View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C.
.
.
.
.
.
Price 20 cents a copy
Subscription price per year: United States, Canada, Mexico, $2.00; Other Countries, $3.25


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C E R T IF IC A T E
This publication is issued pursuant to the
provisions o f the sundry civil act (41 Stats.
1430) approved M arch 4, 1921

Contents
Special articles:
Cooperative credit movement in 1932______________________________
Work of State labor offices in behalf of wage claimants_____________
Progress of minimum-wage movement in Mexico___________________
Employment conditions and unemployment relief:
Purposes and policies of Public Works Administration______________
National Reemployment Service___________________________________
Work of Federal Emergency Relief Administration_________________
Grants under relief act to self-help organizations___________________
Revised regulations governing grants to self-help organizations of
unemployed_____________________________________________________
Educational work relief for jobless teachers________________________
Unemployment in New Haven, May to June 1933__________________
National Recovery Administration:
Summary of permanent codes adopted during September 1933:
Cast-iron soil-pipe industry___________________________________
Leather industry______________________________________________
Motion-picture laboratories___________________________________
Salt production_______________________________________________
Wall-paper industry__________________________________________
Artificial flower and feather industry__________________________
Bituminous-coal mining_______________________________________
Gasoline-pump manufacturing industry________________________
Linoleum and felt-base manufacturing industry________________
Oil-burner industry___________________________________________
Textile-bag industry__________________________________________
Transit industry______________________________________________
Manufacture of underwear and allied products_________________
Shipbuilding and ship repairing (modification of code)__________
Land settlement for unemployed:
Land settlement in Germany in 1932______________________________
Relief of unemployment through general land-reclamation activities in
Italy____________________________________________________________
Small landholdings for unemployed in New Zealand___ _____________
Agricultural relief:
Provision of credit for farmers under 1933 act______________________
Industrial and labor conditions:
Interstate compacts affecting labor and industries__________________
Report on work of legal-aid organizations, 1932____________________
Japan— Restriction on employment of women and children in mines.
Productivity of labor:
Comparative study of the output of men and women_______________
Great Britain— Output and earnings per shift in the mining industry.
Old-age pensions:
Recent legislation on public old-age pensions in the United States. _
Old-age dependency in Maryland counties_________________________
Great Britain— Contributory pensions during 1932-33______________
Minimum wage:
Minimum wage for women in Canada________________________ _____
Decisions against lowering of living wage in South Australia________
Health and industrial hygiene:
Great Britain— Industrial diseases and poisoning in factories, 1932. _
Workmen’s compensation:
Union officials held to be a “ workman” for compensation purposes._


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

h i

Page
771
776
791
797
800
802
806
807
810
811
812
813
815
817
818
819
820
825
826
827
828
829
831
833
834
836
840
842
844
845
848
850
851
852
856
858
860
862
864
867

IV

CONTENTS

Industrial disputes:

Strikes and lockouts in the United States in August 1933----------------Conciliation work of the Department of Labor in August 1933--------Reports of Presidential Emergency Boards for disputes on railroads:
Kansas City Southern Railway-----------------------------------------------Louisiana, Arkansas & Texas Railway Co. of Texas-----------------First month’s activities of National Labor Board----------------------------

Page

869
872
882
883
885

Labor awards and decisions:

Reduction in wage scales of typographical workers:
Detroit, Mich________________________________________________
Memphis, Tenn----------------------------------------------------------------------Decision as to wages and hours of ladies’ garment workers, Chicago. _
Labor organizations:

Trade-unionism in Japan, 1932------------------------------------------------------Labor turn-over:

Labor turn-over in the boot and shoe industry, 1931 and 1932---------

889
890
890
892
893

Housing:

Building operations in principal cities of the United States, August
1933____________________________________________________________
Building-erection costs in Detroit--------------------------------------------------Home Owners’ Loan Corporation---------------------------------------------------Good housing versus food--------------------------------------------------------------Germany— Public provision of houses for unemployed workers--------Great Britain:
New housing legislation----------------------------------------------------------Changes in rent and mortgage interest restrictions---------------------------

Wages and hours of labor:

Wages and hours of labor in the glass industry, 1932----------------------Earnings and hours of labor in principal occupations in the iron and
steel industry, 1931 and 1933----------------------------------------------------Entrance wage rates of common labor, July 1, 1933-----------------------Wage-rate changes in American industries--------------------------------------Wage changes reported bv trade unions and municipalities since June
1933------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------Wages and hours of union pulp, sulphite, and paper mill workers--------Comparative wages in chain and independent stores, 1929 and 1931_.
Illinois— Salaries of social workers in Chicago family welfare and re­
lief agencies___________________________________________________ _
Puerto Rico— Wages and hours of labor in the sugar industry, 1932..
Texas— Wages and working hours, 1931-32------------------------------------India— Wages and conditoins in Burmese factories in 1932--------------Siam— Wages in 1930-31----------------------------------------------------------------

Trend of employment:

Employment in selected manufacturing industries in August 1933—
Employment in nonmanufacturing industries in August 1933----------Average man-hours worked and average hourly earnings-----------------Employment in building construction in August 1933---------------------Trend of employment in August 1933, by States-----------------------------Employment and pay rolls in August 1933 in cities of over 500,000
population____________________________ _______________ ____________
Employment in the executive civil service of the United States,
August 1933______________________ ________ _____________________
Employment on class I steam railroads in the United States--------------Unemployment in foreign countries------------------------------------------------Retail prices:

Retail prices of food on August 15, 1933.1--------------------------------------Retail prices of coal on August 15, 1933------------------------------------- . . .
Retail prices of food in the United States and in certain foreign
countries________________________________________________________
Wholesale prices:

Index numbers of wholesale prices, 1913 to August 1933------------------

Publications relating to labor:

Official— United States____________________________________________
Official— Foreign countries-------------------------------------------------------------Unofficial__________________________________________________________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

896
910
911
912
913
914
915
917
927
932
936
940
941
943
945
946
949
949
950
952
964
969
971
973
981
981
983
984
989
993
998
1002
1008
1010

1013

This Issue in Brief

An inquiry by the Bureau of Labor Statistics covering 91 'percent of
all the cooperative credit societies in the United States showed a com­
bined membership of 301,119 at the end of 1932. Share capital aggre­
gated nearly $22,000,000, and the combined assets of the societies in
23 States amounted to more than $31,000,000. Nearly 16% million
dollars was granted to members in loans during the year, while over
half a million was returned in dividends, by societies which reported
on these points. As compared with 1929, although the number of
societies nearly doubled and the membership rose some 14 percent,
a decrease in share capital and business was shown (p. 771).
The defrauding of workers through the failure of employers to pay
wages earned continues to be widespread, according to a recent survey
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Twenty State labor offices, in­
cluding those of Puerto Rico and the Philippines, reported the han­
dling of over 69,000 wage claims in 1932. Sixteen of these offices
settled some 34,000 cases, California accounting for the largest
number of claims settled and the largest amount of money col­
lected (p. 776).
A program for raising the standard of living of the working classes
in Mexico, through the adoption of minimum-wage scales, has been
initiated by President Rodriguez. A translation of his letter to the
governors of the various Mexican States in regard to the matter
is given in an article beginning on page 791, together with data showing
actual and recommended daily wages and the method of calculating
the desirable minimum.
Actual earnings in the glass industry averaged $17.01 per week and
J/.5.4 cents per hour in the latter part of 1932, when the Bureau of Labor
Statistics made a study of wages and hours of labor in that industry.
For males the average actual earnings were $18.30 per week and 49
cents per hour, and for females, $9.45 per week and 24.9 cents per
hour. Full-time hours averaged 50.3 for males and 49.9 for females,
but both males and females worked only about three fourths of the
full-time week, the average hours worked by males being 37.3 and by
females 37.9 (p. 917).
The average weekly wage of chain-store employees, excluding super­
visors and managers, was $20.60 per week in March 1929 and, $20.4$
in January 1931, according to a study made by the Federal Trade
Commission. In 1929 the range of the average wage was from $16.13
up to $30 and over, the higher averages being relatively rare. A
comparison of average wages in chain stores and independent stores
for the eight kinds of business for which comparable figures were
obtained showed higher averages for the independent stores, the
difference varying with the kind of business (p. 943).
Twenty-six States and the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii have
established old-age pension systems for caring for their aged and needy


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

VI

THIS ISSUE

IN BRIEF

residents. During the current year Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado,
Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon,
Washington, and the Territory of Hawaii adopted old-age pension
laws. A discussion of these recently adopted laws and a chart
analyzing the laws of the entire 26 States, Alaska, and Hawaii are
included in an article beginning on page 852.
Employment is much more stable in large than in small boot and shoe
manufacturing plants, according to a tabulation of labor turn-over
rates in 113 identical establishments for the years 1931 and 1932. In
plants having less than 300 employees, the lay-off rate in 1932 was
53.37 percent, whereas in those having 300 or more employees the
lay-off rate was only 17.35 percent. The net turn-over rate in the
smaller plants was 52.14 percent, while in the larger it was 27.22
percent. Although the net turn-over rate for the boot and shoe
industry as a whole was 28.62 percent during 1932, 39 of the firms
included in the study had a turn-over rate of less than 20 percent; in
contrast, 13 had a net turn-over rate of over 100 percent (p. 893).
The burden of legal-aid organizations throughout the United States
increased greatly during 1932 as a result of the deepening intensity of the
depression. The latest report of the American Bar Association’s
standing committee on legal-aid work shows that in 1932 the number
of new cases handled reached 307,673, the highest record since the
creation of the committee in 1921 (p. 845).
A commission ■on interstate compacts affecting labor and industries
has been created by the State of Massachusetts as a step toward attaining
greater cooperation between the various States in establishing more uniform
labor laws. The commission is authorized to meet, with similar
commissions formed in other States, for the purpose of drawing up
a joint report to be submitted to the State legislatures. By such
action it is hoped the labor laws will be made more uniform and the
handicap placed upon States having more advanced laws regulating
labor will be removed (p. 844).
A study of the comparative output of men and women employed on
the same kind of factory work, carried on by two Italian experts over a
period of 24 working days, showed that men produced their lowest
output at the first hour of the work period, both morning and after­
noon, while women reversed this, showing their lowest output at the
last hour of each work period. A study of the production curves led
to the conclusion that efficiency calls for shorter working hours for
women than for men, with no overtime (p. 850).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY

LABOR REVIEW
U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
vol.

37,

no

WASHINGTON

.4

O c t o b e r 1933

Cooperative Credit Movement in 1932

ELOW are given the results of an inquiry by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics regarding the 1932 operations of the cooperative credit
societies 1 in the United States. Wherever the State law requires
these societies to report to a designated State official the data were
obtained from that official;2 in the other States the information was
furnished by the societies themselves.
Data were thus obtained from 1,472, or 91 percent, of the 1,612
societies in operation in 42 States at the end of 1932. These had a
combined membership of 301,119, share capital aggregating
$21,708,328, and a guaranty fund (to cover bad debts), amounting
to $2,110,815. The combined assets of the societies in the 23 States
for which information was secured amounted to $31,416,072.
The 1,345 societies for which returns were made as to number of
borrowers had served 161,941 persons, while those reporting business
done (i.e., loans granted) during the year had disbursed $16,375,952 in
loans. This was an average of $16,475 per society, while the average
loan was $156. Nearly $25,000,000 was outstanding at the end of
the year.
These societies make loans only to their members 3 and the latter
receive the benefit not only of low interest rates on amounts borrowed
but of dividends on stock held. The amount returned to members in
dividends in 1932 by the 990 societies for which such data were
reported was $547,001, the rate of dividend ranging from 0.02 to 14
percent.
Table 1 shows the membership and resources of the credit societies
at the end of 1932. Massachusetts still holds the leading place on all
points shown in the table, with New York its closest competitor as
regards membersliip, share capital, guaranty fund, and combined
resources. Missouri, which as far as the knowledge of this Bureau
goes, had not a single credit society in 1929, had by the end of 1932
a greater number of these societies than New York, whose credit
union movement dates back to 1913. Illinois is becoming another
important credit union State. In Rhode Island, while there is only
a small number of societies, their assets average per society far in
excess of those in either Massachusetts or New York. North Caro-

B

i
Called “ credit unions” in most States, but in Nebraska termed “ cooperative credit associations” and
in North Carolina “ savings and loan associations.”
2
This was done in the case of Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachu­
setts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, N ew Jersey, New York,
Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
3
Although the credit union law of the District of Columbia apparently permits loans to nonmembers,
this is not in accordance with recognized cooperative practice.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

771

772

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

lina has had credit unions since 1919 but the movement there has not
expanded very rapidly.
T a ble 1 -M E M B E R S H I P A N D R E S O U R C E S OP C R E D IT U N IO N S, 1932, B Y ST AT E S

Credit unions
State
Total

Alabama-..................
Arizona_____________
Arkansas___________
California___________
Colorado____________
Connecticut------------District of Columbia
F lorid a 3____________
Georgia_____________
Illinois______________
Indiana_____________
Iowa________________
Kansas_____________
Kentucky___________
Louisiana___________
M aine______________
M aryland----------------Massachusetts---------Michigan___________
Minnesota---------------Mississippi__________
Missouri____________
M ontana-----------------Nebraska___________
N ew H am pshire3___
New M exico________
N ew Jersey--------------New Y ork __________
North Carolina-------Ohio________________
Oklahoma__________
Oregon______________
Pennsylvania----------Rhode Island_______
South Carolina...........
Tennessee___________
Texas_______________
Utah________________
Virginia_____________
W ashington_________
W est Virginia 3_____
W isconsin___________
Total_________

Re­
ported
for

Mem ber­
ship

Share
capital

40
2
11
51
6
3
7
6
44
108
67
85
21
24
8
3
8
285
40
101
4
122
3
36
8
1
20
113
69
22
5
4
5
16
4
35
38
8
33
5
10
131

18
2
4
32
2
3
5
6
44
108
67
85
16
24
6
2
5
285
40
101
3
122
3
36
5

i 2, 817
170
136
6,289
247
603
1,442
1,012
7, 182
22, 802
9, 728
7,277
1,947
4, 551
1,286
1,409
1,961
102, 423
6,401
16, 191
211
13,467
177
4,705
< 1, 223

$137, 069
10, 343
3, 615
419, 256
7, 058
66, 334
60, 347
111, 329
423, 521
1, 215, 822
442, 339
298, 644
68, 819
(2)
51, 991
56, 861
96, 773
7,161, 347
529, 053
697,471
4,112
837,154
4, 789
126, 056
52,169

20
113
17
11
3
3
5
16
2
35
38
8
33
3
10
131

4,164
50, 719
1, 212
2, 568
349
625
398
9, 712
157
(2)
4,175
935
(2)
465
(2)
9,983

1,612

1,472

s 301,119

1 17 societies.
2 N o data.
3 Data as of June 30, 1932.
* 4 societies.

Guaranty
fund

$5, 267
668
121
13, 231
131
2,095
1,777
4, 279

Total re­
sources

8,041
2,854

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
c2)
(2)
$126, 357
611,100
1, 363,975
615, 686
339, 381
88,433
241, 575
(2)
(2)
(2)
12, 521,153
652, 259
1, 170,963
(2)
939,089
5,005
239, 599
156, 849

232, 398
5, 655, 309
54, 616
126, 323
50,191
42, 950
17, 757
542,028
7, 133
462, 099
213, 738
36, 766
451,180
35, 256
120, 207
778,105

10, 786
789, 005
10, 746
2,135
1,547
1,421
619
78,104
830
53, 685
4,241
845
13, 609
2,610
8,624
35,115

255, 841
7, 563, 528
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1,982, 923
(2)
602,466
285,439
42, 206
580,447
(2)
143, 024
888, 774

6 21, 708, 328

6 2, 110, 815

l 31, 416, 072

73,936
17, 611
11, 407
539
(2)
3, 541
8,231
6, 387
856, 840
15,350
39, 000
60
25, 527

» 1,392 societies.
e 1,448 societies.
1 1,346 societies.

Table 2 shows the business done (i.e., loans made) by the coopera­
tive credit societies in 1932, the amount outstanding in loans at the
end of the year, and the amount and rate of dividend paid.
The largest number of loans made was in Massachusetts where
more than 50,000 persons were aided in this way during the year; no
data are available as to amount of loans made, but that State un­
doubtedly held first place. Of the States for which there are data
regarding amount of loans,_New York was far in the lead.
More than half a million dollars was returned to members in
dividends by the 990 societies for which reports were received on this


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

COOPERATIVE CREDIT MOVEMENT IN

773

1932

point. In addition, the members who are borrowers also benefit
by the low rate of interest charged, usually 1 percent per month com­
puted only on the unpaid balance.
T a ble 2 .— LO A N S OF C R E D IT U N IO N S D U R IN G 1932, A N D D IV ID E N D S P A ID , B Y S T A T E S

State

Alabama. ...........
........... ... . . .
Arizona____________
Arkansas ____ _
_
____
California . . . . . . .
_ _
_ _ _
Colorado.
._
.. . . .
Connecticut____________ __ . . . ___
District of Columbia___ _
F lorida3. _____ _
.
Georgia. .
_ _
Illinois
Indiana____________________ ____ _
Iowa . . .
Kansas________
.. _ .. .
Kentucky_____ ___________ . ____
Louisiana______________ _ ____ . . .
M aine_____
.
_
. . .
Maryland _
Massachusetts. ____ _ ________
M ich ig a n ..
.
.
M innesota.
.
. . . _____ _
M issouri____________
_
. . . ..
M on ta n a ..
Nebraska_____ . . . .
N ew Hampshire 3 . .
. . .
N ew Jersey___ _____ ___ _____ _
N ew Y o rk . ._
North Carolina..
..
_ ___
O h i o . . _____ _ ___________________
Oklahoma _
_____
Oregon... __
_
. . . ______
Pennsylvania__
_ _______
Rhode Island.
.. .
South Carolina___________ . . . ._ .
Tennessee . . .
Texas___ . . . .
Utah .
.
. .
. . .
Virginia . . .
Washington.
West V irginia3 ......................
W is c o n s in ..___ ____________ ____ _

N um ­
ber of
Number
socie­
of bor­
ties
rowers
report­
ing
18
2
4
32
2
3
5
6
44
108
67
85
16
24
6
2
5
285
40
101
3
122
3
36
5
20
113
17
11
3
3
5
16
2
35
38
8
33
3
10
131
1,472

1 16 societies.
2 31 societies.
3 For year ending June 30, 1932.
4 Average rate.

i 3,379
149
57
4, 589
115
5,387
1,464
754
(5)
12, 733
4, 267
3, 300
936
2, 277
1,041
630
1,491
51, 627
3,147
7, 603
98
6,288
43
2, 537
» 898
2,357
28, 995
889
2,179
308
445
380
3,888
98
(5)
2, 722
8 830
(s)
398
(5)
3,642

Dividends paid

Loans

M ade dur­
ing 1932

i $225, 678
12, 394
7,980
738,830
7,850
241, 891
117, 370
137, 438
0)
1,836, 508
470, 307
363, 592
104,439
(5)
116,173
100, 057
104, 080
(5)
357,431
991,137
8, 954
214, 643
(5)
391,192
107, 377
183, 978
7,813,942
7 100, 825
178, 717
54,184
46, 289
34, 978
561, 474
12, 940
(s)
(5)
8 151,512
(5)
59, 843
(5)
521, 949

Outstanding
at end of
Amount
year
$133, 934
13, 017
3,498
2 437, 476
4,172
62, 258
56,488
113, 839
454, 007
1,143, 072
326, 681
253, 653
60, 050
(5)
55, 426
102, 345
70, 205
9,492, 505
501, 845
991,137
4, 271
460,045
4, 880
198, 755
130, 387
86, 475
5, 229, 130
145, 396
118,590
52, 884
47,839
17, 032
1, 771, 331
7, 054
548, 754
249, 753
39, 660
530, 380
36, 806
125, 564
745, 697

$9, 787
782
215
20, 707
221
4, 218
3, 384
7, 088
(5)
64, 906
11,612
10, 732
2, 989
10, 232
2, 931
2,778
3, 969
337, 806
1,994
(s)

9 161,941 10 16,375,952 11 24, 826, 291

12 547,001

5 N o data.
6 4 societies.
7 15 societies.
8 6 societies.

(5)
2,983
2, 724
7, 478
(5)
1,834
2, 947
4, 402
2, 505
762
(5)
481
(5)
2, 275
8 3, 793
(5)
2,145
(5)
16, 321

Rate
(percent)

0. 03-8. 0
7. 0-8. 0
. 02-, 08
3. 0-8. 5
6.0
7. 2-7. 3
6. 0-7. 0
4 6.9
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
4 7.0
(5)
4. 0-7. 2
5. 0-6. 0
3. 0-7. 0
4 5.6
. 02-8. 4
6. 0-8. 0
4 6.5
4 5. 3
4. 5-6. 0
3. 0-8. 0
(5)
6. 0-7. 0
3. 0-7. 0
9. 5-14. 0
4. 0-7. 0
6. 0-7. 0
(5)
7.4
(5)
(5)
5. 0-10.0
(5)
4. 0-11.5
(5)
3. 0-9. 0

9 1,345 societies.
10 994 societies.
11 1,447 societies.
12 990 societies.

Table 3 shows comparative data for 1929, when the Bureau’s last
previous national survey was made, and for 1932. While the number
of societies in operation nearly doubled during the 3-year period and
the aggregate membership rose about 14 percent, a decrease was shown
in all other points except amount of guaranty fund. As regards
amount of loans granted, it should be noted that there was a de­
cline of over $8,000,000 from 1929 to 1932.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

774

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

T able 3 —C O M P A R A T IV E D E V E L O P M E N T OP C R E D IT U N IO N S, 1929 A N D 1932

1929

Item
Total number of societies — _ ._

...

------ ---

974
838

1,612
1, 472

264, 908
320

301,119
216

$24,065, 407
$92
$2,079, 450

$21, 708, 328
$70
$2,110,815

$24, 548, 353
$58, 310
$350
$30,811, 582

$16,375,952
$16, 475
$156
$24,826, 291

---------- --------------------

Membership:
T otal______________________________________________________________
Share capital:

Loans during year:

1932

Table 4 shows averages of membership, share capital, and busi­
ness done, for 1929 and 1932.
T able 4 .— A V E R A G E M E M B E R S H IP , C A P IT A L , A N D LO A N S OP C R E D IT U N IO N S, 1929

A N D 1932, B Y ST A T E S

Average mem­ Average cap­
bership per
ital per
member
society

State

1929
98
Alabama.
.
.....
49
Arizona. _ . . . .
.
------26
Arkansas
____________
________
192
California . . . .
. . . _
Colorado
.
.........
459
277
Connecticut.
. . .
.
. .
580
District of Columbia_____________ _ _ _ _
226
F lo rid a _____________ . . . . ______________
180
Georgia___________
. . .
___
257
Illinois______ . . . .
203
Indiana.._
____ _________________ . . . .
101
Iow a_________ .
.
............... .....
60
Kansas ......................
___ ____ _ . ---------------------168
K en tu cky..
243
Louisiana___
. . . -------Maine
____ .
. . .
1, 286
Maryland
.
_ _ _ . .
. ___ _____
277
358
Massachusetts_______ . . . .
198
M ich ig a n ... ____________ _______________
208
--------Minnesota.... ............................

1932

373
.
. . .
Oregon ___ _
52
Pennsylvania .
1,007
Rhode Island _ _
. . .
98
South Carolina _
____ _________________
201
Tennessee...
. . . . . .
62
Texas----------- ------------------- . . . ------------111
Utah______
_ _ ______________________
332
Virginia_____ . . .
149
Washington___
_. . . .
265
W est Virginia_______ . . . . . . . . ____ _
189
Wisconsin______ . .

166
85
34
197
124
201
288
169
163
211
145
86
122
190
214
705
392
359
160
160
70
110
59
131
306
208
449
71
233
116
208
80
607
79
(>)
110
117
(>>
155
0)
76

320

216

178
M issou ri... ____________ . . . . - . . _____
150
Montana .
_______ ____ . . . . . . . .
147
Nebraska . ___ . - ----------------------- ------2,021
N ew H a m p sh ire __ . . . . . . . .
_______
420
New J e rs e y ... . . . ____ _____________
. _ . _ _ _ .
565
New York _ _ ___
54
North Carolina
______ _ . ________ .
138
Ohio___________________ _ . . . _ . . . . . . _

T otal. . . ___
1 N o data.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

________

Average
amount
per loan

1929

1932

1929

$10, 692
6,831
4,049
13, 033
131, 277
150, 320
30, 252
40, 000
25, 577
26, 978
15, 045
6, 324
957
22, 087
18, 354
104, 361
9, 296
0)
18, 620
«

35, 691
175
75, 548
10, 668
39, 733
1,314
9,013
30,020
8, 581
21, 488
29, 591

$14,105
6, 197
1,995
23,088
3, 925
80, 630
23, 474
22, 906
0)
17, 005
7, 020
4, 278
6, 527
«
19, 362
50, 029
20, 816
0)
8, 936
9,813
2, 985
1,759
0)
10, 866
21, 475
9,199
69, 150
6, 722
16, 247
18,061
15,430
6,996
35, 092
6, 470
(0
0)
25, 252
(0
19, 948
0)
3, 984

$90
45
45
118
212
102
14
172
124
155
102
133
61
190
82
137
80
(')
(i)
W

42
3
63
50
87
19
35
35
66
36
98

$49
61
27
67
29
110
42
110
59
53
45
41
35
(')
40
40
49
70
83
43
19
62
27
27
41
56
112
45
49
144
69
45
56
45
i1)
51
39
0)
76
0)
78

54
18
233
148
210
57
103
93
67
139
303

$67
83
140
161
68
45
80
182
0)
144
110
110
112
(>)
112
159
70
0)
114
130
91
34
(')
154
116
78
269
124
82
176
104
92
144
132
C)
(>)
183
(')
150
0)
143

92

70

58, 310

16, 475

350

156

1929
$45
131
61
36
102
133
24
144
47
52
66
40
12
63
30
33
34
96
60
37
(>)
20
21
11
34
143
32
19

1932

Average loans
per society

0)
7, 500
13, 250
72, 306
18, 599
146, 920
6, 470
4, 790

(0
326
143
36
119
439
116
79

1932

COOPERATIVE CREDIT MOVEMENT IN

775

1932

The societies in the 19 States in which data were obtained from the
credit unions themselves were requested to report any losses through
bad debts over their entire period of operation. Those in 6 States
reported that they had never had any losses through this cause, while
23 of the 102 societies reporting in the other 13 States had had bad
debts amounting to $2,907 over an average period of 4.6 years’ oper­
ation. Of that amount $9 was entered as a “ possible loss” and the
sum of $646 carried as a loss by one society will, the treasurer reports,
undoubtedly be paid as soon as the defaulting borrowers (railroad
men) can find employment. The losses, by States, are shown in the
following table.
T a b l e 5 —LOSSES R E P O R T E D B Y C R E D IT U N IO N S IN 13 S T A T E S

State

Number
of societies
reporting
losses

Amount
of loss re­
ported

Average
period of
operation of
societies
Years

1
2
7
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

$20
250
1,204
i9
20
72
2 813
91
15
20
19
184
190

5.0
3.0
4.0
1.5
6.5
2.5
7.6
3.3
2.5
4.0
9.3
4.5
8.0

23

2,907

4.6

1 Possible loss.
2 Of this, $646 will probably be returned when borrowers return to work.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work of State Labor Offices in Behalf of Wage Claimants

OME idea of the extent to which working people are victims of the
failure of employers to pay wages earned is disclosed by a survey
recently completed by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.1
Twenty States (including Philippine Islands and Puerto Rico) re­
ported handling 69,921 claims in 1932. In 16 of these States a settle­
ment was effected in 34,063 cases. The total amount collected, in 1932,
in the 20 States for which data are available was $1,445,544. Cali­
fornia (which has a very effective law) accounted for by far the
largest number of claims settled (16,517) and the largest amount of
money collected ($775,254). New York came next with 7,332 cases
settled and collections amounting to $202,638.
Although the average claim is small— $41 in the 16 States reporting
both number of cases settled and amount obtained—failure to receive
compensation even in so small an amount often represents real hard­
ship to the worker involved.
While financial reverses or other conditions incident to the depres­
sion were responsible for numerous complaints of nonpayment, the
most common causes of failure to pay reported were: (1) Lack of
understanding or disagreement as to rates of pay; (2) insufficient
capital or insolvency of the employer; and (3) bad faith on the part of
the employer.
The depression not only has increased the volume of wage-collection
cases, many States report, but has made their collection more difficult.
In other States, because of the decreased employment and stagnation
of business, claims have fallen off in number.
The need for the enactment of adequate and forceful legislation in
States at present without any laws on the subject, and the strength­
ening of the acts in those in which legislative action has already been
taken, is apparent from the reports received.
There are comparatively few States having laws giving specific and
adequate wage-collection power to some State agency. Some form
of legislation regulating the payment of wages is fairly general
throughout the United States and some of these acts are so phrased as
to allow_ the collection of wages by State officials. In several cases
the officials report that they have assumed an authority not specifi­
cally covered by law or granted only by implication.
The usual procedure is to try first to effect a voluntary settlement.
Inasmuch as many of the labor officials have, as already stated, no
real authority or arenas one report put it, operating under laws with
no ‘ Teeth” in them, it is generally only as a last resort that recourse
is taken to court action to compel payment.
The table following shows the claims handled and settled and the
amounts collected in 1932 and the previous years for which the
Bureau has data:

S

1
This is the fourth such study, the three earlier studies having been made in 1920, 1926, and 1929. Tor
reports of the earlier studies see M onthly Labor Review, March 1921, June 1927, and October 1930.

776


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

777

W AGE-CLAIM W O R K OF STATE LABOR OFFICES
W A G E C L A IM S

S E T T L E D A N D A M O U N T S C O L L E C T E D 1920, 1926, 1929, A N D
R E P O R T E D B Y S T A T E L A B O R O F F IC E S

1920

1926

19291

1932,

1932 2

Number of wage claims
State labor office of—
Claims
sub­
mitted
or
handled

Claims
settled

Arizona. _____________ . . .

(3)

California_________________ . . .
Colorado___ ________________ .
Massachusetts__
.
. . .

7,603
1,300
733

5,362
915
344

N eva d a .. ----- --- -------------- . .
N ew Jersey.
___________ . .
N ew Y ork.. .
...
________
Oklahoma
. . . _______ _ .
Oregon . . .
_
. . .
Puerto R i c o . . . _____ ________

77
7
251
1,326
1,440
217

60
6
221
1,193
572
77

. ....
W ashington____ . . .
Wisconsin
............. ...
W yom ing_____________________

1,590

1,401

467

373

(3)

Claims
sub­
mitted
or
handled

Claims
settled

Claims
sub­
mitted
or
handled

236
297
27,813
961
1,947

110
146
16,121
525
1,947

642
404
28,419
827
2,501

201
590
1,796
188
1,049
542
73
245
2,122

76
350
1,005
7 32
436
222
18
245
1,170

224
1,783
2,860
239
1,466
1,373
617
3,731

174

219

Claims
Claims sub­ Claims
settled mitted settled
or
handled
276
' 208
17,966
471
1,688

2,450
322
35, 400
1,116
4 2,405
# 256
192
833
1,160
2,805
2,242
9,591
203
488
1,334
842
2,195
405
1,071
286
606
1,410
1,973
8 2,197
157
(9)

1,127
158
16, 517
541
«1, 675
8 102
488
8 753
7, 332
762
1,260
782
280
974
944
(9)

Amounts collected
1920

1926

19291

1932 2

State labor office of—
Total

Arizona

----------------------------

(3)

California___________________ . $206, 389
Colorado______________________
33, 642
Massachusetts----------------5, 749
M innesota.. .
. _________
N evada-------- . . -------------------7,500
N ew Jersey
..
_________
90

A ver­
age per
claim
settled

Total

Aver­
age per
claim
settled

Total

$1,866 $16. 96
$14, 096
(3)
4,021
27. 54
4,829
$38.49 « 976, 368 io 60. 57 1,051,925
36. 77
13,896
26. 47
10, 821
16. 71
28, 705
14. 74
54, 629
125. 00
15.00

___
O klahom a..
. . _ ._
Oregon_________ . . .
-------Puerto R ic o .. ------------- . _ .

24,850
23, 781
1,254

20.83
41.58
16. 29

12, 784 168. 21
10,863 U 31. 04
31,169
31.01
7 3,120 7 97. 49
20,147
46.16
12,052
22.24

Washington
. . . . . ________
Wisconsin. ___ ______________
W yom ing . .

87,873

67. 72

12,377
73,584

50. 52
62.89

11, 746
24, 252
57,969
10, 490
16, 392
14, 459
32, 257
13, 206
67, 290

15, 204

40. 76

8,594

49. 39

5, 748

Aver­
age per
claim
settled

Total

$51. 07 $56,516
23. 22
3, 578
58. 55 775, 254
22. 97 12, 063
32. 36 49, 768
1,380
61. 18 26, 947
20. 91 29, 458
25. 86 202, 638
1, 839
33. 59 24, 293
17. 17 16, 569
79. 65 90, 202
46.17 18, 014
47. 72 45, 244
35, 276
36. 61
(9)

Aver­
age per
claim
settled
$50.15
22. 65
46. 94
22. 30
» 29. 71
13. 53
55. 22
» 39.12
27.63
(12)
31.88
13.15
115. 35
64. 34
46. 45
37.37
(9)

1 Fiscal or calendar year. Arkansas, Maine, and Puerto Rico, however, reported for fiscal year 1929-30
and Utah for 1927-28.
2 Fiscal or calendar year, the latter in the majority of cases. Nevada report covers 18 months. Texas
figure is an average based on biennial record.
3 N o department of labor in 1920.
4 Claims investigated.
6 Claims paid.
6 Claims of women and minor males, exclusive of claims under minimum wage law.
7 N ot including cases handled b y telephone.
8 Includes some claims other than those for wages.
s N ot known.
10 Includes also amounts collected in part payment of claims still pending.
11 Based on claims paid.
12 N ot reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

778

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

In addition to the statistics included in the preceding table the
following data for 1932 were furnished by the labor offices indicated:
The Connecticut Department of Labor handled 393 cases involving
claims amounting to $32,488. The labor department of the Kansas
Industrial Commission handled 94 claims and collected $3,736.
The number of claims submitted to the Michigan Department of
Labor and Industry was 3,758 and the amount of wages collected
$32,308. The New^ Mexico State Labor and Industrial Commission
collected $13,032 2 in wages but did not report on the number of
claims handled or settled. The Philippine Bureau of Labor reported
for the calendar year 1932, 919 wage claims handled of which 368 were
settled in favor of the workers, the amount collected being 14,858
pesos ($7,429).
The ] )cpartmcnt of Labor of Illinois reports that wage claims com­
ing to its attention are referred to private legal aid associations. The
Iowa Bureau of Labor states that it has no authority for the collection
of wage claims but has always made it a practice of advising claimants
and daily directs cases to the Des Moines municipal court, which
functions as^ a small-claims court. In cases outside the city each
claimant is instructed as to his rights and the methods to follow.
Many times, however, the claimants are not financially able to prose­
cute or they may not have the means to remain in the immediate
vicinity long enough to have their cases determined. The Louisiana
Department of Labor and Industrial Statistics appeals to employers
to adjust claims and when unsuccessful refers cases to some attorney
or member of the legal aid society or lets the claimant select his own
lawyer. The Nebraska Department of Labor uses moral suasion to
get employers to meet their obligations to their workers.
Wage claims are sometimes collected by the Department of Labor
of Tennessee, but no data were supplied as to work done alonv this
line in 1932.
&
The replies from the labor offices of the following States indicated
that no wage claims were handled by them in the fiscal or calendar
year.1932: Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland,
Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Kliode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont,
Virginia, and West Virginia. While some wage claims were formerly
handled by the Maine Department of Labor and Industry, the
attorney general has ruled that wages cannot be collected under the
law providing for the weekly payment of wages. For the past 3
years the Montana Department of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry
has received hundreds of wage claims, all of which it was compelled
to turn aside because under the State labor laws it was powerless to
render any assistance whatsoever.
The Labor and Industrial Inspection Department of Missouri
reported that it was not possible to answer the questionnaire because
that office was m process of reorganization under a new administration.
jt■ . -Lfoor Commission of Delaware did not answer the inquiry of the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, but the duties of that com­
mission have to do mainly with the protection of woman and child
workers.
While no direct report was received from the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, in the November 1932 issue of Labor
2 N ot clear whether 1932 was the year covered.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-CLAIM W O RK OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

779

and Industry, monthly bulletin of that department, it is stated that
workers who had not been paid wages due them had been deluging
the department with complaints. “ In the first part of 1932 these
claims were at the rate of $114,600 a year. In the latter part of this
year they are coming in at the rate of $300,000 a year.” According
to the same source, the only effective procedure for unpaid workers in
Pennsylvania is to enter civil suit; in most of the cases submitted to
the department, however, the wage claimants have not enough money
to do this.
No questionnaire was sent to Alabama, Alaska, Hawaii, and Idaho,
as the character or status of their present State offices indicates that
they are not engaged in the special activity covered by the study.
Legal Authorization for the Handling of W age Claims

Arizona.— The Arizona' Industrial Commission, in handling wage
claims, has recourse to section 4877 of the Revised Code of Arizona,
1928 (p. 1103), providing that “ whenever an employee quits the
service or is discharged therefrom, he shall be paid whatever wages
are due him, in lawful money of the United States, or by check of
even date. * * * Any person violating this section shall be
guilty of a misdemeanor.”
Arkansas.— The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Arkansas does its
wage-collection work under an “ act regulating the payment of wages
earned and defining the duties of the commissioner of labor therein.”
This law (acts of 1923, no. 380) provides that “ if either employer or
employee shall fail to accept the findings of the commissioner, then
either shall have the right to proceed at law * * *. ” When a
wage claim is not over $200 and the claimant files with the commission­
er a verified petition that his assets, in addition to the wearing apparel
and household goods of himself and family, do not exceed $25, the
commissioner may institute court action without giving bond for
costs.
'
California.— The labor commissioner of California and his duly
authorized representatives are empowered under section 7 of the
State wage collection law 3 to take assignments of wage claims and
to prosecute actions for the collection of wages, penalties, etc., of
persons financially unable to employ counsel in cases in which, in
the judgment of the proper labor official, the wage claims are valid
and enforceable in the courts; to issue subpenas to compel the pro­
duction of papers and records, to administer oaths, to examine
witnesses under oaths; and to take depositions and affidavits in order
to carry out the provisions of the act.
Colorado.— According to the Colorado Bureau of Labor Statistics,
that agency has no direct legal power to handle wage claims. Its
activities in this respect are purely voluntary.
Connecticut.— The Department of Labor of Connecticut, in
handling wage claims, utilizes section 5205 (acts of 1919, ch. 216) of
the General Statutes, which provides that wages be paid weekly.
Iowa.— The labor commissioner of Iowa reports that his bureau is
not authorized to collect wage claims but has always made it a prac­
tice to inform claimants as to the procedure open to them.
3 Acts of 1883, ch. 21, as amended b y acts of 1919, ch. 228; 1923, ch. 257; 1929, ch. 231 and 1931, ch. 824.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

780

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Kansas.— The labor department of the Commission of Labor and
Industry of Kansas states that there is no provision giving that
department jurisdiction over wage collections. “ Sections 44-301 to
44-312 of the 1931 supplement govern the payment of wages.”
Although the commission is without authority to prosecute, its
annual report for 1932 shows that it used its influence successfully
in numerous instances in collecting labor debts.
Louisiana. The Louisiana Department of Labor and Industrial
Statistics, having no legal authority to collect wage claims, acts
“ purely in a cooperative manner.”
Maine.— The commissioner of labor of Maine writes that there is
a State law requiring the weekly payment of wages but the State
attorney general has ruled that wages cannot be collected under that
statute.
Massachusetts.— The Massachusetts Department of Labor and
Industry “ is not vested with authority to collect wages and is not
set up under the statute as an agency for this purpose. ”
The criminal statute in Massachusetts affecting violation of the weekly pay­
ment law, however, in its operation stimulates the payment of wages by em­
ployers who are neglectful in their attitude toward the statute. It is better to
pay the wages when such an employer receives notice from the department of
complaint for violation of the law rather than to face court action with a possi­
bility of receiving a criminal record and having to pav a heavy fine. This
process is often confused with the practice of collecting" wages, a"function not
included in the jurisdiction of the department.

Michigan. —The Department of Labor ,and Industry of Michigan
handles wage claims under Act No. 62 of the Public Acts of 1925.
Minnesota. —The division of women and children of the Minnesota
Industrial Commission takes up wage claims under section 4050 of
the General Laws, 1923, which provides that “ The bureau of women
and children shall have power to enforce and cause to be enforced,
by complaint in any court or otherwise, all laws and local ordinances,
relating to the health, morals, comfort, and general welfare of women
and children.”
Nevada.—The labor commissioner of Nevada collects claims under
the provisions of section 2751 of the Nevada Compiled Laws of 1929,
as amended by acts of 1931, chapter 46.
New Jersey.— The authority under which the New Jersey Depart­
ment of Labor acts on behalf of wage earners dates back to 1899
(acts of 1899, ch. 38, as amended by acts of 1932, ch. 249) and reads
as follows:
Every person, firm, association or partnership doing business in this State,
and every corporation * * * shall pay at least every 2 weeks, in lawful
money of the United States, to each and every employee engaged in his, their,
or its business, * * * the full amount of wages earned and unpaid in lawful
money to such employee, up to within 12 days of such payment; * * * any
employer or employers as aforesaid who shall violate any of the provisions of
this section shall, for the first offense, be liable to a penalty of $50, and for the
second and each subsequent offense to a penalty of $100, to be recovered by and
in the name of the department of labor of this State. On failure to pay the
fine imposed, jail sentence up to 200 days shall be imposed.

New Mexico.- An act of 1931 (ch. 9, sec. 7) authorizes the New
Mexico Labor and Industrial Commission to take assignment of wage
claims and prosecute action for the collection of wages for persons
financially unable to employ counsel.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-CLAIM W O R K OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

781

New York:—The Department of Labor of New York handles wage
claims under section 211 of the labor law, which provides that “ the
commissioner shall cooperate with any person having a just claim
against his employer.” Sections 195 and 196 of the same law set
forth the methods and manner in which a corporation shall pay wages,
and section 197 prohibits a corporation from making any deduction
from the wages of its employees. Section 39 empowers the commis­
sioner to subpena and examine witnesses and records.
Oklahoma.—Although the Department of Labor of Oklahoma is not
legally authorized to collect or force settlement of wage claims, it is
instrumental in adjusting such disputes. It does not handle the
money, that being paid by the employers directly to the claimants
themselves.
Oregon.—Previous to 1933 the Oregon Bureau of Labor had little
authority for the collection of wages, which was carried on principally
through conciliation. A law passed at the 1933 session of the legis­
lature, however, empowered the commissioner of that bureau to in­
vestigate and attempt to adjust equitably controversies concerning
wage claims; to take assignments of such claims in trust for assigning
employees; and to make complaint in a criminal court for the viola­
tion of the provisions of any law that provides for the payment of
wages and imposes a penalty for its violation as for a crime.
The 1933 act also creates a contingent fund “ for the purpose of
paying expenses and costs of the commissioner’s proceedings” under
the act.
Philippine Islands.—-The Philippine Bureau of Labor handles wage
claims under articles 1583, 1584 (as amended by Act 3600), 1585,
and 1586 of the Civil Code, and article 302 of the Code of Commerce.
Puerto Rico.-—The Department of Labor of Puerto Rico quotes the
following provision (acts of 1931, p. 182) as the authorization for its
wage-collection work.
S e c t i o n 2 0 . The wage protection and claim bureau shall consist of a person
in charge thereof, who shall be a competent attorney at law and a man of integrity,
who shall receive, study, and decide all complaints and claims filed by laborers or
employees, including domestics, against employers negligent in the payment of
their compensations, per diems, wages, or salaries, or who have refused to make
such payments. He shall prosecute such complaints and claims and shall insti­
tute proceedings, either civil or criminal, as the case may be, against said employ­
ers, where such procedure is necessary; he shall interpret and supervise wage or
métayer labor contracts, and he shall act as a special prosecuting attorney in any
criminal action that may be brought before the municipal courts of Puerto Rico
by the commissioner, by the district agents, or by any other official of the depart­
ment of labor, in case of violation of labor-protecting laws, and of all such legis­
lation whose enforcement may have been entrusted to the department of labor.
The commissioner of labor shall assign to this bureau such personnel as he may
deem necessary to render this service.

Tennessee.—The Department of Labor of Tennessee sometimes
assumes authority to aid in the collection of wage claims, under the
provisions of the semimonthly pay day law (Thompson’s Shannon’s
Code, 1918, secs. 4339 to 4342a-2a5). The representative of the
department giving this information adds: “ However, we are con­
vinced that if this authority was assailed in court it could not legally
stand a test.”
Texas.—The Bureau of Labor of Texas reports that that State has
no direct wage claim law but with recourse to the semimonthly pay
day law (acts of 1915, ch. 25) that office effects settlements without
11456°—33-----2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

782

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

court procedure, as frequently employers would rather pay than be
prosecuted.
Utah.— The Industrial Commission of Utah has a wage-collection
department which operates under section 3076 of the Compiled Laws,
1917 (as amended by acts of 1921, ch. 67). This act defines the
regular powers of the commission and reads: “ it shall also be the
duty of the commission and it shall have full power, jurisdiction, and
authority: * * * 5. To do all in its power to promote voluntary
arbitration, mediation, and conciliation of disputes between employers
and employees. ”
Washington.— The Washington Department of Labor and Indus­
tries writes that it draws its wage-collection powers from section
7594 of the labor laws of the State which reads in part as follows:
“ * * * and when any laborer performing work or labor as above
shall cease to work, whether by discharge or by voluntary withdrawal
the wages due shall be forthwith paid either in cash or by order
redeemable in cash at its face value * * *.”
Wisconsin:—For many years Wisconsin has had a law providing
for the semimonthly payment of wages, with certain exceptions
(Wis. Stats., 1929, sec. 103.39), but the State industrial commission
had no authority of enforcement. An amendment, effective June 19,
1931, makes it the duty of that body “ to enforce the wage law and
provides that in its discretion the commission may take appropriate
action for the collection of wage claims which it deems to be valid
and which do not exceed $100.”
Shortly after the new law became effective two Milwaukee courts
held it to be unconstitutional. These decisions, which were based
on the criminal provisions of the act, are in process of appeal to the
Supreme Court. Partly because of these unfavorable decisions and
partly because of the fact that the law makes no specific provision for
paying costs and disbursements in cases in which there is no recovery,
the commission has been seriously hampered in trying to administer
the law.4
Wyoming.—The act which created the Wyoming Department of
Labor (Wyo. Rev. Stats. 1931, sec. 109-1204) provides that the “ labor
commissioner shall see that workers are protected in the collection of
their wages lawfully due.” No legal means, however, are provided
for carrying out this provision.
The labor offices of the following States which reported no wage
collections for the fiscal or calendar year, 1932, also reported that
they had no legal authorization for such work: Florida, Illinois,
Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Montana, New
Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, (Pennsylvania ?),
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia,
and West Virginia.
Practically all States, however, have some form of wage-payment
legislation.
Procedure in Handling Claims

I n la bo r offices which do not at once refer wage claims to other
agencies, the initial procedure in handling cases does not vary greatly
from State to State.5 Claims filed are usually taken up by correspond4 Wisconsin. Industrial Commission. Biennial report. Madison, 1930-33, pp. 48-49.
5 In California, N ew Jersey, and N ew York there are various branch labor offices at which workers
may file wage claims.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-C LAIM W O RK OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

783

ence, telephone, personal calls, conferences, etc. When cases cannot
be adjusted by these measures further steps are taken, some of which
are noted below.
The Arizona Department of Labor reports the holding of hearings
in some instances in which settlement cannot be effected by more
informal efforts, while in such cases the Arkansas Bureau of Labor
and Statistics brings suit under the wage payment law.
In California, if the employer disputes the claim, a joint hearing is
set at which both the employer and claimant are present, the employer
being allowed representation by counsel. After the hearing the depu­
ties decide whether the wages are due, and, if so, the employer is
ordered to pay. If he is unable to do so immediately, he is given the
opportunity to pay in installments through the district offices of the
division of labor statistics and law enforcement, which forward the
amounts collected to the claimants. Recourse is had to civil actions
whenever conditions warrant such procedure.
The Connecticut Department of Labor frequently threatens prose­
cution when employers refuse to pay, but adds that it has “ no real
authority since prosecutors are unwilling to push these cases. ”
In Massachusetts when the employer fails to pay the wages claimed
promptly after the department of labor and industries has taken up
the case witty him by correspondence, personal demand is made by a
special investigator of that office.
Refusal or failure to comply with the provision of the statute is then followed
by action in court. Here the rights of the employee are maintained without cost
of such action to him. Much time is occupied by clerks in settling conflicting
claims arising from disputes over the rates of wages. The interested parties, both
employer and workman, are frequently brought to the office and legal require­
ments of the weekly payment law made known to them. This practice usually
results in reaching an agreement and having wages paid. If it appears that the
case does not come within the scope of the criminal law and the remedy is in civil
action, the employee is advised accordingly. Employees affected by an abuse
of the trustee process or the assignment of wages are given individual attention
and the requirements of all the statutes in these matters are made known to them.
This service is of much practical assistance to wage earners. Through the branch
offices located in Worcester, Springfield, Pittsfield, Lawrence, Fall River, and the
department headquarters in the State House this help is at the disposal of wage
earners in all sections of the State. To these offices attorneys send their clients
to whom small sums of money for wages are due.

Failing settlement through conciliatory methods, the procedure in
Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, and New Mexico is to start court
action against the employer, while in Minnesota and Utah the plain­
tiff is referred to other legal advisers. In New Mexico, in court cases
Lnythe collection of wage claims, no attorney fees are charged but the
claimant pays court costs.
In the State of New York workers may file their wage claims not
only in the branch offices of the department of labor but also in many
county offices and with sheriffs and justices of the peace who are pro­
vided with the department’s printed forms. If no reply is received
to the department’s claim letter, a subpena is issued calling for a
hearing in the locality near the residence of the complainant and the
defendant. Hearings are held weekly in New York City because of
the many complaints filed in that city. The hearings in other parts
of the State are held as soon as there are enough claims to warrant
such procedure. If, however, the complaint is serious and calls for
immediate attention, one of the department’s investigators is sent

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

784

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

to look into the matter. If the department finds that the labor law
has been violated prosecution is begun at once.
In Puerto Rico the majority of claims are settled administratively
by the wage protection and claim bureau of the department of labor
without judicial intervention. In case, however, payment is refused
after such administrative efforts, the attorney of the bureau takes the
•claim before the court of competent jurisdiction under an act of No­
vember 14, 1917 “ to determine the procedure in cases of claims for
wages by farm laborers against their employers.”
According to the chief inspector of the Tennessee Department of
Labor “ in most instances it is necessary that the wage claimer resort
to an action in a justice of peace court in order legally to collect his
claims against an employer.”
In cases in which recourse to court procedure is necessary the
Texas Bureau of Labor Statistics assists claimants in handling liens
and prosecuting claims.
Although the Washington statutes provide for the creation of smallclaims departments in every justice district of the State, very few
have been created, and the wage-collection work therefore has de­
volved upon the department of labor and industries of the State.
A Wyoming law, approved February 4, 1933, provides for the
informal hearing of wage claimants before justices of peace when the
claims do not exceed $50. A deposit of $1.50 is required from the
plaintiff in such cases.
In Wisconsin after the industrial commission has established the
validity of a wage claim by means of a hearing and is satisfied that
the employer is able to pay, and he still refuses to do so,_ the case is
turned over to the district attorney of the county in which the em­
ployer resides to take action.
If there is no dispute regarding the validity of the claim, and the excuse is
offered by the employer that he is financially unable to pay, no action is taken
against him by the commission until such time as it can satisfy itself that the
claim of inability is not justified. Unfortunately, such claims are justified in alto­
gether too many cases. If the commission is satisfied that the claim is valid and
that the employer is able to pay, the district attorney is requested to act. In
Milwaukee and adjacent territory the attorney in charge of this work can take
the claims into court himself and does do so. He may call upon the district
attorney for cooperation also. The plan outlined above is used for the State out­
side of Milwaukee and adjacent territory.
Causes for Nonpayment of Wages

T he most frequently reported causes for the nonpayment of wages
which led to the presentation of claims at State labor offices, according
to the latest survey, are the following:
1. Lack of understanding or disagreement as to rates of pay.
(This cause was reported by Arkansas, California, Colorado, Massa­
chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico,
Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Utah, and Wisconsin.)
2. Insufficient capital for business projects, financial reverses, or
insolvency. (Reported by Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico,
New York, Oregon, Philippine Islands, Washington, Wisconsin, and
Wyoming.)
3. Lack of principle on the part of employers. (Cited by the labor
offices of Arizona, Connecticut, Georgia, Louisiana, Minnesota,

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-CLAIM W O RK OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

785

Montana, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Philippine
Islands, Texas, and Washington.) The Connecticut Department of
Labor makes a “ rough guess” that half of the cases it reports involve
employers who are trying to take unfair advantage of the present
situation.
The Montana Department of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry
writes that laboring men are so anxious to secure jobs that they are
willing to work for very low wages. Certain companies have taken
advantage of this condition to hire men, work them “ just as long as
they do not become too loud in their protest, and then discharge
them without paying them anything at all.”
Both the New York and Philippine labor officials emphasize as a
major cause of wage claims the unwillingness of unscrupulous em­
ployers to pay any wage at all, while the Texas Bureau of Labor
Statistics condemns the “ villainous practice” of defrauding workers,
and the Washington Department of Labor and Industries cites
“ the unscrupulous employer who has no intention of paying his
employees, the fly-by-night merchant and the ‘ gypo’ contractor.”
On the other hand, while the Minnesota officials mention some cases
of fraud and those of Oregon some instances of unwillingness to pay,
these apparently form no considerable problem, and in Wisconsin in
only a small minority of claims was it found that the wage debt had
been incurred with dishonest motives on the part of the employer.
Among the other causes noted, most of which were those arising from
the depression, were low prices of farm products which made it
impossible for farmers to pay their labor promptly (Arizona), crop
failures (California), bank failures (Nevada), and poor business
conditions (New York and Texas).
Effects of the Depression on the Handling of W age Claims
T h e reports indicate that the number of wage claims handled by
State labor offices has increased, as an outcome of the depression,
in Arizona, Connecticut, Kansas, Michigan, New Jersey, New York,
Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Wyoming. In Puerto Rico the
increase has been especially noticeable in the wage claims of persons
employed in general housework, laundries, restaurants, hotels, home
building, and agriculture. The Nevada report notes a 100 percent
increase in the amount of claims filed. The Oklahoma Department
of Labor notes an increase in controversial claims, the workers being
so eager for employment that a large percentage of them fail to come
to an understanding as to what they are to be paid and are dis­
appointed when they do not receive more. Michigan also reports
that the average claim is smaller in amount. In New_Jersey, on the
other hand, an increase in the average amount of claim is reported due
to the fact that the workers continue in their jobs even when they are
not paid. The New Jersey officials note an increase in the number
of bankruptcies; they attribute the rise in the number of claims to
the employers’ inability to meet their pay rolls, and state that in a
large number of such cases the evasion of payment is deliberately
planned. In New York the collection work has become somewhat
more difficult, but the officials report that the greater efforts neces­
sitated because of that fact have been attended with much success.
The increased difficulty of collecting wage claims is also stressed by


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

786

MONTHLY LABOE R E V IE W

the Oregon, Texas, Wisconsin, and Wyoming labor offices, the Wis­
consin Industrial Commission declaring that in many cases collection
is impossible.
In contrast to the above, some labor offices— among them Cali­
fornia, Colorado, New Mexico, Philippines, Utah, and Washington—
report a reduction in the number of wage claims as an effect of the
economic slump. In California, during the fiscal year 1931-32, the
number of wage claims filed decreased 5.5 percent, while the amount
of unpaid wages collected fell 25 percent, due in part to lower wages
and smaller claims. Although fewer claims have been filed in
Colorado, there has been an increase in the number of long-standing
cases which should have been settled from 1 to 3 years ago. Increased
difficulty of collection was noted by the Arkansas, California, New
Mexico, and Utah officials.
The economic and banking conditions are cited by the Louisiana
report as having been used as excuses for not paying labor by some
employers who never thought before of not paying wages due and by
others who had never had a bank account. There are also numerous
employers who are anxious to pay their workers but who have had to
delay on account of the industrial situation.
The Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries notes a
special type of complaint growing out of the depression, namely, that
against individuals who because of unemployment in their own trades
have ventured into business for themselves, taking small contracts,
particularly for road and bridge construction or for altering or repair­
ing buildings and other structures. Little or no capital and inade­
quate credit make it impossible for these people to pay their workers
promptly.
The division of women and children of the Minnesota Industrial
Commission attributes to hard times the revival of old wage claims—
some so small that no attorney will take them, some so weak that the
conciliation court counsels against filing them. “ Up to 1931 prac­
tically no wage collection work was done by this office, all claimants
being sent to the bureau of legal aid or to the conciliation court for
advice. Because an unusual emergency exists this department has
assumed some responsibility in aiding in the settlement of these wage
claims.”
Recommendations of Labor Offices
T h e recommendations of various labor offices with reference to
improvements in the matter of collecting wage claims are given in
brief below. A considerable number of offices, however, made no
suggestions on this subject.
The State labor commissioner of Colorado considers it desirable that
he should be empowered to sue in court without expense to the claim­
ant, theState furnishing a public prosecutor and making an adequate
appropriation to carry out this procedure. He also suggests that it
would be well for other States to establish a similar system.
The Connecticut Department of Labor has already recommended
to the State legislature the enactment of a statute more comprehen­
sive than the one under which it is at present operating and which
would authorize the commissioner to bring a civil suit for the collection


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-CLAIM W O RK OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

787

of wages. The enactment, with one or two changes^ of the “ model
statute for facilitating enforcement of wage claims” 6 is advocated:
A very useful provision of such a statute would be the California requirement
that any employee shall be paid his average rate of wages for the period which
elapses between the time of withholding wages and their final payment. In
California the delinquent employer is subject thereby not only to the serious
penalty of the Criminal Law, but also the penalty of paying the worker for the
time he has to wait for his wages.7

The chief of the labor division of the Department of Industrial
Relations of Georgia advocates the establishment of a department for
the collection of wage claims.
In the latter part of 1932 the Illinois Department of Labor had
under consideration the question of submitting to the general assembly
a bill giving the department authority in wage-claim cases.
The Kansas statutes provide that the county commissioner of any
city may set up a debtors’ court for the collection of wage claims not
exceeding $20. The small number of these courts and the rigid
limitation on the amount of the claims have seriously restricted their
effectiveness. It is suggested in the 1932 report of the Commission of
Labor and Industry of Kansas that “ each justice of the peace be
appointed judge of a small debtors’ court so that workers would have
a judge available in each community to assist them in the collection
of their labor debts.”
According to the Department of Labor and Industrial Statistics of
Louisiana, every State should empower its department of labor to
compel employers to pay wages, and a public defender should be
provided to enforce the law so that workers would not have to employ
attorneys to collect their earnings. “ If wages earned are to be paid
to attorneys because of nonpayment, workers had just as well be
unemployed.”
The Massachusetts Commissioner of Labor and Industries points
out that there is much to be done in perfecting the existing system for
the protection of workers against wage losses.
It would seem that the jurisdiction of the statute might well be made to cover
other fields beside industrial establishments. The worst type of offense occurs
in private domestic service. These are not covered by the Massachusetts law.
While it might not appear necessary to require the payment of wages weekly
to such employees, there should be some authority they could turn to for assist­
ance when they were not paid the wages which they had earned and have the
protection needed under these circumstances without personal expense. Types
of such cases include widowed women who are often compelled to do household
work to earn a living, and aged people who seek such employment as a means
for their support.
There should be interstate provision for the apprehension of employers who
fail to pay wages as required by law in the one State and escape into another
jurisdiction without discharging their obligations in this respect. While failure
to pay an employee the wages he has earned is classified as a misdemeanor, there
should be an arrangement by which States would cooperate in the enforcement
of wage-payment laws, as they now do in the case of felonies. The importance
of the laborer’s wage in his home and its relation to maintaining a family in a
normal manner justifies legislative action of this kind.

At the request of the Minnesota Industrial Commission, a bill was
introduced in the 1933 session of the State legislature to create a
« This proposed measure is published in the comparative digest of labor legislation for 10 States, prepared
for Conference on Labor Legislation called b y Governor Pinchot of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, June 18-19,
1931
^ Connecticut. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Report, 1930-32. N ew Haven,
1933, pp. 32-33.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

788

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

new division in the commission, with an adequate appropriation; the
duty of this division would be to advise wage claimants regarding
their legal rights and to assist them when necessary in civil actions
to recover wages due. The bill failed to come to a vote.
The labor commissioner of Montana reports that an unsuccessful
attempt was made in the recent legislature and in the preceding
legislatures to render it possible for the. State department of agricul­
ture, labor, and industry to aid wage claimants.
The labor commissioner of Nevada expresses the belief that the laws
governing wage payments should be strengthened to provide more
drastic penalties for failure to meet pay rolls. He also advocates
the enactment of laws making mandatory the posting of a bond
guaranteeing a 30-day pay roll for the maximum number of workers,
in the case of a corporation without sufficient clear assets to cover
its pay rolls.
In the judgment of the New Jersey Department of Labor, additional
legislation should be enacted to facilitate the payment of wage
claims, especially to overcome the employer’s obvious defense that
the claimed wages are not due. This is a civil issue requiring either
that the debt be assigned to the prosecuting authority, with adequate
legal aid to carry the case on through civil courts, or that the prose­
cuting agency be authorized to determine civil liability in such
controversies. The latter procedure has been proposed to the New
Jersey Legislature, to apply in wage cases involving up to $200; the
course of action in such cases would parallel that of the lowest civil
courts under the administration of justices of the peace. Another
provision included in the proposed legislation would give the depart­
ment authority to oblige litigants to appear and testify. This is a
great help toward the _satisfactory adjustment of the controversy
and, furthermore, minimizes prosecutions in court. The depart­
ment points out that the situation is becoming worse as a result of
financial conditions, the destitution of the wage earners making ordi­
nary legal procedure impossible for them.
The New York Department of Labor recommends the passage of
legislation for the better protection of the workers of the State, for
example:
1. To cause employers of labor to furnish a bond guaranteeing the payment
of wages or to show satisfactory evidence that such a bond is not necessary.
2. To cause a greater degree of liability to fall on the stockholders and officers
of a corporation than now exists.
3. To make it a criminal offense not to pay wages.
4. To consider the pilfering of an employee’s time in the same category as the
stealing of one’s property and to punish in the same manner.
5. To establish a minimum-wage law.

The commissioner of Oklahoma contends that the court method
of settling wage complaints “ is too burdensome, long drawn out, and
very unsatisfactory.” Workers cannot afford expensive legal pro­
ceedings to secure the wages they have already earned. He favors
some simple, speedy, inexpensive system of arriving at the facts re­
garding these wage claims and the enactment in every State of a
wage collection law modeled on the one in California. He also refers
to the Massachusetts and Nevada wage payment laws which seem
to him “ very effective and desirable.”
The 1933 session of the Oregon Legislature passed a wage collection
law (acts of 1933, ch. 279) which the bureau of labor of that State

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGE-CLAIM W O RK OF STATE LABOR OFFICES

789

reports will be of considerable assistance to that office and to the
wage earners. The bureau declares: “ We certainly have a weapon
so that the man who is able to pay can be forced to pay.”
In the latter part of November 1932 the Pennsylvania Department
of Labor and Industry was giving serious consideration to the working
out of the California wage collection law.8
In the annual report of the protection and claim bureau of the
Puerto Rico Department of Labor, 1931-32, recommendation is made
for various amendments to Law No. 40, 1917, under which wage
collection work is carried on. These proposed amendments include
provision for the inclusion of claims of employees and laborers illegally
discharged, for more rapid action in collecting claims, and for the
changing of section 10 to read as follows:
When a property subject to a share-cropping contract is sold, ceded, or leased
to another person or sold on public auction in a judicial proceeding, the cropper
may demand that he be permitted to harvest the crop corresponding to the cur­
rent agricultural year, and the cropper may claim as his such work, plantings, or
other things to which he may be entitled.

The chief inspector of the Department of Labor of Tennessee writes
that the experience of his office in dealing with the matter of wage
claims has led to the conviction that there is definite need for legisla­
tion in this connection.
The Texas Department of Labor “ is fostering an amendment to
the semimonthly pay day law which provides a semimonthly pay
day for any employer employing one or more employees.” The
passage of this amendment will make it possible for the department
to function something like a small claims court. Under the existing
law, the semimonthly pay day act is applicable only when more than
10 persons are employed.
An adequate law under which the Utah industrial commissioner
would be able to collect unpaid wages for employees was introduced
in the 1931 legislature but was not passed.
The statute under which the Washington Department of Labor and
Industries handles wage claims is declared by the labor commissioner
of that State to have “ no teeth in it.” The department has no en­
forcing power, which makes it impossible in a large number of cases
to secure for the claimants the wages due them. Adequate legislation
to remedy this evil is essential, and in several past sessions of the
legislature the department has endeavored without success to have
such a measure passed. The commissioner concludes that “ California
having about the only real effective wage collection law (despite the
fact that other States, like our own, have attempted similar legislation
and have failed), it would appear that congressional action is about
the only remedy.”
The so-called “ wage claim law” of Wisconsin, which became effec­
tive the latter part of June 1931, was a new departure for that State.
As noted above, the work of the commission has been very much ham­
pered by a court decision holding the penal provision of the act un­
constitutional. That body reports, however, that some worth-while
results have been obtained and that, as the weaknesses of the legisla­
tion are corrected in the light of experience, it may be hoped that a
system will be developed which will be of value to the small claimant
and involve no hardship for the employer.
8 Pennsylvania.
1932, p. 1.

Department of Labor and Industry.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Labor and Industry.

Harrisburg.

November

790

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

According to the Department of Labor of Wyoming, that office
should be authorized to bring suit for wage claimants in worthy
cases, especially where it is evident that it was the motive of the em­
ployer to defraud the wage earner. County attorneys should be at
the service of such claimants. “ A continuous wage clause should
obtain.”
Special Agencies for Handling Small W age Claims
A c c o r d i n g to the reports received, each of the following States
has a small-claims court or system of courts: California, Colorado,
Connecticut, Iowa (municipal court in Des Moines), Kansas (a few
small debtors’ courts, limited to claims not exceeding $20), Maryland
(people’s court), Massachusetts, Minnesota (conciliation courts),
Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, and South Dakota. Several labor
offices stated that small claims were also handled by justices of the
peace. In Arizona such officials handled claims involving amounts
up to $200, the cost of filing a claim under $50 being $1. In some
communities in Michigan justices of the peace have assumed respon­
sibility in small wage-claim cases.
The report of the standing committee on legal-aid work, submitted
to the American Bar Association at its annual meeting, Grand Rapids,
Mich., August 30-September 1, 1933, shows that in 1932 there were
73 legal-aid agencies, including public defenders, in 60 cities in 28
States and the District of Columbia.9
8 For a summary of the report on the work of legal-aid organizations, see page 845 of this issue.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Progress of M inim um -W age Movement in Mexico 1

HE Federal labor law of Mexico, which became effective on
August 28, 1931,2 provided for the determination of minimum
wages by special commissions to be appointed in each municipality
(corresponding more closely to a county in the United States than to a
city), subordinate to the central board of conciliation to be established
in each State.
In conforming to this law, minimum-wage standards have been set
by these special commissions in a number of municipalities, but out
of a total of 2,664 municipalities in the country only 197 had been
covered up to August 18, 1933.

T

Immediate Action Recommended by President

On A u g u s t 18, 1933, the President of Mexico addressed letters to
the governors of the various Mexican States concerning the adoption
of minimum-wage scales, as provided for in the Mexican labor law.
He pointed out the penury of the peons, and the general low standard
of living as compared with that in other “ educated” countries.
Calling attention to the disadvantages accruing if the fixation of the
minimum wage was not effected simultaneously in all parts of the
country, he recommended a figure for each State as a first step in a
progressive increase, which should continue until the worker receives
an equitable recompense for his labor, this being given as 4 pesos per
day. He desires that the figures given be fixed as the minimum wages
of the cheapest unskilled labor, other wages being made higher, as
necessary.
The following table shows in column 1 the minimum wage believed
necessary by the Department of Labor of the Ministry of National
Economy, calculated as explained in a subsequent section of this
article; column 2 shows the actual average minimum wage, by
States, as shown by data collected from August 1, 1931, to June 30,
1932; and column 3 shows the President’s recommendations which,
it will be noted, are lower than the actual wage in five cases, and higher
in all others.
1
This article was prepared from reports of Josephus Daniels, American Ambassador to Mexico, and
W illiam P. Cochran, Jr., American vice consul at Mexico City.
2
A summary of the provisions of this law and a translation of the text of the law were published in U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. N o. 569, Labor Legislation of Mexico.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

791

792

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

A C T U A L A N D R E C O M M E N D E D D A IL Y W A G E S IN S P E C IF IE D M E X I C A N S T A T E S
[Mexican peso at par=49.9 cents; average exchange rate week ending Aug. 26, 1933=28.1 cents]
D aily wage
State
Desir­
able 1

Pesos
2. 77
3. 71
3. 25
Chiapas.. _ _. ________
3.13
District Federal
3. 81
Guanajuato . . . . .
3. 05
Hidalgo
3. 32
Mexico
3. 18
Morelos. _ . . . . . . . .
3. 49
N uevo Leon _ _____ _ . . 2.17
Puebla. ___ ______. . . . .
3. 32
3. 20
San Luis Potosi . . . ___ .
Sonora
. . . . . .
.
3. 67
3. 34
3. 52
Zacatecas ____
3. 02
Baja California, Sur__ . . . .

Daily wage

A c­
tual

Recom­
mend­
ed 2

Pesos
0. 61
1. 80
1.08
.68
1.13
. 59
.69
. 65
.89
.96
.63
.64
1. 62
1. 13
1.07
.64

Pesos
1.00
3 1.50
1. 50
1.00
1. 50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1. 50
1.00
1.00
3 1. 50
1. 50
1. 50
1. 00

State
Desir­
able 1

A c­
tual

Recom ­
m end­
ed 2

Pesos
6. 08
3. 77
3. 02
3. 30
2. 82
3. 21
2. 82
3. 31
3. 15
3. 34
3. 32
3. 26
3. 77
3. 25
3. 62

Pesos
3. 50
1. 82
. 70
1. 22
.93
. 55
.63
.72
.80
.57
.43
1.09
1.31
.70
1.16

Pesos
3 3. 00
3 1. 50
1. 00
1. 50
1. 00
1. 00
1. 00
1. 00
1. 00
1. 00
1. 00
3 1. 00
1. 50
1. 00
1. 50

1 Calculated b y Department of Labor.
2 M inim um recommended b y the President.
3 Less than the actual average minimum wage.

The full text of the President’s letter, as translated from the news­
paper Excelsior of August 25, 1933, is given below:
T h e N a t io n a l P a l a c e , A u g u s t 18, 1933.

M y D e a r F r ie n d :

As the Executive of the nation, I have been deeply and constantly preoccupied
by the impoverished condition of our working classes. It is on the national con­
science, that the peasant masses mainly lack the most essential elements of con­
temporary civilization, as their level of living can be considered inferior to the one
enjoyed in the majority of the educated nations. The field and town workers
continue to be underfed; the quality of the clothing used does not even answer
climatic needs; very rarely is there a small surplus for modest diversions, while
the sum which should be had for emergencies, savings, and culture does not even
exist.
At the present time it is not possible to accept the theory of the separation of
capital and labor, as there has been imposed the truth of the community of
interest between these factors, due to the imperative need of an equitable dis­
tribution of wealth, as generalized consumption is the only means capable of
assuring the success of production. Therefore, the impoverished state of the
working masses reechoes throughout business, making it small, reducing its
volume to such a degree that technical organization of business is rendered im­
possible, thus isolating prosperity which is the result of large-scale production,
and submerging us in the despairing invalidism which comes with confused and
insufficient production.
The maximum revolutionary ideal being the happiness of every Mexican, it is
the unavoidable obligation of the executive in my charge to give preference to the
development of the different economic sectors.
We should see to it that our natural resources be rationally exploited, that they
leave an equitable profit to the country, avoiding any immoderate exploitation
which fundamentally constitutes a reason of unmeasured prosperity for the
absentee, and a depression for the laborers owing to the miserable wages earned.
I believe the time can no longer be postponed for the introduction of technical
progress (advancement) in the industrial and agricultural enterprises of the
country in the double aspect of systematized organization and greater production;
but, as the cardinal object, we should pursue the establishment of better wages
until we secure the effective and speedy raising of the level of living of the working
classes as we are not now in that former period which required many men on
starvation wages in order to obtain a scanty production; on the contrary, the
success of the entire economic process now depends, in the final analysis, on the
capacity of consumption of the great masses of the people.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M IN IM UM -W AGE MOVEMENT IN M EXICO

793

The constant exposition of our ideology and the firm action of the governments
of the revolution have secured that in some zones of the Republic fairly acceptable
wages have been fixed; however, in general, we cannot be satisfied with the results
obtained. The poverty wage still rules, and the national standard of living is so
low that one may assert that our people have barely emerged from the lamentable
position to which they were relegated during the colonial period.
I wish to emphasize the bitter reality contained in these two concrete facts:
(a) In various sections of the country, tractors have been withdrawn, because it
is cheaper to plow the land with the old egyptian plow; and (b) frequently owners
of droves of beasts of burden charge an equal or lower rate than do the busses or
the railroad.
It is well known that the human being cannot readily compete with the machine,
and thus the explanation of this anomaly is the inversion of a censurable factor—
the exploitation of man. Only when a wage of 0.25 centavo or even less is paid
can peasants compete with tractors, and mule drivers with railroads. However,
the result of the conflict is fatal for the human factor, because the poverty wage
compromises his and his family’s very existence, making nugatory any hope of
racial betterment.
The foregoing reasons having been duly weighed, the conviction is reached that
it is now time to abandon the policy of indecision and resolutely to proceed to fix
a minimum wage which will at least satisfy elementally the vital needs of the
workers; but we must not lose sight of the expedience of the minimum wage’s
being fixed simultaneously throughout the country, without a single municipality’s
failing to comply with this legal precept, as any omission would cause an economic
lack of equilibrium which could be taken advantage of by certain enterprises in
order to make disloyal competition to the ones established in sections where a fair
and equitable minimum wage governs.
If one wishes to fulfill, even slightly, the constitutional precept which gives the
workingman the amount essential for the satisfying of the normal exigencies of
existence, his education and his modest diversions, as the head of a family; and
considering the prices of articles of prime necessity, we should proceed at once to
fix the minimum wage in each federal entity, in accordance with the following
table: 2
It is necessary to make clear that on suggesting the immediate installation of
a minimum wage of 1 and 1.50 pesos, I have the firm conviction that neither
amount must be taken as the limit of the rising scale of wages, but rather that
the following step in the scale should be fixed at a minimum of 2 pesos, the next
at 3 pesos, and the next at 4 pesos, an amount which then would be sufficient to
satisfy an acceptable standard of living, without prejudice to later increases as
in general, and in normal times, wages should never be stationary and much less,
should never be reduced; on the contrary, each time they should be larger.
It is fitting, also, to call your attention to the fact that, on determining the
amounts of 1 peso and 1.50 pesos as an applicable minimum wage to be applied
as shown in the foregoing table, it is not my intention to limit each State, as I
leave to the good judgment of the commission to fix the minimum wage for
larger amount in any of those municipalities where economic or geographic condi­
tions indicate a need for higher wages than those which govern in many parts
of the Republic. Also, I believe it pertinent to point out that the amounts of
1 peso and 1.50 pesos should be fixed as the actual minimum wage for unclassified
peasants and workingmen, making speedy the rise in the fixing of wages for
classified workingmen, miners, etc., depending on the productivity, risks, inten­
sity, or preparation needed by the different industries.
In accordance with the Federal labor law, at the end of 1932, the minimum
wage should have been fixed in the 2,664 municipalities of the country; but,
according to information from the department on the subject, only 197 commis­
sions have rendered their decisions. The North Territory of Lower California
leads with a minimum wage of 3 pesos and the State of Sonora with one of 1.50
pesos.
It can be considered, therefore, that the provisions in the matter of minimum
wages have not been fulfilled, and that, therefore, there remains pending this
social need which must be satisfied as soon as possible, as it would be illegal
and inexpedient to leave the problem unsolved until 1934, the date on which, in
compliance with article 415 of the law cited, the commissions entrusted with the
fixing of the minimum wage are supposed to hold another meeting.
In order to correct this deficiency, I am prepared to present to the Congress
of the Union a project for the reform of the article specified, to the effect that the
2 See column 3 of table on preceding page.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

794

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

revision of the minimum wage be made annually, and that the abnormal situation
in which the workingmen now find themselves cease immediately.
The minimum wages of 1.50 and 1, at least, are required with urgency, not
only by the salaried human factor, but also by the agriculturists, merchants, and
industrialists who are desirous of increasing the capacity of the national market,
and in order that capital may increase in volume and the circulation thereof be
speeded up, for the good of our economic régime.
I hope, with reason, that you will realize the enormous importance which the
raising of the living standard represents for the working masses, and beforehand I
believe that I may count upon your enthusiastic collaboration and effective
influence, principally with the agriculturists and industrialists, in your jurisdic­
tion, in order that in the State in your worthy charge the minimum wage specified
in the enclosed table may be adopted. From the interest and special effort you
may see fit to make, will depend the local success of this campaign in favor of
better wages; it being my opinion that the fact that wage will be simultaneous
throughout the Republic will do a great deal to convincing the managers and
capitalists, and that they themselves will reap great benefits when the purchasing
power of the working classes is increased.
As I am intensely interested in the fixing throughout the country of the mini­
mum wage under reference and, this matter being of enormous importance to me,
I very specially request you to keep me informed of the results of any efforts you
may make in the matter, expressing to you my very attentive and distinguished
consideration.
A. L. R o d r íg u e z ,
P r esid en t o f the R ep u b lic.

Proposed Extension of Minimum W age to Government Employees

E l N a c i o n a l of August 31 carried an article to the effect that
President Rodriguez had signed an executive order to the Ministry of
the Treasury, charging the minister with providing in the 1934 budget
for a minimum salary for all public servants of the Mexican Govern­
ment, thereby putting into actual practice the President’s recent
initiative establishing a minimum wage in Mexico. There are
employees of the Government in 2,032 establishments in various
departments of the Government who will be affected by this order.
The order does not affect the salaried officials of the Government who,
the article states, are now being amply paid for their services, but
it aids the laboring classes of the Government whose daily pay in
some cases has been less than the minimum wage fixed by the Presi­
dent for those employed within the Federal District.
M ethod of Calculating Desirable Minim um W age

I n c a l c u l a t i n g the minimum wage rates (as set forth in column 1
of the table), which the Department of Labor felt desirable for the
different sections of the country, the department used the following
method of computation:
S ize o j ja m ily .— The basis is the family of five: The worker, his
wife, one grown child, one small child, and a nonworking older
dependent.
F ood .— The number of calories needed per day for the family unit
was set as follows:
Calories

Worker______________________________________________
Wife_________________________________________________
Older child___________________________________________
Younger child_______________________________________
Older relative________________________________________
Total

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3,
2,
1,
1,
2,

601.
444.
525.
200.
444.

20
50
00
00
50

11, 215. 20

795

M IN IM UM -W AGE MOVEMENT IN MEXICO

This number of calories was obtained by the consumption of the
following foods:
Calories

Corn or .tortillas (1,500 grams)_____________________________________
Bread (400 grams)________________________________________________
Beans, lentils, or chickpeas (350 grams)____________________________
Rice (200 grams)--------------------------------------------------------------------------Meat of beef, veal, goat, pig, or fish (800 grams)___________________
Lard (100 grams)--------------------------------------------------------------------------Peppers, chile (50 grams)__________________________________________
Coffee (30 grams)_________________________________________________
Sugar (200 grams)-------------------------------------------------------------------------Milk (1,500 liters)-------------------------------------------------------------------------Salt, fixed quota (1 centavo)_______________________________________
Vegetables, fixed quota (6 centavos)_______________________________

3,

480.
l ’ 020.
l ’ 270.
’ 690.
1, 600.
840.
18.
69.
840!
1 , 005.
18.
362.

00
00
00
00
00
00
90
48
00
00
90
92

Total-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11,

215. 20

There is also an allowance of 2 kilograms (4.4 pounds) of charcoal
per day for cooking.
Housing.— The average monthly rent, as determined by the
presidente municipal, is divided by 30 (days) to arrive at the cost per
day.
Clothing.— The following is the method of computing the amount
of cloth needed for underwear of coarse, unbleached cotton cloth:
M eters3

2 shirts (worker and olderrelative), each____________________ 2. 50
2 drawers, men (worker and olderrelative), each____________ 3. 00
1 shirt, wife________________________________________________ 3 . 00
1 shirt, older child____________ ____________________________ 2. 00
1 drawers, older child______________________________________ 2. 50
1 shirt, young child________________________________________ 1 . 00
6 diapers, each____________________________________________ 1 . 00

All the clothing is supposed to last 60 days except that for the
young child which is supposed to last 90 days. The amount of cloth
needed every 60 days is set as follows for the various articles:
Meters 3

2 men’s shirts_______________________________________________ 5 . 00
2 men’s trousers____________________________________________ 6. 00
1 woman’s waist____________________________________________ 3 . 00
1 older child’s shirt________________________________________ 2. 00
1 older child’s trousers______________________________________ 2. 50
1 younger child’s shirt_____________________________________ . 66
6 diapers__________________________________________________ 4 . 00
Total-----------------------------------------------------------------------23.16

This amount is multiplied by the cost per meter and divided by 60
to give the cost of the clothing per day, or 0.386 meter of cloth
necessary per day.
For outer clothing, of canvas or duck or denim, the following is
allowed.
Meters

3

2 men’s blouses, worker and older relative, 2.50 each______
2 men’s trousers, worker and older relative, 3.00 each_____
1 blouse, older child, 1.50 each____________________________
1 pants, older child, 2.50 each____________________________

5.
6.
1.
2.

00
00
50
50

Total---------------------------------------------------------------------

15.

00

M eter=39.37 inches.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

796

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

This is multiplied by the cost of the cloth per meter and divided by
90 to give the cost per day, or 0.16666 meter per day. For a percale
blouse for the wife, 2.50 meters of cloth (0.04166 meter per day for
60 days) is allowed.
Every 60 days 2 pairs of shoes or sandals are allowed for the
worker and the older relative and every 90 days 1 pair of shoes or
sandals for the wife and for the older child.
Certain miscellaneous articles of clothing are allowed every 180
days as follows: 1 woman’s shawl, 1 man’s blanket (similar to poncho,
worn), 1 hat of palm straw or felt, and 1 suit of common rough wool.
Hygiene.— The family is allowed one cake of soap (at 5 centavos)
per day for the five persons and, presumably, for their laundry.
Each person is allowed three baths per month, or 15 in all.
Light.— The family is allowed 100 grams of candles per day, or one
tenth of a liter of kerosene per day, or (where there is electricity) the
daily cost of one light globe.
Entertainment.-—Allowance is made for the cost of admission of the
four older members of the family to some kind of a spectacle 4 times
per month, or 16 of the cheapest admissions; this is divided by 30
to obtain the daily rate.
Unforeseen necessary expenses.— For these, such as the doctor and
dentist, 10 percent of the total of the above items is added.
There is also added 5 percent to cover errors in calculation dis­
covered after the figures were collected.
It may also be pointed out that where the workmen are not paid
for their weekly day of rest the figures must be increased by one sixth,
but this was not done in computing the figures given.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS AND
UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF
Purposes and Policies of Public Works Administration

HE Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, better
known as the Public Works Administration, has recently issued
several pamphlets describing the purposes, policies, functioning, and
organization of the Emergency Administration, together with the
rules of procedure prescribed by the President of the United States.
These rules and regulations control all contracts let for construction
of public works financed under the act, whether Federal or nonFederal, and all loans and grants pursuant to the act. The act directs
that the Public Works Administrator, under the direction of the
President, shall prepare a comprehensive program of public works.
This program is to be related to the reconstruction legislation of
which the Recovery Act is a part. The purpose underlying the entire
project is to increase the consumption of industrial and agricultural
products by increasing purchasing power, to reduce and relieve unem­
ployment, to improve standards of labor, and otherwise to rehabilitate
industry and conserve natural resources.
As the part of the Public Works Administration in this program is
to provide employment quickly, it is not possible to await the com­
plete formulation of the comprehensive program, but it is possible to
select projects which will be consistent with such a program when
formulated. The Administration, therefore, with a view to increasing
employment quickly while reasonably securing any loan made by the
Administrator, will aid in the construction and financing of any
public works projects deemed worthy of inclusion.
The pamphlets describe in detail how loans may be procured and
what rules must be followed to secure such loans from the Public
Works Administration.

T

Labor Policy

T he policies of the Public Works Administration in regard to labor
are as follows:
S e c t io n 1. (1) Opportunities for employment on projects authorized under
the Emergency Administration of Public Works shall be equitably distributed
among the qualified workers who are unemployed, not among those who merely
wish to change one good job for another. (2) These work opportunities shall be
distributed, geographically, as widely and as equitably as may be practicable.
(3) Qualified workers who, under the law, are entitled to preference shall secure
such preference. (4) The wasteful cost and personal disappointments due to
excessive increase of labor in the vicinity of work projects shall be avoided. (5)
Local labor required for such projects and appropriately to be secured through
employment services shall, as far as practicable, be selected from lists of qualified
workers submitted by local employment agencies designated by the United States
11456°—33----- 3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

797

798

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

Employment Service. Highly skilled or organized labor shall not be required to
register for work at such local employment agencies but shall be secured in the
customary ways through recognized trade-union locals. In the event such highly
skilled organized workers are not furnished by such locals within 48 hours after
request is filed with them, then such workers shall be obtained through local
employment agencies designated by the United States Employment Service.
S e c . 2. All contracts let for construction projects and all loans and grants
pursuant to this title shall contain such provisions as are necessary to insure (1)
that no convict labor shall be employed on any such project; (2) that (except in
executive, administrative, and supervisory positions) so far as practicable and
feasible, no individual directly employed on any such project shall be permitted
to work more than 30 hours in any 1 week; (3) that all employees shall be paid
just and reasonable wages which shall be compensation sufficient to provide, for
the hours of labor as limited, a standard of living in decency and comfort; (4)
that in the employment of labor in connection with any such project, preference
shall be given, where they are qualified, to ex-service men with dependents, and
then in the following order: (a) To citizens of the United States and aliens who
have declared their intention of becoming citizens, who are bona fide residents
of the political subdivisions and of county in which the work is to be performed,
and (b) to citizens of the United States and aliens who have declared their inten­
tion of becoming citizens, who are bona fide residents of the State, territory, or
district in which the work is to be performed: P rovid ed , That these preferences
shall apply only where such labor is available and qualified to perform the work
to which the employment relates; and (5) that the maximum of human labor
shall be used in lieu of machinery wherever practicable and consistent with sound
economy and public advantage.
S e c . 3. (1) No convict labor shall be employed on any project financed in whole
or in part by funds provided by the United States. No materials manufactured
or produced by convict labor shall be used on any projects so financed. Violation
of this rule may be notified by the agency of the United States executing the
contract, to the district attorney of the appropriate district, who will proceed,
if so directed by the Attorney General, to bring a criminal action for the violation
of this rule.
(2) Thirty-hour week so far as practicable and feasible. This requirement
shall be construed to permit hours of work per week as provided for any class of
labor in the code covering such class, adopted pursuant to title I of this act.
If the class of labor be not covered by such code, then persons in classes not
covered shall be permitted to work only 30 hours per week. This requirement
shall be construed (a) to permit working time lost because of inclement weather or
unavoidable delays in any 1 week to be made up in the succeeding week or weeks of
any calendar month, (b) to permit the limitation of not more than 130 hours’ work
in any 1 calendar month to be substituted for the requirement of not more than
30 hours’ work in any 1 week on projects in localities where a sufficient amount
of labor is not available in the immediate vicinity of the work.
It shall not be considered practicable and feasible to apply either of these
limitations to work located at points so remote and inaccessible that camps are
necessary for the housing and boarding of all the labor employed, and if so deter­
mined by the State engineer (P.W.A.) prior to advertisement: P r o v id ed , That in
such cases no individual shall be permitted to work more than 8 hours in any 1
day or more than 40 hours in any 1 week.
Violations of this rule may be notified by the Administrator or by the agency
of the United States executing the contract to the district attorney of the appro­
priate district, who will proceed, if so directed by the Attorney General, to bring a
criminal action for the violation of this rule.
(3) Just and reasonable wages. Such wages shall be compensation sufficient
to provide, for the hours of labor as limited, a standard of living in decency and
comfort.
N ote .—I t is intended that schedules will be furnished the State advisory boards and the State engineer
(P .W .A .) which will determine minimum wages.

(a) All wages shall be paid in full not less often than once each week and in law­
ful money of the United States, in the full amount earned by each individual, at
the time of payment. There shall be no deductions on account of goods pur­
chased, rent, or other obligations. Such obligations shall be subject to collection
only by legal process. Any violation of rule 3 (a) may be notified by the Admin­
istrator, or by the agency of the United States executing the contract, to the dis­
trict attorney of the appropriate district, who will proceed, if so directed by the
Attorney General, to bring a criminal action for the violation of this rule.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

799

(4) The contractor under any construction contract entered into by the
Administrator, or by any agency of the United States, financed by funds appro­
priated under the National Industrial Recovery Act, shall post in a prominent and
easily accessible place at the site of the work a clearly legible statement of all wage
rates to be paid the several classes of labor employed on the work. Any violation
of this rule may be notified by the Administrator, or by the agency of the United
States executing the contract, to the district attorney of the appropriate district,
who will proceed, if so directed by the Attorney General, to bring a criminal action
for the violation of this rule.
(5) If it shall be found by the Administrator, or by the agency of the United
States executing the contract, that any laborer or mechanic employed by the
contractor or any subcontractor under any contract financed in whole or in
part by funds appropriated under the authority of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, has been or is being paid less than is prescribed in the contract,
the Administrator, or the agency of the United States executing the contract,
shall notify such contractor or subcontractor to pay such laborer or mechanic
all wages due him according to the prescribed rate. Upon 10 days’ default on
the part of such contractor or subcontractor, the Administrator, or the agency
of the United States executing the contract, shall notify the district attorney
of the appropriate district, who will proceed, if so directed by the Attorney
General, to bring a criminal action for the violation of this rule.
W age Rates
T h e Public Works Administration has determined that for the
purposes of setting up minimum wage rates the United States shall be
divided into three zones and that in these zones the wage rates per
hour to be paid on construction projects shall be not less than the
following:

Southern zone: 1
Skilled labor_________________________________________ $1. 00
Unskilled labor______________________________________
. 40
Central zone: 2
Skilled labor_________________________________________ 1. 10
Unskilled labor______________________________________
. 45
Northern zone: 3
Skilled labor_________________________________________ 1. 20
Unskilled labor______________________________________
. 50
Accident Prevention
T h e contract form issued by the Public Works Administration
contains the following paragraph on accident prevention:

The contractor shall at all times exercise reasonable precautions for the safety
of employees on the work and shall comply with all applicable provisions of
Federal, State, and municipal safety laws and building and construction codes.
All machinery and equipment and other physical hazards shall be guarded in
accordance with safety codes approved by the American Standards Association,
unless such codes are incompatible with Federal, State, or municipal laws or
regulations. Nothing in this article shall be construed to permit the enforcement
of any laws, codes, or regulations herein specified by any except the contracting
officer.
1 South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arizona, Oklahoma,
Texas, and N ew Mexico.
2 Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, Colorado, Utah, California, North Carolina, West Vir­
ginia. Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Nevada, and District of Columbia.
3 Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, N ew York, New Jersey,
Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, W yom ing, Oregon, South Dakota, Idaho, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, North Dakota, Montana, and Washington.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

800

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW
Allotments for Public Works

T h e following table shows allotments made by the Public Works
Administration up to and including September 23. Both the Federal
and non-Federal allotments are shown by types of projects.
A L L O T M E N T S OF F E D E R A L F U N D S F O R P U B L IC W O R K S

Purpose of allotment
Non-Federal projects
Waterworks, sewerage systems, gas plants, power and light plants, and incinerators —

Amount allotted

$32, 932,000
4, 268, 500
37, 541, 620
1, 250, 380
45,886, 000
37, 500, 000
159,378, 500

Federal projects
182,442, 281
4,865, 770
53, 659,450
296,000
5, 630, 000
245,804,114
1, 200, 000
1,528,000
6,000,000
1, 174,000
73, 699, 700
1,982, 271
1, 525,000
54, 709, 358
Buildings:

1, 318,811
5, 372,051
15,637,058
5,176,180
348, 000
510,118

B y congressional and Executive orders:

Total

- ----------- - -

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

400, 000, 000
100, 000, 000
238, 000,000
25, 000, 000
171, 638
1, 550, 000
1,427, 599,800
1, 586,978,300

National Reemployment Service

HE United States Employment Service has been assigned a very
definite function in the program of the Federal Emergency
Administration of Public Works. This assignment came at the very
beginning of the new service provided by the Wagner-Peyser Act,
and, therefore, the performing of this emergency function became the
responsibility of the Director of the new United States Employment
Service.
The special Board for Public Works, on June 22, 1933, promul­
gated a labor policy providing that (1) opportunities for employment
on public works be distributed among the unemployed and not made
an opportunity for a mere exchanging of jobs; (2) work opportunities
be equitably distributed geographically; (3) preferences under the

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

801

law should be safeguarded; and (4) migration of laborers in quest of
work should be prevented.
These led to the following rule which assigned a special function to
the United States Employment Service:
5. Local labor required for such projects, and appropriately to be secured
through employment services, should so far as possible be selected from lists of
qualified workers submitted by local employment agencies designated by the
United States Employment Service.

At the time this rule was made, there were only 135 free publicemployment agencies in the United States. Yet it was provided that,
in the public-roads program alone, funds should be expended in at
least three fourths of the counties of each State. This indicated a
public-works program in approximately 2,200 counties. Obviously,
if agencies were to be designated from which contractors were to
secure lists _of eligible qualified workers, such agencies must be
established in sufficient numbers to serve all the counties in which
work will be extended, and these agencies must be administered by
and under control of the United States Employment Service.
Since no funds were available for this emergency activity, the special
Board for Public^ Works allocated $500,000 to the United States
Employment Service for the national and State administrative costs
of furnishing temporary service. The Federal Emergency Relief
Administration agreed to pay the operating costs of local offices where
such should be needed.
In order to designate the temporary emergency nature of the em­
ployment work to be done, the name chosen was “ National Reem­
ployment Service.” Furthermore, that there might be no danger of
setting up a competitive agency, it was announced that where there
is a free public-employment service, State or municipal, no reemploy­
ment service would be established.
The Director of the United States Employment Service appointed
in each State a State reemployment director, with such numbers of
field supervisors and office staff as the available work opportunities
indicated would be necessary. The persons so appointed are now
functioning throughout the entire Nation.
In each county where work opportunities are anticipated for the
near future there is organized a county reemployment committee,
comprising the chairman or a leading member of the county relief
committee, a representative of labor, an employer, an outstanding
civic leader, and the county engineer or other representative of
public construction interests. As of September 9 plans had been
made for 1,595 reemployment offices, 824 county committees had been
organized, and 823 offices had been actually established. The pro­
gram is proceeding as rapidly as seems consistent with careful planning
for an emergency piece of work.
It is the purpose to make this reemployment service so efficient that
it will demonstrate to the public the value of maintaining an orderly
labor market. The temporary emergency nature of the work is
emphasized, and all who are engaged in it are determined that the
service shall, as soon as possible, be merged into the regular employ­
ment service as rapidly as States avail themselves of the opportunity
open to them under the Wagner-Peyser Act.
As the public-works plans have developed under the direction of the
Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, the labor

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

802

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

policy has evolved, and the latest statements of that policy are found
in the form of contract published on September 7, 1933. Article 19
(b) of that contract reads:
To the fullest extent possible, labor required for the project and appropriate
to be secured through employment services, shall be chosen from the lists of
qualified workers submitted by local employment agencies designated by the
United States Employment Service: P ro vid ed , h ow ever, That organized labor,
skilled and unskilled, shall not be required to register at such local employment
agencies but shall be secured in the customary ways through recognized union
locals. In the event, however, that qualified workers are not furnished by the
union locals within 48 hours (Sundays and holidays excluded) after request is
filed by the employers, such labor may be chosen from lists of qualified workers
submitted by local agencies designated by the United States Employment Service.
In the selection of workers from lists prepared by such employment agencies and
local unions, the labor preferences provided in section (a) of this article shall be
observed.

Col. H. M. Waite, deputy administrator, Federal Emergency
Administration of Public Works, has interpreted this rule as follows:
The contractor must secure organized labor, skilled and unskilled, through
recognized trade-union locals. It shall be the duty of the union locals to furnish
such qualified workers as they are requested to supply within 48 hours after re­
quest is filed by the employer. In the event, however, that such qualified workers
requested are not furnished by the trade-union locals within the specified period
of time, the contractor has two alternatives. First, he may continue to wait for
such period as he chooses until the trade-union locals furnish the requested workers.
Second, if he does not choose to wait longer he must secure the qualified workers
he has requested from lists of qualified workers submitted by local agencies desig­
nated by the United States Employment Service.
It is our intention that the contractor shall secure all such workers as are not
furnished by trade-union locals from local agencies designated by the United
States Employment Service.

State reemployment directors have been urged to establish the
most cordial relations with recognized union locals, in order that
registration, classification, and placement of workers on public-works
projects may proceed in an orderly manner.
Work of Federal Emergency Relief Administration

HE Federal Emergency Relief Act was approved May 12, 1933.
That act made available $500,000,000 to be expended through the
States for the assistance of the unemployed through either direct
relief or work relief. Of this sum, half was to be allotted to the various
States on a basis of $1 of Federal funds for $3 of local money, while
the other half was to be expended in direct grants to States whose
relief needs were too great or whose financial resources too inadequate
to enable them to meet the situation.
At the time the Administrator provided for under the act took
office (May 22, 1933) it was estimated that some 4,000,000 families,
representing 18,000,000 persons, were receiving relief from public
funds. Of the $100,253,444 of Federal money disbursed under the
relief act during the period ending July 31, all but $6,937,459 was on
the “ matched-funds ” basis. Table 1 shows the number of families
given relief during the 3 months April to June 1933, the total Federal
aid disbursed for unemployment relief during the same months, and
of this the amount that had to be matched (in the proportion of 3 to 1)
from local funds.1

T

1 For grants under sec. 4 (c), to self-help organizations, see article on page 806.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

803

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF
T able

1.— F A M IL IE S

A ID E D A N D E X P E N D IT U R E S IN C U R R E D U N D E R F E D E R A L
R E L IE F A C T , A P R IL TO A U G U ST, 1933

Unemployment relief from Federal
funds
Number of
families
given relief Matched al­
lotments

M onth

4,458, 736
April 1933 . _____________________
M a y 1933_____________________________ 4, 225, 385
June 1933 ____________ ________ _
3, 775,614
July 1933_____________________________ 2 1, 432,159
August 1933 . . . - ___ __
2 1, 390, 655

$32,600,019
18,123, 283
42, 592, 683
(>)

Outright
grants

$808, 429
6,129,030
(>)

Total

Total ex­
penditures
for relief,
from Fed­
eral, State,
and local
funds

$32, 600,019
18.931.712
48.721.713
49,882, 034

$72, 544,919
70, 340, 275
66,182,186
(>)
(>)

1 Data not available.
2102 urban localities only.

Table 2 shows preliminary figures for 102 urban localities, covering
number of persons given relief and expenditures therefor during July
and August 1933.
T a b l e 2 .—T R E N D OF U R B A N R E L IE F F R O M JU LY T O A U G U ST 1933

[Based on preliminary reports from State relief administrations. Subject to revision]

Families and single­
resident persons
Locality
July
Akron, Ohio__________
Albany, N .Y _________
Albuquerque, N .M ex.1
Allentown, P a ________
Altoona, Pa.1_________

7,493
2,889
457
( 2)

August

Total obligations in­
curred from public
funds
July

August

6,914
3, 745
727

$159, 231
59, 836
4, 066

$156, 000
75,946
5,262

5, 232

4, 626

58, 276

52,364

Asheville, N .C ..
Atlanta, Ga.1___
Baltimore, M d „.
Berkeley, Calif
Bethlehem, Pa.1.

1,869
10, 807
23, 635
(3)
5, 252

1,860
10, 565
23, 384

19,004
129, 710
616,117

18,938
137, 584
781, 476

4, 757

66,121

70,119

Birmingham, Ala.1
Boise, Idaho______
Boston, M ass_____
Bridgeport, Conn
B rockton, M a s s.-.

19,313
710

18,837
700

135,689
5,600

155,975
3,776

2, 400

70, 953

73,196

24, 305

746, 538

694,109

4,182

47,024

60, 623

3, 650

50, 721

54, 000

6,217
2,586
3,508
4, 535

59,395
38,019
38,415
95,904

69,395
33,215
24, 876
83, 349

170,000
22, 324
42,887
12,418

150,000
21, 600
41, 500
11, 467

4,307, ÖÖÖ
541,112
968,600
231,455

4, 650,000
539,000
1, 005, 700
225,894

11,189
7, 522
11,760
5,012
44,029

12,095
7,400
11,463
5,049
43, 200

179,152
140, 560
174, 366
71,419
1,225,138

165, 768
137, 000
168, 707
77, 407
1,256,970

Buffalo, N .Y ____
Burlington, V t___
Butte, M on t.1___
Cambridge, Mass
Canton, Ohio____
Casper, W y o _____
Charleston, S.C.L.
Charleston, W .Va.
Charlotte, N .C ___
Chester, Pa.1.........
Cheyenne, W yo.
Chicago, 111.1____
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Columbus, OhioDallas, T ex.L ..........
Dayton, Ohio_____
Denver, C olo_____
Des Moines, I o w a 1
Detroit, M ich_____

( 2)

2, 750

( 2)

24, 330
( 2)

4,159

( 2)

3,903

(2)

5,963
2,855
4, 230
6,440

(2)

1 Figures shown for these cities are those reported for the entire county in which the city is located. The
figures shown for Gary, Ind., are those reported for North and Calumet Townships.
2 N o report received.
3 Comparable figures not received.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

804

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

T a b l e 2.—T R E N D OF U R B A N R E L IE F F R O M JU L Y T O A U G U ST 1933—Continued

Families and singleresident persons
Locality
July
Duluth, M inn.1..
El Paso, Tex.1___
Erie, Pa________
Evansville, Ind.1.
Fall River, Mass.

(2)

Fargo, N .D a k .1. . .
Flint, M ich______
Fort W ayne, Ind_.
Fort W orth, Tex.1.
Fresno, Calif_____
Gary, Ind.1........ ........
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Greensboro, N .C ____
Harrisburg, Pa______
Hartford, C onn_____

7,995
5, 412

August

Total obligations in­
curred from public
funds
July

August

8,150
5,865

$122,473
44, 666

$140, 200
47,915

4, 362

62, 279

57, 000

354
3, 653
4, 780
13,381
(3)

321
2,460
4,680
9,420

7,087
74, 537
72, 011
96, 539

4, Oil
73,140
77, 637
72,800

9,918
6,949
1,901

7,847
6, 282
1,845

139,027
118,445
29, 605

113, 629
118, 828
26,118

4,406

(2)

(2)

3,934

3, 741

99,040

96,866

Houston, Tex.1____
Huntington, W .Va.
Indianapolis, Ind.1.
Jackson, Miss_____
Jacksonville, Fla.1..

