d ia n n u m b e r o f d a y s a w a y

fa ta litie s , a b a s ic e le m e n t o f w o rk p la c e sa fe ty , B L S im p le m e n te d th e C e n s u s o f F atal

fro m w o rk b y in d u s try a n d fo r g ro u p s o f w o rk e rs s u s ta in in g s im ila r w o rk d is a b ilitie s .

O c c u p a tio n a l In ju rie s .

6 E x c lu d e s fa rm s w ith fe w e r th a n 11 e m p lo y e e s s in c e 1976.

3 T h e in c id e n c e ra te s re p re s e n t th e n u m b e r o f in ju rie s a n d illn e s s e s o r lo st w o rk d a y s pe r
100

100

fu ll-tim e

w o rk e rs

and

w e re

c a lc u la te d

Monthly Labor Review


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(N /E H )

X

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w h e re :

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51.

Fatal o c c u p a tio n a l injuries by e ve n t or exposure, 1996-2001
F a ta litie s
E vent or e xp o s u re 1

1 9 9 6 -2 0 0 0

20002

A v e ra g e

N um ber

20013
N um ber

P e rc e n t

Total...............................................................................................

6,094

5,920

5,900

100

T r a n s p o r t a t io n in c id e n t s ...................................................................................

2,608
1,408
685
117
247
151
289
372
298
378
212
263
376
105
71

2,573
1,365
696
136
243
154
279
356
304
399
213
280
370
84
71

2,517
1,404
723
142
256
137
295
339
273
324
157
247
383
90
62

43
24
12
2
4
2
5
6
5
5
3
4
6
2
1

1,015
766
617
68
80
216

930
677
533
66
78
221

902
639
505
58
76
228

15
11
9
1
1
4

1,005
567
364
57
293
157
128

1,006
571
357
61
294
157
123

962
553
343
60
266
144
122

16
9
6
1
5
2
2

714
636
106
153
90
55

734
659
110
150
85
56

808
698
122
159
91
84

14
12
2
3
2
1

Oxygen deficiency...............................................................................
Drowning, submersion.....................................................................

535
290
132
40
112
57
92
73

481
256
128
29
100
48
94
75

499
285
124
35
96
49
83
59

8
5
2
1
2
1
1
1

F ir e s a n d e x p l o s i o n s ..........................................................................................

196

177

188

3

O th e r e v e n t s o r e x p o s u r e s 4............................................................................

20

19

24

-

Highway incident..................................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment.............................
Moving in same direction..............................................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming...................................
Moving in intersection...................................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment..............................
Noncollision incident.........................................................................
Jackknifed or overturned— no collision.......................................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident.............................
Overturned.........................................................................................
Aircraft...................................................................................................
Worker struck by a vehicle..................................................................
Water vehicle incident..........................................................................
Railway..................................................................................................
A s s a u lts a n d v io le n t a c t s ..................................................................................

Shooting.............................................................................................
Stabbing.............................................................................................
Other, including bombing................................................................
Self-inflicted injuries..............................................................................
C o n t a c t w ith o b je c t s a n d e q u ip m e n t .........................................................

Struck by object....................................................................................
Struck by falling object.....................................................................
Struck by flying object......................................................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects........................
Caught in running equipment or machinery..................................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials...................................
F a lls ...........................................................................................................

Fall from ladder.................................................................................
Fall from roof.....................................................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging...............................................................
Fall on same level................................................................................
E x p o s u r e to h a r m fu l s u b s t a n c e s o r e n v ir o n m e n t s .........................

Contact with electric current...............................................................
Contact with overhead power lines................................................
Contact with temperature extremes..................................................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances................

1 Based on the 1992

BLS

Occupational Injury and Illness

2

The

BLS news

3

Total excludes 2,886 work-related fatalities resulting from

events of September 11.

Classification Structures.
release Issued Aug. 14, 2001, reported a

total of 5,915 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2000. Since

4

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."

NOTE:

Totals for major categories may include sub-categories

then, an additional five job-related fatalities were identified,

not shown separately.

bringing the total job-related fatality count for 2000 to 5,920.

because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5 percent.

Percentages may not add to totals

Monthly Labor Review

O ctober 2002

101

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Schedule of release dates for BLS statistical series
R e le a s e

P e r io d

R e le a s e

P e r io d

R e le a s e

P e r io d

d a te

c o v e re d

d a te

c o v e re d

d a te

c o v e re d

October 4

September

November 1

October

December 6

November

1; 4-24

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September

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38-42

P r o d u c e r P r ic e In d e x e s

October 11

September

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October

December 13 November

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C o n s u m e r P r ic e in d e x e s

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September

November 19

October

December 17 November

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R e a l e a r n in g s

October 18

September

November 19

October

December 17 November

14, 16

E m p lo y m e n t C o s t In d e x e s

October 31

3rd quarter

S e r ie s

E m p lo y m e n t s it u a t io n
U .S . I m p o r t a n d E x p o r t

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P r ic e In d e x e s

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M L R ta b le
num ber

1-3; 25-28
November 7

3rd quarter

December 4

3rd quarter

2; 43-46