12,930
5, 280
11,420
1,814
18,263

12,850
5,984
10, 480
1,861
19,376

149, 506
66,438
126, 514
15,861
82,059

159, 736
62, 770
128,192
20, 661
98,904

Jersey City, N .J ___
Kansas City, Kans.V
Kansas City, M o . . .
Kenosha, W is.1_____
Knoxville, Tenn.1. - .

7, 630
5, 725

7,416
5, 350

143,257
51,990

145,627
43,998

(3)

3,721
3,924

94, 892
29,735

Lancaster, P a -------Lawrence, M ass__
Little Rock, A r k ...
Los Angeles, Calif.1
Louisville, K y -------

( 2)
(2)

132,829
2,335

2, 204,122
40,073

Lowell, Mass___
Lynn, Mass------Madison, W is.1. . .
Malden, M ass___
Manchester, N.H.

3, 478
4,052

108,444
27,321

( 2)

123, 770
1,966
(2)
(2)

2, 668,590
54,133

2,899

86,999

2,439

1,467

22,694

18,972

Memphis, Tenn.1. . .
Miami, Fla.1_______
Milwaukee, W is.1...
Minneapolis, Minn
Mobile, Ala.1----------

7,713
10, 290
29,361
13,414
3,285

6,317
11, 425
25,443
13, 632
7, 214

66,666

71,473
666,613
249,831
20,692

58,940
85,183
650,000
262,069
51,843

Nashua, N .H ______
Nashville, Tenn.1. . .
New Bedford, Mass.
New Britain, Conn.
N ew Haven, C onn..

799
2, 099

670
1,905

15,213
26,185

15,000
25,112

(2)

2, 556
3, 326

2,477
3,146

60,753
66,257

42,015
58, 796

15, 607
19, 013
1,941

15,466
19,973
2,130

369,808
382,107
60,481

452,041
427,575
63,000

209,518

6, 615,723

6,919,400

Newark, N .J--------N ew Orleans, L a ...
New Rochelle, N .Y
Newton, M ass------New York, N .Y -----

2,975

( 2)

( 2)

209, 485

85,825

Niagara Falls, N .Y . . .
Norfolk, V a--------------Oakland, Calif_______
Oklahoma City, Okla
Omaha, N eb_________

(3)
(3)
(3)
(2)

4, 238

5,831

12,828

14,473

Oranges, The, N.J.
Philadelphia, Pa._
Phoenix, Ariz____
Pittsburgh, Pa,1. . .
Pocatello, Id a h o ...

1, 370
70, 612
5,553
73, 797
640

1,121
67,000
5, 026
70,100
695

35,261
1,171, 235
50, 230
1, 060,967
5, 526

30,521
1, 233,149
48,511
1,087,733
12,248

1 Figures shown for these cities are those reported for the entire county in which the city is located.
figures shown for Gary, Ind., are those reported for North and Calumet Townships,
2 N o report received.
3 Camparable figures not received.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

805

T a b l e 2 .—T R E N D OF U R B A N R E L IE F F R O M JU L Y TO A U G U ST 1933—Continued

Families and single­
resident persons

Total obligations in­
curred from public
funds

Locality
July

Total, 100 localities (exclusive of Chicago and

August

July

August

2,179
1,149
14,734
7,272
4,642

2,162
1, 331
13, 576
6,721
4,228

$46, 566
38,830
263,152
182, 014
94, 395

$46, 045
39,671
179, 757
174, 548
96,416

12,705
(2)
6,435
1,088
(2)

14,932

157,688

211, 284

4,041
922

50,066
10,929

44, 273
11, 672

(3)
1,951
10,053
15,175
(2)

1,713
11, 821
14,394

22, 298
101,886
89,427

22,186
126,891
142,073

(3)
(2)
19,321
(2)
2,630

12,050

274, 558

178,150

2,859

34, 613

39, 272

2, 706
902
(2)
5,974
3,700

3,000
1,184

43,921
13,918

43,092
20, 279

5, 540
3, 500

98,484
28,400

87,118
27,200

(2)
2,140
27, 224
10, 686
9, 299

2, 360
28, 000
10, 277
9,458

23, 267
528,551
172, 649
326, 603

35,261
700, 000
178,042
297,946

6, 261
3,988
14,810
4,496
3, 292

5, 545
3,892
13, 779
3,952
2,600

97,101
31,074
136,229
25, 595
77,842

78, 444
31,607
171, 278
24, 712
70,897

(2)
(2)
10, 878
4, 307
(2)

12,956
6,144

218,913
61, 632

278,867
73,485

7,302
1,433
(2)
5,033
9,442

6, 581
1, 533

168, 099
23,183

156,161
22,054

5, 216
8,198

197,805
117, 760

211, 800
130, 000

1, 052, 674
1, 432,159

1,031,137
1, 390, 655

18, 061, 844
28,984, 567

19,146, 647
30, 716, 047

1 Figures shown for these cities are those reported for the entire county in which the city is located. The
figures shown for Gray, Ind., are those reported for N orth and Calumet Townships.
2 N o report received.
3 Comparable figures not received.

Public funds are to be used to reduce the oversupply of certain food­
stuffs and at the same time assist in the feeding of destitute unem­
ployed now on relief. Thus, some 100,000,000 pounds of cured pork
have been acquired by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
from the surplus hogs purchased by the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration. The meat will go to the various State relief adminis­
trations for distribution to the unemployed on their relief rolls.
Additional products under consideration for similar handling include

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

806

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

among others, beef, dairy and poultry products, and products of cot­
ton and cottonseed.
A number of important statements of policy have been issued by
the Administrator. One of these, of special importance to labor, held
that relief may be furnished from Federal funds to families of strikers
in labor disputes (unless the Department of Labor determines that the
strike is unreasonable and unjustified), if careful investigation shows
that “ their resources are not sufficient to meet emergency needs.”
Under regulation no. 7, Federal funds may be used to provide
medical, dental, and nursing service to ill unemployed who are receiv­
ing relief from Federal grants.
The rate of 30 cents an hour has been fixed by the Administrator as
the minimum rate to be paid on relief works using Federal grants; if
the local prevailing rate is higher than 30 cents, the prevailing rate is
to be paid. The working hours on relief projects are set at not more
than 8 per day and 35 per week for physical labor, and not more than
8 per day and 40 per week for clerical work. Children under 16 may
not be employed on such projects.
Also of importance in the labor field was the agreement arrived at
between the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Immi­
gration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Labor
regarding the assisted passage of aliens wishing to return to their
native country to live. Under the agreement the Immigration and
Naturalization Service will make the preliminary investigation and
will supervise their journey there, while the Relief Administration
will assist in financing the cost of travel.

Grants Under Relief Act to Self-Help Organizations

HE Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 (Public No. 15, 73d
Cong.) provided in section 4 (c) for outright grants of Federal
money for assistance to “ cooperative and self-help associations for the
barter of goods and services.”
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration has ruled that appli­
cations for such grants must have the approval of the State relief ad­
ministration and of the Governor of the State. The funds cannot be
used for purely relief purposes nor for the purchase of consumable
goods, but must be used as working capital for productive purposes.
Up to the end of September 1933 the Federal Relief Administration
had approved such grants for specified self-help groups in six States,
in a total amount of $66,000. The table following shows these grants,
their purpose in each case, and the organization to which the funds
were allotted.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

807

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS---- UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

G R A N T S M A D E T O SE L F -H E L P O R G A N IZ A T IO N S OF U N E M P L O Y E D U N D E R F E D
E R A L E M E R G E N C Y R E L IE F A C T , U P TO E N D OF S E P T E M B E R 1933

State and organization for which money was
allotted
California:
Unemployed Cooperative Relief Association
of Los Angeles County.
Indiana: Allen County Scrip and Barter Association, Fort Wayne.
Michigan: Comm unity Cooperative Industries,
Inc., Lansing.
Ohio: Cooperative Production Units, D ayton----Pennsylvania: Philadelphia Barter Association,
Inc., Philadelphia.
Virginia: Citizens’ Service Exchange, Richm onds

Amount
granted

Date of
grant

Purpose for which granted

Aug. 16
Aug. 29

Gasoline and oil - - ----Working capital, gasoline, staple
groceries.
Canning operations-------------------

$10, 000
30, 000

Liquid fund to offset face value
of scrip.
Immediate expenses......... . .
Canning operations---------- - .-

6, 500

___do___
Aug. 11
Aug. 29
Aug. 11

1 Aug. 2 ____ d o _________________________

7,000

5,000
5, 500
2,000
66, 000
-

1 But final action still pending.

Revised Regulations Governing Grants to Self-Help
Organizations of Unemployed

HE September 1933 issue of the Monthly Labor Review contained
the regulations issued by the Federal Emergency Relief Admin­
istration for the guidance of State relief administrations and of cooper­
ative groups desiring to make application for a grant under the
Relief Act of 1933. Since that time both the regulations and the
questionnaire required to be submitted by the self-help groups have
been revised; they are reproduced in their final form, below.

T

Revised Rules on Self-Help and Cooperative Grants

U nder subsection (c) of section 4 of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933
the Administrator is empowered “ to aid in assisting cooperative and self-help
associations for the barter-of goods and services.” The following rules and regu­
lations governing this section have been drawn up by the Federal Emergency
Relief Administration:
1.
Application is made by the cooperative filing with the State relief adminis­
tration or its appointed agencies or local committees, as the State relief adminis­
tration may direct, answers to the questionnaire, Federal Emergency Relief
Administration form no. 12, revised. This should be answered as completely as
possible and should be filed in duplicate so that one copy may be held in file by
the State administration and one copy forwarded to Washington with the formal
application of the Governor of the State.
2.
All applications for Federal grants must be made through the State relief
administration and receive its formal approval. The State administration
forwards the application of the cooperative, together with a copy of its own
resolution of approval and a formal application of the Governor of the State, to
the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for consideration. No funds shall
be disbursed on account of any such grant in advance of the approval of the
Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
3.
It is to be definitely understood that expenditures on any of these units are
to be considered as experimental ones, and until such units prove that they have
actually reduced the relief expense, and at the same time given adequate relief,
or prevented a rise in the relief expense they shall be considered in this experi­
mental light.
4.
Upon the approval of the State relief administration and the request by it
for funds to establish the cooperative unit and after approval by the Federal
Emergency Relief Administration, funds will be forwarded to the State relief
administration which will be over and above the regular relief appropriation.
These funds shall be earmarked for the specific purpose of aiding the cooperative
unit.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

808

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

5. If any State relief administration wishes to make an experiment of its own
without using an already existing cooperative unit, such application will of course
be given immediate consideration upon the filing of the plan of organization with
this office.
6. The State relief administration is advised to keep in as close touch as
possible with any unit that is aided under its recommendation. It should require
monthly reports from the unit aided on expenditures of funds and on the progress
being made. These reports should be on file with both the State administration
and the Federal administration.
A State having a number of self-help and cooperative groups will frequently
find it wise to place the responsibility of contact with them in the hands of a
single member of its staff. Such a specialist, whose designation or appointment
is subject to the approval of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, should
be a person who has some acquaintance with the field of economics and social
problems; who has specific business experience and is able to form a sound opinion
upon business problems; and finally, who has expressed interest in and given
prior public evidence of friendliness toward cooperative and self-help groups.
7. As to each application, the Federal administration requests the State admin­
istration for advice as to the quality of the administrative personnel, its integrity
and its ability; and the sympathy and cooperation of the community in which
the unit wishes to operate. As to the other answers to the questionnaire the
Federal administration feels that the State administration will have performed
its duty and discharged its responsibility with the check-up of accuracy.
8. Any grant made to a cooperative should be for those of its activities that
are supplemental to the other means of support of its members. It is expected
that a substantial proportion of the members shall be persons theretofore on
relief, eligible to relief, or prospectively eligible if it were not for their member­
ship in the cooperative.
Funds resultant from Federal grants should not be used for the bulk purchase
of commodities for distribution to members in the discharge of direct relief. In
any case where it seems desirable to the local relief agency that the cooperative
shall make bulk purchase for the direct relief of its members, local, or local and
State funds must, in general, be used for this purpose. Funds from a Federal
grant above the regular relief appropriation can only be included by special
arrangement which must be well justified, both by the local agency and the State
administration.
In general, funds granted from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
for cooperatives should be used for working capital for the purchase of mobile or
short-lived equipment, for tools, for gasoline, canning equipment, cans, and any
other of the items commonly included in the working capital of such an enter­
prise. This is not intended to be a rigorous statement of limitations, but should
serve as an indication of the way Federal moneys should be spent. No Federal
funds should be invested in permanent plant or land, although Federal funds
may be used for advantageous leaseholds for temporary use.
To sum up: If we classify the property of a cooperative as (1) consumable
goods, (2) working or circulating capital and (3) long-term investment, Federal
funds should be used only for (2) working capital.
9. The cooperative must indicate that it has adequate accounting facilities and
set-up, and should agree to furnish to the State relief administration such reports
as are necessary to evidence its proper use of the Federal grant. In event of
change of management after the grant is made, immediate information should
be given to the State relief administration covering such changes, together with a
statement of experience and qualifications of any person newly elected or ap­
pointed. Whenever possible, it would be well for the governing body of the coop­
erative to discuss the proposed changes in managerial personnel with a repre­
sentative of the State relief administration in advance of such a change.
No part of a Federal grant shall be used as a cash payment of salaries to
managing personnel. This should not serve as a barrier to the payment of such
salaries from local or privately raised funds. In grants below $10,000, funds to
the extent of 2 percent of any Federal grant may, if necessary, be used for pro­
fessional accounting services. In grants above that amount, proportionately
smaller limits shall be set.
10. The cooperative must undertake to exercise extreme care that its opera­
tion shall not in any way reduce the wage of labor in the community in which it
operates. It must agree to pay its members at least 30 cents per hour in scrip,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

809

book-credit, or kind, while the beneficiary of Federal funds. Unless it is suffi­
ciently productive to make such return to its members the cooperative shall not
be considered eligible to further grant of Federal funds.
It is the general intention that no goods produced by the cooperative under
Federal grant shall find their way into the open market. No hard and fast rule
can be drawn on this point because it sometimes happens that the goods exchanged
by a cooperative for other goods that it needs, will after two or three such
exchanges, be sold for cash. It is the intention that this cash sale, even when
effected indirectly, shall be kept at a minimum. This general rule, however, does
not constitute a barrier to the sale of products by cooperatives to local or private
relief agencies. Such agencies should pay the cooperative the same price that
they would pay in the open market, and may pay in cash or in kind; e.g., it
frequently happens that the cooperative may return to the relief agency clothing
in payment for cloth.
The cooperative, at the time of filing its application for funds, will have pre­
sented its major projects. It should periodically file with the State administra­
tion any new projects which it plans to prosecute. These should be filed suffi­
ciently far in advance so that the State administration may advise the coopera­
tive if the proposed project does not come under the conditions of the Federal
grant. In such cases, a conference should be held between the State adminis­
tration and the cooperative so that differences can be resolved.
F .E .R .A . N o. 12, Revised— Information from Applicants for Self-Help and
Barter Exchange Funds 1

1. How much money is needed? In installment or lump sum?
2. What is money to be used for? (Give as full and detailed information as
possible on each project separately for which Federal aid is asked.)
3. Give sworn statement of assets and liabilities as of July 1, 1933, or as near
that date as possible. (Certified copy to come through State to F.E.R.A.)
4. Administrative personnel? (List names, addresses, past experience, and
business connections of principal officers.)
5. How long organized?
6. How many active members?
7. How many actually sustained in system who otherwise would be on relief?
(Submit names and addresses of same for independent check-up.)
8. In what amount have relief costs been reduced?
9. In what amount can relief costs be reduced within the next 6 months?
10. What commodities are produced?
11. How is shelter handled?
12. Is scrip used? If so, submit samples of scrip.
13. How much scrip or book credit is outstanding? What is behind the scrip
or book credit?
14. When was scrip first issued? Has it depreciated? How much?
15. How many man-days have been worked and compensated in past year?
In highest month?
16. Has unit traded with other units? If so, state value, kind, and quantity
of goods exchanged with other units.
17. How far apart are various other units traded with?
18. To what extent is community behind movement? Are merchants favor­
able or otherwise? Is organized labor favorable or otherwise? Does the State,
county, or other local relief organization cooperate with you? To what extent?
19. Give dollar volume of business transacted for each month since starting.
20. To what extent would this appropriation make the system self-sustaining?
(Name of organization)
(Name and title of officer)
1 Submit to State administration in duplicate.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

State forwards copy to F .E .R .A .

810

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

Educational Work Relief for Jobless Teachers

NDER date of August 19, 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief
Administration authorized the several State emergency relief
administrations to employ on a work relief basis (1) teachers in rural
elementary schools, and (2) needy unemployed persons able to teach
adults who cannot read and wrrite English. Federal funds may be
expended by the States for this purpose, provided their plans are
acceptable to the State emergency relief administration. Wages on
such educational wrork are to be paid in cash.
The above statement and the following information are taken from a
memorandum of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
dated September 20, 1933.
In planning and putting into operation this educational work relief,
the State emergency relief administration is to be subject to the
guidance of the State departments of education, which in their turn
“ will work with the smaller units in the State school systems or with
other educational agencies.”
The United States Office of Education and the Federal Board for
Vocational Education have been requested by the Federal Emergency
Relief Administration to aid it on the educational side of the program.
Consequently, State departments of education in formulating plans
to present to the State emergency relief administration or when put­
ting approved plans into operation may ask the assistance of the
United States Office of Education and of the Federal Board for Voca­
tional Education.
State departments of education will follow7 the policies cited below.

U

A. W ith resp ect to w ork r e lie f f o r ru ra l tea chers
1.
Only persons certified by the State emergency relief administration or its
authorized agents as in need of relief may be employed as teachers.
2.
The amount to be paid each teacher so employed shall be determined by the
State emergency relief administration, according to rules and regulations nos.
3 and 4.
3.
“ Rural counties” as used in the communication of August 19, 1933, refers
to rural communities as defined by the United States Bureau of the Census.
(Towns having not over 2,500 people, according to the 1930 U.S. Census, are
considered rural.)
4.
Only school districts which, prior to August 19, 1933, had definitely recog­
nized that because of shortage of funds they could not maintain the ordinary
school term may employ emergency relief teachers. “ Ordinary school term”
shall be interpreted to mean the length of term the school was maintained during
the school year 1930-31.
5.
The number of months to which such districts shall be entitled to the
service of emergency relief teachers shall be the difference between the 1930-31
term and the term possible to maintain with school funds available to the district.
6.
Emergency relief teachers shall use the same buildings, equipment, and
other facilities as would be available to a regular teacher if supported by regular
school funds.
7.
Only districts (State, county, or local) which have manifested sincere
efforts to raise adequate funds for the support of schools may be granted emer­
gency relief teachers. Any evidence of lack of good faith on the part of school
districts, such as relaxing efforts to raise funds or shortening the school term to
be maintained on regular school funds, shall be deemed adequate reason for
refusing emergency relief teachers to such districts.
8.
Subject to the above limitations, the selection and entire supervision of
emergency relief teachers will be within the jurisdiction of those who employ
and supervise the regular teachers in the same districts.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

811

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS— UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF

B. W ith resp ect to w ork r e lie f f o r tea ch ers co m p eten t to teach adults u n a b le to rea d and
w rite E n g lish

1. Only persons certified by the State emergency relief administration or its
authorized agents as in need of relief may be employed as teachers. The amount
to be paid weekly to each teacher shall be determined by the State emergency
relief administration or its authorized agents according to rules and regulations
nos. 3 and 4.
2. Only needy unemployed persons approved by the State departments of
education may be employed on Federal emergency relief funds to teach adults
unable to read and write English.
3. The State departments of education will be expected to prepare State-wide
plans of organization by which adequate numbers of properly qualified persons
who are competent to teach adults unable to read and write English may be
employed for such work and for which proper instructional facilities will be
provided.
4. Classes may be held during any hours of the day or evening. Facilities
made available by schools, churches, clubs, or other agencies, if approved by the
public-school authorities, may be used for this instruction, but the administration
must be under the public-school authorities.

Unemployment in New Haven, May to June 1933

HE following provisional figures on unemployment in New
Haven in the period May to June 1933, as compared with the
same period in 1931, were given in an article in the August Mid­
monthly Survey (New York), entitled “ Ebb-Tide of Employment,”
by Margaret H. Hogg, of the department of statistics, Russell Sage
Foundation. The earlier investigation was made by that foundation,
the later one by the Yale Institute of Human Relations in connection
with a more general survey of families in New Haven. Miss Hogg
planned and supervised the employment section of the 1933 investiga­
tion as well as that of 1931.

T

C H A N G E IN U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN N E W H A V E N , M A Y -J U N E 1931 TO M A Y -J U N E 1933
Percent idle
from lack
of work

Percent idle
from lack
of work
Sex, age, and industry or occupation

Sex, age, and industry or occupation

M ay- M ayJune June
1931 1933

M a y- M a y June June
1931 1933
All wage earners studied:

17. 0
14. 0

35. 0
28.0

39. 5
29.0
18-19 years------ -- - -- -20-24 years____------- - - - - - - - 29.5
25-29 years
--- ----- 17.5
30-34 years______________________ 10.0
10. 5
11.0
13. 5
17.0
15.5

72.0
54.0
48.0
30.5
29.0
27. 5
27.0
29. 5
35. 5
37.5

Males:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Both sexes, in—
Manufacturing__________ ___

18.5
31.0
- --------- - . 12.0
8.5
Domestic and personal service___ 10.5
Professional and other service
3.5
All wage earners, excluding new
workers never established:
18.0
7.5
Clerical and sales.. _ - 10. 5
Skilled m anual... _ _
20. 5
20.0
Semiskilled
___
24.5
Unskilled.
Females ..
.. . .
. . . . . 11.5
Transportation-

38.5
64.5
21.5
21.5
21.0
14.5
35.5
20.5
22.5
43.5
41.5
44.5
24.0

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION
Summary of Permanent Codes Adopted During September 1933

N THIS article the labor provisions in codes of fair competition
approved by the National Recovery Administration during the
month of September are summarized briefly. Similar summaries of
the codes approved prior to September were given in the previous
(September) issue of the Monthly Labor Review.

I

Cast-Iron Soil Pipe Industry

T he hearing on the code of fair competition for the cast-iron soil
pipe industry was held on August 2, 1933. The code was approved
by the President on September 7, becoming effective the first Monday
thereafter, September 11, 1933.
This industry is defined in the code as comprising “ pipe used for
carrying soil and liquid waste matter from plumbing fixtures of build­
ings into the main sewer system, also for ventilating purposes in
connection with plumbing systems within buildings, and for carrying
other liquids where^ not under pressure, manufactured in lengths
of 5 feet only, and in diameter ranging from 2 to 15 inches, with a
wall thickness of % to Zw inch. Soil pipe is manufactured from pig
iron and scrap iron by casting horizontally in green-sand molds
and green-sand cores— by the hand-ramming stripping-plate methods.
Its process of manufacture and use is not comparable with cast-iron
pressure pipe, which is manufactured in lengths of 6 to 18 feet by
the ‘pit cast’ and ‘ centrifugal’ methods, and ranges in diameter from
2 to 96 inches, and is used for carrying liquids and gas under pressure.”
Sponsoring the code was the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Association, repre­
senting over 90 percent of the industry.
Minimum wage rates are fixed at 32 cents per hour for common
labor when employed in the South and 40 cents when employed in
the eastern, western, and Pacific^ coast sections of the United States.
The South is regarded as the territory south of the Ohio and Potomac
Rivers and east of the Mississippi, the remaining sections of the
country falling in the other territory.
Provision is made for a maximum working time of 27 hours per
week for laborers and 40 hours per week and 8 hours per day for
clerks, bookkeepers, and stenographers. Excepted from the hours
provisions are officers and their supervisory staffs. Productive equip­
ment may not be operated in excess of 27 hours per week, the max­
imum working time permitted for labor under the code.
All minors under 16 years of age are prohibited from employment
in the industry, with an added restriction on the employment of
minors under 18 years of age in any foundry operation that might
be termed hazardous. It is further stipulated that within the ter­
ritorial limits of a State where the law specifies a higher minimum
age no person below the stated age shall be employed.
812

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

813

This is a relatively small industry. Since its products are almost
exclusively used in buildings, the falling off in building operations has
necessarily had a serious effect on the industry as indicated by the
fact that the output of cast-iron soil pipe dropped from 476,000 tons
in 1928 to 99,000 in 1932. Of the tonnage, 60 percent is produced
in southern plants and 40 percent in northern plants. In the South,
wages have averaged about $1.40 per day of 10 hours and in the
North from $2 to $2.25. The rates fixed in the code are expected to
bring the purchasing power of those employed approximately to the
level of 1929. Although it is not possible to absorb all those employed
in 1929, a material improvement will be made with a revival in the
building trades.
The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Association, or successor associations, and
three persons without vote appointed by the President, are to con­
stitute the fair-practice agency and also the agency to collect and
receive reports under the code. These reports are to cover statistics
as to employment, wages, production, shipments, inventories, unfilled
orders, and delinquent accounts.
Leather Industry
F o l l o w i n g a hearing on August 2 1 , 1933, the President approved
the code for the leather industry on September 7, to become effective
September 18, 1933—the second Monday after approval.
For the purposes of the code the leather industry embraces “ all
persons engaged in tanning or finishing leather, for further fabrication
or for sale, for their own account or for the account of others, or
performing any operation subsidiary thereto, or having leather tanned
or finished in American factories, or engaged in the sale of American
tanned or finished leather for their own account or for the account of
others, and persons, approved by the National Recovery Administra­
tion, engaged in the cutting or further partial fabrication of leather.”
The code as presented was representative of 80 percent of the indus­
try organized in the Tanners Council of America.
Minimum wages fixed in the code as approved are at the rate of
32K cents per hour in the States of Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia,
Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,
Florida, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and
Arizona, and 35 cents per hour for female workers and 40 cents for
male workers in other sections of the United States. The differential
based on sex is not a discriminatory one, the code states, and where
men and women do the same kind and amount of work they shall
receive the same pay. It is further provided that no employee
earning less than $30 per week shall receive less pay for 40 hours of
work than he received as of April 1, 1933, for the established work
week at that time. Excepted from the minimum rates established are
(1) learners for a period of 6 weeks during which time they shall
receive not less than 80 percent of the minimum and (2) employees
disabled by old age or other cause. Neither of these excepted classes
may number in excess of 5 percent of the total on the pay roll.
Hours shall not exceed an average of 40 per week over a 26-week
period; work done beyond the 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day
is to be paid for at an overtime rate of 1% times the regular rate.
Exceptions from the maximum hours are permitted for watchmen,
11456°—33------4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

814

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

supervisory staff, executives, and salesmen. Maintenance workers,
engineers, firemen, beltmakers, emergency service workers, patent
leather luggers, and sorters of whole leather may not work more than
40 hours in any week nor over 8 hours per day, unless paid overtime
rates. Office workers shall average a maximum of 40 hours a week
over a 26-week period. In emergency, when observance of the hours
provisions may result in spoiling products the employer shall be
empowered to put such product through the processes necessary to
avoid spoilage, always provided the regular overtime rate is paid.
This code adds a clause providing that no evasion shall be practiced
by reclassification of the functions of workers and that no worker shall
be included under one of the exceptions listed unless the functions
which he performs were identically classified on June 16, 1933.
For the purpose of calculating hours the first 26-week period shall
be calculated from the effective date of the code for individual employ­
ees on the pay rolls and from the hiring date for those subsequently
employed by any employer. As the code provides maximum hours
for all workers, no employee may knowingly be employed or per­
mitted to work for one or more employers in the.industry in the aggre­
gate to exceed the prescribed number of hours.
No minor under the age of 16 years may be employed in the leather
industry and when a State law fixes a higher minimum the law shall
be complied with.
The maximum work week, set at 40 hours with few exceptions, is
regarded by the deputy administrator who conducted the hearing as
eminently satisfactory. It is estimated that it will result in shorten­
ing the working time of over 80 percent of the workers and that the
employment afforded by the industry will rise to the peak level of
1929 without any further increase in business (52,000 employees in
tanning alone).
Under the code, wages will be less than the 1929 levels (by less than
10 percent) in only two sections of the industry, and the increases
over early 1933 levels will be 30 or 35 percent in hourly earnings.
The North-South differential is regarded by the deputy adminis­
trator as the smallest that may be imposed without running the risk
of closing southern plants and doing grave injury to Negro workers.
As to the differential by sex, proponents of the code have no serious
objection to eliminating it but it is pointed out that by so doing a
few thousand women, doing specialized work not done by men, would
be displaced and a few score men with specialized machinery would
take their jobs.
Administration of the code is to be placed under the direction of
the General Planning Committee which shall be the administrative,
planning, and fair-practice agency. Representation on this com­
mittee shall be on the basis of one member elected from each division
of the industry and elected under the rules of that division. The
President may appoint three members, without vote, to sit with the
committee. To become binding, the decisions of the General Planning
Committee must be concurred in by two thirds of its voting member­
ship and by representatives of divisions employing two thirds of the
total employees of the industry as recorded by the Tanners' Council
of America for the last 6 months for which figures are available.
Each division shall also elect its own separate divisional planning
committee. A system of interchange of recommendations is provided

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

815

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

for between the divisional committees and the general planning com­
mittee with the opportunity for disapproval of action taken, but with
the avowed intent of making each division independent and selfgoverning in problems relating exclusively to such division, always
subject, however, to approval of the Administrator.
Motion-Picture Laboratories
F o l l o w i n g a hearing on a proposed code of fair competition for
the motion-picture laboratory industry held on August 31, the
President approved a revised code on September 7, to become
effective the tenth day thereafter.
The term “ laboratory” as used in the code includes all establish­
ments in which manufactured motion-picture film is developed,
printed, or otherwise processed.
The Motion Picture Laboratories Association of America, Inc.,
submitted the code. In so doing this organization claimed to repre­
sent 90 percent of the volume of the laboratory industry in feet of
film developed, and approximately 42 percent of the firms engaged
in motion-picture laboratory work.
Detailed scales of minimum wages are provided in the code for
laboratories employing 20 or less mechanical laboratory workers and
those engaging over 20 such workers as follows:
M IN IM U M W A G E S IN T H E M O T IO N -P IC T U R E L A B O R A T O R Y IN D U S T R Y
Department and occupation
Laboratories employing 20 or less mechanical laboratory workers:
Mechanical workers, except apprentices__________________________
A p pren tices..------------------------------------------------------------------------------All others:
In cities of 500,000 population and over__________________ ____
In cities of 250,000 and under 500,000_________________ ____ ___
In cities of 2,500 and under 250,000________ '___________________
In towns of under 2,500______________________________________
Laboratories employing more than 20 mechanical laboratory workers:3
Developing departments:
Machine operators___________________________________________
Chemical mixers_____ ;__________ ____ ________________________
Negative cutting department:
Negative cutters_______________________________ _____ _______
Negative joiners_____________________________________ _____
Tim ing department:
Eye timers__________________________________________________
Assistant timers_____________________________________________
Test machine timers_________________________________________
Printing department:
Printers, all classes__________________________________________
Negative cleaners____________________________________________
Raw stock clerk_____________________________________________
Negative vault tender_______________________________________
Assembly department:
Positive joiners_________ ______ ______________________________
Examiners--------------------------- --------------------------------------------------W axers.________________________ ______ ______________________
Inspectiondepartm ent—Inspectors__________ _____ ______________
Title room—Title cameramen____________________________________
Shipping department—Shipping clerk____________________________
Maintenance (mechanical)—Mechanics and electricians__________
Apprentices, all departments______________ ____ _________________
Helpers, all departments_________________________________________
All others:
In cities of 500,000 population and over_______________________
In cities of 250,000 and under 500,000__________________________
In cities of 2,500 and under 250,000.._______ __________________
______ In towns of under 2,500______________________________________

Minimum
rate per
week
1 $0. 50
3 15. 00
1.40
2 15. 00
15.00
14.50
14.00
12.00

30.00
35.00
33.00
25.00
80.00
45.00
50.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
30. 00
21.25
21.75
20.00
25.00
30.00
25.00
30.00
20.00
20.00
15.00
14. 50
14.00
12.00

1 M inim um rate per hour.
2 Guaranteed minimum full-time pay for 40 hours would be $20 for mechanical workers and $16 for
apprentices.
3 Guaranteed minimum $15 per week.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

816

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

For all laboratories it is specified that all employees receiving less
than $35 per week as of July 1, 1933, shall be paid no less for 40 hours
of work per week than for 44 hours as of July 1, 1933, and that any
readjustment of wages necessitated by compliance with the code be
on an equitable basis. In the laboratories employing over 20 mechan­
ical laboratory workers, foremen in departments having 10 employees
shall be paid 10 percent over the average salaries in those depart­
ments, and in departments employing more than 10 the remunera­
tion shall be 20 percent over the average wage for the department.
Apprentices may not be employed for more than 12 months in that
capacity, and at no time shall the apprentices form more than 10
percent of the total number of employees.
Maximum hours are fixed at 40 per week except in emergency and
then not to exceed 60 hours per week or 480 hours in a 12-week period.
An emergency is defined as “ a condition resulting from an abnormal
or irregular delivery to the laboratory of newsreel or studio negative
accompanied by an order for newsreel prints or dailies or rush prints;
also, the necessity for repair and maintenance. When two or more
shifts are regularly employed, emergency work shall be equally dis­
tributed between the shifts.”
Time and a half is to be paid any employee who works in excess
of 8 hours in any 1 day, except employees engaged in processing news­
reels, who shall receive straight time for overtime. Neither the hours
nor the overtime pay provisions shall apply to executives, foremen, or
assistant foremen who are not mechanical or operating employees.
No minor under 16 years of age is to be employed. If the State
law fixes a higher minimum, that law is to be complied with.
According to the Administrator’s statement, about 3,500 labora­
tory workers are employed in motion-picture laboratories throughout
the United States for whom classification, minimum rates of pay, and
maximum hours of work are, for the first time, fixed in this code.
Heretofore wages have been paid on an hourly rate in this industry
and the guaranteed minimum here provided ($15 per week) consti­
tutes a radical departure from the method of wage payment in practice.
It is estimated that the new scale will increase wages from 10 to 12
percent and that employment among laboratory workers will be
increased 15 percent. Approximately $6,000 will be added to the
weekly pay rolls under this code.
A committee to be called the “ Administrative Recovery Committee ”
is to cooperate with the Administrator in making investigations and
may also make independent investigations, go to original sources for
information, and collect statistics on hours, wages, employment, etc.
This committee is to be made up of the board of directors of the
Motion Picture Laboratories Association of America, Inc., and three
representatives of the Government, to be appointed hy the President
or the National Recovery Administrator. When labor questions
arise, two representatives shall be allowed to the employees, chosen
by a fair method of selection to be approved by the National Recovery
Administrator.
The Administrative Recovery Committee shall form a second com­
mittee, i.e., the arbitration board, to act as arbitrator in case of con­
troversy between two or more employer laboratories on any issues.
Upon consent of the interested employers all facts shall be made

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

817

available to the arbitration board, and the board’s decision shall be
binding.
Salt Production

T he bearing on the salt-production industry was held on August
14, 1933, was approved by the President on September 7, and became
effective 10 days later.
The Salt Producers’ Association, claiming to represent 88 percent
of the industry, submitted the proposed code for this industry.
As approved, provision is made for separate wage scales for the
North and South and for men and women. For the South (Texas,
Louisiana, and West Virginia) the minimum hourly wage rates are
fixed at 30 cents an hour for males and 25 cents for females, while
for the North (comprising all other States) the rates are fixed at 35
and 32 cents, respectively. It is stated that the rates set are not
intended to be discriminatory and that where women do the same
work as men they shall be paid at the same rates. Learners are to
be paid at the rate of not less than 80 percent of the minimum rate
of an adult of the same sex in the same area, but the total amount
paid to learners is not to exceed 5 percent of the total wages paid.
The learning period is limited to 4 weeks for common labor and 6
weeks for other workers. An equitable adjustment is to be made of
wages of employees receiving more than the minimum wage prior to
adoption of the code. This clause is interpreted as meaning that
the differentials existing for all workers receiving $30 or less shall be
maintained. In no case shall hourly wage rates be lowered.
Separate hours schedules are also set for North and South. In the
North, excluding California, in processing or manufacturing opera­
tions the hours shall be 42 hours in 1 week, provided that no employee
shall work more than 6 days per week; other classes of labor, in­
cluding miners, factory, office, and clerical employees, may not work
in excess of an average of 40 hours weekly over a 6-month period,
nor may the hours in any 1 week (6 days) exceed 48. In the South,
including California, hours are limited to an average maximum of
48 in any week during any 6-month period, provided, however, that
no employee shall work more than 54 hours or 6 days in 1 week.
These provisions are to apply to all workers other than executives
and supervisory staff receiving $35 per week or more and outside
salesmen. No employer shall permit any employee, who has per­
formed work for one or more other employers, to work for him such
a number of hours as would result in a violation of the code had all
such work been performed for the one employer.
Minors under 16 years of age may not be employed and no one
under 21 may be allowed to work in the mines below ground.
The Administrator describes salt production as a minor industry,
there having been 58 establishments giving employment to about
5,458 persons in 1929. These totals dropped to 53 and 4,728, respec­
tively, in 1931, and it is estimated that only 4,387 persons were
employed in June 1933. Conditions of work have varied widely
according to geographic division. In Louisiana, for example, the
wage rates set in the code will provide an 80 percent increase for
males and 140 percent increase for females. Hours are reduced
markedly by the code from the prevailing work week of 60 or 70
hours on a 7-day schedule. Approximately 20 percent more workers

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

818

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

are expected to be employed under the new provisions. As to the
restrictions on underground employment to those 21 years old and
over, this is the first code to be approved carrying such a high
exemption.
Administration will be under the code committee composed of the
president of the Salt Producers’ Association, the executive committee
thereof, and two members to be chosen by associate members of the
organization. The duties of the code committee include adoption of
rules and regulations for orderly presentation and adjustment of com­
plaints subject to approval of the Administrator; approval of recom­
mendations for exceptions to the market provisions of the code; in­
vestigation and reporting to the President on salt importations and
the effect thereof; and obtaining such reports from the industry as
the Administrator may require.
Wall-Paper Industry
T h e wall-paper manufacturing code was submitted by the Amer­
ican Wall Paper Manufacturers Advisory Committee at a hearing
held August 7 and 8. This committee had the authorization of mills
representing over 95 percent of the wall-paper printing machines in
the United States. An amended code received the approval of the
President September 7, 1933, and became effective September 18—
the second Monday after approval.
The term “ wall-paper manufacturing industry” was defined to
mean the process of printing, imprinting, or embossing upon raw
paper stock a pattern and/or design in colors or otherwise, thus pro­
ducing an article suitable for decoration or the embellishment of walls
and/or ceilings in homes, hotels, apartments, or other buildings.
The minimum wages established by the code are fixed at 35 cents
per hour or $14 per week for 40 hours of labor for males, and at the
rate of 32K cents per hour or $13 per week for 40 hours of labor for
females. The code maintains existing wage differentials, by providing
that the existing amounts by which wage rates in the higher-paid
classes exceed wages in the lower-paid classes shall be maintained.
The limit of hours of labor is fixed at 40 hours in each week. Out­
side salesmen, emergency repair crews, superintendents, and their
foremen are excepted from this limitation, but the code provides
that all such employees paid on an hourly basis shall receive time
and a half for all hours per week over 40. Each manufacturer in
the industry is limited to two 8-hour shifts and it is stipulated that
no employee shall be required to work more than one 8-hour shift
in any 1 day.
On and after the effective date employers shall not employ or have
in their employ any person under the age of 16 years.
The wall-paper manufacturing industry is one of the relatively
small manufacturing industries in the country. In 1929 there were
56 manufacturing plants which employed about 4,700 workers while
at the present time there are only 36 manufacturers. Both number
of workers employed and the number of plants have decreased, but
because of lack of statistics for the industry it is impossible to esti­
mate what the decline has been. Since 1923 there has been a steady
decrease in the number of employees, but from 1931 until the present
this decrease, it is said, has become more marked. The industry


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

819

has been operating on a 50-hour week and it is estimated that the
40-hour week required by the code will increase the number of workers
approximately 15 percent, based on the 1929 employment figures,
which will mean an addition of approximately 700 workers.
The code in its approved form contained changes in the original
provisions governing wages and hours. The original code provided
for a flat minimum rate of 30 cents per hour or $12 per week, but,
with the increase in the rate as finally decided upon, a wage differ­
ential for men and women was introduced. The provision for longer
hours during the period of peak operation in the months of September,
October, November, and December was eliminated in the final code
which provides for a straight 40-liour week.
The administration of the code is vested in the executive committee
of the wall-paper manufacturing industry, which the code provides
shall be composed of five members, chosen by a fair method of selection
and approved by the Administrator.
Artificial Flower and Feather Industry

A h e a r i n g on the code for the artificial flower and feather industry
was held on August 29, 1933; this was followed by approval of the
code by the President on September 18, the effective date to be
September 25, 1933.
This industry includes the manufacture, wholesale distribution, and
importation of artificial flowers and feathers, and such branches and
subdivisions thereof as may from time to time be included under the
provisions of this code.
The Artificial Flower and Feather Industries of America, Inc.,
claiming to represent firms doing 85 percent of the entire volume of
business in the industry, presented the code.
Under the terms, the hours are limited to a maximum of 40 in any '
1 week and 8 in any 24-hour period, and no person may work in excess
of these hours, whether employed by one or more employers. It is
further stipulated that, subject to review of the Administrator, the
code authority may designate opening and closing hours of work and
the geographical divisions in which such hours shall obtain. Over­
time shall not be permitted except upon recommendation of the code
authority and approval of the Administrator, and then only under
such conditions as the latter may prescribe.
Minimum weekly wages are placed at $15, and no employee shall
receive less regardless of whether he is compensated at time or
piece rates. Also, no hourly rate of compensation shall be reduced
below that of July 1, 1933, regardless of whether it was paid on a
monthly, weekly, daily, or hourly basis. Where hours have been
lowered and no increase in the hourly wage rate has been made, such
rates shall be increased by an equitable readjustment. Apprentices
are excepted from the minimum wage rates; they are to be paid not
less than $10 per week, and if engaged on piecework and earning in
excess of $10 per week are to be continued on a piecework basis.
The period of apprenticeship is limited to the first 6 months of employ­
ment, this period to cover any time worked, whether continuous, or in
one or more shops, or for one or more employers. The number of
apprentices engaged by any one employer shall not exceed 10 percent
of the total number of employees engaged.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

820

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

No person under 16 years of age may be employed in the industry.
Home work has always been an important factor in the artificial
flower and feather industry, and a formula for its control and ultimate
abolition is provided in this code. Under the terms no home work
shall be permitted after May 1, 1934, and the number of home work­
ers employed as of September 1, 1933, must be reduced by 50 percent
by January 1, 1934. Pending its complete abolition, no home work
shall be done without evidence having been presented to the code
authority, as agent for the Administrator, that all State, municipal,
and other laws and regulations concerning home work have been
complied with. Names and addresses of home workers must be filed
with the code authority, and the names and addresses of home workers
and employers must be filed with the Administrator. No home
worker may be engaged by more than one employer at the same time,
and such workers must be paid on the same piece-rate basis as factory
employees engaged in similar work. Thus in two seasons the neces­
sary readjustment to all-factory operation will be made, at the same
time avoiding the hardship that would be worked on employers and
employees if the shift had been ordered made immediately.
The planning and research division of the National Recovery
Administration estimates that the code will effect a 20-percent in­
crease in employment plus an indeterminate rise due to the decrease
in number of home workers, and a 20-percent increase in wages plus
a rise owing to the raising of the minimum.
A code authority appointed by the Administrator will cooperate
with him in administering the code. Its membership will be seven,
with representation of the various interests in the industry and such
other interests as the Administrator may designate. Appeal from
action of the code authority affecting the rights of any one subject
to the code may be taken to the Administrator. The duties of the
code authority are enumerated and cover, among other things, the
election of officers and assignment to duty, enforcement of the code,
obtaining statistics of wages, hours, etc., and compilation of reports
and coordinating the administration of this with related codes,
if any.
Bituminous-Coal Mining

A h e a r in g looking toward adoption of a code for the bituminouscoal industry was held August 9 to 12, inclusive, the general sessions
being followed by committee meetings and another open hearing on
September 11, 1933. On September 18 the President approved the
code, to become effective 1 week from the following Monday, i.e.,
October 2, 1933, and to continue in effect until April 1, 1934, and
thereafter in the absence of the exercise of the Presidential power and
subject to the exercise of the option, after 30 days’ notice to the
Administrator, by any coal operator to withdraw his assent after
April 1, 1934, to the further enforcement of the code.
For the purposes of the code “ the bituminous-coal industry” covers
the production and original sale of all kinds of coal (except Pennsyl­
vania anthracite), of lignite, and of coke other than byproduct coke.
Altogether, 29 codes were presented to the National Recovery
Administration in connection with the bituminous-coal industry,
some of which were drawn up by operators in restricted geographical
localities, while others had wide geographical support. Two codes

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

821

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

sponsored by important groups but representing particularly divergent
views with regard to labor relations were tlie “ general code ” presented
by operators in large producing States after a conference in Washington,
D.C., July 7-13, 1933, and the joint code of the Northern Coal Control
Association and Smokeless Appalachian Coal Association^ The
basic code finally adopted was compiled, however, to_ reconcile the
large number of coal codes submitted, thereby establishing a suffi­
ciently flexible basis to meet the needs of the various geographical
divisions of the industry; this code subject to minor revisions and to
addition of a revised wage schedule is here reviewed briefly.
Maximum hours are fixed at 40 in any calendar week, with the
added proviso that no employee shall be required to work more than
8 hours (exclusive of lunch time) in any 1 day at the usual working
places or otherwise in or about the mine. Excepted from these regu­
lations are members of the executive, supervisory, technical, and con­
fidential personnel, employees required because of accidents which
temporarily necessitate longer hours for them, and supervisors, clerks,
technicians, and that small number of employees at each mine whose
daily work includes the handling of man-trips and/or haulage animals
and those who are required to remain on duty while men are entering
and leaving the mine. A paragraph is added to the regulations on
hours stating that the maximum hours of work shall not be construed
as a minimum, and if at any mine a majority of the workers desire to
share available work with unemployed workers of the same mine,
hours may be adjusted accordingly by agreement between employer
and workers.
Basic minimum wage rates are fixed by districts for inside and out­
side men with the understanding that classifications of labor not
described in the wage schedule will be maintained at the customary
differentials, either above or below the fixed rates. It is stipulated
also that payments for work performed on a tonnage or other piece­
work basis wall be maintained at the usual ratio to payments on a time
basis as provided by the basic minimum rates.
BASIC M IN IM U M R A T E S OP P A Y IN B IT U M IN O U S -C O A L IN D U S T R Y
[For districts for which no minimum rates are shown, these are to be approved or prescribed b y the
President. Differences between districts in rates shown below are not to be considered as fixing perma­
nent wage differentials or establishing precedents for future wage scales.]
Skilled labor, inside

Common labor, outside

District and State
Per day
District A:

Per hour

Per day

Per hour

- ---

$4.60
4. 60
4. 60

$0. 57
•57^
.5 7 ^

$3. 60
3. 60
3. 60

$0. 45
.45
.45

------------- -------------

4. 36

•54^

3. 36

.42

District C:
Southern West Virginia 4
---------------Eastern Kentucky A --------------------------------------------

4. 20
4. 20

.5 2 ^
■52H

3.20
3.20

.40
.40

Lower Peninsula of M ichigan------District B:
Northern West Virginia 3_ --

----------

1 Excludes Somerset County.
2 Includes Hancock, Brooke. Ohio, and Marshall Counties.
3 Includes Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, Taylor, Lewis, Barbour, Gilmer, Upshur, Randolph, Brax­
ton, and Webster Counties and those mines in Nicholas County served b y the B. & O. R .R .
4 Includes all mines in counties not named under districts A and B and the upper Potomac district.
5 Includes all mines in Kentucky located east of north and south line drawn along western boundary
of city of Louisville except those located in W hitley, McCreary, Bell, and Harlan Counties,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

822

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

B ASIC M IN IM U M

R A T E S OF P A Y IN B IT U M IN O U S -C O A L IN D U S T R Y —Continued

Skilled labor, inside

Common labor, outside

District and State
Per day
District C—Continued.
Upper Potomac district of West Virginia 6
M aryland______
_ ___ ___
Virginia_____________________
Northern Tennessee 7 ________
W hitley, McCreary, Bell, and Harlan Counties, K y
District D :
Indiana8_
____________
Warrick and Vandenburgh Counties, Ind
District E: Illinois -- - _ _______ _ ________
District F:
Iowa 9 . . ___
__
._
.
____
W ayne and Appanoose Counties, Iowa______ _
District G:
Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, and O klahom a______
T e x a s ...
___________ _ ______ _ _
District H : Western Kentucky 79 _______
_____
District J :
A labam a.-. _______ _ _ ________
___ _
Georgia______
____ _______ _ _ ______
Southern Tennessee 17_______ _ ______ _________
District K :
New M ex ico.. _______ ____ . . . _______
Southern Colorado 12 _ . _
District L: Northern Colorado 13_________ _ _____
District M : U t a h ____ _____
District N :
Southern W yom ing. _ _______
. . .
Northern W yom ing
. . .
District 0 : M on tana.. .
___ .
_ _
District P: Washington___
District Q:
North Dakota _ .
. . . . . . ____
South Dakota___________ . . .
___ _________

$4.20
4. 20
4. 20

Per hour

$0. 52%
•52%
•52%

Per day

$3. 20
3.20
3.20

Per hour

$0. 40
.40
.40

4. 57%

.57 H

4.20

•52%

5.00

- 62M

4.00

.50

4.70

.58 U

4.00

.50

3.75

.46 %

3.28

.41

4. 48
4. 44
5.00
5. 44

.56
.55%
•62%
.68

3. 75
3. 75
3. 75
4. 48

•46%
.46%
■46%
.56

5. 42
5. 42
5.63
5.40

.67%
.67%
•703/6
•67%

4. 44
4.54
4. 82
4.00

.55%
.56%
.60%
.50

9 Includes Grant, Mineral, and Tucker Counties.
7 Includes all counties not named under southern Tennessee in district J.
8 Excludes Warrick and Vandenburgh Counties.
8 Excludes W ayne and Appanoose Counties.
78 Includes all mines in Kentucky west of north and south line drawn along western boundary of city
of Louisville.
11 Includes Marion, Grundy, Sequatchie, W hite, Hamilton, Bledsoe, and Rhea Counties.
12 Includes all counties in Colorado not named under district L.
is Includes Jackson, Larimer, W eld, Boulder, Adams, Arapahoe, El Paso, Douglas, Elbert, and Jeffer­
son Counties.

Ill this code the employment of minors under 17 years of age is
forbidden inside any mine or in hazardous occupations outside the
mine, and in no case may any person under the age of 16 be employed
in or about a mine. Where a State law provides a higher minimum
age such law shall govern.
The usual statutory provision covering the right of labor to organize
and bargain collectively is included without modification. Coal is
to be weighed and the miner paid on the basis of a 2,000- or 2,240pound ton, and the miners shall have the right to a checkweighman
of their own choosing to inspect the weighing of coal, but with the
limitation that mines not now equipped to weigh coal shall be
allowed a reasonable time to install such equipment, and that where
rates of pay are determined by any other method than the actual
weight of the coal the miners shall have the right to check the accuracy
and fairness of the application of such methods by representatives of
their own choosing.
The net amount of wages due shall be paid semimonthly in lawful
money or par-check and, if not a matter of agreement, deduction shall
be made only in conformity with such general rules and regulations as

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

823

the Administrator may prescribe for the purpose of preventing unfair
deductions or those which may in effect lower the rates of pay provided.
Employees other than maintenance or supervisory men or those
necessary to protect the property shall not be required as a condition
of employment to live in homes rented from the employer. Neither
shall employees be required to trade at the store of the employer.
It is provided that, as soon as possible after the adoption of the
code, the National Recovery Administration shall undertake, through
a committee or agency to be designated, an investigation for the pur­
pose of reporting on or before December 31, 1933, with regard to:
(1) The practicability and cost (assuming the maintenance of existing
rates of pay) of applying a shorter work week and day in the industry;
(2) the effect of and advisability of revising wage differentials in the
various divisions and districts of the industry and in the event of
recommended change a specification as to amounts; and (3) the sales
obtained for coal, or reasonably to be anticipated, up to the time
of the report, for the purpose of determining whether wages and
employment can be further increased or maintained without imposing
undue burdens upon the industry.
On January 5, 1934, a conference is to be held between representa­
tives of employers and employees operating under the _code and
representatives of the National Industrial Recovery Administration
to determine what revisions, if any, are desirable at that time of the
wages, hours, and differentials, or other requirements of the code,
on the basis of the then existing conditions and in the light of the report
above mentioned. Unless that conference results in revisions made
by mutual agreement, the hours of work, minimum rates of pay, and
wage differentials provided in the code shall continue in effect until
April 1, 1934.
Administration of the bituminous-coal industry code is to be effected
through divisional code authorities and the Bituminous Coal Indus­
trial Board. The divisions set up are as follows:
Division no.' 1: Pennsylvania, Ohio, Lower Peninsula of Michigan, Maryland,
West Virginia, Kentucky, northern Tennessee (including all counties not included
within division no. I ll), Virginia, and North Carolina.
Division no. II: Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois.
Division no. I ll: Alabama, southern Tennessee (including Marion, Grundy,
Sequatchie, White, Hamilton, Bledsoe, and Rhea Counties), and Georgia.
Division n<5. IV: Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Division no. V: New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, and
Arizona.

Within 10 days after the effective date of the code, or within such
further time as the Administrator may allow, divisional code author­
ities or subdivisional code authorities shall be established for the
administration of the code. Members of a code authority, except
one without vote who shall be appointed by the President, shall be
chosen by an association or associations or a committee of coal
producers within the division or subdivision which shall be truly
representative of the industry, with no inequitable restrictions on
admission to membership. Full report of action taken to establish
a code authority shall be made to the Administrator and become
effective upon his approval. A subdivision shall consist of a geo­
graphical area within which all coal producers shall be entitled to
membership in the association or committee establishing the code


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

824

m onth ly

labor

r e v ie w

authority, and the Administrator may limit the number of such sub­
divisions and determine conclusively any controversy arising in
setting up a code authority. Where subdivisional code authorities
are established, a divisional code authority must also be provided.
As stated in the code, “ A code authority shall administer this code in
its division or subdivision” , these groups to have the duty of collecting
and compiling any reports or other information required. In investi­
gating complaints of unfair practices, the Presidential member shall
have power to require reports and shall be given access to inspect the
books and records of producers within the jurisdiction of such code
authority to the extent he may deem necessary for determination of
the validity of complaints. Producers subject to the code are
required to furnish to any Government agency designated such
statistical data as the Administrator may direct.
A period of 10 days is allowed subsequent to the creation of the
divisional code authorities for the establishment of the National
Bituminous Coal Industrial Board, consisting of 4 members desig­
nated by the divisional code authority of division no. I; 2 members
designated by division no. II; 1 member each designated by divisions
nos. I ll, IV, and V ; and the 5 members of divisional code authorities
appointed by the President. The President may appoint not more
than 3 members to the board, either in addition to, or in substitution
for 1 or more of the aforesaid 5 members of the divisional code
authorities. The board is empowered to execute the duties set forth
in the code and any that may be added and shall meet at the call of
the Administrator, who shall act as ex-officio chairman, to consider
and to make recommendations to the divisional code authorities and
the President as to needed amendments to the code or measures to
stabilize and improve conditions of the industry and promote the
public interest.
For the governing of labor relations provision is also made in that a
bituminous coal labor board shall be appointed by the President for
each division (with two such boards for division no. I), each composed
of three members to be selected one each from nominations submitted
by organizations of employees within such division, from nominations
of the divisional code authority, and the third to be a wholly impartial
and disinterested representative of the President. Where contro­
versy arises as to hours, wages, and conditions of employment it shall
be settled if possible by the disputants, but failing such agreement, it
shall be referred to the appropriate bituminous coal labor board and
the decision of the latter body shall become effective for a provisional
period not to exceed 6 months. Pending settlement, neither party
to the dispute shall change the conditions out of which the contro­
versy arose or utilize any coercive or retaliatory measure to compel
the other party to accede to its demands. It is specifically provided
that the appropriate bituminous coal labor board shall have the power
to determine controversies arising out of section 7 (a) of the National
Industrial Recovery Act.
The National Bituminous Coal Labor Board, composed of the
members of the six divisional labor boards, may be convened if a
controversy involves_ the employers and employees of more than one
division, or if a decision of a divisional board affects operating condi­
tions in more than one division either directly or because of competi­
tive marketing, or if a local decision involves the general public or

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N ATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

825

the industry as a whole in the opinion of the Administrator. The
National Bituminous Coal Labor Board may exercise all of the powers
of a divisional board.
Collective Agreement under Bituminous-Coal Code

Within a few days following the adoption of the code of fair com­
petition for the bituminous-coal industry, an agreement1 was signed
between the Northern Coal Control Association and the Appalachian
Coal Association, on the one hand, and the United Mine Workers
of America, on the other. In signing the agreement, on September
22, the President stated:
In approving this agreement it is with the understanding that the hours and
wages and conditions of employment recited herein may also be applied to the
employees who are not parties hereto and that the requirements of section 7 (a)
of the N.R.A. will be complied with in carrying out this agreement.

Presidential approval of this agreement was in conformity with
section 7 (b) of the National Industrial Kecovery Act, providing:
(b) The President shall, so far as practicable, afford every opportunity to
employers and employees in any trade or industry or subdivision thereof with
respect to which the conditions referred to in clauses (1) and (2) of subsection
(a) prevail, to establish by mutual agreement, the standards as to the maximum
hours of labor, minimum rates of pay, and such other conditions of employment
as may be necessary in such trade or industry or subdivision thereof to effectuate
the policy of this title; and the standards established in such agreements, when
approved by the President, shall have the same effect as a code of fair competi­
tion, approved by the President under subsection (a) of section 3.
Gasoline-Pump Manufacturing Industry

O n A u g u s t 24, 1933, a hearing on the code for the gasoline-pump
manufacturing industry was held. The code was approved by the
President on September 18, 1933, and took effect the same day.
This industry is defined as covering the manufacture and sale by
the manufacturers of dispensing gasoline pumps of the meter, visible
or blind types, operated by hand or power; kerosene tanks in unit
combination; low-pressure grease pumps and oil pumps_and other
low-pressure lubricating outfits for transmissions and differentials;
hand trucks for carrying portable outfits for dispensing gasoline,
kerosene, grease, oil, and other petroleum products; and other
equipment used in the dispensing of these products for consumption.
The Gasoline Pump Manufacturers’ Association, claiming to
represent 90 percent of the industry, sponsored this code.
The code provides for a maximum working week of 40 hours.
The minimum pay is placed at 40 cents per hour regardless^ of
whether payment is made at time or piece rates, with the reservation
that no employee shall receive a lower rate of pay than that set by
State law. Existing differentials between the higher and lower
wage classes shall be maintained.
No person under 16 years of age may be employed, and in connection
with metal-working machines the exemption is raised to cover those
under 18. It is farther provided that where State law fixes a higher
age the law shall be observed.
i It is planned to publish this agreement, together with such additional agreements for other areas as
m ay be arrived at, in the November issue of the M onthly Labor Review.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

826

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

The gasoline-pump manufacturing industry is small, employing
only 3,000 persons according to the National Recovery Administration.
It is estimated that the increase from the 30-cent rate, which was being
paid at the time the code came up for consideration, to the rate of
40 cents set by the code will result in a 20 percent increase in the
pay roll. While the maximum hours fixed are the same as those
worked before the code went into effect (40 hours per week), it is
stated that to reduce hours sufficiently to reabsorb the unemployed
in the industry (or to 30 hours per week) would be decidedly unfair
as the producers of these pumps make other articles in the same
plants and are operating under 40-hour codes established for the
manufacture of these other articles.
For administrative purposes an executive committee of the gaso­
line-pump manufacturing industry is established. Its membership is
to consist of five persons, chosen by a fair method of selection and
approved by the Administrator and three members without vote
appointed by him. Employers are obliged to file with the secretary
of the committee statistics of employment, earnings, hours, etc., and,
when required, copies of invoices and all books or records.
Linoleum and Felt Base Manufacturing Industry
T h e hearing on the code for the linoleum and felt base manufac­
turing industry on September 1, 1933, was followed by Presidential
approval on September 18, with the effective date set as October 2,
1933.
The code covers the manufacture and sale of floor coverings of
linoleum and felt base products.
This code bad 100 percent support of the industry with duly author­
ized and qualified representatives of the industry presenting it.
It provides for a maximum of 40 hours per week averaged over a
26-week period, with hours not to exceed 48 in any 1 week. Ex­
cepted classes are: (1) Executives and their personal secretaries,
salesmen, ^research technicians, foremen, and assistant foremen;
(2) shipping crews, including truck drivers; and (3) laboratory
technicians and mechanics engaged in repair work in emergency.
The 26-week period shall be regarded as the 26 weeks following adop­
tion of the code for those in the employ of companies and the first
26 weeks of employment of those subsequently hired.
Separate wage rates are set for office and other employees. For
those not engaged in office work the hourly rate shall be 40 cents an
hour for males and 35 cents for females with the understanding that
where the same work is done the same rate shall be paid, the differ­
ential thus not being regarded as discriminatory. Office workers shall
be paid $14 per week. Rates paid in the higher brackets shall be
increased in fair relation to the minimum rates, regardless of whether
rates are on an hourly or piece-rate basis. No worker shall be paid
below the rate fixed by State law.
The minimum age of employment is set at 16 years, again
providing that provisions of the State law shall be met. It was
stated, however, that it has not been the custom in this industry to
employ child labor.
Production in this industry declined 41 percent between 1929 and
1932, according to the administration’s report, and employment


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

827

declined 31.1 percent (from 5,768 to 3,975 wage earners). It is esti­
mated that the number of employees on hourly rates will be raised 42
percent under the code provisions.
Administration of the code will be placed under the direction of the
Linoleum and Felt Base Manufacturers’ Association. Members of
the industry will furnish to the association or the Administrator
reports of hours and wages of labor, production and sales statistics,
and such additional information as required.
Oil-Burner Industry

A h e a r i n g on the proposed code for the oil-burner industry was
held on August 21 and 22, 1933, and was approved by the President
on September 18, to take effect 5 days later (Sept. 23, 1933).
As defined the industry embraces 5 branches as follows: (1)
Domestic oil burners, motor-driven or otherwise, designed primarily
for use with central heating plants in 1- or 2-family dwellings or for
similar use;_ (2) commercial oil burners, motor-driven or otherwise,
designed primarily for application to the heating plants of multiple
dwellings and commercial and public buildings or for similar uses; (3)
boiler-burner units, which shall be combinations of oil burners and
boiler or furnaces, designed primarily for heating domestic or com­
mercial types of buildings or for similar uses; (4) distillate oil burners,
which shall be burners designed primarily for use in connection with
cooking ranges, space heaters, and domestic water heaters or for sim­
ilar uses; and (5) industrial burners, which shall be burners designed
primarily for producing heat or power for industrial processes and/or
purposes. The distillate oil burners are described as conversion
burners, consisting of distillate burners designed to be installed in
cooking and heating units and cooking or heating devices manufac­
tured expressly for use with oil burners, the burners becoming an
integral part of the unit at the point of manufacture.
The code was presented by the American Oil Burner Association,
Inc., claiming to represent 65 to 70 percent of the industry.
As approved, maximum hours are fixed for manufacturing opera­
tions at an average of 32 per week between January and June,
inclusive, and not to exceed 40 hours per week during any 1 week of
that period. During July to December, inclusive, hours may not
exceed an average of 40 per week nor 48 in any 1 week. For the
entire year the average is thus 36 hours per week. In the work of
installing and servicing oil burners, working hours shall not exceed
an average of 32 per week during the period March to August,
inclusive, with no more than 40 hours of labor in any 1 week.
Through September to November, inclusive, the average is fixed at
not to exceed 48 hours in any 1 week, and in the period December to
February, inclusive, work is not to exceed an average of 40 hours
per week nor more than 48 hours in any 1 week. For the entire year
the average is thus 38 hours per week. Officers and employees
engaged in a managerial or executive capacity receiving less than $35
per week shall not work to exceed an average of 40 hours per week,
averaged over a 6-month period, and not to exceed 48 hours during
1 week of that period. The code carries a statement that insofar as
consistent with sound business practice it shall be the declared policy
of the industry to employ the same personnel throughout the year.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

828

MONTHLY LABOK R EV IEW

Minimum hourly wages shall be not less than 45 cents an hour.
For office or employees engaged in a managerial or executive capacity,
the minimum wage shall not be less than $15 per week. In cases in
which a member of the oil-burner industry is also operating in another
industry, such member may, with the approval of the Administrator,
pay the wages and work the hours provided for in the code governing
that branch of Ins operations. However, in pricing oil burners not
less than the minimum provided by the oil-burner code shall be used
as a basis of calculation of costs.
No minor under 16 years of age shall be employed; however, if
the State law sets a higher exemption the law shall supersede the
code provision in this respect.
This industry is one of the youngest industries in the country and is
therefore little documented, according to the deputy administrator who
conducted the hearing. However, he finds that, according to the
census, there were 69 establishments devoted to the production of oil
burners in 1929, the total shrinking to 37 in 1931. From available
data it is estimated that the firms that dropped out were in the main
very small plants. The code set up is of a vertical type governing all
branches of the industry from manufacture to retailing and it is
estimated that it will bring about an increase in employment of 8,000
persons and a pay-roll rise of $800,000 monthly.
Administration will devolve upon the code authority with a mem­
bership of 12, composed as follows: 5 members of the executive com­
mittee of the American Oil Burner Association, Inc.; the chairman
of the board of governors of the dealer division of the association;
the president of the Distillate Oil Burner Manufacturers’ Association,
or his nominee; the president of the Pacific Coast Oil Burner Associa­
tion, or his nominee; a person not a member of the foregoing associa­
tions but selected by the Administrator; and 3 nonvoting members
appointed by the Administrator. The code authority shall cooperate
with the Administrator as a planning and fair-practice agency, may
submit recommendations based on conditions in the industry, and
shall have the power to require reports from the industry that in its
judgment may be necessary to advise adequately on the administra­
tion and enforcement of the provisions in the code. In addition such
statistical information shall be furnished to Government agencies as
the Administrator shall deem necessary.
Textile-Bag Industry
F o l l o w i n g a hearing on the textile-bag industry held on August
31, 1933, a revised code was approved by the President on September
18 to take effect the second Monday thereafter (Oct. 2, 1933).
When used in the code the term “ textile-bag industry” includes
the manufacture of a general line of bags made from new cotton and
new burlap woven cloth for the manufacturer’s own use or for sale.
The Textile Bag Manufacturers’ Association, claiming to repre­
sent 90 percent of the industry, submitted the code.
Maximum hours per employee are placed at 40 per week and not
more than 8 in any 24 hours, except in the peak seasons (not to ex­
ceed 8 weeks in any 1 year) when employees may work not more than
48 hours per week. Productive machinery may not be operated
more than 2 shifts of 40 hours each per week. Excepted from the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

829

maximum-hours provisions are emergency maintenance and repair
crews, engineers, electricians, firemen, supervisory staff, shipping
crews, watching crews, outside crews, and cleaners. With respect to
the hours of labor for cleaners and outside employees the control com­
mittee, set up under the code, shall submit a report to the Adminis­
trator by January 1, 1934.
Wages are fixed at a minimum of $12 per week in the South (Mary­
land, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and the District of Columbia) ;
all other States constitute the northern section wherein the rate of
pay shall be $13 per week. Excepted from the minimum-wage pro­
vision are learners, sweepers, elevator men, yardmen, and hand
truckers, who shall receive not less than 80 percent of the minimum
wage, with the further restriction that at no time may the employees
classified as learners be more than 10 percent of the total number of
employees and the number classified as infirm or physically handi­
capped employees exceed 5 percent of the total. Repair-shop crews,
engineers, electricians, and watching crews, although excepted from
the maximum-hour provisions, are to be paid at the rate of time and
one third for overtime. Those persons who received above the
minimum set in the code at the time of its adoption may not have
their wages reduced even though the hours are reduced, but, on the
contrary, an equitable increase of pay schedules shall be made in
accordance with the terms of paragraph 7 of the President’s Reem­
ployment Agreement and interpretations thereof.
No minor under the age of 16 may be employed in the industry,
and when a State law specifies a higher minimum age no person below
the specified age limit may be employed.
The fair-practice agency provided under the code is to be known
as the control committee, its personnel consisting of the members of
the executive committee of the Textile Bag Manufacturers’ Associa­
tion, a representative of companies engaged in the textile-bag industry
who are not members of the association just named, and such govern­
mental representatives without vote as the President shall appoint.
The control committee may present to the Administrator recom­
mendations based on conditions existing in the industry; it will
cooperate with the Administrator in making investigations as_ to the
functioning and observance of any provisions of the code; it may
recommend registration of productive machinery and that no new
installations be made except for replacements unless the Administra­
tor shall find that such additional installations will tend to affect
the policy of the National Industrial Recovery Act and gives his
approval; and, lastly, the committee shall collect such reports as
may be required in order to effectuate the administration and enforce­
ment of the code. Recommendations of the control committee when
properly approved shall become operative as a part of the code.
Transit Industry
F o r the transit industry a hearing on its proposed code of fair
competition was held on August 29, 1933. The President gave his
approval on September 18, and the code became effective the four­
teenth day following approval, i.e., October 2, 1933.
11456°—33---- 5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

830

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

This industry is defined as including—
1. Electric railways and trolley bus lines transporting passengers by electric
car or trolley bus; provided that electric railways engaged in both intrastate and
interstate commerce may operate either the intrastate or interstate portions of
their business, or both, under this code unless prevented by Federal law.
2. Automotive busses transporting passengers solely within State lines, except
when engaged in interstate commerce.
3. Automotive busses transporting passengers in interstate commerce or in
both intrastate and interstate commerce where such operations are conducted
entirely within a single metropolitan area or within a group of municipalities
when the transportation service is essentially urban or suburban in character.
4. The performance of all service and the transaction of all business incident
to the operation of the foregoing facilities.

The American Transit Association, representing public carriers
providing transportation facilities for more than 75 percent of all
passengers carried by the local electric railway and bus transportation
industry, sponsored the code.
The terms provide a maximum week of 40 hours of work for general
office employees; 44 hours for general shop employees; and 48 hours
for car-house and garage-service employees, maintenance, track, line,
power-house, and substation department employees. For trainmen,
bus operators, ticket agents, and related transportation groups a
48-hour week is provided, with an allowance not to exceed 6 hours per
week, owing to the exigencies of the service. This provision shall be
deemed to be complied with if no employee is allowed to work in
excess of the allowed number of hours over a 6-montli period. This
maximum, however, is to be reached by not more than 10 percent of
the total number of employees. The existing hours of labor of train­
men and bus operators are not to be changed except as may be agreed
upon in existing or new agreements; this is not to be construed to
prevent increased hours for employees who are not receiving a reason­
able amount of work, except that in no event are the hours to be
increased beyond the 48 hours prescribed in the code. The hours
provisions do not apply to emergency crews or during emergencies
such as snowstorms, floods, fires, or other causes beyond the control
of the employer. Management, executive, and supervisory employees
receiving $35 or more per week are exempted from the hours provisions
as are janitors, watchmen, crossing flagmen, and gatemen, and em­
ployees commonly termed “ worker-pension” employees; these latter
groups are not to exceed 5 percent of the total number of employees
in the industry.
Except as otherwise provided by agreement, the minimum wages
are established for employees on a monthly and hourly basis.
For employees paid on a monthly basis the rates are—
In cities of 500,000 population and over and immediate trade area_____ $15. 00
In cities of 250,000 and under 500,000 population and immediate trade
area________________________________________________________________ 14. 50
In cities of 2,500 and under 250,000 population and immediate trade area- 14. 00
In towns of under 2,500 population___________________________________
12. 00

For employees compensated on a weekly or monthly basis but work­
ing less than full time the wage shall be the pro rata share for the
actual time worked.
Employees paid at an hourly rate shall receive not less than 40
cents an hour unless the rate for the same class of work was lower on
July 15, 1929; in that case the 1929 rate may be paid, provided that
in no event shall it be lower than 30 cents an hour.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

831

Where piecework, cooperative, or profit-sharing rates exist, the
hourly rate shall equal the minimum hourly wages prescribed.
Office boys and girls and messengers, under 21 years of age, and
apprentices are to be paid not less than 80 percent of the minimum
wages prescribed and may not exceed 5 percent of the total number
employed.
. No person under 16 years of age shall be employed.
According to the National Recovery Administration report, the
transit industry will reemploy 7,250 additional workers under the
code, increasingthe annual pay roll by $11,000,000 thereby, or by 3%
percent. This increase may be somewhat lessened in proportion to
the number of workers coming under existing labor contracts that
permit a work week in excess of the maximum presented in the code.
Owing to the heavy financial load of the industry, the financial burden
of increased wages is stated by the deputy administrator who con­
ducted the hearing to be all that can be fairly expected at the present
time. Many of the street-railway and bus operators falling under
the code have agreements with their employees through the American
Federation of Labor and other organizations, and it is expressly pro­
vided that the terms of agreement shall be lived up to. Also, that
under the provisions of section 7 (a) of the National Industrial Re­
covery Act, if employees wish to change their organization, they are
free to do so.
Administration is to be undertaken by the code authority, made up
of 7 voting members and 3 nonvoting members appointed by the
Administrator. Of the 7 voting members, 1 shall at all times be the
president of the American Transit Association, and 1 the managing
director of that association. The remaining 5 shall be elected by vote
of members of the industry subject to approval of the Administrator.
At least 2 of this number shall be representatives of labor, and 1 may
be a member of the industry not holding membership in the American
Transit Association. The code authority shall as soon as possible
appoint 2 individuals who shall jointly with 2 individuals appointed
by the motor bus code authority hear and finally determine juris­
dictional questions. If decision is not reached within 10 days the
matter shall be referred to the Administrator for final disposition.
Appeals from any action taken by the code authority shall also be
taken to the Administrator. _ Duties of the code authority include
administering the code provisions, requiring reports on wages, hours,
conditions of employment, etc., and making recommendations to the
Administrator for changes in the code.
Manufacture of Underwear and Allied Products

T he hearing on the proposed code for the manufacture of under­
wear and allied products was scheduled for August 10, 1933, and lasted
through the next day. The President’s approval followed on Sep­
tember 18 and the code went into effect the second Monday after
approval (Oct. 2, 1933). Prior to the adoption of its own code
this industry operated under the provisions of the cotton-textile
code. However, upon the effective date of the underwear and allied
products manufacturing code the cotton-textile code was superseded,
remaining in force only for certain divisions of the underwear industry
pending adoption of a separate code for them.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

832

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

The code defines the industry as follows:
(а) Knitted, woven, and all other types of underwear manufactured from all
types of materials, wTith the exception of women’s undergarments (other than
so-called athletic type), pajamas, and negligees made from woven fabrics of silk,
rayon, cotton, or flannelette, or of any combination thereof, and also excepting
women’s, children’s, and infant’s lingerie undergarments manufactured in the
Philippines or Puerto Rico from woven fabrics;
(б) Garments made in underwear mills from fabric made on underwear ma­
chines, excepting, however, the cutting and fabricating of shirts other than under­
shirts: P r o v id e d , h ow ever, That the manufacture of fleece-lined sweat shirts and
other garments of like nature are not included in this exception;
(c) Any and all fabrics sold or used mainly for underwear purposes made on
flat or warp or circular knitting machines;
(d) Knitted elastic fabrics;
(e) Knitted tubing for meat bagging;
(/) Knitted work-glove fabrics;
(g) Knitted fabrics made for leggings; and
(h) Knitted wash cloths:
(i) P ro vid ed , how ever, That any person manufacturing infants’ and children’s
underwear and leggings, other than knitted cotton and woven cotton, so called,
“ athletic typ e” underwear, may elect to operate under the provisions of such
code of fair competition for the infants’ and children’s wear industry as may
hereafter be approved by the President of the United States; pending the approval
of such code of fair competition for the infants’ and children’s wear industry such
persons operating under the President’s Reemployment Agreement may con­
tinue to operate under said agreement, and such persons not operating under
the President’s Reemployment Agreement shall operate under the provisions of
this code.

In proposing the code, an organization of manufacturers of under­
wear and allied products was formed for the first time in the history
of the industry. The organization is known as the Underwear
Institute and claims to represent 75 percent of the productive capac­
ity of the industry.
Employee working hours are fixed at a maximum of 40 per week,
excluding office and supervisory staff, repair-shop crews, engineers,
electricians, firemen, machine fixers, shipping, watching, cleaners,
and outside crews. Repair-shop crews, machine fixers, engineers,
electricians, and watching crews shall work 40 hours, with a tolerance
of 10 percent except in emergencies; all emergency time must be
reported to the Underwear Institute monthly. For office employees
the 40-hour work week shall be averaged over a period of 1 month.
The code states that the hours provisions establish maximum hours
of labor per week for every employee covered, so that no employee
may be allowed to work for one or more employers in the aggregate
in excess of the prescribed number of hours. No sewing machine may
be operated more than one shift of 40 hours per week and no knitting
machine more than two shifts of 40 hours each.
Pending adoption of further provisions to govern the speeding up of
work (“ stretch-outs” ), no employee may be required to do any work
in excess of that prevailing on July 1, 1933, or prior to the share-thework movement unless the increase shall be submitted and approved
by the industry committee and the Administrator.
Minimum weekly wages shall be $12 in the southern section (Vir­
ginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma)
and $13 in the northern section (all other States and the District of
Columbia). Learners, privileged employees, cleaners, and outside
crews shall be excepted. Learners shall be paid at standard piece
rates but in no event less than $8 per week. Differentials between

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

833

rates paid various classes of labor shall not be reduced and the wage
for 40 hours shall not be less than was formerly paid for 48 hours in the
same class of work. The wage rates established shall be observed
regardless of whether work is performed on a time- or piece-rate basis.
Cleaners, outside workers, and privileged employees shall not exceed
8 percent of the total employees and shall not receive less than 75
percent of the minimum wages fixed for ordinary workers and when
paid on a piece-rate basis must be paid the standard piece rate.
No part of the manufacture falling under this code may take place
in the home premises or living quarters of any person, the purpose of
this provision being to prohibit home work.
No child under 16 years of age shall be employed.
The manufacturers of circular-knit rayon fabrics sought to obtain
exemption, believing they belong to a separate group, but in order to
facilitate passage of the code under consideration agreed to acknowl­
edge it provided they were granted a stay of 14 days in which time
they would show cause why they should be classed separately.
Administration under the code will be in the hands of the Under­
wear and Allied Products Manufacturing Industry Committee, con­
sisting of 6 representatives of the industry duly elected by members
of the Underwear Institute and 3 members without vote appointed
by the President. This body will act as a planning and fair-practice
agency, cooperating with the Administrator, will make investigations
as to the functioning and observance of the code, make recommenda­
tions for changes in the code and furnish duly certified reports as to
wages and hours of labor and machinery and production data.
Shipbuilding and Ship Repairing (Modification of Code)
U p o n the request of the shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry
and the Secretary of the Navy, the President has ordered the enlarge­
ment of the planning committee established under the code which
was approved on July 26, 1933. Under the President’s order of
September 22 the number of representatives of the industry is in­
creased from 5 to 6 and those of the administration (without vote)
from 3 to 4. This action was taken because the operators believed
that the wide geographical distribution of the industry made the
extension of representation necessary, with a further increase possible
at a later elate to take care of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.
By the addition of another presidential appointee the need for rep­
resentation of the Navy Department on the committee was recog­
nized, the Secretary of the Navy having pointed out that the code’s
operation would have an important bearing on naval construction.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LAND SETTLEMENT FOR UNEMPLOYED
Land Settlement in Germany in 1932

HE scope of the land-settlement movement in Germany has
been extended as a result of the depression and the decrease in
the price of farm land. The purposes of the movement are to relieve
the unemployment situation, to check the movement from the
farms to the city, to break up the large estates into small farms,
and to promote the development of a stable class of small and inde­
pendent landowners.
Reports 1 covering the developments up to the first part of 1932
show that at that time plans were under way for the construction
of 16,000 houses for unemployed in the suburbs of German industrial
cities; that from the passage of the Federal settlements law of 1929
until the end of 1931, approximately 48,375 self-maintaining agri­
cultural units were created in Germany, covering about 1,235,000
acres; and that the enlargement of farm laborers’ holdings had also
made great progress. However, it is said that settlement of the
German type affords little relief for the unemployment situation
except insofar as it imposes a check on the farm-to-city movement.
The results of the movement in 1932 for the building of suburban
settlements and of the general land-settlement program are given as
follows in two recent reports 2 from the American consular office in
Berlin.

T

Suburban Settlements

O f the 16,000 suburban settlements originally called for by the
early spring (1932) program, work had been started on about 13,000
or 14,000 up to the first of December 1932. The number actually
completed is considerably less but exact statistics or even official esti­
mates are lacking on this point. In actual practice numerous diffi­
culties were encountered in the building of houses and the preparation
of lots, due to the inefficiency of the settlers, who were more often than
not inexperienced in construction work. Often the settlers lived far
away from their settlements and took or spent the greater part of the
day in traveling to and from their work. In most cases, therefore,
the greater part of the construction work— 80 to 90 percent— has
been done by hired labor. It was also found that when the work was
left to the settlers themselves they took too long to complete it.
Cases were reported of groups of settlers who had been working on
their houses and lots all summer and were only about half done. At
this stage private contractors were called in who completed the work
in 3 or 4 weeks. Naturally, these delays and the hiring of extra labor
tended to cause an increase in the cost of each settlement.
1 See M onthly Labor Review, M ay 1932, pp. 1049-1050; July 1932, pp. 141,142; September 1932, pp. 520-522.
2 C. W . Gray, vice consul, Dec. 6, 1932, and Feb. 11, 1933.

834

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

835

LAND SETTLEMENT FOR UNEMPLOYED

It is reported that after moving in the settlers, even if they were
not in a position to provide for a part of their upkeep, were able to
live better on their unemployment benefits than they had been doingin the city tenements. Suburban settlements will not bring about
any actual decrease in the amount expended for unemployment bene­
fits until next summer, when the first crops will be harvested on the
settlers’ lots.
In the extraordinary Federal budget for the fiscal year ending March
31, 1933, an additional 25 million marks ($5,950,000) was appropri­
ated for suburban settlements. This will allow the building of 10,000
more, of which Berlin expected to get 800 at a cost of 2 million marks
($476,000). As in the case of the original 16,000 settlements the
maximum cost of each one will be around 2,500 marks ($595).
However, there is one slight difference in the regulations governing
the additional 10,000 settlements. A settler with four or more children
will receive a special allowance (not a loan) of 120 marks ($28.56).
If the settler has five or more children he will receive a loan of 500
marks ($119). As a condition for receiving the allowance the settler
is required to build an attic room in his house, and if he receives both
the allowance and the loan, lie must build two attic rooms. Under
the new program the houses will be somewhat larger than formerly.
The manner of granting the loan to the settlers will be the same as
with the original 16,000 settlements.
Land Settlements

O n October 1, 1932, it was reported that 45,000 hectares (111,150
acres) of land were at the disposal of the settlement societies, of which
35.000 hectares (86,450 acres) were to be used for the creation of
3.000 new land settlements and the remaining 10,000 hectares (24,700
acres) for the enlargement of small farms.
In 1932 there were 9,000 new settlements created, which is 46 less
than in 1931. Prussia, as usual, led with 7,907, or 88 percent of the
total. The steady progress of the land settlement movement is
shown in the following table:
N U M B E R OF L A N D S E T T L E M E N T S C R E A T E D IN G E R M A N Y
Number of settlements of—

Year

2 N ot including number set tied outside oi Prussia in 1932.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Total

Under 2
hectares
(4.9 acres)

2and
under 10
hectares
(4.9-24.7
acres)

Over 10
hectares
(24.7 acres)

6, 344

18, 718
3,372
4,253
5, 545
7, 441
9, 046
9,000

9,183
1,363
1,349
1,591
1,648
1,352
i 423

3,191
633
867
1,241
2,164
2,952
13,197

1,376
2, 037
2, 713
3, 529
4, 742
14, 287

57, 375

216,909

214, 245

225,128

836

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

An analysis of the foregoing statistics reveals the interesting and
significant fact that the size of the individual farm is steadily increas­
ing. From 1919 through 1926 farms of less than 2 hectares (4.9 acres)
represented 49 percent of the total. In 1931 they accounted for
14.9 percent and in 1932 (Prussia) only 4.7 percent. Farms of be­
tween 2 and 10 hectares (4.9 to 24.7 acres) represented 17 percent of
the_ total number created between 1919 and 1926. In 1931 in the
entire country they constituted 32.6, and in 1932, in Prussia only 35.5
percent of the additions in those years. In a similar manner farms of
10 hectares (24.7 acres) or more accounted for 33.9 percent of the
new additions between 1919 and 1926, but their share increased to
52.4 percent in 1931 and amounted in 1932 in Prussia alone to 47.6
percent. It is evident that the authorities are following the policy of
increasing the size of the individual farm in order to give the settlers
a better opportunity to become self-supporting.
The 7,907 new settlements in Prussia cover 87,451 hectares (216,004
acres), an average of 11 hectares (27.2 acres) each.
In 1932 the number of settlements enlarged (Anlieger Siedlungen)
in Prussia was 8,991 and the amount of land added to them was 16,760
hectares (41,397 acres), an average of 1.9 hectares (4.7 acres) per
farm. The number enlarged in the entire country in 1931 was 10,900,
the amount of land utilized for this purpose being 22,000 hectares
(54,340 acres).
Relief of Unemployment Through General Land-Reclamation
Activities in Italy

HE following description of the general plan for the reclamation
of waste areas of land in Italy and the settlement of such areas
has been given in reports from the American consular officers in sev­
eral Italian cities.1
It is essential for Italy with its area of 310,137 square kilometers
(119,744 square miles) and its population of 41,230,047 to have under
cultivation all land capable of producing crops. Energetic measures
have been taken by the Government to insure that all sections which
can be made productive are actually put under cultivation. In the
last 10 years there have been reclaimed in Italy about 700,000 hec­
tares or approximately 1,730,000 acres.
Measures to increase the extent of arable land within the limits of
the kingdom have been undertaken with the idea of augmenting the
production of agricultural crops, of making a systematized distribu­
tion of the rural population to prevent migration to the cities, and of
effecting an improvement in hygienic conditions. In practically no
instances have these reclamation projects been adopted primarily as
measures for the relief of unemployed. Land-settlement plans have
been undertaken in certain areas to assist war veterans, particularly
in the central part of the country. An important undertaking of this
nature is the reclamation of the low-lying lands known as the Pontine
Marshes (Agro Pontino) extending for 40 miles between the Tyrrhenian
Sea and the mountains.
The law of comprehensive land reclamation (Bonifica integrate) of
December 24, 1928, went into effect July 1, 1929, and provides for
1C. Porter Kuykendall, consul, Naples; T . Jaeckel, consul general, Rome; and John R. Putnam, consul

T

Leghorn.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LAND SETTLEMENT FOR UNEMPLOYED

837

the activities to be carried out in a 10-year period following the enact­
ment of the law.
The land-reclamation program is carried out by the Government
in those areas which have already been delimited and which will be
improved by public works. Although the work of reclamation in­
volves large territories, it should be understood that the improvement
activities concern only a small part of the areas in question.
The land-reclamation activities are of two types:
(1) Fundamental public works carried out by the Government on
areas which have been delimited by the State, with the carrying out
by the proprietors of other works necessary for the completion of the
project. Such public works generally involve the following: (a)
Systems of land transformation; (6) systems of hydraulic reclamation
of the first class; (c) improvement of mountainous areas; (d) territories
served by roads connected with land transformation.
(2) Private works subsidized by the Government on individual
estates or groups of estates located outside the territories delimited by
the State.
Of the area of 3,886,769 hectares on which public works for general
land reclamation were in process of execution on July 1, 1932, there
was the following distribution:
Hectares

Reclamation by irrigation________________________ 2, 504, 750 (6,189,237 acres)
Land transformation_____________________________ 1, 347, 513 (3,329,705 acres)
Roads connected with land transformation_______
34, 506 (85,264 acres)

The total expenditures during the 10 years of the Fascist régime
amount to 63 percent of the total expenditures for land reclamation
since the unification of Italy in 1870. Of the 4,743,000,000 lire
($249,481,800)3spent for reclamation by irrigation and for land trans­
formation since 1870, 3,022,000,000 lire ($158,957,200) was spent in
the 10 years subsequent to the inauguration of the Fascist régime, in
addition to the sum of 251,000,000 lire ($13,202,600) expended in
that period for improvements in mountain areas.
Development of Reclaimed Land in Pontine Marshes
T h e rapidity of the work accomplished in the Pontine Marshes
has been outstanding among the reclamation activities undertaken
in Italy. It was not until the royal decree of August 28, 1931, that
the first area of 18,000 hectares (43,560 acres) was given to the
National Work for Veterans (Opera Nazionale per i Combattenti) for
reclamation purposes. Early in December of that year, laborers
arrived to commence work, and on December 18, 1932, the new town
of Littoria was established. By that date there were 515 farms
settled and equipped with farmhouses, and there were 10,500 hectares
(25,945 acres) of marsh land which had been occupied. It is ex­
pected that by 1935 there will be 50,000 persons settled on the re­
claimed Pontine Marshes.
The Pontine Marshes are about 80,000 hectares (197,680 acres)
in extent, of which the National Work for Veterans now owns approx­
imately 32,000 hectares (79,040 acres). Of this area 10,000 hectares
(24,710 acres) have been fully reclaimed and the rest is in various
stages of reclamation. The remainder of the marshes belongs to
private individuals, to societies, and to various communes of the
3Conversions into United States currency on basis oflira at par=5.26 cents.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

838

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

area so owned, which amounts to somewhat less than 50,000 hectares
(122,550 acres). A large part has already been reclaimed.
The colonists selected to settle the land reclaimed by the “ Opera”
are taken from the excess rural population. This policy prevents a
drift to the cities and at the same time results in competent agricul­
turists taking up the new land. The farmers are chosen from among
those designated by the commissioner of. internal emigration, and
the “ Opera” contributes toward the removal expenses.
The individual farms are allocated to the colonists to be worked
on shares, the colonists to receive one half of the profits and the
“ Opera” the other half. The aim of the organization is to have each
colonist eventually own his own farm, the indebtedness on which
can be paid off in installments.
It is necessary for the Opera Nazionale to create, for every 10,000
to 20,000 hectares of land, rural communities which later may be
made into municipalities. In each new center of population will be
located the seat of the municipal government, the office of the Opera
Nazionale, the local Fascist organization, the Opera Nazionale
Dopolavoro, and the many other usual organizations existing in
each Italian municipality. The cost of the construction of public
works is borne by the Opera Nazionale and the amount not contrib­
uted by the State will be obtained by the sale of land to persons
desirous of establishing shops, boarding houses, or hotels, and to other
individuals wishing to acquire property in the new community itself.
The “ Opera, ” first, and later the municipality, will dispose of the
ground desired for industrial development and will regulate its use.
Reclamation in the Vicinity of Leghorn
A l t h o u g h there are several projects in the Leghorn consular dis­
trict there are only two in operation which may be classed under
land settlements. The two projects on which work is being actually
carried out are controlled by the “ Opera” ; one is located at Coltano, between Leghorn and Pisa, and the other on the left bank of
the River Ombrone at Alberese, in the Plain of Grosseto.
The original extent of the section of land at Coltano was 3,216
hectares (7,947 acres), of which the radio station occupies some 178
hectares (440 acres). The remainder, about 3,038 hectares (7,507
acres), is principally swamp and marsh land below the level of the
sea, which was given to the “ Opera” by the King of Italy in 1919,
to be used for the benefit of ex-soldiers who had fought in the war.
The reclamation work is carried out by ditch drainage into small
canals which in turn empty into larger canals, the water being finally
pumped into the large canals running into the sea between Leghorn
and Marina di Pisa. There are three pumping stations equipped with
electrical pumping apparatus. The drainage work, the greater part
of which has already been completed, will include some 570 kilometers
(354 miles) of drainage ditches, canals, and roads. A new canal,
navigable from the sea at Leghorn to Pisa, has been completed, which
is used extensively for the conveyance of garden produce and other
local products.
The great tract of marsh land at Coltano has from early times been
subject to malarial conditions; since 1928, however, there have been
no cases of malaria there, although previous to that year it is stated
that 60 percent of the population suffered from malaria.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LAND

SETTLEMENT FOR UNEMPLOYED

839

The land-settlement project at Alberese, located in the Plain of
Grosseto, on the left bank of the River Ombrone, about 8 miles south
of the city of Grosseto, has been in operation for several years, having
been started a few years after that at Coltano. The tract covers
some 6,700 hectares (16,556 acres) of marsh land, of which about
2.000 hectares (4,942 acres) have been reclaimed up to the present
time.
It is expected that the work will provide 250 days’ employment for
50.000 individuals during the present fiscal year.
Organization of the Opera Nazionale per i Combattenti
T h e liberal powers given to the Opera Nazionale per i Combattenti
makes the land-reclamation projects being carried out by the veterans
of the World War of special importance. The organization has its
head office in Rom e; that office concerns itself with the expropriation
and sale of lands, reclamation activities, direction of the administra­
tive stations in the reclaimed land, accounting, and other duties.
The work undertaken by the “ Opera” gave employment to 11,120
persons on April 1, 1933, of whom 5,964 were actually engaged in
land-reclamation activities and 5,156 were engaged in activities
connected with the administrative stations set up in the different
localities. The reclamation work is being carried out by the con­
struction of small ditches draining into larger ditches and canals, as
well as filling in with scrapers. At the end of 1932, about 22 kilo­
meters of canals (14 miles), 2 kilometers (1 mile) of sewerage lines,
filling in of 270,000 square meters (838,000 sq. yds.), 58 kilometers
(36 miles) of roads, an aqueduct of 18 kilometers (11 miles), and 26
kilometers (16 miles) of electric lines for power and light, had been
constructed.
Program of Reclamation Law
T h e program which is to be carried out during the 10 years follow­
ing the coming into force of the law (July 1, 1929) will include the im­
provement of about 500,000 hectares (1,235,000 acres) principally in
Tuscan Maremma, Lazio and Provinces south of Lazio, Sicily, and
Sardinia, which today are devoted, to pasturage and intermittent
cultivation. These areas will be provided with the facilities necessary
to place the land under extensive continued cultivation. Then, too,
in various parts of Italy but particularly in Veneto and Emilia, the
land already partly reclaimed will be provided with public works
necessary for the consolidation and intensification of agricultural
activities. It is expected that the areas being reclaimed gradually
will enable 1,000,000 inhabitants to take up their residence in these
sections, in addition to the individuals already settled there.
According to the royal decree of February 13, 1933, with its
121 sections, land-reclamation undertakings considered works of
public interest will be divided into two categories—land reclamation
and land improvement. Land-reclamation undertakings are in­
tended to bring about hygienic, economic, and social benefits in areas
including lakes, swamps, marshes, and bogs or in mountainous sec­
tions where the land cannot be considered really productive. Landimprovement activities are those carried out for the benefit of one or
more sections, independently of the land-reclamation schemes.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

840

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

Small Land Holdings for Unemployed in New Zealand

N A report upon the work of the unemployment board for the fiscal
year April 1, 1931, to March 31, 1932, and subsequent thereto, the
New Zealand Minister of Unemployment announced some tentative
plans for settling suitable families of the unemployed upon small
allotments in the country, preferably in localities where the workers
of the family might obtain work from neighboring farmers. (See
Monthly Labor Review, September 1932, p. 511.) In April 1932 an
amendment to the unemployment act was passed providing for such a
plan, and became effective in May 1932. Later this act was found
to be inadequate to the needs of the situation and new legislation,
giving the Government sweeping powers, was passed. An article in
the Economic Record (Melbourne) for June 1933 (p. 76), written by
D. O. Williams of Massey Agricultural College, New Zealand, gives
some account of the work done and difficulties encountered under
the amendment, with a summary of the terms of the later act.

I

Experience Under First Plan for Small Holdings

T h e original plan provided for placing the unemployed and their
families on the land under two different arrangements: The settler
might be placed on a holding of 10 acres or more forming part of an
existing farm, where he might look forward to acquiring in time, either
by lease or purchase, a small farm of which his first holding would
form part; or he might be placed on a holding of 2 acres or upward, so
located that he would be able to obtain some work on the neighboring
farms and in the district generally.
In both cases the object was to give men with families the opportunity of
becoming holders of small areas in developed districts, where roads and social
amenities already existed. Wherever possible the holding was to be a portion of
an existing farm, the owner of which was asked to help in providing seeds and
stock, and in the loan of implements. The State undertook to provide a small
cottage for each holding and to conclude all financial arrangements for the lease
of the holding.

A variation of the scheme enabled farmers to establish “ sharemilkers” on their places under definite contract with the Government.
Such arrangements were made under the following main conditions:
(a) The existing owner of a property gave permission for the erection of a
cottage, milking shed, and other necessary improvements, and undertook to
purchase the buildings and improvements from the Crown at a maximum cost
of £300 on a table mortgage spread over 10 years.
(6) The owner undertook to provide sufficient cows to yield an income which
would cover the annual costs on the buildings and improvements and pav the
employee, who must be recommended from the ranks of the unemployed, either
a minimum weekly wage of £2, or provide him, as a share-milker, with not less
than £104 per annum.

By March 1933, 341 families had been settled on small holdings and
194 share-milking agreements had been concluded, while 95 other
small-holdings propositions and 77 share-milking arrangements had
been approved and were in course of settlement, making a total of 707
families affected. The average area of all holdings is about 21 acres,
ranging in some cases up to 50 or 60 acres. The average liability
involved is approximately £260 per family. The kind of land used
varies from the absolutely unimproved to the best dairying flats. The
Minister of Unemployment is quoted as saying that probably half

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LAND SETTLEMENT FOR UNEMPLOYED

841

the families transferred to the land under this scheme were meeting
their commitments without any help from the unemployment fund,
but that in the remaining cases a sustenance payment was being made
to help the newcomers over the first period of their occupancy.
The comparatively small success of this scheme, from which much
had been hoped, was disappointing to the Government. In the main,
it was attributed to a lack of cooperation on the part of the landowners, many of whom were disinclined to turn over small areas to
men of whom they knew nothing. Moreover, there was a general
impression that 10 acres was the maximum required, and many
owners, feeling that this was not sufficient to support a man and his
family, held aloof.
Small Farms Act of 1932-33

T he purpose of this act is to encourage the settlement oi unem­
ployed and other approved persons on the land, and to this end a
board is set up to administer the act and to coordinate various State
authorities. If sufficient public land is not available, private land
may be acquired, and public land at present held under lease or by
license may be resumed. All land coming under the control of the
board may be sold, or leased for 10 years with the right of purchase.
The State, acting through the board, is given wide powers.
In place of Crown acquisition of private lands and the subsequent disposal of
the land, the State may arrange for direct leases to be granted from the present
owner to the new occupier. If the lessee does not exercise his right to purchase
the land, the State may do so. A refusal by the owner to grant such a lease to the
applicant can be overriden (clauses 4—9).
The acquisition of private land or the resumption of Crown land may, of course,
follow upon voluntary agreement between the Crown and the owner or occupier.
Where such agreements are lacking, the Crown may compulsorily acquire or
resume & property if, in the opinion of the board, a part or all of the land is not
being adequately used” ; or may, for the same reason, arrange to lease private
land without first acquiring it. ‘ The owner’s or occupier’s right of appeal can
rest on two grounds only: That the land is being utilized for productive purposes
“ to a reasonable extent” ; or that the loss of the land in dispute would leave him
with an insufficient area for the “ reasonable requirements of himself and his
family.” The appellant may carry his appeal from the magistrate’s decision to
the Supreme Court. Neither ccurt déterminés the amount of the purchase
money or compensation to be paid when land is acquired or resumed in this way.
In default of agreement the matter is determined by the board (clause_14)
Mortgagees are deemed to consent to the acquisition of land and to its disposal,
but are given the opportunity to make objections and representations^ to the
board before any decision is made as to the conditions either of acquisition or
disposal. With leases, the rent is payable to the mortgagees in cases of default
by the mortagor, and where the lessee acquires the fee simple, the purchase money
is payable to the mortgagees to meet any outstanding capital sums in respect of
the mortgages (clause 15).
,
,
,, ,
,,
K
The rent of the leases is to be fixed by the board, but must
not be less
percent of the unimproved value, or more than 2)4 percent of the capital value.
In default of agreement, unimproved value may be fixed by the board. k>urmg
the first 4 years of a lease the rent may be paid out of the unemployment fund
should the lessee default (clauses 10-12).
, ,
The price at which lessees may acquire the fee simple is to be determined by
regulations, but must not be less than the unimproved value of the land at the
date when the fee simple is acquired plus the value of the lessor s interest m the
improvements as at the date of the lease (clause 13).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

than

AGRICULTURAL RELIEF
Provision of Credit for Farmers Under 1933 Act

N M ARCH 27, 1933, under authority granted in an act of March
20, 1933, the President issued an Executive order consolidating
into one agency all of the Federal activities relating to agricultural
credit. This new agency, the Farm Credit Administration, by this
order absorbed the Federal Farm Board, the Federal Farm'Loan
Board, the agricultural-loan powers of the Secretary of Agriculture,
and those of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation pertaining to
the management of regional credit corporations.
The purpose of this measure was stated to be the maintenance and
strengthening of a “ sound and permanent system of cooperative
agricultural credit, subject to Federal supervision and operated on
the basis of providing the maximum of security to present and prospec­
tive investors in bonds and debentures resting on farm mortgages or
other agricultural securities— all for the purpose of meeting the credit
needs of agriculture at minimum cost.”
. The Farm Credit Administration has at its head a governor, as­
sisted by three deputy governors and a general counsel. The organiza­
tion consists of four divisions: (1) Land bank division, (2) intermediate
credit division, (3) production credit division, and (4) cooperative
bank division. Each of these divisions is headed by a commissioner.
The land bank division has supervision over the 12 Federal land
banks and 53 joint-stock land banks. These joint-stock land banks
will make first-mortgage loans on farms, through local farm-loan
associations. Each borrower is expected to take 5 percent of the
amount of the loan in stock of the bank.
The intermediate credit division has supervision over the 12 inter­
mediate credit banks and its funds are to be derived from the sale of
debentures. These intermediate credit banks will rediscount the notes
°.f farmers endorsed by the credit corporations and notes of coopera­
tive organizations secured by ample collateral.
The functions of the 'production credit division are the supervision
and financing of 12 regional production credit corporations which the
Governor of the administration is authorized to set up. Funds are
to^be derived from a revolving fund of $120,000,000.
The regional credit corporations are to furnish capital (in the form
of preferred stock) for the local cooperative credit associations, and
will supervise these associations.
The production credit corporations each have an initial capital of
$7,500,000. They are not empowered to lend money directly to in­
dividual farmers but provide each local credit association with capital
langing from $5,000 to about 20 percent of the volume of loans;
such capital is represented by nonvoting class A stock, which is
842

O


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

AGRICULTURAL RELIEF

843

preferred as to assets, and shares equally with class B stock in divid ends. The local associations may be organized by 10 or more farmers
desiring to borrow money through this means. Each farmer who ob­
tains a loan through one of these credit corporations will be required
to buy and keep common stock (class B stock) in the local association
amounting to 5 percent of his loan. Class B stock is not redeemed,
but farmers ceasing to be borrowers must transfer their class B stock
to an eligible borrower or exchange it for class A stock within 2 years.
Class A stock may be sold to investors in the community.
The local credit associations are permitted to rediscount notes of
farmers of good financial standing, up to an amount equal to from 4
to 6 percent of their capital and surplus. It is stated that under the
procedure followed, $1 in capital makes possible about $5 of “ sound
production credit.”
Cooperative bank division.— The Governor of the credit administra­
tion is authorized to form 1 central bank and 12 regional banks for
cooperatives, all of which are to be administered by the cooperative
bank division. The money necessary for the operations of this
division is to come from the revolving fund previously mentioned.
The central cooperative bank is to be governed by a board of
seven directors, the chairman of which is to be the cooperative bank
commissioner, and the other six members are to be appointed by the
Governor of the Farm Credit Administration.
The 12 regional cooperative banks provided for will make loans, on
a strictly business basis, to local cooperative associations. Such loans
are to be for the purpose of providing operating facilities and working
capital. Such loans are to bear interest at from 3 to 6 percent,
depending on the type of loan and the cost of money. Here again
the borrower is required to invest 5 percent of the loan in stock in the
bank.
Loans M ade Under Farm Credits Act

O n S e p t e m b e r 14, 1933, the administration announced that during
the 6 months, March to August, loans aggregating some $343,000,000
were made through the various divisions, as follows:
Federal land banks______________________________________________ $22, 190, 000
Land bank commissioners_______________________________________
2, 186, 000
Intermediate credit banks (including discounts)__________________ 97, 613, 000
Regional production credit corporations_________________________ 126, 576, 000
Emergency crop and feed loa n s.________________________________
54, 557, 000
Loans to farmers’ cooperatives from revolving fund______________
39, 954, 000
Total____________________________________________________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

343,076,000

INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS
Interstate Compacts Affecting Labor and Industries

N JULY 12, 1933, the Governor of Massachusetts approved a
resolve (ch. 44, Acts of 1933) adopted by the legislature creat­
ing a commission on interstate compacts affecting labor and indus­
tries. The resolve provides in part:

O

(1)
That there be hereby established an unpaid commission, to be known as
the Commission on Interstate Compacts affecting Labor and Industry, to con­
sist of 7 members, of whom 1 shall be a member of the senate, to be designated
by the president thereof, 3 shall be members of the house of representatives to
be designated by the speaker thereof, and 3 shall be appointed by the Governor
The commission is hereby authorized, on the part of Massachusetts to meet with
like commissions appointed with like authority on the part of the States of New
Fork, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Pennsyl­
vania, and New Jersey, or any of them, for the purpose of negotiating or agree­
ing upon a joint report. Said report shall recommend to the legislatures of the
participating States^ a policy to be pursued by such States with reference to the
establishment of uniform wages, hours of labor, and conditions and standards of
employment by the enactment of such legislation by such States as will con­
stitute an interstate compact. The commission is hereby requested to report to
the general court on December 1 of each year of its existence and also as soon as
it determines on a policy.
.(2) That the members of the commission appointed as aforesaid shall serve
without compensation, but shall be paid their necessary expenses in the per­
formance of their duties. They shall select one of their number as chairman
and may employ a secretary and such other assistants as are needed in the per­
formance of their duties. For the purposes of this resolve, said commission may
expend such sums, not exceeding, in the aggregate, $2,000, as may hereafter be
appropriated therefor.
(3) That the State secretary shall forthwith communicate the text of this
resolve to the like official of each of the States mentioned herein with the respect­
ful request that such States in their discretion establish commissions with like
powers to treat with the commission appointed hereunder.

Following the enactment of this law an organization meeting was
held by the commission, and State Senator Henry Parkman, Jr., was
elected chairman, and Richard Ely was appointed secretary of the
commission by the chairman.
The purpose of such interstate compacts is to equalize industrial
conditions between the various States. By such means the States
hope to make the labor laws more uniform and States having more
advanced labor laws will no longer be handicapped by acute competi­
tion from industries in States where the laws are not so advanced.
In 1931 a conference was called by the Governor of Pennsylvania of
representatives of the labor departments of 10 East Central States
and of the United States Government to discuss the differences in the
State labor laws. After a discussion of the various problems certain
definite recommendations were made.1 In 1933 at the call of the
Governor of Massachusetts an interstate conference on labor laws was
held in Boston, Mass. Delegates from 9 East Central States and the
1 See M onthly Labor Review, August 1931 (p. 42).

844

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

845

Federal Department of Labor attended this meeting and considered
3 subjects: A Nation-wide minimum wage law for women and
minors, the establishment of public employment offices throughout
the country, and the limitation of the hours of labor for women and
minors. The committees made special recommendations on these
subjects.2
The Constitution of the United States provides that “ no State shall,
without the consent of Congress * * * enter into any agreement
or compact with another State, * * * ” .3 At first glance this
prohibition would seem to include interstate compacts on labor and
industries. However, the judicial interpretation placed upon that
section has restricted it to prohibit only agreements or compacts be­
tween States which tend to increase the political power in the State
which may encroach on or interfere with the supremacy of the United
States.4 Such would not be the case in the adoption of reciprocal
labor legislation. Agreements or compacts between States have been
used in regulating corporations,5 and in settling boundary disputes.6
Even if this prohibition did include compacts relating to labor legis­
lation it would seem logical to infer, from recent legislation, the con­
sent of Congress. The case of Virginia v. West Virginia (78 U.S. 39)
held that assent may be inferred from the legislation of Congress. On
the other hand it might be argued that the adoption of, the National
Recovery Act by Congress established the system of trade codes as
the means to be used in regulating the unfair competition by States
whose labor laws fall short of the standards adopted by other States.
It seems, however, that both the National Recovery Administration
program and the action by the States in organizing interstate com­
missions to draw up compacts and agreements to aid in establishing
uniform labor laws are working toward the same goal and that there
is a definite place for both programs in the system adopted by the
Congress.
Report on Work of Legal-Aid Organizations, 1932

URING 1932 the growing intensity of the depression greatly
increased the burden of legal-aid organizations throughout the
United States, the number of new cases in that year reaching 307,673,
the highest record since the creation in 1921 of the American Bar Asso­
ciation’s standing committee on legal-aid work.7 This committee’s
report to the convention of the association held at Grand Rapids,

D

2 See M onthly Labor Review, March 1933 (p. 537).
3 Constitution of the United States, art. 1, sec. 10.
4 See Virginia v. Tennessee, 148 U.S. 503.
6 See Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244; Union Branch R. Co. v. East Tennessee & O. R. Co., 14 Ga. 327;
St. Louis & S. F. R. Co. v. James, 161 U.S. 545; Copeland v. Memphis & C. R. Co., Federal case no. 3209.
6 Florida v. Georgia, 17 How. 478; Rhode Island v. Massachusetts, 37 U.S. 657.
2
American Bar Association. Advance program, including committee and other reports to be presented
to the fifty-sixth annual meeting to be held at Grand Rapids, M ich., Aug. 30-Sept. 1, 1933, pp. 83-90.
Chicago, 1140 North Dearborn Street, 1933.

11456°—33---- «


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

846

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

Mich., August 30-September 1, 1933, includes the following statistics
showing the rapid expansion of legal-aid work in 13 years:
T a b l e 1 . — G R O W T H OF L E G A L -A ID W O R K , 1920 T O 1932

Year

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926.

............... .......

Number Amounts
collected
of new
for clients
cases
96, 034
111,404
130, 585
150, 234
121,177
143, 653
152, 214

$389, 835
456,160
499, 684
498, 846
662, 675
675,994
645,991

Operat­
ing ex­
penses
$226, 079
282, 359
328, 651
331, 326
348, 290
408, 576
369, 264

Year

1927_______________
1928_______________
1929_______________
1930_______________
1931_______________
1932.................... .......

Number Amounts
collected
of new
for clients
cases
142, 535
165,817
171,961
217, 643
227, 471
307, 673

$719, 643
645, 435
802, 328
876, 447
674,122
815, 440

Operat­
ing ex­
penses
$387, 331
461, 557
464, 420
546, 803
538,199
596,941

As being pertinent to present conditions, the standing committee
on legal-aid work also includes in its 1933 report the following sum­
mary of a report adopted in 1921 by the American Bar Association:
1. There is a direct responsibility, both civic and professional, on members of
the bar to see to it that no person with a righteous cause is unable to have his day
in court because of his inability to pay for the services of counsel.
2. This responsibility is best met by members of the bar acting, not as indi­
viduals, but in their collective capacity and through their recognized associations.
3. Legal aid and advice to poor persons are most efficiently and economically
secured at least in the larger cities, through the existing agencies specially created
and adapted for this purpose, called legal-aid organizations.
4. There should be, therefore, a direct relationship between the American Bar
Association and legal-aid work in its national aspects and as a national movement.
5. This relationship is of permanent and continuing nature and should be
recognized as such by the creation of a standing or annual committee which should
each year report to the association as to the progress, the needs, the advantages,
and the shortcomings of legal-aid work in the United States.

According to the standing committee on legal-aid work, the depres­
sion has not only caused many more persons to apply to the legal-aid
organizations, but it has reduced the financial support of these
societies. The most serious breakdown reported was that of the
Philadelphia Municipal Legal Aid Bureau, which had to close as a
result of municipal budgetary troubles. An attempt is being made
to resuscitate the former Philadelphia Legal Aid Society— a private
corporation maintained by private subscriptions.
Before appealing for more support for legal-aid work by the whole
American bar, the members of the standing committee state that
“ it is only fair to record and to pay tribute to the fact that the bar has
year by year, in increasing measure, put its shoulder to the wheel.”
Many of the State and local bar associations have standing com­
mittees on legal aid. “ Three of the largest organizations— the New
York Legal Aid Society, the Chicago Legal Aid Bureau, the Boston
Legal Aid Society—receive a very substantial part of their financial
support by contributions from members of the bar in those cities.
And the same may be said of other cities.” Furthermore, hundreds
of lawyers are assisting by their service on directors’ boards or other
governing bodies, by raising funds, by taking into their own offices
the overflow of crises with which the legal-aid offices are unable to cope.
The committee emphasizes the great need of every possible support
for legal aid and bespeaks the cooperation of the whole bar and the
help of each individual lawyer.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

847

*

The recent revival in business, in ail probability, will not cause a decrease in
legal-aid applications for some time. Hundreds of thousands of men, when they
go back to work, will be heavily in debt. A vast process of adjustments with
creditors must be gone through. The legal-aid offices are prepared to serve as
clearing houses and to cooperate with retail-credit bureaus and similar organiza­
tions. Unless this can be properly done, bankruptcies on a wholesale scale must
ensue. The whole effort of the Federal and State Governments to improve
economic conditions is based on new laws creating new rights, remedies, duties,
and responsibilities. It is of real importance, therefore, that honest, competent
legal advice shall be available to all persons and that poverty shall not be a bar
to such assistance.

In the past year8 the following organizations created legal-aid
committees or offices: The bar associations of Dayton, Ohio; Jackson­
ville, Fla.; Muskegon, Mich.; and Sacramento, Calif.; the Better
Business Bureau of Indianapolis; and the Council of Social Agencies
of Washington, D.C. The Legal Aid Bureau of New Orleans was
also set up and the Office of Public Defender was instituted in the
Panama Canal Zone.
Table 2 was submitted as an appendix to the report of the standing
committee on legal-aid work.
T able 3 . —S T A T IS T IC S OP L E G A L -A ID W O R K IN 1932 i

Legal-aid organization

Akron_____ ____ ________________
Albany__________________________
Atlanta_________ 1_______________
Baltimore_______________________
Boston__ _______________________
Bridgeport Legal A id Bureau____
Bridgeport Public Defender_____
Buffalo__________________________
Cambridge______________________
Camden_________________________
Chicago Legal A id Bureau______
Chicago Criminal Courts Branch.
Chicago Bureau Jewish Charities.
Cincinnati Legal A id Bureau____
Cincinnati Voluntary Defender. _.
Cleveland_______________________
Columbus Public Defender______
Dallas Legal A id Bureau________
Dallas Public Defender__________
D ayton_________________________
Denver_________________________
Detroit_____ ______ _____________
Duluth_________________________
Durham ____________ ____ _______
Grand Rapids___________________
Harrisburg______________________
Hartford Legal A id Bureau______
Hartford Public Defender_______
H oboken__________ _____ ____ .. .
Houston________________________
Jacksonville________ ____ _______
Jersey C ity............................. .
Kansas C ity____ ______ _________
Lansing_______ _____ ___________

ApproxiAmount Gross
Year
mate pop- N ew cases collected
cost of
founded
ulation
received
for
clients work
served
1918
1923
1924
1928
1900
1918
1917
1912
1913
1922
1886

130, 000
300, 000
800,000
2 , 000 , 000

}

146,716 f
\
. 573,076

0

958
3,049
3,180
12, 861
1,346
200
6,815
823
(2)
29,731
(2)
998
7,038
2,023
10, 392
5, 792
7,200
(2)
3, 000
1,860
38,145
1,553
226
1,446
95
1,575
400
(2)
(2)
154
(2)
9, 671
13

(2)
$9,948
23, 550
0
129, 898
2, 875
9,886
2, 545
(2)
110,901
(2)
11,057
7, 240

(2)
$4, 218
7,316
10, 250
46, 752
2, 825

22,042
923
(2)
(
49,477
} 4, 840, 000
(2)
1902 )
{
0
1907 \ 550, 000 f
10, 922
\
1928 J
L515
1, 250, 000
1905
23, 08i
8, 788
340, 000
1919
3, 767
1927 \ 306, 000 )
30, 000
1,800
1929 j
1
(2)
0
225, 000
1914
2, 500
2, 500
300, 000
1924
4, 974
0
1, 500, 000
1909
55, 600
28, 924
101,000
1913
2, 102
1, 620
52, 000
1931
0
175,000
2, 337
1921
5, 57g
1929
185, 000
400
1917 1 300, 000 /
350
L500
\
1915 /
0
1918 ..
(2)
0
(2)
0
135,000
192
1932
4o
(2)
0
17, 592
6, 120
500,000
1910
100, 000
1920
0
0
1 Comparison between the records of legal-aid organizations in different cities cannot be made accurately
because of differences in the laws and institutions in the several States and localities. Also, comparison
between number of cases, sums collected for clients, and gross cost of the work cannot be usefully made.
Collecting m oney for clients, for instance, is only one aspect of legal-aid work. The true comparison, and
the most valuable statistically, is between each item (as number of cases during the year) and the same
item in prior years. In this way reasonably good objective tests are applied b y which the development of
legal-aid work can be measured.
2 Figures not received.
3 No record kept, or cannot estimate.
s Report dated M ay 26, 1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

120, 000

848

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW
T a b l e 2 . —S T A T IS T IC S OF L E G A L -A ID W O R K IN 1932—Continued

Legal-aid organization

Los Angeles Legal A id Bureau______________
Los Angeles Police Court Defender__________
Louisville .................. ............ .......... .............._.
Madison______________ _____________________
M em p h is..._______ ______ _____ ____________
M ilw aukee..______ _________________________
Minneapolis________________ ____ ___________
Montreal Legal A id Bureau_________________
Nashville___________________________________
Newark____ ______ _________________________
N ew Bedford________________________________
N ew H aven________________________ _____ _
N ew Orleans________________________________
N ew Y ork Desertion Bureau_____ „__________
N ew York Educational Alliance_____________
N ew York Legal A id Society________________
N ew York Voluntary Defenders Commission.
Oakland Legal A id Bureau__________________
Oakland Public Defender___________________
Omaha Legal A id Bureau___________________
Omaha Public Defender_____________________
Philadelphia________________________________
Pittsburgh__________________________________
Plainfield_____ ____ _________________________
Portland, M aine____________________________
Portland, Oreg______________________________
Providence__________________________________
Reading_____________________________________
Rochester Legal A id Bureau________________
Rochester Public Defender__________________
St. Louis____________________________________
St. Paul__________ ______ ___________________
Salt Lake C ity _________________ ____ _______
San Antonio________ ____ _______ ___________
San D iego___________________________________
San Francisco_______________________________
Springfield__________________________________
T oledo__ _____ _____________________________
W ashington_________________ _____ _________
Wheeling__________________ ___________ ._____
W innipeg___________________________________
Total___________________ _____ ________

Approxi­
Year
mate pop­ New cases Amount Gross
of
founded
ulation
received collected cost
for clients work
served
1929
1915
1913
1928
1923
1916
1912
1923
1915
1901
1923
1927
1913
1911
1902
1876
1907
1929
1927
1915
1920
1908
1925
1927
1920
1928
1900
1928
1914
1919
1923
1917
1918
1916
1925
1927
1932
1932
1923

} 2, 300,000 / 4 2, 820
\ 35,625
356, 000
8, 010
55, 000
(2)
254, 000
900
725, 263
2, 528
475, 000
2,105
200, 000
886
(2)
500, 000
5, 271
120, 000
(2)
185, 000
(2)
425
485, 000
f
972
|
| 7, 000, 000 1 3,326
1 40,867
1
1 .1, 180
2,232
}
475,000 /
\
690
/
2,933
}
215,000
l
(2)
1, 900, 000
3 21, 113
1, 734, 622
4, 136
40, 000
77
70, 000
(2)
260, 000
(2)
295,892
1,425
231, 717
851
3,200
}
328,132 f
l
(2)
821, 960
3, 362
271, 606
1,119
150,000
232
231, 000
432
225,000
3,500
785,000
4,116
150,000
2, 355
325,000
200
500,000
« 176
61,000
7 65
192, 000
(2)

$3, 000

9, 367
(2)
« 64, 043
5,467

(2)

(3)
$14, 321
8,467
(2)
1, 260
7, 194
7,656
5,600
(2)
5, 723
(2)
(2)
(3)
18, 804
6, 689
141, 618
35, 270
5,407
12, 480
1,200
(2)
8 25, 935
14, 598
(2)
(2)
(2)
6,158
650
11, 042
(2)
7,293
4, 719
900
300
2, 700
7,495
6,885
(2)
(3)
7 52
(2)

307, 673

815, 440

596, 941

33,965
(2)
150
4, 270
1, 775
21,642
(2)
3,517
(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)
23, 215
144, 798
(3)

(2)
(2)
530
500
22,009
(2)
18, 708
(3)
50
600
1,000
5, 356
24, 117
(2)

2 Figures not received.
3 N o record kept, or cannot estimate.
4 Numerically restricted after July to 200 per month.
8 11 months of operation.
6 80 days of operation.
2 4 months of operation.

Restriction on Employment of Women and Children
in Japanese Mines

ROHIBITION of night work and underground work of women
and of persons under 16 years of age in the mines of Japan will
become effective from September 1, 1933? according to the July 31,
1933, issue of Industrial and Labor Information (Geneva) from which
the data here presented are taken. Previously the employment of
women and children under 16 years of age in Japanese mines has been
prohibited between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. unless they were engaged in two
or more alternating shifts. This exception will no longer be allowed
when the above provision becomes operative. The 1928 revision of
the regulations for employment and relief of miners provided that the
enforcement of these prohibitions might be postponed for 5 years.
During the period of delay 80 percent of the coal mines have taken
steps to prepare for the time when these regulations should become
effective. As a result the number of women and juvenile underground

P


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR CONDITIONS

849

workers has declined from about 40,000 in 1928 to approximately
6,000 in 1933. This rapid reduction has been brought about by the
mechanization of mining processes which has been followed by an
increase in the workers’ output and wages. Higher wages for adult
male miners has made it possible for them to dispense with the
assistance formerly received from the Underground work of their
wives and children.
It is reported that woman workers are still being employed under­
ground in some coal mines, most of which are located in the northern
section of Kyushu. In general, these mines are small and the great
majority of them have seams only 50 to 60 centimeters deep, making
the mechanization of extraction very difficult. The Government has
taken the position that to enforce at once the prohibition of under­
ground work in such mines would result in undue hardship and cause
a great deal of unemployment. Consequently, a departmental ordi­
nance of June 5,1933, authorized “ exceptionally the holder of a mining
right to employ for a specified period, with the sanction of the chief
of the Mines Inspection Bureau, young persons under 16 years of
age and women underground in coal mines when left-over coal is
mainly extracted.” It is understood that the Government intends
to allow this exception in the ordinance only for a 2-year period
and only in mines where the above-described difficulties are found.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR
Comparative Study of the Output of Men and Women

HE Bulletin of the International Management Institute, in its
issue for July 1933, gives a brief account of a study, made by two
Italian experts (Dr. D. Vampa and P. Guidi), of the comparative
output of two groups— one of 24 male and the other of 22 female
employees— both working in the same mechanical-construction
factory under the same conditions as far as time and surroundings
were concerned and at the same kind of work, the only difference being
that that of the female group was easier. They were under observa­
tion for 24 working days, the output being noted for each half-hour
period. For each worker the results were then averaged by halfhourly periods, so that the average output of the individual worker
for the first half hour of the morning throughout the 24-day period
could be compared with his average output for the second or for any
other half hour of the day. To eliminate the difference in the
difficulty of the work done by the men and the women, absolute
figures were not used, the individual half-hourly output being
expressed as a percentage of the total individual output for a day of
16 half hours. The results of the study are summarized as follows:

T

The charts relating to men show the lowest output at the beginning of the
work, both in the morning and in the afternoon.
The charts relating to women show the lowest output at the end of the working
period, both in the morning and in the afternoon.
The highest output is reached at the end of the 514th hour of the morning
by the men.
The highest output is reached at the end of the 3(4th hour of the morning
by the women.
In the male group the difference between the minimum and the maximum
output is greater than the corresponding difference in the female group.
Another characteristic of the male group is the rapid increase in output during
the first hour of the work.
In the case of the women, on the other hand, there is an abrupt decrease in
output during the last hour of work.

These facts lead the authors to the following conclusions:
The employment of female labor for work of short duration seems to be
indicated.
Male labor is better suited to work requiring a prolonged effort.
In all cases where male and female workers are engaged on the same task,
the women should be given a shorter working period than the men. Moreover,
it seems that it is always contrary to the laws of economy to give women overtime.
850


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

851

PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR

Output and Earnings per Shift in the Mining Industry in
Great Britain

OMPARABLE figures, published by the British Mines Depart­
ment, for the coal industry from the beginning of 1930 to the
end of March 1933 are given in the August 1933 issue of the Ministry
of Labor Gazette. The proportion of the industry covered varies
from 96 to 97 percent, and only the salable coal mined is included in
the figures for output. For the quarter ending March 31, 1933, the
net costs, after deducting the proceeds of miners’ coal, amounted to
£32,672,471 ($159,000,580)/equivalent to 13s. 1.29d. ($3.19) per ton,
of which 8s. 9.02d. ($2.13) per ton represented wage costs. The
proceeds of commercial disposals amounted to £34,685,641
($168,797,672), equivalent to 13s. 10.98d. ($3.39) per ton, giving a
credit balance of 9.69d. ($0.20) per ton.

C

The number of workpeople employed was 755,964, and the number of man­
shifts worked was 47,669,241. The Average output per man-shift worked was
22.67 cwts., and the average earnings per man-shift worked were 9s. 1.83d.
($2.23).
. . .
.
.
Information as to the value of allowances in kind is also given in the return.
The value of these allowances ranged from 0.49d. (1 cent) to 4.26d. (8.6 cents)
per shift, except in Northumberland and Durham, in which it was 11.87d.
(24.1 cents) and Is. 1.81d. (28 cents), respectively. For Great Britain as a
whole the average value of such allowances was 4.74d. (9.6 cents) per shift.

The following table gives figures covering some of the more impor­
tant details from 1930 to the end of the first quarter of 1933:
O U T P U T A N D E A R N IN G S P E R S H IF T IN T H E B R IT IS H C O A L -M IN IN G IN D U S T R Y ,
1930 TO 1933
[Conversions into United States currency on basis of shilling at par=24.33 cents, penny=2.03 cents.
Exchange rates: 1930, shilling=24.31 cents, penny=2.03 cents; 1931, shilling=22.67 cents, penny=1.89
cents; 1932, shilling=17.53 cents, penny=1.46 cents]
Earnings per man­
shift worked
Out­
Number
put
per
of work­
man­
United
United ers em­
English States
shift
States
ployed
worked currency
cur­
cur­
rency
rency

Credit or debit
balance per ton
Quarter ending—

Amount
of coal
mined

Tons
64, 749,447
55,850, 573
54, 249, 688
____ _ __________ 57, 061, 222

1930
M ar. 31
D ec. 31

1931

D ec. 31

56, 723, 277
51, 595, 921
49,189, 334
___ _________________ 55,190,862
1932

D ec. 31

53,916, 267
50,090, 452
44, 480,618
_ ___ __________ 52,985,962

1933

54, 021, 254

English
currency

s.
+1
-0
-0
+0

d.
1.37
1.94
2.40
6.20

Cents
27.1
3.9
4.9
12.6

911,218
886, 229
853, 477
849, 344

Cwts.
21. 94
21. 32
21.34
21.84

s.
9
9
9
9

d.
3. 25
3. 26
3.85
3. 79

$2. 256
2. 256
2. 268
2. 267

+0
-0
-0
+0

9. 04
1.34
2. 05
7.06

18.4
2.7
4.2
14.3

838,696
818,718
787, 749
799, 374

21.78
21.44
21.35
21.86

9
9
9
9

2. 45
2. 18
2. 43
2. 22

2. 240
2.234
2. 239
2.235

+0
-0
-0
+0

6. 46
1.91
7. 55
8. 87

13.1
3.9
15.3
18.0

800,921
781, 704
745, 201
744,425

21.98
21.78
21.50
22. 62

9
9
9
9

2.13
1.92
1.87
2. 26

2.233
2. 229
2. 228
2. 236

+0

9. 69

19.7

755,964

22.67

9

1.83

2. 227

1 Conversions into United States currency on basis of pound at par=$4.8665; exchange rate, March 1933—
$3.4328.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

OLD-AGE PENSIONS
Recent Legislation on Public Old-Age Pensions in the
United States

L

EGISLATION for the protection of the aged reached its greatest
development thus far in the United States during the current
year, as the half-way mark was reached and passed in the number of
States establishing a system of old-age pensions. Ten States (Ari­
zona, Arkansas,1 Colorado, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Oregon, and Washington) and the Territory of
Hawaii passed laws establishing such a system, while other States
made amendments to existing laws. This brings the total number of
States having an old-age pension system to 26, not including the
Territories of Alaska and Hawaii.2
The 11 laws enacted during 1933 bear a marked similarity.
All of the laws are mandatory, indicating a decline in favor of the
type of law, formerly adopted by some States, which made the adop­
tion of a pension system optional with the counties and placed the
financial burden primarily upon the counties.
Seven of the laws (those of Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana,
Maine, Michigan, and North Dakota) provide for some measure of
State aid in financing the pension system. Only four States (Ne­
braska, Oregon, Washington, and the Territory of Hawaii) place
the whole cost upon the county; of these, the State of Washington
somewhat later in the session provided for State assistance by passing
a law creating an old-age pension fund out of the proceeds of a tax
on horse racing,3 the money to be divided among the counties in pro­
portion to the assessed valuation of property in each.
In Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Nebraska, and Washington the appli­
cant must be 65 years of age or over, in North Dakota 68, and in
Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, and Oregon 70 years. The
required period of State residence varies from 35 years in Arizona to
10 years in Michigan, the most general requirement being 15 years’
State residence and 15 years’ citizenship. In all of the States except
Maine and Michigan the administration of the new law is placed in
the hands of county commissioners. In Maine, town and city boards,
under the supervision of the department of health and welfare, are
charged with the administration arid in Michigan the administration
is by county boards and the State welfare department.
1 The Arkansas law has been declared unconstitutional b y the supreme court of the State because of the
method used in financing the pension fund.
2 The total 26 includes Arkansas whose law was declared unconstitutional because of the 1 percent tax
on the State and county expenditures. It also includes Colorado whose law was declared unconstitutional
but was superseded b y a new law enacted during 1933.
3
In rendering a decision upholding the constitutionality of the Washington old-age pension law, the
judge ruled that applications should be filed with the board of commissioners and that it was left with the
commissioners’ discretion to determine whether an application called for emergency powers to supply funds
immediately or whether it can await the revenue expected from the horse-racing bill and such taxes as may
be provided in the 1934 budget.

852

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

OLD-AGE PENSIONS

853

The Colorado old-age pension law (Acts of 1927, ch. 143, as amended
by Acts of 1931, ch. 131), which gave judicial power to the county
commissioners and executive powers to the county judges, was
declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1932 as
being an improper delegation of power. The prevailing opinion in
this case, however, reflected the popular demand for an old-age pen­
sion law by stating that it was regrettable that the law should be
declared unconstitutional but the “ effect [of the decision] is greatly
minimized by the fact that a general assembly will convene a few
days hence.” The assembly promptly enacted an old-age pension
law without the constitutional defects of the earlier law.
In Minnesota an amendment was passed which makes the old-age
pension law mandatory, but with the provision that the county may
discontinue the system after a year’s trial, should the people so vote
at a general election.
In 1931 the State of Missouri passed an amendment to the State
constitution to allow the establishment of an old-age pension system.4
During the following session of the legislature a pension bill passed
the house, was reported favorably by the senate committee on pen­
sions, but died on the senate calendar. In California and New Jersey
the law was amended in several minor details but the major provisions
remained the same.
To.provide a ready comparison of the systems adopted in the various
States the following table has been prepared which presents the
main features of each law.
4 See Acts of 1931, J. & C. R. No. 1 (p. 385).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

854

P R O V IS IO N S OF O L D -A G E P E N S IO N L A W S IN T H E U N IT E D ST A T E S

Required period of—
State

Age

Maximum pension

State

County

Years
Since
1906

Years

0
(3)

35

Years
r 1 nr

Alaska. ______
70

( 5)

5
15

65

15
15

15
5

65

30

15

65

15

10

3

70

15

15

15

70

15

10

10

15

1

10

10

0

65

15

65
70
70

15

10

70

6 15

15

15
15

15
15

70
65 1 $20 a month

_ _

1
5

20

0

Funds provided b y —

Citation

Acts of 1929, ch. 65.
Board of trustees of Territory.
Alaska Pioneers’
Home.
County commissioners.. 67 percent b y State; 33 Acts of 1933, ch. 34.
Income, $300 a year
percent by county.
County judge__________ State and county_______ A c s of 1933, act 271.
Assets $500 _
...
Assets, $3,000___________ County or city and Half b y county, or city Acts of 1929, ch. 530 (as
amended 1931, ch.
and county; half b y
county boards of su­
608; 1933, ch. 840.)
State.
pervisors.
Assets, $2,000__________ County commissioners.. State__________________ Acts of 1933, ch. 144.
State old-age welfare ------d o_________________ Acts of 1931, ch. 85.
commission.
County commissioners.. County or city and Acts of 1933, ch. 208.
Income, $300 a year..
county.
Acts of 1931, ch. 16.
County_______________
County probate judge
____ do
_________
and county commis­
sioners.
Half by State; half by Acts of 1933, ch. 36.
Assets, $1,000___________ County commissioners.
county.
County________________ Acts of 1926, ch. 187.
Income, $400 a year; County judge_________
assets, $2,500.
Town and city old-age Half b y State; half b y Acts of 1933, ch. 267.
Income, $300 a year .
cities, towns,
and
pension boards, under
plantations.
supervision of depart­
ment of health and
welfare.
County commissioners.- County, or city of Balti­ Acts of 1931, ch. 114.
more.
County or city board of T w o thirds b y county or Acts of 1930, ch. 402.
city; one third b y
public welfare.
State.
County board and State State__________________ Acts of 1933, ch. — .
welfare department.
County commissioners. Payments b y county. Acts of 1929, ch. 47, as
Assets, $3,000
amended 1931, chs. 72
Cities, towns, and vil­
and 138; 1933 ch. 348.
lages to reimburse
county.
Acts
of 1923, ch. 72.
County_______________
_do.
Income, $300 a year . .
____d o _________________ Acts of 1933, ch. 117,
-d o .
___ do ____
-- -- N o o t h e r sufficient
means of support.

15

70
70

Administered b y -

15

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

J$35 a month for males,
< $45 a month for fe[ males.

Maximum property
limitations

Resit enee
Citizen­
ship

N ew Hampshire..-

65
70
70
70

Utah

. ..

68
70
65

15
15

$7.50 a week_____ ___

N o lim it_____________

10
15

15

(3)

15

1

(3)

10

1

20
15
15

2
5

(3)

15
15
15

15

5

65
70

15
15

10
15

10
15

65

15

15

5

do.
do.

____d o __________________ Acts of 1925, ch. 121.
Payments b y county. Acts of 1931, ch. 165.
Cities and towns to
reimburse county.
Assets, $3,000__________ County welfare board .. . One fourth b y county, Acts of 1931, ch. 219.
three fourths b y State.
W holly unable to sup­ Public welfare officials, H alf b y city or county; Acts of 1930, ch. 387.
port self.
under supervision of
half b y State.
department of social
welfare.
Income, $150 a year____ County commissioners.. State__________________
Acts of 1933, ch. 254.
Assets, $3,000___________ ____d o__________________ C ounty________________ Acts o f 1933, ch. 284.
Income during past year ____d o __________________ ____d o _________________
Acts of 1929, ch. 76.
$300.
Income during past ____d o__________________ ____ do. ■>_____ _______
Acts of 1933, ch. 29.
year, $360.
A ny property or income. County court__________ ____d o _________________ Acts of 1931, ch. 32.
Assets, $3,000___________ County judge__________ Payments b y county. Acts of 1925, ch. 121, as
State to refund, one
amended 1929, eh.
third; city, town, and
181; 1931, ch. 239.
village to refund two
thirds.
Income, $360.
County commissioners._ C ounty___ _____ ______ Acts of 1929, ch. 87.

1 Males.
2 Females.
3 Citizenship required but no period specified.
4 Arkansas law has been declared unconstitutional b y the State supreme court.
5 Pension fund to be prorated equally among the pensioners. N o definite amount stated.
6 Required period of residence in United States.
7 But old-age pension fund was created from proceeds of State tax on horse racing, to be distributed to counties in proportion to assessed valuation of the property in each.
of 1933, ch. 55.)

855


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(Acts

OLD-AGE PENSIONS

65

Assets, $3,000.
Assets, $2,000.

856

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

Old-Age Dependency in Maryland Counties

REPORT was recently published by the Christian Social Justice
Fund of Baltimore,1 covering a study of old-age dependency in
three representative counties of Maryland, typical, respectively, of
the Eastern Shore, southern Maryland, and western Maryland. The
purpose of the study was “ to gain as much insight as time and funds
permitted into the status of indigent old people * * * with
special reference to the need for, and the cost of old-age pensions.”
Although Maryland has had an old-age pension law since 1927, it is
of the optional type, with the counties bearing the whole cost of the
allowances, and has never been really operative except in the city of
Baltimore (during the past 2 years).
The sample taken for study included 1,295 persons 65 years of age
and over, each of whom was rated as to resources by one or more
persons acquainted with the individual’s circumstances. The result
is shown in the table following.

A

P E R C E N T OF A G E D R A T E D AS B E IN G IN S P E C IF IE D C IR C U M S T A N C E S IN T H R E E
M A R Y L A N D C O U N TIE S
Percent rated as being—
County

Number
of persons
rated

366
454
475

Rich

Well
fixed

0. 6
.2
.4

13. 2
7.8
8. 7

In com ­
fortable
circum­
stances

On sub­
sistence
level

51. 6
51. 9
46.3

27. 5
29. 4
24.4

In pov­
erty

7.1
10.7
20.2

In this connection the report points out that the most important
fact is that “ the problem of old-age poverty in the western Maryland
county is about twice as great as in the Eastern Shore county and
about three times as great as in the southern Maryland county.” The
situation in the western county is affected by the presence of the
mining industry, by adverse agricultural conditions in the mountain
regions, by industrialization, and by urbanization.
Using the “ poverty” percentages shown in the above table, the
author estimated that the number of aged persons in poverty in all
the counties of Maryland would be 5,870, of whom an estimated 20
percent would either be disqualified under the law or fail to apply for
a pension. On the basis of an average pension of $185 per person
per year the maximum total cost of pensioning the remaining 4,696
persons would be $868,760.
Present Methods of Care
N o n e of the three counties studied had a paid social worker of any
kind, a situation which the writer states to be typical of about half
the counties of Maryland at the present time. Certain hopeful de­
velopments pointing in the direction of organized social work, however,
are noted.
1 Earl S. Bellman: A study of the care of the needy aged in Maryland counties.
Social Justice Fund, 1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Baltimore, Christian

OLD-AGE PENSIONS

857

There are 16 almshouses in the State, of which 10 are on the Western
Shore and 6 on the Eastern Shore. A recent official investigation of
these showed them to be old, in bad repair, lacking in equipment, and
poorly staffed. The per capita cost of operation on the Western
Shore was found to be $222.33 per annum (not including allowance
for capital invested).
The abolition of the almshouses, and the building of two infirmaries,
one for the 14 Western Shore counties and one for the 9 Eastern Shore
counties, was recommended. It was pointed out in this connection
that already the almshouse has been abolished in 7 counties and in
one or two others is on the point of closing.
Stating that the majority of the present almshouse inmates need
institutional care, it is pointed out that such care must include (1)
mental hospital facilities and (2) hospital homes for those chronically
sick. Commendable progress has been made in Maryland toward
the first type of care, it is stated, but the lack of facilities for the
second type is characterized as “ deplorable.” The figures given on
cost of care in the mental hospitals in the State show that this ranges
from $243 to $312 per person annually.
Many of the counties have a system of “ outpensions” which lias
been in effect for nearly 300 years. Such pensions are “ admittedly
* * * in the nature of a dole” to persons who otherwise would
have to be sent to an almshouse. The granting of such pensions is
not generally on a scientific basis, there is little or no investigation of
actual conditions, and in many cases the amounts are too small to be
of real assistance. The report remarks that “ about the only hopeful
thing which can be said concerning the outpension system in most
counties is that it represents a tradition of outdoor (noninstitutional
relief).”
Recommendations for a Coordinated Program

A mong the suggestions advanced for a coordinated program of care
for the needy aged are the following:
1. Education of communities to the need for social welfare work.
2. More research in social welfare as a basis for intelligent action.
3. Assistance from the State (for localities maintaining certain
standards) as regards funds, cooperation in setting standards, and
certification of qualified social workers.
4. Greater emphasis on social case work by trained persons.
5. A mandatory Statewide system of old-age pensions adequately
financed and skillfully administered. In this connection it is sug­
gested that part of the cost should be borne by the State, on an equal­
ization-fund basis, and that the county residence requirement of the
present State law might be cut to 5 or even 3 years.
6. Provision of one or more hospital homes to care for the chronically
ill.
7. Transfer of mentally afflicted persons to mental hospitals.
8. Complete elimination of “ that antiquated human waste basket ” ,
the almshouse.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

858

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Contributory Pensions in Great Britain During 1932-33

N THE August 1933 issue the English Ministry of Labor Gazette
gives a summary of the statistics concerning widows’, orphans’ and
old-age contributory pensions published in the report of the English
Ministry of Health for 1932-33 covering England and Wales, and in
the report of the Scottish Department of Health for 1932, so far as
Scotland is concerned. Data concerning the number of claims made
during the year, their disposition, and the number of pensions and
allowances in force at the end of the year are given in table 1:

I

T able 1 . — W ID O W S ’, O R P H A N S ’, A N D O L D -A G E C O N T R IB U T O R Y P E N S IO N S IN E N G ­

L A N D , W A L E S , A N D S C O T L A N D , 1932-33

Claims received and dealt with during year 1932

W idow s’ and orphans’ pensions:
Claims received___________________________________________
Claims allowed____________ ____ _________________________
Claims disallowed________________________________________
Old-age pensions (ages 65-70):
Claims received___________________________________________
Claims allowed___________________________________________
Claims disallowed________________________________________
Old-age pensions (over 70) in right of insurance:
Claims received____________________ ______ _______________
Claims allowed______________ ____ _______________________
Claims disallowed________________________________________

England

Wales

Scotland

Great
Britain

93, 361
76, 420
12, 365

6,656
5, 757
1,037

11,259
9,427
1,573

111, 276
91,604
14, 975

187, 776
151,197
12, 921

12,359
10, 480
1,227

21,046
18, 524
1,823

221,181
180, 201
15, 971

2,083
1,478
499

430
332
21

572
402
52

3,085
2, 212
572

Number of widows, dependent children, and orphans receiving
pensions at end of year:
W idow s__________________________________________________
Children_________________________________________________
Orphans_______________ ____ _____________________________

576, 671
252,310
13, 684

42, 051
22,176
1,469

76, 058
41, 308
2,896

694,780
315, 794
18, 049

Total___________________________________________________

842, 665

05, 696

120, 262

1, 028, 623

Number of persons between 65 and 70 receiving old-age pensions
at end of the year:
M en ______________________________________________________
W om en__________________________________________________

357, 230
220, 696

26, 639
11,656

45, 775
25, 021

429, 644
257,373

Total___________________________________________________

577,926

38,295

70, 796

687, 017

Number of persons over 70 to whom old-age pensions in right of
insurance were payable at end of year:
M en _______________________ ____ _________________________
W om en__________________________________________________

325, 973
275, 381

23, 584
16,290

48, 776
38,314

398,333
329,985

Total__________ _____ ________________ _________________

601, 354

39,874

87, 090

728,318

The persons over 70 listed as receiving pensions are those who drew
them by virtue of the contributory pensions acts. There is another
group aged over 70 who are still drawing pensions under the non­
contributory acts passed between 1908 and 1924, but they receive
their pensions subject to certain conditions as to age, residence, and
nationality which do not apply in the case of those shown here.
Those between 65 and 70 receiving pensions all come under the
contributory pensions acts.
Table 2 shows the amount spent on contributory pensions and
allowances in England and Wales during the fiscal year ending March
31, 1933, and the estimated amount for Scotland during the 9 months
ending December 31, 1932. Owing to the difference in the periods
covered, it is not possible to give the total for Great Britain.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

859

OLD-AGE PENSIONS

T a ble 2 .— A M O U N T S P A ID IN W ID O W S ’ , O R P H A N S ’ , A N D O L D -A G E C O N T R IB U T O R Y

PE N SIO N S IN E N G L A N D , W A L E S , A N D S C O T L A N D , 1932-33
[Conversions into United States currency on basis of exchange rate, March 1933, of pound=$3.43]

England
Class of pension
English
currency

United
States cur­
rency

Wales

English
currency

Scotland 1

United
English
States cur­
currency
rency

United
States
currency

W idow s’ pensions (including chil­
£17,722,000 $60, 786, 460 £1,333,000 $4, 572,190 £1,796,711 $6,162, 718
drens’ allowances). .
284, 000
974,120
Orphans’ pensions
92, 610
27, 000
42, 675
146,375
984, 000 3, 375,120 1, 381, 302 4, 737, 866
Old-age pensions at ages 65 to 70... 14,948, 000 51, 271, 640
32,954, 000 113,032, 220
1 Estimated figures for 9 months.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2,344, 000

8, 039, 920

3,220,688 11, 046, 959

MINIMUM WAGE
M inim um Wage for Women in Canada 1
Ontario

HE twelfth annual report of the Minimum Wage Board of
Ontario, covering the year 1932, emphasizes the difficulties of
enforcing the act under present conditions. According to an abstract
of the report given in the Canadian Labor Gazette for June 1933,
many employees have the idea that the board can compel an employer
to keep them on the pay roll when he has no work for them to do, or
to pay the same rate of wages he paid in more profitable times, while
some employers have suggested a moratorium during the depression
and others have asked for a reduced minimum rate, which the board
considers wholly unjustifiable.

T

It must be remembered that originally the rates were set very low and were
not raised during periods of temporary expansion. Now that we are passing
through a period of depression, we do not feel justified in changing the present
modest levels, at any rate until the cost of living for a self-supporting working
woman, as reflected in our budget, is materially reduced. There are those who
still cling to the idea that the profitableness or unprofitableness of business
should be the yardstick by which minimum rates are fixed. Fortunately they
are few in number. The vast majority of employers heartily approve of the
principle underlying the minimum-wage law, namely, the right of a woman to
live from the results of her labor, whether industry is making money or not.

The wage rates fixed by the board’s orders are calculated from the
cost of living worked out on the basis of what is required by the
average working woman in Toronto, with suitable modifications for
smaller places and rural districts, where prices are usually lower.
The budget for Toronto allows $364 per year, or $7 per week, for board and
lodgings; $115.05 for clothing; $171 for sundries (including laundry, doctor,
dentist, car fare, amusements, church, etc.), making a total of $650 for the year.
The weekly budget for Toronto is therefore as follows: Board and lodging, $7;
clothing, $2.21; sundries, $3.29, making a total of $12.50 per week.

From the Toronto minimum the rate ranges down to as low as
$10 a week in a few industries outside of cities. The board has
authority to set a lower minimum in the case of aged or handicapped
workers, but uses this power sparingly. During the year only 183
such permits were issued, while in the same period 72 expired, leaving
320 in force.
The board admits that the cost of foodstuffs has come down since
the adoption of the budget on which the minimum wage is based,
but feels that there has not been a sufficient reduction to justify a
lowering of the rate. The number affected by the board’s orders
has decreased considerably during the last few years.
The number of employees under the act was 53,461 in 1929; 50,069 in 1930;
47,086 in 1931; and 44,453 in 1932. During 1932 there were 44,453 employed in
i Data are from Canada, Department of Labor, Labor Gazette, June 1933.

860

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

861

MINIMUM W AGE

2,174 establishments as compared with 47,086 in 2,211 factories in 1931, repre­
senting a decrease of 1.7 percent in the number of establishments and of 5.6 in
the number of employees. The average weekly rate of wages paid in all classes
throughout the Province during the year 1932 was $13.66.

The number of firms reporting, with the number of girls and women
they employ, the average weekly wage by age group, and the aver­
age weekly hours, are shown for Toronto industries in the following
table:
A V E R A G E W E E K L Y W A G E S F O R W O M E N IN T O R O N T O

Number Number
of firms of women
reporting reported

Industry

Average
weekly
wage of women
aged—
18 and
over

Departmental stores having over 150 em ployees,.Textile factories
.
...
_ _ _ .l _ . . . . . .
Needle trades.
_____
_ . . ______________
Drugs, chemicals, etc _
. . . . ___ _______ . . .

T obacco trades. .............
............... ........ . . . . .
Rubber trades . . . _ _________ . _ _______ ____
Paper trades. .
Custom millinery.

_______ _________ __
_________

..

.

_________
________ _

A ll other factory trades, except seasonal canneries___

79
296
2
55
445
83
35
34
125
4
7
17
191
203
39
85
74
138

1,613
1,291
3,840
2,448
7,479
737
559
1,005
2,532
275
420
143
2, 416
2,518
252
321
3,128
1,338

1932

$13.26
14.28
14.94
14. 52
14. 56
14. 46
14. 58
13. 75
14.43
13. 69
17. 85
14. 33
15.23
14.92
17.03
16.98
19. 37
13. 55

Average
weekly
hours

Under 18

$9. 66
11.42
9. 87
9.55
10.06
9. 32
9. 33
12. 22
10. 97
9. 32
10. 76
9. 52
9. 55
13.97
6.96
8. 50
12. 51
9.94

46.1
49.0
48.0
45.2
43.1
43.5
45.3
45. 6
48.8
42.2
44.2
44.9
44. 6
51.3
47.5
48.3
39.5
45.4

Quebec
T h e Women’s Minimum Wage Board of the Province of Quebec
recently issued an order governing the employment of women in the
food industry, including in that term the making of biscuits, pastry,
bread, macaroni, cereals of all kinds, chocolate, cocoa, confectionery,
and allied processes. In the city and island of Montreal, and within a
radius of 10 miles around and beyond the island, the minimum wage
must be $7 a week for beginners, $8.50 for those having 6 months’
experience in the trade, and $10 for those with 12 months’ or more
experience. In the remainder of the Province the minima may be $1
per week lower. Standard hours shall be 55 a week. Overtime may
not be worked unless a special permit has been obtained, and when
allowed it must be paid for at not less than the minimum rates fixed
by this order; short time may be paid for “ pro rata of the minimum
wages fixed by this order.” No deduction for absence may exceed
the value of the time lost, and any employee required to wait on the
premises must be paid for the time thus spent. Special provisions
are made concerning apprentices.

The number of employees of less than 12 months’ experience and earning less
than $10 per week, for the city and island of Montreal, and $9 per week for the
Province of Quebec, excepting the city and island of Montreal and a radius of 10
miles around and beyond the island of Montreal, shall not exceed one half of
the total female working force.

Beginners who are paid piecework rates must, during the first 6
months, earn at least the minimum rate fixed by this order; for those
11456°—33------7


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

862

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

of more than 6 months’ experience, it is sufficient if 80 percent receive
the standard wages set by this order. If less than 80 percent earn
this minimum, the basic piecework rate is to be considered too low,
and must be altered.
Saskatchewan
T h e following order was approved by the Minimum Wage Board of
Saskatchewan on May 17, 1933, and was made retroactive to May 1:
For a period of 4 months from the first day of May 1933 the minimum rates of
wages fixed by the board for workers in shops and stores, laundries and factories,
mail-order houses, hotels, restaurant and refreshment rooms, beauty parlors and
barber shops, are hereby reduced by 10 percent where the rate so fixed is less than
$13 per week and by 15 percent when the rate so fixed is $13 per week or over.
The foregoing reductions shall not apply to the wages of an employee in any
week during which she is subject to part-time employment.

Decision Against Lowering of Living Wage in
South Australia

HE Industrial Gazette of New South Wales reports in its issue
for May 1933 (p. 797) that in the first quarter of the current year
the South Australian Board of Industry held a public inquiry to review
the living wage for adult male employees, which at the beginning of
the year stood at 10s. 6d. per diem. The inquiry resulted from an
application made by the South Australian Employers’ Federation,
which had asked for an adjustment of 3d. per day “ in consideration of
the alleged continued need for economy.” In delivering the decision
the president pointed out that while the board always took into con­
sideration the index of purchasing power, this could not be considered
the sole factor.

T

The board has consistently held that the duty (of providing a sum sufficient
for the normal and reasonable needs of the average employee living in the locality
where the work under consideration is done or is to be done) * * * cannot
be discharged from time to time by a simple arithmetical calculation fixing the
new living wage at a sum bearing the same ratio to the previous wage as the Com­
monwealth Statistician’s retail price index figures for the latest quarter bear to
the figures which were before the board when it declared the previous wage.

The Commonwealth index figure for food, groceries, and rents (all
houses), the president stated, indicated a fall of approximately 11
percent between the second quarter of 1931, when the present living
wage was declared, and the fourth quarter of 1932. The decrease in
the cost of clothing and miscellaneous items, however, was less than
this, and there was room for doubt whether the fall in the price of
such food and groceries, exclusive of fresh meat, fruit, and vegetables,
as come within the average employee’s normal and reasonable needs,
had been as much as 11 percent. On the whole, the board did not
feel that there had been a fall in the cost of living sufficient to justify
a reduction of the living wage.
The decision dissented entirely from the opinion that the need for
continued economy demanded a reduction in the wage.
The president stated in this connection that: The facts placed before the board
show a retardment in the downward course, previously noted, of governmental
and private finance. There are indications of some recovery from the previous
downward movement in financial and industrial conditions and an improvement
is shown in the statistics of employment. With the living wage at 10s. 6d. per

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MINIMUM WAGE

863

diem a capacity for recovery on the part of our industries has made itself mani­
fest. The productivity of the State has increased, since the period under review
when the 1931 declaration was made. * * * In the light of the above con­
siderations I have come to the conclusion that justice and expediency require
that no special contraction of the normal and reasonable needs of the living wage
earner should now be enforced on the ground of that stringent need for economy
which existed during that period.

The decision was reached, therefore, that the living wage should be
maintained at the figure of 10s. 6d. per diem.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

HEALTH AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
Industrial Diseases and Poisoning in British Factories, 1932

HE report of the chief inspector of factories and workshops in
Great Britain for the year 1932 contains a short section on health
which replaces the usual detailed report of the Senior Medical In­
spector of Factories. This year marks the hundredth anniversary
of the appointment of the first Government inspectors of factories,
following the passage of the Factory Act of 1833, and a large part
of the report is therefore given to historical reviews of the development
of the department.
Special investigations of health hazards made during the year in­
cluded a study of the effects of trichlorethylene (which has come into
very extended use in dry-cleaning establishments and for degreasing),
as well as similar close observation of plants in which there was use
of carbon-tetrochloride as a cleaning agent. Cases of toxic jaundice
from arseniuretted hydrogen evolved from wetting dross containing
aluminum arsenide were also investigated. Dust studies were made
in a new process of spraying asbestos fiber together with an adhesive
to the walls of a railway tunnel, and in the malting industry where
there is a clinical picture of bronchitis, peribronchial fibrosis, and
emphysema. The investigator in this industry found that other fac­
tors than dust, namely, variations in temperature and the strenuous
physical effort demanded were contributing causes. A preliminary
inquiry was made of workers exposed to the dust of basic slag and
talc. Investigations were also carried out in plants manufacturing
dry batteries where there was exposure to manganese dioxide and
mercurial salts, and of the effects on health of exposure to cellulose
lacquers.
The number of cases of disease resulting from the use of the more
important industrial poisons reported in 1932 under the factory and
lead paint acts are shown in table 1.

T

T a b l e 1.— CASES OF P O IS O N IN G R E P O R T E D TO T H E B R IT IS H F A C T O R Y IN S P E C T IO N

S E R V IC E IN 1932

Males

Females

Total

Disease
Cases
Lead poisoning. ________ _____________
Mercury poisoning. _ _______________ ________
Arsenic poisoning-. ____ ___________ . . . _
Carbon-bisulphide poisoning__________ ______
Aniline poisoning
_
. ____ _
Toxic jaundice_______ __________
Epitheliomatous ulceration____
____________
Chrome ulceration________________ ___________
A n th ra x _______ - . _________________ ____
Total_____________

864

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

_____________________

173
2
1
2
24
3
131
65
15
416

Deaths
20

Cases
9

Deaths
3

44

1
65

12
1
22

3

Cases
182
2
1
2
24
3
131
77
16
438

Deaths
23

44
i
68

865

HEALTH AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

Although there was an increase of 14 in the total number of eases
of lead poisoning reported, as compared with the previous year, the
increase was entirely due to an increase in shipbreaking which ac­
counted for 34 cases. This industry is a difficult one to safeguard,
as it has been found impossible to remove the fumes by exhaust
ventilation and no efficient respirator has been devised. In most
industries the incidence of lead poisoning was lower than in 1931.
There were 16 cases of anthrax, with 1 death. Eleven cases, in­
cluding 1 death, were due to wool, 2 to horsehair, 2 to hides and
skins, and in 1 case the cause was not reported.
One hundred and thirty-one cases of epitheliomatous ulceration
were reported with 44 deaths: 33 cases with 1 death from pitch; 37
with 18 deaths from tar; 1 from paraffin; and 60 cases with 25 deaths
from oil. Of the cases due to oil, 57 occurred among cotton mule
spinners.
Ten cases of cancer of the interior of the nose, 9 of which were
fatal, have occurred during the past 11 years among employees of a
nickel-refining company. Preliminary studies have failed to show the
causative agent, but as the occurrence of so many cases in an unusual
site for such growths seems suggestive, further investigation is being
made. A study of 53 cases of death from papilloma and cancer of
the bladder which had occurred in one locality from 1900 to 1932
showed that 28 of the cases occurred among intermediate die workers
while not more than 2 cases occurred in any other trade group.
There was a decrease in the number of cases of anilin poisoning, due
largely to improved working conditions in the plants in which a
number of cases occurred in 1931, but there was one very severe case
of poisoning resulting from spraying woodwork in a closed room with a
mixture containing dinitro-benzol. Five of the cases of anilin
poisoning were due to 5-chlor-ortho toluidine. As the prominent
symptoms of this form of poisoning are strangury and hematuria,
there is a suggestion of its having a possible association with cancer
of the bladder among chemical workers.
There were 125 gassing accidents reported, 11 of which were fatal.
The nature and causes of these accidents were much the same as in
previous years, but among the rarer forms of poisoning, ethylene
dichloride, ethylene chlorhydrin, and hydrogen iodide each were
responsible for 1 case.
The report contains particulars of 42 deaths from asbestosis or
asbestosis with tuberculosis and 281 deaths from silicosis or silicosis
with tuberculosis.
Table 2 shows the number of deaths from silicosis and asbestosis
alone or complicated with tuberculosis, the average age at death, and
the number of years of exposure to either type of dust.
2 .—N U M B E R OF D E A T H S F R O M SILICOSIS A N D A SB E STO SIS IN G R E A T
B R IT A IN , A V E R A G E A G E A T D E A T H , A N D D U R A T IO N OF E M P L O Y M E N T

T able

Disease

Number Average
of
age at
death
deaths

Duration of employment
in years
Longest Shortest Average

Silicosis.- .
------------------------------- -----------Silicosis with tuberculosis------------------------------------------------Asbestosis- . . _ --------------- -- - ---------------Asbestosis with tuberculosis... --------------------------------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

114
167
27
15

54.1
52.0
40.8
41.6

57.0
67.0
27.0
24.0

2.8
2.0
4.4
2.6

40.1
32.0
15.2
11.7

866

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

The number of deaths in different industries from silicosis and from
silicosis with tuberculosis, the average age at death, and duration of
employment are shown in table 3.
T able 3 . —N U M B E R OF D E A T H S F R O M SILICOSIS A N D SILICOSIS W IT H T U B E R C U ­

LOSIS, A V E R A G E A G E A T D E A T H , A N D D U R A T IO N OF E M P L O Y M E N T , R E P O R T E D
T O T H E B R IT IS H F A C T O R Y IN S P E C T IO N S E R V IC E , B Y IN D U S T R Y

Industry

Pottery:
Silicosis.- .
___
- - - - ------------------Silicosis with tuberculosis--------- --------------------------------Sandstone:
Silicosis------ --------- ---------- ----------- -- ---------------------Silicosis with tuberculosis------------------------ -----------------Grinding of metals:
Silicosis
.
- .
--------------------------------Silicosis with tuberculosis-----------------------------------------Sandblasting:
-- - - ------------------------Silicosis____
Silicosis with tuberculosis-----------------------------------------Scouring powder manufacture:
Silicosis _
-------------- ------------- ---------------------------Silicosis with tuberculosis------------------------------------ -----Miscellaneous:
------ -------------------------------------Silicosis .
. ..
Silicosis with tuberculosis------------------------------------------

Number Average
age at
of
death
deaths

Duration of employment
in years
Longest Shortest Average

72
75

55.6
55.2

57.0
67.0

10.0
13.0

39.8
37.9

21
39

57.3
52.3

57.0
53.0

20.0
16.0

40.4
34.8

4
26

47.3
51.1

45.0
48.0

18.0
2.8

30.8
30.2

7
16

40.7
44.2

16.0
20.0

4.5
2. 5

10.3
8.3

3
2

37.0
33.5

11.0
10.75

5. 25
2.0

7.8
6. 4

7
9

55.3
50.9

45.0
34.0

2.8
11.0

20.4
24. 0

The diagnosis of all these cases was verified by post-mortem
examination. It will be seen that the average duration of employ­
ment in fatal cases of asbestosis was 15.2 years as compared with 40.1
years for all cases of silicosis. Complications with tuberculosis con­
siderably shortened these averages. The necessity for the use of
enclosed systems, or of a nonsiliceous abrasive, in sandblasting, is
pointed out, as the period in which disablement and death occurs in
this industry is so very much shorter than in other industries in which
there is exposure to silica dust.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION
Union Official Held to be a “ Workman” for Compensation
Purposes

TRAD E union is an employer and its business agent is an em­
ployee within the meaning of the workmen’s compensation law
of the District of Columbia, according to Mr. Chief Justice Martin
of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia.
This decision was rendered in the case of Standard Accident In­
surance Co. v. Hoage, Deputy Compensation Commissioner (61 Wash.
Law Rep. 613).
The facts in the case show that Opie F. Lindsay, business agent for
the Lathers’ International Union, Local 9, of Washington, D.C.,
sustained injuries while making the return trip from Fredericksburg,
Va., “ where he had gone, accompanied by other labor-union repre­
sentatives, to investigate, on behalf of the union, certain charges
which had been brought concerning labor conditions in that city.”
While en route the automobile collided with a passing vehicle and
Lindsay suffered injuries which resulted in his death. Claims for
compensation were filed and an award was made by the deputy com­
pensation commissioner on the ground that Lindsay was an employee
who received an accidental injury arising out of and in the course of
his employment.
The Standard Accident Insurance Co., the insurer, brought suit in
the District of Columbia Supreme Court to enjoin the payment of the
compensation awarded. It was contended that Lindsay was not an
employee and that the union was not an employer; for that reason
the accident did not occur in the course of the employment, and the
deputy compensation commissioner was therefore without jurisdic­
tion. The bill was dismissed by the court and an appeal was taken
to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia^
After reviewing the facts in the case and the provisions of the law
in question, the court said: “ We are of the opinion, upon the facts
contained in the record, that the union was an employer, and that
Lindsay when he met his death was its employee, within the purview
of the compensation statute.” The court cited section 13 of the
union constitution which defined the duties of the business agent.
It commented upon the fact that Lindsay had no other employment
and devoted his whole time to the union, and that the $80 per week
he received as salary was his sole means of support. Continuing the
court said:

A

This employment was totally distinct from the ordinary duties and powers
of members of the union in general. The fact that Lindsay was a member of
the union did not prevent him from being likewise an employee for the per­
formance of services such as did not pertain to membership alone, nor was
Lindsay compensated for his services otherwise than by the wages paid him


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

867

868

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

therefor. It may be added by way of analogy that it is not inconsistent for officers
of corporations to serve at the same time as employees of the corporations.
The union is a legal entity and answers to the term “ association” as used in
the statute. It may be sued as an organization for torts committed by it.
( U n ited M i n e W o r k e r s o f A m e r ic a v. C oron a d o C oal C o., 259 U.S. 344.)
It may
enter into business contracts of various kinds as an “ association.” Its purposes
relate to the trade and business of wood and metal lathing. Its function is to
aid in the carrying on of this trade by its members, who thereby earn their liveli­
hood, by regulating their contracts of employment, securing to them a fair
remuneration for their labor, affording them protection against obnoxious rules,
unlawful discharge, or other systems of injustice and oppression. * * * In
the exercise of these functions it was necessary to employ a business agent such
as Lindsay to perform the duties which he was engaged in performing at the time
of the accident.

The court cited cases which held that “ the compensation laws are
remedial in character, seeking to accomplish a humane purpose, and
that their terms should be liberally construed.” The District of
Columbia act provides for certain limited exceptions, none of which
include an occupation such as Lindsay was performing when injured.
The court therefore concluded that the “ labor union was competent
to make a contract with Lindsay for his services as an employee
within the provisions of the compensation act.”
Inasmuch as the Standard Accident Insurance Co. had insured the
labor union for the protection of its employees, including business
agents, and had received and retained the amount paid in on the policy
the court concluded that the insurance carrier cannot complain “ if
the courts call upon it to perform its contract in the spirit in which it
was made.”
The decision of the lower court dismissing the suit was therefore
affirmed.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
Strikes and Lockouts in the United States in August 1933

ATA regarding industrial disputes in the United States for
August 1933 with comparable data for preceding months are pre­
sented below. Disputes involving fewer than six workers and lasting
less than one day have been omitted.
Table 1 shows the number of disputes beginning in each year from
1927 to 1932, the number of workers involved and man-days lost for
these years and for each of the months, January 1931 to August 1933,
as well as the number of disputes in effect at the end of each month and
the number of workers involved. The number of man-days lost, as
given in the last column of the table, refers to the estimated number
of working days lost by workers involved in disputes which were in
progress during the month or year specified.

D

T able 1 .— IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A N D IN E F F E C T A T E N D OF E A C H

M O N T H J A N U A R Y 1931 TO A U G U S T 1933, A N D T O T A L N U M B E R OF D IS P U T E S , W O R K ­
E RS, A N D M A N -D A Y S LO ST IN T H E Y E A R S 1927 TO 1932

Number of disputes
M onth and year

1927 .
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932 .

.

Beginning
in month
or year
.

____

In effect
at end of
month

Number of workers
involved in disputes
Beginning
in month
or year

In effect
at end of
month

349, 434
357,145
230,463
158,114
279, 299
242,826

734
029
903
653
894
808

Number of
man-days
lost in
disputes
existing in
month or year

37, 799, 394
31, 556,947
9,975,213
2,730,368
6, 386,183
6,462,973

1931
January ...................__ .......... _ - _____
February- ________________ . . .
____
M arch.. ____ _______________ _______
A pril, ______________________ __ ___ M a y____________________ ______________
June_____________________________ ____
July____________________________________
_________
August- ________________
September ___________ . _ __________
October
___
. _
N ovem ber______________________________
December. _ _____ - ____ _ ________

57
52
49
73
115
90
73
79
117
77
62
50

19
29
26
39
45
47
51
36
65
45
39
21

10,150
20,473
26,453
27,135
28,000
18, 795
49,434
11,019
36,092
34, 384
13, 219
4,145

2,005
10, 677
28, 012
22, 687
15, 603
15, 223
56,683
14, 759
37,427
29, 380
13, 690
1,318

181,169
223, 660
476,904
770, 512
400, 509
511,926
612,864
1,157, 013
493, 649
1,052,095
355,818
150, 064

1932
January__________ _____________________
February_______________________________
March
__
.
____
____ ...
___ .
April _
M a y ______ ___________________ ____ -.
June _ . ________ _
____ _
July____________________________________
A u g u st...
________________ _____ _
September -----October_________________________ __ . . .
N ovem ber..
________ . . . . . .
----December. . .
___
_
_ .

87
56
64
89
87
69
66
85
85
47
38
35

37
34
30
44
52
46
40
38
33
23
21
12

12, 091
33,713
33,087
19,187
44, 357
15,858
20,890
28,492
17,824
10, 442
3, 460
3, 425

4,993
31,103
13,937
21,513
49, 777
24,138
33, 216
27, 717
7,456
2, 324
1,896
997

132,873
460,701
736,782
620, 866
1, 251,455
943,338
740,785
754, 423
566,045
147, 059
68,154
40,492

1933
January.. __________ __________________
February - - - - - - .
------M arch_____________________ ___________
A pril__________________ i ___________
-.
M a y ___________________
_
___ _
_
June___ ________________________ _____
July 1__________________________________
A u gu st1 _____________ _______________

67
63
91
72
133
131
201
152

29
32
41
46
49
45
97
133

19, 616
10,909
39,913
23,077
41, 652
40,903
125, 08S
141,193

8, 790
6, 706
12, 794
19,867
16, 584
24, 593
65, 725
83,483

240,912
109, 860
445, 771
535, 039
603, 723
504, 362
1,375,574
2, 377,886

i Preliminary figures subject to change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

869

870

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW
Occurrence of Disputes

T a b l e 2 gives, by industrial groups, the number of strikes beginning
in June, July, and August 1933, and the number of workers directly
involved.
T able 2 — IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN JU N E, JU L Y , A N D A U G U ST 1933

Number of disputes begin­
ning in—

Number of workers involved
in disputes beginning in—

Industrial group
June
Auto, carriage, and wagon workers _
Bakers_______________
Barbers.._ ________
Brick and tile workers___ __
Building trades workers_______ . .
Chauffeurs and teamsters
Clothing workers______
Coopers____ . . . . .
Electric and gas appliance workers____
Farm labor_______ ___
Food workers. ______
Furniture workers___
_____
Glass workers... . . .
H otel and restaurant workers____
Iron and steel workers
Jewelry workers_____ ____
Laundry w orkers......... .
Leather workers___
_____
Longshoremen and freight handlers..
Lumber, timber, and mill workers
M etal trades____
___
Miners___ _______
Motion-picture operators, actors, and
theatrical workers . _
Oil and chemical workers .
Paper and paper-goods workers________
Printing and publishing workers______
Rubber workers______ .
Steamboatmen_____ _.
Stone workers______ . . . .
_ ..
M unicipal workers____
Textile workers ______
T obacco workers____ ______
Other occupations ______ ______
T otal_______________

July
2
2
x
i
4

20
3
2
8
i
i
i
8
1
8
8

August
1

1
1
10
1
67
1
1

9
1
36

275
104
24
303
4,709

3
1

2
1
2

9
3

June

2
4
1
16

1,520
133
1,846
318
12
1,200
6,137
40
1,184
3,793

3
]
i

2
1
4

2
1
46
1
8

2
59
3
10

131

201

July

7no”
270
18
1,408
12
68,028
18
400
300
228
1,630
1,390
12
530

530
1, 634
712
11,245

August
100
1,397
630
600
79, 499
595
2,650
1,000
2,401

130
1,832
100
350
1,908
22,806

6,671

1

150

41
78

275
100
1,046

36

349
250
17, 586
250
658

1,100
25, 643
215
1,480

100
416
14
150
3,800
10, 603
8,532
1,430

152

40,903

125,088

141,193

1
1

Size and Duration of Disputes
T a b l e 3 gives the number of industrial disputes beginning in August
1933, classified by number of workers and by industrial groups.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

871

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

T a ble 3 .—N U M B E R OF IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S B E G IN N IN G IN A U G U S T 1933, C L A S S I­

F IE D B Y N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S A N D B Y IN D U S T R IA L G R O U P

Number of disputes beginning in August 1933 involving—
1,000
5.000
6 and 20 and 100 and 500 and
10,000
and
and
under under under under
work­
under
under
20
100
500
1,000
ers and
5,000
10.000
workers workers workers workers
workers workers over

Industrial group

Auto, carriage, and wagon workers.

_ ____

Building trades workers ________ . . .
Chauffeurs and tea m sters..________________
Clothing workers____________________________
Electric and gas appliance workers. . . . _____
Farm labor_________ ____ __ . . . _________ _
Food workers_________ . .
....................

2

5

2

8
1
2

1
3
2
11
2

1
Laundry w o r k e r s ........... ........................... _ .

1

T otal__________________________________

6

6

3

2

2
1
1
1

2
1

2
1
2
4
5
1
1
2

18
2
4

14
2
2

1
2
2
1

i
2

46

57

18

18

Oil and chemical workers
______________
Printing and publishing workers____________
Steamboatmen____ _____
___ . . .
Stone workers...... ...................... . .
.
M unicipal workers____________________ ____ _
Textile'workers________________________
Tobacco workers___ ______________ ___ . . . .
Other occupations...................................... ..........

1
4

1
2
1

Longshoremen and freight handlers___ ______
Lumber, timber, and mill workers..
_____
M etal trades__ 1_____. . . .
. _____

1

1
5

1

4

1
1
5

2

In Table 4 are shown the number of industrial disputes ending in
August 1933, by industrial groups and classified duration.
T a bl e 4 .—N U M B E R OF IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S E N D IN G IN A U G U ST 1933, B Y IN D U S

T R I A L G R O U P A N D C L A S S IF IE D D U R A T IO N

Classified duration of strikes ending in August
1933
Industrial group
One half
month or
less

Auto, carriage, and wagon workers . . . _________ .
B a k e rs ___________ . ___ ______________ _______ . . .
Building trades____
___ ___________ ___________
Chauffeurs and teamsters___ . . . _______________ . .
Clothing workers____ _______ _ . . . . . ____ _____ _
Electric and gas appliance workers_________ _____
Farm labor________ .
........................... . ._ . . . . ._
Food workers___ _ _ ._ . . . . . . . . .................. . _.
Laundry w ork ers.. .

... ...

. ...........................

Longshoremen and freight handlers__ . . .
Lumber, timber, and mill w o r k e rs __ _ . . .
Rubber w orkers...

.

. . . .

______ . . . .

. ...

T otal___ ___________ ___________________________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
4
5
15
2
3
i
1
2
2
2
5
4
2
1
1
1
24
3
3
82

Over one
half and
less than
1 month

4
1
7

1 month
and less
than 2
months

2 and less
than 3
months

1
2

1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

4

7

19

11

4

872

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Conciliation Work of the Department of Labor in August 1933
By H u g h L. K e r w i n , D ir e c t o r

of

C o n c il ia t io n

HE Secretary of Labor, through the Conciliation Service, exer­
cised her good offices in connection with 177 labor disputes during
August 1933. These disputes affected a known total of 105,665 em­
ployees. The table following shows the name and location of the
establishment or industry in which the dispute occurred, the nature of
the dispute (whether strike or lockout or controversy not having
reached the strike or lockout stage), the craft or trade concerned, the
cause of the dispute, its present status, the terms of settlement, the
date of beginning and ending, and the number of workers directly and
indirectly involved.
There were 10 cases involving the law on the prevailing rate of
wages. In these cases it is not always possible to show the number
involved, due to lack of information as to total number required *
before completion of construction.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

CASES H A N D L E D B Y C O N C IL IA T IO N S E R V IC E D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF A U G U ST 1933
Workers in­
volved

Duration
Com pany or industry and
location

Bridges M ilk Co., Erie, Pa.

Nature of
controversy

Controversy

Robitchek-Schneider Co., Minne­
apolis, M inn.

Asked 50 percent
wages.

increase in

Textile workers.

Wages and conditions-----------------

Hosiery workers.

Wages__________________________

____do______

Miners_________

Wages and conditions___________

Lockout___

Carpenters.

.do.

Threatened
strike.
Strike______

Drivers.................

.d o .

Hosiery workers.

-d o.

Controversy

Textile workers..

____do______

Drivers...... ........ .

M idwest Raincoat Manufacturing -------do______
Co., Chicago, 111.
Profile Cotton Mills, Jacksonville, ____ do______
Ala.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Rug makers.

Strike______

Sewer-pipe workers, Toronto, ____ do______
Ohio.
M undie Manufacturing Co., P e r u ,-------do--------111.
.do.
R ayon workers, N ew Castle, Pa.

1 N ot reported.

1933
Adjusted. W ill accept code when Aug. 2
ready.
Hosiery workers___ Wages and conditions___________ Adjusted. Increases from 40 to 60 July 25
percent and recognition of union.
Employees_________ ____do___________________________ Adjusted. Satisfactorily settled. _ _ July 31
Milk-wagon drivers. Organization____________________

____do______

Strike.

Begin­
ning

_do.
Working conditions.

Sheepskin-lined coat ------do-------------- ------and m a c k i n a w
makers.
Sewer-pipe workers. .Wages___ ____ ___ _____________
Employees_____

Wages and conditions-----------------

Rayon workers.

Wrages, 40-hour week, conditions.

Raincoat makers___

Asked 50 percent increase and 40hour week.
Working conditions_____________

Cotton-textile work­
ers.

Ending

Indi­
D i­
rectly rectly

1933
Aug. 8
Aug.

3

400

Aug. 15

10

Adjusted. Granted 32 percent in­ July 27 Aug. 5
crease, 40-hour week. Carpetworkers code accepted.
Adjusted. Increase of 36 percent, Aug. 1 Aug. 3
and signed agreement.
Adjusted. Wage increase of .40 to ..__do____ - .. d o ____
60 percent.
Pending______________ __________

300

do.
Adjusted. Signed agreement with
former wages and conditions.
Adjusted. Wage increase and rec­
ognition.
Adjusted. Agreed to abide by tex­
tile code.
Adjusted. Agreement providing
for no discrimination.
Unclassified.
Conciliation not
practicable; other agencies to
make arrangements.
Adjusted. Increased to 40 cents per
hour pending formation ot code.
Adjusted. Increase of 20 percent,
40-hour week.
Adjusted. Returned without dis­
crimination, pending code.
Adjusted. Compromised on 40
percent increase, pending code.
Unclassified. Company unable to
reopen mills at this time.

Aug.

2

July

3

1, 700
250
(l)
250

Aug. 16

41

3

100

Aug.

7

2,100

Aug.

8

8

192

24

150

July 24

Aug.

July 31
Aug.

1

20

7

D IS P U T E S

Tubize Chatillon Corporation,
Rome, Ga.
R am bo & Regar Hosiery Co., Nor­
ristown, Pa.
Kingston Coal Co., Morganfield,
Ky.
C. B. Atkins Manufacturing Co.,
Knoxville, Tenn.
Kroger Grocery Co., Cleveland,
Ohio.
W estmont Silk Hosiery Corpora­
tion, Westmont, N.J.
Lane Cotton Mills, New Orleans,
La.
Hall Baking Co., Buffalo, N .Y -----

Present status and terms of
settlement

IN D U S T R IA L

Sportwear Hosiery Co., Philadel­ Strike______
phia and Bethlehem, Pa.
Vinegar Manufacturing & Food ____do______
Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
Art Loom Corporation, Philadel­ Controversy
phia, Pa.

Cause of dispute

Craftsmen concerned

July 31

—

1,000

Aug.

8

Aug. 18

Aug.

2

Aug.

Aug.

4

Aug. 15

60

340

Aug.

2

Aug. 11

250

50

Aug. 19

350

3

50

OO
-I

CO

CASES H A N D L E D BY C O N C IL IA T IO N S E R V IC E D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF A U G U ST 1933—Continued

Workers in­
volved

Duration
Company or industry and
location

Garment workers, Los Angeles,
Calif.

Nature of
controversy

Strike.

Wages and working agreement. _

Millinery workers. _
Textile workers____

Wages and con d ition s.................
Working conditions_____________

Operators__________

Hosiery workers___

Asked 2 operators for each booth. Unable to adjust. Some progress
but no definite terms.
Long hours and low wages.........
Adjusted. Increase of 10 to 30 per­
cent, and 40-hour week.
Adjusted. Cut of 7J4 cents per
Proposed wage cu t_____________
hour accepted.
AVorking conditions_____________ Pending_________ _______ _______

Textile workers____

Wages and conditions______ .. . .

A utom obile-accelssory makers.
Blacksmiths_______

Ending

1933
J uly 24

1933
Aug. 10

July 28
Aug. 5

Aug. 12
Aug.

5

Aug.

8

Aug.

3

Adjusted. Increase of 100 percent.
Returned to work.
Adjusted. Increase of 10 percent;
recognition.
P end ing..._____ __________ ____ _

Aug. 14

L e a th e r -g a r m e n t ____ do________ _____ ____________
makers.
Textile workers____ AA;orking conditions......................
Clothing workers... ____do__________________________

Adjusted. New agreements signed.

Aug.

Stove workers..........
Metal workers.........
Silk-yarn makers___
Pretzel makers____
Hosiery workers___

Adjusted. Resumed work pend­
ing adoption of code.
Working conditions______ ______ Adjusted. Returned without dis­
crimination pending adoption of
code.
AA’ ages and conditions____ ______ Adjusted. Some increases. Re­
turned to work.
Working conditions_________. . . .
Pending__________! ______________
AYages and recognition__________ ____d o_______ ____ _______________

Aug.

Wages and conditions______ ____

Pending____ _____________________

____d o....... ..................... ...................

Adjusted.
Agreement
adoption of code.

pending

3,500
850

200

h

3

Aug. 17
Aug.

9

Aug.
Aug.

1
2

Controversy Tire workers_______ AVorking conditions_____________ Adjusted. Accepted blanket code. Aug. 1
____do______ Miners____________ ____do__________________________ Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement. July 28
____do______ ____d o______ ______ _ ____do________ __________________ ____do_______________ ____ _______ July 15
Field workers......... .

4,000

Aug. 15

AVages and conditions___________

L a d ie s - g a r m e n t
workers.

D i­
Indi­
rectly rectly

R E V IE W


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

____ do______

Adjusted. Increase of 15 percent,
agreed on arbitration for settle­
ment of differences.
Pending--------------------------------------Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement.

Garment workers.

Begin­
ning

LABOR

Oscar Heineman Corporation,
Chicago, 111.
Quinlan Pretzel Co., Reading, Pa.
Blue .Moon Hosiery Co., Phila­
delphia, Pa.
Tire workers, Chattanooga, Tenn.
Diam ond Coal Co., Jellico, Tenn.
Thom pson Coal Co., New River,
Tenn.
Mexican and Filipino garden
workers, Calif.
Segal & H & S. Co. and Extine &
Segal Co., Bayonne, N.J.

Cause of dispute

Aug. 11

1,000
40
150

Aug.
Aug.
Aug.

2
4
1

Aug.

7

M ONTHLY

Millinery workers, Chicago, 111__ Controversy
Appleton Manufacturing Co., An­ Strike______
derson, S.C.
M otion-picture operators, Racine,
Wis.
Faith Manufacturing Co., Chi­
cago, 111.
Dunbar & Sullivan, Detroit,
Mich.
Cambria Silk Hosiery, Philadel­
phia, Pa
Cotton-textile workers, Cedartown, Ga.
Schainman Sportwear Co., New
York City.
Milberg & Milberg, New York
City.
Allen Schmidt & Pringle Co., Threatened
strike.
Utica, N .Y .
Tennessee Stove Works, Chatta­ ____do______
nooga, Tenn.
The Levin Metals Corporation, Strike______
St. Louis, M o.

Craftsmen concerned

Present status and terms of
settlement

135
292
58
3,000

Threatened
strike.

____ do______
____ do______

____ d o______

___ do_______

American Store Co., Wilkes- Controversy
Barre, Pa.
Brewery building, Akron, Ohio___ ____ do______

Coal miners, Alabama___________

National Biscuit Co., Newark,
N.J.
N orthbilt Garment Co., M inne­
apolis, Minn.
Layman Co., Minneapolis, M inn .,
i N ot reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Controversy

35

45

Aug. 22

100

Aug. 10

Aug. 24

Unclassified. Settled before commissioner’s arrival.
Asked 6-hour day; no discrimina­
tion.
Wool-yarn spinners.
Boilermakers
employed b y C ody &
Sons.

Threatened
strike.

Winstead Bridge Plant, Bessemer,
Ala.
Knapp Monarch Co., Belleville, Threatened
strike.
111.
Black Mountain Coal Corpora­ Controversy
tion, Renvir, K y.
Kash & C o., Los Angeles, Calif-----

5
165

Adjusted. N ew agreement con- Aug. 10
eluded.
Pending . . . . . . ----- ------------ . - Aug. 17
Aug. 5
Adjusted. Increase of 30 percent. Aug. 2
Returned to work.
W age increase and recognition___ Adjusted. Increase of 20 percent; Aug. 19
no discrimination.
Adjusted. Accepted terms of Aug. 10
Leather - coat mak- Working conditions___________
code.
ers.
Adjusted. Increases and recogni- Aug. 1
Knit-goods workers..
tion granted.
Adjusted. Increase of 50 percent; Aug. 17
40-hour week.
Unclassified. Settled b y parties Aug. 8
at interest.
Pressed-steel work- ____ do— .............................. ............ Adjusted. Federal union com- Aug. 19
p'leted award to be made retro­
ers.
active.
Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement. Aug. 11

R .I .

United Industrial Alcohol Corpo­ ___ do____ _
ration, Peoria, 111.

.__do____
Aug. 8

Leather-goods mak­
ers.
Garment workers. . .

Wages and conditions-------------

Aug.

Aug. 10

2,000
(')
1,200

Aug. 21

75

Aug. 31

50

Aug. 18

110

Aug. 18

60

Aug. 20

2

Aug. 21

375

Aug. 17

8

4

(0

July 27
Aug. 17

Aug. 24
Unclassified. Allowed 32 percent
increase before commissioner’s
arrival.
. Unable to adjust. Com pany re- ___do____ Aug. 29
fused agreement.
Adjusted. Strike averted pending
adoption of mining code.
Unclassified. Refused to accept
mediation.
Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement

1

Aug. 21

Aug. 11

Aug. 29

July 15

Aug.

Aug.

Aug.

10

4

D IS P U T E S

Fidalgo Lumber & Box Co., Anacortes, Wash.
Fishermen, coast streams, Oreg___
Bonin Spinning Co., Woonsocket, ____ d o___ _

July 28

IN D U S T R IA L

F. Prosner Co., Bayonne, N .J____
Walker D ry Goods Co., St. Louis,
M o.
Simon Greenbaum Manufactur­
ing Co., Buffalo, N .Y .
Garment makers, St. Louis, M o ...
Fort Pitt Glass Co., Charleroi, PaConsolidated Cigar Co., Philadel­
phia, Pa.
National Fireproofing Co., East
Canton, Ohio.
General Leather Coat Co., Pas­
saic, N.J.
Habar K nit Goods, Philadelphia,
Pa.
Pennsylvania Forge Co., Phila­
delphia, Pa.
J. F. Im bs Milling Co., Belleville,
111.
Heintz Manufacturing Co., Phila­
delphia, Pa.

1,000
1,200
(')
7,000
20

100

300

3

Aug. 17

6

Aug. 15

Aug. 18

20

Adjusted. Partial agreement; nego- Aug. 17
tiations continued.
Wages, hours, and c o n d itio n s ----- Adjusted. Satisfactory agreement. Aug. 10

Aug. 22

200

Aug. 11

100

-_ _ d o ___

Aug. 12

25

544

OC

-a

CASES H A N D L E D B Y C O N C IL IA T IO N S E R V IC E D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF A U G U ST 1933—Continued

00

Duration
Company or industry and
location

Nature of
controversy

Craftsmen concerned

Cause of dispute

Begin­
ning

Controversy

Garment workers.-- Working conditions.

Strike.

Robert W icks Co., Utica, N .Y .

Threatened
strike.
Strike_____

Children’s garment
makers.
M e n ’ s c lo th in g
makers.
Drivers____________

Asked 50 cents per day increase. _.

Silk workers.

W orking conditions.

Freeland Fabrics, Hazleton, Pa.

do.

Wages and working conditions__
Terms of agreement_____________

Employees-_____ ________ do................................... ...........

___ do_____

Zinc workers.............

Wages and working conditions

Waalwork Coal Co., Hawthorne,
Pa.
National Biscuit Co., Philadel­
phia, Pa.

Controversy

Miners____

W orking conditions.

Strike______

Employees.

____do________ ____ _

Atwater Kent Radio Corporation,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Standard Sanitary Manufacturing
Co., Tiffin, Ohio.
Greyhound Bus Co., Chicago, I1L_
Rainbow Garment Co., Chicago,
111.
Berkowitz Shirt Factory, Uniontown, Pa.
C. K. Eagle Shirt Co., Shamokin,
Pa.
Building contractors, Youngstown,
Ohio.
Cleveland Tractor Co., Cleveland,
Ohio.
Continental Diamond Fibre Co.,
Norristown, Pa.

____ do______

Radio makers___

W ages__________________ ____ _

Controversy

Pottery workers, -

W orking conditions,..................

Carter Carburetor Co., St. Louis,
M o.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Strike______
-------do______

M echanics______
Garment workers.

____d o__________________________
____do__________________________

-------do______

Shirt workers___

Wages, hours, and conditions____

Threatened ------d o-...................
strike.
Controversy Bricklayers_____

Working conditions_____________
Wages__________________________

____ do______

Metal workers__

AVorking conditions____ ________

Strike______

Employees______

Asked increase in wages when
hours were reduced.

do.

do.

Working conditions.

1933
Adjusted. Satisfactory agreement. Aug. 10

1933
Aug. 11

30

Adjusted. Returned without discrimination; no change in wages.
Adjusted.
Satisfactory agreement.
Adjusted. Returned; arbitration
by commissioner agreed upon.
Adjusted. Returned; satisfactory
settlement.

Adjusted. Strike averted; await
adoption of code.

Aug.

1

Aug. 23

485

Aug.

125

9

Aug. 15

Aug. 18

Aug. 20

60

13

Aug. 23

Aug. 25

140

20

(i)
Aug.

7

Aug. 31

300
(i)

Aug. 23
Adjusted. Allowed 50 hours’ pay
for 40-hour week; no discrimination.
Adjusted. Increase of 10 to 30 percent; recognition.

_

Aug. 17

Aug. 27

700

Aug.

Aug. 25

1,300

4

12

800

(i)
Adjusted. Returned; satisfactory
agreement.
Adjusted. Returned in part; no
discrimination.
Adjusted. Satisfactory s e t t l e ment.
Adjusted. Allowed $9 per day to
Apr. 1,1934, then $10 per day___
Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement.
Adjusted. Increase of 10 cents per
hour for those on 36-hour week;
7 cents for those on 40-hour week.

Aug. 22

Aug. 27

4

Aug.

Aug. 28

450
1,985

7

Aug. 28

Aug. 29

Aug. 22

Aug. 31

175

Aug.

7

Aug. 18

180

Aug. 18

Aug. 25

430

Aug. 17

275

18

40

R E V IE W

Threatened
strike.

D i­
Indi­
rectly rectly

LABOR

Southwestern Portland Cement
Co. and Wabash Cement Co.,
Osborn, Ohio.
Illinois Zinc Co., Peru, 111________

Ending

V' orkers in­
volved

M ONTHLY

Liberty Garment Co., Minne­
apolis, Minn.
Roseman Bros., Lansford, Pa_____

Dairy, Everett, Wash..............

Present status and terms of
settlement

Pioneer Coal Co., Kettle Island,
Ky.
Tom Huston Peanut Co., Colum­
bus, Ga.
E. F. Hausermen Co., Cleveland,
Ohio.
Pressed Steel Car W orks, Chester,
Pa.
Pressed Steel Car Works, McKees
Rocks, Pa.
Stove workers, Rome, Ga________

Controversy
Threatened
strike.
Strike______

P e a n u t -p r o d u c ts ___ do______ _____ ____ __________
makers.
F a b rica ted -m etal Wages, hours, and conditions. workers.
Welders and burn- Wages and conditions___________
ers.

Aug. 24
settlement.
Adjusted. Await adoption of code. Aug. 5

Aug. 26
Aug. 23

4

Adjusted. Strike averted; code
accepted.
Adjusted. Submitted differences
to N .R .A .

Aug. 18

Aug. 24

84

99

Aug. 25

Aug. 28

100

2,000

Aug. 20

builders.
Aug. 15

Building laborers—
per hour. Returned.
Adjusted. Agreed on increases
pending adoption of code.
Wages and working conditions. - - Adjusted. Allowed increases and
lill-time work. N o discrimination.

Standard DeLuxe Furniture Co.,
Pittsburgh, Pa.

hour day, 5-day week, and $12
per week minimum wage.
Adjusted. Allowed same pay for
36 hours as formerly for 40.

Sun Shipbuilding Co., Chester, PaGarment shops, Philadelphia, Pamakers.

concluded.
Adjusted. Increased 10 to 15 percent; $14 per week minimum.
Adjusted. Returned under national code.
40-hour week, no discrimination.
troactive to Aug. 7, 1933.
Adjusted. Accepted com pany’s
proposals.

strike.

450

Aug.

2
4

Aug.

6

1,000
150

Aug.

1

Aug.

5

300

Aug.

9

Aug. 11

Aug. 10

_d o ___

ment pending adoption of code.

100
60

140

Aug.

1

Aug.

9

32

50

Aug.

7
9

Sept. 6

(i)
375

50

Aug.

1,900

7

Aug. 12

200

Aug. 11

Aug. 11

1,000

Aug. 9
Aug. 14

140
50

1,200

Aug. 23

2, 500

July 21

Aug.

7

1,500

July 20

Aug. 11

545

July 17

Aug.

4

5, 037

Aug. 12

Aug. 22

1, 000

1

Aug. 12

Aug.

July 18
Aug.

Controversy
makers.

1 N ot reported.

ferences.

28

1

200
500

Aug.

7

186

D IS P U T E S

Granite workers, Hardwick, Vt_ _
A. Seigal Cigar Co., New York
City.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

600
500

IN D U S T R IA L

Returned to work.
Adjusted. Workers reinstated for
test work.

Northeast Preserving Co., Erie, Pa_

Butchers, San Francisco, Calif___
E verybody’s Polish Daily, Buffalo,
N .Y .
Dress and coat makers, Boston,
Mass.
High Point Overall Co., High
Point, N .C .
High Point Hosiery Co., High
Point and Thomasville, N .C .
Boyertown Burial Casket Co.,
Boyertown, Pa.
Locust Grove Mine, Pittsburgh
(Pa.) district.
Eclipse Needles Shirt Factory,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Peru Wheel Co., Peru, 111________

146

adoption of code.

strike.
Hellwig Silk Dyeing Co., Phila­
delphia, Pa.
Congress Cigar Co., Camden, N.J_
Harriman Hosiery Mills, Harri- Controversy
man, Tenn.
Pollack Bros., Fort W ayne, Ind_._
School building, Hamilton, Ohio__

___do __
Aug. 26

300

oo

CASES H A N D L E D B Y C O N C IL IA T IO N S E R V IC E D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF A U G U ST 1933—Continued

-I
00
W orkers in­
volved

Duration
Company or industry and
location

Nature of
controversy

W ag es.____ ________ ____ _

Cigarmakers___
Shirt makers___

W orking conditions_________
Wages, hours, and conditions.

do.

Rubber workers.

W orking conditions_________

do.

Neckwear w orkers.. Wages and conditions___________

do
do.

Rubber workers, Cuyahoga Falls,
Ohio.
Neckwear workers, Philadelphia,
Pa.
Coopers, Philadelphia, P a________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Adjusted. Increased to 60 cents
per hour for day work. Piece­
work increased 40 percent.
A djusted. Im proved conditions __
Adjusted. Increased wages and
shorter hours.
Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement.

Adjusted. Agreed on conditions.
National Labor Board to adjust.
do.
Coopers------------------- ___ d o ___________ _____ _________ Adjusted. Increased from 48 to 85
cents per hour.
do.
Felt workers_______ ----- d o ___________________________ Adjusted. Satisfactory wage agree­
ment.
do.
Stogie makers______ ----- d o _____ _____________________ Adjusted. Increase equaling 25
percent.
do
Carpet weavers____ Employees refused to operate 4 Adjusted. N ot required to oper­
looms.
ate 4 looms unless so desire. Re­
turned without discrimination.
____ d o ......... - Employees_________ W ages__________________________ Adjusted. Returned. Details of
terms fixed later.
____ d o........... Boilermakers and Asked increase__________________ Adjusted. Same pay for 40-hour
tank workers.
week as formerly for 48.
____ d o ........... Frame makers______ Wages, hours, and conditions___ Adjusted. Increase of from 25 to
60 percent, 40-hour week, and
recognition.
Lockout.
Carpenters.
Wages.
Adjusted. Increase of 4 cents per
hour. Other adjustments.

Ending

1933
July 26

1933
Aug. 8

350

Aug.

Aug.

5

175

__-do___

Aug. 14

22

-__do___

Aug. 23

80

1

D i­
Indi­
rectly rectly

July 20

Aug.

2

250

Aug.

Aug.

8

20

Aug. 14

Aug. 15

12

Aug. 16
July 5

Aug. 30
Aug. 19

548
900

Aug. 16

Aug. 16

300

1 - . . d o ___

600

Aug.

5

40

52
200

R E V IE W

Beef boners____

------ d o ______

Begin­
ning

100
150
. . - d o ___

Aug. 15

263

M ay 31

Aug.

9

200

Aug.

Aug. 31

738

4

- . - d o ------ Aug. 15

70

Aug. 14

Aug. 28

230

Aug. 11

Aug. 23

no

LABOR

Strike______

General Cigar Co., Nanticoke, Pa_
Shirt makers, Perth A m boy, N .JY

Building, Lafayette, Ind

W orking conditions_____________

Controversy

____ d o ______

John W ood Manufacturing Co.,
Conshohocken, Pa.
W . A. Case & Sons Co., Consho­
hocken, Pa.
Parlor furniture frame makers,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Present status and terms of
settlement

Adjusted. Concessions on both
sides; agreement concluded.
T o y makers________ ____d o __________________________ Adjusted. Agreed on arbitration
in future.
Iron and steel scrap ____d o ___________________________ Adjusted. Increase of 50 cents per
metals.
day each worker. Hours settled.
M etal workers_____ Wages and working con dition s..- Adjusted. Returned
pending
adoption of code.
Hosiery workers___ Asked 50 percent increase_______ Adjusted. Increase and recogni­
tion allowed.
Truck drivers______ Wages and conditions___________ Adjusted. Satisfactory agreement.

Byron-Jackson Pump Co., Oak­
land, Calif.
GlobeKnitting Mills, Norristown,
Pa.
Gregg Cartage Co., Cleveland,
Ohio.
Supreme Packing Co., Chicago, I1L

Philadelphia Felt Co., Philadel­
phia, Pa.
Miller & Pollack Plants, Wheel­
ing, W .Va.
Collins & Aikman Corporation,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Textile workers____

Cause of dispute

M ONTHLY

Pickett Cotton Mills, High Point, Strike______
N.C.
Schoenut T oy Co., Philadelphia, ____ d o ......... Pa.
M . N . Adelson Co., Ford City, Pa. ------ d o ---------

Craftsmen concerned

200

Dress manufacturers, N ew York
City.
Union Manufacturing Co., Boyertown, Pa.
Sjostrun M ill, Philadelphia, P a ...

Threatened
strike.
Controversy

Dress workers.

W orking conditions___________

Pending.

Stove workers.

Wage cuts____________________

____d o . . .

Strike______

Painters and cab­
inet makers.
Leather workers___

W ages________________________

Adjusted. Increase allowed. N o
recognition.
Unclassified. National
Labor
Board to adjust.
Adjusted. Agreed on working
conditions.
Pending_________________________

Pocketbook makers, Chicago, 111.. ___ d o ______

Alabama By-Products Corpora­
tion, Somerset, Ala.
Drake Bakery, Newark, N .J____
Lehigh Navigation & Coal Co.,
Panther Creek district, Pa.
Anchor D uck Mills, Rome, G a. .
Lackawanna Pants Co., Scranton,
Pa.
Sonneborn, Utica, N .Y _____
Esmond Mills, Esmond, R .I.
Medical Spirits Building, Louis­
ville, K y.
Jassen Dairy Co., Hoboken, N .J.
S & S Shirt Co., Phillipsburg, Pa
Theaters, St. Joseph, M o ------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

----- d o . . . '_____________ _______

Rubber workers...

------d o_______ _________________

___ d o______

100

Aug. 10

Aug. 17

250

Aug. 16

Aug. 26

Sept.

2

100
700

____d o____________________ ___

Adjusted. Increase of 12)4 percent Aug. 14 Aug. 16
pending adoption of code.
Adjusted.
Returned without Aug. 7 -_ -d o ___
change pending adoption of code.
___ d o ____________________________ Aug. 19 Aug. 22

Wages and working conditions.

Pending_________________________

Metal bumper mak­ Wages___________________ ____
ers.
Metal workers_____ ____d o______________________ _

Silk workers.

Aug. 24

250

390
375

225

200

30

Aug. 26

45

Aug. 28

Aug. 31

250

Confectionery work­
ers.

____d o _____________ ___________

Wage increase______

Adjusted. Increase of about 12)4
percent; female workers $14 per
week.

25

126

Aug. 29

C h a m o is -le a t h e r
workers.

227

165

Adjusted. Restored 12)4 percent Aug. 22
of former cuts; further adjust­
ments to be made.
Adjusted. Returned without dis­ Aug. 18
Miners.
Working conditions.
-d o .
crimination.
Route men.
Wages__________________________ Pending_________________________
_do.
Miners____
Equalization of work and reopen­ Adjusted. Strike declared off; Aug. 15
-d o .
awaiting adoption of code.
ing of idle mines.
Adjusted. W ill conform to terms Aug. 28
Cotton-textile work­ Working conditions...... ............ .
___ d o_____
of code.
ers.
Adjusted. Returned without dis­ ___do-----Pants makers______ Low rates on piecework.
___ d o _____
crimination, pending adoption
of code.
Working conditions_____________ Pending_______________ _________ Aug. 30
____d o______ Clothing workers .
Controversy Textile workers.. .
Number of looms to be operated ____d o ____ _______________________
b y each worker.
Alleged wages lower than for sim­ Adjusted. Agreed to pay more if Aug. 25
____ d o ______ Iron workers .
ilar work on other buildings in
investigation warranted.
this locality.
Wages and working conditions... Adjusted. Returned without dis­ Aug. 30
Strike______ Drivers_________
crimination; 10 percent increase.
Lockout___ Shirt makers____
____d o__________________________ Adjusted. Resumed work w ith­ June 9
out change in personnel.
Controversy Theater workers.
Adjusted. Agreed to accept arbi­ Aug. 1
____d o______________
tration.
Adjusted. Satisfactory agreement. July 23
Strike______ Waiters_________
Working conditions .

Schnitzelbank Biergarten, Dayton, Ohio.
J. N . Collins Candy Co., Phila­ ____ d o ______
delphia, Pa.
*Not reported.

Brass workers, etc.

147
Aug. 14

Aug. 24

(i)

Aug. 20

10,000

Sept. 5

740

Aug. 31

125

5,000

50

300
(i)
Aug. 28

100

Sept. 2

475

Aug. 30

200

Aug. 27

75

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Controversy
Co., Louisville, K y.
Ohio Rubber C o., W illoughby, Strike______
Ohio.
Eaton Manufacturing Co., Cleve­ ___ d o ______
land, Ohio.
Van Dorn Iron Works, Cleveland, ___ d o______
Ohio.
United Metal Products Co., Can­ ___ d o______
ton, Ohio.
Silk (6 companies), Stroudsburg Strike______
and East Stroudsburg, Pa.
Drueding Bros., Philadelphia, Pa. ___ d o______

Working conditions___________

7,000

50

45

00
ZD

880

CASES H A N D L E D B Y C O N C IL IA T IO N S E R V IC E D U R IN G T H E M O N T H OF A U G U ST 1933—Continued
Workers in­
volved

Duration
Company or industry and
location

Controversy

Craftsmen concerned

Leather workers___

Cause of dispute

Proposal to reduce force

Strike---------- U m b r e l l a - f r a m e Wage increase and conditions----makers.
____d o--------- Molders_________________ d o ----------------------------------------Working conditions.

___ d o ______

Printers.

____d o ______
Controversy
____d o______

Millinery workers, _____ d o ________________________ ,,.
Neckwear makers. _____ d o__________________________
Garment workers. _ Inability to earn minimum wage
under new arrangements.
Building crafts.

Pay for overtime.

Strike,

Furriers-------

Wage increase and collective bar­
gaining.

John Smith Co., Chicago, 111____

____do.

Upholstering.

Objection to sending work to outof-town shops.

N ew York Pie Baking Co., N ew
York City.

____do

Bakers______

Wages---------------------- -----------------

Krenzler Construction Co., Fort
Branch, Ind.

do.

Kalb & Teich, Chicago, 111_______

Present status and terms of
settlement

Adjusted. Company agreed to
equalize work.
Adjusted. Satisfactory agreement
reached in joint conference.
Pending. Injunction issued b y
court.
Adjusted. Accepted arbitration,.
Unable to adjust_________________
Adjusted. Satisfactory settlement.
Adjusted. Company will pay min­
imum wage and reemploy those
discharged.
Adjusted. Company agreed to
pay one and one third for over­
time.

Begin­
ning

Ending

1933
July 1

1933
Aug. 31

400

Aug. 16

Aug. 22

100

85

72

130

Aug. 15

D i­
rectly

Aug. 31

300

Aug. 15 -_ .d o ___
Aug. 8 Aug. 17
Apr. 25 Sept. 1

89
50

Apr. 20 ___do___

50

Aug. 29

Adjusted. Union recognized and Aug. 4 Aug. 15
wages to be advanced as rapidly
as business warrants.
Adjusted. Strike declared off and Aug. 18 Aug. 29
arbitration agreed upon for fu­
ture differences.
Adjusted. Increased to $28 per --_ d o ____ Sept. 4
week.

12

10

Indi­
rectly

500

5

27
32

18

53
50

5

Government construction
Post-office buildings:
San Francisco, Calif.
French Lick, In d __
Omaha, Nebr.

____d o ______

Newark, N.J,

Strike______

Reno, N ev___

Controversy

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

Strike.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Prevailing wage not being paid_, Pending_________________________
Refused to pay established rates,, Adjusted. Contractor will pay
prevailing rates.
Plumbers and steam ____d o , . . '_______________________ Pending____________ ____________
fitters.
Carpenters and join­ Subcontractor demanded rebates Adjusted. Subcontractor surren­
dered his contract.
ers.
of wages.
Carpenters_________ Wage complaints_______________ Adjusted. Complaints to be set­
tled as presented.
Laborer doing mechanic’s work _. Adjusted. Fines paid b y offend­
Bricklayers.
ing parties.

Controversy Building crafts.
____d o______ ____d o ________

July 20
July 15

Aug.

1

10
Aug.

9

Aug. 16

Aug.

1

Aug.

Aug. 22

53

5

3

Aug. 25

9

297

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Quaker City K id Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
S. W . Evans & Son, Philadelphia,
Pa.
Athens Stove Works, Athens,
Tenn.
Press
Publishing
Co.,
East
Stroudsburg, Pa.
Bon Ton Hat Co., Elizabeth, N .J,
Kadet Krueger & Co., Chicago, 111,
M . Fine, New Albany, In d ______

Nature of
controversy

San Francisco, Calif.

Controversy

St. Paul, M inn_____

____d o ______

Lynchburg, V a-------

____d o ______

Beverly Hills, Calif.

____d o ______

Veterans’ Hospital, San Francisco,
Calif.

do.

Narcotic Hospital, Lexington, K y _____ do.
Barracks, Plattsburg,
_________do.
Total

Bricklayers, labor­
ers, and hoisting
engineers.
Laborers___________
Bricklayers and plas­
terers.

10
11

Pending_________________________
d o ___________________________

Aug. 26

d o....................................... ..........

Aug. 29

Adjusted. Los Angeles County
scale paid.
Pending_________________________

M a y 27

d o___________________________
Adjusted. Secretary of Labor fixed
prevailing rate at $1 per hour.

July

15
Aug. 11

i

July 28

10

30

63

Aug.

7

12

25

79, 413

26, 252

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

B r ic k la y e r s an d
stone masons.
Marble and terrazzo
workers.
Painters and iron
workers.
Iron workers_______

00
00

882

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Reports of Presidential Emergency Boards for Disputes on
Railroads
Kansas City Southern Railway

HE emergency board appointed by the President of the United
States on June 12, 1933, to investigate the wage dispute between
the Kansas City Southern Railway and its engineers, firemen and
enginemen, conductors, and trainmen, made its report to the President
July 12, 1933.
The Kansas City Southern Railway Co. owns all the capital stock
of the Texarkana & Fort Smith Railway Co. and the Arkansas
Western Railway Co., and the three roads are operated as a single
system. Since 1924 this system of railroads has been operating under
a joint contract with the engineers, firemen and enginemen, conductors,
and trainmen.
The carrier and these employees were parties to the so-called
Chicago agreement of January 31, 1932, which provided for a 10
percent deduction from the wages of the employees during the year
beginning February 1, 1932. On December 31, 1932, the agreement
was extended to October 31, 1933, on most of the carriers. The
Kansas City Southern Railway Co. was not a party to the extension
agreement but continued to make the 10 percent deduction under
the terms of a mediation agreement entered into February 23, 1933.
On April 5, 1933, the carrier served upon the general chairmen of
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, of the Brotherhood of
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, of the Order of Railway Con­
ductors, and of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen notice of
cancelation on May 15, 1933, of all contracts covering rates of pay,
rules, and working conditions of the employees represented by the
above organizations.
On April 6, 1933, the carrier gave notice of its desire and intention
to place in effect on May 16, 1933, new rates of pay, rules, and working
conditions for the above classes of employees, this new schedule to
be referred to as the “ K.C.S. plan.”
Between May 2 and May 8, 1933, conferences were held between
the managing officers of the carrier and the general chairmen of the
organizations of employees involved, looking to the settlement of
the controversy. The conferences were unsuccessful, and the services
of the United States Board of Mediation were invoked by the em­
ployees. Mediation likewise failed, and on June 6, 1933, the employ­
ees voted overwhelmingly to strike rather than to accept the K.C.S.
plan.

T

The carrier contends that a very serious condition confronts the railroads, and
that it is imperative that the restrictive rules and heavy penalties in the existing
schedules be done away with in order that its operation and service may be made
more flexible, so as to enable it to compete on more equal terms with the new
forms of transportation, as well as to enable it to meet conditions brought about
by the depression.
It is the contention of the employees that the old contract containing the
schedule of rates of pay, rules, and working conditions is substantially the same
as the contract in force and effect on practically every other railroad in the
United States, and that such rates of pay, rules, and working conditions are the
net result of more than 60 years’ effort on the part of organized railroad labor to
bring about rules, working conditions, and rates of pay that would in a fair
measure guarantee to the employees of this and other carriers a fair return for
their services and guarantee to them humane working conditions. * * * The

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

883

employees contend, further, that the carrier’s endeavor to execute a separate
contract with the different organizations of employees is an attempt by the
carrier to separate such organizations and to deny them the right of collective
bargaining.

As already stated, an emergency board was appointed by the
President to deal with the controversy, and on July 12, 1933, this
board reported its findings with the following opinion:
The board is of the opinion, from a complete and thorough investigation of all
of the facts and circumstances in connection with this controversy, that the
organizations of employees affected directly and indirectly by the proposed
K.C.S. plan believe it is such a revolutionary departure from the basic rates of
pay, rules, and regulations of working conditions which have been the goal of
organized railway labor for many years, that to accept the K.C.S. plan would be,
insofar as the railroads involved here are concerned, a complete breakdown of
the many years of efforts of organized railway labor and would be and become an
opening wedge toward the ultimate breakdown of these conditions upon all the
other railroads in this country, and with the sincerity of this purpose so evident
in the course of this hearing, the board does not believe the K.C.S. plan as pro­
posed will, in any event, be accepted by the organizations involved herein.
We are of the further opinion that if the controversy over whether or not the
rules affecting seniority rights should or should not be contained in the working
contract between the carrier and its employees were the only bone of contention,
that that matter could be easily adjusted in view of the fact the carrier has
expressed its willingness to incorporate such seniority rules in the contract.
However, the seniority rules are but a small part of all the rules and working
conditions contained in the old contract, which rules and working conditions the
carrier seeks to modify and in some instances eliminate entirely, and which the
employees are insisting on being incorporated in any contract between the
carrier and its employees.

Following the receipt of the report of the emergency board, the
President of the United States, in a letter to the president of the
Kansas City Southern Railway, expressed his desire for peace between
labor and employer while the country is trying to regain prosperity,
and outlined three possible courses which might be adopted for
consideration:
(1) Place in effect without reservation the rates of pay, rules, and working
conditions for conductors and locomotive engineers which you have proposed
and which were considered by the emergency board.
(2) Place these rates of pay, rules, and working conditions in effect for an experi­
mental period in order that there may be an actual test of the new plan in practice,
this test to be made without prejudice to the rights of either side and with an
opportunity for the further consideration of the matter at the end of the
experimental period.
(3) Postpone the consideration of this matter for a definite period of time,
continuing in the meantime under the existing rates of pay, rules, and working
conditions, with the understanding that this postponement shall be without
prejudice to the rights of either side and that the matter will come up for further
consideration at the end of the stipulated period.
Whether you will adopt one of these three suggested courses, or possibly some
other course, is for you to decide.
Under present conditions, in view of the concentration of the country upon the
revival of business and increase in employment and purchasing power, my
personal preference would be for the third course suggested above, since I deem
it desirable that in this critical period no active warfare between industry and
labor should arise. If you should decide upon this course the period of postpone­
ment should, I think, extend well into the coming year.
Louisiana, Arkansas & Texas Railway C o. of Texas

T h e emergency board appointed by the President of the United
States on July 26, 1933, to investigate the dispute between the
Louisiana, Arkansas & Texas Railway Co. of Texas and its em
https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

884

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

ployees represented by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers,
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, the Order
of Railway Conductors, and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen,
reported its findings and recommendations to the President on August
26, 1933. The board is composed of Frank P. Douglass, chairman,
L. W. Courtney, and Walter H. Hamilton.
The questions in dispute concern the reduction of wages and
changes in the basis of rates of pay, rules, and working conditions of
these employees.
On April 18, 1933, the carrier gave a formal 30-day notice, effective
May 20, 1933, of the cancelation of the contract and agreement and
all supplements thereto, interpretations, rules, practices, and side
agreements thereunder, and of its intention to place in effect a new
schedule governing the rates of pay, rules, and working conditions
applying to employees of these classes.
The representative of the carrier expressed himself as willing to
meet representatives of the employees but made it clear that nego­
tiations would be conducted on the basis of the rates of pay and the
rules governing working conditions as they exist at the present time.
He refused to meet the representatives of the brotherhoods collec­
tively and insisted upon dealing with each organization separately,
although the general custom of the road had been to treat with the
organizations collectively. The employees declined to meet with
the officers of the carrier under the conditions set forth.
Mediation was invoked by the employees and an attempt was made
by the United States Board of Mediation to work out an amicable
settlement. Failing in this the mediator suggested arbitration.
The employees agreed but the carrier declined, and immediately
thereafter, at 12:01 a.m., June 3, 1933, placed in effect its proposed
schedule of rates of pay, rules, and working conditions. A strike
ballot was spread and by an overwhelming vote these employees
decided to quit the services of the carrier unless a suitable settlement
could be made. The carrier announced that further negotiations
would be fruitless since it was its intention to keep in force the
schedule as promulgated.
The pav of these employees had been reduced by 15 percent on
August 24, 1931.
The findings and recommendations of the emergency board as
reported to the President of the United States are, in part, as follows:
The carrier insists upon the necessity of the changes in rates of wages and
working conditions and as justification pleads the financial plight of the road.
* * * But, whatever its merit, the principle of the ability of the individual
carrier to pay has found little expression in our railway policy. It has, again
and again, been rejected by boards called upon to arbitrate or to mediate labor
disputes.
In times of prosperity the market for labor can be generally relied upon to
maintain the standard wage. In times like these when the market fails to give
its protection, it seems unfair to impose the shock of depression upon laborers in
weak enterprises, who are for the time bereft of their bargaining power and at
the mercy of the employers.
In these days of “ national recovery” , when every effort is being made to main­
tain wages and to conserve the volume of purchasing power upon which the pros­
perity of a going industrial system depends, the requirements of national policy
become doubly compelling. If the interests of private ownership clash with the
demands of national policy, the lesser must give way to the greater value.
The board concludes that:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

885

1. The action of the carrier in putting the new schedule of rates of pay, rules,
and working conditions into effect was not justified.
2. The new schedule of rules does not amply protect the established rights of
the employees.
3. The rates of pay have been depressed unreasonably below those on connect­
ing and competing lines and even parts of this same system.
4. The employees are justified in their refusal to accept the new schedule.
5. The schedule of rates of pay, rules, and working conditions in effect prior
to June 3, 1933, should be restored by the carrier.

First M onth’s Activities of National Labor Board

N AUGUST 5, 1933, a National Labor Board was created for
the purpose of mediating or arbitrating in controversies arising
between employers and employees over the interpretation of the
President’s Reemployment Agreement, in order to prevent stoppages
of work which would hinder increasing employment. Senator Robert
F. Wagner, of New York, became chairman, and Leo Wolman, William
Green, John L. Lewis, Gerard Swope, W. C. Teagle, and Louis E.
Kirstein members of the Board. An appeal was issued to employers
and employees to take no disturbing action pending hearings and final
decisions by the Board.
The disputes which have come before the Board during its first
month have been many and varied. The largest number have involved
the interpretation of section 7 (a) of the National Industrial Recovery
Act, which provides that “ employees shall have the right to organize
and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choos­
ing” , etc. Some disputes, however, have involved the equitable
adjustment of pay schedules for those receiving in excess of the
minimum; others have arisen because of efforts on the part of organized
labor groups to hasten action on permanent codes. A few of the
cases handled by the Board have had no connection with the recovery
program, but jurisdiction over them has been assumed because of the
menace to such a program from a major industrial stoppage, whatever
its origin.
Industries in which disputes have arisen which have come before the
National Labor Board include the hosiery, men’s clothing, men’s
neckwear, ladies’ garments, millinery, shirts, silk, dyeing and cleaning,
shoes, dyeing and finishing textiles, metal trades, woolen knit goods,
gloves, "motion-picture studios, bridge construction, shipbuilding,
cartridge manufacture, flour milling, and rubber industries. The
principal centers of disturbance have been Reading and Philadelphia
and their environs, Paterson and vicinity, New York City, St. Louis
and southwestern Illinois. In order to facilitate settlements and to
relieve the National Labor Board from some of the great pressure
under which it has been working, many disputes have been referred
to local National Industrial Recovery Act boards which have been
set up in New York City, St. Louis, East St. Louis, and other places.
These disputes do not fall within the scope of this account.
Many typical cases coming before the board involve charges by
the unions that employers have discharged employees for joining a
union or for union activity, or that they have refused to deal with
representatives of the employees when these are identified with a
union, or that employers have promoted company unions among their
employees. Charges or countercharges are brought by employers

O


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

886

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

that section 7(a) has been interpreted by union organizers to mean that
unionization and collective bargaining with unions have become man­
datory, and that consequently their plants have been subjected to
strikes, mass picketing, and violent demonstrations which have pre­
vented smooth operation and even forced plants to close down.
Some of the disputes involve interunion conflicts—either jurisdic­
tional conflicts between regular unions, or conflicts between estab­
lished unions and insurgent or left-wing organizations. To assure to
employees the right to have representatives of their own choosing
sometimes presents the difficult problem of deciding which of two
conflicting or rival organizations is the most representative.
It has been the policy of the Board, in disputes over representation
for collective bargaining purposes, to induce the parties to resume
work pending an election conducted under the auspices of the Board,
to allow the employees by majority vote and secret ballot to select
their own representatives. The Board has generally been successful
in insisting upon strikers returning to their jobs without discrimina­
tion, at least to the extent that work is available, and being permitted
to vote, along with employees who did not go out on strike.
The first serious labor disturbance to come before the Board w as a
general strike in the hosiery industry of Pennsylvania over the ques­
tion of unionization. The American Federation of Full-Fashioned
Hosiery Workers had been conducting a vigorous organization
campaign during the early summer, and the movement had resulted
by July 5 in closing down all the full-fashioned hosiery mills in Berks
County, involving 10,000 workers; strikes had broken out also in other
industries in the same neighborhood, involving between 3,000 and
4,000 workers. The Board induced 25 hosiery manufacturers and
the union to send representatives to a hearing in Washington, on
August 10, at which an agreement was reached calling off the strike.
On August 26, pursuant to the agreement, elections supervised by the
Board wrere held in the mills, which resulted in 37 mills with 13,362
workers (or 95 percent) voting for representation through the union,
while 8 mills with 720 workers (5 percent) voted for nonunion repre­
sentatives. A number of the other strikes in the region were settled by
resort to the same procedure. The seamless hosiery mills and three
shoe manufacturers, a paint company, and a manufacturer of wool
hats, all of Reading, accepted the same agreement. Later three shirt
companies were induced to settle strikes in the same way. The hat
manufacturer, however, agreed, before the elections could be held,
to recognize the United Hatters of North America; in two of the shirt
companies the elections were waived by agreement between the firms
and their employees. In two concerns in the men’s clothing industry,
some of whose employees were on strike demanding recognition of the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, the Board likewise recommended
that elections be held, but (Sept. 18) the agreement of the firms to
this solution was not obtained.
One employer who, it was complained, had refused to deal with
representatives of his employees after these had organized themselves
into a local union of the United Textile Workers, and who, moreover,
failed to appear at a hearing before the Board, was severely censured
by the Board. A decision was rendered that he had been guilty of
violating both the Cotton-Textile Code and the National Industrial
Recovery Act.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

887

A controversy as to which of two unions should represent the
workers arose in the shoe industry of Brockton, Mass., when an in­
surgent group called a strike involving 7,500 workers. The Boot and
Shoe Workers’ Union, which for 30 years had maintained closed-shop
agreements in Brockton, requested the Board to rule that the local
strike was in violation of these agreements, a request which was en­
dorsed by the manufacturers. The new union has asked that elec­
tions be held to determine which union the employees actually want
to represent them. The Board’s decision in this case has not yet been
rendered, and efforts to secure an interim resumption of work have
not been successful. The insurgent group is alined with several
independent unions of shoe workers, each controlling a small area of
the industry, which have expressed the desire for a general amalga­
mation under the American Federation of Labor, but on a basis of
equality with the Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union, the recognized
American Federation of Labor union in the trade.
The Board was drawn into a strike resulting from an interunion
jurisdictional dispute between the International Alliance of Theatrical
Stage Employees and the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers after 4,600 studio employees in Hollywood had been idle
for 6 weeks. At the request of the Board, and with the understand­
ing that strikers would be reemployed as fast as work became avail­
able, the strike was called off by the Stage Employees’ Union. Re­
newed complaints have been made, however, that the members of this
union have been refused employment unless they joined either the
Electrical Workers’ Brotherhood or the Carpenters’ Union. The
matter is now awaiting a possible settlement of the jurisdictional
dispute at the October convention of the American Federation of
Labor.
In a number of disputes questions of wage adjustments have con­
stituted the sole or principal issue. The strike of greatest magni­
tude, involving between 50,000 and 60,000 silk workers in three
States, was primarily a protest against continued operation of silk
mills, dyeing and printing establishments, under the minimum wages
of the Cotton-Textile Code. Secondary factors have been the de­
mand of certain groups for recognition as the sole national repre­
sentatives of the workers, and the efforts of a left-wing union, the
National Union of Textile Workers, to widen its control. At the
height of the disturbance virtually all the establishments engaged in
the various stages of silk manufacture in New Jersey, the Lehigh
Valley of Pennsylvania, and up-State New York were closed. On
September 8 the board commenced hearings in New York City, and
by September 14 had brought about an agreement between the manu­
facturers and the United Textile Workers on a wage scale to be jointly
recommended by them to the deputy administrator in charge of the
silk and rayon industries. Several important groups of strikers
voted, however, to reject the truce, and the plants remained closed
pending further negotiations.
Settlement of the Reading hosiery strikes, above mentioned, carried
with it an agreement between the union and the manufacturers’ asso­
ciation that if they proved unable to negotiate a new contract covering
hours, wages, and working conditions, within a stipulated time limit,
the Board should be asked to arbitrate and its decision accepted as

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

final and binding. On September 14,the Board was notified by both
sides that they were unable to continue their negotiations.
A strike of 600 workers in the men’s neckwear industry of Phila­
delphia was mediated by a representative of the Board without formal
hearings, the wages and hours provision of the President’s Reemploy­
ment Agreement being agreed to pending adoption of a permanent
code. A provision for arbitration of future wage disputes was
included.
Settlements involving an adjustment of pay scales after hours had
been reduced as provided for in the President’s Reemployment
Agreement have been concluded by the Board, covering workers in
a textile dyeing and finishing establishment, in the silk-knit under­
wear industry, and in a middle western rubber factory. A dispute
of this nature is now pending in the shipbuilding industry, involving
workers in four large shipbuilding plants, and another involving con­
struction workers on a large bridge project undertaken with financial
support from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, but in both
of these cases work has been resumed and the issues have been
submitted to the Board for arbitration.
While this summary is somewhat incomplete, it does give a picture
of the various types of cases, and some account of the most important
separate cases handled by the National Labor Board between August
5 and September 15, 1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR AWARDS AND DECISIONS
Reduction in Wage Scales of Typographical Workers
Detroit, Mich.

N JUL1 10, 1933, James K. Watkins, chairman of the arbitra­
tion board appointed in the dispute between the Detroit News­
paper Publishers’ Association and Typographical Union No. 18,
awarded a reduction in the wage scale of the printers.
The newspaper publishers asked for a reduction of approximately 25
percent in the rate of pay of their printers; for a working day of not
less than 7% hours nor more than 8 hours, and a 6-day week of not
less than 45 hours nor more than 48 hours; for the abolition of the
lobster schedule; and for a further reduction in the pay of the proof­
readers.
The union asked for an increase in the present hourly rate of $1.26
to $1.35 for day work, $1.34 to $1.45 for night work, and $1.41 to
$1.55 for the lobster shift; for a working day of 7 hours and a week of
42 hours. The union also asked that there be no further reduction in
the pay of proofreaders.
The opinion and award of the chairman of the board are, in part,
as follows:

O

I am forced to the conclusion that a reduction in the hourly scale should be
made, based on the present conditions in the newspaper publishing business. I
cannot, however, agree with the contention of the publishers for a reduction of
approximately 25 percent. With the improvement in general business, which
should, on the one hand, mean somewhat better business for the papers and which
will, on the other, result in some increase in living costs, I feel sure that the reduc­
tion asked by the publishers is too great. * * * I have reached the conclusion
that for the period of this arbitration, namely, from May 2, 1933, to 1 year from
the date hereof, the day scale shall be $1.10, the night scale $1.17, and the lobster
shift $1.23.
The present schedule is a 7%-hour day and a 45-hour week. I believe in a
shorter day and a shorter week, provided such reduced schedule results in decent
earnings and more leisure for the employee. But the union proposal here, as it
seems to me, would simply result in most instances in more overtime. * * *
The working day will be 734 hours and the week 6 days of 7J4 hours or 45 hours.
The publishers ask for the abolition of the lobster schedule and it seems to me
with some reason, as it does impose quite a penalty on them. But it appears to
be a well-established practice in the business, and I think if it is to be eliminated
such elimination should come either by agreement or by such change in conditions
as would fully justify an arbitrator in eliminating it. So far as this arbitration is
concerned, the lobster shift remains as at present— 9 p.m. to 6 a.m.
The publishers request a reduction in pay for the proofreaders, but I do not
think they make out a case for this. The work could, perhaps, be done by
persons not qualified as printers, but the practice of using printers in the work
seems established in Detroit, and, as these workmen are members of this union, I
think they should receive the same rate of pay.
889


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

890

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW
Memphis, Tenn.

A d i s p u t e between two newspaper publishers of Memphis, Tenn.,
and Typographical Union No. 11 was referred to an arbitration board
composed of Charles F. Blaisdell, chairman, Col. W. J. Bacon, and
Robert A. Tillman, representing the union, and Capt. Thomas
Fauntleroy and L. E. Herman, representing the publishers.
All their differences, except the wage scale, were settled by concilia­
tion. As the representatives of the publishers and the union could not
agree on that point, the chairman was asked to determine what the
wage scale should be.
The publishers had asked a reduction in the wage scale based on
their loss of advertising, while the union asked an increase based on
the increase in the cost of living.
On June 26, 1933, the chairman made the following award:
After due consideration of all evidence presented by both sides and a careful
weighing and analysis of same, I have decided that the scale for the 12 months from
this date shall be the same as prevailed in the preceding contract.
The cost of living has gone up rapidly since April 1, 1933. The present wage
scale was fixed in the contract of March 1932. At that time the outlook of
business was not at all bright. It was a Presidential year when business is more
or less in a state of stagnation. It seems to me it will be generally agreed that
in March 1932 it was expected that business would be worse if any change oc­
curred at all. Since such were the conditions when the present scale was agreed
upon, it does not appear that with the increasing cost of living and with the bur­
dens the printers have been carrying in sharing with their unemployed fellow
craftsmen that their wages should be reduced. On the other hand, since the
publishers have been suffering great loss of advertising the printers cannot justi­
fiably ask for an increase in the wage scale.

Decision as to Wages and Hours of Ladies’ Garment Workers,
Chicago

DECISION by Judge Harry M. Fisher, of Chicago, awarded the
, clothing workers of La Mode Garment Co., Inc., Chicago, a
40-hour week and a minimum weekly wage of $12.
On July 15, 1933, members of the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, employed by the above-named firm, called a strike
because of low wages, long hours, and poor working conditions. The
firm filed complaint with the circuit court of Cook County, asking
for a temporary injunction against the strikers. Judge Fisher
refused to grant the injunction, giving among other reasons the
following:

A

1.
The prevailing conditions in complainant’s industry violate the spirit of the
National Recovery Act.
2.
They violate the letter and spirit of the minimum fair-wage law of the State
of Illinois.
3.
The issuance of the injunction prayed for would directly aid the continu­
ance of an indefensible condition in the industry in question.

The firm and the employees later agreed to submit their controversy
over wages and hours to Judge Fisher for arbitration. His award,
effective for one year from July 31, 1933, reads in part as follows:
It is ordered, adjudged, and decreed that the strike in question be terminated,
that all former employees of complainant desiring to return to work for com­
plainant be reemployed by it.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR AW ARDS AND DECISIONS

891

That the parties for a period of one year from the date of the entry of this decree
desist from strikes and lockouts. That during this year the members of ¡Local
No. 76 of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union be employed by the
complainant firm upon the terms and conditions of this decree.
The complainant shall operate a shop in which the standards fixed by this
decree shall be maintained and wherein fair treatment will be accorded to the
members of the union.
The complainant shall not discriminate against union workers in any way,
more especially in the distribution of better-paid work.
Matters relating to unjust discharge of an employee shall be taken up for adjust­
ment within 48 hours from the time of discharge.
The working week and the wages to be paid shall as of July 31, 1933, be in
comformity with any subsequent code which shall be worked out in the industry
in accordance with the National Industrial Recovery Act. Pending the adoption
of such a code, and commencing with July 31, 1933, the working week shall
consist of not more than 40 hours and the minimum wage shall not be less
than $12.
Nonunion workers of the complainant upon joining the union shall become
entitled to the benefits of this award without prejudice against them by either of
the parties hereto.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS
Trade-Unionism in Japan, 1932

A T THE close of 1932 there were 932 trade unions in Japan, with
JljL. a membership of 377,625, an increase of 114 unions and 8,650
members over the preceding year. These figures, from the Rodo
Jiho of April 1933, are reproduced in the July 31, 1933, issue of Indus­
trial and Labor Information (Geneva).
According to the same source, the expansion in membership in 1932
was not so great as in 1931— a result of the business slump and the
change in the social situation since the campaign in Manchuria.
The number of trade-unionists constitutes 7.8 percent of all the
workers employed in mines, factories, transportation, and postal,
telephone, and telegraph services, and also casual and other laborers.
Trade-union statistics for each year, 1930 to 1932, are given in
table 1:
T able 1 .— T R A D E U N IO N S IN JA P A N 1930, 1931, A N D 1932

Year

1930 __________________________________________
1931
______ . _ ____ _______ - ___ _____ ______
1932_________________________________________________

Number of Number of
tradeNumber of
trade
union
workers
unions
members
712
818
932

354,312
368,975
377, 625

Percent of
workers
organized

4, 713,002
4, 670, 275
4,860, 276

7. 5
7 9
7.8

Table 2 gives the membership in trade unions in Japan in 1932 by
industry and sex:
T able 2 .— T R A D E -U N IO N M E M B E R S IN J A P A N IN 1932, B Y S E X A N D IN D U S T R Y

Industry

Mining _ ____ . _ ........... _ _
Post, telegraph, and telephone service.
______
Public works and construction,
. . . . ______ _____
Others
.............
Total ___

,

.....

892


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number of
trade
unions

Number of union members
Male

Female

Total

80
84
44
27
147
23
14
109
5
47
352

9i, n o
17,913
9,840
4,212
18,168
6,188
9, 656
147,048
3, 049
8, 391
45,023

1,579
1,574
6, 700
569
2,115
142
82
1,459
1
2,806

92,689
19,487
16, 540
4,781
20, 283
6, 330
9, 738
148,507
3,050
8, 391
47,829

932

360, 598

17,027

377, 625

LABOR TURN-OVER
Labor Turn-Over in the Boot and Shoe Industry, 1931 and 1932

EPORTS on labor turn-over are received each month by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics from approximately 5,000 manu­
facturing establishments throughout the United States. The present
article, which is the second of a series concerning labor turn-over in
individual industries,1 covers 113 firms manufacturing boots and
shoes for which data are available for 1931 and 1932.
The net turn-over rate for manufacturing as a whole for 1931
was 35.72 and for 1932 was 40.50. The net turn-over rate in the
boot and shoe industry for 1931 was 42.19 and for 1932 was 28.62.
In other words, in 1931 the net turn-over rate in the boot and shoe
industry was greater than for manufacturing as a whole, while during
1932 the net turn-over rate in the boot and shoe industry was much
lower than the all-manufacturing turn-over rate.
Table 1 shows the number of firms and the number of quits, dis­
charges, lay-offs, total separations, and accessions in the 113 identical
boot and shoe plants by rate groups, for the years 1931 and 1932.
In 1931, 44 firms and in 1932, 63 firms, had a quit rate of less than
10 percent.
Although the lay-off rate in the boot and shoe industry as a whole
for 1931 and 1932 was 28.83 and 24.27, respectively, 30 of the 113
factories had a lay-off rate of less than 10 percent in 1931, and 32 had
a rate of less than 10 percent in 1932.
The 1931 accession rate in the boot and shoe industry was 50.24,
and the 1932 rate was 41.15. Of the 113 firms included in this
report, an accession rate of less than 10 percent was attained by 8
for 1931, and by 12 for 1932. In contrast, 20 firms had an accession
rate of over 110 percent in 1931, while during 1932, 13 had an
accession rate of over 110 percent.
Twenty-three of the establishments included in this study had a
net turnover rate of less than 20 percent, while 17 had a net turn-over
rate of over 100 percent, in 1931. In 1932, 39 firms had a net turn­
over rate of less than 20 percent and 13 had a net turn-over rate of
over 100 percent. When a firm had a net turn-over rate of over 100
percent it means that for every 100 employees on the pay roll there
must be over 100 total separations and over 100 hirings.

R

1 The first article, covering the automobile industry, appeared in the June 1933 issue of the M onthly
Labor Review (p. 1316).

893

11456°—33------9


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

894

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

T able 1 .—C H A N G E S IN P E R S O N N E L IN 113 ID E N T IC A L F IR M S IN T H E B O O T A N D SHOE
I N D U S T R Y , 1931 A N D 1932, B Y R A T E GR OU PS

DISCHARGES

QUITS

Rate group

Firms

Number of
Quits

1931 1932 1931

2.5 and under 5.0 percent-----5.0 and under 7.5 percent. —
7.5 and under 10.0 percent _
10.0 and under 15.0^>ercent___
15.0 and under 20.0 percent--20.0 and under 25.0 percent-..
25.0 and under 30.0 percen t...
30.0 and under 35.0 percent..

17
5
11
11
16
17
15
5
7
9

21
10
12
20
26
10
6
2
1
5

Firms

Rate group

1931 1932 1931

1932

10
18
52
106
216 1,521
506
198
2, 682 1,405
1,442
928
489
1,431
974
158
227
1,454
2,877 1,377

113 113 11, 333 6,735

0.5 and under 1.0 percent___
1.0 and under 2.0 percent___
2.0 and under 3.0 percent___
3.0 and under 4.0 percent___
4.0 and under 5.0 percent----5.0 and under 7.0 percent___
7.0 and under 9.0 percent___
9.0 and under 11.0 percen t...
11.0 percent and over.
.

5.0 and under 10.0 percent. . .
10.0 and under 20.0 percen t...
20.0 and under 30.0 percen t...
30.0 and under 40.0 p ercen t...
40.0 and under 60.0 percen t...
60.0 and under 90.0 percen t...
90.0 and under 120.0 percent
120.0 and under 150.0 percent.

Firms

N um ber of
lay-offs
1932

20
12
19
11
8
15
8
8
3
9

143
417
1,210
1,462
875
2,897
2,156
1,810
328
2, 029

235
410
830
2, 532
968
1,746
2, 387
2,505
2, 362
423

113 113 14, 398 13, 327

Firms

Rate group

Firms

5.0 and under 10.0 percent. ._
10.0 and under 20.0 percen t...
20.0 and under 30.0 percent..
30.0 and under 40.0 percent...
40.0 and under 50,0 percent..
50.0 and under 70.0 percent.._
70.0 and under 110.0 percent..
110.0 and under 150.0 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5
3
11
9
14
é
24
19
li
7

5
7
15
15
11
11
15
21
b
7

20
83
3, 745
562
2,235
1,929
7, 959
5,068
5, 426
1,764

3
146
87
216
225
105
249
188
53
185

Total sepa­
rations

Under 10.0 percent_________
10.0 and under 20.0 percent..
20.0 and under 30.0 percent..
30.0 and under 40.0 percent..
40.0 and under 60.0 percent..
60.0 and under 90.0 percent..
90.0 and under 120.0 percent.
120.0and mder 150.0percent.
150.0 and under 180.0 percent.
180.0 percent and o v e r . ____
T otal______ __

.

..

5
11
14
13
23
21
11
7
4
4

9
18
15
12
18
19
9
3
3
7

92
2,700
1,470
1,957
6, 660
6, 414
2, 481
3,641
1,226
1,574

1932
1,351
958
1,773
2, 398
4,204
5, 709
2,239
519
456
1,912

113 113 28, 215 21, 519
NET TURNOVER

Num ber of
accessions

1931 1932 1931

2
9
220
153
212
216
341
472
442
417

1931 1932 1931

ACCESSIONS

Rate group

33
8
18
15
14
5
8
4
2
6

TOTAL SEPARATIONS

1931 1932 1931
15
15
13
22
5
14
9
9
8
3

18
6
9
15
11
13
14
11
10
6

1932

T o t a l __ . . . ________ 113 113 2,484 1,457

LAY-OFFS

Rate group

Number of
discharges

Rate group

1932
718
96
768
2, 403
1,560
2, 470
3, 572
5,141
1,859
3, 074

113 113 28, 791 21,661

Firms

Net turn­
over

1931 1932 1931

10.0 and under 20.0 percent..
20.0 and under 30.0 percent—
30.0 and under 40.0 percent..
40.0 and under 50.0 percent..
50.0 and under 60.0 percent..
60.0 and under 70.0 percent..
70.0 and under 100.0 percent.
100.0 and under 130.0 percent.
130.0 percent and over______

9
14
16
14
7
16
10
10
7
1C

15
24
11
10
12
11
5
12
7
6

105
2,998
1,476
2, 270
1,763
4,474
3, 461
1,919
2, 397
3,090

1932
822
1,327
1,657
1,235
2, 606
2,147
910
3,968
1,518
1,388

113 113 23,953 17,578

895

LABOR TU RN-O VER

Table 2 shows comparative turn-over rates in 113 identical firms
in the boot and shoe industry for the years 1931 and 1932 in firms
of under 300 employees and firms of more than 300 employees.
T a ble 2 .— C O M P A R A T IV E

L A B O R T U R N -O V E R R A T E S IN T H E B O O T A N D SHOE
I N D U S T R Y , 1931 A N D 1932, IN FIR M S H A V IN G U N D E R 300 E M P L O Y E E S A N D IN F IR M S
H A V IN G M O R E T H A N 300 E M P L O Y E E S

Labor turn-over rates of firms having—
Rate

Quits_______ _______ __________
Discharges___________ ____ . _
Lay-offs________________ ______ ______
Total separations _ ..

___ _____

___ _
A ccession s__ .
Net turn-over_________ _ _ _ ________

Less than
300 em­
ployees
in 1931

300 or more
employees
in 1931

Less than
300 em­
ployees
in 1932

300 or more
employees
in 1932

14. 56
4.81
49. 86

19.94
4. 05
19.20

10.03
2.87
53. 37

12.03
2.47
17.35

69.23

43.19

66. 27

31.85

62.13
53.58

45. 74
37. 69

64.20
52.14

32. 54
27. 22

Of the 113 identical plants used in this study, 59 had an average
monthly force of less than 300 workers during the year 1932 and 54
had an average monthly force of 300 or more employees. The 59
firms having fewer than 300 employees had a total average of 9,728
workers during the year 1931 and a total average of 9,291 workers
during the calendar year 1932. The 54 firms having more than 300
employees on their pay rolls had a total employment roll of 49,730
workers in 1931 and 48,235 workers in 1932.
The net turn-over rate of the smaller firms was far greater than the
net turn-over rate for the larger firms for both 1931 and 1932.
For the year 1932, the lay-off rate for the 59 firms having less than
300 employees was 53.37; in contrast, in the larger firms having 300
or more employees, the lay-off rate was only 17.35. The lay-off
rate of the larger firms was less than one third that of the smaller
firms.
However, the quit rate for the larger firms was greater than for
the smaller firms in each of the 2 years studied.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

HOUSING
Building Operations in Principal Cities of the United States
August 1933

CCORDING to reports received by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics from 774 identical cities having a population of 10,000
or over, there was an increase of 6 percent in the total number of
buildings for which permits were issued and a decrease of 2.2 percent
in indicated expenditures for total building operations, comparing
August 1933 with July 1933. During August 1933 permits were
issued for building operations to cost $37,164,568.
The cost figures shown in the following tables are as estimated by
the prospective builder on applying for his permit to build. No land
costs are included. Only building projects within the corporate limits
of the cities enumerated are shown. This excludes considerable
building in the suburbs of some cities.
The States of Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and
Pennsylvania, through their departments of labor, are cooperating
with the Federal Bureau in the collection of these data.

A

Comparisons, July and August 1933

T able 1 shows the estimated cost of new residential buildings, of
new nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs,
and of total building operations in 774 identical cities in the United
States having a population of 10,000 or over, by geographic divisions.
T a b l e 1 .—E S T IM A T E D

C OST OF N E W B U IL D IN G S , OF A D D IT IO N S , A L T E R A T IO N S ,
A N D R E P A IR S , A N D OF T O T A L B U IL D IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N IN 774 I D E N T IC A L
C IT IE S AS S H O W N B Y P E R M IT S ISSU ED IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O ­
G R A P H IC D IV ISIO N S
New residential buildings
(estimated cost)
Geographic division

New England________
M iddle Atlantic_____
East North Central. __
West North Central. _
South Atlantic_______
South Central_______
Mountain and Pacific.
Total__________

N ew nonresidential buildings
(estimated cost)

July 1933

August
1933

Per­
cent of
change

July 1933

$2,109, 773
3, 357, 573
1, 652, 239
1, 048, 407
1,019, 634
945, 380
2, 532, 980

$2,062, 005
2,645, 748
1, 524,471
916, 750
928, 010
732,369
2,421, 665

- 2 .3
-2 1 .2
- 7 .7
-1 2 .6
- 9 .0
-2 2 .5
-4 .4

$672,848
2, 865,660
1, 526, 093
4, 006, 660
584, 863
1, 988, 513
1,807,803

$752, 811
2, 880,939
2,304, 521
3,736, 673
882, 242
847, 560
1,407, 582

+11.9
+ .5
+51.0
- 6 .7
+50.8
-5 7 .4
-2 2 . 1

12, 665, 986

11,231,018

-1 1 .3

13, 452,440

12,812, 328

- 4 .8

Additions, alterations, and
repairs (estimated cost)
Geographic division

August
1933

Per­
cent of
change

Total construction
(estimated cost)

N um ­
ber of
Per­
cent of cities
change

July 1933

August
1933

Per­
cent of
change

July 1933

August
1933

New England. ___ ____ ____
M iddle Atlantic. _____ _____
East North Central __ . ._
West North Central.
South A tlantic. . . _____
South Central.
Mountain and Pacific.. . . . .

$1,463,180
4, 013,149
1, 587, 290
889, 289
1,182, 764
790,461
1, 974, 838

$1,413, 534
5, 334, 343
1,493, 562
794, 615
1,074, 293
894, 666
2,116, 209

- 3 .4
+32.9
- 6 .5
-1 0 .6
- 9 .2
+13. 2
+ 7 .2

$4, 245, 801
10, 236,382
4,765, 622
5,944, 356
2,787, 261
3, 724, 354
6, 315, 621

$4, 228, 350
10,861, 030
5, 322, 554
5,448, 038
2,884, 545
2,474,595
5,945,456

- 0 .4
+ 6.1
+11.7
- 8 .3
+ 3 .5
-3 3 .6
- 5 .9

105
179
178
72
80
81
79

Total___________ . ____

11,900,971

13,121, 222

+10.3

38,019, 397

37,164, 568

- 2 .2

774

896

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

897

HOUSING

There was a decrease of 11.3 percent in indicated expenditures for
new residential buildings, comparing August with July, in these
cities. All geographic divisions registered decreases in this class of
construction.
Expenditures for new nonresidential buildings decreased 4.8 per­
cent. Four of the seven geographic divisions, however, showed
increases in nonresidential building.
Indicated expenditures for additions, alterations, and repairs were
10.3 percent higher in August than in July.
Table 2 shows the number of new residential buildings, of new
nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs, and
of total building operations in 774 identical cities of the United States,
by geographic divisions.
T a bl e 2 .— N U M B E R OF N E W B U IL D IN G S , OF A D D IT IO N S , A L T E R A T IO N S , A N D R E ­

P A IR S , A N D OF T O T A L B U IL D IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N IN 774 I D E N T I C A L C IT IE S , AS
SH O W N B Y P E R M IT S IS S U E D IN J U L Y A N D A U G U S T 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC
D IV ISIO N S

N ew residential
buildings

New nonresi­ Additions, alter­
Total construc­
dential build­
ations, and
tion
ings
repairs

Geographic division
July
1933
N ew England
___ .
_____
M iddle Atlantic __
____________ _
East North Central__________
West North Central
_ _
South Atlantic _______
South C en tra l___ _
_____
M ountain and Pacific_______ _
Total _____ _ ______________
Percent of change,
___

A ugust
1933

July- A ugust
1933
1933

July
1933

A ugust
1933

July
1933

A ugust
1933

410
584
323
287
354
317
652

392
461
304
254
273
279
586

757
1,315
1,303
685
468
456
1,065

854
1,294
1,455
763
535
432
1,155

2, 571
5,940
3,175
1,513
2, 462
1,766
4,034

2,669
6,053
3,469
1,395
2, 748
2, 238
4, 656

3, 738
7,839
4,801
2,485
3,284
2, 539
5, 751

3,915
7, 808
5,228
2, 412
3, 556
2, 949
6,397

2, 927

2,549
-1 2 .9

6, 049

6, 488
+ 7.3

21, 461

23, 228
+ 8 .2

30,437

32, 265
+ 6 .0

There was a decrease in the number of new residential buildings,
comparing August with July. New nonresidential buildings, addi­
tions, alterations, and repairs, and total construction, however,
showed increases in the number of buildings comparing August with
the previous month.
Table 3 shows the number of families provided for in the different
kinds of housekeeping dwellings, together with the estimated cost of
such dwellings, for which permits were issued in 774 identical cities
during July and August.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

898

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

T jWSLE 3 .—E S T IM A T E D C O ST A N D N U M B E R OF F A M IL IE S P R O V ID E D F O R IN T H E
D IF F E R E N T K IN D S OF H O U S E K E E P IN G D W E L L IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E
ISSU ED IN 774 ID E N T I C A L C IT IE S IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC D IV I­
SIONS
2-family dwellings

1-family dwellings

Geographic division

Estimated cost

August
1933

July
1933
New England-------------M iddle Atlantic ---------East North Central-------West North Central.
South Atlantic_________
South C entral... --------Mountain and Pacific-----

Families pro­
vided for
July
1933

August
1933

-------------

July
1933

August
1933

357
401
286
250
256
244
546

173,150
331,825
103,000
26,700
41,715
333,350
136,750

170,900
385,100
92, 500
27, 500
45,700
158,650
164,345

50
86
27
10
28
61
51

57
99
32
8
30
57
64

9, 642,693
-1 0 .6

2,718

2,340
-1 3 .9

1,146,490

1, 044, 695
- 8 .9

313

347
+10.9

Estimated cost

July
1933

T otal.

August
1933

377
527
303
282
335
280
614

Total, all kinds of housekeeping
dwellings

M ultifamily dwellings

New England-------- . . . M iddle A tlantic. . ----East North Central-------West North Central . .
South Atlantic---------------South Central------ ---M ountain and Pacific-----

July
1933

Families pro­
vided for

$1,844,448 $1,780,105
2, 605, 309 2,047,668
1, 526, 239 1,431,971
889,250
1,021,707
882,310
953,409
539,069
592,030
2,244,630 2,072, 320

T otal. - . ---------- - 10,787,772

Geographic division

Estimated cost

August
1933

Families pro­
vided for
July
1933

August
1933

Estimated cost

July
1933

August
1933

1

Families pro­
vided for
July
1933

August
1933

$85,000
180.900
23.000
0
24,510
19.000
146.900

$31,000
212,980
0
0
0
34,650
185,000

34
75
14
0
15
22
75

15 $2,102, 598 $1,982,005
76 3,118,034 2, 645,748
0 1,652, 239 1,524,471
916,750
0 1,048, 407
928, 010
0 1,019,634
732,369
24
944,380
62 2, 528, 280 2,421,665

461
688
344
292
378
363
740

429
576
318
258
286
325
672

479,310

463,630
- 3 .3

235

177 12,413, 572 11,151,018
-1 0 .2
-2 4 .7

3, 266

2,864
-1 2 .3

Decreases were registered in indicated expenditures for each type
of dwelling, comparing the two periods under discussion. The num­
ber of families provided for showed decreases in the case of 1-family
and multifamily dwellings. However, the number of families
provided for in 2-family dwellings registered an increase.
During August, 2,864 dwelling units were provided in new buildings.
This is a decrease of 12.3 percent compared with the number provided
during July.
Table 4 shows the index number of families provided for, the index
numbers of indicated expenditures for new residential buildings, for
new nonresidential buildings, for additions, alterations, and repairs,
and for total building operations.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

899

H O U S IN G

T a ble 4 .— I N D E X N U M B E R S OF F A M IL IE S P R O V ID E D F O R A N D OF T H E E S T IM A T E D

C O ST OF B U IL D IN G O P E R A T IO N S AS SH O W N B Y P E R M IT S ISSU ED IN P R IN C IP A L
C IT IE S OF T H E U N IT E D S TA TE S
[M onthly average, 1929=100]
Indicated expenditures for
Families
provided
for

M onth

New resi­
dential
buildings

New non­ Additions, Total build­
residential alterations, ing opera­
buildings and repairs
tions

1930
July______________________________________
______ _________________
August___ _

49.9
48.7

44.1
43.4

86.7
67.2

77.4
58.6

64.8
54.4

1931
July_______ ____ ____ ____ _________ _____
August- - _______ _________ ________ . .

35.8
36.6

27.6
33.5

53.7
63.9

57.8
48.3

41.7
47.3

1932
July______________________________________
August___________________________________

8.2
9.7

5.6
6.8

16.1
15.7

22.6
24.9

12.0
12.6

1933
Janaury__________________________________
February. _______________________________
M arch_____ . . _ ______ _
_____ ____
A pril___ ____________
____ ________ _
M a y _____________________________________
June_____ _ - - ___ ________ _
______
July______________________________________
A ugust.- . . . _____ - _- ___________ _

4.9
5.6
7. 2
7.4
11.9
12.3
10.2
8.9

3.4
4.6
4. 2
4.6
8. 1
8.8
8.0
7.1

26.8
8.9
6.9
9.9
33.8
11. 5
10.9
10.4

16.2
14.2
20.9
22.6
29.8
33.3
26. 7
29.4

14.7
7.9
7.8
9.5
21.7
13.8
12.2
11.9

The index numbers of families provided for and the index number of
indicated expenditures for new nonresidential buildings and for total
building operations were lower in August 1933 than in either July
1933 or August 1932.
The index number of indicated expenditures for new residential
buildings, while lower during August 1933 than during July 1933, was
higher than during August 1932.
The index number of additions, alterations, and repairs was higher
during August 1933 than during either July 1933 or August 1932.
Comparisons of Indicated Expenditures for Public Buildings
T a b l e 5 shows the value of contracts awarded for public buildings
by the various agencies of the United States Government and by the
various State governments during the months of August 1932 and
July and August 1933, by geographic divisions.
T a bl e 5 — V A L U E

OF C O N T R A C T S F O R P U B L IC B U IL D IN G S A W A R D E D B Y T H E
U N IT E D S T A T E S G O V E R N M E N T A N D B Y S T A T E G O V E R N M E N T S , A U G U S T 1932 A N D
JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC D IV ISIO N S
Federal
Geographic division
August
1932

New E n g la n d ____
_____
M iddle A tla n tic_____________
East N orth Central_______ __
West North Central________
South Atlantic_______ - -South C e n tra l___ _ _ ______
M ountain and Pacific________
T otal. __ __

_________

1Subject to revision.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July
1933

State
August
19331

August
1932

July
1933

August
19331

$590,128
6, 214, 288
1,177,466
785,456
1,454, 722
953, 943
773,006

$169,169
13, 851
20, 659
225,806
38, 347
6,120
54,430

$2,875
72,099
9,005
17, 481
106, 941
34,093
22, 738

$164,421
2, 249, 526
680,171
2,136, 267
425,844
2, 656,255
598,900

$73, 500
832, 321
4, 210
205,595
28,525
66,202
74,541

$44,070
1,708, 679
267, 637
85,601
60,685
806, 649
647,807

11,949,009

528, 382

265, 232

8,911,384

1,284,894

3,621,128

900

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

The value of contracts awarded for Federal building operations
during August 1933 fell to a new low point, being only slightly more
than 2 percent of the August 1932 total. Contracts awarded by the
various State governments were considerably higher during August
1933 than during July 1933, but lower than during August 1932.
Comparisons, August 1933 with August 1932
T a b l e 6 shows the estimated cost of new residential buildings, of
new nonresidential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs,
and of total building operations in 344 identical cities of the United
States having a population of 25,000 or over for the months of August
1932 and August 1933, by geographic divisions.
T able 6 —E S T IM A T E D C O ST OF N E W B U IL D IN G S , OF A D D IT IO N S , A L T E R A T IO N S , A N D
R E P A IR S , A N D OP T O T A L B U IL D IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N IN 344 ID E N T I C A L C IT IE S , AS
SH O W N B Y P E R M IT S ISSU E D IN A U G U S T 1932 A N D A U G U S T 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC
D IV ISIO N S

N ew residential buildings
(estimated cost)

New nonresidential buildings
(estimated cost)

Geographic division
August
1932

August
1933

Percent
of
change

August
1932

August
1933

Percent
of
change

N ew England____________________
M iddle A tla n tic.____ _________
East North Central__________ West North Central____________
South Atlantic_________________
South Central _ -- _ _________
Mountain and P a c ific _______ _ -

$857, 753
2, 359,668
1,195,126
872,064
1,045,915
455,942
1,445, 945

$1,290,875
1,901,433
1,179,826
763, 220
747,882
630, 527
2,104,310

+50.5
-1 9 .4
- 1 .3
-1 2 . 5
-2 8 .5
+38.3
+45.5

$851, 498
9, 425, 617
2,175, 621
802,398
2,920,482
1,643, 539
1,301,470

$576,684
2,142,474
2,064,202
3,674,814
777,053
785,881
1,205,609

-3 2 .3
-7 7 .3
- 5 .1
+358.0
-7 3 .4
-5 2 .2
- 7 .4

T o t a l ..----------- ------------- --_

8, 232,413

8,618,073

+ 4.7

19,120, 625

11, 226, 717

-4 1 .3

Additions, alterations, and
repairs (estimated cost)
Geographic division
August
1932

. - . $1, 038,010
N ew England____
3, 608,435
M iddle Atlantic___________
1,420, 029
East North Central______
West North Central_______
451, 298
1, 296, 754
South Atlantic................... .
846, 793
South C entral..
- -.
1,169, 259
Mountain and Pacific__ -Total.

___ _______

9, 830, 578

August
1933

Percent
of
change

Total construction
(estimated cost)

August
1932

August
1933

Percent
of
change

N um ­
ber
of
cities

$1, 237, 566
5,045, 949
1,352,923
668,009
990,184
813,890
1,859, 589

+19.2
+39.8
- 4 .7
+48.0
-2 3 .6
- 3 .9
+59.0

$2, 747, 261
15,393, 720
4,790,776
2,125, 760
5, 263,151
2, 946, 274
3,916,674

$3,105,125
9,089,856
4, 596,951
5,106, 043
2,515,119
2, 230, 298
5,169, 508

+13.0
-4 1 . 0
- 4 .0
+140. 2
-5 2 . 2
-2 4 .3
+32.0

51
69
92
25
40
31
36

11,968,110

+21.7

37,183, 616

31,812,900

-1 4 .4

344

Increases were shown in expenditures for new residential buildings
and for additions, alterations, and repairs, comparing August 1933
with the same month of the previous year. New nonresidential
buildings and total building construction each showed a decrease in
indicated expenditures, comparing these two periods.
Table 7 shows the number of new residential buildings, of new non­
residential buildings, of additions, alterations, and repairs, and of
total building operations in 344 identical cities having a population of
25,000 or over, for the months of August 1932 and August 1933, by
geographic divisions.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

901

H O U S IN G

T a ble 7 —N U M B E R OF N E W B U IL D IN G S , OF A D D IT IO N S , A L T E R A T IO N S , A N D R E ­

P A IR S , A N D OF T O T A L B U IL D IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N IN 344 ID E N T IC A L C IT IE S , AS
SH O W N B Y P E R M IT S ISSU ED IN A U G U S T 1932 A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC

N ew residential
buildings

New nonresi­
dential build­
ings

Additions, al­
terations, and
repairs

Total construc­
tion

Geographic division
A ugu st A ugust A ugu st A ugust A ugu st A ugust A ugu st A ugust
1932
1933
1932
1933
1932
1932
1933
1933
N ew England. ____________________
M iddle Atlantic
______________
East North Central_________
West North Central ________ South Atlantic______________
South Central.
_____
M ountain and Pacific_____________
Total ___ _ _____
Percent of change.. ____

185
434
282
246
278
233
456

226
353
246
195
206
232
500

567
1,256
1,490
807
588
437
1,077

517
1,016
1,288
628
448
383
992

2,113
4, 567
2,869
1,121
2,683
1,793
3, 433

2,096
5, 521
3,157
1,179
2,490
1,908
3,914

2,865
6,257
4,641
2,174
3, 549
2,463
4,966

2,839
6,890
4, 691
2,002
3,144
2, 523
5,406

2,114

1,958
- 7 .4

6,222

5, 272
-1 5 .3

18, 579

20, 265
+ 9.1

26, 915

27,495
+ 2 .2

There were decreases in the number of new residential buildings
and of new nonresidential buildings, comparing August 1933 with the
like month of 1932.
The increase in the number of additions, alterations, and repairs,
however, was great enough also to show an increase in the total
number of building projects.
Table 8 shows the number of families provided for in the different
kinds of housekeeping dwellings, together with the estimated cost of
such dwellings for which permits were issued in 344 identical cities
during August 1932 and August 1933.
T a ble 8 .— E S T IM A T E D C O ST OP, A N D N U M B E R

OP F A M IL IE S P R O V ID E D F O R IN
D I F F E R E N T K IN D S OF H O U S E K E E P IN G D W E L L IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E
ISSU ED IN 344 I D E N T IC A L C IT IE S IN A U G U ST 1932 A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC
D IV ISIO N S

1-family dwellings

Estimated cost

Geographic division

August
1932

August
1933

$772, 253 $1,112,875
New England- _________
M iddle Atlantic_______ . 1, 591,316 1, 352, 633
East North Central. --_ 1,086, 926 1,112, 326
820, 564
West North Central____
735, 720
South Atlantic_____ _ .
991, 315
707,182
South Central— _ ___
416, 817
479,477
Mountain and Pacific___ 1, 210, 315 1,811, 465
Total ___________
Percent of ch a n g e ___ —

6,889, 506


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7,311, 678
+ 6.1

2-family dwellings

Families pro­
vided for
August August
1932
1933

Estimated cost

August
1932

August
1933

Families pro­
vided for
August August
1932
1933

173
364
269
238
269
220
410

210
301
232
191
191
206
466

$77, 500
433, 352
108, 200
44, 000
10,100
30,125
171,930

$67,000
345, 800
67, 500
27, 500
40, 700
133, 300
145,345

22
132
23
13
6
23
73

19
85
26
8
27
46
58

1,943

1,797
- 7 .5

875, 207

827,145
- 5 .5

292

269
- 7 .9

902

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

T able 8 .—E S T IM A T E D C O ST OF, A N D N U M B E R OF F A M IL IE S P R O V ID E D F O R IN ,
D I F F E R E N T K IN D S OF H O U S E K E E P IN G D W E L L IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E
ISSU ED IN 344 I D E N T IC A L C IT IE S IN A U G U ST 1932 A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y G E O G R A P H IC
D IV IS IO N S —Continued
Total, all kinds of housekeeping
dwellings

Multifamily dwellings

Geographic division

Estimated cost

August
1932
New England. . . .
M iddle A tlantic..
East North Central.
West North Central------South A tla n t ic ___
South Central_____
Mountain and Pacific-----

August
1933

Families pro­
vided for
August August
1932
1933

$8, 000
10, 000
0
7,500
44, 500
9,000
63, 700

$31,000
203, 000
0
0
0
17, 750
147, 500

4
4
0
4
20
8
34

15
72
0
0
0
12
52

142,700

399, 250
+179.8

74

151
+104.1

Estimated cost

August
1932

August
1933

Families pro­
vided for
August August
1932
1933

$857, 753 $1, 210,875
2,034, 668 1,901,433
1,195,126 1,179,826
872, 064
763, 220
747,882
1,045,915
630, 527
455, 942
1,445,945 2,104,310

199
500
292
255
295
251
517

244
458
258
199
218
264
576

8, 538,073
+ 8.0

2, 309

2,217
- 4 .0

7,907,413

Indicated expenditures for total housekeeping dwellings showed an
increase comparing August 1933 with August of last year. The
number of family-dwelling units provided in these buildings, however,
decreased, comparing these months.
Details by Cities
T a b l e 9 shows the estimated expenditures for new residential
buildings, for new nonresidential buildings, and for total building
operations, together with the number of families provided for in new
dwellings, in each of the cities in the United States having a popula­
tion of 10,000 or over, for which reports were received for August 1933.
Permits were issued during August for the following important
building projects: In St. Louis, Mo., for a municipal office building to
cost $3,100,000; in Endicott, N.Y., for two factory buildings to cost
nearly $300,000; in the Borough of the Bronx for school buildings to
cost over $200,000; in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., for a hospital to cost over
$200,000; in Muskegon, Mich., for an amusement building to cost
$280,000; and in Royal Oak, Mich., for a church to cost $250,000.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

903

H O U S IN G

T able 9 .— E S T IM A T E D COST OF B U IL D IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN

P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933

N ew E n g la n d States

C ity and State

Connecticut:
Ansonia..........
Bridgeport-._
Bristol_______
Danbury____
D erby_______
East Hartford.
Fairfield_____
Greenwich___
H amden_____
Hartford_____
M eriden_____
M iddletow n..
M ilford______
N augatuck.. .
N ew Britain..
N ew H a ven ..
Norwalk_____
Norwich_____
Stamford____
Stratford........
T o rrin gton ...
W allingford..
W a terb u ry...
West Hartford
W illim an tic..
Maine:
Auburn_____
Biddeford___
Portland____
South Port­
land_______
W estbrook__
Massachusetts:
Arlington____
Attleboro____
Belmont_____
Beverly______
Boston 1_____
Braintree____
Brockton____
Brookline____
Cambridge__
Chelsea______
Chicopee____
Dedham _____
Easthampton
Everett______
Fairhaven___
Fall R iver___
Fitchburg___
Framingham .
Gardner_____
Haverhill____
H olyoke-------Lawrence____
Leominster. . .
Lowell_______
L ynn________
M alden______

New
Fam­
New res­ nonresi- Total
idential dential (includ­ ilies
pro
build­
ing re­
build­
vided
ings
pairs)
ings
for

$3,000
61, 250
13.000
4.500
3.500
10,100
50,800
40, 000
69,100
22.000
10, 700

$300
5,900
475
6,800

15.000
64, 205
0

5,850
800
1,670
3,465
12,412
4,929
7, 760
2,185
1,800
16,800
14,465
4, 775
1,020
6,350
1,725
15,600
1,360
2, 600
18,026
125

$3,650
80.395
21, 620
15,175
4,095
17,970
57,475
54, 295
73,815
107, 006
24,039
11, 275
13,290
11,965
30, 302
89,410
50,070
13.395
22,845
20, 628
22,405
4,179
28, 750
103,529
125

62, 500
3.000
32, 300

16,100
1,975
475

81,100
7,400
41, 210

13,100
2.000

1,625
1,775

17,075
3,910

29, 650
2.500
43,400
30, 700
274, 200
24.000

4,400
1,685
6,250
1,825
14.010
2, 780
34.010
885
10,375
29, 620

46,118
4,385
51,225
33, 285
683, 224
30, 255
50,995
152,910
56,115
39,270
10, 675
26, 780
712
119, 540
7, 790
9,220
5,566
22,360
4,197
15,188
36,100
21,480
24, 476
78,135
41, 695
12,120

0

0

4,925
4,100
4.000
13, 000
39.000
4, 600
5.000
13, 540

0
0

0
0

68.000

5.000
1.500
7,950

0

2,700
6.000

0

2,400
10, 500

0

6, 275
13, 500
5,000
16, 500
57, 700
19, 500
2, 000

8, 200

13, 740
412
111,290
545
1,330
1,965
6,510
3.075
2,088
16,000
1,335
1.075
2, 325
750
925

1 Applications filed.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2
21
3
1
1
3
19
8
8
3
2
0
4
2
1
3
9
2
1
4
0
0
3
8
0

5

1

9
5
45
4
0
6

0
1

1
3
0
1
2
0
2
2
0
3
4

1

6
3

6

1

C ity and State

Massachusetts—
Continued
Marlborough.
M edford___ _
Melrose . . .
M ilton. __
Needham____
New Bedford.
N ew ton .........
North Adams.
Northampton.
North Attleborough___
N orw ood____
P e a b o d y ____
Pittsfield____
Plym outh___
Quincy______
Revere______
Salem_____ _
Saugus______
Somerville___
Springfield___
S ton eh a in __
Swam pscott..
Taunton.
W altham____
W atertow n.. .
Wellesley____
Westfield____
West Springfield_______
W eym outh.. .
W inchester...
W inthrop___
W oburn_____
NewHampshire:
Berlin_______
Concord_____
M anchester..
Rhode Island:
Central Falls.
Cranston____
East Provi­
dence______
N ewport____
North Provi­
dence______
Pawtucket___
Providence.. .
W arwick____
W esterly____
West
War­
wick_______
W oonsocket-.
Vermont:
Bennington. _
B urlin gton ...
Rutland_____

New
Fam­
New res­ nonresi- Total
idential dential (includ­ ilies
build­
ing re­ pro­
build­
ings
pairs) vided
for
ings

$3, 700
68,000
20,000
49, 350
48,000
5, 500
144, 500
7,100
2,850

$3,000
2,300
4, 325
650
4,100
4, 600
6,595
1,935
1,100

$7, 000
76,180
25, 750
56, 716
57,100
16, 725
177,675
14, 380
12,925

2
12
4
10
8
1
17
3
3

1,800
15,325
4,850
18,500
5,000
28, 800
0
33, 000
1, 750
7,000
17, 720
15,000
9,000
0
17, 575
5,800
98, 000
3,290

2,700
3,100
1,850
9,150
950
4, 455
450
14,100
1,330
20, 200
5,165
1,050
1,775
930
1,390
1,600
15,960
400

4,500
23, 550
13, 825
49, 300
7,950
47, 682
6, 275
47,100
6, 258
31,882
71,175
16, 290
13, 540
8, 349
20, 450
11,195
124, 735
5, 940

3
4
2
6
1
6
0
6
2
2
6
3
1
0
4
2
10
1

4,000
6, 500
30, 500
8,900
6,000

3,960
1,400
0
515
400

10,907
11, 565
34, 375
11,960
7,800

1
1
4
2
2

0
8,000
12,800

0
76,700
3,290

1,720
86,000
30, 639

0
3
7

0
26,100

800
3,575

26,060
33,475

0
7

15,300
12, 200

8,370
3,800

33, 388
20, 030

4
3

12,000
2,000
29, 200
8, 600
13, 000

3, 400
12, 240
37,350
3, 900
590

16, 400
18, 365
178,550
22, 750
16,455

3
1
5
8
3

5, 500
8, 300

200
13,909

5,700
37,180

3
2

8,000
0
16, 500

0
20,105
6, 600

8,000
21, 830
24,550

2
0
2

752,811 4, 228, 350

429

Total____ 2, 062,005

904

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

T able 9 .—E S T IM A T E D C O ST OF B U IL D IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN
P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933—Continued

M id d le A tla n tic States
Fami­
New
New res­ nonresi- Total
lies
(includ­ pro­
idential
C ity and State
dential
build­
ing re­ vided
build­
ings
pairs)
for
ings
New Jersey:
Asbury Park _
Atlantic C ity .
Bayonne ___
Belleville .
B loom field .. .
Bridgeton___
Burlington__
D over. _______
East Orange.Elizabeth___
E nglew ood..
Hackensack. .
Harrison-------Hillside T w p
H ob ok en .. . .
Irvington-----Jersey C it y ...
Kearny______
Linden______
Long Branch
Lyndhurst___
M a p le w o o d
Tw p
M ontclair----M orristow n...
N eptuneTw p.
N ewark_____
New Bruns-

Passaic______
Paterson_____
Perth A m boy.
Phillipsburg.
Plainfield _ .
Pleasant ville..
Red Bank. .
R id g e fie ld
Park_______
Ridgewood _
Roselle______
R utherford..
South Orange.
Sum m it-. .
TeaneckTwp.
Trenton. ___
Union C ity ..
Union T w p ...
Weehawken _
Westfield____
Y ork __ __ .
West Orange.
Amsterdam _
Auburn______
Bingham ton..
Buffalo
Dunkirk_____
Endicott____
Floral P ark...
Freeport_____
Fulton______
Glen Cove . .
Glens Falls—
Gloversville..

()
0
0
$10, 700
15, 000
0
0
0
10, 500
10,000
0
36,000
0
0
0
0
6,500
0
0
0
C
3,000
4,500
0

0
$5,150
5,000
1,500
2,000
800
250
4, 035
2, 600
0
980
3, 600
0
275
2,405
0
7,225
0
900
35,35C
31,775
750
580
3,000

0
$17,876
15, 797
12, 775
20. 900
800
2, 551
10, 422
18, 500
10,000
13, 995
85, 200
5,003
5,075
13i 592
300
15, 705
16, 232
10, 455
119, 905
32,60C
5,200
6,340
3,000

0
0
0
2
3
0
0
0
3
1
0
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

31,000
21,900
10, 000
0
25, 000

2,425
5,018
3,000
1,100
163, 525

36, 715
35,558
18, 243
1,100
249, 225

4
4
1
0
4

6, 700
3,800
0
0
4,100
0
0
34,053
0
0

385
6, 350
480
750
31,325
8,875
5,000
2, 440
750
1,050

9, 635
12,405
52,968
9,865
70,974
16,735
5,150
40,823
1,150
2,420

2
1
0
0
1
0
0
3
0
0

4, 400
29,900
0
0
18,600
23,500
61, 400
0
12, 000
12, 700
0
11,500

12,100
450
5,000
3, 970
1,350
3, 390
8,010
650
0
7,485
(
1,418

17, 000
40, 632
5, 275
4,880
22,635
31, 370
77, 610
25, 532
24,900
24,885
2,607
17,108

2
2
0
0
2
2
10
0
3
2
0
2

0
15,950

400
2,350

7,535
28,120

0
3

27, 000
23,000
9, 750
21,600
19, 500
4 000
o
0
o
17,100
9,000
7,500
1, 300
6,000
2,500
0

40, 525
22, 402
1,025
6,288
95, 675
2 152
750
965
2, 922
306; 275
485
1,850
975
400
330
9,100

94, 765
45,402
13, 650
61,925
233, 988
6, 522
1,810
11,130
9, 556
326,100
12, 985
12, 600
2,775
6, 400
4,695
9, 300

4
5
4
6
7
2
0
0
0
5
2
2
2
1
1
0

A pplications filed.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C ity and State

N e w Y 0 r k—
Continued
Hempstead.
Herkim er.. _
Irondequoit. _
Ithaca
___
Jamestown__
Johnson C ity.
Lackawanna.
Lockport____
Lynbrook___
Mamaroneck.
Massena ___
M iddletow n..
M ount Vernon____
Newburgh___
New Rochelle.
N ew Y o r k
City:
The Bronx L.
Brooklyn L ..
Manhattan1.
Queens 1____
Richmond L.
Niagara Falls.
North Tonawanda ____
Ogdensburg..
Oneida______
Ossining____
Oswego______
Peekskill__ _
Plattsburg___
Port Chester.
Port Jervis. __
Poughkeepsie.
Rensselaer___
Rochester___
Saratoga
Springs____
Schenectady..
Syracuse_____
Tonaw anda..
T r o y . . . .........
Utica.
____
Valley Stream
W atertow n.. .
White Plains.
Yonkers. . . .
Pennsylvania:
A b ingt0n
T w p _____
Allentown----Altoona--------Ambridge-----Arnold -------Bellevue-------Berwick. ----Bethlehem___
Braddock-----Bradford. . .
Bristol—
..
Carlisle--------C h am bersburg . . . . . .
Charleroi____
Chester--------Clairton_____
Coatesville__
Connellsville.
Conshohocken
Donora...........

Fam­
New
New res­ nonresi- Total
ilies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
ing re­ vided
build­
build­
pairs)
ings
for
ings

$10, 000
0
11, 500
14, 000
2,200
3, 600
4, 200
21, 300
28, 000
2,400
15, 500
28, 700
0
7,800

$12,150
0
125
100
4,000
0
1, 100
9,830
4,950
570
950
655
2,250
510

$28, 250
10,000
12, 075
15, 800
10, 808
3,600
6, 000
42,180
34,390
10, 255
20, 510
39, 855
7, 250
11, 790

2
0
2
2
1
1
l
4
11
2
2
3
0
2

22, 500
17, 200
43,000

700
700
2,200

31,910
25,000
62, 023

4
3
3

110, 500
335, 500
0
351, 950
72, 355
14, 000

278,150 778, 005
130,865 2,003, 005
89,200 1,166, 722
267, 572 979,493
46,175 169,276
44, 977
6,757

31
102
0
94
27
4

4,000
5, 225
0
0
0
12, 480
14, 000
0
0
0
0
7,800

225
6,475
1,250
7,275
1,225
625
500
1,155
4,050
4, 050
1,700
18, 055
375 , 15,790
9, 300 A 11,050
0
0
222,083 222, 468
520
7,820
69,912 124,928

1
2
0
0
0
5
3
0
0
0
0
2

0
4,000
15, 000
0
4,000
49, 500
0
0
2,800
132, 000

350
1,050
14, 345
30, 060
12, 750
23, 345
34, 540
755
32, 600
13, 675

8,676
27,850
45,150
30,060
51,180
80,095
35,937
10, 007
42,100
177, 500

0
1
3
0
1
8
0
0
1
23

45,000
0
0
0
14,200
C
0
9,500
0
0
c
0

20, 045
7,700
1,540
0
0
2,000
143, 715
1, 365
0
4, 350
80C
475

68, 395
58, 760
16, 042
1,400
14, 200
8, 675
150,143
15, 340
15, 755
8, 740
80C
1,025

3
0
0
0
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
0

c
0
7,100
0
0
0
0
3, 610

(
0
1,450
80
550
0
250
2,000

0
1,000
10, 870
1, 770
1, 250
0
2,450
5,610

0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

905

HOUSING

T a ble 9 . — E S T IM A T E D C O ST OF B U IL D IN G S FO R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN

P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933—Continued
M i d d le A tla n tic S ta tes—

Fami­
New
New res­ nonresi- Total
lies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
C ity and State
build­
ing re­ vided
build­
pairs)
ings
ings
for
Pennsylvania—
Continued
Du Bois ___
Duquesne___
Ellwood City.
Erie_________
Greensburg...
Harrisburg- ._
Haverford----Hazleton. . .
Jeannette-----Johnstown—

Lower Merion T w p _.
M cK eesport..
M ahanoy
C it y - M ead ville___
Monessen . .
M ount Lebanon T w p .
M unhall____
New Castle--.
N ew K en sington
N orristow n.-.

0
0
$4, 300
0
12, 500
0
0
10, 000
25, 000
0
2,000
12, 700
0
0

0
$150
10,139
0
22, 555
0
600
8, 885
22, 850
0
3, 700
2, 550
0
0

0
$5,499
53,164
'500
67, 433
0
15,160
22,465
64, 850
600
10,185
15, 250
6,700
0

0
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
6
0
1
2
0
0

69, 000
2,300

4, 250
165

118,098
9,885

2
1

0
2,500
0

0
3,150
0

8,000
8,450
0

0
1
0

93, 500
6,000
0

0
550
4, 530

98,185
7, 525
5,110

9
1
0

10, 000
0

0
7,565

10,000
56,175

2
0

Continued

C ity and State

Fam­
New
New res­ nonresi- Total
ilies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
build­
ing re­ vided
build­
ings
pairs)
ings
for

Pennsylvania—
Continued
North Brad0
dock_______
0
Oil C ity_____
Philadelphia. $262, 200
Phoenixville..
800
P ittsb u rg h ...
60, 300
Pittston___ 0
Pottstown___
0
Pottsville—
3, 500
Scranton. __
7, 200
0
Sharon______
0
10,000
0
Tam aqua--- _
0
U niontow n-.0
12, 000
Upper Darby.
Vandergrift.—
0
0
W ashington..
800
W aynesboro..
13, 500
0
West Chester.
Wilkes-Barre3, 225
W ilkinsburg.. • 3,000
2, 050
Williamsport.
Y ork ----------0

0
$760
218,270
0
58, 330
0
0
1,900
3,670
750
0
22, 700
400
900
400
11, 260
0
0
200
0
375
49, 751
0
11,025
9, 430

0
$1, 860
705,527
800
281,002
0
4, 585
7, 650
33,070
750
0
33, 200
' 700
3, 700
400
25,180
0
0
1,200
13,500
375
79,823
3,420
25, 979
41, 949

0
0
49
1
14
0
0
1
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
2
0
—

—

T o ta l... 2, 645, 748 2, 880, 939 10,861,030

576

E a s t N o r t h C e n tr a l S ta te s

Illinois:
Alton-----------Aurora . . . .
Belleville____
Berwyn.
Bloom ington.
Blue Island. .
Brookfield----Cairo_____ -.Calumet City.
C an ton ... . . .
Centralia------Champaign—
Chicago.
C hicago
Heights-----C icero.. . . . .
Danville-------Decatur_____
East St. Louis.
E l g i n ..------Elmhurst-----Elmwood
Park . ----Evanston-----Forest Park
Freeport------Granite C ity .
H arvey. ----Highland
Park______
Joliet___ ____
Kankakee___
La Grange—
M ayw ood ___
Melrose Park
M oline______

$8,800
1,700
11, 900
0
0
3, 500
3, 200
0
12,000
0
0
4,500
45, 900

$1, 356
1,115
0
1,250
6,000
410
3, 000
0
100
0
0
158
525, 470

$21,069
5,902
11,900
2, 600
9,000
9,430
9, 400
50
12, 300
50
2,000
6,643
763, 242

2
1
3
0
0
1
1
0
2
0
0
1
12

3, 500
0
0
0
4,200
0
0

25,900
300
0
1,255
19, 735
250
925

29,400
2, 550
16.957
5,805
26,995
6, 691
3, 825

1
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2,000

0
2,000
500
1,000
0
500

0
23, 750
600
1,950
1,800
3,950

0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
2,000
0
0
c
0

50
39, 771
200
0
0
250
2,535

4,925
48,171
3, 700
5, 650
3,025
850
7,084

0
0
1
0
0
0
0


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Illinois—Con.
M ount Ver­
non—
Oak Park____
Ottawa
Park R id g e...
Peoria
. ...
Quincy. . . . .
Rockford . . .
Rock Island..
Springfield—
Sterling- . . .
Streator--------Urbana______
Waukegan___
W ilm ette____
W innetka-----Indiana:
Bedford.
Connersville—
C r a w fo r d s ville. . . . . .
Elkhart ____
Elw ood______
Evansville—
Fort W ayne..
FrankfortGary----- ------Goshen.
H am m ond. .
Huntington...
Indianapolis..
K okom o.. . . .
L a fay ette----Logansport...
Marion...........

$2, 500
8, 000
0
1, 600
55, 700
12, 675
11,000
5,000
0
4,500
0
5,500
0
9, 000
0

$4, 250
940
0
200
32, 220
1,110
4, 200
750
1,565
600
1,500
50, 000
4, 700
300
300

$6, 750
12, 760
600
6,115
108, 945
13,845
21,135
25, 234
23, 001
6,605
2,100
56,150
6, 460
10,600
21, 200

1
1
0
1
14
5
2
1
0
2
0
1
0
1
0

0
0

0
0

80
0

0
0

0
0
0
11, 125
0
0
0
0
0
0
9,100
0
800
0
1,000

5, 480
3, 745
350
10, 300
2, 530
9, 500
1,340
200
4, 638
2, 250
62,345
410
41, 200
20,050
175

5,480
6, 933
650
30, 078
17,065
9,500
10,390
200
8, 408
3, 550
136,301
1,735
42,000
25,852
3,490

0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1
0
1

906

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

T a ble 9 .— E S T IM A T E D C OST OF B U IL D IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN

P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933—Continued

E a st N orth C en tra l S tates — Continued

C ity and State

Indiana—Con.
Michigan
C ity _______
M ishaw aka...
Muncie
New Castle.—
R ichm ond___
S helbyville.-.
South B e n d ..
Terre H aute..
Vincennes___
Michigan:
Ann A rbor__
Battle Creek.
Bay C ity. . . .
Benton HarDearborn.. _
Detroit. . .
Ferndale____
Flint________
Grand Rapids
Grosse Pointe
Park _
Hamtram ck—
Highland
Park___ __
H olland_____
Ironw ood. . .
Jackson___ ...
Kalamazoo__
Lansing__ .
Lincoln Park.
Marquette___
M u skegon...
Muskegon
Heights____
Owosso______
Pontiac______
River R ouge..
Royal Oak__
Saginaw_____
Sault Sainte
M arie_____
Traverse C ity
W ya n d otte.. .
Ohio:
A kron_______
Alliance_____
A s h la n d .___
Ashtabula___
Barberton___
Bellaire . . . _.
Bucyrus . . .
C am bridge-._
Canton.
Cincinnati___
Cleveland___
Cleveland
Heights____
Columbus___
Cuyahoga
Falls
D ayton______

N ew res­ New
Total
idential nonresi- (includ­
dential
build­
ing re­
build­
ings
pairs)
ings

Famiilies
pro­
vided
for

$2, 00C
0
7, 85C
1, 500
C
4,000
0
16, 50C
C
1,00C

C
$370
1 ,11C
0
20t
200
0
24, 735
475
C

$3,925
785
12, 764
1,500
300
8,200
0
50, 745
8,269
1,263

1
0
3
1
o
1
0
2
0
1

c
6, 000
0
6, 000

30C
4, 705
525
6, 380

725
24, 541
25, 200
22, 289

o
1
0
3

2,100
2,000
211, 100
0
6, 400
5,000

135
13, 600
60,46C
' 125
7, 234
67,870

2, 645
21, 250
401, 284
L 245
44, 604
89,190

1
i
41
0
1
2

88, 300
0

150
51, 200

90, 750
60i 775

3
0

0
0
0
0
4, 000
0
0
9, 300
0
0

1, 550
'275
435
845
710
1, 650
125
150
0
284,005

3, 850
4, 275
2, 905
28,165
13, 283
8,376
'695
9,450
200
286, 716

0
0
0
0
1
o
0
4
o
0

0
0
0
0
8,000
6,916

0
397
2, 250
33,175
250, 590
28, 650

615
487
4, 830
33, 615
261,415
47,161

0
0
o
0
2
2

9,200
0
7, 360

390
450
7,915

10,425
450
21, 245

8
0
2

33, 500
0
0
3, 500
7, 600
0
0
0
1,000
330, 650
48, 500

8,795
200
850
2, 800
29,000
0
0
0
960
49,180
86, 575

84,805
300
3, 350
6, 575
36, 600
0
0
0
10, 735
453, 235
235, 700

5
0
0
1
1
0 1
0
0
1
49
10

37, 800
26,000

2, 600
7, 800

45, 850
59,900

6
4

2, 500
4, 500

100
29, 416

2 600
73,451

1
1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C ity and State

Ohio—Con.
East CleveE lyria.. . .
F in d la y ... .
Garfield
Heights___
H am ilton...
Ironton
Lakewood __
Lim a______ _
M a n sfield ...
Marietta___
Martins Ferry
M iddletow n..
N orw ood___

Fam­
New res­ New
Total
idential nonresi- (includ­ ilies
dential
build­
ing re­ pro­
build­
ings
pairs) vided
ings
for

o
$1, 000 •
8, 200
3, 500
0

$175
625

$1 175
3| 648

1

325
0

7, 800
0

1
0

8, 500
0
0
12, 200
0
o
9,800
0
2 000
9,000
o
0
2, 800
4,000
5, 000
0
0
o
0

650
8,480
549
10, 510
100

9,150
10,047
659
26,305
1,290

2
0
0
2
0

5,680
1,400
6 235
1, 400
1 530
5| 500
0
1,050
450
100
4,335
6 200
’ 525

16, 670
1,900

2
0

30 500
1,200
0
0
0
26, 500
0
8, 500
o

ll! 350

2

lo! 755

0

6| 025

1

1, 600
8,118
7 200
L 260

0
0

21 000
'450
0
75
3, 600
23 085
2,000
950
0

4,145
1,225
75
3, 600
71 542
9’ 405
10, 875
150

1
0
0
0
0
2
0

3, 400
0

64, 200
0

86,189
12,431

2
0

35,100
0
18,000

2 310
2 ,455
1, 500

48 260
3! 455
23,100

0
12

9, 500
38, 900
4, 000
0
0
49, 845
0
22,000
11,150
0
12, 500
18, 000

445
1,885
100
475
8, 825
2,250
605
108, 757
1, 775
2, 450
1,150
200

17, 802
62, 675
9,100
3,505
19, 320
54, 803
4,080
221, 815
16, 497
4, 916
27,168
23, 600

.2
14
1
0
0
4
0
4
6
0
3
3

0
0
0
0
1 500
22, 800
4, 300

0
20,340
445
710
550
1,150
1,765

0
22,880
1,150
6,260
2 050
25,110
14,150

0
0
0
0
3
1

Total______ 1, 524, 471 2, 304, 521 5, 322, 554

318

P iq u a ..
. _
Portsm outh..
Sandusky___
S h a k e r
S pringfield ...
Steubenville—
Struthers____
Tiffin________
Warren--------W ooster_____
Y o u n g stow n__ . . .
Zanesville__
Wisconsin:
Beloit_______
Eau C la ire...
Fond
du
L a c____ . .
Green B a y ...
Janesville____
Kenosha—
M adison------M a n itow oc...
M arinette.. .
Milwaukee__
Oshkosh____
Racine______
Sheboygan. . .
Shorewood . .
South
Milwaukee . _
Superior.
Tw o Rivers...
Waukesha.
W auw atosa...
West Allis___

0

907

HOUSING

T a ble 9 .— E S T IM A T E D C OST OF B U IL D IN G S FO R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN

P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933—Continued

W est N orth C en tra l S tates

C ity and State

Iowa:
Ames------------B oone_______
B u rlin g ton .-.
Cedar Rapids.
Council Bluffs
Davenport—
Des M o in e s ..
Dubuque-----Fort Dodge—
Iowa C ity ----K eokuk-------Marshalltow n ______
M ason C it y ..
Muscatine----O ttum w a... Sioux C ity—
W aterloo------Kansas:
Arkansas City
Atchison------Dodge C it y ..
Eldorado____
Emporia_____
Fort Scott----Hutchinson.—
Independence
Kansas C ity ..
Lawrence
LeavenworthM anhattan.-.
N ew ton........ Pittsburg-----Salina_______
Topeka______
W ichita_____
Minnesota:
Albert Lea—
Brainerd____
D u lu th .. . -.
H ibbing--------

FamiNew
New res­
Total
ilies
nonresiidential dential (includ­ pro­
ing re­ vided
build­
build­
pairs)
ings
for
ings

$14, 300
0
4, 500
0
2, 600
3,000
38, 375
0
0
3, 500
1,400

$3, 500
4,035
225
5,095
15, 730
6,880
8,892
510
850
505
2,000

$19,385
4,085
16,725
21,166
22, 230
28,164
72, 409
100,115
3,205
11,365
3,800

4
0
1
0
1
1
19
0
0
1
1

0
21,150
0
0
12, 750
9,400

3,100
1,955
2, 050
900
3,100
1,855

7, 520
36,433
4,150
13,400
23, 775
20,460

0
7
0
0
8
2

0
0
0
0
5,000
1,200
2,80C
0
3,450
7, 50C
14, 70C
4,80C
C
C
c
16,850
0

290
150
0
0
0
0
100
2,200
2, 530
75
3,200
50
15C
0
310
28,340
4,925

1,165
1,050
0
430
9,615
1,200
7,824
2, 200
7, 000
9,075
22,085
4 ,85C
607
1,810
1, 21C
48,930
14, 680

0
0
0
0
1
1
2
0
3
2
4
1
0
0
0
6
0

1,80C
C
19,400
500

C
1, 20C
8 ,93C
2,000

2, 75C
1,20C
55, 217
19,526

1
0
7
1

C ity and State

M i n n e s o t a—
Continued.
M ankato__ .
M inneapolis..
Rochester___
St. Paul_____
South St. Paul
W inona_____
Missouri:
Cape Girardeau___ . . .
Columbia____
Hannibal-----Independence
Jefferson City
Joplin___ . .
Kansas C ity ..
M aplewood—
M oberly_____
St. C harles.- .
St. Joseph----St. Louis____
Springfield__
Nebraska:
Beatrice------Fremont_____
Grand Island.
Hastings------Lincoln.
North Platte.
Omaha____ North Dakota:
Bismarck.......
F argo.. _. ..
Grand Forks.
M inot -.
South Dakota:
Aberdeen _ . .
Mitchell .
Rapid C ity—
Sioux Falls. . .
Total____

New
Fam­
New res­ nonresi- Total
idential dential (includ­ ilies
ing re­ pro­
build­
build­
vided
ings
pairs)
ings
for

$2, 600
152,400
3,850
91,320
13, 750
6,350

$1,195
46,135
0
236,866
350
0

$7, 790
321, 210
11, 600
389, 551
14, 240
24, 550

1
39
2
18
6
3

8,480
2,165
11,395
0
0
0
0
725
725
3,500
3,450
8,850
1,600
5,000
13, 660
0
29,325
36,250
17,200 111,450
71, 500
200
4, 600
4, 890
2,900
0
4,900
0
630
630
690
11,110
6, 500
214, 750 3, 230, 895 3, 589,916
21,500
2, 700
31,760

4
0
0
1
1
0
18
2
0
0
3
46
4

0
500
1,500
0
21, 725
8, 200
61, 900

0
1,150
0
0
3,541
14, 300
12,880

0
4,075
5,920
0
48, 366
22, 500
93,545

0
1
1
0
4
2
15

13,100
8, 500
1,800
0

2,650
1,700
375
1,025

15,850
10,900
11,240
2, 550

6
2
2
0

4,450
350
5,800
0
0
0
1,174
0
2,114
0
4,870
9,890
916, 750 3, 736,673 5,448, 038

3
0
0
0
258

S ou th A tla n tic S tates
Delaware:
W ilm ington..
District of Co­
lumbia:
Washington. .
Florida:
Gainesville-- .
Jacksonville. .
K ey W est___
M iam i_______
Orlando_____
Pensacola-----Sanford...........
St. Augustine.
St. Petersburg
Tallahassee- Tam pa______
West Palm
Beach_____
Georgia:
Athens_____
Atlanta.........
Augusta____
Brunswick__
Columbus-----

$18,000

$5,150

$47, 599

3

24],650

67,732

453,148

43

13, 200
24, 850
0
17,600
1,300
17, 250
0
1,000
7,000
20, 025
0

175
130,755
0
157,955
1,350
3, 280
75
0
12, 300
3,080
6, 255

13, 460
203,830
0
254,715
11,706
25, 343
4, 980
2,530
45,650
25, 592
45, 266

6
15
0
5
1
8
0
1
3
13
0

2,312

76C

7,872

2

9, 80C
38, 4OC
5,95C
C
7,000

9, 00C
7,645
11, 266
76C
5,300

22,740
80,981
22,199
3,875
21, 309

4
17
3
0
1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Georgia—Con.
Lagrange. —
M acon . . . . .
R o m e .. . . . .
Savannah___
Maryland:
Annapolis----Baltimore___
Cumberland—
Frederick____
Haverst.own _
Salisbury-----North Carolina:
A sheville-. . Charlotte-----C o n c o r d .----Durham_____
Elizabeth
C ity----------Fayetteville-.
Gastonia___
Goldsboro___
Greensboro.. .
High P oin t.. .
K inston.. . .

0
$4, 750
0
20, 500

$450
0
0
4, 620

$805
18,976
1,010
35,389

0
2
0
5

5, 573
77, 000
0
5,000
0
0

0
99, 822
95, 275
1,350
2,125
7,100

8, 508
466,922
96,425
8,680
7, 765
11,925

1
21
0
1
0
0

0
18, 500
6, 000
27,380

7,540
6,275
2,000
17,118

12, 663
34, 629
8,100
51,083

0
6
2
16

0
0
0
2, 500
5,300
5,000
0

0
0
0
500
1,565
747
41, 500

0
3,496
1,250
3,100
15,961
10, 797
41, 600

0
0
0
1
2
3
0

908

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T able 9 .— E S T IM A T E D C OST OF B U IL D IN G S FO R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU ED IN

P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933— Continued

S ou th A tla n tic S tates — Continued

C ity and State

N o r t h Carolina—Contd.
New Bern___
R aleigh... . . .
R ocky Mount.
Salisbury. . .
Shelby___ __
Thom asville..
W ilm ington..
WinstonSalem__
South Carolina:
Anderson.. .
Charleston__
Columbia___
Florence. . .
Greenville___
Greenwood...
Rock H ill___
Spartanburg..
Sumter. _____
Virginia:
Alexandria__
Charlottesville

New
Fami­
New res­
Total
idential nonresi- (includ­ lies
dential
pro­
build­
ing re­
build­
vided
ings
pairs)
ings
for

0
$2, 550
4,500
0
0
0
40,000
500

0
$5,935
1, 470
50
0
30
350
0

$1, 000
11,260
21,174
2,025
0
30
43,185
500

0
4
1
0
0
0
1
1

15,800

1,690

24,185

5

6,600
7, 500
16,100
9,650
7,500
5,600
1,200
0
11,000

0
3,100
80
2, 800
275
304
0
600
600

8, 900
17, 339
21,129
14,950
11,825
6,849
10,090
3, 760
11,600

3
3
6
5
2
4
1
0
4

21, 400
30,000

9, 385
2,432

37, 275
33,182

6
6

C ity and State

Virginia— Con.
Danville.
Hopewell____
N ewport
News______
Petersburg__
Portsm outh..
Richm ond___
Staunton _. .
Suffolk
. .
W inchester..
West Virginia:
Bluefield____
Charleston__
Clarksburg...
Fairm ont.. ..
H un tington..
Martinsburg.M organtow n.
Parkersburg..
W h eelin g___
T otal____

New
Fam­
New res­
Total
nonresiilies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
build­
ing re­
build­
vided
ings
pairs)
ings
for

$17,000
2, 200

$4,100
0

$22,085
2,315

3
2

4,875
43, 300
0
16,600
22, 500
12, 915
2,000
0
5, 380

20, 863
4, 220
225
225
13,030
545
5,150
953
7,140

33,925
88, 430
2, 589
23, 537
88,887
41 827
9,192
2, 364
12, 620

3
17
0
7
6
4
i
0
2

0
18, 500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

215
885
1,580
1,520
2, 765
2, 500
550
800
75,050

1, 065
26, 774
19,165
1, 570
5,245
4,100
4,889
4,785
77,044

0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

882, 242 2, 884, 545

286

928, 010

S ou th C en tra l S tates
Alabama:
Bessemer
Birmingham _
Decatur___ _
Dothan______
Fairfield.. .
Gadsden_____
Huntsville___
M obile _ ___
M ontgom ery.
Selma_____ _
Tuscaloosa__
Arkansas:
B ly th eville...
El Dorado___
Fort S m ith ...
H ot Springs. _
Little R o ck ...
Texarkana___
Kentucky:
Ashland____
Fort Thomas.
Frankfort____
Henderson__
Lexington___
Louisville___
M iddlesboro..
Ow ensboro.._
Paducah . .
Louisiana:
Alexandria__
Lafayette____
M onroe______
New Orleans.
Shreveport-. .
Mississippi:
Biloxi _____
Clarksdale___
Columbus___
G reenw ood...
Gulfport_____
H attiesburg..
Jackson ___
Laurel_______
Meridian____
Vicksburg___

0
$10, 800
0
0
0
1,680
0
5, 450
11,000
0
0

0
$3,830
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,800
650
6,390

$1,145
39,143
0
1,300
632
2,269
1,345
32, 268
39, 079
4, 396
6, 390

0
6
0
0
0
2
0
5
4
0
0

3, 500
15, 000
4, 475
0
0
1,400

0
0
12,089
0
7, 755
2,400

4,000
15, 250
23, 052
500
20, 337
7, 900

3
2
2
0
0
4

0
0
1,500
0
0
51,850
0
7,100
4,950

3,000
500
0
0
415
238, 700
0
0
0

3,500
500
1,875
0
24, 200
345, 725
0
8, 220
4, 950

0
0
1
0
0
9
0
5
3

2, 350
5, 542
0
22,925
2, 950

20,400
80
1,650
114, 678
6, 779

42, 305
5, 622
4, 250
195,904
97,018

3
3
0
8
3

0
3, 755

0
2

0
3, 500

0

0
0
7, 500
5,280
800
6,150
1,300

2 N ot included in totals.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

0
0
0
0

625
0

0
2,600
0
0

0

0
1,688
8, 300
24, 777
3,400
9,710
2,382

0
0
0
5
6

1

4
2

Oklahoma:
Ardmore . .
Bartlesville...
Chickasha___
E nid. _____
Oklahoma
C ity_______
Ponca C it y 2 _
Sapulpa_____
Shawnee.
Tulsa________
Tennessee:
Chattanooga.
Jackson . . . .
Johnson C ity.
Kingsport___
Knoxville.
M em phis____
N a sh v ille___
Texas:
Abilene_____
Amarillo. __
Austin.
Beaumont. . .
Big Spring .
Brown w ood.
Corsicana. .
Dallas. . . .
Del R io _____
Denison_____
Fort W orth.
Galveston
Houston_____
P a m p a .. . . .
San Angelo. .
San Antonio .
Sweetwater..
Temple
Tyler
Wichita Falls.
Total___

0
0
$2, 000
1,170
7,000

o
$450
125
175
800

o
$450
12,425
1,345
11, 225

18,000
0
0
0
0
15, 000

56, 510
1,100
0
o
2,070
32, 315

99,130
1,200
0
o
3,880
59,100

0
0
0
0
8, 040
22, 230
18, 725

12,416
0
0
0
7,491
52,000
41,823

31, 267
1,500
0
0
50, 937
113,620
90,857

0
0
0
0
5
8
12

7, 500
0
64, 922
1, 500
1,000
0
0
57,050
0
0
5, 000
42, 700
10,975
153,830
1, 000

750
15, 800
19,166
1,221
0
0
0
14, 686
500
2, 750
1, 528
21, 766
1,320
58,945
3, 950

8,585
22,714
171,970
10,738
1,187
0
1,465
175, 754
1,870
5,140
20, 960
104,436
27,434
227,815
11, 487
0
150
100
9, 225
54,737 127,880
0
80
0
2, 350
2,175
34, 587
3, 600
24, 392
3,050
21, 553
847, 560 2, 474, 595

1
0
27
1
1
0
0
35
0
0
2
15
9
63
2
0
2
25

0

8, 350
52, 275
0
2,100
25, 275
16, 725
13,000
732, 369

o
0
1
2
1
5

0
0
o
0
1

0

2
13
7
2
325

909

HOUSING

T able 9 .— E S T IM A T E D C O ST OF B U IL D IN G S F O R W H IC H P E R M IT S W E R E ISSU E D IN
P R IN C IP A L C IT IE S , A U G U ST 1933—Continued

M o u n ta in an d P a c ific S tates

C ity and State

FamiNew
New res­ nonresi- Total
ilies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
ing re­ vided
build­
build­
pairs)
ings
for
ings

Arizona:
$9, 000 $18,780
Phoenix_____
$7, 500
28, 097
1,760
4, 300
T u c s o n .____
California:
33,567
8,335
15, 600
Alam eda____
5,567
3,000
0
A naheim .. ._
10, 598
4,025
Bakersfield...
2,165
16, 654 111,343
59,883
Berkeley____
9, 850 153,030
90, 550
Beverly Hills.
20,840
5,110
B u rb a n k .__ _
12, 480
8,975
5,000
0
Burlingame. _
6,850
150
0
E u r e k a -------49,005
285
24,950
F resno.. . . .
1,095
335
0
Gardena_____
8,375 102, 225
88, 400
Glendale ___
H u n tin g to n
40,176
11,945
18,317
Park ___
3,000
17,558
7,900
Inglewood----51,800 102, 520 569,190
Long Beach .
Los Angeles _ _ 872, 075 252, 617 1, 564,166
3,901
600
0
M o d e s to ____
3,355
8,890
2,200
Monrovia _.
68,344 211, 519
87, 682
Oakland . . . .
10,920
2, 720
0
O n ta rio-------56,900
49, 500
1,650
Palo A lto----15,479 131, 539
63,940
Pasadena. . . .
25,994
2, 450
19, 000
Pom ona_____
23, 229
2,605
9,850
Riverside-----13, 85C 100, 546
* 19, 950
Sacramento
14, 500
2,200
9, 044
Salinas.. . . . .
San Bernar­
15, 476
1,795
500
dino. —
102,026
89, 635 229,962
San D iego___
521,702
126,
836
269,80S
San Francisco
66,023
27, 97C
16,865
San Jose . .
13, 707
100
12, 487
San Leandro
25,474
5,840
14,87S
San M a te o ..
20,948
0
11,
ooc
Santa A na. .
45, 590
25,075
11, 10C
Santa Barbara
18, 280
5,030
10, 015
Santa C ruz..
27,255
1,695
16, 65C
Santa M onica.
1,411
23,116
4, 50C
Santa R o s a ...
675
13,625
7,250
South G a te...
South Pasa­
17,415
0
12, 000
dena_______
20,970
8, 272
(
S to ck ton .. .
11,080
680
6,450
Vallejo— . . .
2,400
0
0
W hittier_____

1
7
4
0
1
13
18
4
1
0
7
0
19
11
2
19
228
0
2
24
0
7
13
4
4
5
3
1
26
75
7
3
4
3
2
5
7
2
3
4
0
3
0

C ity and State

Fam­
New
New res­ nonresi- Total
ilies
idential dential (includ­ pro­
ing re­ vided
build­
build­
pairs)
ings
for
ings

Colorado:
Boulder-------Colorado
Springs____
Denver . . . .
Fort Collins.
Greeley--------Pueblo______
Idaho:
Boise.
----Pocatello____
Montana:
Billings--------Great Falls.._
Helena______
Missoula____
Nevada:
Reno .............
N ew Mexico:
AlbuquerqueOregon:
Astoria---------Eugene--------Klamath
Falls______
M edford____
Portland____
Salem .............
Utah:
Ogden----------P r o v o __ . .
S a l t L a ke
C ity----------Washington:
Aberdeen-----Bellingham ...
Bremerton . .
Hoquiam-----Longview-----Olym pia------S e a t t l e ..----Spokane-------T a c o m a ... . .
Walla W alla..
W enatchee.. .
Yakim a_____
W yom ing:
Cheyenne___

$1,000

0

$4,435

1

4,500
90,350
0
0
670

$1,130
20, 675
50
110
575

13,800
184, 855
3,190
135
5,120

2
20
0
0
1

19, 780
1,525
425 ' 3,905

4
2

4, 450
3,000
5,200
10, 350
16,050
12,000

810
2,370
445
6,600

9, 560
33, 420
18, 215
22, 275

4
4
10
2

2,500

3, 300

11,875

2

9,800

920

86, 545

4

800
2,800

118,720
855

122,467
27,376

i
2

0
0
46,800
8,635

605
295
116,055
4,712

6,485
2, 335
259,130
29,412

0
0
13
4

1,000
1,800

1,000
200

11,614
5, 200

1
1

13, 500

95,930

152, 270

3

3, 95C
2, 300
7, 000
0
0
0
119, 60(
24, 960
6 ,30C
(
0
0

30
6,000
750
2, 655
430
8, 250
155,810
4, 638
2, 775
0
6, 525
1,360

5,999
28, 733
25, 650
3,020
1, 287
9,915
336, 020
53,028
22, 575
1,595
11,125
7, 220

2
4
3
0
0
0
26
10
4
0
0
0

0

557

3,867

0

T otal____ 2,421,665 1,407, 582 5,945, 456

672

H a w a ii

City

11456' -33------10


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N ew resi­
dential
buildings

New nonresidential
buildings

$96,932

$14,868

Fami­
Total (in­ lies pro­
cluding re­ vided
pairs)
for
$190,318

78

Building-Erection Costs in Detroit

A

NNUALLY since 1915 the Detroit Real Estate Board has prel pared a table of unit costs employing the cubical content of the
buildings as a basis for the determination of costs. The figures, re­
vised to January 1, 1933, are presented in part in the following table.
Data for the years not shown in this table were published in the
Monthly Labor Review for April 1931 (pp. 174-176).
The report points out that in the preparation of the figures the
following rules for the measurement of the cubical volume of a
building were followed:
From the outside of the walls and from the basement floor to the mean point
of a pitched roof or to the highest point of a flat roof. The volume shall include
all dormers, enclosed porches, penthouses, and other enclosed portions of a
building, but shall exclude open porches.
In the case of buildings without basements, the measurements shall be taken
from the gound line, and in the case of large buildings having deep foundations,
the height shall be measured from a point below the basement floor by an amount
equal to one fifth of the depth of the foundation.
In the case of open-shelter sheds and other open sheds, the volume shall be
determined by measuring from the projection of the edge of the roof and from
the ground line to the mean height of the roof.
The cost figures presented are presumed to represent the minimum cost at
which a fairly good building of economic design, may be constructed under most
favorable circumstances, within the Detroit district. The costs contain archi­
tects’ fees and contractors’ profits and include all general items of construction
and equipment including plumbing and heating systems, elevators, etc. The
schedule does not include costs of special equipment such as incinerators, re­
frigeration, compressed air piping, etc., and does not include the cost of financing.
E S T IM A T E D C O ST P E R C U B IC FO O T OF B U IL D IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N IN D E T R O IT
M IC H .
Au­
Feb­ Jan­
A u­
Jan­
Jan­
Jan­
Jan­
gust
gust ruary uary uary uary uary uary
1915
1920
1925
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
Factories and warehouses:
Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
Fireproof (under 300,000 cubic feet)______
14
23
22
22
15
14
1634
Fireproof (over 300,000 cubic feet)
_ _ .
29
22
21
1234
21
16
1234
1434
M ill construction
____ . ___
10
16
11
2234
1534
10
15M
1134
Ordinary__________
9
21
14
1434
10
1334
934
834
Frame______ _ _ _
17
11
10
10
7J4
7
7
734
Stores:
F irep roof___________________
23
52
40
38
30
26
3834
2934
Ordinary______________ _
i6 34
3734
26)4
20
2534 . 25
19
1634
Flats (above ordinary) _ .
____
22
29
27
22
48)4
21
2734
1834
Ordinary without basements _
19
17
14
1734
12
1434
Churches and theaters:
Fireproof _ .
18
36
35
27
4034
26
34M
2234
Ordinary_______________ _________
35
is 34
26
2734
2634
2034
1834
1934
Office buildings:
Fireproof_______________ _ _ ________ __
52
3034
50
6834
39
32J4
49M
3734
Ordinary_____________________ _________
22
32
32
4834
25
24
3334
2134
Classification of buildings

Fireproof_______________________________
Ordinary________________________ .
____ .
Schools: Fireproof _
Hospitals: Fireproof
__ ___
All steel buildings:
Under 20,000 cubic feet______
_ _ ___
20,000 to 100,000 cubic feet
Over 100,000 cubic feet.
Apartments:
F irep roof___________ ____ ____
P rotected-- _ ______
_ _ _______ _
Brick (ordinary)___________
____ __
Brick (veneer). ___________ ___________
Residences:
B rick______________________________ ____
Brick (veneer and stucco)__ ____________
Frame__________________________________
Frame (not over 25,000 cubic feet)
Cinder concrete block________
Garages:
Gas and service stations___________ - - _
M ill construction-.
____
_
O r d in a r y .--_____
_ _ _ Frame_______ _________________________

910

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3334
29A
22
32

7534
6634
4834
72

57
34
43)4
4334

5534
3134
40
45

56
31
40
45

4234
2534
32
32

42
24
30
32

3734
2134
27
27M

12
8
634

25
18
14

14
12
10

13
10J4
9

13
1034
9

11
10
7

11
10
7

10
9
634

35
2934
28
24

78
6634
63
54

5234
46
32
30

50
4434
2934
28

50
45
29
28

39
34J4
24
2234

3734
34
23
22

34
30
22
21

3034
24
2 1A

6834
54
4814

46
3234
2634
39

44
3034
24
20
36J4

4434
3034
24
20
37

3434
24
20
15
29

3334
23
19
15
28

2534
2234
19
14
2234

23
15
1334
10 "

2234
14
13
9

23
1334
13 ~
9

17
11
10
8

17
11
10
7

2134
15U
10 ~
Q
634

30
20
17
14

H O U S IN G

911

The table shows that for several types of building the cost in
January 1933 was as low or lower than for any time since the com­
pilation of this information, and in all cases was lower during Jan­
uary 1933 than for any previous period shown, except August 1915.
In other words, the unit cost per cubic foot for all types of buildings
was lower in January 1933 than for any time since August 1920. In
general, August 1920 showed the highest cost per cubic foot for build­
ing erection in the city of Detroit. There were declining prices for
all types of buildings between August 1920 and April 1922; prices
rose from April 1922 to January 1924, but have been falling ever
since, with the low period, as above stated, January of this year.
No data are available as to any change in price since January
1933.
Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
A N ACT known as the "Home Owners’ Loan A ct” was signed by
X A . the President on June 13, 1933.1
Under a previous act the Home Loan Bank System was set up
which established a reserve system for building and loan associations.
Under it a home owner wanting a loan to pay off a debt on his house
could obtain one from a building and loan association provided the
debt did not exceed 40 percent of the value of the property. These
two restrictions— on the source of the loan and the amount of the
debt— seriously restricted the benefits of the act to the individua]
owner. It was to meet the need of the home owners not eligible to
assistance under the Hume Loan Act that the act of 1933 was passed.
The procedure under the Home Owners’ Loan Act is described as
follows by the chairman of the corporation administering the act:
The Federal Home Loan Bank Board was to organize the corporation known
as Home Owners’ Loan Corporation and set up convenient agencies over the
United States to which the distressed class should go to secure the aid desired.
Under that, as stated above, the board set up the organization in every State,
and is now ready to grant and already is granting loans. It has $200,000,000
cash subscribed by the Government, and $2,000,000,000 in bonds of the cor­
poration, bearing 4 percent interest, payable semiannually, and the interest is
guaranteed by the Government for 18 years. The distressed home owner applies
to one of the agencies established in his State, proves that he is about to be sold
out, and that his property is not worth over $20,000, and that it is worth 25
percent more than the debt on it. The agent asks if the man holding the mort­
gage will take our corporation bonds for it. The mortgagee agrees to do so.
The property is appraised and the value is there. The title is searched and
found correct. Then, say the mortgage is $4,000, the corporation goes with the
owner and delivers $4,000 of bonds to the holder of the mortgage and he assigns
his mortgage to the corporation. Then the corporation uses cash to pay taxes
and assessments due on the home and when all is cleared up they add the expense
and taxes paid out to the debt and take a new mortgage divided up into pay­
ments running 15 years, and at 5 percent interest, so that the home owner is
put in a position where, by paying a small payment each month he will have his
home clear at the end of 15 years. One thing I want to emphasize is that you
pay nothing unless you get the loan. No appraiser’s fee is allowed to be col­
lected, no attorney’s fee for that matter, until the loan is made. The board
has definitely decided that no fees shall be collected unless the loan is made and
then the appraiser’s fee and attorney’s fee, and recording fees are to be collected,
but are paid by the corporation and added to the mortgage. No outside agency
or attorney is allowed to charge the borrower any fee for procuring any loan.
i A summary of the provisions of the act was given in the July 1933 issue of the M onth ly Labor Review
(p. 92).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

912

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Good Housing Versus Food

A T A meeting of the British Royal Society of Medicine, held on
x X February 24, 1933, Dr. G. C. M. McGonigle, medical officer of
health for Stockton-on-Tees, presented a paper dealing with some
results of transferring a slum population to modern dwellings in a
healthful area, which is summarized in the Lancet (London) for
March 4.
Stockton-on-Tees, Dr. McGonigle explained, had at the 1931
census a population of 67,722. Its chief industries, shipbuilding and
engineering, were hard hit by the depression, and unemployment has
been severe, There were three main types of dwelling houses in the
town— modern, semidetached council houses; small, inconvenient
“ middle-aged” houses crowded together in long streets; and old,
insanitary dwellings, the third type mostly near the river but also
found in groups throughout the town. Since the war the town council
has vigorously pressed a housing policy which includes the demolition
of slums, the building of new houses, and the maintenance of the
middle-aged houses in good condition. In the fall of 1927 a slum
area known as Housewife Lane was evacuated, and 152 families living
there were moved to an improved area, the Mount Pleasant estate.
A similar area known as the Riverside area remained in status quo ante and
provided a control; its population of 1,298 consisted of 289 families. The House­
wife Lane area consisted of old houses, either small, containing one or two rooms,
or large, sublet in numerous tenements. One-room tenements were occupied by
83 families and the sanitary conditions and structure were bad. The Mount
Pleasant estate seemed to offer everything that modern sanitary science could
demand.

Nevertheless, the removal to the new quarters was followed by a
rise in the death rate. The mean crude death rates per 1,000 popu­
lation of certain areas for the periods 1923-27 and 1928-32, including
the Housewife Lane area in the earlier and the Mount Pleasant estate
in the later period, were as follows:
M E A N C R U D E D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 OF P O P U L A T IO N IN S P E C IF IE D A R E A S F O R
P E R IO D S 1923-27 A N D 1928-32
Area
England and W ales_____
Riverside area________________
Housewife Lane area . .
M ount Pleasant estate__________

1923-27

1928-32

12.15
22.16
18. 75

12. 20
20. 45
26.71

The Mount Pleasant figures for 1928-32 refer, it must be remem­
bered, to the group of people whose death rate for the preceding period
is shown by the figures for the Housewife Lane area.
Thus there was an increase of 8.47 per 1,000 deaths for the people who had
been housed on an excellent modern estate and a decrease of 2.9 per 1,000 for
those who had remained in the old slum conditions. These were the crude
figures, but when they had been standardized in the light of the 1931 census,
the difference was even greater. The mean standardized death rate for the
Mount Pleasant estate was 33.55 per 1,000, an increase of 46 percent over the
mean standardized rate for the same individuals in the previous quinquennium,
whereas the Riverside people and the population of Durham County showed a
decrease in the second 5-year period. The standardized figure for the Riverside
area was 22.78 for 1928-32 and 26.10 for 1923-27.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

HOUSING

913

The medical officer dealt at some length with the various causes
of death in the new area and concluded that the increased rate could
not be ascribed to such environmental factors as housing, drainage,
overcrowding, or insanitary conditions. There was one striking dif­
ference, however, in living conditions between the two areas—in the
Mount Pleasant estate, rents were higher, and consequently there was
less money to spend for food.
The transfer to Mount Pleasant had increased the rent paid by the inhabitants
from 9s. to 13s. 4d. per week, but as two families were in some cases sharing a
house the mean rent per family per week was now 8s. lOd. In Riverside area
the figure was 4s. 10%d. As a result of unemployment the weekly income was
strictly limited. * * * It was found that the unemployed on Mount Pleasant
could only spend 36.7 percent of their income on food, a total of 2s. 10%d. per
"m a n ” per week. The food purchased had been analyzed and compared with
a standard diet. In no case did the first-class protein attain the quantity re­
quired by the normal diet. The least deficiency (20 percent) was among the
employed families in the Riverside area, and the greatest deficiency (about 50
percent) among the unemployed on Mount Pleasant. The figures for total pro­
tein corresponded. * * * Calculations suggested that it was not possible to
purchase normal quantities of foodstuffs for less than 4s. 6d. per "m a n ” per week.

In summing up, the speaker stated that his comparative study of
the two areas had shown no adverse influence which might be opera­
tive upon the Mount Pleasant estate other than the variations in the
composition of their diets. “ Whether these differences were respon­
sible for the higher death rate upon this estate might be a matter for
conj ecture. His investigations had failed to detect any other probable
cause.”
Speaking before the National Association for the Prevention of
Tuberculosis on July 13, Dr. McGonigle gave the facts as to the
increase in the death rate following upon the removal to the Mount
Pleasant estate and spoke more emphatically as to the cause.
It has been shown almost beyond any shadow of doubt * * * that this
increased death rate is definitely correlated with a diminished expenditure on
food consequent on the increase in rents—-about 4s. 6d. per week— payable by
the families moved from the Housewife Lane area to Mount Pleasant without
any accompanying increase in the family income. * * *
It must be obvious to every thinking person that if good environmental condi­
tions are obtained only at the expense of a reduction of food-purchasing power
far below the safety line, such advantages as accrue from good housing will be
more than outweighed by nutritional depreciation and, as a consequence, cannot
but have an adverse effect upon tuberculosis.

Public Provision of Houses for Unemployed Workers
in Germany 1

HE German Government has recently appropriated 50,000,000
marks ($11,900,000)2 for the construction of at least 20,000 addi­
tional unemployed workmen’s homes in suburbs, thus increasing the
total amount made available for this purpose to date to 173,000,000
marks ($41,174,000).
The idea of constructing unemployed workers’ homes was first put
into practice in the fall of 1931, with an initial appropriation of
48,000,000 marks ($11,424,000). This original sum was added to on
several occasions, the latest appropriation being the fourth.

T

1 Report of Sydney B. Redecker, United States consul at Frankfort-on-Main, Germany, Aug. 5, 1933.
2 Conversions into United States currency on basis of mark at par=23.8 cents.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

914

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

The scheme has been found to be practical from the point of view
of providing unemployed workers with constructive work during their
otherwise idle time and in providing them with their own homes when
the construction work is completed. Under the plan, areas of land
in the suburbs of cities are set aside for the construction of settle­
ments of workers’ homes, each of the 1-family type and provided with
a plot of land for truck-gardening purposes with the view of growing
vegetables for the family table. The buildings are all of uniform plan
and very simple and, in fact, rather primitive in construction, lacldng
most modern improvements. The prospective unemployed owners
themselves perform the work of construction, under the direction of
skilled foremen, and when construction is completed each one is
awarded one of the structures as his home. Distribution is made
by the drawing of lots.
During the course of construction, the unemployed worker receives
his usual relief payment, which constitutes his wages, and this pay­
ment is continued after his occupancy of the house, with suitable
deductions equivalent to the amount of rent. The houses are limited,
as to cost, to 2,500 marks ($595), which is to be repaid over a long
period by the tenant. Ownership is acquired upon completion of
payment.
The new appropriation of 50,000,000 marks is intended to provide
for the construction of at least 20,000 more homes, bringing the total
constructed since 1931 through governmental grants in the manner
indicated, up to around 66,000.

New Housing Legislation in England

NEW housing act, which does not apply to Scotland or to Nortli, ern Ireland, passed Parliament and received the royal assent on
May 18, 1933. It is in two parts, the first cutting off the subsidies
hitherto given to housing projects under the acts of 1923 and 1924,
and the second providing special assistance for building societies.
Its terms are summarized in the Ministry of Labor Gazette for June
1933 (p. 203).
The first part revokes the power of the Minister of Health to grant
subsidies, under the terms of the two housing acts mentioned, toward
expenses incurred in providing or promoting the provision of any
house, unless proposals for it had been submitted to him before
December 7, 1932. This is modified by the provision that if the
Minister is satisfied that such proposals had been prepared and were
substantially ready to be presented to him before December 7, he
might treat them as if they had been actually submitted before that
date.
The second part, which contains more detail, is thus summarized:

A

By virtue of paragraph (b) of section 92 of the Housing Act, 1925, local authori­
ties and county councils have power, subject to conditions approved by the
Minister, to undertake to guarantee the repayment to societies incorporated
under the Building Societies Acts, 1874 to 1894, or the Industrial and Provident
Societies Acts, 1893 to 1913, of advances and interest thereon made by such
Societies to their members for the purpose of enabling them to build houses or to
acquire houses to be, or in the course of being, built.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

HOUSING

915

Hitherto such guaranties have involved no exchequer liability; but section 2
of the new act enables the Minister to undertake to reimburse, out of moneys
provided by Parliament, not more than one half of any loss sustained by a local
authority or county council in carrying out proposals submitted to and approved
by him for guaranteeing, under section 92 (1) (6) of the act of 1925, the repay­
ment to such a society of advances made by the society to any of its members
for the purpose of enabling them to build or acquire houses intended to be let
to persons of the working classes; provided that the Minister is satisfied—
(i) That the guaranty extends only to the principal of and interest on the
amount by which the sum to be advanced by the society exceeds the sum which
would normally be advanced by them without any such guaranty; and
{it) That the liability of the local authority or county council under the
guaranty cannot be greater than two thirds of that principal and interest.
The act further provides that any such proposals made to the Minister shall
(a) include particulars as to the number, type, and size of the houses in question
and (6) make provision for securing that such houses will not exceed the rate of
12 to the acre, and that each of them will be provided with a fixed bath; except
insofar as the Minister may in any particular case dispense with either or both of
these requirements.

Change in English Rent and Mortgage Interest Restrictions

NEW act relating to rent and mortgage interest restrictions be­
came law in Great Britain in July 1933. Up to the time of its
enactment dwelling houses built, or converted into dwellings, before
April 3, 1919, were subject to control as to rent and interest on
mortgages, except that, under an act of 1923, they passed out of con­
trol if they became vacant. Under the new act, controlled dwellings,
assessed for purposes of local taxation at not less than £20 ($97.33) 1
in Greater London, £13 ($63.26) elsewhere in England and Wales,
and £26 5s. ($127.75) in Scotland, must remain under control in spite
of a vacancy or a change in tenancy, although those which have
already been decontrolled remain so. Dwellings assessed at more
than the figures given above but not exceeding £45 ($218.99) in
Greater London and Scotland, and £35 ($170.33) elsewhere are de­
controlled on becoming vacant, and in the case of values beyond these,
are decontrolled upon September 29, 1933 (Nov. 28 in Scotland), ir­
respective of vacancy, subject to notice being given. In the August
1933 issue of the Ministry of Labor Gazette are summarized some of
the important provisions of the new act.

A

If the landlord of a dwelling house with ratable value not exceeding the limits
stated above, which was let as a separate dwelling at the passing of this act,
wishes to claim that the dwelling has become decontrolled under the act of 1923
he must not later than October 18, 1933, apply to the local authority for its
registration; otherwise the house will be deemed to be controlled. The local
authority must keep a register of applications for registration, which must be open
to public inspection. The fact that such a house appears on the register will not
be evidence that it is decontrolled; but the fact that such a house is not on the
register will show that it is controlled, unless it was not let at the date of the
passing of the act.
The permitted increases in controlled rents in respect of structural alterations
and improvements are, conditionally, extended to cover improvements in fixtures
and fittings. * * *
1 Conversions into United States currency on basis of pound at par=$4.8665.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

916

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

The act also introduces a number of modifications of the restrictions on the
landlord’s right to possession and makes various other alterations in the law. It
empowers local authorities to publish information on the rent restrictions acts
(though not to offer advice on legal questions between individual landlords and
tenants), and to furnish particulars as to the availability, extent, and character
of alternative accommodation. It also empowers local authorities to prosecute
offenses under the acts.
The acts are to continue in effect until June 24, 1938 (May 28 in Scotland) and
no longer.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
Wages and Hours of Labor in the Glass Industry, 1932

I

ATE in 1932 the Bureau of Labor Statistics made a study of wages
J and hours of labor of wage earners in the glass industry in the
United States, covering four distinct departments of the industry—
pressed and blown ware (not including plants, the principal product
of which was tubing), bottles and food containers, plate glass, and
window glass. A summary of the results of the study is here pre­
sented, by principal occupations (table 1) and by States (table 2),
for each department of the industry and for all departments combined.
A more detailed report will be published later as a bulletin of the
Bureau.
The data were taken by agents of the Bureau directly from the pay
rolls of 120 representative plants in 10 States, covering a representative
pay-roll period in 1932 for 26,971 wage earners. Of these workers,
49 percent were employed in the pressed and blown ware department,
32 percent in the bottles and food-containers depratment, 11 percent
in the plate-glass department, and 8 percent in the window-glass
department.
The tables show the average full-time and actual hours and earnings
in one week, average earnings per hour, and the percent of full time
worked in 1 week in each department, for each of the principal occu­
pations and also for a group of “ other employees” , in occupations
too few in number to be tabulated separately.
The 26,971 wage earners covered in the four departments of the
industry, as shown at the end of table 1, worked an average of 4.9
days in 1 week. In computing this average, each day or part of a
day on which any wage earner performed any work during the week
was counted as a day. The full-time hours per week of all employees
averaged 50.2, but they actually worked only 37.4 hours in the week or
74.5 percent of full time. Actual earnings averaged 45.4 cents per
hour and $17.01 for the week; for a full-time week of 50.2 hours the
earnings would have averaged $22.79, or $5.78 more than was actually
earned in the week.
The 13,236 wage earners of the 60 plants making pressed and blown
ware worked an average of 4.6 days in 1 week. Their full-time hours
per week averaged 49.4, but they actually worked only 35.6 hours in
1 week, or 72.1 percent of full time, and earned an average of 44.3
cents per hour and $15.80 in the week covered. Their earnings for a
full-time week would have averaged $21.88, or $6.08 more than was
actually earned.
The 8,689 wage earners of the 44 plants making bottles and food
containers worked an average of 5.4 days in 1 week. Their full-time
hours per week averaged 50.6 and they actually worked 40.5 hours in
917

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

918

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

1 week, or 80 percent of full time, earning an average of 44 cents per
hour and $17.83 during the week. Full-time earnings would have
averaged $22.26 for the week, or $4.43 more than was actually earned.
The 2,997 wage earners of the 6 plate-glass factories worked an
average of 4.6 days in 1 week. Their full-time hours per week
averaged 51.1, but they actually worked only 32.4 hours during the
week studied, or 63.4 percent of full time; their earnings during this
period averaged 48.2 cents per hour and $15.61 for the week. For a
full-time week their earnings would have averaged $24.63, or $9.02
more than they actually earned.
The 2,049 wage earners of the 10 window-glass plants worked an
average of 5.5 days in 1 week. Their full-time hours per week
averaged 52.5. They actually worked an average of 43.2 hours in
1 week, or 82.3 percent of full time, during which they earned an
average of 54 cents per hour and $23.35 for the week. At full time
their earnings would have averaged $28.35, or $5 more than was actu­
ally earned by them in the week covered by the study.
In the pressed and blown ware department the average earnings per
hour of males ranged, by occupation, from 30 cents for carriers-in to
$1.16 for blockers, while those of females ranged from 20.1 cents for
washers to 33.3 cents for cutters (decorating). In the department
manufacturing bottles and food containers the average hourly
earnings of males ranged from 32.9 cents for hand truckers to 69.1
cents for bench mold finishers, while those of females ranged from
21.5 cents for hand mold cleaners and polishers to 28.5 cents for inspec­
tors. In the plate-glass department the average hourly earnings of
males ranged from 32.8 cents for trimmers to 58.9 cents for teemers,
and those of females ranged from 24.4 cents for washers, working by
hand, to 27.8 cents for finish cutters. In the window-glass depart­
ment the average earnings per hour of males ranged from 25.7 cents
for labelers to 96.8 cents for finish cutters; no females were employed
in this department.
T a ble 1 — A V E R A G E D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS IN D U S T R Y , 1932,

B Y K IN D
W ORKERS

OF

GLASS

M ANUFACTURED, AND

N um ­
ber of
Kind of glass manufactured, and occu­ estab­
pation and sex of workers
lish­
ments

BY

O C C U P A T IO N

A N D S E X OF

Hours
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
actually
Aver- worked in Aver­
age
age
age
N um ­ days on age
full­
1 week
age
ac­
fullber of which
earn- time
tual
time
earn­ earn­
ings
earn­ earners hours A ver­ Per­
per
ings
ings
worked per
ers
per
in 1
age cent hour
in 1
week num­
week week
of füll
week
ber time

Pressed and blown ware
M old makers, male
----- ----M old makers’ helpers, male------ __ _ _
M old finishers, bench, male _ _ _ _
M old cleaners and polishers:
Hand, male______________________
Hand, female
------ ------- --- _ - _
M old polishers, machine, male--- ----Gas makers, male_____
Batch mixers, male___
___ _
Tank tenders, male
- .Tank tenders’ helpers, m ale---------------Gatherers, male_____
____ _ Bit gatherers, male---------------------Pressers, hand, male - ______________
Pressers, automatic, male--------- ----------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

44
17
27

189
35
98

5.4
5.3
5.5

49.0
50. 1
48.3

45. 2
42.6
44.6

92.2 $0. 731 $35. 82
.402 20. 14
85.0
92.3
.743 35.89

37
15
18
19
51
53
22
57
12
40
10

105
72
68
68
125
194
91
1,046
158
341
104

5.4
5.5
5.7
6.3
5. 7
6. 3
5.5
4.0
4.4
4. 1
5.3

51.5
50.4
50. 7
59.4
53.4
62. 2
56.8
46. 3
47.4
46.5
51.9

48. 1
44. 7
48.2
54.8
48. 1
57. 9
48.6
28.0
31.8
30. 2
45. 1

93.4
88.7
95. 1
92.3
90. 1
93. 1
85.6
60.5
67. 1
64.9
86.9

.395
.212
.424
.437
.439
.449
.397
.719
.349
.916
.538

20.34
10.68
21. 50
25. 96
23. 44
27. 93
22.55
33. 29
16. 54
42.59
27.92

$33. 03
17. 09
33.12
18. 99
9.48
20.41
23. 96
21. 12
26. 03
19.31
20.13
11.09
27.66
24,24

919

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T able 1 .— A V E R A G E D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS IN D U S T R Y , 1932,

B Y K IN D OF GLASS
W O R K E R S —Continued

M ANUFACTURED, AND

K ind of glass manufactured, and occupation and sex of workers

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

BY

O C C U P A T IO N

A N D S E X OF

Hours
Aver­
A ver­ A ver­
Aver- actually
age
worked
in Aver­
age
age
N um ­ days on age
1
week
age
full­
ac­
ber of which
fullearn- time
tual
time
earn­
earn­
ings
earn­ earners hours
Aver­ Per­
per
ings
ings
ers
worked per
age cent hour
per
in 1
week num­
in 1
week week
of full
week
ber time

Pressed and blown ware—Continued
6
10
14

44
69
87

4.8
4.0
3.5

49.8
46.4
45.4

36.0
25.6
21.2

72.3 $0.958 $47. 71
55. 2
.369 17. 12
46. 7 1. 160 52.66

49
7
31
38
35
35
13
28
52
42

549
112
140
561
614
314
176
304
1,431
118

4. 1
4.9
4.0
4. 1
3.7
4.3
4.0
3.8
3.7
5.0

45.8
54. 2
46.4
48.4
47.2
46.5
46.6
47. 2
48.0
50.5

28.4
39. 7
27.5
30.6
26.7
31.0
29.6
26.5
26.2
43.5

62.0
73.2
59.3
63. 2
56.6
66.7
63.5
56.1
54.6
86. 1

.896
.685
.338
.372
.331
.592
.854
.311
.300
.389

41.04
37.13
15.68
18. 00
15. 62
27. 53
39. 80
14.68
14.40
19.64

25.49
27. 19
9. 28
11. 38
8.84
18. 35
25.25
8.24
7. 86
16.89

21
11

160
38

4. 3
5.2

52.1
48.0

36.3
41.6

69. 7
86.7

.338
.233

17.61
11.18

12. 24
9.69

5
6

27
28

5. 1
5.0

51.9
50.5

41.0
37.3

79.0
73.9

.363
.317

18. 84
16.01

14. 87
11. 85

22
52

204
1,011

4.8
5.0

50.5
49.3

38.3
39.2

75.8
79.5

.412
. 247

20.81
12. 18

15. 78
9. 68

8
3

19
15

5. 3
4.7

55.6
52.3

47.0
40.5

84. 5
77.4

.440
. 259

24. 46
13. 55

20. 69
10.47

13
27

116
131

4. 6
4.6

53.9
50.1

35.5
34.2

65.9
68.3

.458
.249

24.69
12. 47

16. 28
8.51

32
25

253
149

5. 1
4.9

50. 1
49.6

38.9
38.2

77.6
77.0

.440
.263

22. 04
13.04

17. 14
10.06

6
25

15
215

4. 5
4.8

48. 1
49.5

33.7
38.9

70.1
78.6

.348
.201

16. 74
9. 95

11.72
7. 80

18
8

55
38

4.4
3. 7

50.5
49.6

35.0
31.5

69.3
63.5

.365
. 220

18. 43
10.91

12. 77
6.91

5
8

32
20

4.8
5.5

53.1
48. 2

34.6
41. 5

65.2
86.1

.302
. 211

16.04
10.17

10.47
8.74

17
3

71
7

4.5
4. 1

48.8
46.3

35. 1
33.4

71.9
72. 1

.493
.205

24.06
9. 49

17. 32
6.86

14
3

26
9

4.2
3.6

50.4
49.8

35.3
29.1

70.0
58.4

.424
. 237

21.37
11. 80

14. 97
6.90

148
17
17 • 73
191
26
43
19

4.2
4.8
5.2
4.9

50.1
52.1
50.7
55.0

34.3
40.7
42. 8
44.5

68.5
78.1
84.4
80.9

.221
.449
.293
.425

11. 07
23.39
14. 86
23. 38

7. 59
18. 25
12. 52
18.91

21
3

96
65

4.5
4.3

49.4
53.1

37.8
35.7

76.5
67.2

.619
.333

30.58
17.68

23. 43
11.99

49
20
25
13

384
185
143
49

5.4
4.9
5.7
5.9

51.9
49.8
51.9
51.9

41. 5 80.0
38.8 77.9
48.9 94.2
53.7 103.5

.426
.263
.675
.455

22.11
13.10
35. 03
23.61

17. 64
10.20
32. 99
24. 43

27
3
46

213
30
613

5.2
5. 1
4.9

52.0
52. 1
52.2

41.7
41.0
40.1

80.2
78.7
76.8

.374
.415
.354

19. 45
21. 62
18. 48

15. 59
17.01
14. 22

52
37

885
266

5.4
4.8

51.1
49.0

45.3
40.0

88.6
81.6

.496
.234

25. 35
11.47

22. 46
9. 37

Total, males__________ ________
Total, females___ ____ _________

60 10, 648
55 2, 588

4.5
4.9

49.3
49.7

34.8
38.8

70.6
78. 1

.497
.247

24. 50
12. 28

17. 30
9. 60

Total, males and females-----___

60 13, 236

4.6

49.4

35.6

72.1

.443

21.88

15. 80

Pressers, semiautomatic, male___
Ball boys______ ________________ ____
Blockers, male .............
Blowers:
Hand, male
Machine, male
M old boys______ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Take-out boys.
_ _ _ _ _____
Warming-in boys_ _______ ____ ____
Finishers, male. ___________ _____ _
Foot casters and finishers, male__ __ _
Breakers-off, m ale____________________
Carrers-in, male__________________ ___
Leer tenders, m ale_______________ ___
Leer takers-off:
M ale_______________ .__ ________
Female___________ _____ _ _____
Carton assemblers:
M ale_____________________________
F e m a le ______ ____________ ____
Selectors:
Male__ _______ _________________
Female___ . . . _ _____________ ___
Inspectors:
Male
_ _
F e m a le ____ _
_ _ _ ___ _
Crackers-off:
M a le .. _ _ _
_ _
__ __
Female__________ ______ ______
Grinders:
M ale_____ _________ _____
_ _
Female _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
______
Washers:
M a l e ____ ____________ _ _____
Female _
_
____
Glazers:
M ale_______ _ _ __ _____
Female _ ___
___
_ _
Glazers’ helpers:
M ale_____________________________
Female.........
_______
Polishers:
M ale____________________________
Female_________________________ _
Printers:
M ale_____________________ ____ _
Female ______ _ __ ____________
Ware decorators:
Transferrers, female __ ________
Hand brush, male___ _ ___ _
Hand brush, female _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Decorating leer tenders, male _ _ _____
Cutters (decorating):
Male
___
________________
F e m a le __________________________
Packers and shippers:
Male__ _ ____ ___ _______________
Female- _ __ ____ _____ ______
Machinists, male- ___ _
Machinists’ helpers, m ale..
_ ----Truckers:
Hand, male_ _____ __ _ _ _____
Electric, male __________________
Laborers, male _
_ _________ __
Other employees:
M ale__________________ _________
Female ___ ___ — -------- ---------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$34. 51
9. 46
24. 55

920

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T able 1 — A V E R A G E D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS I N D U S T R Y , 1932

B Y K IN D OP GLASS
WO R K E RS—Continued

M ANUFACTURED, AND

N um ­
Kind of glass manufactured, and occu­ ber of
estab­
pation and sex of workers
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
N um ­ days on
ber of which
wage
wage
earn­ earners
worked
ers
in 1
week

BY

O C C U P A T IO N

A N D S E X OF

Hours
A ver­ Aver­
A ver­ actually
worked
in Aver­ age
age
age
1 week
age
full­
ac­
full­
earn­
time
tual
time
ings
earn­
earn­
hours
A ver­ Per­
per
ings
ings
per
per
in 1
week age cent hour
num­ of full
week week
ber time

Bottles and food containers
M old makers, male _ ___ _______ __
M old makers'helpers, male
__ _
M old finishers, bench, male
M old cleaners and polishers, hand:
M ale________ ________________ __
Female __________________________
M old polishers, machine, male________
Gas makers, male
_______
_ ___
Batch mixers, male
_ _ _____
Tank tenders, male___ ___________ __
Tank tenders’ helpers, male___ _____
Blowing-machine tenders, automatic
m a le ____________________
Carriers-in:
M ale______ _ _ ________ _ ____
Female _ __
__________ ___
Leer tenders, male _
Carton assemblers:
M ale_____
_._
___ _ _ _ __
Female........... ............... __ _ _____
Selectors:
M ale_______________
_
____
Female___ ______________
_____
Inspectors:
M ale_________ ____ _ _ _ ______
Female____________________
___
Packers and shippers:
M a le .. _ ________ _ _ _ _ _ ____
Female. _
Machinists, male.
_ ..........
Machinists’ helpers, male____
____
Truckers:
Hand, male____ _
_ _____
Electric, male _
Laborers, male
___ __________
Other employees:
M ale___________ _ ---------------------Female_________ _ _ ____________

42
17
39

358
53
237

5. 5
5.5
5.4

47.1
48.3
47.1

42. 5
42.8
41.2

90. 2 $0. 684 $32. 22
88.6
.412 19.90
87.5
.691 32. 55

34
4
21
18
42
43
9

114
12
66
82
119
168
46

5.6
5. 1
5.7
6. 1
6.1
6. 2
5.3

48.5
50.3
48.2
56.2
54. 1
56. 1
54.8

43.2
37. 1
43.9
45.6
50. 5
48. 7
39.0

89.1
73.8
91.1
81.1
93.3
86.8
71.2

.357
.215
.416
.442
.441
.461
.363

17.31
10.81
20.05
24. 84
23. 86
25. 86
19.89

42

811

5.5

51.2

40.2

78.5

.620

31.74

24.92

34
6
29

704
70
86

4.8
5.3
6.3

51.3
51. 0
54.1

34.8
37.0
51.4

67.8
72.5
95.0

.352
.250
.445

18.06
12.75
24. 07

12.24
9. 26
22.90

13
20

104
219

4.5
5.5

50. 0
48.5

34.5
38.1

69.0
78.6

.342
.265

17.10
12.85

11.81
10.11

38
20

746
778

5.2
5.5

50. 3
51.3

39.1
36.2

77.7
70.6

.418
.256

21.03
13.13

16. 34
9.28

20
8

83
22

6.0
6.0

51.4
48.9

47.0
43.4

91.4
88.8

.459
.285

23. 59
13. 94

21.57
12. 36

40
5
39
15

575
72
255
42

5. 2
4.6
5.9
5.6

50. 5
49.9
48. 2
48.6

41. 1
36.8
45.4
43.7

81.4
73.7
94.2
89.9

.386
.256
.647
.462

19. 49
12.77
31.19
22. 45

15. 87
9. 42
29. 38
20.20

26
18
44

228
74
1,070

5. 2
5.0
5.2

53.1
51.0
51.0

40.0
38.4
40.7

75.3
75.3
79.8

.329
.374
.352

17.47
19. 07
17.95

13.15
14. 39
14.34

43
15

1,344
151

5.6
4. 5

50.2
48.6

43.5
33.2

86.7
68.3

.514
.221

25. 80
10.74

22. 36
7. 33

Total, m a le s ______________ ____
Total, females________ _ _____

44
26

7, 365
1,324

5.4
5.4

50.6
50.4

41.3
36.4

81.6
72.2

.469
.254

23. 73
12.80

19.38
9.24

Total, males and females _____

44

8,689

5.4

50.6

40.5

80.0

.440

22. 26

17.83

5
4
5
4
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
2
5
5
5
5
3
4
2
5
5
5
5
4

23
11
33
62
7
8
12
20
21
23
41
28
6
96
134
50
113
21
27
10
51
67
81
34
78

4.8
4.4
5.7
4.4
6.9
4.6
5.8
5.0
4.7
5.0
3.6
3.7
6.5
4.5
4.7
4.4
5.0
4.4
4.8
4.5
4.9
5.0
4.0
4.7
5.0

51.5
50.7
56.0
54.8
54.9
51.0
54.0
52.8
53. 3
54.3
52.5
52.3
52.0
52. 5
50.3
53.4
52.5
53.0
52.7
52.0
52.4
52.2
54.0
53. 2
54.4

30.0
26.0
48.3
25.4
49.7
23.3
21. 5
19.9
31.3
36.6
25.0
24.4
46.3
28.0
35.0
30. 5
37.0
34.4
38.0
35.6
38. 1
37.6
30.5
36.6
33. 4

58.3
51.3
86.3
46.4
90.5
45.7
39.8
37.7
58.7
67.4
47.6
46.7
89.0
53.3
69.6
57.1
70.5
64.9
72.1
68.5
72.7
72.0
56.5
68.8
61.4

.478
.442
.558
.455
.433
.506
.589
.487
.510
.518
.518
.559
.328
.455
.495
.466
.521
.465
.584
.480
.486
.536
.491
.491
. 502

24. 62
22.41
31.25
24. 93
23. 77
25.81
31.81
25.71
27.18
28.13
27.20
29. 24
17. 06
23. 89
24.90
24.88
27. 35
24. 65
30.78
24.96
25. 47
27. 98
26. 51
26.12
27.31

14.31
11.47
26.99
11. 54
21.55
11.81
12.69
9.68
15.97
18.97
12.96
13. 66
15.18
12. 76
17.30
14.20
19. 27
15.98
22.22
17.10
18.50
20. 14
14.96
17.95
16.76

$29.08
17.63
28.45
15. 44
7.98
18. 27
20. 16
22.24
22. 45
14.16

Plate glass
Batch mixers, male___________________
M ud-up men ___
Furnace or tank tenders, male.
Furnace or tank tenders’ helpers, male.
Skimmers, m a le .._ _
_ _ _______
Pot-wagon m en__
Teemers, male______ . .
Casters, male____________
Roll tenders, m a le .._ __ _ __ ________
Leer tenders, male_________________ __
Examiners, rough plate, male___
Cutters, rough, male
.
. . . .
Trimmers, male___ _ _______________
Rough-plate carriers, male___ ________
Crane operators, male — . . _ . _ ----Plaster mixers, male.
.. _______
Layer m en . ___________________ _ _
Stop drivers, male______ ____________
Sand graders, male
_ __________
_
Controller operators, male_________ _
Grinder operators, m a le ____ .
Jointers, male . . . _ ________
Polisher operators, male _ _.
Transfer-car operators, male_.
Strippers, male______________ ____


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

921

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T able 1 .— A V E R A G E D A Y S , H OU RS, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS IN D U S T R Y , 1932,

B Y K IN D OP GLASS
W O R K E RS— Continued

M ANUFACTURED, AND

K ind of glass manufactured, and occupation and sex of workers

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

BY

O C C U P A T IO N

Aver­
age
Aver­
N um ­ days on age
full­
ber of which
time
earn­ earners hours
ers
worked per
week
in 1
week

A N D S E X OF

Hours
actually
worked in
1 week

Aver­ Aver­
A ver­ age
age
age
full­
ac­
earn- time
tual
earn­ earn­
ings
per
Aver­ Per­
ings
ings
age cent hour
per
in 1
num­ of full
week week
ber time

Plate glass—Continued
Runner repairmen ________ _________
Block felters, m ale--, ________________
Block scrapers, m a l e . .___ . ______
Washers, hand:
M ale...... .......................... ...
Female_________________ . _ ___
Washer operators, male____ __________
Examiners, finish (inspectors), m a le ...
Cutters, finish:
___
M ale__________________
F e m a le ________ _____
Cutters’, finish, helpers, male . . . . .
Examiners, final (stock), male________
Repolishers:
Hand, male________ _
Machine, m a l e ____
Packers and shippers, male
. . . ____
________ _
Car loaders, m ale.____ _
Machinists, male___
Machinists’ helpers, male ___________
Truckers:
Hand, male______________ Electric, male _________________ _
Laborers, male ___ __
Other employees, male ....
________
Total, males____________
Total, females________ . . .

_

Total, males and fem ales_____

2
4
1

9
14
15

3.2
5.7
2.5

51.6
54. 6
56.0

22.6
39. 6
20.5

43.8 $0. 537 $27. 71
72.5
.442 24.13
36.6
.451 25.26

5
1
3
4

63
24
13
52

4.4
2.9
6.0
5.1

54.3
48.0
52.2
48.0

27.3
17.9
52.1
35.0

50.3
37.3
99.8
72.9

.419
.244
.435
.532

22. 75
11.71
22. 71
25.54

11. 43
4. 37
22.66
18. 61

5
2
5
4

148
12
149
112

3.8
5.7
4.0
3.6

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

25.2
39.2
22.7
24.8

52.5
81.7
47.3
51.7

.530
.278
.413
.563

25.44
13. 34
19. 82
27. 02

13.35
10.90
9. 36
13.99

4
3
5
4
5
2

30
16
59
21
72
20

3.5
3.7
3.5
4.3
5.1
6.0

48.0
48.0
48.0
51.8
48.1
48.0

27.8
29.3
24.0
33.8
41.4
45.6

57.9
61.0
50.0
65.3
86.1
95.0

.498
.436
.444
.410
.558
.448

23. 90
20.93
21.31
21.24
26.84
21.50

13.86
12. 77
10. 66
13. 84
23.10
20.42

2
4
6
6

14
31
308
758

4.9
4.8
4.5
4.9

48.0
49.5
49.9
51.7

23.2
31.7
32.0
36.5

48.3
64.0
64.1
70. 6

.385
.436
.364
.506

18.48
21.58
18.16
26.16

8.94
13. 85
11.62
18.49

6
2

2, 961
36

4.6
3.8

51. 1
48.0

32.5
25.0

63.6
52.1

.485
.262

24. 78
12.58

15.72
6.54

6

2,997

4.6

51. 1

32.4

63.4

.482

24.63

15. 61

10
10
9
5
9
5
4
8

27
31
40
19
99
32
33
54

6.5
6.9
5.9
6.9
6.1
5.6
5.9
5.9

58.6
62. 3
56.0
63. 4
56.0
56.0
56.0
55.1

52.7
60. 5
47.6
60.1
45.5
42. 5
47.8
44.6

89.9
97. 1
85.0
94.8
81.3
75.9
85.4
80.9

.358
.517
.353
.280
.475
.397
.355
.410

20.98
32. 21
19. 77
17. 75
26.60
22.23
19. 88
22.59

18.88
31. 32
16.78
16. 85
21.60
16.89
16.96
18. 30

10
10
6
4
10
10
9
9
9
10

605
116
86
74
47
54
42
42
29
22

5.1
5.9
5.5
4.7
5.6
5.1
5.1
6.1
5.7
6.3

45.9
56.0
56.0
51.4
51.5
51.9
52. 1
54.1
53.2
61.6

36.2 78.9
43.4 77.5
44.6 79.6
38.7 75.3
45.1 87. 6
44.1 85.0
42. 5 81. 6
51.0 94.3
49.3 92.7
61.9 100.5

.968
.429
.383
.257
.732
.454
.362
.387
.356
.509

44.43
24.02
21.45
13. 21
37. 70
23. 56
18. 86
20.94
18. 94
31. 35

35.07
18.60
17. 09
9. 95
33.05
20.02
15. 41
19. 74
17.55
31. 47

8
3
10
10

66
27
214
290

5.7
6.0
5.0
6.0

50.8
56. 3
55.3
56.1

46.2
41.2
41.0
50. 2

90.9
73.2
74.1
89.5

.363
.404
.291
.423

18. 44
22.75
16.09
23. 73

16.78
16. 63
11.92
21.20

10

$12.14
17.51
9.26

Window glass
Batch mixers, male ......... ..........
Teasers or tank tenders, m ale... _
Teasers or tank tenders’ helpers, m ale.
Skimmers, male . _____ . . .
Machine operators, male_____ . .
M achine operators’ helpers, male_____
Peepers or watchers, male ________
Platform m en____ ____
Cutters:
Finish, male_______ ______
___
Rough, male________ _____ _____
Breakers, male______
_ ______
Labelers, male_______ _ __
. . ___
Inspectors, m a l e ______
_____ _
Packers, male __________ _. _
Snappers, male_______ _______
Stackers, male______ _ ___ _
Loaders, m ale____________ _____ _
Machinists, male_____________ .
Truckers:
Hand, male_____________ _
Electric, m a le.. _____ _
Laborers, male
____ _____
Other employees, male_______________
Total, males____ _______________

2,049

5.5

52.5

43. 2

82.3

.540

28.35

23. 35

A ll employees, all departments:
Total, m ales____________________
120 23, 023
Total, females______ ___________ . 83 3,948

4.9
5.0

50.3
49.9

37.3
37.9

74.2
76.0

.490
.249

24. 65
12. 43

18. 30
9.45

120 26, 971

4.9

50.2

37.4

74. 5

.454

22. 79

17. 01

Total males and females...............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

922

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW
Average D ays, Hours, and Earnings, 1932, by Sex and State

T a b l e 2 shows average days, hours, and earnings, and the percent
of full time worked in 1 week, by sex and State, for the wage earners
covered in each department of the industry in 1932 and for all depart­
ments combined.
In the 60 plants making pressed and blown ware the 10,648 male
wage earners actually worked an average of 34.8 hours in 1 week,
or 70.6 percent of full time, and earned an average of 49.7 cents per
hour and $17.30 during the week. Females were employed in only
55 of the 60 plants making pressed and blown ware; the 2,588 females
in these 55 plants actually worked an average of 38.8 hours in 1 week,
or 78.1 percent of full time, and earned an average of 24.7 cents per
hour and $9.60 in 1 week. The average hourly earnings of males
ranged, by States, from 43.6 to 61.4 cents, while those of females ranged
from 19.4 to 32 cents. Average actual earnings in 1 week of males
ranged, by States, from $15.04 to $20.55 and those of females from
$7.19 to $11.79 per week.
In the 44 plants manufacturing bottles and food containers the 7,365
males employed worked an average of 41.3 hours in 1 week, or 81.6
percent of full time, and earned an average of 46.9 cents per hour and
$19.38 in 1 week. Females were employed in only 26 of the 44 plants;
the 1,324 females in these plants worked an average of 36.4 hours in
1 week, or 72.2 percent of full time, and earned an average of 25.4
cents per hour and $9.24 during the week.
The 2,961 males employed in the 6 plate-glass plants worked an
average of 32.5 hours in 1 week, or 63.6 percent of full time, and earned
an average of 48.5 cents per hour and $15.72 in 1 week. Females
were employed in only 2 of the 6 plants; in these 2 plants the 36
females employed worked an average of 25 hours in 1 week, or 52.1
percent of full time, and earned an average of 26.2 cents per hour and
$6.54 during the week. In order to avoid showing figures for one
plant alone, the averages shown for the plate-glass department are a
combination of the data for the plants covered in Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and West Virginia.
The 2,049 males of the 10 window-glass plants worked an average
of 43.2 hours in 1 week, or 82.3 percent of full time, and earned an
average of 54 cents per hour and $23.35 in 1 week. No females were
employed in any of these 10 plants.
The 23,023 males of the 120 plants covered in all departments of
the industry worked an average of 37.3 hours in 1 week, or 74.2
percent of full time, and earned an average of 49 cents per hour and
$18.30 in 1 week, while the 3,948 females worked an average of 37.9
hours, or 76 percent of full time, and earned an average of 24.9 cents
per hour and $9.45 in 1 week.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

923

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

T able 2 . — A V E R A G E D A Y S , HOU RS, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS I N D U S T R Y , 1932

B Y K IN D OF GLASS M A N U F A C T U R E D , B Y S E X OF W O R K E R S , A N D B Y S T A T E

Kind of glass manufactured, sex of
workers, and State

Pressed and blown ware
Males:
California _ ___________ _____
Indiana______ ______ ____
N ew Jersey.. _ ___ _______
New Y ork________________
Ohio . _
_
Oklahoma____ . . . _______
Pennsylvania
. .
____
W est Virginia__________________

4
5
2
4
8
3
10
24

Total, m ales.. . ______________
Females:
California. _ _____ ___
...
Indiana.. „ ____ _
New Jersey______ ___________
New Y ork __________ ______ .
O h io _______________ ____
Oklahoma ____ ________ _
Pennsylvania_____ ____________
____ _____
West Virginia. _ _
Total, females______________
Males and females:
California
„ ____ _ . . .
Indiana __ „
___ _
New Jersey. . . . . ___________
N ew Y ork .. ____
. . . .
Ohio___________________ .
Oklahoma. _ _____ ________
Pennsylvania___ ___
_ ._
West Virginia_____ _ . . . _ ___
Total, males and females___

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

.

Average
N um ­ days on
which
ber of
wage
wage
earners
earn­
worked
ers
in 1
week

Hours
actually
Aver
worked
in
age
1 week
full­
time
hours
per Aver Per
week age cent
num­ of ful
ber time

Aver­
age
earnings
per
hour

A ver­
A ver­
age
age
full­
actual
time
earn­ earn­
ings
ings
in 1
per
week
week

103
823
367
1,035
2,715
248
2, 363
2,994

3.9
4.6
4.4
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.2
4.2

45.3
49.9
47.2
48.2
51.6
46.3
49.5
48.1

27.3
35.4
32.1
37.5
39.0
34.5
33.4
31.8

60.3 $0. 614 $27.81
70.9
.466 23. 25
68.0
.498 23. 51
77.8
.549 26. 46
75.6
.471 24. 30
74. 5
.436 20. 19
67.5
.512 25. 34
66. 1
.503 24.19

60 10, 648

4.5

49. 3

34.8

70.6

.497

24.50

17. 30

1
4
2
4
8
2
10
24

8
159
109
218
872
43
606
573

5.0
5.5
5.2
5.3
4.9
4.3
4.9
4.3

44.0
53.0
47.3
48.0
49. 5
51.7
49. 6
50.0

36.9
46. 1
41.9
41. 0
38.8
35.5
39.8
34.7

83.9
87.0
88.6
85.4
78.4
68.7
80.2
69.4

.320
. 194
.255
.265
.285
.202
. 210
.240

14.08
10. 28
12.06
12. 72
14.11
10. 44
10. 42
12. 00

11. 79
8. 93
10. 68
10. 86
11. 06
7. 19
8. 35
8. 33

55

2, 588

4.9

49.7

38.8

78.1

.247

12.28

9. 60

4
5
o
4
8
3
10
24

111
982
476
1,253
3, 587
291
2, 969
3, 567

4.0
4.7
4.6
5.0
4.9
4.7
4.4
4. 2

45. 2
50.4
47. 2
48. 2
51. 1
47. 1
49. 5
48.4

28.0
37. 1
34.4
38.1
38.9
34.6
34.7
32.3

61.9
73.6
72.9
79.0
76. 1
73.5
70. 1
66. 7

.586
.411
.430
.495
.426
.401
.441
.457

26.49
20. 71
20. 30
23. 86
21. 77
18. 89
21.83
22. 12

16. 39
15. 28
14. 79
18. 86
16. 56
13. 88
15 33
14. 75

60 13, 236

4.6

49.4

35.6

72.1

.443

21.88

15. 80

$16. 75
16. 50
16.01
20. 55
18. 33
15. 04
17.13
15.98

Bottles and food containers
Males:
California. ....................................
Illinois_________________ _____
Indiana _______________________
M aryland _________________ . . .
N ew Jersey_______ _________ _____
N ew 'i ork...
. . .
Ohio__________________ __________
Oklahom a.. _
Pennsylvania... ____________
West Virginia______ ____________
Total, males__________________
Females:
California____ _____ ____________
Illinois___________ . . . ________
Indiana_________ . _________ . .
M a ry la n d .. . . . .
___ . . . .
N ew Jersey_____ ________ _____
N ew Y ork .. ______ ________ .
Oklahom a..
. . . . . . ____
Pennsylvania. ____ __________ . .
West V irg in ia ... _____ ____ . . .
Total, females_________________
Males and females:
California________________________
Illinois__
___________ ______
Indiana
_
_____________
M a ry lan d.. _______ _______
...
N ew Jersey_______________________
N ew Y ork ......................................... .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5
5
5
3
3
4
2
2
9
6

517
1,475
1,066
368
812
533
213
148
1,239
994

5.7
5.7
5.0
5.4
5. 1
5.1
6.0
5.4
5.5
5.3

47.8
50.8
52.8
48.9
47.9
48.9
54.4
50.9
51.0
51.9

45.8
41. 1
38.6
41.8
37. 2
40. 5
48.0
46.4
44.4
39.4

95.8
80.9
73. 1
85.5
77.7
82.8
88.2
91. 2
87. 1
75.9

.561
.463
.413
.483
.438
.533
.477
.426
.483
.453

26.82
23. 52
21.81
23. 62
20. 98
26. 06
25. 95
21. 68
24. 63
23. 51

25. 69
19. 05
15.97
20. 20
16. 30
21. 59
22.89
19. 76
21. 45
17. 86

44

7, 365

5.4

50.6

41.3

81.6

.469

23. 73

19. 38

4
2
4
2
3
1
1
5
4

30
287
179
56
155
34
22
249
312

5. 5
5.9
5.0
4.6
5.0
5.7
4. 2
5.6
5.2

48.0
54.4
49. 1
48. 1
47.5
48.0
48.0
46.0
53.3

42.5
36.9
34.0
34.0
31.4
44.9
31.7
42.2
34.4

88.5
67.8
69.2
70. 7
66.1
93.5
66.0
91.7
64.5

.371
.257
.230
.202
.261
.212
.312
.271
.241

17.81
13. 98
11.29
9. 72
12. 40
10.18
14. 98
12. 47
12. 85

15. 74
9. 50
7. 83
6. 87
8.19
9. 53
9. 88
11.46
8. 28

26

1,324

5.4

50.4

36.4

72. 2

.254

12.80

9.24

5
5
5
3
3
4

547
1,762
1, 245
424
967
567

5.7
5.7
5.0
5.3
5. 1
5.1

47.8
51.4
52.3
48.8
47.9
48.9

45.6
40.5
38.0
40.8
36.3
40.7

95.4
78.8
72.7
83.6
75.8
83.2

.551
.432
.390
.452
.413
.512

26. 34
22.20
20. 40
22.06
19. 78
25.04

25.14
17.49
14.80
18. 44
15.00
20. 87

924

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

T a b l e 2 .—A V E R A G E D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN T H E GLASS I N D U S T R Y , 1932,

B Y K IN D OF GLASS M A N U F A C T U R E D , B Y S E X OF W O R K E R S , A N D B Y S T A T E —Con.

K ind of glass manufactured, sex of
workers, and State

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Average
N um ­ days on
which
ber of
wage
wage
earners
earn­
worked
ers
in 1
week

Hours
A ver­
Aver- actually
Aver­
worked in Aver­ age
age
age
1 week
age
full­
fullactual
earn- time
time
earn­
ings
hours Aver­
ings
Per
per
ings
per
in 1
per
week age cent hour
week
num­ of full
week
ber time

Bottles and food containers—Contd.
Males and females— Continued.
___ - _ ____
Ohio --Oklahoma
. .................... .
.
Pennsylvania.-. ________________
West Virginia. . . . ____________

2
2
9
6

213
170
1,488
1,306

6.0
5.3
5. 5
5.3

54.4
50.5
50.2
52.3

48.0
44. 5
44. 1
38.2

88. 2 $0. 477 $25. 95
88.1
.415 20. 96
87.8
.449 22.54
73.0
. 408 21.34

Total, males and females _. _ ___

44

8,689

5.4

50.6

40.5

80.0

.440

22. 26

17.83

Males: Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West
Virginia
____
Females: Ohio, Pennsylvania, and
West Virginia_______ _ ___________

6

2,961

4.6

51. 1

32.5

63.6

.485

24. 78

15. 72

2

36

3.8

48.0

25.0

52. 1

. 262

12. 58

6. 54

Total, males and females_______

6

2, 997

4.6

51.1

32.4

63.4

.482

24. 63

15. 61

Window glass
Males:
Oklahom a._ _
. _ ______ . . . .
Pennsylvania. . .
.
. . .
W est Virginia . .
- - - - - - - - - ___

2
3
5

350
490
1,203

6.0
5.7
5.3

53.3
55.8
50.9

43.3
50.0
40.4

81. 2
89.6
79.4

.541
.469
.576

28. 84
26.17
29.32

23.41
23. 47
23.28

Total, males. . . . . - __________

10

2,049

5.5

52.5

43.2

82.3

.540

28. 35

23.35

9
5
10
3
5
8
12
7
25
36

620
1,475
1,889
368
1,179
1, 568
3,886
746
6,031
5, 261

5.4
5.7
4.8
5.4
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.5
4.6
4.7

47.4
50.8
51. 5
48.9
47. 7
48.4
51.5
50. 5
50.9
49.6

42.7
41. 1
37.2
41.8
35.6
38.5
38.3
41.0
36.3
35.3

90.1
80.9
72.2
85.5
74.6
79.5
74.4
81.2
71.3
71.2

.567
.463
.435
.483
.455
.543
.469
.486
.496
.511

26. 88
23. 52
22. 40
23. 62
21. 70
26. 28
24.15
24. 54
25. 25
25. 35

24.20
19.05
16. 20
20.20
16. 21
20. 90
17.99
19.90
18.02
18.04

120 23, 023

4.9

50.3

37.3

74.2

.490

24. 65

18.30

$22. 89
18. 48
19. 78
15. 57

Plate glass

A ll departments
Males:
California
. . . ______
Illinois.
- - ....................
Indiana.. . - . . _________ M aryland.
. . . . ___
N ew Jersey.. . - ----------------------N ew York
- ____ .
- ________
O h i o . ___
Oklahoma........... Pennsylvania----------------------------West Virginia. . . . . ___________
Total, males . ___ ________ ____
Females:
California................................ ..........
Illinois__________
. . __________
Indiana __ __
_ _______
M aryland------------------------------------N ew Jersey___________________ - N ew Y ork_______________________
Ohio.
________________________
Oklahoma------------------------------------Pennsylvania_____________________
West Virginia
.
_ . . . ____ _

5
2
8
2
5
5
8
3
17
28

38
287
338
56
264
252
872
65
891
885

5.4
5.9
5.2
4.6
5. 1
5.3
4.9
4.3
5.1
4.7

47.2
54. 4
50.9
48. 1
47.4
48. 0
49.5
50.4
48.5
51. 2

41.3
36.9
39.7
34.0
35.7
41.5
38.8
34.2
39.9
34.6

87.5
67.8
78.0
70.7
75.3
86.5
78.4
67.9
82.3
67.6

.361
.257
. 210
.202
.258
.257
.285
.237
.229
.240

17.04
13.98
10.69
9. 72
12. 23
12. 34
14.11
11.94
11.11
12. 29

14.91
9.50
8.35
6.87
9.22
10.68
11.06
8.10
9.15
8.31

Total, fem ales.. . . ------ ----------

83

3, 948

5.0

49.9

37.9

76.0

.249

12. 43

9.45

Males and females:
California.............................. ....... _
I llin o is ___ _ ___ _ .- . . . Indiana_________________________
M aryland________ ______ ______
N ew Jersey. ___ _ _____ _______
N ew Y o r k _______ _____ _
Ohio______
Oklahoma.
__ _____ .
Pennsylvania - ______________
West Virginia. __________ _______

9
5
10
3
5
8
12
7
25
36

658
1,762
2, 227
424
1,443
1,820
4, 758
811
6, 922
6,146

5.4
5.7
4.9
5.3
4.9
5.1
5.1
5.4
4.6
4. 7

47. 4
51.4
51.4
48.8
47. 7
48.4
51.2
50.5
50.6
49.8

42.6
40. 5
37.6
40.8
35.7
38.9
38.4
40.4
36.8
35.2

89.9
78.8
73. 2
83.6
74.8
80.4
75.0
80.0
72. 7
70.7

.555
.432
.399
.452
.419
.501
.435
.469
.459
.472

26.31
22.20
20. 51
22. 06
19.99
24. 25
22. 27
23.68
23. 23
23. 51

23. 67
17.49
15. 01
18.44
14.93
19.49
16.72
18.96
16.87
16. 64

120 26, 971

4.9

50.2

37.4

74.5

.454

22.79

17.01

Total, males and females_______


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGES

AND

HOURS

OF

925

LABOR

Average Days, Hours, and Earnings, 1932, in Representative Occupations
T a b l e 3 shows average days, hours, and earnings, and the percent
of full time worked in 1 week in 1932 for each sex in 10 representa­
tive occupations in each State studied. The figures for these occupa­
tions illustrate fairly those for all occupations in the industry.
T able 3 . —A V E R A G E

D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN 10 P R IN C IP A L S P E C IF IE D
O C C U P A T IO N S IN T H E GLASS IN D U S T R Y , 1932, B Y K IN D OF GLASS M A N U F A C ­
T U R E D , B Y S E X OF W O R K E R , A N D B Y S T A T E

N um ­ N um ­
ber of ber of
K ind of glass manufactured, occupa­ estab­ wage
tion and sex of worker, and State
lish­ earn­
ers
ments

Average
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in 1
week

Hours actu­
ally worked
Aver­
Aver­
A v­
in 1 week Aver­
age
age
erage
age
fullfull­
earn­ time actual
earn­
time
Per­ ings earn­
ings
hours A v­ cent
per
ings
in 1
per erage
hour
of
per
num­
week
week
full
week
ber
time

Pressed and blown ware
Gatherers, male:
California__________________ _____
Indiana . _______________________
New Jersey_____ _________________
New York _______________ _ . __
Ohio____ _______________________
Oklahoma _____________________
Pennsylvania____________________
West Virginia_________________ --

4
5
2
4
5
3
10
24

ii.
105
39
88
104
37
216
446

3.0
4.0
3.5
4.3
4.1
5.3
3.7
4.0

45.8
45.5
46. 5
47. 2
46. 2
37. 1
46.5
47.0

16.9
23.7
23.2
26.4
28.3
31.7
27.8
29.7

36.9 $0.932 $42. 69
52.1
.808 36. 76
49.9
.713 33.15
55.9
.775 36.58
61.3
.808 37. 33
85.4
.638 23. 67
60.0
.807 37.53
63. 2
.638 29. 99

T otal___________________________

57

1,046

4.0

46.3

28.0

60.5

.719

33. 29

20.13

Blowers, hand, male:
California___ ____________________
Indiana___________________________
N ew Jersey_______________________
N ew Y ork----------------------- ----------Ohio ___________________________
Oklahoma^ ______________________
Pennsylvania_____________________
West Virginia________ ________

3
3
2
4
5
3
7
22

5
17
30
57
48
34
86
272

3.0
4.5
3.6
3.7
4.5
5.4
3.7
4.2

46.4
44.4
46.3
46. 9
47.7
36.5
47.1
45.9

17.2
24. 2
23.2
21. 2
26.7
32. 2
28.0
31.0

37.1
54.5
50.1
45.2
56.0
88.2
59.4
67.5

1. 330
.874
.958
1.024
.997
.770
1.122
.806

61.71
38.81
44. 36
48. 03
47. 56
28.11
52. 85
37. 00

22. 82
21.20
22. 25
21.71
26. 65
24. 76
31. 44
24.96

________________________

49

549

4.1

45.8

28.4

62.0

.896

41.04

25. 49

Laborers, male:
In d ia n a __________________________
New Jersey__________________ ____
New Y o r k _________ ___________
___________
Ohio___ _________
Oklahoma
----- ------------------------P ennsylvania_______________ ____
West Virginia — _______________

5
2
4
8
2
10
15

60
29
71
198
16
149
90

5.2
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.2
4.3
4.4

55.9
47.3
48.6
53.6
58.4
51.5
51.5

44.6
37.5
40.9
43.4
47.1
36.4
35.0

79.8
79.3
84. 2
81.0
80.7
70. 7
68.0

.301
.341
.377
.354
.251
.394
.340

16. 83
16.13
18.32
18. 97
14. 66
20.29
17.51

13. 44
12.80
15.44
15. 36
11.85
14. 37
11.89

T otal___________________________

46

613

4.9

52.2

40.1

76.8

.354

18.48

14. 22

5
5
5
3
2
4
2
2
9
5

45
159
117
34
66
54
22
23
175
116

5.4
6.3
5.3
5.6
5.7
5.5
6.5
5.5
5.1
5.1

48.0
55.1
49.8
48.0
48.0
48.0
56.0
48.0
49.2
55.3

43.9
41.6
38.4
45.5
35.7
44. 2
52.9
42.9
38.7
37. 2

91.5
75.5
77.1
94.8
74.4
92.1
94.5
89.4
78.7
67. 3

.653
.588
.550
.598
.582
.729
.661
.484
.703
.585

31.34
32.40
27. 39
28. 70
27. 94
34.99
37.02
23.23
34. 59
32. 35

28. 70
24.43
21. 10
27.18
20. 77
32. 23
34. 96
20. 76
27.21
21.74

42

811

5.5

51.2

40.2

78.5

.620

31.74

24.92

5

80

3
4
3

77

84

6.1
4.6
4.6

44

5.1

48.0
52.6
48.0
48.0

50.7 105.6
31.4 59.7
33. 4 69.6
34.9 72.7

.490
.383
.406
.432

23. 52
20.15
19.49
20.74

24.83
12.02
13.56
15.10

Total

$15.77
19.13
16. 51
20.48
22. 90
20. 19
22.44
18. 95

Bottles and food containers
Blowing-machine tenders, automatic,
male:
California________________________
Illinois_______
.
_ _________
Indiana. ______________________
M aryland____ _ _________ ______
New Jersey__________________ ____
N ew York _____ _________________
Ohio___ ________________________
Oklahoma _______ ______________
Pennsylvania_______ ___________
West Virginia____________________
T otal______

. _____ . . . _____

Selectors, male:
California________________________
Illinois........ .................................... .
Indiana___________________ ______
M aryland__________ _______ _____
11456°— 33—

11


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

926

MONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

T able 3 .— A V E R A G E

D A Y S , H O U R S, A N D E A R N IN G S IN 10 P R IN C IP A L S P E C IF IE D
O C C U P A T IO N S IN T H E GLASS IN D U S T R Y , 1932, B Y K IN D OF GLASS M A N U F A C ­
T U R E D , B Y S E X OF W O R K E R , A N D B Y S T A T E —Continued

N um ­ N um ­
ber of ber of
Kind of glass manufactured, occupa­ estab­ wage
lish­ earn­
tion and sex of worker, and State
ments
ers

Average
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in 1
week

A v­
erage
fulltime
hours
per
week

H om s actu­
ally worked
Aver­
in 1 week Aver­
age Aver­
age
fullage
earn­ time actual
earn­
Per­ ings
earn­
A v­
ings
per
cent
ings
erage
in 1
hour
per
of
num­
week
week
full
ber
time

Bottles and food containers— Contd.
Selectors, male—Continued

Selectors, female:

West Virginia__

________ ____

3
4
2
2
8
4

96
83
42
26
159
65

5.3
4. 6
6. 4
4.9
5.8
3.8

47.9
48. 0
56. 0
48. 0
51. 8
56.0

36.0
35.8
50. 4
42. 0
46. 0
25. 7

75. 2 $0.406 $19. 45
74. 6
.521 25.01
90. 0
.415 23. 24
87. 5
.335 16. 08
88. 8
.381 19. 74
45.9
.348 19. 49

$14. 61
18. 66
20. 92
14. 06
17. 55
8. 95

38

746

5.2

50. 3

39. 1

77.7

.418

21.03

16.34

1
2
3
2
3
1
5
3

8
178
97
18
132
24
134
187

6.1
6.3
5.0
4.9
5.0
5.8
5.7
5.4

48. 0
56. 0
48. 0
48. 0
47. 8
48. 0
45. 4
56.0

47. 1
37. 2
32. 7
33. 2
30. 1
45. 7
44. 0
34. 5

98.1
66. 4
68. 1
69. 2
63. 0
95.2
96. 9
61.6

.325
.265
.241
.232
.267
. 193
.276
.239

15.60
14. 84
11. 57
11.14
12. 76
9. 26
12. 53
13.38

15. 28
9. 84
7. 87
7. 70
8. 03
8. 82
12. 15
8. 25

20

778

5.5

51.3

36.2

70.6

.256

13.13

9. 28

5
5
5
3
3
4
2
2
9
6

75
214
125
47
75
109
35
23
224
143

5.6
5.3
4.7
5.7
5.4
4.9
5.4
5.0
5.0
5.5

48.0
50. 3
56. 0
49. 8
47. 1
49. 2
50. 5
56. 3
52. 1
50.4

44. 5
39.1
37. 1
45. 0
42. 0
39. 0
44.8
45. 7
40. 8
41.9

92. 7
77. 7
66. 3
90. 4
89. 2
79. 3
88. 7
81. 2
78. 3
83.1

.424
.346
.318
.328
.314
.412
.358
.278
.370
.317

20. 35
17. 40
17.81
16. 33
14. 79
20. 27
18.08
15. 65
19.28
15. 98

18. 84
13. 54
11. 79
14. 75
13. 19
16. 06
16. 04
12. 68
15. 08
13. 28

44

1,070

5.2

51.0

40.7

79.8

.352

17. 95

14. 34

Laborers, male:

West Virginia........................ ............

Plate glass
Polisher operators, male: Ohio, PennCu’tters, finish, male: Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, and West Virginia
. .
Cutters, finish, female: Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, and West Virginia___________

5

81

4.0

54.0

30.5

56.5

.491

26.51

14. 96

5

148

3.8

48.0

25.2

52.5

.530

25.44

13. 35

2

12

5.7

48.0

39.2

81.7

.278

13. 34

10.90

1
3
5

15
13
71

6. 7
6. 2
5.9

56. 0
56. 0
56.0

43. 2
51. 7
44.9

77.1
92. 3
80. 2

.510
.450
.473

28.56
25. 20
26. 49

22. 03
23 26
21.21

9

99

6. 1

56.0

45. 5

81.3

.475

26. 60

21.60

2
3
5

90
132
383

5. 0
5. 5
5.0

46 2
51. 3
44.0

29.1
47. 6
34.0

63. 0
92. 8
77.3

1.171
.850
.984

54.10
43. 61
43. 30

34 10
40 44
33.44

10

605

5.1

45.9

36.2

78.9

.968

44.43

35. 07

Window glass
Machine operators, male:
Oklahoma- ________ _____ ___

Cutters, finish, male:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

927

Earnings and Hours of Labor in Principal Occupations in the
Iron and Steel Industry, 1931 and 1933
Part 1. Blast Furnaces, Steel Works, and Puddling, Blooming, and Plate Mills

HE hours worked and the earnings of employees in the principal
occupations in six departments of the iron and steel industry are
shown in this article.1 The data were collected early in 1933, the
plants included being in most instances those covered in a similar
study in 1931. The pay-roll period selected in both years was the
last half of March, except in a few cases in which it was necessary to
select a different period.
In the iron and steel industry many employees may work at opera­
tions other than their regular occupations during a given pay period.
For example, a keeper may also have worked part time as a keeper’s
first helper and also as a cinderman. In order to meet this condition,
data for the various occupations were tabulated so as to show the
average hours and earnings (1) in the primary occupation only and
(2) in all the jobs at which the employee worked during the pay period
* studied.
Blast furnaces.— In 1933 the average full-time hours per week of
employees in the various occupations in the blast-furnace department
ranged from 53 for blowing engineers’ assistants to 59.1 for iron
handlers and loaders. In 1933, the employees in all occupations except
larrymen’s helpers had a shorter normal working week than in 1931.
/ Average hours worked per week in the primary occupation ranged
from 18.5 for larrymen’s helpers (33 percent of normal full time) to
42.3 for blowers (77 percent of full time). In 1933 there were only 6
occupations in which the employees worked more than 50 percent of
their normal full-time weekly hours, whereas in 1931 all the occupa­
tions provided employment for more than 50 percent of the normal
working time.
Comparison of the average hourly earnings in the primary occu' pations in 1933, with those in 1931, shows a marked decrease in all
cases. These decreases averaged approximately 25 percent, and
ranged in amount from 28.9 cents for laborers and iron handlers and
loaders to 72.7 cents for blowers.
Average full-time weekly earnings in 1933 ranged from $16.53 for
laborers to $39.84 for blowers, while average actual earnings per week
in the primary occupations only ranged from $5.86 for laborers to
$30.73 for blowers.
Considering hours and earnings in all jobs worked'at during the
period, the range was from 20.4 for stockers and larrymen’s helpers
to 44.3 hours for blowers, while earnings per week ranged from $6.33
for laborers to $31.81 for blowers.
Steel-worlcs division (Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces) .—
In the steel-works division the average full-time hours per week
ranged from 49.1 hours for blowers in the Bessemer converters to 58.1
for laborers in the same department. In 10 of the 32 principal occu­
pations shown, the average full-time hours per week were greater in
1933 than in 1931, while in the remaining 22 occupations the hours
were less.

T

1A previous article (in the September issue of the M onthly Labor Review, p. 651) gave averages for all
employees in all occupations b y department and district, as well as for the industry as a whole.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

928

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

Average hours worked per week at the primary occupations only
ranged from 15.7 for open-hearth laborers to 28 for stopper makers in
the Bessemer department. There were only 3 occupations in this
division in which the employees worked more than 50 percent of their
normal weekly hours, whereas in 1931 all of the occupations furnished
more than 50 percent of full-time employment.
Average earnings per hour in the primary occupations only, in 1933,
show considerable decreases in all cases as compared with 1931. The
lowest hourly earnings in 1933 were those of open-hearth laborers
(33 cents) and the highest were those of Bessemer blowers (98.6 cents).
Melters’ first helpers in the open-hearth department earned an average
of 86.7 cents per hour.
Average full-time weekly earnings ranged from $18.12 for openhearth laborers to $48.41 for Bessemer blowers. These same occupa­
tions also had the lowest and highest actual earnings per week, the
former averaging $5.19 and the latter $24.12.
Hours worked in primary and secondary occupations combined
ranged from 16.3 for door operators and laborers in the open-hearth
department to 33.4 for first regulators in the Bessemer department.
Average weekly earnings (in all jobs worked at) ranged from $5.43 for
laborers in the open-hearth department to $25.25 for Bessemer
blowers. In 9 of the 34 principal occupations shown, the average
weekly earnings in 1933 were less than $10 and in only 6 occupations
were they over $15.
Rolling-mills division (;puddling mills, blooming mills and plate
mills).— While 7 departments of this division were covered in the
Bureau’s survey, the present article covers only puddling, blooming,
and plate mills. Data for the 4 remaining departments will appear
in a later issue.
In 1933 the average full-time hours per week in the primary occu­
pations ranged from 48.7 for roughers in puddling mills to 64.9 for
side-roll screwmen on universal plate mills. In all but 8 occupations
the average full-time hours have decreased since 1931. Roughers in
puddling mills were the only employees whose normal working week
was less than 50 hours.
Average hours worked per week in the primary occupations only
ranged from 12 for laborers in plate mills to 40 for roll engineers in
puddling mills. Employees in puddling mills worked the greatest
and plate-mill employees the least percentage of full time. In the
plate-mill department only 2 occupations actually worked as much
as 50 percent of the hours worked in 1931.
Average hourly earnings for work in the primary occupations only
show large decreases in all occupations from 1931 to 1933. The
highest hourly earnings were those of rollers in blooming mills (99.3
cents), while the lowest were those of laborers in puddling mills
(28.6 cents). Laborers in blooming mills earned 34.3 cents per hour
and those in plate mills 31.2 cents.
Average full-time earnings per week ranged from $15.30 for pud­
dling-mill laborers to $52.42 for sheared-plate mill rollers. Aver­
age actual earnings per week at the principal occupation only
ranged from $3.74 for plate-mill laborers to $25.12 for puddling-mill
rollers. Level-handed puddlers and hotbed men in the puddling
mills were the only ones whose average weekly earnings were greater
in 1933 than in 1931.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGES

AND

HOUES

OF

929

LABOR

Average hours worked per week in primary and other occupations
combined ranged from 12.5 for laborers in plate mills to 40 for roll
engineers in puddling mills. Average actual earnings per week
ranged from $3.98 for laborers in plate mills to $25.90 for rollers in
blooming mills. In 15 occupations the earnings averaged less than
$10 per week, and in 7 of these averaged less than $7 per week.
Only 266 employees averaged more than $20 per week while 1,406
earned an average of less than $7 per week.
A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S OF E M P L O Y E E S IN 6 D E P A R T M E N T S OF T H E
IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N , 1931 A N D 1933
B la st fu r n a c e s

Primary occupation only

Primary occupation

A ll occupations (in­
cluding primary)

N um ­
A ver­
N um ­ ber of Average hours
A ver­ A ver­
per week
Aver­ age
A ver­ A ver­
Year ber of wage
age
age
age
full­
age
age
plants earn­
actual
actual
earn­ time
ers
earn­ hours earn­ earn­
ings
earn­
worked
ings
ings
ings
Full A ctu­
per
ings
in 1
per
ally
in 1
in 1
hour
time
per
week
hour
worked
week
week
week

Ore bridge operators___
S tock ers________ ____

1933
1931
1933
Larrymen____ ____ . . .
1931
1933
Larrymen’s helpers.. . . 1931
1933
Skip operators_________ 1931
1933
Blowers_________ _____ 1931
1933
Stove tenders__________ 1931
1933
Blowing engineers___
1931
1933
Blowing e n g i n e e r s ’
assistants____ _______ 1931
1933
Keepers_______________ 1931
1933
___ 1931
Keepers’ helpers.
1933
Iron
handlers
and
loaders __________ . 1931
1933
1931
Pig-machine men . . .
1933
Cindermen (at d u m p ).. 1931
1933
1931
Laborers__________ . . .
1933

22
34
25
33
29
25
12
25
21
33
33
31
28
34
33

85
475
290
326
222
212
92
157
113
180
123
235
148
164
173

54.9
57.2
55.4
55/3
54.5
54.9
55.3
56.2
55.6
55.8
54.8
55.0
54.4
55.7
54.2

25.4 $0. 539 $29. 59 $13. 67
37.8
.485 27.74 18.34
19.6
.374 20. 72
7. 34
36.5
.563 31.13 20.56
22.9
.430 23.44
9. 84
35.5
.482 26.46 17.12
18.5
.355 19. 63
6. 57
.532 29. 90 22.18
41.7
29.4
.417 23. 19 12.26
48.4
.929 51.84 44.93
42. 3
.727 39.84 30. 73
40.2
.560 30.80 22.52
28.7
.441 23. 99 12. 63
45.4
.706 39. 32 32. 08
32.9
.563 30.51 18. 50

25.9 $0. 538
39.7
.483
20.4
.373
38.3
.560
24.5
.425
39.1
.485
20.4
.357
43.0
.532
31.5
.413
50.6
.922
44.3
. 719
42.7
.558
30.8
.438
47.3
.704
34.2
.560

20
16
34
33
34
33

140
101
274
217
812
527

54.2
53.0
55.2
54.2
56.2
53.9

35.5
26.6
39.3
24.0
36.7
21.2

.626
.482
.573
.439
.492
.382

33.93
25. 55
31.63
23.79
27. 65
20.59

22. 21
12.82
22. 50
10. 52
18.05
8.09

38.3
27.4
40.2
26.0
38.7
22.7

.623
.482
.572
.433
.492
.382

23.84
13.22
23.00
11.26
19.06
8.66

5
4
29
28
18
10
34
31

46
46
387
283
95
60
992
706

59.5
59.1
57.1
54.5
57.6
55.7
59.5
57.2

33.9
22.7
40.6
29.9
44.6
24.9
33.6
20.3

.360
.289
.486
.384
.483
.350
.384
.289

21.42
17. 08
27. 75
20. 93
27. 82
20. 00
22. 85
16. 53

12.18
6. 56
19. 73
11.49
21.51
8. 97
12. 87
5.86

37.6
22.7
42.4
31.6
46.4
25.2
35.7
21.5

.363
.289
.487
.386
.484
.359
.388
.294

13.64
6. 56
20. 64
12.17
22.44
9.06
13.84
6.33

$18.30
8.22

$13. 93
19. 20
7. 63
21.43
10.42
18.99
7. 29
22.88
13. 00
46.66
31.81
23. 86
13. 51
33. 31
19.16

B e s s e m e r c o n v e rters

Stockers__________ ____

1931
1933

10
6

117
73

50.5
49.5

26.7 $0. 622 $31. 41 $16.61
17.6
.436 21.58
7. 70

29.9 $0. 612
18.8
.438

1933
1931
1933
Regulators, first_______ 1931
1933
Regulators, s e co n d ____ 1931
1933
Blowing engineers_____ 1933
Vessel m en____________ 1931
1933
Vessel men’s helpers___ 1931
1933
Cinder pitm en_________ 1931
1933

7
11
7
10
8
7
7
6
10
8
11
8
11
7

16
26
11
23
11
19
16
17
30
21
49
29
97
72

49.7
50.5
49. 1
51.5
50.3
49.3
51. 1
49.3
51. 1
50.7
51.0
51.2
51.5
51.2

20.1
46.4
24.5
34.4
27.6
33. 1
16.5
27.6
33.5
18. 1
36.0
17.8
30.3
16.3

22.3
46.7
27.2
38.7
33.4
36.9
19.8
28.8
35.2
21.0
37.9
20.6
33.3
18.5

Iron pourers (troughmen) ______ _______
B lo w e r s _____ ______


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.501
1. 291
.986
.966
.639
.902
.683
.547
1.126
.822
.857
.631
.566
.434

24. 90
65. 20
48.41
49. 75
32.14
44. 47
34. 90
26.97
57. 54
41. 68
43. 71
32.31
29.15
22. 22

10. 09
59.90
24.12
33.18
17. 60
29. 87
11.31
15. 11
37. 72
14. 89
30. 86
11.22
17. 15
7.08

.490
1.289
.930
.948
.628
.869
.656
.543
1.101
.775
.844
.620
.563
.430

10. 94
60. 23
25. 25
36. 65
21.01
32. 02
12.97
15. 67
38. 74
16.28
31.99
12. 79
18. 76
7. 95

930

m onthly

labor

r e v ie w

A V E R A G E H OU R S A N D E A R N IN G S OF E M P L O Y E E S IN 6 D E P A R T M E N T S OF T H E
IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N , 1931 A N D 1933— Continued
B e s s e m e r c o n v e rters —

Continued
A ll occupations (in­
cluding primary)

Primary occupation only

Primary occupation

N um ­
A ver­ A ver­
hours
A ver­
N um ­ ber of Average
Aver­ A ver­ age
per week
A ver­
age
age
Year ber of wage
age
age actual
full­ actual
age
plants earn­
earn­ time earn­ hours earn­ earn­
ers
earn­
worked ings
ings
ings
ings
A ctu­
per
in 1
per
ings
Full
in 1
in 1
ally
week
hour week
per
time worked hour
week
week

____ 1931
1933
Bottom makers’ helpers. 1931
1933
Ladle liners . . . -------- 1931
1933
Ladle liners’ helpers. .. 1931
1933
Stopper makers------------ 1931
1933
Stopper setters. .......... 1931
1933
Steel pourers----- -------- 1931
1933
1931
M old cappers______
1933
1931
Ingot strippers------------1933
L a b orers__________ . . . 1931
1933

Bottom makers..

11
8
11
8
10
7
10
7
11
8
11
8
10
8
7
5
8
8
10
8

21
14
31
18
23
17
31
20
14
9
31
21
27
19
23
16
26
26
211
100

52.8
53.3
54.5
54.6
51. 5
51. 7
50. 7
51.2
56.4
55.2
50.5
50.8
50.1
50.7
49.8
49. 2
50.6
49.9
57.9
58.1

31.4 $0.825 $43. 56 $25. 88
19.6
.579 30. 86 11.36
32.6
.636 34. 66 20. 72
22. 4
9. 93
.443 24. 19
36.5
.901 46. 40 32. 87
.618 31.95 11.16
18.1
.664 33. 66 21.77
32.8
.452 23. 14
7. 49
16.5
35.0
.569 32. 09 19.91
28.0
.400 22. 08 11.23
28.3
.998 50. 40 28.23
16.3
.709 36. 02 11. 55
27.9 1.135 56.86 31. 65
17.5
.785 39. 80 13. 76
.752 37. 45 23.80
31.6
.532 26. 17
9. 51
17.9
33.8
.809 40. 94 27. 33
24.5
.538 26. 85 13. 20
30.2
.452 26. 17 13. 66
19. 1
.335 19. 46
6. 40

34.5 $0. 805
.562
21.1
35.5
.623
24.0
.438
.891
37.3
21. 2
.593
.651
36.3
20.4
.461
36.4
.565
.404
31.8
31.0
.967
19.9
.643
29.9 1.099
20.2
.728
35.3
.747
20.8
.507
35.8
.796
25.3
.536
34.5
.464
22.2
.350

$27.74
11.86
22.15
10.54
33. 29
12.55
23.67
9. 39
20. 53
11.86
29. 97
12. 78
32.81
14. 71
26.38
10. 55
28.49
13. 55
16. 01
7. 78

39.8 $0. 526
22.9
.409
39.6
.660
22.3
.466

$20.95
8. 65
26.18
10.38

O p e n -h e a r t h f u r n a c e s

1931
1933
- 1931
1933

34
29
33
32

544
537
225
251

54.5
54.3
54.2
53.1

39.1 $0. 527 $28. 72 $20. 60
22.3
.376 20. 42
8. 37
38.2
.663 35. 93 25. 36
21.6
.467 24. 80 10.10

1931
1933
1931
1933

35
33
14
8

262
299
213
126

53.2
52.4
53.3
51.6

37.6
22.9
35.1
15.9

.879
.629
.436
.356

46. 76
32. 96
23. 24
18. 37

33.04
14.44
15. 30
5. 67

38.3
23.8
37.1
16.3

.877
.624
.442
.357

33.60
14. 86
16.38
5. 83

Charging-floor
cranem en_______________ - 1931
1933
Melters’ helpers, first-.- 1931
1933
Melters’ helpers, second 1931
1933
Melters’ helpers, th ir d - 1931
1933
Stopper setters. ---------- 1931
1933
1931
Steel pourers______ . . .
1933
Ladle cranemen_______ 1931
1933
Ingot strippers------------- 1931
1933
Engineers, locom otive.. 1931
1933
Switchm en. __________ 1931
1933
1931
Laborers__________ . . .
1933

22
17
35
31
35
33
33
28
29
25
35
31
33
32
26
26
31
31
30
29
33
33

138
139
1,004
892
1,006
978
955
896
158
173
177
192
290
291
118
144
372
411
388
391
1, 540
1,595

53.0
53.2
53. 1
52.4
53. 1
52. 2
52.9
52. 1
53.0
52.3
53.5
53. 1
53.2
52.4
54.5
52.6
53.3
52.5
53.4
52.4
57.5
54.9

34.7
19.6
35.5
19.7
34.6
18.8
34. 1
16.9
33.5
22.8
38. 1
24. 6
37.7
20.5
37.5
24.5
30.9
20.5
37. 1
21.6
31.7
15.7

.760
.537
1.239
.867
.877
.624
.668
.462
.798
.560
.851
.575
.846
.566
.747
.507
.843
.502
.606
.426
.436
.330

40.28
28. 57
65. 79
45. 43
46. 57
32. 57
35. 34
24. 07
42.29
29. 29
45. 53
30. 53
45. 01
29. 66
40. 71
26. 67
44. 93
26. 36
32. 36
22. 32
25.07
18.12

26. 33
10. 52
43. 97
17.04
30. 30
11.72
22.81
7. 82
26. 70
12. 76
32.39
14. 13
31.92
11.62
28. 02
12. 43
26.04
10. 27
22. 50
9. 22
13. 80
5.19

37.1
21. 3
36.4
20.6
35.9
19.5
36.3
17.6
38.7
24.9
40.9
26.1
39.0
21.3
39.3
25.0
31.5
20.9
38.1
22.2
33.5
16.3

.758
.538
1. 233
.854
.875
.619
.666
.464
.786
.553
.843
.576
.842
.563
.741
.508
.839
.500
.607
.426
.441
.334

28. 14
11.44
44. 84
17. 56
31.39
12. 07
24.20
8.14
30. 41
13.80
34. 44
15.03
32.88
11.97
29.14
12.69
26. 45
10. 45
23.12
9. 46
14.78
5. 43

Stockers

-------------

Stock cranemen___
Charging-machine operators____________
Door operators___ . . .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGES

AND

HOURS

OF

931

LABOR

A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S OF E M P L O Y E E S IN 6 D E P A R T M E N T S OF T H E
IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N , 1931 A N D 1933—Continued
P u d d l i n g m ills

Primary occupation only

Primary occupation

All occupations (in­
cluding primary)

N um ­ Average hours
A ver­ A ver­
Aver­
N um ­ ber of
Aver­ A ver­
Aver­
age
per week
age
age
Year ber of wage
age actual
age
full­ actual
age
plants earn­
earn­ time earn­ hours earn­ earn­
ers
earn­ ings worked ings
ings
ings
A ctu­
per
in 1
per
ings
Full
in 1
in 1
ally
hour week
week
per
time worked hour
week
week

1931
1933
1931
1933
Puddlers, level-handed. 1931
1933
Puddlers’ helpers. __ _ _ 1931
1933
Bloom b oys_________ _ 1931
1933
Roll engineers_________ 1931
1933
Rollers . . ________ . 1931
1933
Roughers______________ 1931
1933
1931
Catchers _____ _____
1933
1931
Hook-ups ________ ..
1933
1931
H otbed men_____
1933
1931
Shearmen_____ _ . . .
1933
Shearmen’s helpers____ 1931
1933
1931
1933
Stockers... __ _ ______

Puddlers____

8
8
6
6
7
8
6
6
6
5
8
8
7
5
6
3
7
6
8
8
6
7
8
7
8
6
8
6

47
44
124
111
218
243
137
120
10
8
11
11
11
9
16
7
14
18
19
18
27
28
12
11
19
21
36
28

51.4
55.9
54.3
52. 6
49.2
52.4
54.3
52.7
50.7
53.7
65.6
60. 1
50.5
50.2
51.1
48.7
51.4
52.1
51.0
52.9
50.9
50.3
52.9
53.5
51.0
53. 2
54.3
53.5

26.4 $0. 547 $28.12 $14. 47
.403 22. 53 11.75
29.2
37.5
.793 43. 06 29. 72
.634 33. 35 19. 30
30.4
23.4
.691 34.00 16.16
.543 28.45 18. 30
33.7
.540 29. 32 19.11
35.4
.423 22.29 12.31
29.1
.439 22. 26 10. 50
23.9
5.91
.336 18.04
17.6
.469 30. 77 24. 22
51.6
.399 23.98 15.98
40.0
.956 48.28 32.16
33.6
.836 41.97 25. 12
30.1
.615 31.43 20.71
33.7
.451 21.96 11. 66
25.8
.604 31.05 20. 21
33.5
.550 28. 66 16. 90
30.7
.484 24. 68 16. 74
34.6
.388 20. 53 11. 56
29.8
.459 23. 36 13. 52
29.5
34.1
.400 20. 12 13. 64
.603 31. 90 21.64
35.9
.391 20. 92 11.31
28.9
.511 26.06 14.04
27.5
9.30
.332 17. 66
28.0
.386 20. 96 10.12
26. 2
7. 74
.286 15. 30
27.1

27.0 $0. 544
.401
29.9
38. 4
.790
.629
31. 7
.692
24. 7
.542
34.9
.542
36. 2
.424
29.6
24.9
.475
.345
17.9
.469
51.6
.399
40.0
.956
33.6
.836
30.1
.615
33.7
.451
25.8
.604
33.5
.532
33.7
.496
35.0
.396
31.2
.459
29.5
.399
34.4
.597
36.7
.391
28.9
.511
27.5
.327
30.1
.389
26.8
.289
28. 1

$14. 68
12.01
30. 35
19.94
17. 06
18. 91
19. 62
12. 54
11.82
6.17
24.22
15.98
32.16
25.12
20.71
11.66
20. 21
17.91
17. 38
12.35
13.52
13. 73
21.92
11.31
14. 05
9. 85
10. 44
8.13

35.6 $0.840
26.8
.571
39.8 1. 228
.800
29.3
.780
39.8
31.9
.631
.843
35.7
.618
23.1
.623
35.0
.452
23.1
.954
33.6
25.0
.697
35.8 1.421
.962
26.9
31.9 1.019
.681
23.1
.746
30.9
.438
25.6
.807
32.5
21.6
.531
30.6
.590
.396
20. 2
.467
34.6
.344
17.3

$29. 94
15. 32
48.
23. 42
31. 09
20 . 13
30. 07
14. 26
21. 83
10. 43
32. 07
40
92
90
32. 52
15. 76
23. 07
11. 24
26. 23
11. 50
18. 09
7. 98
16. 14
5. 95

B l o o m i n g m ills

Pit cranemen---------------- 1931
1933
1931
Heaters_______ ______
1933
Heaters’ helpers----------- 1931
1933
Bottommakers................ 1931
1933
Bottommakers’ helpers. 1931
1933
R oll engineers-------------- 1931
1933
R ollers.-------- --------------- 1931
1933
Manipulators--------------- 1931
1933
Table men------------ ------- 1931
1933
Shearmen_____________ 1931
1933
Shearmen’s helpers------- 1931
1933
Laborers_______________ 1931
1933


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

211
32
186
32
33
165
32
155
61
19
32
13
131
31
119
29
153
25
22
107
51
20
45
20
86
33
32
70
84
32
70
30
12
33
21
8
91
29
80
29
24
103
21 . 72
340
30
374
30

52. 2
52.1
52.5
52.2
54.7
51.4
51.3
51.0
52.8
52.6
53.7
52.8
52.4
52.3
52.5
52.4
51.4
50.4
51.6
51.5
52.1
51.7
55.6
53.8

35.1 $0. 845 $44.11 $29. 64
26.2
.576 30.01 15.12
39.1 1.234 64.79 48. 28
.802 41.86 23.21
28.9
.783 42. 83 28. 61
36.6
.628 32.28 18. 73
29.8
.855 43.86 28.05
32.8
.625 31.88 13. 73
22.0
.625 33.00 20.02
32.0
9.87
.454 23.88
21. 7
.952 51.12 30. 80
32.4
.702 37. 07 16.98
24.2
35.0 1.438 75. 35 50.29
.993 51.93 24.96
25.2
29.9 1.028 53.97 30. 72
22.1
.673 35. 27 14. 87
.745 38. 29 20. 62
27.7
.444 22. 38 10. 86
24.5
.820 42.31 25. 34
30.9
.532 27.40 11.00
20.7
.594 30. 95 17. 16
28.9
7. 66
.394 20. 37
19.5
.460 25. 58 14.54
31.6
5. 62
.343 18.45
16.4

932

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S OF E M P L O Y E E S IN 6 D E P A R T M E N T S OF T H E
IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , B Y O C C U P A T IO N , 1931 A N D 1933— Continued
P l a t e m ills

A ll occupations (in­
cluding primary)

Primary occupation only

N um ­ Average hours
Aver­ A ver­
Aver­
N um ­ ber of
Aver­ A ver­
per week
A ver­ age
age
age
Year ber of wage
age
age actual
full- actual
age
plants
earn­ time earn­ hours earn­ earn­
ers
worked ings
earn­
ings
ings
ings
A ctu­
per
in 1
per
ings
Full
in 1
in 1
ally
week
hour week
per
hour
time worked
week
week

Primary occupation

C harging-crane and
charging-machine op­
erators—

36.4 $0. 717
17.0
.503
38.2 1.135
15.9
.744
36.4
.624
. 405
16. 8
38.1
.647
20. 3
. 465

$26. 07
8. 57
43.40
11.87
22. 70
6.82
24.64
9.44

17
17
17
17
14
11
11
12

96
80
75
90
81
69
28
36

56.9
54.0
55.8
52. 7
61.8
57.9
62.5
59.2

35.4 $0. 722 $41. 08 $25. 56
8. 34
.509 27. 49
16.4
37.8 1. 140 63. 61 43.13
.751 39. 58 11. 74
15.6
.629 38. 87 22. 32
35.5
6. 65
16.4
.406 23. 51
.664 41.50 23. 45
35.3
9. 44
.465 27. 53
20.3

1931
1933

13
14

34
35

57.4
54.6

41. 6
16.7

1. 554
.960

89. 20
52.42

64. 71
16.00

41.9
19.4

1.548
.890

64. 91
17.29

1931
1933

12
12

40
39

57.8
53.7

36. 5
16.6

1.025
.633

59. 25
33. 99

37. 43
10. 53

38.2
17.2

1.027
.628

39.26
10.83

1931
1933

13
11

48
34

57.4
55.3

34.4
12.6

.788
.552

45.23
30. 53

27.09
6. 95

36.0
13.0

.790
.556

28.40
7. 21

1931
1933

13
13

95
84

56.4
53.4

35.6
13.0

.755
.478

42.58
25. 53

26.83
6.23

37.0
13.4

.754
.478

27.88
6. 39

1931
1933
Rollers, universal mills. 1931
1933
Screw men, main rolls,
1931
universal mills—
1933
Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills _ - 1931
1933
R oll hands, other, uni­
versal mills-------- ------- 1931
1933
S hearm en...
-------- 1931
1933
Shearmen’s helpers____ 1931
1933
Laborers.— -------- _ - 1931
1933

11
11
5
4

50
47
12
13

60. 5
56. 2
58.8
55.0

31.3
14. 1
41.3
19. 6

.737
.424
1.174
.832

44. 59
23.83
69. 03
45. 76

23. 05
5. 98
48. 46
16.27

34.0
15. 6
41.3
20.1

.748
.418
1.174
.816

25.44
6. 51
48.46
16. 41

5
4

14
15

58.8
55.8

39.9
17.1

.834
.623

49. 04
34. 76

33.29
10. 67

40. 2
19.2

.836
. 594

33. 60
11.38

4
2

14
4

63.2
64.9

28.5
24.1

.639
.410

40. 38
26.61

18.20
9. 86

32.4
25.0

.647
.410

20.94
10.27

4
4
17
17
17
17
16
16

8
13
140
136
524
487
357
337

60.2
55.0
57. 2
53.4
58.3
55.0
55.5
54.8

36.9
18.0
37.3
14. 6
33.1
13.7
25.3
12.0

.531
.444
.822
.533
.577
.398
.433
.312

31.97
24. 42
47. 02
28. 46
33. 64
21.89
24.03
17.10

19. 61
7.97
30.64
7. 77
19.09
5. 45
10. 96
3. 74

37.8
18.3
37.9
15. 2
34.0
13.8
26.8
12.5

.534
.442
.821
.527
.575
.398
.438
.318

20.19
8.08
31. 10
7.98
19.54
5. 51
11.73
3.98

1931
1933
1931
1933
1931
1933
- 1931
1933

Heaters-------------- -------Heaters’ helpers----R oll engineers----------

Rollers, sheared-plate
mills-----------------Screw men, shearedplate mills----------------Table operators, shear­
ed-plate mills---------Hook men, shearedplate m i l l s - .- ------Roll
hands,
other,
sheared-plate mills—

Entrance Wage Rates of Common Labor, July 1, 1933

N CONTINUATION of the previous periodic surveys by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics concerning the entrance rates per
hour paid to adult male common labor, data were requested in July
1933 from establishments in 13 important industries in which large
numbers of common laborers are employed. Reports were secured
covering 152,653 employees working at these entrance rates on July
1. The information has been compiled for each industry and geo­
graphic division and is presented herewith. Although similar data
have been collected for these 13 industries since 1926, the surveys
have been expanded from time to time to secure a more representa­
tive coverage of each industry, and the tabulations do not therefore
cover identical establishments over the 8-year interval. With the

I


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

933

W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

exception of the general contracting industry, the information con­
cerning common labor entrance rates in the remaining 12 industries
has been secured from establishments which also report to the Bureau
regarding volume of employment.
The term “ common labor” has many interpretations in various
industries and even in different localities or plants in the same in­
dustry. Also, the rates of pay are increased by some employers
after a stated length of service, or after a certain degree of fitness
for the job has been developed. These factors make difficult the
publication of strictly comparable data concerning common labor.
Therefore, to present data which will reflect the changes in common
labor wage rates from year to year, the Bureau has confined its sur­
veys to the rates paid to adult male common labor when first hired
and has construed the term “ common labor” to mean workers having
no specific productive jobs or occupations, who perform physical or
manual labor of general character requiring little skill or training.
While in some cases two rates have been reported by an establish­
ment— as, for example, one for the 10-hour day and another for the
8-liour day, or one for white laborers and one for colored or Mexican
workers— these distinctions have not been maintained in the tabula­
tions. It is apparent that the lowest rates are shown in those geo­
graphic divisions where there are large numbers of colored or Mexican
workers, while the highest rates are reported in those localities where
the 8-hour day is more or less prevalent.
The number of common laborers receiving the entrance rate on
July 1, 1933, in the reporting establishments in the 13 industries sur­
veyed was as follows:
Number of common laborers

Automobiles___________________________________________
Brick, tile, and terra cotta_____________________________
Cement________________________________________________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies___________
Foundry and machine-shop products___________________
Iron and steel_____________ ____________________________
Leather________________________________________________
Lumber (sawmills)_____________________________________
Paper and pulp________________________________________
Petroleum refining_____________________________________
Slaughtering and meat packing_________________________
Public utilities_________________________________________
General contracting____________________________________

19, 039
4, 604
1, 102
2, 744
10, 270
19,499
3, 178
15, 514
14, 616
4, 846
10, 325
15, 857
31, 059

Total___________________________________________

152, 653

The following tabulation shows the distribution of these laborers
according to the geographic divisions in which the reporting plants or
operations are located:
Number of common laborers

New England__________________________________________
Middle Atlantic________________________________________
East North Central____________________________________
West North Central____________________________________
South Atlantic_________________________________________
East South Central____________________________________
West South Central____________________________________
Mountain______________________________________________
Pacific_________________________________________________
Total___________________________________________

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7,
24,
53,
19,
11,
6,
12,
4,
14,

494
004
894
068
538
404
061
095
095

152, 653

934

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

The average entrance rate per hour on July 1, 1933, for all 13
industries combined was 35.1 cents. This average rate is computed
by multiplying the common labor entrance rate per hour in each
plant by the number of common laborers working at such rate, and
dividing the aggregate for all plants by the total number of common
laborers. The average entrance rate in July 1933 is 3 cents, or 7.9
percent, below the level of the average rate in July 1932, and 9.8
cents, or 21.8 percent, below the average of July 1928, in which year
the highest average entrance rate was reported. The weighted
average entrance rate for the 13 industries combined and for these
industries omitting general contracting, for each of the years from
1926 to 1933, inclusive, is shown in table 1, which follows:
T able 1.—W E IG H T E D A V E R A G E E N T R A N C E R A T E S P E R H O U R F O R C O M M O N L A B O R ,
,
J U L Y 1 OF E A C H Y E A R 1926 T O 1933
Weighted average
entrance rate
July 1—

1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928__________________________________
1929________________________________
1930_____________________________
1931_____________________________________
1932___________________________________
1933________________________________

All indus­
All indus­ tries ex­
tries com ­ cept gen­
eral con­
bined
tracting
Cents
42. 8
42. 6
44. 9
43. 7
43.1
41. 2
38.1
35.1

Cents
40 9
40. 4
44 1
42.1
41. 6
40. 7
37. 6
34.3

With the exception of two industries, iron and steel and electrical
machinery, decreases in average rates per hour in July 1933, as com­
pared with the preceding July, were reported in every instance. The
increase in average rate over the year interval shown in the iron and
steel industry is due to the improved operating condition in that in­
dustry since July 1932, which has occasioned the employment of an
additional number of common laborers. While the minimum rate
reported in this industry showed a slight decrease between July 1932
and July 1933, and the maximum rate remained unchanged, the addi­
tional laborers employed in the industry were engaged at a rate higher
than the average rate reported in the industry last year, thereby ac­
counting for an increase in the average rate in July 1933, with no
perceptible change in the minimum or maximum rates. The increase
in average rate per hour in the electrical machinery industry in July
1933, as compared with July 1932, is due to the additional number of
common laborers reported in the East North Central geographic
division, in which division the highest average wage rate in this in­
dustry was reported. The three remaining geographic divisions for
which entrance wage rate data in this industry are available show de­
creases in average hourly rates in July 1933 as compared with July
1932.
The maximum entrance rate per hour, 95 cents, was reported in the
general contracting industry in both the Middle Atlantic and East
North Central States, while the minimum rate, 5 cents, was reported

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

935

W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

in the South Atlantic States in both the sawmill and general contract­
ing industries.
The automobile industry showed the highest average hourly en­
trance rate, 46.5 cents. Two other industries reported average en­
trance rates of over 40 cents per hour— electrical machinery with 41.2
cents and petroleum refining with 40.7 cents. The lowest average
entrance rate per hour was in the sawmill industry, 20.8 cents.
The Mountain division reported the highest average entrance rate
of the nine geographic divisions, 42.3 cents. The average hourly
entrance rate in the East North Central geographic division, in which
division over one third of the common laborers covered by this survey
were employed, was 38.9 cents. The lowest average rate reported in
the nine geographic divisions was shown in the West South Central
division, 23.4 cents.
The maximum, minimum, and average common labor entrance
rates per hour on July 1, 1933, for each of the 13 industries and for all
industries combined, for each geographic division and for the United
States as a whole, are shown in table 2:
T able 2 — H O U R L Y E N T R A N C E W A G E R A T E S F O R C O M M O N L A B O R , JU L Y 1, 1933

[The rates on which this table is based are entrance rates paid for adult male common labor]

Geographic division 1
United
East West South East West
States New M id ­ North
North
South South M ou n­ Pa­
dle
Eng­ A
A t­
t­ Cen­ Cen­
Cen­ Cen­ tain
cific
land lantic tral
tral lantic tral
tral

Industry

Automobiles:
High ___________ ____ _
Average
... _
___ _
Brick, tile]] and terra cotta:
Low ______________________
H igh----------------------------------Average . . . .
___
Cement:
High

_ _ ___

_ .

__

Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies:
High__

, ,

Foundry- and machine-shop
products:
Low _ __
H igh----------------------------------Average______ _____ __ __
Iron and steel:

Leather:

Lum ber (sawmills):
L o w . _____________________
H igh----------------------------------Average.............. - ------- ---------

Cts.
29. 2
53. 0
46. 5

Cts.
30. 0
45. 0
33.8

Cts.
30. 0
50. 0
47. 2

Cts.
29. 2
50. 0
46. 3

Cts.
35. 0
50. 0
38. 7

Cts.

Cts.
50. 0
50. 0
50. 0

Cts.
50 0
50. 0
50 0

Cts.

Cts.
45. 0
53. 0
50. 7

5.5
50.0
24. 7

20.0
40.0
32.0

18.0
40.0
28. 2

15.0
50.0
25. 0

20.0
40. 0
24.4

5. 5
45. 0
17. 1

7.0
30.0
19.6

10. 0
20. 0
11.8

23.5
40. 5
33. 2

25.0
42.5
34.2

25. 0
33. 0
29.1

24. 0
33. 5
29. 5

28. 0
35. 0
31. 8

20. 0
25. 0
21. 3

24. 0
26 0
25. 5

15. 0
40.0
24.2

20. 0
40. 0
29. 5
26. 0
52. 5
41. 2

27.0
38.0
35.3

32. 0
45. 0
38.2

27. 5
52.5
43. 6

26. 0
28. 0
26.8

12.5
53.0
31.8

25.0
53.0
35.3

17.0
51.0
33.8

18.0
45.0
31.1

20. 0
45.0
34.4

15.0
40.0
22.2

12.5
35.0
19.0

15. 0
45. 0
33.6

20. 0
45.0
31.3

17.0
40. 0
31. 6

25. 0
45. 0
34. 7

30. 0
30. 0
30. 0

15. 0
40. 0
35. 8

15. 5
31. 5
24. 6

15. 0
47. 6
31.6

27.9
41. 7
39.5

25. 0
47. 6
38.0

20.0
45.0
28.2

20.0
20.0
20. 0

15. 0
30. 0
27. 2

15. 0
20. 0
18. 3

5.0
45.0
20.8

25.0
27.0
26.1

25.0
35.0
27.0

15.0
37. 5
24.8

10.0
27.5
24.2

5.0
25.0
13.3

6.5
20.0
11.7

36. 0
40. 0
38. 3

25.0
40.0
36.2

32.0
50.0
41.5

37. 0
37. 0
37. 0

25. 0
35.0
30.1
31. 3
37.5
32.7

10.0
20.0
13. 7

15.5
37.0
32.5

18.0
45.0
28.7

i N ew England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont. M id ­
dle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Ohio, Wisconsin. West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
South Dakota. South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
Tennessee. West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas. Mountain: Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, W yom ing. Pacific: California, Oregon, Washington.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

936

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

T a b l e 2 — H O U R L Y E N T R A N C E W A G E R A T E S F O R C O M M O N L A B O R , J U L Y 1,1933— Con.

Geographic division
Industry

Paper and pulp:
High_____ ________ ______
Average_____ _ . . . . . ____
Petroleum refining:
High____________________

United
M id ­ East West
States New
South East West
Eng­ dle North North A t­ South South M ou n­ Pa­
tain
cific
land A t­ Cen­ Cen­ lantic Cen­ Cen­
lantic tral
tral
tral
tral
Cts.
12. 5
50. 0
32. 6

Cts.
20. 0
45. 0
35.8

22 5
62. 0
40 7

Cts.
20 0
45. 0
32. 5

Cts.
20 0
46 0
33.4

Cts.
25 0
35 0
33.5

Cts.
14 3
40 0
24.2

Cts.
12 5
26 0
16.9

Cts.
18 0
20 0
19.3

Cts.

36 0
56 0
45.9

30 0
48 0
43.2

32 5
37.4

29 0
50 0
39.2

30.0

45 0
35.6

54 0
51.3

51.5

27 0
30 0
27.7

27 0
45 0
30.0

25 0
38 0
33 .1

Slaughtering and meat packing :
High______________________

22. 5
45. 0
32. 3

34. 0
34. 0
34. 0

25. 0
36. 0
33.1

22 5
36 0
33. 5

25 0
38 0
31.7

30 0
35 0
32. 5

Cts.
27 5
50 0
35! 2

Public utilities:2
Low . . .
. . . . . . ...
High_______________________
Average
.
... _ ... .
General contracting:3
Low
.
. . .
High----------------------------------Average.. ___________ . . .

10.0
75.0
38.7

20. 0
58. 0
44.8

24. 0
61.3
44.0

20. 0
75. 0
45.9

20.0
50.0
35.1

10. 0
45. 0
29.0

15.0
40.0
24.9

15. 0
47.0
26.4

22.5
59.4
41.3

22.0
54.5
42.0

5.0
95.0
38.3

25. 0
70.0
39.8

20.0
95.0
42.0

20.0
95.0
42.8

12.5
80.0
36.7

5.0
40.0
21.9

10.0
50.0
21.1

15. 0
45. 0
27.3

37.5
50. 0
49.2

25.0
68.8
49.0

Total:
L o w . . .................... .
High-------------------------Average______________

5.0
95.0
35.1

20.0
70.0
37.1

17.0
95.0
36.7

15.0
95.0
38.9

10.0
80.0
34.5

5.0
50. 0
25.3

6.5
50.0
25.7

10.0
50.0
23.4

15.5
59.4
42.3

18.0
68.8
38.0

2Includes street railways, gas works, and electric power and light plants.
Includes building, highway, public works, and railroad construction.

Wage-Rate Changes in American Industries
Manufacturing Industries

HE following table presents information concerning wage-rate
adjustments occurring between July 15 and August 15, 1933, as
shown by reports received from manufacturing establishments sup­
plying employment data to this Bureau.
Increases in wage rates averaging 24.3 percent and affecting 1,145,576 employees were reported by 3,776 manufacturing establishments
in August. These increases reflect the adoption of the various indus­
try codes or the acceptance of the blanket code in certain industries,
and, in other industries, represent a partial restoration of previous
reductions in wage rates, due to the general business improvement.
Of the 18,008 manufacturing establishments included in the August
survey, 14,230 establishments, or 79 percent of the total, reported no
change in wage rates over the month interval. The 2,041,953 em­
ployees not affected by changes in wage rates constituted 64.1 per­
cent of the total number of employees covered by the August trend
of employment survey of manufacturing industries.
Only two manufacturing establishments reported wage-rate de­
creases.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

937

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOR

T able 1 —W A G E -R A T E C H A N G E S IN M A N U FA C TU R IN G IN D U S T R IE S D U R IN G M O N T H
E N D IN G A U G U ST 15, 1933

Industry

All manufacturing industries-..
Percent of total_________

Estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

Number of establish­
ments reporting—
Total
number
of em­
ployees

18,008 3,187,674
100.0
100.0

Food and kindred products:
07,093
Baking—..........—............ .......
996
22, 537
Beverages...............................
380
Butter.......................................
308 5,989
Confectionery_______________
307 38, 393
Flour________________________
418 15,789
12,319
Ice cream... ................
342
Slaughtering and meat
packing___________________
244 101, 707
Sugar, beet__________________
57 6,946
8, 085
Sugar refining, c a n e ............
12
Textiles and their products:
Fabrics:
13, 563
26
Carpets and rugs______
318,253
Cotton goods__________
678
Cotton small wares____
110
12,036
Dyeing and finishing
textiles.........................
14940, 538
6, 55S
Hats, fur-felt__________
34
112,372
Knit g ood s .....................
448
56, 007
Silk and rayon g ood s ...
235
W oolen and worsted
goods............ ...................
237 79,347
Wearing apparel:
70,861
Clothing, m en’s_______
400
Clothing, wom en’s____
500
26,801
Corsets and allied gar­
6,176
35
ments_______________
8,138
M en’s furnishings_____
74
10,606
M illinery__________ _ .
135
17,142
Shirts and collars______
114
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts, not including machin­
ery:
Bolts, nuts, washers, and
11,588
rivets___________
69
6,014
Cast-iron pipe_____________
41
Cutlery (not including
silver and plated cutlery)
9,064
and edge tools___________
118
5,506
57
Forgings, iron and steel___
31, 299
Hardware____________
107
254, 534
Iron and steel...... ...........
206
8,823
Plumbers’ supplies-----------67
Steam and hot-water heat­
ing apparatus and steam
17, 726
fittings..______ _________
100
22, 647
Stoves__________ . . _______
164
Structural and ornamental
14, 660
metalwork_______
192
10,475
T in cans and other tinware.
60
Tools (not including edge
tools, machine tools, files,
7,851
and s a w s)................. .......
7,092
W irework________________
Machinery,
not
including
transportation equipment:
7,646
Agricultural im plem ents.-.
76
Cash registers, adding ma­
chines, and calculating
13,165
machines— ........ .......
35
Electrical machinery, ap­
103, 111
paratus, and supplies____
285
Engines, turbines, tractors,
14,143
and water w heels______
Foundry and machine-shop
122,791
products.............................. 1,046
13,251
Machine tools_____________
145
25,943
Radios and phonographs.._
41
Textile machinery and
10,381
parts............................ .......1
47
10, 284
Typewriters and supplies.-I
17
i Less than one tenth of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

No
Wage- Wagewage- rate in­ rate de­
rate
creases creases
changes

Number of employees
having—
No
wagerate
changes

WageWagerate in­ rate de­
creases creases

2,041,953 1,145, 576
64.1
35.9

14, 230
79.0

3, 776
21. 0

837
356
294
257
377
260

159
24
14
50
41
82

62,100
21,456
5, 617
32, 693
14, 052
11, 557

4,993
1,081
372
5, 700
1,737
762

175
56

69
1

76,956
5,793
8,085

24, 751
1,153

66

12
428
43

3,761
75,779
6,282

9,802
242,474
5,689

54
27
241
158

95
7
207
77

3,669
5,688
55,395
35, 038

36,869
870
56,977
20,969

49,944

29,403

50, 554
20,959

20,307
5, 842

4,811
7,041
8,855
13, 367

1, 365
1,097
1,751
3, 775

4,734
5,068

6,854
946

8,114
3,331
19, 604
117,988
4,489

950
2,175
11, 695
136,546
4,334

73
134

11, 261
16,836

6,465
5,811

165
51

11, 951
7,793

2,709
2,682

6, 040
3,579

1,811
3, 513

6,069

1,577

12

14
250

140
286
434

114

29
62
112
91

12
23
23

66
6

16
11
27
110
18

0)

11,543

1,622

68,850

34, 261

17

11,943

2,200

833
102
30

213
43
11

88, 800
9,189
19,062

33, 991
4, 062
6,881

34
13

13
4

8,564
7,414

1,817
2,870

(0

938

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

T able 1.—W A G E -R A T E C H A N G E S IN M A N U FA C TU R IN G IN D U S T R IE S D U R IN G M O N T H
E N D IN G A U G U ST 15, 1933—Continued

Industry

Nonferrous metals and their
parts:
Aluminum manufactures...
Brass, bronze, and copper
products________________
Clocks and watches and
time-recording devices___
Jewelry___________________
Lighting equipment_______
Silverware and plated ware.
Smelting and refin in g copper, lead, and zinc___
Stamped and enameled
ware____________________
Transportation equipment:
Aircraft. ____ ___________
Automobiles______________
Cars, electric and steam
railroad_________________
Locom otives___ ____ _____
Shipbuilding..................... .
Railroad repair shops:
Electric railroad___________
Steam railroad.....................
Lumber and allied products:
Furniture......................... .
Lumber:
M illw ork_____________
Sawmills______________
Turpentine and rosin_____
Stone, clay, and glass products:
Brick, tile, and terra cotta. .
Cement...... ............................
Glass______________________
Marble, granite, slate, and
other p r o d u c t s ................
Pottery____________ _____ _
Leather and its manufactures:
Boots and shoes..................
Leather_______ ____ ______
Paper and printing:
Boxes, p a p e r ................. .......
Paper and p ulp ................. .
Printing:
Book and jo b _________
Newspapers and peri­
odicals______________
Chemicals and allied products:
Chemicals_________________
Cottonseed, oil, cake, and
meal____________________
Druggists’ preparations___
Explosives_______ _______ _
Fertilizers-____ ___________
Paints and varnishes______
Petroleum refining..............
R ayon and allied products. .
Soap............... .........................
Rubber products:
Rubber boots and shoes___
Rubber goods, other than
boots, shoes, tires, and
inner tubes______________
Rubber tires and inner
tu b es........... ......................
Tobacco manufactures:
Chewing and smoking to­
bacco and snuff_________
Cigars and cigarettes...........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

Number of establish­
ments reporting—
Total
number
of em­
ployees

Number of employees
having—

No
wage- Wage- Wagerate in­ rate de­
rate
changes creases creases

No
wagerate
changes

WageWagerate in­ rate de­
creases creases

26

6,321

20

6

4,782

1,539

210

38,293

160

50

26, 738

11,555

25
136
49
41

8,319
8,106
3,146
5,156

22
130
42
32

3
6
7
9

5,946
7,896
2,018
2,458

2, 373
210
1,128
2,698

30

10,923

21

9

8,166

2,757

88

16,493

66

22

12,760

3, 733

27
237

7,797
230, 541

26
164

1
73

7,682
102, 208

115
128,333

39
11
95

6,124
2,210
26,821

36
8
80

3
3
15

6, 041
1,258
23,811

83
952
3,010

391
531

19, 477
75,566

388
531

3

19, 221
75, 566

256

451

50,799

336

115

33,175

17, 624

472
632
25

21, 381
76, 989
1,520

392
515
23

80
117
2

16, 881
56,127
1,491

4,500
20,862
29

645
111
187

23,557
15, 787
45, 712

533
60
155

112
51
32

18, 272
5,081
28,177

5,285
10, 706
17, 535

221
115

5, 540
16, 784

209
89

12
26

4,465
14,362

1,075
2,422

334
154

122,921
31,977

269
113

65
41

88, 218
21,345

34, 703
10,632

312
400

24,653
91,433

212
313

100
87

15, 739
64,910

8,914
26, 523
4, 035

•

770

45,148

695

75

41,113

437

61,407

421

16

60,767

640

108

25,817

91

17

20,720

5,097

107
44
27
177
351
123
22
88

3,881
7,694
2, 475
6, 352
16, 764
47, 712
32,183
12,871

81
41
11
160
288
121
11
81

26
3
16
17
63
2
11
7

2,160
6, 727
477
5, 724
12,298
47, 391
13, 763
11, 543

1, 721
967
1,998
628
4,466
321
18, 420
1, 328

9

12,130

6

3

10,114

2,016

99

25,767

84

15

22,107

3, 660

36

60, 389

23

13

48,655

11, 734

32
199

9, 397
38,091

19
168

13
30

6,162
25,764

3,235
12, 247

1

80

939

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
Nonmanufacturing Industries

D ata concerning wage-rate changes occurring between July 15
and August 15, 1933, in 15 groups of nonmanufacturing industries
are presented in the following table.
No changes in wage rates were reported in the anthracite-mining
industry. Increases were reported in each of the remaining 14 indus­
tries and decreases were reported in 4 industries over the month
interval. The average percents of increase reported were as follows:
Canning and preserving, 25.7 percent; quarrying and nonmetallic
mining, 23.5 percent; dyeing and cleaning, 23.1 percent; laundries,
20.7 percent; bituminous-coal mining, 19.9 percent; retail trade, 17
percent; crude-petroleum producing, 16.1 percent; wholesale trade,
14.5 percent; hotels, 12.9 percent; metalliferous mining, 12.1 percent;
power and light, 12 percent; banks, brokerage, insurance, real estate,
11.3 percent; telephone and telegraph, 10.6 percent; and electricrailroad and motor-bus operation and maintenance, 7.6 percent.
The average percents of decrease reported were as follows: Power and
light, 24 percent; banks, brokerage, insurance, real estate, 12.6 percent;
electric-railroad and motor-bus operation and maintenance, 12.3
percent; and hotels, 12.1 percent.
T able 2 .-W A O E -R A T E C H A N G E S IN N O N M A N U F A C T U B IN G IN D U S T R IE S D U R IN G
M O N T H E N D IN G A U G . 15, 1933

Number of establish­
ments reporting—

Num ber of employees
having—

Estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

Total
number
of em­
ployees

158
100. 0
1, 503
100. 0
281
100. 0

65, 204
1Ó0. 0
209, 730
100. 0
24, 735
1Ó0. 0

158
100.0
1,096
72.9
243
86.5

407
27.1
38
13. 5

65, 204
100. 0
132,999
63.4
19, 978
80.8

76, 731
36.6
4,757
19.2

1. 142
100. 0
245
100. 0
8,128
100. 0
3,105
100.0

34,553
100. 0
23, 097
100. 0
243, 500
177,733
100.0

1,033
90. 5
242
98.8
8,126
100. 0
3,089
99.5

109
9.5
3
1. 2
2
(i)
13
.4

29,638
85.8
22, 601
97.9
241,924
99.4
177, 010
99.6

4,915
14.2
496
2.1
1,576
.6
319
.2

Hotels ______________________
Percent of total _ _________

545
100.0
2, 963
100. 0
17, 291
100. 0
2, 558
100.0
920
100. 0
919
100. 0
337
100. 0

123,916
100.0
80, 385
1Ó0. 0
359,503
1Ó0. 0
131,650
100. 0
95, 471
1Ó0. 0
54, 320
1(10. 0
11,048
100. 0

539
98.9
2,852
96. 3
16, 575
95.9
2,538
99.2
847
92.1
856
93.1
303
89.9

4
.7
111
3.7
716
4.1
16
.6
73
7.9
63
6.9
34
10.1

4
.2

121, 034
97.7
78, 568
97.7
345, 209
96.0
131,152
99.6
81, 729
85.6
50,213
92.4
10,032
90.8

2, 669
2.2
1,817
2.3
14,294
4.0
464
.4
13, 742
14.4
4,107
7.6
1,016
9.2

Banks, brokerage, insurance,
and real estate ____________
Percent of total. ---------

4,508
100.0

168,943
100.0

4, 344
96.4

156
3.5

8
.2

166,175
98.4

2,688
1.6

Industrial group

Quarrying

and

No
WageWage- Wage- N o wage- Wagewage- rate in­ rate de­
rate
rate in­ rate de­
rate
changes
creases
creases
creases
creases
changes

nonmetallic

Crude-petroleum producing-----

Power and light___ ___________
Percent of total - ________
Electric-railroad and motor-bus
operation and maintenance.-Percent of total _________

1 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ibo. o

3
.1
2
.4

404
.2
213
.2

34
(>)

0)

80

940

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Wage Changes Reported by Trade Unions and Municipalities
Since June 1933

ECENT wage changes reported to the Bureau since June 1933
and affecting 11,828 municipal workers and trade unionists are
shown in the table following:

R

W AGE

C H A N G E S B Y I N D U S T R Y , O C C U P A T IO N , A N D L O C A L IT Y , JU NE TO
S E P T E M B E R 1933

Rate of wages
Date of
change

Industry or occupation and locality

Building trades:
Plasterers, Washington, D .C _ . _________
Plumbers and steamfitters:
Poughkeepsie, N .Y ., and vicinity __
Westchester County, N .Y
____ .
Sheet-metal workers, Westchester County, N .Y
Chauffeurs and teamsters:
Brewery-wagon drivers:
Los Angeles, C a l i f _________________ .

Before
change

After
change

8

Per hour
$1.75

Per hour
$1. 50

40

40

July —
July 22
-_-d o____

1. 25
1.40
1.40

1.00
1.25
1. 25

40
40
40

40
40
40

Per week
41.00
41.00

44-48
44-48

44-48
44-48

0)
40

44
40

Sept.

June 19

Clothing trades:
M en’s clothing workers, Boston, Mass__________ July 31
All United Garment Workers, United States___ July 17
Glass-bottle blowers, United States: Automaticmachine operators- _______ . . . _ ______ _ _ _ __ Sept. 1
Longshoremen,
Buffalo,
N .Y .: Package-freight
handlers______ ___________________________________ June 20
Aug. 4
Miners, coal, W yom ing __ _ _
.................
Printing and publishing trades:
Compositors and machine operators:
Duluth, M inn.:
Newspaper, d a y _______________________ June 1
do _ _
Lorain, Ohio:
June 5
Newspaper, day______ _
______ _
d o___
Savannah, Ga.:
June 1
Job work. _______________ _

Louisville, K y.:
Foremen -------------

Per week
/36. 00\
137.00/
39. 00
0)
(')

m
(3)

Per hour
.50

Per hour
.60

48-56

36-40

.49

.50

70

70

Per day
6. 72

Per day
5. 42

48

48

Per week
44. 00
47. 00

Per week
42.24
45.10

44
44

44
44

48. 00
51. 00

31.25
33.20

48
48

37H
37

40.00

35.20

44

44

____ Aug. 1
_ do___

Per day
7. 20
7. 37

45
45

45
45

------------------ July 1
- _ d o ____

7. 90
7. 44

7. 65
7.20

45
45

45
45

June 20
__ do____

7. 25
6. 75

6. 52
6. 07

48
48

48
48

Per hour
.66

46-49

46-49

----------- - -

Per hour
Street-railway workers, Gary, Ind.: O perators-----Municipal employees:
Alton, 111., teachers, janitors, clerks.- ---------Buffalo, N .Y .:
Supervisors and directors
Elementary schools:

Aug.

1

Sept.

1

(i)
(0

(4)
(4)

(i)
5 40

0)
MO

July 1
_ d o___

0)
(i)

Per year
3, 500-5,000
1, 600-4,900

(>)
(>)

0)
(0

- do___
-_ d o____
do ___

(0
(i)
(0

2, 200-3, 800
1, 200-2, 600
1,250-4,000

(>)
0)
0)

0)
(9
(>)

0)

(0

(0

(■)

{ ' 63}

Per month Per month
110-150
110-166
Sept. 1
Forest Grove, Oreg., teachers_______________
Gloucester, N.J., teachers and other school em(4)
ployees- - ----- ---------------- - - - - Sept. —
0)
Jamestown, N .Y ., teachers, principals, and sup(6)
er visors___________________ ____ _____ ______ _ Sept. —
(0
i N ot reported.
4 10 percent reduction.
2 10 to 40 percent increase.
5 Average.
3 20 percent Increase.
6 15 percent reduction.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Before After
change change

Per day
7. 44
7.61

Stereotypers, Los Angeles, Calif.:
D a y w o r k -- _ __________ - - - - - - W eb pressmen:
Los Angeles, Calif.:
Foremen_______ - - - - - - -

Hours per week

27

27

941

W A G ES AND HOURS OF LABOR
W AGE

C H A N G E S B Y IN D U S T R Y , O C C U P A T IO N , A N D L O C A L IT Y , JU NE TO
S E P T E M B E R 1933—Continued

Rate of wages
Industry or occupation and locality

Date of
change

Jefferson, Oreg.: Teachers______________________ Sept. —
R ye, N .Y .:
Teachers and administrative staff
. _ Sept. 1

Seaside, Oreg., teachers.
.
_ _ ____ _ Sept. —
Waukegan, 111., teachers_______________ _
Sept. —
1 N ot reported.

410 percent reduction.

Hours per week

Before
change

After
change

Per year
$900-1, 700

Per year
$675-1, 250

(0

(0

0)
(i)

(4)
(?)

(■)
(■)

(')
0)

Per month
125
0)

Per month
105
(4)

(0
(')

0)
0)

Before After
change change

? 8J4 percent reduction.

Wages and Hours of Union Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill
Workers

HE data in the following table, showing the wages and hours
established by agreement between the paper manufacturers and
the International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill
Workers, were obtained from the secretaries of the local unions.
The table covers 3,518 union workers. It will be noted that most of
the agreements took effect in the year 1932, although a few were
effective from earlier dates.

T

U N IO N S CA LE S OF W A G E S A N D H OU R S OP L A B O R OP P U L P , S U L P H IT E , A N D
M IL L W O R K E R S

Wage rate per hour

•Locality and occupation

Appleton, W is_________________________
Augusta, M aine...........................................
Brooklyn, N .Y ________________ ________
Corinth, N .Y __________ _______________
Deferiet, N .Y __________________________
East Millinocket, M aine_______________
Felt Mills, N .Y ________________________
Fitzdale, N t___ ________ _______________
Gilman, Vt.:
Bag handlers_______________________
Paper handlers and truckers________
Elevator men and package truckers.
Paste men__________________________
Machine tenders, experienced______
Machine tenders, sacks_____________
. Relief girls_________________________
Inspectresses_____________ _____ ___
Machine girls, experienced..................
Machine girls, s a ck s..____ _________
Machine girls, printing_____________
A djusters.............................. ...............

Date of
present
agreement

M a y 15,1932
M ay 26,1932

A t present

M ay 1,1932
M ay 7,1932
M ay 1,1930
M ay 15,1932

i $0. 365
i. 32
.80 - . 84
.55 - . 71
. 40 -1. 20
i .38
.36
. 30 - . 96

N ov. 1,1932
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______
____do_______

. 30 - . 31
. 30 - . 31
.30
.30
3.40
3.44
3.30
3.33
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.70

PAPER

Hours per week

Under
Under pre­
At pres­ preced­
ceding
ing
ent
agreement
agree­
ment
i $0. 45
1.52
. 94-1. 04
. 63- . 86
. 47-1.50
.41
.44
. 40-1.12

38-48
40
50
48-50
24-40
48
16
48

48
48
50
48
48
56
48
48

1 Minimum.
2 N ot reported.
3 Since M a y 22, 1932, this rate plus a bonus has been subject to a cut of 14.5 percent in cases in which
earnings amounted to less than 50 cents per hour, and to one of 19 percent in cases in which earnings amounted
to 50 cents per hour or more; since N ov. 1, 1932, an additional cut of 20 percent of the total of M ay 22, 1932,
has been effective.
11456°—33------12


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

942

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

U N IO N S C A LE S OF W A G E S A N D H OU R S OF L A B O R OF P U L P , S U L P H IT E , A N D P A P E R
M IL L W O R K E R S —Continued
Wage rate per hour
Date of
present
agreement

Locality and occupation

Gilman, V t.—Continued.
Finishing department:
Balers, day . . . ______

Great Bend, N .Y .:
Machine tenders--

- -

_ .

-----

N ov. 1,1932

June

Jamaica, L .I., N .Y .
. . . . .
-----Aug. 1,1932
1932
Madison, M aine____________ - . . . -------------Manistique, M ich.: Back tenders... __________
1920
1932
Mechanic Falls, M a in e._
-------------- _
Millinocket, Maine:
First union____ _ ------------- ------- ------------- M ay 1,1932
Second union:
#6 machines:
Machine tenders___
M ay 15,1932
#7, 8, 9, and 10 machines:

M illwood, W ash___________________ _________
(2)
Norfolk, N .Y .:
First machines:
Machine tenders-------------- ------------------- M ay 1,1931
Third hands-. . _ ________________ . . .
Second machine:


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 M inim um .
2 N ot reported.
1 Per day.

Under
Under pre­ A t pres­ preced­
ceding
ing
ent
agreement
agree­
ment

$0. 30
.30
.215
.30
.30 - . 31
.49
. 149- . 382
.39
.34
4 2.88

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(5)
.31 - . 69

$0. 785
.61
.54
.575
.56
.575
.585
.42
.595
.43
.40
.55
.50
(2)
.35 - . 80

. 38
. 38
. 38
. 38
. 38
. 50
. 38

.38
. 38
. 38
. 38
. 38
. 55
. 38

.71
.55
.485
.52
.51
.52
.525
.38
.535
.39
.36
.495
.45

1,1932

Glen Falls, N .Y _______________________________ M a y 11,1932
Holyoke, M ass_______________ _ _ ----- ---------(2)
International Falls, M inn.:
W ood-room workers.- __
_ . . . - - .. June 1,1932

Philadelphia, Pa
_ ______
St. Regis, N .Y ________________________________
Stevens Point, W is.:
First union______ _________________________
Second union _ _
______
----------Wisconsin Rapids, Wis__ _ _ _____________ -_-

A t present

-

. 635
. 565
. 39
. 675
. 405
. 61
. 63
.38
.38
.285- . 51
.38 - . 48
.38 - . 52
. 38 - . 555
.38
.39
.84
1.38
.88
4 5. 62

Hours per week

-

. 70
. 615
. 425
. 745
. 445
. 67
. 885
.41
.38 - . 41
.285- . 56
.38 - . 53
.38 - . 57
.38 - . 605
.40
.425
1.04
1.41
1.03
4 6. 25

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(»)
(2)
(2)

24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32
35
24
(6)
(6)
(6)
(8)
(6)
(«)
(6)
(6)
(«)
(6)
(6)
(6)'
(6)
(6)
(«)
50
48
24
48

48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(•)
(6)
(6)
(«)
(6)
(«)
50
48
48
49

.38

.41

36

48

.91
.75
.64

1.09
.91
.75

40
40
40

48
48
48

-1. 33
-1.15
- . 88
-1. 00

40-48
40-48
40-48
24

48
48
48
48-56

24-40
24-40
24-40

48
48
48

1.12
.97
.75
.432- . 80

1. 27
1. 09
. 84
. 48

.764
.62
.544

.955
.775
.68

8,1932
1,1932

.896
.752
.608
.74 - . 88
. 375- . 67

1.12
.94
.76
. 94 -1. 04
. 43 - . 83

24-40
24-40
24-40
45
32-48

48
48
48
50
48

M a y 15,1932
N ov. 1,1932
M ay 1,1932

.365
.38 - . 75
1.365

.45
.47 - . 86
1.45

40
48
36-40

48
48
48

Aug.
M ay

5 15 percent cut.
6 Various.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

943

Comparative Wages in Chain and Independent Stores,
1929 and 1931

N JULY 1933 the Federal Trade Commission sent to the Senate the
eighteenth of its reports on the chain-store investigation which it
is conducting, and accompanied it with a letter of submittal in which
some of the data concerning wages are summarized. The report has
not yet been published, but the letter of submittal has been made
public, and from it the following data are taken. The chain store
companies, it is explained, were first asked to report the method of
compensation, the number and the average weekly compensation of
(a) store employees, (b) store managers, and (c) supervisors, as of the
date nearest March 30, 1929, for which the information was available.
In a supplementary schedule similar data were requested as of the
date nearest January 10, 1931, for which information was available.
Reports known to include part-time employees in either period were
not used by the Commission, but the data covering all other employ­
ees, both selling and nonselling, were included for both periods.

I

Total Employees and Wages Reported
F if t e e n hundred and sixty-two chains operating 63,657 stores and doing a
business of about $4,600,000,000 for 1928 reported $20.60 as the average weekly
wage of 292,172 store employees for the week ending March 30, 1929. As of the
week ending January 10, 1931, the average weekly wage of 279,746 store people
employed by 1,219 chains with 1930 sales of about $5,250,000,000 was $20.48.
The aggregate average weekly wage for both 1929 and 1931 is influenced greatly
by dollar-limit variety chains, grocery and meat chains, and chains of depart­
ment stores, which collectively employ well over 50 percent of the total store
employees reported and pay over 50 percent of the total wages for the 26 kinds
of chains.
The average weekly wages reported for store managers as of the weeks ending
March 30, 1929, and January 10, 1931, were $46.91 and $44.57, respectively.
Three kinds of chains, grocery, grocery and meat, and dollar-limit variety, ac­
count for about 75 percent of the managers and 75 percent of the total annual
compensation in both years.
Only 455 and 269 chains reported the average weekly wages of supervisors in
1929 and 1931, respectively. These chains, however, operated 56,222 stores on
March 30, 1929, and 56,091 stores on December 31, 1930. A total of 4,735
supervisors for the week ending March 30, 1929, received an average weekly
salary of $76.75, while, for the week ending January 10, 1931, a total of 4,372
supervisors averaged $78.41. Grocery and meat chains account for nearly two
thirds the number of supervisors and more than one half of their total estimated
annual compensation for both periods.

Average Weekly Wages, by Kind of Chain

F o r 1929 only 8 of the 26 kinds of chains reported average wages
for store employees below the general average of $20.60, among them
being the grocery chains with an average wage of $19.73, grocery and
meat chains $19.28, and dollar-limit variety chains $16.13. Seven
kinds, including meat, men’s ready-to-wear, women’s shoes, and fur­
niture reported average weekly wages per store employee of $30 or
more in 1929. It is noticeable that the chains paying the higher
wages employ a relatively small proportion of the total chain-store
employees.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

944

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

Although the weighted average weekly wages for the 26 kinds of chains are
approximately the same for the 2 years ($20.60 and $20.48), individual groups
reveal wide variations during the same period. The department-store group is
the only line of business to show an increase of over $2 in the average weekly
wage paid store employees on January 10, 1931, as compared with March 30,
1929. During the same period the average weekly wages for tobacco, men’s
ready-to-wear, men’s shoes, women’s shoes, dry goods and apparel, furniture, and
musical instruments declined more than $2 per store employee.
Wages in Chain and Independent Stores
C o m p a r a b l e data on chain store and "independent” dealer wages for full-time
store selling employees are available for the following 8 kinds of business:
Grocery, grocery and meat, drug, tobacco, ready-to-wear, shoes, hardware, and
combined dry goods, dry goods and apparel, and general merchandise. The
weighted average weekly wage of 3,933 independent-store selling employees in
these 8 kinds of business for the week ending January 10, 1931, was $28.48, as
compared with $21.61 for 107,035 chain-store selling employees. A simple aver­
age of the 8 lines of business shows a narrower spread between the two figures
($28.10 for independents and $23.82 for chains respectively) but leaves the same
distinct conclusion, namely, that, for the period studied, the independents paid
their store employees more than did the chains.
In addition, 15 independent department stores reporting accounted for 4,688
store selling employees, or over 750 more independent-store selling employees
than did all the other 1,549 independent stores combined. Because of the heavy
weighting, the chain and independent department store figures have not been
included in the foregoing comparison.
When department-store selling employees are included, the weighted average
wages of all independent-store employees are reduced from $28.48 to $23.45
while the figure for chains falls from $21.61 to $21.22. The simple averages,
however, which of course, do not give weight to the large number of independent
department-store employees, are $27.12 for independents and $23.37 for chains.
Even including department-store employees, the average wages of independents
were higher than those of chains.
Independent-store wages in each of the 8 kinds of business furnishing com­
parable data were higher than those reported for chains— the difference varying
from $6.92 for grocery and meat to only 65 cents for hardware. The employees
of department-store chains averaged 56 cents per week higher than did those of
independent department stores, both, however, being considerably below the
averages of most of the other 8 kinds of business.
The indicated tendency for independents to pay higher wages than chains is
substantiated by information obtained in the study of the general social effect
of chain stores in 30 selected smaller towns and cities with populations ranging
from 1,737 to 5,106. Comparable data are available for the following 10 lines
of business: Grocery, grocery and meat, drug, variety, shoe, furniture, hardware,
ready-to-wear, dry goods and apparel, and department store. No data were
reported for chain general-merchandise stores. With the exception of the furni­
ture group, independent wages were higher than those reported for chains. The
number of selling employees in independent variety and chain drug stores, how­
ever, is very small, as is also the number for both independent and chain shoe,
ready-to-wear, department, furniture, and hardware stores.
The full-time selling employees of both grocery and grocery and meat inde­
pendents averaged higher weekly wages by slightly over $3 than did those of
the chains. The combined ready-to-wear, dry goods and apparel, department
store and general merchandise group shows the independents paying their store
employees $1.70 more per week, on the average, than did the chains.

Other Factors Affecting Chain-Store Average Wages

T h e sex of employees seems to have a bearing upon the wage level
in chain stores. The data for the week ending January 10, 1931,
which covered 146,123 store people, were given by sex, and it was
found that of the total men formed 44 and women 56 percent. The


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF LA B O R

945

chains which reported relatively low weekly wages reported also a
larger proportion of women among their employees than was the case
with those reporting relatively high wages.
The 4 classes of chains reporting the lowest store employee average wages in
1931 (confectionery and the 3 types of variety chains), all report that more than
75 percent of their store employees are women. At the other extreme, women
comprise less than 25 percent of the employees in 8 of the 10 kinds of chains
reporting the highest average weekly wages.

The class of goods handled also seems to affect the wage level, the
stores which handle “ convenience” goods (merchandise which
usually is available at convenient locations) paying on the whole
lower wages than those which deal in shopping merchandise (goods
which generally are available only in stores in shopping centers).
The average sales per store employee have a certain relation to wages
paid, but so many other factors are concerned that this relation is
somewhat obscure. Geographic location, and the size of the chain
concerned, also have a bearing upon the matter, but in the latter case
the correspondence is not invariable.

Salaries of Social Workers in Chicago Family Welfare and
Relief Agencies

STUDY covering the education, training, experience, and
salaries of 1,120 social workers in Chicago on October 1, 1932,
was made by the School of Social Service Administration of that city.
The results are reported by Helen R. Jeter in the June 1933 issue of
the Social Service Review (Chicago) from which the following data
are taken.
Among the 1,120 persons included in the investigation were 523
case-work aides, 502 case workers, 50 assistant district supervisors
or superintendents, and 45 district supervisors and case-work super­
visors.
On October 1, 1932, the salaries of the 523 case-work aides ranged
from $75 to $100 per month. Fifty percent of those employed in the
unemployment relief service were receiving $85, and 50 percent of
those employed in the field service division of the Cook County
Bureau of Public Welfare were receiving $90 or less.1

A

1 In November 1932 the salaries of 200 case-work aides in the unemployment relief service were reduced
to $90. The salary is now either $85 or $90 depending upon efficiency and length of experience.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

946

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

The monthly salaries of various other social workers included in the
study are given below:
M O N T H L Y S A L A R IE S OF W O R K E R S , IN S P E C IF IE D F A M IL Y W E L F A R E A N D R E L IE F
A G E N C IE S IN C H IC A G O , O C T. 1 , 1932

M onthly salary

Case workers:
Full time—
$100-$104
.....................................................
$105-$109
________________________________
$110-$114___________________________________
$115—$119
______________________
$120-$124_ _________________________________
$125-$129
______________________________
$130-$134. ________________ ____ ___________
$135-$139- _________________________________
$140-$144___________________________________
$145-$149
__________________________
$150-$154_ _________________________________
$155~$159
__________ $160-$164
____________________________
$165-$169
$170-$174

Total_____________________________________

Jewish
Social
Service
Bureau

2
8
10
1
1
9
1

Cook County
Bureau of Public
W elfare
United
Charities

Unem­
ployment
relief
service

14
1
36
12
20
25
10
4
6

19
2
49
23
21
24
10
3
10
4
13
2
4
4
4

7

5
2
4
9

3

1
1

10

42

150

202

Total
Field
service
division

4
2
14
15
7
38
2
1
5
10
4
1
5

37
5
101
50
56
87
32
9
22
23
23
4
9
20
4
6
14

108

502

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
11
9
22
4

Assistant district supervisors:
$195—$129
$130-$134
$140-$144
$145-$149
$165-$169
$170-$174
____________________________
$175-$179
$180-$184
- - ______

4
3

17

9
1

1

Total----------------------- ---------------------------------------

1

18

17

14

50

1
1

2

1
4

9

2

1
2

1

i1

2
3
13
3
2
3
1
2
2
10
1
1
1

District supervisors and case-work supervisors:
$175-$179
$180-$184
$185-$189
____________________________
$190-$194
$195-$199
$200-$204
______________________
$205-$209
$210-$214
$215-$219
$225-$229
__________________________
$235-$239

11

1
1
1
1

1
1
7

1
2
1
1

1
Total . .

- __________ ______- - - - - - - -

9

14

10

11

244

1 Case-work supervisor who also acts as assistant to the assistant director.
2 One “ acting district supervisor” whose salary $148.76 is omitted.

Wages and Hours of Labor in the Sugar Industry in Puerto
Rico, 1932

HE figures given below are from a report of the Department of
Labor of Puerto Rico on “ Wages and working hours in sugar
mills, sugar-cane cultivation, and the needle-work industry 1 in the
island of Puerto Rico during the year 1932-33.”

T

1 Data on the needle-work industry in 1932-33, from advance pages of this report, were given in the June
1933 issue of the M onthly Labor Review (p. 1390).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W AGES

AND

HOURS

OF

947

LABOR

Table 1 shows the wages and hours of 11,325 employees in sugar­
cane cultivation in 1932:
T a b l e 1 —W A G E S A N D H OU R S OF L A B O R IN S U G A R -C A N E C U L T IV A T IO N IN

P U E R T O R IC O , 1932

Occupation

N um ­
ber of N um ­
estab­
ber of
lish­
em­
ments
report­ ployees
ing

Average hours
per week

Average earnings

Per week
Full
time

Actually
worked

Per
hour

Full
time

Actual

62
14
21
12
52
46
17
1
3
23
6
27
37
2
1
5
39
17
22
1
34
20
34
32
38
45
25
35
36

4,190
169
27
615
836
282
358
4
8
280
50
373
156
2
8
23
61
230
125
1
466
612
62
197
45
873
61
967
244

52.1
49.0
49.4
55. 2
54.9
56.1
57.9
48.0
48.5
47.4
49.7
50.2
54.4
48.0
60.0
51.2
52.8
51.8
50.4
48.0
50. 2
53.5
53.6
50. 2
52.1
52.3
52.0
52. 1
55.9

33.1
34.0
51.4
27.9
40. 1
43.4
29.0
18.0
37.7
32. 3
25. 1
27.1
46.3
42.0
51.2
26.4
53.3
31. 2
34.3
8.0
37.1
38.5
55.4
31.2
53.0
38.7
41.4
27.6
38.5

$0.108
.086
.178
.095
. 120
.073
.078
.188
.095
. 126
. 101
.163
.143
. 141
.075
.12 0
.397
. 109
. 127
. 188
.091
.092
. 101
. 104
.233
. 143
.086
.092
.056

$5. 63
4. 19
8. 77
5. 24
6.58
4. 10
4. 50
9.00
4. 60
5. 97
5.01
8.17
7. 78
6. 76
4. 50
6. 13
20. 96
5. 65
6. 40
9.00
4. 55
4.91
5. 40
5. 18
12.27
7. 47
4. 46
4. 77
3.12

$3. 58
2.91
9.12
2.66
4. 80
3. 18
2. 26
3. 38
3.58
4. 07
2.53
4.41
6. 62
5.92
3. 85
3.16
21.15
3.40
4. 36
1. 50
3. 37
3. 54
5. 58
3. 23
12. 35
5. 51
3. 56
2.53
2. 15

65

11, 325

52.6

34.3

. I ll

5. 84

3. 80

Of the 11,325 employees reported on in the above table, approxi­
mately 92 percent were being paid less than 14 cents per hour and
about 63 percent under 11 cents per hour.
The wages and hours of 9,628 employees in Puerto Rican sugar mills
in 1932 are presented in table 2.
T able 3 .—W A G E S A N D H OU R S OF L A B O R IN S U G A R M IL L S IN P U E R T O R IC O , 1932

Occupation

Apprentice mechanics--------------------------Ashmen_________________________ - - - - - - Assistant m echanics.-- ___________ -Assistant sm elters..- -------------------------- Assistant sugar chemists— ----------— -----------Bag fillers---------------- -------------------------------Bag menders _ _ ------------------------------Bag sewers_______________ _
— -------------Bag stampers— __________________________
Bagasse men___ __________________
____
Bakers.........- ------------------------------------------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Average hours
per week

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

7
13
10
1
3
18
13
16
29
32
1

31
47
54
5
24
115
36
60
54
263
2

Average earnings

Per week
Full
time

65.9
82.5
74.4
70.0
78.5
82.3
78.8
83.5
78.9
82.7
84.0

A ctu­
ally
worked

55.5
44.0
59.9
62.0
56.6
66. 1
58.5
67.4
73.7
63.5
84.0

Per
hour

$0. 065
. 106
.131
.155
. 139
.110
.082
. 104
. 122
.077
. 102

Full
time
$4. 30
8. 76
9. 78
10.85
10.91
9. 02
6. 46
8. 66
9. 62
6. 36
8. 62

Actual

$3. 62
4. 67
7. 87
9. 65
7.89
7. 24
4. 80
6.99
8.79
4. 88
8. 62

948

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

T a ble 3 .— W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R IN S U G A R M I L L I N P U E R T O R IC O , 1932—

Continued

Occupation

Blacksmiths___________ ______ __________
Boiler feeders -- - ------------- -------- - - Brakemen
..........
. .
----- _ _
B ricklayers______ Cane-receiving clerks._____ _______ __
Carpenters___________________ - ______
Carpenters’ assistants------- ----- -----------C a r te r s .------ ------- ---------- --------------- - - - - - - Cattlemen-- -------- --. .
Centrifugalers_____ _
- ------------Chauffeurs
___ __
Comm on laborers____
- - - - - - - ____ _
Crane-chain attendants. Crane operators____ . ----- --- - . _________
...............
Crystalizers —
-- - - - - Defecating-pan operators---------- --- _. _____
D itch diggers-- ______________ - . . . . _ . . .
Electricians___ .
----------- ---------- . _
Electricians’ assistants—
__________ . . . .
Engine drivers
_________ . - ____ ____
Engine stokers---------------------- . . . ____
Engineers------ - - - . . .
.. .. . .. . ..
Filter operators
. ------------------------------------F o rem en ____- - - - - - -- . . . - . - -----------------Frothers-pan attendants. . __ . ________ .
----Gatekeepers
- - - - - ----Granulator operators----- ----------. . . . .
Heater operators. _ „
---------------Ice-plant attendants. -------- --------------- . . _
Janitors ___ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - Laboratory attendants---------------------------------Lathe operators_______ - - - - - - - - ____ . . .
L a u n d r y m e n ...___ _
- ______
Lime appliers_______
- ------------------------Lime makers____ -- -- - - . __________
Lim e m ixers.. -------------- ---------------- . . . . . .
Lubricators..- ____ -- . . - _______ .
Machine operators... _ ------------------- ----- --Master bakers______________ ________ ______
Mechanics_________________________________
Messengers_________ . -------_________
M ill and press washers--------- --------- _ _
.. _
M ill operators- ______ _ . . . . . . .
Overseers________ . . .
. . . __ ___ . . .
Painters,
- ------------- . .
__
Pipe drillers---------------- ------------------------_
Plumbers------------ ---------- . . . ----------. . .
Power-plant o p e r a t o r s .-.____ _________ . _
Pum p attendants-------------- —- ______ _____
Pum p mechanics___________________ _____
Sieve cleaners---------------------------------------------Smelters__________ . . ----- --- . _______ .
Smelters’ apprentices----------- ---------.
Solderers . . ______ . -------. . . . . _ __
Stablemen._____ __ _______ _______________
Stokers
________________ . . . . . . . __ . .
Store clerks______________________________ . .
Sugar chemists----------------------------------------Sugar-conductor operators___ ______________
Sugar-evaporator operators.- . _________ _
Sugar mixers------- --------------------------_
Sugar-sirup and can weighers___________
„
Sulphuring-machine op era tors___ _______ _
Switchmen___ _ ___________ . . . ________
Sirup-press operators______________ ________
T im ekeepers_____________ _____ ________
Tinsm iths..
__________________ _________
Track repairers_____________ ____ __________
Tripiers____
___________________
... ...
Waiters___ ____________________
___ . . .
W atchmen ________ ______
. _
_______
W ater-pump attendants_________
______
Water-tank attendants_____ ___ __
.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Average hours
per week

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

N um ­
ber of
em­
ployees

29
30
15
12
2
35
19
17
15
36
21
41
12
29
29
40
6
20
7
11
19
23
30
32
25
12
1
19
4
1
28
18
18
33
3
10
32
29
1
34
20
6
39
21
2
2
8
15
34
4
6
4
1
14
11
28
30
11
3
28
8
38
1
10
7
19
6
16
30
6
29
11
3

67
143
41
15
46
134
86
116
46
513
89
2, 899
142
180
84
138
12
63
15
41
146
164
265
269
101
43
2
63
5
5
163
33
31
86
34
17
154
212
1
298
30
17
340
33
6
3
11
56
213
8
12
5
2
12
13
153
113
23
6
120
19
221
3
84
25
25
5
193
96
10
102
14
2

Average earnings

Per week
Full
time

72.5
83.3
81.4
78. 1
69.4
73.4
79.3
82.1
82.6
83.0
80.3
79.5
75.7
83.1
82.3
83. 1
68.8
81.7
82.4
84.0
82.9
82.3
83.6
79.9
83.3
78.3
84.0
83.6
79.2
84.0
82.9
79.8
80. 1
82.9
84.0
82.6
77.6
74.3
84.0
78.9
75.7
83.2
82.5
80.6
84.0
60.0
73.6
82.9
81.8
79.0
83.0
68.8
70.0
80.0
75.4
81.6
77.4
83.5
84.0
81. 3
83.4
83.1
84.0
80. 1
82.6
78.9
76.4
76.3
83.1
71.9
82.1
81.2
84.0

A ctu­
ally
worked

65.3
73.7
75.8
71.7
44.9
59.0
54.3
53.5
75. 7
69.9
73.6
54.6
64. 1
69.6
79.2
69.4
12.8
75.2
83.6
75.6
69.0
77.8
67.7
70.4
69.4
69.5
42.0
75.5
81. 2
81.6
74.0
76.7
64.9
66.8
42.4
60.9
60.9
65.0
84.0
69.1
74.4
77.2
70.5
80.3
29.0
48.6
61.1
77.8
65.6
69.6
48.4
67.4
62.5
69.6
75.6
63.6
76.3
82.6
69.1
63.5
60.5
71.7
28.0
63.7
51.0
79.2
66.8
62.5
72.3
72.3
77.7
70.5
78.0

Per
hour

$0.176
. 112
.095
.233
.089
.202
.094
. 100
.084
.135
.169
.084
.078
. 127
. I ll
. 103
.127
.180
.113
.118
. 123
. 167
.096
. 141
.096
.066
.087
. 105
.132
.063
. 114
.196
.067
.084
.076
.078
.091
.127
.116
.214
.077
.090
. I ll
.223
.078
. 104
.141
.125
.099
. 118
.070
.324
.071
.198
.076
.109
.120
.357
.079
. 109
.106
. 126
. 114
.094
.085
.185
.175
.084
.149
.062
.091
.088
. I ll

Full
time
$12. 77
9. 23
7. 74
18. 21
6. 15
14. 84
7. 44
8. 20
6. 97
11. 19
13. 55
6. 68
5. 88
10. 55
9.14
8. 53
8. 72
14. 67
9.30
9.91
10. 21
13. 85
8.01
11.30
7. 99
5.13
7. 31
8.81
10. 45
5. 29
9. 45
15. 60
5. 36
6. 95
6. 35
6. 46
7. 06
9.41
9.80
16.86
5. 81
7. 52
9.17
17. 97
6. 57
6.24
10. 38
10. 40
8.14
9. 35
5. 82
22.29
4. 97
15. 86
5. 75
8.90
9. 26
29. 77
6. 63
8. 82
8.81
10. 47
9.58
7. 55
7.05
14.61
13. 35
6. 43
12. 38
4. 46
7. 48
7.13
9.28

Actual

$11. 55
8. 22
7. 21
16. 73
3. 98
11.95
5. 10
5. 35
6. 39
9. 43
12. 42
4.60
4.99
8. 85
8.81
7.13
1. 62
13.50
9. 44
8. 92
8. 50
13.00
6. 49
9. 95
6,65
4. 55
3. 67
7. 96
10. 72
5. 14
8. 44
15.00
4. 41
5.60
3. 20
4. 76
5.55
8.25
9. 80
14. 76
5. 72
6. 97
7. 84
17.90
2. 27
5.08
8. 64
9. 76
6. 53
8.24
3.40
21.84
4. 41
13.80
5. 76
6. 94
9.12
29. 52
5. 46
6.91
6.40
9.04
3.09
6. 01
4. 36
14.67
11. 67
5. 27
10. 77
4. 50
7.08
6.19
8. 63

949

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Of the 9,628 employees in sugar mills in 1932, slightly over 81 per­
cent received under 14 cents per hour and approximately 67 percent
under 11 cents per hour.

Wages and Working Hours in Texas, 1931-32

TATISTICS on wages and hours in Texas in 1931-32 in estab­
lishments employing 5 or more persons, taken from the twelfth
biennial report of the bureau of labor statistics of that State, are given
in the table following.

S

A V E R A G E W E E K L Y W A G E S A N D H O U R S IN T E X A S , 1931-32

Average weekly wages

Average hours worked per week

Industry
Men

Hotels and cafes____
- - - - - - ...
Laundries
________ - - . . ______
M anufacturing____ - - - - - - - - Mercantile ___
Printing and publishing- _ - - - - _.
Public utilities._ - -_- _______ ______ ___
Miscellaneous 1_____________

$21. 30
20. 64
20. 40
12. 88
20. 59
22. 72
22.25
35. 00
27. 50
24. 53

W omen
$15. 25
16.12
14. 75
8. 50
8. 80
13. 77
15. 11
20. 80
19. 50
15. 45

Boys

$3.00
6.25
6.00
7.00
4.00

M en
58
63
60
71
56
57
60
48
56
55

W omen
51
54
54
52
52
51
53
48
51
50

Boys

40
48
36
48
48

1 Among the establishments under this heading are bakeries, creameries, packeries, theaters, cold-storage
and canning plants.

Wages and Conditions in Burmese Factories in 1932

HE annual report for the year 1932 on the working of the Indian
factories act in Burma, gives the number of factories at the end
of the year as 1,073, of which 125 had not been in operation. Of the
948 which had worked at some period during the year, 676 were in
seasonal and 272 in continuous industries, the latter group being
known as perennial factories. The total number of employees was
90,578, which was almost the same as the number for the year before
(90,593). The trade depression continued, and in most industries
conditions were considered worse than in the preceding year.
The total number of woman employees was 10,251, of whom
slightly over three fourths were in the seasonal factories, mainly in
the cotton ginneries and rice mills.

T

In the former, a proportion of women are to be found operating the gins, the
remainder being engaged in sorting the raw cotton in the godowns. In rice mills
women are employed as paddy carriers or in spreading parboiled paddy to dry in
the sun. Perennial factories employing women to any considerable extent are
mainly to be found in and around Rangoon. Match factories employed 693
women during the year, and a number were engaged on sewing or light packing
work in miscellaneous establishments, such as knitted hosiery or umbrella works.

Children are defined by the act as persons aged 12 and under 15
years, and these, provided they have a certificate of physical fitness,
may be employed in factories for not more than 6 hours a day. A
total of 462 children, 294 boys and 168 girls, were employed during


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

950

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

the year. Owing to the restrictions put on their work and the diffi­
culty of fitting their hours into the regular factory day, the employ­
ment of children tends to be uneconomic, and Burma has as yet had
no serious child-labor problem.
Reports were received from a few typical factories showing the
range of monthly wages, and from these the following table has been
compiled:
R A N G E OF M O N T H L Y W A G E S IN B U R M E S E F A C T O R IE S IN 1932
[Conversions into United States currency on basis of par value of rupee=36.5 cents; anna=2.28 cents]

i

M inim um wage
Trade

Rice and saw mill:

General engineering:

Miscellaneous:

Indian cur­
rency

M aximum wage

United Indian cur­ United
States
States
rency
currency
currency

Rs. A .
24 n
18 0
19 0
15 0
20 0
18 0
13 8

$8. 76
6. 57
6. 94
5. 48
7. 30
6. 57
4. 93

Rs. A .
58 8
28 0
36 0
103 8
47 0
45 0
38 8

30
25
37
20
40
30
45

0
0
8
0
0
0
0

10. 95
9.13
13. 69
7. 30
14. 60
10. 95
16. 43

85
135
150
100
75
105
120

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

31.03
49.28
54. 75
36. 50
27. 38
38. 33
43.80

11
15
18
30
45
45
37

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4.02
5. 48
6. 57
10. 95
16. 43
16. 43
13. 51

50
45
60
75
90
60
105

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

18.25
16.43
21.90
27. 38
32. 85
21.90
38.33

$21. 35
10. 22
13.14
37. 78
17.16
16. 43
14.05

A comparison of these wages with those shown in similar reports for
the preceding year indicates, it is stated, that wages have dropped,
“ and it seems probable that some of the higher-paid workmen have
either been dismissed or been reduced to a lower grade.”

Wages in Siam, 1930-31

HE following table showing the wages paid to certain classes of
workers in Bangkok, Siam, in 1930-31 is from the Statistical
Year Book of the Kingdom of Siam, 1930-31, published b}r the
Ministry of Finance of that country, the data given having been
furnished by the Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd.
The average number of working hours per week was reported as 50.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

951

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

A V E R A G E W A G E S IN S P E C IF IE D O C C U P A T IO N S IN B A N G K O K , S IA M , 1930-31
[Conversions into United States currency on basis of baht at par=44.2 cents; exchange rate substantially
the same as par value]

Average rate
per day
Occupation

Sailmakers, ______________________
Boilermakers_____________________
B lacksm iths..-............................. - Turners_______________ ____ ______
Fitters________ _ ______________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Siam­ United
ese
States
cur­
cur­
rency rency
Baht
1.00
1. 25
2.00
2.00
2. 35
3.00
3.00
2. 90

$0.44
.55
.88
.88
1. 04
1.33
1.33
1.28

Average rate
per month
Occupation

Siam­ United
ese
States
cur­
cur­
rency rency
Baht
90.00
35 00
45.00
28.00
40.00
95.00

$39. 78
15.47
19. 89
12.38
17. 68
41.99

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT
Trend of Employment, August 1933

HE Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department
of Labor presents in the following tables, data compiled from pay­
roll reports supplied by cooperating establishments in 17 important
industrial groups of the country and covering the pay period ending
nearest the 15th of the month.
Information for 89 of the principal manufacturing industries of the
country is shown, following which are presented tabulations showing
the changes in employment and pay rolls in the 16 nonmanufacturing
industries included in the Bureau’s monthly survey, together with
information available concerning employment in the executive civil
service and on class I railroads.

T

Employment in Selected Manufacturing Industries in August
1933
Comparison of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals in August 1933 with July 1933
and August 1932

M PLOYM EN T in manufacturing industries increased 6.4 per­
cent and pay rolls increased 11.6 per cent between July and
August 1933, according to reports received from representative estab­
lishments in 89 important manufacturing industries of the country.
A comparison of the index of employment in August 1933 with the
employment index of August 1932 shows a gain of 27.9 percent over
the_ year interval, while a similar comparison of pay-roll indexes
indicates an increase of 43 percent.
The index of employment in August 1933 was 71.6 as compared
with 67.3 in July 1933, 62.8 in June 1933, and 56.0 in August 1932;
the pay-roll index in August 1933 was 51.9 as compared with 46.5 in
July 1933, 43.1 in June 1933, and 36.3 in August 1932. The 12-month
average for 1926 equals 100.
These changes in employment and pay; rolls in August 1933 are
based on reports supplied by 18,008 establishments in 89 of the prin­
cipal manufacturing industries of the United States. These estab­
lishments reported 3,187,674 employees on their weekly pay rolls
during the pay period ending nearest August 15 whose combined
weekly earnings were $60,351,490. The employment reports received
from these cooperating establishments cover approximately 50 percent
of the total number of wage earners in all manufacturing industries of
the country.
August is the fifth consecutive month in which increases in factory
employment and pay rolls have been reported. The increases in
employment during the preceding 4 months were widespread. The

E

952

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

953

number of industries reporting increased employment in August
exceeded that of previous months, 81 of the 89 industries surveyed
showing increased employment over the month interval. Increased
pajr rolls in August, as compared with July, were shown in 83 of the
89 industries.
Employment and pay rolls ordinarily show but little change between
July and August, the average percentage of increase in employment
between July and August during the past 10 years having been 0.2
percent and in pay rolls 1.5 percent. These increases therefore of
6.4 percent in employment and 11.6 percent in pay rolls in August of
the present year are of unusual proportion and are due largely to the
adoption of the N.R.A. codes by numerous cooperating establishments.
The increase in employment in August combined with the increases
reported from March to July represent a return to employment of
nearly 1,500,000 factory workers over the 5-month interval. The
increase in pay-roll totals in August combined with the estimated
increase in weekly pay rolls between March and July represents an
increase of more than $40,000,000 disbursed in weekly pay envelops
of factory employees in August over the total weekly pay rolls dis­
bursed in March. The August employment index stands at 29.9
percent above the level of March 1933. The August pay-roll index
shows gain of 55.4 percent over the index of March.
Employment in August 1933 reached the highest point recorded in
over 2 years, the August index being but slightly lower than the index
recorded in July 1931. The continued increases in pay rolls during
the last 5 months have pushed the August pay-roll index up to the
highest point reached since December 1931.
Each of the 14 groups of manufacturing industries reported gains
in employment and earnings over the month interval, the nonferrous
metals group reporting the greatest increase, 12.4 percent, due to
consistently large gains in number of workers in each of the 8 indus­
tries comprising this group. The increase of 11.2 percent in the
rubber products group was due to pronounced gains in employment
in the rubber boot and shoe and the rubber-goods industries, com­
bined with a smaller percentage gain in the automobile-tire industry.
The machinery group reported a gain of 10.6 percent in employment
over the month interval, the foundry and machine shop, machine
tool, radio, textile machinery, and typewriter industries reporting the
most pronounced gains in this group. The iron and steel group
reported a gain of 10.5 percent in employment in August, as com­
pared with July, and an increase of 20.9 percent in pay rolls, which was
the most pronounced gain in pay rolls shown in any of the 14 groups
of manufacturing industries. Each of the 13 separate industries com­
prising this group reported gains in employment with the exception
of the plumbers’ supplies industry in which a decline of 1 percent was
reported. The most pronounced gains in the separate industries in
this group were in the iron and steel forgings, iron and steel industry,
stoves, cutlery, and tool industries. The lumber group reported a
gain of 8.2 percent in employment, furniture and sawmills reporting
the most pronounced gains. The chemical group reported an increase
of 7.7 percent, the cottonseed oil-cake-meal industry in this group
reporting an increase of 19.1 percent, and the rayon and chemicals
industries also reporting gains of over 10 percent in employment.
The stone-clay-glass group reported an increase of 7.3 percent in

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

954

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

employment, each of the 5 industries in this group reporting sub­
stantial gains. Employment in the food group increased 6.7 per­
cent between July and August, the beet-sugar industry reporting the
largest percentage gains shown in any of the 89 industries surveyed, a
seasonal increase of 55.2 percent. The confectionery industry re­
ported an increase of 20.9 percent in number of employees coupled
with an increase of 33.1 percent in pay rolls. Two industries in the
food group reported decreased employment, namely beverages and
flour. In the beverage industry, the decrease was due partly to a
seasonal decline in soft-drink-manufacturing establishments and
partly to decreases in employment reported in a number of breweries
which stated a more regular production schedule had been established.
The paper and printing group reported a gain of 5.3 percent in em­
ployment and the transportation group reported a gain of 5.2 percent,
the automobile industry in the last-named group reporting an increase
of 4.3 percent in employment with much larger gains being shown in
the shipbuilding, electric- and steam-car building, and locomotive
industries. The railroad repair shop group reported a gain of 4.8 per­
cent, steam railroad repair shops reporting a substantial increase and
electric railroad repair shops reporting a slight decline in employment
between July and August. The leather group reported a gain of 3.9
percent, the tobacco group reported an increase of 3.1 percent, and
the textile group reported a gain of 2.8 percent in employment over
the month interval. This gain in employment in the textile group
was coupled with an increase of 15.1 percent in pay rolls, the adoption
of the various industry codes prescribing a minimum wage accounting
largely for this more pronounced gain in pay-roll totals than in
employment.
Only 8 industries failed to show improved employment conditions
over the year interval. The most pronounced gains in employment
between August 1932 and August 1933 were reported in the beverage
and rayon industries, in which increases of 117.9 and 102.9 percent,
respectively, were shown. Other unusually large percentage gains in
employment were reported in numerous industries, the more important
of which were radios, 71.5 percent; cotton goods, 69.1 percent; woolen
and worsted goods, 54.3 percent; iron and steel, 50.6 percent; glass,
46.7 percent; leather, 41.6 percent; steam fittings, 40.8 percent;
chemicals, 39.7 percent; silk and rayon goods, 37.6 percent; machine
tools, 36.7 percent; furniture, 34.6 percent; foundries, 31.8 percent;
and sawmills, 31.6 percent. The automobile industry showed an
increase of 19.8 percent in employment over the year interval coupled
with a gain of 60.7 percent in pay-roll totals.
In table 1, which follows, are shown the number of identical estab­
lishments reporting in both July and August 1933 in the 89 manufac­
turing industries, together with the total number of employees on the
pay rolls of these establishments during the pay period ending nearest
August 15, the amount of their earnings for 1 week in August, the
percents of change over the month and year intervals, and the indexes
of employment and pay roll in August 1933.
The monthly percents of change for each of the 89 separate indus­
tries are computed by direct comparison of the total number of em­
ployees and of the amount of weekly pay roll reported in identical
establishments for the 2 months considered. The percents of change
over the month interval in the several groups and in the total of the

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

955

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

89 manufacturing industries are computed from the index numbers of
these groups, which are obtained by weighting the index numbers of
the several industries in the groups by the number of employees or
wages paid in the industries. The percents of change over the year
interval in the separate industries, in the groups and in the totals, are
computed from the index numbers of employment and pay-roll totals.
T a b l e 1 — C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S IN A U G U ST 1933 W IT H J U L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932
Employment

Industry

Food a n d kindred prod­
u c ts ........ ........... _................... .
Baking____________ _______
Beverages_________ _______
Butter—.............................. .
Confectionery____________
Flour.—..................................
Ice cream_________________
Slaughtering and meat
packing_________________
Sugar, beet......... ........... .......
Sugar refining, cane_______
Textiles a n d their pro d­
u c ts.............................. ............. .
Fabrics____________________
Carpets and rugs.........
Cotton goods_________
Cotton small w ares...
Dyeing and finishing
textiles.........................
Hats, fur-felt..............
K nit goods............. .......
Silk and rayon goods..
Woolen and worsted
goods............................
Wearing apparel__________
Clothing, men’s......... ..
Clothing, women’s___
Corsets and allied gar­
ments______________
M en ’s furnishings____
Millinery_____________
Shirts and collars____
Iron a n d steel a n d their
products, n o t in clu d in g
m a c h in e ry ...................... .......
Bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets_____ _____ ________
Cast-iron pipe____________
Cutlery (not including sil­
ver and plated cutlery)
and edge tools__________
Forgings, iron and steel. . .
H ardw are.............. ..............
Iron and steel....................
Plumbers’ supplies.............
Steam
and
hot-water
heating apparatus and
steam fittings___________
S tov es..______ ____________
Structural
and
orna­
mental metalwork...........
Tin cans and other tin­
ware___ ______ __________
Tools (not including edge
tools, machine tools,
files, and saws).................
W irew ork.......... ......... „........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Pay-roll totals

Estab­
lish­
Percent of
ments
change
report­
ing in
N
um
­
both
ber on
A u­
July
pay roll July to gust
and
August
1932
A u­
A u­
1933
to
gust
gust
Au­
1933
1933
gust
1933

Percent of
change
Amount
of pay
roll
(1 week) July to
August
A u­
1933
gust
1933

A u­
gust
1932
to
A u­
gust
1933

Index numbers August
1933 (average
1926=100)

Em ­
ploy­
ment

Pay
roll
totals

3,064
996
380
308
307
418
342

378,858
67,093
22, 537
5,989
38, 393
15, 789
12, 319

+ 6.7 +16.6 $5,683,537
+ 3.2 + 2.7 1,443, 612
- 2 .3 +117. Ç
633, 63£
+ 2.9 +2.2
121, 882
+20.9 +19.7
535,14E
- 3 .0 +3.4
301,882
+ 3.1 + 1.1
309, 600

+ 4.0 +12.8
+ 1 .5 - 1 .6
- 4 .4 +133. 4
- 9 .3
+33.1 +18. 6
-1 2 .1
- 8 .5
+ 2.7 - 7 .4

94.0
82.9
163.0
105.9
85.6
85.3
82.5

74.7
66.5
148.9
77.6
63.2
62.1
61.5

244
57
12

101,707
6,946
8,085

+10.5 +20.7 2,012, 024
+55.2 +55.8
140,199
+ 4.9 +10.3
185, 550

+ 8.5 +19.0
+47.5 +44.4
- 5 . 1 - 1 .5

102.6
81.5
84.3

80.7
59.2
67.9

3,175
1, 917
26
678
110

778,398
638, 674
13, 563
318, 253
12,036

+ 3.8
+ 2.7
+ 6.3
+2. 1
+ 6 .0

+43. 5 11,603,551
+50.5 9, 440,829
+58.4
247, 501
+69. 1 4, 208, 558
189,906
+53.9

+15.1
+14.3 +81.7
+13.1 +136. 4
+19. 1 +128. 6
+ 7.6 +85.6

88.8
96.2
74.6
103.5
105.4

66.3
76.5
57.2
87.8
82.2

149
34
448
235

40, 538
6, 558
112, 372
56,007

+ 5.2
+17.2
-1 .8
+ 8.5

730, 365
+36.7
136, 618
+21.5
+22.4 1,682, 739
854,893
+37.6

+ 1.8
+24.4
+16.0
+24.8

+39.1
+30.2
+48.5
+58.2

93.1
82.6
89.0
73.9

65.8
57.3
68.6
58.2

237
1,258
400
500

79, 347
139,724
70, 861
26,801

+ 3.0
+ 3.3
+ 2.1
+ .8

+54.3 1, 390, 249
+21.7 2,162,722
+24.9 1,141, 008
420,162
+12.0

+ 5.3 +71.8
+17.8 +27.2
+14.4 +45.4
+ 9.8
- 2 .3

108.6
71.3
77.8
59.8

86.6
46.3
51.9
34.1

35
74
135
114

6,176
8,138
10, 606
17,142

+14.4
+28.0
+47.6
+22.4

101.3
68.3
72.5
69.3

83.9
47.7
49.5
54.3

1,367

407,279

69
41

11, 588
6,014

118
57
107
206
67

9,064
5,506
31, 299
254, 534
8,823

100
164

17, 726
22, 647

+ 1.9 + 9.4
+ 2.4 +47.5
+23.7 +16.2
- 2 .1 +36.7

95,465
109, 434
185, 204
211, 449

+10.5 +41.1 8,328,003

+20.9 +115.2

71.7

49.7

211, 072
83, 395

+ 8 .2 +97.3
+ 5.1 +20.3

88.8
32.7

57.6
19.0

+ 9.7
166,336
+43.6
104,429
+29.1
532, 695
+50.6 5, 585, 670
+37.1
146, 793

+ 5.5 +19.0
+20.1 +99. 6
+65.1
+28.2 +181. 0
+ .4 +41.6

69.1
76.1
59.9
75.9
80.9

47.0
50.1
34.5
54.8
48.7

335,172
417,980

+11.8 +62.8
+15.0 +84.5

46.6
69.1

30.3
43.9

+23.9

+ 7.6 +47.3
+ 2.1 + 6.5
+11.7
+13.5
+ 7.1
+12.2
- 1 .0

+36.2
+83.5
+14.8
+70.8

+ 8.4 +40.8
+14.9 +58.1

192

14, 660

+ 8.3

+ 3.4

250, 576

+ 9.6

46.1

27.4

60

10,475

+ 9.8 +20.3

198,832

+ 4.1 +21.7

90.8

55.0

120
66

7,851
7,092

+11.0 +42.5
+ 7.5 +35.3

141, 241
153,812

+ 8.7 +88.0
+15.6 +88.6

77.5
122.0

50.0
112.2

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

956

T a b l e 1.—C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S IN A U G U S T 1933 W IT H J U L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932— Continued
Pay-roll totals

Employment
Estab­
lish­
Percent of
ments
change
report­
ing in
N um ­
both
A u­
ber on
July
pay roll July to gust
and
1932
August
A u­
A u­
to
1933
gust
gust
A u­
1933
1933
gust
1933

Industry

M a ch in e ry , n o t in c lu d in g
tra n s p o r ta tio n
c q u ip Agricultural implements.Cash registers, adding
machines, and calcu­
lating machines------------Electrical machinery, ap­
paratus, and supplies. . .
Engines, turbines, trac­
tors, and water w heels...
Foundry and machineRadios and phonographs..
Textile machinery and
Typewriter and supplies..
Nonferrous metals and
their parts_____ . . . - -Aluminum manufactures.
Brass, bronze, and copper
products_______________
Clocks and watches and
time-recording devices..
Lighting equipm ent. . . .
Silverware and plated
ware---- -------------- ------Smelting and refin in g copper, lead, and z in c...
Stamped and enameled
ware—............................. -

1,778
76

320,715
7,646

Index num-

Percent of
change
Amount
of pay
roll
(1 week)
August
1933

July to
A u­
gust
1933

1933 (average
1926=100)

A u­
gust
1932
to
A u­
gust
1933

Em­
ploy­
ment

Pay­
roll
totals

+10.4 +49.0
+12.5 +56.8

57.5
31.3

38.3
24.3

329, 299

+ 6.0 +46.1

85.6

65.9

+ 6.7 2,143,962

+ 5.0 +26.9

57.1

42.4

+19.9

45.2

27.7

+12.2 +31.8 2, 300,969
263, 341
+17.5 +36.7
440,998
+15.0 +71.5

+12.9 +58.9
+16.4 +51. 5
+32.5 +64. 6

56.4
39.1
108.2

34.8
25.6
73.9

+10.6 +27.2 $6,283,297
127, 972
+ 8.4 +44.2
+ 6.0 +37.8

35

13,165

285

103, 111

+ 7.0

86

14,143

-.5

1,046
145
41

122, 791
13, 251
25, 943

47
17

10, 381
10,284

+20.5 +78.3
+20.6 +71.0

215, 323
191, 223

+11.5 +127. 3
+36.3 +128.6

87.9
69.6

65.7
49.6

605
26

9G, 757
6, 321

+12.4 +33. 3 1, 764,418
110,169
+11.2 +33.9

+11.5 +49.0
+11.3 +76.2

66.9
62.0

45.6
41.4

210

38,293

+10.3 +44.2

741,719

+ 8.4 +79.5

71.1

49.9

25
136
49

8,319
8,106
3,146

+13.2 +10.6
+ 17.1 + 13. 3
+10.5 +25.1

133,266
144,436
55,415

+18.5 +25.4
+18.4 +18.7
+ 7.4 +29.2

46.0
40.1
75. 8

33.1
26.0
53. 5

+12.7

+14.7

270, 210

- 6 .3

41

5,156

- 1 .0

94,929

+ 5.3

56.9

35.8

30

10,923

+16.6 +38.0

210,997

+12.2 +54.7

74.4

51.2

88

16,493

+11.6 +39. 5

273,487

+15.4 +51.2

79.5

52.3

409
27
237

273,493
7, 797
230, 541

+ 5.2 +17.0 6,376,993
214,825
- 3 .8 +41.7
+ 4.3 + 19.8 5,467,647

+13.9 +48.4
+ 1.2 +23.4
+14.1 +60.7

59.1
241.8
62.3

47.5
226. 0
51.1

Locom otives_____________
Shipbuilding........ ..............

39
11
95

6,124
2,210
26, 821

103,476
38,034
553,011

+33.8 +13.5
+13.0 -1 9 .8
+10.3 - 7 .4

22.6
15.8
69.0

12.6
9.3
48.7

Railroad repair shops--------Electric railroad_________
Steam railroad....................

922
39]
531

95, 043
19, 477
75,566

+ 4.8 +12.3 2,331, 555
482,644
- 6 .9
-.8
+ 5.3 +14.6 1,848,911

+15.1 +27.3
+• 8 —lO. 1
+16.4 +32.3

50.3
62.1
49.4

42.0
49.1
41.4

1,580
451

150, 689
50, 799

+ 8.2 +30.8 2,149, 409
762, 587
+ 9.9 +34,6

+16.8 +47.7
+21.8 +52.8

47.6
56.0

28.5
33.3

472
632
2.

21,3S1
76,98?
1, 52C

314,71C
+ 2. F +19.4
+9.C +31.6 1,053,444
18,663
+7.C +33.7

+ 4.8 +25.6
+18. e +55.5
+ 6.3 +14.2

41.3
45.4
55. 5

25.0
26.9
41. 9

1,27i
64,
11
18'

107,380
23, 55'
15, 78'
45,712

+7.3
+7.1
+5.3
+8.

+ 1 7 .'
+28.4
+ 4 6 .'

1,836, 532
306,442
287, 503
839,183

+13. C
+12.
+15. (
+10. £

+29.4
+24.1
+26.1
+53.7

52.9
35.2
48.3
77.3

33.0
17.0
29. 5
56.1

22
11

5, 54(
16,78'

+3.1
+9.1

-1 6 ..
+34.'!

108,85(
294,54'

+2.
+ 28 .;

-2 6.1
+71.

43.
69.

26.3
45.7

48
33
15

154,893
122,92
31,97

87.3
87.
91.

67.0
65.0
73.9

Transportation

equip-

Automobiles_____________
Cars, electric and steam

Lumber and allied prod­
ucts___ ______________ - Furniture.......... .............. .
Lumber:
M ill w o r k ........ ..........
Sawmills------- ---------Turpentine and rosin-----Stone,

clay,

and

glass

Brick, tile, and terra cotta.
Marble, granite, slate,
and other prod u cts.._
Leather and its m an u facLeather--------------- ----------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

+19.1 +21.5
-.6
+32.9
+10.1 - 3 .5

+ 3 .' +16.
+ 3 .2 +11.
+6.7I +41.

2,772,37
2,141,56
630,81

+14.0

+7.« +34. £
+8. 1 +29.
+53.£
+5.

TREND

OF

957

EM PLOYM ENT

T a b l e 1.— C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN M A N U FA C TU R IN G

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S IN A U G U S T 1933 W IT H JU L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932— Continued

Employment
Estab­
lish­
ments
reportIndustry

Paper and printing_____ __
Boxes, paper.. _ _______
Paper and pulp
... ...
Printing and publishing:
Book and jo b .__ . . . .
Newspapers and peri­
odicals_____________

both
July
and
A u­
gust
1933

1. 919
312
40C

Pay-roll totals

Percent of
change
N um ­
ber on
pay roll July to
August
A u­
1933
gust
1933

222, 641
24,652
91,433

Au­
gust
1932
to
Au­
gust
1933

770

45,148

+ 4.9

61,407

+ .7

1,047
108

155, 749
25,817

107
44
27
177
351
123

3,881
7,694
2, 475
6, 352
16, 764
47, 712

+19.1
+ 2 .6
+ 9.7
+ 9.5
+ 1 .6
+ 2 .0

22
88

32,183
12,871

+12.3 +102. 9
+ 9.3 +18.1

Rubber products ..
.. ...
Rubber boots and shoes.
Rubber goods, other than
boots, shoes, tires, and
inner tubes___ _
R ubber tires and inner
tubes______________ . . .

144
9

Tobacco m anufactures___
Chewing and smoking to­
bacco and snuff________
Cigars and cigarettes_____
Total, 89 in dustries...

Amount
of pay
roll
(1 week) July to
A u­
August
1933
gust
1933

+5 .3 + 9.7 $5, 230,453
432,885
+10.5 +29.3
+ 8.5 +23. C 1,787, 425

437

Chemicals and allied prod­
ucts_________ ___ _____
C hem icals___
. ....
Cottonseed, oil, cake, and
m e a l____
_ ___
Druggists’ preparations...
Explosives_______________
Fertilizers____
_. ._
Paints and varnishes____
Petroleum refining___ __
R ayon and allied prod­
u c t s ... __________ . . .
Soap_____ . . .
_______

Percent of
change

+ 4.4 + 4.9
+ 8 .8 +35. 4
+11.5 +39.4

Em ­
ploy­
ment

84.8
86.1
88.8

Pay­
roll
totals

65.8
71.5
65.1

1,106, 232

+ 1 .8

- 6 .0

70.2

53.4

+ 1.5 1,903,911

+L2

- 7 .0

96.5

77.2

+5 .7 +26.6
+ 8.9 +40.3

89.5
113.6

71.0
82.2

+28. 1
+ 8.8
+55.5
+29.4
+23.6
- 2 .1

37.3
71.7
91.3
50.9
80.0
66.0

36.0
71.5
67.8
32.6
60.2
55.0

553,943
260,693

+11.6 +109. 8
+ 1.3 + 5 .5

188.3
110.9

156.3
86.0

98, 286
12,130

+11.2 +36.5 2, 003, 945
230, 894
+16.8 + 5.9

+1 .5 +55.9
+19.2 +58.4

87.5
57.0

62.5
52.9

99

25,767

+18.7 +49.5

+ 9.8 +57.9

113.9

75.3

36

60,389

+ 6 .5 +37.9 1,322, 691

+54.6

85.8

60.3

231

47,488

+3.1

-1 .0

611, 216

+ 2.0

- 2 .3

69.6

51.3

32
199

9, 397
38,091

+ 5.3
+ 2.7

-.2
- 1 .0

135, 714
475, 502

+11.6
+ .4

+ 5.8
- 3 .8

88.5
67.2

76.0
48.3

+11.6 +43.0

71.6

51.9

18, 008 3,187, 674

- 1 .0

A u­
gust
1932
to
A u­
gust
1933

Index num­
bers August
1933 (average
1926=100)

+ 7.7 +32.4 3,376, 202
+10.3 +39.7
611,883
+35.6
40, 435
156,186
+ 5.1
+31.9
56,000
+48.8
79,921
+21.2
347, 630
+ 5.1 1, 269, 511

450,360

+ 6.4 +27.9 60, 351, 490

+16.6
+ 7.4
+15.9
+ 9.5
- 2 .1
+ 1 .0

- 4 .7

Per Capita Earnings in Manufacturing Industries

Per capita weekly earnings in August 1933 for each of the 89
manufacturing industries surveyed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
and for all industries combined, together with the percents of change
in August 1933 as compared with July 1933 and August 1932, are
shown in table 2.
These earnings must not be confused with full-time weekly rates of
wages. They are per capita weekly earnings, computed by dividing
the total amount of pay roll for the week by the total number of
employees (part-time as well as full-time workers).

11456°—33----- 13


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

958

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

T a b l e 2 — P E R C A P IT A W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S IN

A U G U ST 1933 A N D C O M P A R IS O N W IT H JU L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932

Industry

Percent of change com­
Per capita
pared with—
weekly
earnings in
August 1933 July 1933 August 1932

Food and kindred products:
Baking............. ..............................
Beverages-............................. —
Butter__________ - .........- ..........
Confectionery-------------------------Flour_________________ ______ Ice cream_____________________
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Sugar, beet____________________
Sugar refining, cane----------------Textiles and their products:
Fabrics:
Carpets and rugs------------------------------------------------ ---------------Cotton goods-------------------- ------------------------------------------------Cotton small wares-------- -------------------------------------- ------- -----Dyeing and finishing textiles----------------------------------------------Hats, fur-felt----------------------------------------------------------------------Knit g o o d s ............- ---------- -------------------------------------------------Silk and rayon goods---------------- -----------------------------------------W oolen and worsted good s...................- .....................................
Wearing apparel:
Clothing, m en’s . . ------------------------------------- ------- -----------------Clothing, wom en’s --------------------------- ------- ------- ------------------Corsets and allied garments........................... ..............................
M en’s furnishings................................. .........................................
M illinery__________________________________________________
Shirts and collars---------------------------------------------- ---------- ------Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery:
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets----------------------------------- ------- -----Cast-iron pipe---------------- ------- --------------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery) and edge tools.
Forgings, iron and steel------------ --------------------- ------------- ------------H ardware.--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------Iron and steel_________________________________________________
Plumbers’ supplies------------------------------------------------ -—-------------Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam fittings-------Stoves_____________________________ _____________ ____ ________
Structural and ornamental metalwork--------------------------------------T in cans and other tin w are-................ - ------- --------------------------Tools (not including edge tools, machine tools, files, and saws)—
Wire work_______________________ ,---------- 7--------------------------------Machinery, not including transportation equipment:
Agricultural implements-----------------------------------------------------------Cash registers, adding machines and calculating machines-------Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies...............................
Engines, turbines, tractors, and water wheels---------------------------Foundry and machine-shop products-------------------- ------------------Machine tools........ ........ .............................. ..................... ............ .......
Radios and ph on ogra p h s....................................... ............. ..............
Textile machinery and parts-------------- --------------------------------------Typewriters and su p p lies......................... ...................................-- Nonferrous metals and their parts:
Aluminum manufactures.............. ............ ........ ..................... ..........
Brass, bronze, and copper products----------------------- ---------- --------Clocks and watches and time-recording devices...................... .......
Jew elry................. ............................. - .................... ..................... .......
Lighting equipment-------------- ----------------------------------------- ---------Silverware and plated ware------------------------------------------------------Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and zinc---------------------------Stamped and enameled ware----------------------------------------------------Transportation equipment:
Aircraft________________________ __________ _______ ___________
Autom obiles--------- ------- ---------------------- ....................... - .......... ........
Cars, electric and steam railroad............................................. - ........
Locom otives..----------- ---------------- ---------------------------------------- -----Shipbuilding........ .............. - .............................. - ................................ Railroad repair shops:
Electric railroad-----------------------------------------------------------------------Steam railroad---------------------------------------------------- ---------------------Lum ber and allied products:
F u rn itu re............................................................ .........- .............. ........
Lumber:
M illw ork-----------Sawmills-------- —.
Turpentine and rosin
i Less than one tenth of 1 percent,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$21. 52
28.12
20.35
13.94
19.12
25.13
19. 78
20.18
22.95

-

1.6
2.2

- 2 .4
+ 10.1
- 9 .3

- 4 .3
+ 7.1
-1 1 .4

-1.1

1.8
- 5 .0
- 9 .5

-1 1 .4
- 8.1
- 1 .5
- 7 .3
-1 0 .4

18. 25
13. 22
15. 78
18.02
20.83
14.97
15. 26
17. 52

+ 6.4
+16.6
+ 1 .5
- 3 .2
+ 6.1
+18.1
+15.0
+ 2 .2

+48.9
+34.8
+20.7
+ 1.8
+ 7.3
+ 21. 6
+15.3
+ 11.1

16.10
15.68
15.46
13.45
17.46
12. 34

+12.0
+ 9 .0
+12.2
+25.0
+19.3
+25.0

+15.8
-1 2 . 7
+24.7
+24.5
- 1.0
+25.0

18. 21
13. 87
18. 35
18.97
17.02
21.94
16.64
18.91
18.46
17.09
18. 98
17.99
21.69

+. 5
+ 2.9
- 5 .6
+ 5.9
- 2 .7
+ 14.3
+ 1.5
+ 3.1
+ .2
+14.4
- 5 .2
- 2 .1
+ 7.5

+33.8
+12.4
+ 8.3
+39.0
+28.5
+87.0
+ 3.4
+16.1
+16.6
+ 5 .8
+1. 3
+31.8
+39.5

16.74
25.01
20. 79
19.11
18. 74
19.87
17.00
20. 74
18. 59

+ 3 .8
-0 )
- 1 .8
- 5 .8
+ .6
-.9
+15.2
- 7 .5
+13.0

+ 8.2
+ 5 .8
+18.8
+ 4.6
+20.5
+ 10.8
- 3 .9
+27.4
+34.1

17.43
19. 37
16.02
17.82
17. 61
18.41
19. 32
16. 58

+ .1
- 1 .7
+ 4 .6
+ 1.1
- 2 .9
+ 1 .2
- 3 .7
+ 3 .4

+31.8
+24.2
+13.4
+ 4.5
+ 3 .0
+ 6.4
+ 12.2
+ 8.3

27. 55
23. 72
16.90
17. 21
20.62

+ 5.1
+ 9 .4
+12.3
-1 5 .0
+ .2

-1 2 .9
+34.0

24.78
24.47

+ 1.6
+10.6

- 3 .6
+15.0

15.01

+10. 8

+13.0

14. 72
13.68
12.28

+ 2.2
+ 8 .7
-.6

+ 5 .0
+17.0
-1 4 .6

-.4
-

-

6.8

-1 9 .4
- 4 .1

TREND

959

OF E M P L O Y M E N T

E A R N IN G S IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S IN
A U G U ST 1933 A N D C O M P A R IS O N W IT H JU L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932-Continued

Industry

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Brick, tile, and terra cotta..
Cement____
Glass______________
Marble, granite, slate, and other products
P o ttery .. ________
Leather and its manufactures:
Boots and shoes__ _
L eather.. ________
Paper and printing:
Boxes, paper. ______
Paper and pulp__________
Printing and publishing:
Book and job _________
Newspapers and periodicals.
Chemicals and allied products:
Chemicals . . . ____
Cottonseed, oil, cake, and meal
Druggists’ preparations...
____
Explosives__________
Fertilizers_______
Paints and varnishes__ __
Petroleum refining___
R ayon and allied products._
Soap. ___________
R ubber products:
Rubber boots and shoes..............
Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes, tires, and inner tubes
R ubber tires and inner tubes. . .
T obacco manufactures:
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff
Cigars and cigarettes. _ . . .
Total, 89 industries_______ _

Per capita Percent of change com ­
pared with—
weekly
earnings in
August 1933
July 1933 August 1932

$13. 01
19. 65

-1 1 . 5

17. 42
17. 56
24. 50
31.00

+ .5

10. 42
20. 30

- 2 .1
+ 4 .7

20.74
26. 61
17. 21

-.9

19.03
17. 48
21.90

+ 2 .0
- 7 .5
-1 0 .5

+ 5.4

14.44
12. 48

+ 5 .9

+ 5.9

18. 93

2 Weighted.

General Index Numbers of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals in Manufacturing
Industries
G e n e r a l index numbers of employment and pay-roll totals in
manufacturing industries by months, from January 1926 to August
1933, together with average indexes for each of the years from 1926
to 1932, and for the 8-month period, January to August 1933, inclusive, are shown in the following table. In computing these general
indexes the index numbers of each of the separate industries are
weighted according to their relative importance in the total. Fol­
lowing this table are two charts prepared from these general indexes
showing the course of employment and pay rolls from January 1926
to August 1933, inclusive.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY

960
tahtw i

table

3-

LABOR

R E V IE W

(ÎK N F R A L i n d e x e s o f e m p l o y m e n t a n d p a y r o l l s
G E N E R A L ^ m J i ^ ^ u ^ ^ ^ J A N U A R Y 1926 TO A U G U ST 1933

in

m a n ij f a c -

[12-month average, 1926=100]
Pay rolls

Employment
M onth
1933 1926

January—.
February-----M arch--------A p ril..........
M a y ............June-----------July-------------August--------September. . .
October_____
N o v e m b e r...
December___
Average.. .

100.4
101.5
102.0
101.0
99.8
99.3
97.7
98. 7
100.3
100.7
99.5
98.9

97.3
99.0
99.5
98.6
97.6
97.0
95.0
95.1
95.8
95.3
93.5
92.6

91.6
93.0
93.7
93.3
93.0
93.1
92.2
93.6
95.0
95.9
95.4
95.5

100.0 96.4 93.

95.2
97.4
98.6
99.1
99.2
98.
98.2
98.6
99.3
98.4
95.0
92.3

90.7
90.9
90.5
89.9
88.6

86.5
82.7
81.0
80.9
79.9
77.9
76.6

74.6
75.3
75.9
75.7
75.2
73.4
71. 7
71.2
70.9
68.9
67.1
66.7

97.5 84.7 72.2

1927 1928

1929

1930 1931 1932 1933

56.6 98.0 94.9 89.6 94.5 88.1 63.7 48.6 35.8
57.5 102.2 100. 6 93.9 101.8 91.3 68.1 49.6 36.4
55.1 103.4 102.0 95.2 103.9 91.6 69.6 48.2 33.4
56. 0 101.5 100.8 93.8 104.6 90.7 68.5 44.7 34.9
58. 7 99.8 99.8 94.1 104.8 88.6 67.7 42.5 38.9
62.8 99.7 97.4 94.2 102.8 85.2 63.8 39.3 43.1
67. 3 95.2 93.0 91.2 98.2 77.0 60.3 36.2 46. 5
71.6 98.7 95.0 94.2 102.1 75.0 59.7 36.3 51. 9
99.3 94.1 95.4 102.6 75.4 56.7 38.1 —
102.9 95.2 99.0 102.4 74.0 55.3 39. 9
99.6 91.6 96.1 95.4 69.6 52.5 38.6 —
99.8 93.2 97.7 92.4 68.8 52.2 37.7
.........

__
__

160.7 100.0

96.5 94.5 100.5 81.3 61.5 41.6 UO.l

i Average for 8 months

Time Worked in Manufacturing Industries in August 1933
R e p o r t s as to working time in August were received from 13,404
establishments in 89 manufacturing industries. Three p e r c e n t 01
these establishments were idle, 64 percent operated on a lull-time
basis, and 33 percent worked on a part-time schedule. _
An average of 92 per cent of full-time operation in August was
shown by reports received from all the operating establishments
included 'in table 4. The establishments working part time m August
averaged 76 percent of full-time operation.
A number of establishments supplying data concerning plant­
operating time have reported full-time operations but have qualified
the hours reported with the statement that, while the plant was
operating full time, the work in the establishment was being shared
and the employees were not working the full-time hours operated by
the plant.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

961

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

MANUFACTURING
MOtlTHLY INDEXES
MONTHLY

AVERAGE.

INDUSTRIES
1926-1933.
19 2 .6 = IOO.

PAY-ROLL TOTALS

105
100

95

90
1930

65

60

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35
JAN

FEB

>^5-^APR.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

33 +

MAY

JUNE JULY

AUG.

SEPT OCT.

NOV.

DEC

962

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

5.
M A N U F A C T U R IN G
IN D U S T !
MONTHLY INDEXES 1 9 2 6 - 1 933
M O N TH LY

AVERAGE.

192.6=100

EM PLO YM EN T

05

_______

1926
00
192.7

\

/'

\

x_

192.9

95

\
1 9 2 8 -- ----

—

N.
90

90

....

193 ^

as

V\

85

V

80

80

_

—

^

1931
75

75
S.

—/ __
70

\

70

\
65

*

%

\

65

—
1932

'6.

60

60

J
J T ‘+

(033
55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

_

35
JAN

FEB.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MAR.

APR.

MAY

JUNE JULY

AUG. SEPT

OCT.

NOV

i.
DEC

35

963

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

T a b l e 4 . - P R 0 P 0 R T I 0 N OF F U L L T IM E W O R K E D IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S

B Y E S T A B L IS H M E N T S R E P O R T IN G IN A U G U S T 1933

Establishments
reporting

Percent of es­
tablishments
operating—

Average percent of
full time reported
by—

Total Percen
numbei
idle

Full
time

All op- Establisherating ments opestablish erating
ments part time

Industry

F o o d a n d k in d red p r o d u c ts __________________
Baking__________________________ ___________
Beverages..................................................... ..........
Butter________________ ________ _____ _______
Confectionery_______ ____ ______ ____ _______
Flour___________ ____ _______________________
Ice cream___________________________ ____ ___
Slaughtering and meat packing.______ _______
Sugar, b eet..-------------------------------------------------Sugar refining, cane_____________ ____ _______

2, 356
830
254
239
201
376
243
153
51
9

Textiles a n d th eir p r o d u c ts ___ _______________
Fabrics:
Carpets and rugs________ ____ _____ _____
Cotton goods_________ ______ _____ ______
Cotton small wares--------------- ---------- -------Dyeing and finishing textiles_____________
Hats, fur-felt-------------------------------- ----------Knit goods.................. .......................... ........
Silk and rayon goods________ ____ _______
W oolen and worsted goods______ ____ ___
Wearing apparel:
Clothing, men’s__________________________
Clothing, wom en’s . . ......... ......... ................
Corsets and allied garments______________
M en’s furnishings_____________ ____ _____
Millinery_________________ ______ _______
Shirts and collars________________________
Iro n a n d steel a n d th eir p ro d u c ts , n o t in ­
c lu d in g m a c h in e r y __________________________
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets______ _____ _
Cast-iron pipe_______________________________
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cut­
lery) and edge tools___ ____ _______________
Forgings, iron and steel........ ............ ...................
Hardware__________ _____ ____________ ______
Iron and steel_____________________ ____ _____
Plumbers’ supplies___________________________
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and
steam fittings______________________________
Stoves__________________________________ ____
Structural and ornamental metal work_______
T in cans and other tinware----------------------------Tools (not including edge tools, machine tools,
files, and saws)_____________________________
W irework___________________________ ____ ___
M a ch in e ry , n o t in c lu d in g tra n s p o r ta tio n
e q u ip m e n t _____________________________ _____
Agricultural implements_____________________
Cash registers, adding machines, and calculat­
ing machines_______________________________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.
Engines, turbines, tractors, and water wheels..
Foundry and machine-shop products............. .
Machine tools________________________________
Radios and phonographs_____________________
Textile machinery and parts________ ____ ___
Typewriters and supplies____________________
N o n fe rr o u s m eta ls a n d th eir p r o d u c ts _______
Aluminum manufactures_____________________
Brass, bronze, and coppr products___________
Clocks and watches and time-recording devices
Jewelry_____________________ ________________
Lighting equipment......... ...................... ..............
Silverware and plated ware__________________
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and zinc..
Stamped and enameled ware________ ________
1

Less than one half of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1

Part
time

1
1
1
1

73
82
70
69
58
62
70
81
86
67

2,495

5

84

11

97

77

13
629
84
133
18
403
211
198

15
1
1
2
2
1
1

69
93
57
89
39
90
94
93

15
6
42
9
61
7
5
7

94
99
90
98
79
98
99
98

66
78
77
73
66
76
78
77

265
300
22
49
92
78

3
27
9
4
1
9

82
60
41
59
77
85

15
13
50
37
22
6

97
95
90
92
96
98

80
71
83
79
84
74

9G3
59
33

3
24

42
41
12

55
59
64

85
83
68

73
71
62

32
16
56
61
40

67
84
44
32
60

83
81
88
89
84

75
77
73
69
73

(')

95
31
72
134
48

1
7

27
17
30
31
40
38
30
19
14
33

94
97
94
94
88
88
95
97
98
94

77
80
78
79
72
69
84
85
84
83

58
111
123
54

3
3
2

48
44
40
59

52
53
57
39

81
87
86
92

63
76
76
81

100
45

1
2

25
40

74
58

80
87

73
78

1,341
46

1
2

49
39

50
59

85
83

71
72

46
59
32
48
56
20
38
71

54
40
67
51
43
80
59
29

85
90
80
84
86
78
89
97

72
75
70
69
68
73
82
91

40
29
44
17
32
27
45
69
52

59
71
56
83
67
66
55
31
48

86
89
86
82
85
83
80
93
91

76
85
75
78
77
77
63
79
80

28
210
60
826
110
25
29
7
435
17
156
18
102
41
33
16
52

0)

2
1
1
3
1

1
7

964

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

T a bl e 4 .— P R O P O R T IO N OF F U L L T I M E W O R K E D IN M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S

B Y E S T A B L IS H M E N T S R E P O R T IN G IN A U G U S T 1933— Continued
Percent of es­
Establishments 1 tablishments
reporting
operating—
Industry
Total Percent
number idle

22

118
31
7
83

658
306
350

682

211

Marble, granite, slate, and other products------

58
141
176
96

773
71
50
25

12

152
296
81

44
61
30

55
39
69

89
91
87

80
77
81

61

68

38
30

91
92

76
75

56
60

43
39
78

89
91
89

75
77
85

52
36
83
80
30

37
42

77
79

68

16
61
28

91
89
96
96
85
92

4

6

71
65
82

25
29
18

95
94
96

81
82
78

1
1
2

73
69
64

27
30
34

94
92
92

78
75
78

74
81

26
19

94
98

7G
87

62
83
54
48
17

36
15
38
52
83
31
42
25
17
43
56
17

93
97
89
89
84
93
92
97
96
92
87
99

80
83
73
80
81
78
80

11
23
5
4
9
4

1,608
265
319
644
380

77
81
80
76
56
76

1
2
2
1
1

374
247
127

Printing and publishing:

91
94
93
79
75
93

(>)

333
472
18

(0
0)
2
1
8
1
1

68

12

68
78
77
74

6

76
27
163
29
134

62
48
50
41
51

85
90

86

4

38
52
47
59
44

90
85

76
79
72
76
71

13,404

3

64

33

92

76

4

74
109

Cigars and cigarettes---------------------------------------

22

56
72
83
57
44
S3

12

Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes, tires,

Establish­
ments op­
erating
part time

38
32
35
81
57
27

6
2

1,188
365
Lumber:

All op­
erating
establish­
ments

57
64
58
13
43
71

5
5
7

281

Part
time

Full
time

Average percent of
full time reported
by—

4

88
73
81
77
91

i Less than one half of 1 percent.

Employment in Nonmanufacturing Industries in August 1933

M PLOYM ENT increased in August as compared with July 1933
in 14 of the 15 nonmanufacturing industries appearing in the
following table. The only exception was the telephone and telegraph
group in which slight declines in both employment and pay rolls were
reported. Data for the building-construction industry are not
presented here but are shown in more detail under the section
“ Building construction.”

E


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND

965

OF EMPLOYMENT

Seasonal activity in the canning and preserving industry was
reflected in the gain of 47.1 percent in employment and 47.9 percent
in pay rolls in August. The metalliferous-mining industry reported
an increase of 11.5 percent in employment, combined with an increase
of 15.4 percent in pay rolls. The anthracite mining and bituminouscoal mining industries reported gains in employment of 8.8 percent
and 8.6 percent, respectively. These increases in employment were
accompanied by increases of 22 percent in pay rolls in anthracite
mining and 28.8 percent in bituminous-coal mining. Both industries
reported increases in average hours worked per week in August, as
well as increased hourly earnings. The retail-trade group which has
shown decreased employment and pay roll in previous August reports,
increased 4.7 percent in employment and 7.9 percent in pay rolls,
numerous establishments reporting better business, special sales, and
the effect of the N.R.A. code. The quarrying and nonmetallicmining industry reported increases of 4.2 percent in employment and
5.1 percent in pay rolls, and the wholesale-trade group reported
increases of 3.7 percent in employment and 2.8 percent in pay rolls.
The laundry and the crude-petroleum-producing industries reported
gains in employment of 2.1 percent each. The hotel industry reported a
gain of 2 percent in number of employees between July and August, and
the power and light, electric railroad, dyeing and cleaning, and banksbrokerage-insurance-real estate groups reported increases in employ­
ment of less than 1 percent. The increases in employment in the two
last-named groups were coupled with slight declines in pay-roll totals.
In the following table are presented employment and pay-roll data
for the nonmanufacturing industries surveyed, exclusive of building
construction:
T able 1.— C O M P A R IS O N OP E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN N O N M A N U F A C T U R ­

IN G E S T A B L IS H M E N T S IN A U G U ST 1933 W IT H JU L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932

Industrial groups

Establishments
report­
ing in
both
July
and
A u­
gust
1933

Coal mining:
Anthracite____________
158
Bituminous ______ ____
1,503
Metalliferous m ining_______
281
Quarrying and nonmetallic
m in in g.________ _________
1,142
Crude-petroleum producing.
245
Public utilities:
Telephone and telegraph. 8,128
Power and light________
3,105
E le c tr ic -r a ilr o a d and
motor-bus operation
545
and maintenance_____
Trade:
Wholesale__________ . . .
2, 963
R e ta il.__ _________ _ __ 17, 291
Hotels
(cash
payments
only) 1------ . . . _ _______
2, 558
Canning and preserving____
920
Laundries__________________
919
Dyeing and cleaning_____ __
337
Banks, brokerage, insurance,
and real estate__________
4,508

Employment

Pay-roll totals

Percent of
change
N um ber
on pay
roll, A u­ July
to A u­
gust 1933 gust
1933

65, 204
209, 730
24, 735

A u­
gust
1932
to
A u­
gust
1933

Percent of
change
Amount
of pay
roll (1
July
week) A u­ to A u ­
gust 1933
gust
1933

+ 8 .8 - 3 .0 $1,852, 596
+ 8 .6 +15.5 3,433,892
+11.5 +28.7
474,558

A u­
gust
1932
to
A u­
gust
1933

Em­
ploy­
ment

+22.0 +12.6
+28.8 +64.0
+15.4 +32.7

47.7
68.6
36.8

46.6
43.3
21.9

+ .7
-.9

57.6
60.8

29.9
42.5
66.1
70.9

34, 553
23, 097

+ 4 .2
+ 2.1

+ 1 .0
+ 5 .9

520,098
625, 408

243, 500
177,733

-.6
+ .8

-1 2 .8
- 4 .2

6,407,935
5,022, 532

- . 9 -1 6 .4
+ 1 .2 - 7 .6

68.1
78.1

+ 5.1
+ .8

Pay­
roll
totals

123,916

+ .2

- 6 .2

3, 281,197

+ 1 .5

- 8 .8

69.5

58.2

80, 385
359,503

+ 3 .7
+ 4 .7

+ 4 .3
+ 7 .6

2,081,009
7,003,428

+ 2 .8
+ 7 .9

- 3 .8
+ 3 .3

79.7
78.1

60.8
62.7

131, 650
95, 471
54, 320
11,048

+ 2 .0
-.6
+47.1 +13.8
+ 2.1 - 1 .3
+ .2 + 4 .5

1, 615, 759
976, 222
798, 644
180, 676

+ 1 .3
+47.9
+ 2 .7
- ( 2)

- 9 .4
+ 4 .1
- 9 .9
-6 .2

77.1
112.7
77.9
83.1

54.0
68.3
57.6
52.8

168,943

3 + .7

3-.2

5, 474,118

3-.6

3 - 4 .3

3 98.5

3 84.7

1 The additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.
2 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Index num­
bers August
1933 (average
1929=100)

» Weighted.

966

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

Per capita weekly earnings in August 1933 for 15 nonmanufacturing
industries included in the Bureau’s monthly trend-of-employment
survey, together with the percents of change in August 1933 as com­
pared with July 1933 and August 1932, are given in the table follow­
ing. These per capita weekly earnings must not be confused with
full-time weekly rates of wages; they are per capita weekly earnings
computed by dividing the total amount of pay roll for the week by
the total number of employees (part-time as well as full-time workers).
T able 2 .— P E R C A P IT A W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN 15 N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S

IN A U G U ST 1933 A N D C O M P A R IS O N W IT H JU L Y 1933 A N D A U G U S T 1932

Industrial group

Per
capita
weekly

Percent of change
August 1933 com ­
pared with—

in A u ­
gust 1933 July 1933

Coal mining:

Public utilities:

Trade:

August
1932

$28. 41
16. 37
19. 19
15. 05
27.08

+12.1
+18. 5
+ 3 .5
+ .9
- 1 .3

+16.2
+42.1
+ 3.1
-.3
- 6 .4

26. 32
28. 26
26. 48

-.3
+ .4
+ 1 .3

- 4 .1
- 3 .5
- 2 .8

25.89
19. 48
12. 27
10. 23
14. 70
16. 35
32. 40

-.9
+ 3 .0
-.6
+ .6
+ .5
—J2
2-i. i

- 7 .7
- 3 .9
- 8 .9
- 8 .6
- 8 .8
-1 0 .3
2 -4 . 1

1 The additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.
2 Weighted.

Indexes of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals for Nonmanufacturing Industries
I n d e x numbers of employment and pay-roll totals for 15 nonmanu­
facturing industries are presented in the following table. These index
numbers show the variation in employment and pay rolls by months,
from January 1930 to August 1933, in all nonmanufacturing industries
with the exception of the laundry, dyeing and cleaning, and the banks,
brokerage, insurance, and real-estate industries for which information
over the entire period is not available. The Bureau has secured data
concerning employment and pay rolls for the index base year 1929
from establishments in these industries and has computed index
numbers for those months for which data are available from the
Bureau’s files. These indexes are shown in this tabulation.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

967

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

T a ble 3 —IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S F O R N O N M A N U FA C TU R IN G

IN D U S T R IE S , J A N U A R Y T O D E C E M B E R 1930, 1931, A N D 1932, A N D J A N U A R Y
A U G U ST 1933
[12-month average, 1929=100]
Bituminous coal mining

Anthracite mining
Month

Employment

TO

Pay rolls

Employment

Pay rolls

1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933
January-------------February_______
M arch. _ ___ _
April____________
M a y ____________
June. __________
July_____________
August________ .
September______
October_________
N ovem ber______
December_______

102.1
106.9
82.6
84.1
93.8
90.8
91.6
80. 2
93.8
99.0
97.2
99.1

90.6
89.5
82.0
85.2
80.3
76.1
65.1
67.3
80.0
86.8
83.5
79.8

76.2
71.2
73.7
70.1
66.9
53.0
44.5
49.2
55.8
63.9
62.7
62.3

52.5
58.7
54.6
51.6
43.2
39.5
43.8
47.7

—

105.8
121.5
78.5
75.0
98.8
94.3
84.0
78.8
91.6
117.2
98.0
100.0

89.3
101. 9
71.3
75.2
76.1
66.7
53.7
56.4
64.9
91.1
79.5
78.4

61.5
57.3
61.2
72.0
58.0
37.4
34.5
41.4
47.0
66.7
51.0
56.2

43.2
56.8
48.8
37.4
30.0
34.3
38.2
46.6

—

102.5
102.4
98.6
94.4
90.4
88.4
88.0
89.2
90.5
91.8
92.5
92.5

93.9
91.5
88.8
85.9
82.4
78.4
76.4
77.0
80.4
81.3
81.1
81.2

80.8 69.8
77.4 69.3
75.2 67.6
65.5 63.7
62.6 61.2
60.5 61.3
58.6 63.2
59.4 68.6
62.4
67.0
69.4
70.0 —

101.4
102.1
86.4
81.7
77.5
75.6
68.9
71.1
74.9
79.4
79.1
77.7

73.3
68.3
65.2
58.6
54.4
52.4
50.4
50.6
53.6
56.2
54.6
52.3

47.0 36.1
47.0 37.2
46.8 30.7
33.9 26.6
30.7 26.9
27.3 29.2
24.4 33.6
26.4 43.3
30. 2
37.8
38.0
37.7 —

Average___ 93.4 80.5 62.5 149.0 95.3 75.4 53.7 >41.9 93.4 83.2 67.4 ‘ 65.6 81.3 57.5 35.6 ‘ 33.0
Metalliferous mining
95.7
92.3
90.9
89.3
87. 5
84.6
80.5
79.0
78.3
77.2
72.8
70. 1

January-----------February---------M arch_________
April___________
M a y ___________
June___________
July____________
August_________
September........ .
October________
N ovem ber_____
December______

68.3
65.3
63.5
63.9
62.4
60.0
56.2
55.8
55.5
53.8
52.8
51.2

49.3
46.9
45.0
43.3
38.3
32.2
29.5
28.6
29.3
30.5
31.9
33.3

32.4
31.5
30.0
29.4
30.0
31.5
33.0
36.8

—

92.7
92.5
90.8
88.3
85.6
81.6
71.9
71.0
69.9
68.6
63.4
59.9

55.0
54.6
52.8
51.4
49.3
46.1
41.3
40.2
40.0
37.4
35.1
34.3

Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
29.7 18.1
27.8 17.8
26.5 17.4
25.0 16.4
23.8 17.0
20.1 18.3
16.9 19.0
16.5 21.9
17.0 ______
18.0 ______
18.7 ______
18.7 —

79.6
79.8
83.0
87.4
90.8
90.3
89.9
89.3
87.7
84.7
78.3
70.2

48.9 35.1
47.4 34.8
46.0 35.1
48.6 39.3
50.6 43.4
49.5 47.3
49.5 49.5
51. 1 51.6
52.4
52.4
49.4
42.3 —

71.9
73.5
80.0
85.4
90.2
90.9
85.5
85.8
82.5
79.3
66.8
59.9

50.4
54.4
58.2
62.6
62.3
60. 1
57.3
55.1
51. 2
48.7
43.3
36.9

30.2
29.6
28.7
30.0
32.3
30.0
29.1
29.7
30.5
30.1
27.1
22.1

18.1
17.4
17.8
20.2
23.8
27.5
28.4
29.9

—

83.2 59.1 36.5 ‘ 31.8 78.0 44.8 21.6 i 18.2 84.3 67.4 49.0 ‘ 42.0 79.3 53.4 29.1 1 22.9

Average —-

Crude-petroleum producing
January......... .
February____
M arch_______
April_________
M a y _________
June_________
July__________
August_______
September___
October______
N ovem ber___
-

Average.

64.4
66.6
70.0
76.1
75.0
72.3
71.0
68.9
66.6
64.5
59.3
53.9

92.7
90.8
89.3
86.8
89.8
90.2
89.9
87.7
85. C
85.2
83.6
77.4

74.8
73.2
72.2
69.8
67.8
65.0
65.3
62.4
61.2
60.4
57.6
58.2

54.9
54.4
51.4
54.9
54.5
54.2
55.4
57.4
56.2
56.8
56.5
57.2

57.2
57.0
56.5
56.8
56.9
58.0
59.5
60.8

—

94.0
88.6
91. £
86.6
85.4
87.1
88.5
86.0
84.1
82.6
80.0
77.2

71.5
70.0
73.2
66. £
64.7
62.7
59.2
56.3
55.2
54.4
52.0
54.9

46.5 39.9
46.9 41.7
43.2 42.5
44.5 40.1
47.1 41.6
44.8 40.6
44.6 42.2
42.9 42.5
41. £
42.5
42.4
41.7 ........

Telephone and telegraph
101.6
100.2
99.4
98. £
99.7
99.8
100. C
98.8
96.8
94.5
93.0
91.6

90.5
89.2
88.6
88.1
87.4
86. £
86.6
85.9
85.0
84.1
83.5
83.1

83.0 74.6 105.1
82.0 73.9 101.9
81.7 73.2 105.8
81.2 72.3 103.4
80.6 70.1 103.2
79.9 69.2 103.4
79.1 68.5 106.6
78.1 68.1 102.5
77.4
102. 2
76.2
100.9
75.5
97.9
74.8 —
101.3

96.3
94.8
97.9
95.0
94. 1
95.0
93.3
92.3
92.1
91.6
89.7
92.7

89.1
89.6
88.2
83.4
82.8
82.1
79.6
79.1
75.9
75.7
74.3
73.5

71.7
71.9
71.6
67.8
68.5
66.6
66.7
66.1

—

87.4 65.7 55.3 i 57.8 85.9 61.7 44.1 i 41.4 97.9 86.6 79.1 i 71.2 102.9 93.7 81.1 ‘ 68.9
Electric-railroad and motor-bus operation
and maintenance 2

January________
February______
M arch_________
April___________
M a y ___________
June____ ______
July-----------------August_________
September_____
October________
N ovem ber_____
December______

99.6
98.8
99.7
100.7
103.4
104.6
105.9
106. 4
105.2
104.8
103.4
103.2

99.2
97.8
96.7
97.1
97.6
97.2
96.7
95.9
94.7
92.7
91.3
90.3

89.3 77.7 99.7
87.2 77.4 100.4
85.5 76.9 102.1
84.8 76.9 102.6
84.0 76.9 104.5
83. 2 77.3 107.8
82.3 77.5 106.7
81.5 78/1 106.6
81.0 ______ 106.1
79.9 ______ 105.6
79.1 ______ 103.7
78.4 —
106.3

98.6
99.7
102.4
97.6
98.7
98.3
97.4
96.2
94.3
93.2
93.3
91.2

88.4 73.0
86.0 71.6
85.4 71.9
82.4 69.4
84.2 69.9
80.5 69.9
78.7 70.0
76.7 70.9
74.7
74.4
73.2
73.2 ........

97.1
95.1
94.4
95.2
95.2
94.8
95.3
92.9
91.8
91.0
89.3
88.8

86.9
86.6
86.4
86.8
85.9
85.3
85.6
84.8
84.0
82.7
81.5
79.9

79.5 70.6
78.9 70.4
77.6 69.8
78.0 69.5
76.9 69.1
76.5 69.3
75.6 69.4
74.1 69.5
73.5
72.3
71.8
71.4 .............

97.8
95.7
95.4
97.1
96.0
97.0
95.6
92.1
90.5
88.9
87.7
88.6

85.6
87.1
88.1
86.6
85.1
84.8
83.3
81.9
81.2
79.0
79.7
77.8

75.4 60.9
74.8 60.6
73.6 59.4
71.8 58.1
72.2 58.2
70.2 58.0
66.4 57.4
63.8 58.2
62.5
61.5
61.7
61.9 ..............

Average... - 103.0 95.6 83.0 ‘ 77.3 104.3 96.7 79.8 ‘ 70.8 93.4 84.7 75.5 ‘ 69.7 93.5 83.4 68.0 ‘ 58.9
1 Average for 8 months.
2 N ot including electric-railroad car building and repairing; see transportation equipment and railroad
repair-shop groups, manufacturing industries, table 1.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

968

MONTHLY LABOK EE V IE W

T a bl e 3 .—IN D E X E S OE E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S F O R N O N M A N U FA C TU R IN G

IN D U S T R IE S , J A N U A R Y T O D E C E M B E R 1930, 1931, A N D 1932, A N D J A N U A R Y TO
A U G U ST 1933—Continued
[12-month average, 1929=100]

Wholesale trade
M onth

Employment

Retail trade

Pay rolls

Employment

Pay rolls

1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933 1930 1931 1932 1933
January___ _____
February_______
M arch_________
April____________
M a y ____________
Ju n e.. . _______
July____________
August__________
September...........
October_________
N ovem b er...........
D ecem b er...........

100.0
98.5
97.7
97.3
96.8
96.5
96.0
95.0
94.8
94.2
92.6
92.0

89.5
88.2
87.4
87.4
87.1
87.1
86.8
86.5
86.1
85.2
84.1
83.7

81.8
80.9
79.8
78.9
77.9
77.0
76.6
76.4
77.1
77.8
77.6
77.0

75.3
74.1
73.1
73.3
74.0
75.7
76.9
79.7

100.0
98.3
99.7
97.9
97.4
98.6
96.0
93.6
93.6
92.9
91.0
91.3

87.5
88.4
89.1
85.2
84.7
84.1
83.3
82.1
81.4
79.9
79.7
77.8

74.1
72.5
71.3
68.9
69.7
66.2
64.7
63.2
63.1
63.9
63.3
62.6

61.7
58.6
57.1
56.0
57.4
57.3
59.1
60.8

98.9
94.4
93.9
97.3
96.7
93.9
89.0
85.6
92.0
95.5
98.4
115.1

90.0
87.1
87.8
90.1
89.9
89.1
83.9
81.8
86.6
89.8
90.9
106.2

84.3
80.5
81.4
81.6
80.9
79.4
74.6
72.6
77.8
81.3
81.7
95.2

76.9
73.4
71.4
78.6
77.0
78.3
74.6
78.1

99.7
96.0
95. 5
97.5
97.3
96.8
91.7
87.6
92.4
95.1
96.8
107.7

89.4
86.7
87.5
88.3
88.0
87.6
83.3
80.3
83.5
84.6
85.4
94.1

78.0
73.7
73.4
72.7
71.1
68.2
63.3
60.7
64.6
67.1
66.9
73.6

62.7
58.4
55.1
60.4
59.5
60.5
58.1
62.7

Average___ 96.0 86.6 78.2 175.3 95.9 83.6 67.0 ‘ 58.5 95.9 89.4 80.9 >76.0 96.2 86.6 69.4 ‘ 59.7
Hotels
January-------------February_______
M arch_________
April-----------------M a y ____ _______
June----- ---------July____________
A u gu st...........
September______
October_________
Novem ber........ .
December_______
Average—

100.4
102.4
102.4
100.1
98.0
98.0
101.3
101.5
100.1
97.5
95.2
93.5

95.0
96.8
96.8
95.9
92.5
91.6
93.3
92.8
90.6
87.4
84.9
83.1

83.2
84.3
84.0
82.7
80.1
78.0
78.4
77.6
77.0
75.4
74.3
73.2

73.8
73.8
72.4
71.9
71.9
73.6
75.6
77.1

100.3
103.8
104.4
100.3
98.4
98.1
99.8
98.6
97.1
95.5
93.6
91.5

Canning and preserving
91.0
93.7
93.4
89.9
87.7
85.4
85.2
83.8
81.9
79.7
77.1
75.4

73.9
73.9
72.4
69.6
67.0
63.8
61.8
59.6
59.1
58.6
57.5
56.6

55.7
55.9
53.5
51.7
51.8
52.3
53.3
54.0

46.1 48.9
45.7 48.3
49.7 53.0
74.8 59.6
65.7 56.0
83.0 70.6
126.3 102.2
185.7 142.9
246.6 180.1
164.7 108.1
96.7 60.8
61.6 40.7

35.0
37.1
36.3
47.0
40.5
55.5
73.0
99.0
125.3
81.1
50.5
33.7

34.1 50.3 46.1
35. 1 51.5 48.6
33.2 50.8 50.3
49.2 72.6 57.1
45.5 66.9 56.0
55.6 81.5 58.6
76.6 112.7 74.2
112.7 172.0 104.7
214.8 129.4
140.0 77.6
82.9 48.1
57.4 36.9

31.8
32.7
31.9
37.9
36.0
40.5
47.5
65.6
75.1
51.8
34.4
25.6

24.8
25.9
24.2
33.5
31.8
36.7
46.2
68.3

99.2 91.7 79.0 173.8 98.5 85.4 64.5 153.5 103.9 80.9 59.5 155.3 96.1 65.6 42.6 ‘ 36.4

Laundries 3

Employment

Banks,
brokerage,
insurance, and real
estate 3

Dyeing and cleaning 3

Pay rolls

Employment

Pay rolls

E m ploy­
ment

Pay rolls

1931 1932 1933 1931 1932 1933 1931 1932 1933 1931 1932 1933 1932 1933 1932 1933
January-------------February_______
M a r c h ... . . . . . .
April ._
. . ..
M a y ..
---------June.. -------- .
July____________
August--------------September______
October_________
N ovem ber____ _
December_____ .

90.5
90.0
89.5
90.5
90.3
91.0
91.8
90.2
89.3
88.1
86.2
85.3

84.7
82.9
82.0
82.0
81.4
81.0
80.3
78.9
78.6
77.5
76.2
75.9

75.4
74.4
73.0
73.4
73.5
76.0
76.3
77.9

86.6
85.6
85.6
86.8
86.5
87.1
87.4
84.6
84.1
81.8
78.9
77.4

76.4
73.3
71.6
71.4
70.6
68.6
66.3
63.9
62.9
61.2
59.1
58.7

57.9
55.5
52.9
54.0
54.5
56.7
56.1
57.6

88.9
87.4
88.0
95.7
96.7
99.0
98.6
93.5
95.3
94.2
90.1
84.9

82.1
80.5
80.6
83.3
84.5
85.1
82.4
79.5
83.3
82.3
78.0
75.2

73.0
70.9
71.2
81.1
82.0
85.6
82.9
83.1

77.7
75.1
75.6
86.3
86.6
89.1
86.2
80.0
82.6
81.4
74.7
67.9

65.8
62.2
61.7
65.9
67.3
65.8
60.0
56.3
61.0
58.8
52.3
48.4

46.6
42.4
41.0
54.6
53.9
56.7
52.8
52.8

98.6
98.6
99.1
98.8
98.2
98.1
98.5
98.7
98.6
98.7
98.2
98.0

97.6
97.0
96.8
96.3
96.4
97.4
97.8
98.5

94.0
93.5
93.3
92. 4
93.2
90.4
90.1
88.5
87.3
86.5
86.0
85.7

85.5
84.7
84.1
83.3
83.6
84.7
85.2
84.7

Average___ 89.4 80.1 175.0 84.4 67.0 ■55.7 92.7 81.4 ‘ 78.7 80.3 60.5 >50.1 98.5 ‘ 97.2 90. 1 ‘ 84.5
1Average for 8 months.
3 M onthly data for previous years not available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

969

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

Average Man-Hours Worked and Average Hourly Earnings

N THE following tables the Bureau presents a tabulation of man­
hours worked per week and average hourly earnings based on
reports supplied by identical establishments in July and August 1933
in 15 industrial groups and 76 separate manufacturing industries.
Man-hour data for the building-construction group and for the insur­
ance, real estate, banking, and brokerage group are not available, and
data for several of the 89 manufacturing industries surveyed monthly
are omitted from these tables due to lack of adequate information.
The total number of establishments supplying man-hour data in
these 15 industrial groups represents approximately 50 percent of the
establishments supplying monthly employment data.
The tabulations are based on reports supplying actual man-hours
worked and do not include nominal man-hour totals, obtained by
multiplying the total number of employees in the establishment by
the plant operating time.
Table 1 shows the average hours worked per employee per week and
average hourly earnings in 15 industrial groups and for all groups
combined. The average hours per week and average hourly earnings
for the combined total of the 15 industrial groups are weighted aver­
ages, wherein the average man-hours and average hourly earnings in
each industrial group are multiplied by the total number of employees
in the group in the current month and the sum of these products
divided by the total number of employees in the combined 15 indus­
trial groups.
In presenting information for the separate manufacturing industries
shown in table 2, data are published for only those industries in which
the available man-hour information covers 20 percent or more of the
total number of employees in the industry at the present time. The
average man-hours and hourly earnings for the combined 89 manu­
facturing industries have been weighted in the same manner as the
averages for all industrial groups combined, table 1.

I

T a ble 1 .— A V E R A G E H O U R S W O R K E D P E R W E E K P E R E M P L O Y E E A N D A V E R A G E

H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S IN 15 IN D U S T R IA L G R O U P S , J U L Y A N D A U G U S T 1933
Average hours per
week

Average hourlyearnings

Industrial group
July 1933

M anufacturing----------------------------------- ---------------------- ---------- - - Coal mining:
Anthracite_________________ ____ ________ ______ _________
Bituminous---------------------------------------------------- ------------------Metalliferous mining_____________________________ ____ _______
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining-------------------------------- ------Crude petroleum producing-------- ---------------------- ---------------------Public utilities:
Telephone and telegraph__________________________________
Power and light-----------------------------------------------------------------Electric-railroad and motor-bus operation and maintenance.
Trade:
Wholesale__________
R e ta il...___________
Hotels.......................- - - - Canning and preserving.
Laundries........... ..............
Dyeing and cleaning----Total_______ ____


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

August
1933

July 1933

August
1933

42.3

38.6

Cents
42.7

Cents
48.5

31.5
31.5
39.5
41.4
45.8

34.1
35.0
39.3
38.5
44.4

81.4
45.5
46.8
37.2
55.6

83.8
48.4
48.9
40.5
56.1

37.9
41.9
45.fi

38.1
42.7
46.0

70.5
66.7
56.7

69.9
65.8
56.8

47.1
44. 2
50.7
34.4
42.0
47.0

44.3
40.0
50.2
33.2
40.3
40.5

53.9
42.7
23.0
32.1
34.7
35.9

56.7
48.5
23.1
32.2
36.4
41.4

42.8

39.6

44.6

49.4

970

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

Per capita weekly earnings, computed by multiplying the average
man-hours worked per week by the average hourly earnings shown in
the following table, are not identical with the per capita weekly
earnings appearing elsewhere in this trend-of-employment compila­
tion, which are obtained by dividing the total weekly earnings in all
establishments reporting by the total number of employees in those
establishments. As already noted, the basic information upon which
the average weekly man-hours and average hourly earnings are com­
puted covers approximately 50 percent of the establishments reporting
monthly employment data.
T a ble 2 .— A V E R A G E H O U R S W O R K E D P E R W E E K P E R E M P L O Y E E A N D A V E R A G E

H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S IN S E L E C T E D M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y A N D
A U G U S T 1933

Average hours per
week

Average hourly
earnings

Industry

Food and kindred products:
Baking_______________________
Beverages______________________
C onfectionery_______ _____ ___
Flour____ _________ ______
Ice cream. . . __ ___ ______
Slaughtering and meat packing_____
Sugar, beet____ _________ ____ __ __
Sugar refining, cane. _____ ______
Textiles and their products:
Fabrics:
Carpets and rugs____________________ ____ _____
Cotton goods___________________________ __________
Cotton small w a res________________________________
Dyeing and finishing textiles_____________________
Knit goods.- __________________________________ _Silk and rayon goods_______________________ _
W oolen and worsted goods_____ _____________ .
Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery:
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets_________ ______
Cast-iron p i p e _______________________
_____ .
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery) and edge
tools_______
___ ______ - ________
Forgings, iron and steel______ _____________ .
Hardware. - ___ ____________
Iron and steel ________ _______ ___________
Plumbers’ supplies_____________ _______ _
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam fittings
Stoves______ _______
_ ________
Structural and ornamental metalwork_______ .
Tools (not including edge tools, machine tools, files, and
s a w s ) ___ __________ _________
W irework__________ .
Machinery, not including transportation equipment:
Agricultural implements___ __________
Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating machines
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies____________
Engines, turbines, tractors, and water wheels. - ________
Foundry and machine-shop products____ _____
_ ____
Machine tools______________________
Radios and p h o n o g ra p h s ..-_____ ____
Textile machinery and parts__
___
Typewriters and supplies__ .
... .
Nonferrous metals and their products:
Aluminum m anufactures.-- - - - - - - - - ___ _ . .
Brass, bronze, and copper p r o d u c t s __
. . __________
Clocks and watches and time-recording d e v ice s _____
Jewelry_______________________ _____
______ __ . . .
Silverware and plated w a r e ... - - - - - - - - .. ...
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and zinc________
Stamped and enameled w a re __ _____ ___ ___________
Transportation equipment:
A ir cra ft_____ _ . . _______________
_ _______
. ____
Automobiles_____________ _______ __________________ . . .
Cars, electric and steam railroad__________________________
Locom otives__________________________________ _____ _
__
S hipbuilding..................................................... ............................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 1933

August
1933

46.8
45.7
34.4
47 0
50.3
49.0
41.0
47.8

43.0
43.8
35.7
39.8
46.6
40.3
47.4
44.3

Cents
44.7
62.7
35.1
43.0
49.2
41.5
53.6
49.8

Cents
47.8
65.0
37.3
47.9
54.0
49.0
44.0
49.4

44.8
49.0
46.1
49.5
45.8
42.1
48.5

36.5
36.5
37.4
36.3
37.4
36.7
41.2

37.7
23.2
33.7
37.1
29.9
31.5
35.8

47.7
36.1
42.1
49.7
42.6
41.5
43.3

42.2
35.6

36.2
33.4

42.1
38.3

47.0
41.8

42.7
42.0
41.7
40.2
38.4
38. 1
41.4
33.7

38.1
39.0
37.7
39.6
36.6
36.7
38.9
35.6

47.1
45.3
44.0
48.1
42.3
47.6
44.6
42.8

49.9
48.9
46.5
55.3
46.0
51. 2
46.6
47.4

41. 1
47.5

36.6
44.0

44.4
42.7

48.9
50.5

35.2
39.9
38. h
37.3
38. 1
37.0
36.2
44.7
39.6

34.7
38.3
35.4
33.9
33.9
34.3
35.6
37. 2
37.7

46.3
63.7
53.7
54.8
48.8
53.8
37.0
52.3
42.9

48.3
66.6
57.0
56.7
55.6
57.7
46.3
58.9
50.2

42.2
42.9
40.8
39.2
41. 7
41.3
41.2

38.8
38.0
39.5
38.9
37.0
38.6
40.6

40.2
45.6
37.9
42.2
42.9
47.7
39.0

42.9
50.8
40.7
42.0
50.0
50.4
41.2

45.5
38.0
30.9
42.3
33.6

40.6
37.8
34.0
27.7
30.3

62.2
57.0
53.8
49.9
56.4

64.5
63.1
54.0
56.3
61.7

July 1933

August
1933

971

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

T a b l e 2 —A V E R A G E H OU RS W O R K E D P E R W E E K P E R E M P L O Y E E A N D A V E R A G E

H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S IN S E L E C T E D M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S , JU L Y A N D
A U G U S T 1933— Continued
Average hours per
week

Average hourly
earnings

Industry

Railroad repair shop:
Lumber and allied products:
Lumber:
Stone, clay, and glass products:

Leather and its manufactures:
Paper and printing:
Printing and publishing:
Chemicals and allied products:

Rubber products:
Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes, tires, and inner
Tobacco manufactures:

July 1933

August
1933

43.1
34.6

44.0
39.6

42.5

July 1933

August
1933

Cents
56.2
63.3

Cents
56.0
62.8

39.3

31.6

37.9

43.7
43.7

39.6
43. 1

33.7
29.9

37.7
33.4

37.0
38.9
39.3
36.3
35.4

35. 2
35.8
36.7
33.2
40.8

32.9
42.9
45. 2
53.3
38.5

36.5
50.9
48.5
59.2
41.6

45.7

41.7

41.3

45.2

45.6
46.1

41.0
44.4

39.3
41. 2

43.4
44.2

37.7
40.0

36. 2
39.3

68.8
75.9

69.9
76.8

43.6
60.7
40.0
38.8
44.3
44. 1
39.9
41.6
45.2

41.1
38.9
37.6
38.9
42.4
39.1
39.8
39.6
39.6

55.0
18.8
45.4
55. 1
28.2
47.7
62. 2
40.8
44.0

57.0
28.6
50.0
58.1
29.4
52.4
62.7
45. 2
45.9

43.3
38.4

36.1
32.2

43.7
62.3

47.5
65.4

39.1
42.3

38.2
37.4

33.4
30.5

36.2
35.3

Employment in Building Construction in August 1933

M PLOYM EN T in the building-construction industry increased
8.9 percent in August as compared with July and pay rolls
increased 9.3 percent over the month interval.
The percents of change of employment and pay-roll totals in August
as compared with July are based on returns made by 10,765 firms
employing in August 86,771 workers in the various trades in the
building-construction industry and whose combined weekly earnings
during the pay period ending nearest August 15 were $1,846,650.
These reports cover building operations in various localities in 34
States and the District of Columbia.

E


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

972

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O LLS IN T H E BU ILD IN G CONSTRUC­
TION IN D U S T R Y IN I D E N T IC A L F IR M S , JU L Y A N D A U G . 15, 1933

Locality

Alabama: Birmingham ..
California:
Los Angeles 1_______________ .
San Francisco-Oakland1........... .
Other reporting localities 1_____
Colorado: D e n v e r... _____ ______
Connecticut:
Bridgeport____________________
Hartford______________________
N ew H aven_________ _ ______
Delaware: W ilm ington.
___
District of Columbia______ _ . _.
Florida:
Jacksonville___________________
M iam i______________________ .
Georgia: Atlanta__________________
Illinois:
C hicago1 .
__ ______ ____
Other reporting localities 1 . _.
Indiana:
Evansville_______________
Fort W ayne_________ ____ ____
Indianapolis________ _________
South B end__________ _______
Iowa: Des M oines_________________
Kansas: W ichita____ _____________
Kentucky: Louisville_____________
Louisiana: New Orleans.. . . _____
Maine: Portland__________________
Maryland: B altim ore1 . . .
....
Massachusetts: All reporting localities 1_________________ _ _____ ._
Michigan:
Detroit_________ ____________
Flint__________________________
Grand Rapids_______ . . . ____
Minnesota:
Duluth____ _________ . . . ___
Minneapolis__________ _______
St. Paul_________ . __________
Missouri:
Kansas C ity L , . . . . ______
St. L o u is .. ___ . ___ _ ____
Nebraska: Omaha_____ . . . . _____
New York:
New York C ity 1_ _______
Other reporting localities 1_____
North Carolina: Charlotte________
Ohio:
Akron . . . . . . . . . _ . . . _
Cincinnati3_______________
_.
Cleveland___ _ . . _ ______ . .
D ayton________ ._ _ . . . _____
Youngstown....... .......... ............ _
Oklahoma:
Oklahoma C ity____________ . . .
Tulsa______ ________________ .
Oregon: Portland..... ........ . . .
Pennsylvania:4
Erie area 1________________ ____
Philadelphia area 1 ___________
Pittsburgh area 1______________
Reading-Lebanon area 1----------Scranton area 1__ . . . . . ______
Other reporting areas 1 . . . ____
Rhode Island: Providence_________
Tennessee:
Chattanooga_________ ________
Knoxville____________________
M em phis______________________
Nashville.................. ................. .
Texas:
Dallas_________________________
El Paso_____________ _________
Houston_______________________
San Antonio___________ _____

N um ­
ber of
firms
report­
ing

Number on pay­
roll
July 15

Aug. 15

Amount of pay roll
July 15

Aug. 15

Percent
of change

78

349

402

+15. 2

$4, 629

$5, 935

+28.2

21
33
20
198

852
956
597
600

1,002
1,062
606
567

+17.6
+11.1
+ 1.5
- 5 .5

18, 333
21, 602
12, 689
11, 886

19, 401
24, 660
12, 451
11,173

+ 5.8
+14.2
- 1 .9
- 6 .0

132
207
179
118
526

542
965
956
943
8, 420

574
1,062
1,066
1,010
8, 949

+ 5.9
+10.1
+11.5
+ 7.1
+ 6.3

11,038
21, 886
23,183
17, 312
238, 507

11,656
22,197
24,183
18, 707
257, 433

+ 5.6
+ 1.4
+ 4.3
+8.1
+ 7.9

51
84
146

435
800
1,213

400
819
1,182

- 8 .0
+ 2.4
- 2 .6

6,918
11, 712
16,927

6, 575
12, 536
17, 850

- 5 .0
+ 7.0
+ 5.5

126
74

1, 306
538

1,122
673

-1 4 . 1
+25.1

34. 571
12. 763

31,824
13,496

- 7 .9
+ 5.7

54
86
164
32
101
64
126
114
105
110

283
278
1,031
119
466
232
1,066
976
371
726

270
300
1,100
183
573
337
1,151
1,096
390
785

- 4 .6
+ 7.9
+ 6.7
+53.8
+23.0
+45.3
+ 8.0
+12.3
+5. 1
+ 8.1

4,310
3, 862
19,434
1,816
8, 013
4,141
16, 620
15, 653
6, 674
12,198

4,011
4, 787
21, 960
3,122
9, 744
5,837
19, 593
17, 082
8, 032
12, 793

- 6 .9
+24.0
+13.0
+71.9
+21.6
+41.0
+17.9
+9.1
+20.3
+ 4.9

717

4, 384

4, 630

+ 5.6

106, 647

112,012

+ 5.0

486
52
96

3, 742
188
394

4, 212
218
403

+12.6
+16. 0
+ 2.3

71, 260
3, 124
5,353

83, 685
3,821
5,614

+17.4
+22.3
+ 4.9

50
203
161

316
1,493
875

365
1,646
1,185

+15.5
+10.2
+35.4

4,198
26, 828
18,127

5,708
32, 728
23, 462

+36.0
+22.0
+29.4

282
551
150

1,565
2,753
723

1,695
3, 290
927

+ 8.3
+19.5
+28.2

32,475
70, 251
13, 401

34, 625
87, 034
17, 791

+ 6.6
+23.9
+32.8

294
204
43

4, 387
5, 217
246

5,254
5, 639
315

+19.8
+ 8.1
+28.0

143, 387
127, 514
2, 674

159, 870
132,327
4,096

+11.5
+3.8
+53.2

82
463
590
119
76

315
2,257
2,415
549
226

326
2, 394
2, 677
598
305

+ 3.5
+6.1
+10.8
+ 8.9
+35.0

4, 685
47, 680
58, 618
10, 386
3,444

5, 406
53, 366
65, 005
10, 651
4, 992

+15.4
+11.9
+10.9
+ 2.6
+44.9

84
56
187

481
234
779

442
201
1,022

- 8 .1
-1 4 .1
+31.2

6,916
3, 629
14, 826

7, 144
2, 949
18, 083

+ 3.3
-1 8 .7
+22.0

29
502
262
51
39
325
241

204
5,146
1,838
289
238
2,446
1,490

195
5, 430
1,981
245
255
2,618
1,479

- 4 .4
+ 5.5
+ 7.8
-1 5 . 2
+ 7.1
+ 7 .0
-.7

2, 301
89, 426
36, 749
4, 737
5,344
40, 097
31, 585

2,123
88, 272
43,018
3,802
5, 304
41,048
31, 240

- 7 .7
- 1 .3
+17.1
-1 9 .7
-.7
+ 2.4
- 1 .1

38
47
80
76

295
329
462
890

337
424
467
1, 210

+14.2
+28.9
+ 1. 1
+36.0

4,042
4, 827
6,190
10, 824

4, 975
6,194
6, 531
15, 755

+23.1
+28.3
+ 5.5
+45.6

172
25
160
124

1,134
164
1,006
895

1,084
156
1,025
762

- 4 .4
- 4 .9
+ 1.9
-1 4 .9

16, 541
1,548
15,007
11,825

15, 708
1,502
14, 816
11,042

- 5 .0
- 3 .0
- 1 .3
- 6 .6

1 Data supplied b y cooperating State bureaus.
2 Includes both Kansas City, M o., and Kansas City, Kans.
3 Includes Covington and Newport, K y.
4 Each separate area includes from 2 to 8 counties.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Percent
of change

973

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O LLS IN T H E BU ILD IN G CO N STR U C­
T IO N IN D U S T R Y IN I D E N T IC A L F IR M S , JU L Y A N D A U Q . 15, 1933— Continued

Locality

Utah: Salt Lake C ity_____________
Virginia:
Norfolk-Portsmouth___ _____
Richm ond_____ _________
Washington:
Seattle________________________
Spokane__________ ____ _______
Tacom a_______________________
West Virginia: W heeling______ ___
Wisconsin: All reporting localities L

N um ­
ber of
firms
report­
ing

Number on pay­
roll
July 15

Amount of pay roll
Percent
of change

Aug. 15

of change

July 15

Aug. 15

80

289

352

+21.8

$4,469

$6,136

+37.3

86
144

1,007
918

1,011
992

+ 8.1

15,477
16,687

19,148
18,470

+23.7
+10.7

151
52
81
46
59

684
258
160
180
833

823
213
192
170
925

+20.3
-1 7 .4
+20.0
- 5 .6
+11.0

13, 238
5,059
2,323
3,209
15, 393

17, 229
3, 950
3,404
3,245
16, 331

+30.1
-2 1 .9
+46.5
+ 1.1
+ 6.1

Total, all localities_____ ______ 10,765

79, 714

86, 771

+ 8 .9 1, 688, 998 1,846, 650

+ 9.3

1 Data supplied b y cooperating State bureaus.

Trend of Employment in August 1933, by States

N THE following table are shown the fluctuations in employment
and pay-roll totals in August 1933 as compared with July 1933, in
certain industrial groups by States. These tabulations have been
prepared from data secured directly from reporting establishments
and from information supplied by cooperating State agencies. The
combined total of all groups does not include building-construction
data, information concerning which is published elsewhere in a sepa­
rate tabulation by city and State totals. In addition to the com­
bined total of all groups, the trend of employment and pay rolls in
the manufacturing, public utility, hotel, wholesale trade, retail trade,
bituminous-coal mining, crude-petroleum producing, quarrying and
nonmetallic mining, metalliferous mining, laundry, and dyeing and
cleaning groups is presented. In this State compilation, the totals of
the telephone and telegraph, power and light, and electric-railroad
operation groups have been combined and are presented as one
group— public utilities. Due to the extreme seasonal fluctuations in
the canning and preserving in d u s t r y , and the fact that during certain
months the activity in this industry in a number of States is negligible,
data for this industry are not presented separately. The number of
employees and the amount of weekly pay roll in July and August 1933
as reported by identical establishments in this industry are included,
however, in the combined total of “ all groups.”
The percents of change shown in the accompanying table, unless
otherwise noted, are unweighted percents of change; that is, the
industries included in the groups, and the groups comprising the
total of all groups, have not been weighted according to their relative
importance in the combined totals.
As the anthracite-mining industry is confined entirely to the State
of Pennsylvania, the changes reported in this industry in table 1,
nonmanufacturing industries, are the fluctuations in this industry by
State totals.
When the identity of any reporting company would be disclosed by
the publication of a State total for any industrial group, figures for
the group do not appear in the separate industrial-group tabulation,
but are included in the State totals for “ all groups.” Data are not
presented for any industrial group when the representation in the
State covers less than three establishments.

I

11455°—33----- 14


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

974

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN ID E N T IC A L E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y S T A T E S
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued
b y cooperating State organizations]
Manufacturing

Total all groups

State

Amount
N um ­
Amount
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­ ber on
ber on Percent of pay Percent
Percent of pay Percent ber of
ber of
roll (1
roll (1
pay
pay
of
estab­
of
of
of
estab­ roll,
week),
week),
roll,
lish­ August change August change lish­ August change August change
ments
ments
1933
1933
1933
1933

509 64,086
Alabama____ ____
7,743
404
Arizona________
i 420 16,288
Arkansas_________
California________ 2 1,959 263,162
809 30, 838
Colorado_________

+ 4 .4 $888,109
155, 561
+ 3.5
+ 1.0
217,678
+12.7 5,863,517
+ 9 .2
604, 626

+22.1
+ 7 .7
+ 1 .0
+ 8 .9
+ 7 .0

209 45, 594
2, 071
54
173 11,262
1,071 153,076
119 11, 593

+ 3 .6 $617, 693
39, 626
+ 8 .5
131, 750
+1.1
+21.9 3,063,359
+12.2
225,056

+22.7
+15.2
+ 1 .0
+15.3
+9. 2

1,080 161, 750
133 11, 575
610 29, 228
536 18,851
665 90, 953

+10.0 3,134,378
222, 219
+4.1
667, 040
+ 3.4
303, 203
- 3 .8
+ 2.1 1, 224, 508

+ 8 .9
- 3 .1
+ 2 .9
- 7 .5
+16.2

629 142,476
7,948
49
3,163
52
118 10,404
307 77, 033

+11.7 2,621, 312
154, 283
+ 5 .7
92, 259
+ 4 .0
124, 987
+ .2
+ .9
946, 215

+10.8
-4 . 1
+ 2 .8
-1 2 . 6
+20.8

213
7,916
Idaho____________
I llin o is ________ . 31, 723 333,907
1,255 129, 569
Indiana__________
1,172 45, 723
Iowa____________
Kansas................... 41,358 66,233

+ 5.5
147, 500
+ 8 .5 6,962,112
+ 4.1 2, 486, 464
853, 622
+ 5 .0
+ 3 .9 1,443,789

+10.9
+ 9 .0
+ 7.9
+ 4.3
+ 3 .2

3, 888
37
1,100 219,243
572 98,179
435 26, 844
449 25,587

+9. 2
74, 698
+11.5 4,217, 709
+ 3 .5 1, 903, 934
492, 893
+ 6.5
+5.1
509,901

+ 13.4
+12.5
+ 7 .3
+ 5 .7
+ 3 .8

K entucky----------837 67, 664
503 33,004
Louisiana...............
554 51, 162
Maine _________
3 834 87, 099
M aryland________
Massachusetts___ » 8,084 375,092

+ 4.1 1,132, 752
+ 4 .9
501, 672
+ 9.7
878,028
+ 6 .8 1, 702,507
+ 3.9 7,779,132

+13.9
+ 8 .9
+10.6
+10.3
+ 4-5

203 26, 645
212 21, 696
183 43, 304
445 62,483
1,132 198,417

+ 2 .6
463, 851
+ 8 .1
302, 854 + 10.4
+ 5 .0
+ 9 .6
745,176 + 11.3
3 + 6.5 1,182,199 3 +12.1
+ 8 .0
+ 6.1 3,721,739

M ich iga n ............
Minnesota_______
Mississippi_______
Missouri_____ . . .
M ontana_________

1,541 291, 538
1,044 68, 746
366 10, 165
1, 193 117, 580
351 10,191

+ 6.1 6, 694, 959
+ 7 .6 1, 387, 990
131,145
+ 3 .6
+ 4 .4 2,370, 279
+10.2
246, 284

+13.4
+ 7.5
+12.5
+ 6 .0
+12.2

475 252,952
282 32,054
6,955
7t
519 68, 269
2,737
48

+ 5 .8 5,681,327
639, 222
+ 3 .3
+ 5 .4
81, 157
+ 5 .7 1, 309, 368
+ 6.3
60, 495

+ 6 .0
+ 6 .3
+22.5
+ 7 .5
+18.6

Nebraska________
N evada__________
New H am pshire..
New Jersey______
N ew M exico_____

654 20,373
1, 602
140
504 41,914
1,541 196, 651
4,710
201

421, 725
+ 5.9
+ 8 .6
37, 870
741,114
+ 7.7
+ 4.2 , 4, 279,925
81, 534
+ 6 .7

+ 5 .2
+ 7 .0
+17.8
+ 4.1
+12.0

9, 348
119
311
24
186 37,056
7679 181,485
328
26

+ 7.5
197,417
+ 4 .4
7,943
640, 723
+ 7 .5
+ 6.3 3,766,361
6,395
+15.5

+ 7 .5
+ 6 .5
+20. 7
+ 5 .6
+ 7 .6

New Y ork _______
North Carolina.
North D a k ota .. .
Ohio. ______ . _
Oklahoma_______

7,902 534, 788
886 138,429
4, 156
363
4,945 437, 384
733 28,130

+ 3.5 12, 698, 544
+ 2.3 1, 824, 149
85,432
+ 3.1
+ 6 .4 9, 012,067
554, 510
+ 4.8

+ 2 .8 81,731 345,223
+14.8
530 133, 246
1,173
+ 3 .8
60
+ 9 .9 1, 903 329, 283
132 10, 515
+ 4 .9

+ 5 .7 7, 761,631
+ 2 .2 1, 737, 507
+ 7 .3
25,185
+ 8 .0 6, 733, 909
192, 766
+ 1 .2

+ 6-4
+15.2
+ 5 .3
+ 10. 7
+ 1 .9

Oregon----------------Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island. . . .
South C arolina.._
South Dakota____

682 32,989
4,986 637,424
889 64, 268
320 59, 132
5,897
259

631,026
+ 1 .0
+ 7 .0 12, 840, 514
+ 3 .3 1, 228, 216
741, 951
- 1 .0
135,688
+ 2 .7

+ 8.4
+15.0
+ 5.4
+21.0
-.5

154 19, 392
1,747 377,259
257 52, 392
174 55, 732
2,102
48

+ 8 .6
350, 854
+8.1 6 ,859, 673
+ 3.4
944, 972
- 1 .4 . 690,512
+ 3 .6
38,178

+18.2
+17.9
+6. 2
+22.4
- 2 .3

Tennessee________
T e x a s .....................
U tah.. . . . . ____
Verm ont_________
Virginia__________

738
785
347
379
1,263

69, 801
58,688
13, 716
10, 870
85, 348

+ 2.3 1,044, 714
+ .4 1,258,497
-.8
250, 713
203, 462
+ 4 .0
+ 4 .9 1,419, 505

+10.1
+. 8
+ 4 .8
+ 1. 5
+13.3

263
383
77
118
399

757, 219
620,881
76, 338
117, 235
948, 743

+11.5
+ 2 .4
+ 6 .5
+2. 2
+15.8

1,109 53, 249
Washington _____
879 109, 075
West Virginia____
Wisconsin_______ 2 1,053 149, 883
5, 557
191
W y o m in g .______

+ 7 .7 1,103, 530
+ 9.3 2, 109, 03C
2,664,320
129, 545
+ 5.5

+12.3
+27. 2
+ 8 .9
+ 8 .3

251 27, 369
179 42,920
777 120, 061
1,329
27

Connecticut______
Delaware - ____
Dist. of Columbia.
Florida. ________
Georgia__________

52, 563
32,227
3,954
6, 226
59, 738

+ 1 .8
+ 1 .2
+ 5 .5
+ 3 .7
+ 5 .6

561, 741 +20.5
+10.9
854, 559 +21. 2
+ 9 .6
3 + 6.1 2,086,495 5 + 14■ 1
+ 2 .8
36,130
+ 1.6

1 Includes automobile dealers and garages, and sand, gravel, and building construction.
2 Includes banks, insurance, and office employment.
3 Includes building and contracting.
4 Includes transportation, financial institutions, restaurants, theaters, and building construction.
3 Weighted percent of change.
6 Includes construction, municipal, agricultural, and office employment, amusement, and recreation
professional and transportation services.
7 Includes laundries.
8 Includes laundering and cleaning.
6 Includes construction, but does not include hotels and restaurants.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

975

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

C O M P A R IS O N OP E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN ID EN TIC AL E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y S T A T E S —Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued b y
cooperating State organizations]
Wholesale trade

State

Retail trade

Amount
Amount
N um ­ N um ­
N um ­ N um ­
ber on
ber of
Percent of pay Percent ber of ber on Percent of pay Percent
roll
(1
pay
roll (1
pay
estab­
of
estab­
of
of
of
roll,
week),
roll,
week),
lish­
change
August change lish­ August change August change
ments August
ments
1933
1933
1933
1933

Alabama_________
Arizona____ _____
Arkansas - ...........
C a lifo r n ia ..-____
Colorado_________

16
22
16
101
26

566
202
423
4,995
934

+• 2
+ 6.9
+ 1 .0
+ 5 .2
+ 3.1

$13,677
5,115
10,383
135,817
25, 435

- 7 .5
+ 4.7
+ 1 .0
+ 3 .4
+ .8

63
184
130
180
276

2,035
1,594
1,466
24, 729
4,142

+ 7 .8
+ 5 .8
+ 1 .0
+ 9 .4
+ 6 .5

$34,329
27,983
22,367
513,933
80, 784

+22.4
+ 8 .6
+ 1 .0
+15.8
+ 7 .2

Connecticut______
Delaw are.. ____
Dist. of Columbia.
Florida___________
Georgia__________

59
7
28
50
33

1,367
90
384
736
467

+ 6 .7
(10)
+ 3 .8
+ 2.8
+ 2 .9

35, 714
1,870
11,029
17, 59C
13,125

+ 2 .9
- 4 .2
+2.4
+1.4
-.1

113
9
404
78
27

4,106
174
10,925
1,071
2,003

- 6 .7
-1 1 .7
+ 5 .0
- 4 .0
+ 8 .8

83,803
2,689
216,640
19, 480
33,843

-.4
+10.3
+ 6 .2
- 1 .0
+19.5

Idaho____________
Illinois___________
Indiana__________
Iowa___ _________
Kansas_________ .

8
46
59
35
80

118
2,179
1,165
1,147
2,035

+ 5.4
+ 6 .9
+ 2.4
+ 3.0
+ 9 .6

3,174
50,750
28, 511
27, 544
46,508

+ 3.1
+ 6.7
+ 4 .4
+4.1
+ 5 .6

68

162
123
456

809
21, 776
5,699
2,988
6,159

+ 6.9
+ 8 .0
+4. 3
+ 7.3
+4-9

12,740
447, 145
98,840
49,926
109,790

+ 9 .9
+ 5 .9
+14.6
+13.1
+ 5.9

K entucky________
Louisiana________
Maine __________
Maryland
. ...
Massachusetts___

23
30
16
33
711

430
684
450
736
14,813

+ 2.1
+ 1.8
+ 2.7
+ 1 .2
+4+

9,280
15, 324
10, 613
16,427
383,787

+ 2.5
+ 6.5
+ 4.1
+3.1
EM

28
46
72
38
4,202

1,643
3,127
1,093
5,415
60,518

+ 1.4
27, 749
+13.6
46,198
+ 5.4
19, 794
92,384
+ 1.1
+3.1 1,190,013

+13.9
+24.2
+ 5.1
+11.5
+S.S

M ich ig a n ...........
Minnesota _____
Mississippi_______
Missouri. _______
M ontana_________

61
57
5
60
14

1,580
4,257
122
4,783
244

+ 1.5
+ 4.1
+ 3.4
+ 3.6
+ 6 .6

41,984
110,102
2,377
118, 600
6, 772

+ 5.4
+ 2.1
+ 6.7
+ 6.3
+ 7 .4

154
250
52
126
85

10,021
7,247
436
8,803
918

+ 5.1
+ 8.1
+ 6.1
+ 7 .0
+ 7 .0

189, 590
127,058
4, 527
168,437
18, 595

+11.1
+13.8
+ 8 .0
+12.9
+ 5 .7

Nebraska________
N e v a d a .___ . . .
New H am pshire..
N ew Jersey______
N ew M exico_____

28
7
17
25
8

780
103
190
593
91

+ 6.8
+5.1
-.5
+2.1
+ 5 .8

20, 221
3,106
4,784
16, 719
2,934

+ 6 .9
+ .1
- 1 .5

128
40
75
422
53

1,594
257
904
6, 568
288

+ 7 .7
+10.3
+14.3
+ 1 .6
+11.2

27,739
6,084
13, 222
143, 798
6,202

+ 7 .6
+11.5
+ 7.1
+ 4 .7
+11.6

New York . . . .
North Carolina__
North Dakota____
Ohio . . ___ ___
Oklahoma____. . .

429
15
17
234
60

11,495
208
280
5, 255
950

+ 1.9
+ 6.1
+ 7.3
+ 3.4
+ 6.0

342, 241
4,184
7, 520
128,080
22,384

-. 1
+ 9.0
+ 6.3
+ 2 .4
+ 5 .0

3,897
158
32
1,557
86

62,180
575
252
32, 681
1,329

+ 2 .2 1,290, 953
+ 8 .7
12, 779
—7.7
4,011
-.6
621, 233
+ 8 .7
23, 111

+ 3.3
+22.2
- 5 .3
+10.7
+13.6

Oregon______ ____
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island____
South Carolina___
South Dakota____

53
124
43
14
10

1,364
3,648
1,118
196
125

+ 6 .9
+ 2.0
+ 2.4
- 1 .0
- 2 .3

34, 492
97, 570
25, 673
4, 339
3, 215

+ 4.4
+ 2 .2
-. 4
+ 2 .0
-.2

176
338
478
14
9

2,269
25, 981
4,615
467
87

+10.2
+ 3.9
+ 2.7
+20.7
(10)

42,911
504, 528
99, 224
4,208
1,547

+ 8 .6
+ 8. 7
+ 8 .2
+17.5
+ 3.1

Tennessee________
Texas____ ______
LTtah____________
Verm ont___ _
Virginia______

31
149
15
4
45

691
3,119
490
105
1,052

+ 2 .7
+ 5.2
+ 3.4
+ 1.0
+ 1.3

14, 701
76,760
11,517
2, 535
26,138

+ 2 .6
+ 5.5
- 3 .7
+ .2
+ 4 .3

55
78
81
38
474

3, 339
6,185
689
433
4, 575

+ 9 .0
+ .7
+ 6 .7
+ 2.1
+ 3 .6

53, 215
104,638
13, 896
6, 524
83,928

+17.1
+ 5.5
+ 4 .6
+12.4
+ 3 .7

Washington_____
West Virginia. . . .
W is c o n s in ...____
W yom ing________

84
26
46
9

2,156
569
1,923
63

+ 4.6
-.5
+ 8 .1
+ 8 .6

54,925
15, 435
43, 930
1,738

+ 4 .0
+3. 5
+11.3
+ 1.8

377
49
51
44

6,127
864
10,070
254

+ 6 .5
+ 3 .0
+15.4
+13.9

112, 965
13, 978
134,245
5,740

+ 6 .5
+ 3.1
+10.1
+ 8 .6

10 N o change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 6 .0

140

976

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN ID E N T IC A L E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y S T A T E S —Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued by
cooperating State organizations]
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining

State

Metalliferous mining

N um ­
N um ­
Amount
Amount
N um ­
N um ­
ber on
ber on
of pay
ber of
Percent of pay Percent ber of
pay Percent roll (1 Percent
roll (1
pay
estab­
estab­
of
of
of
of
week),
roll,
week),
roll,
lish­ August change
change lish­
change
August
August change
ments
ments August
1933
1933
1933
1933

Alabama_________
Arizona__________
Arkansas_________
California________
Colorado_________

18
3
6
32
4

734
54
295
991
39

- 0 .1
- 6 .9
+ 1.4
+ 4 .0
+39.3

$7,016
716
3,444
19,126
588

- 4 .8
+ 1.8
+19.4
+ 9.1
+37.4

Connecticut______

25

260

+ 6.1

4,474

+15.9

Florida___________
Georgia__________

15
30

709
1,272

- 7 .0
+13.6

9,331
13,113

+ 3.9
+36.7

Illinois___________
Indiana__________
Iowa_____________
Kansas....................

23
64
28
22

896
1,545
421
1,226

+24.8
- 1 .4
+ 4.7
+ 9.6

13,672
22,420
5,623
2+067

+12.6
- 2 .2
+ 6.3
-.1

K entucky-----------Louisiana________
M a i n e ______ . . .
Maryland______ Massachusetts-----

39
13
10
U
24

1,152
669
176
308
543

+ 6 .0
- 5 .5
-4 2 .3
+ 1.0
+15.5

10, 750
8,950
3, 327
3,692
11,315

+17.9
+ 5.9
-4 3 .8
- 7 .2
+10.1

M ichigan________
Minnesota_______
Mississippi_______
Missouri_________
M ontana_________

49
27
7
47
8

1,518
322
92
1,148
158

+ 4.5
- 6 .1
-3 2 .4
+ 1.7
+ 4.6

25,306
5,600
783
16,157
2,477

+11.5
+14.9
-5 2 .3
+ 2.3
+15.7

Nebraska________

10

189

+10.5

2,414

+36.6

87
602

+40.3
- 1 .3

2,040
10, 656

+59.3
- ( u)

39,681
4,816

- 2 .4
+47.3

N ew H am pshire.N ew Jersey______

11
35

New Y ork _______
North C arolin a...

70
17

2,095
426

+ 3.2
+32.7

Ohio_____________
Oklahoma________

136
17

3,883
172

+ 8 .0
- 5 .0

57, 502
1,391

+18.0
-1 0 .7

770
86,960

-2 9 .1
+ .8

Oregon....................
Pennsylvania........

5
148

51
5,671

-2 3 .9
+ 3 .2

South Carolina___
South Dakota------

4
6

105
42

+16.7
- 6 .7

966
764

+ 5.9
- 9 .0

Tennessee________
Texas____________
U tah....................
Verm ont_________
Virginia__________

29
21
5
38
26

1,467
569
116
2,171
1,401

- 2 .5
- 31.6
+54.7
+ 4 .6
+ .7

17,547
8,125
1,790
40,001
15,043

- 2 .0
-4 3.1
+18.0
- 3 .4
+15.5

Washington--------W est Virginia____
W isconsin________

17
21
n

224
737
203

+ 4.7
+16.8
+23.0

3,294
11, 633
2,832

- 7 .9
+20.5
+10.2

11 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.
12 N ot available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9
20

1,478
1,874

+29.5
-.7

$23, 853
39, 256

+49.1
+ 7 .5

32
14

2,578
640

+ 2 .3
+11.7

60,203
13,912

+ 7 .0
+ 9 .6

7

1,981

+ 1.6

38,510

+11.1

9

657

+60.1

11,477

+46.9

41
30

3,707
1,135

+18.2
+51.7

49, 715
19,348

+41.6
+58.4

13
18

1,610
2,169

+ 1.1
+ 1.7

18,228
61,140

+ 3 .2
+ 4 .0

12

265

+46.4

5,247

+24.1

5

963

+ 3.7

18, 255

+18.1

32

1,662

+42.1

27, 683

+38.3

6

67

+36.7

1,114

+19.8

4

265

+26.8

4,913

+52.7

12

1,999

+ 1 .8

34,475

+ 8 .9

336

+22.6

5,684

+20.6

(.2)

977

TREND OF EMPLOYMENT

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN ID EN T IC AL E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y S T A T E S — Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued b y
cooperating State organizations]
Crude-petroleum producing

Bituminous-coal mining

State

Pennsylvania____

Utah

West Virginia____

N um ­
Amount
Amount
N um ­ N um ­
N um ­ ber on
ber on
Percent of pay Percent
ber of
Percent of pay Percent ber of
roll
roll
pay
pay
of
of
estab­ roll,
of
estab­
of
(1 week),
(1 week),
roll,
lish­
change August change
lish­
August change August change ments August
ments
1933
1933
1933
1933
55

9,925

+ 7.2

$134,467

3

m

- 9 .8

4 .16?

- 9 .6

55

3,689

+22.4

50,046

+30.6

31
52
22
18

6, 11,5
5, 692
721
1,056

+19
+ 4.2
- 8 .7
+19.9

111, US
104, 347
13,090
13,790

+15.3
+23.1
+10.7
+20.0

159

27,686

+ 7 .0

420,023

+29.5

16

1,821,

19,512

+61.4

3

21

572

+13.7

24
11

1,718
793

+12.5
+63. 5

19, 878
21, 342

14

1.771

+ 5.0

25,. 728

- 8 .7

+33.1
9
36

408
5,251

+11.5
+ 2.1

$8, 568
153,616

+ 5 .6
+ 2.6

9
4

176
30

+ 1.7
+ 20.0

3,161
420

+ 4.6
- 1 .4

29

1,188

+ 5.5

26,897

+10.0

5
8

245
146

+ 6.1
+ 9 .8

3,013
3,328

- 1 .3
+10.2

+26.8
+64.6

4

28

-2 8 .2

804

-2 3 .1

+19.6

4

42

(10)

2,993

- 2 .3

4

129

- 2 .3

2,693

+ 3 .7

6, 729 +33.9
229,008 +51.1
11,815 +116.1

5
59

54
4, 629

+28.6
+4. 2

569
110,698

+13.8
+ 2.6

9
84
18

382
12, 597
691

+16.1
+12.4
+65.7

437

63, 031

+ 8.6

932, 335

+17.5

18

359

+12.9

7, 633

+ 6 .6

23
5
18

3,041
342
1,388

+ 6.4
+ 1.5
+ 7.2

39, 073
6,185
29,197

+15.8
- 2 .8
+24.4

39

10, Ö42

-. 1

293,935

- 1 .9

35

8,285

+ .6

136, 747

+23.2

10
362

363
55, 472

—16. 0
8,825
+10.6 1,021, 525

+11.0
+40.6

7

324

+ 8.4

7, 687

32

3, 057

+ 14.2

4

35

-2 3 .9

873

N o change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

+6.1

67, 492

+8. 2
-2 7 .9

978

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O LLS IN ID E N T IC A L E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933, B Y S T A T E S — Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued by
cooperating State organizations]
Public utilities

Hotels

N um ­
Amount
Amount
N um ­ N um ­
N um ­
ber on
ber of
Percent of pay Percent ber of ber on Percent of pay Percent
roll
(1
pay
pay
roll (1
estab­
of
estab­
of
of
of
week),
roil,
roll,
week),
lish­
change
August change lish­ August change August change
ments August
ments
1933
1933
1933
1933

State

Alabama___ __ __
Arizona__________
Arkansas_________
California________
Colorado............. .

88
67
52
45
196

1,628
1,228
1,674
40,048
5, 271

Connecticut______
Delaware. _ ____
Dist. of Columbia.
Florida___________
Georgia........ ..........

135
28
19
185
186

9,291
1,073
5,562
3, 99C
6,249

Idaho____________
Illinois___________
Indiana__________
Iowa_____________
Kansas___________

52
76
133
414
169

Kentucky..............
Louisiana________
M a in e-. ________
Maryland____ . . .
Massachusetts___

$32, 556
—1.2
30, 686
+ 1.1
-.9
36, 467
- 1 .6 1,106,442
+ 1 .7
131,477

—1.2
+ 2.6
- 9.3
+. 5
+ 1 .0

25
13
12
197
54

1, 101
244
504
9,450
1,412

-.5
+ 4.3
- 9 .9
+ 2 .9
+ 4 .8

-.2
+ 1 .6
+ 2 .6
+ 1.7
-.6

283,183
29, 807
158,905
100, 421
168,424

- 1 .0
-.8
+ 2 .2
- 2 .6
- 3 .0

25
4
47
48
29

833
240
3,625
852
1,131

- 1 .8
-.4
+ 4 .6
+ 1 .4
+ 1 .4

10, 477
3,139
49, 577
7,916
8,478

+ 1 .0
+ 1 .2
+ 3.7
+ 5.1
+ .3

518
65,899
8,786
9,008
7,090

+ 3 .6
10, 024
+ .2 1,827, 723
+ 1.6
207, 549
- 2 .9
200,888
+ 1 .9
161,687

+ 4 .2
+ 2 .5
+ 3.3
-.7
+ 1.9

21
13 u
81
65
30

321
11,119
2,837
2,089
615

+ 2 .2
+ .8
- 2 .0
1.0

3, 632
163,006
27, 647
18, 770
6,684

+ .6
-■ 4
+ 1 .5
- 1 .3
+ 2 .9

292
150
164
94
H 131

5,930
4, 069
1,879
12,277
44,836

136, 318
-.8
89, 638
-.9
-.4
49, 632
-.1
323,326
+ .6 1,244,684

+ .5
-.7
- 2 .5
-■ 4
+ •4

37
21
30
22
94

1,716
1,702
1,446
1,064
3,783

-.8
+ 1.3
+ 6 .0
+ .9
-1 -4

17, 047
17, 062
16,660
12,633
50, 901

+ 3 .2
+ .7
+10.7
- 1 .4
- 1 .5

M ic h ig a n _______
M in n esota ..........Mississippi_______
Missouri.... ........ .
Montana_________

413
226
190
179
101

20,142
12,102
1,589
18, 939
1,816

+ 2.1

560, 252
305,129
32,046
485, 953
52, 316

+ 1 .6
- 1 .4
+ 2 .6
+ 2 .6

92
75
16
86
24

4, 346
2,993
481
4,236
417

+ 1 .0
+ .2
+ 3 .7
-.4
+ 5 .8

45, 811
33,435
3, 374
48, 090
5,542

+ 3.1
+ 1.5
+ 3 .0
- 2 .4
+ 1 .2

Nebraska. ......... .
Nevada...... ........ .
New Hampshire..
New Jersey. ____
N ew M exico_____

299
37
139
265
54

5, 533
364
2,021
21, 087
640

+ .2
- 3 .4
-. 2
-.2
+14.9

136,187
10, 072
55, 686
594, 632
12,105

+ .5
- 1 .0
- 4 .5
-.1
+ 6 .7

41
15
20
84
15

1,398
237
941
5,949
288

-.9
+ 6 .3
+42.1
+ 8 .2
+ 3 .2

13,311
3,995
10, 483
66, 788
3,120

-.2
+10.6
+35.8
+10.5
+ 6.7

New Y ork __ _____
North Carolina__
North Dakota____
Ohio_________ . . .
Oklahoma_______

861
92
171
432
245

92, 235
1,632
1,176
30, 824
5, 730

- . 2 2,803, 696
-.4
34,969
-. 1
28, 096
798, 651
+ .3
-.6
126, 524

- 2 .5
-.8
+ .4
+ 1.7
+ 1 .2

271
33
25
146
50

29, 375
1,050
399
7,417
1,065

+ 1.1
+ 7 .6
- 4 .1
+ .5
+ .8

422,931
8, 772
3,903
83, 062
10,882

-.5
+ 5 .6
-4 .2
- 2 .5
+ .4

Oregon___________
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island____
South Carolina___
South Dakota____

183
767
41
70
129

5, 381
51, 459
3, 326
1,500
938

+ 3.8
+ 1.1
-.7
+ 4 .9
- 1 .7

59
176
18
15
18

1,115
9,099
456
343
301

+ .4
+. 8
+25.6
+ 2.1
+ 1.7

Tennessee________
T e x a s ............... .
Utah.................. .
Verm ont................
Virginia__________

244
115
68
121
179

93, 662
167, 236
38, 431
22,454
134, 828

+ 2.1
+ .3
+ 6.4

37
37
12
23
34

Washington _
West Virginia____
W iscon sin_______
W yom ing________

191
120
is 42
48

235, 345
141, 720
286,431
10, 327

+ 3.5

+. 3
+ 3.1
- 2 .3

- 1 .7
-.2

135, 425
1,363, 515
92, 667
- 6 .6
31,869
+ 1 .0
22, 966

4,177 + ( “ )
6,429
+ 1.6
1,796
+ 1.7
911
- 3 .2
5, 626
+ 1 .2
8, 721
5, 578
10,314
433

-.8
“{■I. 0
+ .2
+ 3 .6

11 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.
12 N ot available.
13 Includes restaurants.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

+ 1.8

+ 2 .6
+ 2 .9

85
38
1344
7

-

$8, 589
- 2 .0
3, 358 . - . 5
4,151
+ 1 .0
136, 897
+ 1.1
18, 693
+ 5 .4

13, 335 -O B
105, 577
4, 778 +16.4
2, 501
+ 1 .5
3,491
+ 4 .0

2, 039 —(H)
2,691
-.6
444
635
+ 4.3
1,769
- 3 .0

16,825
32,104
5, 521
6, 279
18, 332

- 1 .9
+ 3.6
+ 1 .2
+ 3 .6
- 3 .4

2,487
1,008
1,360
73

27,321
10, 605
(12)
953

+ 4 .4
+ .5

+ 4.1
+ .4
-.7
+ 5 .8

14 Includes steam railroads.
15 Includes railways and express.

- 6 .7

TREND

OF

979

EM PLOYM ENT

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN IDENTICAL, E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U S T 1933, B Y S T A T E S —Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued b y
cooperating State organizations]
Dyeing and cleaning

Laundries

State

N um ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

N um ­
Per­
ber on
pay roll, cent of
August change
1933

Amount
of pay
roll (1
week),
August
1933

N um ­ N um ­
Per­
Per­ ber of ber on
cent of estab­ pay roll, cent of
change lish­ August change
1933
ments

Amount
of pay
roll (1
week),
August
1933

Per­
cent of
change

124

+22.8

$1, 235

+16.3

9

176

+ 6 .0

3,079

+ 9 .2

10

230

+ 4.1

4,484

+ .9

5
10
5

129
116
119

- 3 .7
- 4 .9
+ 1.7

2,275
1,807
1,347

+ .8
+ 8.9
+12.3

11
7

192
288

+ 6.1
+ 4 .0

3,009
4,306

+11.2
+ 2.3

5
4

240
72

+ 1.7
-1 1 .1

3, 291
707

+ 2 .4
-1 5 .5

10
77

452
1,715

-.2
-1 1 .7

5,943
29,356

+ 3 .0
- 7 .5

14
8

348
317

+ 3.3
+ 7 .5

5,384
5,295

- 1 .2
+10.9

11

393

+ 4 .8

6,572

+ 6 .3

4

93

(10)

1,484

- 2 .9

8

227

- 5 .8

5,294

-1 1 .6

16

563

+ 2 .2

10, 408

-.7

41
3

1,561
78

- 1 .6
+ 4.0

25, 718
938

+ 4.8
+20.3

A labam a,....
Arizona___ . . . .
Arkansas____
California..
. .
Colora4o--------- ._

4
9
13
is 69
10

417
240
m
5,316
738

-.7
- 4 .0
-.9
+ 1 .3
-.3

$3,482
2,786
4,276
90,030
10, 279

+10.3
-7 .1
- ( “)
- 2 .1
+ 3.3

3

Connecticut .
Delaware________
Dist. of Columbia..
Florida_______ . .
G eorgia.............. ...

24
4
16
7
11

1,130
318
1,742
330
662

+ 3.0
+ 6.7
+ .2
-.9
+ 6.4

18,096
4,992
25,896
2,995
6,075

+ 2.1
+ 8.6
+ (n)
-.5
+12.8

Illinois_________ .
Indiana__________
Iow a_____________
Kansas___________

™26
17
3
« JO

1,391
1,453
150
933

+ 1.7
+ 4.8
+ 2.0
-1 .1

19,351
19,228
2,125
10,622

+ 2.8
+11.1
-1 .3
-3 .1

Kentucky______ .

17

844

+ 6.8

10,081

+ 2 .2

M aine. ________
M aryland— _____
Massachusetts-- .

14
n
m

401
1,849
3,763

+ 6.1
+1.1
+ (“ )

5,840
27,543
69,685

+11.7
+ 6 .2
+ 2.6

M ichigan______ _
M innesota.. . . . .
Mississippi_______
Missouri_________
M ontana_______

21
13
4
34
14

1,317
749
154
2,453
328

+ 1.8
+ 1.8
(10)
- 1 .5
+ 3 .8

16,862
11,314
1,407
31,846
5,343

+ 5.7
-. 2
+ 9.9
- 1 .6
-.3

N ebraska.________
Nevada__________
N ew Hampshire. .
N ew Jersey______
N ew M exico_____

8
3
16
24
5

650
37
321
3,094
205

+ 6.2
- 5 .1
+ 6.3
+10.9
(10)

8,857
683
4,825
57,194
2,993

+ 9.8
+ .6
+ 7.5
+ 7.3
-2 .3

N ew Y o r k ._ . . . .
North Carolina. .
North Dakota____
Ohio. ___________
Oklahoma________

71
10
10
74
8

7,129
686
198
3,934
617

+ 2.4
+ .3
(10)
-.3
- 1 .9

115, 743
6,899
2, 879
55, 543
7,946

+ 1.6
+ 6.4
- 1 .7
+ •1
+ 5.5

O regon ................
Pennsylvania .
Rhode Island. _ .
South Carolina ._.
South Dakota____

4
40
17
£
5

317
+ 5.7
2,871 + (»)
+ 2.0
1,033
+ 8.2
397
- 1 .9
106

4, 877
41,375
17, 215
3, 393
1,392

+ 8.7
+ 3.8
+ 1.4
+ 2.1
+ 1.7

4
17
5

66
862
366

+17.9
+ 1.1
+18.8

1,240
12,054
6,065

+12.1
- 9 .6
+13.7

Tennessee________
Texas_____ ______
Utah_______ . . . .
Verm ont............
Virginia________ .

11
18
7
£
9

+ 1.5
+ 5.0
-.2
+ 2.0
- 3 .0

6,612
8, 657
6,895
658
5,440

+ 1.7
+ 5.1
+ 1.0
+ 16.0
+ .1

3
13
8

39
443
140

- 2 .5
+ 5 .5
+ 1 .4

503
7 ,12C
2, 341

+ 4.6
+ 8 .8
+ 1.7

17

274

+ 2 .6

3,892

+ 6 .3

10,187
8,463
12,065
1,318

+ 1.3
+ 7.0
- 3 .3
- 3 .6

8
8

82
198

+12.3
+ 5.9

1,394
2, 577

+16.0
+ 7.9

Washington______
West Virginia____
W is c o n s in ...___
W yom ing. _____

12
20
16
4

10 N o change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

828
857
502
50
542
569
700
975
81

+ .4
+5. 7
-.7
-5 .8

11 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.

1■
16 Includes dyeing and cleaning.

980

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

C O M P A R IS O N OF E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O L L S IN ID E N T IC A L E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
IN JU L Y A N D A U G U S T 1933, B Y S T A T E S —Continued
[Figures in italics are not compiled b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but are taken from reports issued
b y cooperating State organizations]

Banks, brokerage, insurance, and real estate
State

Number Number on
Amount of
of estab­ pay roll, Percent of pay roll (1
lish­
August
change
week), A u­
ments
1933
gust 1933

Percent of
change

Alabama------------------ ------------------- ---------------Arizona______________________________________
Arkansas............... ................... - _______________
- ------------California___ ___________________
Colorado__________________ _________________

16
30
19
1,135
28

349
212
241
22,976
1,080

+ 2 .3
+ 2.9
+ 5 .2
+ 1.9
+ .7

$9, 477
5,637
5,685
752,429
34,717

+ 3 .9
+ 3.1
+ 1.1
+ 1 .2
-.2

Connecticut__________________ - ____________
Delaware____ __
- ___ . . . _______________
District of Colum bia_______ _________________
Florida________ . _ ---------------- ------------------Georgia------------------ ------- ------------------------------

59
15
36
18
25

2,046
572
1,021
570
1,001

+ .2
+ .7
+ .2
+ 1 .2
(10)

72, 606
19, 564
38,862
17, 840
29,388

-.2
-.6
- 2 .1
+ .8
- 1 .6

Id a h o........................... . . _____________________
Illinois___ __________________________________
Indiana_________ ___________ _____ __________
Iow a_______________________________________ .
Kansas_____________________ _____ _______ ___

15
92
40
17
28

135
7, 775
1,225
991
796

+ 4 .7
+ 1.3
+ 1.3
+ .6
+ 4 .2

3, 252
278,964
39,970
31,505
24,155

-.7
-.8
-.7
- 1 .1
+ 7 .3

Kentucky____________________________________
Louisiana____________________________________
Maine . ___________ . . .
-------- --------------M a ry lan d.. . . - - - - - - - - - - - - ------------------Massachusetts________________________________

20
9
16
24
220

716
370
259
860
6,781

+ 2.7
- 1 .3
+ 4.4
-.5
+ .4

25,869
13, 343
7, 582
31,423
202,151

+ 3 .2
- 1 .9
+17.2
- 1 .3
+ .6

M ic h ig a n ..-------------- ------------------ ----------------M in n esota __________ . . . . . ------------------------Mississippi________________ _______________ Missouri____________ . --------------------------------M ontana. ............. ____________ _________

97
52
15
83
20

3,920
3,002
175
4,727
231

+ 1.1
+ 6.2
+ 6.7
+ .3
+ 2 .7

123,979
84, 346
3,658
140,787
7,043

-.3
+ 5 .3
+ .8
-.7
+ 3.3

Nebraska_________ ______. . . . ------------------ - -

14

295

- 2 .0

10,036

- 4 .0

New Hampshire-------------- ----------------------------N ew Jersey___________________________________
New M exico--------- ----------------------------------------

38
110
16

365
12,463
86

+ 2 .2
+ 1.1
- 1 .1

8,914
352,915
2,541

+ 2.6
-.4
- 2 .9

New Y ork .. _________________________________
North Carolina_______________________________
North Dakota_______________ ________________
Ohio_________________________________________
Oklahoma______ _________
______________

727
29
37
272
21

51,466
544
272
8,027
600

+ 1 .7
+ 4 .0
+ 1.9
-.9
+ .8

1,774,970
13,659
6,750
256,355
18,196

-.3
+ 3.5
+ .8
- 1 .4
- 1 .2

Oregon. _ _____________ _____________________
Pennsylvania________________________ __________
Rhode Island_________________________ ______
South Carolina. _______ _ . ________________
South D akota___________ ___________________

17
781
28
10
32

766
23,276
921
102
250

+ 5 .4
+• 6
(10)
(10)
+ 2 .9

22,675
720,202
37,012
2,962
5,920

-1 0 .5
+ .2
- 2 .3
+ 2 .4
+ 2 .7

Tennessee---------- ------------------------------------------Texas.--------- --------------------------------------------------Utah_________________________________________
Verm ont_______ _ ___ _
________________
Virginia___ __________ ______________________

30
21
14
29
32

1,113
1,153
462
251
1,331

+ 2 .8
+ 1.7
+ 2 .9
+13.6
+ 1.3

37,994
32, 755
15,981
6,742
42, 673

+ 1 .0
+ 6 .7
+ 1.9
+ 3.1
+ 3 .0

W ashington.. . _________________ __________
W est Virginia________________________________
W isconsin. __________________________________
W yom ing_____ ______________________________

32
49
17
12

1,318
705
909
115

+ 1 .1

+ 2 .2
-.7
(10)

42,089
20,848
31,045
3,415

-.5
+ 2 .3
+ .4
- 1.0

i° N o change.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND

OF

981

EM PLOYM ENT

Employment and Pay Rolls in August 1933 in Cities of Over
500,000 Population

N THE following table are presented the fluctuations in employ­
ment and pay-roll totals in August 1933 as compared with July
1933 in 13 cities of the United States having a population of 500,000
or over. These changes are computed from reports received from
identical establishments in each of the months considered.
In addition to including reports received from establishments in the
several industrial groups regularly covered in the Bureau’s survey,
excluding building construction, reports have also been secured from
other establishments in these cities for inclusion in these totals.
Information concerning employment in building construction is not
available for all cities at this time and therefore has not been included.

I

F L U C T U A T IO N S IN E M P L O Y M E N T A N D P A Y R O LLS IN A U G U S T 1933 AS C O M P A R E D
W IT H JU L Y 1933

Number
of estabCities

reporting
in both
months
5,073
617
830
514
689
1,122
499
563
3,066
416
1,167
412
446

Amount of pay roll
(1 week)

Number on pay roll

July 1933

300, 729
147,610
133,346
179,023
57,443
91, 228
67,513
47,816
89,023
50, 592
49, 376
41,496
39, 321

August
1933
310,889
160,044
140, 064
185, 708
61,343
95,846
70, 274
51,019
89,636
53,190
51,905
44,126
41, 370

Percent of
change

+ 3.4
+ 8.4
+ 5 .0
+ 3 .7
+ 6 .8
+ 5.1
+ 4.1
+ 6 .7
+ .7
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ 6.3
+ 5 .2

July 1933

August
1933

$8,021, 265
3,453,874
2,825,143
4, 015, 559
1,330,195
1,877, 307
1,424,074
923,867
2,113, 243
1,053, 676
1,143,451
910, 827
735, 009

$8,165,158
3, 730,057
3, 057, 260
4,483, 336
1,434,887
2,047,882
1,496, 629
1,000, 324
2,119, 553
1,144, 536
1,196,006
967, 277
810, 701

Per­
cent of
change

+ 1.8
+ 8 .0
+ 8.2
+11.6
+ 7.9
+ 9.1
+ 5.1
+ 8.3
+• 3
+ 8 .6
+ 4.6
+ 6 .2
+10.3

Employment in the Executive Civil Service of the United States
August 1933

HERE were 19,027 fewer employees on the pay rolls of the
United States Government in August 1933 than in August 1932.
This is a decrease of 3.3 percent.
Comparing August 1933 with July 1933 there was an increase of
1,287 employees or 0.2 percent.
The data herein do not include the legislative, judicial, or Army
and Navy services. The information as shown in table 1 was com­
piled by the various departments and offices of the United States
Government and sent to the United States Civil Service Commission
where it was assembled. The figures were tabulated by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics and are published here by courtesy of the Civil
Service Commission, and in compliance with the direction of Con­
gress.
Information is not yet available as to the amount of pay rolls.
However, arrangments are being made to collect this additional infor­
mation and figures will be presented in the near future.
Table 1 shows the number of Federal employees inside the District
of Columbia; the number of such employees outside the District of
Columbia; and the total number for the entire service.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

982

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

Approximately 12 percent of the total number of workers on the
pay rolls of the United States are employed in the District of Colum­
bia.
T a b l e 1 .— E M P L O Y E E S IN T H E E X E C U T IV E C IV IL S E R V IC E OP T H E U N IT E D ST A T E S

A U G U ST 1932, J U L Y A N D A U G U S T 1933

District of Columbia

Outside the District

Perma­ Tem po­
Total
rary i
nent

Perma­ Tem po­
nent
rary 1 Total

Entire service

Item

Number of employees:
August 1932____________
July 1933_______________
August 1933............ ..........
Gain or loss:
August 1932-August 1933July 1933-August 1933...
Percent of change:
August 1932-August 1933.
July 1932-August 1933___
Labor turnover, August 1933:
Additions______________
Separations_____
.
Turnover rate per 100___

64, 795
62,309
62, 681

2,464
3, 753
5, 034

67, 259 471,185
66,062 460,160
67, 715 456,417

Perma­ Tem po­
nent
rary i Total

36, 922 508, 107 535,980
28, 830 488,990 522,469
32, 207 488,624 519,098

39, 386
32,583
37,241

575, 366
555, 052
556,339

-2,1 1 4 +2,570
+456 -14,768 -4,715 -19,483 -16,882 -2,145 -19,027
+372 +1, 281 +1, 653 -3,7 4 3 +3,377
-366 -3,371 +4,658 +1,287
- 3 .3
+ .6

+104. 3
+34.1

+ 2.5

-3 . 1
- 0 .8

-1 2 .8
+11.7

- 3 .8
- 0 .1

3 1, 539
3 1, 005
1.61

3 1,882
763
17. 37

4 3,421
4 1, 768
2.64

4,885
8,628
1.07

14,520
11,143
36.51

19,405
19,771
3. 97

- 3 .1
- 0 .6

- 5 .4
+14.3

- 3 .3
+ 0 .2

4 6,424 4 16,402 4 22,826
49,633 4 11,906 4 21.539
34.10
1.23
3.88

1 N ot including field service in the Post Office Department.
2 N ot including 81 employees transferred from Federal Board for Vocational Education; 2,804 employees,
transferred from Public Buildings and Public Parks, National Capital to Department of Interior; and 98
employees transferred from the Shipping Board to Department of Commerce.
3 N ot including 162 employees in the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, transferred
from a permanent to a temporary status.
4 See notes to details

Comparing August 1933 with July 1933, there was an increase of
six tenths of 1 percent in the number of permanent employees in the
District of Columbia. Temporary employees in the Federal city
increased 34.1 percent. There was an increase of 2.5 percent in the
total number of Government workers in Washington.
Comparing August 1933 with August 1932 there was a decrease of
3.3 percent in the number of permanent employees in the District.
However, due to the creation of a large number of new Government
agencies, temporary employees in the District increased 104.3 percent
comparing August 1933 with August 1932. Due to this large increase
in temporary workers, the total Federal employment in Washington
was seven tenths of 1 percent greater during August 1933 than during
the same month of the previous year.
August is the first month to include figures for the National Re­
covery Administration. This agency had 1,077 employees on its pay
roll on August 31, 1933.
Outside of the District of Columbia, the number of permanent
employees decreased 3.1 percent. The number of temporary employ­
ees decreased 12.8 percent, comparing August 1933 with August 1932.
Comparing August 1933 with July 1933, there was a decrease of 0.6
percent in the number of permanent employees, an increase of 14.3
percent in the number of temporary employees, and an increase of 0.2
percent in the total Federal employment.
Table 2 shows employment and pay rolls in the Emergency Con­
servation Work.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND

OF

983

EM PLOYM ENT

T a b l e 2 .—E M P L O Y M E N T A N D

P A Y R O L L S IN T H E E M E R G E N C Y C O N S E R V A T IO N
W O R K JU L Y A N D A U G U ST 1933
Pay rolls

Number
July

Supervisory and tech n ic a l------------

----------------------- -

293, 525
1,293
842
11, 603
306, 763

• Data not available.

August

July

9,166, 782
(>)
(0
1, 314, 528
292, 771 210,481,310
276,172
1,286
869
14,444

August
8,624,859
0)
(>)
1, 714, 705
2 10,339,564

2 N ot including pay rolls of Reserve officers—line or medical.

Information concerning the employment and amount of pay rolls
in the Emergency Conservation Work are collected by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics from the War Department and Forest Service of the
Department of Agriculture.
On August 31, 1933, there were 276,172 enrolled men in the Forest
Service. This is a decrease of approximately 17,000 as compared with
July. The volume of employment of all units of the Emergency Con­
servation Work decreased approximately 14,000 comparing August
with July.
The pay of the enlisted personnel is $30 per month, except that 5
percent of the personnel of each company are paid $45 a month and an
additional 8 percent are paid $36 per month. The pay rolls for this
branch of the service are figured on this basis. Amounts paid to reserve
officers, line and medical, are not available at the present time.
Employment on Class I Steam Railroads in the United States

EPORTS of the Interstate Commerce Commission for class I
railroads show that the number of employees (exclusive of ex­
ecutives and officials) increased from 976,610 on July 15, 1933, to
1,002,768 on August 15, 1933, or 2.7 percent. Data are not yet
available concerning total compensation of employees for August
1933. The latest pay-roll information available shows an increase
from $110,360,300 in June, to $115,936*195 in July, or 5.1 percent.
The monthly trend of employment from January 1923 to August
1933 on class I railroads— that is, all roads having operating reve­
nues of $1,000,000 or over—is shown by index numbers published in
the following table. These index numbers are constructed from
monthly reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission, using the
12-month average for 1926 as 100.

R

T a b l e 1.—IN D E X E S OF E M P L O Y M E N T ON CLASS I S T E A M R AIL R O AD S IN T H E

U N IT E D S T A T E S , J A N U A R Y 1923 T O A U G U S T 1933
[12-month average, 1926=100]
M onth

1923

98.3
-- 98.6
100.5
102.0
105.0
107. 1
July________ _____ — . 108.2
August ............... ........ 109.4
September____________ 107.8
October_________ ____ 107.3
N ovem ber_________ . . 105. 2
Decem ber.......... ............ 99.4
Average________ 104.1
January ________
February. _______

1Average for 8 months.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

96.6
97.0
97.4
98.9
99.2
98.0
98.1
99.0
99.7
100.8
99.0
96.0
98.3

95.6
95.4
95.2
96.6
97.8
98.6
99.4
99.7
99.9
100.7
99.1
97.1
97.9

95.8
96.0
96.7
98.9
100. 2
101.6
102.9
102.7
102.8
103.4
101.2
98.2
100.0

95.5
95.3
95.8
97.4
99.4
100.9
101.0
99.5
99.1
98.9
95.7
91.9
97.5

89.3
89.0
89.9
91.7
94.5
95.9
95.6
95.7
95.3
95 3
92.9
89.7
92.9

88.2
88.9
90.1
92.2
94.9
96.1
96.6
97.4
96.8
96.9
93.0
88.8
93.3

86.3
85.4
85.5
87.0
88.6
86.5
84.7
83.7
82. 2
80.4
77.0
74.9
83.5

73.3
72.7
72.9
73.5
73.9
72.8
72.4
71.2
69.3
67.7
64.5
62.6
70.6

61.2
60.3
60.5
60.0
59.7
57.8
56.4
55.0
55.8
57.0
55.9
54.8
57.9

1933
53.0
52.7
51.5
51.8
52.5
53.6
55.4
56.9
—

•53.4

984

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

Table 2 shows the total number of employees by occupations on
the 15th day each of June and July 1933 and by group totals on the
15th of August 1933; also, pay-roll totals for the entire months of
June and July. Total compensation for the month of August is not
yet available. Beginning in January 1933 the Interstate Commerce
Commission excluded reports of switching and terminal companies
from their monthly tabulations. The actual figures for the months
shown in the following table, therefore, are not comparable with the
totals published for the months prior to January 1933. The index
numbers of employment for class I railroads shown in table 1 have
been adjusted to allow for this revision and furnish a monthly indi­
cator of the trend of employment over the period from January 1923
to the latest month available. In these tabulations data for the
occupational group reported as “ executives, officials, and staff
assistants” are omitted.
T a b l e 2 — E M P L O Y M E N T A N D E A R N IN G S OF R A IL R O A D E M P L O Y E E S , JU N E A N D

JU L Y 1933
[From m onthly reports of Interstate Commerce Commission. As data for only the more important occu­
pations are shown separately, the group totals are not the sum of the items under the respective groups
Em ploym ent figures for August 1933 are available b y group totals only at this time.]
Number of employees at
middle of month

Total earnings

Occupations
June
1933

August
1933

July
1933

June
1933

July
1933

Professional, clerical and general—-------------------------Clerks______________________ __________________
Stenographers and typists_____________________
Maintenance of w ay and structures________________
Laborers, extra gang and work train----------------Laborers, track and roadway section---------------Maintenance of equipment and stores-------------------Carmen_______________________________________
Electrical w o r k e rs ...-------- ------------------------------Machinists____________________________________
Skilled trades h elp ers...----------------------------------Laborers (shops, engine houses, power plants,
and stores)__________________________________
Common laborers (shops, engine houses, power
plants, and stores)----------------------------------------Transportation, other than train, engine and yard.
Station agents_________________________________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen______
Truckers (stations, warehouses, and platforms).
Crossings and bridge flagmen and gatemen-----Transportation (yardmaster, switch tenders, and
hostlers)______________________ ____ _____________
Transportation, train and engine---------------------------Road conductors______________________________
Road brakemen and flagmen---------------------------Yard brakemen and yard helpers--------------------Road engineers and motormen-------------------------R oad firemen and helpers_____________________

160, 771
83, 765
15, 257
204, 663
19,452
112,174
251,151
50, 528
7, 778
35, 771
54,171

162,145
84, 881
15, 288
210, 748
21, 473
114, 834
263,156
53,851
7,980
37,406
58,124

20,070

20,189

1, 481,391

1,543, 174

17,177
122, 533
24, 358
14, 943
17, 604
16,911

17, 826
125,126
24, 239
14, 855
17, 889
16, 878

967, 281
13, 503, 248
3, 346,068
2, 029, 522
1,321,096
1,136, 582

1,036, 331
13, 860, 586
3,344, V.M
2,073, 327
1, 356, 491
1,137, 362

11,760
194, 504
21, 733
45,042
32,806
26,102
28, 677

11, 984
203, 451
22, 539
46, 873
34, 463
27,139
30,141

1, 932, 288
32, 513, 208
4, 668, 267
6, 245, 427
4, 284,974
6, 215, 972
4,479,498

2,045, 155
34, 735, 423
4,924, 187
6, 630, 511
4, 682, 421
6,583, 487
4,755, 444

A ll employees---------------------------- -------------------

945,382

976, 610 1, 002, 768 110,360, 300 115,936, 195

163,559 $21, 000, 433 $21,373, 020
10, 363, 380 10, 607, 607
1, 786, 95«
1,777, 936
219, 322 15, 285, 283 15, 840, 377
1,083, 656
989,805
6,326, 246
6, 031, 733
274, 880 26,125, 840 28,081, 634
6, 542, 531
5,986,456
1,042, 150
1,001,419
4, 603, 292
4, 292, 251
5,146, 639
4, 646, 576

125,314

12, 291
207, 402

Unemployment in Foreign Countries

HE table following gives detailed monthly statistics of unem­
ployment in foreign countries, as shown in official reports from
August 1931 to the latest available date:

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TREND

OF

985

EM PLOYM ENT

S T A T E M E N T OF U N E M P L O Y M E N T I N F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S

Unemployment-insurance societies
Compul­
sory insurance,
number W holly unemployed Partially unemployed
unemployed
in receipt
Number
Percent
Percent
of benefit Number

Trade-unionists
unemployed

Date (end of month)

Number

Percent

1931
(>)
120,694
0)
(0
118, 732

28.3
28.0

1932

____

July

(>)
(0
120, 366
(')
(i)
124,068
«
(>)
122,340
(>)
(>)
115,042

28.3
30.0
29.6
28.1

1933
1Û9,182

26.5

106, 652

25.7

----------- ------------------- 1---------------Canada

Date (end of month)

1931

N o v e m b e r___

..

... .

1932

1933

July

196,321
202,130
228,101
273, 658
329,627

70,893
74,175
82,811
93,487
128,884

9.9
10.3
11.3
13.3
17.0

120,669
119,433
122,733
134, 799
159,941

16.8
16.6
16.8
19.2
21.1

358,114
361,948
352,444
303,888
271,481
265,040
266,365
269,188
275, 840
297, 791
329, 707
367,829

153,920
168, 204
155, 653
152,530
160,700
153, 659
169,411
167, 212
163,048
157, 023
154, 657
171,028

20.0
21.3
19.4
18.8
18.9
18.7
19.6
19.5
18.3
17.7
17.7
18.6

179,560
180,079
185, 267
183, 668
191,084
173, 819
174, 646
170,081
166,160
148, 812
144,583
155, 669

23.2
22.8
23.0
22.6
22.5
21.2
20.3
19.9
18.9
16.8
16.3
16.9

397,920
401,321
379,693
350, 552
320,955
307,873
300, 762
291,224

207,136
201,305
195,715
180,143
162, 781
145,136

22.1
21.0
20.1
18.2
16.4
14.4

196,237
185, 052
186, 942
187,222
176,174
156,019

20.9
19.3
19.2
18.8
17.7
15.5

Danzig
(Free
C ity of)

Czechoslovakia

Percent Number
of trade- of unem­
unionists ployed
on live
unem­
register
ployed

Trade-union insur­
ance funds—un­
employed in re­
ceipt of benefit
Number

Percent

Number
of unem­
ployed
registered

Denmark

Trade-union unem­
ployment funds—
unemployed
Percent

Number

15.8
18.1
18.3
18.6
21.1

214,520
228, 383
253, 518
336,874
480,775

86, 261
84, 660
88, 600
106,015
146,325

6.9
6.7
6.9
8.2
11.3

21, 509
22,922
24,932
28,966
32,956

35,060
35,871
47,196
66, 526
91,216

11.8
12.1
16.0
22.3
30.4

22.0
20. 6
20.4
23.0
22.1
21.9
21.8
21.4
20.4
22.0
22.8
25.5

583,138
631, 736
633,907
555,832
487,228
466,948
453, 294
460,952
486,935
533, 616
608,809
746,311

186, 308
197, 621
195,076
180,456
171,389
168,452
167,529
172,118
170, 772
173, 706
190, 779
239,959

14.0
14.8
14.6
13.3
12.6
12.3
12.2
12.5
12.3
12.4
13.5
16.9

34,912
36, 258
36,481
33,418
31,847
31,004
29,195
28,989
30,469
31, 806
35, 507
39,042

105, 600
112, 346
113, 378
90, 704
79,931
80,044
92, 732
95, 770
96, 076
101,518
113, 273
138,335

35.1
37.3
37. 5
29.9
26.1
25. 6
29. 5
30. 5
30. 4
31.8
35. 6
42.8

25.5
24.3
25. 1
24.5
23.8
21.8
21.2

872,775
920,182
877,955
797, 516
726, 629
675,933
640,360
2 621. 600

300, 210
305,036
295,297
264,530
2 249,684

20.5
20. 7
20.2
17.9
16.6

40, 726
39,843
38,313
36, 205
33, 372
29, 622
28,714

141, 354
139,831
116, 762
95, 619
84, 201
/3 ,565
74, 756 1

43.5
42.8
35.4
28.9
25.4
21.9
22.2

i N ot reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Belgium

Austria

Australia

2 Provisional figure.

_____

986

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

S T A T E M E N T OF U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S —Continued
Estonia

Date (end of month)

Finland

France

Number
unem­
Number
ployed of unem­
remain­
ployed
ing on
regis­
live
tered
register

1931
Augusts
_ - _
______
September-- . __
October___________________
Novem ber____________ ___
December ___ _ ________
1932
January---------- ----------------February____________
March . . . . ________ ____
April _
-----------M a y ______________________
June - .
____________
July_______________________
August____________________
September ______ _______
October__________________
N o v e m b e r________________
December. - _____________
1933
January
.
.
_ _ February......................... M arch_____ . . . ____ ______
April______ _
M a y .......... _ _____________

Germany
T rade-uniorlists

Number
of unem­ Number
of unem­
ployed
ployed
in receipt
registered
of benefit

37, 673
38, 524
51, 654
92,157
147, 009

4, 215,000
4, 355,000
4, 623, 480
5, 059, 773
5, 668,187

33.6
35.0
36.6
38.9
42. 2

21.4
22. 2
22.0
21.8
22. 3

2, 376, 589
2,483, 364
2, 534,952
2,771,985
3,147,867

9, 318
9, 096
8, 395
6, 029
4,896
3,137
2, 022
3, 256
5, 957
8, 901
10,715
13, 727

20, 944
18, 856
17, 699
16, 885
13, 189
12, 709
13, 278
16, 966
18, 563
19, 908
21, 690
20, 289

241, 487
293,198
303, 218
282,013
262,184
232, 371
262, 642
264, 253
259, 237
247, 090
255, 411
277,109

6, 041, 910
6, 128, 429
6, 034,100
5,934, 202
5, 582, 620
5, 475, 778
5, 392, 248
5, 223, 810
5,102, 750
5,109,173
5, 355,428
5, 772,852

43.6
44. 1
44.6
43.9
43.3
43. 1
43.9
44.0
43.6
42.9
43. 2
45. 1

22. 6
22. 6
22. 6
21.1
22.9
20.4
23.0
23.2
22. 7
22. 6
22. 1
22. 7

3,481, 418
3, 525, 486
3, 323,109
2,906, 890
2, 658,042
2,484,944
2,111,342
1, 991,985
1, 849,768
1, 720, 577
1,768, 602
2, 073,101

16,511
15,437
14, 512
11,680
4, 857
2,822
1,568

23,178
20, 731
19, 083
17, 732
13, 082
11,479
13,437

315,364
330,874
313, 518
309,101
282, 545
256,197
239^ 449
235, 590

6, 013, 612
6, 000,958
5, 598, 855
5, 331, 252
5,038, 640
4, 856, 942
4,463, 841
4,128,000

46.2
47.4
52.7
46.3
44.7

23.7
24.1
22.2
22.6
21.6

2, 372,066
2, 455, 428
2,165, 891
1,938, 910
1, 801, 930
1 72fi fi7fi
1, 647] 155

Compulsory insurance
W holly unem­
ployed

Temporary
stoppages

Great
Britain

Hungary

Trade-unionists
unemployed
Number
of persons
registered
with em­ Christian Social
ployment (Buda­
Dem o­
exchanges
cratic
pest)

Irish Free
State

Compul­
sory in­
surance—
number
unem­
ployed

Number

Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

2,142, 821
2, 217,080
2, 305, 388
2, 294, 902
2, 262, 700

17.3
17.9
18. 1
18.0
17.7

670, 342
663,466
487, 591
439,952
408,117

5.4
5.3
3.8
3.4
3.2

2, 732,434
2,879,466
2, 755, 559
2, 656, 088
2, 569,949

941
932
1,020
1,169
1,240

28, 471
28, 716
28, 998
29, 907
31, 906

21, 897
23, 427
26, 353
30, 865
30,918

2,354,044
2, 317, 784
2, 233,425
2, 204, 740
2,183, 683
2,145,157
2,185, 015
2, 215, 704
2, 279, 779
2, 295,500
2, 328,920
2, 314, 528

18. 4
18. 2
17. 5
17.3
17.1
16.8
17.1
17.4
17.9
17.9
18. 2
18.1

500, 746
491,319
426, 989
521, 705
638,157
697, 639
735, 929
731,104
645, 286
515, 405
520,105
461, 274

4.0
3.8
3.3
4. 1
5.0
5.5
5.8
5. 7
5.0
4.0
4.0
3.6

2, 728,411
2, 701,173
2, 567, 332
2, 652,181
2, 741, 306
2, 747, 343
2, 811, 782
2, 859,828
2,858, Oil
2, 747, 006
2, 799, 806
2, 723,287

1,182
1,083
1,024
961
922
960
940
947
1,022
1,091
1,072
1,106

32, 711
32, 645
31,340
30, 057
28, 835
28, 372
28, 297
28,186
27, 860
28, 654
29, 336
30, 967

31,958
31,162
30,866
32, 252
35,874
3 66, 912
3 77, 648
3 57, 081
3 80, 923
3 70,067
3 102, 747
3 102, 619

2,422, 808
2, 394,106
2, 310,062
2, 200, 397
2,128, 614
2, 029, 185
2, 000, 923
1,970,379

18.9
18.7
18.0
17.2
16.6
15.8
15.6
15.4

532, 640
520, 808
511, 309
536,882
497, 705
468, 868
506, 850
488,365

4. 2
4.1
4.0
4.2
3.9
3.7
4.0
3. 8

2,903, 065
2,856, 638
2, 776,184
2, 697, 634
2, 582, 879
2, 438,108
2,442,175
2,411,137

1,178
1,210
1,131
1,080
1,104
1, 061
938

31,431
30, 955
29, 771
28, 521
26, 778
26. 209
24,881

3 95, 577
3 88, 747
3 82, 503
3 70, 039
3 65, 296
3 60, 578
3 56, 230
3 55,590

3 Registration area extended.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number
unem­
ployed in
receipt of
benefit

9,160
12,176
14, 824
18, 095
17, 223

Great Britain and Northern
Ireland

1931
August_________ _________
September
__ _ _____
October-_
__ ___
November
- - - - - - December.- ______________
1932
January-- ________________
February___
M arch_______ ______April_____________ _______
M a y _____ ____ _ ______
June____
___________
July______________________
August____________________
Septem ber--. __ ________
October _ .
_____
N o v em b er..- _
_______
December___ _ _________
1933
January.. . . . . __________
February___ _____________
M arch_____ _ . . .
April_____
__ _ ____
M~ay__________
_______
June________
July______________________

Percent
partially
unem­
ployed

933
2,096
5, 425
7, 554
9,055

August____________________

Date (end of month)

Percent
wholly
unem­
ployed

TREND

OF

987

EM PLOYM ENT

S T A T E M E N T OF U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S —Continued

Date (end of month)

Italy

Japan

Number of unem­
ployed registered

Official estimates,
unemployed

W holly
unem­
ployed

Partially
unem­ Number
ployed

Latvia

Netherlands

Unemployment in­
Number surance societies—
unem­
unemployed
ployed
remain­
Percent ing on live Number Percent
register

1931
693, 273
747, 764
799, 744
878, 267
982, 321

30, 656
29, 822
32, 828
30, 967
32,949

418, 596
425, 526
439, 014
454, 675
470, 736

6.0
6.0

January...
February. _
M arch____
A pril_____
M a y ______
June______
July______
August___
September.
October__
November.
December.

1,051, 321
1,147,945
1, 053, 016
1, 000, 025
968, 456
905, 097
931, 291
945,972
949,408
956, 357
1,038, 757
1,129,654

33, 277
26, 321
31, 636
32, 720
35, 528
31,710
33, 218
33, 666
37,043
32, 556
36,349
37, 644

485, 885
485, 290
473,757
482, 366
483,109
481, 589
510,901
509, 580
505,969
503,958
484, 213
463,403

6.9
6.9
6.8
6.9
6.9

1933
January-------------February________
M arch___________
A pril____________
M a y ____________
June_____________
July_____________
August__________

1, 225, 470
33,003
1, 229, 387
34, 506
1,081, 536
29,129
1, 025, 754
51,871
1, 000, 128
45,183
883, 621
38, 815
824, 195 4 229,117

August___
September.
October _ _ _
November.
December.

6.0
6.5
6.7

4, 827
7,470
13, 605
18, 377
21, 935

70,479
72, 738
84, 548
107, 372
147,107

15.3
15.7
18.0
18.5
27.8

26, 335
22, 222
22,912
14,607
7,599
7, 056
7,181
9, 650
8, 762
13, 806
17, 621
17, 247

145,124
139,956
119,423
121, 378
112, 325
113,978
123,947
116, 524
126, 510
128,961
142, 554
188, 252

27.0
25.4
21.6
21.7
22.5
22.8
24.6
22.9
24.9
25. 2
27.6
31.5

14,777
13,886
13,087
10,377
5,993
3,769
3,690

226, 709
187,652
165, 367
147, 531
123,447
117,805
118, 346
113,988

37.6
31. 1
27.3
24.3
25.3
22. 5
22.6
21. 9

1932

7. 2
7.1
7.0
7.0
6.7
6.4

444,032
6. 1
438,250
6. 1
424,287
5. 8
414,392 _______
429,295 _______

New Zea­
land

Date (end of month)

6.8

Norway

Number
Trade-unionists (10
unem­
unions)
unem­
ployed
ployed
registered
b y em­
ployment
Number
Percent
exchanges 5

Poland

Rumania

Number
unem­
ployed
remaining
on live
register

Number
unem­
ployed
registered
with em­
ployment
offices

Number
unem­
ployed
remaining
on live
register

1931
October_______ ______________
November.. .
December
_ _

50, 033
51, 375
50, 266
47, 535
45,140

« 9, 048
10, 577
12, 633

e 19.6
22.8
27. 2

22,431
27, 012
29, 340
32,078
■34, 789

246, 380
246, 426
255, 622
266,027
312,487

22 708
22* 909
28, 800
43,917
49, 393

1932
January. _ _____________________
February________ _ . . .
.
March
_ __ ___ ____ _____
April _
______________ .
M a y ___________________________
June _ . . . _____ .
___
July___________________________
August______________ _________
September. ___ . . . .
October
------ ------- --- ----------Novem ber ________
. . ..
December
.
..
____

45, 677
44,107
45, 383
48, 601
53,543
54, 342
55, 203
56, 332
55, 855
54, 549
52,477
52, 533

14,160
14, 354
15, 342
14, 629
13, 465
12, 603
12, 563
13,084
14, 358
15, 512
16,717
20,735

30.4
30.6
32. 5
30. 8
28.3
26. 2
25.9
26.9
29.3
31.6
34.2
42.4

35, 034
38,135
38,952
37, 703
32, 127
28, 429
26, 390
27, 543
31,431
35,082
38, 807
41, 571

338,434
350,145
360, 031
339, 773
306, 801
264,147
218, 059
187, 537
147,166
146, 982
177, 459
220, 245

51,612
57, 606
55, 306
47, 208
39, 654
33, 679
32, 809
29, 654
21, 862
28,172
30, 651
38,471

1933
January.. ---------------- -------------February. . . . .
. .
M a rch .. ----- ------- --- ------------April____ . . . _______ . ___
M a y ___ _
. . . . . . _______
Ju n e..
.
. . . . ___
July___________________________

51, 698
49,971
51, 035
53,171
55,477
56,563
57,352

19, 249
19, 673
18, 992
17, 678
15, 335
13,532

39.3
40. 0
38. 5
35. 7
30.9
27.2

40, 642
42, 460
42, 437
39, 846
35, 803
30, 394
25,918

264, 258
287, 219
279, 779
258,954
235, 356
224, 566
213, 806
204, 364

44, 797
45, 371
44, 294
37, 532
30, 336
24, 685

4 N ew series, coverage extended.
1 Includes not only workers wholly unemployed but also those intermittently employed,
6 Strike ended.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

988

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW
S T A T E M E N T OF U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S —Continued

Saar
Territory

Yugo­
slavia

Switzerland

Sweden

Unemployment funds
Date (end of month)

Number
of unem­
ployed
registered

Trade-unionists
unemployed

Number

Per­
cent

W holly unem­
ployed
Per­
cent

Number

Partially unem­
ployed

Number

Number
of unem­
ployed
registered

Per­
cent

1931
A u gu sts. -------- ------- -September______________
October_________________
N ovem ber___________
December— -------..

20, 205
21,741
24, 685
28, 659
35,045

48, 590
54,405
65, 469
79, 484
110,149

12. 7
13.7
16.4
19.9
27.2

9, 754
15,188
18,000
25, 200
41,611

3.6
4.0
4.8
6.6
10.1

33, 346
42,998
47, 200
51,900
61, 256

12.4
11.2
13. 2
14.4
14.9

7, 466
7, 753
10 070
10, 349
14, 502

1932
January_________________
February-----------------------_ ----M arch—. -----A p r i l - - .-----------------M a y . --------- ------------June
- July____________________
August--------------------------September------------- ------October-------------------------N ovem ber______________
D ecem ber,. ----------- . _

38, 790
42, 394
44, 883
42,993
42, 881
40,188
39,063
38, 858
40, 320
40,728
41,962
44,311

93, 272
93,900
98, 772
82, 500
75, 650
79, 338
77,468
80,975
86, 709
92, 868
97, 666
129, 002

24.5
23.0
24.4
21.0
18.9
19. 5
19.4
20.0
20.7
22.2
23.8
31.4

44, 600
48, 600
40,423
35,400
35, 200
33, 742
35, 700
36, 600
38,070
42, 300
50, 500
66, 053

10.6
11.3
9.0
7.7
7.6
7. 1
7.5
7.6
7.8
8.7
10.3
13.3

67, 600
70, 100
62, 659
58,900
54, 500
53, 420
54, 000
53,400
52,967
52,100
55, 700
59, 089

14.8
15.0
14.0
12.6
11.5
13.3
11.4
11. 1
10.8
10.6
11.3
11.9

19, 665
21, 435
23, 251
18, 532
13, 568
11,418
9, 940
11,940
10,985
10,474
11,670
14, 248

1933
January.. _. --------- . . .
February_______________
M arch__________________
April----------------------M ay June______ . --------Julv

45,700
45,101
42, 258
40, 082
37, 341
36, 492
35. 053

120,156
118, 251
121,456
110,055
93, 360
89, 485
83.771

28.8
27.4
28.4
26. 1
22.2
21. 1
20.0

83, 400
81, 800
60, 698
49, 100
43, 600
40,958

17.0
16.5
12.0
9.8
8.7
8.0

56,000
57,400
52, 575
47,400
44, 100
40, 431

11.4
11.6
10.4
9.6
8.9
7.9

23, 574
25,346
22, 609
19, 671
15, 115
14, 492
11,710


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1

RETAIL PRICES
Retail Prices of Food on August 15, 1933

HE Bureau of Labor statistics of the United States Department
of Labor has since 1913 collected, compiled, and issued, as of the
15th of each month, retail prices of food. From time to time the
work has been expanded by including additional cities and articles.
The Bureau now covers 51 localities well scattered throughout the
continental United States and also the Territory of Hawaii. Retail
prices are secured for 45 of the principal articles of food.
In order that current information may be available oftener, the
Bureau is now collecting these prices every 2 weeks. The plan was
inaugurated during August 1933.

T

Retail Prices of Food, August 1933

R etail prices of food were collected by the Bureau for two periods
during the month, namely, August 15 and 29. Prices were received
from the same dealers and the same cities were covered as have been
included in the Bureau’s reports for former periods. For August 29,
however, a representative number of reports was not received from
some of the cities, and average prices for the United States as a whole
for this date are not strictly comparable with average prices shown
for other dates. The index numbers, however, have been adjusted by
using the percent of change in identical cities and are, therefore,
comparable with indexes of other periods.
Three commodities have been added to the Bureau’s list of food
items beginning with August 29. These items are rye bread, canned
peaches, and canned pears. Only average prices can be shown for
these articles as correspondmg prices for the year 1913 are not avail­
able for the purpose of index numbers.
Data for the tabular statements shown in this report are compiled
from simple averages of the actual selling prices as reported to the
Bureau by retail dealers in the 51 cities. Comparable information
for months and years, 1913 to 1928, inclusive, is shown in Bulletins
Nos. 396 and 495; and by months and years, 1929 to 1932, inclusive,
in the January, February, and April 1933 issues of this publication.
Indexes of all articles, combined, or groups of articles combined,
both for cities and for the United States, are weighted according to
the average family consumption. Consumption figures used since
January 1921 are given in Bulletin 495 (p. 13). Those used for prior
dates are given in Bulletin 300 (p. 61). The list of articles included
in the groups, cereals, meats, and dairy products, will be found in
the May 1932 issue of this publication.
11456°—33------15


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

989

990

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

Table 1 shows index numbers of the total weighted retail cost of
important food articles and of three groups of these articles; viz,
cereals, meats, and dairy products, in the United States, 51 cities
combined, by years, 1913 to 1932, inclusive, and on specified days of
the months of 1932 and 1933. These index numbers are based on the
year 1913 as 100.
1 —I N D E X N U M B E R S OF T H E T O T A L R E T A I L C O ST OF F O O D A N D OF
C E R E A L S /M E A T S , A N D D A I R Y P R O D U C T S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S B Y Y E A R S ,
1913 T O 1932, IN C L U S IV E , A N D ON S P E C IF IE D D A T E S OF E A C H M O N T H , JAN . 15,
1932, TO A U G . 29, 1933, IN C L U S IV E
[1913 = 100]

T able

Year

1913____________
1Q14
1015
1015
1017
1018
1010
1020
1021
1022
1028
1024
1025
1926
_____
1927
____
1080
1Q81
1082

_____

All food Cereals

Meats

100.0
106.7
121.6
126.8
186.5
194.3
198.0
232.1
179.8
159.3
156.9
160.4
176.2
175.5
170.7
167.2
164.1
158.0
135.9
121.1

100.0
103.4
99.6
108.2
137.0
172.8
184.2
185.7
158.1
150.3
149.0
150.2
163.0
171.3
169.9
179.2
188.4
175.8
147.0
116.0

100.0
102. 4
101.3
113.7
146.4
168.3
185.9
203.4
153. 3
141.6
146.2
145.9
157.4
160.6
155.4
154. 3
156.7
147.1
121.3
102.1

Dairyprod­
ucts
100.0
97.1
96.1
103.2
127.6
153.4
176.6
185.1
149.5
135.9
147.6
142.8
147.1
145.5
148.7
150.0
148.6
136.5
114.6
96.6

Month

ill food Cereals

Meats

Dairy
prod­
ucts

1932
J a n .15____
Feb. 15____
Mar. 15----A pr. 15----M ay 15----June 15----July 15----Aug. 15----Sept. 15---Oct. 15___
N ov. 15----Dec. 15___

109.3
105.3
105.0
103.7
101.3
100. 1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.4
99.4
98.7

126.4
125.0
124.3
122.9
122.6
122.5
121.2
120.4
119.2
119.0
118.0
114.8

123.4
117.3
118.9
118.6
115.3
113.4
122.6
120. 1
119.2
114.6
109.1
103.2

106.5
102.9
101.9
97.4
94.3
92.6
91.4
93.1
93.5
93.8
93.9
95.9

1933
J a n .15-----Feb. 15.—
Mar. 1 5....
Apr. 15___
M ay 15___
June 15—
July 15— Aug. 15. .
Aug. 29-----

94.8
90.9
90.5
90.4
93.7
96.7
104.8
106.7
107.1

112.3
112.0
112.3
112.8
115.8
117.2
128.0
137.8
138.8

99.9
99.0
100.1
98.8
100.1
103.7
103.5
105.7
106.9

93.3
90.3
88.3
88.7
92.2
93.5
97.7
96.5
97.5

The following chart shows the trend in the retail cost of all food
and of the classified groups, cereals, meats, and dairy products in the
United States (51 cities) from January 15, 1929, to August 15, 1933,
inclusive.
.
.,
,
Table 2 shows index numbers of the total weighted retail costs of
important food articles and of cereals, meats, and dairy products in
the United States based on the year 1913 as 100 and changes on
August 15, 1933, compared with August 15, 1932, and July 15, 1933;
and on August 29, 1933, compared with August 15, 1933.
T a b l e 2 .- I N D E X N U M B E R S OP T H E T O T A L W E IG H T E D R E T A I L C O ST OF FO O D A N D

OF C E R E A L S , M E A T S , A N D D A I R Y P R O D U C T S F O R T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S , A N D
P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E A U G . 15, 1933, C O M P A R E D W IT H A U G . 15, 1932, A N D JU L Y 15,
1933; A N D A U G . 29, 1933, C O M P A R E D W IT H A U G . 15, 1933
Index, 1913=100

Article


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1933

1932

Aug. 15

July 15

Aug. 15

Aug. 29

100.8
120.4
120.1
93.1

104.8
128.0
103.5
97.7

106.7
137.8
105.7
96.5

107.1
138.8
106.9
97.5

Percent
Percent of change of change
Aug. 15, 1933, Aug. 29,
compared with— 1933, com ­
pared
with
Aug.
15,
Aug. 15, July 15,
1933
1933
1932
+ 5.9
+14.5
-1 2 .0
+ 3 .7

+ 1 .9
+7. 7
+ 2.1
—1. 2

+ 0 .3
+ .7
+ 1.1
+ 1 .0

RETAIL PRICES

991

Table 3 shows the average retail prices of principal food articles
for the United States, and index numbers for 23 of these articles

based on the year 1913, for August 15, 1932, and July 15, August 15,
and August 29, 1933.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IEW

992
T

3 —A V E R A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S A N D I N D E X N U M B E R S OF P R IN C IP A L A R T IC L E S
OF FO O D IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S F O R T H E Y E A R 1913 A N D ON A U G . 15, 1932, A N D
JU L Y 15, A U G . 15 A N D 29, 1933
atuf

Index number (1913=100)

Average price

Year
1913

Aug.
15

1933

1932

1932

Article

July
15

Aug.
15

Aug.
29

Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
29.8
3p. 2
29.8
34.9
25.4
Sirloin steak............ - ................pound
26.5
26.5
26.1
30.8
Round steak................. ...............do------ 22.3
21.2
21.4
20.9
24.6
19.8
R ib roast----------------------------------d o ...
15.4
15.5
15.2
18.0
16.0
Chuck roast........... - ------- ---------- d o ...
10.0
9.9
9.6
11.2
12.1
Plate beef_______ ____ - ..............do—
21.2
19.7
18.2
23.3
21.0
Pork chops----------------d o ...
23.5
23.2
23.3
23.9
Bacon, sliced------ ------- - .......... —do------ 27.0
33.1
32.7
32.1
35.7
Ham, sliced............. ..................... do------ 26.9
23. 1
22.4
22.3
24.0
Lamb, leg o f------- ---------------------do------ 18.9
20.3
20.7
21.0
23. 1
Hens---------------------------------------- do------ 21.3
20.3
19.9
19.4
21.8
Salmon, red canned_______16-oz. can
10.9
10.9
10.4
10.5
8.9
M ilk, fresh________ _______— q u a r t 6.8
6.9
6.8
6.3
M ilk, evaporated---------- 14J^-oz. can
27.9
27.3
31.0
26.8
38"3
Butter— ............ ..................... .pound
13.6
13.7
13.3
14.6
Margarine_______ ____________ do—
23.2
23.6
23.6
22.6
Cheese________________________ do------ 22.1
9.8
10.0
10.1
8.9
Lard__________________________ d o------ 15.8
19.0
19.0
18.7
19.1
Vegetable lard substitute----------do—
25.6
25.3
24.3
26.8
34.5
Eggs, strictly fresh___________ dozen.
7.6
7.6
7. 2
6.8
5.6
Breads, w h eat..............
p ou n d ..
8.4
Bread, rye____________________ do-----4.9
4.8
4.0
3. Î
3.3
Flour______ ______ ___________ do-----3.8
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.0
Corn meal------------------- ------------do-----6.4
6.2
5.9
7.5
Rolled oats____________________ d o ...
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.4
Corn flakes................. -8-oz. package.
23.8
23.4
22.8
22.5
Wheat cereal.............. 28-oz. package.
15.6
15.5
14.9
15.2
Macaroni—....... .—.......... .........pound.
6.5
6.4
6.2
6.5
8.7
R ice_______________
d o ...
6.1
6.0
5.5
4.9
Beans, n a v y .--------------------------- d o ...
3.3
3.5
3.6
1.7
"i. 7
Potatoes------- ------------d o ...
4.1
4.3
4.8
3.6
Onions----- -------d o ...
4.0
4.5
4.8
3.0
Cabbage_______________________d o ...
6.8
6.8
6.6
7.0
Pork and beans_______________ 16-oz.can.
10.3
10.3
9.9
10.5
Corn, canned_____________ no. 2 can
13.
1
13.0
12.8
12.7
Peas, canned__________________ d o ...
9.4
9.4
9. 1
9.4
Tomatoes, canned— ............ . . . d o . .
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.
1
5.5
Sugar_________________
.p ou n d .
65.8
64.5
64. 1
70.1
54.4
T ea___________________________ do—
27.2
27.0
27.0
29.6
29.8
C offee..____ ______________
d o ...
10. 1
9.8
9.4
9.3
Prunes________________________ d o ...
9.4
9.3
9.2
11.6
Raisins....... ...................................d o ...
24.5
24.0
24.8
22.7
Bananas_____________________ dozen.
28.6
29.1
28.5
30.7
Oranges............. ........................ —■do—
16. (
Peaches, canned________ no. 2Yi can
20.5
Pears, canned--------------d o—

Aug.
29

Aug.
15

July
15

Aug.
15

137.4
138.1
124.2
112.5
92.6
111.0
88.5
132.7
127.0
108.5

117.3
117.0
105.6
95.0
79.3
86.7
86.3
119.3
118.0
98.6

118.9
118.8
108.1
96.9
81.8
93.8
85.9
121.6
118.5
97.2

119.3
119.7
107.1
96.9
81.8
100.9
86.3
122.7
121.7
96.2

118.0

116.9

122.5

123.6

70.0

80.9

71.3

72.6

102.3
56.3

106.8
63.9

106.8
63.3

105.9
62.0

77.7
121.4

70.4
128.6

73.3
135.7

76.0
135.7

93.9
126.7

121. 2
123.3

145.5
126.7

151.6
130.1

74.7

71.3

73.6

73.6

100.0

211.8

205.9

194.1

92.7
128.9
99.3

100.0
117.8
90.6

101.8
118.6
90.6

101.8
119.1
90.9

Table 4 shows index numbers of the weighted retail cost of food for
the United States and 39 cities, based on the year 1913 as 100. The
percents of change on August 15, 1933, compared with August 15,
1932, and July 15, 1933; and on August 29, 1933, compared with
August 15, 1933, are also given for these cities and the United States
and for 12 additional cities from which prices were not secured m 1913.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

RETAIL

993

PRICES

T a b l e 4 .—I N D E X N U M B E R S OF T H E T O T A L W E IG H T E D R E T A IL C OST OF F O O D A N D

P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E A U G . 15, 1933, C O M P A R E D W IT H A U G . 15, 1932, A N D JU L Y 15,1933;
A N D A U G . 29,1933, C O M P A R E D W IT H A U G . 15,1933, B Y C IT IE S A N D F O R T H E U N IT E D
STATES
Index 1913=100
1932

1933

City
Aug. 15

July 15

Aug. 15

Aug. 29

Percent
Percent of change of change
Aug. 15, 1933, Aug. 29,
compared with—
1933,
com ­
pared
with
Aug. 15, July 15, Aug. 15,
1932
1933
1933

United States__________________

100.8

104.8

106.7

107.1

+ 5 .9

+ 1.9

+ 0 .3

Atlanta_______________________
Baltimore_____________________
Birmingham____ ____________
B oston________________________
Bridgeport________ ___________
B uffalo...._____________________

99.3
104.8
100.8
102.8

100.9
106.8
100.9
107.4

104.9
109.3
103.7
107. 9

106.6
110. 1
103.7
110.1

+ 4 .0
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .8

+ 1 .6
+ .8

106.3

109.8

113.0

112.1

Charleston, S .C . _____________
Chicago_______________________
Cincinnati_____________________
C levelan d., - - - _______ _____

104.0
110.4
98.6
97.0

101.2
112.5
105.5
103.8

106.7
112.9
106.9
106.8

107.3
113.4
108.8
106.7

Dallas____ ___ ______ _________
Denver______________ ________
Detroit________________________
Fall River_____________________

94.0
95.3
95.8
100.5

99.5
101.8
105.4
105.0

103.9
99.8
107.0
106.4

102.8
98.8
109.1
106.2

Indianapolis- ............. . ...............
Jacksonville.. ------------------------Kansas C ity___________ ______
Little R ock____ ____________ ..
Los Angeles___________________
Louisville_____ ___________ . .
Manchester___________________
M e m p h is _______________ _____
M ilwaukee. - _________ ____
M inneapolis.. . ----------------------

98.3
94.3
98.0
91.2
85.4
93.2
103. 6
93.4
102.9
98.3

103.8
95.2
103.6
89.3
93.2
102.3
109.6
95.8
111.3
107.0

105.9
98.0
105.4
97.0
100.2
103.9
109. 4
99.3
111.8
106.7

105.8
98.6
106.6
96.7
99.9
105.7
0)
98.6
110.3
104.4

N ewark_______________________
N ew H aven________________
N ew Orleans________ ____ ____
N ew Y ork. ____
___ ______

104.3
107.3
99.7
109.2

103.3
109.2
102.6
109.9

106.0
112.8
105.2
111.2

107.5
113.9
105.7
112.3

+ 5 .6
+ 4 .2
+ 2.9
+ 5 .0
+ 4 .2
+ 6 .2
+1. 6
+ 2 .5
+ 2.3
+ 8.4
+10.1
+ 9 .9
+10.5
+ 4.7
+11.7
+ 5.9
+ 9 .8
+ 7 .7
+ 3.9
+ 7.6
+ 6.3
+17.4
+11.5
+ 5 .6
+ 6.3
+ 8.7
+ 8.5
+5. 0
+ 1.7
+ 5.1
+ 5 .5
+ 1.9
-2 . 2
+10.3
+9.1
+ 2.1
+ 5.9
+ 4.7
+ 1.3
+ 5.9
+ 3.7
+4. 0
+11.2
+ 7.7
+10.2
+ 4.8
+ 7.0
+ 7.1
+ 5 .0
+10. 0
+ 1 .8

Omaha___ ____ _______________

91.8

100.8

101.2

99.8

Philadelphia__________________
Pittsburgh__________________ .

104.2
98.0

106.0
102.5

106.4
103.8

109.1
104.3

Portland, Oreg------------------------Providence-. . ------------------------R ichm ond_____________________

94.6
103.0
104.0

95.7
108.5
104.1

95.9
109.1
107.9

96.1
110.0
109.2

St. Louis______________________

100.5

108.7

111.8

112.3

Salt Lake C ity ___________ . . .
San Francisco_________________

84.2
104.4

92.4
106.7

92.9
109.5

91.5
109. 7

Scranton______________________
Seattle________________________

106.0
99.7

112.0
103.5

113.5
104.7

113. 6
105. 1

Washington___________________

108.7

108.5

110.7

112.6

+2. 2
+ 2.8
-2 . 4
+ 5 .4
+ 2.9
+• 7
+ 4.4
- 2 .0
+ 1.6
+ 1.3
+ 2 .6
+ 2 .0
+ 3 .0
+ 8 .6
+ 7.5
+ 1 .6
-. 2
+ 3.7
+ .4
-.3
+3. 2
+ 2.7
+ 3.3
+ 2.5
+ 1.2
+ 2.8
+ .4
+. 8
+• 4
+ 1 .2
+. 6
+ .1
+ 3 .6
+ .7
+ 2.8
—1.8
+• 5
+ 2 .6
+4. 0
+ 1.3
+ 1. 1
+ 1.0
+ 2 .0

+ 2 .0
+1. 2
-.7
—2. 3
+ .6
+ .4
+ 1.8
-. 1
+1 8
- 1 .0
- 1 .0
+ 2 .0
-.2
-. 4
-.1
+ .7
+ 1.1
-.4
-.3
+ 1.7
0)
-.7
- 1 .4
- 2 .2
+ 1. 3
+ 1.3
+ 1 .0
+ .5
+ .9
+. 8
- 1 .4
—. 6
+ 2 .6
+ .5
—1 3
+ .2
+ .9
+ 1.2
(i)

+ .5
-. 6
- 1 .5
+ .2
-1 . 1
+ .1
+ .4
-. 3
+ 1.7

Hawaii:
-0 . 3
-. 9

+2. 8
+ 3.5

1 Data not available.

Retail Prices of Coal on August 15, 1933

ETAIL prices of coal as of the 15tli of each month are secured
from each of the 51 cities from which retail food prices are
obtained. The prices quoted are for coal delivered to consumers but
do not include charges for storing the coal in cellar or bins where an
extra handling is necessary.

R


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

994

Average prices for the United States for bituminous coal and for
stove and chestnut sizes of Pennsylvania anthracite are computed
from the quotations received from retail dealers in all cities where
these coals are sold for household use. The prices shown for bitumi­
nous coal are averages of prices of the several kinds. In addition to
the prices for Pennsylvania anthracite, prices are shown for Colorado,
Arkansas, and New Mexico anthracite in those cities where these
coals form any considerable portion of the sales for household use.
Table 1 shows for the United States both average prices and
index numbers of Pennsylvania white-ash anthracite, stove and
chestnut sizes, and of bituminous coal on January 15 and July 15,
1913, to 1931, and for each month from January 15, 1932, to August
15, 1933. An average price for the year 1913 has been made from
the averages for January and July of that year. The average price
for each month has been divided by this average price for the year
1913 to obtain the index number.
1 _A V T?T!A rn? R E T A IL P R IC E S A N D I N D E X N U M B E R S OF C O A L F O R T H E
U N IT E D ^ T A T E S B A S E D ON T H E Y E A R 1913 AS 100, ON T H E F IF T E E N T H OF S P E C I­
F IE D M O N T H S F R O M J A N U A R Y 1913 TO A U G U S T 1933

Pennsylvania an­
th ra cite, w h ite
ash—

Year and month

Stove

Chestnut

In­
A v ­ dex
In­ erage
In­
A v ­ dex A v ­ dex price (1913
= 100)
erage 1913 erage 1913
price = 100 price = 100

Dois.
Dois.
Dois.
1913: A v. for y r— 7. 73 100.0 7.91 100.0 5.43 100.0
5. 48 100.8
103.0
January----- 7. 99 103.4 8.15
July----------- 7. 46 96.6 7. 68 97.0 5. 39 99.2
5.97 109.9
101.0
1914: January------ 7. 80 100.9 8. 00
July----------- 7. 60 98.3 7. 78 98.3 5.46 100.6
5. 71 105.2
101.0
1915: J an u a ry----- 7. 83 101. 3 7.99
July------------ 7. 54 97.6 7. 73 97.7 5.44 100. 1
5.69 104. 8
102.7
1916: January------ 7. 93 102.7 8.13
July------------ 8.12 105.2 8. 28 104.6 5. 52 101.6
6.96 128.1
118.8
1917: January------ 9.29 120. 2 9. 40
July------------ 9.08 117.5 9. 16 115.7 7. 21 132.7
7.68 141.3
126.7
1918: January------ 9.88 127.9 10. 03
July------------ 9.96 128.9 10. 07 127.3 7.92 145.8
7.90 145.3
146.7
11.51 149.0 11. 61
1919: January—
July------------ 12.14 157. 2 12. 17 153. 8 8.10 149.1
162.1
8.81
1920: January____ 12. 59 162.9 12. 77 161.3
July------------ 14. 28 184.9 14. 33 181.1 10. 55 194.1
217.6
11.82
203.8
1921: January------ 15.99 207.0 16.13
Ju ly----------- 14.90 192.8 14. 95 188.9 10. 47 192.7
1922: January------ 14.98 193.9 15. 02 189.8 9.89 182.0
July------------ 14. 87 192.4 14. 92 188.5 9.49 174.6
1923: January----- 15. 43 199.7 15. 46 195.3 11.18 205. 7
July------------ 15.10 195. 5 15.05 190.1 10. 04 184.7
1924: January------ 15. 77 204. 15.76 199.1 9. 75 179.5
July------------ 15.24 197.2 15.10 190.7 8.94 164.5
1925: January------ 15. 45 200. C 15. 37 194.2 9.24 170.0
July------------ 15.14 196.1 14. 93 188.6 8.61 158.5
9.74 179.3
1926: January____ 0)
(0
(0
(0
July----------- 15.43 199. 15. IS 191. Ê 8. 7C 160.1
9. 96 183. 3
194.8
15.
42
202.
15.
66
1927: January-----8.91 163.9
July_______ 15. If 196. 14.81 187.
1Insufficient data.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Pennsylvania an­
th ra cite , w h ite
ash—

Bitumi­
nous

Year and month

Stove

Bitum i­
nous

Chestnut

In­
A v­ dex A v ­
erage 1913 erage
price = 100 price

In­
A v ­ dex
In­ erage (1913
dex price
100)
1913
= 100

Dois.
Dois.
Dois.
1928: January------ 15. 44 199.8 15.08 190.6 9.30 171.1
July_______ 14.91 192. 9 14. 63 184.9 8. 69 159.9
1929: January------ 15. 38 199. 1 15.06 190.3 9.09 167.2
July------------ 14. 94 193.4 14. 63 184.8 8. 62 158.6
1930: January------ 15. 33 198.4 15. 00 189.5 9.11 167.6
July_______ 14. 84 192.1 14. 53 183.6 8. 65 159.1
15.12 195.8 14.88 188.1 8. 87 163.2
1931: January—
July_______ 14. 61 189. 1 14. 59 184.3 8.09 148.9
1932: January----- 15. 00 194. 2 14. 97 189.1 8.17 150.3
February— 14.98 193. 9 14. 95 188.9 8.14 149.7
14.54 188. 2 14. 45 182.6 8. 01 147.4
M arch-,
13. 62 176.3 13.46 170.0 7. 85 144.5
April —
M a y_______ 13. 30 172. 2 13.11 165.6 7.60 139.9
June- - -- 13. 36 173.0 13.16 166.3 7. 53 138.6
July___ -- 13. 37 173. C13.16 166.2 7.50 138.0
August------- 13. 50 174.8 13.28 167.9 7. 52 138.4
September-- 13. 74 177. 9 13. 52 170.8 7. 54 138.7
October.. . 13. 79 178.5 13. 58 171.5 7.60 139.9
N ovem ber. 13.83 178.9 13. 60 171.9 7.59 139.7
Decem ber.-. 13. 87 179.5 13. 65 172.5 7.51 138.3
1933: January------ 13. 82 178.9 13.61 171.9 7. 46 137.3
13. 75 178.6 13. 53 171.0 7. 45 137.0
February.
M a r c h .----- 13.76 177.3 13. 48 170.4 7. 43 136.7
April_____ _ 13. 22 171. 1 13.00 164. 3 7. 37 135.6
M ay . . . . . 12. 44 161.6 12. 25 154.8 7.17 132.0
June____ . . 12.18 157.6 12.00 151.6 7.18 132.1
July_______ 12. 47 161.: 12. 26 155. C 7. 64 140.7
August------- 12. 85 166.3 12. 65 159.8 7.77 143.0

RETAIL PRICES

995


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

996

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W

The accompanying chart shows the trend in retail prices of stove
and chestnut sizes of Pennsylvania anthracite coal and of bituminous
coal in the United States. The trend is shown semiannually for the
years 1913 to 1928, inclusive, and by months from January 15, 1929,
to August 15, 1933, inclusive.
Table 2 shows average retail prices per ton of 2,000 pounds and
index numbers (1913 = 100) for the United States on August 15,
1932, and July 15 and August 15, 1933, and percentage change in
the year and in the month.
Table 3 shows average retail prices of coal for household use by
cities on August 15, 1932, and July 15 and August 15, 1933, as
reported by local dealers in each city.
T able 2 . — A V E R A G E

R E T A IL P R IC E S A N D IN D E X N U M B E R S OF C O A L F O R T H E
U N IT E D S T A T E S , A N D P E R C E N T OF C H A N G E ON A U G . 15, 1933, C O M P A R E D W IT H
A U G . 15, 1932, A N D JU L Y 15, 1933

Average retail price on—
Article

Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove:
Average price per 2,000 pounds_____________
Index (1913=100)...............................................
Chestnut:
Average price per 2,000 pounds..................... ..
Index (1913=100)_____________________ ____ _
Bituminous:
Average price per 2,000 pounds_________________
Index (1913=100)__________________ __________ __

Percent of increase
( + ) or decrease
( - ) Aug. 15,1933,
compared with—

Aug. 15,
1932

July 15,
1933

Aug. 15,
1933

Aug. 15,
1932

July 15,
1933

$13. 50
174.8

$12.47
161.3

$12. 85
166.3

- 4 .8

+ 3 .0

$13. 28
167.9

$12. 26
155.0

$12. 65
159.8

- 4 .7

+ 3 .2

$7.52
138.4

$7. 64
140.7

$7. 77
143.0

+ 3 .3

+ 1 .7

T able 3 . — A V E R A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S OF C O A L P E R T O N OF 2,000 P O U N D S , F O R H O U SE ­
H O L D USE, A U G . 15, 1932, A N D JU L Y 15 A N D A U G . 15, 1933, B Y C IT IE S

1932

1932

1933

C ity, and kind of coal

Atlanta, Ga.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Baltimore, M d .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________________
Chestnut________________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
Low volatile__________
R un of mine:
High v o l a t il e ...______
Birmingham, Ala.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Boston, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove_______ ___________
Chestnut___
_________
Bridgeport, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove__________ . . . .
Chestnut . . . . . . . .
Buffalo, N .Y .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___ _______________
Chestnut---- ---------Butte, M ont.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Charleston, S.C.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1933

City, and kind of coal
Aug.
15

July
15

Aug.
15

$5.82

$5. 55

$6. 25

12. 50
12.00

11.92
11.67

12. 58
12. 25

8.56

8.44

9.06

7.07

6.79

7. 21

4.98

4. 68

5.11

13. 25
13.00

13.20
12.95

13. 25
13.00

13.00
13.00

13. 25
13. 25

13. 50
13.50

12.15
11.90

11.90
11.65

12.28
12.03

9. 85

9. 71

9.70

9.50

8. 62

8. 62

Aug.
15
Chicago, 111.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove. ........................ .
Chestnut________________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile__________
Low volatile_______ _
Run of mine:
Low volatile__________
Cincinnati, Ohio:
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile__________
Low volatile__________
Cleveland, Ohio:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove____________ ____
Chestnut________________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile__________
Low volatile__________
Columbus, Ohio:
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High v o l a t il e ..-----. . .
Low volatile__
- -

July
15

Aug.
15

$15.44 $13.04 $13. 53
15.19 12.83 13.31
7. 44
9. 42

7.50
9. 39

7. 74
9. 99

6.92

6.99

7. 45

5.00
6. 75

5.13
6.60

5. 35
7.23

13. 56
13.31

11. 50
11. 25

12.19
11. 94

6. 33
8.00

5. 32
7. 82

5. 67
8. 57

5.14
6. 25

5.03
6.17

5.35
6. 75

RETAIL

997

PRICES

T able 3 . —A V E R A G E R E T A IL P R IC E S OP C O A L P E R T O N OP 2,000 P O U N D S, P O R H OU SE­

H O L D USE, A U G . 15, 1932, A N D JU L Y 15 A N D A U G . 15, 1933, B Y C IT IE S —Continued

1932

1933

1932

City, and kind of coal

City, and kind of coal
Aug.
15

Dallas, Tex.:
Arkansas anthracite, e g g ...
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Denver, Colo.:
Colorado anthracite:
Furnace, 1 and 2 m ixed.
Stove, 3 and 5 m ixed.
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Detroit, M ich.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
S tov e.. ____ __________
Chestnut_______________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile.. _______
Low volatile__________
Run of mine:
Low volatile__________
Fall River, Mass.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove__ _ ____________
Chestnut. ____________
Houston, Tex.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Indianapolis, In d .:
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile_________
Low volatile__________
R un of mine:
Low volatile__________
Jacksonville, Fla.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Kansas City, M o.:
Arkansas anthracite:
F u rn a ce________________
Stove no. 4. _ ----------------Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Little Rock, Ark.:
Arkansas anthracite, e g g .. .
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Los Angeles, Calif.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Louisville, K y.:
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile____ _ . . .
Low volatile__________
Manchester, N .H .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove_________________ .
Chestnut------- --- ---------Memphis, Tenn.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Milwaukee, W is.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________________
Chestnut____ _________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile__________
Low volatile__________
Minneapolis, M inn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________________
Chestnut____________ . .
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile_____
Low volatile___
. .
Mobile, Ala.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.

July
15

Aug.
15

$13. 50 $13. 50 $13. 50
9. 75 10.00 10. 00
14.50
14. 50
7.89

14.50
14. 50
7. 37

14. 50
14.50
7. 30

13.00
12. 79

11.46
11.46

11.55
11.55

6. 04
6. 86

6.11
6.81

6. 27
7.24

6.25

5.99

6.38

14.00
13. 75

13. 50
13.25

13. 67
13.42

9. 40

9. 60

9.60

4. 80
7.17

5.26
7.05

5. 38
7.40

5.85

6.38

6. 50

9.00

9.00

9. 94

10. 63
12.17
5. 78

10. 33
12. 00
5.61

10.44
12. 33
5. 57

11. 50
8.00

10. 25
7. 50

10.25
7.94

15.25

15. 25

16.46

4.69
6.69

4.62
6.88

5.08
7. 06

14. 50
14. 50

14.00
14.00

14.00
14.00

6.54

5. 57

6.68

14. 65
14.40

12. 54
12.29

12.86
12. 61

6. 97
8. 78

7. 01
9. 09

7. 21
9.31

16. 95
16. 70

14.04
13. 79

15.00
14. 75

9. 60
11.87

9.11
11. 52

9. 76
12.36

7.17

6.65

7.13

Aug.
15
Newark, N.J.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
S to v e ... _______ ____
Chestnut. _ . ____ New Haven, Conn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________
_
C h e s tn u t-...................N ew Orleans, La.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
N ew York, N .Y .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove_________ _________
Chestnut____ __________
Norfolk, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove____ ______________
Chestnut_______________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile__________
Low volatile__________
Run of mine:
Low volatile__________
Omaha, Nebr.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Peoria, 111.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________________
Chestnut_______________
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Chestnut_______________
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Portland, Maine:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
S to v e ..- - . . ----------------Chestnut------- ---------------Portland, Oreg.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Providence, R .I.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove. -------- -------------Chestnut_______________
Richmond, Va.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove-------------- --------------Chestnut.......... ........ . .
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile... . . . . . .
Low volatile__________
R un of mine:
Low volatile__________
Rochester, N .Y .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove----- -----------------------Chestnut_____________ _
St. Louis, M o.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove____ ______________
Chestnut_____________ .
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
St. Paul, M inn.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove___________________
C hestnut._______________
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile._________
Low volatile__________

1 The average price of coal delivered in bins is 50 cents higher than here shown.
delivered in bins.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1933
July
15

Aug.
15

$11.99 $11.69 $12.10
11.74 11.44 11.80
13. 65
13. 65

12.90
12.90

13.40
13.40

8.07

8.07

8.07

12. 25
12.00

11.82
11.57

12.12
11.87

12. 50
12.50

12. 50
12.50

13. 00
13.00

6. 50
7. 50

6. 50
7. 50

7.00
8. 00

6.50

6. 38

7.00

8. 77

8.30

8.70

6.05

5.98

6.22

11.17
10.92

11.38
11.13

11.71
11.46

12. 75
4. 00

11. 50
3. 45

12.38
4. 64

15. 36
15.12

13.98
13. 73

14.13
13.88

12.09

11. 60

13.15

114. 00 113.45 i 13.70
' 13. 75 113. 20 i 13.44
13.00
13. 00

12.75
12.75

13.25
13.25

6. 67
7.65

7.17
7.65

7.33
8.40

6.50

6. 50

6.75

12.75
12.50

12.10
11.85

12.35
12.10

14. 85
14.85
4.80

13.91
13. 66
4.67

13.97
13.72
5.19

16. 95
16.70

14. 05
13. 80

15.00
14.75

9.49
11.87

8.83
11.62

9.79
12.39

Practically all coal is

998

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

1932

1933

City, and kind of coal

Salt Lake City, Utah:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
San Francisco, Calif.:
New Mexico anthracite:
Cerillos egg. __________
Colorado anthracite:
Egg_______ ____________
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Savannah, Ga.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes.
Scranton, Pa.:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Stove_________ _
____
Chestnut____________ .

Aug.
15

July
15

Aug.
15

$7. 39

$7.00

$7. 77

25. 00

25.00

25. 63

24. 50
15.00

24. 50
15. 00

25.11
16. 06

«8. 53

2 8.44

2 8.90

8. 83
8. 55

8. 06
7.81

8. 38
8.13

1932

1933

City, and kind of coal
Aug.
15
Seattle, Wash.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes. $9. 70
Springfield, 111.:
Bituminous, prepared sizes. 4. 34
Washington, D .C .:
Pennsylvania anthracite:
Chestnut________________ 313. 55
Bituminous:
Prepared sizes:
High volatile____ ____ 3 8.29
Low volatile____ _ . . . 3 9.86
R un of mine:
3 7. 56

July
15

Aug.
15

$9. 38

$9. 63

3. 75

3. 75

313. 04 313! 42
3 8. 06 3 8. 25
3 9. 47 3 9. 84
3 7. 40

3 7. 62

2 All coal sold in Savannah is weighed b y the city. A charge of 10 cents per ton or half ton is made.
additional charge has been included in the above price.
3 Per ton of 2,240 pounds.

This

Retail Prices of Food in the United States and in Certain
Foreign Countries

HE index numbers of retail prices of food published by certain
foreign countries have been brought together with those of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of
Labor in the subjoined table, the base years in all cases being as
given in the original reports. As stated in the table, the number of
articles included in the index numbers for the different countries dif­
fers widely. These results, which are designed merely to show price
trends and not actual differences in prices in the several countries
should not, therefore, be considered as closely comparable with one
another. In certain instances, also, the figures are not absolutely
comparable from month to month over the entire period, owing to
slight changes in the list of commodities and the localities included
on successive dates. Indexes are shown for July of each year from
1926 to 1930, inclusive, and by months since January 1931.

T


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

999

RETAIL PRICES
IN D E X N U M B ER S

C ou n try .. -----------

OF R E T A IL FO O D P R IC E S IN T H E
F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S

United
States

Australia

Austria

Belgium

U N IT E D

Bulgaria

S T A T E S A N D IN

Canada

China

Czecho­
slovakia

Ministry
Bureau of Federal of Indus­ General Depart­ National Central
Tariff
Direction
try,
Bureau of Census
ment
Computing agency— Statistics and Sta­ Statistics Labor, of Statis­
Commis­ Bureau of
of Labor
Statistics
Bureau and Social
sion
tics
tistics
Welfare
Number of localities..

51

30

Vienna

59

12

69

Shanghai

Prague

Commodities includ­
ed________________

42 foods

46 foods
and gro­
ceries

18 foods

33 foods

35 foods

29 foods

24 foods

35 foods

1913

1923-27
(1,000)

July 1914

1921

1926

1913

1926

July 1914

Base=100.

_______

1926
July________________

157.0

‘ 1,027

i 116

184.9

i 100.0

151

101.3

117.8

1927
July.------ ------------------

153.4

i 1,004

i 119

209.6

197.8

149

110.7

126.2

1928
July--------------------------

152.8

1989

i 119

203.8

i 102. 5

147

93.2

125.5

1929
July________________

158.5

1,041

123

212.3

i 106.4

150

94.8

123.1

1930
July-------------------------

144.0

958

119

205.5

i 86.7

149

130.0

119.0

132. 8
127. 0
126.4
124.0
121.0
118. 3
119.0
119. 7
119. 4
119.1
116. 7
114. 3

876
864
854
851
840
833
811
805
804
805
812
809

109
106
105
104
104
108
110
109
109
111
110
110

195.1
186. 8
183.1
180.1
176.6
176.5
174.8
171.5
172.9
170.2
167.9
160.7

i 68.0

134
129
124
121
116
111
110
112
109
107
107
107

104. 9
122.0
117.4
98.7
98.7
99.6
96.4
116.5
124.4
110.0
103.2
97.0

107.0
105.6
104.2
106.2
107.0
109.3
107.9
102.2
104.3
103.1
99.6
99.1

109.3
105.3
105.0
103.7
101.3
100.1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.4
99.4
98.7

814
829
825
824
812
803
800
796
792
786
764
759

111
110
109
107
108
113
110
109
110
110
109
109

156.5
151.3
148.2
144.3
144.8
143.8
144.4
142.9
150.8
155.4
159.4
156.9

67.1
65.7
65.8
65.2
64.8
65.1
65.0
63.2
62.6
62.8
62.8
62.1

105
100
99
98
94
93
92
96
95
96
97
96

98.2
122.8
114.2
99.1
98.4
107.3
101.4
103.6
102.6
94.9
87.9
84.5

98.0
95.6
100.1
97.3
100.8
101.4
97.5
94.4
97.6
100.0
102.3
102.3

94.8
90.9
90.5
90.4
93.7
96. 7
104. 8
106.7

747
742
734
746
750
762

106
103
103
103
103
106
104
104

154.4
156.1
150.4
147.7
143.0

61.9
62.3
62.2
60.9
59.6

95
91
91
93
93
93
95

87.3
94.8
92.3
85.2
86.0
84. 1
86.3

100.4
99.3
94.9
94.1
96.8
98.8
96.8

1931

July________________

1932
January-------------------February __________
March---------------------April________________
M a y ________________
June.. _____________
J u l y ________________
August______________
Septem ber.. ----------October . __________
November _________
December----------------1933
January___________ .
February -------- --- .
M arch..
April_________ _____
M a y __ . . . . ______
Tilly

i Year.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.................

1000

M ONTHLY

LABOR

R E V IE W

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF R E T A IL FO O D P R IC E S IN T H E U N IT E D
F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S — Continued
Country.

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany Hungary

India

M inistry Commis­ Federal
Central
sion of
Computing a gency.. Bureau of of Social
Statistics
Cost of Statistical Office of
Aflairs
Bureau
Statistics
Living

Labor
Office

Number of localities.
Commodities.

Tallin
51 foods

Base=100.

1913

14 foods

Paris

72

Foods

24 foods

January- January- October
June 1914 June 1914 1913-July
1914

Budapest B om bay
12 foods

1913

S T A T E S A N D IN

Ireland

Italy

Depart­
Office
ment of
Provin­
Industry
cial
of
and C om ­
Econom y
merce
105

Milan

29 foods

18 foods

July 1914 July 1914

JanuaryJune 1914

174

654.3

166

524.0

1926

July......... .

121

1,104. 5

2 507

117

1,102. 3

2 559

156.8

125.6

127

1,155.3

2 544

154.1

130.5

143

166

512.5

134

1,116. 4

2 590

155.7
145.9

104.6

136

156

519.3

133.5
131.0
129.6
129.2
129.9
130.9
130.4
126.1
124.9
123.4
121.8
119.9

93.5
94.1
96.3
95.7
96.6
96.5
98.9
99.7
99.6
96.8
94.1
93.0

111
106
103
104

151

116.1
113.9
114.4
113.4
112.7
113.4
113.8
111.8
110.5
109.6
109.5
109.0

91.8
89.9
89.8
89.9
93.4
93. 3
92.1
93.8
92.9
92.0
88.4
86.7

107.3
106.5
106.2
106.3
109.5
110.7
110.5

86.5
86.2
86.1
85.5
84.7
84.4

155

1927

July.............. .
1928

July-............. .
1929

July............ .
1930

July-------------

103

1931

January.........
February___
M a rc h ......... .
April_______
M a y ............. .
J u n e ............
July________
August_____
Septem ber...
October_____
N o ve m b er...
December___

95
96
96
96
95
93
94
91
87
83
82
80

893.2
882.6
878.8
869.8
849.4
842.4
846.0
869.5
844.3
847.9
885.2
918.8

642
607
"¿55'

102
101
100
100
100

100
100

101

139
143
’ l55'

467.1
462.8
464.7
466.8
460.0
456.6
452.0
444.1
438.3
435.1
436.8
437.8

1932

January.........
February___
M a r c h .........
April..............
M a y ...............
June...............
July......... —
August______
Septem ber...
October_____
N o ve m b er...
December___

915.8
908.3
911.2
886.3
875.7
871.0
885.7
897.8
891.4
894.5
919.8
910.2

561
567
’ ¿ài'
531

103
102
103
99
99
99
102
102
101
102
103
103

151
144
134
1§5"

431.2
432.5
445.6
450.4
441.8
438.0
426.8
411.1
409.7
423.4
428.0
433.9

1933

January.........
February___
M arch______
April..............
M a y ...............
June________
July................
2June.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

894.1
883.5
869.8
868.0

867.8
881.7
907.1

542

130
126

426.1
422.8
416.6
405.1
398.3
402.9
403.1

1001

RETAIL PRICES
IN D E X N U M B E R S OF R E T A IL FO O D P R IC E S IN T H E U N IT E D
F O R E IG N C O U N T R IE S —Continued

C ountry__ _ ______

Nether­
lands

New Zea­
Norway
land

Census
Bureau
and Sta­
Computing agency-.. of Statis­
tistics Of­
tics
fice

Central
Bureau
of Sta­
tistics

Sweden

Switzer­
United
land
Kingdom

Office of Board of
Central
Social
Statisti­ Census
and Sta­
cal Office
Welfare
tistics

Federal
M in is try
Labor
of Labor
Office

Poland

South
Africa

S T A T E S A N D IN

Number of localities--

Amster­
dam

25

31

Warsaw

9

49

34

509

Commodities includ­
ed_________________

15 foods

59 foods

89 foods

85 foods

20 foods

43 foods

28 foods

14 foods

Base=100___ - _____

1911-1913

1926-1930
July 1914
(1,000)

1927

1914
(1,000)

1926
July________________

2 168.1

i 1,026

198

1927
July________________

2 163. 0

i 983

175

1928
July________________

2 169. 4

i 1,004

1929
July--------------------------

2 165. 3

1930
July________________

2 151. 6

1931
January_____________
February. _________
M arch______________
April____ _ . ______
M a y ______________ .
June___ ________ . .
July________________
A ugust,— __________
Septem ber._________
October__________ . .
N ovem ber__________
December_____ _ .
1932
January_____ _______
February____________
M arch______________
April________________
M a y _______ ________
June________________
July_________ ______
August______ _______
S e p te m b er............
October . . . _______
N ovem ber_______ _
December___________

July 1914 June 1914 July 1914

1,165

156

159

161

101.1

1,188

148

157

159

173

102.6

1,157

156

157

157

i 1,013

158

94.3

1,156

148

155

149

981

151

86.2

1,092

138

152

141

910
879
856
851
847
839
824
820
812
834
832
835

146
144
143
141
139
138
140
138
136
136
136
136

72. 2
72. 3
73. 5
76. 4
77. 2
75. 9
72.9
70. 8
70. 3
68. 3
69. 6
69.1

1, 081
1, 074
1 071
1,073
1,082
1,064
1 043
1’ 031
1 022
l ’ 026
1 022
1,004

132

148
146
144
142
141
141
140
139
139
138
137
134

138
136
134
129
129
127
130
128
128
128
130
132

827
810
792
797
787
778
761
761
758
765
745
713

135
135
135
134
133
133
134
133
134
133
134
132

65. 0
65. 2
64. 5
68. 2
71. 4
68.1
63.1
61. 7
60.9
59. 2
58.7
56.7

990
992
993
987
981
963
944
933
927
927
928
926

127

132
129
128
128
126
125
124
123
122
123
122
120

131
131
129
126
125
123
125
123
123
125
125
125

707
727
712
714
727
723

130
130
130
130
130
130
132

56. 3
57.4
58.8
59. 2
58.8
58. 3
59. 2

931
938
950
966
976
989

123

118
117
116
116
116
116
116

123
122
119
115
114
114
118
119

139.9
140.6
136.9
125. 5

118.8
119.2
119.7
119. 2

130
127
128

125
124
125

1933
February___________
M a rch ..'____________

115.5

M a y ________________
116. 5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 Year.

119
120

2 June.

WHOLESALE PRICES
Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices, 1913 to August 1933

HE following table presents the index numbers of wholesale
prices by groups of commodities, by years, from 1913 to 1932,
inclusive, and by months from January 1932 to date:

T

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E S A L E P R IC E S
[1926=100]

Year and month

1913__________________
1914__________________
1915__________________
1916__________________
1917__________________
1918__________________
1919__________________
1920__________________
1921__________________
1922__________________
1923__________________
1924__________________
1925 ________________
1926__________________
1927__________________
1928__________________
1929_________________ :
1930__________________
1931__________________
1932__________________
1932:
J a n u a r y . ......
February.
_____
M arch____________
A pril_____________
M a y___________ _
June--------------------July______________
August. _________
S eptem ber_______
October _____ . _
N ovem ber.. . _
D ecem ber.. _____
1933:
January__________
February. . . .
M a rch ... . . . .
A pril.
_ _______
M a y_____________
June--------------------July______________
August___________

Hides Tex­ Fuel Metals B u ild ­ C hem ­ House- Misfurand
Farm
and
ing
and metal
icals nishtile
celprod­ Foods leather prod­
mate­ and
laneing
ucts
prod­ ucts light­
prod­
ous
ing
rials
drugs
goods
ucts
ucts

All
com ­
m odi­
ties

71.5
71.2
71.5
84.4
129.0
148.0
157.6
150.7
88.4
93.8
98.6
100.0
109.8
100.0
99.4
105. 9
104. 9
88.3
64.8
48.2

64. 2
64.7
65.4
75.7
104.5
119.1
129.5
137.4
90.6
87.6
92.7
91.0
100.2
100.0
96.7
101.0
99.9
90.5
74.6
61.0

68.1
70.9
75.5
93.4
123.8
125.7
174.1
171.3
109.2
104.6
104. 2
101.5
105.3
100.0
107.7
121.4
109.1
100.0
86.1
72.9

57.3
54.6
54.1
70.4
98.7
137.2
135.3
164.8
94.5
100.2
111.3
106.7
108.3
100.0
95.6
95.5
90.4
80.3
66.3
54.9

61.3
56.-6
51.8
74.3
105.4
109. 2
104.3
163.7
96.8
107.3
97.3
92.0
96.5
100.0
88.3
84.3
83.0
78.5
67.5
70.3

90.8
80.2
86.3
116.5
150.6
136.5
130.9
149. 4
117.5
102.9
109.3
106. 3
103.2
100.0
96.3
97.0
100.5
92. 1
84.5
80.2

56.7
52.7
53.5
67.6
88.2
98.6
115.6
150.1
97.4
97.3
108.7
102.3
101.7
100.0
94.7
94.1
95.4
89.9
79.2
71.4

80.2
81.4
112.0
160.7
165. 0
182.3
157.0
164.7
115.0
100.3
101.1
98.9
101.8
100.0
96.8
95.6
94.2
89.1
79.3
73.5

56.3
56.8
56.0
61.4
74.2
93.3
105.9
141.8
113.0
103.5
108.9
104.9
103.1
100.0
97.5
95. 1
94.3
92.7
84.9
75.1

93.1
89.9
86.9
100.6
122.1
134.4
139.1
167.5
109.2
92.8
99.7
93.6
109.0
100.0
91.0
85.4
82.6
77.7
69.8
64.4

69.8
68.1
69.5
85.5
117.5
131.3
138. 6
154.4
97.6
96.7
100.6
98.1
103.5
100.0
95.4
96.7
95.3
86.4
73.0
64.8

52.8
50.6
50. 2
49.2
46.6
45.7
47.9
49.1
49.1
46.9
46.7
44.1

64.7
62.5
62.3
61.0
59.3
58.8
60.9
61.8
61.8
60.5
60.6
58.3

79.3
78.3
77.3
75.0
72.5
70.8
68.6
69.7
72.2
72.8
71.4
69.6

59.6
59.5
58.0
56.1
54.3
52.7
51.5
52.7
55.6
55.0
53.9
53.0

67.9
68.3
67.9
70.2
70.7
71.6
72.3
72.1
70.8
71. 1
71.4
69.3

81.8
80.9
80.8
80.3
80.1
79.9
79. 2
80.1
80.1
80.3
79.6
79.4

74.8
73.4
73.2
72.5
71. 5
70.8
69.7
69.6
70.5
70.7
70.7
70.8

75.7
75.5
75.3
74.4
73.6
73.1
73.0
73.3
72.9
72.7
72.4
72.3

77.7
77.5
77.1
76.3
74.8
74.7
74.0
73.6
73.7
73.7
73.7
73.6

65.6
64.7
64.7
64.7
64.4
64. 2
64.3
64. 6
64.7
64.1
63.7
63.4

67.3
66.3
66.0
65.5
64.4
63.9
64.5
65.2
65.3
64.4
63.9
62.6

42.6
40.9
42.8
44.5
50.2
53.2
60.1
57.6

55.8
53.7
54.6
56.1
59.4
61.2
65.5
64.8

68.9
68.0
68.1
69.4
76.9
82.4
86.3
91.7

51.9
51. 2
51.3
51.8
55.9
61.5
68.0
74.6

66.0
63.6
62.9
61.5
60.4
61.5
65.3
65.5

78.2
77.4
77.2
76.9
77.7
79.3
80.6
81. 2

70.1
69.8
70.3
70.2
71.4
74.7
79.5
81.3

71.6
71.3
71.2
71.4
73.2
73.7
73.2
73.1

72.9
72.3
72.2
71.5
71.7
73.4
74.8
77.6

61.2
59.2
58.9
57.8
58.9
60.8
64.0
65.4

61.0
59.8
60.2
60.4
62.7
65.0
68.9
69.5

1002


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1003

W HOLESALE PRICES
I N D E X N U M B E R S OF S P E C IF IE D G R O U PS OF C O M M O D IT IE S
[1926=100]

Year

1913_________
1914_________
1915_________
1916_________
1917________
1918
1919
1920
1921________
1922_________
1923_________
1924_________
1925_________
1926_________
1927_________
1928_________
1929
1930
1931
1932

NonSemiagriFin­
Raw mann- ished
eulfacmate­ tured prod­ tural
com ­
rials
arti­
ucts
modi­
cles
ties

68.8
67.6
67.2
82.6
122. 6
135. 8
145. 9
151.8
88. 3
96.0
98. 5
97.6
106. 7
100.0
96.5
99.1
97.5
84.3
65.6
55.1

74.9
70.0
81.2
118.3
150. 4
153.8
157.9
198. 2
96.1
98.9
118.6
108.7
105.3
100.0
94.3
94.5
93.9
81.8
69.0
59.3

69.4
67.8
68.9
82.3
109.2
124. 7
130.6
149.8
103.3
96.5
99. 2
96.3
100.6
100.0
95.0
95.9
94.5
88.0
77.0
70.3

69.0
66.8
68.5
85.3
113.1
125.1
131. 6
154.8
100.1
97.3
100.9
97.1
101.4
100.0
94.6
94.8
93.3
85.9
74.6
68.3

All
com ­
m odi­
ties
other
than
farm
prod­
ucts
and
foods
70.0
66.4
68.0
88.3
114.2
124.6
128.8
161.3
104.9
102.4
104.3
99. 7
102.6
100.0
94.0
92.9
91. 6
85. 2
75.0
70.2

All
com ­
Non- modi­
Semiagrities
manu- Fin­
other
Raw
culished
facmate­ tured prod­ tural than
com ­ farm
rials
arti­
ucts m odi­ prod­
cles
ties
ucts
and
foods

Month

1932:
January___
February..
M arch____
April______
M a y . .........
June______
July_______
August____
September.
October___
N ovem ber.
December..
1933:
January___
F ebruary._
March
April______
M a y _____
June______
July_______
August____

58.3
56.9
56.1
55.5
53.9
53.2
54.7
55.7
56.2
54.6
54.2
52.1

63.1
61.9
60.8
59.6
58.1
57.6
55.5
57.9
60.7
60.7
58.9
57.7

72.1
71.4
71.5
71.1
70.3
70.0
70.5
70.7
70.4
69.6
69.3
68.4

70.3
69.6
69.3
68.9
68.1
67.8
68.0
68.5
68.7
68.1
67.5
66.5

71.7
71.3
70.9
70.9
70.4
70.1
69.7
70. 1
70.4
70.2
69.8
69.0

50.2
48.4
49.4
50.0
53.7
56.2
61.8
60.6

56.9
56.3
56.9
57.3
61.3
65.3
69.1
71.7

66.7
65.7
65.7
65.7
67.2
69.0
72.2
73.4

64.9
63.7
63.8
63.7
65.4
67.4
70.7
72.0

67.3
66.0
65.8
65.3
66.5
68.9
72.2
74.1

Weekly Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices

A s u m m a r i z a t i o n of the weekly index numbers for the 1 0 major
groups of commodities and for all commodities combined as issued
during the month of August 1933, will be found in the following state­
ment:
I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E S A L E P R IC E S F O R W E E K S OF A U G . 5, 12, 19, A N D 26, 1933
[1926=100]
Week ending—
Group


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Aug. 5

,

Aug. 12

Aug. 19

Aug. 26

69.2

69.4

69.3

69.6

58. 7
65.1
90.4
70.8
66.6
80.8
80.9
73.4
75.4
65.0

58.5
64.9
91.4
72.9
66.8
80.8
80.7
73.1
76.0
65.2

57.5
64.4
90.9
74.1
66.5
80.8
80.8
72.9
76.4
65.5

58.2
65.0
92.8
74.2
66.7
81.2
80.7
72.5
76.9
65.2

1004

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW
Wholesale Price Trends During August 1933

T h e sixth consecutive monthly advance in the general level of
wholesale commodity prices was shown by the August index number of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of
Labor. This index number, which includes 784 commodities or price
series weighted according to their relative importance in the markets
and based on the average prices for the year 1926 as 100, averaged
69.5 for August as compared with 68.9 for July, showing an increase
of slightly less than 1 percent between the 2 months.
As compared with the low point reached in February of the present
year, when the index was 59.8, August prices rose nearly 16 percent.
Corresponding indexes for March, April, May, and June 1933, were
60.2, 60.4, 62.7, and 65, respectively. As compared with August
1932, with an index number of 65.2, the August 1933 wholesale price
level shows an increase of more than 6% percent over that of a year ago.
Between July and August increases were reported in 369 instances,
decreases in 141 instances, while in 274 instances no change in price
was shown.
For the third consecutive time in the past 3 years prices for the
current month have averaged higher than in the corresponding month
of the year before. The all-commodities index, which indicates the
trend in the general level of wholesale prices shows that prices in
August were about 27 percent below the level of June 1929 when the
index stood at 95.2.
The largest price advance was shown by the textile products group
which increased by almost 10 percent over the previous month.
Increases took place in the average prices of clothing, cotton goods,
knit goods, woolen and worsted goods, and other textile products.
Wholesale prices of silk and rayon, however, decreased sharply.
The second largest advance occurred in the products of the hides
and leather group which showed a rise of 6}i percent from July to
August. This increase was due largely to advances in the prices of
boots and shoes which were 8% percent higher in August than in July.
As compared with August 1932 an increase of nearly 14 percent has
been recorded in the average wholesale prices of boots and shoes
during the 12 months.
Wholesale prices of farm products which have been steeply ad­
vancing for 6 months reacted in August and dropped by more than
4 percent as compared with July, although still 41 percent above
February, the low point reached during the present year, and 17 per­
cent over the corresponding month of last year. Grains, steers,
lambs, hogs, live poultry, cotton, eggs, lemons, onions, and white
potatoes were mainly responsible for the decline. Calves, oranges,
hay, fresh milk at New York, tobacco, and wool showed increases in
prices between the 2 months.
Among manufactured food products which showed price decreases
during the month were butter, rye flour, corn meal, bananas, lamb,
dressed poultry, coffee, lard, raw sugar, and vegetable oils. On the
other hand, evaporated and powdered milk, bread, wheat cereal,
cookies, most wheat flour, rice, dried fruits, canned fruits and vege­
tables, cured beef, veal, and granulated sugar averaged higher than
in the month before. The group as a whole, though decreasing by
1 percent in August as compared with July, was 21 percent above the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W HOLESALE PRICES

1005

low in February of this year and 5 percent higher than August a
year ago.
Coal and coke showed advances in average prices causing the group
of fuel and lighting materials to increase by three tenths of 1 percent
over the previous month. Electricity, gas, and petroleum products
declined from July to August.
Metals and metal products as a whole continued upward during
August due to advancing prices of agricultural implements, iron and

steel, nonferrous metals, and plumbing and heating fixtures. Motor
vehicles showed no change between July and August. The index for
this group was over 0.7 percent higher than for the month before.
In the group of building materials the average prices of brick and
tile, cement, lumber, and other building materials moved upward
11456°—33------16


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1006

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

during the month, while paint and paint materials decreased slightly,
and structural steel showed no change between the 2 months. The
group as a whole recorded an increase of 2/ percent.
Chemicals and drugs registered a decrease of nearly one tenth of 1
percent during August due to declining prices for chemicals._ Drugs
and pharmaceuticals, fertilizer materials, and mixed fertilizers in­
creased slightly. The house-furnishing goods group as a whole
increased nearly 3% percent from the previous month. Both
furniture and furnishings shared in the advance.
The miscellaneous group of commodities rose 2.2 percent between
July and August due to advances in automobile tires and tubes, paper
and pulp, and other miscellaneous commodities.
Among the remaining groups raw material prices declined by 2
percent. Semimanufactured articles advanced by 3% percent to a
level of nearly 24 percent above a year ago. Finished products
moved upward by 1% percent, but the group was about 4 percent
over August of last year.
The nonagricultural commodities group, which includes all com­
modities except farm products, advanced by about 1% percent during
the month, while commodities other than farm products and manu­
factured foods rose more than 2% percent. Both of the latter special
groups showed averages of more than 5 percent over August a year
ago.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1007

WHOLESALE PRICES

I N D E X N U M B E R S OF W H O L E S A L E P R IC E S B Y G R O U P S A N D S U B G R O U PS OF
C O M M O D IT IE S
[1926=1001

Groups and subgroups

All commodities - - ....................................
Farm products____________________ .
Grains.................. ...................................
Livestock and poultry _____________ ____ _
Other farm products_____ _____ ____ _
Ioods__ __________________ ________
Butter, cheese, and m ilk_________ ____
Cereal products._
. . ___________________ _
Fruits and vegetables ______ ____ __ . . . _
Meats _______ _ __________ _____ _ _
Other foods____ ______ _____ . . . _
Hides and leather products_______ ___________
Boots and shoes. ........ ............. .
Hides and skins
___
._
...
Leather
_ _ _ ... .
Other leather products. . _______ ._ _. .
Textile products
. . _ ___ _ _____ _________
Clothing______________________________
Cotton good s... ............. . . . ____ ____
Knit goods. . ........... ........ .......... . . . .
Silk and rayon___ . . . ______ _ . . . _
W oolen and worsted goods. . .
____
Other textile products . . . ___ ___ . . . .
Fuel and lighting materials- ___ _____ ______
Anthracite coal __________________ . . . .
Bituminous coal
.
............. .
Coke . . .
.
. . . . .
E le ctricity ... ____________ ____
Gas. . . . . .
_____
Petroleum products .............................
_ .
Metals and metal products.. . . _________
Agricultural i m p l e m e n t s . . .
. . . . ____
Iron and steel
M otor vehicles
..........
Nonferrous m etals..
_____
___ _ . . .
Plumbing and heating________ _ . . . . .
..
Building materials____ _____ _. . . . . . . . . . . .
Brick and tile_____________________ ________
Cement.. . . . ___ . . . __ . . .
Lumber______________________________
Paint and paint materials
. . . . . . .
Plumbing and heating______ _______
_ _______
Structural steel _______________
Other building materials__________________________
Chemicals and drugs._____ . . . . . .
____ _
Chemicals _ _
Drugs and pharmaceuticals.________ _______
Fertilizer materials. ___ __ __ ______ ______
M ixed fertilizers- ___________________________
House-furnishing goods____________________ _______ _
Furnishings_______________________ ______ ____
Furniture___ ______ ________________________
Miscellaneous . . . . . .
_____
_
_______ _
Automobile tires and tubes . _ ____________ _ __
Cattle feed_________________________ . .
Paper and pulp___ _ ____ _____ ______ _ __ . . .
Rubber, crude____________ _ ____________ . . .
Other miscellaneous_______ _ __ _. __________ _ _
Raw materials .
. . .
...
Semimanufactured articles . . . . .
. . . .
.
Finished products_______________ ___________
Nonagricultural commodities. . . . . . . . _____ _
All commodities other than farm products and foods___
1 Data not yet available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

August 1932 July 1933 August 1933

Purchasing
power of
the dollar
August 1933

65.2

68.9

69.5

$1. 439

49.1
38.2
52.8
50.8
61.8
60.2
66.0
55.6
61.9
62.1
69.7
84.4
39.3
60.0
82.3
52.7
61.0
52.6
48.5
29.5
53.4
67.4
72.1
86.0
81.3
76.7
104. 4
107. 0
48.9
80. 1
84.9
78.7
95.3
48.5
67.1
69.6
75.2
79.0
55.5
67.2
67.1
81.7
78.3
73.3
79.7
57.0
66.4
68.3
73.6
74.8
72.6
64.6
40.1
47.4
76.3
7.9
84.2
55.7
57.9
70.7
68.5
70.1

60.1
73. 4
47.4
63.7
65.5
66.1
83.3
75.6
50.8
63.7
86.3
88.3
88.7
78.0
80.0
68.0
70.6
80.2
55.2
37.9
72.3
76. 7
65.3
77.9
81.0
76.0
89 4
100 2
41.3
80.6
83.0
77.7
90.4
67.6
69.4
79.5
78.2
88.2
75.9
77.9
69.4
81.7
83.3
73.2
80.3
56.8
68.6
63.3
74.8
75.1
74.6
64.0
41.4
82.4
78.1
16.3
76.3
61.8
69.1
72.2
70.7
72.2

57. 6
64 6
45.9
62. 5
64. 8
65. 7
84.8
71.1
51.0
62. 6
91. 7
96.1
91.5
82. 5
81. 2
74.6
74.4
93.5
69.4
34. 6
78.9
77.8
65.5
79.2
83.6
77.4

1,736
1 548
2. 179
1. 600
1. 543
1 522
1.179
1.406
1. 961
1 597
1. 091
1.041
1.093
1. 212
1. 232
1. 340
1. 344
1.070
1. 441
2 890
1. 267
1 285
1. 527
1. 263
1.196
1.292

40.9
81.2
83.2
78.6
90. 4
68. 2
70.3
81.3
81.5
90.3
79.4
77.5
70.3
81.7
85.0
73.1
79.6
57.6
69.0
64.4
77.6
78.6
76.8
65.4
43.2
78.0
81.0
14.9
77.8
60.6
71.7
73.4
72.0
74.1

2. 445
1. 232
1. 202
1. 272
1. 106
1. 466
1. 422
1. 230
1. 227
1.107
1. 259
1. 290
1. 422
1. 224
1.176
1. 368
1. 256
1. 736
1. 449
1. 553
1.289
1.272
1. 302
1. 529
2. 315
1. 282
1.235
6. 711
1. 285
1.650
1.395
1.362
1. 389
1.350

0)
m

PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR
Official— United States
I l l in o is .-—Emergency Relief Commission.
R e lie f sta nd ard s and p roced u res in
d ealin g w ith fa m ilie s o f the u n em p lo y ed . C h ica go, 10 S ou th L a S a lle Street,
1932.
1 15 p p .

Manual to assist local welfare agencies and officials cooperating with the com­
mission in the administration of relief.
K a n s a s .— Commission of Labor and Industry.
Coal Mine and Metal Mine
Inspection and Mine Rescue Departments. A n n u a l rep ort, 1932. T op ek a ,
1933.

114

PP-

Contains data on inspection of mines, employment, production, and accidents;
coal-mine and metal-mine directories; and a record of the activities of the minerescue department.
M a r y l a n d .-—Bureau of Mines.
T en th a n n u a l rep o rt, ca len d a r y e a r 1932.
B a lti­
m ore, [1933].

75 pp.

Contains data on production and accidents in coal mines, a list of mines, show­
ing location, and a general description of each mine.
M a s s a c h u s e t t s .— Department of Banking and Insurance.
A n n u a l rep ort o f the
c o m m issio n er o f ba n k s f o r the y e a r en d in g D ecem b er 31, 1 9 3 1 : P a r t I V , C redit
u n io n s.
B o sto n , 19 3 2.
1 33 p p .
M is s o u r i .— Labor and Industrial Inspection Department.
F ifty -fir s t an d f ift y secon d a n n u a l rep o rts, N ov em b er 5, 1929, to N ovem b er 5, 1931.
J e ffe r s o n C ity,
[1 9 3 2 ?].
330 pp.

Among the subjects taken up in this publication are: Eye injuries, child labor,
women in industry, fee-charging employment agencies, and labor placements.
N a s s a u C o u n t y [N. Y.] E m e r g e n c y W o r k B u r e a u .— R e p o r t o f a ctivities f o r the
y e a r J u n e 1, 1 9 3 2 , to M a y 3 1 , 19 3 3.
M in e o la , N .Y ., 19 3 3.
8 7 p p ., Ulus.

The bureau was created to “ help the unemployed through the depression in
ways which are consistent with self-respect.” The report contains an account
of 100 relief projects carried on during the year.
N e w Je r s e y .— Emergency Relief Administration.
13, 1932.
[T ren to n , 1 9 3 3 ? ].
1 59 p p ., chart.

F irst a n n u a l rep ort, O ctober

The report contains a brief review of the relief problem and the work accom­
plished, in addition to detailed statistical reports covering the numbers helped
and the expenditures for relief wages and dependency relief.
N e w Y o r k .— Department of Labor.
A n n u a l rep o rt f o r the twelve m onths ended
D ecem b er 3 1 , 19 3 2.

A lb a n y , 19 3 3.

136 p p ., d ia gram s.

Among the many subjects reviewed briefly in Part 1 of this report are: Cost
of labor department to the State, New York system of financing workmen’s
compensation, decrease in the number of industrial accidents in 1932, safety
work of State insurance fund, safety training in the schools, the new 48-hour
week, employment clearance service, public employment center of Rochester,
Central Housework Employment Bureau, employment section for the handi­
capped, and the collection of wage claims.

1008

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P U B L IC A T IO N S

R E L A T IN G

TO

LABOR

1009

N e w Y o r k .— Legislature. Joint Committee on Classification of Positions in the
Civil Service. R ep o rt, transm itted to the L eg isla tu re J a n u a r y 21, 1932. A lb a n y ,
1932.
749 p p .
(L eg isla tiv e D ocu m en t (1 9 3 2 ) N o . 5 5 .)
O r e g o n .— Board for Vocational Education. Seventh b ien n ia l rep ort, J u ly
1 9 3 0 - J u n e 3 0 , 1932.
S a lem , 1932.
26 p p ., charts, Ulus.

1,

In the 14 years 1918 to 1932 the enrollment for vocational education in Oregon
increased from 414 to 14,015, the work carried on in 1932 covering 52 communities.
------ Oregon’s White House Conference on Child Health and Protection.
R ep o rt [o f p roceed in g s), S a lem , M a y 2 and 3, 1932.

S a lem [1 9 3 2 ?].

79 p p .

The conference covered the general subjects of medical service, public health
service and administration, education and training, and the care of the handi­
capped. The general plan of the original White House Conference was followed.
A number of specific proposals, bearing upon child health and child welfare in
Oregon, were endorsed. By a unanimous vote the conference decided to recom­
mend the creation of a State welfare department, with special responsibilities
for children.
P e n n s y l v a n i a .— Department of Labor and Industry.
S p e c ia l B u lletin N o . 3 4 :
U n io n sca le o f w ages and h ours o f labor, 1930.
(P r e p a r e d by the b ureau o f sta tistics.)

H a rrisb u r g , 1932.

142 pp .

Statistics cover 17 trade groups, comprising 137 crafts, found in 24 impor­
tant industrial cities of Pennsylvania.
------ Department of Welfare.
1930, to M a y 31, 19 3 2.

B u lletin N o . 5 4 : S ixth b ien n ia l rep ort, J u n e 1,
H a rrisb u rg [19 3 2 ?].
6 7 p p ., charts.

Emphasizes the need for an aggressive social legislation program in Pennsyl­
vania, declaring that the time has come for the State seriously to consider the
passage of old-age pension provisions, more progressive housing acts, etc., and
that new legislative measures in the field of unemployment insurance, child
labor, and State incorporation of welfare organizations should be carefully
prepared.
-------------- S o m e sta tistica l tables su p p lem en tin g the sixth b ien n ia l rep ort. H a r r is ­
burg, D ecem b er 19 3 2.

4 9 p p -, charts.

P u e r t o R ic o .-—Department of Labor.
Division of Accounts, Property, and
Statistics. S ta tistica l rep o rt o n w ages an d w o rk in g h ours in su g a r m ills,
su g a r-ca n e cu ltiva tion , an d the n eed lew ork in d u stry in the Isla n d o f P u erto R ic o
d u rin g the y e a r 1 9 3 2 -3 3 .
S a n J u a n , 19 3 3.
6 0 p p ., charts.
( I n S p a n ish
and E n g lish .)

Data on wages and working hours, from this report, are published in this
issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
T e x a s .-—Bureau of Labor Statistics.
T w elfth bien n a l rep ort, 1 9 3 1 -3 2 .
A u s tin
[1 9 3 2 ?].

55 pp.

Wage data from the report are given in this issue.
U n it e d S t a t e s .— Congress. House of Representatives.

R e p o r t N o . 158 (73d
C on g., 1st s e s s .) : N a tio n a l em p lo y m en t service. R e p o r t [to a c co m p a n y H .R .
4 5 5 9] o f M r . C o n n ery , C om m ittee o n L a b o r.
W a sh in g to n , 19 3 3. 3 p p .

------ Department of Commerce.

Bureau of Mines. I n fo r m a tio n C ircu la r 6 7 3 2 :
R eco m m en d a tio n s o f the U n ited S tates B u rea u o f M in e s on certa in q u estion s o f
sa fety , as o f F e b r u a r y 3, 1933, by the M i n e S a fe ty B oa rd .
W a sh in g ton , 1933.
43 pp.

Lists decisions to date in order of approval, gives reasons for their formulation,
and explains their application.
------ ——— -------- I n fo r m a tio n C ircu la r 6 7 3 8 : B la stin g p ra ctices as th ey affect the
r o o f o f coa l m in es in O hio, P e n n s y lv a n ia , and W est V ir g in ia , by J . N . G eyer.
W a sh in g to n , 1933.
11 p p ., illu s.

Describes coal beds and roof in the various States, notes State blasting regula­
tions, and points out methods of protecting roof and advantages gained by
improved blasting practices.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1010

MONTHLY LABOR REV IEW

U n it e d S t a t e s — Department of Commerce.
Bureau of Mines. R ep o rt o f I n ­
vestigation s 3 2 1 9 : T h e N a tio n a l S a fe ty C o m p etitio n o f 1932, by W . W . A d a m s.
W a sh in g to n , 19 3 3.
17 p p .

Gives names of companies which won trophies and which received honorable
mention for safety achievement and reports accident data by types of mines.
---------------------- R ep o rt o f In v estig a tio n s 3 2 2 0 : A ctiv e list o f p erm issib le exp losives
and blasting devices a p p roved p r io r to J u n e 30, 1933, by J . E . T iffa n y .
in g to n , 19 3 3.
16 p p .

W a sh -

Complete list of permissible explosives and blasting devices, with conditions
and requirements to insure permissibility.
------ Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. B u lletin N o . 5 8 5 : L a b or
p r o d u ctivity i n the au tom ob ile tire in d u stry , by B o r is S tern .
71+ p p ., ch arts, illu s.

W a sh in g ton , 1933.

---------------------- B u lletin N o . 5 9 7 : L a b o r through the cen tu ry, 1 8 3 3 -1 9 3 3 : A n illu s ­
trated a cco u n t as presen ted by the _U n ited States D ep a rtm en t o f L a b or at the
C en tu ry o f P r o g ress E x p o s itio n , C h ica go, 19 3 3.

W a sh in g ton , 19 3 3.

1+6 p p .

-------------- Employment Service (National Reemployment Service).
o rg a n iza tio n an d o p e ra tio n o f reem p lo y m e n t offices.

------ Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 3.

W a sh in g to n , 19 3 3.

G u id e to the
W a sh in g ton , 1933. 2 5 p p .

M o n th ly rep ort, M a y 2 2 through

21 p p .

The first monthly report on the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Admin­
istration. Data on the emergency relief work of the Government are given in
this issue of the Monthly Labor Review.

Official— Foreign Countries
A l b e r t a (C a n a d a ) . — Bureau
E d m o n to n , 19 3 3. 21+ p p .

of Labor.

A n n u a l rep ort f o r the fisc a l y ea r 1 9 3 2 -3 3 .

Includes classified weekly wage rates for males and females over and under 18
years of age.
A r g e n t i n a .— Departamento Nacional del Trabajo. L a d eso cu p a ció n en la A r g e n ­
tin a , 19 3 2.

B u e n o s A ir e s , 19 3 3.

1 6 7 p p ., charts.

Gives the results of the national census of unemployment in Argentina in 1932.
B u r m a .— [Chief Inspector of Factories.] A n n u a l rep ort on the w ork in g o f the
I n d ia n F a cto ries A c t, 1911, in B u rm a , f o r the yea r 19 3 2.
30 pp.

R a n g o o n , 1933.

Data on wages and conditions in Burmese factories, taken from this report,
are given in this issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
------ Labor Statistics Bureau. R ep o rt o n the w o rk in g o f the w ork m en ’ s com p en sa tion
act, 1 9 2 3 , i n B u rm a , f o r the y e a r 1 9 3 2 .

R a n g o o n , 1933.

22 pp.

C o l o m b ia .— Ministerio de Industrias.
Superintendencia de Cooperativas.
C ircu la r-p ro g ra m a p a ra el fo m e n to y d ifu s ió n de las socied a d es coop era tiv a s en
el p a ís . L e y y d ecretos sobre socied a d es coop era tiv a s. B og ota , 19 3 3. 8 6 p p .
G r e a t B r i t a i n .— Ministry of Health. P e r s o n s in r ece ip t o f p o o r r e lie f
and W a le s ).
L o n d o n , 19 3 3.
3 7 p p ., chart.

(E n g la n d

Gives the number of persons in receipt of poor relief on the night of January 1,
1933, by sex and age grouping; kind of relief, institutional or domiciliary, with
class of institution; reported causes of need; and other details.
------ Oversea Settlement Committee. R ep o rt f o r the p e rio d A p r i l 1 ,1 9 3 2 , to M a rch
3 1 , 1 9 3 3.
L o n d o n , 19 3 3.
17 p p .
( C m d . 1+391.)
Owing to the continued depression, the report states, the migration movement
is at a standstill, and this report is devoted to items of historical interest and to
the usual statistical summaries.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1011

PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR
G

reat

B

r it a in

.— Registry

of Friendly Societies.

T he gu id ebook.

L on d on , 1933.

334 pp.

In Great Britain the term “ friendly society” covers a variety of associations
with widely differing activities. This guidebook gives in convenient form the
general laws by which they are regulated, and follows these with summaries of
rules relating to the different kinds of societies.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O f f i c e .— In tern a tio n a l labor d irec to ry :

ative org a n iza tio n s.
m a n.)

Geneva, 1933.

201 p p .

P a r t V I , C oop er­
( I n E n g lish , F ren ch , and G er­

------ T he I . L . 0 . y ea r-b o o k , 1932. Geneva, 1933. 4 5 9 p p .
The topics covered in this volume include workers’ , employers’ , church, and
other organizations; workers’ living conditions; working conditions; social in­
surance; wages and hours; employment and unemployment; prices; accident
prevention; and prison labor.
------ M eth od s o f p ro vid in g rest and a ltern a tion o f sh ifts in au tom a tic sh eet-glass
w orks.
( T h ird item on agenda o f I n tern a tio n a l L a b o r C on feren ce, eighteenth
sessio n , G eneva, 1 9 3 4, Q u estio n n a ire I I I . )
Geneva, 1933. 21 p p .

—---- R ed u ctio n o f h ours o f w ork.

( F irst item o n agenda o f I n tern a tio n a l L a b or
C o n feren ce, eighteenth sessio n , Geneva, 1934, Q u e stion n a ire I .)
Geneva, 1933.
39 pp.

------ U n em p lo y m en t in su ra n ce and variou s fo r m s o f r e lie f f o r the u n em p loyed .
(,S econ d item on agend a o f In tern a tio n a l L a b o r C o n feren ce, eighteenth session ,
G eneva, 19 3 4, Q u estio n n a ire I I . ) G eneva, 1933. 3 8 p p .

These three questionnaires are based on the first discussions of these subjects
at the seventeenth session of the International Labor Conference and are sent to
the various Governments as a preliminary to the final discussions in the 1934
session.
I t a l y .— Istituto
Nazionale delle Assicurazioni.
L ’ Istitu to
N a tio n a le delle
A s s ic u r a z io n i, 1 9 1 3 -1 9 3 3 .

R o m e, 19 3 3.

145 p p ., m a p s, charts, illu s.

Contains a historical review of the work and activities of the National Insurance
Institute in Italy for the period 1913 to 1933; and includes insurance legislation,
organization of the insurance administration, and medical treatment, financial
transactions, etc.
J a p a n .— Department of Education. F ifty -fifth a n n u a l rep ort, 1 9 2 7 -2 8 (abrid ged ).
T o k y o , 1933.

5 2 3 p p ., charts.

( I n E n g lish .)

In a section of the report which deals with “ Social education” some data on
adult education are given.
------ Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Section of Statistics. T he sta tistica l
abstract, '1 9 3 1 -3 2 .
F ren ch .)

T okyo,

1933.

x v iii, 2 6 9 p p .,

m a p.

(In

E n g lish and

Contains data on wages of agricultural workers and of employees on fishing
vessels, cooperative societies, etc.
N e t h e r l a n d s .— Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
J aarversla g over het ja a r
1932.

T h e H a g u e, 1933.

38 pp.

Annual report on the work and activities of the Central Statistical Bureau of
the Netherlands for the year 1932. Includes information on legislation and on
personnel and organization of the bureau, and gives a brief review of each branch
of work performed during the year.
N e w Z e a l a n d .— Unemployment Board.
R ep o rt.
W ellin g ton , 1933. 2 5 p p .
The financial data contained in the report refer to the fiscal year April 1, 1931,
to March 31, 1932, but some information is included on the work of the board
subsequent to March 31, 1932. Data on small land holdings for the unemployed,
taken from the report, are given in this issue of the Monthly Labor Review.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1012
N

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

orw ay

.— Rikstrygdeverket.

d u stria rb eid ere m . v., 1 9 3 0.

In d u stria rb eid e rtry g d en :
O slo, 1933. 154 PP-

U lyk k estryg d en f o r in -

Report on the administration of the State accident insurance system in
Norway during 1930. Includes statistical data on average cost of insurance per
beneficiary, cost of accidents, number of working days lost through accidents
accidents by industries and occupations, accidents in private and public works,
etc. Table of contents and table heads are in Norwegian and French.
P

— Ministère de l’ Assistance Sociale.

oland.

n els der tra va illeu rs en P o lo g n e , 19 3 1.

A n n u a ir e des sy n d ica ts p r o fe s s io n ­
W a rsa w , 1 9 3 3 . 8 3 p p ., charts.

Report on the status, work, and activities of labor unions in Poland in 1931,
including statistics of membership, charts showing growth of the labor unions,
etc. Directories are appended. In Polish with some French translations of table
heads, etc.
— — -------A p e r ç u su r l ’ in s p e c tio n du travail en P o lo g n e en 1 9 3 1.
56 p p .

W a rsa w , 1932.

[ I n F ren ch .]

Annual report on labor inspection in Poland during 1931. Includes information
on protective labor legislation, industrial hygiene, industrial disputes, arbitration
and conciliation, relief measures during the depression, etc.
Department of General Statistics. S ta tistica l y e a r book o f the K in g d o m o f
S ia m , 1 9 3 0 -3 1 .
[B a n g k o k ?], M in is t r y o f F in a n c e [1 9 3 2 ?]. 5 1 4 PP -, m a p.
( E n g lish ed itio n .)

S i a m .—

Data on average wages in specified occupations, taken from this year book, are
given in this issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
Sw

eden

.— Statistiska

holm , 1 9 3 3.

Centralbyrân.

380 pp.

S ta tistisk drsbok f o r S verige, 1933.
(I n S w ed ish an d F ren ch .)

S to ck ­

The topics covered in this year book include prices and cost of living, wages
unemployment, work of employment offices, strikes and lockouts, collective agree­
ments, social insurance, and cooperative societies. The section giving internaional comparisons includes statistics of unemployment, cost of living, and
wholesale prices. Although some of the data in the volume are for 1933, the
greater part are for earlier years.
Sw

.— Bureau Fédéral de Statistique.
L e s e x p lo ita tio n s d ’in d u stries et
de m étiers en S u is s e — co m m en ta ires a n a ly tiq u es. 4 me volu m e, illu stré, des résu l­
tats du rece n sem en t des en trep ris es en 1929.
B ern e, 1933.
V a r io u s p a g in g ,
ch arts, m a p s, illu s .

it z e r l a n d

A census of industries and occupations in Switzerland in 1929.
of the principal industries are shown in charts.

The locations

------ Département Fédéral de l’Économie Publique.

R a p p o r ts des in sp ecteu rs
fé d é r a u x des fa b r iq u e s su r l ’ e x erc ice de leu rs fo n c t io n s p en d a n t l’ a n n é e 1932.
A a r a u , 1 9 3 3 . 1 5 7 p p . ( I n F ren ch a n d G erm a n .)

This report of the Swiss factory inspection service for the year 1932 covers six
of the Cantons. It deals with factory hygiene and accident prevention, labor con­
tracts, hours, work of women and young persons, and employers’ welfare activities.
U n i o n o p S o u t h A f r i c a .— Native Economic Commission.
R ep o rt, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 2 .
P r e to r ia , 1 9 3 2.

345 pp.

The commission was appointed in June 1930 to examine into the economic and
social conditions of natives, especially in the larger towns of the Union; to con­
sider the effect of existing laws relating to their employment and wages, together
with the desirability of modifying these and the direction modification, if desir­
able, should take; the whole question of the residence of natives in urban areas;
the proportion of the public revenue contributed directly or indirectly by the
native population; and the proportion of the public expenditure which may be
regarded as necessitated by the presence of, and reasonably chargeable to, the
native population. In carrying out these terms of reference the commission has


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR

1013

inquired in considerable detail into the condition of the natives, both in regard to
their relations with the whites and to their customs and standards on their own
tribal reserves.
Z u r ic h (S w it z e r l a n d ) . — Statistisches A m t.
S ta tistisch es Jahrbuch, der Stadt
Z ü r ic h , 1932.

Z u rich , 19 3 3.

V a rio u s -paging, charts, m ap.

The year book contains statistical information for the city of Zurich, Swit­
zerland, for the fiscal year 1932, the subjects covered including housing, social
insurance, wages, cost of living, etc.

Unofficial
A m e r ic a n B a r A s s o c ia t io n . A d v a n ce progra m , in c lu d in g com m ittee and other
rep orts to be p resen ted at the fifty -s ix th a n n u a l m eetin g to be held at G rand
R a p id s, M ic h ., A u g u s t 3 0 -S e p te m b e r 1, 1933. C h ica go, 1 1 4 0 N orth D ea rborn
S treet, 19 3 3.
200 pp.

Data on legal aid from this publication are given in this issue of the Monthly
Labor Review.
B e l l m a n , E a r l S. A stu d y o f the care o f the n eed y aged in M a r y la n d cou n ties.
B a ltim o re, C h ristia n S o c ia l J u stice F u n d , 1933.

69 p p ., illu s.

Reviewed in this issue.
C a l if o r n ia , U n iv e r s it y o f . Heller Committee for Research in Social Economics.
T h e fo o d s ch osen b y d ep en d en t fa m ilie s : A n a n a ly sis o f the fo o d p u rch a sed by
2 5 fa m ilie s d ep en d en t o n the B er k e le y W e lfa r e S o c ie ty in M a y 1932, by R uth
O k ey an d B ea trice B ell S m yth e.
B e rk eley , 1933.
40 pp .
( M im e o g r a p h e d .)
E d it o r ia l R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s . S y stem s o f barter and scrip , by B u e l W . P a tch .
[W a sh in g to n , D .C .], 19 3 2.
17 p p .
( V o l . I , 1933, no. 3.)
H o h m a n , H e l e n F is h e r .
T he developm en t o f socia l in su ra n ce and m in im u m w age
leg isla tio n i n G reat B r ita in .
B o sto n an d N ew Y o rk , H ou g h ton M ifflin C o.,
1933. 441 VV-i charts.

One of the Hart, Schaffner, & Marx prize essays in economics. The author
traces the growth in Great Britain of the idea that the community responsibility
toward its members is not discharged by assuring merely that no one dies of abso­
lute starvation, and “ attempts to analyze the development of the idea of a
minimum standard of living, as expressed in this legislation, and to trace the
modifications in administration and theory which have taken place in the decade
following the war.” A bibliography is appended.
I n s t it u t f ü r K o n j u n k t u r f o r s c h u n g .
B e r lin , 19 3 3. 9 4 p p ., charts, m a p s.
sch u n g, S o n d erh eft 3 4 )

D ie W ettbew erbsla ge der S tein k oh le.
( V iertelja h rsh efte zur K o n ju n k t u r fo r ­

Deals with competitive conditions in bituminous-coal (S tein k o h l ) mining in
Germany and various foreign countries, including labor conditions and labor
costs.
I n s t it u t e of S o c ia l R e s e a r c h , P e i p i n g , C h i n a . I n s titu te o f S o c ia l R esea rch :
A s u m m a ry o f its w ork , 1 9 2 6 -1 9 3 2 , p rep a red f o r C en tu ry o f P r o g ress E x p o s i­
tio n at C h ica go, 1933.
P e ip in g , 1933.
I n E n g lish and C h in e s e ; E n g lish
sectio n 2 0 p p .

The studies made by the institute are classified under 9 heads: Modern eco.
nomic history of China; industrial economics; agricultural economics; labor
problems; population; China’s foreign trade; public finance, banking, and cur­
rency; statistics; and miscellaneous.
.To n e s , G. T.
I n c r e a s in g retu rn .
C am bridge, U n iv ersity P r e s s , 1933. 3 0 0 p p .,
charts.

This volume is described as a study of the relation between the size and effi­
ciency of industries with special reference to the history of selected British and
American industries between 1850 and 1910.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1014

MONTHLY LABOR R EV IEW

Low, S. P., and

C o t t l e s , St . V. F.
U n em p lo y m en t in su ra n ce.
P itm a n & S o n s, Ltd.., 1933.
123 pp.

L on d on ,

Is a a c

The authors have limited themselves to an exposition of the principles and
practice governing the British unemployment-insurance scheme and have in
general omitted references to the various acts and regulations, many of which
have been amended or repealed, the purpose being to give as clear a view as
possible of the unemployment-insurance situation as it is today.
M c C l e a r y , G. F.
N a tio n a l health in su ra n ce.
L o n d o n , LI. K . L e w is & C o.,
L td ., 19 3 2.

185 pp.

The purpose of this book is to show the chief facts relating to national health
insurance not from the financial or actuarial standpoints but as a measure of
public health, “ an expression of the desire felt with increasing intensity in all
modern communities to promote the health of nations.”
M e t r o p o l i t a n L i f e I n s u r a n c e C o.
Policyholders Service Bureau. T h e older
em p lo y e e in in d u stry .
b ib lio g ra p h y .)

N ew

Y o rk , 19 3 3.

3 0 p p ., chart.

(In c lu d e s a short

E duard.
P reisv o rb ereitu n g bei w irtsch a ftlich er B etrieb sfu h ru n g .
A lltr e u G .M .B .H ., 1 9 3 2.
115 p p ., d ia gram s, illu s .

M

ic h e l ,

M

in n e s o t a ,

B erlin ,

Deals with price fixing by establishment management.
U n iv e r s it y o f .
Employment Stabilization Research Institute.
B u lletin s, V o lu m e I I , N o . 3 : A m a n u a l o f selected o c cu p a tio n a l tests f o r u se in
p u b lic e m p lo y m en t offices, by H ele n J . G reen , an d others.
M in n e a p o lis , 1933.
31 p p ., charts.

A contribution to the techniques for the quick discovery of special types of
work in which an applicant for a job has a fair chance of being successful.
-------------- B u lletin s , V o lu m e I I , N o . f : O ccu p a tio n a l trend s in M in n e s o ta , by
A lv in H . H a n s e n an d T illm a n M . S ogge.
N

M in n e a p o lis , 1 9 3 3.

2 9 p p ., charts.

L a b or S eries L ectu res
N o s . 1 1 -2 0 .
C h ica g o, U n iv ersity o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 .
(S e p a r a te p a m ­
p h lets, v a rio u s p a g in g .)

a t io n a l

A

d v is o r y

C

o u n c il

on

R

a d io

in

E

d u c a t io n

.

The subjects of these are: The Closed and Open Shop, by Frank Morrison;
Wages and Hours, by John L. Lewis; Technological Unemployment, by James
Maloney; Labor and International Relations, by Daniel J. Tobin; Labor and the
News, by Chester M. Wright; Collective Bargaining, by Charles P. Howard;
Labor and Judicial Reform, by James Wilson; Labor and Immigration, by
Thomas F. Flaherty; Labor and the Negro, by A. Philip Randolph; and Labor
Legislation, by Paul Scharrenberg.
o n f e r e n c e o f S o c ia l W o r k .
T he N eg r o in N e w J e r s e y . R ep ort
o f a su rvey by the In te r r a c ia l C om m ittee o f the N e w J e r s e y C o n fer en ce o f S ocia l
W o rk , in c o o p era tio n w ith the S tate D ep a rtm en t o f I n s titu tio n s an d A g e n c ie s .
T ren ton , 1 9 3 2.
116 p p ., m a p , charts, illu s.

N ew Jersey C

The survey was made in the spring of 1931, dealing with conditions as they
existed in 1930 and covering selected communities throughout the State. The
workers made a thorough study of the economic, social, and industrial position
of the Negro, including matters of health, housing, industrial and business
opportunities, unemployment, education, dependency, home owning and home
making, child welfare, and the like. Because of the widely varying conditions
in the different sections of the State, recommendations covering the whole situa­
tion could not be presented. However, suggestions and recommendations are
presented for the consideration and action, where deemed advisable, of the State,
county, and local authorities, public and private agencies of welfare, and the
members of both racial groups.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1015

PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO LABOR

r o w n e , G. St. J.
The A fr ic a n laborer.
L o n d o n , In tern a tio n a l In s titu te o f
A fr ic a n L a n g u a g es and C u ltures, 1933. 2 4 0 p p ., m a p.

O rde B

This book, written by the head of the Labor Department of Tanganyika, is
issued as part of a 5-year program for investigation of the various influences now
at work in Africa, and of the effects of contact with western civilization upon
native life and character. The author traces the development in the use of
native labor from undisguised slavery up to the different forms now in use, dis­
cusses these forms, with their relative advantages, disadvantages, and alterna­
tives, considers the effect upon the individual and upon the native tribe of some
of the conditions of employment, and gives a summary of the legislation dealing
with native labor in the various countries of Africa.
P o l l a k , K a t h e r i n e H.
I s there a sh rin k in g w eek and a g row in g w a g e?
P resen t
problem s in the light o f the p a st.
N e w Y o rk , A ffilia ted S u m m er S ch ools f o r
W o m en W o rk ers in In d u s tr y , 2 1 8 M a d is o n A v e n u e , 1931.
49 p p .
( M im e o ­
graphed.)
U n iv e r s it y .
Industrial Relations Section. S elected b ib liog ra p h y:
U n em p lo y m en t p reven tio n , co m p en sa tio n an d r e lie f — c o m p a n y , tra d e-u n ion ,
an d p u b lic p rog ra m s.
S u p p lem en t, 1 9 3 1 -1 9 3 3 .
P r in c e to n , N .J ., J u ly 1933.
23 pp.

P r in c e t o n

R

exford

, F

livin g.

r a n k A., and others.
B e y o n d the sch o o l: A textbook on w ork and
N e w Y o rk , H e n r y H o lt & C o., 1933. 4 0 9 p p ., illu s.

A sampling of the principal occupational fields for the purpose of giving the
pupil some idea as to how to make a study of an occupation.
S m it h , D

ouglas

H.

S o n , L td ., 1933.

T h e in d u stries o f G reater L o n d o n .
1 88 p p ., d ia gram s, m a p.

L on d on , P . S . K in g &

A survey of the recent industrialization of the northern and western sectors of
Greater London. The results show that the pressure of economic forces is
leading to a decentralization of industries from overcrowded areas in London,
and it is suggested that this change will be all to the good if it is subjected to
ordered control and if the work of the builder, the town planner, and the local
authorities can be correlated with the movement.
S o c ié t é

pour l

tin , 1932.

’É

tude

P

r a t iq u e d e l a

P a r is , 1 9 3 2.

P

a r t ic ip a t io n a u x

B

é n é f ic e s .

B u lle ­

87 pp.

The proceedings of the meetings held by the French Profit-Sharing Society
during 1932.
W o o f t e r , T. J., J r .
R a ces an d eth n ic g ro u p s in A m e r ic a n life.
N ew Y ork ,
M c G r a w -H ill B o o k C o., 1933.

247 pp.

One of the various monographs published under the direction of the President’s
[Hoover] Research Committee on Social Trends, containing scientific data
gathered for use in the preparation of the report on “ Recent social trends in the
United States.”


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

o


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis